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Sample records for water pyrolysis process

  1. Pyrolysis process and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang-Kuei

    1983-01-01

    This invention discloses a process and apparatus for pyrolyzing particulate coal by heating with a particulate solid heating media in a transport reactor. The invention tends to dampen fluctuations in the flow of heating media upstream of the pyrolysis zone, and by so doing forms a substantially continuous and substantially uniform annular column of heating media flowing downwardly along the inside diameter of the reactor. The invention is particularly useful for bituminous or agglomerative type coals.

  2. Modeling of biomass to hydrogen via the supercritical water pyrolysis process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Divilio, R.J. [Combustion Systems Inc., Silver Spring, MD (United States)

    1998-08-01

    A heat transfer model has been developed to predict the temperature profile inside the University of Hawaii`s Supercritical Water Reactor. A series of heat transfer tests were conducted on the University of Hawaii`s apparatus to calibrate the model. Results of the model simulations are shown for several of the heat transfer tests. Tests with corn starch and wood pastes indicated that there are substantial differences between the thermal properties of the paste compared to pure water, particularly near the pseudo critical temperature. The assumption of constant thermal diffusivity in the temperature range of 250 to 450 C gave a reasonable prediction of the reactor temperatures when paste is being fed. A literature review is presented for pyrolysis of biomass in water at elevated temperatures up to the supercritical range. Based on this review, a global reaction mechanism is proposed. Equilibrium calculations were performed on the test results from the University of Hawaii`s Supercritical Water Reactor when corn starch and corn starch and wood pastes were being fed. The calculations indicate that the data from the reactor falls both below and above the equilibrium hydrogen concentrations depending on test conditions. The data also indicates that faster heating rates may be beneficial to the hydrogen yield. Equilibrium calculations were also performed to examine the impact of wood concentration on the gas mixtures produced. This calculation showed that increasing wood concentrations favors the formation of methane at the expense of hydrogen.

  3. Pyrolysis process for producing fuel gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serio, Michael A. (Inventor); Kroo, Erik (Inventor); Wojtowicz, Marek A. (Inventor); Suuberg, Eric M. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Solid waste resource recovery in space is effected by pyrolysis processing, to produce light gases as the main products (CH.sub.4, H.sub.2, CO.sub.2, CO, H.sub.2O, NH.sub.3) and a reactive carbon-rich char as the main byproduct. Significant amounts of liquid products are formed under less severe pyrolysis conditions, and are cracked almost completely to gases as the temperature is raised. A primary pyrolysis model for the composite mixture is based on an existing model for whole biomass materials, and an artificial neural network models the changes in gas composition with the severity of pyrolysis conditions.

  4. Pyrolysis processing for solid waste resource recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serio, Michael A. (Inventor); Kroo, Erik (Inventor); Wojtowicz, Marek A. (Inventor); Suuberg, Eric M. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Solid waste resource recovery in space is effected by pyrolysis processing, to produce light gases as the main products (CH.sub.4, H.sub.2, CO.sub.2, CO, H.sub.2O, NH.sub.3) and a reactive carbon-rich char as the main byproduct. Significant amounts of liquid products are formed under less severe pyrolysis conditions, and are cracked almost completely to gases as the temperature is raised. A primary pyrolysis model for the composite mixture is based on an existing model for whole biomass materials, and an artificial neural network models the changes in gas composition with the severity of pyrolysis conditions.

  5. Processes for washing a spent ion exchange bed and for treating biomass-derived pyrolysis oil, and apparatuses for treating biomass-derived pyrolysis oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Lance Awender; Brandvold, Timothy A.

    2015-11-24

    Processes and apparatuses for washing a spent ion exchange bed and for treating biomass-derived pyrolysis oil are provided herein. An exemplary process for washing a spent ion exchange bed employed in purification of biomass-derived pyrolysis oil includes the step of providing a ion-depleted pyrolysis oil stream having an original oxygen content. The ion-depleted pyrolysis oil stream is partially hydrotreated to reduce the oxygen content thereof, thereby producing a partially hydrotreated pyrolysis oil stream having a residual oxygen content that is less than the original oxygen content. At least a portion of the partially hydrotreated pyrolysis oil stream is passed through the spent ion exchange bed. Water is passed through the spent ion exchange bed after passing at least the portion of the partially hydrotreated pyrolysis oil stream therethrough.

  6. Processes for converting lignocellulosics to reduced acid pyrolysis oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocal, Joseph Anthony; Brandvold, Timothy A

    2015-01-06

    Processes for producing reduced acid lignocellulosic-derived pyrolysis oil are provided. In a process, lignocellulosic material is fed to a heating zone. A basic solid catalyst is delivered to the heating zone. The lignocellulosic material is pyrolyzed in the presence of the basic solid catalyst in the heating zone to create pyrolysis gases. The oxygen in the pyrolysis gases is catalytically converted to separable species in the heating zone. The pyrolysis gases are removed from the heating zone and are liquefied to form the reduced acid lignocellulosic-derived pyrolysis oil.

  7. Supercritical water pyrolysis of sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wenchao; Du, Guiyue; Li, Jian; Fang, Yuanhao; Hou, Li'an; Chen, Guanyi; Ma, Degang

    2017-01-01

    Municipal sewage sludge (SS) from wastewater treatment plant containing high water content (>85wt.%), lead to the difficulty of co-combustion with MSW or coal due to the high cost of drying. This study explores an alternative method by supercritical water (SCW) pyrolysis of sewage sludge (SS) in a high pressure reaction vessel. The effects of temperature and moisture content of SS on yield and composition of the products (bio-oil, bio char and non-condensable gas) were studied. A temperature of 385°C and moisture content of 85wt.% were found to be the optimum conditions for the maximum bio-oil production of 37.23wt.%, with a higher heating value of 31.08MJ/kg. In the optimum condition, the yields of aliphatic hydrocarbon and phenols were about 29.23wt.% and 12.51wt.%, respectively. The physical and chemical properties of bio-char were analyzed by using XRF and BET. Results of GC analyses of NCG showed that it has the maximum HHV of 13.39MJ/m(3) at 445°C and moisture content of 85wt.%. The reaction path from SS to bio-oil through SCW pyrolysis was given. Moreover, carbon balance was calculated for the optimal condition, and finding out that 64.27wt.% of the carbon content was transferred from SS to bio-oil. Finally, this work demonstrates that the SCW pyrolysis is a promising disposal method for SS. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Waste management of tar water from pyrolysis and gasification of biomass in biogas reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mogensen, A.S.; Schmidt, J.E.; Angelidaki, R.; Ahring, B.K.

    1998-08-01

    The digestion and detoxification of pyrolysis condensate and wet oxidised pyrolysis condensate was studied in different reactor systems: combined anaerobic and denitrifying UASB reactors, conventional UASB reactors and CSTR`s. The pyrolysis condensate and the wet oxidised condensate have a biogas potential of 190 m{sup 3}/ton VS, and the low amount of suspended solids is allowing the waste water to be treated in the UASB reactor as well as in the CSTR. The pyrolysis condensate could successfully be degraded in a CSTR in a 5% concentration when co-digested with manure, and the wet oxidised pyrolysis condensate could be degraded when added at a concentration of 30%. The UASB reactor was preferred over the CSTR since the xenobiotic compounds present in the waste water might easily be absorbed in the co-substrate required when using the CSTR technology. Consequently, decreased degradation of xenobiotics would be observed in the CSTR. A combined anaerobic and denitrifying UASB reactor was successfully digesting 5.5% of wet oxidised pyrolysis condensate, but further loading increments deteriorated the anaerobic digestion process. However, when a UASB reactor was fed with pyrolysis condensate (up to 100%) good reactor operation was observed indicating that the waste could be used as substrate in the biogas process, even in very high concentrations. The detoxification of pyrolysis condensate was further studied and the toxicity of pyrolysis condensate was decreased more than 77 times in the UASB reactor that was operating on 100% pyrolysis condensate. Phenol, methyl and dimethyl phenols along with methoxyphenols were shown to be degraded within the rector systems. Degradation rates for phenol and substituted phenols were determined indicating that the biomass was selective towards the substrates. Maximum growth rates and half saturation constants for phenol, 4-Methylphenol and 2-Methoxy-4-methylphenol were determined in batch experiments. A UASB reactor concept was further

  9. Effect of wastewater treatment processes on the pyrolysis properties of the pyrolysis tars from sewage sludges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xia; Xie, Li-Ping; Li, Xin-Yu; Dai, Xiao-Hong; Fei, Xue-Ning; Jiang, Yuan-Guang

    2011-06-01

    The pyrolysis properties of five different pyrolysis tars, which the tars from 1# to 5# are obtained by pyrolyzing the sewage sludges of anaerobic digestion and indigestion from the A2/O wastewater treatment process, those from the activated sludge process and the indigested sludge from the continuous SBR process respectively, were studied by thermal gravimetric analysis at a heating rate of 10 °C/min in the nitrogen atmosphere. The results show that the pyrolysis processes of the pyrolysis tars of 1#, 2#, 3# and 5# all can be divided into four stages: the stages of light organic compounds releasing, heavy polar organic compounds decomposition, heavy organic compounds decomposition and the residual organic compounds decomposition. However, the process of 4# pyrolysis tar is only divided into three stages: the stages of light organic compounds releasing, decomposition of heavy polar organic compounds and the residual heavy organic compounds respectively. Both the sludge anaerobic digestion and the "anaerobic" process in wastewater treatment processes make the content of light organic compounds in tars decrease, but make that of heavy organic compounds with complex structure increase. Besides, both make the pyrolysis properties of the tars become worse. The pyrolysis reaction mechanisms of the five pyrolysis tars have been studied with Coats-Redfern equation. It shows that there are the same mechanism functions in the first stage for the five tars and in the second and third stage for the tars of 1#, 2#, 3# and 5#, which is different with the function in the second stage for 4# tar. The five tars are easy to volatile.

  10. Stabilization of Fast Pyrolysis Oil: Post Processing Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Lee, Suh-Jane; Hart, Todd R.

    2012-03-01

    UOP LLC, a Honeywell Company, assembled a comprehensive team for a two-year project to demonstrate innovative methods for the stabilization of pyrolysis oil in accordance with DOE Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) DE-PS36-08GO98018, Biomass Fast Pyrolysis Oil (Bio-oil) Stabilization. In collaboration with NREL, PNNL, the USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS), Pall Fuels and Chemicals, and Ensyn Corporation, UOP developed solutions to the key technical challenges outlined in the FOA. The UOP team proposed a multi-track technical approach for pyrolysis oil stabilization. Conceptually, methods for pyrolysis oil stabilization can be employed during one or both of two stages: (1) during the pyrolysis process (In Process); or (2) after condensation of the resulting vapor (Post-Process). Stabilization methods fall into two distinct classes: those that modify the chemical composition of the pyrolysis oil, making it less reactive; and those that remove destabilizing components from the pyrolysis oil. During the project, the team investigated methods from both classes that were suitable for application in each stage of the pyrolysis process. The post processing stabilization effort performed at PNNL is described in this report. The effort reported here was performed under a CRADA between PNNL and UOP, which was effective on March 13, 2009, for 2 years and was subsequently modified March 8, 2011, to extend the term to December 31, 2011.

  11. Advances in modeling plastic waste pyrolysis processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Safadi, J. Zeaiter

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The tertiary recycling of plastics via pyrolysis is recently gaining momentum due to promising economic returns from the generated products that can be used as a chemical feedstock or fuel. The need for prediction models to simulate such processes is essential in understanding in depth the mechanisms that take place during the thermal or catalytic degradation of the waste polymer. This paper presents key different models used successfully in literature so far. Three modeling schemes are identified: Power-Law, Lumped-Empirical, and Population-Balance based equations. The categorization is based mainly on the level of detail and prediction capability from each modeling scheme. The data shows that the reliability of these modeling approaches vary with the degree of details the experimental work and product analysis are trying to achieve.

  12. Application of pyrolysis process in processing of mixed food wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grycová Barbora

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The food industry produces large amounts of solid and also liquid wastes. Different waste materials and their mixtures were pyrolysed in the laboratory pyrolysis unit to a final temperature of 800°C with a 10 minute delay at the final temperature. After the pyrolysis process of the selected wastes a mass balance of the resulting products, off-line analysis of the pyrolysis gas and evaluation of solid and liquid products were carried out. The highest concentration of methane, hydrogen and carbon monoxide were analyzed during the 4th gas sampling at a temperature of approx. 720–780°C. The concentration of hydrogen was measured in the range from 22 to 40 vol.%. The resulting iodine numbers of samples CHFO, DS, DSFW reach values that indicate the possibility of using them to produce the so-called “disposable sorbents” in wastewater treatment. The WC condensate can be directed to further processing and upgrading for energy use.

  13. Fast Pyrolysis Process Development Unit for Validating Bench Scale Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Robert C. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Biorenewables Research Lab.. Center for Sustainable Environmental Technologies. Bioeconomy Inst.; Jones, Samuel T. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Biorenewables Research Lab.. Center for Sustainable Environmental Technologies. Bioeconomy Inst.

    2010-03-31

    The purpose of this project was to prepare and operate a fast pyrolysis process development unit (PDU) that can validate experimental data generated at the bench scale. In order to do this, a biomass preparation system, a modular fast pyrolysis fluidized bed reactor, modular gas clean-up systems, and modular bio-oil recovery systems were designed and constructed. Instrumentation for centralized data collection and process control were integrated. The bio-oil analysis laboratory was upgraded with the addition of analytical equipment needed to measure C, H, O, N, S, P, K, and Cl. To provide a consistent material for processing through the fluidized bed fast pyrolysis reactor, the existing biomass preparation capabilities of the ISU facility needed to be upgraded. A stationary grinder was installed to reduce biomass from bale form to 5-10 cm lengths. A 25 kg/hr rotary kiln drier was installed. It has the ability to lower moisture content to the desired level of less than 20% wt. An existing forage chopper was upgraded with new screens. It is used to reduce biomass to the desired particle size of 2-25 mm fiber length. To complete the material handling between these pieces of equipment, a bucket elevator and two belt conveyors must be installed. The bucket elevator has been installed. The conveyors are being procured using other funding sources. Fast pyrolysis bio-oil, char and non-condensable gases were produced from an 8 kg/hr fluidized bed reactor. The bio-oil was collected in a fractionating bio-oil collection system that produced multiple fractions of bio-oil. This bio-oil was fractionated through two separate, but equally important, mechanisms within the collection system. The aerosols and vapors were selectively collected by utilizing laminar flow conditions to prevent aerosol collection and electrostatic precipitators to collect the aerosols. The vapors were successfully collected through a selective condensation process. The combination of these two mechanisms

  14. Pyrolysis process for the treatment of food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grycová, Barbora; Koutník, Ivan; Pryszcz, Adrian

    2016-10-01

    Different waste materials were pyrolysed in the laboratory pyrolysis unit to the final temperature of 800°C with a 10min delay at the final temperature. After the pyrolysis process a mass balance of the resulting products, off-line analysis of the pyrolysis gas and evaluation of solid and liquid products were carried out. The gas from the pyrolysis experiments was captured discontinuously into Tedlar gas sampling bags and the selected components were analyzed by gas chromatography (methane, ethene, ethane, propane, propene, hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide). The highest concentration of measured hydrogen (WaCe 61%vol.; WaPC 66%vol.) was analyzed at the temperature from 750 to 800°C. The heating values of the solid and liquid residues indicate the possibility of its further use for energy recovery.

  15. Pyrolysis Processing of Waste Peanuts Crisps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grycová Barbora

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Wastes are the most frequent "by-product" of human society. The Czech Republic still has a considerable room for energy reduction and material intensiveness of production in connection with the application of scientific and technical expertise in the context of innovation cycles. Pyrolysis waste treatment is a promising alternative to the production of renewable hydrogen as a clean fuel. It can also reduce the environmental burden and the amount of waste in the environment at the same time.

  16. The influence of water pretreatment on the medium-rank coal pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saranchuk, V.; Butuzova, L.; Matsenko, G. [Academy of Sciences, Donetsk (Russian Federation). Inst. of Physical Organic and Coal Chemistry; Oshovskij, V. [Donetsk State Technical Univ. (Ukraine)

    1997-12-31

    This paper gives the results of research on the effect of the way of humidification on the process of coal (Ro=1,1) thermodestruction in the centrifugal field (the improved method for thermofiltration of fluid products of coal pyrolysis in the centrifugal field). The proofs that during plastic stage moisture chemically interacts with COM are given. This interaction gives a change in a chemical composition and the structure of the solid pyrolysis residue. In the presence of water 2-3-fold increase in the fluid product output is observed which can be of great practical value. (orig.)

  17. Pure hydrogen from pyrolysis oil by the steam-iron process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleeker, M.F.

    2009-01-01

    The steam-iron process is an old process, which was used for the production of hydrogen from cokes at the beginning of the twentieth century. In this thesis the steam-iron process is used to produce pure hydrogen from pyrolysis oil. Pyrolysis oil, obtained from the pyrolysis of biomass, is used to

  18. Kinetics Analysis of Coconut Shell Pyrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Xue-mei; JIANG; Jian-chun; SUN; Kang; XU; Fan; XU; Yu

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The paper aimed to study kinetics analysis of coconut shell pyrolysis. [Method] Thermo gravimetric analysis was used to study the pyrolysis characteristic of coconut shell at different pyrolysis rates (5, 10, 20 K/min). [Result] The pyrolysis process included 3 stages, water loss, pyrolysis, and thermal condensation. The pyrolysis process can be described through first-order reaction model. With the increasing pyrolysis rate, activation energy in the first stage rose, but activation energy in the second stage reduced. [Conclusion] The study provided theoretical basis for the promotion and application of biomass energy.

  19. Demonstration of the waste tire pyrolysis process on pilot scale in a continuous auger reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez, Juan Daniel, E-mail: juand.martinez@upb.edu.co [Instituto de Carboquímica, ICB-CSIC, Miguel Luesma Castán 4, 50018, Zaragoza (Spain); Grupo de Investigaciones Ambientales, Instituto de Energía, Materiales y Medio Ambiente, Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana, Circular 1 N°70-01, Bloque 11, piso 2, Medellín (Colombia); Murillo, Ramón; García, Tomás; Veses, Alberto [Instituto de Carboquímica, ICB-CSIC, Miguel Luesma Castán 4, 50018, Zaragoza (Spain)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • The continuous pyrolysis of waste tire has been demonstrated at pilot scale in an auger reactor. • More than 500 kg of waste tires were processed in 100 operational hours. • The yields and characteristics of the pyrolysis products remained constant. • Mass and energy balances for an industrial scale plant are provided. • The reaction enthalpy necessary to perform the waste tire pyrolysis was determined. -- Abstract: This work shows the technical feasibility for valorizing waste tires by pyrolysis using a pilot scale facility with a nominal capacity of 150 kW{sub th}. A continuous auger reactor was operated to perform thirteen independent experiments that conducted to the processing of more than 500 kg of shredded waste tires in 100 h of operation. The reaction temperature was 550 °C and the pressure was 1 bar in all the runs. Under these conditions, yields to solid, liquid and gas were 40.5 ± 0.3, 42.6 ± 0.1 and 16.9 ± 0.3 wt.% respectively. Ultimate and proximate analyses as well as heating value analysis were conducted for both the solid and liquid fraction. pH, water content, total acid number (TAN), viscosity and density were also assessed for the liquid and compared to the specifications of marine fuels (standard ISO 8217). Gas chromatography was used to calculate the composition of the gaseous fraction. It was observed that all these properties remained practically invariable along the experiments without any significant technical problem. In addition, the reaction enthalpy necessary to perform the waste tire pyrolysis process (907.1 ± 40.0 kJ/kg) was determined from the combustion and formation enthalpies of waste tire and conversion products. Finally, a mass balance closure was performed showing an excellent reliability of the data obtained from the experimental campaign.

  20. Pyrolysis Process in Aramid Fibers Investigated by Py-GC/MS & TGA-DTA/MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xin-wei; HU Zu-ming; LIU Zhao-feng

    2007-01-01

    Poly(m-phenylene isophthalamine) (PMIA) and Poly( p-phenylene terphthalamine) (PPTA) are among the most important high-temperature resistant aramid fibers. The pyrolysis behaviors of these two fibers under inert gases were studied using pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) and thermogravimetric analysis coupled with mass spectrometry ( TGA-DTA/MS ). The pyrolysis processes of PMIA and PPTA are distinguishing, and the stepwise pyrolysates reflect these differences. A mechanism system of pyrolysis is suggested, which involving hydrolysis and homolysis. At low pyrolysis temperatures, hydrolysis is a primary reaction, and it is very noticeable in the first-step pyrolysis region of PMIA. Elevating pyrolysis temperature, homolysis is enhanced and keep a large advantage in the high temperature range. On the other hand, at higher temperatures, carbonization appens and the homolysis and carbonization of PPTA are emphasized more than of PMIA.

  1. Pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis of coal and oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiumin Zhang; Demin He; Jun Guan [Dalian University of Technology, Dalian (China). Institute of Coal Chemical Engineering

    2007-07-01

    Pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis of coal and oil shale was investigated by using Yilan oil shale, Longkou oil shale, Huolinhe lignite, Taiji gas coal and Ruqigou anthracite as raw materia1s. A fixed-bed pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis of these coal and oil shale were investigated. The results indicated that synergetic effect existed with the oil yield increased, water yield decreased, and the synergetic effect varied with the mass percentage of coal differed. The co-pyrolysis oil yield of Yilan oil shale and Ruqigou anthracite is a little higher than the linear sum of their oil yield in the pyrolysis process. But for the co-pyrolysis of Taiji gas coal and Yilan oil shale, no significant change of the oil yield was found. Huolinhe lignite and Longkou oil shale were chosen as the material for the solid heat carrier experiment. Synergetic effect analyses of both the fixed-bed pyrolysis and the retorting process with solid heat carrier were given. Huolinhe lignite is an ideal material for oil recovery by pyrolysis, with high volatile and low ash, its oil content is 8.55%. Longkou oil shale is an ideal material for oil recovery by pyrolysis, with high oil content of 14.38%. The optimum co-pyrolysis temperature for Huolinhe lignite and Longkou oil shale is 510{sup o}C. Synergetic effect was found with the oil increased 9% and water decreased 36%. 5 refs., 2 figs., 10 tabs.

  2. Recycling Possibility of the Salty Food Waste by Pyrolysis and Water Scrubbing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye-Eun Lee

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Salty food waste is difficult to manage with previous methods such as composting, anaerobic digestion, and incineration, due to the hindrance of salt and the additional burden to handle high concentrations of organic wastewater produced when raw materials are cleaned. This study presents a possibility of recycling food waste as fuel without the burden of treatment washing with water by pyrolyzing and scrubbing. For this purpose, salty food waste with 3% NaCl was made using 10 materials and pyrolysis was conducted at temperature range between 200–400 °C. The result was drawn from elementary analysis (EA, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS analysis, atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS analysis, water quality analysis and calorific value analysis of char, washed char, and washing water. The result of the EA showed that NaCl in food waste could be volatilized at a low pyrolysis temperature of 200–300 °C and it could be concentrated and fixed in char at a high pyrolysis temperature of 300–400 °C. The XPS analysis result showed that NaCl existed in form of chloride. Through the Na content result of the AAS analysis, NaCl remaining in char after water scrubbing was determined to be less than 2%. As the pyrolysis temperature increased, the chemical oxygen demand (COD value of scrubbing water decreased rapidly, but the total phosphorus and nitrogen contents decreased gradually. The cleaned pyrolysis char showed an increase of higher heating value (HHV approximately 3667–9920 J/g due to the removal of salt from the char and, especially at 300–400 °C, showed a similar HHV with normal fossil fuels. In conclusion, salty food waste, which is pyrolyzed at a temperature of 300–400 °C and cleaned by water, can be utilized as high-energy refuse derived fuel (RDF, without adverse effects, due to the volatilization of Cl and an additional process of contaminated water.

  3. Pure hydrogen from pyrolysis oil using the steam-iron process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleeker, M.F.; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; Veringa, H.J.

    2007-01-01

    The novelty of using pyrolysis oil in the steam-iron process to produce pure hydrogen is introduced. In this process, products of pyrolysis oil gasification are used to reduce iron oxides which are subsequently oxidized with steam, resulting in pure hydrogen. Two process alternatives are considered:

  4. Production of advanced biofuels: Co-processing of upgraded pyrolysis oil in standard refinery units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miguel Mercader, de F.; Groeneveld, M.J.; Kersten, S.R.A.; Way, N.W.J.; Schaverien, C.J.; Hogendoorn, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    One of the possible process options for the production of advanced biofuels is the co-processing of upgraded pyrolysis oil in standard refineries. The applicability of hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) was studied as a pyrolysis oil upgrading step to allow FCC co-processing. Different HDO reaction end temper

  5. Fast Pyrolysis of Four Lignins from Different Isolation Processes Using Py-GC/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaona Lin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pyrolysis is a promising approach that is being investigated to convert lignin into higher value products including biofuels and phenolic chemicals. In this study, fast pyrolysis of four types of lignin, including milled Amur linden wood lignin (MWL, enzymatic hydrolysis corn stover lignin (EHL, wheat straw alkali lignin (AL and wheat straw sulfonate lignin (SL, were performed using pyrolysis gas-chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA showed that the four lignins exhibited widely different thermolysis behaviors. The four lignins had similar functional groups according to the FTIR analysis. Syringyl, guaiacyl and p-hydroxyphenylpropane structural units were broken down during pyrolysis. Fast pyrolysis product distributions from the four lignins depended strongly on the lignin origin and isolation process. Phenols were the most abundant pyrolysis products from MWL, EHL and AL. However, SL produced a large number of furan compounds and sulfur compounds originating from kraft pulping. The effects of pyrolysis temperature and time on the product distributions from corn stover EHL were also studied. At 350 °C, EHL pyrolysis mainly produced acids and alcohols, while phenols became the main products at higher temperature. No obvious influence of pyrolysis time was observed on EHL pyrolysis product distributions.

  6. Effects of water washing and torrefaction pretreatments on rice husk pyrolysis by microwave heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuping; Dong, Qing; Zhang, Li; Xiong, Yuanquan; Liu, Xinzhi; Zhu, Shuguang

    2015-10-01

    The influences of water washing, torrefaction and combined water washing-torrefaction pretreatments on microwave pyrolysis of rice husk samples were investigated. The results indicated that the process of combined water washing-torrefaction pretreatment could effectively remove a large portion of inorganics and improve the fuel characteristics to a certain extent. The gas products were rich in combustible compositions and the syngas quality was improved by pretreatment process. The liquid products contained less moisture content, acids and furans, while more concentrated phenols and sugars from microwave pyrolysis of rice husk after pretreatments, especially after the combined water washing-torrefaction pretreatment. Biochar, produced in high yield, has the alkaline pH (pH 8.2-10.0) and high surface area (S(BET) 157.81-267.84 m(2)/g), they have the potential to be used as soil amendments. It is noteworthy that water washing increased the pore surface area of biochar, but torrefaction reduced the pore surface area.

  7. Catalytic hydroprocessing of fast pyrolysis oils: Impact of biomass feedstock on process efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, Daniel; Westover, Tyler; Howe, Daniel; Deutch, Steve; Starace, Anne; Emerson, Rachel; Hernandez, Sergio; Santosa, Daniel; Lukins, Craig; Kutnyakov, Igor

    2017-01-01

    We report here on an experimental study to produce refinery-ready fuel blendstocks via catalytic hydrodeoxygenation (upgrading) of pyrolysis oil using several biomass feedstocks and various blends. Blends were tested along with the pure materials to determine the effect of blending on product yields and qualities. Within experimental error, oil yields from fast pyrolysis and upgrading are shown to be linear functions of the blend components. Switchgrass exhibited lower fast pyrolysis and upgrading yields than the woody samples, which included clean pine, oriented strand board (OSB), and a mix of pinon and juniper (PJ). The notable exception was PJ, for which the poor upgrading yield of 18% was likely associated with the very high viscosity of the PJ fast pyrolysis oil (947 cp). The highest fast pyrolysis yield (54% dry basis) was obtained from clean pine, while the highest upgrading yield (50%) was obtained from a blend of 80% clean pine and 20% OSB (CP8OSB2). For switchgrass, reducing the fast pyrolysis temperature to 450 degrees C resulted in a significant increase to the pyrolysis oil yield and reduced hydrogen consumption during hydrotreating, but did not directly affect the hydrotreating oil yield. The water content of fast pyrolysis oils was also observed to increase linearly with the summed content of potassium and sodium, ranging from 21% for clean pine to 37% for switchgrass. Multiple linear regression models demonstrate that fast pyrolysis is strongly dependent upon the contents lignin and volatile matter as well as the sum of potassium and sodium.

  8. Processing of maize plants by rotary kiln pyrolysis; Veredlung von Maispflanzen durch Pyrolyse im Drehrohrreaktor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klose, W.; Wiest, W. [Kassel Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany). Inst. fuer Thermische Energietechnik

    1996-12-31

    The fuel quality of maize plants is to be characterized by short, elementary and thermonalysis. The plants will be pyrolyzed in order to facilitate transport and storage. The formal kinetic parameters of three parallel reactions describing solid matter decomposition are defined by means of TG-DSC, and the reaction enthalpy is measured. Pyrolysis experiments in a rotary kiln converter in the kg range show a strong dependence of the product spectrum on process temperature. In particular, the pyrolysis gas yield increases with temperature at the expense of pyrolysis oil and water. (orig) [Deutsch] Zur energetischen Nutzung von Kulturpflanzen wird die brennstofftechnische Charakterisierung von Maispflanzen durch Kurz-, Elementar- und Thermoanalyse durchgefuehrt. Zur Reduzierung des Aufwands fuer Transport und Lagerung sollen die Pflanzen pyrolysiert weren. Mit Hilfe der TG-DSC werden formalkinetische Parameter von drei Parallelreaktionen zur Beschreibung der Feststoffzersetzung bestimmt und die Reaktionsenthalpie gemessen. Pyrolyseversuche in einem Drehrohrreaktor im Kilogramm-Massstab ergeben eine starke Abhaengigkeit des Produktspektrums von der Prozesstemperatur. Insbesondere steigt die Pyrolysegasausbeute auf Kosten der Bildung von Pyrolyseoel und Wasser mit der Temperatur stark an. (orig)

  9. Renewable hydrocarbons for jet fuels from biomass and plastics via microwave-induced pyrolysis and hydrogenation processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuesong

    This dissertation aims to enhance the production of aromatic hydrocarbons in the catalytic microwave-induced pyrolysis, and maximize the production of renewable cycloalkanes for jet fuels in the hydrogenation process. In the process, ZSM-5 catalyst as the highly efficient catalyst was employed for catalyzing the pyrolytic volatiles from thermal decomposition of cellulose (a model compound of lignocellulosic biomass). A central composite experiment design (CCD) was used to optimize the product yields as a function of independent factors (e.g. catalytic temperature and catalyst to feed mass ratio). The low-density polyethylene (a mode compound of waste plastics) was then carried out in the catalytic microwave-induced pyrolysis in the presence of ZSM-5 catalyst. Thereafter, the catalytic microwave-induced co-pyrolysis of cellulose with low-density polyethylene (LDPE) was conducted over ZSM-5 catalyst. The results showed that the production of aromatic hydrocarbons was significantly enhanced and the coke formation was also considerably reduced comparing with the catalytic microwave pyrolysis of cellulose or LDPE alone. Moreover, practical lignocellulosic biomass (Douglas fir sawdust pellets) was converted into aromatics-enriched bio-oil by catalytic microwave pyrolysis. The bio-oil was subsequently hydrogenated by using the Raney Ni catalyst. A liquid-liquid extraction step was implemented to recover the liquid organics and remove the water content. Over 20% carbon yield of liquid product regarding lignocellulosic biomass was obtained. Up to 90% selectivity in the liquid product belongs to jet fuel range cycloalkanes. As the integrated processes was developed, catalytic microwave pyrolysis of cellulose with LDPE was conducted to improve aromatic production. After the liquid-liquid extraction by the optimal solvent (n-heptane), over 40% carbon yield of hydrogenated organics based on cellulose and LDPE were achieved in the hydrogenation process. As such, real

  10. ASPEN+ and economic modeling of equine waste utilization for localized hot water heating via fast pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ASPEN Plus based simulation models have been developed to design a pyrolysis process for the on-site production and utilization of pyrolysis oil from equine waste at the Equine Rehabilitation Center at Morrisville State College (MSC). The results indicate that utilization of all available Equine Reh...

  11. Advanced Plasma Pyrolysis Assembly (PPA) Reactor and Process Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Richard R., Jr.; Hadley, Neal M.; Dahl, Roger W.; Abney, Morgan B.; Greenwood, Zachary; Miller, Lee; Medlen, Amber

    2012-01-01

    Design and development of a second generation Plasma Pyrolysis Assembly (PPA) reactor is currently underway as part of NASA's Atmosphere Revitalization Resource Recovery effort. By recovering up to 75% of the hydrogen currently lost as methane in the Sabatier reactor effluent, the PPA helps to minimize life support resupply costs for extended duration missions. To date, second generation PPA development has demonstrated significant technology advancements over the first generation device by doubling the methane processing rate while, at the same time, more than halving the required power. One development area of particular interest to NASA system engineers is fouling of the PPA reactor with carbonaceous products. As a mitigation plan, NASA MSFC has explored the feasibility of using an oxidative plasma based upon metabolic CO2 to regenerate the reactor window and gas inlet ports. The results and implications of this testing are addressed along with the advanced PPA reactor development.

  12. Aspen Plus® and economic modeling of equine waste utilization for localized hot water heating via fast pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Nicole L; Boateng, Akwasi A; Mullen, Charles A; Wheeler, M Clayton

    2013-10-15

    Aspen Plus(®) based simulation models have been developed to design a pyrolysis process for on-site production and utilization of pyrolysis oil from equine waste at the Equine Rehabilitation Center at Morrisville State College (MSC). The results indicate that utilization of all the available waste from the site's 41 horses requires a 6 oven dry metric ton per day (ODMTPD) pyrolysis system but it will require a 15 ODMTPD system for waste generated by an additional 150 horses at the expanded area including the College and its vicinity. For this a dual fluidized bed combustion reduction integrated pyrolysis system (CRIPS) developed at USDA's Agricultural Research Service (ARS) was identified as the technology of choice for pyrolysis oil production. The Aspen Plus(®) model was further used to consider the combustion of the produced pyrolysis oil (bio-oil) in the existing boilers that generate hot water for space heating at the Equine Center. The model results show the potential for both the equine facility and the College to displace diesel fuel (fossil) with renewable pyrolysis oil and alleviate a costly waste disposal problem. We predict that all the heat required to operate the pyrolyzer could be supplied by non-condensable gas and about 40% of the biochar co-produced with bio-oil. Techno-economic Analysis shows neither design is economical at current market conditions; however the 15 ODMTPD CRIPS design would break even when diesel prices reach $11.40/gal. This can be further improved to $7.50/gal if the design capacity is maintained at 6 ODMTPD but operated at 4950 h per annum.

  13. Kinetic analysis of manure pyrolysis and combustion processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Lopez, M; Pedrosa-Castro, G J; Valverde, J L; Sanchez-Silva, L

    2016-12-01

    Due to the depletion of fossil fuel reserves and the environmental issues derived from their use, biomass seems to be an excellent source of renewable energy. In this work, the kinetics of the pyrolysis and combustion of three different biomass waste samples (two dairy manure samples before (Pre) and after (Dig R) anaerobic digestion and one swine manure sample (SW)) was studied by means of thermogravimetric analysis. In this work, three iso-conversional methods (Friedman, Flynn-Wall-Ozawa (FWO) and Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose (KAS)) were compared with the Coats-Redfern method. The Ea values of devolatilization stages were in the range of 152-170kJ/mol, 148-178kJ/mol and 156-209kJ/mol for samples Pre, Dig R and SW, respectively. Concerning combustion process, char oxidation stages showed lower Ea values than that obtained for the combustion devolatilization stage, being in the range of 140-175kJ/mol, 178-199kJ/mol and 122-144kJ/mol for samples Pre, Dig R and SW, respectively. These results were practically the same for samples Pre and Dig R, which means that the kinetics of the thermochemical processes were not affected by anaerobic digestion. Finally, the distributed activation energy model (DAEM) and the pseudo-multi component stage model (PMSM) were applied to predict the weight loss curves of pyrolysis and combustion. DAEM was the best model that fitted the experimental data. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Pyrolysis oil upgrading for Co-processing in standard refinery units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Miguel Mercader, Ferran

    2010-01-01

    This thesis considers the route that comprises the upgrading of pyrolysis oil (produced from lingo-cellulosic biomass) and its further co-processing in standard refineries to produce transportation fuels. In the present concept, pyrolysis oil is produced where biomass is available and then transport

  15. Pyrolysis oil upgrading for Co-processing in standard refinery units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Miguel Mercader, F.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis considers the route that comprises the upgrading of pyrolysis oil (produced from lingo-cellulosic biomass) and its further co-processing in standard refineries to produce transportation fuels. In the present concept, pyrolysis oil is produced where biomass is available and then

  16. Techno-economic evaluation of high temperature pyrolysis processes for mixed plastic waste.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhout, R.W.J.; Koningsbruggen, van M.P.; Ham, van der A.G.J.; Kuipers, J.A.M.; Swaaij, van W.P.M.

    1998-01-01

    Three pyrolysis processes for Mixed Plastic Waste (MPW) with different reactors (Bubbling Fluidized Bed, Circulating Fluidized Bed and Rotating Cone Reactor, respectively BFB, CFB and RCR) were designed and evaluated. The estimated fixed capital investment for a 50 kton/year MPW pyrolysis plant buil

  17. Development of treatment process by pyrolysis of low level radioactive spent ion exchange resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagahara, Satoshi; Kidoguchi, Akira; Ushikoshi, Juntaro; Kanda, Nobuyasu [Mitsui Shipbuilding and Engineering Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-03-01

    Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuilding Co., Ltd. has been successfully developing a continuous treatment process by pyrolysis under reduction condition for low level radioactive ion-exchange resin used in nuclear power plants, for the purpose of reducing its volume with excellent decontamination performance. Pyrolysis experiments with labo-scale and bench-scale test equipments were carried out, followed by the continuous pyrolysis treatment test in the full-scale test equipment with feed rate at 7 liter/hour which was composed of a rotary kiln pyrolysis drum and an after-burner. Results showed an excellent performance of pyrolysis for the treatment of the spent resin. The properties of cement immobilization of residue sufficiently meet the governmental regulations, and we are confident that the continuous treatment process of the disposal for the low level radioactive ion-exchange resin used in nuclear power plants is established. (author)

  18. Pyrolysis as a key process in biomass combustion and thermochemical conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gvero Petar M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass is a fuel with a highly volatile content and due to that, pyrolysis as a part of the combustion process, has a dominant role in the overall process development, as well as on final products and the process efficiency. It is of key importance to investigate the influence of the process parameters; as temperature, furnace/reactor environment, fuel properties, type, particle size, geometry, and the structure of the pyrolysis process has an influence regards the design of the combustion/pyrolysis equipment and the final products of the processes. This paper gives some results of the investigation’s related to this problem, mainly focussing on wooden biomass as the most important biomass type, as well as a comparison with relevant documented literature. Besides that, pyrolysis based technologies are one of the key directions in synthetic fuels production based on biomass. Biomass pyrolysis process parameters are crucial in reactor design as well as the quantity and quality of the final products. This paper provides discussion dedicated to this aspect with a focus on slow pyrolysis, targeting charcoal as the key product, and fast pyrolysis, targeting synthetic gas as the key product.

  19. Process and economic model of in-field heavy oil upgrading using aqueous pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorsness, C. B., LLNL

    1997-01-21

    A process and economic model for aqueous pyrolysis in-field upgrading of heavy oil has been developed. The model has been constructed using the ASPEN PLUS chemical process simulator. The process features cracking of heavy oil at moderate temperatures in the presence of water to increase oil quality and thus the value of the oil. Calculations with the model indicate that for a 464 Mg/day (3,000 bbl/day) process, which increases the oil API gravity of the processed oil from 13.5{degree} to 22.4{degree}, the required value increase of the oil would need to be at least $2.80/Mg{center_dot}{degree}API($0.40/bbl{center_dot}{degree}API) to make the process economically attractive. This level of upgrading has been demonstrated in preliminary experiments with candidate catalysts. For improved catalysts capable of having the coke make and increasing the pyrolysis rate, a required price increase for the oil as low as $1.34/Mg{center_dot}{degree}API ($0.21/bbl{center_dot}{degree}API)has been calculated.

  20. Sustainability assessment of water hyacinth fast pyrolysis in the Upper Paraguay River basin, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buller, Luz Selene; Ortega, Enrique; Bergier, Ivan; Mesa-Pérez, Juan Miguel; Salis, Suzana Maria; Luengo, Carlos Alberto

    2015-11-01

    Fast pyrolysis of naturally produced water hyacinth was assessed through Emergy accounting approach. Two analyses were carried out to evaluate the influence of additional services and externalities on Emergy indicators for a pyrolysis plant unit able to process 1000 kg of dry biomass per hour. The initial approach was a traditional Emergy assessment in which financial fluxes and externalities were not considered. The second approach included taxes and fees of the Brazilian government, interests related to financing operations and assumes a reserve financial fund of 5% of the total investment as externalities cost. For the first evaluation, the renewability of 86% indicates that local and renewable resources mainly support the process and the Emergy Yield Ratio of 3.2 shows that the system has a potential contribution to the regional economy due to the local resources use. The inclusion of financial fluxes and externalities in the second evaluation reduces both renewability and Emergy Yield Ratio, whereas it increases the Emergy Investment Ratio which means a higher dependence on external resources. The second analysis allows portraying significant forces of the industrial and financial systems and the evaluation of the externalities' impact on the general system Emergy behavior. A comparison of the renewability of water hyacinth fast pyrolysis with other biofuels like soybean biodiesel and sugarcane ethanol indicates that the former is less dependent on fossil fuel resources, machinery and fertilizers. To complement the sustainability assessment provided by the Emergy method, a regular financial analysis for the second defined system was done. It shows that the system is financially attractive even with the accounting of additional costs. The results obtained in this study could be used as the maximum and minimum thresholds to subsidize regulatory policies for new economic activities in tropical wetlands involving natural resources exploitation and bio

  1. Bio-oil production from palm fronds by fast pyrolysis process in fluidized bed reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Nino; Simanungkalit, Sabar P.; Kiky Corneliasari, S.

    2017-01-01

    Fast pyrolysis process of palm fronds has been conducted in the fluidized bed reactor to yield bio-oil product (pyrolysis oil). The process employed sea sand as the heat transfer medium. The objective of this study is to design of the fluidized bed rector, to conduct fast pyrolysis process to product bio-oil from palm fronds, and to characterize the feed and bio-oil product. The fast pyrolysis process was conducted continuously with the feeding rate around 500 g/hr. It was found that the biomass conversion is about 35.5% to yield bio-oil, however this conversion is still minor. It is suggested due to the heating system inside the reactor was not enough to decompose the palm fronds as a feedstock. Moreover, the acids compounds ware mostly observed on the bio-oil product.

  2. Hybrid-renewable processes for biofuels production: concentrated solar pyrolysis of biomass residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, Anthe [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Geier, Manfred [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dedrick, Daniel E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The viability of thermochemically-derived biofuels can be greatly enhanced by reducing the process parasitic energy loads. Integrating renewable power into biofuels production is one method by which these efficiency drains can be eliminated. There are a variety of such potentially viable "hybrid-renewable" approaches; one is to integrate concentrated solar power (CSP) to power biomass-to-liquid fuels (BTL) processes. Barriers to CSP integration into BTL processes are predominantly the lack of fundamental kinetic and mass transport data to enable appropriate systems analysis and reactor design. A novel design for the reactor has been created that can allow biomass particles to be suspended in a flow gas, and be irradiated with a simulated solar flux. Pyrolysis conditions were investigated and a comparison between solar and non-solar biomass pyrolysis was conducted in terms of product distributions and pyrolysis oil quality. A novel method was developed to analyse pyrolysis products, and investigate their stability.

  3. Demonstration of the waste tire pyrolysis process on pilot scale in a continuous auger reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Juan Daniel; Murillo, Ramón; García, Tomás; Veses, Alberto

    2013-10-15

    This work shows the technical feasibility for valorizing waste tires by pyrolysis using a pilot scale facility with a nominal capacity of 150 kWth. A continuous auger reactor was operated to perform thirteen independent experiments that conducted to the processing of more than 500 kg of shredded waste tires in 100 h of operation. The reaction temperature was 550°C and the pressure was 1 bar in all the runs. Under these conditions, yields to solid, liquid and gas were 40.5 ± 0.3, 42.6 ± 0.1 and 16.9 ± 0.3 wt.% respectively. Ultimate and proximate analyses as well as heating value analysis were conducted for both the solid and liquid fraction. pH, water content, total acid number (TAN), viscosity and density were also assessed for the liquid and compared to the specifications of marine fuels (standard ISO 8217). Gas chromatography was used to calculate the composition of the gaseous fraction. It was observed that all these properties remained practically invariable along the experiments without any significant technical problem. In addition, the reaction enthalpy necessary to perform the waste tire pyrolysis process (907.1 ± 40.0 kJ/kg) was determined from the combustion and formation enthalpies of waste tire and conversion products. Finally, a mass balance closure was performed showing an excellent reliability of the data obtained from the experimental campaign.

  4. THE ROLE OF INTRAMOLECULAR TIES ENERGY IN THE PYROLYSIS PROCESS OF PET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Iu. Salikov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Recycling plastic waste to focus on. The main type of used products made of polyethylene terephthalate (PET is a container from the various types of beverages. There was considered a possibility of waste of PET (bottles, bottles, packaging containers by pyrolysis. Most of the proposed methods are not suitable for recycling (recycling of waste consumption contamination. Purpose - to develop technological foundations and optimum modes waste PET to obtain useful secondary products, taking into account the energy of chemical intramolecular bonds. Applied scientific basis of recycling PET into useful forms of secondary products, in particular the establishment of the collapse of the intramolecular bonds, depending on the temperature of the pyrolysis method of mathematical processing - differentiation of polynomial equations change in the degree of pyrolysis temperature-dependent. The optimum modes of processing. The block diagram of apparatus for processing contaminated waste PET pyrolysis methods of control processing in accordance with the specified composition of secondary products. The possibility of controlling the amount and types of fuel components of secondary products due to measurable parameters of the pyrolysis process. The effective temperature pyrolysis of waste PET with the CCA-tures energy intramolecular bonds.

  5. Application of pyrolysis process in processing of mixed food wastes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barbora Grycová; Ivan Koutník; Adrian Pryszcz; Miroslav Kaloč

    2016-01-01

    .... The concentration of hydrogen was measured in the range from 22 to 40 vol.%. The resulting iodine numbers of samples CHFO, DS, DSFW reach values that indicate the possibility of using them to produce the so-called “disposable sorbents” in wastewater treatment. The WC condensate can be directed to further processing and upgrading for energy use.

  6. Effect of water on pyrolysis and combustion process of coal during oxy-coal combustion%水对氧煤燃烧方式下煤粉热解及燃烧过程的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗嘉; 张曦; 吴望晨; 王超; 刘小伟

    2015-01-01

    为了探究湿式氧煤燃烧过程产生的高体积分数水对煤粉脱挥发分、煤焦气化、颗粒燃尽及 CO生成特性的影响,利用自行搭建的沉降炉系统,在0.2 s,0.3 s 和0.5 s 停留时间条件下分别进行了模拟烟气气氛下的煤粉热解和燃烧实验.其中,热解实验采用纯 N2气氛、纯 CO2气氛和CO2+水(不同体积分数比)气氛,燃烧实验则在此基础上分别加入了体积分数为5%,10%,21%和30%的 O2来替换气氛中的 N2或 CO2.结果表明:相较于空气燃烧,氧煤燃烧中的高体积分数CO2会抑制煤粉挥发分的析出,而高体积分数水的加入则会提高氧煤燃烧初期煤粉脱挥发分的速率,且在煤粉热解阶段,水和 CO2不会与煤焦发生气化反应;水在高氧体积分数、足够的停留时间条件下对煤粉燃尽率基本无影响,但会降低低氧体积分数条件下的煤粉燃尽率;水能够促进CO的氧化,从而降低炉内的CO体积分数.%To investigate the effect of high concentration water on coal volatilization,char gasification,char particle burnout and CO generation during wet oxy-coal combustion,the coal pyrolysis and combustion ex-periments were carried out in simulated flue gas atmospheres on a self-built drop tube furnace,with the particle residence time in the reactor of 0.2 s,0.3 s and 0.5 s.The pyrolysis tests were conducted in pure N2 atmosphere,pure CO2 atmosphere and CO2 with different concentrations of steam atmosphere.On this basis,the combustion tests adopt O2 with volume fraction of 5%,10%,21% and 30% to take place the N2 or CO2 in the pyrolysis atmospheres.the residence time of coal particles in the reactor during each test is 0.2 s,0.3 s and 0.5 s,respectively.The results indicate that,compared with air combustion,high concen-tration CO2 during oxy-coal combustion can inhibit the devolatilization of coal.The addition of high concen-tration H2 O during oxy-coal combustion can enhance the early stage

  7. A Novel Energy-Efficient Pyrolysis Process: Self-pyrolysis of Oil Shale Triggered by Topochemical Heat in a Horizontal Fixed Bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, You-Hong; Bai, Feng-Tian; Lü, Xiao-Shu; Li, Qiang; Liu, Yu-Min; Guo, Ming-Yi; Guo, Wei; Liu, Bao-Chang

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel energy-efficient oil shale pyrolysis process triggered by a topochemical reaction that can be applied in horizontal oil shale formations. The process starts by feeding preheated air to oil shale to initiate a topochemical reaction and the onset of self-pyrolysis. As the temperature in the virgin oil shale increases (to 250–300°C), the hot air can be replaced by ambient-temperature air, allowing heat to be released by internal topochemical reactions to complete the pyrolysis. The propagation of fronts formed in this process, the temperature evolution, and the reaction mechanism of oil shale pyrolysis in porous media are discussed and compared with those in a traditional oxygen-free process. The results show that the self-pyrolysis of oil shale can be achieved with the proposed method without any need for external heat. The results also verify that fractured oil shale may be more suitable for underground retorting. Moreover, the gas and liquid products from this method were characterised, and a highly instrumented experimental device designed specifically for this process is described. This study can serve as a reference for new ideas on oil shale in situ pyrolysis processes. PMID:25656294

  8. Co-processing of olive bagasse with crude rapeseed oil via pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uçar, Suat; Karagöz, Selhan

    2017-05-01

    The co-pyrolysis of olive bagasse with crude rapeseed oil at different blend ratios was investigated at 500ºC in a fixed bed reactor. The effect of olive bagasse to crude rapeseed oil ratio on the product distributions and properties of the pyrolysis products were comparatively investigated. The addition of crude rapeseed oil into olive bagasse in the co-pyrolysis led to formation of upgraded biofuels in terms of liquid yields and properties. While the pyrolysis of olive bagasse produced a liquid yield of 52.5 wt %, the highest liquid yield of 73.5 wt % was obtained from the co-pyrolysis of olive bagasse with crude rapeseed oil at a blend ratio of 1:4. The bio-oil derived from olive bagasse contained 5% naphtha, 10% heavy naphtha, 30% gas oil, and 55% heavy gas oil. In the case of bio-oil obtained from the co-pyrolysis of olive bagasse with crude rapeseed oil at a blend ratio of 1:4, the light naphtha, heavy naphtha, and light gas oil content increased. This is an indication of the improved characteristics of the bio-oil obtained from the co-processing. The heating value of bio-oil from the pyrolysis of olive bagasse alone was 34.6 MJ kg(-1) and the heating values of bio-oils obtained from the co-pyrolysis of olive bagasse with crude rapeseed oil ranged from 37.6 to 41.6 MJ kg(-1). It was demonstrated that the co-processing of waste biomass with crude plant oil is a good alternative to improve bio-oil yields and properties.

  9. Liquid-phase processing of fast pyrolysis bio-oil using platinum/HZSM-5 catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Bjorn Sanchez

    Recent developments in converting biomass to bio-chemicals and liquid fuels provide a promising sight to an emerging biofuels industry. Biomass can be converted to energy via thermochemical and biochemical pathways. Thermal degradation processes include liquefaction, gasification, and pyrolysis. Among these biomass technologies, pyrolysis (i.e. a thermochemical conversion process of any organic material in the absence of oxygen) has gained more attention because of its simplicity in design, construction and operation. This research study focuses on comparative assessment of two types of pyrolysis processes and catalytic upgrading of bio-oil for production of transportation fuel intermediates. Slow and fast pyrolysis processes were compared for their respective product yields and properties. Slow pyrolysis bio-oil displayed fossil fuel-like properties, although low yields limit the process making it uneconomically feasible. Fast pyrolysis, on the other hand, show high yields but produces relatively less quality bio-oil. Catalytic transformation of the high-boiling fraction (HBF) of the crude bio-oil from fast pyrolysis was therefore evaluated by performing liquid-phase reactions at moderate temperatures using Pt/HZSM-5 catalyst. High yields of upgraded bio-oils along with improved heating values and reduced oxygen contents were obtained at a reaction temperature of 200°C and ethanol/HBF ratio of 3:1. Better quality, however, was observed at 240 °C even though reaction temperature has no significant effect on coke deposition. The addition of ethanol in the feed has greatly attenuated coke deposition in the catalyst. Major reactions observed are esterification, catalytic cracking, and reforming. Overall mass and energy balances in the conversion of energy sorghum biomass to produce a liquid fuel intermediate obtained sixteen percent (16 wt.%) of the biomass ending up as liquid fuel intermediate, while containing 26% of its initial energy.

  10. FAST PYROLYSIS PROCESS OF ORANGE SOLID WASTE. FACTORS INFLUENCE IN THE PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Aguiar Trujillo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The orange processing industry generates high volumes of solid residue. This residue has been used in animal feeding and biochemical processes. A possible energy use of the waste can be thermochemical fast pyrolysis process. The objective was to determine the influence of the heating rate and temperature in the process of rapid pyrolysis of orange solid residue. In the process a design, 2k full factorial experiment was used, evaluating the influence of the independent variables and its interactions on the answers, using a 95 % significance level. We found that temperature is the most significant influence on the responses parameter having significant influence on the yields to: gas, coal, tar and the calorific value of the gas and the heating rate does not influence the answers. Finally, the interaction affects the gas yield. The results obtained in this study are: Rgas (19 – 38 %, Rchar (25 – 42 %, Ralq (6 – 12 %, PCIgas entre (140 – 1050 kJ/m3N.

  11. Study of Pyrolysisis of Polymers and Coal and Co-Pyrolysis of Their Blends, Kinetics of the Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana MIKULOVÁ

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Amount of polymer waste increase every year and for this reason upgrading of this waste is a necessity. Nowadays waste disposal and incineration of polymers waste are the most frequently used methods which (i did not allowed chemical and energy utilization and (ii are not environmentally friendly. Pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis provide an attractive way to dispose of and convert polymer waste and coal into higher value fuel and the specific benefits of this method potentially include many environmental friendly advantages. Pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis has been studied using termogravimetry apparatus NETZCH TG-DTA STA 409 EP. The pyrolysis of all polymers except for scrap tyres was a one-step process and temperature range was narrower than for coal pyrolysis. The overlapping temperature range for pyrolysis of polymers and coal was 200–600°C. The synergic effect and kinetics of co-pyrolysis of polymers and coal has been studied in the given temperature range. The addition of polymers to coal led to (i the enhancement of weight loss of brown coal, (ii the shift of temperature of the max pyrolysis speed and (iii the slight influence of EA of coal pyrolysis.

  12. Application of the distributed activation energy model to the kinetic study of pyrolysis of the fresh water algae Chlorococcum humicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirtania, Kawnish; Bhattacharya, Sankar

    2012-03-01

    Apart from capturing carbon dioxide, fresh water algae can be used to produce biofuel. To assess the energy potential of Chlorococcum humicola, the alga's pyrolytic behavior was studied at heating rates of 5-20K/min in a thermobalance. To model the weight loss characteristics, an algorithm was developed based on the distributed activation energy model and applied to experimental data to extract the kinetics of the decomposition process. When the kinetic parameters estimated by this method were applied to another set of experimental data which were not used to estimate the parameters, the model was capable of predicting the pyrolysis behavior, in the new set of data with a R(2) value of 0.999479. The slow weight loss, that took place at the end of the pyrolysis process, was also accounted for by the proposed algorithm which is capable of predicting the pyrolysis kinetics of C. humicola at different heating rates. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Demineralization of wood using wood-derived acid: Towards a selective pyrolysis process for fuel and chemicals production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudenhoven, S.R.G; Westerhof, R.J.M.; Aldenkamp, N.; Brilman, D.W.F.; Kersten, S.R.A.

    2013-01-01

    A process concept for the pyrolysis of demineralized wood to obtain high organic and especially levoglucosan yields is proposed and tested experimentally. The wood is demineralized using organic acids, produced and concentrated within the same pyrolysis process. Pine wood was pyrolyzed in a fluidiz

  14. Acoustic emission technique for monitoring the pyrolysis of composites for process control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tittmann, B R; Yen, C E

    2008-11-01

    Carbonization is the first step in the heat and pressure treatment (pyrolysis) of composites in preparing carbon-carbon parts. These find many uses, including aircraft brakes, rocket nozzles and medical implants. This paper describes the acoustic emissions (AE) from various stages of the manufacturing process of carbon-carbon composites. This process involves carbonization at a high temperature and this results in both thermal expansion and volume change (due to pyrolysis in which a sacrificial polymer matrix is converted to carbon). Importantly the resultant matrix is porous and has a network of small intra-lamina cracks. The formation of these microcracks produces AE and this paper describes how this observation can be used to monitor (and eventually control) the manufacturing process. The aim is to speed up manufacture, which is currently time-consuming. The first section of the paper describes the design of unimodal waveguides to enable the AE to propagate to a cool environment where a transducer can be located. The second part of the paper describes various experimental observations of AE under a range of process conditions. In particular, this paper presents a technique based on detecting acoustic emissions and (1) uses wire waveguides to monitor parts within the autoclave to 800 degrees C, (2) monitors microcracking during pyrolysis, (3) uses a four-level threshold to distinguish between low- and high-amplitude cracking events, (4) recognizes the occurrence of harmful delaminations, and (5) guides the control of the heating rate for optimum efficiency of the pyrolysis process. In addition, supporting data are presented of in situ measurements of porosity, weight loss, cross-ply shrinkage, and mass spectroscopy of gases emitted. The process evolution is illustrated by the use of interrupted manufacturing cycle micrographs obtained by optical, scanning acoustic (SAM) and scanning electron (SEM) microscopy. The technique promotes in-process monitoring and

  15. Using pyrolytic acid leaching as a pretreatment step in a biomass fast pyrolysis plant: process design and economic evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudenhoven, S.R.G; Ham, van der A.G.J.; Berg, van den H.; Westerhof, R.J.M.; Kersten, S.R.A.

    2016-01-01

    Removing alkali and alkaline earth metals (AAEMs) from biomass, with pyrolytic acids, before pyrolysis leads to increased organic oil and sugar yields. These pyrolytic acids are produced and concentrated within the pyrolysis process itself. The purpose of this paper was to evaluate under which condi

  16. Microwave-enhanced pyrolysis of natural algae from water blooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Li, Linling; Tong, Dongmei; Hu, Changwei

    2016-07-01

    Microwave-enhanced pyrolysis (MEP) of natural algae under different reaction conditions was carried out. The optimal conditions for bio-oil production were the following: algae particle size of 20-5 mesh, microwave power of 600W, and 10% of activated carbon as microwave absorber and catalyst. The maximum liquid yield obtained under N2, 10% H2/Ar, and CO2 atmosphere was 49.1%, 51.7%, and 54.3% respectively. The energy yield of bio-products was 216.7%, 236.9% and 208.7% respectively. More long chain fatty acids were converted into hydrocarbons by hydrodeoxygenation under 10% H2/Ar atmosphere assisted by microwave over activated carbon containing small amounts of metals. Under CO2 atmosphere, carboxylic acids (66.6%) were the main products in bio-oil because the existence of CO2 vastly inhibited the decarboxylation. The MEP of algae was quick and efficient for bio-oil production, which provided a way to not only ameliorate the environment but also obtain fuel or chemicals at the same time.

  17. Thermal recycling of plastic waste using pyrolysis-gasification process for energy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forbit, George Teke

    2012-04-04

    The disposal of mixed waste in landfills, dump sites and open burning without material and energy recovery leads to resource loss, causes health problems, pollution and littering. Increasing energy demand for industrial and domestic application with rising costs due to scarcity motivates a constant search for alternative clean energy sources. Recovering energy from waste presents various incentives e.g. creating jobs, alleviating poverty, combating and mitigating climate change, protecting the environment and reducing dependence on traditional fuels sources. Hence, plastics end up in landfills, surface waters and ocean bed with serious negative impact on terrestrial and aquatic biodiversity. Plastic waste with high calorific value (36-46MJ/kg) occupies the greatest portion of landfill space. Hence, using an appropriate technology to transform waste plastic to a hot gaseous mixture which is burned in-situ produces enormous amount of energy without pollution. Based on this hypothesis, the study objectives accomplished were to: 1. Characterise, quantify and classify waste fractions and plastic components common in MSW by manual sorting 2. Evaluate options for sustainable plastic waste management especially for developing countries 3. Design, construct, test and optimize an appropriate technology that applies pyrolysis and gasification processes to convert non-PVC plastic waste to energy 4. Assess the efficiency of the technology based on the functioning, the engineering, mass and energy analysis including socioeconomic and environmental impacts An integrated methodology involving review of current literature, field and laboratory experiments on mixed waste and plastic waste analysis was used. In addition, the pyrolysis-gasification technology (PGT) was conceptualised, designed, constructed, tested and optimised at BTU Cottbus, Germany; Lagos, Nigeria and Dschang, Cameroon. Field studies involving natural observation, interviews, personal discussions and visits to

  18. Wettability of poultry litter biochars at variable pyrolysis temperatures and their impact on soil wettability and water retention relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, S. C.; Witt, B.; Guo, M.; Chiu, P.; Imhoff, P. T.

    2012-12-01

    To reduce the impact of poultry farming on greenhouse gas emissions, poultry farming waste - poultry litter - can be converted to biofuel and biochar through slow-pyrolysis, with the biochar added to agricultural soil for nutrient enrichment and carbon sequestration. While biochars from source materials other than poultry litter have been shown to sequester carbon and increase soil fertility, there is considerable variability in biochar behavior - even with biochars created from the same source material. This situation is exacerbated by our limited understanding of how biochars alter physical, chemical, and biological processes in agricultural soils. The focus of this work is to develop a mechanistic understanding of how poultry litter (PL) biochars affect the hydrology, microbial communities, N2O emissions, and nitrogen cycling in agricultural soils. The initial focus is on the impact of PL biochar on soil hydrology. PL from Perdue AgriRecycle, LLC (Seaford, Delaware) was used to produce biochars at pyrolysis temperatures from 300°C to 600°C. To explore the impact of these biochars on soil wettability, the PL biochars were mixed with a 30/40 Accusand in mass fractions from 0% to 100%. The water contact angle was then measured using a goniometer on these sand/biochar mixtures using the sessile drop method and a single layer of sample particles. The PL biochars produced at temperatures between 300°C to 400°C were hydrophobic, while those pyrolized at > 400°C were hydrophilic. Water contact angles for samples with 100% biochar varied systematically with pyrolysis temperature, decreasing from 101.12° to 20.57° as the pyrolysis temperature increased from 300 to 600°C. Even for small amounts of hydrophobic biochar added to the hydrophilic sand, the contact angle of the mixture was altered: for sand/biochar mixtures containing only 2% hydrophobic PL biochar by weight, the contact angle of the mixture increased from ~ 8° (0% biochar) to 20° (2% biochar). For

  19. Pyrolysis process for the treatment of scrap tyres: preliminary experimental results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvagno, S; Casu, S; Casabianca, T; Calabrese, A; Cornacchia, G

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this work is the evaluation, on a pilot scale, of scrap tyre pyrolysis process performance and the characteristics of the products under different process parameters, such as temperature, residence time, pressure, etc. In this frame, a series of tests were carried out at varying process temperatures between 550 and 680 degrees C, other parameters being equal. Pyrolysis plant process data are collected by an acquisition system; scrap tyre samples used for the treatment, solid and liquid by-products and produced syngas were analysed through both on-line monitoring (for gas) and laboratory analyses. Results show that process temperature, in the explored range, does not seem to seriously influence the volatilisation reaction yield, at least from a quantitative point of view, while it observably influences the distribution of the volatile fraction (liquid and gas) and by-products characteristics.

  20. Kinetics and evolved gas analysis for pyrolysis of food processing wastes using TGA/MS/FT-IR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özsin, Gamzenur; Pütün, Ayşe Eren

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the pyrolysis of different bio-waste produced by food processing industry in a comprehensible manner. For this purpose, pyrolysis behaviors of chestnut shells (CNS), cherry stones (CS) and grape seeds (GS) were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) combined with a Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometer and a mass spectrometer (MS). In order to make available theoretical groundwork for biomass pyrolysis, activation energies were calculated with the help of four different model-free kinetic methods. The results are attributed to the complex reaction schemes which imply parallel, competitive and complex reactions during pyrolysis. During pyrolysis, the evolution of volatiles was also characterized by FT-IR and MS. The main evolved gases were determined as H2O, CO2 and hydrocarbons such as CH4 and temperature dependent profiles of the species were obtained. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Using RTILs of EMIBF4 as 'water' to prepare palladium nanoparticles onto MWCNTs by pyrolysis of PdCl{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding Keqiang, E-mail: dkeqiang@263.ne [College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Hebei Normal University, Yuhua East Road No: 113, Shijiazhuang 050016 (China); Yang Guokai [College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Hebei Normal University, Yuhua East Road No: 113, Shijiazhuang 050016 (China)

    2010-02-28

    For the first time, palladium nanoparticles supported on MWCNTs (multi-walled carbon nanotubes), denoted as Pd/MWCNTs, were prepared by a simple pyrolysis process of PdCl{sub 2} dissolved in room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (EMIBF{sub 4}) rather than water. X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) were used to characterize the structure of Pd/MWCNTs, and the results showed that Pd nanoparticles with highly crystalline structure and a diameter of around 4 nm were prepared, and more importantly, except for carbon and palladium no other elements were detected. The results obtained from a pyrolysis process only containing PdCl{sub 2} and EMIBF4 testified that in our developed pyrolysis process, EMIBF4 was used not only as ligands, to form a novel complex, but also as a reducing agent, to reduce Pd{sup 2+}. The electrocatalytic performance of Pd/MWCNTs-modified glassy carbon electrode towards ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR) was also probed by cycle voltammetry (CV), demonstrating that it was possible to utilize the obtained Pd/MWCNTs as anode materials in fuel cell. Initiating the application of RTILs in the pyrolysis process and finding that EMIBF4 could be employed as ligands and reducing agents are the main contributions of this preliminary work.

