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Sample records for water pumping station

  1. Self Calibrating Flow Estimation in Waste Water Pumping Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallesøe, Carsten Skovmose; Knudsen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge about where waste water is flowing in waste water networks is essential to optimize the operation of the network pumping stations. However, installation of flow sensors is expensive and requires regular maintenance. This paper proposes an alternative approach where the pumps and the waste...... water pit are used for estimating both the inflow and the pump flow of the pumping station. Due to the nature of waste water, the waste water pumps are heavily affected by wear and tear. To compensate for the wear of the pumps, the pump parameters, used for the flow estimation, are automatically...... calibrated. This calibration is done based on data batches stored at each pump cycle, hence makes the approach a self calibrating system. The approach is tested on a pumping station operating in a real waste water network....

  2. Energy Savings Potential for Pumping Water in District Heating Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Sarbu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In district heating stations, the heat carrier is circulated between the energy source and consumers by a pumping system. Fluid handling systems, such as pumping systems, are responsible for a significant portion of the total electrical energy use. Significant opportunities exist to reduce pumping energy through smart design, retrofitting, and operating practices. Most existing systems requiring flow control make use of bypass lines, throttling valves or pump speed adjustments. The most efficient of these options is pump speed control. One of the issues in using variable-speed pumping systems, however, is the total efficiency of the electric motor/pump arrangement under a given operating condition. This paper provides a comprehensive discussion about pump control in heating stations and analyzes the energy efficiency of flow control methods. Specific attention is also given to the selection of motor types, sizing and pump duty cycle. A comparative energy analysis is performed on the hot water discharge adjustment using throttling control valves and variable-speed drives in a district heating station constructed in Romania. To correlate the pumped flow rate with the heat demand and to ensure the necessary pressure using minimum energy, an automatic system has been designed. The performances of these control methods are evaluated in two practical applications. The results show that approximately 20%–50% of total pumping energy could be saved by using the optimal control method with variable-speed pumps. Additionally, some modernization solutions to reduce the environmental impact of heating stations are described.

  3. Fish-Friendly Pumping Stations Principles, Practices and Outcomes in Dutch Water Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moria, Laura

    2008-01-01

    In the Netherlands polder water levels are managed with almost 3000 pumping stations that pump excess water from polders to reservoir canals or sea. These pumping stations might threaten Dutch fish stocks. Migrating fish are often unable to pass a pumping

  4. Energy-Saving Optimization of Water Supply Pumping Station Life Cycle Based on BIM Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qun, Miao; Wang, Jiayuan; Liu, Chao

    2017-12-01

    In the urban water supply system, pump station is the main unit of energy consumption. In the background of pushing forward the informatization in China, using BIM technology in design, construction and operations of water supply pumping station, can break through the limitations of the traditional model and effectively achieve the goal of energy conservation and emissions reduction. This work researches the way to solve energy-saving optimization problems in the process of whole life cycle of water supply pumping station based on BIM technology, and put forward the feasible strategies of BIM application in order to realize the healthy and sustainable development goals by establishing the BIM model of water supply pumping station of Qingdao Guzhenkou water supply project.

  5. Investigation the Effects of Operation Methods on Energy Consumption in Agricultural Water Pumping Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. DelfanAzari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The energy crisis has led the world toward the reduction of energy consumption. More than 70 percent of the energy in agriculture sector is used by pumps. In our country, there is no clear standard and guideline and also no adequate supervision for the design, selection, installation and operation of pumping systems appropriate to the circumstances and needs. Consequently, these systems operate with low efficiency and high losses of energy. While more than 20 percent of the world's electricity is consumed by pumps, average pumping efficiency is less than 40%. So evaluation of pumping stations and providing some solutions to increase efficiency and pumping system’s life time and to reduce energy consumption can be an effective in optimization of energy consumption in the country. The main reasons for the low efficiency of pumping systems comparing to potential efficiency are using unsuitable techniques for flow control, hydraulic and physical changes of pumping system during the time, using pumps or motors with low efficiency and poor maintenance. Normally the amount of flow is not constant over the time in a pumping system and needed flow rate is changed at different times. Designing of pumping system should be responsible for peak requirements as well as it must suggest the suitable flow control method to achieve least energy losses for minimum flow requirements. Also one of the main capabilities to reduce energy consumption in pumping stations is improving the flow control method. Using the flow control valves and bypass line with high energy losses is very common. While the use of variable speed pumps (VSPs that supply water requirement with sufficient pressure and minimum amount of energy, is limited due to lack of awareness of designers and (or high initial costs. Materials and Methods: In this study, the operation of the pumping stations under four scenarios (for discharge control in a drip irrigation system was analyzed

  6. Methodology for energetic diagnosis for a water pumping station; Metodologia de diagnostico energetico em estacao de captacao de agua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira Filho, Delly; Damiao, Jorge H.A. de C. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (DEA/UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola], Emails: delly@ufv.br, jorge.damiao@ufv.br; Sampaio, Ricardo P. [Vale, Nova Lima, MG (Brazil); Moraes, Maria J. de [Universidade Estadual de Goias (UEG), Anapolis, GO (Brazil)], E-mail: maria.moraes@ufv.br; Pizziolo, Tarcisio de A. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (DEL/UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica], E-mail: pizziolo@ufv.br

    2011-10-15

    This study aimed to develop a methodology to diagnose energetically a water supply system for a irrigation system and for a city. The steps taken were: the energy quality supplied by the utility in relation to level and unbalanced of the supplied voltage; the electrical energy consumption and demand for the pumping station; the study of the electrical and hydraulic load's characteristics; the tariff and demand contracts optimization; the water storage capacity; and the working hours management. This methodology was tested and validated for the water pumping station in a town of about 70,000 inhabitants. Among the proposed actions, which saved the most, were: the sizing of pumps and motors and the optimization of tariff and demand contracts. It was noted that this methodology is simple and easy to apply and there is a great potential for saving energy up to 52%. (author)

  7. Study Of The Physico-Chemical Water Quality Of The Companys Pumping Stations Chadian Water And Suburbs Of Manual Drilling Ndjamena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahamat Seid A.M

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Water for consumption requires excellent physical chemical and microbiological quality. This source of life is one of the most controlled food products. It must not only meet the quality requirements but also must comply vis- -vis a set of drinking water standards and must not contain any microorganism no noise and no substance presents a potential danger to human health. This work was performed in the city of Ndjamena and aims to assess the physico-chemical quality of the water pumping stations of the National Water Company in the city center and boreholes in human motor in neighborhoods peripheral devices. A total of 18 samples were collected including 9 in the city center and 9 others in the suburbs. On each sample were determined physico-chemical parameters potential of hydrogen pH temperature T electrical conductivity turbidity and calcium ions magnesium sulphates fluorides and nitrates. The results extend into the water pumping stations of ETS and manual drilling outlying districts respectively temperature 28.0 to 36.1 C and 29.5 to 30.3 C pH 6.5 to 8.5 and 6.3 to 7.6 electrical conductivity 201-671 amp297S cm and 136-533 amp297S cm turbidity NTU from 0.01 to 0.18 and 1.25 to 5 NTU calcium 54 to 268 mg L to 65-443 mg L magnesium 2.18 to 57 mg L and 15 to 90 mg L sulfates 2 to 47 mg L and 2 to 18mg L fluoride 0.0 to 0.61 mg L and 0.12 to 0.98 mg L and nitrate 1.5 to 18 2 mg L and 0.1 to 0.6 mg L. The results show that the contents of the parameters are consistent with the WHO standards for the quality of drinking water except calcium ions which their levels are high. Based on the parameters analyzed the quality of water pumping stations of SNE and manual drilling is acceptable.

  8. Water Pumping Stations, File name = UTILITIES - PARTIAL Data is incomplete. Contains electric trans lines, electric substations, sewer plants, sewer pumpstations, water plants, water tanks http://www.harfordcountymd.gov/gis/Index.cfm, Published in 2011, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Harford County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Water Pumping Stations dataset current as of 2011. File name = UTILITIES - PARTIAL Data is incomplete. Contains electric trans lines, electric substations, sewer...

  9. Water Treatment Technology - Pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on pumps provides instructional materials for three competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: types of pumps in plant and distribution systems, pump…

  10. Water Level Station History

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Images contain station history information for 175 stations in the National Water Level Observation Network (NWLON). The NWLON is a network of long-term,...

  11. Space Station Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Charles E. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    The manned Space Station will exist as an isolated system for periods of up to 90 days. During this period, safe drinking water and breathable air must be provided for an eight member crew. Because of the large mass involved, it is not practical to consider supplying the Space Station with water from Earth. Therefore, it is necessary to depend upon recycled water to meet both the human and nonhuman water needs on the station. Sources of water that will be recycled include hygiene water, urine, and cabin humidity condensate. A certain amount of fresh water can be produced by CO2 reduction process. Additional fresh water will be introduced into the total pool by way of food, because of the free water contained in food and the water liberated by metabolic oxidation of the food. A panel of scientists and engineers with extensive experience in the various aspects of wastewater reuse was assembled for a 2 day workshop at NASA-Johnson. The panel included individuals with expertise in toxicology, chemistry, microbiology, and sanitary engineering. A review of Space Station water reclamation systems was provided.

  12. A DRINKING WATER PUMPING STATION IN A DEGRADED RIPARIAN LANDSCAPE: HOW TO OVERCOME ANARCHY AND ACHIEVE BALANCED, SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MATEJA BREG

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents gravel plains as a natural, social and cultural feature, and in particular as an important part of the human environment in cities. The first part, which is more theoretical, presents the role and importance of gravel plains and shows the human impact as a factor in the way they change. This is followed by a detailed presentation of a specific case, the gravel plain along the Sava River in the northern part of Ljubljana. Due to continuing illegal human activities in this area, its fundamental function as a source of drinking water for the needs of Ljubljana is under threat. Decades ago people hauled away gravel from this protected water catchment area without any supervision or control, creating pits which were then filled with garbage, and in this way more than a hundred illegal dumping sites accumulated. None of the protective measures taken to date, neither legal regulations nor physical barriers and warnings on site, have had any effect, and the area has become a textbook example of a degraded riparian landscape. It could be a space having multiple coexisting functions of water catchment, nature conservation and outdoor recreation for the urban population, but this possibility has not found an appropriate place in the perceptions of the city residents. Thus the question arises as to whether any further cleanup will have any lasting effect in the absence of a radical improvement in people’s attitude towards the environment.

  13. Experimental study on hydraulic characteristic around trash rack of a pumping station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, MinZhe; Li, TongChun; Lin, XiangYang; Liu, XiaoQing; Ding, Yuan; Liu, GuangYuan

    2017-11-01

    This paper focuses on flow pattern around trash rack of intake of a pumping station project. This pumping station undertake the task of supplying up to 3,500,000 m3 water per day for a megacity. Considering the large flow rate, high lift, multi-pipe supply and long-time operation in this water conveyance pumping station, we built a physical model test to measure the flow velocity and observe the flow pattern to verify the reasonability of preliminary design. In this test, we set 3 layers of current meters around each trash rack of intake in reservoir to collect the flow velocity. Furthermore, we design 2 operating conditions of 9 pumps to observe the change of flow pattern. Finally, we found the velocity data were in a normal range under 2 different operating conditions of the 9 pump units.

  14. Microgravity heat pump for space station thermal management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domitrovic, R E; Chen, F C; Mei, V C; Spezia, A L

    2003-01-01

    A highly efficient recuperative vapor compression heat pump was developed and tested for its ability to operate independent of orientation with respect to gravity while maximizing temperature lift. The objective of such a heat pump is to increase the temperature of, and thus reduce the size of, the radiative heat rejection panels on spacecrafts such as the International Space Station. Heat pump operation under microgravity was approximated by gravitational-independent experiments. Test evaluations include functionality, efficiency, and temperature lift. Commercially available components were used to minimize costs of new hardware development. Testing was completed on two heat pump design iterations--LBU-I and LBU--II, for a variety of operating conditions under the variation of several system parameters, including: orientation, evaporator water inlet temperature (EWIT), condenser water inlet temperature (CWIT), and compressor speed. The LBU-I system employed an ac motor, belt-driven scroll compressor, and tube-in-tube heat exchangers. The LBU-II system used a direct-drive AC motor compressor assembly and plate heat exchangers. The LBU-II system in general outperformed the LBU-I system on all accounts. Results are presented for all systems, showing particular attention to those states that perform with a COP of 4.5 +/- 10% and can maintain a temperature lift of 55 degrees F (30.6 degrees C) +/- 10%. A calculation of potential radiator area reduction shows that points with maximum temperature lift give the greatest potential for reduction, and that area reduction is a function of heat pump efficiency and a stronger function of temperature lift.

  15. Surface deformation induced by ground water pumping in Taipei Basin: A case study in rban underground construction of Taipei metro station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Pei-Chin; Hu, Jyr-Ching

    2017-04-01

    Since 1955, the rapid development of population has requested for large amount of water usage in Taipei city. Thus, the overuse of ground water leads to the land subsidence rate up to 5 cm/yr. In 1989, the government stated to put restrictions on water pumping. Consequently, ground water recovered and resulted in the a wideapred uplift in Taipei basin. Due to the underground transportation and wiring, ground water were massively pumped for the safety of construction sites. In this study, persistent scatterer interferometry technique is used for processing 37 high resolution X-band radar images to characterize deformation map in the period from May 2011 to April 2015. From the ground table records of 30 wells in Taipei basin, the results indicated that the main factor to the surface deformation of Taipei basin is the elevation change of water table. In the case of Wuku groundwater well, the elevation change of the ground water table is about 15 m during September 2011 to April 2015. In the same period of the time, the change of surface deformation within 100 m of Wuku groundwater well is consistent to the elevation change of ground water table, and is more than 5 cm along line of sight. The storability is roughly constant across most of the aquifer with values between 0.8 x 10-4 and 1.3 x 10-3. Moreover, in the case of Taipei metro construction, according to the analytical results of radar image and the 380 vertical control points of Taipei, the high water pumping before the underground construction project will inflict surface deformation. It is noticeable that, the Jingmei Formation and the Wuku Formation are composed of the sediments with high porosity. Thus, the actual land subsidence caused by water pumping would be five times than the underground construction areas.

  16. Design of Pumps for Water Hydraulic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klit, Peder; Olsen, Stefan; Bech, Thomas Nørgaard

    1999-01-01

    This paper considers the development of two pumps for water hydraulic applications. The pumps are based on two different working principles: The Vane-type pump and the Gear-type pump. Emphasis is put on the considerations that should be made to account for water as the hydraulic fluid.......KEYWORDS: water, pump, design, vane, gear....

  17. Power Factor Improvement for Pumping Stations using Capacitor Banks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad, M. M.; Abd El-gawad, Amal F.; Ramadan, H. S.

    2016-10-01

    One of the fundamental problems affects the performance of pumping stations is its relative high operational cost. As three-phase induction motors are the main prime mover of pumping stations and considered the most widely used electrical motors due to their reliability, ease of maintenance. However, its major problem is the low power factor which results in high electric energy consumption. Energy will be saved when power factor is improved. The main objective of this paper is studying the power factor improvement in El sadaa Pumping Station because of its low operating efficiency which goes from 20 % to 25 %and calculating penalty, ponus and savings in each cases. The correction is achieved by the addition of capacitor banks in parallel with the connected motor circuits and can be applied to the starter, applied at the switchboard or the distribution panel. A model of this station is created using MatlabTM Simulink. Then the determination of induction motor parameters is performed. The station model is discussed. From the simulation results, the power factor enhancement of the pumping station is highlighted.

  18. A case-based reasoning approach for estimating the costs of pump station projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed M. Marzouk

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The effective estimation of costs is crucial to the success of construction projects. Cost estimates are used to evaluate, approve and/or fund projects. Organizations use some form of classification system to identify the various types of estimates that may be prepared during the lifecycle of a project. This research presents a parametric-cost model for pump station projects. Fourteen factors have been identified as important to the influence of the cost of pump station projects. A data set that consists of forty-four pump station projects (fifteen water and twenty-nine waste water are collected to build a Case-Based Reasoning (CBR library and to test its performance. The results obtained from the CBR tool are processed and adopted to improve the accuracy of the results. A numerical example is presented to demonstrate the development of the effectiveness of the tool.

  19. Cotransporters as molecular water pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeuthen, Thomas; MacAulay, Nanna

    2002-01-01

    Molecular water pumps are membrane proteins of the cotransport type in which a flux of water is coupled to substrate fluxes by a mechanism within the protein. Free energy can be exchanged between the fluxes. Accordingly, the flux of water may be relatively independent of the external water chemical...... for such cotransport can be ruled out for both experimental and theoretical reasons. Indeed, substrate fluxes mediated by channels or ionophores generate much smaller water fluxes than those observed with cotransporters. Theoretical models, using reasonable values for the intracellular diffusion coefficient, indicate...

  20. System control fuzzy neural sewage pumping stations using genetic algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Владлен Николаевич Кузнецов

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It is considered the system of management of sewage pumping station with regulators based on a neuron network with fuzzy logic. Linguistic rules for the controller based on fuzzy logic, maintaining the level of effluent in the receiving tank within the prescribed limits are developed. The use of genetic algorithms for neuron network training is shown.

  1. Model test research on effect of flow accelerating-board in a pumping station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yuan; Li, TongChun; Liu, XiaoQing; Guo, Yun; Zhou, MinZhe

    2017-09-01

    Generally, the sedimentation in the forebay of pumping station may result in bad flow patterns, which will decrease efficiency of pump device and cause the vibration of pump house and units, or other safety problems. To research the improvement of this impact in an actual project, a physical model test was established for the original scheme of one pumping station. One part of results show that the flow velocity in the channel of regulating-pool is low under the high-water level condition, and it's easy to cause the sedimentation in the regulating-pool. According to this problem, we propose a flow accelerating-board scheme for the regulating-pool. The final results show that this scheme could effectively increase the flow velocity at the bottom and reduce the sedimentation in the regulating-pool. Although the hydraulic loss of regulating-pool increased, it could be able to satisfy the design requirements.

  2. Replacement of the pumps at the CERN petrol stations

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The CERN petrol stations will be closed on the following dates to allow the pumps to be replaced: Prévessin petrol station: 26 and 27 November Meyrin petrol station: 28, 29 and 30 November The current fuel cards in the vehicles will have expired by the time the new pumps begin operation. All those in possession of a CERN vehicle are therefore requested to collect a transponder badge from the light- vehicle maintenance office (130/R-013), which is open from 8.00 a.m. to midday and from 1.00 p.m. to 5.00 p.m. Badges will be issued on presentation of the keys of the vehicle in question. TS-IC-LO Section – Tel. 77039 - 72228

  3. Replacement of the pumps at the CERN petrol stations

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The CERN petrol stations will be closed on the following dates to allow the pumps to be replaced: Prévessin petrol station: 26 and 27 November Meyrin petrol station: 28, 29 and 30 November The current fuel cards in the vehicles will have expired by the time the new pumps begin operation. All those in possession of a CERN vehicle are therefore requested to collect a transponder badge from the light vehicle maintenance office (130/R-013), which is open from 8.00 a.m. to midday and from 1.00 p.m. to 5.00 p.m. Badges will be issued on presentation of the keys of the vehicle in question. TS-IC-LO Section Tel. 77039 - 72228

  4. 46 CFR 108.471 - Water pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Water pump. 108.471 Section 108.471 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Foam Extinguishing Systems § 108.471 Water pump. Each water pump in a foam extinguishing...

  5. Metodologia de diagnóstico energético em estação de captação de água Methodology for energetic diagnosis for a water pumping station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delly Oliveira Filho

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, o desenvolvimento de metodologia para diagnosticar energeticamente sistemas de captação de água com vistas ao abastecimento da irrigação e para meio urbano. Foram avaliados: (i a qualidade da energia elétrica fornecida pela concessionária em relação aos quesitos nível e desbalanceamento do sinal de tensão da rede; (ii o consumo e a demanda de energia elétrica na estação de captação; (iii o levantamento das características elétricas e hidráulicas das cargas; (iv o enquadramento e a otimização tarifárias; (v a capacidade de armazenamento de água e (vi o gerenciamento dos horários de funcionamento. Esta metodologia foi testada e validada para a estação de bombeamento de água em uma cidade de cerca de 70.000 habitantes. Dentre as ações propostas e que mais economizaram com gastos com energia elétrica, se encontram: (i o redimensionamento de bombas e motores e (ii o enquadramento e a otimização tarifárias. No caso testado observou-se que a metodologia utilizada é simples e de fácil aplicabilidade, havendo um potencial de economia de energia elétrica com valores de até 52%.This study aimed to develop a methodology to diagnose energetically a water supply system for a irrigation system and for a city. The steps taken were: (i the energy quality supplied by the utility in relation to level and unbalanced of the supplied voltage; (ii the electrical energy consumption and demand for the pumping station; (iii the study of the electrical and hydraulic load's characteristics; (iv the tariff and demand contracts optimization; (v the water storage capacity; and (vi the working hours management. This methodology was tested and validated for the water pumping station in a town of about 70,000 inhabitants. Among the proposed actions, which saved the most, were: (i the sizing of pumps and motors; and (ii the optimization of tariff and demand contracts. It was noted that this methodology is

  6. PV water pumping: NEOS Corporation recent PV water pumping activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, C.

    1995-11-01

    NEOS Corporation has been very active in PV-powered water pumping, particularly with respect to electric utilities. Most of the recent activity has been through the Photovoltaic Services Network (PSN). The PSN is an independent, not-for-profit organization comprised of all types of electric utilities: rural electric coops, public power districts, investor-owned utilities, and power marketing agencies. The PSN`s mission is to work pro-actively to promote utility involvement in PV through education and training. PV information is distributed by the PSN in three primary forms: (1) consultation with PSN technical service representatives: (2) literature generated by the PSN; and (3) literature published by other organizations. The PSN can also provide assistance to members in developing PV customer service programs. The PSN`s product support activities include consolidation of information on existing packaged PV systems and facilitation of the development of new PV product packages that meet utility-defined specifications for cost performance, and reliability. The PSN`s initial product support efforts will be focused on commercially available packaged PV systems for a variety of off-grid applications. In parallel with this effort, if no products exist that meet the PSN`s functional specifications, the PSN will initiate the second phase of product development support process by encouraging the development of new packaged systems. Through these services and product support activities, the PSN anticipates engaging all segments for the PV industry, thus providing benefits to PV systems suppliers as well as local PV service contractors.This paper describes field testing of pv power systems for water pumping.

  7. Information measuring subsystem oil pumping station “Parabel”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyashina Galina S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Information-measurement subsystem oil pumping station (OPS “Parabel”, located on the site of the main pipeline “Alexandrov-Anzhero” (OJSC “AK” Transneft "”. Developed on the basis of a modern microprocessor equipment, automation, as well as high-speed digital data channels. The simple solution to meet the requirements set out in the guidance document "Automation and remote control of trunk pipelines. «General provisions» (RD-35.240.0000-KTN-207-08.

  8. Water Pump Development for the EVA PLSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuller, Michael; Kurwitz, Cable; Goldman, Jeff; Morris, Kim; Trevino, Luis

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the effort by the Texas Engineering Experiment Station (TEES) and Honeywell for NASA to design, fabricate, and test a preflight prototype pump for use in the Extravehicular activity (EVA) portable life support subsystem (PLSS). Major design decisions were driven by the need to reduce the pump s mass, power, and volume compared to the existing PLSS pump. In addition, the pump will accommodate a much wider range of abnormal conditions than the existing pump, including vapor/gas bubbles and increased pressure drop when employed to cool two suits simultaneously. A positive displacement, external gear type pump was selected because it offers the most compact and highest efficiency solution over the required range of flow rates and pressure drops. An additional benefit of selecting a gear pump design is that it is self priming and capable of ingesting noncondensable gas without becoming "air locked." The chosen pump design consists of a 28 V DC, brushless, sealless, permanent magnet motor driven, external gear pump that utilizes a Honeywell development that eliminates the need for magnetic coupling. Although the planned flight unit will use a sensorless motor with custom designed controller, the preflight prototype to be provided for this project incorporates Hall effect sensors, allowing an interface with a readily available commercial motor controller. This design approach reduced the cost of this project and gives NASA more flexibility in future PLSS laboratory testing. The pump design was based on existing Honeywell designs, but incorporated features specifically for the PLSS application, including all of the key features of the flight pump. Testing at TEES will simulate the vacuum environment in which the flight pump will operate. Testing will verify that the pump meets design requirements for range of flow rates, pressure rise, power consumption, working fluid temperature, operating time, and restart capability. Pump testing is currently

  9. Characterization of Pump Flow at the Grand Coulee Pumping Station for Fish Passage, 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, Thomas J.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Johnson, Robert L.

    2005-03-31

    This report describes a study conducted by PNNL for the Bonneville Power Administration to characterized the conditions fish experience when entrained in pump flow at the Grand Coulee Dam. PNNL used the Sensor Fish to measure the acceleration and pressure conditions that might be experienced by fish who are pulled through the pumps and turbines at Grand Coulee Dam's pump generation station and transported up into the feeder canal leading to Banks Lake. The probability that fish would be struck by the pump generating plant's new 9-bladed turbines was also calculated using Monte Carlo simulations. Our measurements showed relatively low turbulence except in the immediate vicinity of the runner environment. The highest pressure experienced by the Sensor Fish was estimated at 157 psi (the pressure gauge saturated at 155 psi). The probability of strike was also calculated, based on the average length of hatchery-reared juvenile kokanee (land-locked sockeye). Strike probabilities ranged from 0.755 for 2.36-inch fish to 0.3890 for 11.8-inch fish. The probability of strike estimates indicate that the majority (77%) of kokanne would be carried through the pump without being struck and most likely without injury resulting from pressure and turbulence exposure. Of the 23% that might be struck it is expected that 60% would arrive in Banks Lake without visible external injuries. Thus more than 90% of entrained fish would be expected to arrive in Banks Lake without injury.

  10. Sewerage Pumping Stations, File name = UTILITIES - PARTIAL Data is incomplete. Contains electric trans lines, electric substations, sewer plants, sewer pumpstations, water plants, water tanks http://www.harfordcountymd.gov/gis/Index.cfm, Published in 2011, 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, Harford County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Sewerage Pumping Stations dataset current as of 2011. File name = UTILITIES - PARTIAL Data is incomplete. Contains electric trans lines, electric substations, sewer...

  11. Unitary water-to-air heat pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, J.E.

    1977-10-01

    Performance and cost functions for nine unitary water-to-air heat pumps ranging in nominal size from /sup 1///sub 2/ to 26 tons are presented in mathematical form for easy use in heat pump computer simulations. COPs at nominal water source temperature of 60/sup 0/F range from 2.5 to 3.4 during the heating cycle; during the cooling cycle EERs range from 8.33 to 9.09 with 85/sup 0/F entering water source temperatures. The COP and EER values do not include water source pumping power or any energy requirements associated with a central heat source and heat rejection equipment.

  12. AUTOMATIC CONTROL SYSTEM OF HEAT PUMP STATION GAS COOLER AT THE WIDE RANGE OF HEAT LOAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juravleov A.A.

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available There is examined the structure the of control system of gas cooler of heat pump station, which uses the carbon dioxide as the working fluid in the transctitical thermodynamical cycle. It is analiyed the structure of the complex: heat pump station – district heating system.

  13. Heat pump evaluation for Space Station ATCS evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Brian E.; Petete, Patricia A.

    1991-01-01

    A preliminary feasibility assessment of the application of a vapor compression heat pump to the Active Thermal Control System (ATCS) of SSF is presented. This paper focuses on the methodology of raising the surface temperature of the radiators for improved heat rejection. Some of the effects of the vapor compression cycle on SSF examined include heat pump integration into ATCS, constraints on the heat pump operating parameters, and heat pump performance enhancements.

  14. 30 CFR 57.4262 - Underground transformer stations, combustible liquid storage and dispensing areas, pump rooms...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground transformer stations, combustible... and Control Firefighting Equipment § 57.4262 Underground transformer stations, combustible liquid storage and dispensing areas, pump rooms, compressor rooms, and hoist rooms. Transformer stations, storage...

  15. Water Hammer in Pumped Sewer Mains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    This publication is intended for engineers seeking an introduction to the problem of water hammer in pumped pressure mains. This is a subject of increasing interest because of the development of larger and more integrated sewer systems. Consideration of water hammer is essential for structural...

  16. Water Hammer in Pumped Sewer Mains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    This publication is intended for students and engineers seeking an introduction to the problem of water transients in pumped sewer and water mains. This is a subject of increasing interest because of the development of larger and more integrated systems. Consideration of transients is essential...... for the structural design of pipelines and for the planning of the proper function of the systems. The text is written by Torben Larsen, who is a professor of environmental hydraulics at the Department of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University. Torben Larsen has many years of experience with computer simulations...... of transients in pumped pipeline systems. This present publication can be understood as the second and revised edition of the pamphlet ”Transients in pumped sewer mains” (2006) which was published as a technical report by The EVA committee under The Danish Water Pollution Committee (The Danish Society...

  17. Intelligent real-time operation of a pumping station for an urban drainage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Nien-Sheng; Huang, Chien-Lin; Wei, Chih-Chiang

    2013-05-01

    SummaryIn this study, we apply artificial intelligence techniques to the development of two real-time pumping station operation models, namely, a historical and an optimized adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS-His and ANFIS-Opt, respectively). The functions of these two models are the determination of the real-time operation criteria of various pumping machines for controlling flood in an urban drainage system during periods when the drainage gate is closed. The ANFIS-His is constructed from an adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) using historical operation records. The ANFIS-Opt is constructed from an ANFIS using the best operation series, which are optimized by a tabu search of historical flood events. We use the Chung-Kong drainage basin, New Taipei City, Taiwan, as the study area. The operational comparison variables are the highest water level (WL) and the absolute difference between the final WL and target WL of a pumping front-pool. The results show that the ANFIS-Opt is better than the ANFIS-His and historical operation models, based on the operation simulations of two flood events using the two operation models.

  18. An economic evaluation comparison of solar water pumping system with engine pumping system for rice cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treephak, Kasem; Thongpron, Jutturit; Somsak, Dhirasak; Saelao, Jeerawan; Patcharaprakiti, Nopporn

    2015-08-01

    In this paper we propose the design and economic evaluation of the water pumping systems for rice cultivation using solar energy, gasoline fuel and compare both systems. The design of the water and gasoline engine pumping system were evaluated. The gasoline fuel cost used in rice cultivation in an area of 1.6 acres. Under same conditions of water pumping system is replaced by the photovoltaic system which is composed of a solar panel, a converter and an electric motor pump which is compose of a direct current (DC) motor or an alternating current (AC) motor with an inverter. In addition, the battery is installed to increase the efficiency and productivity of rice cultivation. In order to verify, the simulation and economic evaluation of the storage energy battery system with batteries and without batteries are carried out. Finally the cost of four solar pumping systems was evaluated and compared with that of the gasoline pump. The results showed that the solar pumping system can be used to replace the gasoline water pumping system and DC solar pump has a payback less than 10 years. The systems that can payback the fastest is the DC solar pumping system without batteries storage system. The system the can payback the slowest is AC solar pumping system with batteries storage system. However, VAC motor pump of 220 V can be more easily maintained than the motor pump of 24 VDC and batteries back up system can supply a more stable power to the pump system.

  19. Livestock water pumping with wind and solar power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent developments in pumping technologies have allowed for efficient use of renewable energies like wind and solar to power new pumps for remote water pumping. A helical type, positive displacement pump was developed a few years ago and recently modified to accept input from a variable power sourc...

  20. Field Monitoring Protocol: Heat Pump Water Heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparn, B.; Earle, L.; Christensen, D.; Maguire, J.; Wilson, E.; Hancock, E.

    2013-02-01

    This document provides a standard field monitoring protocol for evaluating the installed performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in residential buildings. The report is organized to be consistent with the chronology of field test planning and execution. Research questions are identified first, followed by a discussion of analysis methods, and then the details of measuring the required information are laid out. A field validation of the protocol at a house near the NREL campus is included for reference.

  1. Field Monitoring Protocol. Heat Pump Water Heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparn, B. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Earle, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Christensen, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Maguire, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wilson, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hancock, C. E. [Mountain Energy Partnership, Longmont, CO (United States)

    2013-02-01

    This document provides a standard field monitoring protocol for evaluating the installed performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in residential buildings. The report is organized to be consistent with the chronology of field test planning and execution. Research questions are identified first, followed by a discussion of analysis methods, and then the details of measuring the required information are laid out. A field validation of the protocol at a house near the NREL campus is included for reference.

  2. Ground Water-Source Heat Pump

    OpenAIRE

    Iganatovna, Dinara Kumasheva

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, most issues are associated with the growth of population and an increase in energy needs is no exception. Therefore, one of the ways to solve this problem is use of technologies based on renewable energy sources. In this thesis, the effectiveness of the ground water-source heat pump (GWHP) is being analyzed in Famagusta conditions. Famagusta has been chosen because it has potential for renewable energy sources such as groundwater with a practically constant temperature throughout...

  3. Application of terrestrial laser scanning in documenting an underground coal mine pumping station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rošer Janez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a new underground pumping station was constructed 41.5 m below sea level and equipped, which has now become the main underground pumping station of the Velenje Coal Mine (VCM. In this study, use of terrestrial laser scanning (TLS to acquire the 3D data of the engine room of the underground pumping station is presented. TLS is an advanced technique in spatial information data acquisition, which allows the equipment in the underground pumping station to be digitally captured with unprecedented resolution and accuracy. Integration with metric imagery allows 3D photorealistic models to be created for interpretation and visualisation. The final result shows the actual 3D image of the object recorded with a relative accuracy of a few millimetres. TLS is ideal for capturing the original state before construction commences and the final state after its completion, as well as for both observation of surface changes and detection of deformations. When we have an accurate 3D model of each component in the engine room of the underground pumping station, any maintenance, future upgrades, or modifications can be made with reference to the original state.

  4. Application of terrestrial laser scanning in documenting an underground coal mine pumping station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rošer, Janez

    2017-07-01

    Recently, a new underground pumping station was constructed 41.5 m below sea level and equipped, which has now become the main underground pumping station of the Velenje Coal Mine (VCM). In this study, use of terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) to acquire the 3D data of the engine room of the underground pumping station is presented. TLS is an advanced technique in spatial information data acquisition, which allows the equipment in the underground pumping station to be digitally captured with unprecedented resolution and accuracy. Integration with metric imagery allows 3D photorealistic models to be created for interpretation and visualisation. The final result shows the actual 3D image of the object recorded with a relative accuracy of a few millimetres. TLS is ideal for capturing the original state before construction commences and the final state after its completion, as well as for both observation of surface changes and detection of deformations. When we have an accurate 3D model of each component in the engine room of the underground pumping station, any maintenance, future upgrades, or modifications can be made with reference to the original state.

  5. Study on possibility of management with combining the generating electricity by photovoltaic device, pumped water station and agriculture, fishery and the way to improve an ability of protection for flood at planning reclaimed land of Isahaya bay; Isahayawan kantaku yoteichi de taiyoko hatsudensho, yosui hatsudensho oyobi nogyo, gyogyo wo kumiawaseta keiei oyobi suigai boshi noryoku wo takameru hoho no kanosei no kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, A.

    1998-09-30

    Study was made on the possibility of (1) combined management of PV power station, pumped water power station, agriculture and fishery on rafts floating on dug inland waters by modifying the present reclaimed land plan of Isahaya bay, (2) efficient agriculture and fishery management by industrial techniques, (3) enhancement of a flood protective capacity by preservation of the existing tideland, and (4) environment preservation by tideland formed by artificial tidal action. Outlines of the modified plan are as follows: (1) moving the inside tideland of the previously completed tidewall to the outside for preservation, (2) digging a tideland area by 1m, (3) installing valves and propeller type motor-generators on the tidewall, (4) floating rafts for PV power generation, fishery and agriculture, (5) constructing a factory for rice-planting, weeding, harvesting, roe collection, delivery and maintenance of PV cell rafts, and (6) enhancing the flood protective capacity by the larger inland waters than an original regulating reservoir and use of the motor-generators for drainage pumps. 7 refs., 7 figs.

  6. Fuzzy optimization in hydrodynamic analysis of groundwater control systems: Case study of the pumping station "Bezdan 1", Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajić Dragoljub

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A groundwater control system was designed to lower the water table and allow the pumping station “Bezdan 1” to be built. Based on a hydrodynamic analysis that suggested three alternative solutions, multicriteria optimization was applied to select the best alternative. The fuzzy analytic hierarchy process method was used, based on triangular fuzzy numbers. An assessment of the various factors that influenced the selection of the best alternative, as well as fuzzy optimization calculations, yielded the “weights” of the alternatives and the best alternative was selected for groundwater control at the site of the pumping station “Bezdan 1”. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI-176022, TR-33039 i br. III-43004

  7. IRRIGATION STATION EQUIPMENT FOR PREVENTING THE USE OF LOW WATER QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Nicolescu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In Romania the economically efficient irrigated area is estimated at 3.5 million hectares. On national scale there is nointegrated approach for monitoring the quantity and quality of the irrigation water, using adequate equipment at thepumping station. On international scale, in many countries the pumping stations are provided with equipment formonitoring, on real time, the quality or the pumped water and for warning about critical situations (emergencies.This paper describes a technical solution consisting of equipment which monitors the following parameters of waterpumped in irrigation systems: turbidity, pH, CE at 25 o C, Na+, Cl-. The lapse of time for monitoring is of 10 to 60 min.The main components are the following: the sampling pump (submersible the monitoring board, the repression pipe ofthe analyzed water. Warnings are made about values exceeding the programmed level for each monitored parameter,about the fact that the pump and agitator do not work or about any other source of damage.The technical solution and equipment were tested at a pumping station which uses water from Danube, in most casesmixed with water originating from drainage. Results showed a reduction of the total content of soluble salts from soiland of their negative impact upon the crops, a reduction of the degree of river alluvial deposits within the irrigationsystem and reduction of the energetic consumption required for pumping.

  8. Design and analysis of hydraulic ram water pumping system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussin, N. S. M.; Gamil, S. A.; Amin, N. A. M.; Safar, M. J. A.; Majid, M. S. A.; Kazim, M. N. F. M.; Nasir, N. F. M.

    2017-10-01

    The current pumping system (DC water pump) for agriculture is powered by household electricity, therefore, the cost of electricity will be increased due to the higher electricity consumption. In addition, the water needs to be supplied at different height of trees and different places that are far from the water source. The existing DC water pump can pump the water to 1.5 m height but it cost money for electrical source. The hydraulic ram is a mechanical water pump that suitable used for agriculture purpose. It can be a good substitute for DC water pump in agriculture use. The hydraulic ram water pumping system has ability to pump water using gravitational energy or the kinetic energy through flowing source of water. This project aims to analyze and develop the water ram pump in order to meet the desired delivery head up to 3 meter height with less operation cost. The hydraulic ram is designed using CATIA software. Simulation work has been done using ANSYS CFX software to validate the working concept. There are three design were tested in the experiment study. The best design reached target head of 3 m with 15% efficiency and flow rate of 11.82l/min. The results from this study show that the less diameter of pressure chamber and higher supply head will create higher pressure.

  9. Economical Feasibility of Utilizing Photovoltaics for Water Pumping in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Z. Sahin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy and water are the two major need of the globe which need to be addressed for the sustenance of the human beings on this planet. All the nations, no matter most populous, developed and developing need to diversify the means and ways of producing energy and at the same time guarding the environment. This study aims at techno economical feasibility of producing energy using PV solar panels and utilizing it to pump-water at Dhahran, Riyadh, Jeddah, Guriat, and Nejran regions in Saudi Arabia. The solar radiation data from these stations was used to generate electricity using PV panels of 9.99 kW total capacity. Nejran region was found to be most economical in terms of minimal payback period and cost of energy and maximum internal rate of return whereas PV power production was concerned. Water-pumping capacity of the solar PV energy system was calculated at five locations based on the PV power production and Goulds model 45J series of pumps. Monthly total and annual total water pumping capacities were determined. Considering the capital cost of combined solar PV energy system and the pump unit a cost analysis of water pumping for a well of 50 m total dynamic head (TDH was carried out. The cost of water pumping was found to vary between 2 and 3 /m3.

  10. Water supply at Syowa Station, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Ishizawa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE has sourced domestic water for daily use from ponds, snow drifts, and icebergs on sea ice at Syowa Station since the first wintering expedition. These water sources are dependent on weather conditions and maintenance of the sources requires considerable human effort and thermal energy. For example, the maintenance of outside water tanks and pipelines requires a lot of working force of wintering members and huge thermal energy which has been obtained from waste heat of engine generators. Here, we propose seawater desalination method using a reverse osmosis membrane to provide a reliable domestic water source to Syowa Station. Such a system could meet the station's water needs without requiring a large amount of staff time or heat energy.

  11. Application of the hydrodynamic predictive modeling on the example of the pumping station 'Bezdan 1'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polomčić Dušan M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the area of Bezdan, the construction of a new pumping station, p.s. 'Bezdan 1', on the location of the existing and nonfunctional pumping station 'Bezdan I', is envisaged. Given the position of the future pump station, a problem of digging the foundation pits in terms of protection from high groundwater levels, was noticed. This paper aims to analyze the possibilities for lowering the groundwater levels below the projected elevation, which will enable unobstructed work on the pumping station. By using the hydrodynamic analysis and its most complex and most applicable methods of three-dimensional hydrodynamic modeling of aquifer regime, based on the numerical method of finite differences, the system of protection and variations of the protection solutions from groundwater at the research location of the future p.s. 'Bezdan 1' was defined. Three variants of solution were given, and characteristics of the system of protection from groundwater were defined for each, the optimal number of drainage wells in the system and their spatial distribution and the time required for maximal effects of the lowering of the groundwater levels below the elevation of the excavation facilities of CS 'Bezdan 1'. Presented paper provides the basis for some of the methods of multicriteria optimization and the selection of the optimal variant of the system of protection from groundwater's, considering, in this way, the weight of various factors that influence the choice of the variant, such as technical, economic, environmental and safety factors.

  12. Performance of a small wind powered water pumping system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorentz helical pumps (Henstedt-Ulzburg, Germany) have been powered by solar energy for remote water pumping applications for many years, but from October 2005 to March 2008 a Lorentz helical pump was powered by wind energy at the USDA-ARS Conservation and Production Research Laboratory (CPRL) near ...

  13. A study of water pump efficiency for household water demand at Lubuklinggau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emiliawati, Anna

    2017-11-01

    Water pump is a device to transport liquid from one place to another. This device is used in most of household in Indonesia. Small-scale water pump which is effective to lift more discharge is generally used. The ones that are most preferred are centrifugal types which having low absorbability. Pump performance is limited by pressure level in real electrical power whereas pump efficiency is influenced by head and discharge. The research aims to find out the efficiency of five distinct brands of home water pumps which are broadly distributed in market. Efficiency analysis take by laboratorium and financial analysis using NPV and BCR are done in order to obtained dicharge and pressure from each pump. At the end of the research, one out of 5 home water pump brands will be selected as the optimal working home water pump with low operational expense based on the utilizing age. The result of the research shows that the maximum efficiency value among various brands of water pump is diverse. Each value is arranged as follow from water pump A to E orderly: 12,9%, 13,5%, 12,8%, 14,8%, and 3,4%. From the calculation, water demand of South Lubuklinggau at stage 1 is 1117,7 l/s and stage 2 is 3495,2 l/s.. Moreover, the researcher conducts of investment, operation and maintenance cost with 25 years pump utilizing age towards 2 conditions (1) of maximum efficiency, i.e. pump A Rp16.563.971; pump B Rp12.163.798; pump C Rp11.809.513,2; pump D Rp11.473.928,3; pump E Rp12.648.708,3; (2) of max discharge, i.e. pump A Rp111.993.822,8; pump B Rp26.128.845,1; pump C Rp51.697.208,8; pump D Rp51.098.687,4; pump E Rp22.915.952,7;Financial analysis with interest rate 13% show a positive NPV(+) for all pump except pump A in max efficiency and a negative NPV (-) for all except pump B in max discharge. BCR value for max efficiency are pump A 0,8; pump B 1,6; pump C 1,7; pump D 1,7 and pump E 1,3. And for max discharge are pump A 0,2; pump B 1,1; pump C 0,7; pump D 0,7 and pump E 0,9. Result

  14. 46 CFR 76.25-15 - Pumps and water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pumps and water supply. 76.25-15 Section 76.25-15... EQUIPMENT Automatic Sprinkling System, Details § 76.25-15 Pumps and water supply. (a) An automatically... water from the two highest fire hose outlets in a manner similar to that described in § 76.10-5(c...

  15. Remaining Sites Verification Package for 132-D-3, 1608-D Effluent Pumping Station, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2005-033

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. A. Carlson

    2006-05-09

    Decommissioning and demolition of the 132-D-3 site, 1608-D Effluent Pumping Station was performed in 1986. Decommissioning included removal of equipment, water, and sludge for disposal as radioactive waste. The at- and below-grade structure was demolished to at least 1 m below grade and the resulting rubble buried in situ. The area was backfilled to grade with at least 1 m of clean fill and contoured to the surrounding terrain. Residual concentrations support future land uses that can be represented by a rural-residential scenario and pose no threat to groundwater or the Columbia River based on RESRAD modeling.

  16. Performance of solar photovoltaic array fed water pumping system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses the design and performance analysis of a solar photovoltaic (SPV) array fed water pumping system utilizing a special class of highly rugged machine with simple drive system called switched reluctance motor (SRM) drive. The proposed method of water pumping system also provides the cost effective ...

  17. Performance of solar photovoltaic array fed water pumping system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR OKE

    technologies make solar power a quite attractive solution for standalone power generation and applications like water pumping. SPV array fed water pumping system is fitted with manual or with auto-trackers for synchronizing with the shifting direction of the sun. In this way, solar panel captures sun rays continuously and ...

  18. Multifamily Heat Pump Water Heater Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeschele, M. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Weitzel, E. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)

    2013-11-22

    Although heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have gained significant attention in recent years as a high efficiency electric water heating solution for single family homes, central HPWHs for commercial or multi-family applications are not as well documented in terms of measured performance and cost effectiveness. To evaluate this technology, the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation team monitored the performance of a 10.5 ton central HPWH installed on a student apartment building at the West Village Zero Net Energy Community in Davis, California. Monitoring data collected over a 16 month period were then used to validate a TRNSYS simulation model. The TRNSYS model was then used to project performance in different climates using local electric rates. Results of the study indicate that after some initial commissioning issues, the HPWH operated reliably with an annual average efficiency of 2.12 (Coefficient of Performance). The observed efficiency was lower than the unit's rated efficiency, primarily due to the fact that the system rarely operated under steady-state conditions. Changes in the system configuration, storage tank sizing, and control settings would likely improve the observed field efficiency. Modeling results suggest significant energy savings relative to electric storage water heating systems (typical annual efficiencies around 0.90) providing for typical simple paybacks of six to ten years without any incentives. The economics versus gas water heating are currently much more challenging given the current low natural gas prices in much of the country. Increased market size for this technology would benefit cost effectiveness and spur greater technology innovation.

  19. Multifamily Heat Pump Water Heater Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeschele, M. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Weitzel, E. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Although heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have gained significant attention in recent years as a high efficiency electric water heating solution for single family homes, central HPWHs for commercial or multi-family applications are not as well documented in terms of measured performance and cost effectiveness. To evaluate this technology, the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation team monitored the performance of a 10.5 ton central HPWH installed on a student apartment building at the West Village Zero Net Energy Community in Davis, California. Monitoring data collected over a 16 month period were then used to validate a TRNSYS simulation model. The TRNSYS model was then used to project performance in different climates using local electric rates. Results of the study indicate that after some initial commissioning issues, the HPWH operated reliably with an annual average efficiency of 2.12 (Coefficient of Performance). The observed efficiency was lower than the unit's rated efficiency, primarily due to the fact that the system rarely operated under steady-state conditions. Changes in the system configuration, storage tank sizing, and control settings would likely improve the observed field efficiency. Modeling results suggest significant energy savings relative to electric storage water heating systems (typical annual efficiencies around 0.90) providing for typical simple paybacks of six to ten years without any incentives. The economics versus gas water heating are currently much more challenging given the current low natural gas prices in much of the country. Increased market size for this technology would benefit cost effectiveness and spur greater technology innovation.

  20. Multifamily Heat Pump Water Heater Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeschele, M. [Davis Energy Group, Davis, CA (United States). Alliance for Residential Building Innovation; Weitzel, E. [Davis Energy Group, Davis, CA (United States). Alliance for Residential Building Innovation

    2017-03-03

    Although heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have gained significant attention in recent years as a high efficiency electric water heating solution for single family homes, central HPWHs for commercial or multi-family applications are not as well documented in terms of measured performance and cost effectiveness. To evaluate this technology, the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation team monitored the performance of a 10.5 ton central HPWH installed on a student apartment building at the West Village Zero Net Energy Community in Davis, California. Monitoring data collected over a 16 month period were then used to validate a TRNSYS simulation model. The TRNSYS model was then used to project performance in different climates using local electric rates. Results of the study indicate that after some initial commissioning issues, the HPWH operated reliably with an annual average efficiency of 2.12 (Coefficient of Performance). The observed efficiency was lower than the unit's rated efficiency, primarily due to the fact that the system rarely operated under steady-state conditions. Changes in the system configuration, storage tank sizing, and control settings would likely improve the observed field efficiency. Modeling results suggest significant energy savings relative to electric storage water heating systems (typical annual efficiencies around 0.90) providing for typical simple paybacks of six to ten years without any incentives. The economics versus gas water heating are currently much more challenging given the current low natural gas prices in much of the country. Increased market size for this technology would benefit cost effectiveness and spur greater technology innovation.

  1. Effect of suction pipe leaning angle and water level on the internal flow of pump sump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Z.-M.; Lee, Y.-B.; Kim, K.-Y.; Park, S.-H.; Choi, Y.-D.

    2016-11-01

    The pump sump, which connects forebay and intake of pump station, supplies good flow condition for the intake of the pump. If suction sumps are improperly shaped or sized, air entraining vortices or submerged vortices may develop. This may greatly affect pump operation if vortices grow to an appreciable extent. Moreover, the noise and vibration of the pump can be increased by the remaining of vortices in the pump flow passage. Therefore, the vortices in the pump flow passage have to be reduced for a good performance of pump sump station. In this study, the effect of suction pipe leaning angle on the pump sump internal flow with different water level has been investigated by CFD analysis. Moreover, an elbow type pipe was also investigated. There are 3 leaning angles with 0°, 45° and 90° for the suction pipe. The suction pipe inlet centre is kept same for all the cases. In addition, the three different water levels of H/D=1.85, 1.54, and 1.31, is applied to different suction pipe types. The result shows that the amount of air sucked into the suction pipe increases with increasing the suction pipe leaning angle. Especially for the horizontal suction pipe, there is maximum air sucked into the suction pipe. However, there is certain effect of the elbow type bell mouth installation in the horizontal suction pipe on suppressing the amount of air sucked into the pipe. Moreover, vertical suction pipe plays an effective role on reducing the free surface vortex intake area.

  2. Structure of microprocessor-based automation system of oil pumping station “Alexndrovskaya”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriyenko Margarita A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Structure of microprocessed-based automation system (MBAS of oil pumping station (OPS «Alexandrovskaya», located on the territory of Tomsk region and forming part of the Oil Transporting Joint Stock Company «Transneft», developed in accordance with the requirements of the guidance document «Complex of the typical design choices automation of OPSs and crude storages on the basis of modern standard solutions and components».

  3. Fuzzy Supervisor Approach Design Based-Switching Controller for Pumping Station: Experimental Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael Chakchouk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a discrete-time switching controller strategy for a hydraulic process pumping station. The proposed solution leads to improving control system performances with two tests: combination of Fuzzy-PD and PI controllers and Fuzzy-PID and PI controllers. The proposed design methodology is based on accurate model for pumping station (PS, which is developed in previous works using Fuzzy-C Means (FCM algorithm. The control law design is based on switching control; a fuzzy supervisor manages the switching from one to another and regulates the rate of participation of each order, in order to satisfy various objectives of a stable pumping station like the asymptotic stability of the tracking error. To validate the proposed solution, experimental tests are made and analyzed. Compared to the conventional PI and fuzzy logic (FL approaches, the results show that the switching controller allows exhibiting excellent transient response over a wide range of operating conditions and especially is easier to be implemented in practice.

  4. International Space Station Water Balance Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, Barry; Garr, John D., II; Erne, Meghan

    2011-01-01

    In November 2008, the Water Regenerative System racks were launched aboard Space Shuttle flight, STS-126 (ULF2) and installed and activated on the International Space Station (ISS). These racks, consisting of the Water Processor Assembly (WPA) and Urine Processor Assembly (UPA), completed the installation of the Regenerative (Regen) Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS), which includes the Oxygen Generation Assembly (OGA) that was launched 2 years prior. With the onset of active water management on the US segment of the ISS, a new operational concept was required, that of water balance . In November of 2010, the Sabatier system, which converts H2 and CO2 into water and methane, was brought on line. The Regen ECLSS systems accept condensation from the atmosphere, urine from crew, and processes that fluid via various means into potable water, which is used for crew drinking, building up skip-cycle water inventory, and water for electrolysis to produce oxygen. Specification (spec) rates of crew urine output, condensate output, O2 requirements, toilet flush water, and drinking needs are well documented and used as the best guess planning rates when Regen ECLSS came online. Spec rates are useful in long term planning, however, daily or weekly rates are dependent upon a number of variables. The constantly changing rates created a new challenge for the ECLSS flight controllers, who are responsible for operating the ECLSS systems onboard ISS from Mission Control in Houston. This paper reviews the various inputs to water planning, rate changes, and dynamic events, including but not limited to: crew personnel makeup, Regen ECLSS system operability, vehicle traffic, water storage availability, and Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA), Sabatier, and OGA capability. Along with the inputs that change the various rates, the paper will review the different systems, their constraints, and finally the operational challenges and means by which flight controllers

  5. The Performance test of Mechanical Sodium Pump with Water Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Chungho; Kim, Jong-Man; Ko, Yung Joo; Jeong, Ji-Young; Kim, Jong-Bum [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Bock Seong; Park, Sang Jun; Lee, Yoon Sang [SAM JIN Industrial Co. LTD., Chunan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    As contrasted with PWR(Pressurized light Water Reactor) using water as a coolant, sodium is used as a coolant in SFR because of its low melting temperature, high thermal conductivity, the high boiling temperature allowing the reactors to operate at ambient pressure, and low neutron absorption cross section which is required to achieve a high neutron flux. But, sodium is violently reactive with water or oxygen like the other alkali metal. So Very strict requirements are demanded to design and fabricate of sodium experimental facilities. Furthermore, performance testing in high temperature sodium environments is more expensive and time consuming and need an extra precautions because operating and maintaining of sodium experimental facilities are very difficult. The present paper describes performance test results of mechanical sodium pump with water which has been performed with some design changes using water test facility in SAM JIN Industrial Co. To compare the hydraulic characteristic of model pump with water and sodium, the performance test of model pump were performed using vender's experimental facility for mechanical sodium pump. To accommodate non-uniform thermal expansion and to secure the operability and the safety, the gap size of some parts of original model pump was modified. Performance tests of modified mechanical sodium pump with water were successfully performed. Water is therefore often selected as a surrogate test fluid because it is not only cheap, easily available and easy to handle but also its important hydraulic properties (density and kinematic viscosity) are very similar to that of the sodium. Normal practice to thoroughly test a design or component before applied or installed in reactor is important to ensure the safety and operability in the sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR). So, in order to estimate the hydraulic behavior of the PHTS pump of DSFR (600 MWe Demonstraion SFR), the performance tests of the model pump such as performance

  6. Parametric Optimization of Control Systems Pumping Station by the Genetic Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Dounaev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Now the frequency regulation with its well-known advantages is becoming more popular for using in electric drives. One of these systems is the system of liquid flow stabilization for pumping station of the second flood, which is discussed at the article. There are functional elements of the system: the frequency converter, the induction motor, pump set, check valve, part of the pipeline between the flow sensors and PID controller. In this case are used PID controller with universal input and RS-485 OWEN TRM101.The article tries to solve the main problem, which is to set optimal controller settings. The article presents a mathematical model of the system, built on the basis of transfer functions. The specific values of the parameters for Bratsk pumping station of the second flood are found.To solve the problem of parametric optimization for control of pumping station authors use a genetic algorithm, which allows us to use different quality criteria. A set of parameters for the genetic algorithm is represented, as well as a method of selection and a method of the transition between generations. The problem of parametric optimization was solved by quadratic integral criterion and by the criterion, composed of direct measures of quality (regulation time and the overshoot. The PID controller optimal values of adjustable parameters were obtained both for considered criteria and for their corresponding transient processes. Comparative analysis of results was produced. When proving the optimality of the obtained settings for the quadratic criterion the proximity of the gradient components of the target functional to zero is demonstrated. In the case of a criterion based on a direct measure of quality, is presented a picture of convergence of adjustable parameters to the same value when run with different starting points.It is presented that the use of a criterion based on a direct measure of quality, can significantly reduce the overshoot with a

  7. Corrosion protection of steel in ammonia/water heat pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfeld, Florian B.; Sun, Zhaoli

    2003-10-14

    Corrosion of steel surfaces in a heat pump is inhibited by adding a rare earth metal salt to the heat pump's ammonia/water working fluid. In preferred embodiments, the rare earth metal salt includes cerium, and the steel surfaces are cerated to enhance the corrosion-inhibiting effects.

  8. Computational Simulation of a Water-Cooled Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozarth, Duane

    2008-01-01

    A Fortran-language computer program for simulating the operation of a water-cooled vapor-compression heat pump in any orientation with respect to gravity has been developed by modifying a prior general-purpose heat-pump design code used at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL).

  9. A sub-tank water-saving drinking water station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ting

    2017-05-01

    amount of water consumption, the drinking water station is different from the ordinary drinking water station repeatedly boil, greatly saving energy, embodies the idea of energy saving.

  10. Upgrades to the International Space Station Water Recovery System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayatin, Matthew J.; Pruitt, Jennifer M.; Nur, Mononita; Takada, Kevin C.; Carter, Layne

    2017-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Water Recovery System (WRS) includes the Water Processor Assembly (WPA) and the Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). The WRS produces potable water from a combination of crew urine (first processed through the UPA), crew latent, and Sabatier product water. Though the WRS has performed well since operations began in November 2008, several modifications have been identified to improve the overall system performance. These modifications aim to reduce resupply and improve overall system reliability, which is beneficial for the ongoing ISS mission as well as for future NASA manned missions. The following paper details efforts to improve the WPA through the use of reverse osmosis membrane technology to reduce the resupply mass of the WPA Multi-filtration Bed and improved catalyst for the WPA Catalytic Reactor to reduce the operational temperature and pressure. For the UPA, this paper discusses progress on various concepts for improving the reliability of the system, including the implementation of a more reliable drive belt, improved methods for managing condensate in the stationary bowl of the Distillation Assembly, and evaluating upgrades to the UPA vacuum pump.

  11. Improving the monitoring of quantitative conditions of peacetime fuel stocks at pumping stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slaviša M. Ilić

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper has solved the problem of optimizing the existing inefficient and irrational system of the quantitative monitoring of the situation in peacetime fuel supplies at the pumping stations in the Army of Serbia. A study of existing organizational forms, military pumping stations as well as civilian ones, was carried out. Based on the completion of the survey by competent persons in the military, the methods of expert evaluation and the obtained quantitative indicator of the tested models, a multicriteria optimization was performed in order to select the optimal model. The optimization of the existing models, in terms of efficiency and economy, would be the rationalization and modernization - automation of military capacity and greater reliance on automated civilian pumping stations. Introduction Within the framework of the undergoing reform of the Serbian Army and in order to reduce the total costs, it is necessary to optimize the existing supply system that is technologically outdated, inefficient and uneconomic. The problem of research in this paper is reduced to the selection of an optimal model of the quantitative monitoring of the state of peacetime stocks of fuel at the pumping stations in the Serbian Army, in order to ensure economical operation and efficient monitoring of available and issued quantities, aiming at better decision making and management in the supply system as well as at achieving faster system response, with greater reliance on government logistics. Organization of work and monitoring the fuel quantitative status at pumping stations The existing system of monitoring the quantitative state of fuel pumping stations in the Army of Serbia has the following disadvantages: getting unreliable data, due to outdated equipment for fuel handling and measuring equipment, and manual collection of data; creation of unauthorized shortages (due to subjective human error or deception; inadequate engagement of respective material and

  12. A Pressure Control Method for Emulsion Pump Station Based on Elman Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Tan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to realize pressure control of emulsion pump station which is key equipment of coal mine in the safety production, the control requirements were analyzed and a pressure control method based on Elman neural network was proposed. The key techniques such as system framework, pressure prediction model, pressure control model, and the flowchart of proposed approach were presented. Finally, a simulation example was carried out and comparison results indicated that the proposed approach was feasible and efficient and outperformed others.

  13. Influence of Trash-Barriering on Operation of Pumping Station with Wet-Pits

    OpenAIRE

    Baoyun Qiu; Shuquan He; Shiji Chu; Xiaoli Feng

    2014-01-01

    Trash racks are set before inlet sumps of a pumping station with wet-pits in order to block trash. The flow fields before and behind the trash rack were numerically simulated and flow fields in the inlet sump were calculated using the simulated velocity distribution of the section behind the trash rack as the inlet boundary condition. Local head loss of trash-barriering increases with the increase of blockage ratio of the trash rack. When waterweeds block upper part of the trash rack, flow pa...

  14. Water cooling thermal power measurement in a vacuum diffusion pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Henrique Cardozo Amorin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Diffusion vacuum pumps are used both in industry and in laboratory science for high vacuum production. For its operation they must be refrigerated, and it is done by circulating water in open circuit. Considering that, vacuum systems stays operating by hours, the water consumption may be avoided if the diffusion vacuum pumps refrigeration were done in closed circuit. However, it is necessary to know the diffusion vacuum pump thermal power (the heat transferred to circulate water by time units to implement one of these and get in the refrigeration system dimension. In this paper the diffusion vacuum pump thermal power was obtained by measuring water flow and temperature variation and was calculated through the heat quantity variation equation time function. The thermal power value was 935,6 W, that is 397 W smaller and 35 W bigger than, respectively, the maximum and minimum diffusion pump thermal power suggested by its operation manual. This procedure have been shown useful to precisely determine the diffusion pump thermal power or of any other system that needs to be refrigerated in water closed circuit.

  15. Field Performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in the Northeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, Carl [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States); Puttagunta, Srikanth [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) are finally entering the mainstream residential water heater market. Potential catalysts are increased consumer demand for higher energy efficiency electric water heating and a new Federal water heating standard that effectively mandates use of HPWHs for electric storage water heaters with nominal capacities greater than 55 gallons. When compared to electric resistance water heating, the energy and cost savings potential of HPWHs is tremendous. Converting all electric resistance water heaters to HPWHs could save American consumers 7.8 billion dollars annually ($182 per household) in water heating operating costs and cut annual residential source energy consumption for water heating by 0.70 quads.

  16. REDUCING THE BOOSTER STATIONS ENERGY CONSUMPTION BY WAY OF ELIMINATING OVERPRESSURE IN THE WATER SUPPLY NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. N. Zdor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The energy efficiency improvement of the city housing-and-utilities infrastructure and watersupply and water-disposal systems poses an occurrent problem. The water-supply systems energy consumption sizable share falls on the pump plants. The article deals with the issues of the operating regime management of the existing booster stations equipped with a group of pumping units regulated with frequency converters. One of the optimization directions of their energy consumption is the reduction of over-pressure in the water-distribution network and its sustentation within the regulatory values. The authors offer the structure and methodology of the data collection-and-analysis automated system utilization for revealing and eliminating the overpressure in the water-supply network. This system is designed for the group management of booster-stations operating regimes on the ground of data obtained from the pressure controlling devices at the consumers. The data exchange in the system is realized via GSM.The paper presents results of the tests carried out at the booster stations in some major cities of the Republic of Belarus. The authors analyze dependence of overpressure in the network on the methods of the plant output pressure sustentation (daily graph or constant pressure. The authors study the elimination effect of over-pressure in the water distribution network on changing the booster station pumping units operation regimes. The study shows that eliminating over pressure in the water distributing network leads to lowering the booster station pressure. This in its turn decreases its energy consumption by 15–20 % depending on the over pressure fixed level.

  17. Event-driven model predictive control of sewage pumping stations for sulfide mitigation in sewer networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yiqi; Ganigué, Ramon; Sharma, Keshab; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2016-07-01

    Chemicals such as Mg(OH)2 and iron salts are widely dosed to sewage for mitigating sulfide-induced corrosion and odour problems in sewer networks. The chemical dosing rate is usually not automatically controlled but profiled based on experience of operators, often resulting in over- or under-dosing. Even though on-line control algorithms for chemical dosing in single pipes have been developed recently, network-wide control algorithms are currently not available. The key challenge is that a sewer network is typically wide-spread comprising many interconnected sewer pipes and pumping stations, making network-wide sulfide mitigation with a relatively limited number of dosing points challenging. In this paper, we propose and demonstrate an Event-driven Model Predictive Control (EMPC) methodology, which controls the flows of sewage streams containing the dosed chemical to ensure desirable distribution of the dosed chemical throughout the pipe sections of interests. First of all, a network-state model is proposed to predict the chemical concentration in a network. An EMPC algorithm is then designed to coordinate sewage pumping station operations to ensure desirable chemical distribution in the network. The performance of the proposed control methodology is demonstrated by applying the designed algorithm to a real sewer network simulated with the well-established SeweX model using real sewage flow and characteristics data. The EMPC strategy significantly improved the sulfide mitigation performance with the same chemical consumption, compared to the current practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Refrigerant charge management in a heat pump water heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Hampton, Justin W.

    2014-06-24

    Heat pumps that heat or cool a space and that also heat water, refrigerant management systems for such heat pumps, methods of managing refrigerant charge, and methods for heating and cooling a space and heating water. Various embodiments deliver refrigerant gas to a heat exchanger that is not needed for transferring heat, drive liquid refrigerant out of that heat exchanger, isolate that heat exchanger against additional refrigerant flowing into it, and operate the heat pump while the heat exchanger is isolated. The heat exchanger can be isolated by closing an electronic expansion valve, actuating a refrigerant management valve, or both. Refrigerant charge can be controlled or adjusted by controlling how much liquid refrigerant is driven from the heat exchanger, by letting refrigerant back into the heat exchanger, or both. Heat pumps can be operated in different modes of operation, and segments of refrigerant conduit can be interconnected with various components.

  19. Pump Management Committees and sustainable community water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PMCs), technically known as Water and Sanitation Committees (WATSAN) in the water sector, are institutionalized organs for community water management. A survey of twenty-seven (27) of these institutions in six districts across the Upper ...

  20. Implementation of multiple measures to improve reactor recirculation pump sealing performance in nuclear boiling water reactor service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loenhout, Gerard van [Flowserve B.V., Etten-Leur (Netherlands). Nuclear Services and Solutions Engineering; Hurni, Juerg

    2014-07-01

    A modern reactor recirculation pump circulates a large volume of high temperature, very pure water from the reactor pressure vessel back to the core. A crucial technical problem with a recirculation pump, such as a mechanical seal indicating loss of sealing pressure, may result in a power station having to shut down for repair. The paper describes the sudden increase in stray current phenomenon leading to rapid and severe deterioration of the mechanical end face shaft seal in a reactor recirculation pump. This occurred after the installation of a variable frequency converter replacing the original motorgenerator set.

  1. Research on rural water pumping technology | Mammo | Zede Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper describes a project in mral pumping and desalination technology currently going on under the auspices of the Ethiopian Water Works Construction Authority (EWWCA). The project is generally concerned with research and development of hand, wind and engine powered water lifting devices. Research and ...

  2. microcontroller based automatic control for water pumping machine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The MBACWPML I uses the reflection of sound (echo) to give the indication of water level in a storage tank and also the automatic control of the water pumping machine. The MBACWPMLI uses ultrasonic sensor installed at the top of a tank to send and receive sound waves, and the time taken is converted to distance by the ...

  3. INVESTIGATION OF PIPELINES INTEGRITY ASSOCIATED WITH PUMP MODULES VIBRATION FOR PUMPING STATION 9 OF ALYESKA PIPELINE SERVICE COMPANY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jy-An John [ORNL

    2009-09-01

    Since the operation of PS09 SR module in 2007, it has been observed that there is vibration in various parts of the structures, on various segments of piping, and on appurtenance items. At DOT Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA) request, ORNL Subject Matter Experts support PHMSA in its review and analysis of the observed vibration phenomenon. The review and analysis consider possible effects of pipeline design features, vibration characteristics, machinery configuration, and operating practices on the structural capacity and leak tight integrity of the pipeline. Emphasis is placed on protection of welded joints and machinery against failure from cyclic loading. A series of vibration measurements were carried out by the author during the site visit to PS09, the power of the operating pump during the data collection is at about 2970KW, which is less than that of APSC's vibration data collected at 3900KW. Thus, a first order proportional factor of 4900/2970 was used to project the measured velocity data to that of APSC's measurement of the velocity data. It is also noted here that the average or the peak-hold value of the measured velocity data was used in the author's reported data, and only the maximum peak-hold data was used in APSC's reported data. Therefore, in some cases APSC's data is higher than the author's projective estimates that using the average data. In general the projected velocity data are consistent with APSC's measurements; the examples of comparison at various locations are illustrated in the Table 1. This exercise validates and confirms the report vibration data stated in APSC's summary report. After the reinforcement project for PS09 Station, a significant reduction of vibration intensity was observed for the associated pipelines at the SR Modules. EDI Co. provided a detailed vibration intensity investigation for the newly reinforced Pump Module structures and the associated

  4. Sewerage Pumping Stations, City_ssLiftstations, Public and Privately owned sanitary lift stations located in Glynn County and the City of Brunswick., Published in Not Provided, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Glynn County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Sewerage Pumping Stations dataset current as of unknown. City_ssLiftstations, Public and Privately owned sanitary lift stations located in Glynn County and the City...

  5. Low-cost water-lifting from groundwater sources: a comparison of the EMAS Pump with the Rope Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCarthy, Michael F.; Carpenter, Jacob D.; Mihelcic, James R.

    2017-08-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, low-cost groundwater supply systems offer great opportunities for the current unserved population of >300 million to access drinking water. A comparative study was performed in Uganda of the EMAS Pump (designed by Escuela Móvil Aguas y Saneamiento Básico) with the trade-named Rope Pump, two low-cost manual water-lifting devices appropriate to pumping from shallow groundwater sources. Pumping rates, energy expended, material costs, and construction requirements were analyzed. Focus was on low-cost application for use in shallow groundwater systems at the household level in developing countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. The study site was northern Uganda, with testing performed at several drilled boreholes. Two variants of each pump were tested by a male and female user, pumping from multiple static water-level depths ranging from 5 to 28 m. Results demonstrated the most common version of the EMAS Pump to perform similarly to the comparable version of the Rope Pump in terms of average pumping rate at depth range 5 to 18 m (93-111%), but less so at deeper depths (63-85%). Normalized pumping rates (considering energy expended) accentuated differences between these versions of the EMAS Pump and Rope Pump (47-97%). Cost of materials to construct the EMAS Pump were 21-60% those of the Rope Pump, and EMAS Pump construction requirements were also less. Based on the assessed factors, it is concluded that the EMAS Pump has potential for success in "self-supply" groundwater systems in sub-Saharan Africa and is particularly appropriate to link with low-cost shallow groundwater sources.