  2. Research on the pyrolysis of hardwood in an entrained bed process development unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovac, R.J.; Gorton, C.W.; Knight, J.A.; Newman, C.J.; O' Neil, D.J. (Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States). Research Inst.)

    1991-08-01

    An atmospheric flash pyrolysis process, the Georgia Tech Entrained Flow Pyrolysis Process, for the production of liquid biofuels from oak hardwood is described. The development of the process began with bench-scale studies and a conceptual design in the 1978--1981 timeframe. Its development and successful demonstration through research on the pyrolysis of hardwood in an entrained bed process development unit (PDU), in the period of 1982--1989, is presented. Oil yields (dry basis) up to 60% were achieved in the 1.5 ton-per-day PDU, far exceeding the initial target/forecast of 40% oil yields. Experimental data, based on over forty runs under steady-state conditions, supported by material and energy balances of near-100% closures, have been used to establish a process model which indicates that oil yields well in excess of 60% (dry basis) can be achieved in a commercial reactor. Experimental results demonstrate a gross product thermal efficiency of 94% and a net product thermal efficiency of 72% or more; the highest values yet achieved with a large-scale biomass liquefaction process. A conceptual manufacturing process and an economic analysis for liquid biofuel production at 60% oil yield from a 200-TPD commercial plant is reported. The plant appears to be profitable at contemporary fuel costs of $21/barrel oil-equivalent. Total capital investment is estimated at under $2.5 million. A rate-of-return on investment of 39.4% and a pay-out period of 2.1 years has been estimated. The manufacturing cost of the combustible pyrolysis oil is $2.70 per gigajoule. 20 figs., 87 tabs.

  3. Reducing the bioavailability and leaching potential of lead in contaminated water hyacinth biomass by phosphate-assisted pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lingna; Wang, Lijun; Zhang, Tao; Li, Jianfa; Huang, Xiaoyi; Cai, Jing; Lü, Jinhong; Wang, Yue

    2017-10-01

    For the purpose of safe disposal of biomass contaminated by biosorption of heavy metals, phosphate-assisted pyrolysis of water hyacinth biomass contaminated by lead (Pb) was tried to reduce the bioavailability and leaching potential of Pb, using direct pyrolysis without additive as a control method. Direct pyrolysis of the contaminated biomass at low temperatures (300 and 400°C) could reduce the bioavailability of Pb, but the leaching potential of Pb was increased with the rising pyrolysis temperature. While phosphate-assisted pyrolysis significantly enhanced the recovery and stability of Pb in the char. Specifically, the percentages of bioavailable Pb and leachable Pb in the chars obtained by phosphate-assisted pyrolysis at low temperatures were reduced to less than 5% and 7%, respectively. The sequential extraction test indicated the transformation of Pb into more stable fractions after phosphate-assisted pyrolysis, which was related to the formation of Pb phosphate minerals including pyromorphite and lead-substituted hydroxyapatite. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Siemens pyrolysis-combustion process; Das Siemens Schwel-Brenn-Verfahren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, D. [Siemens - KWU, Offenbach (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    The market introduction fo the SIEMENS pyrolysis-combustion process is a technical and ecological milestone in thermal waste processing. It bridges the gap between conventional incineration and recycling and is ideally suited for the modern waste management philosophy. The innovative combination of pyrolysis followed by high-temperature combustion produces energy and reusable materials nearly without emissions. (orig/sr) [Deutsch] Die Markteinfuehrung des Schwel-Brenn-Verfahrens hat im Bereich der thermischen Muellentsorgung eine technologische und oekologische Zeitenwende eingeleitet. Es fuegt sich als Bruecke zwischen herkoemmlicher Muellverbrennung und stofflichem Muell-Recyling ideal in das Konzept einer oekologischen Kreislaufwirtschaft. Die innovative Kombination von Muellverschwelung (Pyrolyse) und anschliessender Hochtemperaturverbrennung wandelt den unvermeidbaren Restmuell nahezu rueckstandsfrei in Wertstoffe und Energie um. (orig/SR)

  5. Hydrothermal carbonization of biomass residuals: A comparative review of the chemistry, processes and applications of wet and dry pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper reviews chemistry, processes and application of hydrothermcally carbonized biomass wastes. Potential feedstock for the hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) includes variety of the non-traditional renewable wet agricultural and municipal waste streams. Pyrolysis and HTC show a comparable calor...

  6. Optimization of the pyrolysis process for the production of a biomass derived reducing agent and hydrogen-rich gases

    OpenAIRE

    Adrados López de Viñaspre, Aitziber

    2014-01-01

    221 p. [EN] This thesis is devoted to the optimization of the biomass pyrolysis process for the simultaneous production of bioreducing agents and high value gases. The thesis is part of the existing collaborative research work between the Befesa Steel R&D S.L. Company and the Chemical and Environmental Engineering Department of the Faculty of Engineering of Bilbao. This company was interested in developing the pyrolysis process at large scale to produce biocoke to be used as reducing agent...

  7. Bio-oil from fast pyrolysis of lignin: Effects of process and upgrading parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Liangliang; Zhang, Yaning; Liu, Shiyu; Zhou, Nan; Chen, Paul; Cheng, Yanling; Addy, Min; Lu, Qian; Omar, Muhammad Mubashar; Liu, Yuhuan; Wang, Yunpu; Dai, Leilei; Anderson, Erik; Peng, Peng; Lei, Hanwu; Ruan, Roger

    2017-10-01

    Effects of process parameters on the yield and chemical profile of bio-oil from fast pyrolysis of lignin and the processes for lignin-derived bio-oil upgrading were reviewed. Various process parameters including pyrolysis temperature, reactor types, lignin characteristics, residence time, and feeding rate were discussed and the optimal parameter conditions for improved bio-oil yield and quality were concluded. In terms of lignin-derived bio-oil upgrading, three routes including pretreatment of lignin, catalytic upgrading, and co-pyrolysis of hydrogen-rich materials have been investigated. Zeolite cracking and hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) treatment are two main methods for catalytic upgrading of lignin-derived bio-oil. Factors affecting zeolite activity and the main zeolite catalytic mechanisms for lignin conversion were analyzed. Noble metal-based catalysts and metal sulfide catalysts are normally used as the HDO catalysts and the conversion mechanisms associated with a series of reactions have been proposed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Effect of Introducing B and N on Pyrolysis Process of High Ortho Novolac Resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Yun

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution, high ortho novolac resins modified with phenylboronic acid were synthesized. The thermal stability of novolac resins cured with hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA and chemical states of B and N via a pyrolysis process were studied. For the cured o-novolac modified with phenylboronic acid, the temperature with maximum decomposition rate increased by 43.5 °C, and the char yield increased by 5.3% at 800 °C compared with cured o-novolac. Density functional theory (DFT calculations show the existence of hydrogen bonding between N of HMTA and H of phenol in modified resin. Thus, N could still be found at high temperature and C=N structure could be formed via a pyrolysis process. B2O3 was obtained at 400 °C by the cleavage of B–O–C and B–C bonds and it reduces the oxygen loss which may take part in the formation of carbon oxides in the system. The melting B2O3 on the surface of the resin will prevent small molecules and carbon oxides from releasing. Moreover, introducing B into the system helps to decrease the interlayer distance and improve graphite structures via a pyrolysis process.

  9. Pyrolysis of low density polyethylene waste in subcritical water optimized by response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, S L; Ngadi, N; Amin, N A S; Abdullah, T A T; Inuwa, I M

    2016-01-01

    Pyrolysis of low density polyethylene (LDPE) waste from local waste separation company in subcritical water was conducted to investigate the effect of reaction time, temperature, as well as the mass ratio of water to polymer on the liquid yield. The data obtained from the study were used to optimize the liquid yield using response surface methodology. The range of reaction temperature used was 162-338°C, while the reaction time ranged from 37 min to 143 min, and the ratio of water to polymer ranged from 1.9 to 7.1. It was found that pyrolysis of LDPE waste in subcritical water produced hydrogen, methane, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, while the liquid product contained alkanes and alkenes with 10-50 carbons atoms, as well as heptadecanone, dichloroacetic acid and heptadecyl ester. The optimized conditions were 152.3°C, reaction time of 1.2 min and ratio of water solution to polymer of 32.7, with the optimum liquid yield of 13.6 wt% and gases yield of 2.6 wt%.

  10. Production of phenols and charcoal from bagasse by a rapid continuous pyrolysis process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mobarak, F.; Fahmy, Y.; Schweers, W.

    1982-01-01

    Tar and charcoal could be produced in high yields from bagasse by applying a rapid continuous pyrolysis process at a relatively low temperature. The ether extractives of the pyrolytic tar and oil amounted to 9.4% based on bagasse. Phenols represented 79% of these extractives. Gas chromatographic separation showed that guaiacol and its derivatives constituted 38% of the identified simple phenols. There were much smaller amounts of syringol and none at high pyrolysis temperatures. Depithing did not reduce the ash content of the charcoal, but it yielded an environmentally clean charcoal containing practically no sulfur or nitrogen. It was necessary to remove the fine particle size fraction of the bagasse after grinding in order to reduce the ash content of the charcoal. The carbon content of the charcoal increased rapidly with increasing temperature, and reached 96% at 720/sup 0/C. The charcoal had a remarkably high adsorption capacity despite the fact that it had not been subjected to any activation treatment.

  11. Pyrolysis of chromium rich tanning industrial wastes and utilization of carbonized wastes in metallurgical process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tôrres Filho, Artur; Lange, Liséte Celina; de Melo, Gilberto Caldeira Bandeira; Praes, Gustavo Eduardo

    2016-02-01

    Pyrolysis is the thermal degradation of organic material in oxygen-free or very lean oxygen atmosphere. This study evaluates the use of pyrolysis for conversion of leather wastes from chromium tanning processes into Carbonized Leather Residues (CLR), and the utilization of CLR in metallurgical processes through the production of iron ore pellets. CLR was used to replace mineral coal in proportions of 10% and 25% on fixed carbon basis content in the mixtures for pellets preparation. Experimental conversions were performed on a pilot scale pyrolysis plant and a pelletizing reactor of the "pot grate" type. The results demonstrated the technical feasibility of using the charcoal product from animal origin as an energy source, with recovery of up to 76.47% of chromium contained in CLR in the final produced of iron ore pellets. Pellets with 25% replacement of fixed carbon in the coal showed an enhanced compressive strength, with an average value of 344kgfpellet(-1), compared to 300kgfpellet(-1) for standard produced pellets.

  12. Hydrogen production from switchgrass via an integrated pyrolysis-microbial electrolysis process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, A J; Ren, S; Ye, X; Kim, P; Labbe, N; Borole, A P

    2015-11-01

    A new approach to hydrogen production using an integrated pyrolysis-microbial electrolysis process is described. The aqueous stream generated during pyrolysis of switchgrass was used as a substrate for hydrogen production in a microbial electrolysis cell, achieving a maximum hydrogen production rate of 4.3 L H2/L anode-day at a loading of 10 g COD/L-anode-day. Hydrogen yields ranged from 50±3.2% to 76±0.5% while anode Coulombic efficiency ranged from 54±6.5% to 96±0.21%, respectively. Significant conversion of furfural, organic acids and phenolic molecules was observed under both batch and continuous conditions. The electrical and overall energy efficiency ranged from 149-175% and 48-63%, respectively. The results demonstrate the potential of the pyrolysis-microbial electrolysis process as a sustainable and efficient route for production of renewable hydrogen with significant implications for hydrocarbon production from biomass. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Chapter 8: Biomass Pyrolysis Oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormick, Robert L.; Baldwin, Robert M.; Arbogast, Stephen; Bellman, Don; Paynter, Dave; Wykowski, Jim

    2016-09-06

    Fast pyrolysis is heating on the order of 1000 degrees C/s in the absence of oxygen to 40-600 degrees C, which causes decomposition of the biomass. Liquid product yield from biomass can be as much as 80% of starting dry weight and contains up to 75% of the biomass energy content. Other products are gases, primarily carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and methane, as well as solid char and ash. Residence time in the reactor is only 0.5-2 s so that relatively small, low-capital-cost reactors can be used. The low capital cost combined with greenhouse gas emission reductions relative to petroleum fuels of 50-95% makes pyrolysis an attractive process. The pyrolysis liquids have been investigated as a refinery feedstock and as stand-alone fuels. Utilization of raw pyrolysis oil has proven challenging. The organic fraction is highly corrosive because of its high organic acid content. High water content lowers the net heating value and can increase corrosivity. It can be poorly soluble in petroleum or petroleum products and can readily absorb water. Distillation residues can be as high as 50%, viscosity can be high, oils can exhibit poor stability in storage, and they can contain suspended solids. The ignition quality of raw pyrolysis oils is poor, with cetane number estimates ranging from 0 to 35, but more likely to be in the lower end of that range. While the use of raw pyrolysis oils in certain specific applications with specialized combustion equipment may be possible, raw oils must be significantly upgraded for use in on-highway spark-ignition (SI) and compression-ignition (CI) engines. Upgrading approaches most often involve catalytic hydrodeoxygenation, one of a class of reactions known as hydrotreating or hydroprocessing. This chapter discusses the properties of raw and upgraded pyrolysis oils, as well as the potential for integrating biomass pyrolysis with a petroleum refinery to significantly reduce the hydroprocessing cost.

  14. Pyrolysis oil upgrading by high pressure thermal treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miguel Mercader, de F.; Groeneveld, M.J.; Kersten, S.R.A.; Venderbosch, R.H.; Hogendoorn, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    High pressure thermal treatment (HPTT) is a new process developed by BTG and University of Twente with the potential to economically reduce the oxygen and water content of oil obtained by fast pyrolysis (pyrolysis oil), properties that currently complicate its co-processing in standard refineries. D

  15. Fractional pyrolysis of Cyanobacteria from water blooms over HZSM-5 for high quality bio-oil production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huijuan Li; Linling Li; Rui Zhang; Dongmei Tong∗; Changwei Hu∗

    2014-01-01

    Fractional pyrolysis and one-step pyrolysis of natural algae Cyanobacteria from Taihu Lake were comparatively studied from 200 to 500◦C. One-step pyrolysis produced bio-oil with complex composition and low high heating value (HHV630.9 MJ/kg). Fractional pyrolysis separated the degradation of different components in Cyanobacteria and improved the selectivity to products in bio-oil. That is, acids at 200◦C, amides and acids at 300◦C, phenols and nitriles at 400◦C, and phenols at 500◦C, were got as main products, respectively. HZSM-5 could promote the dehydration, cracking and aromatization of pyrolytic intermediates in fractional pyrolysis. At optimal HZSM-5 catalyst dosage of 1.0 g, the selectivity to products and the quality of bio-oil were improved obviously. The main products in bio-oil changed to nitriles (47.2%) at 300◦C, indoles (51.3%) and phenols (36.3%) at 400◦C. The oxygen content was reduced to 7.2 wt%and 9.4 wt%, and the HHV was raised to 38.1 and 37.3 MJ/kg at 300 and 400◦C, respectively. Fractional catalytic pyrolysis was proposed to be an efficient method not only to provide a potential solution for alleviating environmental pressure from water blooms, but also to improve the selectivity to products and obtain high quality bio-oil.

  16. Pyrolysis of azolla, sargassum tenerrimum and water hyacinth for production of bio-oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Bijoy; Singh, Rawel; Krishna, Bhavya B; Kumar, Jitendra; Bhaskar, Thallada

    2017-10-01

    Pyrolysis of azolla, sargassum tenerrimum and water hyacinth were carried out in a fixed-bed reactor at different temperatures in the range of 300-450°C in the presence of nitrogen (inert atmosphere). The objective of this study is to understand the effect of compositional changes of various aquatic biomass samples on product distribution and nature of products during slow pyrolysis. The maximum liquid product yield of azolla, sargassum tenerrimum and water hyacinth (38.5, 43.4 and 24.6wt.% respectively) obtained at 400, 450 and 400°C. Detailed analysis of the bio-oil and bio-char was investigated using (1)H NMR, FT-IR, and XRD. The characterization of bio-oil showed a high percentage of aliphatic functional groups and presence of phenolic, ketones and nitrogen-containing group. The characterization results showed that the bio-oil obtained from azolla, sargassum tenerrimum and water hyacinth can be potentially valuable as a fuel and chemicals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Thermal recycling of plastic waste using pyrolysis-gasification process for energy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forbit, George Teke

    2012-04-04

    The disposal of mixed waste in landfills, dump sites and open burning without material and energy recovery leads to resource loss, causes health problems, pollution and littering. Increasing energy demand for industrial and domestic application with rising costs due to scarcity motivates a constant search for alternative clean energy sources. Recovering energy from waste presents various incentives e.g. creating jobs, alleviating poverty, combating and mitigating climate change, protecting the environment and reducing dependence on traditional fuels sources. Hence, plastics end up in landfills, surface waters and ocean bed with serious negative impact on terrestrial and aquatic biodiversity. Plastic waste with high calorific value (36-46MJ/kg) occupies the greatest portion of landfill space. Hence, using an appropriate technology to transform waste plastic to a hot gaseous mixture which is burned in-situ produces enormous amount of energy without pollution. Based on this hypothesis, the study objectives accomplished were to: 1. Characterise, quantify and classify waste fractions and plastic components common in MSW by manual sorting 2. Evaluate options for sustainable plastic waste management especially for developing countries 3. Design, construct, test and optimize an appropriate technology that applies pyrolysis and gasification processes to convert non-PVC plastic waste to energy 4. Assess the efficiency of the technology based on the functioning, the engineering, mass and energy analysis including socioeconomic and environmental impacts An integrated methodology involving review of current literature, field and laboratory experiments on mixed waste and plastic waste analysis was used. In addition, the pyrolysis-gasification technology (PGT) was conceptualised, designed, constructed, tested and optimised at BTU Cottbus, Germany; Lagos, Nigeria and Dschang, Cameroon. Field studies involving natural observation, interviews, personal discussions and visits to

  18. Engineered biochar from microwave-assisted catalytic pyrolysis of switchgrass for increasing water-holding capacity and fertility of sandy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Badr A; Ellis, Naoko; Kim, Chang Soo; Bi, Xiaotao; Emam, Ahmed El-Raie

    2016-10-01

    Engineered biochars produced from microwave-assisted catalytic pyrolysis of switchgrass have been evaluated in terms of their ability on improving water holding capacity (WHC), cation exchange capacity (CEC) and fertility of loamy sand soil. The addition of K3PO4, clinoptilolite and/or bentonite as catalysts during the pyrolysis process increased biochar surface area and plant nutrient contents. Adding biochar produced with 10wt.% K3PO4+10 wt.% clinoptilolite as catalysts to the soil at 2wt% load increased soil WHC by 98% and 57% compared to the treatments without biochar (control) and with 10wt.% clinoptilolite, respectively. Synergistic effects on increased soil WHC were manifested for biochars produced from combinations of two additives compared to single additive, which may be the result of increased biochar microporosity due to increased microwave heating rate. Biochar produced from microwave catalytic pyrolysis was more efficient in increasing the soil WHC due to its high porosity in comparison with the biochar produced from conventional pyrolysis at the same conditions. The increases in soil CEC varied widely compared to the control soil, ranging from 17 to 220% for the treatments with biochars produced with 10wt% clinoptilolite at 400°C, and 30wt% K3PO4 at 300°C, respectively. Strong positive correlations also exist among soil WHC with CEC and biochar micropore area. Biochar from microwave-assisted catalytic pyrolysis appears to be a novel approach for producing biochar with high sorption affinity and high CEC. These catalysts remaining in the biochar product would provide essential nutrients for the growth of bioenergy and food crops.

  19. 中央核处理器的真空热解%The Vacuum Pyrolysis of Central Processing Unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓雅

    2012-01-01

    The low temperature pyrolysis of an important electronic waste,central processing unit(CPU) was investigated under vacuum condition and was compared with the results of higher temperature pyrolysis.Results showed that the pyrolysis of CPU took place adequately with a high pyrolysis oils yield which was good for the recovery of organics in the CPU and the pins could be separated from the base plates at pyrolysis temperature of 500~700 ℃.When the pyrolysis was carried out at 300~400 ℃,the solder mask of the CPU was pyrolysed and the pins could be separated from the base plates with a relatively intact gold-plated layer.Meanwhile,the pyrolysis oils yield was lower but the composition of the pyrolysis oils was relatively simple which was easy for separation and purification.%在真空条件下对中央核处理器(CPU)这一重要的电子废弃物进行低温热解研究,并对比较高温度下的热解效果。结果表明:500~700℃热解温度下,CPU基板充分裂解,产油率高,有利于CPU中有机物的回收,且针脚可与基板分离完全。低温热解300~400℃条件下,CPU的阻焊层发生裂解,针脚可与基板分离,且针脚镀金层较为完整,产油率相对较低,但液体产物组分较为单一,易于分离提纯。

  20. Fast Pyrolysis of Tropical Biomass Species and Influence of Water Pretreatment on Product Distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Trevor James; Turn, Scott Q; Sun, Ning; George, Anthe

    2016-01-01

    The fast pyrolysis behaviour of pretreated banagrass was examined at four temperatures (between 400 and 600 C) and four residence times (between ~1.2 and 12 s). The pretreatment used water washing/leaching to reduce the inorganic content of the banagrass. Yields of bio-oil, permanent gases and char were determined at each reaction condition and compared to previously published results from untreated banagrass. Comparing the bio-oil yields from the untreated and pretreated banagrass shows that the yields were greater from the pretreated banagrass by 4 to 11 wt% (absolute) at all reaction conditions. The effect of pretreatment (i.e. reducing the amount of ash, and alkali and alkali earth metals) on pyrolysis products is: 1) to increase the dry bio-oil yield, 2) to decrease the amount of undetected material, 3) to produce a slight increase in CO yield or no change, 4) to slightly decrease CO2 yield or no change, and 5) to produce a more stable bio-oil (less aging). Char yield and total gas yield were unaffected by feedstock pretreatment. Four other tropical biomass species were also pyrolyzed under one condition (450°C and 1.4 s residence time) for comparison to the banagrass results. The samples include two hardwoods: leucaena and eucalyptus, and two grasses: sugarcane bagasse and energy-cane. A sample of pretreated energy-cane was also pyrolyzed. Of the materials tested, the best feedstocks for fast pyrolysis were sugarcane bagasse, pretreated energy cane and eucalyptus based on the yields of 'dry bio-oil', CO and CO2. On the same basis, the least productive feedstocks are untreated banagrass followed by pretreated banagrass and leucaena.

  1. Fast Pyrolysis of Tropical Biomass Species and Influence of Water Pretreatment on Product Distributions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor James Morgan

    Full Text Available The fast pyrolysis behaviour of pretreated banagrass was examined at four temperatures (between 400 and 600 C and four residence times (between ~1.2 and 12 s. The pretreatment used water washing/leaching to reduce the inorganic content of the banagrass. Yields of bio-oil, permanent gases and char were determined at each reaction condition and compared to previously published results from untreated banagrass. Comparing the bio-oil yields from the untreated and pretreated banagrass shows that the yields were greater from the pretreated banagrass by 4 to 11 wt% (absolute at all reaction conditions. The effect of pretreatment (i.e. reducing the amount of ash, and alkali and alkali earth metals on pyrolysis products is: 1 to increase the dry bio-oil yield, 2 to decrease the amount of undetected material, 3 to produce a slight increase in CO yield or no change, 4 to slightly decrease CO2 yield or no change, and 5 to produce a more stable bio-oil (less aging. Char yield and total gas yield were unaffected by feedstock pretreatment. Four other tropical biomass species were also pyrolyzed under one condition (450°C and 1.4 s residence time for comparison to the banagrass results. The samples include two hardwoods: leucaena and eucalyptus, and two grasses: sugarcane bagasse and energy-cane. A sample of pretreated energy-cane was also pyrolyzed. Of the materials tested, the best feedstocks for fast pyrolysis were sugarcane bagasse, pretreated energy cane and eucalyptus based on the yields of 'dry bio-oil', CO and CO2. On the same basis, the least productive feedstocks are untreated banagrass followed by pretreated banagrass and leucaena.

  2. Fast Pyrolysis of Tropical Biomass Species and Influence of Water Pretreatment on Product Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Trevor James; Turn, Scott Q.; Sun, Ning; George, Anthe

    2016-01-01

    The fast pyrolysis behaviour of pretreated banagrass was examined at four temperatures (between 400 and 600 C) and four residence times (between ~1.2 and 12 s). The pretreatment used water washing/leaching to reduce the inorganic content of the banagrass. Yields of bio-oil, permanent gases and char were determined at each reaction condition and compared to previously published results from untreated banagrass. Comparing the bio-oil yields from the untreated and pretreated banagrass shows that the yields were greater from the pretreated banagrass by 4 to 11 wt% (absolute) at all reaction conditions. The effect of pretreatment (i.e. reducing the amount of ash, and alkali and alkali earth metals) on pyrolysis products is: 1) to increase the dry bio-oil yield, 2) to decrease the amount of undetected material, 3) to produce a slight increase in CO yield or no change, 4) to slightly decrease CO2 yield or no change, and 5) to produce a more stable bio-oil (less aging). Char yield and total gas yield were unaffected by feedstock pretreatment. Four other tropical biomass species were also pyrolyzed under one condition (450°C and 1.4 s residence time) for comparison to the banagrass results. The samples include two hardwoods: leucaena and eucalyptus, and two grasses: sugarcane bagasse and energy-cane. A sample of pretreated energy-cane was also pyrolyzed. Of the materials tested, the best feedstocks for fast pyrolysis were sugarcane bagasse, pretreated energy cane and eucalyptus based on the yields of 'dry bio-oil', CO and CO2. On the same basis, the least productive feedstocks are untreated banagrass followed by pretreated banagrass and leucaena. PMID:26978265

  3. Application of pyrolysis process to remove and recover liquid crystal and films from waste liquid crystal display glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Rixin; Ma, En; Xu, Zhenming

    2012-12-01

    Liquid crystal display (LCD) glass mainly consists of polarizing film, liquid crystal and glass substrate. Removing and recovering the liquid crystal and films from the LCD glass effectively has important significance for recovering the other parts. This study proposed a pyrolysis process to recover the organic parts from LCD glass. Through thermal gravimetric analysis, the pyrolysis temperature of the LCD glass could be chosen at 850 K. The removal rate of organic parts from LCD glass reached 87.87 wt%. Pyrolysis products consisted of 66.82 wt% oils, 21.01 wt% gaseous and 12.13 wt% residues. In addition, the oils contained 46.27 wt% acetic acid and 32.94 wt% triphenyl phosphate. Then, the pyrolysis mechanisms and products sources of the liquid crystal glass have been analyzed based on the information of bonds energy. The pyrolysis mechanism analysis proved that the products mainly consisted of acetic acid, triphenyl phosphate and C, which is consistent to the results of GC-MS analysis. A reasonable way has been put forward to recycle the pyrolysis products: acetic acid and triphenyl phosphate can be collected by distillation, the rest oils and gases can be used as fuel and the remained glass can be used to extract indium and to produce building materials.

  4. Engineered biochar from microwave-assisted catalytic pyrolysis of switchgrass for increasing water-holding capacity and fertility of sandy soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamed, Badr A. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of British Columbia, Vancouver BC V6T 1Z3 (Canada); Agricultural Engineering Department, Cairo University, Giza (Egypt); Ellis, Naoko [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of British Columbia, Vancouver BC V6T 1Z3 (Canada); Kim, Chang Soo [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of British Columbia, Vancouver BC V6T 1Z3 (Canada); Clean Energy Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, 14 gil 5 Hwarang-no Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Bi, Xiaotao, E-mail: tony.bi@ubc.ca [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of British Columbia, Vancouver BC V6T 1Z3 (Canada); Emam, Ahmed El-raie [Agricultural Engineering Department, Cairo University, Giza (Egypt)

    2016-10-01

    Engineered biochars produced from microwave-assisted catalytic pyrolysis of switchgrass have been evaluated in terms of their ability on improving water holding capacity (WHC), cation exchange capacity (CEC) and fertility of loamy sand soil. The addition of K{sub 3}PO{sub 4}, clinoptilolite and/or bentonite as catalysts during the pyrolysis process increased biochar surface area and plant nutrient contents. Adding biochar produced with 10 wt.% K{sub 3}PO{sub 4} + 10 wt.% clinoptilolite as catalysts to the soil at 2 wt% load increased soil WHC by 98% and 57% compared to the treatments without biochar (control) and with 10 wt.% clinoptilolite, respectively. Synergistic effects on increased soil WHC were manifested for biochars produced from combinations of two additives compared to single additive, which may be the result of increased biochar microporosity due to increased microwave heating rate. Biochar produced from microwave catalytic pyrolysis was more efficient in increasing the soil WHC due to its high porosity in comparison with the biochar produced from conventional pyrolysis at the same conditions. The increases in soil CEC varied widely compared to the control soil, ranging from 17 to 220% for the treatments with biochars produced with 10 wt% clinoptilolite at 400 °C, and 30 wt% K{sub 3}PO{sub 4} at 300 °C, respectively. Strong positive correlations also exist among soil WHC with CEC and biochar micropore area. Biochar from microwave-assisted catalytic pyrolysis appears to be a novel approach for producing biochar with high sorption affinity and high CEC. These catalysts remaining in the biochar product would provide essential nutrients for the growth of bioenergy and food crops. - Highlights: • High quality biochar was made by catalytic pyrolysis in a microwave reactor. • High heating rate and good biochar quality were achieved using K{sub 3}PO{sub 4} and clinoptilolite mixture. • Biochars showed significant increase in soil WHC and CEC.

  5. The potential of pyrolysis technology in climate change mitigation – influence of process design and –parameters, simulated in SuperPro Designer Software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Tobias; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Bruun, Esben

    -balance is only robust for the slow pyrolysis scenario. The CO2 benefit of the most carbon-negative slow pyrolysis process is estimated to be around 10 % of the atmospheric carbon stored in the original biomass when natural gas is applied for energy substitution. This process avoids the emission of around 150...... production from the pyrolysis and the full energy potential of the biomass, quantified by complete conversion in either combustion or gasification systems. It was concluded that it is feasible to produce carbon-negative energy under a variation of different settings, but also that the negative carbon...... in commercial pyrolysis technology that focuses on fast pyrolysis processes with maximized bio-oil production, the twin challenge of climate mitigation and sustainable energy production is most efficiently addressed with a combination of slow pyrolysis and complete biomass conversion through combustion...

  6. One-Dimensional Biomass Fast Pyrolysis Model with Reaction Kinetics Integrated in an Aspen Plus Biorefinery Process Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humbird, David; Trendewicz, Anna; Braun, Robert; Dutta, Abhijit

    2017-01-27

    A biomass fast pyrolysis reactor model with detailed reaction kinetics and one-dimensional fluid dynamics was implemented in an equation-oriented modeling environment (Aspen Custom Modeler). Portions of this work were detailed in previous publications; further modifications have been made here to improve stability and reduce execution time of the model to make it compatible for use in large process flowsheets. The detailed reactor model was integrated into a larger process simulation in Aspen Plus and was stable for different feedstocks over a range of reactor temperatures. Sample results are presented that indicate general agreement with experimental results, but with higher gas losses caused by stripping of the bio-oil by the fluidizing gas in the simulated absorber/condenser. This integrated modeling approach can be extended to other well-defined, predictive reactor models for fast pyrolysis, catalytic fast pyrolysis, as well as other processes.

  7. Effect of Cellulose, Hemi-cellulose and Lignin Compositions in Woody and Grass Biomass on Pyrolysis Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Yukihiko; Okada, Takuya; Okazaki, Ken

    This paper reports on the pyrolysis process of various biomass materials in a thermobalance. In particular, the primary yields of total volatiles, tar and non-condensable gases, together with the composition of non-condensable gases, are measured as a function of temperature. The use of a high-intensity infrared heating source, in conjunction with a non-absorbing carrier gas (viz. argon), is reported to reduce the significance of secondary gas-phase pyrolysis reactions. The results indicate that the pyrolysis process of wood and grass biomass (tar and gas evolution process) is greatly affected by the main composition (cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin) and the linear trends with atomic H/C ratio are observed in the tar yield, total volatile yield CO, CO2 and CH4 yields. The volatile yields of wood and grass biomass are predicted based only on the values of ultimate analysis of the biomass.

  8. Flash co-pyrolysis of biomass with polyhydroxybutyrate: Part 1. Influence on bio-oil yield, water content, heating value and the production of chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Cornelissen; M. Jans; J. Yperman; G. Reggers; S. Schreurs; R. Carleer [Hasselt University, Diepenbeek (Belgium). Laboratory of Applied Chemistry

    2008-09-15

    Bio-oil obtained via flash pyrolysis shows potential to be applied as a renewable fuel. However, bio-oil often contains high amounts of water, which is a major drawback for its application. The influence of a biopolymer - polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) on the pyrolysis of willow is investigated using a semi-continuous home-built pyrolysis reactor. The flash co-pyrolysis of willow/PHB blends (w/w ratio 7:1, 3:1, 2:1 and 1:1) clearly shows particular merits: a synergetic increase in pyrolysis yield, a synergetic reduction of the water content in bio-oil, an increase in heating value, and a production of easily separable chemicals. The occurrence of synergetic interactions is observed based on a comparison between the actual pyrolysis results of the willow/PHB blends, the theoretical pyrolysis results calculated from the reference pyrolysis experiments (pure willow and pure PHB) and their respective w/w ratio. The co-pyrolysis of 1:1 willow/PHB shows the best overall results. 24 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Pyrolysis of Pinus pinaster in a two-stage gasifier: Influence of processing parameters and thermal cracking of tar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fassinou, Wanignon Ferdinand; Toure, Siaka [Laboratoire d' Energie Solaire-UFR-S.S.M.T. Universite de Cocody, 22BP582 Abidjan 22 (Ivory Coast); Van de Steene, Laurent; Volle, Ghislaine; Girard, Philippe [CIRAD-Foret, TA 10/16, 73, avenue J.-F. Breton, 34398 Montpellier, Cedex 5 (France)

    2009-01-15

    A new two-stage gasifier with fixed-bed has recently been installed on CIRAD facilities in Montpellier. The pyrolysis and the gasifier units are removable. In order to characterise the pyrolysis products before their gasification, experiments were carried out, for the first time only with the pyrolysis unit and this paper deals with the results obtained. The biomass used is Pinus pinaster. The parameters investigated are: temperature, residence time and biomass flow rate. It has been found that increasing temperature and residence time improve the cracking of tars, gas production and char quality (fixed carbon rate more than 90%, volatile matter rate less than 4%). The increase of biomass flow rate leads to a bad char quality. The efficiency of tar cracking, the quality and the heating value of the charcoal and the gases, indicate that: temperature between 650 C and 750 C, residence time of 30 min, biomass flow rate between 10 and 15 kg/h should be the most convenient experimental conditions to get better results from the experimental device and from the biomass pyrolysis process. The kinetic study of charcoal generation shows that the pyrolysis process, in experimental conditions, is a first-order reaction. The kinetic parameters calculated are comparable with those found by other researchers. (author)

  10. Sugar cane bagasse as a feedstock for an industrial fast pyrolysis process under development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, R.; Magne, P.; Deglise, X.

    1987-11-01

    In order to determine if it is possible to use sugar cane bagasse in an industrial pyrolysis process (developed by the TNEE Company, a subsidiary of St. Gobain, France) to obtain a medium heating value gas, a comparative study of this material with pine bark, already used in the process, and with oak sawdust has been performed. The study showed only some minor differences between the three materials, essentially due to a difference of structure and a higher H/sub 2/ content for bagasse. In addition it is noticeable that the heating value of bagasse is higher than that of pine bark. Consequently sugar cane bagasse can be considered as a good feedstock for the TNEE industrial process. 20 figs., 2 tabs., 7 refs.

  11. Mechanistic study of the influence of pyrolysis conditions on potassium speciation in biochar "preparation-application" process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Zhongxin; Liu, Liyun; Zhang, Limei; Huang, Qiaoyun

    2017-12-01

    Biochar samples produced from rice straw by pyrolysis at different temperatures (400°C and 800°C) and under different atmospheres (N2 and CO2) were applied to lettuce growth in a 'preparation-application' system. The conversion of potassium in the prepared biochar and the effect of the temperature used for pyrolysis on the bioavailability of potassium in the biochar were investigated. Root samples from lettuce plants grown with and without application of biochar were assayed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The optimal conditions for preparation of biochar to achieve the maximum bioavailability of potassium (i.e. for returning biochar to soil) were thus determined. Complex-K, a stable speciation of potassium in rice straw, was transformed into potassium sulfate, potassium nitrate, potassium nitrite, and potassium chloride after oxygen-limited pyrolysis. The aforementioned ionic-state potassium species can be directly absorbed and used by plants. Decomposition of the stable speciation of potassium during the pyrolysis process was more effective at higher temperature, whereas the pyrolysis atmosphere (CO2 and N2) had little effect on the quality of the biochar. Based on the potassium speciation in the biochar, the preparation cost, and the plant growth and rigor after the application of returning biochar to soil, 400°C and CO2 atmosphere were the most appropriate conditions for preparation of biochar. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Combustion of spent shales from the Rotem deposit. Pt. 1. Concurrent thermal processes: Pyrolysis and gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabicky, J. (Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beersheba (Israel). Institutes for Applied Research Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beersheba (Israel). M.R. Bloch Center for Coal Research); Wohlfarth, A. (Pama - Energy Resources Development Ltd., Arava (Israel))

    1991-06-01

    Spent shales prepared by the Fisher method from oil shales of the Rotem deposit/Israel were studied in a continuous fluidized bed reactor at 700-900deg C under atmospheric pressure, using mixtures of nitrogen and carbon dioxide as the fluidizing gas. A set of simultaneus processes takes place, including pyrolysis of the organic residue in the spent shales, decomposition of calcium carbonate, dehydration of clay phases, decomposition of pyrites, reduction of anhydrite to calcium sulfide and other minor reactions. An important secondary process is gasification of the organic residue by carbon dioxide produced by carbonate decomposition or combustion. The extent to which these reactions take place depends on temperature, composition of the fluidizing gas, particle size of the spent shales, and mean residence time of the particles in the reactor. (orig.).

  13. Thermal and hydraulic effects of coke deposit in hydrocarbon pyrolysis process

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Fuel pyrolysis can be of benefit for regenerative cooling techniques due to its endothermic effect in ensuring the thermal resistance of hypersonic vehicles and structures. Among pyrolysis species production, there is that of coke formation. A numerical code is used in this paper to investigate the related phenomena, based on two experiments using Titanium (Ti) and Stainless Steel (SS) reactors, which present different pyrolysis rates under similar operating conditions...

  14. Synthesis of CeO2/fly ash cenospheres composites as novel photocatalysts by modified pyrolysis process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张进; 王冰; 崔皓; 李闯; 翟建平; 李琴

    2014-01-01

    A novel fly ash cenospheres (FACs)-supported CeO2 composite (CeO2/FACs) was successfully synthesized by the modi-fied pyrolysis process. The prepared composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and diffuse reflection spectra (DRS) techniques. XRD results indicated that the CeO2 film coated on cenospheres was a face-centered cubic structure. SEM images confirmed that the CeO2 film was relatively com-pact. XPS results showed that Ce was present as both Ce4+and Ce3+oxidation states in CeO2 film coated on FACs substrate. The bandgap of the composite was narrower compared with the pure CeO2. The as-prepared material exhibited good photocatalytic activ-ity for the decolorization of methylene blue (MB) under visible light irradiation, and the first-order reaction rate constant (k) of 0.0028 min–1 for CeO2/FACs composite was higher than 0.0015 min–1 of pure CeO2. The fact that they floated on water meant that CeO2/FACs composites were easily recovered from water by filtration after the reaction. The recycling test revealed that the compos-ites were quite stable during the MB photocatalytic decolorization. The CeO2/FACs catalyst was therefore promising for practical use in the degradation of pollutants or water cleanup.

  15. Pyrolysis and Gasification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas; Bilitewski, B.

    2011-01-01

    Pyrolysis and gasification include processes that thermally convert carbonaceous materials into products such as gas, char, coke, ash, and tar. Overall, pyrolysis generates products like gas, tar, and char, while gasification converts the carboncontaining materials (e.g. the outputs from pyrolysis......) into a mainly gaseous output. The specific output composition and relative amounts of the outputs greatly depend on the input fuel and the overall process configuration. Although pyrolysis processes in many cases also occur in gasification (however prior to the gasification processes), the overall technology...... may often be described as gasification only. Pyrolysis, however, can also be employed without proceeding with gasification. Gasification is by no means a novel process; in the 19th century so-called ‘town gas’ was produced by the gasification of coal and for example used for illumination purposes...

  16. Evaluation of Integrated Time-Temperature Effect in Pyrolysis Process of Historically Contaminated Soils with Cadmium (Cd and Lead (Pb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulmău C

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available It is already known that heavy metals pollution causes important concern to human and ecosystem health. Heavy metals in soils at the European level represents 37.3% between main contaminates affecting soils (EEA, 2007. This paper illustrates results obtained in the framework of laboratory experiments concerning the evaluation of integrated time-temperature effect in pyrolysis process applied to contaminated soil by two different ways: it is about heavy metals historically contaminated soil from one of the most polluted areas within Romania, and artificially contaminated with PCB-containing transformer oil. In particular, the authors focused on a recent evaluation of pyrolysis efficiency on removing lead (Pb and cadmium (Cd from the contaminated soil. The experimental study evaluated two important parameters related to the studied remediation methodology: thermal process temperature and the retention time in reactor of the contaminated soils. The remediation treatments were performed in a rotary kiln reactor, taking into account three process temperatures (400°C, 600°C and 800°C and two retention times: 30 min. and 60 min. Completed analyses have focused on pyrolysis solids and gas products. Consequently, both ash and gas obtained after pyrolysis process were subjected to chemical analyses.

  17. Fully solution-processed zinc oxide MIS capacitors by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis in air ambient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A. Dominguez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the fabrication and characterization of fully solution-processed zinc oxide metal–insulator–semiconductor (MIS capacitors by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis (USP are presented. Fluorine tin oxide by USP was used as transparent electrode, while spin-on glass by spin-coating was used as dielectric and zinc oxide by USP was used as active layer. Also, the zinc oxide film was characterized using photoluminescence spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The MIS capacitors were fabricated over glass slides and were highly transparent in the visible range, which makes their use feasible in transparent electronics. Employing capacitance–voltage and current–voltage measurements, the MIS capacitors were characterized.

  18. Improvement on droplet production rate of ultrasonic - nebulizer in spray pyrolysis process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panatarani, Camellia; Demen, Tuti Aryati; Men, Liu Kin; Maulana, Dwindra Wilham; Hidayat, Darmawan; Joni, I. Made

    2013-09-01

    Atomization is an important part in Spray Pyrolysis (SP) process which is applied to synthesize submicron or nano sized particles or to deposit thin film. Ultrasonic Nebulizer (UN) is usually use in SP due to its homogeneous droplets production with size between 1-5 μm. The drawback of the UN is low droplets production rate. In this research, we successfully developed a Digital Ultrasonic Nebulizer (DUN) with high droplets production rate using two ultrasonic traducers with applied frequency of 2.4 MHz. The result of DUN atomization was improved 4-6 fold compare to the conventional UN. The DUN also has an additional digital features such as pushbutton, LCD and microcontroller which is allow to set duration and applied voltage.

  19. Integration of coal pyrolysis process with iron ore reduction:Reduction behaviors of iron ore with benzene-containing coal pyrolysis gas as a reducing agent☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin Li; Helong Hui; Songgeng Li; Lu He; Lijie Cui

    2016-01-01

    An integrated coal pyrolysis process with iron ore reduction is proposed in this article. As the first step, iron oxide reduction is studied in a fixed bed reactor using simulated coal pyrolysis gas with benzene as a model tar com-pound. Variables such as reduction temperature, reduction time and benzene concentration are studied. The car-bon deposition of benzene results in the retarded iron reduction at low temperatures. At high temperatures over 800 °C, the presence of benzene in the gas can promote iron reduction. The metallization can reach up to 99%in 20 min at 900 °C in the presence of benzene. Significant increases of hydrogen and CO/CO2 ratio are observed in the gas. It is indicated that iron reduction is accompanied by the reforming and decomposition of benzene. The degree of metal ization and reduction increases with the increasing benzene concentration. Iron oxide can nearly completely be converted into cementite with benzene present in the gas under the experimental conditions. No sintering is found in the reduced sample with benzene in the gas.

  20. Product Chemistry and Process Efficiency of Biomass Torrefaction, Pyrolysis and Gasification Studied by High-Throughput Techniques and Multivariate Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Li

    Despite the great passion and endless efforts on development of renewable energy from biomass, the commercialization and scale up of biofuel production is still under pressure and facing challenges. New ideas and facilities are being tested around the world targeting at reducing cost and improving product value. Cutting edge technologies involving analytical chemistry, statistics analysis, industrial engineering, computer simulation, and mathematics modeling, etc. keep integrating modern elements into this classic research. One of those challenges of commercializing biofuel production is the complexity from chemical composition of biomass feedstock and the products. Because of this, feedstock selection and process optimization cannot be conducted efficiently. This dissertation attempts to further evaluate biomass thermal decomposition process using both traditional methods and advanced technique (Pyrolysis Molecular Beam Mass Spectrometry). Focus has been made on data base generation of thermal decomposition products from biomass at different temperatures, finding out the relationship between traditional methods and advanced techniques, evaluating process efficiency and optimizing reaction conditions, comparison of typically utilized biomass feedstock and new search on innovative species for economical viable feedstock preparation concepts, etc. Lab scale quartz tube reactors and 80il stainless steel sample cups coupled with auto-sampling system were utilized to simulate the complicated reactions happened in real fluidized or entrained flow reactors. Two main high throughput analytical techniques used are Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIR) and Pyrolysis Molecular Beam Mass Spectrometry (Py-MBMS). Mass balance, carbon balance, and product distribution are presented in detail. Variations of thermal decomposition temperature range from 200°C to 950°C. Feedstocks used in the study involve typical hardwood and softwood (red oak, white oak, yellow poplar, loblolly pine

  1. Refining fast pyrolysis of biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, Roel Johannes Maria

    2011-01-01

    Pyrolysis oil produced from biomass is a promising renewable alternative to crude oil. Such pyrolysis oil has transportation, storage, and processing benefits, none of which are offered by the bulky, inhomogeneous solid biomass from which it originates. However, pyrolysis oil has both a different

  2. Refining fast pyrolysis of biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, Roel Johannes Maria

    2011-01-01

    Pyrolysis oil produced from biomass is a promising renewable alternative to crude oil. Such pyrolysis oil has transportation, storage, and processing benefits, none of which are offered by the bulky, inhomogeneous solid biomass from which it originates. However, pyrolysis oil has both a different co

  3. Design, fabrication, operation and Aspen simulation of oil shale pyrolysis and biomass gasification process using a moving bed downdraft reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golpour, Hassan

    Energy is the major facilitator of the modern life. Every developed and developing economy requires access to advanced sources of energy to support its growth and prosperity. Declining worldwide crude oil reserves and increasing energy needs has focused attention on developing existing unconventional fossil fuels like oil shale and renewable resources such as biomass. Sustainable, renewable and reliable resources of domestically produced biomass comparing to wind and solar energy is a sensible motivation to establish a small-scale power plant using biomass as feed to supply electricity demand and heat for rural development. The work in Paper I focuses on the possibility of water pollution from spent oil shale which should be studied before any significant commercial production is attempted. In Paper II, the proposed Aspen models for oil shale pyrolysis is to identify the key process parameters for the reactor and optimize the rate of production of syncrude from oil shale. The work in Paper III focuses on (1) Design and operation of a vertical downdraft reactor, (2) Establishing an optimum operating methodology and parameters to maximize syngas production through process testing. Finally in Paper IV, a proposed Aspen model for biomass gasification simulates a real biomass gasification system discussed in Paper III.

  4. Pyrolysis of brown coal mixed with heavy products of coal and petroleum processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vikhorev, A.A.; Syroezhko, A.M.; Proskuryakov, V.A.; Akhmedov, N.A.

    1987-03-01

    Investigates effect of various additives on yield of liquid product from pyrolysis of Kansk-Achinsk (Berezovsk deposit) brown coal mixed with organic additives: waste from caprolactam plant consisting mostly of saturated oxygen containing compounds and mono- and di-carboxylic acid esters, waste from sabatic acid plant consisting predominantly of unsaturated acids, distillation residue of synthetic fatty acids, heavy residue from Arlansk oil refineries containing mainly condensed naphtheno-aromatic systems and heavy tar from rapid pyrolysis of Kansk-Achinsk coal. Finds that joint pyrolysis of brown coal with organic additives increases yield of liquid products and that intensive decomposition begins at lower temperatures. 4 refs.

  5. A Compact, Efficient Pyrolysis/Oxidation System for Solid Waste Resource Recovery in Space Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Pyrolysis processing can be used in near term missions for volume reduction, water recovery (drying), stabilization, and enhanced water and oxygen recovery through...

  6. Supercritical water gasification of Eucalyptus grandis and related pyrolysis char: Effect of feedstock composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louw, Jeanne; Schwarz, Cara E; Burger, Andries J

    2016-09-01

    Eucalyptus grandis (E. grandis) wood and char products derived from pyrolysis of E. grandis wood, were gasified in supercritical water at 450°C - with and without the use of a homogeneous (K2CO3) and heterogeneous (Ni/Al2O3-SiO2) catalyst. Gas yields and gasification efficiencies were measured experimentally and compared to calculated thermodynamic equilibrium values, specifically considering the effects of the O/C ratio and volatile matter content of the feed material. Thermodynamically, feed material with lower O/C ratios (0.22) typically resulted in higher CH4 yields (30mol/kgfeed,dry) and gasification efficiencies (188%). However, experimentally, feed material with lower O/C ratios and lower volatile matter resulted in the lowest CH4 yields and gasification efficiencies. Furthermore, a linear relationship between the carbon efficiency (CE) and both the volatile matter content and O/C ratio of the feed material was found to hold true in both catalytic and non-catalytic experiments.

  7. Waste processing by pyrolysis; Posibilidades de la pirolisis en el tratamiento de los residuos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elias, X.

    2002-07-01

    The present work starts reminding the beginnings of pyrolysis and its applications. Nevertheless the Directive 2000/76/CE talks about it and gasification calling them intermediate systems for waste to energy. Of all it, the conclusions is that both gasification and particularly pyrolysis alone cannot solve the environmental challenges that the treatment of the present waste supposes. Thus it is precise to refer to a larger set of technologies. Of the industrial applications it is inferred that both gasification and pyrolysis generate a minimum amount of gases, in comparison with the conventional incineration, so they are more advanced technologies of treatment. Pyrolysis allows a larger treatment of waste because, depending on an organic/inorganic relation present in the waste, provides a better fitting to the treatment. (Author)

  8. Effect of radicals combination on acetylene yield in process of coal pyrolysis by hydrogen plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, B.; Fan, Y.; Yang, J.; Xiao, J. [Tsinghua University, Beijing (China). Dept. of Engineering Mechanics

    1999-07-01

    A new process for production of acetylene by pyrolysis of coal in hydrogen plasma overcomes the disadvantage of discontinuity and pollution in the conventional carbide method. Complex homogeneous reactions take place after pulverized coal is injected into a high-temperature plasma reactor. In order to preserve C{sub 2}H{sub 2} in low-temperature gas, quenching is needed to avoid the dissociation of acetylene. The objective of this paper is to indicate that radicals recombination is also important in acetylene production. Therefore the quenching process should be optimized to obtain high yield of acetylene. In this work, C-H equilibrium system in high-temperature range of 2000-5000 K is obtained using the free energy minimization method. At lower temperature, the decomposition of acetylene can be avoided while the recombination reaction of radicals C{sub 2}H and H will not be interrupted. As a result, the acetylene concentration in quenched gas will increase. The theoretical acetylene content in quenched gas is computed using the radical recombination mechanism based on the composition of thermal equilibrium, and the optimized C/H ratio is determined simultaneously. The maximum acetylene content is 59.9% in volume. 4 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Electrical properties of BaZrO3 ceramic synthesized by flash pyrolysis process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Deepash S.; Bhattacharya, D.

    2016-04-01

    Barium Zirconate (BaZrO3) nanoparticles are synthesized by flash pyrolysis combustion process. Rietveld refinement of XRD pattern of calcined powder at 900 °C, 1100 °C and sintered at 1600 °C describes that a single-phase compound is formed of an Pm-3m cubic crystal structure with a lattice constant a = 4.19102, 4.192693, and 4.195276 Å respectively. Crystallize size of calcined powder at 900 °C, 1100 °C and sintered at 1600 °C is found 34.28, 37.7 and 47.14 nm respectively using Scherrer formula. The FESEM image of sintered pellet at 1600 °C for 4 h describes porous nature of the sample. The Nyquist plots indicate the dominant grain boundary effect in electrical processes in the sample. A decrease in the bulk resistance with increasing temperature demonstrates a semiconducting behavior. The temperature dependent relaxation and conduction mechanism brief involvements of different types of the charge species in the 250 to 500 °C temperature region as studied at different frequencies over 100 Hz to 1 MHz.

  10. Water chemistry and poultry processing water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study examined the influences of water chemistry on the quality of process water used in immersion chillers. During commercial poultry processing the bird carcasses come in direct contact with process water during washing and chilling operations. Contamination of the process water with bacteria...

  11. Technological process and optimum design of organic materials vacuum pyrolysis and indium chlorinated separation from waste liquid crystal display panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, En; Xu, Zhenming

    2013-12-15

    In this study, a technology process including vacuum pyrolysis and vacuum chlorinated separation was proposed to convert waste liquid crystal display (LCD) panels into useful resources using self-design apparatuses. The suitable pyrolysis temperature and pressure are determined as 300°C and 50 Pa at first. The organic parts of the panels were converted to oil (79.10 wt%) and gas (2.93 wt%). Then the technology of separating indium was optimized by central composite design (CCD) under response surface methodology (RSM). The results indicated the indium recovery ratio was 99.97% when the particle size is less than 0.16 mm, the weight percentage of NH4Cl to glass powder is 50 wt% and temperature is 450°C. The research results show that the organic materials, indium and glass of LCD panel can be recovered during the recovery process efficiently and eco-friendly.

  12. THE USE OF PYROLYSIS/GC/MS TO CHARACTERIZE THE ORGANIC QUALITY OF SURFACE WATERS; SPECIAL APPLICATION TO DRINKING WATER TREATMENT AND THE FORMATION OF DISINFECTION BYPRODUCTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural Organ Material (NOM) in aquatic systems controls the effectiveness of engineered treatment processes and the fate of metals and pollutants in natural systems. At present less than 20% of NOM components can be identified. Pyrolysis-Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (P...

  13. Pyrolysis of Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rađenović, A.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a review of relevant literature on coal pyrolysis.Pyrolysis, as a process technology, has received considerable attention from many researchers because it is an important intermediate stage in coal conversion.Reactions parameters as the temperature, pressure, coal particle size, heating rate, soak time, type of reactor, etc. determine the total carbon conversion and the transport of volatiles and therebythe product distribution. Part of the possible environmental pollutants could be removed by optimising the pyrolysis conditions. Therefore, this process will be subsequently interesting for coal utilization in the future

  14. Characterization of the Water-Soluble Fraction of Woody Biomass Pyrolysis Oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stankovikj, Filip; McDonald, Armando G.; Helms, Gregory L.; Olarte, Mariefel V.; Garcia-Perez, Manuel

    2017-01-31

    This paper reports a study of the chemical composition of the water soluble (WS) fraction obtained by cold water precipitation of two commercial wood pyrolysis oils (BTG and Amaron). The fraction studied accounts for between 50.3 and 51.3 wt. % of the oils. With the most common analytical techniques used today for the characterization of this fraction (KF titration, GC/MS, hydrolysable sugars and total carbohydrates), it is possible to quantify only between 45 and 50 wt. % of it. Our results confirm that most of the total carbohydrates (hydrolysable sugars and non-hydrolysable) are soluble in water. The ion chromatography hydrolysis method showed that between 11.6 and 17.3 wt. % of these oils were hydrolysable sugars. A small quantity of phenols detectable by GC/MS (between 2.5 and 3.9 wt. %) were identified. It is postulated that the unknown high molecular weight fraction (30-55 wt. %) is formed by highly dehydrated sugars rich in carbonyl groups and WS phenols. The overall content of carbonyl, carboxyl, hydroxyl and phenolic compounds in the WS fraction were quantified by titration, Folin-Ciocalteu, 31P-NMR and 1H-NMR. The WS fraction contains between 5.5 and 6.2 mmol/g of carbonyl groups, between 0.4 and 1.0 mmol/g of carboxylic acid groups, between 1.2 and 1.8 mmol/g phenolic -OH, and between 6.0 and 7.9 mmol/g of aliphatic alcohol groups. Translation into weight fractions of the WS was done by supposing surrogate structures for the water soluble phenols, carbonyl and carboxyl groups and we estimated the content of WS phenols (21-27 wt. %), carbonyl (5-14 wt.%), and carboxyl (0-4 wt.%). Together with the total carbohydrates (23-27 wt.%), this approach leads to > 90 wt. % of the WS material in the bio-oils being quantified. We speculate the larger portion of the difference between the total carbohydrates and hydrolysable sugars is the missing furanic fraction. Further refinement of the suggested methods and development of separation schemes to obtain and

  15. Processing real-world waste plastics by pyrolysis-reforming for hydrogen and high-value carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chunfei; Nahil, Mohamad A; Miskolczi, Norbert; Huang, Jun; Williams, Paul T

    2014-01-01

    Producing both hydrogen and high-value carbon nanotubes (CNTs) derived from waste plastics is reported here using a pyrolysis-reforming technology comprising a two-stage reaction system, in the presence of steam and a Ni-Mn-Al catalyst. The waste plastics consisted of plastics from a motor oil container (MOC), commercial waste high density polyethylene (HDPE) and regranulated HDPE waste containing polyvinyl chloride (PVC). The results show that hydrogen can be produced from the pyrolysis-reforming process, but also carbon nanotubes are formed on the catalyst. However, the content of 0.3 wt.% polyvinyl chloride in the waste HDPE (HDPE/PVC) has been shown to poison the catalyst and significantly reduce the quantity and purity of CNTs. The presence of sulfur has shown less influence on the production of CNTs in terms of quantity and CNT morphologies. Around 94.4 mmol H2 g(-1) plastic was obtained for the pyrolysis-reforming of HDPE waste in the presence of the Ni-Mn-Al catalyst and steam at a reforming temperature of 800 °C. The addition of steam in the process results in an increase of hydrogen production and reduction of carbon yield; in addition, the defects of CNTs, for example, edge dislocations were found to be increased with the introduction of steam (from Raman analysis).

  16. Pyrolysis and Gasification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas; Bilitewski, B.

    2011-01-01

    Pyrolysis and gasification include processes that thermally convert carbonaceous materials into products such as gas, char, coke, ash, and tar. Overall, pyrolysis generates products like gas, tar, and char, while gasification converts the carboncontaining materials (e.g. the outputs from pyrolysis....... Today gasification is used within a range of applications, the most important of which are conversion of coal into syngas for use as chemical feedstock or energy production; but also gasification of biomass and waste is gaining significant interest as emerging technologies for sustainable energy. From...

  17. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbon Fuels: Fast Pyrolysis and Hydrotreating Bio-Oil Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Susanne B.; Meyer, Pimphan A.; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Padmaperuma, Asanga B.; Tan, Eric; Dutta, Abhijit; Jacobson, Jacob; Cafferty, Kara

    2013-11-01

    This report describes a proposed thermochemical process for converting biomass into liquid transportation fuels via fast pyrolysis followed by hydroprocessing of the condensed pyrolysis oil. As such, the analysis does not reflect the current state of commercially-available technology but includes advancements that are likely, and targeted to be achieved by 2017. The purpose of this study is to quantify the economic impact of individual conversion targets to allow a focused effort towards achieving cost reductions.

  18. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbon Fuels: Fast Pyrolysis and Hydrotreating Bio-oil Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, S.; Meyer, P.; Snowden-Swan, L.; Padmaperuma, A.; Tan, E.; Dutta, A.; Jacobson, J.; Cafferty, K.

    2013-11-01

    This report describes a proposed thermochemical process for converting biomass into liquid transportation fuels via fast pyrolysis followed by hydroprocessing of the condensed pyrolysis oil. As such, the analysis does not reflect the current state of commercially-available technology but includes advancements that are likely, and targeted to be achieved by 2017. The purpose of this study is to quantify the economic impact of individual conversion targets to allow a focused effort towards achieving cost reductions.

  19. Process water usage and water quality in poultry processing equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    The operation of poultry processing equipment was analyzed to determine the impact of water reduction strategies on process water quality. Mandates to reduce the consumption of process water in poultry processing facilities have created the need to critically examine water usage patterns and develop...

  20. Water-Stable Anionic Metal-Organic Framework for Highly Selective Separation of Methane from Natural Gas and Pyrolysis Gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lan; Wang, Xusheng; Liang, Jun; Huang, Yuanbiao; Li, Hongfang; Lin, Zujin; Cao, Rong

    2016-04-20

    A 3D water-stable anionic metal-organic framework [Zn4(hpdia)2]·[NH2(CH3)2]·3DMF·4H2O (FJI-C4) was constructed based on an elaborate phosphorus-containing ligand 5,5'-(hydroxyphosphoryl)diisophthalic acid (H5hpdia). FJI-C4 with narrow one-dimensional (1D) pore channels exhibits high selectivity of C3H8/CH4 and C2H2/CH4. It is the first time for the MOF which contains phosphorus for selective separation of methane from natural gas and pyrolysis gas.

  1. Deposition and characterization of La 2Ti 2O 7 thin films via spray pyrolysis process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorovsky, D. S.; Todorovska, R. V.; Milanova, M. M.; Kovacheva, D. G.

    2007-03-01

    Thin films of La 2Ti 2O 7 have been deposited on fused silica and Si substrates by a spray pyrolysis method using ethylene glycol solution of La(III)-Ti(IV)-citrate complexes as starting material and O 2 as a carrier gas. The composition, crystal structure and morphology of the films are studied.

  2. Effect of Ni-Co Ternary Molten Salt Catalysts on Coal Catalytic Pyrolysis Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xin; Qi, Cong; Li, Liang; Li, Yimin; Li, Song

    2017-08-01

    In order to facilitate efficient and clean utilization of coal, a series of Ni-Co ternary molten salt crystals are explored and the catalytic pyrolysis mechanism of Datong coal is investigated. The reaction mechanisms of coal are achieved by thermal gravimetric analyzer (TGA), and a reactive kinetic model is constructed. The microcosmic structure and macerals are observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The catalytic effects of ternary molten salt crystals at different stages of pyrolysis are analyzed. The experimental results show that Ni-Co ternary molten salt catalysts have the capability to bring down activation energy required by pyrolytic reactions at its initial phase. Also, the catalysts exert a preferable catalytic action on macromolecular structure decomposition and free radical polycondensation reactions. Furthermore, the high-temperature condensation polymerization is driven to decompose further with a faster reaction rate by the additions of Ni-Co ternary molten salt crystal catalysts. According to pyrolysis kinetic research, the addition of catalysts can effectively decrease the activation energy needed in each phase of pyrolysis reaction.

  3. Formation of nanocarbon spheres by thermal treatment of woody char from fast pyrolysis process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiangu Yan; Hossein Toghiani; Zhiyong Cai; Jilei Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Influences of thermal treatment conditions of temperature, reaction cycle and time, and purge gas type on nanocarbon formation over bio-chars from fast pyrolysis and effects of thermal reaction cycle and purge gas type on bio-char surface functional groups were investigated by temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) and temperature programmed reduction methods....

  4. Effects of pyrolysis temperature on soybean stover- and peanut shell-derived biochar properties and TCE adsorption in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mahtab; Lee, Sang Soo; Dou, Xiaomin; Mohan, Dinesh; Sung, Jwa-Kyung; Yang, Jae E; Ok, Yong Sik

    2012-08-01

    Conversion of crop residues into biochars (BCs) via pyrolysis is beneficial to environment compared to their direct combustion in agricultural field. Biochars developed from soybean stover at 300 and 700 °C (S-BC300 and S-BC700, respectively) and peanut shells at 300 and 700 °C (P-BC300 and P-BC700, respectively) were used for the removal of trichloroethylene (TCE) from water. Batch adsorption experiments showed that the TCE adsorption was strongly dependent on the BCs properties. Linear relationships were obtained between sorption parameters (K(M) and S(M)) and molar elemental ratios as well as surface area of the BCs. The high adsorption capacity of BCs produced at 700 °C was attributed to their high aromaticity and low polarity. The efficacy of S-BC700 and P-BC700 for removing TCE from water was comparable to that of activated carbon (AC). Pyrolysis temperature influencing the BC properties was a critical factor to assess the removal efficiency of TCE from water.

  5. Characterization and inventory of PBDD/F emissions from deca-BDE, polyethylene (PE) and metal blends during the pyrolysis process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Jun; Wang, Xiuji; Xiao, Xiao; Cai, Ying; Tang, Yuhui; Chen, Pei

    2017-04-01

    The thermal treatment of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is regarded as the largest potential contributor to the environmental release of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs). Herein, the pyrolysis of decabromodiphenyl ether (deca-BDE), polyethylene (PE) and metal blends was conducted to investigate the emission characteristics of PBDD/Fs at different thermal treatment conditions. The total yield of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs) was less than that of polybrominated dibenzofurans (PBDFs) during the pyrolysis of the PE matrix and metal blends. 2,3,7,8-TBDF and 1,2,3,7,8-PBDF were the dominant congeners emitted from the pyrolysis. Temperature, presence of oxygen and type of added metal were the critical influencing factors for the PBDD/F formation rates and speciation in the pyrolysis process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Pyrolysis of municipal plastic wastes: Influence of raw material composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, A; de Marco, I; Caballero, B M; Laresgoiti, M F; Adrados, A

    2010-04-01

    The objective of this work is the study of pyrolysis as a feedstock recycling process, for valorizing the rejected streams that come from industrial plants, where packing and packaging wastes are classified and separated for their subsequent mechanical recycling. Four real samples collected from an industrial plant at four different times of the year, have been pyrolysed under nitrogen in a 3.5dm(3) autoclave at 500 degrees C for 30min. Pyrolysis liquids are a complex mixture of organic compounds containing valuable chemicals as styrene, ethyl-benzene, toluene, etc. Pyrolysis solids are composed of the inorganic material contained in the raw materials, as well as of some char formed in the pyrolysis process, and pyrolysis gases are mainly composed of hydrocarbons together with some CO and CO(2), and have very high gross calorific values (GCV). It has been proved by the authors that the composition of the raw material (paper, film, and metals contents) plays a significant role in the characteristics of pyrolysis products. High paper content yields water in the pyrolysis liquids, and CO and CO(2) in the gases, high PE film content gives rise to high viscosity liquids, and high metals content yields more aromatics in the liquid products, which may be attributed to the metals catalytic effect.