  6. Insights in nutrient sources and transport from high-frequency monitoring at the outlet pumping station of an agricultural lowland polder catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozemeijer, J.; Van der Grift, B.; Broers, H. P.; Berendrecht, W.; Oste, L.; Griffioen, J.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we present new insights in nutrient sources and transport processes in an agricultural-dominated lowland water system based on high-frequency monitoring technology. Starting in October 2014, we have collected semi-continuous measurements of the TP and NO3 concentrations, conductivity and water temperature at a large scale pumping station at the outlet of a 576 km2 polder catchment. The semi-continuous measurements complement a water quality monitoring program at six locations within the drainage area based on conventional monthly or biweekly grab sampling. The NO3 and TP concentrations at the pumping station varied between 0.5 and 10 mgN/L and 0.1 and 0.5 mgP/L. The seasonal trends and short scale concentration dynamics clearly indicated that most of the NO3 loads at the pumping station originated from subsurface drain tubes that were active after intensive rainfall events during the winter months. A transfer function-noise model of hourly NO3 concentrations reveals that a large part of the dynamics in NO3 concentrations during the winter months can be predicted using rainfall data. In February however, NO3 concentrations were higher than predicted due to direct losses after the first manure application. The TP concentration almost doubled during operation of the pumping station. This highlights resuspension of particulate P from channel bed sediments induced by the higher flow velocities during pumping. Rainfall events that caused peaks in NO3 concentrations did not result in TP concentration peaks. Direct effects of run-off, with an association increase in the TP concentration and decrease of the NO3concentration, was only observed during rainfall event at the end of a freeze-thaw cycle. The high-frequency monitoring at the outlet of an agricultural-dominated lowland water system in combination with low-frequency monitoring within the area provided insight in nutrient sources and transport processes that are highly relevant for water quality

  7. A solar powered distillation plant and pump station for use in ocean side desert areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dearien, J.A.; Priebe, S.J.

    1994-12-31

    There are thousands of miles of ocean shoreline which could sustain a productive human existence if sufficient fresh water were available for human consumption and for irrigation of crops. While solar stills can be built to produce fresh water at or close to sea level, raising water to a height sufficient to irrigate crops, even with minimum water usage crops, requires a significant amount of energy. This paper describes a ``no-external power`` process by which seawater can be purified and raised to a height above sea level sufficient to carry on a productive living in certain areas of the world. This device, the Solar Evaporation and Pumping System (SEAPS) is described as to function and areas of use.

  8. Comparative analysis of DG and solar PV water pumping system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharani, Kusum; Dahiya, Ratna

    2016-03-01

    Looking at present day electricity scenario, there is a major electricity crisis in rural areas. The farmers are still dependant on the monsoon rains for their irrigation needs and livestock maintenance. Some of the agrarian population has opted to use Diesel Generators for pumping water in their fields. But taking into consideration the economics and environmental conditions, the above choice is not suitable for longer run. An effort to shift from non-renewable sources such as diesel to renewable energy source such as solar has been highlighted. An approximate comparative analysis showing the life cycle costs of a PV pumping system with Diesel Generator powered water pumping is done using MATLAB/STMULTNK.

  9. Design and control of a standalone PV water pumping system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essam E. Aboul Zahab

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Water resources are vital for satisfying human needs. However, almost one-fifth of the world’s population – about 1.2 billion people – live in areas where water is physically rare. One quarter of the global population also live in developing countries that face water shortages. This paper presents standalone PV water pumping system. Photovoltaic (PV is the main power source, and lead acid batteries are used as energy storage system, to supply a water pump driven by a BLDC motor. The proposed control strategy consists of three control units. The first unit is to control the speed and hysteresis current controller for BLDC motor. The maximum power point tracking (MPPT is the second control unit, and the battery charging/discharging system is controlled by the third controller. The simulation results show the effectiveness and the good efficiency of the proposed system.

  10. pump management committees and sustainable community water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    policy reforms after series of experiments by the World Bank, CIDA. 7Lecturer in ... most relevant of these are the Water Resources Commission (WRC,. Act 522 of ..... logbook and spare parts purchase book; Considering specific records. 85 ...

  11. Solar-Powered Groundwater Pumping Systems for Nigerian Water Sheds

    OpenAIRE

    SODIKI, John; Sodiki, J. I.

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents an overview of the occurrence of different groundwater sheds, water quality, and availability in Nigeria. it also discussed the viability of solar-powered groundwater pumping systems in Nigeria. Applicable methods for system design and economic analysis are further outlined.

  12. CNT based thermal Brownian motor to pump water in nanodevices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oyarzua, Elton; Zambrano, Harvey; Walther, Jens Honore

    2016-01-01

    Brownian molecular motors are nanoscale machines that exploit thermal fluctuations for directional motion by employing mechanisms such as the Feynman-Smoluchowski ratchet. In this study, using Non Equilibrium Molecular Dynamics, we propose a novel thermal Brownian motor for pumping water through...

  13. Heat pump water heater and method of making the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Viung C.; Tomlinson, John J.; Chen, Fang C.

    2001-01-01

    An improved heat pump water heater wherein the condenser assembly of the heat pump is inserted into the water tank through an existing opening in the top of the tank, the assembly comprising a tube-in-a-tube construction with an elongated cylindrical outer body heat exchanger having a closed bottom with the superheated refrigerant that exits the compressor of the heat pump entering the top of the outer body. As the refrigerant condenses along the interior surface of the outer body, the heat from the refrigerant is transferred to the water through the outer body. The refrigerant then enters the bottom of an inner body coaxially disposed within the outer body and exits the top of the inner body into the refrigerant conduit leading into the expansion device of the heat pump. The outer body, in a second embodiment of the invention, acts not only as a heat exchanger but also as the sacrificial anode in the water tank by being constructed of a metal which is more likely to corrode than the metal of the tank.

  14. A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Pump Station Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perley, Gordon F.

    This is a guide for standard operating job procedures for the pump station process of wastewater treatment plants. Step-by-step instructions are given for pre-start up inspection, start-up procedures, continuous routine operation procedures, and shut-down procedures. A general description of the equipment used in the process is given. Two…

  15. MODELING OF THE HEAT PUMP STATION CONTROLABLE LOOP OF AN INTERMEDIATE HEAT-TRANSFER AGENT (Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sit M.L.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available It is studied the model of the heat pump station controllable loop of an intermediate heat-transfer agent for the use in wineries. There are demonstrated transients after the disturbing action of the temperature on the input of cooling jacket of the fermentation stirred tank. There are compared different control laws of the object.

  16. Carbon Nanotubes as Thermally Induced Water Pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oyarzua, Elton; Walther, Jens Honore; Megaridis, Constantine M

    2017-01-01

    Thermal Brownian motors (TBMs) are nanoscale machines that exploit thermal fluctuations to provide useful work. We introduce a TBM-based nanopump which enables continuous water flow through a carbon nanotube (CNT) by imposing an axial thermal gradient along its surface. We impose spatial asymmetry...... along the CNT by immobilizing certain points on its surface. We study the performance of this molecular motor using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. From the MD trajectories, we compute the net water flow and the induced velocity profiles for various imposed thermal gradients. We find that spatial...

  17. Handbook in energy conservation on pump systems for waste water; Haendbog i energibesparelser pae pumpesystemer til spildevand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-03-15

    The handbook primarily addresses staff responsible for the daily operation of local waste water pump stations, but it can also be of use to other professions which are engaged in planning, operation and maintenance of waste water plants. The aim of the handbook is energy conservation, but at the same time all recommendations for energy conservation initiatives take working environment and operating safety into consideration. (BA)

  18. pump management committees and sustainable community water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    District Assemblies inculcate the culture of participatory decision-making, revenue mobilisation and saving as well as records ... (CWSA) to facilitate access of potable water and hygienic latrine facilities to the rural sector. .... among its membership normally comprising caretakers, hygiene and sanitation person, secretary ...

  19. Laboratory Performance Evaluation of Residential Integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparn, B.; Hudon, K.; Christensen, D.

    2014-06-01

    This paper explores the laboratory performance of five integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters (HPWHs) across a wide range of operating conditions representative of U.S. climate regions. HPWHs are expected to provide significant energy savings in certain climate zones when compared to typical electric resistance water heaters. Results show that this technology is a viable option in most climates, but differences in control schemes and design features impact the performance of the units tested. Tests were conducted to map heat pump performance across the operating range and to determine the logic used to control the heat pump and the backup electric heaters. Other tests performed include two unique draw profile tests, reduced air flow performance tests and the standard DOE rating tests. The results from all these tests are presented here for all five units tested. The results of these tests will be used to improve the EnergyPlus heat pump water heater for use in BEopt™ whole-house building simulations.

  20. Laboratory Performance Evaluation of Residential Integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparn, B.; Hudon, K.; Christensen, D.

    2014-06-01

    This paper explores the laboratory performance of five integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters (HPWHs) across a wide range of operating conditions representative of US climate regions. HPWHs are expected to provide significant energy savings in certain climate zones when compared to typical electric resistance water heaters. Results show that this technology is a viable option in most climates, but differences in control schemes and design features impact the performance of the units tested. Tests were conducted to map heat pump performance across the operating range and to determine the logic used to control the heat pump and the backup electric heaters. Other tests performed include two unique draw profile tests, reduced air flow performance tests and the standard DOE rating tests. The results from all these tests are presented here for all five units tested. The results of these tests will be used to improve the EnergyPlus heat pump water heater for use in BEopt(tm) whole-house building simulations.

  1. Techniques for Improving Energy Efficiency at Water Supply Pumping Stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-11-01

    Research Program. The technical monitors for this program in the Office, Chief of Engineers, were Mr. James Ballif (DAEN-ECE-B) and Mr. Robert Daniel (DAEN...7. Procedures for generating operation rule curves have been developed y DeMoyer and Horwitz (1975), Sterling and Coulbeck (1975a, b), and Sabet ...information, contact Dr. Thomas M. Walski (WESEE-R), Comm 601-634-3931 or FTS 542-3931. II. References. a. Sabet , H. H., and 0. J. Helweg, 1985, "Cost

  2. Experimental investigation on water quality standard of Yangtze River water source heat pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Zenghu; Tong, Mingwei; Kun, Lin

    2012-01-01

    Due to the surface water in the upper reaches of Yangtze River in China containing large amounts of silt and algae, high content of microorganisms and suspended solids, the water in Yangtze River cannot be used for cooling a heat pump directly. In this paper, the possibility of using Yangtze River, which goes through Chongqing, a city in southwest China, as a heat source-sink was investigated. Water temperature and quality of the Yangtze River in the Chongqing area were analyzed and the performance of water source heat pump units in different sediment concentrations, turbidity and algae material conditions were tested experimentally, and the water quality standards, in particular surface water conditions, in the Yangtze River region that adapt to energy-efficient heat pumps were also proposed. The experimental results show that the coefficient of performance heat pump falls by 3.73% to the greatest extent, and the fouling resistance of cooling water in the heat exchanger increases up to 25.6% in different water conditions. When the sediment concentration and the turbidity in the river water are no more than 100 g/m3 and 50 NTU respectively, the performance of the heat pump is better, which can be used as a suitable river water quality standard for river water source heat pumps.

  3. Refrigerant charge management in a heat pump water heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Hampton, Justin W.

    2016-07-05

    Heat pumps that heat or cool a space and that also heat water, refrigerant management systems for such heat pumps, and methods of managing refrigerant charge. Various embodiments remove idle refrigerant from a heat exchanger that is not needed for transferring heat by opening a refrigerant recovery valve and delivering the idle refrigerant from the heat exchanger to an inlet port on the compressor. The heat exchanger can be isolated by closing an electronic expansion valve, actuating a refrigerant management valve, or both. Refrigerant charge can be controlled by controlling how much refrigerant is drawn from the heat exchanger, by letting some refrigerant back into the heat exchanger, or both. Heat pumps can be operated in different modes of operation, and various components can be interconnected with refrigerant conduit. Some embodiments deliver refrigerant gas to the heat exchanger and drive liquid refrigerant out prior to isolating the heat exchanger.

  4. Prospect of Solar-Energy-Pumped-Laser-Driven Vehicles Powered by Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabe, Takashi

    2005-04-01

    We propose various concept driving automobile, robot, ship, airship and airplane by use of water-powered laser propulsion. This can be combined with solar-energy pumped laser and transporting process by use of airships and other ground or space based stations. Since the amplified solar energy is transported in a form of cw(continuous wave) laser, it can be transported in a long distance without causing any harm to vaporize the objects that can be shot by chance along the passage of transporting beams.

  5. Pore Water Pumping by Upside-Down Jellyfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddam, Manikantam; Santhanakrishnan, Arvind

    2016-11-01

    Patchy aggregations of Cassiopea medusae, commonly called upside-down jellyfish, are found in sheltered marine environments with low-speed ambient flows. These medusae exhibit a sessile, non-swimming lifestyle, and are oriented such that their bells are attached to the substrate and oral arms point towards sunlight. Pulsations of their bells are used to generate currents for suspension feeding. Their pulsations have also been proposed to generate forces that can release sediment locked nutrients into the surrounding water. The goal of this study is to examine pore water pumping by Cassiopea individuals in laboratory aquaria, as a model for understanding pore water pumping in unsteady flows. Planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) measurements were conducted to visualize the release of pore water via bell motion, using fluorescent dye introduced underneath the substrate. 2D particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements were conducted on the same individuals to correlate PLIF-based concentration profiles with the jets generated by pulsing of medusae. The effects of varying bell diameter on pore water release and pumping currents will be discussed.

  6. Pump schedules optimisation with pressure aspects in complex large-scale water distribution systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Skworcow

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers optimisation of pump and valve schedules in complex large-scale water distribution networks (WDN, taking into account pressure aspects such as minimum service pressure and pressure-dependent leakage. An optimisation model is automatically generated in the GAMS language from a hydraulic model in the EPANET format and from additional files describing operational constraints, electricity tariffs and pump station configurations. The paper describes in details how each hydraulic component is modelled. To reduce the size of the optimisation problem the full hydraulic model is simplified using module reduction algorithm, while retaining the nonlinear characteristics of the model. Subsequently, a nonlinear programming solver CONOPT is used to solve the optimisation model, which is in the form of Nonlinear Programming with Discontinuous Derivatives (DNLP. The results produced by CONOPT are processed further by heuristic algorithms to generate integer solution. The proposed approached was tested on a large-scale WDN model provided in the EPANET format. The considered WDN included complex structures and interactions between pump stations. Solving of several scenarios considering different horizons, time steps, operational constraints, demand levels and topological changes demonstrated ability of the approach to automatically generate and solve optimisation problems for a variety of requirements.

  7. R2 Water Quality Portal Monitoring Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Water Quality Data Portal (WQP) provides an easy way to access data stored in various large water quality databases. The WQP provides various input parameters on the form including location, site, sampling, and date parameters to filter and customize the returned results. The The Water Quality Portal (WQP) is a cooperative service sponsored by the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the National Water Quality Monitoring Council (NWQMC) that integrates publicly available water quality data from the USGS National Water Information System (NWIS) the EPA STOrage and RETrieval (STORET) Data Warehouse, and the USDA ARS Sustaining The Earth??s Watersheds - Agricultural Research Database System (STEWARDS).

  8. Sub-soil contamination due to oil spills in six oil-pipeline pumping stations in northern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iturbe, Rosario; Flores, Carlos; Castro, Alejandrina; Torres, Luis G

    2007-06-01

    Mexico has a very important oil industry, comprehending the exploration, production, transformation, storage and distribution of crude oil and its fractions. Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX) is a state-owned monopoly in charge of these activities. Oil and oil-products transport is an extremely crucial operation for the cycle production-transformation-distribution. Pipeline system transport crude oil and sub-products along the country (including liquids, gases and mixtures). It has been reported that more than 30% of the oil ducts in Mexico have been operating for over 30 years, although their lifetime has been calculated in 25-30 years. This work is aimed at characterizing a zone around six oil-pipeline pumping stations located at northern Mexico. The specific places to evaluate soil contamination were (1) the distribution head of the Gomez Palacio (GOPA) pumping station; (2) the north side of the old ditch, the API oil separator and the wastewater zones of the Jimenez (JIM) pumping station; (3) the pumping stations of Ceballos (CE), Peronal (PER), Simon Bolivar (SIBO), and Mayran (MAY). The study comprehended sampling of the areas, delimitation of contamination in the vertical and horizontal extension, analysis of the sampled soils, regarding TPH and, in some cases, the 16 PAHs considered as a priority by USEPA, calculation of areas and volumes contaminated (according to the Mexican legislation, specifically NOM-EM-138-ECOL-2002) and, finally, a proposal for the best remediation techniques suitable for the encountered contamination levels and the localization of contaminants. In general, TPHs were found in all the pumping stations analyzed in this study. Regarding maximal TPHs concentrations at the stations, their order of contamination was as follows: SIBO>CE>PER>MAY>JIM>GOPA. PAHs were found only in a few points at concentrations above the detection limit. At the Jimenez, Gomez Palacio, Peronal, and Ceballos stations, only one point, with PAHs values over the

  9. A low cost wireless data acquisition system for a remote photovoltaic (PV) water pumping system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahjoubi, A.; Mechlouch, R. F.; Brahim, A. B. [National School of Engineering of Gabes, Gabes University, Chemical and Processes Engineering Department, Gabes (Tunisia)

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents the design and development of a 16F877 microcontroller-based wireless data acquisition system and a study of the feasibility of different existing methodologies linked to field data acquisition from remote photovoltaic (PV) water pumping systems. Various existing data transmission techniques were studied, especially satellite, radio, Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) and General Packet Radio Service (GPRS). The system's hardware and software and an application to test its performance are described. The system will be used for reading, storing and analyzing information from several PV water pumping stations situated in remote areas in the arid region of the south of Tunisia. The remote communications are based on the GSM network and, in particular, on the Short text Message Service (SMS). With this integrated system, we can compile a complete database of the different parameters related to the PV water pumping systems of Tunisia. This data could be made available to interested parties over the Internet. (authors)

  10. A Low Cost Wireless Data Acquisition System for a Remote Photovoltaic (PV Water Pumping System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar Mahjoubi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and development of a 16F877 microcontroller-based wireless data acquisition system and a study of the feasibility of different existing methodologies linked to field data acquisition from remote photovoltaic (PV water pumping systems. Various existing data transmission techniques were studied, especially satellite, radio, Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM and General Packet Radio Service (GPRS. The system’s hardware and software and an application to test its performance are described. The system will be used for reading, storing and analyzing information from several PV water pumping stations situated in remote areas in the arid region of the south of Tunisia. The remote communications are based on the GSM network and, in particular, on the Short text Message Service (SMS. With this integrated system, we can compile a complete database of the different parameters related to the PV water pumping systems of Tunisia. This data could be made available to interested parties over the Internet.

  11. R2 Water Quality Portal Monitoring Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Water Quality Data Portal (WQP) provides an easy way to access data stored in various large water quality databases. The WQP provides various input parameters on...

  12. Supercritical water oxidation - Concept analysis for evolutionary Space Station application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, John B., Jr.; Brewer, Dana A.

    1986-01-01

    The ability of a supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) concept to reduce the number of processes needed in an evolutionary Space Station design's Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS), while reducing resupply requirements and enhancing the integration of separate ECLSS functions into a single Supercritical Water Oxidation process, is evaluated. While not feasible for an initial operational capability Space Station, the SCWO's application to the evolutionary Space Station configuration would aid the integration of eight ECLSS functions into a single one, thereby significantly reducing program costs.

  13. Health risk assessment of odors emitted from urban wastewater pump stations in Tianjin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Zhi-Guang; Xu, Shi-Ying; Gong, Qing-Chao

    2014-09-01

    In order to evaluate the potential adverse health effects of odor emissions from wastewater pump stations (WWPSs) to human, a health risk assessment was performed to study the odors emitted from an urban WWPS in a residential area, Tianjin (in North China). First, 15 types of volatile organic compounds in the WWPS were collected and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Next, Monte Carlo probabilistic modeling was applied to evaluate the potential health effects of four odors (chlorobenzene, dichloromethane, hydrogen sulfide, and carbon disulfide), which had higher concentrations. The results revealed that the 95th percentile of the total non-carcinogenic risk was approximately 1.73, which poses a threat to human health. In addition, hydrogen sulfide had the highest non-carcinogenic risk value of the four; the hazard quotient of hydrogen sulfide was estimated to be 1.60 at the 95th percentile, higher than the upper confidence limit (1.0). The 95th percentile of the carcinogenic risk was approximately 5.47E-08, much lower than the maximum acceptable level (1.0E-06). Finally, the influence of the input variables on the output was evaluated using sensitivity analysis, and contaminant concentration, reference concentration, and inhalation unit risk were the most influential variables.

  14. Failure analyses and weld repair of boiler feed water pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vulpen, R. van [KemaPower Generation, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    1998-12-31

    During a regular inspection of the Boiler Auxiliaries at one of the Dutch Electricity Production Companies serious cracks were found in the cover and casings of the feed water circulation pumps in two units after 108.000 and 122.000 hours of boiler operation. Kema Laboratories carried out Failure analyses on boat samples at the cracked areas. Corrosion fatigue cracking was found on the inner side of the GS-24CrNiMo325 casing. Shop Weld repairs were carried out using a newly developed mechanized Plasma Welding Technique. The repaired feed water circulation pumps showed no problems alter several years of operation. The costs of repair were substantially lower than the costs of replacement. (orig.) 3 refs.

  15. Dynamic modeling of an air source heat pump water heater

    OpenAIRE

    Fardoun, Farouk; Ibrahim, Oussama; Zoughaib, Assaad

    2011-01-01

    International audience; This paper presents a dynamic simulation model to predict the performance of an air source heat pump water heater (ASHPWH). The mathematical model consists of submodels of the basic system components i.e. evaporator, condenser, compressor, and expansion valve. These submodels were built based on fundamental principles of heat transfer, thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, empirical relationships and manufacturer's data as necessary. The model simulation was carried out usi...

  16. Survey of fluoride levels in vended water stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadav, Urvi G; Archarya, Bhavini S; Velasquez, Gisela M; Vance, Bradley J; Tate, Robert H; Quock, Ryan L

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to measure the fluoride concentration of water derived from vended water stations (VWS) and to identify its clinical implications, especially with regard to caries prevention and fluorosis. VWS and corresponding tap water samples were collected from 34 unique postal zip codes; samples were analyzed in duplicate for fluoride concentration. Average fluoride concentration in VWS water was significantly lower than that of tap water (P water ranged from drinking water may not be receiving optimal caries preventive benefits; thus dietary fluoride supplementation may be indicated. Conversely, to minimize the risk of fluorosis in infants consuming reconstituted infant formula, water from a VWS may be used.

  17. Energy Factor Analysis for Gas Heat Pump Water Heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gluesenkamp, Kyle R [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Gas heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) can improve water heating efficiency with zero GWP and zero ODP working fluids. The energy factor (EF) of a gas HPWH is sensitive to several factors. In this work, expressions are derived for EF of gas HPWHs, as a function of heat pump cycle COP, tank heat losses, burner efficiency, electrical draw, and effectiveness of supplemental heat exchangers. The expressions are used to investigate the sensitivity of EF to each parameter. EF is evaluated on a site energy basis (as used by the US DOE for rating water heater EF), and a primary energy-basis energy factor (PEF) is also defined and included. Typical ranges of values for the six parameters are given. For gas HPWHs, using typical ranges for component performance, EF will be 59 80% of the heat pump cycle thermal COP (for example, a COP of 1.60 may result in an EF of 0.94 1.28). Most of the reduction in COP is due to burner efficiency and tank heat losses. Gas-fired HPWHs are theoretically be capable of an EF of up to 1.7 (PEF of 1.6); while an EF of 1.1 1.3 (PEF of 1.0 1.1) is expected from an early market entry.

  18. Characterization of a water pump for drum-type washing machine by vibration power approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, YongHwa; Kim, Kwang-joon

    2015-03-01

    Water pumps used in drum-type washing machines to save water are likely to make the washing process noisier than the one without those because the water pumps attached usually onto cabinet structure work as additional vibration and noise sources. In order to either counteract such vibration and noise problems by stiffness design of the cabinet structure or classify the water pumps from the view point of an acceptance test, characterization of the water pumps as excitation sources would be essential. In this paper, several methods to characterize a water pump as an excitation source are investigated. Measurements by traditional methods of blocked force and/or free velocity for a water pump of 35 W are presented. Two methods of vibration power suggested rather recently are reviewed. Then, another method of the vibration power is proposed. Estimations of the vibration power for the water pump operating on a beam structure are obtained and discussed comparatively.

  19. Impacts of Groundwater Pumping on Regional and Global Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Yoshihide

    2016-01-01

    Except frozen water in ice and glaciers (68%), groundwater is the world's largest distributed store of freshwater (30%), and has strategic importance to global food and water security. In this chapter, the most recent advances assessing human impact on regional and global groundwater resources are reviewed. This chapter critically evaluates the recently advanced modeling approaches quantifying the effect of groundwater pumping in regional and global groundwater resources and the evidence of feedback to the Earth system including sea-level rise associated with groundwater use. At last, critical challenges and opportunities are identified in the use of groundwater to adapt to growing food demand and uncertain climate.

  20. Numerical simulation of free water surface in pump intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, L. J.; Nohmi, M.

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is to verify the volume of fluid (VOF) method for simulating the free water surface flow in pump intake. With the increasing computer power, VOF method has been becoming a more flexible and accurate choice to replace the conventional fixed water surface method, because it does not require assumptions on the nature of air-water interface. Two examples are presented in this paper. The first example is presented for simulating the growth of air-entrained vortices. LES (Large Eddy Simulation) model, instead of RANS (Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes) turbulence model, is used to capture the peak of circular velocity around the vortex core. Numerical result shows good agreement with the benchmark experiment carried by the Turbomachinery Society of Japan. The second example predicts the flow rate distribution in the pump intake consisting of one opened and two closed channels. VOF result is compared with the conventional fixed water surface method assuming free-slip boundary condition on the fluid interface. The difference of flow pattern in the opened channel indicates that numerical flow field is affected remarkably by the setup of boundary condition at air-water interface.

  1. Pump-stopping water hammer simulation based on RELAP5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, W. S.; Jiang, J.; Li, D. D.; Lan, G.; Zhao, Z.

    2013-12-01

    RELAP5 was originally designed to analyze complex thermal-hydraulic interactions that occur during either postulated large or small loss-of-coolant accidents in PWRs. However, as development continued, the code was expanded to include many of the transient scenarios that might occur in thermal-hydraulic systems. The fast deceleration of the liquid results in high pressure surges, thus the kinetic energy is transformed into the potential energy, which leads to the temporary pressure increase. This phenomenon is called water hammer. Generally water hammer can occur in any thermal-hydraulic systems and it is extremely dangerous for the system when the pressure surges become considerably high. If this happens and when the pressure exceeds the critical pressure that the pipe or the fittings along the pipeline can burden, it will result in the failure of the whole pipeline integrity. The purpose of this article is to introduce the RELAP5 to the simulation and analysis of water hammer situations. Based on the knowledge of the RELAP5 code manuals and some relative documents, the authors utilize RELAP5 to set up an example of water-supply system via an impeller pump to simulate the phenomena of the pump-stopping water hammer. By the simulation of the sample case and the subsequent analysis of the results that the code has provided, we can have a better understand of the knowledge of water hammer as well as the quality of the RELAP5 code when it's used in the water-hammer fields. In the meantime, By comparing the results of the RELAP5 based model with that of other fluid-transient analysis software say, PIPENET. The authors make some conclusions about the peculiarity of RELAP5 when transplanted into water-hammer research and offer several modelling tips when use the code to simulate a water-hammer related case.

  2. Demand Response Performance of GE Hybrid Heat Pump Water Heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widder, Sarah H.; Parker, Graham B.; Petersen, Joseph M.; Baechler, Michael C.

    2013-07-01

    This report describes a project to evaluate and document the DR performance of HPWH as compared to ERWH for two primary types of DR events: peak curtailments and balancing reserves. The experiments were conducted with GE second-generation “Brillion”-enabled GeoSpring hybrid water heaters in the PNNL Lab Homes, with one GE GeoSpring water heater operating in “Standard” electric resistance mode to represent the baseline and one GE GeoSpring water heater operating in “Heat Pump” mode to provide the comparison to heat pump-only demand response. It is expected that “Hybrid” DR performance, which would engage both the heat pump and electric elements, could be interpolated from these two experimental extremes. Signals were sent simultaneously to the two water heaters in the side-by-side PNNL Lab Homes under highly controlled, simulated occupancy conditions. This report presents the results of the evaluation, which documents the demand-response capability of the GE GeoSpring HPWH for peak load reduction and regulation services. The sections describe the experimental protocol and test apparatus used to collect data, present the baselining procedure, discuss the results of the simulated DR events for the HPWH and ERWH, and synthesize key conclusions based on the collected data.

  3. Heat Pump Water Heaters and American Homes: A Good Fit?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, Victor; Lekov, Alex; Meyers, Steve; Letschert, Virginie

    2010-05-14

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) are over twice as energy-efficient as conventional electric resistance water heaters, with the potential to save substantial amounts of electricity. Drawing on analysis conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy's recently-concluded rulemaking on amended standards for water heaters, this paper evaluates key issues that will determine how well, and to what extent, this technology will fit in American homes. The key issues include: 1) equipment cost of HPWHs; 2) cooling of the indoor environment by HPWHs; 3) size and air flow requirements of HPWHs; 4) performance of HPWH under different climate conditions and varying hot water use patterns; and 5) operating cost savings under different electricity prices and hot water use. The paper presents the results of a life-cycle cost analysis of the adoption of HPWHs in a representative sample of American homes, as well as national impact analysis for different market share scenarios. Assuming equipment costs that would result from high production volume, the results show that HPWHs can be cost effective in all regions for most single family homes, especially when the water heater is not installed in a conditioned space. HPWHs are not cost effective for most manufactured home and multi-family installations, due to lower average hot water use and the water heater in the majority of cases being installed in conditioned space, where cooling of the indoor environment and size and air flow requirements of HPWHs increase installation costs.

  4. [Response of Algae to Nitrogen and Phosphorus Concentration and Quantity of Pumping Water in Pumped Storage Reservoir].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, You-peng; Yin, Kui-hao; Peng, Sheng-hua

    2015-06-01

    Taking a pumped storage reservoir located in southern China as the research object, the paper established a three-dimensional hydrodynamic and eutrophication model of the reservoir employing EFDC (environmental fluid dynamics code) model, calibrated and verified the model using long-term hydraulic and water quality data. Based on the model results, the effects of nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations on the algae growth were analyzed, and the response of algae to nitrogen and phosphorus concentration and quantity of pumping water was also calculated. The results showed that the nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations had little limit on algae growth rate in the reservoir. In the nutrients reduction scenarios, reducing phosphorus would gain greater algae biomass reduction than reducing nitrogen. When reducing 60 percent of nitrogen, the algae biomass did not decrease, while 12.4 percent of algae biomass reduction could be gained with the same reduction ratio of phosphorus. When the reduction ratio went to 90 percent, the algae biomass decreased by 17.9 percent and 35.1 percent for nitrogen and phosphorus reduction, respectively. In the pumping water quantity regulation scenarios, the algae biomass decreased with the increasing pumping water quantity when the pumping water quantity was greater than 20 percent of the current value; when it was less than 20 percent, the algae biomass increased with the increasing pumping water quantity. The algae biomass decreased by 25.7 percent when the pumping water quantity was doubled, and increased by 38.8 percent when it decreased to 20 percent. The study could play an important role in supporting eutrophication controlling in water source area.

  5. Microprocessor control of a ground water heat pump. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    This project was a demonstration of the energy savings available to a small well-insulated facility when a properly designed heat pump is operated against a source of constant temperature ground water or pond water. To date, we have assembled the electronic logging devices required to prove the resultant savings. Data to date, (15 November, 1980) is sparse as we are just entering a full heating season. It is expected that a complete data log will be submitted next spring. Initial energy savings computations follow - the system efficiency is impressive. A typical winter day savings is about $24.00 or $720.00 monthly. The system utilizes the 55/sup 0/F ground water directly for summer cooling. The summer savings are estimated to be about $18.00/day or $540.00 monthly. Circuits and diagrams of the microprocessor control system and data logger are presented. Some sample data are included. (WHK)

  6. High Efficiency R-744 Commercial Heat Pump Water Heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elbel, Dr. Stefan W.; Petersen, Michael

    2013-04-25

    The project investigated the development and improvement process of a R744 (CO2) commercial heat pump water heater (HPWH) package of approximately 35 kW. The improvement process covered all main components of the system. More specific the heat exchangers (Internal heat exchanger, Evaporator, Gas cooler) as well as the expansion device and the compressor were investigated. In addition, a comparison to a commercially available baseline R134a unit of the same capacity and footprint was made in order to compare performance as well as package size reduction potential.

  7. 77 FR 2957 - Application for Manufacturing Authority, Liberty Pumps, Inc. (Submersible and Water Pumps...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Application for Manufacturing Authority, Liberty Pumps, Inc. (Submersible and... manufacturing authority on behalf of Liberty Pumps, Inc., located in Bergen, New York. The application was... regulations of the Board (15 CFR part 400). It was formally filed on January 12, 2012. The Liberty Pumps, Inc...

  8. Variation In Surface Water Vapour Density Over Four Nigerian Stations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The surface water vapour density ρ has been studied using monthly averages of temperature and relative humidity at four selected weather stations in Nigeria for the years 1987 to 1991. It is found that during the dry season months of November to March, ρ is higher at night by an average of about 9.9% than during the day ...

  9. Field Performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in the Northeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, Carl [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norfolk, CT (United States); Puttagunta, Srikanth [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norfolk, CT (United States)

    2016-02-05

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) are finally entering the mainstream residential water heater market. Potential catalysts are increased consumer demand for higher energy efficiency electric water heating and a new Federal water heating standard that effectively mandates use of HPWHs for electric storage water heaters with nominal capacities greater than 55 gallons. When compared to electric resistance water heating, the energy and cost savings potential of HPWHs is tremendous. Converting all electric resistance water heaters to HPWHs could save American consumers 7.8 billion dollars annually ($182 per household) in water heating operating costs and cut annual residential source energy consumption for water heating by 0.70 quads. Steven Winter Associates, Inc. embarked on one of the first in situ studies of these newly released HPWH products through a partnership with two sponsoring electric utility companies, National Grid and NSTAR, and one sponsoring energy efficiency service program administrator, Cape Light Compact. Recent laboratory studies have measured performance of HPWHs under various operating conditions, but publically available field studies have not been as available. This evaluation attempts to provide publicly available field data on new HPWHs by monitoring the performance of three recently released products (General Electric GeoSpring(TM), A.O. Smith Voltex(R), and Stiebel Eltron Accelera(R) 300). Fourteen HPWHs were installed in Massachusetts and Rhode Island and monitored for over a year. Of the 14 units, ten were General Electric models (50 gallon units), two were Stiebel Eltron models (80 gallon units), and two were A.O. Smith models (one 60-gallon and one 80-gallon unit).

  10. Field Performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in the Northeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, C.; Puttagunta, S.

    2013-08-01

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) are finally entering the mainstream residential water heater market. Potential catalysts are increased consumer demand for higher energy efficiency electric water heating and a new Federal water heating standard that effectively mandates use of HPWHs for electric storage water heaters with nominal capacities greater than 55 gallons. When compared to electric resistance water heating, the energy and cost savings potential of HPWHs is tremendous. Converting all electric resistance water heaters to HPWHs could save American consumers 7.8 billion dollars annually ($182 per household) in water heating operating costs and cut annual residential source energy consumption for water heating by 0.70 quads. Steven Winter Associates, Inc. embarked on one of the first in situ studies of these newly released HPWH products through a partnership with two sponsoring electric utility companies, National Grid and NSTAR, and one sponsoring energy efficiency service program administrator, Cape Light Compact. Recent laboratory studies have measured performance of HPWHs under various operating conditions, but publicly available field studies have not been as available. This evaluation attempts to provide publicly available field data on new HPWHs by monitoring the performance of three recently released products (General Electric GeoSpring(tm), A.O. Smith Voltex(r), and Stiebel Eltron Accelera(r)300). Fourteen HPWHs were installed in Massachusetts and Rhode Island and monitored for over a year. Of the 14 units, ten were General Electric models (50 gallon units), two were Stiebel Eltron models (80 gallon units), and two were A.O. Smith models (one 60-gallon and one 80-gallon unit).