  7. Study on the Pyrolysis Behavior of Polycarbosilane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Wenyi; ZHOU Jian

    2015-01-01

    The pyrolysis behavior of polycarbosilane (PCS) and chemical reaction mechanism during the pyrolysis process were studied by thermogravimetric-mass spectrometry (TG-MS) combined with X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopic analysis methods. The experimental results indicate that the main gas phase products generated during pyrolysis of PCS in nitrogen atmosphere include H2, -CH3 and CH4. The heating rate has a large effect on the pyrolysis process of PCS, the lower heating rate releases more small molecule gases and gets bigger rate of pyrolysis mass loss, demonstrating that the lower heating rate is beneifcial to fully pyrolysis of PCS and obtain ceramics products with better microstructure.

  8. The potential of pyrolysis technology in climate change mitigation - influence of process design and - parameters, simulated in SuperPro Designer software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomsen, T.; Hauggaard-Nielsen, H.; Bruun, E.W.; Ahrenfeldt, J.

    2011-01-15

    This report investigates whether or not it would be possible to produce carbon-negative energy from pyrolysis of wheat straw in a series of Danish agricultural scenarios. A combination of process simulation in SuperPro Designer software, correlations derived from literature studies and experimental work, and overall balance calculations has been applied in the process. The study deviates from other studies of pyrolysis and biochar production by the inclusion of substitution energy impact on the overall carbon-balance. Substitution energy is integrated to account for the gap between the energy production from the pyrolysis and the full energy potential of the biomass, quantified by complete conversion in either combustion or gasification systems. It was concluded that it is feasible to produce carbon-negative energy under a variation of different settings, but also that the negative carbon-balance is only robust for the slow pyrolysis scenario. The CO{sub 2} benefit of the most carbon-negative slow pyrolysis process is estimated to be around 10 % of the atmospheric carbon stored in the original biomass when natural gas is applied for energy substitution. This process avoids the emission of around 150-200 kg CO{sub 2}/ton wheat straw with substitution energy with a Denmark 2007 average carbon-intensity. This result is weighted against the net emissions of the carbon-'neutral' process of conventional combustion. This emission is in this report estimated to be around 50 - 150 kg CO{sub 2}/ton straw depending on scenario settings. The final results of the study have been compared to another study with convincing results. Results concluded that the primary force of the pyrolysis technology is the recalcitrant char product and not the pyrolysis oil. Based on this, the study suggests that despite the trend in commercial pyrolysis technology that focuses on fast pyrolysis processes with maximized bio-oil production, the twin challenge of climate mitigation and

  9. Effects of hot-water extraction on the thermochemical conversion of shrub willow via fast pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hot-water extraction (TM) (HWE) is a pretreatment technology designed to facilitate the subsequent hydrolysis of cellulose by removing the majority of the hemicellulose and ash content from the solid biomass. The HWE process generates salable sugars and other products as part of the process. The bio...

  10. Application of mineral bed materials during fast pyrolysis of rice husk to improve water-soluble organics production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, R; Zhong, Z P; Jin, B S; Zheng, A J

    2012-09-01

    Fast pyrolysis of rice husk was performed in a spout-fluid bed to produce water-soluble organics. The effects of mineral bed materials (red brick, calcite, limestone, and dolomite) on yield and quality of organics were evaluated with the help of principal component analysis (PCA). Compared to quartz sand, red brick, limestone, and dolomite increased the yield of the water-soluble organics by 6-55% and the heating value by 16-19%. The relative content of acetic acid was reduced by 23-43% with calcite, limestone and dolomite when compared with quartz sand. The results from PCA showed all minerals enhanced the ring-opening reactions of cellulose into furans and carbonyl compounds rather than into monomeric sugars. Moreover, calcite, limestone, and dolomite displayed the ability to catalyze the degradation of heavy compounds and the demethoxylation reaction of guaiacols into phenols. Minerals, especially limestone and dolomite, were beneficial to the production of water-soluble organics.

  11. Critical analysis of pyrolysis process with cellulosic based municipal waste as renewable source in energy and technical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Manu; Tardio, James; Venkata Mohan, S

    2013-11-01

    To understand the potential of cellulosic based municipal waste as a renewable feed-stock, application of pyrolysis by biorefinery approach was comprehensively studied for its practicable application towards technical and environmental viability in Indian context. In India, where the energy requirements are high, the pyrolysis of the cellulosic waste shows numerous advantages for its applicability as a potential waste-to-energy technology. The multiple energy outputs of the process viz., bio-gas, bio-oil and bio-char can serve the two major energy sectors, viz., electricity and transportation. The process suits best for high bio-gas and electrical energy production when energy input is satisfied from bio-char in form of steam (scheme-1). The bio-gas generated through the process shows its direct utility as a transportation fuel while the bio-oil produced can serve as fuel or raw material to chemical synthesis. On a commercial scale the process is a potent technology towards sustainable development. The process is self-sustained when operated on a continuous mode.

  12. Catalytic pyrolysis using UZM-39 aluminosilicate zeolite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Christpher P; Boldingh, Edwin P

    2013-12-17

    A new family of coherently grown composites of TUN and IMF zeotypes has been synthesized and show to be effective catalysts for catalytic pyrolysis of biomass. These zeolites are represented by the empirical formula. Na.sub.nM.sub.m.sup.n+R.sub.rQ.sub.qAl.sub1-xE.sub.xSi.sub.yO.s- ub.z where M represents zinc or a metal or metals from Group 1, Group 2, Group 3 or the lanthanide series of the periodic table, R is an A,.OMEGA.-dihalosubstituted paraffin such as 1,4-dibromobutane, Q is a neutral amine containing 5 or fewer carbon atoms such as 1-methylpyrrolidine and E is a framework element such as gallium. The process involves contacting a carbonaceous biomass feedstock with UZM-39 at pyrolysis conditions to produce pyrolysis gases comprising hydrocarbons. The catalyst catalyzes a deoxygenation reaction converting oxygenated hyrdocarbons into hydrocarbons removing the oxygen as carbon oxides and water. A portion of the pyrolysis gases is condensed to produce low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil.

  13. Pyrolysis thermocatalytic of the residues generated in the process of oil refining; Pirolise termocatalitica de residuos gerados no processo de refino de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Regineide Oliveira; Castro, Kesia Kelly Vieira de; Lima, Cicero de Souza; Araujo, Aruzza Mabel de Morais; Silva, Edjane Fabiula Buriti da; Araujo, Antonio Souza de [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), RN (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The pyrolysis process is a catalytic thermal defined as the degradation of waste which occurs by the action of temperature and presence of catalysts. Thus promoting disruption of the original molecular structure of a given compound by the catalytic action in an environment with little or no oxygen. Investigations have been developed in the pyrolysis due to be a promising technique, due to the application of catalytic materials. In this work, the catalyst used Al/MCM-41 was synthesized in a ratio Si / Al = 50 by the hydrothermal method. Being in this promising oil industry because of their structural characteristics. This material was characterized by XRD analysis, which was observed three major peaks typical of mesoporous materials. The analysis of the adsorption / desorption of nitrogen this material was performed to determine the textural parameters, which are peculiar to the mesoporous materials. The residue samples were characterized with a view to meet some properties such as through elemental analysis of the compounds and saturates, aromatics, resins and asphaltenes. The pyrolysis reaction system catalytic thermal residue is mounted to test the pyrolysis of residue pure and the Al-MCM-41. For both pyrolysis liquid fractions were obtained, gaseous and solid. And only the liquid fractions were characterized by chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Thus, there was an increase in the range hydrocarbons (C6-C12 and C13-C17) for products obtained from the pyrolysis catalyst. (author)

  14. Production of phenols and charcoal from bagasse by a rapid continuous pyrolysis process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mobarak, F.; Fahmy, Y.

    1982-01-01

    Tar and charcoal could be produced in high yields from bagasse by applying a rapid continuous pyrolysis at a relatively low temperature. The ether extractives of the pyrolytic tar and oil amounted to 9.4% based on bagasse. Phenols represented 79% of these extractives. Gas chromatographic separation showed that guaiacol and its derivatives constituted 38% of the identified simple phenols. There were much smaller amounts of syringol and none at high pyrolysis temperatures. Depithing did not reduce the ash content of the charcoal, but it yielded an environmentally clean charcoal containing practically no sulfur or nitrogen. It was necessary to remove the fine particle size fraction of the bagasse after grinding in order to reduce the ash content of the charcoal. The carbon content of the charcoal increased rapidly with increasing temperature, and reached 96% at 720 degrees C. The charcoal had a remarkably high adsorption capacity despite the fact that it had not been subjected to any activation treatment.

  15. Catalytic Conversion of Pinus densiflora Over Mesoporous Catalysts Using Pyrolysis Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Sung Kyun; Lee, In-Gu; Lee, Hyung Won; Chea, Kwang-Seok; Jo, Tae Su; Jung, Sang-Chul; Kim, Sang Chai; Ko, Chang Hyun; Park, Young-Kwon

    2016-02-01

    Catalytic pyrolysis experiments were conducted to investigate the possibility of obtaining valuable chemicals from Pinus densiflora, a native Korean tree species occupying 21.4% of the total area under forests in South Korea. Two representative mesoporous catalysts, Al-MCM-41 and Al-MSU-F, as well as hierarchical mesoporous MFI (Meso-MFI) that has both mesopores and micropores, were used as catalysts. Compared to non-catalytic pyrolysis, catalytic pyrolysis was shown to reduce the fractions of levoglucosan, phenolics, and acids in bio-oil, while increasing the fractions of aromatics, PAHs, and furans. Meso-MFI with strong acid sites showed a high selectivity toward aromatics and PAHs, whereas Al-MCM-41 and Al-MSU-F with weak acid sites exhibited a high selectivity toward furanic compounds. The results of this study indicate that choosing a catalyst with an adequate quantity of acidic sites with the required strength is critical for enhancing the production of desired chemicals from Pinus densiflora.

  16. Microwave Heating Applied to Pyrolysis

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez, Yolanda; Arenillas, Ana; Menendez, J. Angel

    2011-01-01

    the MW pyrolysis as an original thermochemical process of materials is presented. This chapter comprises a general overview of the thermochemical and quantifying aspects of the pyrolysis process, including current application togethe with a compilation of the most frequently used materials

  17. Analysis of paper machine process waters; Paperikoneen prosessivesianalytiikka - MPKT 09

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knuutinen, J.; Alen, R.; Harjula, P.; Kilpinen, J.; Pallonen, R.; Jurvela, V.

    1998-12-31

    The closure of paper machine circuits demands a better knowledge of the chemical structures and behaviour of organic compounds in pulp mill process waters. Nonionic or negatively charged detrimental substances (anionic trash) which will eventually cause runnability. Paper quality problems are of special interest. The main purpose of the project was to develop routine `fingerprint` analytical procedures to study various process waters. Our major interest was focused on low molecular weight carboxylic acids, carbohydrates and lignin based material. The `fingerprints` (chromatograms and electropherograms) can be used to differentiate various process waters or to find out changes between the composition of organic compounds in various stages of the papermaking process. Until now the most characteristic `fingerprints` were obtained by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) and by pyrolysis - gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS). Examples of using these techniques are briefly discussed. (orig.)

  18. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) mitigation in the pyrolysis process of waste tires using CO₂ as a reaction medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Eilhann E; Oh, Jeong-Ik; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2015-09-01

    Our work reported the CO2-assisted mitigation of PAHs and VOCs in the thermo-chemical process (i.e., pyrolysis). To investigate the pyrolysis of used tires to recover energy and chemical products, the experiments were conducted using a laboratory-scale batch-type reactor. In particular, to examine the influence of the CO2 in pyrolysis of a tire, the pyrolytic products including C1-5-hydrocarbons (HCs), volatile organic carbons (VOCs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were evaluated qualitatively by gas chromatography (GC) with mass spectroscopy (MS) as well as with a thermal conductivity detector (TCD). The mass balance of the pyrolytic products under various pyrolytic conditions was established on the basis of their weight fractions of the pyrolytic products. Our experimental work experimentally validated that the amount of gaseous pyrolytic products increased when using CO2 as a pyrolysis medium, while substantially altering the production of pyrolytic oil in absolute content (7.3-17.2%) and in relative composition (including PAHs and VOCs). Thus, the co-feeding of CO2 in the pyrolysis process can be considered an environmentally benign and energy efficient process.

  19. Preparation of superconducting films by dipping-pyrolysis process; Tofu netsubunkaiho ni yru chodendo maku no gosei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizuta, S.; Kumagai, T.; Manabe, T. [National Inst. of Materials and Chemical Research, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1997-01-10

    Copper oxides high temperature superconductors such as yttrium system, bismuth system and so forth having critical temperature exceeding liquid nitrogen temperature (77K) were developed one after another since 1986 to 1988. Practical use of these superconductors has been delayed greatly as compared to the expectation of that time., however, the development of thin film making and wire rod making technology has been continued from the beginning. In 1987, the authors succeed first time in the world during superconductors favor by Yba2Cu3O7{endash}{delta}(YBCO) using coating pyrolysis process, a pure chemical synthetic method that does not require high vacuum, high voltage and so forth. The coating pyrolysis method is extremely simple synthetic method for oxides film where metal-organic compounds are dissolved in the solvent and this basic liquid is coated applied to the substrate and sintered. It is proved that epitaxial growth is possible irrespective to the simplicity of the synthetic process, and superconducting characteristic of YBCO film over SrTiO3 single crystal substrate reached to critical current density of 10{sup 6}A/cm{sup 2} at liquid nitrogen temperature. 43 refs., 21 figs.

  20. Effect of temperature on pyrolysis product of empty fruit bunches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, Aizuddin Abdul; Sulaiman, Fauziah; Abdullah, Nurhayati [School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Minden, Penang (Malaysia)

    2015-04-24

    Pyrolysis of empty fruit bunches (EFB) was performed in a fixed bed reactor equipped with liquid collecting system. Pyrolysis process was conducted by varying the terminal pyrolysis temperature from 300 to 500°C under heating rate of 10°C/min for at least 2 hours. Char yield was obtained highest at 300°C around 55.88 wt%, and started to decrease as temperature increase. The maximum yield of pyrolysis liquid was obtained around 54.75 wt% as pyrolysis temperature reach 450°C. For gas yield percentage, the yield gained as temperature was increased from 300 to 500°C, within the range between 8.44 to 19.32 wt%. The char obtained at 400°C has great potential as an alternative solid fuel, due to its high heating value of 23.37 MJ/kg, low in volatile matter and ash content which are approximately around 40.32 and 11.12 wt%, respectively. The collected pyrolysis liquid within this temperature range found to have high water content of around 16.15 to 18.20 wt%. The high aqueous fraction seemed to cause the pyrolysis liquid to have low HHV which only ranging from 10.81 to 12.94 MJ/kg. These trends of results showed that necessary enhancement should be employ either on the raw biomass or pyrolysis products in order to approach at least the minimum quality of common hydrocarbon solid or liquid fuel. For energy production, both produced bio-char and pyrolysis liquid are considered as sustainable sources of bio-energy since they contained low amounts of nitrogen and sulphur, which are considered as environmental friendly solid and liquid fuel.

  1. Effect of temperature on pyrolysis product of empty fruit bunches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Aizuddin Abdul; Sulaiman, Fauziah; Abdullah, Nurhayati

    2015-04-01

    Pyrolysis of empty fruit bunches (EFB) was performed in a fixed bed reactor equipped with liquid collecting system. Pyrolysis process was conducted by varying the terminal pyrolysis temperature from 300 to 500°C under heating rate of 10°C/min for at least 2 hours. Char yield was obtained highest at 300°C around 55.88 wt%, and started to decrease as temperature increase. The maximum yield of pyrolysis liquid was obtained around 54.75 wt% as pyrolysis temperature reach 450°C. For gas yield percentage, the yield gained as temperature was increased from 300 to 500°C, within the range between 8.44 to 19.32 wt%. The char obtained at 400°C has great potential as an alternative solid fuel, due to its high heating value of 23.37 MJ/kg, low in volatile matter and ash content which are approximately around 40.32 and 11.12 wt%, respectively. The collected pyrolysis liquid within this temperature range found to have high water content of around 16.15 to 18.20 wt%. The high aqueous fraction seemed to cause the pyrolysis liquid to have low HHV which only ranging from 10.81 to 12.94 MJ/kg. These trends of results showed that necessary enhancement should be employ either on the raw biomass or pyrolysis products in order to approach at least the minimum quality of common hydrocarbon solid or liquid fuel. For energy production, both produced bio-char and pyrolysis liquid are considered as sustainable sources of bio-energy since they contained low amounts of nitrogen and sulphur, which are considered as environmental friendly solid and liquid fuel.

  2. Exhaust constituent emission factors of printed circuit board pyrolysis processes and its exhaust control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Hung-Lung; Lin, Kuo-Hsiung

    2014-01-15

    The printed circuit board (PCB) is an important part of electrical and electronic equipment, and its disposal and the recovery of useful materials from waste PCBs (WPCBs) are key issues for waste electrical and electronic equipment. Waste PCB compositions and their pyrolysis characteristics were analyzed in this study. In addition, the volatile organic compound (VOC) exhaust was controlled by an iron-impregnated alumina oxide catalyst. Results indicated that carbon and oxygen were the dominant components (hundreds mg/g) of the raw materials, and other elements such as nitrogen, bromine, and copper were several decades mg/g. Exhaust constituents of CO, H2, CH4, CO2, and NOx, were 60-115, 0.4-4.0, 1.1-10, 30-95, and 0-0.7mg/g, corresponding to temperatures ranging from 200 to 500°C. When the pyrolysis temperature was lower than 300°C, aromatics and paraffins were the major species, contributing 90% of ozone precursor VOCs, and an increase in the pyrolysis temperature corresponded to a decrease in the fraction of aromatic emission factors. Methanol, ethylacetate, acetone, dichloromethane, tetrachloromethane and acrylonitrile were the main species of oxygenated and chlorinated VOCs. The emission factors of some brominated compounds, i.e., bromoform, bromophenol, and dibromophenol, were higher at temperatures over 400°C. When VOC exhaust was flowed through the bed of Fe-impregnated Al2O3, the emission of ozone precursor VOCs could be reduced by 70-80%. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Proximate and ultimate analysis of coal and products from coal liquefaction and pyrolysis processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, C.; Iacchelli, A.; Selucky, M.L.

    1982-01-01

    Procedures are given for analysis of coal, coal liquefaction products, and coal pyrolysis products. Proximate analysis (determination of moisture, ash, volatile matter and fixed carbon) using the Fisher Coal Analyzer Model 490, and ultimate analysis (determination of C, H, N, S, O, and occasionally Cl) using the Perkin-Elmer Elemental Analyzer are described. Determination of calorific value of coal using the oxygen bomb calorimeter is also detailed, as well as procedures for trace element analysis and for removal of halogenated solvents from gravity separation fractions of coal. 4 refs., 1 tab.

  4. Pyrolysis behavior of selected manures using TG-FTIR techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tu, D.; Dong, H.; Shang, B. [Anhui Univ. of Technology, Ma' anshan (China). School of Mechanical Engineering], E-mail: donghm@cjac.org.cn

    2008-07-01

    We investigated the pyrolysis properties of animal manures using a thermogravimetric analyzer coupled with the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (TG-FTIR). Experimental results showed that an animal manure pyrolysis process can be divided into three stages: dehydration, pyrolysis, and carbonization. These stages may produce differed features on end residuum, weight loss rate, and peak features, as indicated by thermogravimetric (TG) and derivative thermogravimetric (DTG) curves. The produced gases detected by FTIR are H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2}, CO, H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, aldehyde, and carboxylic acid. An infrared spectrum analysis has unveiled the evolving properties of each gas. The water curve had two peaks corresponding to free moisture loss and combined crystal water. The carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide curves produced two similar peaks corresponding to pyrolysis and carbonization, though carbon dioxide had a weaker second peak compared with carbon monoxide. The methane curves came up with a single peak corresponding to the terminal stage of pyrolysis and the early stage of carbonization. Other hydrocarbon curves displayed a single peak corresponding to pyrolysis. (author)

  5. Fabrication of Biomass-Derived Carbon Aerogels with High Adsorption of Oils and Organic Solvents: Effect of Hydrothermal and Post-Pyrolysis Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aishu Yin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Biomass is the most plentiful and well-utilized renewable carbon resource on the earth. Direct conversion of biomass to carbon aerogel provides a promising approach to develop adsorbent materials. In the present work, the effect of presence of water during hydrothermal treatment and holding temperature during post-pyrolysis process have been investigated for the preparation of carbon aerogels (CAs using eggplant as raw material. The results showed that the addition of water during hydrothermal treatment was advantageous for the preparation of CA samples with higher surface area and stronger hydrophobicity, resulting in superior adsorption capacities of CAs for both oil and organic solvents compared with that fabricated without the presence of water. The optimized carbon aerogel possessed higher specific surface of 249 m2·g−1 and exhibited excellent hydrophobicity with a water contact angle of 133°. The adsorption capacities of carbon aerogel for oils and organic solvents could reach 35–45 times its own weight. In addition, the adsorbed oil and organic solvents could be recovered by distillation, and the regenerated carbon aerogels samples exhibited the stable performance and outstanding reusability. Therefore, the carbon aerogel has great potential in application of oil recovery and environmental protection.

  6. Vacuum pyrolysis and hydrometallurgical process for the recovery of valuable metals from spent lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liang; Qiu, Keqiang

    2011-10-30

    Spent lithium-ion batteries contain lots of strategic resources such as cobalt and lithium together with other hazardous materials, which are considered as an attractive secondary resource and environmental contaminant. In this work, a novel process involving vacuum pyrolysis and hydrometallurgical technique was developed for the combined recovery of cobalt and lithium from spent lithium-ion batteries. The results of vacuum pyrolysis of cathode material showed that the cathode powder composing of LiCoO(2) and CoO peeled completely from aluminum foils under the following experimental conditions: temperature of 600°C, vacuum evaporation time of 30 min, and residual gas pressure of 1.0 kPa. Over 99% of cobalt and lithium could be recovered from peeled cobalt lithium oxides with 2M sulfuric acid leaching solution at 80°C and solid/liquid ratio of 50 g L(-1) for 60 min. This technology offers an efficient way to recycle valuable materials from spent lithium-ion batteries, and it is feasible to scale up and help to reduce the environmental pollution of spent lithium-ion batteries.

  7. An integrated process for hydrogen-rich gas production from cotton stalks: The simultaneous gasification of pyrolysis gases and char in an entrained flow bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Suping; Chen, Zhenqi; Ding, Ding

    2015-12-01

    An integrated process (pyrolysis, gas-solid simultaneous gasification and catalytic steam reforming) was utilized to produce hydrogen-rich gas from cotton stalks. The simultaneous conversion of the pyrolysis products (char and pyrolysis gases) was emphatically investigated using an entrained flow bed reactor. More carbon of char is converted into hydrogen-rich gas in the simultaneous conversion process and the carbon conversion is increased from 78.84% to 92.06% compared with the two stages process (pyrolysis and catalytic steam reforming). The distribution of tar components is also changed in this process. The polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) of tar are converted into low-ring compounds or even chain compounds due to the catalysis of char. In addition, the carbon deposition yield over NiO/MgO catalyst in the steam reforming process is approximately 4 times higher without the simultaneous process. The potential H2 yield increases from 47.71 to 78.19g/kg cotton stalks due to the simultaneous conversion process.

  8. Influence of Pyrolysis Temperature and Production Conditions on Switchgrass Biochar for Use as a Soil Amendment

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Biochars form recalcitrant carbon and increase water and nutrient retention in soils; however, the magnitude is contingent upon production conditions and thermo-chemical conversion processes. Herein we aim at (i) characterizing switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.)-biochar morphology, (ii) estimating water-holding capacity under increasing ratios of char: soil; and, (iii) determining nutrient profile variation as a function of pyrolysis conversion methodologies (i.e. continuous, auger pyrolysis s...

  9. Effects of water washing and torrefaction on the pyrolysis behavior and kinetics of rice husk through TGA and Py-GC/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuping; Dong, Qing; Zhang, Li; Xiong, Yuanquan

    2016-01-01

    The effects of water washing and torrefaction on the pyrolysis behavior and kinetics of rice husk were investigated through TGA and Py-GC/MS in this study. Two iso-conversional methods, i.e. Starink and FWO methods were applied for determination of the activation energy of original and pretreated rice husk samples at three different heating rates. It was found that activation energy of water washed rice husk was lower than that of original rice husk. Whereas, the activation energy increased with the increase of torrefaction temperature. The result of Py-GC/MS analysis indicated that both water washing and torrefaction pretreatments decreased the contents of acids, ketones, aldehydes and furans, while significantly increased the contents of sugars, especially levoglucosan. The relative content of released levoglucosan from pyrolysis of rice husk sample with combined water washing and 280°C torrefaction pretreatment is almost 9 times of that from original rice husk, which is about 3%.

  10. Pyrolysis oil as diesel fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gros, S. [Wartsila Diesel International Ltd., Vaasa (Finland). Diesel Technology

    1996-12-31

    Wood waste pyrolysis oil is an attractive fuel alternative for diesel engine operation. The main benefit is the sustainability of the fuel. No fossil reserves are consumed. The fact that wood waste pyrolysis oil does not contribute to CO{sub 2} emissions is of utmost importance. This means that power plants utilising pyrolysis oil do not cause additional global warming. Equally important is the reduced sulphur emissions that this fuel alternative implies. The sulphur content of pyrolysis oil is extremely low. The high water content and low heating value are also expected to result in very low NO{sub x} emissions. Utilisation of wood waste pyrolysis oil in diesel engines, however, involves a lot of challenges and problems to be solved. The low heating value requires a new injection system with high capacity. The corrosive characteristics of the fluid also underline the need for new injection equipment materials. Wood waste pyrolysis oil contains solid particles which can clog filters and cause abrasive wear. Wood waste pyrolysis oil has proven to have extremely bad ignition properties. The development of a reliable injection system which is able to cope with such a fuel involves a lot of optimisation tests, redesign and innovative solutions. Successful single-cylinder tests have already been performed and they have verified that diesel operation on wood pyrolysis oil is technically possible. (orig.)

  11. Experimental and Modelling Studies of Biomass Pyrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ka Leung Lam; Adetoyese Olajire Oyedu~; Chi Wai Hui

    2012-01-01

    The analysis on the feedstock pyrolysis characteristic and the impacts of process parameters on pyrolysis outcomes can assist in the designing, operating and optimizing pyrolysis processes. This work aims to utilize both experimental and modelling approaches to perform the analysis on three biomass feedstocks--wood sawdust, bamboo shred and Jatropha Curcas seed cake residue, and to provide insights for the design_and operation of pyro-lysis processes. For the experimental part, the study investigated the effect of heating rate, final pyrolysis tempera- ture and sample size on pyrolysis using common thermal analysis techniques. For the modelling part, a transient mathematical model that integrates the feedstock characteristic from the experimental study was used to simulate the pyrolysis progress of selected biomass feedstock particles for reactor scenarios. The model composes of several sub-models that describe pyrolysis kinetic and heat flow, particle heat transfer, particle shrinking and reactor opera-tion. With better understanding of the effects of process conditions and feedstock characteristics on pyrolysis through both experimental and modelling studies, this work discusses on the considerations of and interrelation between feedstock size, pyrolysis energy usage, processing time and product quality for the design and operation of pyrolysis processes.

  12. Oxygen-Containing Fuels from High Acid Water Phase Pyrolysis Bio-Oils by ZSM−5 Catalysis: Kinetic and Mechanism Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Wei

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study developed an upgrading process focusing on acid transformations of water phase pyrolysis bio-oils to esters of oxygen-containing fuels via ZSM−5 catalyst. Temperature was set as a factor with five levels ranging from 60 to 135 °C with reaction time from 1 to 8 h. The results showed that 89% of high acid conversion and over 90% of ester selectivity was obtained from the feedstock via 2 wt % ZSM−5 catalysts in a fixed feedstock to methanol ratio analyzed by HPLC and GC–MS. The upgrading process followed Langmuir–Hinshelwood and reaction constants were calculated to build a practical upgrading model for bio-oil compounds. Thermodynamics of the process showed endothermic properties during the breaking bonds’ reaction on carbonyl of acid while the reaction between the carbon in methanol and electrophile acid intermediate demonstrated exothermic performance. The optimum reaction conditions for the process was at a temperature of 100.1 °C with catalyst loading of 3.98 wt %.

  13. D/H isotope ratios of kerogen, bitumen, oil, and water in hydrous pyrolysis of source rocks containing kerogen types-I,-II,IIS, and -III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmelmann, Arndt; Lewan, Michael D.; Wintsch, Robert P.

    1999-11-01

    Immature source rock chips containing different types of kerogen (I, II, IIS, III) were artificially matured in isotopically distinct waters by hydrous pyrolysis and by pyrolysis in supercritical water. Converging isotopic trends of inorganic (water) and organic (kerogen, bitumen, oil) hydrogen with increasing time and temperature document that water-derived hydrogen is added to or exchanged with organic hydrogen, or both, during chemical reactions that take place during thermal maturation. Isotopic mass-balance calculations show that, depending on temperature (310-381°C), time (12-144 h), and source rock type, between ca. 45 and 79% of carbon-bound hydrogen in kerogen is derived from water. Estimates for bitumen and oil range slightly lower, with oil-hydrogen being least affected by water-derived hydrogen. Comparative hydrous pyrolyses of immature source rocks at 330°C for 72 h show that hydrogen in kerogen, bitumen, and expelled oil/wax ranks from most to least isotopically influenced by water-derived hydrogen in the order IIS > II ≈ III > I. Pyrolysis of source rock containing type II kerogen in supercritical water at 381°C for 12 h yields isotopic results that are similar to those from hydrous pyrolysis at 350°C for 72 h, or 330°C for 144 h. Bulk hydrogen in kerogen contains several percent of isotopically labile hydrogen that exchanges fast and reversibly with hydrogen in water vapor at 115°C. The isotopic equilibration of labile hydrogen in kerogen with isotopic standard water vapors significantly reduces the analytical uncertainty of D/H ratios when compared with simple D/H determination of bulk hydrogen in kerogen. If extrapolation of our results from hydrous pyrolysis is permitted to natural thermal maturation at lower temperatures, we suggest that organic D/H ratios of fossil fuels in contact with formation waters are typically altered during chemical reactions, but that D/H ratios of generated hydrocarbons are subsequently little or not affected

  14. D/H isotope ratios of kerogen, bitumen, oil, and water in hydrous pyrolysis of source rocks containing kerogen types I, II, IIS, and III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmelmann, A.; Lewan, M.D.; Wintsch, R.P.

    1999-01-01

    Immature source rock chips containing different types of kerogen (I, II, IIS, III) were artificially matured in isotopically distinct waters by hydrous pyrolysis and by pyrolysis in supercritical water. Converging isotopic trends of inorganic (water) and organic (kerogen, bitumen, oil) hydrogen with increasing time and temperature document that water-derived hydrogen is added to or exchanged with organic hydrogen, or both, during chemical reactions that take place during thermal maturation. Isotopic mass-balance calculations show that, depending on temperature (310-381??C), time (12-144 h), and source rock type, between ca. 45 and 79% of carbon-bound hydrogen in kerogen is derived from water. Estimates for bitumen and oil range slightly lower, with oil-hydrogen being least affected by water-derived hydrogen. Comparative hydrous pyrolyses of immature source rocks at 330??C for 72 h show that hydrogen in kerogen, bitumen, and expelled oil/wax ranks from most to least isotopically influenced by water-derived hydrogen in the order IIS > II ~ III > I. Pyrolysis of source rock containing type II kerogen in supercritical water at 381 ??C for 12 h yields isotopic results that are similar to those from hydrous pyrolysis at 350??C for 72 h, or 330??C for 144 h. Bulk hydrogen in kerogen contains several percent of isotopically labile hydrogen that exchanges fast and reversibly with hydrogen in water vapor at 115??C. The isotopic equilibration of labile hydrogen in kerogen with isotopic standard water vapors significantly reduces the analytical uncertainty of D/H ratios when compared with simple D/H determination of bulk hydrogen in kerogen. If extrapolation of our results from hydrous pyrolysis is permitted to natural thermal maturation at lower temperatures, we suggest that organic D/H ratios of fossil fuels in contact with formation waters are typically altered during chemical reactions, but that D/H ratios of generated hydrocarbons are subsequently little or not affected

  15. Indium oxide thin-film transistors processed at low temperature via ultrasonic spray pyrolysis

    KAUST Repository

    Faber, Hendrik

    2015-01-14

    The use of ultrasonic spray pyrolysis is demonstrated for the growth of polycrystalline, highly uniform indium oxide films at temperatures in the range of 200-300 °C in air using an aqueous In(NO3)3 precursor solution. Electrical characterization of as-deposited films by field-effect measurements reveals a strong dependence of the electron mobility on deposition temperature. Transistors fabricated at ∼250 °C exhibit optimum performance with maximum electron mobility values in the range of 15-20 cm2 V -1 s-1 and current on/off ratio in excess of 106. Structural and compositional analysis of as-grown films by means of X-ray diffraction, diffuse scattering, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveal that layers deposited at 250 °C are denser and contain a reduced amount of hydroxyl groups as compared to films grown at either lower or higher temperatures. Microstructural analysis of semiconducting films deposited at 250 °C by high resolution cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy reveals that as-grown layers are extremely thin (∼7 nm) and composed of laterally large (30-60 nm) highly crystalline In2O3 domains. These unique characteristics of the In2O3 films are believed to be responsible for the high electron mobilities obtained from transistors fabricated at 250 °C. Our work demonstrates the ability to grow high quality low-dimensional In2O3 films and devices via ultrasonic spray pyrolysis over large area substrates while at the same time it provides guidelines for further material and device improvements.

  16. Indium oxide thin-film transistors processed at low temperature via ultrasonic spray pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Hendrik; Lin, Yen-Hung; Thomas, Stuart R; Zhao, Kui; Pliatsikas, Nikos; McLachlan, Martyn A; Amassian, Aram; Patsalas, Panos A; Anthopoulos, Thomas D

    2015-01-14

    The use of ultrasonic spray pyrolysis is demonstrated for the growth of polycrystalline, highly uniform indium oxide films at temperatures in the range of 200-300 °C in air using an aqueous In(NO3)3 precursor solution. Electrical characterization of as-deposited films by field-effect measurements reveals a strong dependence of the electron mobility on deposition temperature. Transistors fabricated at ∼250 °C exhibit optimum performance with maximum electron mobility values in the range of 15-20 cm(2) V (-1) s(-1) and current on/off ratio in excess of 10(6). Structural and compositional analysis of as-grown films by means of X-ray diffraction, diffuse scattering, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveal that layers deposited at 250 °C are denser and contain a reduced amount of hydroxyl groups as compared to films grown at either lower or higher temperatures. Microstructural analysis of semiconducting films deposited at 250 °C by high resolution cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy reveals that as-grown layers are extremely thin (∼7 nm) and composed of laterally large (30-60 nm) highly crystalline In2O3 domains. These unique characteristics of the In2O3 films are believed to be responsible for the high electron mobilities obtained from transistors fabricated at 250 °C. Our work demonstrates the ability to grow high quality low-dimensional In2O3 films and devices via ultrasonic spray pyrolysis over large area substrates while at the same time it provides guidelines for further material and device improvements.

  17. Extent of pyrolysis impacts on fast pyrolysis biochar properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Catherine E; Hu, Yan-Yan; Schmidt-Rohr, Klaus; Loynachan, Thomas E; Laird, David A; Brown, Robert C

    2012-01-01

    A potential concern about the use of fast pyrolysis rather than slow pyrolysis biochars as soil amendments is that they may contain high levels of bioavailable C due to short particle residence times in the reactors, which could reduce the stability of biochar C and cause nutrient immobilization in soils. To investigate this concern, three corn ( L.) stover fast pyrolysis biochars prepared using different reactor conditions were chemically and physically characterized to determine their extent of pyrolysis. These biochars were also incubated in soil to assess their impact on soil CO emissions, nutrient availability, microorganism population growth, and water retention capacity. Elemental analysis and quantitative solid-state C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy showed variation in O functional groups (associated primarily with carbohydrates) and aromatic C, which could be used to define extent of pyrolysis. A 24-wk incubation performed using a sandy soil amended with 0.5 wt% of corn stover biochar showed a small but significant decrease in soil CO emissions and a decrease in the bacteria:fungi ratios with extent of pyrolysis. Relative to the control soil, biochar-amended soils had small increases in CO emissions and extractable nutrients, but similar microorganism populations, extractable NO levels, and water retention capacities. Corn stover amendments, by contrast, significantly increased soil CO emissions and microbial populations, and reduced extractable NO. These results indicate that C in fast pyrolysis biochar is stable in soil environments and will not appreciably contribute to nutrient immobilization.

  18. Pilot-Scale Biorefinery: Sustainable Transport Fuels from Biomass and Algal Residues via Integrated Pyrolysis, Catalytic Hydroconversion and Co-processing with Vacuum Gas Oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Douglas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Olarte, M. V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hart, T. R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-07-21

    Beginning in 2010, UOP, along with the Department of Energy and other project partners, designed a pathway for an integrated biorefinery to process solid biomass into transportation fuel blendstocks. The integrated biorefinery (IBR) would convert second generation feedstocks into pyrolysis oil which would then be upgraded into fuel blendstocks without the limitations of traditional biofuels.

  19. Sugar cane bagasse pyrolysis: process optimization and products characterization; Pirolise do bagaco de cana: otimizacao do processo e caracterizacao dos produtos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Sergio

    1994-07-01

    The ghost of drying of natural resources, mainly the petroleum, desolate the Earth. Although the concern with this fact is recent, it has motivated a run in search of the alternative sources that can replace their self. An alternative source that come earning special attention is biomass, whose research come increasing annually. In Brazil, an important form of biomass, that is rejected like waste and utilized to little noble aim, is the sugar cane bagasse. The objective of this work is to present a conversion process of the bagasse in fuels and raw materials for the chemistry industry. The conversion method adopted was the pyrolysis. To the realization of this conversion, it was constructed a horizontal bed oven, with continuous flow of nitrogen, which carried the pyrolised volatile material, for the trap, during the process. The pyrolysis study was done in the range of 400 deg C to 900 deg C and was optimized utilizing the factorial design. The char, which is a pyrolysis product, was characterized by thermogravimetric and spectroscopic techniques. The tar, which is another pyrolysis product, was characterized by chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques. The results obtained shows that the tar is abundant in organic acids, such fenols and carboxylic acids, which has great utility as raw materials in the chemistry industry. The char, obtained in the range of 400 deg C to 600 deg C, is rich inorganic material, making possible its posterior processing to obtain oils. (author)

  20. Catalytic pyrolysis using UZM-44 aluminosilicate zeolite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Christopher P; Boldingh, Edwin P

    2013-12-17

    A new family of aluminosilicate zeolites designated UZM-44 has been synthesized. These zeolites are represented by the empirical formula Na.sub.nM.sub.m.sup.k+T.sub.tAl.sub.1-xE.sub.xSi.sub.yO.sub.z where "n" is the mole ratio of Na to (Al+E), M represents a metal or metals from zinc, Group 1, Group 2, Group 3 and or the lanthanide series of the periodic table, "m" is the mole ratio of M to (Al+E), "k" is the average charge of the metal or metals M, T is the organic structure directing agent or agents, and E is a framework element such as gallium. The process involves contacting a carbonaceous biomass feedstock with UZM-44 at pyrolysis conditions to produce pyrolysis gases comprising hydrocarbons. The catalyst catalyzes a deoxygenation reaction converting oxygenated hydrocarbons into hydrocarbons and removing the oxygen as carbon oxides and water. A portion of the pyrolysis gases is condensed to produce low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil.

  1. Solid waste utilization: pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boegly, W.J. Jr.; Mixon, W.R.; Dean, C.; Lizdas, D.J.

    1977-08-01

    As a part of the Integrated Community Energy System (ICES) Program, a number of technology evaluations are being prepared on various current and emerging sources of energy. This evaluation considers the use of pyrolysis as a method of producing energy from municipal solid waste. The energy can be in the form of a gas, oil, chars, or steam. Pyrolysis, the decomposition of organic matter in the absence of oxygen (or in an oxygen-deficient atmosphere), has been used to convert organic matter to other products or fuels. This process is also described as ''destructive distillation''. Four processes are described in detail: the ''Landgard'' System (Monsanto Environ-Chem Systems, Inc.); the Occidental Research Corporation Process (formerly the Garrett Research and Development Company; The ''Purox'' System (Union Carbide Corporation); and the ''Refu-Cycler'' (Hamilton Standard Corporation). ''Purox'' and ''Refu-Cycler'' produce a low-Btu gas; the Occidental process produces an oil, and the ''Landgard'' process produces steam using on-site auxiliary boilers to burn the fuel gases produced by the pyrolysis unit. Also included is a listing of other pyrolysis processes currently under development for which detailed information was not available. The evaluation provides information on the various process flowsheets, energy and material balances, product characteristics, and economics. Pyrolysis of municipal solid waste as an energy source can be considered a potential for the future; however little operational or economic information is available at this time.

  2. Pyrolysis of Pine Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjellerup, Jan Søren; Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk

    2005-01-01

    In this study, pinewood has been pyrolyzed using a fixed heating rate with a variable end-temperature. The pyrolysis process has been simulated using a mechanism with three parallel reactions for the formation of char, gas and tar. First order irreversible kinetics is assumed. This kind of model...

  3. Optimization of the pyrolysis process of empty fruit bunch (EFB) in a fixed-bed reactor through a central composite design (CCD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamed, Alina Rahayu; Hamzah, Zainab; Daud, Mohamed Zulkali Mohamed [School of Bioprocess Engineering, Jejawi Complex of Academics (3), UniMAP, 02600 Arau Perlis (Malaysia)

    2014-07-10

    The production of crude palm oil from the processing of palm fresh fruit bunches in the palm oil mills in Malaysia hs resulted in a huge quantity of empty fruit bunch (EFB) accumulated. The EFB was used as a feedstock in the pyrolysis process using a fixed-bed reactor in the present study. The optimization of process parameters such as pyrolysis temperature (factor A), biomass particle size (factor B) and holding time (factor C) were investigated through Central Composite Design (CCD) using Stat-Ease Design Expert software version 7 with bio-oil yield considered as the response. Twenty experimental runs were conducted. The results were completely analyzed by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The model was statistically significant. All factors studied were significant with p-values < 0.05. The pyrolysis temperature (factor A) was considered as the most significant parameter because its F-value of 116.29 was the highest. The value of R{sup 2} was 0.9564 which indicated that the selected factors and its levels showed high correlation to the production of bio-oil from EFB pyrolysis process. A quadratic model equation was developed and employed to predict the highest theoretical bio-oil yield. The maximum bio-oil yield of 46.2 % was achieved at pyrolysis temperature of 442.15 °C using the EFB particle size of 866 μm which corresponded to the EFB particle size in the range of 710–1000 μm and holding time of 483 seconds.

  4. Optimization of the pyrolysis process of empty fruit bunch (EFB) in a fixed-bed reactor through a central composite design (CCD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Alina Rahayu; Hamzah, Zainab; Daud, Mohamed Zulkali Mohamed

    2014-07-01

    The production of crude palm oil from the processing of palm fresh fruit bunches in the palm oil mills in Malaysia hs resulted in a huge quantity of empty fruit bunch (EFB) accumulated. The EFB was used as a feedstock in the pyrolysis process using a fixed-bed reactor in the present study. The optimization of process parameters such as pyrolysis temperature (factor A), biomass particle size (factor B) and holding time (factor C) were investigated through Central Composite Design (CCD) using Stat-Ease Design Expert software version 7 with bio-oil yield considered as the response. Twenty experimental runs were conducted. The results were completely analyzed by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The model was statistically significant. All factors studied were significant with p-values < 0.05. The pyrolysis temperature (factor A) was considered as the most significant parameter because its F-value of 116.29 was the highest. The value of R2 was 0.9564 which indicated that the selected factors and its levels showed high correlation to the production of bio-oil from EFB pyrolysis process. A quadratic model equation was developed and employed to predict the highest theoretical bio-oil yield. The maximum bio-oil yield of 46.2 % was achieved at pyrolysis temperature of 442.15 °C using the EFB particle size of 866 μm which corresponded to the EFB particle size in the range of 710-1000 μm and holding time of 483 seconds.

  5. The Utilization of Waste Date Seed as Bio-Oil and Activated Carbon by Pyrolysis Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Uzzal Hossain Joardder

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The renovation of biomass waste in the form of date seed waste into activated carbon and biofuel by fixed bed pyrolysis reactor has been focused in this study to obtain gaseous, liquid, and solid products. The date seed in particle form is pyrolysed in an externally heated fixed bed reactor with nitrogen as the carrier gas. The reactor is heated from 400°C to 600°C. A maximum liquid yield of 50 wt.% and char of 30 wt.% are obtained at a reactor bed temperature of 500°C with a running time of 120 minutes. The oil is found to possess favorable flash point and reasonable density and viscosity. The higher calorific value is found to be 28.636 MJ/kg which is significantly higher than other biomass derived. Decolonization of 85–97% is recorded for the textile effluent and 75–90% for the tannery effluent, in all cases decreasing with temperature increase. Good adsorption capacity of the prepared activated carbon in case of diluted textile and tannery effluent was found.

  6. Influence of pretreatment for deashing of sugarcane bagasse on pyrolysis products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piyali Das; Anuradda Ganesh [Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai (India). Energy Systems Engineering; Pramod Wangikar [Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai (India). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2004-11-01

    This paper reports the studies made on the vacuum pyrolysis of deashed sugarcane bagasse, on the pyrolysis products. The present work is with an objective to understand the change in the quantity and quality of the oil fraction obtained from pyrolysis, upon pretreatment for deashing of original biomass. Ash, in the entrained char is believed to be catalysing the polymerization reaction in the oils and thereby increases the viscosity. Three different pre- treatment processes used for deashing are water leaching, mild acid treatment with HCl and mild acid treatment with HF. The study indicates the remarkable influence of pretreatment process for deashing, by enhancing the total energy distribution in oil fraction of the pyrolysis products. This is attributed to selective removal of ash elements along with removal of extractives and hemicellulose in different proportions. However, it was found that the pre- treatments do not improve the stability of oil. The water leachate, as expected, showed potential of making ethanol via fermentation. (author)

  7. Methane Pyrolysis and Disposing Off Resulting Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, P. K.; Rapp, D.; Rahotgi, N. K.

    1999-01-01

    Sabatier/Electrolysis (S/E) is a leading process for producing methane and oxygen for application to Mars ISPP. One significant problem with this process is that it produces an excess of methane for combustion with the amount of oxygen that is produced. Therefore, one must discard roughly half of the methane to obtain the proper stoichiometric methane/oxygen mixture for ascent from Mars. This is wasteful of hydrogen, which must be brought from Earth and is difficult to transport to Mars and store on Mars. To reduced the problem of transporting hydrogen to Mars, the S/E process can be augmented by another process which reduces overall hydrogen requirement. Three conceptual approaches for doing this are (1) recover hydrogen from the excess methane produced by the S/E process, (2) convert the methane to a higher hydrocarbon or other organic with a lower H/C ratio than methane, and (3) use a separate process (such as zirconia or reverse water gas shift reaction) to produce additional oxygen, thus utilizing all the methane produced by the Sabatier process. We report our results here on recovering hydrogen from the excess methane using pyrolysis of methane. Pyrolysis has the advantage that it produces almost pure hydrogen, and any unreacted methane can pass through the S/E process reactor. It has the disadvantage that disposing of the carbon produced by pyrolysis presents difficulties. Hydrogen may be obtained from methane by pyrolysis in the temperature range 10000-12000C. The main reaction products are hydrogen and carbon, though very small amounts of higher hydrocarbons, including aromatic hydrocarbons are formed. The conversion efficiency is about 95% at 12000C. One needs to distinguish between thermodynamic equilibrium conversion and conversion limited by kinetics in a finite reactor.

  8. The effect of additives on migration and transformation of gaseous pollutants in the vacuum pyrolysis process of waste printed circuit boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yibiao; Sun, Shuiyu; Liu, Jingyong; Lin, Weixiong; Chen, Nanwei; Ye, Maoyou

    2017-02-01

    The effect of six additives (CaCO3, HZSM-5, CaO, Al2O3, FeOOH and Ca(OH)2) on the generation, migration, transformation and escaping behaviours of typical gaseous pollutants in the pyrolysis process were studied by vacuum pyrolysis experiments on epoxy resin powder from waste printed circuit boards with tube furnace. The results show that the additives Al2O3, CaO, Ca(OH) 2 and FeOOH could reduce the yield of the gas phase. The removal rates of pollutants, such as benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, phenol, p-xylene, HBr, NO2 and SO2 in the gaseous products, has changed variously with the increasing percentage of the above additives. Judging from the control of gas-phase pollutant discharge, the calcium-base additives are superior to the others. Ca(OH)2 has the best inhibition effect among them. The increase of the pyrolysis temperature and vacuum degree enhanced the volatility of organic pollutants and weakened the Ca(OH)2 inhibition effect on organic pollutants, while it improved the removal rate of SO2. Under the condition of 500 °C pyrolysis temperature and 0.09 MPa vacuum degree, when the additive proportion of Ca(OH)2 was one-fifth, the average removal rate of pollutants in gas phase is up to 66.4%.

  9. Pyrolysis temperature affects phosphorus transformation in biochar: Chemical fractionation and (31)P NMR analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Gang; Zhang, You; Shao, Hongbo; Sun, Junna

    2016-11-01

    Phosphorus (P) recycling or reuse by pyrolyzing crop residue has recently elicited increased research interest. However, the effects of feedstock and pyrolysis conditions on P species have not been fully understood. Such knowledge is important in identifying the agronomic and environmental uses of biochar. Residues of three main Chinese agricultural crops and the biochars (produced at 300°C-600°C) derived from these crops were used to determine P transformations during pyrolysis. Hedley sequential fractionation and (31)P NMR analyses were used in the investigation. Our results showed that P transformation in biochar was significantly affected by pyrolysis temperature regardless of feedstock (Wheat straw, maize straw and peanut husk). Pyrolysis treatment transformed water soluble P into a labile (NaHCO3-Pi) or semi-labile pool (NaOH-Pi) and into a stable pool (Dil. HCl P and residual-P). At the same time, organic P was transformed into inorganic P fractions which was identified by the rapid decomposition of organic P detected with solution (31)P NMR. The P transformation during pyrolysis process suggested more stable P was formed at a higher pyrolysis temperature. This result was also evidenced by the presence of less soluble or stable P species, such as such as poly-P, crandallite (CaAl3(OH)5(PO4)2) and Wavellite (Al3(OH)3(PO4)2·5H2O), as detected by solid-state (31)P NMR in biochars formed at a higher pyrolysis temperature. Furthermore, a significant proportion of less soluble pyrophosphate was identified by solution (2%-35%) and solid-state (8%-53%) (31)P NMR, which was also responsible for the stable P forms at higher pyrolysis temperature although their solubility or stability requires further investigation. Results suggested that a relatively lower pyrolysis temperature retains P availability regardless of feedstock during pyrolysis process. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Study of Pyrolysisis of Polymers and Coal and Co-Pyrolysis of Their Blends, Kinetics of the Process

    OpenAIRE

    Zuzana MIKULOVÁ; Večeř, Marek; Jaroslav FRANTÍK

    2012-01-01

    Amount of polymer waste increase every year and for this reason upgrading of this waste is a necessity. Nowadays waste disposal and incineration of polymers waste are the most frequently used methods which (i) did not allowed chemical and energy utilization and (ii) are not environmentally friendly. Pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis provide an attractive way to dispose of and convert polymer waste and coal into higher value fuel and the specific benefits of this method potentially include many...

  11. Determination of lead in biomass and products of the pyrolysis process by direct solid or liquid sample analysis using HR-CS GF AAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Álvaro T; Borges, Aline R; Zmozinski, Ariane V; Dessuy, Morgana B; Welz, Bernhard; de Andrade, Jailson B; Vale, Maria Goreti R

    2016-01-01

    A method has been developed for the determination of lead in biomass, bio-oil, pyrolysis aqueous phase, and biomass ashes by high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (HR-CS GF AAS) and direct solid or liquid sample analysis. All measurements were performed without chemical modifier and calibration could be carried out using aqueous standard solutions. A pyrolysis temperature of 800°C and an atomization temperature of 2200°C were applied. The limits of detection and quantification were, respectively, 0.5 µg kg(-1) and 2 µg kg(-1) using the analytical line at 217.001 nm and 6 µg kg(-1) and 19 µg kg(-1) at 283.306 nm. The precision, expressed as relative standard deviation, was between 3% and 10%, which is suitable for direct analysis. The lead concentrations found for the solid samples varied between 0.28 and 1.4 mg kg(-1) for biomass and between 0.25 and 2.3 mg kg(-1) for ashes, these values were much higher than those found for bio-oil (2.2-16.8 µg kg(-1)) and pyrolysis aqueous phase (3.2-18.5 µg kg(-1)). After the determination of lead in the samples, it was possible to estimate the relative distribution of this element in the fractions of the pyrolysis products, and it was observed that most of the lead present in the biomass was eliminated to the environment during the pyrolysis process, with a significant portion retained in the ashes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Thermal and catalytic pyrolysis of plastic waste

    OpenAIRE

    Débora Almeida; Maria de Fátima Marques

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The amount of plastic waste is growing every year and with that comes an environmental concern regarding this problem. Pyrolysis as a tertiary recycling process is presented as a solution. Pyrolysis can be thermal or catalytical and can be performed under different experimental conditions. These conditions affect the type and amount of product obtained. With the pyrolysis process, products can be obtained with high added value, such as fuel oils and feedstock for new products. Zeolit...

  13. Synergistic effect of water content and composite conditioner of Fenton's reagent combined with red mud on the enhanced hydrogen production from sludge pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiakuan; Song, Jian; Liang, Sha; Guan, Ruonan; Shi, Yafei; Yu, Wenbo; Zhu, Suiyi; Fan, Wei; Hou, Huijie; Hu, Jingping; Deng, Huali; Xiao, Bo

    2017-10-15

    This study investigated the synergistic effect of water content and a composite conditioner of Fenton's reagent combined with red mud (Fenton-RM) on the pyrolytic products (fuel gas, tar, and solid char) of deep-dewatered sludge. The catalytic effect of metal oxides in Fenton-RM could be promoted by the presence of water during sludge pyrolysis, showing higher gas yield with increased water content. Maximum gas outputs of the deep-dewatered sludge conditioned with Fenton-RM (S-Fenton-RM) and the conventional dewatered sludge conditioned with polyacrylamide (S-PAM), both appeared at 900 °C with a water content of 65 wt%, and were 0.257 and 0.189 L/g dry solid (DS), respectively. At the same temperature and with the same water content, the hydrogen (H2) yields of the S-Fenton-RM samples were always higher than those of the S-PAM samples. At 900 °C, the maximum H2 yield of the S-Fenton-RM samples was 0.102 L/g DS, which was 85.5% higher than that of the S-PAM samples. The results indicated that water in the wet sludge provided the steam atmosphere for pyrolysis, and the water vapor then involved in secondary cracking reformation of tar and char gasification reactions, which would be catalyzed by the presence of metal oxides in the Fenton-RM conditioner, thus increasing the yield of fuel gas, especially hydrogen. The H2 production cost from the S-Fenton-RM system is less than that from the S-PAM system. The results suggest that pyrolysis of the wet deep-dewatered sludge conditioned with Fenton-RM is an economical and promising alternative for sewage sludge dewatering and disposal/reuse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Macro controlling of copper oxide deposition processes and spray mode by using home-made fully computerized spray pyrolysis system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essa, Mohammed Sh.; Chiad, Bahaa T.; Shafeeq, Omer Sh.

    2017-09-01

    Thin Films of Copper Oxide (CuO) absorption layer have been deposited using home-made Fully Computerized Spray Pyrolysis Deposition system FCSPD on glass substrates, at the nozzle to substrate distance equal to 20,35 cm, and computerized spray mode (continues spray, macro-control spray). The substrate temperature has been kept at 450 °c with the optional user can enter temperature tolerance values ± 5 °C. Also that fixed molar concentration of 0.1 M, and 2D platform speed or deposition platform speed of 4mm/s. more than 1000 instruction program code, and specific design of graphical user interface GUI to fully control the deposition process and real-time monitoring and controlling the deposition temperature at every 200 ms. The changing in the temperature has been recorded during deposition processes, in addition to all deposition parameters. The films have been characterized to evaluate the thermal distribution over the X, Y movable hot plate, the structure and optical energy gap, thermal and temperature distribution exhibited a good and uniform distribution over 20 cm2 hot plate area, X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurement revealed that the films are polycrystalline in nature and can be assigned to monoclinic CuO structure. Optical band gap varies from 1.5-1.66 eV depending on deposition parameter.

  15. Experiments on the Conventional Pyrolysis of Oak Sawdust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paraschiv, Maria; Tazerout, Mohand; Gerun, Luc; Bellettre, Jerome; Lemoult, Bernard [Ecole des Mines de Nantes (France)

    2006-07-15

    The biomass derived from wood processing (ex. sawdust) can be converted to combustible gas by thermochemical processes as pyrolysis and gasification. The oak sawdust used displays that the powder fraction has the biggest weight, which is difficult for operate and it gives the highest char yield and many particles in gas flow. A good mixture of wood powder and the bigger fractions, which give less char and tar yields, as such or in pellet shape, can be a solution to improve the thermal transformation of particles surface in order to increase gas content and avoid the particles presence in pyrolysis gases. For heat value improvement it can be use a co-pyrolysis compound, such as plastic waste that is an organic material completely mutable in combustible gaseous products. From this point of view the plastic wastes pyrolysis in the same operating conditions as wood pyrolysis were studied. The chemical data reveal that this kind of material gives volatile matters such as water, tars and gases and no solid residue. Also, the reference thermal range for degassing was found to be 480-550 [deg C], when the wood particles are already transformed and char is able to be a catalyst for tar cracking.

  16. Economic assessment of flash co-pyrolysis of short rotation coppice and biopolymer waste streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuppens, T; Cornelissen, T; Carleer, R; Yperman, J; Schreurs, S; Jans, M; Thewys, T

    2010-12-01

    The disposal problem associated with phytoextraction of farmland polluted with heavy metals by means of willow requires a biomass conversion technique which meets both ecological and economical needs. Combustion and gasification of willow require special and costly flue gas treatment to avoid re-emission of the metals in the atmosphere, whereas flash pyrolysis mainly results in the production of (almost) metal free bio-oil with a relatively high water content. Flash co-pyrolysis of biomass and waste of biopolymers synergistically improves the characteristics of the pyrolysis process: e.g. reduction of the water content of the bio-oil, more bio-oil and less char production and an increase of the HHV of the oil. This research paper investigates the economic consequences of the synergistic effects of flash co-pyrolysis of 1:1 w/w ratio blends of willow and different biopolymer waste streams via cost-benefit analysis and Monte Carlo simulations taking into account uncertainties. In all cases economic opportunities of flash co-pyrolysis of biomass with biopolymer waste are improved compared to flash pyrolysis of pure willow. Of all the biopolymers under investigation, polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) is the most promising, followed by Eastar, Biopearls, potato starch, polylactic acid (PLA), corn starch and Solanyl in order of decreasing profits. Taking into account uncertainties, flash co-pyrolysis is expected to be cheaper than composting biopolymer waste streams, except for corn starch. If uncertainty increases, composting also becomes more interesting than flash co-pyrolysis for waste of Solanyl. If the investment expenditure is 15% higher in practice than estimated, the preference for flash co-pyrolysis compared to composting biopolymer waste becomes less clear. Only when the system of green current certificates is dismissed, composting clearly is a much cheaper processing technique for disposing of biopolymer waste.

  17. Catalytic flash pyrolysis of oil-impregnated-wood and jatropha cake using sodium based catalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Imran, Ali

    2015-11-24

    Catalytic pyrolysis of wood with impregnated vegetable oil was investigated and compared with catalytic pyrolysis of jatropha cake making use of sodium based catalysts to produce a high quality bio-oil. The catalytic pyrolysis was carried out in two modes: in-situ catalytic pyrolysis and post treatment of the pyrolysis vapors. The in-situ catalytic pyrolysis was carried out in an entrained flow reactor system using a premixed feedstock of Na2CO3 and biomass and post treatment of biomass pyrolysis vapor was conducted in a downstream fixed bed reactor of Na2CO3/γ-Al2O3. Results have shown that both Na2CO3 and Na2CO3/γ-Al2O3 can be used for the production of a high quality bio-oil from catalytic pyrolysis of oil-impregnated-wood and jatropha cake. The catalytic bio-oil had very low oxygen content, water content as low as 1wt.%, a neutral pH, and a high calorific value upto 41.8MJ/kg. The bio-oil consisted of high value chemical compounds mainly hydrocarbons and undesired compounds in the bio-oil were either completely removed or considerably reduced. Increasing the triglycerides content (vegetable oil) in the wood enhanced the formation of hydrocarbons in the bio-oil. Post treatment of the pyrolysis vapor over a fixed bed of Na2CO3/γ-Al2O3 produced superior quality bio-oil compared to in-situ catalytic pyrolysis with Na2CO3. This high quality bio-oil may be used as a precursor in a fractionating process for the production of alternative fuels. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

  18. Pyrolysis Model of Single Biomass Pellet in Downdraft Gasifier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛爱军; 潘继红; 田茂诚; 伊晓璐

    2016-01-01

    By coupling the heat transfer equation with semi-global chemical reaction kinetic equations, a one-dimensional, unsteady mathematical model is developed to describe the pyrolysis of single biomass pellet in the pyrolysis zone of downdraft gasifier. The simulation results in inert atmosphere and pyrolysis zone agree well with the published experimental results. The pyrolysis of biomass pellets in pyrolysis zone is investigated, and the results show that the estimated convective heat transfer coefficient and emissivity coefficient are suitable. The mean pyro-lysis time is 15.22%, shorter than that in inert atmosphere, and the pellet pyrolysis process in pyrolysis zone belongs to fast pyrolysis. Among the pyrolysis products, tar yield is the most, gas the second, and char the least. During pyrolysis, the temperature change near the center is contrary to that near the surface. Pyrolysis gradually moves inwards layer by layer. With the increase of pyrolysis temperature and pellet diameter, the total pyrolysis time, tar yield, char yield and gas yield change in different ways. The height of pyrolysis zone is calculated to be 1.51—3.51 times of the characteristic pellet diameter.

  19. Pyrolysis of hydrochar from digestate: Effect of hydrothermal carbonization and pyrolysis temperatures on pyrochar formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garlapalli, Ravinder K; Wirth, Benjamin; Reza, M Toufiq

    2016-11-01

    Digestate from anaerobic digestion of biomass often contains more than 90% of water, which is economically unfavorable for pyrolysis. Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) has potential to treat very wet biomass, however, the hydrochar may be acidic, contains polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and toxic organic substances (e.g., phenolic compounds), and has very low Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area. In this study, pyrolysis of digestate derived hydrochar is performed at various pyrolysis and HTC temperatures. Solid chars were characterized for elemental analysis, pH, PAH, BET, pore size and volume, and phenolic substances, while HTC process liquids were characterized for pH, organic acids, furfural derivatives, and phenolic substances. Physicochemical characteristics of pyro-HTC char were compared with corresponding pyrochar and hydrochar. Pyro-HTC chars produced at higher HTC (i.e., 260°C) and pyrolysis temperatures (i.e., 800°C) showed highest BET surface area (63.5m(2)g(-1)), no PAH, relatively mild basic pH (9.34), and no phenolic compounds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Modelling solid-convective flash pyrolysis of straw and wood in the Pyrolysis Centrifuge Reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Niels; Larsen, Morten Boberg; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2009-01-01

    Less than a handful of solid-convective pyrolysis reactors for the production of liquid fuel from biomass have been presented and for only a single reactor a detailed mathematical model has been presented. In this article we present a predictive mathematical model of the pyrolysis process...... in the Pyrolysis Centrifuge Reactor, a novel solid-convective flash pyrolysis reactor. The model relies on the original concept for ablative pyrolysis of particles being pyrolysed through the formation of an intermediate liquid compound which is further degraded to form liquid organics, char, and gas. To describe...... that the reacting particle continuously shed the formed char layer....

  1. New candidate for biofuel feedstock beyond terrestrial biomass for thermo-chemical process (pyrolysis/gasification) enhanced by carbon dioxide (CO2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Eilhann E; Jeon, Young Jae; Yi, Haakrho

    2012-11-01

    The enhanced thermo-chemical process (i.e., pyrolysis/gasification) of various macroalgae using carbon dioxide (CO(2)) as a reaction medium was mainly investigated. The enhanced thermo-chemical process was achieved by expediting the thermal cracking of volatile chemical species derived from the thermal degradation of the macroalgae. This process enables the modification of the end products from the thermo-chemical process and significant reduction of the amount of condensable hydrocarbons (i.e., tar, ∼50%), thereby directly increasing the efficiency of the gasification process.

  2. Hydrotreatment of fast pyrolysis oil : catalyst development and process-product relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ardiyanti, Agnes Retno

    2013-01-01

    Pyrolyseolie is een produkt van snelle pyrolyse van lignocellulserijke biomassa.De stofeigenschappen van pyrolyseolie (thermische stabiliteit, oplosbaarheid in hydrofobe oplosmiddelen en zuurtegraad) moeten worden verbeterd om bredere toepassing mogelijk te maken, bijvoorbeeld via katalytische water

  3. Thermal and catalytic pyrolysis of plastic waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Almeida

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The amount of plastic waste is growing every year and with that comes an environmental concern regarding this problem. Pyrolysis as a tertiary recycling process is presented as a solution. Pyrolysis can be thermal or catalytical and can be performed under different experimental conditions. These conditions affect the type and amount of product obtained. With the pyrolysis process, products can be obtained with high added value, such as fuel oils and feedstock for new products. Zeolites can be used as catalysts in catalytic pyrolysis and influence the final products obtained.