  11. Performance assessment of a direct-coupled PV water pumping system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaj, Ciprian I.; Man, Teodor E.; Paulescu, Marius

    2017-01-01

    Results of an experimental and numerical study on a water pumping system are presented in this paper. In this experiment a direct-coupled photovoltaic water pumping system, operating in real meteorological conditions, was fully monitored on the Solar Platform of the West University of Timisoara. Based on data recorded in this experiment, a numerical model for estimating the pumped water flow rate with respect to the incoming solar irradiance was developed. The model performance in relation with the solar radiative regime is assessed. The results show that that the numerical model tracks with high accuracy the measurement of daily volume of the pumped water, regardless the stability of the solar radiative regime.

  12. An analysis of water-to-air heat pump systems for use in government facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fretzs, R. G.

    1980-09-01

    Energy consumption is an important issue for government managers. Examined in this thesis is one source of potential energy savings: a method of heating and cooling buildings. Water-to-air heat pumps are analyzed and cost comparisons to conventional heating/cooling systems (gas, fuel oil, electric resistance, and air-to-air heat pumps) are made. The theory of heat pump technology is presented to show how water source heat pumps achieve improved efficiencies over conventional systems. Sources of and disposal of water to support the systems are discussed. Cost comparisons are presented based on computer simulations and fuel cost graphs. Twenty-one percent of U.S. energy consumption is used to heat and cool buildings. Water-to-air heat pumps provide a 30-50 percent savings over other systems. Therefore, a potential 10 percent savings in total energy consumption exists through the use of water source heat pumps.

  13. Study on the Effect of Reciprocating Pump Pipeline System Vibration on Oil Transportation Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongfang Lu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the periodic movement of the piston in the reciprocating pump, the fluid will cause a pressure pulsation, and the resulting pipeline vibration may lead to instrument distortion, pipe failure and equipment damage. Therefore, it is necessary to study the vibration phenomena of reciprocating pump pipelines based on pressure pulsation theory. This paper starts from the reciprocating pump pipe pressure pulsation caused by a fluid, pressure pulsation in the pipeline and the unbalanced exciting force is calculated under the action of the reciprocating pump. Then, the numerical simulation model is established based on the pipe beam model, and the rationality of the numerical simulation method is verified by indoor experiments. Finally, a case study is taken as an example to analyze the vibration law of the pipeline system, and vibration reduction measures are proposed. The following main conclusions are drawn from the analysis: (1 unbalanced exciting forces are produced in the elbows or tee joints, and it can also influence the straight pipe to different levels; (2 in actual engineering, it should be possible to prevent the simultaneous settlement of multiple places; (3 the vibration amplitude increases with the pipe thermal stress, and when the oil temperature is higher than 85 °C, it had a greater influence on the vertical vibration amplitude of the pipe.

  14. Commercial Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater: Beta Prototype Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geoghegan, Patrick [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ally, Moonis [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sharma, Vishaldeep [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-10-14

    The Beta version of the Commercial Absorption Heat Pump (CAHP) water heater was evaluated in the environmental chambers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Ambient air conditions ranged from 17 to 75 oF and inlet water temperatures ranged from 100 to 120oF in order to capture trends in performance. The unit was operated under full fire (100%) and partial fire (55%). The unit was found to perform at 90% of the project goal at the design conditions of 47oF ambient and 100oF water temperatures. The trends across the full range of environmental conditions were as expected for ambient air temperatures above 32oF. Below this temperature and for the full fire condition, frost accumulated on the evaporator coil. In future work a defrost strategy will be enabled, the unit will be thoroughly cleaned of an oil contamination and the rectifier will be reconfigured in order to meet the design goals and have a field test unit ready in early 2017.

  15. Demonstration of a heat pump water heater. Volume 3. Design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sloane, B.D.; Krise, R.C.; Kent, D.D.

    1979-12-01

    Work performed during the pilot run manufacturing and laboratory testing stages of a heat pump water heater for residential installations is described. A general description of the heat pump water heater is provided, as are detailed discussions of individual components. Also included is a description of the pilot run manufacturing facility and experience, laboratory operations, and laboratory test data.

  16. 16 CFR Appendix D5 to Part 305 - Water Heaters-Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Water Heaters-Heat Pump D5 Appendix D5 to Part 305 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULE... Appendix D5 to Part 305—Water Heaters—Heat Pump Range Information CAPACITY FIRST HOUR RATING Range of...

  17. Water pumping and analysis of flow in burrowing zoobenthos - a short overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgård, H. U.; Larsen, Poul Scheel

    2002-01-01

    Measurement of water pumping rates of burrowing animals is of crucial importance for the study of many processes both within and above the sea floor. This short review deals with water pumping and analysis of flow, including available techniques and bio-fluid mechanical theory, in burrowing deposit...

  18. Technical and Economic Working Domains of Industrial Heat Pumps: Part 2 - Ammonia-Water Hybrid Absorption-Compression Heat Pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas Kjær; Ommen, Torben Schmidt; Markussen, Wiebke Brix

    2014-01-01

    of the zeotropic mixture, ammonia-water. To evaluate to which extent these advantages can be translated into feasible heat pump solutions, the working domain of the HACHP is investigated based on technical and economic constraints. The HACHP working domain is compared to that of the best possible vapour...

  19. Technical and economic working domains of industrial heat pumps: Part 2 - ammonia-water hybrid absorption-compression heat pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas Kjær; Ommen, Torben Schmidt; Markussen, Wiebke Brix

    2015-01-01

    change of the zeotropic mixture, ammonia-water. To evaluate to which extent these advantages can be translated into feasible heat pump solutions, the working domain of the HACHP is investigated based on technical and economic constraints. The HACHP working domain is compared to that of the best available...

  20. Data from Sustainability Base Characterizing Hot Water Pump Differential Pressure Spikes for ACCEPT

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During the heating season in Sustainability Base, a critical alarm associated with a hot water pump circulating heating water for the radiative system which...

  1. McMillan Pumping Station, Washington, D.C.; Hydraulic Model Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    about visual observations of flow conditions with each of the pump operating combinations. Various stages of air - entrained vortices and other smaller...vortices were observed during these tests. An air - entrained surface vortex can clearly be seen in Photo 4 where dye was inserted to contrast its outline...causes of the adverse hydraulic conditions were the uneven 16 "I L EVELA. SURFACE VORTEX B. -WALL VORTEX FLOO VOREX c SECTION A-A VORTEX FORMATIONS A

  2. EFFECT OF THE CRITICAL IRRADIANCE ON PHOTOVOLTAIC WATER PUMP DISCHARGE UNDER EGYPTIAN CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamdouh Abbas HELMY

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation aimed to study the effect of critical irradiance due to changing tilt angle of PV panel and tracking sun on submersible pump discharge. The authors used solar tracker and suitable tilt angle for the panel to increase the time interval during which the water pump operates. For the same irradiance collected by the PV, all systems pump the same amount of water, although they occur at different periods of the day. The pump itself 'does not know whether the electric power comes from any processes, as long as it has the same intensity.

  3. International Space Station Potable Water Characterization for 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, John E., II; Plumlee, Debrah K.; Schultz, John R.; Mudgett, Paul D.

    2014-01-01

    In this post-construction, operational phase of International Space Station (ISS) with an ever-increasing emphasis on its use as a test-bed for future exploration missions, the ISS crews continue to rely on water reclamation systems for the majority of their water needs. The onboard water supplies include U.S. Segment potable water from humidity condensate and urine, Russian Segment potable water from condensate, and ground-supplied potable water, as reserve. In 2013, the cargo returned on the Soyuz 32-35 flights included archival potable water samples collected from Expeditions 34-37. The former Water and Food Analytical Laboratory (now Toxicology and Evironmental Chemistry Laboratory) at the NASA Johnson Space Center continued its long-standing role of performing chemical analyses on ISS return water samples to verify compliance with potable water quality specifications. This paper presents and discusses the analytical results for potable water samples returned from Expeditions 34-37, including a comparison to ISS quality standards. During the summer of 2013, the U.S. Segment potable water experienced a third temporary rise and fall in total organic carbon (TOC) content, as the result of organic contamination breaking through the water system's treatment process. Analytical results for the Expedition 36 archival samples returned on Soyuz 34 confirmed that dimethylsilanediol was once again the responsible contaminant, just as it was for the previous comparable TOC rises in 2010 and 2012. Discussion herein includes the use of the in-flight total organic carbon analyzer (TOCA) as a key monitoring tool for tracking these TOC rises and scheduling appropriate remediation.

  4. Assessment of hand pump waters in three tribal dominated districts of southern Rajasthan, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, B K; Sharma, L L; Durve, V S

    2008-04-01

    Udaipur, Banswara and Dungarpur districts of southern Rajasthan (India) have dominance of tribal population. In these districts besides other water resources, hand pumps are catering the need for drinking water. The present study was undertaken to assess the level of chemical and bacteriological status for comparing the water quality with the prevailing standards. 18 hand pumps were studied for selected water quality parameters such as, pH, hardness, chloride, fluoride, NO3 -N, EC, orthophosphate, TDS, TSS, BOD, total coliforms and faecal coliforms, following the standard methods. The data on chemical parameters revealed that in all 18 hand pumps the water quality was within the permissible level of WHO. However, in eight hand pumps the faecal coliforms were higher (2-6 MPN/100 mL) than the permissible limit which confirm organic contamination in these drinking water resources. On the basis of this study, suitable remedial measures for protection of water quality have been suggested.

  5. Analysis Mathlab / Simulink of a PV System Used for Water Pumping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOUSSAIBO Andre

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes used a photovoltaic system used for pumping water. The particularity of the system is to store water in a tank so it does not require energy storage elecrtic produced by photovoltaic conversion. Maximum power transfer from source (photovoltaic systems the consumer requires the establishment maximum operating point in the characteristic power - voltage. The influence of various parameters on water pumping system operation is done using numerical simulation method. The whole system is simulated numerically in programming environment MATLAB/ SIMULINK. The implementation of numerical model of a system of solar pumping is important to optimally solve the problem of accumulation of water management in rural areas.

  6. Life cycle assessment of domestic heat pump hot water systems in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moore Andrew D.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Water heating accounts for 23% of residential energy consumption in Australia, and, as over half is provided by electric water heaters, is a significant source of greenhouse gas emissions. Due to inclusion in rebate schemes heat pump water heating systems are becoming increasingly popular, but do they result in lower greenhouse gas emissions? This study follows on from a previous life cycle assessment study of domestic hot water systems to include heat pump systems. The streamlined life cycle assessment approach used focused on the use phase of the life cycle, which was found in the previous study to be where the majority of global warming potential (GWP impacts occurred. Data was collected from an Australian heat pump manufacturer and was modelled assuming installation within Australian climate zone 3 (AS/NZS 4234:2011. Several scenarios were investigated for the heat pumps including different sources of electricity (grid, photovoltaic solar modules, and batteries and the use of solar thermal panels. It was found that due to their higher efficiency heat pump hot water systems can result in significantly lower GWP than electric storage hot water systems. Further, solar thermal heat pump systems can have lower GWP than solar electric hot water systems that use conventional electric boosting. Additionally, the contributions of HFC refrigerants to GWP can be significant so the use of alternative refrigerants is recommended. Heat pumps combined with PV and battery technology can achieve the lowest GWP of all domestic hot water systems.

  7. Improving Heat Pump Water Heater Effeciency by Avoiding Electric Resistance Heater Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boudreaux, Philip R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Munk, Jeffrey D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jackson, Roderick K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gehl, Anthony C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Parkison, April E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Nutaro, James J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) are a promising technology that can decrease the domestic hot water energy consumption over an electric resistance storage water heater by up to 50%. Heat pump water heaters are really two water heaters in one; they can heat water by using a heat pump or by using electric resistance elements. During large water draw events the HPWHs will use the resistance elements that decrease the overall efficiency of the units. ORNL proposed and tested an advanced control algorithm that anticipates the large water draw events and appropriately sets-up the temperature of the tank water using only the heat pump. With sufficient energy stored in the tank at the elevated temperature, the large water draw is provided for and electric resistance use is avoided. Simulations using a validated heat pump water heater model, and measured water draw data from 25 homes, show average yearly energy savings of 9% for the advanced control algorithm. If the advanced control algorithm perfectly predicts the large water draw events then the savings increase to 19%. This discrepancy could be due to a lack of predictability of water draw patterns in some homes, or the water draw forecasting algorithm could be improved.

  8. Synthesized attributes of water use by regional vegetation: a key to cognition of "water pump" viewpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xin-hui; Yu, Fu-ke; Li, Xiao-ying; Zheng, Yuan; Yuan, Hua; Ma, Jian-gang; Wang, Yan-xia; Qi, Dan-hui; Shao, Hong-bo

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the frequent seasonal drought in Southwest China has brought considerable concerns and continuous heated arguments on the "water pump" viewpoint (i.e., the water demand from Hevea spp. and Eucalyptus spp. can be treated as a water pump) once again. However, such viewpoint just focused on water consumption from vegetation transpiration and its ecoenvironment impacts, which had not considered other attributes of vegetation, namely, water saving and drought resistance, and hydrological regulation (water conservation) into consideration. Thus, in this paper, the synthesized attributes of regional vegetation water use had been mainly discussed. The results showed that the study on such aspects as the characters of water consumption from vegetation transpiration, the potential of water saving and drought resistance, and the effects of hydrological regulation in Southwest China lagged far behind, let alone the report on synthesized attributes of water utilization with the organic combination of the three aspects above or the paralleled analysis. Accordingly, in this paper, the study on the synthesized attributes of water use by regional vegetation in Southwest China was suggested, and the objectives of such a special study were clarified, targeting the following aspects: (i) characters of water consumption from transpiration of regional typical artificial vegetation; (ii) potential of water saving and drought resistance of regional typical artificial vegetation; (iii) effects of hydrological regulation of regional typical artificial vegetation; (iv) synthesized attributes of water use by regional typical artificial vegetation. It is expected to provide a new idea for the scientific assessment on the regional vegetation ecoenvironment effects and theoretical guidance for the regional vegetation reconstruction and ecological restoration.

  9. TRADING-OFF CONSTRAINTS IN THE PUMP SCHEDULING OPTIMIZATION OF WATER DISTRIBUTION NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gencer Genço\\u011Flu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pumps are one of the essential components of water supply systems. Depending of the topography, a water supply system may completely rely on pumping. They may consume non-negligible amount of water authorities' budgets during operation. Besides their energy costs, maintaining the healthiness of pumping systems is another concern for authorities. This study represents a multi-objective optimization method for pump scheduling problem. The optimization objective contains hydraulic and operational constraints. Switching of pumps and usage of electricity tariff are assumed to be key factors for operational reliability and energy consumption and costs of pumping systems. The local optimals for systems operational reliability, energy consumptions and energy costs are investigated resulting from trading-off pump switch and electricity tariff constraints within given set of boundary conditions. In the study, a custom made program is employed that combines genetic algorithm based optimization module with hydraulic network simulation software -EPANET. Developed method is applied on the case study network; N8-3 pressure zone of the Northern Supply of Ankara (Turkey Water Distribution Network. This work offers an efficient method for water authorities aiming to optimize pumping schedules considering expenditures and operational reliability mutually.

  10. Feasibility study of a wind powered water pumping system for rural Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misrak Girma

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Water is the primary source of life for mankind and one of the most basic necessities for rural development. Most of the rural areas of Ethiopia do not have access to potable water. Is some regions of the country access potable water is available through use of manual pumping and Diesel engine. In this research, wind water pump is designed to supply drinking water for three selected rural locations in Ethiopia. The design results show that a 5.7 m diameter windmill is required for pumping water from borehole through a total head of 75, 66 and 44 m for Siyadberand Wayu, Adami Tulu and East Enderta to meet the daily water demand of 10, 12 and 15 m3, respectively. The simulation for performance of the selected wind pump is conducted using MATLAB software and the result showed that monthly water discharge is proportional to the monthly average wind speed at the peak monthly discharge of 685 m3 in June, 888 m3 in May and 1203 m3 in March for Siyadberand Wayu, Adami Tulu and East Enderta sites, respectively. An economic comparison is conducted, using life cycle cost analysis, for wind mill and Diesel water pumping systems and the results show that windmill water pumping systems are more feasible than Diesel based systems.

  11. 76 FR 28025 - East Maui Pumped Storage Water Supply LCC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Project No. 14142-000 East Maui Pumped Storage Water Supply LCC; Notice of... Competing Applications On April 1, 2011, East Maui Pumped Storage Water Supply LCC filed an application for... the feasibility of the East Maui Pumped Storage Water Supply Project to be located on the Miliko Gulch...

  12. Partialization losses of ON/OFF operation of waterto- water refrigeration/heat-pump units

    OpenAIRE

    Corberán, José M.; D.Donadello; Martínez Galván, Israel Octavio; Montagud, C

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental campaign for the characterization of the dynamic behavior of a water-to-water refrigeration/heat-pump unit under ON/OFF operation. The unit was previously tested at different water inlet temperatures under steady state conditions, and a very good agreement was found between the instantaneous dynamic performance of the heat pump and the corresponding quasi-steady state operation. In parallel, a series of tests were carried out to quan...

  13. Ply Thickness Fiber Glass on Windmill Drive Salt Water Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sifa, Agus; Badruzzaman; Suwandi, Dedi

    2016-04-01

    Factors management of salt-making processes need to be considered selection of the location and the season is very important to support the efforts of salting. Windmills owned by the farmers are still using wood materials are made each year it is not effectively done and the shape of windmills made not in accordance with the requirements without considering the wind speed and the pumping speed control influenced by the weight and size of windmill, it affects the productivity of salt. to optimize the function of windmills on pumping salt water by change the material blade on the wheel by using a material composite, composite or fiberglass are used for blades on windmills made of a material a mixture of Epoxy-Resin and Matrix E-Glass. The mechanical characteristics of the power of his blade one of determining the materials used and the thickness of the blade, which needed a strong and lightweight. The calculation result thick fiberglass with a composition of 60% fiber and 40% epoxy, at a wind speedof area salt fields 9 m/s, the drag force that occurs at 11,56 kg, then the calculation result by 0,19 mm thick with a layer of 10, the total thickness of 1,9 mm, with a density of 1760 kg/m3, mechanical character of elongated elastic modulus of 46200 MPa, modulus of transverse elasticity of 10309,6 MPa, shear modulus of 3719 MPa and Poisson ratio of 0,31, then the calculation using the finite element ABAQUS obtained critical point at the confluence of the blade to the value of Von Mises tension was happening 1,158e9 MPa maximum and minimum 2,123e5 MPa, for a maximum value of displacement occurred condition at the tip of the blade. The performance test results windmills at a wind speed of 5,5 m/s wind power shows that occur 402,42 watts and power turbines produced 44,21 watt, and TSR 0,095 and the value Cp of 0,1, test results windmill in salt fields in the beginning rotation windmill lighter, able to move above wind speed of 5.5 m/s.

  14. Effect of Pumping Strategies on Pesticide Concentrations in Water Abstraction Wells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aisopou, Angeliki; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    and pumping wells show that pesticide concentrations vary greatly in both time and space. This study aimed to use models to determine how pumping affects pesticide concentrations in drinking water wells placed in two hypothetical aquifer systems; a homogeneous layered aquifer and a layered aquifer......Pesticide use in agriculture is one of the main sources of groundwater contamination and poses an important threat to groundwater abstraction. Pesticides have been detected in 37% of Danish monitoring wells sampled, with 12 % exceeding drinking water guidelines. Field data captured in monitoring...... in a pumping well capture zone were constructed using COMSOL Multiphysics. A series of simulations were conducted to examine the effect of pumping strategies (constant versus varying pumping rate), pesticide properties and aquifer hydrogeology on the concentration in drinking water wells. The results...

  15. Low Temperature District Heating Consumer Unit with Micro Heat Pump for Domestic Hot Water Preparation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zvingilaite, Erika; Ommen, Torben Schmidt; Elmegaard, Brian

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present and analyse the feasibility of a district heating (DH) consumer unit with micro heat pump for domestic hot water (DHW) preparation in a low temperature (40 °C) DH network. We propose a micro booster heat pump of high efficiency (COP equal to 5,3) in a consumer DH unit...... in order to boost the temperature of the district heating water for heating the DHW. The paper presents the main designs of the suggested system and different alternative micro booster heat pump concepts. Energy efficiency and thermodynamic performance of these concepts are calculated and compared....... The results show that the proposed system has the highest efficiency. Furthermore, we compare thermodynamic and economic performance of the suggested heat pump-based concept with different solutions, using electric water heater. The micro booster heat pump system has the highest annualised investment (390 EUR...

  16. Feasibility study of a solar photovoltaic water pumping system for rural Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misrak Girma

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Solar Photovoltaic (SPV water pumping system is one of the best technologies that utilize the solar energy to pump water from deep well underground water sources and to provide clean drinking water worldwide. The availability of abundant solar radiation and enough underground water sources in Ethiopia can be combined together to make clean drinking water available to rural communities. The software PVsyst 5.56 was used to study the feasibility of solar photovoltaic water pumping system in the selected sites. The designed system is capable of providing a daily average of 10.5, 7 and 6.5 m3/day for 700, 467 and 433 people in Siadberand Wayu, Wolmera and Enderta sites respectively, with average daily water consumption of 15 liters per day per person and the costs of water without any subsidy, are approximately 0.1, 0.14 and 0.16 $/m3for each site respectively. If diesel generator is used instead of solar photovoltaic water pumping system, to provide the same average daily water for the selected community, the costs of water without any subsidy are approximately 0.2, 0.23 and 0.27 $/m3 for each site respectively. A life cycle cost analysis method was also carried out for economic comparison between solar PV and the diesel pumping system. The results of this study are encouraging the use of the PV system for drinking water supply in the remote areas of the country.

  17. Numerical calculation and optimal design of a hot water circulation pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H.; Y Kong, F.; Xia, B.; Tan, L. W.

    2013-12-01

    The problem of hot water circulation pump head shortage is common. In this paper, numerical simulation technology, combined with orthogonal experimental design, was used to research optimal designs to improve the hot water circulation pump's head. CFX software was used to calculate the flow field in the pump, and the head-flow rate curve could be achieved. The accuracy of CFD was validated through comparison between numerical and experimental data. According to the experience, the number of impeller blades, thickness and width of impeller outlet were changed to improve the hot water circulation pump's head. A three factors and level values of model pump orthogonal experiment was designed, and numerical simulation of whole flow field based on CFX was adopted to implement the orthogonal experiment. Finally, the best designed scheme for model pump was obtained. The analysis of results indicates that the head of hot water circulation pump has increased by 7.77% at rated conditions. The distribution in impellers' internal flow field is symmetrical, and accords with the law of fluids flow in the common centrifugal pump.

  18. On the development of high temperature ammonia-water hybrid absorption-compression heat pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas Kjær; Markussen, Wiebke Brix; Reinholdt, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Ammonia-water hybrid absorption-compression heat pumps (HACHP) are a promising technology for development of ecient high temperature industrial heat pumps. Using 28 bar components HACHPs up to 100 °C are commercially available. Components developed for 50 bar and 140 bar show that these pressure...

  19. Water pumping and analysis of flow in burrowing zoobenthos - a short overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgård, Hans Ulrik; Larsen, Poul Scheel

    2005-01-01

    of water layers at the sea bed with the layers above where food particle concentrations are relatively higher. Following a brief summary of types of burrowing benthic animals, common methods for measuring pumping rates are described along with examples. For estimating the required pump pressure, biofluid...

  20. Potable Water Supply Feasibility Study for Summit Station, Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    station, Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica. Final comprehensive environmental evaluation report. British Antarctic Survey. 2007. Proposed construction...Troll in Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica to a permanent station. PolarPower.org. 2010. Examples: Princess Elisabeth Antarctica Station

  1. Water Follies: Groundwater Pumping and the Fate of America's Fresh Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glennon, R.

    2002-12-01

    The next time you open a bottle of spring water, consider that it may have come from a well that is drying up a blue-ribbon trout stream. The next time you super-size a meal at McDonald's, note that the fries are all the same length. That's because the potato farmers irrigate their fields with groundwater from wells, some adjacent to nearby rivers. The next time you purchase gold jewelry, consider that it may have come from a mine that has pumped so much groundwater to de-water the gold-bearing rock that 60 to100 years will pass before the water table recovers. The next time you water your suburban lawn, pause to reflect on what that's doing to the nearby wetland. And the next time you visit Las Vegas and flip on the light in your hotel room, consider that the electricity may have been generated by a coal-fired power plant supplied by a slurry pipeline that uses groundwater critical to springs sacred to the Hopi people. These and countless other seemingly innocuous activities reflect our individual and societal dependence on groundwater that is hydrologically connected to surface water. Hydrologists understand that ground and surface water are interconnected, but frequently the legal rules governing water distinguish between ground and surface water. This has led to groundwater pumping that has dried up many rivers, particularly in the arid West. In Arizona, many once verdant streams have become desiccated sandboxes as city, mines, and farms pumped groundwater to such an extent that surface flows were totally depleted. The problem of the impact of groundwater pumping on the environment, however, is not confined to the arid West. It is an enormous national, indeed international problem. This presentation will focus on the United States and illustrate with examples from around the country the array of environmental problems caused by excessive groundwater pumping. The locations of these case studies range from Maine to California, from Minnesota to Florida, and from

  2. A study of vibroacoustic coupling between a pump and attached water-filled pipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bilong; Hodkiewicz, Melinda; Pan, Jie

    2007-02-01

    This paper presents a model for the vibroacoustical behavior of a pump coupled with water-filled pipes. Coupling between (a) the pump and the inlet and outlet pipes, and (b) the pipe wall and the fluid contained in the pipe, is investigated through analytical modeling and numerical simulation. In the model, the pump is represented by a rigid body supported by multiple elastic mounts, and the inlet and outlet pipes by two semi-infinite water-filled pipes. The vibration characteristics of the coupled system under the excitation of mechanical forces and fluid-borne forces at the pump are calculated. The results enhance our understanding about how the input mechanical and fluid excitation energy at the pump is transmitted to the pipes and how to relate the piping vibroacoustical response to the excitations at the pump. This study assists in predicting dynamic stress in pipes for given excitations at the pump, and in developing methods to identify the nature (fluid or mechanical) of the excitation forces at the pump using the vibration and dynamic pressure measurements on the pump/pipe system.

  3. Domestic Hot Water Production with Ground Source Heat Pump in Apartment Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jukka Yrjölä

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Producing domestic hot water (DHW with a ground source heat pump (GSHP is challenging due to the high temperature (HT of DHW. There are many studies proving the better performance of cascade heat pumps compared to single-stage heat pumps when the difference between the condensing and the evaporation temperature is large. In this system approach study, different GSHP arrangements are described and computationally compared. A two-stage heat pump arrangement is introduced in which water tanks of the heating system are utilized for warming up the DHW in two stages. It is shown that the electricity consumption with this two-stage system is approximately 31% less than with the single-stage heat pump and 12% less than with the cascade system. Further, both low temperature (LT and HT heat pumps can run alone, which is not common in cascade or other two-stage heat pumps. This is advantageous because the high loads of the space heating and DHW production are not simultaneous. Proper insulation of the DHW and recirculation pipe network is essential, and drying towel rails or other heating coils should be avoided when aiming for a high efficiency. The refrigerants in the calculations are R407C for the LT heat pump and R134a for the HT heat pump. Investment costs are excluded from calculations.

  4. Renewable Energy Water Pumping Systems Handbook; Period of Performance: April 1--September 1, 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argaw, N.

    2004-07-01

    Water is one of the most basic necessities of rural development. This book provides valuable information on how renewable energy technologies can be used for irrigation, livestock watering, and domestic water supplies. This report emphasizes wind and solar energy resources, and hybrid water pumping systems.

  5. Experimental Study on the Performance of Water Source Trans-Critical CO2 Heat Pump Water Heater

    OpenAIRE

    Xiufang Liu; Changhai Liu; Ze Zhang; Liang Chen; Yu Hou

    2017-01-01

    The effect of the discharge pressure on the performance of the trans-critical CO2 heat pump with a low gas-cooler outlet temperature is experimentally investigated on a test rig of water source heat-pump water heater. The optimal discharge pressure of the trans-critical CO2 heat pump is investigated under different external operation conditions. When the tap-water temperature is low, the characteristic of the S-shape isotherm at the supercritical region has little effect on the occurrence of ...

  6. Centrifugal Pump Effect on Average Particle Diameter of Oil-Water Emulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozova, A.; Eskin, A.

    2017-11-01

    In this paper we review the process of oil-water emulsion particles fragmentation in a turbulent flow created by a centrifugal pump. We examined the influence of time necessary for oil-water emulsion preparation on the particle size of oil products and the dependence of a centrifugal pump emulsifying capacity on the initial emulsion dispersion. The investigated emulsion contained the brand fuel oil M-100 and tap water; it was sprayed with a nozzle in a gas-water flare. After preparation of the emulsion, the centrifugal pump was turned on and the emulsion samples were taken before and after the pump passing in 15, 30 and 45 minutes of spraying. To determine the effect the centrifugal pump has on the dispersion of the oil-water emulsion, the mean particle diameter of the emulsion particles was determined by the optical and microscopic method before and after the pump passing. A dispersion analysis of the particles contained in the emulsion was carried out by a laser diffraction analyzer. By analyzing the pictures of the emulsion samples, it was determined that after the centrifugal pump operation a particle size of oil products decreases. This result is also confirmed by the distribution of the obtained analyzer where the content of fine particles with a diameter less than 10 μm increased from 12% to 23%. In case of increasing emulsion preparation time, a particle size of petroleum products also decreases.

  7. WEXA: exergy analysis for increasing the efficiency of air/water heat pumps - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasser, L.; Wellig, B.; Hilfiker, K.

    2008-04-15

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study at the made by the Engineering and Architecture department at the Lucerne University of Applied Sciences and Arts. The subject of the WEXA study (Waermepumpen-Exergie-Analyse - heat pump exergy analysis) is the analysis of the operation of air/water heat-pumps using exergy analysis methods. The basic thermodynamics of heating systems using heat-pumps is discussed. The exergy analyses and exergy balances for the various components and processes of an air/water heat-pump are presented and discussed. Comparisons are presented for heat-pumps with on/off and continuous control systems for their compressors and fans. The paper is concluded with a collection of appendices on the subject.

  8. Groundwater heat pumps with turbines for the return water; Grundwasser-Waermepumpe mit Rueckgabe-Turbinierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberhard, M.

    2007-09-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reports on improvements in the efficiency of a ground water heat pump installation in an office building. The water return well was equipped with a turbine. In this installation, the ground water is pumped up from a depth of 45 meters which means that a lot of electricity is needed for the pumping of the water. Coefficients of performance of the system are quoted for the situation with and without the turbine. The conversion of a pump for use as a turbine is commented on. The construction of a specially developed turbine with reduced electricity consumption is suggested. Seasonal performance data of the system is provided in tabular form.

  9. Effect of Tip Clearance on Hydraulic Performance of Water-jet Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Duo; Huang, Zuodong; Guo, Ang; Xu, Jiawei; Jiao, Lei

    2017-10-01

    The k-ω Shear Stress Transport (SST) turbulence model is adopted to study the hydrodynamic performance of the water-jet axial pump which is applied in Unmanned Surface Vehicle (USV). The numerical simulation of the whole passage of the water-jet pump is carried out for four different tip clearance with δ = 0.3 mm, δ = 0.8 mm, δ = 1 mm and δ = 1.4 mm. And the results, in term of external characteristics and internal flow field, show that, due to the tip leakage flow, the leakage vortex is formed behind the blade after the fluid flows over the impeller blades. Moreover, with the expansion of tip clearance, the head and efficiency of the water-jet pump will be affected, and this impact is weakened with the increase of the flow rate. Finally, the suggestion of structure optimization of water-jet pump can be made.

  10. Analysis and evaluation of "noise" of occupational hazards in pumped storage power station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin; Yang, Hongjian; Zhang, Huafei; Chen, Tao

    2017-05-01

    Aiming at the influence of "noise" of occupational hazards on the physical health of workers, the noise intensity of a working area of a hydropower station in China was evaluated comprehensively. Under the condition of power generation, noise detection is conducted on the main patrol area of the operator, and the noise samples in different regions are analyzed and processed by the single factor analysis of variance. The results show that the noise intensity of different working areas is significantly different, in which the overall noise level of the turbine layer is the highest and beyond the national standard, the protection measures need to be strengthened and the noise intensity of the rest area is normal

  11. Processing of water level derived from water pressure data at the Time Series Station Spiekeroog

    OpenAIRE

    Holinde, L.; Badewien, T. H.; Freund, J. A.; E. V. Stanev; Zielinski, O.

    2015-01-01

    The quality of water level time series data strongly varies with periods of high- and low-quality sensor data. In this paper we are presenting the processing steps which were used to generate high-quality water level data from water pressure measured at the Time Series Station (TSS) Spiekeroog. The TSS is positioned in a tidal inlet between the islands of Spiekeroog and Langeoog in the East Frisian Wadden Sea (southern North Sea). The processing steps will cover sensor drift...

  12. Factors influencing the performance and efficiency of solar water pumping systems:  a review

    OpenAIRE

    Gouws, Rupert; Lukhwareni, Thendo

    2012-01-01

    The world is having an energy crisis and currently there is a strong drive towards renewable energy. A renewable energy option is solar energy, where by means of photovoltaic (PV) modules electrical energy can be produced. A residential as well as industrial application for these PV modules is solar water pumping systems. Disadvantages of solar water pumping systems are low performance and low energy efficiency. This paper provides a review on the factors that influence the performance and ef...

  13. Possible effects of groundwater pumping on surface water in the Verde Valley, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leake, Stanley A.; Haney, Jeanmarie

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with The Nature Conservancy, has applied a groundwater model to simulate effects of groundwater pumping and artificial recharge on surface water in the Verde Valley sub-basin of Arizona. Results are in two sets of maps that show effects of locations of pumping or recharge on streamflow. These maps will help managers make decisions that will meet water needs and minimize environmental impacts.

  14. Sub-soil contamination due to oil spills in zones surrounding oil pipeline-pump stations and oil pipeline right-of-ways in Southwest-Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iturbe, Rosario; Flores, Carlos; Castro, Alejandrina; Torres, Luis G

    2007-10-01

    Oil spills due to oil pipelines is a very frequent problem in Mexico. Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX), very concerned with the environmental agenda, has been developing inspection and correction plans for zones around oil pipelines pumping stations and pipeline right-of-way. These stations are located at regular intervals of kilometres along the pipelines. In this study, two sections of an oil pipeline and two pipeline pumping stations zones are characterized in terms of the presence of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPHs) and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs). The study comprehends sampling of the areas, delimitation of contamination in the vertical and horizontal extension, analysis of the sampled soils regarding TPHs content and, in some cases, the 16 PAHs considered as priority by USEPA, calculation of areas and volumes contaminated (according to Mexican legislation, specifically NOM-EM-138-ECOL-2002) and, finally, a proposal for the best remediation techniques suitable for the contamination levels and the localization of contaminants.

  15. Numerical simulation of dynamic flow characteristics in a centrifugal water pump with three-vaned diffuser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Jun Shuai

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The complex three-dimensional turbulent flow field in a centrifugal water pump with three asymmetrical diffusers was numerically simulated. The characteristics of pressure and force fluctuations inside the model pump were investigated. Fast Fourier transformation was performed to obtain the spectra of pressure and force fluctuations. It indicates that the dominant frequency of pressure fluctuations is the blade passing frequency in all the sub-domains inside the pump and the first blade passing frequency energy (first order of blade passing frequency is the most significant. The dominant frequency of pressure fluctuations at the location of diffuser outlet is featured by low frequency (less than 1 Hz, which may be due to the locally generated eddy structures. Besides, the dominant frequency force fluctuations on the impeller blades are also the blade passing frequency. The existence of the three asymmetrical diffusers has damping effect on the pressure fluctuation amplitude and energy amplitude of pressure fluctuations in the diffuser domain dramatically, which indicates that the diffusers can effectively control the hydraulically excited vibration in the pump. Besides, the prediction of the dominant frequency of pressure fluctuations inside the pump can help to utilize the pump effectively and to extend the pump life. The main findings of this work can provide prediction of the pump performance and information for further optimal design of centrifugal pumps as well.