  4. Saccharide-derived microporous spherical biochar prepared from hydrothermal carbonization and different pyrolysis temperatures: synthesis, characterization, and application in water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Hai Nguyen; Lee, Chung-Kung; Nguyen, Tien Vinh; Chao, Huan-Ping

    2017-08-24

    Three saccharides (glucose, sucrose, and xylose) were used as pure precursors for synthesizing spherical biochars (GB, SB, and XB), respectively. The two-stage synthesis process comprised: (1) the hydrothermal carbonization of saccharides to produce spherical hydrochar' and (2) pyrolysis of the hydrochar at different temperatures from 300°C to 1200°C. The results demonstrated that the pyrolysis temperatures insignificantly affected the spherical morphology and surface chemistry of biochar. The biochar' isoelectric point ranged from 2.64 to 3.90 (abundant oxygen-containing functionalities). The Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET)-specific surface areas (SBET) and total pore volumes (Vtotal) of biochar increased with the increasing pyrolysis temperatures. The highest SBET and Vtotal were obtained at a pyrolysis temperature of 900°C for GB (775 m(2)/g and 0.392 cm(3)/g), 500°C for SB (410 m(2)/g and 0.212 cm(3)/g), and 600°C for XB (426 m(2)/g and 0.225 cm(3)/g), respectively. The spherical biochar was a microporous material with approximately 71-98% micropore volume. X-ray diffraction results indicated that the biochar' structure was predominantly amorphous. The spherical biochar possessed the graphite structure when the pyrolysis temperature was higher than 600°C. The adsorption capacity of GB depended strongly on the pyrolysis temperature. The maximum Langmuir adsorption capacities ([Formula: see text]) of 900GB exhibited the following selective order: phenol (2.332 mmol/g) > Pb(2+) (1.052 mmol/g) > Cu(2+) (0.825 mmol/g) > methylene green 5 (0.426 mmol/g) > acid red 1 (0.076 mmol/g). This study provides a simple method to prepare spherical biochar - a new and potential adsorbent for adsorbing heavy metals and aromatic contaminants.

  5. 煤制乙炔裂解气提浓工艺简介%Introduction to process of separating and purifying acetylene from coal pyrolysis gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐彬

    2012-01-01

    介绍了高温等离子体裂解煤制乙炔裂解气提浓的工艺流程和运行情况,并根据工艺特性制定了安全预防措施。提浓装置经多次调试后运行稳定,当裂解气中乙炔体积分数为10%时,提浓后的乙炔体积分数可达99%。%The process flow of separating and purifying acetylene from mixture gas pyrolysis gas produced by coal pyrolysis in high temperature plasma was introduced as well as its running situ- ation. Security measures were elaborated according to the process characteristics. After many tests, the running of purification plant was stable, and the content of acetylene in pyrolysis gas could be increased from 10 vol. % to 99 vol. %.

  6. Development of manufacturing process for large-diameter composite monofilaments by pyrolysis of resin-impregnated carbon-fiber bundles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, W. G.; Pinoli, P. C.; Vidoz, A. E.

    1972-01-01

    Large diameter, carbon-carbon composite, monofilaments were produced from the pyrolysis of organic precursor resins reinforced with high-strenght carbon fibers. The mechanical properties were measured before and after pyrolysis and the results were correlated with the properties of the constituents. The composite resulting from the combination of Thornel 75 and GW-173 resin precursor produced the highest tensile strength. The importance of matching strain-to-failure of fibers and matrix to obtain all the potential reinforcement of fibers is discussed. Methods are described to reduce, within the carbonaceous matrix, pyrolysis flaws which tend to reduce the composite strength. Preliminary studies are described which demonstrated the feasibility of fiber-matrix copyrolysis to alleviate matrix cracking and provide an improved matrix-fiber interfacial bonding.

  7. Influence of Pyrolysis Temperature and Production Conditions on Switchgrass Biochar for Use as a Soil Amendment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Joy Ashworth

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Biochars form recalcitrant carbon and increase water and nutrient retention in soils; however, the magnitude is contingent upon production conditions and thermo-chemical conversion processes. Herein we aim at (i characterizing switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.-biochar morphology, (ii estimating water-holding capacity under increasing ratios of char: soil; and, (iii determining nutrient profile variation as a function of pyrolysis conversion methodologies (i.e. continuous, auger pyrolysis system versus batch pyrolysis systems for terminal use as a soil amendment. Auger system chars produced at 600°C had the greatest lignin portion by weight among the biochars produced from the continuous system. On the other hand, a batch pyrolysis system (400 °C – 3h yielded biochar with 73.10% lignin (12 fold increases, indicating higher recalcitrance, whereas lower production temperatures (400 °C yielded greater hemicellulose (i.e. greater mineralization promoting substrate. Under both pyrolysis methods, increasing biochar soil application rates resulted in linear decreases in bulk density (g cm-3. Increases in auger-char (400 °C applications increased soil water-holding capacities; however, application rates of >2 Mt ha-1 are required. Pyrolysis batch chars did not influence water-holding abilities (P>0.05. Biochar macro and micronutrients increased, as the pyrolysis temperature increased in the auger system from 400 to 600 °C, and the residence time increased in the batch pyrolysis system from 1 to 3 h. Conversely, nitrogen levels tended to decrease under the two previously mentioned conditions. Consequently, not all chars are inherently equal, in that varying operation systems, residence times, and production conditions greatly affect uses as a soil amendment and overall rate of efficacy.

  8. Recovery of Metallic Materials from Printed Wiring Boards by Green Pyrolysis Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex LUYIMA

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the main options for the treatment of electronic waste are involved in reuse, remanufacturing, and recycling, as well as incineration and land filling. Recycling of e-waste can be broadly divided into three major steps: (a disassembly: selectively disassembly, targeting on singling out hazardous or valuable components for special treatment, is an indispensable process in recycling of e-waste; (b upgrading: using mechanical processing and/or metallurgical processing to up-grade desirable materials content, i. e. preparing materials for refining process; (c refining: in the last step, recovered materials are retreated or purified by using chemical (metallurgical processing so as to be acceptable for their original usage. To investigate an environmentally friendly process to recycle PWBs, the milled PWB powder samples with and without additives were pyrolyzed. Liquid, gas and solid products were achieved with different conversion fraction. PWB powders were pyrolyzed and in a thermo-gravimetric analysis, differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA and exhausted gases were analyzed by mass spectrometer (MS. Analysis of the exhaust gases from the experiments using TG-DTA-MS showed that without CaCO3 additives poisonous gases such as C6H6 and HBr were produced which were adequately controlled if CaCO3 was added.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.18.3.2432

  9. Pyrolysis of wetland biomass waste: Potential for carbon sequestration and water remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xiaoqiang; Hao, Hulin; He, Zhenli; Stoffella, Peter J; Yang, Xiaoe

    2016-05-15

    Management of biomass waste is crucial to the efficiency and sustainable operation of constructed wetlands. In this study, biochars were prepared using the biomass of 22 plant species from constructed wetlands and characterized by BET-N2 surface area analysis, FTIR, TGA, SEM, EDS, and elemental compositions analysis. Biochar yields ranged from 32.78 to 49.02%, with mesopores dominating the pore structure of most biochars. The biochars had a R50 recalcitrance index of class C and the carbon sequestration potential of 19.4-28%. The aquatic plant biomass from all the Chinese constructed wetlands if made into biochars has the potential to sequester 11.48 Mt carbon yr(-1) in soils over long time periods, which could offset 0.4% of annual CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion in China. In terms of adsorption capacity for selected pollutants, biochar derived from Canna indica plant had the greatest adsorption capacity for Cd(2+) (98.55 mg g(-1)) and NH4(+) (7.71 mg g(-1)). Whereas for PO4(3-), Hydrocotyle verticillata derived biochar showed the greatest adsorption capacities (2.91 mg g(-1)). The results from this present study demonstrated that wetland plants are valuable feedstocks for producing biochars with potential application for carbon sequestration and contaminant removal in water remediation.

  10. Comparison between existing recycle processes for composite materials - a study regarding microwave pyrolysis; Jaemfoerelse av befintliga aatervinningsprocesser foer kompositmaterial - en foerstudie gaellande mikrovaagspyrolys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersson, Carina; Andreasson, Sune (Stena Metall AB (Sweden)); Skrifvars, Mikael; Aakesson, Dan (Hoegskolan i Boraas (Sweden))

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this project has been to investigate the possibilities to use recycled composites as energy recycling based on microwave pyrolysis and also to evaluate the microwave pyrolysis technique for the recycling of combined materials, such as composites. Composites can be recycled by mechanically grinding into a material which can be used as a filler in virgin composites. However, several earlier studies have showed that this will give a material with inferior quality, and there is presently no economical viable use of the recycled material. Composites can be incinerated together with other waste materials but the high content of inorganic material results in a material with low energy content. Composites typically contain 40-50 weight-% glass fibres, and in some cases be as high as 60-75 weight-%. Consequently, composites often end up at landfill sites and processes to recycle composites do not exit. Large volumes of composites are produced in Europe and these products will largely end up on landfill site after end-of-life as systems to recycle these products do not exist. These composites represent a large amount of energy which presently is not utilized. Processes and materials to produce composites are being developed continuously. This in addition to the need for light weight materials in the aerospace, windmills and automotive industry spurs the use of composites. It is therefore of outmost importance to develop processes to recycle of composites. Recycling of composites by the use of microwave pyrolysis has been studied in this project. Microwave pyrolysis is a process where the material is heated by microwave in an inert environment. The project has been focusing on the recycling of glass fibre reinforced composites as this type of composite makes the large volume of composites. Pyrolysis of glass fibre reinforce composites will result in two fractions - one oil fraction and one inorganic fraction. The oil fraction was analyzed with calorimetry and

  11. Wood Pyrolysis Using Aspen Plus Simulation and Industrially Applicable Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lestinsky Pavel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decades, a great deal of experimental work has been carried out on the development of pyrolysis processes for wood and waste materials. Pyrolysis is an important phenomenon in thermal treatment of wood, therefore, the successful modelling of pyrolysis to predict the rate of volatile evolution is also of great importance. Pyrolysis experiments of waste spruce sawdust were carried out. During the experiment, gaseous products were analysed to determine a change in the gas composition with increasing temperature. Furthermore, the model of pyrolysis was created using Aspen Plus software. Aspects of pyrolysis are discussed with a description of how various temperatures affect the overall reaction rate and the yield of volatile components. The pyrolysis Aspen plus model was compared with the experimental data. It was discovered that the Aspen Plus model, being used by several authors, is not good enough for pyrolysis process description, but it can be used for gasification modelling.

  12. Characterization of human manure-derived biochar and energy-balance analysis of slow pyrolysis process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuan; Li, Zifu; Zhang, Yaozhong; Feng, Rui; Mahmood, Ibrahim Babatunde

    2014-09-01

    Biochars have received increasing attention in recent years because of their soil improvement potential, contaminant immobilization properties, and ability to function as carbon sinks. This study adopted a pyrolytic process to prepare a series of biochars from dried human manure at varying temperatures. The thermal analysis of human manure and physicochemical properties of the resulting biochars illustrated that human manure can be a favorable feedstock for biochar production. In particular, the porous texture and nutrient-rich properties of biochars produced from human manure and may significantly enhance soil fertility when used as used soil additives. A temperature range of 500-600°C was optimal for human manure biochar production. Significantly, when the moisture content of the feedstock is lower than 57%, the system could not only harvest manure-derived biochar but also have a net energy output, which can be provide heat source for nearby users.

  13. Synthesis of hollow ZnO microspheres by an integrated autoclave and pyrolysis process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Jinxia; Huang, Xintang; Wang, Enke; Ai, Hanhua

    2006-03-28

    Hollow zinc oxide microspheres have been synthesized from a micro ZnBr2·2H2O precursor obtained by an autoclave process in bromoform steam at 220 °C /2.5 MPa. Field-emission scanning electron microscropy (FE-SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) show that the products are about 1.0 µm single crystal spherical particles with hollow interiors, partly open surfaces and walls self-assembled by ZnO nanoparticles. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis shows that the as-prepared ZnO hollow spheres are of a hexagonal phase structure. A possible formation mechanism is suggested on the basis of the shape evolution of ZnO nanostructures observed by SEM and TEM. The room-temperature photoluminescence (PL) spectrum shows UV emission around 386 nm and weak green emission peaks indicating that there are few defects in the single crystal grains of the ZnO microspheres.

  14. 微波热解城市污水污泥的H2S释放影响因素研究%The influence factors of H2 S releasing from sewage sludge microwave pyrolysis process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田禹; 龚真龙; 吴晓燕; 陈浩; 左薇

    2013-01-01

    Microwave pyrolysis is an effective way to realize harmlessness,reduction and resource utilization of urban sewage sludge,however odorous gases,such as H2S,produced in the pyrolysis process could lead to harmful impact on atmospheric environment.A certain quantity of sludge was treated by microwave pyrolysis method,the effect of pyrolysis final temperature,sludge moisture content,heating rate and mineral catalyst types on H2S productivity was investigated.Results showed that the releasing H2S was gradually increased with increasing the pyrolysis final temperature,the H2S productivity was 5.86 mg per gram dry sludge under 800 ℃ of pyrolysis final temperature.When sludge moisture content ranged 50%-80 %,the H2S yield was positive correlated with the moisture content.However,excessive high sludge moisture content could result in stratification of mud and water and further fail the pyrolysis process,so there was no H2S produced during hydrolysis process when sludge moisture over 90%.The activation energy of microwave pyrolysis was increased with increasing the heating rate,thus the action was unfavorable under relative high heating rate.Besides,mineral catalysts were beneficial to sulfur fixation,added certain quantity of nickel-based catalyst,the yield of H2 S was 4.15 mg per gram dry sludge under 800 ℃ of pyrolysis final temperature.The method of copper-iron chemisorption combined with activated carbon adsorption could be used to remove the releasing H2S,after the treatment,the discharged H2 S could met the standard of odorous pollution emission (GB 14554-93).%利用微波热解城市污水污泥是实现污泥无害化、减量化和资源化的有效出路之一,但热解过程中产生的恶臭气体(如H2S等)也会对大气环境造成严重的影响.以微波热解城市污水污泥10 min所收集的气体为研究对象,研究了热解终温、污泥含水率、升温速率及矿物催化剂种类4个因素对热解过程中H2S产量的影响.结果

  15. Results of the International Energy Agency Round Robin on Fast Pyrolysis Bio-oil Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Meier, Dietrich; Oasmaa, Anja; van de Beld, Bert; Bridgwater, Anthony V.; Marklund, Magnus

    2017-04-06

    An international round robin study of the production of fast pyrolysis bio-oil was undertaken. Fifteen institutions in six countries contributed. Three biomass samples were distributed to the laboratories for processing in fast pyrolysis reactors. Samples of the bio-oil produced were transported to a central analytical laboratory for analysis. The round robin was focused on validating the pyrolysis community understanding of production of fast pyrolysis bio-oil by providing a common feedstock for bio-oil preparation. The round robin included: •distribution of 3 feedstock samples from a common source to each participating laboratory; •preparation of fast pyrolysis bio-oil in each laboratory with the 3 feedstocks provided; •return of the 3 bio-oil products (minimum 500 ml) with operational description to a central analytical laboratory for bio-oil property determination. The analyses of interest were: density, viscosity, dissolved water, filterable solids, CHN, S, trace element analysis, ash, total acid number, pyrolytic lignin, and accelerated aging of bio-oil. In addition, an effort was made to compare the bio-oil components to the products of analytical pyrolysis through GC/MS analysis. The results showed that clear differences can occur in fast pyrolysis bio-oil properties by applying different reactor technologies or configurations. The comparison to analytical pyrolysis method suggested that Py-GC/MS could serve as a rapid screening method for bio-oil composition when produced in fluid-bed reactors. Furthermore, hot vapor filtration generally resulted in the most favorable bio-oil product, with respect to water, solids, viscosity, and total acid number. These results can be helpful in understanding the variation in bio-oil production methods and their effects on bio-oil product composition.

  16. Flash pyrolysis, a process for utilizing contaminated wood; Flash-Pyrolyse - eine Moeglichkeit der stofflichen Verwertung von kontaminiertem Holz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, D.; Wehlte, S.; Faix, O. [Bundesforschungsanstalt fuer Forst- und Holzwirtschaft, Hamburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Holzchemie und Chemische Technologie des Holzes

    1996-12-31

    Flash pyrolysis of wood treated with common pesticides poses no technical probelms. Product yields, with a maximum oil yield at 475 C, are similar to those of untreated wood. Most of the heavy metals are retained by the coal while a small part aheres to the coal layer of the sand bed. The resulting pyrolysis oil contains neither chromium nor copper. (orig) [Deutsch] Die Flash-Pyrolyse der mit den gaengigsten Schutzmitteln behandelten Hoelzer bereitet verfahrenstechnisch keine Probleme. Auch die Produktausbeuten, mit einem oelmaximum bei 475 C, aehneln denen von naturbelassenem Holz. Der groesste Teil der Schwermetalle wurde an die Kohle gebunden, ein geringer Teil blieb auf der Kohleschicht des Sandes haften. Im Hauptprodukt Pyrolyseoel konnten weder Chrom noch Kupfer nachgewiesen werden. (orig)

  17. Study on mechanism of C-H radicals' recombination into acetylene in the process of coal pyrolysis in hydrogen plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, M.D.; Fan, Y.S.; Dai, B.; Deng, W.W.; Liu, X.L. [Tsing Hua University, Beijing, (China). Dept. of Engineering Mechanics

    2001-06-30

    According to computation results of C-K equilibrium systems, C{sub 2}H{sub 2} and C{sub 2}H are the main hydrocarbons in the C-H equilibrium system at the temperature of approximately 3500 K. Because hydrogen plasma has the advantage of high temperature (over 3500 K), acetylene can be directly produced by coal pyrolysis in hydrogen plasma. In order to obtain high yields of acetylene, a quenching process is needed to fix the acetylene produced at high temperature. A dynamic chemical method is employed to study the mechanism of C{sub 2}H radicals' recombination into acetylene in the quenching process. Primary experiments have also been carried out to study the process of coal pyrolysis in hydrogen plasma. It is shown by the calculation results that: (1) the reaction that really has an effect on acetylene yield in the quenching process is the recombination of C{sub 2}H and H{sub 2}, and not that of C{sub 2}H and H in traditional opinions; (2) if the recombination of C{sub 2}H and H{sub 2} is taken into account, the total mass content of acetylene in the quenched gas may increase from 58% to 78% at the quenching rate which can prevent acetylene from decomposing.

  18. Liquid and Gaseous Fuel from Waste Plastics by Sequential Pyrolysis and Catalytic Reforming Processes over Indonesian Natural Zeolite Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochamad Syamsiro

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the performance of several differently treated natural zeolites in a sequential pyrolysis and catalytic reforming of plastic materials i.e. polypropylene (PP and polystyrene (PS were investigated. The experiments were carried out on two stage reactor using semi-batch system. The samples were degraded at 500°C in the pyrolysis reactor and then reformed at 450°C in the catalytic reformer. The results show that the mordenite-type natural zeolites could be used as efficient catalysts for the conversion of PP and PS into liquid and gaseous fuel. The treatment of natural zeolites in HCl solution showed an increase of the surface area and the Si/Al ratio while nickel impregnation increased the activity of catalyst. As a result, liquid product was reduced while gaseous product was increased. For PP, the fraction of gasoline (C5-C12 increased in the presence of catalysts. Natural zeolite catalysts could also be used to decrease the heavy oil fraction (>C20. The gaseous products were found that propene was dominated in all conditions. For PS, propane and propene were the main components of gases in the presence of nickel impregnated natural zeolite catalyst. Propene was dominated in pyrolysis over natural zeolite catalyst. The high quality of gaseous product can be used as a fuel either for driving gas engines or for dual-fuel diesel engine.

  19. Heat transfer in the process of pyrolysis of garden waste%园林废弃物热解过程中的热量传递

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王振宇; 邱墅; 何正斌; 伊松林

    2016-01-01

    Temperature has a significant effect on pyrolysis and determines the components of pyrolysis products. The distribution of pyrolysate temperature, however, relies on the heat transfer characteristics during the pyrolysis process. To study the heat transfer characteristics during the pyrolysis process of garden waste, the temperature distribution and variation in garden waste were measured. The software ANSYS was taken to simulate the heat transfer process, and the heat transfer model was established by comparative analysis of the experimental data and the simulation value. The results indicated that the heat transfer ability increased along with ascending pyrolysis temperatures and decreased along with the increase of the amount of garden waste;the heat transfer ability was proportional to temperature gradient. Simultaneously, the relationship between the temperature on flask lateral wall and the height of garden waste powder, and the relationship between the temperature above garden waste powder and time were established based on the phenomenon that the temperature load on the reaction flask wall and the convective heat transfer load on the garden waste powder surface were not constant. This study, to a certain extent, will provide theoretical guidance to garden waste pyrolysis.%为了更加准确地控制实际生产中热解物各部分的温度、提高园林废弃物的处理效率及处理质量、更好地利用园林废弃物热解后得到的产物,对园林废弃物热解过程中的热量传递问题进行研究。从测量园林废弃物热解过程中的温度分布及变化入手,了解热解过程中的热量传递特征,并在此基础上通过热力学分析建立热解传热模型,利用ANSYS有限元软件对所建模型进行模拟求解。对比分析模拟结果与试验数据后,根据实际情况对模型相关参数进行优化,最终获得了具有一定应用价值的热解传热模型。在此过程中不仅得到热解过

  20. Development of advanced technologies for biomass pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ran

    The utilization of biomass resources as a renewable energy resource is of great importance in responding to concerns over the protection of the environment and the security of energy supply. This PhD research focuses on the investigation of the conversion of negative value biomass residues into value-added fuels through flash pyrolysis. Pyrolysis Process Study. A pilot plant bubbling fluidized bed pyrolyzer has been set up and extensively used to thermally crack various low or negative value agricultural, food and biofuel processing residues to investigate the yields and quality of the liquid [bio-oil] and solid (bio-char] products. Another novel aspect of this study is the establishment of an energy balance from which the thermal self-sustainability of the pyrolysis process can be assessed. Residues such as grape skins and mixture of grape skins and seeds, dried distiller's grains from bio-ethanol plants, sugarcane field residues (internal bagasse, external and whole plant) have been tested. The pyrolysis of each residue has been carried out at temperatures ranging from 300 to 600°C and at different vapor residence times, to determine its pyrolysis behavior including yields and the overall energy balance. The thermal sustainability of the pyrolysis process has been estimated by considering the energy contribution of the product gases and liquid bio-oll in relation to the pyrolysis heat requirements. The optimum pyrolysis conditions have been identified in terms of maximizing the liquid blo-oil yield, energy density and content of the product blo-oil, after ensuring a self-sustainable process by utilizing the product gases and part of char or bio-oil as heat sources. Adownflow pyrolyzer has also been set up. Preliminary tests have been conducted using much shorter residence times. Bio-oil Recovery. Bio-oil recovery from the pyrolysis unit includes condensation followed by demisting. A blo-oil cyclonic condensing system is designed A nearly tangential entry forces

  1. Improved electrical, optical, and structural properties of undoped ZnO thin films grown by water-mist-assisted spray pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Pérez, L.; Aguilar-Frutis, M.; Zelaya-Angel, O.; Muñoz Aguirre, N.

    2006-08-01

    Undoped ZnO thin films were prepared using the ultrasonic spray pyrolysis deposition technique with zinc acetylacetonate dissolved in N,N-dimethylformamide as the source materials solution. The addition of water mist in a parallel flux to the spray solution stream was also used during deposition of the films. The addition of water mist improved the electrical characteristics of the ZnO films. Fresh ZnO samples were then thermally annealed in a H2 reducing atmosphere. X-ray diffraction patterns show mainly the wurzite crystalline ZnO phase in the films. An electrical resistivity ( ) of around 2.7 × 10-2 cm was measured at room temperature for the best undoped ZnO film. is approximately one order of magnitude lower than the resistivities found in undoped ZnO films obtained by means of similar non-vacuum deposition techniques.

  2. Production of higher quality bio-oils by in-line esterification of pyrolysis vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilten, Roger Norris; Das, Keshav; Kastner, James R; Bibens, Brian P

    2014-12-02

    The disclosure encompasses in-line reactive condensation processes via vapor phase esterification of bio-oil to decease reactive species concentration and water content in the oily phase of a two-phase oil, thereby increasing storage stability and heating value. Esterification of the bio-oil vapor occurs via the vapor phase contact and subsequent reaction of organic acids with ethanol during condensation results in the production of water and esters. The pyrolysis oil product can have an increased ester content and an increased stability when compared to a condensed pyrolysis oil product not treated with an atomized alcohol.

  3. Preparation of iron aluminate (FeAl2O4) nanoparticles from FeAl2O4 hollow particles fabricated by using a spray pyrolysis process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Jaecheol; Kim, Yangdo; Park, Dahee; Yun, Jung-Yeul

    2015-05-01

    Iron aluminate (FeAl2O4) hollow particles with a spinel structure were synthesized by using a spray pyrolysis process. FeAl2O4 hollow particles were formed at a reaction temperature of 900 °C at a flow rate of 40 L/min as a result of the rapid solvent evaporation and decomposition gases from the droplets in the spray solution prepared from metal salts and organic reagents. FeAl2O4 hollow particles were fabricated at a reaction temperature of 900 °C with a flow rate of 40 L/min. The FeAl2O4 hollow particles were heat treated for 3 hours at 600 °C in a 5% H2/Ar atmosphere to form the crystal particles. Subsequently, FeAl2O4 nanoparticles were fabricated from the FeAl2O4 hollow particles by using the wet milling process. After milling for 60 minutes, transmission electron microscopy revealed the FeAl2O4 particles to have a mean size of approximately 50 nm. The FeAl2O4 nanoparticles were fabricated successfully by using a two-step process, spray pyrolysis and wet milling.

  4. Direct spray pyrolysis of aluminum chloride solution for alumina preparation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕国志; 张廷安; 王龙; 马思达; 豆志河; 刘燕

    2014-01-01

    The effects of pyrolysis mode and pyrolysis parameters on Cl content in alumina were investigated, and the alumina products were characterized by XRD, SEM and ASAP. The experimental results indicate that the spray pyrolysis efficiency is higher than that of static pyrolysis process, and the reaction and evaporation process lead to a multi-plot state of the alumina products by spray pyrolysis. Aluminum phase starts to transform intoγ-Al2O3 at spray pyrolysis temperature of 600 °C, which is about 200 °C lower than that of static pyrolysis process. The primary particle size of γ-Al2O3 product is 27.62 nm, and Cl content in alumina products is 0.38%at 800 °C for 20 min.

  5. VAPoR - Volatile Analysis by Pyrolysis of Regolith - an Instrument for In Situ Detection of Water, Noble Gases, and Organics on the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Kate, I. L.; Cardiff, E. H.; Feng, S. H.; Holmes, V.; Malespin, C.; Stern, J. G.; Swindle, T. D.; Glavin, D. P.

    2010-01-01

    We present the Volatile Analysis by Pyrolysis of Regolith (VAPoR) instrument design and demonstrate the validity of an in situ pyrolysis mass spectrometer for evolved gas analyses of lunar and planetary regolith samples. In situ evolved gas analyses of the lunar regolith have not yet been carried out and no atmospheric or evolved gas measurements have been made at the lunar poles. VAPoR is designed to do both kinds of measurements, is currently under development at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, and will be able to heat powdered regolith samples or rock drill fines up to 1400 C in vacuo. To validate the instrument concept, evolved gas species released from different planetary analogs were determined as a function of temperature using a laboratory breadboard. Evolved gas measurements of an Apollo 16 regolith sample and a fragment of the carbonaceous meteorite Murchison were made by VAPoR and our results compared with existing data. The results imply that in situ evolved gas measurements of the lunar regolith at the polar regions by VAPoR will be a very powerful tool for identifying water and other volatile signatures of lunar or exogenous origin as potential resources for future human exploration.

  6. Modeling and parameters optimizing for catalytic pyrolysis process of cotton shell%棉花壳催化热解气化过程建模与优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李大中; 朱红

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the model of cotton shell catalytic pyrolysis process has been established based on LS-SVM.The result shows that the LS-SVM model is effective.According to this, the constraints in the cotton shell pyrolysis process have been analyzed, and the objective function was established.It aimed at looking for the optimal control parameters for the maximum content of combustible gas component H2 and CO.The calculation result shows that the contents of H2 and CO can reach their maximum of 49.939 4% and 27.601 7% respectively when the dosage of Na2CO3and pyrolysis temperature are 27.849 3% and 1 087.158 4 K respectively; and he contents of H2 and CO can reach their maximum of 52.110 5% and 27.119 3% when the dosage of K2CO3 and pyrolysis temperature are 28.445 6% and 1 065.326 5 K respectively.%建立了棉花壳催化热解气化过程的最小二乘支持向量机模型,验证结果表明,该模型对棉花壳气化过程具有较好的模拟效果.在此基础上,进一步确立了棉花壳催化热解气化过程的约束条件,建立了该过程的优化目标函数,旨在寻找可燃气体组分H:和CO含量达到最大值时,气化温度和催化剂添加量应满足的优化目标值.优化计算表明:当Na2CO3添加量和气化温度优化目标值分别为27.8493%和1087.158 4 K时,H:和CO含量均达到最大值49.9394%和27.601 7%;当KZCO,添加量和气化温度优化目标值分别为28.4456%和1065.326 5 K时,H:和CO含量均达到最大值52.1105%和27.119 3%.

  7. Fast pyrolysis of biomass at high temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trubetskaya, Anna

    This Ph.D. thesis describes experimental and modeling investigations of fast high temperature pyrolysis of biomass. Suspension firing of biomass is widely used for power generation and has been considered as an important step in reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by using less fossil fuels. Fast...... pyrolysis at high temperatures plays a significant role in the overall combustion process since the biomass type, the reaction kinetics and heat transfer rates during pyrolysis influence the volatile gas release. The solid residue yield and its properties in suspension firing, including particle size...... and shape, composition, reactivity and burnout depend significantly on the operating conditions of the fast pyrolysis. Biomass fast pyrolysis experiments were performed in a laboratory-scale wire mesh reactor and bench scale atmospheric pressure drop tube / entrained flow reactors with the aim...

  8. Pyrolysis kinetics and residue characteristics of petrochemical industrial sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, H L; Lo, J C; Tsai, J H; Chang, G M

    2000-02-01

    This study investigated the pyrolysis characteristics of sludge from wastewater treatment plants in the petrochemical industry and focused on the pyrolysis kinetics, elemental composition of residue, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of exhaust gas. As pyrolysis temperature increased to 773 K, the increasing rate of crude oil production tended to a stable condition. The result indicated that the optimal temperature of crude oil and water mixed production was 773 K. When pyrolysis temperature increased from 673 to 973 K, carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, and hydrogen concentrations of residue decreased and the sulfur concentration of residue increased. The concentrations of benzene, toluene,ethylbenzene, and styrene increased by the increasing pyrolysis temperature. We found that the reaction order of sludge pyrolysis was 2.5 and the activation energy of the reaction was 11.06 kJ/mol. We believe that our pyrolysis system is transitional between devolatilization and combustion.

  9. The application of water-soluble ruthenium catalysts for the hydrogenation of the dichloromethane soluble fraction of fast pyrolysis oil and related model compounds in a two phase aqueous-organic system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahfud, F.H.; Bussemaker, S.; Kooi, B.J.; ten Brink, Gert; Heeres, H.J.

    2007-01-01

    The hydrogenation of a dichloromethane soluble fraction of flash pyrolysis oil (bio-oil, BO), obtained by treatment of BO with a water–dichloromethane solvent mixture, was investigated using a water-soluble homogeneous ruthenium catalyst (RuCl3·3H2O/tris(m-sulfonatophenyl)phosphine, TPPTS). The

  10. Water treatment processes for oilfield steam injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shannon, A.; Pauley, J.C. [Chevron Canada Ltd., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Various water treatment processes are used within the oilfield industry. Processes tend to be common within one region of the world, but different between regions due to untreated water characteristics and treated water quality requirements. This paper summarized Chevron's view of water treatment requirements and processes for oilfield steam injection. It identified water treatment systems that have been used at thermal projects, where they are most commonly utilized, their purpose, and the limits of each process. The advantages and disadvantages of different water treatment systems were also reviewed. The paper focused on the treatment of fresh waters, low-TDS produced waters, high-hardness waters, and high-silica produced waters. Challenges and opportunities were also identified. It was concluded that the challenges created by high-silica, or by high-hardness produced waters lead to more costly processes. 25 refs., 5 tabs., 4 figs.

  11. Comparison of direct and indirect pyrolysis of micro-algae Isochrysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Zhao, Bingwei; Tang, Xiaohan; Yang, Xiaoyi

    2015-03-01

    Yield and composition of pyrolysis oil in direct and indirect pyrolysis process were investigated which indicated that pyrolysis of defatted microalgae provided a potential way to convert protein and carbohydrate to biofuels. Defatted microalgae pyrolysis with lipid extraction has higher total oil yield than only microalgae direct pyrolysis. There was an increase for N-heterocyclic compounds and phenols and a decrease for hydrocarbons in defatted microalgae pyrolysis oil. There is an apparent decrease from C12 to C16 and nearly no carbon distribution from C17 to C22 for defatted microalgae pyrolysis. Based on composition of pyrolysis feedstock, pyrolysis oil yields were simulated by Compounds Biofuel Model and their accuracy was less than ±4.4%. Considering total oil yield and characteristics, microalgae pyrolysis after lipid extraction process is a promising way for microalgae utilization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Pyrolysis Oil Biorefinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Dietrich

    2017-03-14

    In biorefineries several conversion processes for biomasses may be applied to obtain maximum value from the feed materials. One viable option is the liquefaction of lignocellulosic feedstocks or residues by fast pyrolysis. The conversion technology requires rapid heating of the biomass particles along with rapid cooling of the hot vapors and aerosols. The main product, bio-oil, is obtained in yields of up to 75 wt% on a dry feed basis, together with by-product char and gas which are used within the process to provide the process heat requirements; there are no waste streams other than flue gas and ash. Bio-oils from fast pyrolysis have a great potential to be used as renewable fuel and/or a source for chemical feedstocks. Existing technical reactor designs are presented together with actual examples. Bio-oil characterization and various options for bio-oil upgrading are discussed based on the potential end-use. Existing and potential utilization alternatives for bio-oils are presented with respect to their use for heat and power generation as well as chemical and material use.

  13. Soot morphology in laser pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandu, Ion C.; Pasuk, I.; Morjan, Ion G.; Voicu, Ion N.; Alexandrescu, Rodica; Fleaca, Claudiu T.; Ciupina, Victor; Dumitrache, Florian V.; Soare, Iuliana; Ploscaru, Mihaela I.; Daniels, H.; Westwood, A.; Rand, B.

    2004-10-01

    Soots obtained by laser pyrolysis of different gaseous/vapor hydrocarbons were investigated. The morphology variation of carbon soot versus process parameters and nature of reactants was analyzed and discussed. The role of oxygen is essential in obtaining soot particles having considerable curved-layer content.

  14. Factors affecting the yield of bio-oil from the pyrolysis of coconut shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yun; Yang, Yi; Qin, Zhanbin; Sun, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Coconut is a high-quality agricultural product of the Asia-Pacific region. In this paper, coconut shell which mainly composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin was used as a raw material for coconut shell oil from coconut shell pyrolysis. The influence of the pyrolysis temperature, heating rate and particle size on coconut oil yield was investigated, and the effect of heating rate on coconut oil components was discussed. Experimental results show that the maximum oil yield of 75.74 wt% (including water) were obtained under the conditions that the final pyrolysis temperature 575 °C, heating rate 20 °C/min, coconut shell diameter about 5 mm. Thermal gravimetric analysis was used and it can be seen that coconut shell pyrolysis process can be divided into three stages: water loss, pyrolysis and pyrocondensation. The main components of coconut-shell oil are water (about 50 wt%), aromatic, phenolic, acid, ketone and ether containing compounds.

  15. TA-MS联用研究城市生活垃圾的热解特性%Study on the pyrolysis process characteristics of municipal solid waste by TA-MS combined analysis method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈文怡; 胡明

    2013-01-01

    采用热分析-质谱联用(TA-MS)技术研究了四种城市生活固体垃圾的热解过程和热解气体种类.结果表明,PVC热解过程由一个阶段完成,香蕉皮和鸡骨头的热解过程分为两个阶段,烟头热解过程分为三个阶段;四种垃圾的热解均先是水份析出引起微小失重,随后是纤维素等大分子交联缩聚的快速热解阶段,它们的逸出气体主要是H2O、CO2、C3 H3、C3H5、C3H6、C3H7、NO2、Cl、HCl等.%Thermal analysis-mass spectrometry combined analysis method was used to study the pyrolysis process characteristics and the types of volatile gas of four typical solid waste in the city life including banana peels,chicken bones,cigarette butts,and PVC.The results showed that the pyrolysis process of PVC materials was finished in one step,and the pyrolysis process of banana peels,and chicken bones was finished in two steps.For the cigarette butts,the pyrolysis process is complex and the pyrolysis process can be divided into three steps.The pyrolysis process includs the slight weightlessness due to lossing of moisture,fast pyrolysis stage of cellulose and other macromolecules followed polycondensation and crosslinking which resulted in exothermic effect.The main escaped gas are H2O、CO2、C3H3 、C3H5 、C3H6、C3H7 、NO2 、Cl、HCl during pyrolysis process.

  16. Characterization of bio-oil from induction-heating pyrolysis of food-processing sewage sludges using chromatographic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wen-Tien; Lee, Mei-Kuei; Chang, Jeng-Hung; Su, Ting-Yi; Chang, Yuan-Ming

    2009-05-01

    In this study, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to analyze the pyrolytic bio-oils and gas fractions derived from the pyrolysis of industrial sewage sludges using induction-heating technique. The liquid products were obtained from the cryogenic condensation of the devolatilization fraction in a nitrogen atmosphere using a heating rate of 300 degrees C/min ranging from 25 to 500 degrees C. The analytical results showed that the pyrolysis bio-oils were very complex mixtures of organic compounds and contained a lot of nitrogenated and/or oxygenated compounds such as aliphatic hydrocarbons, phenols, pyridines, pyrroles, amines, ketones, and so on. These organic hydrocarbons containing nitrogen and/or oxygen should originate from the protein and nucleic acid textures of the microbial organisms present in the sewage sludge. The non-condensable devolatilization fractions were also composed of nitrogenated and oxygenated compounds, but contained small fractions of phenols, 1H-indoles, and fatty carboxylic acids. On the other hand, the compositions in the non-condensable gas products were principally carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and methane analyzed by gas chromatography-thermal conductivity detector (GC-TCD).

  17. Kinetics study on conventional and microwave pyrolysis of moso bamboo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Qing; Xiong, Yuanquan

    2014-11-01

    A comparative study on the pyrolysis kinetics of moso bamboo has been conducted in a conventional thermogravimetric analyzer and a microwave thermogravimetric analyzer respectively. The effect of heating rate on the pyrolysis process was also discussed. The results showed that both the maximum and average reaction rates increased with the heating rate increasing. The values of activation energy increased from 58.30 to 84.22 kJ/mol with the heating rate decreasing from 135 to 60 °C/min during conventional pyrolysis. The value of activation energy was 24.5 kJ/mol for microwave pyrolysis, much lower than that for conventional pyrolysis at a similar heating rate of 160 °C/min. The pyrolysis of moso bamboo exhibited a kinetic compensation effect. The low activation energy obtained under microwave irradiation suggests that microwaves heating would be a promising method for biomass pyrolysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbon Fuels. Thermochemical Research Pathways with In Situ and Ex Situ Upgrading of Fast Pyrolysis Vapors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, A.; Sahir, A.; Tan, E.; Humbird, D.; Snowden-Swan, L. J.; Meyer, P.; Ross, J.; Sexton, D.; Yap, R.; Lukas, J.

    2015-03-01

    This report was developed as part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Bioenergy Technologies Office’s efforts to enable the development of technologies for the production of infrastructurecompatible, cost-competitive liquid hydrocarbon fuels from biomass. Specifically, this report details two conceptual designs based on projected product yields and quality improvements via catalyst development and process integration. It is expected that these research improvements will be made within the 2022 timeframe. The two conversion pathways detailed are (1) in situ and (2) ex situ upgrading of vapors produced from the fast pyrolysis of biomass. While the base case conceptual designs and underlying assumptions outline performance metrics for feasibility, it should be noted that these are only two of many other possibilities in this area of research. Other promising process design options emerging from the research will be considered for future techno-economic analysis.

  19. Staged pyrolysis, a process for chemical separation of waste plastics; Gestufte Pyrolyse als Verfahrensprinzip zur chemischen Auftrennung von Kunststoffgemischen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hornung, A.; Hornung, U.; Schoeneberger, A.; Weichmann, J. [Kaiserslautern Univ. (Germany). Fachbereich Chemie; Bockhorn, H. [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany). Inst. fuer Chemische Technik

    1996-12-31

    It is shown that staged pyrolysis of mixed plastics (polystyrene, polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, polyamide 6) can be carried out in spherical recirculation reactors or in cascades of spherical recirculation reactors at exact temperature levels, and that the times of residue and reaction temperatures of laboratory systems can be calculated from the formal kinetic parameters obtained in nonisothermal and isothermal investigations. (orig) [Deutsch] Es konnte gezeigt werden, dass das Prinzip der stufenweisen Pyrolyse von Kunststoffgemischen (Polystyrol, Polyethylen, Polyvinylchlorid bzw. Polyamid 6) im Kugelkreislaufreaktor und der Kaskade aus Kugelkreislaufreaktoren unter Einhaltung der exakten Temperaturniveaus realisierbar ist und die Auslegung der Laboranlage hinsichtlich der Verweilzeiten und Temperaturniveaus mit Hilfe der formalkinetischen Parameter aus nicht-isothermen und isothermen Untersuchungen moeglich ist. (orig)

  20. Water surface capturing by image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    An alternative means of measuring the water surface interface during laboratory experiments is processing a series of sequentially captured images. Image processing can provide a continuous, non-intrusive record of the water surface profile whose accuracy is not dependent on water depth. More trad...

  1. Influence of Oxygenated Compounds on Reaction Products in a Microwave Plasma Methane Pyrolysis Assembly for Post-Processing of Sabatier Methane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansell, J. Matthew; Abney, Morgan B.

    2012-01-01

    The state-of-the-art Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA) was delivered to the International Space Station (ISS) in April 2010. The system is designed to accept carbon dioxide from the Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly and hydrogen from the Oxygen Generation Assembly. The two gases are reacted in the CRA in a Sabatier reactor to produce water and methane. Venting of methane results in an oxygen resupply requirement of about 378 lbs per crew member per year. If the oxygen is supplied as water, the total weight for resupply is about 476 lb per crew member per year. For long-term missions beyond low Earth orbit, during which resupply capabilities will be further limited, recovery of hydrogen from methane is highly desirable. For this purpose, NASA is pursuing development of a Plasma Pyrolysis Assembly (PPA) capable of recovering hydrogen from methane. Under certain conditions, water vapor and carbon dioxide (nominally intended to be separated from the CRA outlet stream) may be present in the PPA feed stream. Thus, testing was conducted in 2010 to determine the effect of these oxygenated compounds on PPA performance, particularly the effect of inlet carbon dioxide and water variations on the PPA product stream. This paper discusses the test set-up, analysis, and results of this testing.

  2. Co-pyrolysis of swine manure with agricultural plastic waste: laboratory-scale study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ro, Kyoung S; Hunt, Patrick G; Jackson, Michael A; Compton, David L; Yates, Scott R; Cantrell, Keri; Chang, SeChin

    2014-08-01

    Manure-derived biochar is the solid product resulting from pyrolysis of animal manures. It has considerable potential both to improve soil quality with high levels of nutrients and to reduce contaminants in water and soil. However, the combustible gas produced from manure pyrolysis generally does not provide enough energy to sustain the pyrolysis process. Supplementing this process may be achieved with spent agricultural plastic films; these feedstocks have large amounts of available energy. Plastic films are often used in soil fumigation. They are usually disposed in landfills, which is wasteful, expensive, and environmentally unsustainable. The objective of this work was to investigate both the energetics of co-pyrolyzing swine solids with spent plastic mulch films (SPM) and the characteristics of its gas, liquid, and solid byproducts. The heating value of the product gas from co-pyrolysis was found to be much higher than that of natural gas; furthermore, the gas had no detectable toxic fumigants. Energetically, sustaining pyrolysis of the swine solids through the energy of the product gas could be achieved by co-pyrolyzing dewatered swine solids (25%m/m) with just 10% SPM. If more than 10% SPM is used, the co-pyrolysis would generate surplus energy which could be used for power generation. Biochars produced from co-pyrolyzing SPM and swine solid were similar to swine solid alone based on the surface area and the (1)H NMR spectra. The results of this study demonstrated the potential of using pyrolysis technology to manage two prominent agricultural waste streams (SPM and swine solids) while producing value-added biochar and a power source that could be used for local farm operations. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Flash Vacuum Pyrolysis - Techniques and Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentrup, Curt

    2017-07-04

    While pyrolysis reactions have been performed since ancient times and been crucial for the invention of several technologies, the methodology now commonly known as flash vacuum pyrolysis, FVP (or flash vacuum thermolysis, FVT) had its early beginnings in the 1940s and1950s, mainly through mass spectrometric detection of pyrolytically formed free radicals. In the 1960s many organic chemists started performing FVP experiments with the purpose of isolating new and interesting compounds and understanding pyrolysis processes. Meanwhile, many different types of apparatus and techniques have been developed, and it is the purpose of this review to present the most important methods as well as a survey of typical reactions and observations that can be achieved with the various techniques. This includes preparative FVP, chemical trapping reactions, matrix isolation and low temperature spectroscopy of reactive intermediates and unstable molecules, the use of online mass, photoelectron, microwave and millimeterwave spectroscopies, gas-phase laser pyrolysis, pulsed pyrolysis with supersonic jet expansion, very low pressure pyrolysis for kinetic investigations, solution-spray and falling-solid FVP for involatile compounds, and pyrolysis over solid supports and reagents. Moreover, the combination of FVP with matrix isolation and photochemistry is a powerful tool for investigations of reaction mechanism. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Pyrolysis characteristics and pyrolysis products separation for recycling organic materials from waste liquid crystal display panels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ruixue; Xu, Zhenming, E-mail: zmxu@sjtu.edu.cn

    2016-01-25

    Highlights: • Pyrolysis characteristics are conducted for a better understanding of LCDs pyrolysis. • Optimum design is developed which is significant to guide the further industrial process. • Acetic acid and TPP are recycled and separated. - Abstract: Waste liquid crystal display (LCD) panels mainly contain inorganic materials (glass substrate with indium-tin oxide film), and organic materials (polarizing film and liquid crystal). The organic materials should be removed beforehand since the organic matters would hinder the indium recycling process. In the present study, pyrolysis process is used to remove the organic materials and recycle acetic as well as and triphenyl phosphate (TPP) from waste LCD panels in an environmental friendly way. Several highlights of this study are summarized as follows: (i) Pyrolysis characteristics and pyrolysis kinetics analysis are conducted which is significant to get a better understanding of the pyrolysis process. (ii) Optimum design is developed by applying Box–Behnken Design (BBD) under response surface methodology (RSM) for engineering application which is significant to guide the further industrial recycling process. The oil yield could reach 70.53 wt% and the residue rate could reach 14.05 wt% when the pyrolysis temperature is 570 °C, nitrogen flow rate is 6 L min{sup −1} and the particle size is 0.5 mm. (iii) Furthermore, acetic acid and TPP are recycled, and then separated by rotary evaporation, which could reduce the consumption of fossil energy for producing acetic acid, and be reused in electronics manufacturing industry.

  5. Energy-Efficient Routes for the Production of Gasoline from Biogas and Pyrolysis Oil-Process Design and Life-Cycle Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaram, Smitha; Kolb, Gunther; Hessel, Volker; Wang, Qi

    2017-03-29

    Two novel routes for the production of gasoline from pyrolysis oil (from timber pine) and biogas (from ley grass) are simulated, followed by a cradle-to-gate life-cycle assessment of the two production routes. The main aim of this work is to conduct a holistic evaluation of the proposed routes and benchmark them against the conventional route of producing gasoline from natural gas. A previously commercialized method of synthesizing gasoline involves conversion of natural gas to syngas, which is further converted to methanol, and then as a last step, the methanol is converted to gasoline. In the new proposed routes, the syngas production step is different; syngas is produced from a mixture of pyrolysis oil and biogas in the following two ways: (i) autothermal reforming of pyrolysis oil and biogas, in which there are two reactions in one reactor (ATR) and (ii) steam reforming of pyrolysis oil and catalytic partial oxidation of biogas, in which there are separated but thermally coupled reactions and reactors (CR). The other two steps to produce methanol from syngas, and gasoline from methanol, remain the same. The purpose of this simulation is to have an ex-ante comparison of the performance of the new routes against a reference, in terms of energy and sustainability. Thus, at this stage of simulations, nonrigorous, equilibrium-based models have been used for reactors, which will give the best case conversions for each step. For the conventional production route, conversion and yield data available in the literature have been used, wherever available.The results of the process design showed that the second method (separate, but thermally coupled reforming) has a carbon efficiency of 0.53, compared to the conventional route (0.48), as well as the first route (0.40). The life-cycle assessment results revealed that the newly proposed processes have a clear advantage over the conventional process in some categories, particularly the global warming potential and primary

  6. Energy-Efficient Routes for the Production of Gasoline from Biogas and Pyrolysis Oil—Process Design and Life-Cycle Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Two novel routes for the production of gasoline from pyrolysis oil (from timber pine) and biogas (from ley grass) are simulated, followed by a cradle-to-gate life-cycle assessment of the two production routes. The main aim of this work is to conduct a holistic evaluation of the proposed routes and benchmark them against the conventional route of producing gasoline from natural gas. A previously commercialized method of synthesizing gasoline involves conversion of natural gas to syngas, which is further converted to methanol, and then as a last step, the methanol is converted to gasoline. In the new proposed routes, the syngas production step is different; syngas is produced from a mixture of pyrolysis oil and biogas in the following two ways: (i) autothermal reforming of pyrolysis oil and biogas, in which there are two reactions in one reactor (ATR) and (ii) steam reforming of pyrolysis oil and catalytic partial oxidation of biogas, in which there are separated but thermally coupled reactions and reactors (CR). The other two steps to produce methanol from syngas, and gasoline from methanol, remain the same. The purpose of this simulation is to have an ex-ante comparison of the performance of the new routes against a reference, in terms of energy and sustainability. Thus, at this stage of simulations, nonrigorous, equilibrium-based models have been used for reactors, which will give the best case conversions for each step. For the conventional production route, conversion and yield data available in the literature have been used, wherever available.The results of the process design showed that the second method (separate, but thermally coupled reforming) has a carbon efficiency of 0.53, compared to the conventional route (0.48), as well as the first route (0.40). The life-cycle assessment results revealed that the newly proposed processes have a clear advantage over the conventional process in some categories, particularly the global warming potential and primary

  7. Water Reuse in Industrial food Processing

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    subject of responsible care for the environment, water reuse is increasingly regarded as a tool for ... In this paper some hints are given for implementing water reuse in the food processing industry, ... The problem of rational use of industrial.

  8. Ionomer-Membrane Water Processing Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCallum, Taber K. (Inventor); Kelsey, Laura Katrina (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    This disclosure provides water processing apparatuses, systems, and methods for recovering water from wastewater such as urine. The water processing apparatuses, systems, and methods can utilize membrane technology for extracting purified water in a single step. A containment unit can include an ionomer membrane, such as Nafion.RTM., over a hydrophobic microporous membrane, such as polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). The containment unit can be filled with wastewater, and the hydrophobic microporous membrane can be impermeable to liquids and solids of the wastewater but permeable to gases and vapors of the wastewater, and the ionomer membrane can be permeable to water vapor but impermeable to one or more contaminants of the gases and vapors. The containment unit can be exposed to a dry purge gas to maintain a water vapor partial pressure differential to drive permeation of the water vapor, and the water vapor can be collected and processed into potable water.

  9. Ionomer-Membrane Water Processing Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCallum, Taber K. (Inventor); Kelsey, Laura (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    This disclosure provides water processing apparatuses, systems, and methods for recovering water from wastewater such as urine. The water processing apparatuses, systems, and methods can utilize membrane technology for extracting purified water in a single step. A containment unit can include an ionomer membrane, such as Nafion(Registered Trademark), over a hydrophobic microporous membrane, such as polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). The containment unit can be filled with wastewater, and the hydrophobic microporous membrane can be impermeable to liquids and solids of the wastewater but permeable to gases and vapors of the wastewater, and the ionomer membrane can be permeable to water vapor but impermeable to one or more contaminants of the gases and vapors. The containment unit can be exposed to a dry purge gas to maintain a water vapor partial pressure differential to drive permeation of the water vapor, and the water vapor can be collected and processed into potable water.

  10. Microwave-assisted pyrolysis of biomass for liquid biofuels production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen

    2012-01-01

    Production of 2nd-generation biofuels from biomass residues and waste feedstock is gaining great concerns worldwide. Pyrolysis, a thermochemical conversion process involving rapid heating of feedstock under oxygen-absent condition to moderate temperature and rapid quenching of intermediate products......, is an attractive way for bio-oil production. Various efforts have been made to improve pyrolysis process towards higher yield and quality of liquid biofuels and better energy efficiency. Microwave-assisted pyrolysis is one of the promising attempts, mainly due to efficient heating of feedstock by ‘‘microwave...... dielectric heating’’ effects. This paper presents a state-of-the-art review of microwave-assisted pyrolysis of biomass. First, conventional fast pyrolysis and microwave dielectric heating is briefly introduced. Then microwave-assisted pyrolysis process is thoroughly discussed stepwise from biomass...

  11. Low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oils and methods for producing the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinangeli, Richard; Brandvold, Timothy A; Kocal, Joseph A

    2013-08-27

    Low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oils and methods for producing them from carbonaceous biomass feedstock are provided. The carbonaceous biomass feedstock is pyrolyzed in the presence of a catalyst comprising base metal-based catalysts, noble metal-based catalysts, treated zeolitic catalysts, or combinations thereof to produce pyrolysis gases. During pyrolysis, the catalyst catalyzes a deoxygenation reaction whereby at least a portion of the oxygenated hydrocarbons in the pyrolysis gases are converted into hydrocarbons. The oxygen is removed as carbon oxides and water. A condensable portion (the vapors) of the pyrolysis gases is condensed to low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil.

  12. Co-pyrolysis characteristics of microalgae Isochrysis and Chlorella: Kinetics, biocrude yield and interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bingwei; Wang, Xin; Yang, Xiaoyi

    2015-12-01

    Co-pyrolysis characteristics of Isochrysis (high lipid) and Chlorella (high protein) were investigated qualitatively and quantitatively based on DTG curves, biocrude yield and composition by individual pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis. DTG curves in co-pyrolysis have been compared accurately with those in individual pyrolysis. An interaction has been detected at 475-500°C in co-pyrolysis based on biocrude yields, and co-pyrolysis reaction mechanism appear three-dimensional diffusion in comparison with random nucleation followed by growth in individual pyrolysis based on kinetic analysis. There is no obvious difference in the maximum biocrude yields for individual pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis, but carboxylic acids (IC21) decreased and N-heterocyclic compounds (IC12) increased in co-pyrolysis. Simulation results of biocrude yield by Components Biofuel Model and Kinetics Biofuel Model indicate that the processes of co-pyrolysis comply with those of individual pyrolysis in solid phase by and large. Variation of percentage content in co-pyrolysis and individual pyrolysis biocrude indicated interaction in gas phase.

  13. Comparison for the compositions of fast and slow pyrolysis oils by NMR characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben, Haoxi; Ragauskas, Arthur J

    2013-11-01

    The pyrolysis of softwood (SW) kraft lignin and pine wood in different pyrolysis systems were examined at 400, 500 and 600 °C. NMR including quantitative (13)C and Heteronuclear Single-Quantum Correlation (HSQC)-NMR, and Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC) were used to characterize various pyrolysis oils. The content of methoxyl groups decreased by 76% for pine wood and 70% for lignin when using fast pyrolysis system. The carbonyl groups also decreased by 76% and nearly completely eliminated in 600 °C pine wood fast pyrolysis oil. Compared to the slow pyrolysis process, fast pyrolysis process was found to improve the cleavage of methoxyl groups, aliphatic CC bonds and carbonyl groups and produce more polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from lignin and aliphatic CO bonds from carbohydrates. Another remarkable difference between fast and slow pyrolysis oils was the molecular weight of fast pyrolysis oils increased by 85-112% for pine wood and 104-112% for lignin.

  14. Pyrolysis of D-Glucose to Acrolein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chong; Zhang, Igor Ying; Fu, Gang; Xu, Xin

    2011-06-01

    Despite of its great importance, the detailed molecular mechanism for carbohydrate pyrolysis remains poorly understood. We perform a density functional study with a newly developed XYG3 functional on the processes for D-glucose pyrolysis to acrolein. The most feasible reaction pathway starts from an isomerization from D-glucose to D-fructose, which then undergoes a cyclic Grob fragmentation, followed by a concerted electrocyclic dehydration to yield acrolein. This mechanism can account for the known experimental results.

  15. Pyrolysis of D-Glucose to Acrolein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chong Shen; Igor Ying Zhang; Gang Fu; Xin Xu

    2011-01-01

    Despite of its great importance, the detailed molecular mechanism for carbohydrate pyrolysis remains poorly understood. We perform a density functional study with a newly developed XYG3 functional on the processes for D-glucose pyrolysis to acrolein. The most feasible reaction pathway starts from an isomerization from D-glucose to D-fructose, which then undergoes a cyclic Grob fragmentation, followed by a concerted electrocyclic dehydration to yield acrolein. This mechanism can account for the known experimental results.

  16. An economic analysis of mobile pyrolysis for northern New Mexico forests.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brady, Patrick D.; Brown, Alexander L.; Mowry, Curtis Dale; Borek, Theodore Thaddeus, III

    2011-12-01

    In the interest of providing an economically sensible use for the copious small-diameter wood in Northern New Mexico, an economic study is performed focused on mobile pyrolysis. Mobile pyrolysis was selected for the study because transportation costs limit the viability of a dedicated pyrolysis plant, and the relative simplicity of pyrolysis compared to other technology solutions lends itself to mobile reactor design. A bench-scale pyrolysis system was used to study the wood pyrolysis process and to obtain performance data that was otherwise unavailable under conditions theorized to be optimal given the regional problem. Pyrolysis can convert wood to three main products: fixed gases, liquid pyrolysis oil and char. The fixed gases are useful as low-quality fuel, and may have sufficient chemical energy to power a mobile system, eliminating the need for an external power source. The majority of the energy content of the pyrolysis gas is associated with carbon monoxide, followed by light hydrocarbons. The liquids are well characterized in the historical literature, and have slightly lower heating values comparable to the feedstock. They consist of water and a mix of hundreds of hydrocarbons, and are acidic. They are also unstable, increasing in viscosity with time stored. Up to 60% of the biomass in bench-scale testing was converted to liquids. Lower ({approx}550 C) furnace temperatures are preferred because of the decreased propensity for deposits and the high liquid yields. A mobile pyrolysis system would be designed with low maintenance requirements, should be able to access wilderness areas, and should not require more than one or two people to operate the system. The techno-economic analysis assesses fixed and variable costs. It suggests that the economy of scale is an important factor, as higher throughput directly leads to improved system economic viability. Labor and capital equipment are the driving factors in the viability of the system. The break

  17. H2CAP - Hydrogen assisted catalytic biomass pyrolysis for green fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndal, Trine Marie Hartmann; Høj, Martin; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2014-01-01

    Pyrolysis of biomass produces a high yield of condensable oil at moderate temperature and low pressure.This bio-oil has adverse properties such as high oxygen and water contents, high acidity and immiscibility with fossil hydrocarbons. Catalytic hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) is a promising technology...... that can be used to upgrade the crude bio-oil to fuel-grade oil. The development of the HDO process is challenged by rapid catalyst deactivation, instability of the pyrolysis oil, poorly investigated reaction conditions and a high complexity and variability of the input oil composition. However, continuous...... catalytic hydropyrolysis coupled with downstream HDO of the pyrolysis vapors before condensation shows promise (Figure 1). A bench scale experimental setup will be constructed for the continuous conversion of solid biomass (100g /h) to low oxygen, fuel-grade bio-oil. The aim is to provide a proof...

  18. Pyrolysis technologies for municipal solid waste: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Dezhen, E-mail: chendezhen@tongji.edu.cn [Thermal and Environmental Engineering Institute, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Yin, Lijie; Wang, Huan [Thermal and Environmental Engineering Institute, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); He, Pinjing [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • MSW pyrolysis reactors, products and environmental impacts are reviewed. • MSW pyrolysis still has to deal with flue gas emissions and products’ contamination. • Definition of standardized products is suggested to formalize MSW pyrolysis technology. • Syngas is recommended to be the target product for single MSW pyrolysis technology. - Abstract: Pyrolysis has been examined as an attractive alternative to incineration for municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal that allows energy and resource recovery; however, it has seldom been applied independently with the output of pyrolysis products as end products. This review addresses the state-of-the-art of MSW pyrolysis in regards to its technologies and reactors, products and environmental impacts. In this review, first, the influence of important operating parameters such as final temperature, heating rate (HR) and residence time in the reaction zone on the pyrolysis behaviours and products is reviewed; then the pyrolysis technologies and reactors adopted in literatures and scale-up plants are evaluated. Third, the yields and main properties of the pyrolytic products from individual MSW components, refuse-derived fuel (RDF) made from MSW, and MSW are summarised. In the fourth section, in addition to emissions from pyrolysis processes, such as HCl, SO{sub 2} and NH{sub 3}, contaminants in the products, including PCDD/F and heavy metals, are also reviewed, and available measures for improving the environmental impacts of pyrolysis are surveyed. It can be concluded that the single pyrolysis process is an effective waste-to-energy convertor but is not a guaranteed clean solution for MSW disposal. Based on this information, the prospects of applying pyrolysis technologies to dealing with MSW are evaluated and suggested.

  19. Reprint of: Pyrolysis technologies for municipal solid waste: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Dezhen, E-mail: chendezhen@tongji.edu.cn [Thermal & Environmental Engineering Institute, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Yin, Lijie; Wang, Huan [Thermal & Environmental Engineering Institute, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); He, Pinjing [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • MSW pyrolysis reactors, products and environmental impacts are reviewed. • MSW pyrolysis still has to deal with flue gas emissions and products’ contamination. • Definition of standardized products is suggested to formalize MSW pyrolysis technology. • Syngas is recommended to be the target product for single MSW pyrolysis technology. - Abstract: Pyrolysis has been examined as an attractive alternative to incineration for municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal that allows energy and resource recovery; however, it has seldom been applied independently with the output of pyrolysis products as end products. This review addresses the state-of-the-art of MSW pyrolysis in regards to its technologies and reactors, products and environmental impacts. In this review, first, the influence of important operating parameters such as final temperature, heating rate (HR) and residence time in the reaction zone on the pyrolysis behaviours and products is reviewed; then the pyrolysis technologies and reactors adopted in literatures and scale-up plants are evaluated. Third, the yields and main properties of the pyrolytic products from individual MSW components, refuse-derived fuel (RDF) made from MSW, and MSW are summarised. In the fourth section, in addition to emissions from pyrolysis processes, such as HCl, SO{sub 2} and NH{sub 3}, contaminants in the products, including PCDD/F and heavy metals, are also reviewed, and available measures for improving the environmental impacts of pyrolysis are surveyed. It can be concluded that the single pyrolysis process is an effective waste-to-energy convertor but is not a guaranteed clean solution for MSW disposal. Based on this information, the prospects of applying pyrolysis technologies to dealing with MSW are evaluated and suggested.

  20. Thermodynamic Study of Water-Steam Plasma Pyrolysis of Medical Waste for Recovery of CO and H2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Jianjun; Guo Wenkang; Xu Ping

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the equilibrium compositions of the typical medical waste under high temperature pyrolysis by a steam plasma torch using the NASA CEA2 program. Various components from selected typical medical waste were input to the program along with the treatment temperature from 1000 K ~ 4100 K. The program then performed the Gibbs free energy calculations and searched for the equilibrium composition with minimizing the total system Gibbs free energy. The calculation results indicate that, the equilibrium composition of a system C-H-O at C/O = 1 in the temperature range of 1400 K ~ 2000 K has demonstrated that gas composition are CO and H2 mainly, the other components (CO2, C2H4, C2H2, CH4 etc.) is less than 1%by volume and the degree of raw material transformation is about 100%. Comparison with air plasma, the steam plasma treatment will not produce nitrogen oxides, if the materials are free of nitrogen element.

  1. 基于Aspen Plus的褐煤热解过程模拟%The Lignite Coal Pyrolysis Process Simulation Based on Aspen Plus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟; 商玉坤; 武建军

    2011-01-01

    With high moisture lignite coal as an example, the method and procedure to build simplified model for coal pyrogenation process (CPD) using the chemical process simulation software Aspen Plus were introduced. Setting process of CPD model simulation parameter was given, and the Aspen Plus software was used to simulate the calculation process of coal pyrogenation, and the obtained simulation value was compared with the actual value. At the same time, the coal pyrolysis simulation process and the results were analyzed and provided basic reference to coal pyrogenation process development and optimization.%以高水分褐煤为例,介绍了利用Aspen Plus化工流程模拟软件建立煤热解过程简化模型的方法及步骤.阐述了CPD模型模拟参数的设置过程,并利用Aspen Plus软件对煤热解过程进行了模拟计算,将得出的模拟值与实际值进行了比较.同时,对煤热解模拟过程及结果进行了分析,给煤热解过程的工艺开发和工艺优化提供了参考依据.

  2. Catalytic pyrolysis of olive mill wastewater sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdellaoui, Hamza

    From 2008 to 2013, an average of 2,821.4 kilotons/year of olive oil were produced around the world. The waste product of the olive mill industry consists of solid residue (pomace) and wastewater (OMW). Annually, around 30 million m3 of OMW are produced in the Mediterranean area, 700,000 m3 year?1 in Tunisia alone. OMW is an aqueous effluent characterized by an offensive smell and high organic matter content, including high molecular weight phenolic compounds and long-chain fatty acids. These compounds are highly toxic to micro-organisms and plants, which makes the OMW a serious threat to the environment if not managed properly. The OMW is disposed of in open air evaporation ponds. After evaporation of most of the water, OMWS is left in the bottom of the ponds. In this thesis, the effort has been made to evaluate the catalytic pyrolysis process as a technology to valorize the OMWS. The first section of this research showed that 41.12 wt. % of the OMWS is mostly lipids, which are a good source of energy. The second section proved that catalytic pyrolysis of the OMWS over red mud and HZSM-5 can produce green diesel, and 450 °C is the optimal reaction temperature to maximize the organic yields. The last section revealed that the HSF was behind the good fuel-like properties of the OMWS catalytic oils, whereas the SR hindered the bio-oil yields and quality.

  3. SIMULATION OF OLIVE PITS PYROLYSIS IN A ROTARY KILN PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacobbe Braccio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the simulation of an olive pits fed rotary kiln pyrolysis plant installed in Southern Italy. The pyrolysis process was simulated by commercial software CHEMCAD. The main component of the plant, the pyrolyzer, was modelled by a Plug Flow Reactor in accordance to the kinetic laws. Products distribution and the temperature profile was calculated along reactor's axis. Simulation results have been found to fit well the experimental data of pyrolysis. Moreover, sensitivity analyses were executed to investigate the effect of biomass moisture on the pyrolysis process.

  4. Initial development and performance evaluation of a process for formation of dense carbon by pyrolysis of methane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyes, G. P.; Cusick, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    The three steps in pyrolytic carbon formation are: (1) gaseous hydrocarbon polymerization and aromatic formation; (2) gas-phase condensation and surface adsorption/impingement of polyaromatic hydrocarbon; and (3) final dehydration to carbon. The structure of the carbon in the various stages of formation is examined. The apparatuses and experimental procedures for the pyrolysis of methane in a 60 cm long quartz reactor tube at temperatures ranging from 1400-1600 K are described. The percentage of carbon converted and its density are calculated and tabularly presented. The results reveal that dense carbon formation is maximized and soot eliminated by this procedure. It is observed that conversion efficiency depends on the composition of the inlet gas and conversion increases with increasing temperature. Based on the experimental data a three-man carbon reactor subsystem (CRS) is developed; the functions of the Sabatier Methanation Reactor, two carbon formation reactors and fluid handling components of the CRS are analyzed. The CRS forms 16 kg of carbon at a rate of 0.8 kg/day for 20 days in a two percent volume density quartz wool packing at temperature of 1500-1600 K.

  5. Improved electrical, optical, and structural properties of undoped ZnO thin films grown by water-mist-assisted spray pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, L.Martinez [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada del Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Legaria 694, Col. Irrigacion, C.P. 11500 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Unidad Profesional Interdisciplinaria en Ingenieria y Tecnologias Avanzadas del Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Av. IPN No. 2580, Col. Barrio La Laguna Ticoman, C.P. 07340 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Aguilar-Frutis, M. [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada del Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Legaria 694, Col. Irrigacion, C.P. 11500 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Zelaya-Angel, O. [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Av. IPN 2508, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, 07000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Munoz Aguirre, N. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas no. 152, Col. San Bartolo Atepehuacan, 07730 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2006-08-15

    Undoped ZnO thin films were prepared using the ultrasonic spray pyrolysis deposition technique with zinc acetylacetonate dissolved in N,N-dimethylformamide as the source materials solution. The addition of water mist in a parallel flux to the spray solution stream was also used during deposition of the films. The addition of water mist improved the electrical characteristics of the ZnO films. Fresh ZnO samples were then thermally annealed in a H{sub 2} reducing atmosphere. X-ray diffraction patterns show mainly the wurzite crystalline ZnO phase in the films. An electrical resistivity ({rho}) of around 2.7 x 10{sup -2} {omega}cm was measured at room temperature for the best undoped ZnO film. {rho} is approximately one order of magnitude lower than the resistivities found in undoped ZnO films obtained by means of similar non-vacuum deposition techniques. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  6. Charcoal Production via Multistage Pyrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adetoyese Olajire Oyedun; Ka Leung Lam; Chi Wai Hui

    2012-01-01

    Interests in charcoal usage have recently been re-ignited because it is believed that charcoal is a muchbetter fuel than wood. The conventional charcoal production consumes a large amount of energy due to the prolonged heating time and cooling time which contribute to the process completing in one to several days. Wood py-rolysis consists of both endothermic and exothermic reactions as well as the decomposition of the different components at different temperature range (hemicellulose: 200-260℃; cellulose: 240-350℃ and lignin: 280-500℃). Inthis study we propose a multistagepyrolysis which is an approach to carry out pyrolysis with multiple heating stages so as to gain certain processing benefits. We propose a three-stage approach which includes rapid stepwise heating stage to a variable target temperatures of 250 ℃, 300℃, 350 ℃ and 400 ℃, slow and gradual heatingstage to a tinal temperature of 400℃ and adiabatic with cooling stage. The multi-stage pyrolysis process can save 30% energy and the processing time by using a first temperature target of 300 ℃and heating rate of 5℃.min-1 to produce a fixed-carbon yield of 25.73% as opposed to the base case with a fixed-carbon yield of23.18%.

  7. Catalytic fast pyrolysis of pine wood: Effect of successive catalyst regeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yildiz, Guray; Lathouwers, Tom; Toraman, Hilal Ezgi; Geem, van Kevin M.; Marin, Guy B.; Ronsse, Frederik; Duren, van Ruben; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; Prins, Wolter

    2014-01-01

    The main product of biomass fast pyrolysis is a liquid mixture of numerous organic molecules with water that is usually called pyrolysis oil or bio-oil. The research discussed in this paper was meant (1) to validate a new, semicontinuously operated pyrolysis setup and (2) to investigate the effect o

  8. Water retention in mushroom during sustainable processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paudel, E.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis deals with the understanding of the water holding capacity of mushroom, in the context of a redesign of their industrial processing. For designing food process the retention of food quality is of the utmost importance. Water holding capacity is an important quality aspect of mushrooms. A

  9. Water retention in mushroom during sustainable processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paudel, E.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis deals with the understanding of the water holding capacity of mushroom, in the context of a redesign of their industrial processing. For designing food process the retention of food quality is of the utmost importance. Water holding capacity is an important quality aspect of mushrooms. A

  10. A Compact, Efficient Pyrolysis/Oxidation System for Solid Waste Resource Recovery in Space Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Both pyrolysis and oxidation steps have been considered as the key solid waste processing step for a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS). Pyrolysis is...

  11. Hybrid Sludge Modeling in Water Treatment Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Brenda, Marian

    2015-01-01

    Sludge occurs in many waste water and drinking water treatment processes. The numeric modeling of sludge is therefore crucial for developing and optimizing water treatment processes. Numeric single-phase sludge models mainly include settling and viscoplastic behavior. Even though many investigators emphasize the importance of modeling the rheology of sludge for good simulation results, it is difficult to measure, because of settling and the viscoplastic behavior. In this thesis, a new method ...

  12. A study of paint sludge deactivation by pyrolysis reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muniz L.A.R.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of large quantities of paint sludge is a serious environmental problem. This work evaluates the use of pyrolysis reaction as a process for deactivating paint sludge that generates a combustible gas phase, a solvent liquid phase and an inert solid phase. These wastes were classified into three types: water-based solvent (latex resin and solvents based on their resins (alkyd and polyurethane. An electrically heated stainless steel batch reactor with a capacity of 579 mL and a maximum pressure of 30 atm was used. Following the reactor, a flash separator, which was operated at atmospheric pressure, partially condensed and separated liquid and gas products. Pressure and temperature were monitored on-line by a control and data acquisition system, which adjusted the heating power supplied to the pyrolysis reactor. Reactions followed an experimental design with two factors (reaction time and temperature and three levels (10, 50 and 90 minutes; 450, 550 and 650degreesC. The response variables were liquid and solid masses and net heat of combustion. The optimal operational range for the pyrolysis process was obtained for each response variable. A significant reduction in total mass of solid waste was obtained.

  13. The production process for water penetrated brick

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SunGuofeng

    2005-01-01

    Waste penetrated brick, which is a green building material with good water penetration, high strength, lower firing temperature, lower production cost, good appearance and good structure, can holding ground water lever. This article analysis the production process and related factor for water penetrated brick:proper particle size distribution, proper shaping method, proper press and proper firing can ensure to produce good quality water penetrated brick.

  14. Fuel and fuel blending components from biomass derived pyrolysis oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Michael J.; Brandvold, Timothy A.; Elliott, Douglas C.

    2012-12-11

    A process for the conversion of biomass derived pyrolysis oil to liquid fuel components is presented. The process includes the production of diesel, aviation, and naphtha boiling point range fuels or fuel blending components by two-stage deoxygenation of the pyrolysis oil and separation of the products.

  15. Leaching Law and Pyrolysis Mechanism of Extractives from Pretreatment of Eucalyptus Grandis Chips with Benzene-Ethanol, Water and Ethanol-Water Solutions%尾巨桉苯醇、水及醇水抽出物的热解特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张斌; 武书彬

    2011-01-01

    Eucalyptus grandis extractives were generated by different approaches using benzene/ethanol, water and ethanol/ water solutions respectively. Ultimate analysis and micro particle size detection were carried out to show the basic characteristics of extractives. TG analysis was designed to investigate the initial pyrolysis process of different extractives. Py-GC/MS analysis was adopted to show the detail information about the pyrolysis process and the distribution of the pyrolysis products, The basic characteristics including element composition and micro particle distribution both showed a certain diversity among the extractives. Ultimate analysis results showed a carbon content order as benzene/ethanol extractive (BEE)〉ethanol/water extractive (EWE)〉water extractive (WE) while the oxygen content was on the contrary. It was supposed that distinction of extractive compound species was the cause of element content differences. From the detection of micro particle distribution, the results showed that WE had more lager molecules while BEE showed the opposite tendency. It was considered that ethanol and water acted on the chips separately. be thermal analysis results showed that the diversity of compounds content also caused the differences of pyrolysis characteristics of different extractives. The main pyrolisis products of WE were ketones, phenols and esters, for BEE main pyrolisis products were furans, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones and phenols, for EWE main pyrolisis products were furans, phenols and esters.%分别应用苯醇、水及醇水三种抽提溶剂对尾巨桉木片进行抽提,制得三种不同的抽提物。通过元素分析、溶出物微粒子粒径分析对其进行了基本溶出规律的研究;设计TG与Py—GC/MS实验,对不同方式获得的抽出物进行了热分析,对其受热分解特性以及产物的分布进行了考查。结果发现,不同抽提物的化学元素含量存在明显的差异;其中碳元

  16. Electron microscopy and pyrolysis of kerogens from the Kimmeridge Clay Formation, UK: Source organisms, preservation processes, and origin of microcycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boussafir, M.; Gelin, F.; Lallier-Vergès, E.; Derenne, S.; Bertrand, P.; Largeau, C.

    1995-09-01

    Recent studies revealed short-term cyclic variations (microcycles) in total organic carbon (TOC) and the hydrogen index (HI) in the Kimmeridge Clay Formation, an organic-rich deposit considered to be a lateral equivalent of the main source rocks of the North Sea. In addition, three different types of organic matter that all appear to be amorphous when observed by light microscopy (AOM) were recognized. Together, these AOM types account for over 80% of total kerogen and their relative abundances show large variations along each microcycle. In the present work, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations were carried out on samples (whole kerogens, kerogen subfractions only comprising a single type of AOM, selected rock fragments) corresponding to typical points within a microcycle and obtained via high resolution sampling. The nature and the relative abundances of the products generated by Curie-point Py-GC-MS and off-line pyrolyses of isolated kerogens were also determined for two selected samples corresponding to the beginning and the top of the microcycle. Combination of such ultrastructural observations, including some semiquantitative studies, and the analysis of pyrolysis products allowed (1) determination of the ultrastructural features of the three AOM types thus providing what we believe to be the first example of correlations between light microscopy (palynofacies, in situ maceral analysis) and TEM observations on "amorphous" fossil materials; (2) identification of the source organisms and elucidation of the mode of formation of the different AOM types in the Kimmeridge Clay; (3) explanation of the variations in their relative abundances taking place along a microcycle and establishment of tight correlations with TOC and HI changes; and (4) explanation of the origin of the microcyclic variations in kerogen quantity (TOC) and quality (III) occurring in the Kimmeridge Clay Formation. Interrelationships between primary productivity, sulphate reduction

  17. Making Activated Carbon by Wet Pressurized Pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, John W.; Pisharody, Suresh; Wignarajah, K.; Moran, Mark

    2006-01-01

    A wet pressurized pyrolysis (wet carbonization) process has been invented as a means of producing activated carbon from a wide variety of inedible biomass consisting principally of plant wastes. The principal intended use of this activated carbon is room-temperature adsorption of pollutant gases from cooled incinerator exhaust streams. Activated carbon is highly porous and has a large surface area. The surface area depends strongly on the raw material and the production process. Coconut shells and bituminous coal are the primary raw materials that, until now, were converted into activated carbon of commercially acceptable quality by use of traditional production processes that involve activation by use of steam or carbon dioxide. In the wet pressurized pyrolysis process, the plant material is subjected to high pressure and temperature in an aqueous medium in the absence of oxygen for a specified amount of time to break carbon-oxygen bonds in the organic material and modify the structure of the material to obtain large surface area. Plant materials that have been used in demonstrations of the process include inedible parts of wheat, rice, potato, soybean, and tomato plants. The raw plant material is ground and mixed with a specified proportion of water. The mixture is placed in a stirred autoclave, wherein it is pyrolized at a temperature between 450 and 590 F (approximately between 230 and 310 C) and a pressure between 1 and 1.4 kpsi (approximately between 7 and 10 MPa) for a time between 5 minutes and 1 hour. The solid fraction remaining after wet carbonization is dried, then activated at a temperature of 500 F (260 C) in nitrogen gas. The activated carbon thus produced is comparable to commercial activated carbon. It can be used to adsorb oxides of sulfur, oxides of nitrogen, and trace amounts of hydrocarbons, any or all of which can be present in flue gas. Alternatively, the dried solid fraction can be used, even without the activation treatment, to absorb

  18. Pyrolysis Recovery of Waste Shipping Oil Using Microwave Heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Adibah Wan Mahari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the use of microwave pyrolysis as a recovery method for waste shipping oil. The influence of different process temperatures on the yield and composition of the pyrolysis products was investigated. The use of microwave heating provided a fast heating rate (40 °C/min to heat the waste oil at 600 °C. The waste oil was pyrolyzed and decomposed to form products dominated by pyrolysis oil (up to 66 wt. % and smaller amounts of pyrolysis gases (24 wt. % and char residue (10 wt. %. The pyrolysis oil contained light C9–C30 hydrocarbons and was detected to have a calorific value of 47–48 MJ/kg which is close to those traditional liquid fuels derived from fossil fuel. The results show that microwave pyrolysis of waste shipping oil generated an oil product that could be used as a potential fuel.

  19. Pyrolysis of biomass to produce fuels and chemical feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaman, Serdar E-mail: yamans@itu.edu.tr

    2004-03-01

    This review presents the summary of new studies on pyrolysis of biomass to produce fuels and chemical feedstocks. A number of biomass species, varying from woody and herbaceous biomass to municipal solid waste, food processing residues and industrial wastes, were subjected to different pyrolysis conditions to obtain liquid, gas and solid products. The results of various biomass pyrolysis investigations connected with the chemical composition and some properties of the pyrolysis products as a result of the applied pyrolysis conditions were combined. The characteristics of the liquid products from pyrolysis were examined, and some methods, such as catalytic upgrading or steam reforming, were considered to improve the physical and chemical properties of the liquids to convert them to economic and environmentally acceptable liquid fuels or chemical feedstocks. Outcomes from the kinetic studies performed by applying thermogravimetric analysis were also presented.

  20. Pyrolysis of biomass to produce fuels and chemical feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serdar Yaman [Istanbul Technical University (Turkey). Chemical Engineering Dept.

    2004-03-01

    This review presents the summary of new studies on pyrolysis of biomass to produce fuels and chemical feedstocks. A number of biomass species, varying from woody and herbaceous biomass to municipal solid waste, food processing residues and industrial wastes, were subjected to different pyrolysis conditions to obtain liquid, gas and solid products. The results of various biomass pyrolysis investigations connected with the chemical composition and some properties of the pyrolysis products as a result of the applied pyrolysis conditions were combined. The characteristics of the liquid products from pyrolysis were examined, and some methods, such as catalytic upgrading or steam reforming, were considered to improve the physical and chemical properties of the liquids to convert them to economic and environmentally acceptable liquid fuels or chemical feedstocks. Outcomes from the kinetic studies performed by applying thermogravimetric analysis were also presented. (author)

  1. Kinetic analysis on lignite pyrolysis,combustion and gasification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Xin; WANG Zhihua; ZHOU Zhijun; YOU Zhuo; ZHOU Junhu; CEN Kefa

    2013-01-01

    Pyrolysis and combustion combined polygeneration system is a more efficient way for lignite utilization,and can also produce variety of valuable pyrolysis products.To explore the feasibility of this polygeneration system,thermo-gravimetric analysis on YM lignite and DT bituminous coal was conducted,and the characteristic parameters for pyrolysis,combustion,and gasification were obtained.Moreover,the activation energy of each reaction was calculated by Coats-Redfern method.The experimental results showed that,compared with DT bituminous coal,YM lignite pyrolysis process starts at a lower temperature,and its semi-coke reactivity during combustion and gasification was better.In addition,activation energy calculation indicated that,the apparent activation energy of gasification of both coals were much higher than that of the pyrolysis.Therefore,for lignite,pyrolysis and combustion combined polygeneration system may achieve higher efficiency and be worthy for further research.

  2. Pyrolysis of waste tyres: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Paul T., E-mail: p.t.williams@leeds.ac.uk

    2013-08-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Pyrolysis of waste tyres produces oil, gas and char, and recovered steel. • Batch, screw kiln, rotary kiln, vacuum and fluidised-bed are main reactor types. • Product yields are influenced by reactor type, temperature and heating rate. • Pyrolysis oils are complex and can be used as chemical feedstock or fuel. • Research into higher value products from the tyre pyrolysis process is reviewed. - Abstract: Approximately 1.5 billion tyres are produced each year which will eventually enter the waste stream representing a major potential waste and environmental problem. However, there is growing interest in pyrolysis as a technology to treat tyres to produce valuable oil, char and gas products. The most common reactors used are fixed-bed (batch), screw kiln, rotary kiln, vacuum and fluidised-bed. The key influence on the product yield, and gas and oil composition, is the type of reactor used which in turn determines the temperature and heating rate. Tyre pyrolysis oil is chemically very complex containing aliphatic, aromatic, hetero-atom and polar fractions. The fuel characteristics of the tyre oil shows that it is similar to a gas oil or light fuel oil and has been successfully combusted in test furnaces and engines. The main gases produced from the pyrolysis of waste tyres are H{sub 2}, C{sub 1}–C{sub 4} hydrocarbons, CO{sub 2}, CO and H{sub 2}S. Upgrading tyre pyrolysis products to high value products has concentrated on char upgrading to higher quality carbon black and to activated carbon. The use of catalysts to upgrade the oil to a aromatic-rich chemical feedstock or the production of hydrogen from waste tyres has also been reported. Examples of commercial and semi-commercial scale tyre pyrolysis systems show that small scale batch reactors and continuous rotary kiln reactors have been developed to commercial scale.

  3. Ispra Mark-10 water splitting process

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    A thermochemical water splitting process, the Ispra Mark-10 chemical reaction cycle, was chosen for examining the possibility of using water to produce hydrogen on a large scale for fuel and major industrial chemical uses. The assumed energy source for the process is an HTGR (helium cooled). A process flow diagram, a material balance, and an energy balance were developed for the thermochemical reaction cycle. Principal reactions which constitute the cycle are included.

  4. Pyrolysis preparation of WO3 thin films using ammonium metatungstate DMF/water solution for efficient compact layers in planar perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jincheng, Zhang; Chengwu, Shi; Junjun, Chen; Chao, Ying; Ni, Wu; Mao, Wang

    2016-03-01

    The tungsten trioxide (WO3) thin films were firstly prepared by spin-coating-pyrolysis methods using the ammonium metatungstate ((NH4)6H2W12O40) DMF/water solution, and successfully applied as the efficient compact layers for the planar perovskite solar cells. The influence of the WO3 film thickness and the rinsing treatment of CH3NH3PbI3 thin film with isopropanol on the photovoltaic performance of the corresponding perovskite solar cells was systematically investigated. The results revealed that the perovskite solar cell with a 62 nm thick WO3 compact layer achieved a photoelectric conversion efficiency of 5.72%, with a short circuit photocurrent density of 17.39 mA/cm2, an open circuit voltage of 0.58 V and a fill factor of 0.57. The photoelectric conversion efficiency was improved from 5.72% to 7.04% by the isopropanol rinsing treatment. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51472071, 512720616, 51072043), and the National Basic Research Program of China (No. 2011CBA00700).

  5. Pyrolysis technologies for municipal solid waste: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dezhen; Yin, Lijie; Wang, Huan; He, Pinjing

    2014-12-01

    Pyrolysis has been examined as an attractive alternative to incineration for municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal that allows energy and resource recovery; however, it has seldom been applied independently with the output of pyrolysis products as end products. This review addresses the state-of-the-art of MSW pyrolysis in regards to its technologies and reactors, products and environmental impacts. In this review, first, the influence of important operating parameters such as final temperature, heating rate (HR) and residence time in the reaction zone on the pyrolysis behaviours and products is reviewed; then the pyrolysis technologies and reactors adopted in literatures and scale-up plants are evaluated. Third, the yields and main properties of the pyrolytic products from individual MSW components, refuse-derived fuel (RDF) made from MSW, and MSW are summarised. In the fourth section, in addition to emissions from pyrolysis processes, such as HCl, SO2 and NH3, contaminants in the products, including PCDD/F and heavy metals, are also reviewed, and available measures for improving the environmental impacts of pyrolysis are surveyed. It can be concluded that the single pyrolysis process is an effective waste-to-energy convertor but is not a guaranteed clean solution for MSW disposal. Based on this information, the prospects of applying pyrolysis technologies to dealing with MSW are evaluated and suggested. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Reprint of: Pyrolysis technologies for municipal solid waste: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dezhen; Yin, Lijie; Wang, Huan; He, Pinjing

    2015-03-01

    Pyrolysis has been examined as an attractive alternative to incineration for municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal that allows energy and resource recovery; however, it has seldom been applied independently with the output of pyrolysis products as end products. This review addresses the state-of-the-art of MSW pyrolysis in regards to its technologies and reactors, products and environmental impacts. In this review, first, the influence of important operating parameters such as final temperature, heating rate (HR) and residence time in the reaction zone on the pyrolysis behaviours and products is reviewed; then the pyrolysis technologies and reactors adopted in literatures and scale-up plants are evaluated. Third, the yields and main properties of the pyrolytic products from individual MSW components, refuse-derived fuel (RDF) made from MSW, and MSW are summarised. In the fourth section, in addition to emissions from pyrolysis processes, such as HCl, SO2 and NH3, contaminants in the products, including PCDD/F and heavy metals, are also reviewed, and available measures for improving the environmental impacts of pyrolysis are surveyed. It can be concluded that the single pyrolysis process is an effective waste-to-energy convertor but is not a guaranteed clean solution for MSW disposal. Based on this information, the prospects of applying pyrolysis technologies to dealing with MSW are evaluated and suggested. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Actual development of the conversion of energy sources of minor value in so-called bio coal. A comparison of pyrolysis process with the HTC process; Aktuelle Entwicklung bei der Konversion von minderwertigen Energietraegern in die so genannte Biokohle. Ein Vergleich von Pyrolyse- und HTC-Verfahren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neudeck, Diana; Roedger, Jan-Markus [HAWK Hochschule fuer angewandte Wissenschaft und Kunst, Goettingen (Germany); Loewen, Achim

    2012-07-01

    The conversion of biomass with low quality into biochar through pyrolysis or hydro-thermal carbonization is suitable to substitute lignite and hard coal as a fuel and thereby improve the carbon footprint of a firing plant: Additionally there is the possibility to apply biochar to fields. Carbon compounds, stabilized by the carbonization process, could simultaneously increase crop yields and sequester carbon for mid- and long term. This paper compares the two processes pyrolysis and hydrothermal carbonization regarding input-material, process-parameters, product-properties and possible applications for each product. The aim is to give an overview which process with given parameters leads to which final product and application. (orig.)

  8. Enhancement of biofuels production by means of co-pyrolysis of Posidonia oceanica (L.) and frying oil wastes: Experimental study and process modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaafouri, Kaouther; Ben Hassen Trabelsi, Aida; Krichah, Samah; Ouerghi, Aymen; Aydi, Abdelkarim; Claumann, Carlos Alberto; André Wüst, Zibetti; Naoui, Silm; Bergaoui, Latifa; Hamdi, Moktar

    2016-05-01

    Energy recovery from lignocellulosic solid marine wastes, Posidonia oceanica wastes (POW) with slow pyrolysis responds to the growing trend of alternative energies as well as waste management. Physicochemical, thermogravimetric (TG/DTG) and spectroscopic (FTIR) characterizations of POW were performed. POW were first converted by pyrolysis at different temperatures (450°C, 500°C, 550°C and 600°C) using a fixed-bed reactor. The obtained products (bio-oil, syngas and bio char) were analyzed. Since the bio-oil yield obtained from POW pyrolysis is low (2wt.%), waste frying oil (WFO) was added as a co-substrate in order to improve of biofuels production. The co-pyrolysis gave a better yield of liquid organic fraction (37wt.%) as well as syngas (CH4,H2…) with a calorific value around 20MJ/kg. The stoichiometric models of both pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis reactions were performed according to the biomass formula: CαHβOγNδSε. The thermal kinetic decomposition of solids was validated through linearized Arrhenius model.

  9. Producing Quantum Dots by Spray Pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banger, Kulbinder; Jin, Michael H.; Hepp, Aloysius

    2006-01-01

    An improved process for making nanocrystallites, commonly denoted quantum dots (QDs), is based on spray pyrolysis. Unlike the process used heretofore, the improved process is amenable to mass production of either passivated or non-passivated QDs, with computer control to ensure near uniformity of size.

  10. Investigation on pyrolysis of some organic raw materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purevsuren B

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We have been working on pyrolysis of some organic raw materials including different rank coals, oil shale, wood waste, animal bone, cedar shell, polypropylene waste, milk casein and characterization of obtained hard residue, tar and pyrolytic water and gas after pyrolysis. The technical characteristics of these organic raw materials have been determined and the thermal stability characteristics such as thermal stability indices (T5% and T25% determined by using thermogravimetric analysis. The pyrolysis experiments were performed at different heating temperatures and the yields of hard residue, tar, pyrolysis water and gaseous products were determined and discussed. The main technical characteristics of hard residue of organic raw materials after pyrolysis have been determined and the adsorption ability of pyrolysis hard residue and its activated carbon of organic raw materials also determined. The pyrolysis tars of organic raw materials were distilled in air condition and determined the yields of obtained light, middle and heavy fractions and bitumen like residue with different boiling temperature. This is the first time to investigate the curing ability of pyrolysis tars of organic raw materials for epoxy resin and the results of these experiments showed that only tar of milk casein has the highest (95.0%, tar of animal bone has certain (18.70% and tars of all other organic raw materials have no curing ability for epoxy resin.

  11. Formate-assisted pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSisto, William Joseph; Wheeler, Marshall Clayton; van Heiningen, Adriaan R. P.

    2015-03-17

    The present invention provides, among other thing, methods for creating significantly deoxygenated bio-oils form biomass including the steps of providing a feedstock, associating the feedstock with an alkali formate to form a treated feedstock, dewatering the treated feedstock, heating the dewatered treated feedstock to form a vapor product, and condensing the vapor product to form a pyrolysis oil, wherein the pyrolysis oil contains less than 30% oxygen by weight.

  12. Formate-assisted pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSisto, William Joseph; Wheeler, Marshall Clayton; van Heiningen, Adriaan R. P.

    2015-03-17

    The present invention provides, among other thing, methods for creating significantly deoxygenated bio-oils form biomass including the steps of providing a feedstock, associating the feedstock with an alkali formate to form a treated feedstock, dewatering the treated feedstock, heating the dewatered treated feedstock to form a vapor product, and condensing the vapor product to form a pyrolysis oil, wherein the pyrolysis oil contains less than 30% oxygen by weight.

  13. Catalytic fast pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Changjun; Wang, Huamin; Karim, Ayman M.; Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong

    2014-11-21

    Increasing energy demand, especially in the transportation sector, and soaring CO2 emissions necessitate the exploitation of renewable sources of energy. Despite the large variety of new energy Q3 carriers, liquid hydrocarbon still appears to be the most attractive and feasible form of transportation fuel taking into account the energy density, stability and existing infrastructure. Biomass is an abundant, renewable source of energy; however, utilizing it in a cost-effective way is still a substantial challenge. Lignocellulose is composed of three major biopolymers, namely cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. Fast pyrolysis of biomass is recognized as an efficient and feasible process to selectively convert lignocellulose into a liquid fuel—bio-oil. However bio-oil from fast pyrolysis contains a large amount of oxygen, distributed in hundreds of oxygenates. These oxygenates are the cause of many negative properties, such as low heating values, high corrosiveness, high viscosity, and instability; they also greatly Q4 limit the application of bio-oil particularly as transportation fuel. Hydrocarbons derived from biomass are most attractive because of their high energy density and compatibility with the existing infrastructure. Thus, converting lignocellulose into transportation fuels via catalytic fast pyrolysis has attracted much attention. Many studies related to catalytic fast pyrolysis of biomass have been published. The main challenge of this process is the development of active and stable catalysts that can deal with a large variety of decomposition intermediates from lignocellulose. This review starts with the current understanding of the chemistry in fast pyrolysis of lignocellulose and focuses on the development of catalysts in catalytic fast pyrolysis. Recent progress in the experimental studies on catalytic fast pyrolysis of biomass is also summarized with the emphasis on bio-oil yields and quality.

  14. Preparation, properties, and bonding utilization of pyrolysis bio-oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    The rapid increase in energy consumption, limited fossil fuel resource, and environmental concerns have stimulated the research need for biomass-derived fuels and chemicals. Pyrolysis is a thermal degradation process of biomass in the absence of oxygen. The liquid product from pyrolysis is known as ...

  15. The effect of substrate heating temperature upon spray pyrolysis process on the morphological and functional properties of fluorine tin oxide conducting glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fikri, Dahlin; Yuwono, Akhmad Herman; Sofyan, Nofrijon; Arini, Tri; Lalasari, Latifa Hanum

    2017-03-01

    Transparent conductive oxide (TCO) is one of the main components in the dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC), a device which is developed as one of renewable energy sources that has high potential to substitute fossil fuel. Among all TCO glasses, fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) has the biggest potential to be developed. The purpose of this research is aimed at finding an optimum substrate temperature during spray pyrolysis process in order to obtain FTO substrates with the desired characteristics. For this purpose, soda lime glasses were deposited with a mixture of tin and fluorine doping precursors using a special modified ultrasonic nebulizer with a variation in substrate heating temperature of 250, 300, 350, 400, and 450°C. All the fabricated samples were characterized by using x-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-Vis spectrometry, scanning electron microscope (SEM), and digital multimeter. On the basis of investigation, the best result was obtained in the substrate heated at 300 °C, providing an electrical resistance of 8 ohm/sq and optical transmittance of 74%. This research creates a chance for the next fabrication of TCO glass with desired properties using simple-low cost facilities.

  16. Iron-based adsorbent prepared from Litchi peel biomass via pyrolysis process for the removal of pharmaceutical pollutant from synthetic aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foletto, Vitória Segabinazzi; Ferreira, Ananda Bulegon; da Cruz Severo, Eric; Collazzo, Gabriela Carvalho; Foletto, Edson Luiz; Dotto, Guilherme Luiz

    2017-03-10

    A porous iron-based adsorbent obtained from litchi peel via pyrolysis process was prepared in this work, in order to evaluate its adsorptive potential for the removal of a pharmaceutical dye (amaranth) from aqueous solution. The material was characterized by X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms, and scanning electron microscopy. Several isotherm and kinetic models were tested aiming to represent the amaranth dye adsorption. The prepared sample presented magnetic property, and a mesoporous texture constituted of graphite and three iron-based phases. The adsorption kinetics of amaranth on the adsorbent followed the pseudo-second-order model, whereas the equilibrium data were in good agreement with the BET isotherm, being represented by a sigmoid-shaped adsorption isotherm. The maximum adsorption capacity for the amaranth dye was found to be 44.87 mg g(-1), demonstrating that the material prepared in this work showed to be a promising adsorbent for the removal of amaranth from aqueous solution.

  17. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbon Fuels: Thermochemical Research Pathways with In Situ and Ex Situ Upgrading of Fast Pyrolysis Vapors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, Abhijit [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sahir, A. H. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tan, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Humbird, David [DWH Process Consulting, Denver, CO (United States); Snowden-Swan, Lesley J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Meyer, Pimphan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ross, Jeff [Harris Group, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Sexton, Danielle [Harris Group, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Yap, Raymond [Harris Group, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Lukas, John [Harris Group, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report was developed as part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Bioenergy Technologies Office’s efforts to enable the development of technologies for the production of infrastructure-compatible, cost-competitive liquid hydrocarbon fuels from biomass. Specifically, this report details two conceptual designs based on projected product yields and quality improvements via catalyst development and process integration. It is expected that these research improvements will be made within the 2022 timeframe. The two conversion pathways detailed are (1) in situ and (2) ex situ upgrading of vapors produced from the fast pyrolysis of biomass. While the base case conceptual designs and underlying assumptions outline performance metrics for feasibility, it should be noted that these are only two of many other possibilities in this area of research. Other promising process design options emerging from the research will be considered for future techno-economic analysis. Both the in situ and ex situ conceptual designs, using the underlying assumptions, project MFSPs of approximately $3.5/gallon gasoline equivalent (GGE). The performance assumptions for the ex situ process were more aggressive with higher distillate (diesel-range) products. This was based on an assumption that more favorable reaction chemistry (such as coupling) can be made possible in a separate reactor where, unlike in an in situ upgrading reactor, one does not have to deal with catalyst mixing with biomass char and ash, which pose challenges to catalyst performance and maintenance. Natural gas was used for hydrogen production, but only when off gases from the process was not sufficient to meet the needs; natural gas consumption is insignificant in both the in situ and ex situ base cases. Heat produced from the burning of char, coke, and off-gases allows for the production of surplus electricity which is sold to the grid allowing a reduction of approximately 5¢/GGE in the MFSP.

  18. Photocatalytic Desulfurization of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Napida Hinchiranan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Waste tire pyrolysis oil has high potential to replace conventional fossil liquid fuels due to its high calorific heating value. However, the large amounts of sulfurous compounds in this oil hinders its application. Thus, the aim of this research was to investigate the possibility to apply the photo-assisted oxidation catalyzed by titanium dioxide (TiO2, Degussa P-25 to partially remove sulfurous compounds in the waste tire pyrolysis oil under milder reaction conditions without hydrogen consumption. A waste tire pyrolysis oil with 0.84% (w/w of sulfurous content containing suspended TiO2 was irradiated by using a high-pressure mercury lamp for 7 h. The oxidized sulfur compounds were then migrated into the solvent-extraction phase. A maximum % sulfur removal of 43.6% was achieved when 7 g/L of TiO2 was loaded into a 1/4 (v/v mixture of pyrolysis waste tire oil/acetonitrile at 50 °C in the presence of air. Chromatographic analysis confirmed that the photo-oxidized sulfurous compounds presented in the waste tire pyrolysis oil had higher polarity, which were readily dissolved and separated in distilled water. The properties of the photoxidized product were also reported and compared to those of crude oil.

  19. Emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from the pyrolysis of scrap tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shui-Jen; Su, Hung-Bin; Chang, Juu-En; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Huang, Kuo-Lin; Hsieh, Lien-Te; Huang, Yi-Chu; Lin, Wen-Yinn; Lin, Chih-Chung

    This work investigated the PAHs generated in a waste-tire pyrolysis process and the PAHs removal by a wet scrubber (WSB) and a flare. IND, DBA, and BaP were found to dominate in the powders of scrap tires before the pyrolysis. The PAHs in the carbon blacks formed in the pyrolysis were mainly 2-, 3-, 6-, and 7-ring PAHs. Nap was the most predominant water-phase PAH in the WSB effluent. About 40% of the water-phase total-PAHs in the WSB effluent were contributed by nine carcinogenic PAHs. NaP, IND, and COR displayed higher mean gas- and particulate-phase concentrations than the other PAHs in the flare exhaust. The mean removal efficiencies of individual PAHs, total-PAHs, and high carcinogenic BaP+IND+DBA were 39.1-90.4%, 76.2%, and 84.9%, respectively for the WSB. For the flare, the mean removal efficiencies of gaseous, particulate, and combined (gaseous+particulate) total-PAHs were 59.8%, 91.2%, and 66.8%, respectively, whereas the removal efficiencies were 91.0%, 80.1%, and 89.1%, respectively for the total-BaPeq. However, the gaseous BaA displayed a negative mean removal efficiency. The total PAH emission rate and factor estimated for the scrap tire pyrolysis plant were 42.3 g d -1 and 4.00 mg kg-tire -1, respectively.

  20. Space Station Water Processor Process Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, David

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the results of the development program conducted under contract NAS8-38250-12 related to the International Space Station (ISS) Water Processor (WP) Process Pump. The results of the Process Pumps evaluation conducted on this program indicates that further development is required in order to achieve the performance and life requirements for the ISSWP.

  1. Pyrolysis of Pine Wood, Experiments and Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjellerup, Jan Søren; Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk

    In this study, pinewood has been pyrolyzed using a fixed heating rate with a variable end-temperature. The pyrolysis process has been simulated using a mechanism with three parallel reactions for the formation of char, gas and tar. First order irreversible kinetics is assumed. This kind of model...... may predict the variation of product yield with operating conditions such as temperature and heating rate. The system of coupled differential equations describing the pyrolysis process is solved using the software DYMOLA. Various literature values for kinetic parameters have been compared...

  2. Pyrolysis of Pine Wood, Experiments and Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjellerup, Jan Søren; Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk

    In this study, pinewood has been pyrolyzed using a fixed heating rate with a variable end-temperature. The pyrolysis process has been simulated using a mechanism with three parallel reactions for the formation of char, gas and tar. First order irreversible kinetics is assumed. This kind of model...... may predict the variation of product yield with operating conditions such as temperature and heating rate. The system of coupled differential equations describing the pyrolysis process is solved using the software DYMOLA. Various literature values for kinetic parameters have been compared...

  3. Kinetics and product distribution of end of life tyres (ELTs) pyrolysis: a novel approach in polyisoprene and SBR thermal cracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Salem, S M; Lettieri, P; Baeyens, J

    2009-12-30

    Thermo-chemical treatments (mainly pyrolysis) directed towards energy and products recovery provide a very promising alternative to open space disposal or landfilling, reducing in the process hazardous waste and potential contamination to soil and water resources. In this communication, we present results of end of life tyres (ELTs) pyrolysis via isothermal and dynamic thermogravimetry of two ELT grades. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the possibility of utilizing a pre-set temperature (T(c)=500 degrees C) pyrolysis process (conversion time, t(c), of 120 s), to the benefit of intensifying the global product yields recovered. A novel engineering kinetics approach was undertaken to propose a thermal cracking scheme of four primary and two secondary side reactions. Thermal degradation of ELTs was taken from a depolymerization approach of the present polyisoprene polymer in the tyres, resulting in a high regression of 0.959. The products of ELTs pyrolysis were lumped into four categories, namely aromatics, liquids, char and gases. The thermal cracking model evaluation of kinetic rate constants and lumped products showed a regression ranging between 0.90 and 0.94. Dynamic runs were performed to extend the model derived, taking into account heating rate (beta) influence and products prediction and interaction. The results obtained can be used in designing industrial ELTs pyrolysis units.

  4. Reforming Biomass Derived Pyrolysis Bio-oil Aqueous Phase to Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukarakate, Calvin; Evans, Robert J.; Deutch, Steve; Evans, Tabitha; Starace, Anne K.; ten Dam, Jeroen; Watson, Michael J.; Magrini, Kim

    2017-01-07

    Fast pyrolysis and catalytic fast pyrolysis (CFP) of biomass produce a liquid product stream comprised of various classes of organic compounds having different molecule size and polarity. This liquid, either spontaneously in the case of catalytic fast pyrolysis or by water addition for the non-catalytic process separates into a non-polar organic-rich fraction and a highly polar water-rich fraction. The organic fraction can be used as a blendstock or feedstock for further processing in a refinery while, in the CFP process design, the aqueous phase is currently sent to wastewater treatment, which results in a loss of residual biogenic carbon present in this stream. This work focuses on the catalytic conversion of the biogenic carbon in pyrolysis aqueous phase streams to produce hydrocarbons using a vertical micro-reactor coupled to a molecular beam mass spectrometer (MBMS). The MBMS provides real-time analysis of products while also tracking catalyst deactivation. The catalyst used in this work was HZSM-5, which upgraded the oxygenated organics in the aqueous fraction to fuels comprising small olefins and aromatic hydrocarbons. During processing the aqueous bio-oil fraction the HZSM-5 catalyst exhibited higher activity and coke resistance than those observed in similar experiments using biomass or whole bio-oils. Reduced coking is likely due to ejection of coke precursors from the catalyst pores that was enhanced by excess process water available for steam stripping. The water reacted with coke precursors to form phenol, methylated phenols, naphthol, and methylated naphthols. Conversion data shows that up to 40 wt% of the carbon in the feed stream is recovered as hydrocarbons.

  5. Stochastic state-space temperature regulation of biochar production Part II: Application to manure processing via pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: The concept of a designer biochar that targets the improvement of a specific soil property imposes the need for production processes to generate biochars with both high consistency and quality. These important production parameters can be affected by variations in process temperature tha...

  6. Fabrication of hydrophobic, electrically conductive and flame-resistant carbon aerogels by pyrolysis of regenerated cellulose aerogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Caichao; Lu, Yun; Jiao, Yue; Jin, Chunde; Sun, Qingfeng; Li, Jian

    2015-03-15

    In this paper, we reported miscellaneous carbon aerogels prepared by pyrolysis of regenerated cellulose aerogels that were fabricated by dissolution in a mild NaOH/PEG solution, freeze-thaw treatment, regeneration, and freeze drying. The as-prepared carbon aerogels were subsequently characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), nitrogen adsorption measurements, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, and water contact angle (WCA) tests. The results showed that the carbon aerogels with pore diameters of 1-60 nm maintained interconnected three-dimensional (3D) network after the pyrolysis, and showed type-IV adsorption isotherm. The pyrolysis process leaded to the decomposition of oxygen-containing functional groups, the destruction of cellulose crystalline structure, and the formation of highly disordered amorphous graphite. Moreover, the carbon aerogels also had strong hydrophobicity, electrical conductivity and flame retardance, which held great potential in the fields of waterproof, electronic devices and fireproofing.

  7. Effects of feedstock characteristics on microwave-assisted pyrolysis - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaning; Chen, Paul; Liu, Shiyu; Peng, Peng; Min, Min; Cheng, Yanling; Anderson, Erik; Zhou, Nan; Fan, Liangliang; Liu, Chenghui; Chen, Guo; Liu, Yuhuan; Lei, Hanwu; Li, Bingxi; Ruan, Roger

    2017-04-01

    Microwave-assisted pyrolysis is an important approach to obtain bio-oil from biomass. Similar to conventional electrical heating pyrolysis, microwave-assisted pyrolysis is significantly affected by feedstock characteristics. However, microwave heating has its unique features which strongly depend on the physical and chemical properties of biomass feedstock. In this review, the relationships among heating, bio-oil yield, and feedstock particle size, moisture content, inorganics, and organics in microwave-assisted pyrolysis are discussed and compared with those in conventional electrical heating pyrolysis. The quantitative analysis of data reported in the literature showed a strong contrast between the conventional processes and microwave based processes. Microwave-assisted pyrolysis is a relatively new process with limited research compared with conventional electrical heating pyrolysis. The lack of understanding of some observed results warrant more and in-depth fundamental research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Combustion Properties of Biomass Flash Pyrolysis Oils: Final Project Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. R. Shaddix; D. R. Hardesty

    1999-04-01

    Thermochemical pyrolysis of solid biomass feedstocks, with subsequent condensation of the pyrolysis vapors, has been investigated in the U.S. and internationally as a means of producing a liquid fuel for power production from biomass. This process produces a fuel with significantly different physical and chemical properties from traditional petroleum-based fuel oils. In addition to storage and handling difficulties with pyrolysis oils, concern exists over the ability to use this fuel effectively in different combustors. The report endeavors to place the results and conclusions from Sandia's research into the context of international efforts to utilize pyrolysis oils. As a special supplement to this report, Dr. Steven Gust, of Finland's Neste Oy, has provided a brief assessment of pyrolysis oil combustion research efforts and commercialization prospects in Europe.

  9. Process analysis of effluent hydrocarbon recycling for coal pyrolysis to acetylene in thermal plasma%热等离子体煤制乙炔裂解气烃类循环过程分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程炎; 颜彬航; 李天阳; 程易

    2015-01-01

    针对等离子体煤裂解制乙炔过程,提出了将过程裂解气中副产的烃类分离,循环输入等离子体反应器的新型工艺流程。基于新疆天业2 MW示范平台装置的典型运行参数,采用热力学分析手段,理论上分析了该工艺流程对于体系乙炔产量、单位质量乙炔煤耗和裂解电耗等的影响。结果表明,裂解气烃类循环可以有效提高裂解气中乙炔浓度和产率,同时减少煤粉输送气等流程气体的使用。典型操作条件下,采用裂解气烃类循环工艺可以增加35.6%的乙炔收率和13.4%的氢气收率,降低30%的单位乙炔煤耗和裂解电耗,是高效可行的优化方案。%Coal pyrolysis via thermal plasma provides an alternative path to realize the effective conversion from coal to acetylene. Recycling the hydrocarbons in the effluent gas to the plasma pyrolysis process is proposed in this work to improve the reactor performance. Thermodynamic analysis is made as the reference on the basis of the pilot-plant results of Xinjiang Tianye 2 MW plasma pyrolysis device. The comparison results show that the recycling of effluent hydrocarbons (except acetylene) can raise the volume fraction and mass flow rate of acetylene in the product gas. The hydrocarbons in cracked gas is ample to be used as the conveying and accelerating gas for coal and the protecting gas for plasma torch, which can reduce the input amount of working gas and optimize the whole gas flow of the process. Different optimization cases are discussed to compare the products (i.e., acetylene and hydrogen) output and the gas input of the thermal plasma pyrolysis system. The optimized results show that the recycling process is feasible and effective, with reduced coal consumption (30%) and pyrolysis energy consumption (30%) as well as increased acetylene yield (35.6%).

  10. Pyrolysis of a high-ash peat in supercritical water%泥炭在超临界水中热解的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张荣; 任辉; 孙东凯; 毕继诚

    2008-01-01

    The effects of the addition of CaO, temperature and residence time on the conversion and product yields of a high-ash peat in supercritical water was investigated. The experiments were carried out in an autoclave in the temperature range of 623 K~773 K at pressure up to 30 MPa. At a Ca/C molar ratio of 0.46, almost no CO2 remained in gas phase. It was found that CaO facilitates the extraction of volatile matter from peat and the decomposition of volatile matter to small molecular compounds. Moreover, CaO catalyses the steam reforming reaction of hydrocarbons and the water-shift reaction. The addition of KOH might favor the reforming reaction of oil product to hydrogen and carbon dioxide. Furthermore, the yield of oil reaches a maximum at the temperature approximately 723K. A threefold increase in the yield of oil product was observed under 36.5 MPa compared with pyrolysis. However, the polar compounds decomposed with the prolongation of reaction time.%以氧化钙做为催化剂和CO2化学固定剂,详细考察了Ca/C摩尔比、反应温度﹑停留时间、压力等条件对泥炭在超临界水中转化的影响.在723 K,Ca/C摩尔比为0.46时,CO2被完全固定,在气相产物中只有氢气、甲烷和低碳烃,碳转化率由未添加CaO时的68.73%提高到85.36%.CaO能够促进泥炭的裂解,并对烃类的重整反应和水煤气变换反应起到催化作用.液相产物的收率在723 K达到极大值,在36.5 MPa,液相产物的收率是热解条件下的3倍,随着停留时间的延长,液相产物中的极性组分发生分解.

  11. Pyrolysis Strategies for Effective Utilization of Lignocellulosic and Algal Biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddi, Balakrishna

    -of-concept micro-pyrolyser (Pyroprobe) and lab-scale fixed-bed experiments were performed using oleaginous algae (Chlorella Sp.) to establish pyrolytic fractionation technique and also to determine the yields of triglyceride-specific bio-oils. As expected, triglyceride-specific bio-oils have hydrocarbons and free fatty acids that were nearly free of water, organic acids and carbohydrate degradation products. Another unique feature of the fractional pyrolysis method is that it allows upgrading of the triglyceride-specific bio-oil vapors via in situ gas-phase hydro-deoxygenation to drop-in fuels (hydrocarbons), without the need to condense the vapors. Similarly, these vapors can also be converted to other value-added products such as fatty acid methyl esters and amides though efficient catalytic and non-catalytic in situ gas-phase conversion methods. Energy requirements for this new pyrolytic fractionation method were also assessed, using energy estimates for the individual steps obtained via differential scanning calorimetry experiments. A comparison of these energy needs against those of alternative thermal processing methods of algae (hydro-thermal processing) proposed in the literature established the viability of this new method. Finally, a new TGA-based analytical method was developed in this thesis for rapid quantification of the triglyceride content of oleaginous feed stocks, by exploiting the non-overlapping thermal degradation range of triglycerides and the other major components.

  12. Study on pyrolysis of typical medical waste materials by using TG-FTIR analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, H M; Yan, J H; Jiang, X G; Lai, Y E; Cen, K F

    2008-05-01

    Pyrolysis of certain medical waste materials was studied using thermogravimetric analyzer coupled with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (TG-FTIR). Pyrolysis characteristics of three common materials were discussed. The pyrolysis of absorbent cotton turned out to be the most concentrative, followed by medical respirator and bamboo stick. From TG and DTG curves, pyrolysis of these three materials occurred in single, two and three stages respectively. Evolved volatile products from all these three materials included 2-butanone, benzaldehyde, formic acid, acetic acid, hydrocarbon, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and water; whereas no sulphur dioxide, ammonia and hydrogen cyanide was detected. There are several differences in yield among them. However, the study in this paper is essential for medical waste pyrolysis model, the TG-FTIR approach is potential to provide valuable inputs for predictive modeling of medical waste pyrolysis. More studied are needed to get the kinetic parameters and pyrolysis models that can predict yields and evolution patterns of selected volatile products for CFD applications.

  13. Pyrolysis characteristics and pyrolysis products separation for recycling organic materials from waste liquid crystal display panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruixue; Xu, Zhenming

    2016-01-25

    Waste liquid crystal display (LCD) panels mainly contain inorganic materials (glass substrate with indium-tin oxide film), and organic materials (polarizing film and liquid crystal). The organic materials should be removed beforehand since the organic matters would hinder the indium recycling process. In the present study, pyrolysis process is used to remove the organic materials and recycle acetic as well as and triphenyl phosphate (TPP) from waste LCD panels in an environmental friendly way. Several highlights of this study are summarized as follows: (i) Pyrolysis characteristics and pyrolysis kinetics analysis are conducted which is significant to get a better understanding of the pyrolysis process. (ii) Optimum design is developed by applying Box-Behnken Design (BBD) under response surface methodology (RSM) for engineering application which is significant to guide the further industrial recycling process. The oil yield could reach 70.53 wt% and the residue rate could reach 14.05 wt% when the pyrolysis temperature is 570 °C, nitrogen flow rate is 6 L min(-1) and the particle size is 0.5 mm. (iii) Furthermore, acetic acid and TPP are recycled, and then separated by rotary evaporation, which could reduce the consumption of fossil energy for producing acetic acid, and be reused in electronics manufacturing industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Pyrolysis and gasification of cashew nut (Anacardium occidentale L.) shell: liquid products characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueiredo, Renata Andrade; Figueiredo, Flavio Augusto Bueno; Sanchez, Caio Glauco; Sanchez, Elisabete Maria Saraiva [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Combustion Lab.]. E-mails: flavioa@fem.unicamp.br; renataaf@fem.unicamp.br; caio@fem.unicamp.br; bete@fem.unicamp.br; Arauzo, Jesus; Sanchez, Jose Luis; Gonzalo, Alberto [University of Zaragoza (Spain). Aragon Institute of Engineering Research. Thermo-chemical Processes Group (GPT)]. E-mails: qtarauzo@unizar.es; jlsance@unizar.es; agonca@unizar.es

    2008-07-01

    The environment contamination with effluents generated in the biomass pyrolysis process has been waking up the scientific community's interest and concern in a larger number of countries, that are adopting measures to quantify and reduce the generated effluents. The pyrolysis and gasification are processes that can serve as alternative for the recovery of energy in the biomass usage. Considering that Brazil is one of the greatest world producers of biomass, the theme of the biomass usage in the generation of energy has been largely discussed. By the processes of pyrolysis and gasification, depending on the biomass type, the same can be transformed in fuel (liquid, char and gases in different proportions). However, the gases have a level of impurity that should be controlled to use it in a motor or turbine. The main impurities that should be controlled are tars, chars, ashes and nitrogenated compounds. The biomass used in this work is the cashew nut shell, from the Northeast of Brazil. In northeast there are industries that process the cashew nut which can use the cashew nut main reject (shell) as fuel, avoiding landfill sanitary deposit. By thermal conversion of the biomass in the pyrolysis and gasification process, it was quantified the production of solids (char), liquids (tar) and gases. It was evaluated the influences of the final temperature (800, 900 and 1000 deg C) and the use of N{sub 2} in pyrolysis case, and a mixture of N{sub 2} and vapor of water in the gasification case, in the amounts of char, tar and gas. The exhausted gas passes through a tar (liquid) condensation system, which consists of two glass condenser vessels cooled with a mixture of ice and water and an electrostatic precipitator. The liquid fractions are extracted with isopropanol and the sample is analyzed for CG-MS and CG-FID for the identification and quantification of the present compositions. Around 50 different composed have been detected in the liquid fraction obtained, most of

  15. A review on thermal and catalytic pyrolysis of plastic solid waste (PSW).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Salem, S M; Antelava, A; Constantinou, A; Manos, G; Dutta, A

    2017-04-03

    Plastic plays an important role in our daily lives due to its versatility, light weight and low production cost. Plastics became essential in many sectors such as construction, medical, engineering applications, automotive, aerospace, etc. In addition, economic growth and development also increased our demand and dependency on plastics which leads to its accumulation in landfills imposing risk on human health, animals and cause environmental pollution problems such as ground water contamination, sanitary related issues, etc. Hence, a sustainable and an efficient plastic waste treatment is essential to avoid such issues. Pyrolysis is a thermo-chemical plastic waste treatment technique which can solve such pollution problems, as well as, recover valuable energy and products such as oil and gas. Pyrolysis of plastic solid waste (PSW) has gained importance due to having better advantages towards environmental pollution and reduction of carbon footprint of plastic products by minimizing the emissions of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide compared to combustion and gasification. This paper presents the existing techniques of pyrolysis, the parameters which affect the products yield and selectivity and identify major research gaps in this technology. The influence of different catalysts on the process as well as review and comparative assessment of pyrolysis with other thermal and catalytic plastic treatment methods, is also presented.

  16. Pyrolysis of municipal plastic wastes II: Influence of raw material composition under catalytic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, A; de Marco, I; Caballero, B M; Laresgoiti, M F; Adrados, A; Torres, A

    2011-01-01

    In this work, the results obtained in catalytic pyrolysis of three plastic waste streams which are the rejects of an industrial packing wastes sorting plant are presented. The samples have been pyrolysed in a 3.5 dm(3) reactor under semi-batch conditions at 440 °C for 30 min in nitrogen atmosphere. Commercial ZSM-5 zeolite has been used as catalyst in liquid phase contact. In every case, high HHV gases and liquids which can be useful as fuels or source of chemicals are obtained. A solid fraction composed of the inorganic material contained in the raw materials and some char formed in the pyrolysis process is also obtained. The zeolite has shown to be very effective to produce liquids with great aromatics content and C3-C4 fraction rich gases, even though the raw material was mainly composed of polyolefins. The characteristics of the pyrolysis products as well as the effect of the catalyst vary depending on the composition of the raw material. When paper rich samples are pyrolysed, ZSM-5 zeolite increases water production and reduces CO and CO(2) generation. If stepwise pyrolysis is applied to such sample, the aqueous liquid phase can be separated from the organic liquid fraction in a first low temperature step.

  17. Speculations on the nature of cellulose pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    F.J. Kilzer; A. Broido

    1965-01-01

    Consideration of the available data on cellulose pyrolysis suggests that, with relative importance depending upon heating rate in the temperature range 200-400°C, very pure cellulose decomposes by two competitive endothermic processes. lt is postulated that an unzipping reaction produces 1,4-anhydro-α-D-glucopyranose which rearranges to give levoglucosan. The other...

  18. Fates of Chemical Elements in Biomass during Its Pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wu-Jun; Li, Wen-Wei; Jiang, Hong; Yu, Han-Qing

    2017-05-10

    Biomass is increasingly perceived as a renewable resource rather than as an organic solid waste today, as it can be converted to various chemicals, biofuels, and solid biochar using modern processes. In the past few years, pyrolysis has attracted growing interest as a promising versatile platform to convert biomass into valuable resources. However, an efficient and selective conversion process is still difficult to be realized due to the complex nature of biomass, which usually makes the products complicated. Furthermore, various contaminants and inorganic elements (e.g., heavy metals, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, and chlorine) embodied in biomass may be transferred into pyrolysis products or released into the environment, arousing environmental pollution concerns. Understanding their behaviors in biomass pyrolysis is essential to optimizing the pyrolysis process for efficient resource recovery and less environmental pollution. However, there is no comprehensive review so far about the fates of chemical elements in biomass during its pyrolysis. Here, we provide a critical review about the fates of main chemical elements (C, H, O, N, P, Cl, S, and metals) in biomass during its pyrolysis. We overview the research advances about the emission, transformation, and distribution of elements in biomass pyrolysis, discuss the present challenges for resource-oriented conversion and pollution abatement, highlight the importance and significance of understanding the fate of elements during pyrolysis, and outlook the future development directions for process control. The review provides useful information for developing sustainable biomass pyrolysis processes with an improved efficiency and selectivity as well as minimized environmental impacts, and encourages more research efforts from the scientific communities of chemistry, the environment, and energy.

  19. Thermophilic aerobic post treatment of anaerobically pretreated paper process water

    OpenAIRE

    Vogelaar, J.C.T.

    2002-01-01

    Thermophilic waste- or process water treatment increases in importance as industries shift from end-of-pipe treatment towards integrated process water treatment. The need for process water treatment becomes evident as the levels of pollutants in industrial water circuits need to be controlled whereas the intake of fresh water generally diminishes. In the paper and board industry, high process water temperatures prevail and thus water treatment needs to take place under thermophilic conditions...

  20. Bio-oil from Flash Pyrolysis of Agricultural Residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, Norazana

    bio-oils. Mainly the influence of feedstock type (wheat straw, rice husk and pine wood), feedstock water content and reactor temperature on the yield of char, bio-oil and gas were investigated. The storage stability of bio-oils with respect to changes in viscosity, water content and pH were...... liquid organics yield. In addition, the chemical compositions of the bio-oils and the chars of the investigated feedstocks were also analyzed. The utilization of the pyrolysis oil in static combustion equipments such as boilers and turbine have shown that the suitability of the pyrolysis oil...... to substitute fossil fuel. However, several limitations still arise due to the instability of the pyrolysis oil that may cause problems with transport and storage. Pyrolysis oil contains more than hundred of chemical compounds and has a wide range of volatility (different boiling points). The stability...

  1. ENGINEERING BULLETIN: PYROLYSIS TREATMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyrolysis is formally defined as chemical decomposition induced in organic materials by heat in the absence of oxygen. In practice, it is not possible to achieve a completely oxygen-free atmosphere; actual pyrolytic systems are operated with less than stoichiometric quantities of...

  2. Pyrolysis of Rubber in a Screw Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozhechnik, A. V.; Savchin, V. V.

    2016-11-01

    On the basis of an analysis of thermal methods described in the literature and from the results of experimental investigations of steam conversion, the authors have developed and created a facility for thermal processing of rubber waste. Rubber crumb was used as the raw material; the temperature in the reactor was 500°C; nitrogen, steam, and a mixture of light hydrocarbons (noncondensable part of pyrolysis products) represented the working medium. The pyrolysis yielded 36-38% of a solid fraction, 54-56% of a liquid hydrocarbon fraction, and 6-9% of noncondensable gases. Changes in the composition of the gas mixture have been determined at different stages of processing. Gas chromatography of pyrolysis gases has shown that the basic gases produced by pyrolysis are H2 and hydrocarbons C2H4, C3H6, C3H8, C4H8, C2H6, C3H6O2, and C4H10, and a small amount of H2S, CO, and CO2. Noncondensable gases will be used as a fuel to heat the reactor and to implement the process.

  3. 循环镁法烟气脱硫产物MgSO3的热解回用工艺研究%Study of Pyrolysis and Recycling of MgSO3 in FGD Process by Magnesia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓伟; 鲁军

    2011-01-01

    通过类似于固定床的热解实验,研究了循环镁法烟气脱硫产物亚硫酸镁的最佳热解工艺条件。在确定可能的影响因素后,通过控制变量法,以二氧化硫产生率、亚硫酸镁分解率、产物活性为判定标准,优化各个控制因素后,得到了亚硫酸镁的最佳热解工艺条件为:热解温度550℃,升温速率10K/min,并且在热解前须对亚硫酸镁进行充分干燥。经测定,该条件下热解样品中二氧化硫产生率达到92%,亚硫酸镁分解率接近80%,热解后的氧化镁纯度为43.5%,并具有较高的反应活性,可作为脱硫剂回用。由于惰性物质的存在,实际脱硫副产物的热解效果略逊于亚硫酸镁样品.应努力控制其中惰性物质的含量。%This paper studies the best pyrolysis conditions in the recovery process of magnesium sulphites by fixed-bed pyrolysis experiments. An optimal control is taken to get the highest producing peneent of sulfur dioxide, magnesia yield and magnesia activity after confirming the likely impact factors. The optimal reaction condition is as listed, 550℃ as the pyrolysis temperature, lOK/min as the heating rate and drying magnesium sulphites before pyrolysis. Under this optimal condition, the producing pencent of sulfur dioxide is up to 92%, the decomposition rate of magnesium sulfite is near 80%, the purity of magnesia is 43.5% and its reaction activity is also superior. It can be reused as a desulfurizer. Because of the existence of inertia products, the pyrolysis effect of the real FGD byproducts is slightly inferior to magnesium sulphites, the content of inertia products should be strively controlled.

  4. Producing Hydrogen by Plasma Pyrolysis of Methane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwater, James; Akse, James; Wheeler, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Plasma pyrolysis of methane has been investigated for utility as a process for producing hydrogen. This process was conceived as a means of recovering hydrogen from methane produced as a byproduct of operation of a life-support system aboard a spacecraft. On Earth, this process, when fully developed, could be a means of producing hydrogen (for use as a fuel) from methane in natural gas. The most closely related prior competing process - catalytic pyrolysis of methane - has several disadvantages: a) The reactor used in the process is highly susceptible to fouling and deactivation of the catalyst by carbon deposits, necessitating frequent regeneration or replacement of the catalyst. b) The reactor is highly susceptible to plugging by deposition of carbon within fixed beds, with consequent channeling of flow, high pressure drops, and severe limitations on mass transfer, all contributing to reductions in reactor efficiency. c) Reaction rates are intrinsically low. d) The energy demand of the process is high.

  5. Fabrication of ZnO nanorod using spray-pyrolysis and chemical bath deposition method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramadhani, Muhammad F., E-mail: brian@tf.itb.ac.id; Pasaribu, Maruli A. H., E-mail: brian@tf.itb.ac.id; Yuliarto, Brian, E-mail: brian@tf.itb.ac.id; Nugraha, E-mail: brian@tf.itb.ac.id [Advanced Functional Materials Laboratory, Engineering Physics Department Faculty of Industrial Technology, Institut Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia)

    2014-02-24

    ZnO thin films with nanorod structure were deposited using Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis method for seed growth, and Chemical Bath Deposition (CBD) for nanorod growth. High purity Zn-hydrate and Urea are used to control Ph were dissolved in ethanol and aqua bidest in Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis process. Glass substrate was placed above the heater plate of reaction chamber, and subsequently sprayed with the range duration of 5, 10 and 20 minutes at the temperatures of 3500 C. As for the Chemical Bath Deposition, the glass substrate with ZnO seed on the surface was immerse to Zn-hydrate, HMTA (Hexa Methylene Tetra Amine) and deionized water solution for duration of 3, 5 and 7 hour and temperatures of 600 C, washed in distilled water, dried, and annealed at 3500 C for an hour. The characterization of samples was carried out to reveal the surface morphology using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). From the data, the combination of 5 minutes of Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis process and 3 hour of CBD has showed the best structure of nanorod. Meanwhile the longer Spraying process and CBD yield the bigger nanorod structure that have been made, and it makes the films more dense which make the nanorod collide each other and as a result produce unsymetric nanorod structure.