  16. A fuzzy global efficiency optimization of a photovoltaic water pumping system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benlarbi, K.; Nait-Said, M.S. [Batna Univ. (Algeria). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Mokrani, L. [Laghouat Univ. (Algeria). Materials Lab.

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents an on-line fuzzy optimization of the global efficiency of a photovoltaic water pumping system driven by a separately excited DC motor (DCM), a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM), or an induction motor (IM), coupled to a centrifugal pump. The fuzzy optimization procedure stated above, which aims to the maximization of the global efficiency, will lead consequently to maximize the drive speed and the water discharge rate of the coupled centrifugal pump. The proposed solution is based on a judicious fuzzy adjustment of a chopper ratio which adapts on-line the load impedance to the photovoltaic generator (PVG). Simulation results show the effectiveness of the drive system for both transient and steady state operations. Hence it is suitable to use this fuzzy logic procedure as a standard optimization algorithm for such photovoltaic water pumping drives. (author)

  17. Integrated water management system - Description and test results. [for Space Station waste water processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elden, N. C.; Winkler, H. E.; Price, D. F.; Reysa, R. P.

    1983-01-01

    Water recovery subsystems are being tested at the NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center for Space Station use to process waste water generated from urine and wash water collection facilities. These subsystems are being integrated into a water management system that will incorporate wash water and urine processing through the use of hyperfiltration and vapor compression distillation subsystems. Other hardware in the water management system includes a whole body shower, a clothes washing facility, a urine collection and pretreatment unit, a recovered water post-treatment system, and a water quality monitor. This paper describes the integrated test configuration, pertinent performance data, and feasibility and design compatibility conclusions of the integrated water management system.

  18. A simple, low-cost method to monitor duration of ground water pumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massuel, S; Perrin, J; Wajid, M; Mascre, C; Dewandel, B

    2009-01-01

    Monitoring ground water withdrawals for agriculture is a difficult task, while agricultural development leads frequently to overexploitation of the aquifers. To fix the problem, sustainable management is required based on the knowledge of water uses. This paper introduces a simple and inexpensive direct method to determine the duration of pumping of a well by measuring the temperature of its water outlet pipe. A pumping phase is characterized by a steady temperature value close to ground water temperature. The method involves recording the temperature of the outlet pipe and identifying the different stages of pumping. It is based on the use of the low-cost and small-size Thermochron iButton temperature logger and can be applied to any well, provided that a water outlet pipe is accessible. The temperature time series are analyzed to determine the duration of pumping through manual and automatic posttreatments. The method was tested and applied in South India for irrigation wells using electricity-powered pumps. The duration of pumping obtained by the iButton method is fully consistent with the duration of power supply (1.5% difference).

  19. Water chemistries at thermal and nuclear power stations: A new level of information support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochkov, V. F.

    2011-07-01

    Methods used by the Moscow Power Engineering Institute's Department for Technologies of Water and Fuel in providing information support to the chemical departments of power stations in the field of organizing water chemistry of power units are described. Information is given on a new handbook on water chemistries at thermal and nuclear power stations and on the site supplementing this handbook.

  20. Preliminary design and cost of a 1-megawatt solar-pumped iodide laser space-to-space transmission station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deyoung, R. J.; Walker, G. H.; Williams, M. D.; Schuster, G. L.; Conway, E. J.

    1987-01-01

    A preliminary conceptual design of a space-based solar pumped iodide laser emitting 1 megawatt of laser power for space-to-space power transmission is described. A near parabolic solar collector focuses sunlight onto the t-C4F9I (perfluoro-t butyl iodide) lasant within a transverse flow optical cavity. Using waste heat, a thermal system was designed to supply compressor and auxiliary power. System components were designed with weight and cost estimates assigned. Although cost is very approximate, the cost comparison of individual system components leads to valuable insights for future research. In particular, it was found that laser efficiency was not a dominant cost or weight factor, the dominant factor being the laser cavity and laser transmission optics. The manufacturing cost was approx. two thirds of the total cost with transportation to orbit the remainder. The flowing nonrenewable lasant comprised 20% of the total life cycle cost of the system and thus was not a major cost factor. The station mass was 92,000 kg without lasant, requiring approx. four shuttle flights to low Earth orbit where an orbital transfer vehicle will transport it to the final altitude of 6378 km.

  1. The role of capacitance in a wind-electric water pumping system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ling, Shitao [West Texas A& M Univ., Canyon, TX (United States); Clark, R.N. [Conservation and Production Research Lab., Bushland, TX (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The development of controllers for wind-electric water pumping systems to enable the use of variable voltage, variable frequency electricity to operate standard AC submersible pump motors has provided a more efficient and flexible water pumping system to replace mechanical windmills. A fixed capacitance added in parallel with the induction motor improves the power factor and starting ability of the pump motor at the lower cut-in frequency. The wind-electric water pumping system developed by USDA-Agricultural Research Service, Bushland, TX, operated well at moderate wind speeds (5-12 m/s), but tended to lose synchronization in winds above 12 m/s, especially if they were gusty. Furling generally did not occur until synchronization had been lost and the winds had to subside before synchronization could be reestablished. The frequency needed to reestablish synchronization was much lower (60-65 Hz) than the frequency where synchronization was lost (70-80 Hz). As a result, the load (motor and pump) stayed off an excessive amount of time thus causing less water to be pumped and producing a low system efficiency. The controller described in this paper dynamically connects additional capacitance of the proper amount at the appropriate time to keep the system synchronized (running at 55 to 60 Hz) and pumping water even when the wind speed exceeds 15 m/s. The system efficiency was improved by reducing the system off-line time and an additional benefit was reducing the noise caused by the high speed blade rotation when the load was off line in high winds.

  2. Design of Nano Screw Pump for Water Transport and its Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, LiYa; Wu, HengAn; Wang, FengChao

    2017-01-01

    Nanopumps conducting fluids through nanochannels have attracted considerable interest for their potential applications in nanofiltration, water desalination and drug delivery. Here, we demonstrate by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations that a nano screw pump is designed with helical nanowires embedded in a nanochannel, which can be used to drive unidirectional water flow. Such helical nanowires have been successfully synthesized in many experiments. By investigating the water transport mechanism through nano screw pumps with different configuration parameters, three transport modes were observed: cluster-by-cluster, pseudo-continuous, and linear-continuous, in which the water flux increases linearly with the rotating speed. The influences of the nanowires’ surface energy and the screw’s diameter on water transport were also investigated. Results showed that the water flux rate increases as the decreasing wettability of helical nanowires. The deviation in water flux in screw pumps with smaller radius is attributed to the weak hydrogen bonding due to space confinement and the hydrophobic blade. Moreover, we also proposed that such screw pumps with appropriate diameter and screw pitch can be used for water desalination. The study provides an insight into the design of multifunctional nanodevices for not only water transport but water desalination in practical applications. PMID:28155898

  3. NEG (non evaporable getter) pumps for organic compounds and water removal in EUVL tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, A.; Manini, P.; Raimondi, S.

    2008-03-01

    One of present EUVL challenges is to reduce as much as possible the organic compounds and water partial pressures during the lithographic process. These gases can in fact interact with sensitive surfaces and, in the presence of EUV radiation, decompose to generate carbon-based films and oxides, which are detrimental to the optics, reducing its performance, lifetime and significantly increasing the equipment total cost of ownership. With this respect, use of Non Evaporable Getter (NEG) pumps seems particularly attractive. Getter pumps are very clean, vibration-free, compact, able to deliver large pumping speed for all active gases, including water and hydrogen. In the present paper, we report for the first time the results of specific tests aimed at measuring the pumping speed for some selected organic compounds, namely toluene and decane (n-decane). The study shows that getter pumps can effectively sorb these large organic molecules with high speed and capacity. Speed and capacity increases when operating the getter cartridge at moderate temperature (e.g. 150-200°C), however remarkable sorption is achieved, even at room temperature, without any power applied. When coupled with turbo-molecular pumps NEG pumps have therefore the potential to improve the ultimate vacuum and mitigate the carbon/oxygen contamination in a UHV lithographic system.

  4. Vapor compression CuCl heat pump integrated with a thermochemical water splitting cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamfirescu, C., E-mail: Calin.Zamfirescu@uoit.ca [Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology (UOIT), 2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, ON, Canada L1H 74K (Canada); Naterer, G.F., E-mail: Greg.Naterer@uoit.ca [Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology (UOIT), 2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, ON, Canada L1H 74K (Canada); Dincer, I., E-mail: Ibrahim.Dincer@uoit.ca [Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology (UOIT), 2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, ON, Canada L1H 74K (Canada)

    2011-01-10

    In this paper, the feasibility of using cuprous chloride (CuCl) as a working fluid in a new high temperature heat pump with vapor compression is analyzed. The heat pump is integrated with a copper-chlorine (Cu-Cl) thermochemical water splitting cycle for internal heat recovery, temperature upgrades and hydrogen production. The minimum temperature of heat supply necessary for driving the water splitting cycle can be lowered because the heat pump increases the working fluid temperature from 755 K up to {approx}950 K, at a high COP of {approx}6.5. Based on measured data available in past literature, the authors have determined the T-s diagram of CuCl, which is then used for the thermodynamic modeling of the cycle. In the heat pump cycle, molten CuCl is flashed in a vacuum where the vapor quality reaches {approx}2.5%, and then it is boiled to produce saturated vapor. The vapor is then compressed in stages (with inter-cooling and heat recovery), and condensed in a direct contact heat exchanger to transfer heat at a higher temperature. The heat pump is then integrated with a copper-chlorine water splitting plant. The heat pump evaporator is connected thermally with the hydrogen production reactor of the water splitting plant, which performs an exothermic reaction that generates heat at 760 K. Additional source heat is obtained from heat recovery from the hot reaction products of the oxy-decomposer. The heat pump transfers heat at {approx}950 K to the oxy-decomposer to drive its endothermic chemical reaction. It is shown that the heat required at the heat pump source can be obtained completely from internal heat recovery within the plant. First and second law analyses and a parametric study are performed for the proposed system to study the influence of the compressor's isentropic efficiency and temperature levels on the heat pump's COP. Two new indicators are presented: one represents the heat recovery ratio (the ratio between the thermal energy obtained by

  5. Rapid toxicity detection in water quality control utilizing automated multispecies biomonitoring for permanent space stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, E. L.; Young, R. C.; Smith, M. D.; Eagleson, K. W.

    1986-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate proposed design characteristics and applications of automated biomonitoring devices for real-time toxicity detection in water quality control on-board permanent space stations. Simulated tests in downlinking transmissions of automated biomonitoring data to Earth-receiving stations were simulated using satellite data transmissions from remote Earth-based stations.

  6. HEAT PUMP STATION WITH CARBON DIOXIDE AS A WORKING FLUID ENERGY EFFICIENCY GROWTH IN COMBINED DISTRICT HEATING SYSTEM DUE TO ITS CONTROL SYSTEM OPTIMIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sit B.M.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A diagram of the heat pump station (HPS for the central heat supply station of the district heating system, which gets the power from the CHP plant is examined. A block diagram of the control of the system and compressor pressure control system are examined. The description of the control laws of evaporator at the variable heat load of the HPS and control laws of the gas cooler taking into account the goal of achieving the maximum of COP of HPS is shown as well.

  7. High efficient ammonia heat pump system for industrial process water using the ISEC concept. Part 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothuizen, Erasmus Damgaard; Madsen, C.; Elmegaard, Brian

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the Isolated System Energy Charging (ISEC) is to provide a high-efficient ammonia heat pump system for hot water production. The ISEC concept uses two storage tanks for the water, one discharged and one charged. The charged tank is used for the industrial process while the discharg...

  8. Residential CO{sub 2} heat pump system for combined space heating and hot water heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stene, Joern

    2004-02-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}, R-744) has been identified as a promising alternative to conventional working fluids in a number of applications due to its favourable environmental and thermophysical properties. Previous work on residential CO{sub 2} heat pumps has been dealing with systems for either space heating or hot water heating, and it was therefore considered interesting to carry out a theoretical and experimental study of residential CO{sub 2} heat pump systems for combined space heating and hot water heating - o-called integrated CO{sub 2} heat pump systems. The scope of this thesis is limited to brine-to-water and water-to-water heat pumps connected to low-temperature hydronic space heating systems. The main conclusions are: (1) Under certain conditions residential CO{sub 2} heat pump systems for combined space heating and hot water heating may achieve the same or higher seasonal performance factor (SPF) than the most energy efficient state-of-the-art brine-to-water heat pumps. (2) In contrary to conventional heat pump systems for combined space heating and DHW heating, the integrated CO{sub 2} heat pump system achieves the highest COP in the combined heating mode and the DHW heating mode, and the lowest COP in the space heating mode. Hence, the larger the annual DHW heating demand, the higher the SPF of the integrated CO{sub 2} heat pump system. (3) The lower the return temperature in the space heating system and the lower the DHW storage temperature, the higher the COP of the integrated CO{sub 2} heat pump. A low return temperature in the space heating system also results in a moderate DHW heating capacity ratio, which means that a relatively large part of the annual space heating demand can be covered by operation in the combined heating mode, where the COP is considerably higher than in the space heating mode. (4) During operation in the combined heating mode and the DHW heating mode, the COP of the integrated CO{sub 2} heat pump is heavily influenced by

  9. Simulated water sources and effects of pumping on surface and ground water, Sagamore and Monomoy flow lenses, Cape Cod, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Donald A.; Whealan, Ann T.

    2005-01-01

    The sandy sediments underlying Cape Cod, Massachusetts, compose an important aquifer that is the sole source of water for a region undergoing rapid development. Population increases and urbanization on Cape Cod lead to two primary environmental effects that relate directly to water supply: (1) adverse effects of land use on the quality of water in the aquifer and (2) increases in pumping that can adversely affect environmentally sensitive surface waters, such as ponds and streams. These considerations are particularly important on the Sagamore and Monomoy flow lenses, which underlie the largest and most populous areas on Cape Cod. Numerical models of the two flow lenses were developed to simulate ground-water-flow conditions in the aquifer and to (1) delineate areas at the water table contributing water to wells and (2) estimate the effects of pumping and natural changes in recharge on surface waters. About 350 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) of water recharges the aquifer at the water table in this area; most water (about 65 percent) discharges at the coast and most of the remaining water (about 28 percent) discharges into streams. A total of about 24.9 Mgal/d, or about 7 percent, of water in the aquifer is withdrawn for water supply; most pumped water is returned to the hydrologic system as return flow creating a state of near mass balance in the aquifer. Areas at the water table that contribute water directly to production wells total about 17 square miles; some water (about 10 percent) pumped from the wells flows through ponds prior to reaching the wells. Current (2003) steady-state pumping reduces simulated ground-water levels in some areas by more than 4 feet; projected (2020) pumping may reduce water levels by an additional 3 feet or more in these same areas. Current (2003) and future (2020) pumping reduces total streamflow by about 4 and 9 cubic feet per second (ft3/s), corresponding to about 5 percent and 9 percent, respectively, of total streamflow

  10. Energetic Efficiency Evaluation by Using GroundWater Heat Pumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tokar Adriana

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Romania has significant energy potential from renewable sources, but the potential used is much lower due to technical and functional disadvantages, to economic efficiency, the cost elements and environmental limitations. However, efforts are being made to integrate renewable energy in the national energy system. To promote and encourage private investments for renewable energy utilization, programs have been created in order to access funds needed to implement these technologies. Assessment of such investments was carried out from technical and economical point of view, by analyzing a heat pump using as heat source the solar energy from the ground.

  11. Stand-Alone Solar Organic Rankine Cycle Water Pumping System and Its Economic Viability in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Baral

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study presents the concept of a stand-alone solar organic Rankine cycle (ORC water pumping system for rural Nepalese areas. Experimental results for this technology are presented based on a prototype. The economic viability of the system was assessed based on solar radiation data of different Nepalese geographic locations. The mechanical power produced by the solar ORC is coupled with a water pumping system for various applications, such as drinking and irrigation. The thermal efficiency of the system was found to be 8% with an operating temperature of 120 °C. The hot water produced by the unit has a temperature of 40 °C. Economic assessment was done for 1-kW and 5-kW solar ORC water pumping systems. These systems use different types of solar collectors: a parabolic trough collector (PTC and an evacuated tube collector (ETC. The economic analysis showed that the costs of water are $2.47/m3 (highest and $1.86/m3 (lowest for the 1-kW system and a 150-m pumping head. In addition, the cost of water is reduced when the size of the system is increased and the pumping head is reduced. The minimum volumes of water pumped are 2190 m3 and 11,100 m3 yearly for 1 kW and 5 kW, respectively. The payback period is eight years with a profitability index of 1.6. The system is highly feasible and promising in the context of Nepal.

  12. Performance of a 10 kilowatt wind-electric water pumping system for irrigating crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vick, B.D.; Clark, R.N. [Conservation and Production Research Lab., Bushland, TX (United States); Molla, S. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1997-12-31

    A 10 kW wind-electric water pumping system was tested for field crop irrigation at pumping depths from 50 to 120 m. The wind turbine for this system used a permanent magnet alternator that powered off-the-shelf submersible motors and pumps without the use of an inverter. Pumping performance was determined at the USDA-Agricultural Research Service (ARS), Wind Energy Laboratory in Bushland, TX for the 10 kW wind turbine using a pressure valve and a pressure tank to simulate different pumping depths. Pumping performance was measured for two 10 kW wind turbines of the same type at farms near the cities of Garden City, TX and Stiles, TX. The pumping performance data collected at these actual wells compared favorably with the data collected at the USDA-ARS, Wind Energy Laboratory. If utility generated electricity was accessible, payback on the wind turbine depended on the cost of utility generated electricity and the transmission line extension cost.

  13. 76 FR 30936 - West Maui Pumped Storage Water Supply, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission West Maui Pumped Storage Water Supply, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit... April 1, 2011, West Maui Pumped Storage Water Supply, LLC, filed an application for a preliminary permit... supply project effluent water to an existing irrigation system; (5) a powerhouse with two 15-megawatt...

  14. Dynamic Modeling, Control, and Analysis of a Solar Water Pumping System for Libya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muamer M. Shebani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, one of the suitable solar photovoltaic (PV applications is a water pumping system. The simplest solar PV pumping system consists of PV array, DC-DC converter, DC motor, and water pump. In this paper, water pumping system sizing for Libya is evaluated based on a daily demand using HOMER software, and dynamic modeling of a solar PV water pumping system using a Permanent Magnet DC (PMDC motor is presented in Matlab/Simulink environment. The system performance with maximum power point tracking (MPPT based on Fractional Open Circuit Voltage (FOCV is evaluated with and without a battery storage system. In some applications, a rated voltage is needed to connect a PMDC motor to a PV array through a DC-DC converter and in other applications the input voltage can vary. The evaluation of the system is based on the performance during a change in solar irradiation. Using Matlab/Simulink, simulation results are assessed to see the efficiency of the system when it is operating at a specific speed or at the MPPT. The results show that an improvement in the system efficiency can be achieved when the PMDC motor is running at a specific speed rather than at the peak PV power point.

  15. An automated remote marshland water-sampling station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, D. F.

    1974-01-01

    Station may be made to turn on and off remotely in response to radio, audio, photo, or other suitable signals, as well as by hard-wire switching. Station will remain operational under conditions of 4-foot tidal variations, along with 4-foot wave action, and will withstand hurricane-force winds without toppling over.

  16. Study Of Solar PV Sizing Of Water Pumping System For Irrigation Of Asparagus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mya Su Kyi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The motivation for this system come from the countries where economy is depended on agriculture and the climatic conditions lead to lack of rains. The farmers working in the farm lands are dependent on the rains and bore wells. Even if the farm land has a water-pump manual involvement by farmers is required to turn the pump onoff when on earth needed. This paper presents design and calculation analysis of efficient Solar PV water pumping system for irrigation of Asparagus. The study area falls 21-58-30 N Latitude and 96-5-0 E Longitude of Mandalay. The PV system sizing was made in such a way that it was capable of irrigation one acre of Asparagus plot with a daily water requirement of 25mday.

  17. Engineering bacterial efflux pumps for solar-powered bioremediation of surface waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Vikram; Wendell, David

    2013-05-08

    Antibiotics are difficult to selectively remove from surface waters by present treatment methods. Bacterial efflux pumps have evolved the ability to discriminately expel antibiotics and other noxious agents via proton and ATP driven pathways. Here, we describe light-dependent removal of antibiotics by engineering the bacterial efflux pump AcrB into a proteovesicle system. We have created a chimeric protein with the requisite proton motive force by coupling AcrB to the light-driven proton pump Delta-rhodopsin (dR) via a glycophorin A transmembrane domain. This creates a solar powered protein material capable of selectively capturing antibiotics from bulk solutions. Using environmental water and direct sunlight, our AcrB-dR vesicles removed almost twice as much antibiotic as the treatment standard, activated carbon. Altogether, the AcrB-dR system provides an effective means of extracting antibiotics from surface waters as well as potential antibiotic recovery through vesicle solubilization.

  18. Performance Analysis of a Hot Water Supply System with a CO2 Heat Pump by Numerical Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Ryohei; Shimizu, Takeshi; Takemura, Kazuhisa; Ito, Koichi

    Heat pumps using CO2 as a natural refrigerant have been developed and are expected to contribute to energy saving in hot water supply. In residential applications, CO2 heat pumps are used in combination with hot water storage tanks. The objective of this series of papers is to analyze the overall performance of a hot water supply system composed of a CO2 heat pump and a hot water storage tank by numerical simulation. In the 1st report, a simulation model of a CO2 heat pump is created based on thermodynamic equations and measured data for an existing CO2 heat pump. In addition, the performance of a CO2 heat pump is clarified in relation to the air temperature as well as the inlet and outlet water temperatures.

  19. A Comparative Cycle and Refrigerant Simulation Procedure Applied on Air-Water Heat Pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mader, Gunda; Palm, Björn; Elmegaard, Brian

    2012-01-01

    A vapor compression heat pump absorbs heat from the environment at a low temperature level and rejects heat at a high temperature level. The bigger the difference between the two temperature levels the more challenging is it to gain high energy efficiency with a basic cycle layout as found in most...... small capacity heat pump applications today. Many of the applicable refrigerants also reach their technical limits regarding low vapor pressure for very low source temperatures and high discharge temperatures for high sink temperatures. These issues are especially manifest for air-water heat pumps. Many...... alternative cycle setups and refrigerants are known to improve the energy efficiency of a vapor compression cycle and reduce discharge temperatures. However not all of them are feasible for small capacity heat pumps from a cost and complexity point of view. This paper presents a novel numerical approach...

  20. Mechanical coupling of wind turbines to low lift rotodynamic water pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burton, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    The mechanical coupling of wind turbines to rotodynamic water pumps (centrifugal and axial flow) via a step-up speed ratio G is examined. A procedure is outlined for the correct choice of G and for the sizing of the pump for a given wind turbine and wind regime. Specific speed of the pump is shown to be important not just in terms of selection to meet a given site head, but also because it is the major factor in determining the shape of the machine's characteristics and therefore the strategy to be adopted during the matching procedure. Sensitivity of the wind turbine-pump combination to site head fluctuation is examined via simple scaling relationships.

  1. Performance improvements in commercial heat pump water heaters using carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowers, C. D.; Elbel, S.; Petersen, M.; Hrnjak, P. S.

    2011-09-15

    Although heat pump water heaters are today widely accepted in Japan, where energy costs are high and government incentives for their use exist, acceptance of such a product in the U.S. has been slow. This trend is slowly changing with the introduction of heat pump water heaters into the residential market, but remains in the commercial sector. Barriers to heat pump water heater acceptance in the commercial market have historically been performance, reliability and first/operating costs. The use of carbon dioxide (R744) as the refrigerant in such a system can improve performance for relatively small increase in initial cost and make this technology more appealing. What makes R744 an excellent candidate for use in heat pump water heaters is not only the wide range of ambient temperatures within which it can operate, but also the excellent ability to match water to refrigerant temperatures on the high side, resulting in very high exit water temperatures of up to 82ºC (180ºF), as required by sanitary codes in the U.S.(Food Code, 2005), in a single pass, temperatures that are much more difficult to reach with other refrigerants. This can be especially attractive in applications where this water is used for the purpose of sanitation. While reliability has also been of concern historically, dramatic improvements have been made over the last several years through research done in the automotive industry and commercialization of R744 technology in residential water heating mainly in Japan. This paper presents the performance results from the development of an R744 commercial heat pump water heater of approximately 35kW and a comparison to a baseline R134a unit of the same capacity and footprint. In addition, recommendations are made for further improvements of the R744 system which could result in possible energy savings of up to 20%.

  2. Performance analysis of underwater pump for water-air dual-use engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jun; Wang, Yun; Chen, Yu

    2017-10-01

    To make water-air dual-use engine work both in air and under water, the compressor of the engine should not only meet the requirements of air flight, but also must have the ability to work underwater. To verify the performance of the compressor when the water-air dual-use engine underwater propulsion mode, the underwater pumping water model of the air compressor is simulated by commercial CFD software, and the flow field analysis is carried out. The results show that conventional air compressors have a certain ability to work in the water environment, however, the blade has a great influence on the flow, and the compressor structure also affects the pump performance. Compressor can initially take into account the two modes of water and air. In order to obtain better performance, the structure of the compressor needs further improvement and optimization.

  3. INDUSTRIAL CARBON DIOXIDE HEAT PUMP STATION WITH EVAPORATORS WORKING AT VARIOUS TEMPERATURE LEVELS AND AT VARIABLE LOAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sit M.L.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The block diagram of an industrial carbon dioxide heat pump working in a supercritical cycle, with two evaporators included in parallel working at different temperature levels (mainly for wine-making factories is developed. Heat pump is intended for simultaneous production of heat and cold and works at variable thermal loading. It is shown, how an ejector inclusion in the heat pump scheme provides growth of its thermal efficiency. The way of construction of the hydraulic scheme and a control system provides full controllability of the thermal pump.

  4. High efficient ammonia heat pump system for industrial process water using the ISEC concept. Part 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Martin F.; Madsen, Claus; Olsen, Lars

    2014-01-01

    The Isolated System Energy Charging (ISEC) concept allows for a high efficiency of a heat pump system for hot water production. The ISEC concept consists of two water storage tanks, one charged and one discharged. The charged tank is used for the industrial process, while the discharged tank is c...... modelling of the heat pump and tank system is performed (in continuation of Part I). The modelling is extended to include the system performance with different natural refrigerants and the influence of different types of compressors....

  5. Development and Validation of a Gas-Fired Residential Heat Pump Water Heater - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Garrabrant; Roger Stout; Paul Glanville; Janice Fitzgerald; Chris Keinath

    2013-01-21

    For gas-fired residential water heating, the U.S. and Canada is predominantly supplied by minimum efficiency storage water heaters with Energy Factors (EF) in the range of 0.59 to 0.62. Higher efficiency and higher cost ($700 - $2,000) options serve about 15% of the market, but still have EFs below 1.0, ranging from 0.65 to 0.95. To develop a new class of water heating products that exceeds the traditional limit of thermal efficiency, the project team designed and demonstrated a packaged water heater driven by a gas-fired ammonia-water absorption heat pump. This gas-fired heat pump water heater can achieve EFs of 1.3 or higher, at a consumer cost of $2,000 or less. Led by Stone Mountain Technologies Inc. (SMTI), with support from A.O. Smith, the Gas Technology Institute (GTI), and Georgia Tech, the cross-functional team completed research and development tasks including cycle modeling, breadboard evaluation of two cycles and two heat exchanger classes, heat pump/storage tank integration, compact solution pump development, combustion system specification, and evaluation of packaged prototype GHPWHs. The heat pump system extracts low grade heat from the ambient air and produces high grade heat suitable for heating water in a storage tank for domestic use. Product features that include conventional installation practices, standard footprint and reasonable economic payback, position the technology to gain significant market penetration, resulting in a large reduction of energy use and greenhouse gas emissions from domestic hot water production.

  6. Water Flow Testing and Unsteady Pressure Analysis of a Two-Bladed Liquid Oxidizer Pump Inducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Jordan B.; Mulder, Andrew; Zoladz, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The unsteady fluid dynamic performance of a cavitating two-bladed oxidizer turbopump inducer was characterized through sub-scale water flow testing. While testing a novel inlet duct design that included a cavitation suppression groove, unusual high-frequency pressure oscillations were observed. With potential implications for inducer blade loads, these high-frequency components were analyzed extensively in order to understand their origins and impacts to blade loading. Water flow testing provides a technique to determine pump performance without the costs and hazards associated with handling cryogenic propellants. Water has a similar density and Reynolds number to liquid oxygen. In a 70%-scale water flow test, the inducer-only pump performance was evaluated. Over a range of flow rates, the pump inlet pressure was gradually reduced, causing the flow to cavitate near the pump inducer. A nominal, smooth inducer inlet was tested, followed by an inlet duct with a circumferential groove designed to suppress cavitation. A subsequent 52%-scale water flow test in another facility evaluated the combined inducer-impeller pump performance. With the nominal inlet design, the inducer showed traditional cavitation and surge characteristics. Significant bearing loads were created by large side loads on the inducer during synchronous cavitation. The grooved inlet successfully mitigated these loads by greatly reducing synchronous cavitation, however high-frequency pressure oscillations were observed over a range of frequencies. Analytical signal processing techniques showed these oscillations to be created by a rotating, multi-celled train of pressure pulses, and subsequent CFD analysis suggested that such pulses could be created by the interaction of rotating inducer blades with fluid trapped in a cavitation suppression groove. Despite their relatively low amplitude, these high-frequency pressure oscillations posed a design concern due to their sensitivity to flow conditions and

  7. Pumping bottom water to prevent Korean red tide damage caused by Cochlodinium polykrikoides Margalef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Eun Seob; Moon, Seong Yong; Shu, Young Sang; Hwang, Jae Dong; Youn, Seok Hyun

    2015-09-01

    Cochlodinium polykrikoides Margalef produces annual massive blooms in Korean coastal waters which cause great damage to aquaculture and fisheries. Although various methods have been developed to remove the red tide of C. polykrikoides, release of yellow loess has been regarded as the most desirable technique for mitigation for over 10 years. Each August, strong irradiation generates water column stratification separating warm surface from colder bottom waters. Water from a distance of 0 (St. 1), 5 (St. 2), 10 (St. 3), and 15 m (St. 4) was pumped by running a pump for 0, 10, 30 and 90 min and characterized water temperature, salinity collected, suspended solids, Chl-a, and phytoplankton including C. polykrikoides. After running for 30 min, was temperature and salinity in surface water was similar to those of bottom water, and water column stratification completely reversed after 90 min. Likewise, suspended solids, Chl-a, and total phytoplankton cell density decreased after 30 min, but C. polykrikoides did not show strong removal because of low cell density during sampling. However, the number of C. polykrikoides was significantly diluted (80%) after 90 min. These results suggested that pumping device was as an environmentally-friendly method convenient to be install in fish cages and effective to remove C. polykrikoides stratified water column conditions.

  8. Solar heating and domestic hot water system installed at Kansas City, Fire Station, Kansas City, Missouri. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-07-01

    This document is the final report of the solar energy heating and hot water system installed at the Kansas City Fire Station, Number 24, 2309 Hardesty Street, Kansas City, Missouri. The solar system was designed to provide 47 percent of the space heating, 8800 square feet area and 75 percent of the domestic hot water (DHW) load. The solar system consists of 2808 square feet of Solaron, model 2001, air, flat plate collector subsystem, a concrete box storage subsystem which contains 1428 cubic feet of 1/2 inch diameter pebbles weighing 71 1/2 tons, a DHW preheat tank, blowers, pumps, heat exchangers, air ducting, controls and associated plumbing. Two 120-gallon electric DHW heaters supply domestic hot water which is preheated by the solar system. Auxiliary space heating is provided by three electric heat pumps with electric resistance heaters and four 30-kilowatt electric unit heaters. There are six modes of system operation. This project is part of the Department of Energy PON-1 Solar Demonstration Program with DOE cost sharing $154,282 of the $174,372 solar system cost. The Final Design Review was held March 1977, the system became operational March 1979 and acceptance test was completed in September 1979.

  9. A comparison of diesel, biodiesel and solar PV-based water pumping systems in the context of rural Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parajuli, Ranjan; Pokharel, Govind Raj; Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2014-01-01

    using petro-diesel, jatropha-based biodiesel and solar photovoltaic pumps. The technical system design consists of system sizing of prime mover (engine, solar panel and pumps) and estimation of reservoir capacity, which are based on the annual aggregate water demand modelling. With these investigations...... area, the levelised cost of pumping 1 L of water is higher than that of a solar pump and even higher when compared with diesel, if the seed yield per plant is less than 2 kg and without subsidy on the investment cost of cultivation and processing. With the productivity of 2.5 kg/plant, a biodiesel......-based system is more attractive than that of the diesel-based pump, but still remains more expensive than that of solar pump. From the technical perspective (reliability and easiness in operation) and economic evaluation of the technical alternatives, solar pumping system is found to be the most viable...

  10. Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement Project; Characterization of Pump Flow at the Grand Coulee Dam Pumping Station for Fish Passage, 2004-2005 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, T.; Duncan, J.; Johnson, R.

    2005-03-01

    This report describes a study conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the Bonneville Power Administration to characterize the conditions fish experience when entrained in pump flow at the Grand Coulee Dam. PNNL conducted field studies at Grand Coulee Dam in 2004 using the Sensor Fish to measure the acceleration and pressure conditions that might be experienced by fish that pass through pumps at Grand Coulee Dam's Pump-Generating Plant and are transported up into the feeder canal leading to Banks Lake. The probability that fish would be struck by the Pump-Generating Plant's new nine-bladed turbines was also estimated. Our measurements showed relatively low turbulence except in the immediate vicinity of the runner environment. The lowest and highest pressures experienced by the Sensor Fish were 6.4 and 155 psi (the pressure gauge saturated at 155 psi). The probability of strike was also calculated, based on the average length of hatchery-reared juvenile kokanee (land-locked sockeye). Strike probabilities ranged from 0.0755 for 2.36-inch fish to 0.3890 for 11.8-inch fish. The probability of strike estimates indicate that the majority (77%) of recently released hatchery kokanee would be carried through the test pump without being struck and most likely with low risk of injury resulting from pressure and turbulence exposure. Of the 23% that might be struck it is expected that 60% would arrive in Banks Lake without visible external injuries. Thus more than 90% of entrained fish could be expected to arrive in Banks Lake without significant injury, assuming that no kokanee were injured or killed by pressure exposure during passage.

  11. Solar and wind systems utilization in water pumping for irrigation; Utilizacao de sistemas solar e eolico no bombeamento de agua para uso na irrigacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Cicero Urbanetto

    2009-07-01

    In this work, it was made an applied research in two stations, the first one located at Canabarro locality and the second one at Polytechnic School at UFSM, in Santa Maria city, RS, with wind and photovoltaic equipment for pumping water. These ones are used for fruit trees irrigation in irrigation systems of low pressure. The research work was developed from September 2007 to August 2009, when the results showed the viability of wind and photovoltaic equipment for utilization in the complementary irrigation in fruit cultures such as guava, fig and grape trees. In the fruit culture sector, are installed: one multivane fans wind indicator one savonius wind indicator and respective pumps as well as pump set and a photovoltaic board. With the photovoltaic system, the pumped volume was about 5000 m{sup 3}/ha and, with the wind system, the pumped volume was approximately 6m{sup 3}/ha. The wind groups demonstrated low efficiency, if compared to photovoltaic systems, which showed more efficient. (author)

  12. European Regional Climate Zone Modeling of a Commercial Absorption Heat Pump Hot Water Heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Vishaldeep [ORNL; Shen, Bo [ORNL; Keinath, Chris [Stone Mountain Technologies, Inc., Johnson City; Garrabrant, Michael A. [Stone Mountain Technologies, Inc., Johnson City; Geoghegan, Patrick J [ORNL

    2017-01-01

    High efficiency gas-burning hot water heating takes advantage of a condensing heat exchanger to deliver improved combustion efficiency over a standard non-condensing configuration. The water heating is always lower than the gas heating value. In contrast, Gas Absorption Heat Pump (GAHP) hot water heating combines the efficiency of gas burning with the performance increase from a heat pump to offer significant gas energy savings. An ammonia-water system also has the advantage of zero Ozone Depletion Potential and low Global Warming Potential. In comparison with air source electric heat pumps, the absorption system can maintain higher coefficients of performance in colder climates. In this work, a GAHP commercial water heating system was compared to a condensing gas storage system for a range of locations and climate zones across Europe. The thermodynamic performance map of a single effect ammonia-water absorption system was used in a building energy modeling software that could also incorporate the changing ambient air temperature and water mains temperature for a specific location, as well as a full-service restaurant water draw pattern.

  13. Experimental Study on the Performance of Water Source Trans-Critical CO2 Heat Pump Water Heater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiufang Liu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the discharge pressure on the performance of the trans-critical CO2 heat pump with a low gas-cooler outlet temperature is experimentally investigated on a test rig of water source heat-pump water heater. The optimal discharge pressure of the trans-critical CO2 heat pump is investigated under different external operation conditions. When the tap-water temperature is low, the characteristic of the S-shape isotherm at the supercritical region has little effect on the occurrence of the optimal discharge pressure; while the mass flow rate of CO2, the suction pressure and the gas-cooler outlet temperature play a significant role in determining the emergence of the optimal discharge pressure. At the optimal discharge pressure, the COP reaches the peak; however, the corresponding heating capacity is still lower than its maximum, which is reached as the discharge pressure is slightly above the optimal discharge pressure. Reducing the tap-water flowrate or increasing the water-source temperature can increase the optimal discharge pressure. The COP is positively dependent on both the tap-water flowrate and the water-source temperature. In addition, the tap-water flowrate has a negligible influence on the maximum heating capacity while increasing the water-source temperature can greatly enhance the heating capacity.

  14. The human Na+-glucose cotransporter is a molecular water pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meinild, A; Klaerke, D A; Loo, D D

    1998-01-01

    solution there was an abrupt increase in clamp current and an immediate swelling of the oocyte. The transmembrane transport of two Na+ ions and one sugar molecule was coupled, within the protein itself, to the influx of 210 water molecules. 3. This stoichiometry was constant and independent of the external....... The finding of a molecular water pump allows for new models of cellular water transport which include coupling between ion and water fluxes at the protein level; the hSGLT1 could account for almost half the daily reuptake of water from the small intestine....

  15. Renewable Energy for Water Pumping Applications In Rural Villages; Period of Performance: April 1, 2001--September 1, 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argaw, N.; Foster, R.; Ellis, A.

    2003-07-01

    This report introduces conventional and renewable energy sources for water pumping applications in rural villages by reviewing the technologies and illustrating typical applications. As energy sources for water pumping, the report discusses diesel/gasoline/kerosene engines, grid power supplies, traditional windmills, electrical wind turbines, and PV.

  16. Development of High Efficiency Carbon Dioxide Commercial Heat Pump Water Heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael PETERSEN; Chad D. BOWERS; Stefan ELBEL; Pega HRNJAK

    2012-07-01

    Although heat pump water heaters are today widely accepted in both Japan and Europe, where energy costs are high and government incentives for their use exist, acceptance of such products in the US has been limited. While this trend is slowly changing with the introduction of heat pump water heaters into the residential market, but acceptance remains low in the commercial sector. The objective of the presented work is the development of a high efficiency R744 heat pump water heater for commercial applications with effective utilization of the cooling capability for air conditioning and/or refrigeration. The ultimate goal is to achieve total system COP of up to 8. This unit will be targeted at commercial use where some cooling load is typically needed year round, such as restaurants, hotels, nursing homes, and hospitals. This paper presents the performance results from the development of four R744 commercial heat pump water heater packages of approximately 35 kW and comparison to a commercially available baseline R134a unit of the same capacity and footprint. In addition, the influences of an internal heat exchanger and an enhanced evaporator on the system performance are described and recommendations are made for further improvements of the R744 system.

  17. Analysis of off-grid hybrid wind turbine/solar PV water pumping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    While many remote water pumping systems exist (e.g. mechanical windmills, solar photovoltaic , wind-electric, diesel powered), very few combine both the wind and solar energy resources to possibly improve the reliability and the performance of the system. In this paper, off-grid wind turbine (WT) a...

  18. Measure Guideline. Heat Pump Water Heaters in New and Existing Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, Carl [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States); Puttagunta, Srikanth [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States); Owens, Douglas [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2012-02-01

    This Building America Measure Guideline is intended for builders, contractors, homeowners, and policy-makers. This document is intended to explore the issues surrounding heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) to ensure that homeowners and contractors have the tools needed to appropriately and efficiently install HPWHs

  19. Optimization of hybrid system (wind-solar energy) for pumping water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents an optimization method for a hybrid (wind-solar) autonomous system designed for pumping water. This method is based on mathematical models demonstrated for the analysis and control of the performance of the various components of the hybrid system. These models provide an estimate of ...

  20. Heat pump water heater and storage tank assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieckmann, John T.; Nowicki, Brian J.; Teagan, W. Peter; Zogg, Robert

    1999-09-07

    A water heater and storage tank assembly comprises a housing defining a chamber, an inlet for admitting cold water to the chamber, and an outlet for permitting flow of hot water from the chamber. A compressor is mounted on the housing and is removed from the chamber. A condenser comprises a tube adapted to receive refrigerant from the compressor, and winding around the chamber to impart heat to water in the chamber. An evaporator is mounted on the housing and removed from the chamber, the evaporator being adapted to receive refrigerant from the condenser and to discharge refrigerant to conduits in communication with the compressor. An electric resistance element extends into the chamber, and a thermostat is disposed in the chamber and is operative to sense water temperature and to actuate the resistance element upon the water temperature dropping to a selected level. The assembly includes a first connection at an external end of the inlet, a second connection at an external end of the outlet, and a third connection for connecting the resistance element, compressor and evaporator to an electrical power source.

  1. Test results for the Oasis 3C high performance water-pumping windmill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggleston, D.M. [DME Engineering, Midland, TX (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The WINDTech International, L.L.C. Oasis 3C, a 3 m diameter, high-performance water-pumping windmill, was tested at the DME Engineering Wind Test Site just south of Midland, Texas from August through December, 1996. This machine utilizes a 3:1 gearbox with rotating counterweights, similar to a conventional oilfield pumping unit, driven by a multibladed rotor. The rotating counterweight system balances most of the pumping loads and reduces gear loads and starting torque by a factor of at least two and often by a factor of four or more. The torque reduction substantially extends gear and bearing life, and reduces wind speeds required for starting by 30 to 50% or more. The O3C was tested pumping from a quiescent fluid depth of 12.2 m (40 ft) from a 28.3 m (93 ft)-deep well, with additional pumping depth simulated using a pressure regulator valve system. A 9.53 cm (3.75 in.) diameter Harbison-Fischer seal-less single-acting piston pump was used to eliminate pump seal friction as a variable, and standard O3C stroke lengths of 30.5 and 15.2 cm (12 and 6 inches) were used. The regulator spring was set to give a maximum stroke rate of 33 strokes per minute. The water pumped was returned to the well after flowing through a settling tank. The tests were performed in accordance with AWEA WECS testing standards. Instrumentation provided 16 channels of data to accurately measure machine performance, including starting wind speeds, flow rates, O3C azimuth, tail furl angle, wind direction tracking errors, RPM, sucker rod loads, and other variables. The most significant performance data is summarized herein. A mathematical model of machine performance was developed that fairly accurately predicts performance for each of three test conditions. The results verify that the O3C is capable of pumping water at wind speeds from 30% to more than 50% lower than comparable un-counterbalanced units.

  2. Energy Savings and Breakeven Cost for Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maguire, J.; Burch, J.; Merrigan, T.; Ong, S.

    2013-07-01

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently reemerged in the U.S. residential water heating market and have the potential to provide homeowners with significant energy savings. However, there are questions as to the actual performance and energy savings potential of these units, in particular in regards to the heat pump's performance in unconditioned space and the impact of the heat pump on space heating and cooling loads when it is located in conditioned space. To help answer these questions, simulations were performed of a HPWH in both conditioned and unconditioned space at over 900 locations across the continental United States and Hawaii. Simulations included a Building America benchmark home so that any interaction between the HPWH and the home's HVAC equipment could be captured. Comparisons were performed to typical gas and electric water heaters to determine the energy savings potential and cost effectiveness of a HPWH relative to these technologies. HPWHs were found to have a significant source energy savings potential when replacing typical electric water heaters, but only saved source energy relative to gas water heater in the most favorable installation locations in the southern US. When replacing an electric water heater, the HPWH is likely to break even in California, the southern US, and parts of the northeast in most situations. However, the HPWH will only break even when replacing a gas water heater in a few southern states.

  3. Energy Savings and Breakeven Costs for Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maguire, Jeff [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Burch, Jay [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Merrigan, Tim [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ong, Sean [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently re-emerged in the U.S. residential water heating market and have the potential to provide homeowners with significant energy savings. However, there are questions as to the actual performance and energy savings potential of these units, in particular in regards to the heat pump's performance in unconditioned space and the impact of the heat pump on space heating and cooling loads when it is located in conditioned space. To help answer these questions, NREL performed simulations of a HPWH in both conditioned and unconditioned space at over 900 locations across the continental United States and Hawaii. Simulations included a Building America benchmark home so that any interaction between the HPWH and the home's HVAC equipment could be captured. Comparisons were performed to typical gas and electric water heaters to determine the energy savings potential and cost effectiveness of a HPWH relative to these technologies. HPWHs were found to have a significant source energy savings potential when replacing typical electric water heaters, but only saved source energy relative to gas water heater in the most favorable installation locations in the southern United States. When replacing an electric water heater, the HPWH is likely to break even in California, the southern United States, and parts of the northeast in most situations. However, the HPWH will only break even when replacing a gas water heater in a few southern states.

  4. Trailing edge devices to improve performance and increase lifetime of wind-electric water pumping systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vick, B.D.; Clark, R.N. [USDA-Agricultural Research Service, Bushland, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Trailing edge flaps were applied to the blades of a 10 kW wind turbine used for water pumping to try to improve the performance and decrease the structural fatigue on the wind turbine. Most small wind turbines (10 kW and below) use furling (rotor turns out of wind similar to a mechanical windmill) to protect the wind turbine from overspeed during high winds. Some small wind turbines, however, do not furl soon enough to keep the wind turbine from being off line part of the time in moderately high wind speeds (10 - 16 m/s). As a result, the load is disconnected and no water is pumped at moderately high wind speeds. When the turbine is offline, the frequency increases rapidly often causing excessive vibration of the wind turbine and tower components. The furling wind speed could possibly be decreased by increasing the offset between the tower centerline and the rotor centerline, but would be a major and potentially expensive retrofit. Trailing edge flaps (TEF) were used as a quick inexpensive method to try to reduce the furling wind speed and increase the on time by reducing the rotor RPM. One TEF configuration improved the water pumping performance at moderately high wind speeds, but degraded the pumping performance at low wind speeds which resulted in little change in daily water volume. The other TEF configuration differed very little from the no flap configuration. Both TEF configurations however, reduced the rotor RPM in high wind conditions. The TEF, did not reduce the rotor RPM by lowering the furling wind speed as hoped, but apparently did so by increasing the drag which also reduced the volume of water pumped at the lower wind speeds. 6 refs., 9 figs.

  5. Technical Report for Water Circulation Pumping System for Trihalomethanes (THMs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellah, W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-06-08

    The TSWWS was added as an active source of supply to the permit (No. 03-10-13P-003) in 2010, but has never been used due to the potential for formation of trihalomethanes (THMs) in the distribution system. THMs are formed as a by-product when chlorine is used to disinfect water for drinking. THMs are a group of chemicals generally referred to as disinfection by-products (DBPs). THMs result from the reaction of chlorine with organic matter that is present in the water. Some of the THMs are volatile and may easily vaporize into the air. This fact forms the basis of the design of the system discussed in this technical report. In addition, the design is based on the results of a study that has shown success using aeration as a means to reduce TTHMs to within allowable concentration levels with turn-over times as long as ten days. The Primary Drinking Water Standards of Regulated Contaminants Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) for TTHMs is 80 parts per billion (ppb). No other changes to the existing drinking water distribution system and chlorination operations are anticipated before switching to the TSWWS as the primary drinking water source. The two groundwater wells (Wells 20 and 18) which are currently the primary and backup water sources for the system would be maintained for use as backup supply. In the future, one of the wells may be removed from the system. A permit amendment would be filed at that time if this modification was deemed appropriate.

  6. Conventional and advanced exergoenvironmental analysis of an ammonia-water hybridabsorption-compression heat pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas Kjær; Markussen, Wiebke Brix; Reinholdt, Lars

    2015-01-01

    The ammonia-water hybrid absorption-compression heat pump (HACHP) is a technology suitable for industrial scale heat pumps in the process industry. A helpful tool in the design of cost effective and low environmental impact energy conversion systems, such as the HACHP, is the application...... to allocate the initial and operational environmental impact to the system components, thus revealing the main sources of environmental impact. The application of the advanced exergoenvironmental analysis improves the level of detail attained.This is achieved by accounting for technological and economic...

  7. Hot water tank for use with a combination of solar energy and heat-pump desuperheating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, J.W.

    1980-06-25

    A water heater or system is described which includes a hot water tank having disposed therein a movable baffle to function as a barrier between the incoming volume of cold water entering the tank and the volume of heated water entering the tank which is heated by the circulation of the cold water through a solar collector and/or a desuperheater of a heat pump so as to optimize the manner in which heat is imparted to the water in accordance to the demand on the water heater or system. A supplemental heater is also provided and it is connected so as to supplement the heating of the water in the event that the solar collector and/or desuperheater cannot impart all of the desired heat input into the water.

  8. microcontroller based automatic control for water pumping machine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    arduino Integrated Development Environment (IDE) in C programming Language into the microcontroller for control and coordination of the system functions. The height of tank used for this design is 0.30 metres and using equation 1, the different levels are calculated as shown in table 1. Table 1: Water level sensing.

  9. Measurement and analysis of the water hammer in ram pump

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper presents the results of experimental research of the phenomena occurring in water ram during a single cycle of its operation. Apart from a brief introduction and description of the test stand and data recording system, the work includes a broad interpretation of the obtained results. Based on the pressure ...

  10. LD side-pumped Nd:YAG Q-switched laser without water cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Ming; Jin, Guang-yong; Tan, Xue-chun; Wu, Zhi-chao; Liang, Zhu

    2009-07-01

    A novel LD side-pumped Nd:YAG Q-switched solid-state laser, which made use of the special pumping strcture with conductive cooling instead of water cooling, was investigated.After selecting an appropriate length and diameter of Nd:YAG laser crystal rod and using three groups of laser diode centimeter bar which was composed by 12 laser diodes and uniformly arranged according to the angle of 120°,side-pumping structure of laser was accomplished.Adopting plano-concave resonator ,mending double end face of laser crystal and designing heat-stability resonator made the resonator steadily oscillate.Laser crystal rod which was tight fastened by copper net was conductively cooled and radiation block was furnished on the external of copper net for increasing the radiation capacity.High reflection gold film was plated on the cooling wall in the opposite way of pumping light, so that the laser crystal was uniformly pumped and the laser with low order mode output.Making the use of pillar lens focus and ray trace computing, reasonable parameters were caculated to couple pumping light to laser with high-efficiency.It was the electrooptic Q-switched which was made to be micro-integration eliminating voltage by KD*P crystal that improved the ratio between acting and unacting.Inner heat radiated from laser in good time with TE cooler and the laser ran at constant temperature with water cooling when the big external heat sink emanated a steady heat to periphery. Experiments revealed that the syetem pumping efficiency riseed by 18% and the laser threshold energy was 192 mJ under the condition of this novel pumping structure. The low mode output of 10-12ns pulse width and the maximum output energy of 98 mJ was achieved with an incident pump energy of 720 mJ in 1064nm.The optical-to-optical conversion efficiency was up to 13. 6 %,and the power instability in 24 h was better than +/-1. 7 %.

  11. Nano-porous-water Absorbents for Solid-absorbebt Heat Pump System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizota, Tadato; Nakayama, Noriaki

    Zeolite-water heat-pump system has been developed in these 25 years. Recently, an instant beer-cooling system has appeared by using the zeolite heat pump system as a commercial product. It takes so long time for the development since the first proposal. The most serious problem through the development has been of the ability of absorbents. Themaximum heat exchange capacity to date exceeds 1MJ•kg-1 for Mg89-A, which is comparable to the energy storage capacity of modern alkaline-ion batteries in weight-bases. But it needs high temperature heat sources more than 200°C for the activation. Absorbents useful at lower temperatures are thus desirable for effective use of various kinds of lower temperature heat sources Various nano-porous materials as well as zeolites now under investigation as candidates of heat-pump absorbents, such as silica-gels, allophane, imogolite, hydrotalcite, etc.

  12. Analysis of air-to-water heat pump in cold climate: comparison between experiment and simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolis Januševičius

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Heat pump systems are promising technologies for current and future buildings and this research presents the performance of air source heat pump (ASHP system. The system was monitored, analysed and simulated using TRNSYS software. The experimental data were used to calibrate the simulation model of ASHP. The specific climate conditions are evaluated in the model. It was noticed for the heating mode that the coefficient of performance (COP varied from 1.98 to 3.05 as the outdoor temperature changed from –7.0 ºC to +5.0 ºC, respectively. TRNSYS simulations were also performed to predict seasonal performance factor of the ASHP for Vilnius city. It was identified that seasonal performance prediction could be approximately 15% lower if frost formation effects are not included to air-water heat pump simulation model.

  13. Analysis of photovoltaic with water pump cooling by using ANSYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syafiqah, Z.; Amin, N. A. M.; Irwan, Y. M.; Shobry, M. Z.; Majid, M. S. A.

    2017-10-01

    Almost all regions in the world are facing with problem of increasing electricity cost from time to time. Besides, with the mankind’s anxiety about global warming, it has infused an ideology to rapidly move towards renewable energy sources since it is believed to be more reliable and safer. One example of the best alternatives to replace the fossil fuels sourced is solar energy. Photovoltaic (PV) panel is used to convert the sunlight into electricity. Unfortunately, the performance of PV panel can be affected by its operating temperature. With the increment of ambient temperature, the PV panel operating temperature also increase and will affect the performance of PV panel (in terms of power generated). With this concern, a water cooling system was installed on top of PV panel to help reduce the PV panel’s temperature. Five different water mass flow rate is tested due to investigate their impact towards the thermal performance and heat transfer rate.

  14. Research on energy conversion mechanism of a screw centrifugal pump under the water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, H.; Li, R. N.; Su, Q. M.; Han, W.; Cheng, X. R.; Shen, Z. J.

    2013-12-01

    In order to research screw centrifugal pump impeller power capability and energy conversion mechanism, we used Navier-Stokes equation and standard k-ε equation turbulence model on the basis of the Euler equations to carry out screw centrifugal pump internal flow numerical simulation. This was explored by simulating specific design conditions; the medium is water, variation of speed and pressure of flow filed under the action of the impeller, and the screw centrifugal impeller shroud line and wheel line segment take monitoring sites. The monitoring points are between dynamic head and static head change to analyze the energy conversion capability along the impeller corners of screw centrifugal pump. The results show that the energy of fluid of the screw centrifugal pump is provided by spiral segment, the spiral segment in front of the impeller has played a multi-level role, it has significant reference value to research the energy conversion mechanism of screw centrifugal pump under solid-liquid two phase.

  15. Analysis of service water pump shaft failure. Schadensuntersuchung an einer Pumpenwelle aus dem Sekundaer-Kuehlsystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaikh, H.; Khatak, H.S.; Gnanamoorthy, J.B. (Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India). Metallurgy Div.)

    1990-07-01

    After approximately seven years of operation, one of the service water pumps failed when its shaft gave way. These centrifugal pumps operate at 22 kW, 1500 min{sup -1} with a flow rate of 175 m{sup 3}/h. They are negative suction pumps (-1.5 M) with a discharge pressure of 250 kPa. In a twelve day cycle, each pump would operate for four days with eight days off. The material of the pump shaft was specified as En8 steel. Data from the visual and metallurgical examination indicated that corrosion attack aided by stress concentration at the thread root had initiated the crack at the surface. The ratchet marks and the flatness of fracture surface suggested that crack propogation had taken place either due to corrosion fatigue or mechanical fatigue. The presence of the multiple initiation points and the location of the final fast failure around the centre indicated the presence of high rotary bending stresses. Improper composition of material coupled with irregular maintenance resulted in the reduced life of the shaft. (orig./MM).

  16. The efficiency of the heat pump water heater, during DHW tapping cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gużda Arkadiusz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses one of the most effective systems for domestic hot water (DHW production based on air-source heat pump with an integrated tank. The operating principle of the heat pump is described in detail. Moreover, there is an account of experimental set-up and results of the measurements. In the experimental part, measurements were conducted with the aim of determining the energy parameters and measures of the economic efficiency related to the presented solution. The measurements that were conducted are based on the tapping cycle that is similar to the recommended one in EN-16147 standard. The efficiency of the air source heat pump during the duration of the experiment was 2.43. In the end of paper, authors conducted a simplified ecological analysis in order to determine the influence of operation of air-source heat pump with integrated tank on the environment. Moreover the compression with the different source of energy (gas boiler with closed combustion chamber and boiler fired by the coal was conducted. The heat pump is the ecological friendly source of the energy.

  17. The efficiency of the heat pump water heater, during DHW tapping cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gużda, Arkadiusz; Szmolke, Norbert

    2017-10-01

    This paper discusses one of the most effective systems for domestic hot water (DHW) production based on air-source heat pump with an integrated tank. The operating principle of the heat pump is described in detail. Moreover, there is an account of experimental set-up and results of the measurements. In the experimental part, measurements were conducted with the aim of determining the energy parameters and measures of the economic efficiency related to the presented solution. The measurements that were conducted are based on the tapping cycle that is similar to the recommended one in EN-16147 standard. The efficiency of the air source heat pump during the duration of the experiment was 2.43. In the end of paper, authors conducted a simplified ecological analysis in order to determine the influence of operation of air-source heat pump with integrated tank on the environment. Moreover the compression with the different source of energy (gas boiler with closed combustion chamber and boiler fired by the coal) was conducted. The heat pump is the ecological friendly source of the energy.

  18. Energy Efficiency Modelling of Residential Air Source Heat Pump Water Heater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Toan Tran

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The heat pump water heater is one of the most energy efficient technologies for heating water for household use. The present work proposes a simplified model of coefficient of performance and examines its predictive capability. The model is based on polynomial functions where the variables are temperatures and the coefficients are derived from the Australian standard test data, using regression technics. The model enables to estimate the coefficient of performance of the same heat pump water heater under other test standards (i.e. US, Japanese, European and Korean standards. The resulting estimations over a heat-up phase and a full test cycle including a draw off pattern are in close agreement with the measured data. Thus the model allows manufacturers to avoid the need to carry out physical tests for some standards and to reduce product cost. The limitations of the methodology proposed are also discussed.

  19. Analysis of the performance and space-conditioning impacts of dedicated heat-pump water heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, L.; Swisher, J.

    1980-12-01

    A description is given of the development and testing of the newly-marketed dedicated heat pump water heater (HPWH), and an analysis is presented of its performance and space conditioning impacts. This system utilizes an air-to-water heat pump, costs about $1000 installed, and obtains a coefficient of performance (COP) of about 2.0 in laboratory and field tests. Since a HPWH is usually installed indoors and extracts heat from the air, its operation is a space conditioning benefit if an air conditioning load exists and a penalty if a space heating load exists. To investigate HPWH performance and a space conditioning impacts, a simulation has been developed to model the thermal performance of a residence with resistance baseboard heat, air conditioning, and either heat pump or resistance water heating. The building characteristics are adapted for three US geographical areas (Madison, Wisconsin; Washington, DC; and Ft. Worth, Texas), and the system is simulated for a year with typical weather data. For each city, HPWH COPs are calculated monthly and yearly. In addition, the water heating and space conditioning energy requirements of HPWH operation are compared with those of resistance water heater operation to determine the relative performance ratio (RPR) of the HPWH. The annual simulated RPRs range from 1.5 to 1.7, which indicate a substantial space heating penalty of HPWH operation in these cities.

  20. TECHNO-ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF THE OF LAND RECLAMATION PUMPING STATIONS’ ENERGY EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czesław Przybyła

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The energy efficiency of the operation and maintenance of land reclamation pumping stations were conducted at this paper. The study included 12 pump stations located in the southern part of the region of Wielkopolska. All objects are administered by the Great Poland of Land Melioration and Water Units Board in Poznan, District Branch in Leszno. It was found that the work of half of the analyzed pumps is very expensive, and maintenance cost incomparable to the results achieved. Operating costs of the analyzed drainage pumping stations account for 86% of total operating costs, of which 40% is energy cost, and the remaining 14% to the upkeep. Small relative time of operating pumps for leeve and channel pumping stations indicates a for a leap of work, which proves their inefficient use. The use of a larger number of pumps with less power would preserve the continuity and stability of their work.

  1. Water reuse and cost-benefit of pumping at different spatial levels in a rice irrigation system in UPRIIS, Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafeez, M. M.; Bouman, B. A. M.; Van de Giesen, N.; Mushtaq, S.; Vlek, P.; Khan, S.

    As agricultural water resources in Asia become increasingly scarce, the irrigation efficiency of rice must be improved. However, in this region there is very limited information available about water use efficiency across spatial levels in irrigation systems. This study quantifies the volume of water reuse and its related cost-benefits at five different spatial levels, ranging from 1500 ha to 18,000 ha, under gravity-fed irrigation system in Upper Pumpanga River Integrated Irrigation System (UPRIIS), Philippines. The major sources of water reuse are considered, namely groundwater pumping, pumping from creeks, combined use and irrigation supplies from check dams. The volume of water available from all four sources of water reuse was quantified through extensive measurements. Production functions were developed to quantify water-yield relationships and to measure the economic value of water reuse. This study was conducted during the dry season of 2001, which existed from 19 November 2000 until 18 May 2001. The water reuse by pumping and check dams was 7% and 22% of the applied surface water at District 1 level. The reuse of surface water through check dams increased linearly with 4.6 Mm 3 per added 1000 ha. Similarly, the total amount of reused water from pumping is equivalent to 30% of the water lost through rice evapotranspiration during the dry season 2001. The results showed that water reuse plays a dominant role in growing a rice crop during the dry season. The result showed no difference in pumping costs between the creek (US0.011/m 3) and shallow pumps (US0.012/m 3). The marginal value of productivity (MVP) of water reuse from creek (US0.044/m 3) was slightly higher than the water reuse through the pumping ground water (US0.039/m 3). Results also indicated that the total volume pumped per ha (m 3/ha) was ranging from 0.39 to 6.93 m 3/ha during the dry season. The results clearly indicate that the quantification of amount of water reuse is very crucial for

  2. Analysis of data from water lift powered by solar energy pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyama, Paulo Takashi [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil); Ricieri, Reinaldo Prandini [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola], E-mail: ricieri@unioeste.br; Halmeman, Maria Cristina Rodrigues [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Gnoatto, Estor; Kavanagh; Brenneisen, Paulo Job [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Medianeira, PR (Brazil)], Emails: gnoatto@utfpr.edu.br, kavanagh@utfpr.edu.br, brenneisen@utfpr.edu.br

    2008-07-01

    Due to the high costs to install electricity in remote locations, away from the regular urban electrical installations, photovoltaic solar energy has ample application in public illumination, water pumping, health services offices, etc. With the purpose to contribute to a better use of this kind of energy, this project aimed in analyzing the outflow and efficiency of a motor pump powered by photovoltaic panels, the irradiation necessary to activate it for water lift, collecting data at every 6- meter height, ranging from 6,2 to 18,2 meters. This study is part of a development project of the Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), by making use of photovoltaic panels, motor pump, pyranometers, thermocouple type K, pressure transducer and outflow transducer. The data show a maximum average outflow of 584,299 Lh{sup -1} and maximum efficiency of 23,338% for a lift of 18,2 m. There is also the need of irradiation for the activation of the motor pump proportional to the height of the lift, in a polynomial dependence of the third order. (author)

  3. Water chemical evolution in Underground Pumped Storage Hydropower plants and induced consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujades, Estanislao; Orban, Philippe; Jurado, Anna; Ayora, Carlos; Brouyère, Serge; Dassargues, Alain

    2017-04-01

    Underground Pumped Storage Hydropower (UPSH) using abandoned mines is an alternative to manage the electricity production in flat regions. UPSH plants consist of two reservoirs; the upper reservoir is located at the surface or at shallow depth, while the lower reservoir is underground. These plants have potentially less constraints that the classical Pumped Storage Hydropower plants because more sites are available and impacts on landscape, land use, environment and society seem lower. Still, it is needed to consider the consequences of the groundwater exchanges occurring between the underground reservoir and surrounding porous media. Previous studies have been focused on the influence of these groundwater exchanges on the efficiency and on groundwater flow impacts. However, hydrochemical variations induced by the surface exposure of pumped water and their consequences have not been yet addressed. The objective of this work is to evaluate the hydrochemical evolution of the water in UPSH plants and its effects on the environment and on the UPSH efficiency. The problem is studied numerically by means of reactive transport modelling. Different scenarios are considered varying the chemical properties of the surrounding porous medium and groundwater. Results show that the dissolution and/or precipitation of some compounds may affect (1) the groundwater quality, and (2) the efficiency and the useful life of the used pumps and turbines of the UPSH system.

  4. Alkaline water electrolysis technology for Space Station regenerative fuel cell energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, F. H.; Hoberecht, M. A.; Le, M.

    1986-01-01

    The regenerative fuel cell system (RFCS), designed for application to the Space Station energy storage system, is based on state-of-the-art alkaline electrolyte technology and incorporates a dedicated fuel cell system (FCS) and water electrolysis subsystem (WES). In the present study, emphasis is placed on the WES portion of the RFCS. To ensure RFCS availability for the Space Station, the RFCS Space Station Prototype design was undertaken which included a 46-cell 0.93 cu m static feed water electrolysis module and three integrated mechanical components.

  5. Research and development of an air-cycle heat-pump water heater. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dieckmann, J.T.; Erickson, A.J.; Harvey, A.C.; Toscano, W.M.

    1979-10-01

    A prototype reverse Brayton air cycle heat pump water heater has been designed and built for residential applications. The system consists of a compressor/expander, an air-water heat exchanger, an electric motor, a water circulation pump, a thermostat, and fluid management controls. The prototype development program consisted of a market analysis, design study, and development testing. A potential residential market for the new high-efficiency water heater of approximately 480,000 units/y was identified. The retail and installation cost of this water heater is estimated to be between $500 and $600 which is approximately $300 more than a conventional electric water heater. The average payback per unit is less than 3-1/2 y and the average recurring energy cost savings after the payback period is approximately $105/y at the average seasonal coefficient of performance (COP) of 1.7. As part of the design effort, a thermodynamic parametric analysis was performed on the water heater system. It was determined that to obtain a coefficient of performance of 1.7, the isentropic efficiency of both the compressor and the expander must be at least 85%. The selected mechanical configuration is described. The water heater has a diameter of 25 in. and a height of 73 in. The results of the development testing of the prototype water heater system showed: the electrical motor maximum efficiency of 78%; the compressor isentropic efficiency is 95 to 119% and the volumetric efficiency is approximately 85%; the expander isentropic efficiency is approximately 58% and the volumetric efficiency is 92%; a significant heat transfer loss of approximately 16% occurred in the expander; and the prototype heat pump system COP is 1.26 which is less than the design goal of at least 1.7. Future development work is recommended.

  6. Summer Indoor Heat Pump Water Heater Evaluation in a Hot-Dry Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeschele, Marc [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Seitzler, Matthew [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Heat pump water heaters offer a significant opportunity to improve water heating performance for the over 40% of U.S. households that heat domestic hot water using electric resistance storage water heaters. Numerous field studies have also been completed documenting performance in a variety of climates and applications. More recent evaluation efforts have focused attention on the performance of May through September 2014, with ongoing winter monitoring being sponsored by California utility partners. Summer results show favorable system performance with extrapolated annual water heating savings of 1,466 to 2,300 kWh per year, based on the observed hot water loads. Additional summer space cooling benefits savings of 121 to 135 kWh per year were projected, further increasing the water energy savings.

  7. Comparisons of Hydraulic Performance in Permanent Maglev Pump for Water-Jet Propulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puyu Cao

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The operation of water-jet propulsion can generate nonuniform inflow that may be detrimental to the performance of the water-jets. To reduce disadvantages of the nonuniform inflow, a rim-driven water-jet propulsion was designed depending on the technology of passive magnetic levitation. Insufficient understanding of large performance deviations between the normal water-jets (shaft and permanent maglev water-jets (shaftless is a major problem in this paper. CFD was directly adopted in the feasibility and superiority of permanent maglev water-jets. Comparison and discussion of the hydraulic performance were carried out. The shaftless duct firstly has a drop in hydraulic losses (K1, since it effectively avoids the formation and evolution of the instability secondary vortex by the normalized helicity analysis. Then, the shaftless intake duct improves the inflow field of the water-jet pump, with consequencing the drop in the backflow and blocking on the blade shroud. So that the shaftless water-jet pump delivers higher flow rate and head to the propulsion than the shaft. Eventually, not only can the shaftless model increase the thrust and efficiency, but it has the ability to extend the working range and broaden the high efficiency region as well.

  8. Coupling of methylmercury uptake with respiration and water pumping in freshwater tilapia Oreochromis niloticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Wong, Ming-Hung; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2011-09-01

    The relationships among the uptake of toxic methylmercury (MeHg) and two important fish physiological processes-respiration and water pumping--in the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were explored in the present study. Coupled radiotracer and respirometric techniques were applied to measure simultaneously the uptake rates of MeHg, water, and oxygen under various environmental conditions (temperature, dissolved oxygen level, and water flow). A higher temperature enhanced MeHg influx and the oxygen consumption rate but had no effect on the water uptake, indicating the influence of metabolism on MeHg uptake. The fish showed a high tolerance to hypoxia, and the oxygen consumption rate was not affected until the dissolved oxygen concentration decreased to extremely low levels (below 1 mg/L). The MeHg and water uptake rates increased simultaneously as the dissolved oxygen level decreased, suggesting the coupling of water flux and MeHg uptake. The influence of fish swimming performance on MeHg uptake was also investigated for the first time. Rapidly swimming fish showed significantly higher uptake rates of MeHg, water, and oxygen, confirming the coupling relationships among respiration, water pumping, and metal uptake. Moreover, these results support that MeHg uptake is a rate-limiting process involving energy. Our study demonstrates the importance of physiological processes in understanding mercury bioaccumulation in fluctuating aquatic environments. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  9. Water pipe network as a heat source for heat pump integrated into a district heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadwiszczak, Piotr; Niemierka, Elżbieta

    2017-11-01

    The paper will present a technical analysis of the performance of the Heat Pumps (HP) installed in the domestic water pipe network for a big city scale. The HP integration scheme predicts the domestic water flow as a heat source and the district heating as a heat sink. The technical factors which influence on the estimated thermal power and performance of HP unit will be identified. Additionally, the pros and cons of HP operation in water intake will be determined. The analysis will be based on long-term measurement data from Głogów city.

  10. Water pipe network as a heat source for heat pump integrated into a district heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadwiszczak Piotr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper will present a technical analysis of the performance of the Heat Pumps (HP installed in the domestic water pipe network for a big city scale. The HP integration scheme predicts the domestic water flow as a heat source and the district heating as a heat sink. The technical factors which influence on the estimated thermal power and performance of HP unit will be identified. Additionally, the pros and cons of HP operation in water intake will be determined. The analysis will be based on long-term measurement data from Głogów city.