  6. Effect of torrefaction on the properties of rice straw high temperature pyrolysis char: Pore structure, aromaticity and gasification activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Handing; Chen, Xueli; Qin, Yueqiang; Wei, Juntao; Liu, Haifeng

    2017-03-01

    The influence of torrefaction on the physicochemical characteristics of char during raw and water washed rice straw pyrolysis at 800-1200°C is investigated. Pore structure, aromaticity and gasification activity of pyrolysis chars are compared between raw and torrefied samples. For raw straw, BET specific surface area decreases with the increased torrefaction temperature at the same pyrolysis temperature and it approximately increases linearly with weight loss during pyrolysis. The different pore structure evolutions relate to the different volatile matters and pore structures between raw and torrefied straw. Torrefaction at higher temperature would bring about a lower graphitization degree of char during pyrolysis of raw straw. Pore structure and carbon crystalline structure evolutions of raw and torrefied water washed straw are different from these of raw straw during pyrolysis. For both raw and water washed straw, CO2 gasification activities of pyrolysis chars are different between raw and torrefied samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Vacuum pyrolysis of swine manure : biochar production and characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, M. [Inst. de recherche et de developpement en agroenvironnement Inc., Quebec City, PQ (Canada); Centre de recherche industrielle du Quebec, Quebec City, PQ (Canada); Godbout, S.; Larouche, J.P.; Lemay, S.P.; Pelletier, F. [Inst. de recherche et de developpement en agroenvironnement Inc., Quebec City, PQ (Canada); Solomatnikova, O. [Centre de recherche industrielle du Quebec, Quebec City, PQ (Canada); Brar, S.K. [Inst. national de la recherche scientifique, eau, terre et environnement, Quebec City, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Quebec accounts for nearly 25 per cent of swine production in Canada. The issue of swine manure is addressed through land spreading and conversion into fertilizer. However, current regulations restrict the use of swine manure as fertilizer on most farmlands due to the problem of surplus phosphorus and nitrogen. Although many technologies exist to separate phosphorus and nitrogen from the organic-rich dry matter in swine manure, about 40 per cent of the treated waste matter must still be disposed in an environmentally sound manner. This study investigated the technical feasibility of pretreating the swine manure solids into biofuels on a farm-scale basis using vacuum pyrolysis process. A custom built stainless steel pressure vessel was used to carry out pyrolysis reaction of swine manure biomass at a temperature range between 200 to 600 degrees C under vacuum. The pyrolytic vapour was condensed in 2 glass condensers in series. The biochar was collected directly from the pyrolysis vessel following completion of the pyrolysis batch. The non condensable vapour and gases were considered as losses. Biochar, bio-oil, an aqueous phase and a gas mixture were the 4 products of the pyrolysis process. A thermogravimetric analysis of the swine manure samples was conducted before the pyrolysis tests. The study showed that 238 degrees C is the optimal pyrolysis temperature for biochar production.

  8. Water in Biological and Chemical Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagchi, Biman

    2013-11-01

    Part I. Bulk Water: 1. Uniqueness of water; 2. Anomalies of water; 3. Dynamics of water: molecular motions and hydrogen bond breaking kinetics; 4. Inherent structures of liquid water; 5. pH of water; Part II. Water in Biology: Dynamical View and Function: 6. Biological water; 7. Explicit role of water in biological functions; 8. Hydration of proteins; 9. Can we understand protein hydration layer: lessons from computer simulations; 10. Water in and around DNA and RNA; 11. Role of water in protein-DNA interaction; 12. Water surrounding lipid bilayers; 13. Water in Darwin's world; Part III. Water in Complex Chemical Systems: 14. Hydrophilic effects; 15. Hydrophobic effects; 16. Aqueous binary mixtures: amphiphilic effect; 17. Water in and around micelles, reverse micelles and microemulsions; 18. Water in carbon nanotubes; Part IV. Bulk Water: Advanced Topics: 19. Entropy of water; 20. Freezing of water into ice; 21. Supercritical water; 22. Microscopic approaches to understand water anomalies.

  9. Microprobe sampling--photo ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry for in situ chemical analysis of pyrolysis and combustion gases: examination of the thermo-chemical processes within a burning cigarette.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertz, Romy; Streibel, Thorsten; Liu, Chuan; McAdam, Kevin; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2012-02-10

    A microprobe sampling device (μ-probe) has been developed for in situ on-line photo ionization mass spectrometric analysis of volatile chemical species formed within objects consisting of organic matter during thermal processing. With this approach the chemical signature occurring during heating, pyrolysis, combustion, roasting and charring of organic material within burning objects such as burning fuel particles (e.g., biomass or coal pieces), lit cigarettes or thermally processed food products (e.g., roasting of coffee beans) can be investigated. Due to its dynamic changes between combustion and pyrolysis phases the cigarette smoking process is particularly interesting and has been chosen as first application. For this investigation the tip of the μ-probe is inserted directly into the tobacco rod and volatile organic compounds from inside the burning cigarette are extracted and real-time analyzed as the glowing front (or coal) approaches and passes the μ-probe sampling position. The combination of micro-sampling with photo ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (PI-TOFMS) allows on-line intrapuff-resolved analysis of species formation inside a burning cigarette. Monitoring volatile smoke compounds during cigarette puffing and smoldering cycles in this way provides unparalleled insights into formation mechanisms and their time-dependent change. Using this technique the changes from pyrolysis conditions to combustion conditions inside the coal of a cigarette could be observed directly. A comparative analysis of species formation within a burning Kentucky 2R4F reference cigarette with μ-probe analysis reveals different patterns and behaviors for nicotine, and a range of semi-volatile aromatic and aliphatic species.

  10. Coal pyrolysis. VII. Economic viability of pyrolysis. Pirolisis del carbon. VII. Viabilidad economica de la pirolisis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molinar, R.; Adanez, J.; Miranda, J.L.; Ibarra, J.V. (Instituto de Carboquimica, Zaragoza (Spain))

    1989-04-01

    Analyses the most important economic parameters of the main pyrolysis processes. Considers the markets available for semi-coke and tars. Concludes that no single technology or process has clear advantages over the others because all depends on the type of coal being used and the purpose for which the end product is to be used. Refers to studies carried out in Canada and the USA on the same subject and reports their findings. Concludes optimistically that coal pyrolysis shows promise of being economically viable in the future because although initially, costs reflect the high financial outlay necessary to begin operations, after a certain period, these costs fall and the end product can be sold at a lower price. A further point in favour of pyrolysis is that coal prices are likely to rise more slowly than oil prices. 5 refs., 8 tabs.

  11. Magnetic carbon nanostructures: microwave energy-assisted pyrolysis vs. conventional pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiahua; Pallavkar, Sameer; Chen, Minjiao; Yerra, Narendranath; Luo, Zhiping; Colorado, Henry A; Lin, Hongfei; Haldolaarachchige, Neel; Khasanov, Airat; Ho, Thomas C; Young, David P; Wei, Suying; Guo, Zhanhu

    2013-01-11

    Magnetic carbon nanostructures from microwave assisted- and conventional-pyrolysis processes are compared. Unlike graphitized carbon shells from conventional heating, different carbon shell morphologies including nanotubes, nanoflakes and amorphous carbon were observed. Crystalline iron and cementite were observed in the magnetic core, different from a single cementite phase from the conventional process.

  12. Low-temperature co-pyrolysis behaviours and kinetics of oily sludge: effect of agricultural biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiehong; Jia, Hanzhong; Qu, Chengtun; Fan, Daidi; Wang, Chuanyi

    2017-02-01

    Pyrolysis is potentially an effective treatment of oily sludge for oil recovery, and its kinetics and efficiency are expected to be affected by additives. In the present study, the pyrolysis parameters, including heating rate, final pyrolysis temperature, and pyrolysis time of oily sludge in the presence of agricultural biomass, apricot shell, were systematically explored. As a result, maximum oil recovery is achieved when optimizing the pyrolysis conditionas15 K/min, 723 K, and 3 h for heating rate, final pyrolysis temperature, and pyrolysis time, respectively. Thermogravimetric experiments of oily sludge samples in the presence of various biomasses conducted with non-isothermal temperature programmes suggest that the pyrolysis process contains three stages, and the main decomposition reaction occurs in the range of 400-740 K. Taking Flynn-Wall-Ozawa analysis of the derivative thermogravimetry and thermogravimetry results, the activation energy (Ea) values for the pyrolysis of oily sludge in the presence and absence of apricot shell were derived to be 35.21 and 39.40 kJ mol(-1), respectively. The present work supports that the presence of biomass promotes the pyrolysis of oily sludge, implying its great potential as addictive in the industrial pyrolysis of oily sludge.

  13. Effects of pretreatment in steam on the pyrolysis behavior of Loy Yang brown coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai Zeng; George Favas; Hongwei Wu; Alan L. Chaffee; Jun-ichiro Hayashi; Chun-Zhu Li [Monash University, Vic. (Australia). CRC for Clean Power from Lignite, Department of Chemical Engineering

    2006-02-01

    Dewatering/drying of Victorian brown coal will be an integral part of future brown coal utilization processes aimed at the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. This study aims to investigate the effects of the thermal pretreatment of brown coal in the presence of steam/water on its subsequent pyrolysis behavior. A Victorian (Loy Yang) brown coal was thermally pretreated in pressurized steam and inert atmospheres. The pyrolysis behavior of these pretreated coal samples was investigated in a wire-mesh reactor. While the pretreatment in steam at temperatures higher than 250{sup o}C increased the char yield of the steam-treated coal, it did not affect the overall pyrolysis char yield at 1000{sup o} C s{sup -1} if the weight loss during the pretreatment in steam was also considered. However, the tar yield decreased significantly after the pretreatment in the presence of steam. The UV-fluorescence spectroscopy of tars revealed that the release of large aromatic systems from the steam-treated coal was only affected by the pretreatment in steam if the treatment temperature was very high (e.g. 350{sup o}C). The loss of NaCl and the use of high pressure during the pretreatment of brown coal in steam were not the main reasons for the changes in the observed tar yield. The hydrolysis of O-containing structures such as ethers, esters, and carboxylates during the pretreatment in the presence of steam plays an important role in the fates of these O-containing structures during pretreatment and subsequent pyrolysis, leading to changes in the pyrolysis behavior of the brown coal. 36 refs., 8 figs.

  14. Thermal cleanups using dynamic underground stripping and hydrous pyrolysis oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aines, R D; Knauss, K; Leif, R; Newmark, R L

    1999-05-01

    In the early 1990s, in collaboration with the School of Engineering at the University of California, Berkeley, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory developed dynamic underground stripping (DUS), a method for treating subsurface contaminants with heat that is much faster and more effective than traditional treatment methods. more recently, Livermore scientists developed hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation (HPO), which introduces both heat and oxygen to the subsurface to convert contaminants in the ground to such benign products as carbon dioxide, chloride ion, and water. This process has effectively destroyed all contaminants it encountered in laboratory tests. With dynamic underground stripping, the contaminants are vaporized and vacuumed out of the ground, leaving them still to be destroyed elsewhere. Hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation technology takes the cleanup process one step further by eliminating the treatment, handling, and disposal requirements and destroying the contamination in the ground. When used in combination, HPO is especially useful in the final polishing of a site containing significant free-product contaminant, once the majority of the contaminant has been removed.

  15. Mass spectrometric studies of fast pyrolysis of cellulose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degenstein, John; Hurt, Matt; Murria, Priya; Easton, McKay; Choudhari, Harshavardhan; Yang, Linan; Riedeman, James; Carlsen, Mark; Nash, John; Agrawal, Rakesh; Delgass, W.; Ribeiro, Fabio; Kenttämaa, Hilkka

    2015-01-01

    A fast pyrolysis probe/linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer combination was used to study the primary fast pyrolysis products (those that first leave the hot pyrolysis surface) of cellulose, cellobiose, cellotriose, cellotetraose, cellopentaose, and cellohexaose, as well as of cellobiosan, cellotriosan, and cellopentosan, at 600°C. Similar products with different branching ratios were found for the oligosaccharides and cellulose, as reported previously. However, identical products (with the exception of two) with similar branching ratios were measured for cellotriosan (and cellopentosan) and cellulose. This result demonstrates that cellotriosan is an excellent small-molecule surrogate for studies of the fast pyrolysis of cellulose and also that most fast pyrolysis products of cellulose do not originate from the reducing end. Based on several observations, the fast pyrolysis of cellulose is suggested to initiate predominantly via two competing processes: the formation of anhydro-oligosaccharides, such as cellobiosan, cellotriosan, and cellopentosan (major route), and the elimination of glycolaldehyde (or isomeric) units from the reducing end of oligosaccharides formed from cellulose during fast pyrolysis.

  16. Quality improvement of pyrolysis oil from waste rubber by adding sawdust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen-liang; Chang, Jian-min; Cai, Li-ping; Shi, Sheldon Q

    2014-12-01

    This work was aimed at improving the pyrolysis oil quality of waste rubber by adding larch sawdust. Using a 1 kg/h stainless pyrolysis reactor, the contents of sawdust in rubber were gradually increased from 0%, 50%, 100% and 200% (wt%) during the pyrolysis process. Using a thermo-gravimetric (TG) analyzer coupled with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis of evolving products (TG-FTIR), the weight loss characteristics of the heat under different mixtures of sawdust/rubber were observed. Using the pyrolysis-gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS), the vapors from the pyrolysis processes were collected and the compositions of the vapors were examined. During the pyrolysis process, the recovery of the pyrolysis gas and its composition were measured in-situ at a reaction temperature of 450 °C and a retaining time of 1.2s. The results indicated that the efficiency of pyrolysis was increased and the residual carbon was reduced as the percentage of sawdust increased. The adding of sawdust significantly improved the pyrolysis oil quality by reducing the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitrogen and sulfur compounds contents, resulting in an improvement in the combustion efficiency of the pyrolysis oil. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Production of hydrogen from biomass by catalytic steam reforming of fast pyrolysis oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czernik, S.; Wang, D.; Chornet, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States). Center for Renewable Chemical Technologies and Materials

    1998-08-01

    Hydrogen is the prototype of the environmentally cleanest fuel of interest for power generation using fuel cells and for transportation. The thermochemical conversion of biomass to hydrogen can be carried out through two distinct strategies: (a) gasification followed by water-gas shift conversion, and (b) catalytic steam reforming of specific fractions derived from fast pyrolysis and aqueous/steam processes of biomass. This paper presents the latter route that begins with fast pyrolysis of biomass to produce bio-oil. This oil (as a whole or its selected fractions) can be converted to hydrogen via catalytic steam reforming followed by a water-gas shift conversion step. Such a process has been demonstrated at the bench scale using model compounds, poplar oil aqueous fraction, and the whole pyrolysis oil with commercial Ni-based steam reforming catalysts. Hydrogen yields as high as 85% have been obtained. Catalyst initial activity can be recovered through regeneration cycles by steam or CO{sub 2} gasification of carbonaceous deposits.

  18. 钙元素对褐煤热解和气化过程中产物的影响%Influence of Calcium on Pyrolysis and Gasification of Lignite Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张浩; 戴永东

    2013-01-01

    The influence of calcium on pyrolysis and gasification of lignite, discuss its influence on the product distribution of the tar yield, gas product and volatile, and the play in the process of catalysis. The results show that, in the process of pyrolysis, calcium will decrease the yield of tar, improve the char yield; in the gasification process, calcium can improve the reaction of activated semi-coke, accelerate the reaction speed. Make CO2 and CH4 decreased yield, yield of H2 and CO was improved.%综述了钙元素对褐煤热解及气化影响,讨论其对产物中焦油产率、气体产物和挥发分的分布影响,以及其在过程中发挥的催化作用。结果表明,在热解过程中,钙元素会降低焦油产率,提高半焦产率;在气化过程中,钙元素能提高半焦的反应活性,加快反应速度。使CO2和CH4产率降低,H2和CO产率得到了提升。

  19. Physicochemical characterization of sludge obtained in a UASB reactor: influence on the energetic utilization in the pyrolysis process; Caracterizacao fisico-quimica de lodo obtido em um reator UASB: influencia no aproveitamento energetico em processo de pirolise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Murillo Barros de [Universidade Federal do Tocantins (UFT), Palmas, TO (Brazil)], Email: murillopur@yahoo.com.br; Vieira, Glaucia Eliza Gama; Cardoso, Aderlanio da Silva; Silveira, Dyego Amaral; Figueiredo, Radson Lima [Universidade Federal do Tocantins (LEDBIO/UFT), Palmas, TO (Brazil). Lab. de Ensaios e Desenvolvimento de Biomassas e Biocombustiveis

    2010-07-01

    In biological treatment processes of domestic sewer it leaves of the organic matter is converted and another is absorbed being part of the microbial biomass denominated generic of mud biological or secondary composed mainly of biological solids, and that for that reason can also be denominated of sewage sludge. To give a maintainable final destiny for that residue has been one of the great challenges of the sanitation in the last years. Great part of that material is destined unproductive some are incinerated, others are disposed in sanitary embankments. This work had as objective the physiochemical characterization of the digested sludge, virgin and free from oxide of calcium (CaO), produced in the reactor UASB, of ETE Vila Uniao located in the city of Palmas-TO, for the destination as raw material for energy use in pyrolysis process. The collected sample was taken drought and stabilized to be analyzed at the laboratory LEDBIO/UFT where they were studied the particle, tenor of ashes, humidity and volatile density and sequential extraction for soxhlet. Found in the biomass loud tenor of volatile (56,72%), carbon fastens low (5,21%) and a considerable tenor of ashes (32,78%), what suggests that that sludge, in agreement with the comparisons of the literature, can obtain good incomes in pyrolysis process, especially incomes in bio-oil and coal. (author)

  20. Fluidized-bed pyrolysis of waste bamboo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Bamboo was a popular material substituting for wood, especially for one-off commodity in China. In order to recover energy and materials from waste bamboo, the basic characteristics of bamboo pyrolysis were studied by a thermogravimetric analyzer. It implied that the reaction began at 190~210 ℃, and the percentage of solid product deceased from about 25% to 17% when temperature ranged from 400 ℃ to 700 ℃. A lab-scale fluidized-bed furnace was setup to research the detailed properties of gaseous, liquid and solid products respectively. When temperature increased from 400 ℃ to 700 ℃, the mass percent of solid product decreased from 27% to 17% approximately, while that of syngas rose up from 19% to 35%. When temperature was about 500℃, the percentage of tar reached the top, about 31%. The mass balance of these experiments was about 93%~95%. It indicated that three reactions involved in the process: pyrolysis of exterior bamboo, pyrolysis of interior bamboo and secondary pyrolysis of heavy tar.

  1. Pyrolysis and catalytic pyrolysis as a recycling method of waste CDs originating from polycarbonate and HIPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonakou, E V; Kalogiannis, K G; Stephanidis, S D; Triantafyllidis, K S; Lappas, A A; Achilias, D S

    2014-12-01

    Pyrolysis appears to be a promising recycling process since it could convert the disposed polymers to hydrocarbon based fuels or various useful chemicals. In the current study, two model polymers found in WEEEs, namely polycarbonate (PC) and high impact polystyrene (HIPS) and their counterparts found in waste commercial Compact Discs (CDs) were pyrolysed in a bench scale reactor. Both, thermal pyrolysis and pyrolysis in the presence of two catalytic materials (basic MgO and acidic ZSM-5 zeolite) was performed for all four types of polymers. Results have shown significant recovery of the monomers and valuable chemicals (phenols in the case of PC and aromatic hydrocarbons in the case of HIPS), while catalysts seem to decrease the selectivity towards the monomers and enhance the selectivity towards other desirable compounds.

  2. 造纸厂水处理污泥基本性质及热解特性研究%A study on basic properties and pyrolysis characteristics of waste water treatment sludge from paper mills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏振华; 王承亮; 冯文英; 徐明; 张升友; 张羽; 曹赢戈

    2013-01-01

    Basic properties and pyrolysis characteristics of primary sludge, secondary sludge and advanced treatment sludge from paper mill were studied. According to the analysis of pyrolysis process by means of Coats-Redfern method and based on the calculated kinetic parameters of three kinds of sludge at 10℃/min heating rate. It is found that the reaction order of primary sludge is 2 at the organic pyrolysis region, the other two are 3. The activation energy of the three kinds of sludge are 43.80 kJ/mol, 32.74 kJ/mol and17.16 kJ/mol, and their frequency factor are 1.56×106min-1, 1.18×107min-1 and 2.60×108min-1 respectively.%本论文分别对初沉污泥、生化污泥及深度处理污泥的基本物化性质及热解特性进行了研究,并进一步采用Coats-Redfern法描述了热解过程,计算了三种污泥的热解动力学参数。动力学研究结果表明:造纸厂水处理初沉污泥有机物热解主要区域的反应级数为2,二沉污泥及深度处理污泥的反应级数为3,三者的活化能分别为:43.80k J/m o l、32.74kJ/mol及17.16kJ/mol,频率因子分别为:1.56×106min-1、1.18×107min-1、2.60×108min-1。

  3. 共热解过程对褐煤焦和生物质焦氧化特性的影响%Effect of co-pyrolysis process on the oxidation reactivity of lignite char and biomass char

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭沛; 赵慧明; 贾挺豪; 王美君; 常丽萍

    2015-01-01

    Ximeng lignite and cornstalk were used as the feedstock to prepare lignite char, biomass char and co-pyrolysis char with different blending ratios in a fixed bed reactor with temperature-programmed pyrolysis. The pore and chemical structure of char samples were characterized and the ash composition was analyzed. The oxidation reactivity of the mixtures of lignite char/cornstalk char with different blending ratios and the co-pyrolysis char of lignite and cornstalk with corresponding blending ratios were investigated by the isothermal thermogravimetry at 450℃, aimed at the effect of co-pyrolysis process on the char reactivity. The results show that there are obvious influences on the char structures through secondary reactions during co-pyrolysis process, leading to the char reactivity decrease. Especially with the cornstalk proportion less than 50%, these influences are more significant due to a large number of volatiles from cornstalk during co-pyrolysis enhancing the secondary reactions between the volatile and nascent char, prompting parts of organic structure less than 5 rings turn into the larger organic structure. For the char samples with cornstalk proportion above 50%, the catalytic effect of alkaline and alkaline earth metal in biomass char plays a dominating role, especially the effect of potassium, resulting in the weaker effects of secondary reactions on the structure and oxidation reactivity of the char samples.%以锡盟褐煤和玉米秸秆为原料,利用固定床程序升温热解的方法制备了褐煤焦、生物质焦以及褐煤和生物质不同混合比例的共热解焦样,并进行了孔结构和化学结构的表征以及其灰成分分析。采用等温热重法在450℃下考察褐煤焦和生物质焦的混合样与其相同比例的共热解焦样的氧化活性,对比分析共热解过程对焦样反应活性的影响。实验结果表明,共热解过程中的二次反应对焦样结构有着明显的影响,进一步导

  4. Pyrolysis and gasification behavior of black liquor under pressurized conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitty, K.

    1997-11-01

    The purpose of this study has been to enhance the understanding of the processes involved in pressurized black liquor gasification. Gasification is known to occur in three stages: drying, pyrolysis and char gasification. The work presented here focuses on the pyrolysis and gasification stages. Experiments were carried out primarily in two laboratory-scale reactors. A pressurized grid heater was used to study black liquor pyrolysis under pressurized conditions. Char yields and the fate of elements in the liquor, as well as the degree of liquor swelling, were measured in this device. A pressurized thermogravimetric reactor was used to measure the rate of the char gasification process under different temperatures and pressures and in various gas atmospheres. Pyrolysis experiments were also carried out in this device, and data on swelling behavior, char yields and component release were obtained 317 refs.

  5. Thermophilic aerobic post treatment of anaerobically pretreated paper process water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogelaar, J.C.T.

    2002-01-01

    Thermophilic waste- or process water treatment increases in importance as industries shift from end-of-pipe treatment towards integrated process water treatment. The need for process water treatment becomes evident as the levels of pollutants in industrial water circuits need to be co

  6. Thermophilic aerobic post treatment of anaerobically pretreated paper process water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogelaar, J.C.T.

    2002-01-01

    Thermophilic waste- or process water treatment increases in importance as industries shift from end-of-pipe treatment towards integrated process water treatment. The need for process water treatment becomes evident as the levels of pollutants in industrial water

  7. Theoretical study of the pyrolysis of vanillin as a model of secondary lignin pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Liu, Chao; Xu, Xiaoxiao; Li, Qibin

    2016-06-01

    The unimolecular and bimolecular decomposition reactions in processes of vanillin pyrolysis were theoretically investigated by employing density functional theory (DFT) method at M06-2X/6-31 G+(d,p) level. The result shows that the homolytic cleavage of O-CH3 bond could be the dominant initial step in the pyrolysis of vanillin. The hydrogen abstractions from functional groups of vanillin by the formed radicals play important roles in the formation of main products. Both formyl, hydroxyl and methoxyl group contribute to the formation of CO. Benzene is formed from the hydrogen addition reaction between hydrogen radical and phenol at high temperature.

  8. Integration of pyrolysis and anaerobic digestion--use of aqueous liquor from digestate pyrolysis for biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübner, Tobias; Mumme, Jan

    2015-05-01

    Anaerobic digestion of aqueous pyrolysis liquor derived from pyrolysis of solid digestate was tested in batch mode using an un-adapted inoculum. Three pyrolysis liquors produced at 330°C, 430°C and 530°C in four COD-based concentrations of 3, 6, 12 and 30 g L(-1) were investigated. The three lower concentrations showed considerable biogas production, whereas the 30 g L(-1) dosage caused process inhibition. The highest methane yield of 199.1±18.5 mL g(COD)(-1) (COD removal: 56.9±5.3%) was observed for the 330°C pyrolysis liquor, followed by the 430°C sample with only slightly lower values. The 530°C sample dropped to a yield of 129.3±19.7 mL g(COD)(-1) (COD removal: 36.9±5.6%). Most VOCs contained in the pyrolysis liquor (i.e. furfural, phenol, catechol, guaiacol, and levoglucosan) were reduced below detection limit (cresol by 10-60%). Consequently, integrated pyrolysis and anaerobic digestion in addition to thermochemical conversion of digestate also promises bioconversion of pyrolysis liquors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Co-pyrolysis of rice straw and polypropylene using fixed-bed pyrolyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzatie, N. I.; Basha, M. H.; Uemura, Y.; Mazlan, M. A.; Hashim, M. S. M.; Amin, N. A. M.; Hamid, M. F.

    2016-11-01

    The present work encompasses the impact of temperature (450, 500, 550, 600 °C) on the properties of pyrolysis oil and on other product yield for the co-pyrolysis of Polypropylene (PP) plastics and rice straw. Co-pyrolysis of PP plastic and rice straw were conducted in a fixed-bed drop type pyrolyzer under an inert condition to attain maximum oil yield. Physically, the pyrolysis oil is dark-brown in colour with free flowing and has a strong acrid smell. Copyrolysis between these typically obtained in maximum pyrolysis oil yields up to 69% by ratio 1:1 at a maximum temperature of 550 °C. From the maximum yield of pyrolysis oil, characterization of pyrolysis product and effect of biomass type of the composition were evaluated. Pyrolysis oil contains a high water content of 66.137 wt.%. Furfural, 2- methylnaphthalene, tetrahydrofuran (THF), toluene and acetaldehyde were the major organic compounds found in pyrolysis oil of rice straw mixed with PP. Bio-char collected from co-pyrolysis of rice straw mixed with PP plastic has high calorific value of 21.190 kJ/g and also carbon content with 59.02 wt.% and could contribute to high heating value. The non-condensable gases consist of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and methane as the major gas components.

  10. Co-pyrolysis of sewage sludge and manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Gómez, Nadia; Quispe, Violeta; Ábrego, Javier; Atienza-Martínez, María; Murillo, María Benita; Gea, Gloria

    2017-01-01

    The management and valorization of residual organic matter, such as sewage sludge and manure, is gaining interest because of the increasing volume of these residues, their localized generation and the related problems. The anaerobic digestion of mixtures of sewage sludge and manure could be performed due to the similarities between both residues. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of the co-pyrolysis of sewage sludge (SS) and digested manure (DM) as a potential management technology for these residues. Pyrolysis of a sewage sludge/manure blend (50:50%) was performed at 525°C in a stirred batch reactor under N2 atmosphere. The product yields and some characteristics of the product were analyzed and compared to the results obtained in the pyrolysis of pure residues. Potential synergetic and antagonist effects during the co-pyrolysis process were evaluated. Although sewage sludge and manure seem similar in nature, there are differences in their pyrolysis product properties and distribution due to their distinct ash and organic matter composition. For the co-pyrolysis of SS and DM, the product yields did not show noticeable synergistic effects with the exception of the yields of organic compounds, being slightly higher than the predicted average, and the H2 yield, being lower than expected. Co-pyrolysis of SS and DM could be a feasible management alternative for these residues in locations where both residues are generated, since the benefits and the drawbacks of the co-pyrolysis are similar to those of the pyrolysis of each residue. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Pyrolysis and dehalogenation of plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE): a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoning; Sun, Lushi; Xiang, Jun; Hu, Song; Su, Sheng

    2013-02-01

    Plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) have been an important environmental problem because these plastics commonly contain toxic halogenated flame retardants which may cause serious environmental pollution, especially the formation of carcinogenic substances polybrominated dibenzo dioxins/furans (PBDD/Fs), during treat process of these plastics. Pyrolysis has been proposed as a viable processing route for recycling the organic compounds in WEEE plastics into fuels and chemical feedstock. However, dehalogenation procedures are also necessary during treat process, because the oils collected in single pyrolysis process may contain numerous halogenated organic compounds, which would detrimentally impact the reuse of these pyrolysis oils. Currently, dehalogenation has become a significant topic in recycling of WEEE plastics by pyrolysis. In order to fulfill the better resource utilization of the WEEE plastics, the compositions, characteristics and dehalogenation methods during the pyrolysis recycling process of WEEE plastics were reviewed in this paper. Dehalogenation and the decomposition or pyrolysis of WEEE plastics can be carried out simultaneously or successively. It could be 'dehalogenating prior to pyrolysing plastics', 'performing dehalogenation and pyrolysis at the same time' or 'pyrolysing plastics first then upgrading pyrolysis oils'. The first strategy essentially is the two-stage pyrolysis with the release of halogen hydrides at low pyrolysis temperature region which is separate from the decomposition of polymer matrixes, thus obtaining halogenated free oil products. The second strategy is the most common method. Zeolite or other type of catalyst can be used in the pyrolysis process for removing organohalogens. The third strategy separate pyrolysis and dehalogenation of WEEE plastics, which can, to some degree, avoid the problem of oil value decline due to the use of catalyst, but obviously, this strategy may increase the cost of

  12. Characterization of Carbon Particulates in the Exit Flow of a Plasma Pyrolysis Assembly (PPA) Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Robert D.; Meyer, Marit E.; Agui, Juan H.; Berger, Gordon M.; Vijayakumar, R.; Abney, Morgan B.; Greenwood, Zachary

    2015-01-01

    The ISS presently recovers oxygen from crew respiration via a Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA) that utilizes the Sabatier chemical process to reduce captured carbon dioxide to methane (CH4) and water. In order to recover more of the hydrogen from the methane and increase oxygen recovery, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is investigating a technology, plasma pyrolysis, to convert the methane to acetylene. The Plasma Pyrolysis Assembly (or PPA), achieves 90% or greater conversion efficiency, but a small amount of solid carbon particulates are generated as a side product and must be filtered before the acetylene is removed and the hydrogen-rich gas stream is recycled back to the CRA. In this work, we present the experimental results of an initial characterization of the carbon particulates in the PPA exit gas stream. We also present several potential options to remove these carbon particulates via carbon traps and filters to minimize resupply mass and required downtime for regeneration.

  13. Influence of temperature and particle size on the fixed bed pyrolysis of orange peel residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguiar, L. [Departamento de Mecanica, Universidad de Pinar del Rio, Cuba. Calle Marti 270, final, Pinar del Rio (Cuba); Marquez-Montesinos, F. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidad de Pinar del Rio, Cuba. Calle Marti 270, final, Pinar del Rio (Cuba); Gonzalo, A.; Sanchez, J.L.; Arauzo, J. [Thermochemical Processes Group (GPT), Aragon Institute for Engineering Research (I3A), University of Zaragoza, Maria de Luna 3, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2008-09-15

    Orange peel is a residue from the production of juice. Its energetic valorisation could be interesting in areas where a different use, such as animal feed, is not possible. In order to investigate the viability of energy recovery, the pyrolysis of orange peel residues was studied in a fixed bed reactor, as an initial assessment of this process. The influence of pyrolysis temperature (300-600 C) and particle size (d{sub p}<300{mu}m and d{sub p}>800{mu}m) on product distribution, gas composition and char heating value has been investigated using a factorial design of experiments. Gas, char and water are the main products obtained; tar is only about 6 wt.% of the initial residue. Temperature was found to be the parameter which exerts a more important influence on the results than particle size. (author)

  14. The densification of bio-char: Effect of pyrolysis temperature on the qualities of pellets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qiang; Yang, Haiping; Yao, Dingding; Zhu, Danchen; Wang, Xianhua; Shao, Jingai; Chen, Hanping

    2016-01-01

    The densification of bio-chars pyrolyzed at different temperatures were investigated to elucidate the effect of temperature on the properties of bio-char pellets and determine the bonding mechanism of pellets. Optimized process conditions were obtained with 128MPa compressive pressure and 35% water addition content. Results showed that both the volume density and compressive strength of bio-char pellets initially decreased and subsequently increased, while the energy consumption increased first and then decreased, with the increase of pyrolysis temperature. The moisture adsorption of bio-char pellets was noticeably lower than raw woody shavings but had elevated than the corresponding char particles. Hydrophilic functional groups, particle size and binder were the main factors that contributed to the cementation of bio-char particles at different temperatures. The result indicated that pyrolysis of woody shavings at 550-650°C and followed by densification was suitable to form bio-char pellets for application as renewable biofuels.

  15. Kinetics of scrap tyre pyrolysis under vacuum conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Gartzen; Aguado, Roberto; Olazar, Martín; Arabiourrutia, Miriam; Bilbao, Javier

    2009-10-01

    Scrap tyre pyrolysis under vacuum is attractive because it allows easier product condensation and control of composition (gas, liquid and solid). With the aim of determining the effect of vacuum on the pyrolysis kinetics, a study has been carried out in thermobalance. Two data analysis methods have been used in the kinetic study: (i) the treatment of experimental data of weight loss and (ii) the deconvolution of DTG (differential thermogravimetry) curve. The former allows for distinguishing the pyrolysis of the three main components (volatile components, natural rubber and styrene-butadiene rubber) according to three successive steps. The latter method identifies the kinetics for the pyrolysis of individual components by means of DTG curve deconvolution. The effect of vacuum in the process is significant. The values of activation energy for the pyrolysis of individual components of easier devolatilization (volatiles and NR) are lower for pyrolysis under vacuum with a reduction of 12K in the reaction starting temperature. The kinetic constant at 503K for devolatilization of volatile additives at 0.25atm is 1.7 times higher than that at 1atm, and that corresponding to styrene-butadiene rubber at 723K is 2.8 times higher. Vacuum enhances the volatilization and internal diffusion of products in the pyrolysis process, which contributes to attenuating the secondary reactions of the repolymerization and carbonization of these products on the surface of the char (carbon black). The higher quality of carbon black is interesting for process viability. The large-scale implementation of this process in continuous mode requires a comparison to be made between the economic advantages of using a vacuum and the energy costs, which will be lower when the technologies used for pyrolysis require a lower ratio between reactor volume and scrap tyre flow rate.

  16. Fast switching water processable electrochromic polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Pengjie; Amb, Chad M; Dyer, Aubrey L; Reynolds, John R

    2012-12-01

    This paper describes the synthesis of two new blue to transmissive donor-acceptor electrochromic polymers: a polymer synthesized using an alternating copolymerization route (ECP-Blue-A) and a polymer synthesized using a random copolymerization (ECP-Blue-R) by Stille polymerization. These polymers utilize side chains with four ester groups per donor moiety, allowing organic solubility in the ester form, and water solubility upon saponification to their carboxylate salt form. We demonstrate that the saponified polymer salts of ECP-Blue-A and ECP-Blue-R (WS-ECP-Blue-A and WS-ECP-Blue-R) can be processed from aqueous solutions into thin films by spray-casting. Upon the subsequent neutralization of the thin films, the resulting polymer acid films are solvent resistant and can be electrochemically switched between their colored state and a transmissive state in a KNO(3)/water electrolyte solution. The polymer acids, WS-ECP-Blue-A-acid and WS-ECP-Blue-R-acid, show electrochromic contrast Δ%T of 38% at 655 nm and 39% at 555 nm for a 0.5 s switch, demonstrating the advantage of an aqueous compatible electrochrome switchable in high ionic conductivity aqueous electrolytes. The results of the electrochromic properties study indicate that these polymers are promising candidates for aqueous processable and aqueous switching electrochromic materials and devices as desired for applications where environmental impact is of importance.

  17. Catalytic partial oxidation of pyrolysis oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennard, David Carl

    2009-12-01

    details the catalytic partial oxidation of glycerol without preheat: droplets of glycerol are sprayed directly onto the top of the catalyst bed, where they react autothermally with contact times on the order of tau ≈ 30 ms. The reactive flash volatilization of glycerol results in equilibrium syngas production over Rh-Ce catalysts. In addition, water can be added to the liquid glycerol, resulting in true autothermal reforming. This highly efficient process can increase H2 yields and alter the H2 to CO ratio, allowing for flexibility in syngas quality depending on the purpose. Chapter 5 details the results of a time on stream experiment, in which optimal syngas conditions are chosen. Although conversion is 100% for 450 hours, these experiments demonstrate the deactivation of the catalyst over time. Deactivation is exhibited by decreases in H2 and CO 2 production accompanied by a steady increase in CO and temperature. These results are explained as a loss of water-gas shift equilibration. SEM images suggest catalyst sintering may play a role; EDS indicates the presence of impurities on the catalyst. In addition, the instability of quartz in the reactor is demonstrated by etching, resulting in a hole in the reactor tube at the end of the experiment. These results suggest prevaporization may be desirable in this application, and that quartz is not a suitable material for the reactive flash volatilization of oxygenated fuels. In Chapter 6, pyrolysis oil samples from three sources - poplar, pine, and hardwoods - are explored in the context of catalytic partial oxidation. Lessons derived from the tests with model compounds are applied to reactor design, resulting in the reactive flash vaporization of bio oils. Syngas is successfully produced, though deactivation due to coke and ash deposition keeps H2 below equlibrium. Coke formation is observed on the reactor walls, but is avoided between the fuel injection site and catalyst by increasing the proximity of these in the reactor

  18. Efficiency tests on the pyrolysis gasifier stove Peko Pe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents results from water boiling tests on the pyrolysis gasifier stove Peko Pe, which has been developed by the Norwegian Paal Wendelbo. The stove efficiency determined vary between 21 and 29% when burning dry Danish woodchips (10% moisture) with an estimated caloric value of 16 MJ...... the water content in the grass. In Adjumani refugee camp it was furthermore found that the stove was able to provide sufficient energy from solid combustion, after the pyrolysis was stopped, to boil water for additional 25-30 minutes with lid. This effect was not seen in the tests on woodchips in Denmark...

  19. Use of pyrolysis GC/MS for predicting emission byproducts from the incineration of double-base propellant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cropek, Donald M; Kemme, Patricia A; Day, Jean M; Cochran, Jack

    2002-10-15

    Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to analyze the pyrolytic byproducts from an Army-unique propellant compound (AA2) that is composed of predominantly nitrocellulose and nitroglycerin. Compounds produced by AA2 pyrolysis were compared to compounds detected in the gaseous effluent from AA2 incineration. The light permanent gases and most of the higher molecular weight byproducts produced by AA2 incineration are replicated by laboratory pyrolysis on AA2. The reverse case also holds whereby 18 out of 24 high molecular weight AA2 pyrolytic byproducts are found in the incinerator emissions. Poor matching, however, was obtained between the two processes for the volatile, water-soluble species. None of these low molecular weight compounds produced under pyrolytic conditions were detected in the AA2 incinerator samples, likely indicating inefficient capture of these compounds from the effluent stream. Separate pyrolytic degradation of the individual components of AA2 provides evidence that nearly all of the incomplete combustion products detected during incineration originate not from the prevalent energetic ingredients but rather from the minor and trace additives in AA2. In addition, pyrolysis successfully identified the AA2 components capable of surviving the incineration process intact. This work illustrates the potential of bench-scale pyrolysis for predicting incineration behavior.

  20. Production of bio-oil and biochar from soapstock via microwave-assisted co-catalytic fast pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Leilei; Fan, Liangliang; Liu, Yuhuan; Ruan, Roger; Wang, Yunpu; Zhou, Yue; Zhao, Yunfeng; Yu, Zhenting

    2017-02-01

    In this study, production of bio-oil and biochar from soapstock via microwave-assisted co-catalytic fast pyrolysis combining the advantages of in-situ and ex-situ catalysis was performed. The effects of catalyst and pyrolysis temperature on product fractional yields and bio-oil chemical compositions were investigated. From the perspective of bio-oil yield, the optimal pyrolysis temperature was 550°C. The use of catalysts reduced the water content, and the addition of bentonite increased the bio-oil yield. Up to 84.16wt.% selectivity of hydrocarbons in the bio-oil was obtained in the co-catalytic process. In addition, the co-catalytic process can reduce the proportion of oxygenates in the bio-oil to 15.84wt.% and eliminate the N-containing compounds completely. The addition of bentonite enhanced the BET surface area of bio-char. In addition, the bio-char removal efficiency of Cd(2+) from soapstock pyrolysis in presence of bentonite was 27.4wt.% higher than without bentonite.

  1. Thiophenic Sulfur Compounds Released During Coal Pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Mengwen; Kong, Jiao; Dong, Jie; Jiao, Haili; Li, Fan

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Thiophenic sulfur compounds are released during coal gasification, carbonization, and combustion. Previous studies indicate that thiophenic sulfur compounds degrade very slowly in the environment, and are more carcinogenic than polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nitrogenous compounds. Therefore, it is very important to study the principle of thiophenic sulfur compounds during coal conversion, in order to control their emission and promote clean coal utilization. To realize this goal and understand the formation mechanism of thiophenic sulfur compounds, this study focused on the release behavior of thiophenic sulfur compounds during coal pyrolysis, which is an important phase for all coal thermal conversion processes. The pyrolyzer (CDS-5250) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (Focus GC-DSQII) were used to analyze thiophenic sulfur compounds in situ. Several coals with different coal ranks and sulfur contents were chosen as experimental samples, and thiophenic sulfur compounds of the gas produced during pyrolysis under different temperatures and heating rates were investigated. Levels of benzothiophene and dibenzothiophene were obtained during pyrolysis at temperatures ranging from 200°C to 1300°C, and heating rates ranging from 6°C/ms to 14°C/ms and 6°C/s to 14°C/s. Moreover, the relationship between the total amount of benzothiophene and dibenzothiophene released during coal pyrolysis and the organic sulfur content in coal was also discussed. This study is beneficial for understanding the formation and control of thiophenic sulfur compounds, since it provides a series of significant results that show the impact that operation conditions and organic sulfur content in coal have on the amount and species of thiophenic sulfur compounds produced during coal pyrolysis. PMID:23781126

  2. What is the role played by organic matter fractions from different sieve-size particles in the development of soil water repellency? A case study using analytical pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio T.; González-Pérez, José A.; González-Vila, Francisco J.; Zavala, Lorena M.; Jordán, Antonio; Jiménez-González, Marco A.

    2014-05-01

    in sieve fractions 0.25-1, 0.05-0.25 and <0.05 mm from HH samples nor in PA and PP (0.25-1 mm samples). A significant relation was observed between SOM content and severity of soil WR in QS samples and finer fractions of other samples, which is in agreement with previous findings (GOrdillo-Rivero et al., 2013; Jordán et al., 2011). In contrast, 1-2 mm sieve fractions from PP, PA and HH soils showed high severity of soil WR and relatively low SOM contents. This could be explained by a low degree of evolution of organic residues with higher alkane/alkene CPI values and to the presence of a higher diversity of fatty acid structures. These results suggest that soil WR appears as a consequence of lipid compounds in soil. Some similarities were found in the organic molecular assemblages in PA and PP samples, suggesting a fingerprint of pine residues in PA samples, resulting from ancient pine forests. This finding may be also explained by the existence of exogenous organic inputs associated to fine soil particles from border areas of pine forests. REFERENCES de la Rosa, J.M., González-Pérez, J.A., González-Vila, F.J., Knicker, H., Araújo, M.F. 2011. Characterization of wildfire effects on soil organic matter using analytical pyrolysis. Geoderma 191, 24-30. González-Pérez, J.A., González-Vila, F.J., Arias, M.E., Rodríguez, J., de la Rosa, J.M., Marañón, T., Clemente, L. 2011. Geochemical and ecological significance of soil lipids under Rhododendron ponticum stands. Environmental Chemistry Letters 9, 453-464. Gordillo-Rivero, A.J., García-Moreno, J., Jordán, A., Zavala, L.M. 2013. Monitoring fire impacts in soil water repellency and structure stability during 6 years. Flamma 4, 71-75. Jordán, A., Zavala, L.M., Mataix-Solera, J., Nava, A.L., Alanís, N. 2011. Effect of fire severity on water repellency and aggregate stability on Mexican volcanic soils. Catena 84, 136-147.

  3. Diel biogeochemical processes in terrestrial waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compiled and Edited by Nimick, David A.; Gammons, Christopher H.

    2011-01-01

    Many biogeochemical processes in rivers and lakes respond to the solar photocycle and produce persistent patterns of measureable phenomena that exhibit a day-night, or 24-h, cycle. Despite a large body of recent literature, the mechanisms responsible for these diel fluctuations are widely debated, with a growing consensus that combinations of physical, chemical, and biological processes are involved. These processes include streamflow variation, photosynthesis and respiration, plant assimilation, and reactions involving photochemistry, adsorption and desorption, and mineral precipitation and dissolution. Diel changes in streamflow and water properties such as temperature, pH, and dissolved oxygen concentration have been widely recognized, and recently, diel studies have focused more widely by considering other constituents such as dissolved and particulate trace metals, metalloids, rare earth elements, mercury, organic matter, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), and nutrients. The details of many diel processes are being studied using stable isotopes, which also can exhibit diel cycles in response to microbial metabolism, photosynthesis and respiration, or changes in phase, speciation, or redox state. In addition, secondary effects that diel cycles might have, for example, on biota or in the hyporheic zone are beginning to be considered. This special issue is composed primarily of papers presented at the topical session "Diurnal Biogeochemical Processes in Rivers, Lakes, and Shallow Groundwater" held at the annual meeting of the Geological Society of America in October 2009 in Portland, Oregon. This session was organized because many of the growing number of diel studies have addressed just a small part of the full range of diel cycling phenomena found in rivers and lakes. This limited focus is understandable because (1) fundamental aspects of many diel processes are poorly understood and require detailed study, (2) the interests and expertise of individual

  4. Integrated coke, asphalt and jet fuel production process and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Jer Y.

    1991-01-01

    A process and apparatus for the production of coke, asphalt and jet fuel m a feed of fossil fuels containing volatile carbon compounds therein is disclosed. The process includes the steps of pyrolyzing the feed in an entrained bed pyrolyzing means, separating the volatile pyrolysis products from the solid pyrolysis products removing at least one coke from the solid pyrolysis products, fractionating the volatile pyrolysis products to produce an overhead stream and a bottom stream which is useful as asphalt for road pavement, condensing the overhead stream to produce a condensed liquid fraction and a noncondensable, gaseous fraction, and removing water from the condensed liquid fraction to produce a jet fuel-containing product. The disclosed apparatus is useful for practicing the foregoing process. the process provides a useful method of mass producing and jet fuels from materials such as coal, oil shale and tar sands.

  5. Quantification of water usage at a South African platinum processing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    water use will also lessen the dependence of mining opera- tions on water resources ..... available for the water footprints of the chemicals and electricity used within the process. ... A list of tasks, stores and treatment plants was also provided.

  6. Characterization of Biochar Produced from IRAQI Palm Fronds by Thermal Pyrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qasim H. Alwan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper focuses in a particular on the study of the biochar production conditions by the thermal pyrolysis of biomass from local Iraqi palm fronds, in the absence of oxygen. The biochar product can be used as soil improvers. The effect of temperature on the extent of the thermal pyrolysis process was studied in the range from 523 to 773K with a residence time of 15 minutes and nitrogen gas flow rate of 0.1 l/min. The produced biochar was characterized as will as biomass and degradation products. The results showed that the rate of biochar production decreases with the increasing in temperature, also it was noted that the normalized biochar surface area and pore size increases with the increasing in temperature. The results showed an increase in the biochar ability to absorb water and the percent of water content increases with increasing temperature. The quality and quantity of the products of the thermal pyrolysis of biomass depend directly on the temperature and on the biomass basic composition of the compounds: hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin. FTIR analysis gave an excellent description to the nature of the active groups on the biochar surface. These groups vary with the temperature and biochar composition (i.e. hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin.

  7. Pyrolysis of poly(vinyl chloride) and-electric arc furnacedust mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Harahsheh, Mohammad; Al-Otoom, Awni; Al-Makhadmah, Leema; Hamilton, Ian E; Kingman, Sam; Al-Asheh, Sameer; Hararah, Muhanned

    2015-12-15

    An investigation into the pyrolysis kinetics of PVC mixed with electric arc furnace dust (EAFD) was performed. Mixtures of both materials with varying PVC ratios (1:1, 1:2, 1:3) were prepared and pyrolyzed in a nitrogen atmosphere under dynamic heating conditions at different heating rates (5, 10, 30 and 50 °C/min). The pyrolysis process proceeded through two main decomposition steps; the first step involved the release of HCl which reacted with the metal oxides present in the dust, subsequently forming metal chlorides and water vapor. Benzene was also found to release as detected by TGA-MS. The remaining hydrocarbons in the polymer backbone decomposed further in the second step releasing further volatile hydrocarbons. Different models were used to fit the kinetic data namely the integral, the Van Krevelen, and Coats and Red fern methods. The presence of EAFD during PVC decomposition resulted in a considerable decrease in the activation energy of the reaction occurring during the first decomposition region. Furthermore, iron oxides were retained in the pyrolysis residue, whilst other valuable metals, including Zn and Pb, were converted to chlorides that are recoverable by leaching in water. It is believed that EAFD can be utilized as an active catalyst to produce energy gases such as propyneas evident from the TGA-MS.

  8. Cooling water systems design using process integration

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gololo, KV

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Cooling water systems are generally designed with a set of heat exchangers arranged in parallel. This arrangement results in higher cooling water flowrate and low cooling water return temperature thus reducing cooling tower efficiency. Previous...

  9. Time resolved pyrolysis of char

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egsgaard, Helge; Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk

    pyrolysis, and slow heating in direct combination with mass spectrometry, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and flame ionization detection, respectively. Characteristic ions derived from the flash pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry data enable the release of volatiles to be time and, hence...

  10. Plasma Pyrolysis Assembly Regeneration Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medlen, Amber; Abney, Morgan B.; Miller, Lee A.

    2011-01-01

    In April 2010 the Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA) was delivered to the International Space Station (ISS). This technology requires hydrogen to recover oxygen from carbon dioxide. This results in the production of water and methane. Water is electrolyzed to provide oxygen to the crew. Methane is vented to space resulting in a loss of valuable hydrogen and unreduced carbon dioxide. This is not critical for ISS because of the water resupply from Earth. However, in order to have enough oxygen for long-term missions, it will be necessary to recover the hydrogen to maximize oxygen recovery. Thus, the Plasma Pyrolysis Assembly (PPA) was designed to recover hydrogen from methane. During operation, the PPA produces small amounts of carbon that can ultimately reduce performance by forming on the walls and windows of the reactor chamber. The carbon must be removed, although mechanical methods are highly inefficient, thus chemical methods are of greater interest. The purpose of this effort was to determine the feasibility of chemically removing the carbon from the walls and windows of a PPA reactor using a pure carbon dioxide stream.

  11. Electrochemical properties of hollow-structured MnS-carbon nanocomposite powders prepared by a one-pot spray pyrolysis process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Su Min; Lee, Jung-Kul; Kang, Yun Chan

    2014-02-01

    Spherical, hollow MnS-C composite powders were prepared from a solution of manganese salt, thiourea, and sucrose by one-pot spray pyrolysis. The MnS-C composite powders were generated by direct sulfidation of MnO with hydrogen sulfide gas generated in situ by decomposition of thiourea during spray pyrolysis. Sucrose, which is used as a carbon source material, plays a key role in the formation of the MnS-C composite powders by improving the reducing atmosphere around the powders. Dot-mapping images of the composite powders demonstrated uniform distribution of the manganese, sulfur, and carbon components within the MnS-C composite powder. Fine crystals of MnS were uniformly mixed with carbon derived from polymerization and carbonization of sucrose. The carbon content of the MnS-C composite powders was 26 wt%. The discharge capacities of the MnS-C composite powders in the 2nd and 200th cycles were 863 and 967 mA h g(-1), respectively, at a current density of 1000 mA g(-1). The spherical and hollow morphology of the MnS-C composite powders was completely retained, even after 200 cycles. The enhanced cycling and rate performance of the MnS-C composite powders is ascribed to the structural stability of the composite powders.

  12. Production and characterization of chars from cherry pulp via pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehlivan, E; Özbay, N; Yargıç, A S; Şahin, R Z

    2017-12-01

    Pyrolysis is an eco-friendly process to achieve valuable products like bio-oil, char and gases. In the last decades, biochar production from pyrolysis of a wide variety of industrial and agricultural wastes become popular, which can be utilized as adsorbent instead of the expensive activated carbons. In this study, cherry pulp was pyrolyzed in a fixed bed tubular reactor at five different temperatures (400, 500,550, 600 and 700 °C) and three different heating rates (10, 100 and 200 °C/min) to obtain biochar. Proximate, ultimate, nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherms, scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, x-ray fluorescence, x-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were performed on cherry pulp and its chars to examine the chemical alterations after the pyrolysis process. Biochar yields were decreased with increasing pyrolysis temperature and heating rate, based on experimental results. Porous biochars are carbon rich and includes high potassium content. The aromaticity of biochars increased and O/C mass ratio reduced with an increase in the pyrolysis temperature as a result of the development of compact aromatic structure in char. Pyrolysis provides a promising conversion procedure for the production of high energy density char which has promising applications in existing coal-fired boilers without any upgrading. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Design of pyrolysis reactor for production of bio-oil and bio-char simultaneously

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aladin, Andi; Alwi, Ratna Surya; Syarif, Takdir

    2017-05-01

    The residues from the wood industry are the main contributors to biomass waste in Indonesia. The conventional pyrolysis process, which needs a large energy as well as to produce various toxic chemical to the environment. Therefore, a pyrolysis unit on the laboratory scale was designed that can be a good alternative to achieve zero-waste and low energy cost. In this paper attempts to discuss design and system of pyrolysis reactor to produce bio-oil and bio-char simultaneously.

  14. Effects of various reactive gas atmospheres on the properties of bio-oil using microwave pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass produces organic liquids (bio-oil), bio-char, water, and non-condensable gases. The non-condensable gas component typically contains syngas (H2, CO and CO2) as well as small hydrocarbons (CH4, C2H6, and C3H8). Tail Gas Reactive Pyrolysis (TGRP), a patent p...

  15. Waste water reuse pathways for processing tomato

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Battilani, A; Plauborg, Finn; Andersen, Mathias Neumann

    to use the lowest irrigation water quality without harming nor food safety neither yield and fruit or derivatives quality. The EU project SAFIR aims help farmers solve problems with low quality water and decreased access to water. New water treatment devices (prototypes) are under development to allow...... a safe use of waste water produced by small communities/industries (≤2000 EI) or of treated water discharged in irrigation channels. Water treatment technologies are coupled with irrigation strategies and technologies to obtain a flexible, easy to use, integrated management....

  16. Continuous polyethylene pyrolysis for hybrid flame/CVD synthesis of carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Nicholas Wilder

    2011-12-01

    A system was designed to integrate the continuous feeding of polyethylene for pyrolysis into the hybrid flame/CVD carbon nanotube (CNT) synthesis process previously developed in this laboratory. Following the completion of the stainless steel design and machining operations, the polyethylene dispenser, screw conveyor, pyrolysis chamber, venturi flame holder, particle filter, synthesis chamber and dual]zone heating system were successfully integrated for full operation. A water cooling unit was incorporated with the screw conveyor to ensure flawless delivery of polyethylene to the pyrolysis chamber, as well as a support system to suspend the CNT catalyst within the synthesis chamber. As with the previously developed process, the intended use of combustion effluent within the apparatus was to synthesize multi]walled CNTs using stainless steel wire mesh. This was facilitated by an extensive study of the effluent produced with this continuous feeding system at varying system settings and in comparison to the previous apparatus, followed by a determination of the system parameters, which result in conditions most favorable to multi walled CNT growth.

  17. Pyrolysis characteristics of integrated circuit boards at various particle sizes and temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, H.-L. [Department Risk Management, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: hlchiang@mail.cmu.edu.tw; Lin, K.-H. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Fooyin University, Kaohsiung 831, Taiwan (China); Lai, M.-H. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Dayeh University, Changhua 51591, Taiwan (China); Chen, T.-C. [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Pingtung 91201, Taiwan (China); Ma, S.-Y. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Fooyin University, Kaohsiung 831, Taiwan (China)

    2007-10-01

    A pyrolysis method was employed to recycle the metals and brominated compounds blended into printed circuit boards. This research investigated the effect of particle size and process temperature on the element composition of IC boards and pyrolytic residues, liquid products, and water-soluble ionic species in the exhaust, with the overall goal being to identify the pyrolysis conditions that will have the least impact on the environment. Integrated circuit (IC) boards were crushed into 5-40 mesh (0.71-4.4 mm), and the crushed particles were pyrolyzed at temperatures ranging from 200 to 500 deg. C. The thermal decomposition kinetics were measured by a thermogravimetric (TG) analyzer. The composition of pyrolytic residues was analyzed by Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometer (EDS), Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometer (ICP-AES) and Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). In addition, the element compositions of liquid products were analyzed by ICP-AES and ICP-MS. Pyrolytic exhaust was collected by a water-absorption system in an ice-bath cooler, and IC analysis showed that the absorbed solution comprised 11 ionic species. Based on the pyrolytic kinetic parameters of TG analysis and pyrolytic residues at various temperatures for 30 min, the effect of particle size was insignificant in this study, and temperature was the key factor for the IC board pyrolysis. Two stages of decomposition were found for IC board pyrolysis under nitrogen atmosphere. The activation energy was 38-47 kcal/mol for the first-stage reaction and 5.2-9.4 kcal/mol for the second-stage reaction. Metal content was low in the liquid by-product of the IC board pyrolysis process, which is an advantage in that the liquid product could be used as a fuel. Brominate and ammonium were the main water-soluble ionic species of the pyrolytic exhaust. A plan for their safe and effective disposal must be developed if the pyrolytic recycling process is to be applied to IC boards.

  18. Waste tire recycling by pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    This project examines the City of New Orleans` waste tire problem. Louisiana State law, as of January 1, 1991, prohibits the knowing disposal of whole waste tires in landfills. Presently, the numerous waste tire stockpiles in New Orleans range in size from tens to hundreds of tires. New Orleans` waste tire problem will continue to increase until legal disposal facilities are made accessible and a waste tire tracking and regulatory system with enforcement provisions is in place. Tires purchased outside of the city of New Orleans may be discarded within the city`s limits; therefore, as a practical matter this study analyzes the impact stemming from the entire New Orleans metropolitan area. Pyrolysis mass recovery (PMR), a tire reclamation process which produces gas, oil, carbon black and steel, is the primary focus of this report. The technical, legal and environmental aspects of various alternative technologies are examined. The feasibility of locating a hypothetical PMR operation within the city of New Orleans is analyzed based on the current economic, regulatory, and environmental climate in Louisiana. A thorough analysis of active, abandoned, and proposed Pyrolysis operations (both national and international) was conducted as part of this project. Siting a PMR plant in New Orleans at the present time is technically feasible and could solve the city`s waste tire problem. Pending state legislation could improve the city`s ability to guarantee a long term supply of waste tires to any large scale tire reclamation or recycling operation, but the local market for PMR end products is undefined.

  19. Waste tire recycling by pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    This project examines the City of New Orleans' waste tire problem. Louisiana State law, as of January 1, 1991, prohibits the knowing disposal of whole waste tires in landfills. Presently, the numerous waste tire stockpiles in New Orleans range in size from tens to hundreds of tires. New Orleans' waste tire problem will continue to increase until legal disposal facilities are made accessible and a waste tire tracking and regulatory system with enforcement provisions is in place. Tires purchased outside of the city of New Orleans may be discarded within the city's limits; therefore, as a practical matter this study analyzes the impact stemming from the entire New Orleans metropolitan area. Pyrolysis mass recovery (PMR), a tire reclamation process which produces gas, oil, carbon black and steel, is the primary focus of this report. The technical, legal and environmental aspects of various alternative technologies are examined. The feasibility of locating a hypothetical PMR operation within the city of New Orleans is analyzed based on the current economic, regulatory, and environmental climate in Louisiana. A thorough analysis of active, abandoned, and proposed Pyrolysis operations (both national and international) was conducted as part of this project. Siting a PMR plant in New Orleans at the present time is technically feasible and could solve the city's waste tire problem. Pending state legislation could improve the city's ability to guarantee a long term supply of waste tires to any large scale tire reclamation or recycling operation, but the local market for PMR end products is undefined.

  20. Application of fast pyrolysis biochar to a loamy soil - Effects on carbon and nitrogen dynamics and potential for carbon sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruun, E.W.

    2011-05-15

    Thermal decomposition of biomass in an oxygen-free environment (pyrolysis) produces bio-oil, syngas, and char. All three products can be used to generate energy, but an emerging new use of the recalcitrant carbon-rich char (biochar) is to apply it to the soil in order to enhance soil fertility and at the same time mitigate climate change by sequestering carbon in the soil. In general, the inherent physicochemical characteristics of biochars make these materials attractive agronomic soil conditioners. However, different pyrolysis technologies exist, i.e. slow pyrolysis, fast pyrolysis, and full gasification systems, and each of these influence the biochar quality differently. As of yet, there is only limited knowledge on the effect of applying fast pyrolysis biochar (FP-biochar) to soil. This PhD project provides new insights into the short-term impacts of adding FP-biochar to soil on the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and on soil carbon and nitrogen dynamics. The FP-biochars investigated in the thesis were generated at different reactor temperatures by fast pyrolysis of wheat straw employing a Pyrolysis Centrifuge Reactor (PCR). The carbohydrate content ranged from more than 35 % in FP-biochars made at a low reactor temperature (475 deg. C) down to 3 % in FP-biochars made at high temperatures (575 deg. C). The relative amount of carbohydrates in the FP-biochar was found to be correlated to the short-term degradation rates of the FP-biochars when applied to soil. Fast and slow pyrolysis of wheat straw resulted in two different biochar types with each their distinct physical structures and porosities, carbohydrate contents, particle sizes, pH values, BET surface areas, and elemental compositions. These different physicochemical properties obviously have different impacts on soil processes, which underscores that results obtained from soil studies using slow pyrolysis biochars (SP-biochar) are not necessarily applicable for FP-biochars. For example, the incorporation

  1. Coal flash pyrolysis. 5. Pyrolysis in an atmosphere of methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calkins, W.H.; Bonifaz, C.

    1984-12-01

    Flash pyrolysis of coal at temperatures above 700/sup 0/C and in the presence of methane produces substantially more ethylene and other low molecular weight hydrocarbons than are produced by pyrolysis of coal in the presence of nitrogen alone. Evidence is presented to show that the increase is due to pyrolysis of the methane quite independently of the coal, except with the possible catalysis by the coal, coke or mineral matter in the coal ash. This is contrary to recent reports in the literature.

  2. Fast pyrolysis of lignin, macroalgae and sewage sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trinh, Ngoc Trung

    In the last twenty years, the fast pyrolysis process has been explored to produce bio-oil from biomass. Fast pyrolysis is a thermal conversion technology that is performed at a temperatures of 450 - 600 ºC, high biomass heating ratess (100 - 2000 K/s), a short gas residence time (less than 2 s......) with no presence of oxygen. Fast pyrolysis can convert a large fraction of the biomass to bio-oil, and smaller fractions of char and gas. The pyrolysis centrifuge reactor (PCR) has been developed at the CHEC center at DTU Department of Chemical Engineering. The reactor is a compact design that uses a low flow rate...... constructed as a mobile unit of a tractor-propelled vehicle that is used on straw fields. A lot of work on PCR straw and wood pyrolysis with respect to pyrolysis conditions, moisture feedstock content, bio-oil properties, and PCR modelling is done before this PhD project. The bio-oil yields of approximately...

  3. Preparation of doping titania antibacterial powder by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Shun-wen; PENG Bing; CHAI Li-yuan; LIU Yun-chao; LI Zhu-ying

    2008-01-01

    Doping titania powders were synthesized by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method from an aqueous solution containing H2TiF6 and AgNO3. The effects of the processing parameters on panicle size distribution, structure, and morphology of doping panicles were investigated. The results show that aggregation-free spherical panicles with average diameter of 200-600 nm are obtained and the particle size of the powder can be controlled by adjusting the concentration of solution. The experimental approach indicates that the size and the value of standard deviation of panicle size increase from 210 nm to 450 nm and from 0.46 to 0.73 respectively with the increase of the titanic ion concentration from 0.05 to 0.4 mol/L. Composite TiOF2 is obtained when the pyrolysis temperature is set to be 400 ℃. With increasing pyrolysis temperature from 400 ℃ to 800 ℃, the crystal size of titania powders increases from 14.1 to 26.5 nm and TiOF2 content of powder decreases dramatically. The property of ion released from powder is affected significantly by the pyrolysis temperature, and the amount of fluorine ion and silver ion released from powder decrease with increasing pyrolysis temperature. The optical property of doping titania powders is not affected by pyrolysis temperature. Antibacterial test results show that composite powders containing more fluorine ions exhibit stronger antibacterial activity against E.coli.

  4. Cheap carbon sorbents produced from lignite by catalytic pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, B.N.; Schchipko, M.L. [Inst. of Chemistry of Natural Organic Materials, Akademgorodok, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-01

    Some data are presented describing the new technology of carbon sorbent production from powdered lignite in the installation with fluidized bed of catalyst. It was shown the different types of char products with extended pore structure and high sorption ability can be produced from cheap and accessible lignite of Kansk-Achinsk coal pit in pilot installation with fluidized bed of Al-Cu-Cr oxide catalyst or catalytically active slag materials. In comparison with the conventional technologies of pyrolysis the catalytic pyrolysis allows to increase by 3-5 times the process productivity and to decrease significantly the formation of harmful compounds. The latter is accomplished by complete oxidation of gaseous pyrolysis products in the presence of catalysts and by avoiding the formation of pyrolysis tars - the source of cancerogenic compounds. The technology of cheap powdered sorbent production from lignites makes possible to obtain from lignite during the time of pyrolysis only a few seconds char products with porosity up to 0.6 cm{sup 3} /g, and specific surface area more than 400 m{sup 3} /g. Some methods of powdered chars molding into carbon materials with the different shape were proved for producing of firmness sorbents. Cheap carbon sorbents obtained by thermocatalytic pyrolysis can be successfully used in purification of different industrial pollutants as one-time sorbent or as adsorbents of long-term application with periodic regeneration.

  5. Rapid continuous pyrolysis of cotton stalks for charcoal production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mobarak, F.

    1983-10-01

    Charcoal of more than 80% carbon content was obtained from cotton stalks by using a rapid continuous pyrolysis process. The yield ranged from 17 to 37% depending on the pyrolysis temperature. When raising the temperature from 400 to 700 degrees C the carbon content of the charcoal initially increased, then remained constant while the yield decreased continually. The optimum pyrolysis temperature was found to be 600 degrees C. At this temperature a product having 86% carbon content on a moisture and ash free basis was obtained. The bulk density went through a minimum at a pyrolysis temperature of 600 degrees C. The increase observed at higher temperatures was attributed to the collapse of the cell wall structure. On the other hand, the adsorption activity decreased continually with increasing pyrolysis temperature. To some extent, charcoal properties depend on particle size of the raw material. Thus, the fine fraction had a higher ash content and a higher adsorption capacity than the coarse fraction. Compared to similar charcoal samples from other agricultural residues and wood the cotton stalk charcoal showed a remarkably high adsorption activity even without any additional activation. Gathering cotton stalks and their prompt conversion to charcoal by rapid continuous pyrolysis would eliminate worm dissemination and fire hazards resulting from storage of the stalks by the farmers.

  6. Process water - waste water - cooling water. Papers; Prozesswasser/Abwasser/Kuehlwasser. Vortraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liese, F. (comp.)

    2002-07-01

    The 39th Metallurgical Seminar focused on water. Modern technologies for water purification and treatment were presented, legal boundary conditions were discussed, and aspects of process water, waste water and cooling water were gone into. Although the boundaries between these three types of water cannot be clearly defined, materials recovery is the prevalent aspect in process water treatment while waste water treatment primarily aims at reducing pollutant concentrations so that both environmental aspects and technical quality standards will be met. This proceedings volume attempts to give its readers a more precise picture of the issues at hand by presenting fundamental research, ecological and legal specifications, and selected examples of industrial applications. [German] Das 39. Metallurgische Seminar beschaeftigt sich mit Wasser. Neben der Praesentation grundsaetzlicher, moderner Techniken zur Reinhaltung und Aufbereitung von Wasser sowie der Darstellung der gesetzlichen Rahmenbedingungen umspannen die Fachvortraege Beitraege zu den Themen Prozesswasser, Abwasser, Kuehlwasser. Wenn auch die Grenzen innerhalb dieser Begriffe teilweise fliessend sind, so zeichnen sich die Prozesswaesser dadurch aus, dass man primaer - wie beispielsweise bei Waschsloesungen und Beizwaessern - an der Wiedergewinnung der Inhaltsstoffe interessiert ist, waehrend bei reinen Abwaessern und Kuehlturmwaessern bzw. deren Abschlaemmungen die massgebliche Aufgabe darin besteht, die Konzentration der Inhaltsstoffe so weit abzusenken, dass man einerseits den Umwelterfordernissen und andererseits den technischen Qualitaetsanforderungen gerecht wird. Ziel dieses Bandes ist es, an Hand von Grundlagen, der Darstellung der oekologischen und behoerdlichen Erfordernisse sowie ausgewaehlter Fallbeispiele aus der Industrie den Leserkreis naeher an diese Thematik heranzufuehren. (orig.)

  7. Waste water reuse pathways for processing tomato

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Battilani, A; Plauborg, Finn; Andersen, Mathias Neumann

    to use the lowest irrigation water quality without harming nor food safety neither yield and fruit or derivatives quality. The EU project SAFIR aims help farmers solve problems with low quality water and decreased access to water. New water treatment devices (prototypes) are under development to allow......  Direct or indirect water reuse involves several aspects: contamination by faecal, inorganic and xenobiotic pollutants; high levels of suspended solids and salinity; rational use of the dissolved nutrients (particularly nitrogen). The challenge is apply new strategies and technologies which allows...... a safe use of waste water produced by small communities/industries (≤2000 EI) or of treated water discharged in irrigation channels. Water treatment technologies are coupled with irrigation strategies and technologies to obtain a flexible, easy to use, integrated management....

  8. Activated carbon from char obtained from vacuum pyrolysis of teak sawdust: pore structure development and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismadji, S; Sudaryanto, Y; Hartono, S B; Setiawan, L E K; Ayucitra, A

    2005-08-01

    The preparation of activated carbon from vacuum pyrolysis char of teak sawdust was studied and the results are presented in this paper. The effects of process variables such as temperature and activation time on the pore structure of activated carbons were studied. The activated carbon prepared from char obtained by vacuum pyrolysis has higher surface area and pore volume than that from atmospheric pyrolysis char. The BET surface area and pore volume of activated carbon prepared from vacuum pyrolysis char were 1150 m2/g and 0.43 cm3/g, respectively.

  9. TG-FTIR analysis of biomass pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassilakis, R.; Carangelo, R.M.; Wojtowicz, M.A. [Advanced Fuel Research Inc., Hartford, CT (United States)

    2001-10-09

    A great need exists for comprehensive biomass-pyrolysis models that could predict yields and evolution patterns of selected volatile products as a function of feedstock characteristics and process conditions. A thermogravimetric analyzer coupled with Fourier transform infrared analysis of evolving products (TG-FTIR) can provide useful input to such models in the form of kinetic information obtained under low heating rate conditions. In this work, robust TG-FTIR quantification routes were developed for infrared analysis of volatile products relevant to biomass pyrolysis. The analysis was applied to wheat straw, three types of tobacco (Burley, Oriental, and Bright) and three biomass model compounds (xylan, chlorogenic acid, and D-glucose). Product yields were compared with literature data, and species potentially quantifiable by FT-IR are reviewed. Product-evolution patterns are reported for all seven biomass samples. 41 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Decarbonisation of fossil energy via methane pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreysa, G.; Agar, D.W.; Schultz, I. [Technische Univ. Dortmund (Germany)

    2010-12-30

    Despite the rising consumption of energy over the last few decades, the proven reserves of fossil fuels have steadily increased. Additionally, there are potentially tremendous reserves of methane hydrates available, which remain to be exploited. The use of fossil energy sources is thus increasingly being dictated less by supply than by the environmental concerns raised by climate change. In the context of the decarbonisation of the global energy system that this has stimulated, new means must be explored for using methane as energy source. Noncatalytic thermal pyrolysis of methane is proposed here as a promising concept for utilising methane with low to zero carbon dioxide emissions. Following cracking, only the energy content of the hydrogen is used, while the carbon can be stored safely and retrievably in disused coal mines. The thermodynamics and different process engineering concepts for the technical realisation of such a carbon moratorium technology are discussed. The possible contribution of methane pyrolysis to carbon negative geoengineering is also addressed. (orig.)

  11. Desalting a process cooling water using nanofiltration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radier, R.G.J.; van Oers, C.W.; Steenbergen, A.; Wessling, Matthias

    2001-01-01

    The cooling water system of a chemical plant of Akzo Nobel is a partly open system. The site is located at the North Sea. The air in contact with the cooling water contains seawater droplets dissolving and increasing the chloride concentration. The cooling water contains chromate to protect the inst

  12. Perspective on Catalytic Hydrodeoxygenation of Biomass Pyrolysis Oils: Essential Roles of Fe-based Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Yongchun; Hensley, Alyssa; McEwen, Jean-Sabin; Wang, Yong

    2016-06-27

    Catalytic fast pyrolysis is the most promising approach for biofuel production, due to its simple process and versatility to handle lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks with varying and complex compositions. Compared with in situ catalytic fast pyrolysis, ex situ catalytic pyrolysis has the flexibility of optimizing the pyrolysis step and catalytic process individually to improve the quality of pyrolysis oil (stability, oxygen content, acid number, etc.) and to maximize the carbon efficiency in the conversion of biomass to pyrolysis oil. Hydrodeoxygenation is one of the key catalytic functions in ex situ catalytic fast pyrolysis. Recently, Fe-based catalysts have been reported to exhibit superior catalytic properties in hydrodeoxygenation of model compounds in pyrolysis oil, which potentially makes the ex situ pyrolysis of biomass commercially viable due to the abundance and low cost of Fe. Here, we briefly summarize the recent progress on Fe-based catalysts for hydrodeoxygenation of biomass, and provide perspectives on how to further improve Fe-based catalysts (activity and stability) for their potential applications in the emerging area of biomass conversion.

  13. Investigation of zinc recovery by hydrogen reduction assisted pyrolysis of alkaline and zinc-carbon battery waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebin, Burçak; Petranikova, Martina; Steenari, Britt-Marie; Ekberg, Christian

    2017-10-01

    Zinc (Zn) recovery from alkaline and zinc-carbon (Zn-C) battery waste were studied by a laboratory scale pyrolysis process at a reaction temperature of 950°C for 15-60min residence time using 5%H2(g)-N2(g) mixture at 1.0L/min gas flow rate. The effect of different cooling rates on the properties of pyrolysis residue, manganese oxide particles, were also investigated. Morphological and structural characterization of the produced Zn particles were performed. The battery black mass was characterized with respect to the properties and chemical composition of the waste battery particles. The thermodynamics of the pyrolysis process was studied using the HSC Chemistry 5.11 software. A hydrogen reduction reaction of the battery black mass (washed with Milli-Q water) takes place at the chosen temperature and makes it possible to produce fine Zn particles by rapid condensation following the evaporation of Zn from the pyrolysis batch. The amount of Zn that can be separated from the black mass increases by extending the residence time. Recovery of 99.8% of the Zn was achieved at 950°C for 60min residence time using 1.0L/min gas flow rate. The pyrolysis residue contains MnO and Mn2O3 compounds, and the oxidation state of manganese can be controlled by cooling rate and atmosphere. The Zn particles exhibit spherical and hexagonal particle morphology with a particle size varying between 200nm and 3µm. However the particles were formed by aggregation of nanoparticles which are primarily nucleated from the gas phase. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Pyrolysis of sugarcane bagasse and co-pyrolysis with an Argentinean subbituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonelli, P.R.; Buonomo, E.L.; Cukierman, A.L. [University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2007-07-01

    Physicochemical properties of the charcoal arising from pyrolysis of sugarcane bagasse at 600{sup o}C and 800{sup o}C were determined to evaluate potentialities for specific end uses. The charcoals were found fairly adequate as solid bio-fuels. Their quality was comparable to charcoals obtained from some other agro-industrial by-products, reportedly proposed as substitutes of wood-based ones. Surface properties of the charcoal generated at the higher temperature indicated that it is reasonably suited for potential use as low-cost rough adsorbent, soil amender, and/or for further upgrading to activated carbon. Moreover, kinetic measurements for pyrolysis of the sugarcane bagasse individually and mixed with an Argentinean subbituminous coal in equal proportions were conducted by thermogravimetry for the range 25 -900{sup o}C. Data modeling accounting for variations in the activation energy with process evolution provided a proper description of pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis over the entire temperature range.

  15. Investigation on pyrolysis of Moroccan oil shale/plastic mixtures by thermogravimetric analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aboulkas, A.; El harfi, K. [Laboratoire de Chimie Physique, Departement de chimie, Faculte des Sciences, Semlalia, Universite Cadi Ayyad, BP 2390, 40001 Marrakech (Morocco); Departement de chimie, Faculte polydisciplinaire de Beni-Mellal, Universite Sultan Moulay Slimane, BP 592, 23000 Beni-Mellal (Morocco); Nadifiyine, M. [Laboratoire de Chimie Physique, Departement de chimie, Faculte des Sciences, Semlalia, Universite Cadi Ayyad, BP 2390, 40001 Marrakech (Morocco); El bouadili, A. [Departement de chimie, Faculte polydisciplinaire de Beni-Mellal, Universite Sultan Moulay Slimane, BP 592, 23000 Beni-Mellal (Morocco)

    2008-11-15

    Thermal degradation processes for a series of mixtures of oil shale/plastic were investigated using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) at four heating rates of 2, 10, 20 and 50 K min{sup -} {sup 1} from ambient temperature to 1273 K. High density polyethylene (HDPE), low density polyethylene (LDPE) and polypropylene (PP) were selected as plastic samples. Based on the results obtained, three thermal stages were identified during the thermal degradation. The first is attributed to the drying of absorbed water; the second was dominated by the overlapping of organic matter and plastic pyrolysis, while the third was linked to the mineral matter pyrolysis, which occurred at much higher temperatures. Discrepancies between the experimental and calculated TG/DTG profiles were considered as a measurement of the extent of interactions occurring on co-pyrolysis. The maximum degradation temperatures of each component in the mixture were higher than those of the individual components; thus an increase in thermal stability was expected. In addition, a kinetic analysis was performed to fit thermogravimetric data. A reasonable fit to the experimental data was obtained for all materials and their mixtures. (author)

  16. Novel Fast Pyrolysis/Catalytic Technology for the Production of Stable Upgraded Liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyama, Ted; Agblevor, Foster; Battaglia, Francine; Klein, Michael

    2013-01-18

    The objective of the proposed research is the demonstration and development of a novel biomass pyrolysis technology for the production of a stable bio-oil. The approach is to carry out catalytic hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) and upgrading together with pyrolysis in a single fluidized bed reactor with a unique two-level design that permits the physical separation of the two processes. The hydrogen required for the HDO will be generated in the catalytic section by the water-gas shift reaction employing recycled CO produced from the pyrolysis reaction itself. Thus, the use of a reactive recycle stream is another innovation in this technology. The catalysts will be designed in collaboration with BASF Catalysts LLC (formerly Engelhard Corporation), a leader in the manufacture of attrition-resistant cracking catalysts. The proposed work will include reactor modeling with state-of-the-art computational fluid dynamics in a supercomputer, and advanced kinetic analysis for optimization of bio-oil production. The stability of the bio-oil will be determined by viscosity, oxygen content, and acidity determinations in real and accelerated measurements. A multi-faceted team has been assembled to handle laboratory demonstration studies and computational analysis for optimization and scaleup.

  17. [Pyrolysis characteristics of medical waste compositions containing PVC (polyvinyl chloride)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Na; Zhang, Yu-Feng; Zhao, Wei; Ma, Hong-Ting; Wei, Li-Li

    2008-03-01

    To obtain pyrolysis characteristics of medical waste compositions containing PVC (polyvinyl chloride), thermogravimetric study of tube for transfusion (TFT) and sample collector for urine (SCFU) was carried out using the thermogravimetric analyser (TGA) with N2. The heat change in pyrolysis process was analyzed and the properties of pyrolysis residues are reported. The mathematics model with two-step and four-reaction was established to simulate the pyrolysis process. The results show that: 1) The pyrolysis mechanism of the two samples is in agreement with that of PVC. The decomposition process appears two stages in 200 - 390 degrees C and 390 - 550 degrees C, which are clearly expressed with two prominent peaks with maximum rate of weight loss at about 315 degrees C and 470 degrees C. 2) Complex ingredients in samples result in irregular and uneven shape of DTG peaks, in which plasticizer lowers the antichloration temperature and enhances the weight loss rate. 3) The model could satisfactorily describe the weight loss and differential process of TFT and SCFU.

  18. Biomarker generation from Type II-S kerogens in claystone and limestone during hydrous and anhydrous pyrolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Koopmans, M.P.; Carson, F.C.; Lewan, M.D.

    1998-01-01

    A claystone and a limestone containing immature Type II-S kerogen were thermally matured in the presence and absence of water, to study the influence of water and clay minerals on the generation of biomarkers. In contrast to hydrous pyrolysis, anhydrous pyrolysis of the claystone did not generate bi

  19. Flash Pyrolysis and Fractional Pyrolysis of Oleaginous Biomass in a Fluidized-bed Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Brook

    the initial feed mass was recovered as bio-oil. However, the mass of high calorific lipid-derived components in the collected bio-oils remained nearly constant at reaction temperatures above 415°C; between 80-90% of the feedstock lipids were recovered in the bio-oil fraction. In addition, multi-step fractional flash pyrolysis experiments were performed to assess the possibility of producing higher quality bio-oils since a large fraction of protein and carbohydrates degrade at lower temperatures (320-400°C). A low temperature pyrolysis step was first performed and was followed by pyrolysis of the residues at higher temperature. This fractional pyrolysis approach which produced higher quality bio-oil with low water- and nitrogen- content from the higher temperature steps.

  20. Pyrolysis of Indonesian coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rachimoellah; Endah [Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopemba, Surabaya (Indonesia). Department of Chemical Engineering; Karaman, N.; Kusuma, S.A. [UPN Surabaya, (Indonesia). Department of Chemical Engineering

    1997-04-01

    It has been estimated that there is 36 billion tons of coal resource potential in Indonesia. Over 21.4 billion tons is classified as low rank (lignitic) coal. The coal deposits are located mainly in Sumatra and Kalimantan. As an energy source, low rank coals are not widely used, because of their high moisture content, low calorific value and variable ash content. One of the key questions for utilizing low rank coal is whether lignite can be upgraded into another form which is more economically viable. In this study tests were carried out in a pilot plant fixed bed pyrolysis reactor unit provided with hopper, electric heater, coolers and product receivers. The yield of char, tar and gases was found to depend on temperature which also affected the composition of gas produced. Results also indicated the temperature and particle size giving maximum tar yield, gas concentration, and the atmosphere of inert nitrogen. 1 tab., 2 figs., 10 refs.

  1. Carbon Nanotube Synthesis Using Coal Pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moothi, Kapil; Simate, Geoffrey S; Falcon, Rosemary; Iyuke, Sunny E; Meyyappan, M

    2015-09-01

    This study investigates carbon nanotube (CNT) production from coal pyrolysis wherein the output gases are used in a chemical vapor deposition reactor. The carbon products are similar to those using commercial coal gas as feedstock, but coal is a relatively cheaper feedstock compared to high purity source gases. A Gibbs minimization model has been developed to predict the volume percentages of product gases from coal pyrolysis. Methane and carbon monoxide were the largest carbon components of the product stream and thus formed the primary source for CNT synthesis. Both the model and the observations showed that increasing the furnace temperature led to a decrease in the absolute quantities of "useful" product gases, with the optimal temperature between 400 and 500 °C. Based on the experimental data, a kinetic rate law for CNT from coal pyrolysis was derived as d[CNT]/dt = K([CO][CH4])(1/2), where K is a function of several equilibrium constants representing various reactions in the CNT formation process.

  2. Pyrolysis characteristics of the mixture of printed circuit board scraps and coal powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Juan; Wang, Haifeng; Chen, Shuhe; Cai, Bin; Ge, Linhan; Xia, Wencheng

    2014-10-01

    Thermogravimetric (TG) analysis and infrared spectroscopy were used to analyze the pyrolysis characteristics of printed circuit board scraps (PCBs), coal powder and their mixtures under nitrogen atmosphere. The experimental results show that there is a large difference between waste PCBs and coal powder in pyrolysis processing. The pyrolysis properties of the mixing samples are the result of interaction of the PCBs and coal powder, which is influenced by the content of mixture. The degree of pyrolysis and pyrolysis properties of the mixture are much better than that of the single component. The TG and the differential thermogravimetric (DTG) curves of the PCBs mixed with coal powder move towards the high-temperature zone with increasing amount of coal powder and subsequently the DTG peak also becomes wider. The Coats-Redfern integral method was used to determine the kinetic parameters of pyrolysis reaction mechanism with the different proportion of mixture. The gas of pyrolysis mainly composes of CO2, CO, H2O and some hydrocarbon. The bromide characteristic absorption peak has been detected obviously in the pyrolysis gas of PCBs. On the contrary, the absorption peak of the bromide is not obvious in pyrolysis gas of the PCBs samples adding 40% coal powder. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Current issues and future directions in pyrolysis of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preto, F. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Energy Technology Centre

    2005-02-01

    Biomass is a diverse grouping of low energy content, low density and high moisture heterogenous materials. An overview of pyrolysis processes and procedures was presented with a list of potential applications for industrial processes and power generation. The chemical energy content of various fuels was presented and with the advantages of pyrolysis with reference to improved transport, handling and storage. Details of technical requirements were outlined along with some of the undesirable characteristics of biofuel including the highly corrosive nature of the fuel, pungency, high solids content, immiscibility with hydrocarbon fuels and the fact that over time, chemical composition shifts, resulting in increased viscosity and decreased volatility. Various issues concerning pyrolysis regarding current technologies, composition and standards, applications and biorefinery feedstock were summarized. A flow chart presenting the conversion of biomass to biofuel was provided. Various reactor types were also overviewed and included such as fluidized beds, transport, heated augers, vacuum pyrolysis and ablative and rotating cones. Details of pilot plants in Erie and Renfrew, Ontario were provided along with details of a plant in Alabama operating entirely on chicken litter. Various specifications for pyrolysis oils were presented. A chart of biofuel composition in mass fractions was provided, with an accompanying list of commonly quoted pyrolysis oil properties. A series of biofuel combustion tests conducted at CANMET Energy Technology Centre (CETC) in Ottawa were described. Photographs of the pre-test refractory were exhibited. Details of current research on drying kiln applications were outlined. The suitability of pyrolytic biofuel for producing microemulsion fuels was discussed. A biorefinery model was included. Challenges to biomass pyrolysis include feed preparation, scale-up issues, heat transfer to reactor rates, char separation, liquid collection, liquid quality

  4. Catalytic cracking of fast and tail gas reactive pyrolysis bio-oils over HZSM-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    While hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of pyrolysis oil is well understood as an upgrading method, the high processing pressures associated with it alone justify the exploration of alternative upgrading solutions, especially those that could adapt pyrolysis oils into the existing refinery infrastructure. Ca...

  5. Electrocoagulation: an electrochemical process for water clarification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éva Fekete

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Electrocoagulation is a group of various procedures used for removing contaminants from water by electrochemically dissolving aluminum or iron. The contaminants of the solution may be incorporated in the in situ forming metal hydroxide flocs, which can be filtered as a precipitate or skimmed as a float. The main features of the procedure are highlighted on the example of cleaning of an oily waste-water. Design parameters of a 1 m3/h waste-water cleaning system are calculated from the results of small-scale experiments.

  6. Process integration: Cooling water systems design

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gololo, KV

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a technique for grassroot design of cooling water system for wastewater minimization which incorporates the performances of the cooling towers involved. The study focuses mainly on cooling systems consisting of multiple cooling...

  7. Surface processing using water cluster ion beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaoka, Gikan H.; Ryuto, Hiromichi; Takeuchi, Mitsuaki; Ichihashi, Gaku

    2013-07-01

    Vaporized water clusters were produced by an adiabatic expansion phenomenon, and various substrates such as Si(1 0 0), SiO2, polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), and polycarbonate (PC) were irradiated by water cluster ion beams. The sputtered depth increased with increasing acceleration voltage, and the sputtering rate was much larger than that obtained using Ar monomer ion irradiation. The sputtering yield for PMMA was approximately 200 molecules per ion, at an acceleration voltage of 9 kV. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements showed that high-rate sputtering for the PMMA surface can be ascribed to the surface erosion by the water cluster ion irradiation. Furthermore, the micropatterning was demonstrated on the PMMA substrate. Thus, the surface irradiation by water cluster ion beams exhibited a chemical reaction based on OH radicals, as well as excited hydrogen atoms, which resulted in a high sputtering rate and low irradiation damage of the substrate surfaces.

  8. Surface processing using water cluster ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takaoka, Gikan H., E-mail: gtakaoka@kuee.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Photonics and Electronics Science and Engineering Center, Kyoto University, Katsura, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan); Ryuto, Hiromichi; Takeuchi, Mitsuaki; Ichihashi, Gaku [Photonics and Electronics Science and Engineering Center, Kyoto University, Katsura, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan)

    2013-07-15

    Vaporized water clusters were produced by an adiabatic expansion phenomenon, and various substrates such as Si(1 0 0), SiO{sub 2}, polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), and polycarbonate (PC) were irradiated by water cluster ion beams. The sputtered depth increased with increasing acceleration voltage, and the sputtering rate was much larger than that obtained using Ar monomer ion irradiation. The sputtering yield for PMMA was approximately 200 molecules per ion, at an acceleration voltage of 9 kV. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements showed that high-rate sputtering for the PMMA surface can be ascribed to the surface erosion by the water cluster ion irradiation. Furthermore, the micropatterning was demonstrated on the PMMA substrate. Thus, the surface irradiation by water cluster ion beams exhibited a chemical reaction based on OH radicals, as well as excited hydrogen atoms, which resulted in a high sputtering rate and low irradiation damage of the substrate surfaces.

  9. SAGD processes with fresh water contact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thimm, H.F. [Thimm Petroleum Technologies Inc. (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    In the Athabasca region, several bitumen reservoirs are shallow, located less than 400 meters below grade. These deposits are suitable for SAGD exploitation but the steam could come into contact with fresh water, which carries the risk of contaminating this resource. Operators are thus required by regulators to address this issue at the project application stage. The aim of this paper is to examine the potential effect of contact between fresh water and a bitumen bearing zone in a field in Northern Alberta. Investigations were conducted with a steam zone temperature of 200 degree Celsius and measurements were conducted at a plant close to the proposed project. Results showed that the accumulation of hydrogen sulphide would protect the water column and PAH, benzene and toluene were found to be potential concerns but they were not detected during implementation of a similar project. This paper demonstrated that the proposed project does not constitute a threat to fresh water.

  10. Efficiency tests on the pyrolysis gasifier stove Peko Pe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents results from water boiling tests on the pyrolysis gasifier stove Peko Pe, which has been developed by the Norwegian Paal Wendelbo. The stove efficiency determined vary between 21 and 29% when burning dry Danish woodchips (10% moisture) with an estimated caloric value of 16 MJ...

  11. Volatile Analysis by Pyrolysis of Regolith for Planetary Resource Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavin, Daniel P.; Malespin, Charles; ten Kate, Inge L.; Getty, Stephanie A.; Holmes, Vincent E.; Mumm, Erik; Franz, Heather B.; Noreiga, Marvin; Dobson, Nick; Southard, Adrian E.; hide

    2012-01-01

    The extraction and identification of volatile resources that could be utilized by humans including water, oxygen, noble gases, and hydrocarbons on the Moon, Mars, and small planetary bodies will be critical for future long-term human exploration of these objects. Vacuum pyrolysis at elevated temperatures has been shown to be an efficient way to release volatiles trapped inside solid samples. In order to maximize the extraction of volatiles, including oxygen and noble gases from the breakdown of minerals, a pyrolysis temperature of 1400 C or higher is required, which greatly exceeds the maximum temperatures of current state-of-the-art flight pyrolysis instruments. Here we report on the recent optimization and field testing results of a high temperature pyrolysis oven and sample manipulation system coupled to a mass spectrometer instrument called Volatile Analysis by Pyrolysis of Regolith (VAPoR). VAPoR is capable of heating solid samples under vacuum to temperatures above 1300 C and determining the composition of volatiles released as a function of temperature.

  12. Synergies in co-pyrolysis of Thai lignite and corncob

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonobe, Taro [The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, 126 Pracha-Uthit Road, Bangmod, Tungkru, Bangkok, 10140 (Thailand); Research Institute for Sustainable Humanosphere, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Worasuwannarak, Nakorn; Pipatmanomai, Suneerat [The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, 126 Pracha-Uthit Road, Bangmod, Tungkru, Bangkok, 10140 (Thailand)

    2008-12-15

    The results from TGA experiments at the temperature range of 300-600 C evidently distinguished the different pyrolysis behaviours of lignite and corncob; however, no clear synergistic effects could be observed for the mixture. The investigation of co-pyrolysis in a fixed-bed reactor, however, found significant synergies in both pyrolysis product yields and gas product compositions. The solid yield of the 50:50 lignite/corncob blend was much lower (i.e. 9%) than expected from the calculated value based on individual materials under the range of temperatures studied, and coincided with the higher liquid and gas yield. The synergistic effect in product gas composition was highly pronouncing for CH{sub 4} formation, i.e. three times higher than the calculated value at 400 C. Possible mechanisms were described including the interaction between corncob volatiles and lignite particles, and the effect of the heat profiles of lignite and corncob pyrolysis on the temperature dependent reactions. The enhanced devolatilisation of the blend was explained by the transfer of hydrogen from biomass to coal as well as the promotion of low-temperature thermal decomposition of lignite by exothermic heat released from corncob pyrolysis. Moreover, water, which was one of the major components in corncob volatiles produced mainly at around 200-375 C, can also be expected to act as a reactive agent to promote the secondary tar cracking producing more CH{sub 4}. (author)

  13. Luminescent Properties of Ca2 Y8 ( SiO4 ) 6O2:Eu3 + Phosphors Prepared by Spray Pyrolysis Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen Weiying; Lin Jun

    2004-01-01

    Using CaCO3, metal oxides (all dissolved by nitric acid) and tetraethoxysilane Si (OC2H5 )4 (TEOS) as the main starting materials, Ca2Y8 (SiO4 )6O2: Eu3+ phosphors were synthesized by spray pyrolysis.X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and photoluminescence (PL) spectra as well as lifetimes were used to characterize the resulting phosphors.The results of XRD indicated that the 1000 ℃ annealed powders crystallize with the silicate oxyapatite structure.SEM study revealed that the phosphors consist of spherical particles with an average size of about 1 ~ 3 μm.In the crystalline Ca2 Y8 (SiO4)6O2: Eu3+ phosphor, the Eu3+ shows its characteristic emission corresponding to 5 D0 - 7 FJ ( J = 0, 1,2, 3, 4) transitions, with 5D0 - 7 F2 red emission (613 nm) as the most prominent group, agreeing well with the structure of the host material.

  14. A Review on the Preparation of Borazine-derived Boron Nitride Nanoparticles and Nanopolyhedrons by Spray-pyrolysis and Annealing Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Salles

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Boron nitride (BN nanostructures (= nanoBN are struc‐ tural analogues of carbon nanostructures but display different materials chemistry and physics, leading to a wide variety of structural, thermal, electronic, and optical applications. Proper synthesis routes and advanced structural design are among the great challenges for preparing nanoBN with such properties. This review provides an insight into the preparation and characteriza‐ tion of zero dimensional (0D nanoBN including nanopar‐ ticles and nanopolyhedrons from borazine, an economically competitive and attractive (from a technical point of view molecule, beginning with a concise intro‐ duction to hexagonal BN, followed by an overview on the past and current state of research on nanoparticles. Thus, a review of the spray-pyrolysis of borazine to form BN nanoparticles is firstly presented. The use of BN nanopar‐ ticles as precursors of BN nanopolyhedrons is then de‐ tailed. Applications and research perspectives for these 0D nanoBN are discussed in the conclusion.

  15. Supply Chain Sustainability Analysis of Fast Pyrolysis and Hydrotreating Bio-Oil to Produce Hydrocarbon Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adom, Felix K.; Cai, Hao; Dunn, Jennifer B.; Hartley, Damon; Searcy, Erin; Tan, Eric; Jones, Sue; Snowden-Swan, Lesley

    2016-03-31

    This report describes the supply chain sustainability analysis (SCSA) of renewable gasoline and diesel produced via fast pyrolysis of a blended woody feedstock. The metrics considered in this analysis include supply chain greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and water consumption.

  16. Upgrading of Intermediate Bio-Oil Produced by Catalytic Pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdullah, Zia [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Chadwell, Brad [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Taha, Rachid [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Hindin, Barry [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Ralston, Kevin [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2015-06-30

    The objectives of this project were to (1) develop a process to upgrade catalytic pyrolysis bio-oil, (2) investigate new upgrading catalysts suited for upgrading catalytic pyrolysis bio-oil, (3) demonstrate upgrading system operation for more than 1,000 hours using a single catalyst charge, and (4) produce a final upgraded product that can be blended to 30 percent by weight with petroleum fuels or that is compatible with existing petroleum refining operations. This project has, to the best of our knowledge, for the first time enabled a commercially viable bio-oil hydrotreatment process to produce renewable blend stock for transportation fuels.

  17. Co-pyrolysis of lignite with hazelnut shell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaman, S.; Haykiri-Acma, H. [Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul (Turkey). Chemical Engineering Department

    2005-07-01

    In this study, the formation rates of the apparent pyrolytic products of Elbistan lignite sample from Turkey and Turkish hazelnut shell were investigated. For this purpose, original samples and their blends were subjected to pyrolysis process using a thermogravimetric analyzer under a dynamic nitrogen atmosphere of 40 cc/min. Temperature was increased from ambient to 1173 K with a heating rate of 20 K/min. Derivative thermogravimetric analysis curves were obtained, by which the rates of pyrolysis process at different temperatures were evaluated. 8 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Pyrolysis of microalgal biomass in carbon dioxide environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Seong-Heon; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Jeon, Young Jae; Kwon, Eilhann E

    2015-10-01

    This work mechanistically investigated the influence of CO2 in the thermo-chemical process of microalgal biomass (Chlorella vulgaris and Microcystis aeruginosa) to achieve a fast virtuous cycle of carbon via recovering energy. This work experimentally justified that the influence of CO2 in pyrolysis of microalgal biomass could be initiated at temperatures higher than 530 °C, which directly led to the enhanced generation of syngas. For example, the concentration of CO from pyrolysis of M. aeruginosa increased up to ∼ 3000% at 670 °C in the presence of CO2. The identified universal influence of CO2 could be summarized by the expedited thermal cracking of VOCs evolved from microalgal biomass and by the unknown reaction between VOCs and CO2. This identified effectiveness of CO2 was different from the Boudouard reaction, which was independently occurred with dehydrogenation. Thus, microalgal biomass could be a candidate for the thermo-chemical process (pyrolysis and gasification).

  19. A New Waste Disposal Technology-plasma arc Pyrolysis System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄建军; 施嘉标; 梁荣庆; 刘正之

    2003-01-01

    This paper introduces a new waste disposal technology with plasma arc. Being different from conventional combustion or burning such as incineration, it is based on a process called controlled pyrolysis-thermal destruction and recovery process. It has four advantages, they are completely safe, clean, high-energy synthesis gas, non-toxic vitrified slag and metal.

  20. Comparative Study on the Pyrolysis Behaviors of Corn Stalk and Pine Sawdust Using TG-MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵云鹏; 丁曼; 窦有权; 樊星; 王月伦; 魏贤勇

    2014-01-01

    The pyrolysis behaviors of corn stalk (CS) and pine sawdust (PS) were investigated with thermogravim-etry-mass spectroscopy (TG-MS). The peak temperature of PS was higher and the main decomposition region shifted to higher temperature compared with CS, which implied that the hemicellulose and cellulose of PS were more ther-mally stable than those of CS. However, the hemicellulose and cellulose of PS were more easily decomposed into gaseous products than those of CS during pyrolysis. The pyrolysis process of biomass can be described by a two-step independent first-order kinetic model. This fundamental study provides a basic insight into the biomass pyrolysis, which is beneficial for understanding the pyrolysis mechanism of biomass and developing an advanced thermal proc-ess for effective utilization of biomass.

  1. PYROLYSIS OF BROWN COAL USING A CATALYST BASED ON W–Ni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Jílková

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Tars from pyrolysis of brown coal can be refined to obtain compounds suitable for fuel production. However, it is problematic to refine the liquids from brown coal pyrolysis, because high molecular compounds are produced, and the sample solidifies. Therefore we decided to investigate the possibility of treating the product in the gas phase during pyrolysis, using a catalyst. A two-step process was investigated: thermal-catalytic refining. In the first step, alumina was used as the filling material, and in the second step a catalyst based on W-Ni was used. These materials were placed in two separate layers above the coal, so the volatile products passed through the alumina and catalyst layers. Pyrolysis tests showed that using the catalyst has no significant effect on the mass balance, but it improves the properties of the gas and the properties of the organic part of the liquid pyrolysis products, which will then be processed further.

  2. Thermochemical production of hydrogen via multistage water splitting processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, J. E.

    1975-01-01

    This paper presents and reviews the fundamental thermodynamic principles underlying thermochemical water splitting processes. The overall system is considered first and the temperature limitation in process thermal efficiency is developed. The relationship to an ideal water electrolysis cell is described and the nature of efficient multistage reaction processes is discussed. The importance of the reaction entropy change and the relation of the reaction free energy change to the work of separation is described. A procedure for analyzing thermochemical water splitting processes is presented and its use to calculate individual stage efficiency is demonstrated. A number of processes are used to illustrate the concepts and procedures.

  3. MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF PURIFICATION PROCESS OF OIL CONTAMINATED WATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    С. Бойченко

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Sorption properties of carbonic sorbents on natural raw materials for purification of waste waters frompetroleum products are investigated. Temperature influence on sumption properties of sorbents on naturalraw materials to increase the purification degree of water ecosystem is studied. Mathematical model ofpurification process of oil contaminated waters is developed

  4. MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF PURIFICATION PROCESS OF OIL CONTAMINATED WATERS

    OpenAIRE

    С. Бойченко; Кучер, О.; Л. Павлюх

    2012-01-01

    Sorption properties of carbonic sorbents on natural raw materials for purification of waste waters frompetroleum products are investigated. Temperature influence on sumption properties of sorbents on naturalraw materials to increase the purification degree of water ecosystem is studied. Mathematical model ofpurification process of oil contaminated waters is developed

  5. Data processing for water monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monford, L.; Linton, A. T.

    1978-01-01

    Water monitoring data acquisition system is structured about central computer that controls sampling and sensor operation, and analyzes and displays data in real time. Unit is essentially separated into two systems: computer system, and hard wire backup system which may function separately or with computer.

  6. Thermogravimetric analysis and kinetic study on pyrolysis of representative medical waste composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Na; Zhang, Yu-feng; Wang, Yan

    2008-01-01

    To obtain detailed information on the pyrolysis characteristics, a thermogravimetric study on the pyrolysis of 14 typical medical waste compositions was carried out in thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) equipment using dynamic techniques in a stream of N2. An index representing pyrolysis reactivity of waste was presented. Kinetic parameters were obtained by Coats-Redfern method and used to model the TG curve. The results showed that: (a) Plastic, protein, cellulosic material, synthetic fibre, and rubber entered pyrolysis process in succession. (b) There was one decomposition stage in the pyrolysis of one-off medical glove, operating glove, cellulosic waste, absorbable catgut suture and adhesive plaster, while other components had two obvious weight loss stages. (c) The obtained apparent activation energy for second stage pyrolysis was comparably higher than that for first stage. (d) Each stage was controlled by only one kinetic mechanism, in which kinetic parameters were constant. (e) The degradation kinetics of medical waste may be affected by special physical and chemical treatment in the product manufacturing process. (f) Among 13 waste samples, the pyrolysis index of cellulosic matter was the highest, which indicated cellulosic matter had strong pyrolysis reactivity. (g) With increasing heating rate, TG curve and DTG peak shifted to high temperatures and main reaction interval of the sample became longer.

  7. Membrane-based processes for sustainable power generation using water

    KAUST Repository

    Logan, Bruce E.

    2012-08-15

    Water has always been crucial to combustion and hydroelectric processes, but it could become the source of power in membrane-based systems that capture energy from natural and waste waters. Two processes are emerging as sustainable methods for capturing energy from sea water: pressure-retarded osmosis and reverse electrodialysis. These processes can also capture energy from waste heat by generating artificial salinity gradients using synthetic solutions, such as thermolytic salts. A further source of energy comes from organic matter in waste waters, which can be harnessed using microbial fuel-cell technology, allowing both wastewater treatment and power production. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  8. Analysis of process water use in poultry meat production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poultry processing facilities use large quantities of water for chiller unit operations. The chiller is critical for temperature reduction to inhibit microbial growth and preserve product quality and safety. Process water quality can also influence product safety when bacteria present on poultry sk...

  9. Water chemistry and antimicrobial treatment in poultry processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study examined the influence of calcium and magnesium ions in process water on the solubility of trisodium phosphate. Water used in poultry processing operations may be treated with sanitizers such as trisodium phosphate to reduce microbial activity and the risk of contamination. This occurs wh...

  10. 利用TG-FTIR联用技术对Kevlar纤维的热解过程的分析%Research on Pyrolysis Process of Kevlar Fibers with Thermogravimetric Analysis coupled and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨铭; 朱小玲; 梁国正

    2016-01-01

    ,thermogravimetric (TG)analysis coupled with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(FTIR),are able to an-alyze materials not only qualitatively but also quantitatively.This method has obvious advantages in researching the thermal de-composition of many materials.However,the thermal decomposition processing of Kevlar fibers is rarely reported in the litera-ture,therefore,we firstly studied the pyrolysis behavior of Kevlar fibers with thermogravimetric analysis coupled with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy at the temperature of 30~800 ℃.We not only obtained the processing of the Kevlar fibers'ther-mal decomposition with great details but also the products of every stage.Experimental results exhibited that the decomposition of Kevlar fibers has experienced three stages:100~240,240~420 and 420~800 ℃.The weight loss of Kevlar fibers was quite slow before 500 ℃.The third stage was the main stage of the decomposition,and the amount of residue finally reached to a mass percent of 56.21%.FTIR analysis illustrated that free water released from Kevlar fibers at the first stage,followed by the dehy-dration and depolymerization which made polymer chains short.Finally the fiber fragments further reacted and produced the ga-ses of small molecular mass,and the main products were water,ammonia,carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide.Generation rate of water was increased;the emission of ammonia was at the same rate;carbon monoxide was only produced at the temperature of 515~630 ℃,then turned into carbon dioxide.The release of carbon dioxide was on rise because of the conversion process of car-bon monoxide,and then dropped to a certain value.

  11. Morphological characteristics of waste polyethylene/polypropylene plastics during pyrolysis and representative morphological signal characterizing pyrolysis stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H; Chen, D; Yuan, G; Ma, X; Dai, X

    2013-02-01

    In this work, the morphological characteristics of waste polyethylene (PE)/polypropylene (PP) plastics during their pyrolysis process were investigated, and based on their basic image changing patterns representative morphological signals describing the pyrolysis stages were obtained. PE and PP granules and films were used as typical plastics for testing, and influence of impurities was also investigated. During pyrolysis experiments, photographs of the testing samples were taken sequentially with a high-speed infrared camera, and the quantitative parameters that describe the morphological characteristics of these photographs were explored using the "Image Pro Plus (v6.3)" digital image processing software. The experimental results showed that plastics pyrolysis involved four stages: melting, two stages of decomposition which are characterized with bubble formation caused by volatile evaporating, and ash deposition; and each stage was characterized with its own phase changing behaviors and morphological features. Two stages of decomposition are the key step of pyrolysis since they took up half or more of the reaction time; melting step consumed another half of reaction time in experiments when raw materials were heated up from ambient temperatures; and coke-like deposition appeared as a result of decomposition completion. Two morphological signals defined from digital image processing, namely, pixel area of the interested reaction region and bubble ratio (BR) caused by volatile evaporating were found to change regularly with pyrolysis stages. In particular, for all experimental scenarios with plastics films and granules, the BR curves always exhibited a slowly drop as melting started and then a sharp increase followed by a deep decrease corresponding to the first stage of intense decomposition, afterwards a second increase - drop section corresponding to the second stage of decomposition appeared. As ash deposition happened, the BR dropped to zero or very low

  12. Molecular products from the pyrolysis and oxidative pyrolysis of tyrosine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibet, Joshua K; Khachatryan, Lavrent; Dellinger, Barry

    2013-05-01

    The thermal degradation of tyrosine at a residence time of 0.2s was conducted in a tubular flow reactor in flowing N2 and 4% O2 in N2 for a total pyrolysis time of 3min. The fractional pyrolysis technique, in which the same sample was heated continuously at each pyrolysis temperature, was applied. Thermal decomposition of tyrosine between 350 and 550°C yielded predominantly phenolic compounds (phenol, p-cresol, and p-tyramine), while decomposition between 550 and 800°C yielded hydrocarbons such as benzene, toluene, and ethyl benzene as the major reaction products. For the first time, the identification of p-tyramine, a precursor for the on of formation of p-tyramine and its degradation to phenol and p-cresol, and toxicological discussion of some of the harmful reaction products is also presented.

  13. Process for the biological purification of waste water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1992-01-01

    Process for the biological purification of waste water by the activated sludge method, the waste water being mixed with recirculated sludge and being subjected to an anaerobic treatment, before the waste water thus treated is alternately subjected to anoxic and aerobic treatments and the waste...... water thus treated is led into a clarification zone for settling sludge, which sludge is recirculated in order to be mixed with the crude waste water. As a result, a simultaneous reduction of the content both of nitrogen and phosphorus of the waste water is achieved....

  14. Arsenic in industrial waste water from copper production technological process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Jovanović

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of arsenic in industrial waste water is of a great importance for environment. Discharge of untreated waste water from a copper production process results in serious pollution of surface water, which directly affects flora and fauna, as well as humans. There is a need for efficient and environmentally acceptable treament of waste waters containing heavy metals and arsenic. The paper presents an analyisis of the waste water from The Copper Smelter which is discharged into the Bor river. The expected arsenic content in treated waste water after using HDS procedure is also presented.

  15. The fate of sulfur during rapid pyrolysis of scrap tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hongyun; Fang, Yuan; Liu, Huan; Yu, Ren; Luo, Guangqian; Liu, Wenqiang; Li, Aijun; Yao, Hong

    2014-02-01

    The fate of sulfur during rapid pyrolysis of scrap tires at temperatures from 673 to 1073K was investigated. Sulfur was predominant in the forms of thiophenic and inorganic sulfides in raw scrap tires. In the pyrolysis process, sulfur in organic forms was unstable and decomposed, leading to the sulfur release into tar and gases. At 673 and 773K, a considerable amount of sulfur was distributed in tar. Temperature increasing from 773 to 973K promoted tar decomposition and facilitated sulfur release into gases. At 1073K, the interactions between volatiles and char stimulated the formation of high-molecular-weight sulfur-containing compounds. After pyrolysis, almost half of the total content of sulfur in raw scrap tires still remained in the char and was mostly in the form of sulfides. Moreover, at temperatures higher than 873K, part of sulfur in the char was immobilized in the sulfates. In the pyrolysis gases, H2S was the main sulfur-containing gas. Increasing temperature stimulated the decomposition of organic polymers in scrap tires and more H2S was formed. Besides H2S, other sulfur-containing gases such as CH3SH, COS and SO2 were produced during the rapid pyrolysis of scrap tires.

  16. Air-assisted ultrasonic spray pyrolysis for nanoparticles synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Shirley C.; Song, Yu L.; Chen, C. Y.; Tseng, T. K.; Tsai, Chen S.

    2002-11-01

    This paper presents new findings regarding the effects of precursor drop size and concentration on product particle size and morphology in ultrasonic spray pyrolysis of zirconium hydroxyl acetate solutions. Large precursor drops (diameter >30μm) generated by ultrasonic atomization at 120kHz yielded particles with holes. Precursor drops 6-9 μm in diameter, generated by an ultrasonic nebulizer at 1.65MHz and 23.5W electric drive power, yielded uniform spherical particles 150nm in diameter under proper control of heating rate and precursor concentration. Moreover, air-assisted ultrasonic spray pyrolysis at 120kHz and 2.3W yielded spherical particles of which nearly half were smaller than those produced by the ultrasonic spray pyrolysis of the 6-9 μm precursor drops, desprite the much larger precursor drop sizes (28 μm peak diameter versus 7 μm mean diameter). These particles are much smaller than those predicted by the conventional one particle per drop mechanism, suggesting that a vapor condensation mechanism may also be involved in spray pyrolysis. It may be concluded that through this new mechanism air-assisted ultrasonic spray pyrolysis can become a viable process for mass production of nanoparticles.

  17. Method for Hot Real-Time Sampling of Pyrolysis Vapors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomeroy, Marc D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-29

    Biomass Pyrolysis has been an increasing topic of research, in particular as a replacement for crude oil. This process utilizes moderate temperatures to thermally deconstruct the biomass which is then condensed into a mixture of liquid oxygenates to be used as fuel precursors. Pyrolysis oils contain more than 400 compounds, up to 60 percent of which do not re-volatilize for subsequent chemical analysis. Vapor chemical composition is also complicated as additional condensation reactions occur during the condensation and collection of the product. Due to the complexity of the pyrolysis oil, and a desire to catalytically upgrade the vapor composition before condensation, online real-time analytical techniques such as Molecular Beam Mass Spectrometry (MBMS) are of great use. However, in order to properly sample hot pyrolysis vapors, many challenges must be overcome. Sampling must occur within a narrow range of temperatures to reduce product composition changes from overheating or partial condensation or plugging of lines from condensed products. Residence times must be kept at a minimum to reduce further reaction chemistries. Pyrolysis vapors also form aerosols that are carried far downstream and can pass through filters resulting in build-up in downstream locations. The co-produced bio-char and ash from the pyrolysis process can lead to plugging of the sample lines, and must be filtered out at temperature, even with the use of cyclonic separators. A practical approach for considerations and sampling system design, as well as lessons learned are integrated into the hot analytical sampling system of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) Thermochemical Process Development Unit (TCPDU) to provide industrially relevant demonstrations of thermochemical transformations of biomass feedstocks at the pilot scale.

  18. Effect of combined slow pyrolysis and steam gasification of sugarcane bagasse on hydrogen generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parthasarathy, Prakash; Narayanan, Sheeba [National Institute of Technology, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2015-11-15

    The present work aims at improving the generation of H2 from sugarcane bagasse in steam gasification process by incorporating slow pyrolysis technique. As a bench scale study, slow pyrolysis of sugarcane bagasse is performed at various pyrolysis temperature (350, 400, 450, 500 and 550 .deg. C) and feed particle size (90process (slow pyrolysis of biomass followed by steam gasification of char), first slow pyrolysis is carried out at the effective conditions (pyrolysis temperature and particle size) of char generation (determined from bench scale study) and steam gasification is at varying gasification temperature (600, 650, 700, 750 and 800 .deg. C) and steam to biomass (S/B) ratio (1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6) to determine the effective conditions of H{sub 2} generation. The effect of temperature and S/B on gas product composition and overall product gas volume was also investigated. At effective conditions (gasification temperature and S/B) of H2 generation, individual slow pyrolysis and steam gasification were also experimented to evaluate the performance of combined process. The effective condition of H{sub 2} generation in combined process was found to be 800 .deg. C (gasification temperature) and 5 (S/B), respectively. The combined process produced 35.90% and 23.60% more gas volume (overall) than slow pyrolysis and steam gasification process, respectively. With respect to H{sub 2} composition, the combined process generated 72.37% more than slow pyrolysis and 17.91% more than steam gasification process.

  19. INTEGRATED PYROLYSIS COMBINED CYCLE BIOMASS POWER SYSTEM CONCEPT DEFINITION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric Sandvig; Gary Walling; Robert C. Brown; Ryan Pletka; Desmond Radlein; Warren Johnson

    2003-03-01

    Advanced power systems based on integrated gasification/combined cycles (IGCC) are often presented as a solution to the present shortcomings of biomass as fuel. Although IGCC has been technically demonstrated at full scale, it has not been adopted for commercial power generation. Part of the reason for this situation is the continuing low price for coal. However, another significant barrier to IGCC is the high level of integration of this technology: the gas output from the gasifier must be perfectly matched to the energy demand of the gas turbine cycle. We are developing an alternative to IGCC for biomass power: the integrated (fast) pyrolysis/ combined cycle (IPCC). In this system solid biomass is converted into liquid rather than gaseous fuel. This liquid fuel, called bio-oil, is a mixture of oxygenated organic compounds and water that serves as fuel for a gas turbine topping cycle. Waste heat from the gas turbine provides thermal energy to the steam turbine bottoming cycle. Advantages of the biomass-fueled IPCC system include: combined cycle efficiency exceeding 37 percent efficiency for a system as small as 7.6 MW{sub e}; absence of high pressure thermal reactors; decoupling of fuel processing and power generation; and opportunities for recovering value-added products from the bio-oil. This report provides a technical overview of the system including pyrolyzer design, fuel clean-up strategies, pyrolysate condenser design, opportunities for recovering pyrolysis byproducts, gas turbine cycle design, and Rankine steam cycle. The report also reviews the potential biomass fuel supply in Iowa, provide and economic analysis, and present a summery of benefits from the proposed system.

  20. Exploratory studies on fast pyrolysis oil upgrading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahfud, Farchad Husein

    2007-01-01

    Pyrolysis oil is a dark brown liquid which can be produced in high yield from different kind of biomass sources by means of fast pyrolysis. Pyrolysis oil is considered as a promising second generation energy carrier and may play an important role in the future of "biobased economies". The energy

  1. Pyrolysis of phenols from lignite semicoking tar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platonov, V.V.; Ryltsova, S.V.; Proskuryakov, V.A.; Rozental, D.A.; Polovetskaya, O.S.; Martynov, V.Y.; Chilachava, K.B.

    2000-07-01

    Pyrolysis of phenols from lignite semicoking tar at 750-900 {degree}C and contact time of 0.5-6.0 s was studied. The yields of pyrocarbon, pyrolysis gas, and liquid products and the group and component composition of the liquid products and pyrolysis gas were determined. The main groups of compounds in liquid products were analysed.

  2. Exploratory studies on fast pyrolysis oil upgrading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahfud, Farchad Husein

    2007-01-01

    Pyrolysis oil is a dark brown liquid which can be produced in high yield from different kind of biomass sources by means of fast pyrolysis. Pyrolysis oil is considered as a promising second generation energy carrier and may play an important role in the future of "biobased economies". The energy con

  3. Pyrolysis of a waste from the grinding of scrap tyres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, A M; Barriocanal, C; Alvarez, R

    2012-02-15

    The fibres that are used to reinforce tyres can be recovered as a waste in the process of grinding of scrap tyres. In this paper beneficiation through pyrolysis is studied since the fibres are made up of polymers with a small amount of rubber because the latter is difficult to separate. The experiments were performed at three temperatures (400, 550 and 900°C) in a horizontal oven. The three products - gas, oil and char - obtained from the pyrolysis were investigated. The composition of the gas was analyzed by means of gas chromatography. The oil was studied by gas chromatography and infrared spectroscopy. The char porous structure was determined by N(2) adsorption. In addition, the topography of the chars was studied by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The products resulting from the pyrolysis of the fibres were compared with those obtained from scrap rubber.

  4. A Preliminary Study of the Plasma Pyrolysis of Waste Tyres

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐兰; 黄海涛; 赵增立; 吴创之

    2003-01-01

    Thermal plasma pyrolysis of waste tyres for recovering energy was performed in a nitrogen plasma reactor. The main gaseous products were identified by chromatography as H2, CO, CH4, C2H2 and so on. From a series of experiments, the effects of the process parameters of thermal plasma pyrolysis were investigated. Under our experimental conditions with steam injection, the total contents of H2 and CO reached up to 38.3% in the gas product, C2H2 up to 4%, and the maximum calorific value of the pyrolysis gas was 8.96 MJ/m3. The results indicate that plasma-assisted thermal decomposition of waste tyre particles may be a useful way for recovering energy and useful chemicals.

  5. Co-pyrolysis characteristics of coal and natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, L.R.; Zhang, J.M.; Lian, H.; Luo, M. [Shanghai University of Science & Technology, Shanghai (China)

    2007-05-15

    A co-pyrolysis experiment of coal and natural gas was investigated on a fixed-bed reactor. SEM was used to study the structure changes of the exterior surface of char prepared in this co-pyrolysis experiment, while GC was also utilized to analyze the associated gas. The result showed that, with increasing temperature, the coal char tended to agglomerate. GC and SEM results show that the CH{sub 4} decomposition on the exterior surface of char was turned to filamentous char and extended around like coral. It was also proved that the co-pyrolysis of coal and natural gas promoted syngas production. A synergistic effect of coal and natural gas does exist during this process.

  6. Production of methanol from biomass waste via pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarudin, S K; Shamsul, N S; Ghani, J A; Chia, S K; Liew, H S; Samsudin, A S

    2013-02-01

    The production of methanol from agricultural, forestry, livestock, poultry, and fishery waste via pyrolysis was investigated. Pyrolysis was conducted in a tube furnace at 450-500 °C. Sugarcane bagasse showed the methanol production (5.93 wt.%), followed by roots and sawdust with 4.36 and 4.22 wt.%, respectively. Animal waste offered the lowest content of methanol, as only 0.46, 0.80, and 0.61 wt.% were obtained from fishery, goat, and cow waste, respectively. It was also observed that the percentage of methanol increased with an increase in volatile compounds while the percentage of ethanol increased with the percentage of ash and fix carbon. The data indicate that, pyrolysis is a means for production of methanol and ethanol after further optimization of the process and sample treatment.

  7. Specialists' workshop on fast pyrolysis of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    This workshop brought together most of those who are currently working in or have published significant findings in the area of fast pyrolysis of biomass or biomass-derived materials, with the goal of attaining a better understanding of the dominant mechanisms which produce olefins, oxygenated liquids, char, and tars. In addition, background papers were given in hydrocarbon pyrolysis, slow pyrolysis of biomass, and techniques for powdered-feedstock preparation in order that the other papers did not need to introduce in depth these concepts in their presentations for continuity. In general, the authors were requested to present summaries of experimental data with as much interpretation of that data as possible with regard to mechanisms and process variables such as heat flux, temperatures, partial pressure, feedstock, particle size, heating rates, residence time, etc. Separate abstracts have been prepared of each presentation for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (DMC)

  8. Pyrolysis and combustion behaviour of coal-MBM blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skodras, G; Grammelis, P; Basinas, P

    2007-01-01

    In the present work, thermogravimetric analysis was employed in order to investigate the behaviour of MBM and their blends with Greek brown coal, under pyrolysis and combustion conditions. MBM presented enhanced pyrolysis rates reflecting its high volatile and low ash contents compared to Greek brown coal. Increased conversion rates were observed when MBM was added in the brown coal sample. Significant interactions were detected between the two fuel blend components leading to significant deviations from the expected behaviour. The catalytic effect of mineral matter on the pyrolysis of MBM resulted in reaction rate decrease and DTG curve shift to lower temperatures for the demineralised MBM. Alterations in the combustion process due to the mineral matter were minimal when testing the blends. Interactions maintained during combustion and lower reactivity of MBM was achieved due to the reduced oxygen content.

  9. Pyrolysis and combustion behaviour of coal-MBM blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skodras, G.; Grammelis, P.; Basinas, P. [Center for Research & Technology Hellas, Ptolemais (Greece)

    2007-01-15

    In the present work, thermogravimetric analysis was employed in order to investigate the behaviour of MBM (meat and bone meal) and their blends with Greek brown coal, under pyrolysis and combustion conditions. MBM presented enhanced pyrolysis rates reflecting its high volatile and low ash contents compared to Greek brown coal. Increased conversion rates were observed when MBM was added in the brown coal sample. Significant interactions were detected between the two fuel blend components leading to significant deviations from the expected behaviour. The catalytic effect of mineral matter on the pyrolysis of MBM resulted in reaction rate decrease and DTG curve shift to lower temperatures for the demineralised MBM. Alterations in the combustion process due to the mineral matter were minimal when testing the blends. Interactions maintained during combustion and lower reactivity of MBM was achieved due to the reduced oxygen content.

  10. TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESS ASSESSMENT OF THE DRINKING WATER TREATMENT AT TARGU-MURES WATER TREATMENT PLANT

    OpenAIRE

    CORNELIA DIANA HERTIA; ANCA ELENA GURZAU; MARIA ILONA SZASZ

    2011-01-01

    This paper intends to assess the technological process of obtaining drinking water at Targu-Mures water treatment plant. The assessment was performed before changing the technological process and four months were chosen to be analized during 2008: January, April, July and October for its efficiency analysis on treatment steps. Mures River is the water source for the water treatment plant, being characterized by unsteady flow and quality parameters with possible important variability in a very...

  11. Pressurized pyrolysis and gasification behaviour of black liquor and biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitty, K.; Backman, R.; Hupa, M. [Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    The objective of this project is to obtain basic experimental data on pyrolysis and gasification of various black liquors and biofuels at elevated pressures, and to model these processes. Liquor-to-liquor differences in conversion behavior of single liquor droplets during gasification at atmospheric pressure were investigated. The applicability of a rate equation developed for catalyzed gasification of carbon was investigated with regard to pressurized black liquor gasification. A neural network was developed to simulate the progression of char conversion during pressurized black liquor gasification. Pyrolysis of black liquor in a pressurized drop-tube furnace was investigated in collaboration with KTH in Stockholm. (author)

  12. Release of Chlorine and Sulfur during Biomass Torrefaction and Pyrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saleh, Suriyati Binti; Flensborg, Julie Pauline; Shoulaifar, Tooran Khazraie

    2014-01-01

    The release of chlorine (Cl) and sulfur (S) during biomass torrefaction and pyrolysis has been investigated via experiments in two laboratory-scale reactors: a rotating reactor and a fixed bed reactor. Six biomasses with different chemical compositions covering a wide range of ash content and ash...... reporting that biomasses with a lower chlorine content release a higher fraction of chlorine during the pyrolysis process. A significant sulfur release (about 60%) was observed from the six biomasses investigated at 350 degrees C. The initial sulfur content in the biomass did not influence the fraction...

  13. Kinetics study on biomass pyrolysis for fuel gas production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Kinetic knowledge is of great importance in achieving good control of the pyrolysis and gasification process and optimising system design. An overall kinetic pyrolysis scheme is therefore addressed here. The kinetic modelling incorporates the following basic steps: the degradation of the virgin biomass materials into primary products (tar, gas and semi-char), the decomposition of primary tar into secondary products and the continuous interaction between primary gas and char. The last step is disregarded completely by models in the literature. Analysis and comparison of predicted results from different kinetic schemes and experimental data on our fixed bed pyrolyser yielded very positive evidence to support our kinetic scheme.

  14. Kinetics study on biomass pyrolysis for fuel gas production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈冠益; 方梦祥; ANDRIES,J.; 骆仲泱; SPLIETHOFF,H.; 岑可法

    2003-01-01

    Kinetic knowledge is of great importance in achieving good control of the pyrolysis and gasification process and optimising system design. An overall kinetic pyrolysis scheme is therefore addressed here. The ki-netic modelling incorporates the following basic steps: the degradation of the virgin biomass materials into pri-mary products ( tar, gas and semi-char), the decomposition of primary tar into secondary products and the continuous interaction between primary gas and char. The last step is disregarded completely by models in the literature. Analysis and comparison of predicted results from different kinetic schemes and experimental data on our fixed bed pyrolyser yielded very positive evidence to support our kinetic scheme.

  15. Hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation: in-ground thermal destruction of organic contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knauss, K. G.; Aines, R.D.; Dibley, M.J.; Leif, R.N.; Mew, D.A.

    1997-03-11

    subsurface. When injection is halted, the steam condenses and contaminated groundwater returns to the heated zone. It mixes with the condensate and oxygen, destroying any dissolved contaminants. This avoids many of the mixing problems encountered in other in situ oxidation schemes. In other oxidation schemes, an oxidizing reagent is injected into the subsurface resulting in the displacement of the contaminant. Without a return process such as the steam condensation, the contaminant and oxidant never mix. Using hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation, DNAPLs and dissolved contaminants may be destroyed in place, without surface treatment. This will improve the rate and efficiency of remediation by rendering the hazardous materials into benign ones via a completely in situ process. Because the subsurface is heated during this process, hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation also takes advantage of the large increase in mass transfer rates which make contaminant more available for destruction, such as increased diffusion out of silty sediments. Many remediation processes are limited by the access of the reactants to the contaminant, making mass-transfer limitations the bane of remediation efforts in low-permeability media. In preparation for testing this method at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (TCE in groundwater) and at a Southern California pole treating site (fire product with PAH and pentachlorophenol), we are developing a concept for the implementation of hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation through co-injection of steam and possibly small amounts of oxygen, as well as evaluating the rate at which hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation occurs due to the natural presence of mineral oxidants such as manganese oxides when the water temperature is raised. We are also determining the thermodynamic properties (e.g., solubility, Henry`s Law constants, etc.) of these hazardous compounds, as a function of T and P, in order to be able to predict effectiveness and required time for design purposes and to optimize clean

  16. Urea Synthesis Plant - Process Water Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matijašević, Lj.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available After the years of operation of Petrokemija d. d. from Kutina it has been recognized that the technology of urea production can be improved at several points, including wastewater treatment.The wastewater treatment area is a part of the urea plant, Urea 2 of Petrokemija d. d., Kutina. The plant has been in operation since 1983 based on the licensed Stamicarbon CO2 stripping process. So far there have been no major process improvements in terms of utility savings. This part of the plant releases into the environment almost 800 t per day of superfluous wastewater polluted with small, however significant, amounts of urea and ammonium. As such, this wastewater cannot be used in any other segment of urea production. The aim of this paper is to improve the current process from the economical and ecological point of view with ultimate goal of implementing the results obtained.

  17. Recycling WEEE: Polymer characterization and pyrolysis study for waste of crystalline silicon photovoltaic modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Pablo; Javimczik, Selene; Benevit, Mariana; Veit, Hugo

    2017-02-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) modules contain both valuable and hazardous materials, which makes its recycling meaningful economically and environmentally. In general, the recycling of PV modules starts with the removal of the polymeric ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) resin using pyrolysis, which assists in the recovery of materials such as silicon, copper and silver. The pyrolysis implementation, however, needs improvement given its importance. In this study, the polymers in the PV modules were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and the removal of the EVA resin using pyrolysis has been studied and optimized. The results revealed that 30min pyrolysis at 500°C removes >99% of the polymers present in photovoltaic modules. Moreover, the behavior of different particle size milled modules during the pyrolysis process was evaluated. It is shown that polymeric materials tend to remain at a larger particle size and thus, this fraction has the greatest mass loss during pyrolysis. A thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) performed in all polymeric matter revealed the optimum pyrolysis temperature is around 500°C. Temperatures above 500°C continue to degrade matter, but mass loss rate is 6.25 times smaller. This study demonstrates the use of pyrolysis can remove >99% of the polymeric matter from PV modules, which assists the recycling of this hazardous waste and avoids its disposal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparison of the pyrolysis behavior of lignins from different tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shurong; Wang, Kaige; Liu, Qian; Gu, Yueling; Luo, Zhongyang; Cen, Kefa; Fransson, Torsten

    2009-01-01

    Despite the increasing importance of biomass pyrolysis, little is known about the pyrolysis behavior of lignin--one of the main components of biomass--due to its structural complexity and the difficulty in its isolation. In the present study, we extracted lignins from Manchurian ash (Fraxinus mandschurica) and Mongolian Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica) using the Bjorkman procedure, which has little effect on the structure of lignin. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry was used to characterize the microstructure of the Bjorkman lignins, i.e., milled wood lignins (MWLs), from the different tree species. The pyrolysis characteristics of MWLs were investigated using a thermogravimetric analyzer, and the release of the main volatile and gaseous products of pyrolysis were detected by FTIR spectroscopy. During the pyrolysis process, MWLs underwent thermo-degradation over a wide temperature range. Manchurian ash MWL showed a much higher thermal degradation rate than Mongolian Scots pine MWL in the temperature range from 290-430 degrees C. High residue yields were achieved at 37 wt.% for Mongolian Scots pine MWL and 26 wt.% for Manchurian ash MWL. In order to further investigate the mechanisms of lignin pyrolysis, we also analyzed the FTIR profiles for the main pyrolysis products (CO(2), CO, methane, methanol, phenols and formaldehyde) and investigated the variation in pyrolysis products between the different MWLs.