  11. High pressure water electrolysis for space station EMU recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance, Nick; Puskar, Michael; Moulthrop, Lawrence; Zagaja, John

    1988-01-01

    A high pressure oxygen recharge system (HPORS), is being developed for application on board the Space Station. This electrolytic system can provide oxygen at up to 6000 psia without a mechanical compressor. The Hamilton standard HPORS based on a solid polymer electrolyte system is an extension of the much larger and succesful 3000 psia system of the U.S. Navy. Cell modules have been successfully tested under conditions beyond which spacecraft may encounter during launch. The control system with double redundancy and mechanical backups for all electronically controlled components is designed to ensure a safe shutdown.

  12. Investigations of hydraulic operating conditions of air lift pump with three types of air-water mixers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalenik Marek

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Investigations of hydraulic operating conditions of air lift pump with three types of air-water mixers. The paper presents the analysis of results of the investigations concerning the influence of various constructive solutions of the air-water mixers on hydraulic operating conditions of the air lift pump. The scope of the investigations encompassed the determination of characteristics of delivery head and delivery rate for three types of air-water mixers applied in the constructed air lift pump. Using the obtained results, the efficiency of the three types of air-water mixers applied in this air lift pump was determined. The analysis was carried out and there was checked whether the improved analytical Stenning-Martin model can be used to design air lift pumps with the air-water mixers of these types. The highest capacity in the water transport was reached by the air lift pump with the 1st type air-water mixer, the lowest one – with the 3rd type air-water mixer. The water flow in the air lift pump increases along with the rise in the air flow. The lower are the hydraulic losses generated during flow of the air flux by the air-water mixer, the higher is the air lift pump capacity. Along with the rise in the water delivery head, the capacity of the air lift pump decreases. The highest efficiency is reached by the air lift pump with the 1st type air-water mixer, the lowest – with the 3st type air-water mixer. The efficiency of the air lift pump for the three investigated types of air-water mixers decreases along with the rise in air flow rate and water delivery head. The values of submergence ratio (h/L of the delivery pipe, calculated with the use of the improved analytical Stenning-Martin model, coincide quite well with the values of h/L determined from the measurements.

  13. Water Flow Performance of a Superscale Model of the Fastrac Liquid Oxygen Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelley, Stephen; Zoladz, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    As part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's ongoing effort to lower the cost of access to space, the Marshall Space Flight Center has developed a rocket engine with 60,000 pounds of thrust for use on the Reusable Launch Vehicle technology demonstrator slated for launch in 2000. This gas generator cycle engine, known as the Fastrac engine, uses liquid oxygen and RP-1 for propellants and includes single stage liquid oxygen and RP-1 pumps and a single stage supersonic turbine on a common shaft. The turbopump design effort included the first use and application of new suction capability prediction codes and three-dimensional blade generation codes in an attempt to reduce the turbomachinery design and certification costs typically associated with rocket engine development. To verify the pump's predicted cavitation performance, a water flow test of a superscale model of the Fastrac liquid oxygen pump was conducted to experimentally evaluate the liquid oxygen pump's performance at and around the design point. The water flow test article replicated the flow path of the Fastrac liquid oxygen pump in a 1.582x scale model, including scaled seal clearances for correct leakage flow at a model operating speed of 5000 revolutions per minute. Flow entered the 3-blade axial-flow inducer, transitioned to a shrouded, 6- blade radial impeller, and discharged into a vaneless radial diffuser and collection volute. The test article included approximately 50 total and static pressure measurement locations as well as flush-mounted, high frequency pressure transducers for complete mapping of the pressure environment. The primary objectives of the water flow test were to measure the steady-state and dynamic pressure environment of the liquid oxygen pump versus flow coefficient, suction specific speed, and back face leakage flow rate. Initial results showed acceptable correlation between the predicted and experimentally measured pump head rise at low suction specific speeds

  14. Recovery Act: Cedarville School District Retrofit of Heating and Cooling Systems with Geothermal Heat Pumps and Ground Source Water Loops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarrell, Mark

    2013-09-30

    Cedarville School District retrofitted the heating and cooling systems in three campus areas (High School, Middle School, and Upper Elementary School) with geothermal heat pumps and ground source water loops, as a demonstration project for the effective implementation of geothermal heat pump systems and other energy efficiency and air quality improvements.

  15. Study of hybrid power system potential to power agricultural water pump in mountain area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syuhada, Ahmad; Mubarak, Amir Zaki; Maulana, M. Ilham

    2016-03-01

    As industry and Indonesian economy grow fast, there are a lot of agricultural land has changed into housing and industrial land. This causes the agricultural land moves to mountain area. In mountainous agricultural area, farmers use the water resources of small rivers in the groove of the mountain to irrigate the farmland. Farmers use their power to lift up water from the river to their land which causes inefectivity in the work of the farmers. Farmers who have capital utilize pump to raise water to their land. The only way to use pump in mountain area is by using fuel energy as there is no electricity, and the fuel price in mountain area is very expensive. Based on those reasons it is wise to consider the exploration of renewable energy available in the area such as solar energy, wind energy and hybrid energy. This study analyses the potential of the application of hybrid power plant, which is the combination of solar and wind energy, to power agricultural pump. In this research, the data of wind speed and solar radiation are collected from the measurement of BMKG SMPK Plus Sare. Related to the solar energy, the photovoltaic output power calculation is 193 W with duration of irradiation of 5 hours/day. While for the wind energy, the output power of the wind turbine is 459.84 W with blade diameter of 3 m and blow duration of 7 hours/day. The power of the pump is 558 W with 8 hours of usage, and the water capacity is 2.520 liters/hour for farmland with the area of 15 ha. Based on the analysis result, the designed system will generate electricity of 3.210 kW/year with initial investment of US 14,938.

  16. Design Considerations of PV Water Pumping and Rural Electricity System (2011) in Lower Myanmar

    OpenAIRE

    Nang Saw Yuzana Kya ing; Wunna Swe

    2011-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) systems provides a viable means of power generation for applications like powering residential appliances, electrification of villages in rural areas, refrigeration and water pumping. Photovoltaic-power generation is reliable. The operation and maintenance costs are very low. Since Myanmar is a land of plentiful sunshine, especially in central and southern regions of the country, the solar energy could hopefully become the final solution to its energy su...

  17. Measure Guideline: Heat Pump Water Heaters in New and Existing Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, C.; Puttagunta, S.; Owens, D.

    2012-02-01

    This Building America Measure Guideline is intended for builders, contractors, homeowners, and policy-makers. This document is intended to explore the issues surrounding heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) to ensure that homeowners and contractors have the tools needed to appropriately and efficiently install HPWHs. Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) promise to significantly reduce energy consumption for domestic hot water (DHW) over standard electric resistance water heaters (ERWHs). While ERWHs perform with energy factors (EFs) around 0.9, new HPWHs boast EFs upwards of 2.0. High energy factors in HPWHs are achieved by combining a vapor compression system, which extracts heat from the surrounding air at high efficiencies, with electric resistance element(s), which are better suited to meet large hot water demands. Swapping ERWHs with HPWHs could result in roughly 50% reduction in water heating energy consumption for 35.6% of all U.S. households. This Building America Measure Guideline is intended for builders, contractors, homeowners, and policy-makers. While HPWHs promise to significantly reduce energy use for DHW, proper installation, selection, and maintenance of HPWHs is required to ensure high operating efficiency and reliability. This document is intended to explore the issues surrounding HPWHs to ensure that homeowners and contractors have the tools needed to appropriately and efficiently install HPWHs. Section 1 of this guideline provides a brief description of HPWHs and their operation. Section 2 highlights the cost and energy savings of HPWHs as well as the variables that affect HPWH performance, reliability, and efficiency. Section 3 gives guidelines for proper installation and maintenance of HPWHs, selection criteria for locating HPWHs, and highlights of important differences between ERWH and HPWH installations. Throughout this document, CARB has included results from the evaluation of 14 heat pump water heaters (including three recently released HPWH

  18. Energy Production by Means of Pumps As Turbines in Water Distribution Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Venturini

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the estimation of the energy production by means of pumps used as turbines to exploit residual hydraulic energy, as in the case of available head and flow rate in water distribution networks. To this aim, four pumps with different characteristics are investigated to estimate the producible yearly electric energy. The performance curves of Pumps As Turbines (PATs, which relate head, power, and efficiency to the volume flow rate over the entire PAT operation range, were derived by using published experimental data. The four considered water distribution networks, for which experimental data taken during one year were available, are characterized by significantly different hydraulic features (average flow rate in the range 10–116 L/s; average pressure reduction in the range 12–53 m. Therefore, energy production accounts for actual flow rate and head variability over the year. The conversion efficiency is also estimated, for both the whole water distribution network and the PAT alone.

  19. Technoeconomical Assessment of Optimum Design for Photovoltaic Water Pumping System for Rural Area in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein A. Kazem

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic (PV systems have been used globally for a long time to supply electricity for water pumping system for irrigation. System cost drops down with time since PV technology, efficiency, and design methodology have been improved and cost of wattage drops dramatically in the last decade. In the present paper optimum PV system design for water pumping system has been proposed for Oman. Intuitive and numerical methods were used to design the system. HOMER software as a numerical method was used to design the system to come up with optimum design for Oman. Also, REPS.OM software has been used to find the optimum design based on hourly meteorological data. The daily solar energy in Sohar was found to be 6.182 kWh/m2·day. However, it is found that the system annual yield factor is 2024.66 kWh/kWp. Furthermore, the capacity factor was found to be 23.05%, which is promising. The cost of energy and system capital cost has been compared with that of diesel generator and systems in literature. The comparison shows that the cost of energy is 0.180, 0.309, and 0.790 USD/kWh for PV-REPS.OM, PV-HOMER, and diesel systems, respectively, which sound that PV water pumping systems are promising in Oman.

  20. Modeling the Performance of Water-Zeolite 13X Adsorption Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalska, Kinga; Ambrożek, Bogdan

    2017-12-01

    The dynamic performance of cylindrical double-tube adsorption heat pump is numerically analysed using a non-equilibrium model, which takes into account both heat and mass transfer processes. The model includes conservation equations for: heat transfer in heating/cooling fluids, heat transfer in the metal tube, and heat and mass transfer in the adsorbent. The mathematical model is numerically solved using the method of lines. Numerical simulations are performed for the system water-zeolite 13X, chosen as the working pair. The effect of the evaporator and condenser temperatures on the adsorption and desorption kinetics is examined. The results of the numerical investigation show that both of these parameters have a significant effect on the adsorption heat pump performance. Based on computer simulation results, the values of the coefficients of performance for heating and cooling are calculated. The results show that adsorption heat pumps have relatively low efficiency compared to other heat pumps. The value of the coefficient of performance for heating is higher than for cooling

  1. Modeling the Performance of Water-Zeolite 13X Adsorption Heat Pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowalska Kinga

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic performance of cylindrical double-tube adsorption heat pump is numerically analysed using a non-equilibrium model, which takes into account both heat and mass transfer processes. The model includes conservation equations for: heat transfer in heating/cooling fluids, heat transfer in the metal tube, and heat and mass transfer in the adsorbent. The mathematical model is numerically solved using the method of lines. Numerical simulations are performed for the system water-zeolite 13X, chosen as the working pair. The effect of the evaporator and condenser temperatures on the adsorption and desorption kinetics is examined. The results of the numerical investigation show that both of these parameters have a significant effect on the adsorption heat pump performance. Based on computer simulation results, the values of the coefficients of performance for heating and cooling are calculated. The results show that adsorption heat pumps have relatively low efficiency compared to other heat pumps. The value of the coefficient of performance for heating is higher than for cooling

  2. Water quality studies of TV station reservoir at Davangere City, Karnataka (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Nafeesa; Purushothama, R; Narayana, J; Kumar, K P Ravindra

    2006-10-01

    Studies were carried out to assess the water quality of TV station reservoir at Davangere City, Karnataka (India). The study revealed that there were variations in physico-chemical concentrations during the rainy season. Except turbidity, all the other physico-chemical characteristics were found within the permissible limits. The results were compared with the standards given by ISI for water quality.

  3. Effects of pumping strategies on pesticide concentration of a drinking water well

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aisopou, Angeliki; Binning, Philip John; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    was to examine numerically the effects of pumping on pesticide contamination of drinking water wells using a reactive transport model in a hypothetical aquifer system resembling a typical Danish well field. The application history of the pesticides is crucial. This can be taken into account by assessing...... was assumed for the application period of each pesticide. The pre-abstraction age distribution of the water in the system was first estimated using a steady-state flow and transport simulation. These water ages were then used as the initial conditions for the transient simulations. The results......Groundwater is an important source of drinking water production in many countries including Denmark. This requires high quality groundwater that meets the standards of the European Water Framework Directive. Yet as a result of agricultural activitity, deposition and previous handling, pesticides...

  4. Experimental and CFD analysis for prediction of vortex and swirl angle in the pump sump station model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, C. G.; Kim, B. H.; Bang, B. H.; Lee, Y. H.

    2015-01-01

    Sump model testing is mainly used to check flow conditions around the intake structure. In present paper, numerical simulation with SST turbulence model for a scaled sump model was carried out with air entrainment and two phases for prediction of locations of vortex generation. The sump model used for the CFD and experimental analysis was scaled down by a ratio of 1:10. The experiment was performed in Korea Maritime and Ocean University (KMOU) and the flow conditions around pump's intake structure were investigated. In this study, uniformity of flow distribution in the pump intake channel was examined to find out the specific causes of vortex occurrence. Furthermore, the effectiveness of an Anti Vortex Device (AVD) to suppress the vortex occurrence in a single intake pump sump model was examined. CFD and experimental analysis carried out with and without AVDs produced very similar results. Without the AVDs, the maximum swirl angle obtained for experimental and CFD analysis were 10.9 and 11.3 degree respectively. Similarly, with AVDs, the maximum swirl angle obtained for experimental and CFD analysis was 2.7 and 0.2 degree respectively. So, with reference to the ANSI/HI 98 standard that permits a maximum swirl angle of 5 degree, the use of AVDs in experimental and CFD analysis produced very desirable results which is well within the limit.

  5. Temperatures and Water Levels at Tanana Flats Monitoring Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    a Druck pressure trans- ducer near the bottom. In response to this drawdown, the initial record showed a water level of 1.13 m on 1 April 2005, which...gradually increased to 1.68 m on 8 April. Freezing of the sensor on 9–10 April ended the reli- able water level record. A pair of replacement Drucks ...again, and a new Druck was installed to replace those that had been frozen. With rising tem- peratures at the bottom of the well, an injection of 400 g

  6. Comfortable, high-efficiency heat pump with desiccant-coated, water-sorbing heat exchangers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Y D; Wang, R Z; Ge, T S; Zheng, X

    2017-01-12

    Comfortable, efficient, and affordable heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems in buildings are highly desirable due to the demands of energy efficiency and environmental friendliness. Traditional vapor-compression air conditioners exhibit a lower coefficient of performance (COP) (typically 2.8-3.8) owing to the cooling-based dehumidification methods that handle both sensible and latent loads together. Temperature- and humidity-independent control or desiccant systems have been proposed to overcome these challenges; however, the COP of current desiccant systems is quite small and additional heat sources are usually needed. Here, we report on a desiccant-enhanced, direct expansion heat pump based on a water-sorbing heat exchanger with a desiccant coating that exhibits an ultrahigh COP value of more than 7 without sacrificing any comfort or compactness. The pump's efficiency is doubled compared to that of pumps currently used in conventional room air conditioners, which is a revolutionary HVAC breakthrough. Our proposed water-sorbing heat exchanger can independently handle sensible and latent loads at the same time. The desiccants adsorb moisture almost isothermally and can be regenerated by condensation heat. This new approach opens up the possibility of achieving ultrahigh efficiency for a broad range of temperature- and humidity-control applications.

  7. Performance Analysis of Air-to-Water Heat Pump in Latvian Climate Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazjonovs, Janis; Sipkevics, Andrejs; Jakovics, Andris; Dancigs, Andris; Bajare, Diana; Dancigs, Leonards

    2014-12-01

    Strategy of the European Union in efficient energy usage demands to have a higher proportion of renewable energy in the energy market. Since heat pumps are considered to be one of the most efficient heating and cooling systems, they will play an important role in the energy consumption reduction in buildings aimed to meet the target of nearly zero energy buildings set out in the EU Directive 2010/31/EU. Unfortunately, the declared heat pump Coefficient of Performance (COP) corresponds to a certain outdoor temperature (+7 °C), therefore different climate conditions, building characteristics and settings result in different COP values during the year. The aim of this research is to investigate the Seasonal Performance factor (SPF) values of air-to-water heat pump which better characterize the effectiveness of heat pump in a longer selected period of time, especially during the winter season, in different types of residential buildings in Latvian climate conditions. Latvia has four pronounced seasons of near-equal length. Winter starts in mid-December and lasts until mid-March. Latvia is characterized by cold, maritime climate (duration of the average heating period being 203 days, the average outdoor air temperature during the heating period being 0.0 °C, the coldest five-day average temperature being -20.7 °C, the average annual air temperature being +6.2 °C, the daily average relative humidity being 79 %). The first part of this research consists of operational air-towater heat pump energy performance monitoring in different residential buildings during the winter season. The second part of the research takes place under natural conditions in an experimental construction stand which is located in an urban environment in Riga, Latvia. The inner area of this test stand, where air-to-water heat pump performance is analyzed, is 9 m2. The ceiling height is 3 m, all external wall constructions (U = 0.16 W/(m2K)) have ventilated facades. To calculate SPF, the

  8. Advancements in water vapor electrolysis technology. [for Space Station ECLSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chullen, Cinda; Heppner, Dennis B.; Sudar, Martin

    1988-01-01

    The paper describes a technology development program whose goal is to develop water vapor electrolysis (WVE) hardware that can be used selectively as localized topping capability in areas of high metabolic activity without oversizing the central air revitalization system on long-duration manned space missions. The WVE will be used primarily to generate O2 for the crew cabin but also to provide partial humidity control by removing water vapor from the cabin atmosphere. The electrochemically based WVE interfaces with cabin air which is controlled in the following ranges: dry bulb temperature of 292 to 300 K; dew point temperature of 278 to 289 K; relative humidity of 25 to 75 percent; and pressure of 101 + or - 1.4 kPa. Design requirements, construction details, and results for both single-cell and multicell module testing are presented, and the preliminary sizing of a multiperson subsystem is discussed.

  9. Municipal water-based heat pump heating and/or cooling systems: Findings and recommendations. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloomquist, R.G. [Washington, State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Wegman, S. [South Dakota Utilities Commission (United States)

    1998-04-01

    The purpose of the present work was to determine if existing heat pump systems based on municipal water systems meet existing water quality standards, to analyze water that has passed through a heat pump or heat exchanger to determine if corrosion products can be detected, to determine residual chlorine levels in municipal waters on the inlet as well as the outlet side of such installations, to analyses for bacterial contaminants and/or regrowth due to the presence of a heat pump or heat exchanger, to develop and suggest criteria for system design and construction, to provide recommendations and specifications for material and fluid selection, and to develop model rules and regulations for the installation, operation, and monitoring of new and existing systems. In addition, the Washington State University (WSU) has evaluated availability of computer models that would allow for water system mapping, water quality modeling and system operation.

  10. Investigation of the Performance of a Heat Pump Using Waste Water as a Heat Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Kahraman

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In this research, a water-water heat pump system using waste water as a heat source, a type that is not often used in Turkey and the World, was experimentally modeled. The experiments were performed under the conditions of simulated waste water temperature values of 20 °C, 30 °C and 40 °C. Inlet and outlet water temperatures of the evaporator and condenser, water flow rates in the evaporator and condenser circuits, pressures at the compressor inlet and outlet and power consumption of the system were measured. The heating coefficients of performance were calculated based on the measurements. It was found that the maximum temperature in the energy storage tank was about 50.6 °C. For the heat source temperatures of 20 °C, 30 °C and 40 °C, the heating coefficients of the performance of the system became 3.36, 3.43 and 3.69, respectively, 6 min. after the start time of the experiments and then they were decreased to 1.87, 1.83 and 1.77 with increasing water temperature in the condenser tank. The mean uncertainty value of the measurement parameters was found to be about ±2.47%. Finally, for the purpose of meeting hot water need as well as floor heating system requirements, it is seen that energy quality level of a waste low grade temperature heat source can be increased by using a heat pump system.

  11. WATER ENERGY IN HYDROAMELIORATIVE SYSTEMS USING THE HYDRAULIC TRANSFORMER TYPE A. BARGLAZAN AND THE HYDRAULIC HAMMER (HYDRAULIC PUMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodor Eugen Man

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents two examples of exploitation of water energy that can be used in the irrigation field. First of theseexamples is the hydraulic transformer type A. Barglazan used for irrigation, pumped water is taken directly from theriver’s well, using a hydraulic pump which simultaneously carried out a double transformation in this way: hydraulicenergy into mechanic energy and mechanical energy into hydraulic energy. Technology preparation and devices designwas done in record time, seeing that this constructive solution is more robust, reliable and with improved energyperformance versus the laboratory prototype. The experimental research which was made at 1:1 scale proved theirgood function over time. Another example is the hydraulic hammer (hydraulic pump that uses low-head energy topump water, with a global efficiency of about 10 - 50%. Currently, the new situation of private ownership of landprovides conditions for new pumping microstations to be made where irrigation is necessary and optimal hydrauliclocations exist.

  12. 10 CFR 431.107 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial heat pump water...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial heat pump water heaters. 431.107 Section 431.107 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Water Heaters, Hot Water Supply Boilers and Unfire...

  13. Optimization and thermoeconomics research of a large reclaimed water source heat pump system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zi-ping; Du, Fang-hui

    2013-01-01

    This work describes a large reclaimed water source heat pump system (RWSHPS) and elaborates on the composition of the system and its design principles. According to the characteristics of the reclaimed water and taking into account the initial investment, the project is divided into two stages: the first stage adopts distributed heat pump heating system and the second adopts the combination of centralized and decentralized systems. We analyze the heating capacity of the RWSHPS, when the phase II project is completed, the system can provide hydronic heating water with the supply and return water temperature of 55°C/15°C and meet the hydronic heating demand of 8 million square meters of residential buildings. We make a thermal economics analysis by using Thermal Economics theory on RWSHPS and gas boiler system, it is known that the RWSHPS has more advantages, compared with the gas boiler heating system; both its thermal efficiency and economic efficiency are relatively high. It provides a reference for future applications of the RWSHPS.

  14. Improving Oxygen Conditions in the Deeper Parts of Bornholm Sea by Pumped Injection of Winter Water

    OpenAIRE

    Stigebrandt, Anders; Kal?n, Ola

    2012-01-01

    Vertical diffusivity and oxygen consumption in the basin water, the water below the sill level at about 59?m depth, have been estimated by applying budget methods to monitoring data from hydrographical stations BY4 and BY5 for periods without water renewal. From the vertical diffusivity, the mean rate of work against the buoyancy forces below 65?m depth is estimated to about 0.10?mW?m?2. This is slightly higher than published values for East Gotland Sea. The horizontally averaged vertical dif...

  15. Operating characteristics of transcritical CO2 heat pump for simultaneous water cooling and heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkar Jahar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The effects of water-side operating conditions (mass flow rates and inlet temperatures of both evaporator and gas cooler on the experimental as well as simulated performances (cooling and heating capacities, system coefficient of performance (COP and water outlet temperatures of the transcritical CO2 heat pump for simultaneous water cooling and heating the are studied and revised. Study shows that both the water mass flow rate and inlet temperature have significant effect on the system performances. Test results show that the effect of evaporator water mass flow rate on the system performances and water outlet temperatures is more pronounced (COP increases by 0.6 for 1 kg/min compared to that of gas cooler water mass flow rate (COP increases by 0.4 for 1 kg/min and the effect of gas cooler water inlet temperature is more significant (COP decreases by 0.48 for given range compared to that of evaporator water inlet temperature (COP increases by 0.43 for given range. Comparisons of experimental values with simulated results show the maximum deviation of 5% for cooling capacity, 10% for heating capacity and 16% for system COP.

  16. The impact of integrated water management on the Space Station propulsion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, George R.

    1987-01-01

    The water usage of elements in the Space Station integrated water system (IWS) is discussed, and the parameters affecting the overall water balance and the water-electrolysis propulsion-system requirements are considered. With nominal IWS operating characteristics, extra logistic water resupply (LWR) is found to be unnecessary in the satisfaction of the nominal propulsion requirements. With the consideration of all possible operating characteristics, LWR will not be required in 65.5 percent of the cases, and for 17.9 percent of the cases LWR can be eliminated by controlling the stay time of theShuttle Orbiter orbiter.

  17. Solar heating and domestic hot water system installed at Kansas City, Fire Stations, Kansas City, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The solar system was designed to provide 47 percent of the space heating, 8,800 square feet area and 75 percent of the domestic hot water (DHW) load. The solar system consists of 2,808 square feet of Solaron, model 2001, air, flat plate collector subsystem, a concrete box storage subsystem which contains 1,428 cubic feet of 0.5 inch diameter pebbles weighing 71.5 tons, a DHW preheat tank, blowers, pumps, heat exchangers, air ducting, controls and associated plumbing. Two 120 gallon electric DHW heaters supply domestic hot water which is preheated by the solar system. Auxiliary space heating is provided by three electric heat pumps with electric resistance heaters and four 30 kilowatt electric unit heaters. There are six modes of system operation.

  18. Solar heating and domestic hot water system installed at Kansas City, Fire Stations, Kansas City, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    The solar system was designed to provide 47 percent of the space heating, 8,800 square feet area and 75 percent of the domestic hot water (DHW) load. The solar system consists of 2,808 square feet of Solaron, model 2001, air, flat plate collector subsystem, a concrete box storage subsystem which contains 1,428 cubic feet of 0.5 inch diameter pebbles weighing 71.5 tons, a DHW preheat tank, blowers, pumps, heat exchangers, air ducting, controls and associated plumbing. Two 120 gallon electric DHW heaters supply domestic hot water which is preheated by the solar system. Auxiliary space heating is provided by three electric heat pumps with electric resistance heaters and four 30 kilowatt electric unit heaters. There are six modes of system operation.

  19. The study of potable water treatment process in Algeria (boudouaou station) -by the application of life cycle assessment (LCA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed-Zine, Messaoud-Boureghda; Hamouche, Aksas; Krim, Louhab

    2013-12-19

    Environmental impact assessment will soon become a compulsory phase in future potable water production projects, in algeria, especially, when alternative treatment processes such sedimentation ,coagulation sand filtration and Desinfection are considered. An impact assessment tool is therefore developed for the environmental evaluation of potable water production. in our study The evaluation method used is the life cycle assessment (LCA) for the determination and evaluation of potential impact of a drink water station ,near algiers (SEAL-Boudouaoua).LCA requires both the identification and quantification of materials and energy used in all stages of the product's life, when the inventory information is acquired, it will then be interpreted into the form of potential impact " eco-indicators 99" towards study areas covered by LCA, using the simapro6 soft ware for water treatment process is necessary to discover the weaknesses in the water treatment process in order for it to be further improved ensuring quality life. The main source shown that for the studied water treatment process, the highest environmental burdens are coagulant preparation (30% for all impacts), mineral resource and ozone layer depletion the repartition of the impacts among the different processes varies in comparison with the other impacts. Mineral resources are mainly consumed during alumine sulfate solution preparation; Ozone layer depletion originates mostly from tetrachloromethane emissions during alumine sulfate production. It should also be noted that, despite the small doses needed, ozone and active Carbone treatment generate significant impacts with a contribution of 10% for most of the impacts.Moreover impacts of energy are used in producing pumps (20-25 GHC) for plant operation and the unitary processes (coagulation, sand filtration decantation) and the most important impacts are localized in the same equipment (40-75 GHC) and we can conclude that:- Pre-treatment, pumping and EDR (EDR: 0

  20. Heat Pump Water Heaters: Controlled Field Research of Impact on Space Conditioning and Demand Response Characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, Graham B.; Widder, Sarah H.; Eklund, Ken; Petersen, Joseph M.; Sullivan, Greg

    2015-10-05

    A new generation of heat pump water heaters (HPWH) has been introduced into the U.S. market that promises to provide significant energy savings for water heating. Many electric utilities are promoting their widespread adoption as a key technology for meeting energy conservation goals and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. There is, however, considerable uncertainty regarding the space conditioning impact of an HPWH installed in a conditioned space. There is also uncertainty regarding the potential for deployment of HPWHs in demand response (DR) programs to help manage and balance peak utility loads in a similar manner as conventional electric resistance water heaters (ERWH). To help answer these uncertainties, controlled experiments have been undertaken over 30 months in a matched pair of unoccupied Lab Homes located on the campus of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in Richland, Washington.

  1. Heat Pump Water Heater Ducting Strategies with Encapsulated Attics in Climate Zones 2 and 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweet, M. L. [Southface Energy Inst., Atlanta, GA (United States); Francisco, A. [Southface Energy Inst., Atlanta, GA (United States); Roberts, S. G. [Southface Energy Inst., Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The focus of this study is on the performance of HPWHs with several different duct configurations and their effects on whole building heating, cooling, and moisture loads. A.O. Smith 60 gallon Voltex (PHPT-60) heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) were included at two project sites and ducted to or located within spray foamed encapsulated attics. The effect of ducting a HPWH's air stream does not diminish its efficiency if the ducting does not reduce intake air temperature, which expands HPWH application to confined areas.

  2. TPH and PAH concentrations in the subsoil of polyduct segments, oil pipeline pumping stations, and right-of-way pipelines from Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iturbe, Rosario; Castro, Alejandrina; Perez, Guillermina; Flores, Carlos; Torres, Luis G.

    2008-10-01

    For the year 1996, 366 incidents related with clandestine poaching of oil-products were reported in Mexico, 159 in 1997, and 240 in 1998. For the year 2003 (the most recently reported figure), there were 136 events. Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX), very concerned with the environmental agenda, has developed programs oriented to diminish contamination levels in all of its oil facilities. This work was aimed at characterizing zones around polyduct segments, pipelines, pumping stations, and right-of-way pipelines located in the center of Mexico. The TPH contaminated sites were, in decreasing order, polyduct km 39 + 150 > polyduct km 25 + 020 > Zoquital > Tepetitlan > Catalina > Venta Prieta > Ceiba. Most of the sampled points showed the presence of more than one of the 16 PAHs considered by USEPA as priority pollutants. Except point TEPE 2A, where no PAHs were detected, all the sampled points showed values from low to medium concentrations; however, values found at the sites did not exceed the limits according to the Mexican or the American legislation. The place with the largest contaminated area corresponded to the polyduct km 39 + 150, with 130 m2 and 260 m3 to be treated. The least contaminated area was that around the JUAN 4 point at Juandho station, with 20 m2 and 22 m3 of contaminated soil. The total area to be treated is about 230 m2 and 497 m3.

  3. Simulating on water storage and pump capacity of "Kencing" river polder system in Kudus regency, Central Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyudi, Slamet Imam; Adi, Henny Pratiwi; Santoso, Esti; Heikoop, Rick

    2017-03-01

    Settlement in the Jati District, Kudus Regency, Central Java Province, Indonesia, is growing rapidly. Previous paddy fields area turns into new residential, industrial and office buildings. The rain water collected in small Kencing river that flows into big Wulan River. But the current condition, during high rain intensity Wulan river water elevation higher than the Kencing river, so that water can not flow gravity and the area inundated. To reduce the flooding, required polder drainage system by providing a long channel as water storage and pumping water into Wulan river. How to get optimal value of water storage volume, drainage system channels and the pump capacity? The result used to be efficient in the operation and maintenance of the polder system. The purpose of this study is to develop some scenarios water storage volume, water gate operation and to get the optimal value of operational pumps removing water from the Kencing River to Wulan River. Research Method is conducted by some steps. The first step, it is done field orientation in detail, then collecting secondary data including maps and rainfall data. The map is processed into Watershed or catchment area, while the rainfall data is processed into runoff discharge. Furthermore, the team collects primary data by measuring topography to determine the surface and volume of water storage. The analysis conducted to determine of flood discharge, water channel hydraulics, water storage volume and pump capacity corresponding. Based on the simulating of long water storage volume and pump capacity with some scenario trying, it can be determined optimum values. The results used to be guideline in to construction proses, operation and maintenance of the drainage polder system.

  4. Energy Saving in Water Distribution Network through Pump as Turbine Generators: Economic and Environmental Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro De Marchis

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Complex systems of water distribution networks (WDS are used to supply water to users. WDSs are systems where a lot of distributed energy is available. Historically, this energy is artificially dissipated by pressure reduction valves (PRVs, thanks to which water utilities manage the pressure level in selected nodes of the network. The present study explores the use of economic hydraulic machines, pumps as turbines (PATs to produce energy in a small network located in a town close to Palermo (Italy. The main idea is to avoid dissipation in favor of renewable energy production. The proposed study is applied to a WDN typical of the Mediterranean countries, where the users, to collect water during the period of water scarcity conditions, install private tanks. The presence of private tanks deeply modifies the network from its designed condition. In the proposed analysis, the economic benefit of PATs application in water distribution networks has been investigated, accounting for the presence of users’ private tanks. The analysis, carried out by mean of a mathematical model able to dynamically simulate the water distribution network with PATs, shows the advantage of their installation in terms of renewable energy recovery, even though the energy production of PATs is strictly conditioned by their installation position.

  5. Water management requirements for animal and plant maintenance on the Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C. C.; Rasmussen, D.; Curran, G.

    1987-01-01

    Long-duration Space Station experiments that use animals and plants as test specimens will require increased automation and advanced technologies for water management in order to free scientist-astronauts from routine but time-consuming housekeeping tasks. The three areas that have been identified as requiring water management and that are discusseed are: (1) drinking water and humidity condensate of the animals, (2) nutrient solution and transpired water of the plants, and (3) habitat cleaning methods. Automation potential, technology assessment, crew time savings, and resupply penalties are also discussed.

  6. Analysis of a hybrid PV/thermal solar-assisted heat pump system for sports center water heating application

    OpenAIRE

    Bai, Y.; Chow, T. T.; Ménézo, C.; Dupeyrat, P.

    2012-01-01

    International audience; The application of solar energy provides an alternative way to replace the primary source of energy, especially for large-scale installations. Heat pump technology is also an effective means to reduce the consumption of fossil fuels. This paper presents a practical case study of combined hybrid PV/T solar assisted heat pump (SAHP) system for sports center hot water production. The initial design procedure was first presented. The entire system was then modeled with the...

  7. Impacts on groundwater recharge areas of megacity pumping: analysis of potential contamination of Kolkata, India, water supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Paulami; Michael, Holly A.; Voss, Clifford I.; Sikdar, Pradip K.

    2013-01-01

    Water supply to the world's megacities is a problem of quantity and quality that will be a priority in the coming decades. Heavy pumping of groundwater beneath these urban centres, particularly in regions with low natural topographic gradients, such as deltas and floodplains, can fundamentally alter the hydrological system. These changes affect recharge area locations, which may shift closer to the city centre than before development, thereby increasing the potential for contamination. Hydrogeological simulation analysis allows evaluation of the impact on past, present and future pumping for the region of Kolkata, India, on recharge area locations in an aquifer that supplies water to over 13 million people. Relocated recharge areas are compared with known surface contamination sources, with a focus on sustainable management of this urban groundwater resource. The study highlights the impacts of pumping on water sources for long-term development of stressed city aquifers and for future water supply in deltaic and floodplain regions of the world.

  8. High Arsenic contamination in drinking water Hand-Pumps in Khap Tola, West Champaran, Bihar, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharth eBhatia

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study tests the drinking water supply of a marginalized village community of Khap Tola in the state of Bihar, a state in Northern India. Based on hand pump drinking water sample testing and analysis, we found that there was high levels of arsenic (maximum value being 397 ppb , in excess of the WHO limits of 10ppb. Analysis showed 57% of the samples from private hand-pumps in the shallow aquifer zone of 15-35m have arsenic greater than 200 ppb. Using GIS overlay analysis technique it was calculated that 25% of the residential area in the village is under high risk of arsenic contamination. Further using USEPA guidelines, it was calculated that children age group 5-10 years are under high risk of getting cancer. The Hazard Quotient calculated for 21 children taken for study, indicated that children may have adverse non-carcinogenic health impacts, in the future, with continued exposure. Since the area adds a new arsenic contaminated place in India, further geochemical analysis and health assessment needs to be done in this district of West Champaran in, Bihar.