  19. Pyrolysis of polystyrene - polyphenylene oxide to recover styrene and useful products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Robert J.; Chum, Helena L.

    1995-01-01

    A process of using fast pyrolysis in a carrier gas to convert a polystyrene and polyphenylene oxide plastic waste to a given polystyrene and polyphenylene oxide prior to pyrolysis of other plastic components therein comprising: selecting a first temperature range to cause pyrolysis of given polystyrene and polyphenylene oxide and its high value monomeric constituent prior to a temperature range that causes pyrolysis of other plastic components; selecting a catalyst and a support and treating the feed stream with the catalyst to affect acid or base catalyzed reaction pathways to maximize yield or enhance separation of high value monomeric constituent of styrene from polystyrene and polyphenylene oxide in the first temperature range; differentially heating the feed stream at a heat rate within the first temperature range to provide differential pyrolysis for selective recovery of the high value monomeric constituent of styrene from polystyrene and polyphenylene oxide prior to pyrolysis of other plastic components; separating the high value monomer constituent of styrene; selecting a second higher temperature range to cause pyrolysis to a different derived high value product of polyphenylene oxide from the plastic waste and differentially heating the feed stream at the higher temperature range to cause pyrolysis of the plastic into a polyphenylene oxide derived product; and separating the different derived high value polyphenylene oxide product.

  20. Simulation of hydrocarbons pyrolysis in a fast-mixing reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MG Ktalkherman; IG Namyatov

    2015-01-01

    Currently, thermal decomposition of hydrocarbons for the production of basic petrochemicals (ethylene, propyl-ene) is carried out in steam-cracking processes. Aside from the conventional method, under consideration are alternative ways purposed for process intensification. In the context of these activities, the method of high-temperature pyrolysis of hydrocarbons in a heat-carrier flow is studied, which differs from previous ones and is based on the ability of an ultra-short time of feedstock/heat-carrier mixing. This enables to study the pyrolysis process at high temperature (up to 1500 K) at the reactor inlet. A set of model experiments is conducted on the lab scale facility. Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and naphtha are used as a feedstock. The detailed data are obtain-ed on temperature and product distributions within a wide range of the residence time. A theoretical model based on the detailed kinetics of the process is developed, too. The effect of governing parameters on the pyrolysis process is analyzed by the results of the simulation and experiments. In particular, the optimal temperature is detected which corresponds to the maximum ethylene yield. Product yields in our experiments are compared with the similar ones in the conventional pyrolysis method. In both cases (LPG and naphtha), ethylene selectivity in the fast-mixing reactor is substantial y higher than in current technology.

  1. Process engineering applied to receiving waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harremoës, Poul

    1973-01-01

    Processes in the media, which recieve waste, must be included in the sphere of interest within industry's environmental consciousness. Pollution problems are not very simple and should thus not be dealt with in too simple a fashion. Chemical engineers are very well suited to deal with the stagger......Processes in the media, which recieve waste, must be included in the sphere of interest within industry's environmental consciousness. Pollution problems are not very simple and should thus not be dealt with in too simple a fashion. Chemical engineers are very well suited to deal...

  2. Pyrolysis oil production, properties, and utilization; Pyrolyysioeljyn valmistus, ominaisuudet ja kaeyttoe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sipilae, K.; Oasmaa, A.; Arpiainen, V.; Kuoppala, E.; Leppaemaeki, E.; Solantausta, Y.; Levander, J. VTT Energia

    1995-12-31

    The main tasks for 1995 were: design and assembling of experimental reactors, and physical and chemical characterisation of pyrolysis oils. A PDU-unit (20 kg/h) has been designed and it will be assembled in April 1996. A 1 kg/h pyrolyzer has been constructed with a hot-filtration system (a ceramic candle filter) and direct quenching with a hydrocarbon oil. The equipment has worked well. Pine saw dust has been used as a feed and a good-quality solids-free product oil has been obtained. In addition to this, a smaller (150 g/h) pyrolyzer has been bought from Canada (University of Waterloo). The small equipment will be used for example for catalytic upgrading of pyrolysis vapours. Chemical characterisation of pyrolysis oil has been carried out 1995. Water extraction has been developed for a fractionation method. Pyrolysis oil samples produced from mixed hardwood, eucalyptus and straw have been employed. The objective of the study has been to develop a simple characterisation method for comparison of different pyrolysis oils. For example reactive compounds have been identified. Main analytical method for analysing the water-soluble fraction has been GC-MS. The research will be continued 1996. A literature review of chemical and physical characterization of pyrolysis oils has been published 1995. Testing of fuel oil analyses has been continued within the IEA pyrolysis project. VTT Energy is responsible for fuel oil analytical methods

  3. Kinetic investigation of wood pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thurner, F.; Mann, U.; Beck, S. R.

    1980-06-01

    The objective of this investigation was to determine the kinetics of the primary reactions of wood pyrolysis. A new experimental method was developed which enabled us to measure the rate of gas, tar, and char production while taking into account the temperature variations during the wood heating up. The experimental method developed did not require any sophisticated instruments. It facilitated the collection of gas, tar and residue (unreacted wood and char) as well as accurate measurement of the temperature inside the wood sample. Expressions relating the kinetic parameters to the measured variables were derived. The pyrolysis kinetics was investigated in the range of 300 to 400/sup 0/C at atmospheric pressure and under nitrogen atmosphere. Reaction temperature and mass fractions of gas, tar, and residue were measured as a function of time. Assuming first-order reactions, the kinetic parameters were determined using differential method. The measured activation energies of wood pyrolysis to gas, tar, and char were 88.6, 112.7, and 106.5 kJ/mole, respectively. These kinetic data were then used to predict the yield of the various pyrolysis products. It was found that the best prediction was obtained when an integral-mean temperature obtained from the temperature-time curve was used as reaction temperature. The pyrolysis products were analyzed to investigate the influence of the pyrolysis conditions on the composition. The gas consisted mainly of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, oxygen, and C/sub 3//sup +/-compounds. The gas composition depended on reaction time as well as reactor temperature. The tar analysis indicated that the tar consisted of about seven compounds. Its major compound was believed to be levoglucosan. Elemental analysis for the char showed that the carbon content increased with increasing temperature.

  4. Hydrogeophysical monitoring of water infiltration processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevilacqua, Ivan; Cassiani, Giorgio; Deiana, Rita; Canone, Davide; Previati, Maurizio

    2010-05-01

    Non-invasive subsurface monitoring is growing in the last years. Techniques like ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) can be useful in soil water content monitoring (e.g., Vereecken et al., 2006). Some problems remain (e.g. spatial resolution), but the scale is consistent with many applications and hydrological models. The research has to to provide even more quantitative tools, without remaining in the qualitative realm. This is a very crucial step in the way to provide data useful for hydrological modeling. In this work a controlled field infiltration experiment has been done in August 2009 in the experimental site of Grugliasco, close to the Agricultural Faculty of the University of Torino, Italy. The infiltration has been monitored in time lapse by ERT, GPR, and TDR (Time Domain Reflectometry). The sandy soil characteristics of the site has been already described in another experiment [Cassiani et al. 2009a].The ERT was èperformed in dipole-dipole configuration, while the GPR had 100 MHz and 500 MHz antennas in WARR configuration. The TDR gages had different lengths. The amount of water which was sprinkled was also monitored in time.Irrigation intensity has been always smaller than infiltration capacity, in order not toh ave any surface ponding. Spectral induced polarization has been used to infer constitutive parameters from soil samples [Cassiani et al. 2009b]. 2D Richards equation model (Manzini and Ferraris, 2004) has been then calibrated with the measurements. References. Cassiani, G., S. Ferraris, M. Giustiniani, R. Deiana and C.Strobbia, 2009a, Time-lapse surface-to-surface GPR measurements to monitor a controlled infiltration experiment, in press, Bollettino di Geofisica Teorica ed Applicata, Vol. 50, 2 Marzo 2009, pp. 209-226. Cassiani, G., A. Kemna, A.Villa, and E. Zimmermann, 2009b, Spectral induced polarization for the characterization of free-phase hydrocarbon contamination in sediments with low clay content

  5. Emergy analysis on upgraded process systems of bio-oil frompinus sylvestris pyrolysis%樟子松热解生物油提质工艺系统能值分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邰扬; 黄亚继; 刘长奇; 刘凌沁; 卢志海

    2016-01-01

    生物质热解提质制高品位生物油技术是当前研究热点,该文基于能值投入产出结构和能值指标,考虑环境因素,运用能值分析方法对樟子松快速热解催化加氢提质(方案1)和超临界乙醇提质(方案2)制高品位生物油系统进行综合评价,并分别从生产效率、自然环境支持力以及可持续性3个角度进行对比。结果表明,在生产等量燃料情况下,方案2消耗的太阳能更少,效率更高,但在人类社会投入及总投入方面方案1少于方案2,方案1系统的可再生率更高,对环境的压力更小,可持续性更好,工艺更受环境支持。该文为提高生物质热解提质制生物油系统的综合性能提供理论依据。%Fast pyrolysis of biomass and upgrading techniques for the high chemical value bio-oil production have been investigated widely in recent decades. A variety of upgrading techniques are applied in industrial manufacture process, while the production efficiency and sustainability of those techniques have their own merits and demerits, which emphasizes the importance of the evaluation systems for those techniques. Several evaluation methods, such as energy analysis, exergy analysis, and emergy analysis, have been developed to evaluate the fast pyrolysis of biomass and upgrading techniques. Based on different emergy flows, the methods chosen for the thermodynamic analysis lead to various outcomes. All the input and output energies in an industrial production system are considered in energy analysis, while exergy analysis takes the additional available energy into account. In emergy analysis, all kinds of emergy flows are taken into consideration, including monetary flow, information flow and energy flow. Emergy analysis is derived from the viewpoint that the sun provides the energy for everything on the earth so it is reasonable to convert all kinds of energy to the solar energy. It is so efficient and comprehensive

  6. An optically accessible pyrolysis microreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baraban, J. H.; Ellison, G. Barney [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); David, D. E. [Integrated Instrument Development Facility, CIRES, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0216 (United States); Daily, J. W. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    We report an optically accessible pyrolysis micro-reactor suitable for in situ laser spectroscopic measurements. A radiative heating design allows for completely unobstructed views of the micro-reactor along two axes. The maximum temperature demonstrated here is only 1300 K (as opposed to 1700 K for the usual SiC micro-reactor) because of the melting point of fused silica, but alternative transparent materials will allow for higher temperatures. Laser induced fluorescence measurements on nitric oxide are presented as a proof of principle for spectroscopic characterization of pyrolysis conditions.

  7. A Mathematical Model of Cigarette Smoldering Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen P

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model for a smoldering cigarette has been proposed. In the analysis of the cigarette combustion and pyrolysis processes, a receding burning front is defined, which has a constant temperature (~450 °C and divides the cigarette into two zones, the burning zone and the pyrolysis zone. The char combustion processes in the burning zone and the pyrolysis of virgin tobacco and evaporation of water in the pyrolysis zone are included in the model. The hot gases flow from the burning zone, are assumed to go out as sidestream smoke during smoldering. The internal heat transport is characterized by effective thermal conductivities in each zone. Thermal conduction of cigarette paper and convective and radiative heat transfer at the outer surface were also considered. The governing partial differential equations were solved using an integral method. Model predictions of smoldering speed as well as temperature and density profiles in the pyrolysis zone for different kinds of cigarettes were found to agree with the experimental data. The model also predicts the coal length and the maximum coal temperatures during smoldering conditions. The model provides a relatively fast and efficient way to simulate the cigarette burning processes. It offers a practical tool for exploring important parameters for cigarette smoldering processes, such as tobacco components, properties of cigarette paper, and heat generation in the burning zone and its dependence on the mass burn rate.

  8. Deep Water Ambient Noise and Mode Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    to this award. The Code 321 project is titled Random Matrix Theory ( RMT ) for Adaptive Beamforming (N00014-12-1-0048). The RMT project is using some...of the Philippine Sea data for testing adaptive beamformers. The RMT analysis focuses on sonar signal processing issues, rather than propagation...ambient noise, or tomography. The project described in this report may benefit from the results of the RMT project, but there is no direct overlap in

  9. Tylosin abatement in water by photocatalytic process

    CERN Document Server

    Laoufi, N A; Pons, Marie-Noëlle; Zahraa, Orfan

    2009-01-01

    The photocatalytic degradation of tylosin has been studied using immobilized titanium dioxide as catalyst. T he processes of degradation and reduction of tylosin was examined, and the activity is dominantly dependent on the surface coverage of the catalysts, The Langmuir-Hinshelwood model is satisfactorily obeyed at initial time and in the course of the reaction. These results suggest the feasibility of a photocatalytic system on the elimination of such antibiotic.

  10. Bio-oil from pyrolysis of cashew nut shell - a near fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, P.; Ganesh, A. [Indian Inst. of technology, Mumbai (India). Energy Systems Engineering

    2003-07-01

    Cashew nut shell (CNS) has been studied for the product distribution in a packed bed vacuum pyrolysis unit. The effect of pyrolysis temperatures on the product yields is also studied. The oil-to-liquid ratio in the pyrolysis products was found to remain almost constant in the range between 400{sup o}C and 550{sup o}C. The properties of CNS oil has been found to be amazingly near to that of petroleum fuels with calorific value as high as 40 MJkg{sup -1}, the oil has a low ash content (0.01%) and water content is limited to 3-3.5 wt% of oil. (Author)

  11. Predicting the residual aluminum level in water treatment process

    OpenAIRE

    J. Tomperi; M. Pelo; K. Leiviskä

    2012-01-01

    In water treatment processes, aluminum salts are widely used as coagulation chemical. High dose of aluminum has been proved to be at least a minor health risk and some evidence points out that aluminum could increase the risk of Alzheimer's disease thus it is important to minimize the amount of residual aluminum in drinking water and water used at food industry. In this study, the data of a water treatment plant (WTP) was analyzed and the residual aluminum in drinking water was predicted usin...

  12. Predicting the residual aluminum level in water treatment process

    OpenAIRE

    J. Tomperi; M. Pelo; K. Leiviskä

    2013-01-01

    In water treatment processes, aluminum salts are widely used as coagulation chemical. High dose of aluminum has been proved to be at least a minor health risk and some evidence points out that aluminum could increase the risk of Alzheimer's disease. Thus it is important to minimize the amount of residual aluminum in drinking water and water used at food industry. In this study, the data of a water treatment plant (WTP) was analyzed and the residual aluminum in drinking water was predicted usi...

  13. Research into the pyrolysis of pure cellulose, lignin, and birch wood flour in the China Lake entrained-flow reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diebold, J.

    1980-06-01

    This experimental program used the China Lake entrained-flow pyrolysis reactor to briefly investigate the pyrolysis of pure cellulose, pure lignin, and birch wood flour. The study determined that the cellulose and wood flour do pyrolyze to produce primarily gaseous products containing significant amounts of ethylene and other useful hydrocarbons. During attempts to pyrolyze powdered lignin, the material melted and bubbled to block the reactor entrance. The pure cellulose and wood flour produced C/sub 2/ + yields of 12% to 14% by weight, which were less than yields from an organic feedstock derived from processed municipal trash. The char yields were 0.1% by weight from cellulose and 1.5% from birch wood flour - one to two orders of magnitude less than were produced from the trash-derived feedstock. In scanning electron microscope photographs, most of the wood flour char had a sintered and agglomerated appearance, although some particles retained the gross cell characteristics of the wood flour. The appearance of the char particles indicated that the material had once been molten and possibly vapor before it formed spheroidal particles about 1 ..mu..m diameter which agglomerated to form larger char particles. The ability to completely melt or vaporize lignocellulosic materials under conditions of high heating rates has now been demonstrated in a continuous flow reactor and promises new techniques for fast pyrolysis. This char was unexpectedly attracted by a magnet, presumably because of iron contamination from the pyrolysis reactor tube wall. The production of water-insoluble tars was negligible compared to the tars produced from trash-derived feedstock. The production of water-soluble organic materials was fairly low and qualitatively appeared to vary inversely with temperature. This study was of a preliminary nature and additional studies are necessary to optimize ethylene production from these feedstocks.

  14. Methods and apparatuses for preparing upgraded pyrolysis oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandvold, Timothy A; Baird, Lance Awender; Frey, Stanley Joseph

    2013-10-01

    Methods and apparatuses for preparing upgraded pyrolysis oil are provided herein. In an embodiment, a method of preparing upgraded pyrolysis oil includes providing a biomass-derived pyrolysis oil stream having an original oxygen content. The biomass-derived pyrolysis oil stream is hydrodeoxygenated under catalysis in the presence of hydrogen to form a hydrodeoxygenated pyrolysis oil stream comprising a cyclic paraffin component. At least a portion of the hydrodeoxygenated pyrolysis oil stream is dehydrogenated under catalysis to form the upgraded pyrolysis oil.

  15. Advance in pyrolysis and gasification of municipal solid waste study%城市生活垃圾热解气化技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁浩然; 鲁涛; 熊祖鸿; 黄宏宇; 小林敬幸; 陈勇; 黎志强

    2012-01-01

    从城市生活垃圾热转化方式的比较入手,简要阐明了热解气化过程,讨论了各类热解气化反应器的优缺点,概述了城市生活垃圾热解、气化实验研究进展以及热解气化技术中试及应用情况。通过比较各类实验研究,明确了热解温度、加热速率对热解产物产量及产物分布的影响,气化温度、氧气当量比(RO)对含氧气化反应的影响,气化温度、水蒸气与城市生活垃圾质量比(S/M)对水蒸气气化反应的影响。指出了城市生活垃圾热解气化实验研究热点在于优化控制参数,提高反应速率,促进目标产物高值化,抑制其它产物及污染物的生成,以及城市生活垃圾热解气化技术的发展方向。%Pyrolysis and gasification process of municipal solid waste was briefly clarified in this paper starting with various ways of municipal solid waste thermal conversion.The advantages and drawbacks of pyrolysis and gasification reactors were discussed.The research progress in municipal solid waste pyrolysis and gasification and the pilot test of pyrolysis and gasification technology together with their application status were all introduced.The effects of pyrolysis temperature and heating process on the yields and distribution of pyrolysis products,the effects of gasification temperature and oxygen equivalence ratio(RO) on the oxygen gasification reaction and the effects of gasification temperature,water vapor and the municipal solid waste mass ratio(S/M) on the steam gasification reaction were all illustrated clearly by comparing various experimental studies.It was found that the research on municipal solid waste pyrolysis and gasification focused on optimizing control parameters,improving reaction rate,promoting high-value target product and inhibiting the formation of other products and contaminants.Finally the research direction of municipal solid waste pyrolysis and gasification technology in the future was propsed

  16. Lifecycle Assessment of Biofuel Production from Wood Pyrolysis Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyele, S. V.

    2007-01-01

    Due to a stronger dependency on biomass for energy, there is a need for improved technologies in biomass-to-energy conversion in Tanzania. This paper presents a life cycle assessment (LCA) of pyrolysis technology used for conversion of wood and wood waste to liquid biofuel. In particular, a survey of environmental impacts of the process is…

  17. Nanoparticle synthesis using flame spray pyrolysis for catalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høj, Martin

    processes based on renewable feedstock, new or improved ways of preparing catalysts and a better understanding of the catalyst structure at operating conditions. This thesis explores flame spray pyrolysis (FSP) as a novel one-step preparation method for heterogeneous catalysts and investigates structure...

  18. Fast pyrolysis of biomass thermally pretreated by torrefaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrefied biomass samples were produced from hardwood and switchgrass pellets using the biochar experimenter’s kit (BEK) reactor and analyzed for their utility as pretreated feedstock for biofuels production via fast pyrolysis. The energy efficiency for the BEK torrefaction process with propane gas ...

  19. Lifecycle Assessment of Biofuel Production from Wood Pyrolysis Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyele, S. V.

    2007-01-01

    Due to a stronger dependency on biomass for energy, there is a need for improved technologies in biomass-to-energy conversion in Tanzania. This paper presents a life cycle assessment (LCA) of pyrolysis technology used for conversion of wood and wood waste to liquid biofuel. In particular, a survey of environmental impacts of the process is…

  20. Catalytic upgrading of biomass pyrolysis vapours using Faujasite zeolite catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, T.S.; Zabeti, M.; Lefferts, Leonardus; Brem, Gerrit; Seshan, Kulathuiyer

    2012-01-01

    Bio-oil produced via fast pyrolysis of biomass has the potential to be processed in a FCC (fluid catalytic cracking) unit to generate liquid fuel. However, this oil requires a significant upgrade to become an acceptable feedstock for refinery plants due to its high oxygen content. One promising

  1. Catalytic upgrading of biomass pyrolysis vapours using Faujasite zeolite catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, T.S.; Zabeti, M.; Lefferts, L.; Brem, G.; Seshan, K.

    2012-01-01

    Bio-oil produced via fast pyrolysis of biomass has the potential to be processed in a FCC (fluid catalytic cracking) unit to generate liquid fuel. However, this oil requires a significant upgrade to become an acceptable feedstock for refinery plants due to its high oxygen content. One promising rout

  2. Integrated water management system - Description and test results. [for Space Station waste water processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elden, N. C.; Winkler, H. E.; Price, D. F.; Reysa, R. P.

    1983-01-01

    Water recovery subsystems are being tested at the NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center for Space Station use to process waste water generated from urine and wash water collection facilities. These subsystems are being integrated into a water management system that will incorporate wash water and urine processing through the use of hyperfiltration and vapor compression distillation subsystems. Other hardware in the water management system includes a whole body shower, a clothes washing facility, a urine collection and pretreatment unit, a recovered water post-treatment system, and a water quality monitor. This paper describes the integrated test configuration, pertinent performance data, and feasibility and design compatibility conclusions of the integrated water management system.

  3. Integrated water management system - Description and test results. [for Space Station waste water processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elden, N. C.; Winkler, H. E.; Price, D. F.; Reysa, R. P.

    1983-01-01

    Water recovery subsystems are being tested at the NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center for Space Station use to process waste water generated from urine and wash water collection facilities. These subsystems are being integrated into a water management system that will incorporate wash water and urine processing through the use of hyperfiltration and vapor compression distillation subsystems. Other hardware in the water management system includes a whole body shower, a clothes washing facility, a urine collection and pretreatment unit, a recovered water post-treatment system, and a water quality monitor. This paper describes the integrated test configuration, pertinent performance data, and feasibility and design compatibility conclusions of the integrated water management system.

  4. 醇水体系下尾巨桉抽出物的热解特性研究%Leaching Law and Pyrolysis Characteristics of Extractives from Eucalyptus grandis Pretreatment under Ethanol/Water Solution System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张斌; 武书彬

    2012-01-01

    采用回转式密封炉在醇水体系下,分别采用水及乙醇-水混合液(醇水体积比1∶4、1∶2、1∶1)4种溶剂对桉木片进行抽提预处理,制得4种不同的抽提物.通过元素分析、溶出物微粒子粒径分析对其进行了基本溶出规律的研究,抽提液中所含的糖类化合物通过HPLC测定,设计TG与Py-GC/MS实验,对不同方式获得的抽出物进行了热分析,对其受热分解特性以及产物的分布进行了考查.结果发现,醇水体系中不同乙醇浓度下抽提液中糖类化合物的GC含量类似,并且抽提物总量也相近;元素分析的结果表明不同浓度醇水抽提物的化学元素含量并没有明显的差异,而与水抽提物相比存在较大的区别,醇水抽提物相对于水抽提物具有较高的C含量及较低的O含量;不同乙醇浓度抽提物溶液之间的微粒子直径也不存在较大的差异,而与水抽提溶液中微粒子的尺寸差别明显.由此推断醇水溶剂中乙醇和水对尾巨桉木片的抽提作用是相对独立的.对于抽提物的热分析表明,不同体系下抽提物所表现出的热解特性存在较大差异,而醇水体系下3种抽提物的热解特性类似;水抽提物(WE)的热解产物主要是酮类、酚类和酸类;醇水抽提物(EWE)的热解产物主要是呋喃、糠醛(醇)、酚类和酮类.%Eucalyptus grandis chips were pretreated under ethanol/water solution system with a sealed helicoid furnace and four extractives were obtained by pure water and ethanol/water mixtures with ratio of 1∶4, 1∶2, 1∶ 1 .respectively. Basic leaching rule was studied through ultimate analysis and micro particle size detection. Sugar content in each extractive was determined by ionic chromatograph analysis, meanwhile TG and Py-GC/MS reveal were designed to reveal the pyrolysis properties of extractives. The results showed that all three extractives from ethanol/water extraction had similar total extractive quality and sugar

  5. Biomass-to-hydrogen via fast pyrolysis and catalytic steam reforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chornet, E.; Wang, D.; Czernik, S. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)] [and others

    1996-10-01

    Pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass and reforming the pyroligneous oils is being studied as a strategy for producing hydrogen. Novel technologies for the rapid pyrolysis of biomass have been developed in the past decade. They provide compact and efficient systems to transform biomass into vapors that are condensed to oils, with yields as high as 75-80 wt.% of the anhydrous biomass. This {open_quotes}bio-oil{close_quotes} is a mixture of aldehydes, alcohols, acids, oligomers from the constitutive carbohydrates and lignin, and some water derived from the dehydration reactions. Hydrogen can be produced by reforming the bio-oil or its fractions with steam. A process of this nature has the potential to be cost competitive with conventional means of producing hydrogen. The reforming facility can be designed to handle alternate feedstocks, such as natural gas and naphtha, if necessary. Thermodynamic modeling of the major constituents of the bio-oil has shown that reforming is possible within a wide range of temperatures and steam-to-carbon ratios. Existing catalytic data on the reforming of oxygenates have been studied to guide catalyst selection. Tests performed on a microreactor interfaced with a molecular beam mass spectrometer showed that, by proper selection of the process variables: temperature, steam-to-carbon ratio, gas hourly space velocity, and contact time, almost total conversion of carbon in the feed to CO and CO{sub 2} could be obtained. These tests also provided possible reaction mechanisms where thermal cracking competes with catalytic processes. Bench-scale, fixed bed reactor tests demonstrated high hydrogen yields from model compounds and carbohydrate-derived pyrolysis oil fractions. Reforming bio-oil or its fractions required proper dispersion of the liquid to avoid vapor-phase carbonization of the feed in the inlet to the reactor. A special spraying nozzle injector was designed and successfully tested with an aqueous fraction of bio-oil.

  6. Preparation of alternate fuels by means of bio-methanization, pyrolysis and gasification; Preparation thermique de combustibles alternatifs par bio-methanisation, thermolyse et gazeification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontana, A.; Jung, C.G. [Universite Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium)

    2003-06-01

    The paper gives a general description of wastes and their various components each of them depending on their behaviour during the beneficiation treatment: water, organic matters (bio-degradable and non bio-degradable), mineral matters and metals some examples are given. Various processes are available: compost production, bio-methanization and thermal processes. These thermal processes are incineration, gasification and pyrolysis, depending on the quantity (or absence) of air during the process. The paper gives a description of these processes as well as the type of equipment that are utilised. (authors)

  7. Production, properties and utilisation of pyrolysis oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sipilae, K.; Oasmaa, A.; Arpiainen, V.; Solantausta, Y.; Leppaemaeki, E.; Kuoppala, E.; Levander, J.; Kleemola, J.; Saarimaeki, P. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1997-12-01

    In this project VTT Energy co-ordinates the EU JOULE Project `Biofuel oil for power plants and boilers` supporting the development projects of Finnish enterprises, and participates in the Pyrolysis Project of IEA Bioenergy Agreement. Presently two pyrolysis devices with capacities of 150 g/h and 1 kg/h are used for the project. Hot gas filtering tests by using one ceramic candle equipment have been carried out with the 1 kg/h device for pyrolysis oil. The solids and alkali contents of the product oil were reduced clearly. Suitable conditions are being defined for continuous hot gas filtering. A PDU device of 20 kg/h is being commissioned. The main aim of the chemical characterisation of pyrolysis oil was to develop as simple a method as possible for differentiating pyrolysis oils and for finding correlations between the characteristics and behaviour of pyrolysis oils. Pyrolysis oils produced from various raw materials (hardwood, pine, straw) were analysed and compared with each other. VTT Energy participates in the pyrolysis network (EU/PYNE) of EU, the aim of which is to collect and disseminate research results of pyrolysis studies, i.e., through a journal with a wide circulation. VTT also participates in the pyrolysis activity of IEA (PYRA), the other partners being Great Britain, EU, Canada and the United States. I.e., quality criteria and improvement, occupational safety and pyrolysis kinetics are discussed in IEA/PYRA

  8. Fractional condensation of pyrolysis vapors produced from Nordic feedstocks in cyclone pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Ann-Christine; Iisa, Kristiina; Sandström, Linda; Ben, Haoxi; Pilath, Heidi; Deutch, Steve; Wiinikka, Henrik; Öhrman, Olov G. W.

    2017-01-01

    Pyrolysis oil is a complex mixture of different chemical compounds with a wide range of molecular weights and boiling points. Due to its complexity, an efficient fractionation of the oil may be a more promising approach of producing liquid fuels and chemicals than treating the whole oil. In this work a sampling system based on fractional condensation was attached to a cyclone pyrolysis pilot plant to enable separation of the produced pyrolysis vapors into five oil fractions. The sampling system was composed of cyclonic condensers and coalescing filters arranged in series. The objective was to characterize the oil fractions produced from three different Nordic feedstocks and suggest possible applications. The oil fractions were thoroughly characterized using several analytical techniques including water content; elemental composition; heating value, and chemical compound group analysis using solvent fractionation, quantitative 13C NMR and 1H NMR and GC x GC - TOFMS. The results show that the oil fractions significantly differ from each other both in chemical and physical properties. The first fractions and the fraction composed of aerosols were highly viscous and contained larger energy-rich compounds of mainly lignin-derived material. The middle fraction contained medium-size compounds with relatively high concentration of water, sugars, alcohols, hydrocarbonyls and acids and finally the last fraction contained smaller molecules such as water, aldehydes, ketones and acids. However, the properties of the respective fractions seem independent on the studied feedstock types, i.e. the respective fractions produced from different feedstock are rather similar. This promotes the possibility to vary the feedstock depending on availability while retaining the oil properties. Possible applications of the five fractions vary from oil for combustion and extraction of the pyrolytic lignin in the early fractions to extraction of sugars from the early and middle fractions, and

  9. Finding the chemistry in biomass pyrolysis: Millisecond chemical kinetics and visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumm, Christoph

    Biomass pyrolysis is a promising thermochemical method for producing fuels and chemicals from renewable sources. Development of a fundamental understanding of biomass pyrolysis chemistry is difficult due to the multi-scale and multi-phase nature of the process; biomass length scales span 11 orders of magnitude and pyrolysis phenomena include solid, liquid, and gas phase chemistry in addition to heat and mass transfer. These complexities have a significant effect on chemical product distributions and lead to variability between reactor technologies. A major challenge in the study of biomass pyrolysis is the development of kinetic models capable of describing hundreds of millisecond-scale reactions of biomass into lower molecular weight products. In this work, a novel technique for studying biomass pyrolysis provides the first- ever experimental determination of kinetics and rates of formation of the primary products from cellulose pyrolysis, providing insight into the millisecond-scale chemical reaction mechanisms. These findings highlight the importance of heat and mass transport limitations for cellulose pyrolysis chemistry and are used to identify the length scales at which transport limitations become relevant during pyrolysis. Through this technique, a transition is identified, known as the reactive melting point, between low and high temperature depolymerization. The transition between two mechanisms of cellulose decompositions unifies the mechanisms that govern low temperature char formation, intermediate pyrolysis conditions, and high temperature gas formation. The conditions under which biomass undergoes pyrolysis, including modes of heat transfer, have been shown to significantly affect the distribution of biorenewable chemical and fuel products. High-speed photography is used to observe the liftoff of initially crystalline cellulose particles when impinged on a heated surface, known as the Leidenfrost effect for room-temperature liquids. Order

  10. [Application of analytical pyrolysis in air pollution control for green sand casting industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-jue; Zhao, Qi; Chen, Ying; Wang, Cheng-wen

    2010-02-01

    Analytic pyrolysis was conducted to simulate the heating conditions that the raw materials of green sand would experience during metal casting process. The volatile organic compound (VOC) and hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions from analytical pyrolysis were analyzed by gas chromatograph-flame ionization detector/mass spectrometry (GC-FID/MS). The emissions from analytical pyrolysis exhibited some similarity in the compositions and distributions with those from actual casting processes. The major compositions of the emissions included benzene, toluene and phenol. The relative changes of emission levels that were observed in analytical pyrolysis of the various raw materials also showed similar trends with those observed in actual metal casting processes. The emission testing results of both analytic pyrolysis and pre-production foundry have shown that compared to the conventional phenolic urethane binder, the new non-naphthalene phenolic urethane binder diminished more than 50% of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions, and the protein-based binder diminished more than 90% of HAP emissions. The similar trends in the two sets of tests offered promise that analytical pyrolysis techniques could be a fast and accurate way to establish the emission inventories, and to evaluate the relative emission levels of various raw materials of casting industry. The results of analytical pyrolysis could provide useful guides for the foundries to select and develop proper clean raw materials for the casting production.

  11. Pyrolysis mechanism for recycle renewable resource from polarizing film of waste liquid crystal display panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruixue; Xu, Zhenming

    2014-08-15

    Liquid crystal display (LCD) panels mainly consist of polarizing film, liquid crystal and glass substrates. In this study, a novel pyrolysis model and a pyrolysis mechanism to recover the reusable resource from polarizing film of waste LCD panels was proposed. Polarizing film and its major components, such as cellulose triacetate (TAC) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) were pyrolyzed, respectively, to model the pyrolysis process. The pyrolysis process mainly generated a large ratio of oil, a few gases and a little residue. Acetic acid was the main oil product and could be easily recycled. The pyrolysis mechanism could be summarized as follows: (i) TAC, the main component of polarizing film, was heated and generated active TAC with a low polymerization, and then decomposed into triacetyl-d-glucose. (ii) Some triacetyl-d-glucose generated triacetyl-d-mannosan and its isomers through an intramolecular dehydration, while most triacetyl-d-glucose generated the main oil product, namely acetic acid, through a six-member cyclic transition state. (iii) Meanwhile, other products formed through a series of bond cleavage, dehydration, dehydrogenation, interesterification and Diels-Alder cycloaddition. This study could contribute significantly to understanding the polarizing film pyrolysis performance and serve as guidance for the future technological parameters control of the pyrolysis process.

  12. Influence of gas-phase reactions on the product yields obtained in the pyrolysis of polyethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cozzani, V.; Tognotti, L. [Univ. degli Studi di Pisa (Italy); Nicolella, C.; Rovatti, M. [Univ. degli Studi di Genova (Italy). Ist. di Ingegneria Chimica e di Processo G.B. Bonino

    1997-02-01

    The amount of plastic wastes is growing year after year, and the fraction of plastics in municipal solid wastes (MSW) and in refuse-derived fuels (RDF) is progressively increasing. Pyrolysis and gasification processes appear to be promising routes for the upgrading of solid wastes to more usable and energy dense materials such as gas fuel and/or fuel oil or to high-value feedstocks for the chemical industry. The characterization of the product fractions obtained from the pyrolysis of polyethylene (PE) in a laboratory-scale fixed bed reactor was performed. The experimental system allowed quantitative information to be obtained on the global tar, char, and gas yields. Pyrolysis runs were performed using reactor temperatures ranging between 500 and 800 C. The influence of the residence times in the reactor of the primary volatiles generated by the pyrolysis process was also discussed. The secondary reactivity of the tar originated from PE pyrolysis was examined. A lumped-parameters approach was used in order to evaluate the global kinetic parameters for the gas-phase tar-cracking process. PE tars resulted to be more refractory to thermal decomposition than those obtained in the pyrolysis of biomass and lignocellulosic materials, but more reactive than tars obtained in the pyrolysis of coal.

  13. Air flotation treatment of salmon processing waste water

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This paper discusses methods for the reduction of the pollution strength of salmon processing waste water. Past research has indicated the success of air pressure...

  14. Influence of process water quality on hydrothermal carbonization of cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaowei; Flora, Joseph R V; Berge, Nicole D

    2014-02-01

    Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a thermal conversion process that has been shown to be environmentally and energetically advantageous for the conversion of wet feedstocks. Supplemental moisture, usually in the form of pure water, is added during carbonization to achieve feedstock submersion. To improve process sustainability, it is important to consider alternative supplemental moisture sources. Liquid waste streams may be ideal alternative liquid source candidates. Experiments were conducted to systematically evaluate how changes in pH, ionic strength, and organic carbon content of the initial process water influences cellulose carbonization. Results from the experiments conducted evaluating the influence of process water quality on carbonization indicate that changes in initial water quality do influence time-dependent carbonization product composition and yields. These results also suggest that using municipal and industrial wastewaters, with the exception of streams with high CaCl2 concentrations, may impart little influence on final carbonization products/yields.

  15. Toxicity Evaluation and Cytogenetic Screening of Process Water 2

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. K.J. Umar

    1Department of Plant and Biotechnology, University of Benin, Benin City. 2Department ... Macroscopic evaluation of A. cepa cultivated in the wastewater resulted in significant (p<0.05) ... With respect to the Oil and Gas industry, process water.

  16. changing waterscapes under water reform processes in rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    documents such as policies, meeting minutes and databases, comparison with ... changed during the implementation of the water reform process and what the ..... 2014 shows a gradual yet noticeable increase in green vegetation along the ...

  17. Water-integrated scheduling of batch process plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pulluru, Sai Jishna; Akkerman, Renzo

    2017-01-01

    Efficient water management is becoming increasingly important in production systems, but companies often do not have any concrete strategies to implement. While there are numerous technological options for improving water efficiency in process plants, there is a lack of effective decision support to

  18. Industrial water and effluent management in the milk processing industry

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Funke, JW

    1970-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important commodities used in any food-processing industry is water which must be of the right quality. Water which comes into direct contact with milk or milk products must meet standards which are even stricter than those for a...

  19. Combustion, pyrolysis, gasification, and liquefaction of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, T.B.

    1980-09-01

    All the products now obtained from oil can be provided by thermal conversion of the solid fuels biomass and coal. As a feedstock, biomass has many advantages over coal and has the potential to supply up to 20% of US energy by the year 2000 and significant amounts of energy for other countries. However, it is imperative that in producing biomass for energy we practice careful land use. Combustion is the simplest method of producing heat from biomass, using either the traditional fixed-bed combustion on a grate or the fluidized-bed and suspended combustion techniques now being developed. Pyrolysis of biomass is a particularly attractive process if all three products - gas, wood tars, and charcoal - can be used. Gasification of biomass with air is perhaps the most flexible and best-developed process for conversion of biomass to fuel today, yielding a low energy gas that can be burned in existing gas/oil boilers or in engines. Oxygen gasification yields a gas with higher energy content that can be used in pipelines or to fire turbines. In addition, this gas can be used for producing methanol, ammonia, or gasoline by indirect liquefaction. Fast pyrolysis of biomass produces a gas rich in ethylene that can be used to make alcohols or gasoline. Finally, treatment of biomass with high pressure hydrogen can yield liquid fuels through direct liquefaction.

  20. Combustion, pyrolysis, gasification, and liquefaction of biomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, T. B.

    1980-09-01

    The advantages of biomass as a feedstock are examined and biomass conversion techniques are described. Combustion is the simplest method of producing heat from biomass, using either the traditional fixed bed combustion on a grate or the fluidized bed and suspended combustion techniques now being developed. Pyrolysis of biomass is a particularly attractive process if all three products gas, wood tars, and charcoal can be used. Gasification of biomass with air is perhaps the most flexible and best developed process for conversion of biomass to fuel, yielding a low energy gas that can be burned in existing gas/oil boilers or in engines. Oxygen gasification yields a gas with higher energy content that can be used in pipelines or to fire turbines. In addition, this gas can be used for producing methanol, ammonia, or gasoline by indirect liquefaction. Fast pyrolysis of biomass produces a gas rich in ethylene that can be used to make alcohols or gasoline. Finally, treatment of biomass with high pressure hydrogen can yield liquid fuels through direct liquefaction.

  1. Removal of heavy metal ions from oil shale beneficiation process water by ferrite process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehta, R.K.; Zhang, L.; Lamont, W.E.; Schultz, C.W. [Alabama Univ., University, AL (United States). Mineral Resources Inst.

    1991-12-31

    The ferrite process is an established technique for removing heavy metals from waste water. Because the process water resulting from oil shale beneficiation falls into the category of industrial waste water, it is anticipated that this process may turn out to be a potential viable treatment for oil shale beneficiation process water containing many heave metal ions. The process is chemoremedial because not only effluent water comply with quality standards, but harmful heavy metals are converted into a valuable, chemically stable by-product known as ferrite. These spinel ferrites have magnetic properties, and therefore can be use in applications such as magnetic marker, ferrofluid, microwave absorbing and scavenging material. Experimental results from this process are presented along with results of treatment technique such as sulfide precipitation.

  2. Removal of heavy metal ions from oil shale beneficiation process water by ferrite process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehta, R.K.; Zhang, L.; Lamont, W.E.; Schultz, C.W. (Alabama Univ., University, AL (United States). Mineral Resources Inst.)

    1991-01-01

    The ferrite process is an established technique for removing heavy metals from waste water. Because the process water resulting from oil shale beneficiation falls into the category of industrial waste water, it is anticipated that this process may turn out to be a potential viable treatment for oil shale beneficiation process water containing many heave metal ions. The process is chemoremedial because not only effluent water comply with quality standards, but harmful heavy metals are converted into a valuable, chemically stable by-product known as ferrite. These spinel ferrites have magnetic properties, and therefore can be use in applications such as magnetic marker, ferrofluid, microwave absorbing and scavenging material. Experimental results from this process are presented along with results of treatment technique such as sulfide precipitation.

  3. The efficacy of electrolysed oxidising water for inactivating spoilage microorganisms in process water and on minimally processed vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongeng, Duncan; Devlieghere, Frank; Debevere, Johan; Coosemans, Jozef; Ryckeboer, Jaak

    2006-06-15

    The efficacy of Electrolysed Oxidising Water (EOW) for inactivating spoilage microorganisms in process water and on minimally processed vegetables was investigated. The direct effect of EOW on three important spoilage bacteria namely; Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pantoea agglomerans or Rahnella aquatilis was determined by inoculating tap water or "artificial process water" with approximately 8 log CFU/ml pure culture and electrolysing the resultant solutions. The three bacteria were each reduced to undetectable levels at low (0.5 A) and relatively higher levels (1.0 A) of current in tap water and "artificial process water", respectively. The residual effect of EOW on P. fluorescens, P. agglomerans or R. aquatilis was determined by incubating at room temperature 1 ml (approximately 9 log CFU/ml) pure culture suspensions in 9 ml of EOW-T (EOW produced from tap water), EOW-A (EOW produced from "artificial process water" supplemented with approximately 60.7 mg Cl(-)/l and 39.3 mg Na(+)/l) or deionised water (control) for 0, 15, 45 or 90 min. The bactericidal activity of both EOW-T and EOW-A increased with the concentration of free oxidants and incubation period and the three bacteria were completely reduced at free oxidants-incubation period combinations of 3.88 mg/l-45 min and 5.1 mg/l-90 min in EOW-T and EOW-A, respectively. Two types of industrial vegetable process water; salad-mix and soup process water, which had each a total psychrotrophic count of approximately 8 log CFU/ml were then electrolysed. Without any NaCl addition, only 1.2 and 2.1 log reductions of the psychrotrophs in soup and salad-mix process water was attained respectively. Supplementation of the process water with approximately 60.7 mg Cl(-)/l and 39.3 mg Na(+)/l afterwards resulted in complete reduction of the psychrotrophic count in both process waters, but soup process water required relatively higher levels of current compared to salad-mix water. Finally, fresh-cut lettuce was washed in EOW

  4. Microwaves energy in curing process of water glass molding sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Granat K.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the results of investigation of microwave heating on hardening process of water glass molding sands. Essential influence of this heating process on basic properties such as: compression, bending and tensile strength as well as permeability and abrasion resistance has been found. It has been proved, that all investigated sorts of sodium water glass with a module between 2.0 and 3.3 can be used as a binder of molding sands in microwave curing process. It has been found during analysis of research results of sands with 2.5 % water glass addition that they are practically the same as in case of identical molding sands dried for 120 minutes at the temperature of 110°C, used for comparative purposes. Application of microwave curing of molding sands with water glass, however, guarantees reduction of hardening time (from 120 to 4 minutes as well as significant reduction of energy consumption. Attempts of two stage hardening of the investigated water glass molding sands have also been carried out, that is after an initial hardening during a classical CO2 process (identical sands have also been tested for comparison after CO2 blowing process and additional microwave heating. It has been found that application of this kind of treatment for curing sands with 2.5 % sodium water glass content and module from 2.0 up to 3.3 results in the improvement of properties in comparison to classical CO2 process.

  5. Product Characterization and Kinetics of Biomass Pyrolysis in a Three-Zone Free-Fall Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natthaya Punsuwan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyrolysis of biomass including palm shell, palm kernel, and cassava pulp residue was studied in a laboratory free-fall reactor with three separated hot zones. The effects of pyrolysis temperature (250–1050°C and particle size (0.18–1.55 mm on the distribution and properties of pyrolysis products were investigated. A higher pyrolysis temperature and smaller particle size increased the gas yield but decreased the char yield. Cassava pulp residue gave more volatiles and less char than those of palm kernel and palm shell. The derived solid product (char gave a high calorific value of 29.87 MJ/kg and a reasonably high BET surface area of 200 m2/g. The biooil from palm shell is less attractive to use as a direct fuel, due to its high water contents, low calorific value, and high acidity. On gas composition, carbon monoxide was the dominant component in the gas product. A pyrolysis model for biomass pyrolysis in the free-fall reactor was developed, based on solving the proposed two-parallel reactions kinetic model and equations of particle motion, which gave excellent prediction of char yields for all biomass precursors under all pyrolysis conditions studied.

  6. Carbon Isotope Characterization of Organic Intermediaries in Hydrothermal Hydrocarbon Synthesis by Pyrolysis-GC-MS-C-IRMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socki, Richard A.; Fu, Qi; Niles, Paul B.

    2010-01-01

    We report results of experiments designed to characterize the carbon isotope composition of intermediate organic compounds produced as a result of mineral surface catalyzed reactions. The impetus for this work stems from recently reported detection of methane in the Martian atmosphere coupled with evidence showing extensive water-rock interaction during Martian history. Abiotic formation by Fischer-Tropsch-type (FTT) synthesis during serpentinization reactions may be one possible process responsible for methane generation on Mars, and measurement of carbon and hydrogen isotopes of intermediary organic compounds can help constrain the origin of this methane. Of particular interest within the context of this work is the isotopic composition of organic intermediaries produced on the surfaces of mineral catalysts (i.e. magnetite) during hydrothermal experiments, and the ability to make meaningful and reproducible isotope measurements. Our isotope measurements utilize a unique analytical technique combining Pyrolysis-Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometry-Combustion-Isotope Ratio Mass Specrometry (Py-GC-MS-C-IRMS). Others have conducted similar pyrolysis-IRMS experiments on low molecular weight organic acids (Dias, et al, Organic Geochemistry, 33 [2002]). Our technique differs in that it carries a split of the pyrolyzed GC-separated product to a Thermo DSQ-II quadrupole mass spectrometer as a means of making qualitative and semi-quantitative compositional measurements of the organic compounds. A sample of carboxylic acid (mixture of C1 through C6) was pyrolyzed at 100 XC and passed through the GC-MS-C-IRMS (combusted at 940 XC). In order to test the reliability of our technique we compared the _13C composition of different molecular weight organic acids (from C1 through C6) extracted individually by the traditional sealed-tube cupric oxide combustion (940 XC) method with the _13C produced by our pyrolysis technique. Our data indicate that an average 4.3. +/-0.5. (V

  7. Innovative Fresh Water Production Process for Fossil Fuel Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James F. Klausner; Renwei Mei; Yi Li; Jessica Knight

    2006-09-29

    This project concerns a diffusion driven desalination (DDD) process where warm water is evaporated into a low humidity air stream, and the vapor is condensed out to produce distilled water. Although the process has a low fresh water to feed water conversion efficiency, it has been demonstrated that this process can potentially produce low cost distilled water when driven by low grade waste heat. This report summarizes the progress made in the development and analysis of a Diffusion Driven Desalination (DDD) system. Detailed heat and mass transfer analyses required to size and analyze the diffusion tower using a heated water input are described. The analyses agree quite well with the current data and the information available in the literature. The direct contact condenser has also been thoroughly analyzed and the system performance at optimal operating conditions has been considered using a heated water/ambient air input to the diffusion tower. The diffusion tower has also been analyzed using a heated air input. The DDD laboratory facility has successfully been modified to include an air heating section. Experiments have been conducted over a range of parameters for two different cases: heated air/heated water and heated air/ambient water. A theoretical heat and mass transfer model has been examined for both of these cases and agreement between the experimental and theoretical data is good. A parametric study reveals that for every liquid mass flux there is an air mass flux value where the diffusion tower energy consumption is minimal and an air mass flux where the fresh water production flux is maximized. A study was also performed to compare the DDD process with different inlet operating conditions as well as different packing. It is shown that the heated air/heated water case is more capable of greater fresh water production with the same energy consumption than the ambient air/heated water process at high liquid mass flux. It is also shown that there can be

  8. Combined pretreatment with torrefaction and washing using torrefaction liquid products to yield upgraded biomass and pyrolysis products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dengyu; Mei, Jiaming; Li, Haiping; Li, Yiming; Lu, Mengting; Ma, Tingting; Ma, Zhongqing

    2017-03-01

    This study presented an approach to upgrade biomass and pyrolysis products using a process based on torrefaction liquid washing combined with torrefaction pretreatment. The torrefaction of cotton stalk was first conducted at 250°C for 30min and then the resulting torrefaction liquid products were collected and reused to wash cottonstalk. The pyrolysis of the original and pretreated cotton stalk was performed at 500°C for 15min in a fixed-bed reactor. The results indicated that the combined pretreatment obviously reduced the metallic species in cotton stalk, decreased the water and acids contents while promoted phenols in bio-oil, declined the ash content in biochar, as well as improved the heating value of non-condensable gas. Overall, the combined pretreatment did not only allow to reuse the liquid products issued from torrefaction pretreatment but also improved the quality of biomass and the pyrolysis products, making it a novel promising pretreatment method. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. An alternative process to treat boiler feed water for reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guirgis, Adel; Ghosh, Jyoti P; Achari, Gopal; Langford, Cooper H; Banerjee, Daliya

    2012-09-01

    A bench-scale process to treat boiler feed water for reuse in steam generation was developed. Industrial water samples from a steam-assisted gravity drainage plant in northern Alberta, Canada, were obtained and samples characterized. The technology, which consists of coagulation-settling to remove oil/grease and particulates followed by an advanced oxidative treatment, led to clean water samples with negligible organic carbon. Coagulation followed by settling removed most particulates and some insoluble organics. The advanced oxidative treatment removed any remaining color in the samples, decreased the organic content to near-zero, and provided water ready for reuse.

  10. Wash water in waterworks: contaminants and process options for reclamation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C B Chidambara Raj; Tan Ee Kwong; Wong Wai Cheng; Lee Mun Fong; Soh Hoo Tiong; Paul Stefan Klose

    2008-01-01

    Reclamation of clean water from filter backwash water was studied through pilot-scale experiments. The pilot plant consisted of clarification, sand-filtration, and ultrafiltration modules in sequence, with a provision to bypass the sand filter. Clean water that conformed to World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines on Potable Quality was reclaimed. Turbidity, aluminum and iron were found to be critical contaminants in process selection and design. Clarification, followed by sand filtration, was found to be the minimum requirement for recycling filter backwash. However, membrane filtration would enhance reclaimed water quality as the membrane acts as an additional barrier against Giardia and Cryptosporidium.

  11. Catalytic pyrolysis characteristics of scrap printed circuit boards by TG-FTIR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chunhu; Zhang, Xiaoping; Shi, Lin

    2017-03-01

    In the present work, pyrolysis and catalytic pyrolysis of waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs) was carried out in the coupling of Thermo Gravimetric Analysis and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (TG-FTIR) under nitrogen atmosphere. The reaction temperature was increased from 30 to 700°C, while the heating rates were varied from 10 to 40°C/min. Experimental results show that the effect of catalyst on the WPCBs particles pyrolysis was significance. Compared with another two combustion-supporting agents (MgO, CaO), the whole pyrolysis process was optimized when the catalyst ZSM-5 was added into the WPCBs particles. The distributed activation energy model (DAEM) was used to analyze the kinetic parameters of the WPCBs pyrolysis. It was found that values of frequency factor (k0) changed with different activation energy (E) values during pyrolysis process. The activation energy values range from 129.15 to 280.53kJ/mol, and the frequency factor values range from 9.02×10(10) to 4.21×10(22)s(-1). The generated major products for the catalytic pyrolysis of WPCBs were H2, CO2, CO, H2O, phenols and aromatics.

  12. Electrochemical and/or microbiological treatment of pyrolysis wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, José R O; Santos, Dara S; Santos, Ubiratan R; Eguiluz, Katlin I B; Salazar-Banda, Giancarlo R; Schneider, Jaderson K; Krause, Laiza C; López, Jorge A; Hernández-Macedo, Maria L

    2017-10-01

    Electrochemical oxidation may be used as treatment to decompose partially or completely organic pollutants (wastewater) from industrial processes such as pyrolysis. Pyrolysis is a thermochemical process used to obtain bio-oil from biomasses, generating a liquid waste rich in organic compounds including aldehydes and phenols, which can be submitted to biological and electrochemical treatments in order to minimize its environmental impact. Thus, electrochemical systems employing dimensionally stable anodes (DSAs) have been proposed to enable biodegradation processes in subsurface environments. In order to investigate the organic compound degradation from residual coconut pyrolysis wastewater, ternary DSAs containing ruthenium, iridium and cerium synthetized by the 'ionic liquid method' at different calcination temperatures (500, 550, 600 and 700 °C) for the pretreatment of these compounds, were developed in order to allow posterior degradation by Pseudomonas sp., Bacillus sp. or Acinetobacter sp. bacteria. The electrode synthesized applying 500 °C displayed the highest voltammetric charge and was used in the pretreatment of pyrolysis effluent prior to microbial treatment. Regarding biological treatment, the Pseudomonas sp. exhibited high furfural degradation in wastewater samples electrochemically pretreated at 2.0 V. On the other hand, the use of Acinetobacter efficiently degraded phenolic compounds such as phenol, 4-methylphenol, 2,5-methylphenol, 4-ethylphenol and 3,5-methylphenol in both wastewater samples, with and without electrochemical pretreatment. Overall, the results indicate that the combination of both processes used in this study is relevant for the treatment of pyrolysis wastewater. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Pyrolysis Characteristics and Kinetics of Phoenix Tree Residues as a Potential Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Li

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available By using a thermogravimetric analyser under argon atmosphere, the pyrolysis process and the kinetic model of phoenix tree residues (the little stem, middle stem, and leaf at a 30 °C min−1 heating rate and the phoenix tree mix at three different heating rates (10 °C min−1, 30 °C min−1, and 50 °C min−1 were examined. The catalyst and the co-pyrolysis samples were at a 30 °C min−1 heating rate. The catalysts were Na2CO3, ZnCl2 and CaO in a mass fraction of 5 %. The experimental results revealed that the phoenix tree residues pyrolysis process consisted of three stages: dehydration stage, main pyrolysis stage, and the slow decomposition of residues. As the heating rate increased, the pyrolysis characteristic temperature of the phoenix tree grew, there was a backward-shift of the pyrolysis rate curve, and the mass loss rate gradually increased. The phoenix tree residues’ activation energy changed throughout the whole pyrolysis process, and the pyrolysis temperature ranges of the three main components (cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin existed in overlapping phenomenon. As compared to the little stem, middle stem, and leaf, the phoenix tree mix was more likely to be pyrolysed under the same heating rate. Different catalysts had a different impact on the pyrolysis: ZnCl2 moved the start point of the reaction to the lower temperatures, but did not speed up the reaction; Na2CO3 speeded up the reaction without changing the start point of the reaction; CaO speeded up the reaction, moved the start point of the reaction to higher temperatures.

  14. Application of pyrolysis to recycling organics from waste tantalum capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Bo; Chen, Zhenyang; Xu, Zhenming

    2017-08-05

    Tantalum capacitors (TCs) are widely used in electronic appliances. The rapid replacement of electronic products results in generating large amounts of waste TCs (WTCs). WTCs, rich in valuable tantalum, are considered as high quality tantalum resources for recycling. However, environmental pollution will be caused if the organics of WTCs were not properly disposed. Therefore, effectively recycling the organics of WTCs is significant for recovering the valuable parts. This study proposed an argon (Ar) pyrolysis process to recycle the organics from WTCs. The organic decomposition kinetic was first analyzed by thermogravimetry. The results showed that the organics were decomposed in two major steps and the average activation energy was calculated to 234kJ/mol. Then, the suitable pyrolysis parameters were determined as 550°C, 30min and 100ml/min. The organics were effectively decomposed and converted to oils (mainly contained phenol homologs and benzene homologs) and gases (some hydrocarbon). These pyrolysis products could be reutilized as energy sources. Moreover, based on the products and bond energy theory, the pyrolysis mechanisms of the organics were also discussed. Finally, a reasonable technological process for products utilization was presented. This study contributes to the efficient recycling the organics before valuable material recovery from WTCs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Biomass to hydrogen via fast pyrolysis and catalytic steam reforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chornet, E.; Wang, D.; Montane, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    Fast pyrolysis of biomass results in a pyrolytic oil which is a mixture of (a) carbohydrate-derived acids, aldehydes and polyols, (b) lignin-derived substituted phenolics, and (c) extractives-derived terpenoids and fatty acids. The conversion of this pyrolysis oil into H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} is thermodynamically favored under appropriate steam reforming conditions. Our efforts have focused in understanding the catalysis of steam reforming which will lead to a successful process at reasonable steam/carbon ratios arid process severities. The experimental work, carried out at the laboratory and bench scale levels, has centered on the performance of Ni-based catalysts using model compounds as prototypes of the oxygenates present in the pyrolysis oil. Steam reforming of acetic acid, hydroxyacetaldehyde, furfural and syringol has been proven to proceed rapidly within a reasonable range of severities. Time-on-stream studies are now underway using a fixed bed barometric pressure reactor to ascertain the durability of the catalysts and thus substantiate the scientific and technical feasibility of the catalytic reforming option. Economic analyses are being carried out in parallel to determine the opportunity zones for the combined fast pyrolysis/steam reforming approach. A discussion on the current state of the project is presented.

  16. Pyrolysis of thermally thick wood particles - experiments and mathematical modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller Andersen, S.; Thaaning Pedersen, S.; Goebel, B.; Houbak, N.; Henriksen, Ulrik [MEK - DTU, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Dall Bentzen, J. [COWI a/s, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2005-07-01

    A simple, dynamic, l-dimensional model describing heating, drying and pyrolysis of thermally thick wood particles with a l-dimensional geometry has been developed and implemented. The model output is the dynamic evolution of both the char yield and the amount of volatiles. The model is developed in such a simple and accessible way, that it easily can be implemented in a larger model for dimensioning and optimisation of applications where pyrolysis is a part of the overall process as for instance gasification. Experiments using a Thermo Gravimetric Analyser (TGA), built so pieces of wood can be fed into a hot atmosphere instantaneously, have been used to observe the influence of various parameters like temperature and size and wood types on the pyrolysis process. Results from the model have been compared with results from the experiments. The comparison showed good accordance when both wood particles with a well-defined geometry (a cylinder) and when beds of wood chips and wood pellets, respectively, were pyrolyzed. The model has proven that transport of heat to the wood; internal transport and accumulation of heat inside the wood and kinetics of pyrolysis are all important parameters. (au)

  17. 印尼褐煤的热分解特性研究%STUDY ON THE PYROLYSIS CHARACTERISTICS OF INDONESIAN LIGNITE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李爱蓉; 吴道洪; 王其成; 张锴

    2013-01-01

    The pyrolysis characteristics of Indonesian lignite were studied by means of thermal gravimetric analysis and pyrolysis experiments. The pyrolysis mechanism of Indonesian lignite and the effects of heating rate and the final pyrolysis temperature on the pyrolytic process also were studied in detail. The results showed that the pyrolytic process of Indonesian lignite can be divided into three stages: water evaporation, volatile release, semi-coke formation. The water and small molecules adsorbed of coal were removed at reaction temperature less than 300 °C. Then the initiate pyrolysis temperature of Indonesian lignite is about 300 °C and the pyrolytic reaction was intensified at 400℃. At the low heating rate range of 10 K/min-20 K/min, the yield of tar was kept as 8.5% of weight and the heating rate had less effect on pyrolysis products. At the low pyrolysis temperature range of 400 ℃-600 ℃ , the final pyrolysis temperature had less effect on the yield of tar, but the yield of pyrolysis gas increased and the yield of semi-coke decreased with the improvement of pyrolysis temperature.%采用热重分析和热解实验对印尼褐煤的热分解特性进行研究,探讨了印尼褐煤的热解机理、升温速率和热解终止温度对热解过程的影响.结果表明,印尼褐煤的热失重过程包括水分蒸发、挥发分析出和焦炭形成三个阶段;在温度低于300℃时,印尼褐煤以水分蒸发和脱除吸附小分子气体为主,300℃时开始微热解反应,400℃时热分解反应剧烈.在同一热解温度条件下,升温速率为10 K/min~20 K/min的慢速升温热解过程中,焦油产率维持在8.5%(质量分数)附近,升温速率对热解产物产率的影响较小;在400℃~600℃的低温热解范围内,热解终止温度对焦油产率影响较小,但热解气体产率随热解终止温度的增大而增大,而半焦产率却随之降低.

  18. Treatment Process Requirements for Waters Containing Hydraulic Fracturing Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringfellow, W. T.; Camarillo, M. K.; Domen, J. K.; Sandelin, W.; Varadharajan, C.; Cooley, H.; Jordan, P. D.; Heberger, M. G.; Reagan, M. T.; Houseworth, J. E.; Birkholzer, J. T.

    2015-12-01

    A wide variety of chemical additives are used as part of the hydraulic fracturing (HyF) process. There is concern that HyF chemicals will be released into the environment and contaminate drinking water, agricultural water, or other water used for beneficial purposes. There is also interest in using produced water (water extracted from the subsurface during oil and gas production) for irrigation and other beneficial purposes, especially in the arid Southwest US. Reuse of produced water is not speculative: produced water can be low in salts and is being used in California for irrigation after minimal treatment. In this study, we identified chemicals that are used for hydraulic fracturing in California and conducted an analysis to determine if those chemicals would be removed by a variety of technically available treatment processes, including oil/water separation, air stripping, a variety of sorption media, advanced oxidation, biological treatment, and a variety of membrane treatment systems. The approach taken was to establish major physiochemical properties for individual chemicals (log Koc, Henry's constant, biodegradability, etc.), group chemicals by function (e.g corrosion inhibition, biocides), and use those properties to predict the fate of chemical additives in a treatment process. Results from this analysis is interpreted in the context of what is known about existing systems for the treatment of produced water before beneficial reuse, which includes a range of treatment systems from oil/water separators (the most common treatment) to sophisticated treatment trains used for purifying produced water for groundwater recharge. The results show that most HyF chemical additives will not be removed in existing treatment systems, but that more sophisticated treatment trains can be designed to remove additives before beneficial reuse.

  19. How processing digital elevation models can affect simulated water budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuniansky, Eve L; Lowery, Mark A; Campbell, Bruce G

    2009-01-01

    For regional models, the shallow water table surface is often used as a source/sink boundary condition, as model grid scale precludes simulation of the water table aquifer. This approach is appropriate when the water table surface is relatively stationary. Since water table surface maps are not readily available, the elevation of the water table used in model cells is estimated via a two-step process. First, a regression equation is developed using existing land and water table elevations from wells in the area. This equation is then used to predict the water table surface for each model cell using land surface elevation available from digital elevation models (DEM). Two methods of processing DEM for estimating the land surface for each cell are commonly used (value nearest the cell centroid or mean value in the cell). This article demonstrates how these two methods of DEM processing can affect the simulated water budget. For the example presented, approximately 20% more total flow through the aquifer system is simulated if the centroid value rather than the mean value is used. This is due to the one-third greater average ground water gradients associated with the centroid value than the mean value. The results will vary depending on the particular model area topography and cell size. The use of the mean DEM value in each model cell will result in a more conservative water budget and is more appropriate because the model cell water table value should be representative of the entire cell area, not the centroid of the model cell.

  20. High quality bio-oil from catalytic flash pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass over alumina-supported sodium carbonate

    KAUST Repository

    Imran, Ali

    2014-11-01

    Performance of a novel alumina-supported sodium carbonate catalyst was studied to produce a valuable bio-oil from catalytic flash pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass. Post treatment of biomass pyrolysis vapor was investigated in a catalyst fixed bed reactor at the downstream of the pyrolysis reactor. In-situ catalytic upgrading of biomass pyrolysis vapor was conducted in an entrained flow pyrolysis reactor by feeding a premixed feedstock of the catalyst and biomass. Na2CO3/gamma-Al2O3 was very effective for de-oxygenation of the pyrolysis liquid and oxygen content of the bio-oil was decreased from 47.5 wt.% to 16.4 wt.%. An organic rich bio-oil was obtained with 5.8 wt.% water content and a higher heating value of 36.1 MJ/kg. Carboxylic acids were completely removed and the bio-oil had almost a neutral pH. This bio-oil of high calorific low, low water and oxygen content may be an attractive fuel precursor. In-situ catalytic upgrading of biomass pyrolysis vapor produced a very similar quality bio-oil compared to post treatment of pyrolysis vapors, and shows the possible application of Na2CO3/gamma-Al2O3 in a commercial type reactor system such as a fluidized bed reactor. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.