  9. Comfortable, high-efficiency heat pump with desiccant-coated, water-sorbing heat exchangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Y. D.; Wang, R. Z.; Ge, T. S.; Zheng, X.

    2017-01-01

    Comfortable, efficient, and affordable heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems in buildings are highly desirable due to the demands of energy efficiency and environmental friendliness. Traditional vapor-compression air conditioners exhibit a lower coefficient of performance (COP) (typically 2.8-3.8) owing to the cooling-based dehumidification methods that handle both sensible and latent loads together. Temperature- and humidity-independent control or desiccant systems have been proposed to overcome these challenges; however, the COP of current desiccant systems is quite small and additional heat sources are usually needed. Here, we report on a desiccant-enhanced, direct expansion heat pump based on a water-sorbing heat exchanger with a desiccant coating that exhibits an ultrahigh COP value of more than 7 without sacrificing any comfort or compactness. The pump’s efficiency is doubled compared to that of pumps currently used in conventional room air conditioners, which is a revolutionary HVAC breakthrough. Our proposed water-sorbing heat exchanger can independently handle sensible and latent loads at the same time. The desiccants adsorb moisture almost isothermally and can be regenerated by condensation heat. This new approach opens up the possibility of achieving ultrahigh efficiency for a broad range of temperature- and humidity-control applications.

  10. Comfortable, high-efficiency heat pump with desiccant-coated, water-sorbing heat exchangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Y. D.; Wang, R. Z.; Ge, T. S.; Zheng, X.

    2017-01-01

    Comfortable, efficient, and affordable heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems in buildings are highly desirable due to the demands of energy efficiency and environmental friendliness. Traditional vapor-compression air conditioners exhibit a lower coefficient of performance (COP) (typically 2.8–3.8) owing to the cooling-based dehumidification methods that handle both sensible and latent loads together. Temperature- and humidity-independent control or desiccant systems have been proposed to overcome these challenges; however, the COP of current desiccant systems is quite small and additional heat sources are usually needed. Here, we report on a desiccant-enhanced, direct expansion heat pump based on a water-sorbing heat exchanger with a desiccant coating that exhibits an ultrahigh COP value of more than 7 without sacrificing any comfort or compactness. The pump’s efficiency is doubled compared to that of pumps currently used in conventional room air conditioners, which is a revolutionary HVAC breakthrough. Our proposed water-sorbing heat exchanger can independently handle sensible and latent loads at the same time. The desiccants adsorb moisture almost isothermally and can be regenerated by condensation heat. This new approach opens up the possibility of achieving ultrahigh efficiency for a broad range of temperature- and humidity-control applications. PMID:28079171

  11. Building America Case Study: Indoor Heat Pump Water Heaters During Summer in a Hot-Dry Climate, Redding, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Hoeschele, M. Seitzler

    2017-06-01

    Heat pump water heaters offer a significant opportunity to improve water heating performance for the over 40% of U.S. households that heat domestic hot water using electric resistance storage water heaters. Numerous field studies have also been completed documenting performance in a variety of climates and applications. More recent evaluation efforts have focused attention on the performance of May through September 2014, with ongoing winter monitoring being sponsored by California utility partners.

  12. Monitoring water cycle elements using GNSS geodetic receivers at the field research station Marquardt, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeonov, Tzvetan; Vey, Sibylle; Alshawaf, Fadwa; Dick, Galina; Guerova, Guergana; Güntner, Andreas; Hohmann, Christian; Kunwar, Ajeet; Trost, Benjamin; Wickert, Jens

    2017-04-01

    Water storage variations in the atmosphere and in soils are among the most dynamic within the Earth's water cycle. The continuous measurement of water storage in these media with a high spatial and temporal resolution is a challenging task, not yet completely solved by various observation techniques. With the development of the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) a new approach for atmospheric water vapor estimation in the atmosphere and in parallel of soil moisture in the vicinity of GNSS ground stations was established in the recent years with several key advantages compared to traditional techniques. Regional and global GNSS networks are nowadays operationally used to provide the Integrated Water Vapor (IWV) information with high temporal resolution above the individual stations. Corresponding data products are used to improve the day-by-day weather prediction of leading forecast centers. Selected stations from these networks can be used to additionally derive the soil moisture in the vicinity of the receivers. Such parallel measurement of IWV and soil moisture using a single measuring device provides a unique possibility to analyze water fluxes between the atmosphere and the land surface. We installed an advanced experimental GNSS setup for hydrology at the field research station of the Leibniz Institute for Agricultural Engineering and Bioeconomy in Marquardt, around 30km West of Berlin, Germany. The setup includes several GNSS receivers, various Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) sensors at different depths for soil moisture measurement and an meteorological station. The setup was mainly installed to develop and improve GNSS based techniques for soil moisture determination and to analyze GNSS IWV and SM in parallel on a long-term perspective. We introduce initial results from more than two years of measurements. The comparison in station Marquardt shows good agreement (correlation 0.79) between the GNSS derived soil moisture and the TDR measurements. A

  13. Regional Variation in Residential Heat Pump Water Heater Performance in the U.S.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maguire, Jeff [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Burch, Jay [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Merrigan, Tim [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ong, Sean [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Residential heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently re-emerged on the U.S. market, and they have the potential to provide homeowners significant cost and energy savings. However, actual in use performance of a HPWH will vary significantly with climate, installation location, HVAC equipment, and hot water use. To determine the actual energy consumption of a HPWH in different U.S. regions, annual simulations of both 50 and 80 gallon HPWHs as well as a standard electric water heater were performed for over 900 locations across the United States. The simulations included a benchmark home to take into account interactions between the space conditioning equipment and the HPWH and a realistic hot water draw profile. It was found that the HPWH will always save some source energy when compared to a standard electric resistance water heater, although savings varies widely with location. In addition to looking at source energy savings, the breakeven cost (the net installed cost a HPWH would have to have to be a cost neutral replacement for a standard water heater) was also examined. The highest breakeven costs were seen in cases with high energy savings, such as the southeastern U.S., or high energy costs, such as New England and California. While the breakeven cost is higher for 80 gallon units than 50 gallon units, the higher net installed costs of an 80 gallon unit lead to the 50 gallon HPWHs being more likely to be cost effective.

  14. Regional Variation in Residential Heat Pump Water Heater Performance in the U.S.: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maguire, J.; Burch, J.; Merrigan, T.; Ong, S.

    2014-01-01

    Residential heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently reemerged on the U.S. market. These units have the potential to provide homeowners significant cost and energy savings. However, actual in use performance of a HPWH will vary significantly with climate, installation location, HVAC equipment, and hot water use. To determine what actual in use energy consumption of a HPWH may be in different regions of the U.S., annual simulations of both 50 and 80 gallon HPWHs as well as a standard electric water heater were performed for over 900 locations across the U.S. The simulations included a benchmark home to take into account interactions between the space conditioning equipment and the HPWH and a realistic hot water draw profile. It was found that the HPWH will always save some source energy when compared to a standard electric resistance water heater, although savings varies widely with location. In addition to looking at source energy savings, the breakeven cost (the net installed cost a HPWH would have to have to be a cost neutral replacement for a standard water heater) was also examined. The highest breakeven costs were seen in cases with high energy savings, such as the southeastern U.S., or high energy costs, such as New England and California. While the breakeven cost is higher for 80 gallon units than 50 gallon units, the higher net installed costs of an 80 gallon unit lead to the 50 gallon HPWHs being more likely to be cost effective.

  15. Solar-assisted MED treatment of Eskom power station waste water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Thomas H.; Rogers, David E. C.; Gericke, Gerhard

    2017-06-01

    The comparative benefits of multi-effect distillation (MED) used in conjunction with Nano Filtration (NF), Reverse Osmosis (RO) and Eutectic Freeze Crystallization (EFC) are determined for waste water minimization for inland coal fired power stations for Zero Liquid Effluent Discharge (ZLED). A sequence of technologies is proposed to achieve maximal water recovery and brine concentration: NF - physico-chemical treatment - MED - EFC. The possibility of extending the concentration of RO reject arising from minewater treatment at the Lethabo power station with MED alone is evaluated with mineral formation modelling using the thermochemical modelling software Phreeq-C. It is shown that pretreatment is essential to extend the amount of water that can be recovered, and this can be beneficially supported by NF.

  16. Benthic and tissue toxin data from stations in U.S. coastal waters from 19840101 to 19891231 (NODC Accession 9300199)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The accession contains Benthic and Tissue toxin data from stations in U.S. coastal waters (Coastal Waters of Western U.S. and North American Coastline-North)...

  17. Renewable energy technologies for irrigation water pumping in India: projected levels of dissemination, energy delivery and investment requirements using available diffusion models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pallav Purohit; Kandpal, T.C. [Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi (India). Centre for Energy Studies

    2005-12-01

    Using the past diffusion trends of four renewable energy technologies for irrigation water pumping in India (SPV pumps, windmill pumps and biogas/producer gas driven dual fuel engine pumps), results of an attempt to project their future dissemination levels, have been presented in this study. The likely contribution of the renewable energy options considered in the study to the projected energy demand for irrigation water pumping in India has been estimated. Estimates of the associated investment requirements taking into account the learning effect have also been presented. (author)

  18. Study and Optimization of Design Parameters in Water Loop Heat Pump Systems for Office Buildings in the Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Fernández

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Water loop heat pump (WLHP air conditioning systems use heat pumps connected to a common water circuit to fulfill the energy demands of different thermal zones in a building. In this study, the energy consumption was analyzed for the air conditioning of an office building in the typical climate of four important cities of the Iberian Peninsula. The energy consumption of one water loop heat pump system was compared with a conventional water system. Two design parameters, the range in the control temperatures and the water loop thermal storage size, were tested. Energy redistribution is an important advantage of the WLHP system, but significant savings came from high efficiency parameters in the heat pumps and minor air flow rates in the cooling tower. The low thermal level in the water loop makes this technology appropriate to combine with renewable sources. Using natural gas as the thermal energy source, a mean decrease in CO2 emissions of 8.1% was reached. Simulations showed that the installation of big thermal storage tanks generated small energy savings. Besides, the total annual consumption in buildings with high internal loads can be reduced by keeping the water loop as cool as possible.

  19. Autonomous BDFIG-wind generator with torque and pitch control for maximum efficiency in a water pumping system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camocardi, P. [LEICI, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, 1 y 47, CC 91 (1900) La Plata (Argentina); CONICET (Argentina); Battaiotto, P. [LEICI, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, 1 y 47, CC 91 (1900) La Plata (Argentina); Mantz, R. [LEICI, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, 1 y 47, CC 91 (1900) La Plata (Argentina); Comision de Investigaciones Cientificas de la Provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2010-06-15

    This paper presents and analyzes the operation strategy for an autonomous wind energy conversion system oriented to water pumping. It consists of a wind turbine with a Brushless Doubly-Fed Induction Generator (BDFIG), electrically coupled with a squirrel cage induction machine moving a centrifugal type water pump. Because of no brushes and slip rings, the BDFIG is suitable for autonomous systems, which often work in hard conditions. Additionally, the power flow on the BDFIG principal stator could be driven from a fractional power converter connected on the auxiliary stator winding. This Turbine-BDFIG and Motor-Pump configuration provides a high robustness and reliability, reducing the operational and maintenance costs. The operation strategy proposes, for wind speeds smaller than the rated, to maximize the volume of water pumped based on the optimization of the wind energy capture. To do that, a sliding mode control tracks the optimal turbine torque by means of a torque control. Meanwhile, for wind speeds greater than the rated, a pitch control keeps the water pump within the safe operation area by adjusting the speed and power of the turbine in their rated values. To assess and corroborate the proposed strategy, simulations with different wind profiles are made. (author)

  20. Pumps, germs and storage: the impact of improved water containers on water quality and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, Isabel; Schipper, Youdi

    2013-07-01

    Applying a randomized controlled trial, we study the impact of improved water transport and storage containers on the water quality and health of poor rural households. The results indicate that improved household water infrastructure improves water quality and health outcomes in an environment where point-of-source water quality is good but where recontamination is widespread, leading to unsafe point-of-use drinking water. Moreover, usage rates of 88% after 7 months are encouraging with regard to sustainable adoption. Our estimates suggest that the provision of improved household water infrastructure could 'keep clean water clean' at a cost of only 5% of the costs of providing households with improved public water supply. Given the general consensus in the literature that recontamination of water from improved public sources is a severe public health problem, improved transport and storage technologies appear to be an effective low-cost supplement to the current standard of financing public water supply for poor rural communities. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Characterization of bottom-sediment, water, and elutriate chemistry at selected stations at Reelfoot Lake, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broshears, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    To better-understand and predict the potential effect of dredging on water quality at Reelfoot Lake, chemical analyses were conducted on samples of lake water, bottom sediment, and elutriate water. Chemical analyses were conducted on samples of lake water, bottom sediment, and elutriate water collected at five stations in the lake during November 1988. Lake water was of the calcium magnesium bicarbonate type with an average dissolved-solids concentration of 120 milligrams per liter. Trace constituents were present in bottom sediments at concentrations representative of their average relative abundance in the earth?s crust. Elutriate waters prepared by mixing bottom sediment and lake water had suspended-solids concentrations as high as 2,000 milligrams per liter which exerted significant oxygen demand Trace constituents in the unfiltered elutriate waters were elevated with respect to lake water; elevated concentrations were attributable to the increased suspended-solids concentrations. Concentrations of total-recoverable copper, lead., and zinc in many elutriate waters exceeded U.S. Environmental Protection Agency?s water-quality criteria for the protection of freshwater aquatic life. The toxicity of elutriate waters, as measured by a 48-hour bioassay with Ceriodaphnia dubia, was low.

  2. Hydrogeologic controls on ground-water discharge to the Washington METRO subway tunnel near the Medical Center station and Crossover, Montgomery County, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Earl A.; Shapiro, Allen M.; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2004-01-01

    Medical Center Station and Crossover could be the result of its location within the Georgetown Intrusive Suite. The abrupt changes in the mapped directions of ground-water flow based on the hydraulic heads at the contact between the Sykesville Formation and biotite-hornblende tonalite member of the Georgetown Intrusive Suite could also be the result of the change in fracturing between these two lithologies. Saprolite, a residual of soft, red/brown to gray clay from decomposed crystalline rock, overlies the bedrock and varies from about 20 to 55 feet thick, depending on location. On the basis of a slug test conducted in the lower part of the saprolite near the Medical Center Station and Crossover, transmissivity and storativity of the saprolite were estimated to be 10 feet squared per day and 10-6 , respectively. The transmissivity of fractures intersecting bedrock boreholes drilled in the biotite-hornblende tonalite member of the Georgetown Intrusive Suite varies over five orders of magnitude, from a maximum of approximately 10 feet squared per day to the detection limit of the in situ testing apparatus, which is approximately 10-4 feet squared per day. In general, the transmissivity of fractures intersecting the boreholes increases with depth. The low transmissivity of bedrock fractures in close proximity to the saprolite is likely to be caused by the fractures being filled with byproducts of rock weathering, resulting in reduced permeability. 2 Hydrogeologic Controls on Ground-Water Discharge to the Washington METRO Subway Tunnel The bulk transmissivity of the bedrock aquifer is approximately 3.7 feet squared per day, as determined from an aquifer test conducted by pumping a 240-foot-deep borehole and monitoring the drawdown over 3 days in the pumped borehole and several observation boreholes. In general, the hydraulic head decreases with depth in bedrock boreholes, indicating the potential for downward ground-water flow. Based on hydraulic head values mea

  3. Simulation of groundwater and surface-water interaction and effects of pumping in a complex glacial-sediment aquifer, east central Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggleston, Jack R.; Carlson, Carl S.; Fairchild, Gillian M.; Zarriello, Phillip J.

    2012-01-01

    The effects of groundwater pumping on surface-water features were evaluated by use of a numerical groundwater model developed for a complex glacial-sediment aquifer in northeastern Framingham, Massachusetts, and parts of surrounding towns. The aquifer is composed of sand, gravel, silt, and clay glacial-fill sediments up to 270 feet thick over an irregular fractured bedrock surface. Surface-water bodies, including Cochituate Brook, the Sudbury River, Lake Cochituate, Dudley Pond, and adjoining wetlands, are in hydraulic connection with the aquifer and can be affected by groundwater withdrawals. Groundwater and surface-water interaction was simulated with MODFLOW-NWT under current conditions and a variety of hypothetical pumping conditions. Simulations of hypothetical pumping at reactivated water supply wells indicate that captured groundwater would decrease baseflow to the Sudbury River and induce recharge from Lake Cochituate. Under constant (steady-state) pumping, induced groundwater recharge from Lake Cochituate was equal to about 32 percent of the simulated pumping rate, and flow downstream in the Sudbury River decreased at the same rate as pumping. However, surface water responded quickly to pumping stresses. When pumping was simulated for 1 month and then stopped, streamflow depletions decreased by about 80 percent within 2 months and by about 90 percent within about 4 months. The fast surface water response to groundwater pumping offers the potential to substantially reduce streamflow depletions during periods of low flow, which are of greatest concern to the ecological integrity of the river. Results indicate that streamflow depletion during September, typically the month of lowest flow, can be reduced by 29 percent by lowering the maximum pumping rates to near zero during September. Lowering pumping rates for 3 months (July through September) reduces streamflow depletion during September by 79 percent as compared to constant pumping. These results

  4. Gas Engine-Driven Heat Pump Chiller for Air-Conditioning and Hot Water Supply Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Toshihiko; Mita, Nobuhiro; Moriyama, Tadashi; Hoshino, Norimasa; Kimura, Yoshihisa

    A gas engine-driven heat pump (GHP) uses a natural gas-or LPG-powered engine to drive the compressor in a vapor-compression refrigeration cycle. The GHP has the benefits of being able to use the fuel energy effectively by recovering waste heat from the engine jacket coolant and exhaust gas and also to keep high efficiency even at part-load operation by varying the engine speed with relative ease. Hence, energy-efficient heat source systems for air-conditioning and hot water supply may be constructed with GHP chillers in place of conventional electrical-driven heat pump chillers. GHPs will necessarily contribute to the peak shaving of electrical demand in summer. In this study, the performance characteristics of a 457kW GHP chiller have been investigated by a simulation model analysis, for both cooling and heating modes. From the results of the analysis, it has been found that the part-load characteristics of the GHP chiller are fairly well. The evaluation of the heat source systems using GHP chillers will be described in Part 2.

  5. Heat Pump Water Heater Ducting Strategies with Encapsulated Attics in Climate Zones 2 and 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweet, M. L. [Southface Energy Inst., Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Francisco, A.; Roberts, S. G.

    2016-05-01

    The focus of this study is on the performance of HPWHs with several different duct configurations and their effects on whole building heating, cooling, and moisture loads. A.O. Smith 60 gallon Voltex (PHPT-60) heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) were included at two project sites and ducted to or located within spray foamed encapsulated attics. The effect of ducting a HPWH's air stream does not diminish its efficiency if the ducting does not reduce intake air temperature, which expands HPWH application to confined areas. Exhaust ducts should be insulated to avoid condensation on the exterior, however this imposes a risk of condensation occurring in the duct's interior near the HPWH due to large variation of temperatures between the compressor and the duct and the presence of bulk moisture around the condenser. The HPWH's air conditioning impact on HVAC equipment loads is minimal when the intake and exhaust air streams are connected to a sealed attic and not the living space. A HPWH is not suitable as a replacement dehumidifier in sealed attics as peak moisture loads were observed to only be reduced if the heat pump operated during the morning. It appears that the intake air temperature and humidity was the most dominant variable affecting HPWH performance. Different ducting strategies such as exhaust duct only, intake duct only, and exhaust and intake ducting did not have any effect on HPWH performance.

  6. Reliable, Economic, Efficient CO2 Heat Pump Water Heater for North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radcliff, Thomas D; Sienel, Tobias; Huff, Hans-Joachim; Thompson, Adrian; Sadegh, Payman; Olsommer, Benoit; Park, Young

    2006-12-31

    Adoption of heat pump water heating technology for commercial hot water could save up to 0.4 quads of energy and 5 million metric tons of CO2 production annually in North America, but industry perception is that this technology does not offer adequate performance or reliability and comes at too high of a cost. Development and demonstration of a CO2 heat pump water heater is proposed to reduce these barriers to adoption. Three major themes are addressed: market analysis to understand barriers to adoption, use of advanced reliability models to design optimum qualification test plans, and field testing of two phases of water heater prototypes. Market experts claim that beyond good performance, market adoption requires 'drop and forget' system reliability and a six month payback of first costs. Performance, reliability and cost targets are determined and reliability models are developed to evaluate the minimum testing required to meet reliability targets. Three phase 1 prototypes are designed and installed in the field. Based on results from these trials a product specification is developed and a second phase of five field trial units are built and installed. These eight units accumulate 11 unit-years of service including 15,650 hours and 25,242 cycles of compressor operation. Performance targets can be met. An availability of 60% is achieved and the capability to achieve >90% is demonstrated, but overall reliability is below target, with an average of 3.6 failures/unit-year on the phase 2 demonstration. Most reliability issues are shown to be common to new HVAC products, giving high confidence in mature product reliability, but the need for further work to minimize leaks and ensure reliability of the electronic expansion valve is clear. First cost is projected to be above target, leading to an expectation of 8-24 month payback when substituted for an electric water heater. Despite not meeting all targets, arguments are made that an industry leader could

  7. Performance of water source heat pump system using high-density polyethylene tube heat exchanger wound with square copper wire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wen Zhang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Surface water source heat pump system is an energy-efficient heat pump system. Surface water heat exchanger is an important part of heat pump system that can affect the performance of the system. In order to enhance the performance of the system, the overall heat transfer coefficient (U value of the water exchanger using a 32A square copper coiled high-density polyethylene tube was researched. Comparative experiments were conducted between the performance of the coiled high-density polyethylene tube and the 32A smooth high-density polyethylene tube. At the same time, the coefficient of performance of the heat pump was investigated. According to the result, the U value of the coiled tube was 18% higher than that of the smooth tube in natural convection and 19% higher in forced convection. The coefficient of performance of the heat pump with the coiled tube is higher than that with the smooth tube. The economic evaluation of the coiled tube was also investigated.

  8. Design and Evaluation of a Photovoltaic/Thermal-Assisted Heat Pump Water Heating System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan-Liang Tsai

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design, modelling and performance evaluation of a photovoltaic/thermal-assisted heat pump water heating (PVTA-HPWH system. The cooling effect of a refrigerant simultaneously enhances the PVT efficiency and effectively improves the coefficient of performance (COP of the HPWH system. The proposed model was built in the MATLAB/Simulink environment by considering the reciprocal energy exchange between a PVT evaporator and a HPWH system. In addition, the power consumption needs of the HPWH are provided by the PV electricity using a model-based control methodology. System performance is evaluated through a real field test. The results have demonstrated the power autarchy of the proposed PVTA-HPWH system with better PVT efficiency and COP. In addition, the good agreement between the model simulation and the experimental measurements demonstrate the proposed model with sufficient confidence.

  9. Oil Coking Prevention Using Electric Water Pump for Turbo-Charge Spark-Ignition Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Ching Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Turbocharger has been widely implemented for internal combustion engine to increase an engine's power output and reduce fuel consumption. However, its operating temperature would rise to 340°C when engine stalls. This higher temperature may results in bearing wear, run-out, and stick, due to oil coking and insufficient lubrication. In order to overcome these problems, this paper employs Electric Water Pump (EWP to supply cool liquid to turbocharger actively when the engine stalls. The system layout, operating timing, and duration of EWP are investigated for obtaining optimal performance. The primarily experimental results show that the proposed layout and control strategy have a lower temperature of 100°C than the conventional temperature 225°C.

  10. Investigation under the National Energy Board Act into the death of Mr. Henri St. Pierre at the Enbridge Pipelines Inc. Kerrobert pump station on 24 March 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-02-15

    This paper discussed an investigation conducted by the National Energy Board (NEB) into the death of an electrician who died while carrying out electrical work at Enbridge's Kerrobert pipeline pump station in Saskatchewan. Emergency response procedures were activated immediately after the incident. The final autopsy report showed that contact with high voltage electricity resulted in instantaneous cardiac arrest. The investigation showed that prior to the incident, the employees working at the site did not have any pre-job safety meetings and that safety hazard assessments were not conducted, nor were any electrical equipment isolation and clearance forms completed. The employee was not wearing the required personal protective equipment. Other employees involved in the incident did not test high voltage probes or sweep inside the cell. The investigation determined that the hazard-risk category assigned to the power factor capacitor cell corresponded to a lower level of personal protective equipment than was required to protect personnel from being injured by arc flashes. 6 refs., 4 tabs.

  11. Smart Sensing of the Aux. Feed-water Pump Performance in NPP Severe Accidents Using Advanced GMDH Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    No, Young Gyu; Seong, Poong Hyun [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In order to develop and verify the models, a number of data obtained by simulating station black out (SBO) scenario for the optimized power reactor 1000 (OPR1000) using MARS code were used. Most of monitoring systems for component have been suggested by using the directly measured data. However, it is very difficult to acquire data related to safety-critical component' status. Therefore, it is necessary to develop the new method that combines the data-based equipped with learning system and data miming technique. Many data-based modeling methods have been applied successfully to nuclear engineering area, such as signal validation, plant diagnostics and event identification. Also, the data miming is the process of analyzing data from different perspectives and summarizing it into useful information. In this study, the smart sensing technique was developed using advanced group method of data handing (GMDH) model. The original GMDH is an inductive self organizing algebraic model. The advanced GMDH model is equipped with a fuzzy concept. The proposed advanced GMDH model enhances the original GMDH model by reducing the effect of outliers and noise. The advanced GMDH uses different weightings according to their importance which is specified by the fuzzy membership grade. The developed model was verified using SBO accident simulation data for the OPR1000 nuclear power plant acquired with MARS code. Also, the advanced GMDH model was trained using the simulated development data and verified with simulated test data. The development and test data sets were independent. The simulation results show that the performance of the developed advanced GMDH model was very satisfactory, as shown in Table 1. Therefore, if the developed model can be optimized using diverse and specific data, it will be possible to predict the performance of Aux. feed water pump accurately.

  12. Distinct Iron-binding Ligands in the Upper Water Column at Station ALOHA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundy, R.; Boiteau, R.; Repeta, D.

    2016-02-01

    The distribution and chemical properties of iron-binding organic ligands at station ALOHA were examined using a combination of solid phase extraction (SPE) followed by high pressure liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICPMS). HPLC-ICPMS ligand measurements were complemented by competitive ligand exchange adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry (CLE-ACSV) analysis using salicylaldoxime as the added ligand. By HPLC-ICPMS, we find enhanced concentrations of distinct naturally-occurring polar iron-binding ligands present at the surface and in the chlorophyll maximum. Lower concentrations were found in the subsurface, where a suite of non-polar ligands was detected. Siderophores were present at the deepest depths sampled at station ALOHA, down to 400m. Incubation studies provided evidence for the production of iron-binding ligands associated with nutrient amended phytoplankton growth in surface waters, and as a result of microbial particle remineralization in the subsurface water column. Ligands classes identified via SPE were then compared to CLE-ACSV ligand measurements, as well as the conditional stability constants measured from model polar and non-polar siderophores, yielding insight to the sources of iron-binding ligands throughout the water column at station ALOHA.

  13. Network hydraulics inclusion in water quality event detection using multiple sensor stations data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliker, Nurit; Ostfeld, Avi

    2015-09-01

    Event detection is one of the current most challenging topics in water distribution systems analysis: how regular on-line hydraulic (e.g., pressure, flow) and water quality (e.g., pH, residual chlorine, turbidity) measurements at different network locations can be efficiently utilized to detect water quality contamination events. This study describes an integrated event detection model which combines multiple sensor stations data with network hydraulics. To date event detection modelling is likely limited to single sensor station location and dataset. Single sensor station models are detached from network hydraulics insights and as a result might be significantly exposed to false positive alarms. This work is aimed at decreasing this limitation through integrating local and spatial hydraulic data understanding into an event detection model. The spatial analysis complements the local event detection effort through discovering events with lower signatures by exploring the sensors mutual hydraulic influences. The unique contribution of this study is in incorporating hydraulic simulation information into the overall event detection process of spatially distributed sensors. The methodology is demonstrated on two example applications using base runs and sensitivity analyses. Results show a clear advantage of the suggested model over single-sensor event detection schemes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The measured field performances of eight different mechanical and air-lift water-pumping wind-turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kentfield, J.A.C. [Univ. of Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    Results are presented of the specific performances of eight, different, water-pumping wind-turbines subjected to impartial tests at the Alberta Renewable Energy Test Site (ARETS), Alberta, Canada. The results presented which were derived from the test data, obtained independently of the equipment manufacturers, are expressed per unit of rotor projected area to eliminate the influence of machine size. Hub-height wind speeds and water flow rates for a common lift of 5.5 m (18 ft) constitute the essential test data. A general finding was that, to a first approximation, there were no major differences in specific performance between four units equipped with conventional reciprocating pumps two of which employed reduction gearing and two of which did not. It was found that a unit equipped with a Moyno pump performed well but three air-lift machines had, as was expected, poorer specific performances than the more conventional equipment. 10 refs., 9 figs.

  15. Experimental Study of the Performance of Air Source Heat Pump Systems Assisted by Low-Temperature Solar-Heated Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinshun Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the low temperatures, the heating efficiency of air source heat pump systems during the winter is very low. To address this problem, a low-temperature solar hot water system was added to a basic air source heat pump system. Several parameters were tested and analyzed. The heat collection efficiency of the solar collector was analyzed under low-temperature conditions. The factors that affect the performance of the heat pumps, such as the fluid temperature, pressure, and energy savings, were analyzed for cases where the solar energy auxiliary heat pump and the air source heat pump are used independently. The optimal heating temperature and the changes in the fluid temperature were determined. The influence of the compression ratio and the coefficient of performance (COP were investigated theoretically. The results revealed the parameters that are important to the performance of the system. Several measures for improving the COP of the heat pump units are provided for other applications and future research.

  16. Comparison of solar heat pump systems to conventional methods for residential heating, cooling, and water heating, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, P. J.; Morehouse, J. H.

    1980-04-01

    The series and parallel combined solar heat pump systems investigated are at best marginally competitive, on a 20 year life cycle cost basis, with conventional oil and electric furnace systems. The combined solar heat pump systems are not economically competitive with conventional gas furnace or stand alone heat pump systems for residential space heating, cooling and water heating. The combined solar heat pump systems do offer the potential for significant energy savings as compared to conventional furnace systems and the stand alone heat pump. The cost of that savings, however, is beyond that which the average consumer can be expected to pay. Barring unforeseen manufacturing process or materials breakthroughs, parallel systems prices are firm. The prices listed for series systems already include low cost site built collectors and an optimistic estimate of the liquid to air heat pump costs, and prices on other series system components are firm. A collector cost sensitivity analysis did not offer any encouraging directions towards significant systems cost reduction.

  17. Microbiological Tests Performed During the Design of the International Space Station ECLSS: Part 1, Bulk Phase Water and Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Monsi C.; Mittelman, Marc W.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation summarizes the studies performed to assess the bulk phase microbial community during the Space Station Water Recover Tests (WRT) from 1990-1998. These tests show that it is possible to recycle water from different sources including urine, and produce water that can exceed the quality of municpally produced tap water.

  18. Test results on re-use of reclaimed shower water: Summary. [space stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verostko, C. E.; Garcia, R.; Sauer, R.; Linton, A. T.; Elms, T.; Reysa, R. P.

    1988-01-01

    A microgravity whole body shower (WBS) and waste water recovery systems (WWRS) were evaluated in three separate closed loop tests. Following a protocol similar to that anticipated for the U.S. Space Station, test subjects showered in a prototype whole body shower. The WWRS processes evaluated during the test series were phase change and reverse osmosis (RO). A preprototype Thermoelectric Integrated Hollow Fiber Membrane Evaporation Subsystem phase change process was used for the initial test with chemical pretreatment of the shower water waste input. The second and third tests concentrated on RO technologies. The second test evaluated a dynamic RO membrane consisting of zirconium oxide polyacrylic acid (ZOPA) membranes deposited on the interior diameter of 316L porous stainless steel tubes while the final test employed a thin semipermeable RO membrane deposited on the interior surface of polysulfone hollow fibers. All reclaimed water was post-treated for purity using ion exchange and granular activated carbon beds immediately followed by microbial control treatment using both heat and iodine. The test hardware, controls exercised for whole body showering, types of soaps evaluated, shower subject response to reclaimed water showering, and shower water collection and chemical pretreatment (if required) for microbial control are described. The WWRS recovered water performance and the effectiveness of the reclaimed water post-treatment techniques used for maintaining water purity and microorganism control are compared. Results on chemical and microbial impurity content of the water samples obtained from various locations in the shower water reuse system are summarized.

  19. Optimization of an artificial-recharge-pumping system for water supply in the Maghaway Valley, Cebu, Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawo, Nafyad Serre; Zhou, Yangxiao; Magalso, Ronnell; Salvacion, Lasaro

    2017-11-01

    A coupled simulation-optimization approach to optimize an artificial-recharge-pumping system for the water supply in the Maghaway Valley, Cebu, Philippines, is presented. The objective is to maximize the total pumping rate through a system of artificial recharge and pumping while meeting constraints such as groundwater-level drawdown and bounds on pumping rates at each well. The simulation models were coupled with groundwater management optimization to maximize production rates. Under steady-state natural conditions, the significant inflow to the aquifer comes from river leakage, whereas the natural discharge is mainly the subsurface outflow to the downstream area. Results from the steady artificial-recharge-pumping simulation model show that artificial recharge is about 20,587 m3/day and accounts for 77% of total inflow. Under transient artificial-recharge-pumping conditions, artificial recharge varies between 14,000 and 20,000 m3/day depending on the wet and dry seasons, respectively. The steady-state optimisation results show that the total optimal abstraction rate is 37,545 m3/day and artificial recharge is increased to 29,313 m3/day. The transient optimization results show that the average total optimal pumping rate is 36,969 m3/day for the current weir height. The transient optimization results for an increase in weir height by 1 and 2 m show that the average total optimal pumping rates are increased to 38,768 and 40,463 m3/day, respectively. It is concluded that the increase in the height of the weir can significantly increase the artificial recharge rate and production rate in Maghaway Valley.

  20. Commercialization of air conditioning heat pump/water heater. Final technical report, Volume 1: Transmittal documents; Executive summary; Project summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-30

    This is the final technical report on a commercialization project for an air conditioning heat pump water heater. The objective of the project was to produce a saleable system which would be economically competitive with natural gas and cost effective with regard to initial cost versus annual operating costs. The development and commercialization of the system is described.

  1. An Analytical Model for Mathematical Analysis of Smart Daily Energy Management for Air to Water Heat Pumps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabatabaei, S.A.; Thilakarathne, D.J.; Treur, J.

    2014-01-01

    Having a substantial and increasing energy demand for domestic heating world wide together with decreasing availability of fossil fuels, the use of renewable energy sources for heating are becoming important. Especially air to water heat pumps have been suggested as an alternative for domestic

  2. Ground-water heat pumps: an examination of hydrogeologic, environmental, legal, and economic factors affecting their use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armitage, D M; Bacon, D J; Massey-Norton, J T; Miller, J D

    1980-11-12

    Groundwater is attractive as a potential low-temperature energy source in residential space-conditioning applications. When used in conjuncton with a heat pump, ground water can serve as both a heat source (for heating) and a heat sink (for cooling). Major hydrogeologic aspects that affect system use include groundwater temperature and availability at shallow depths as these factors influence operational efficiency. Ground-water quality is considered as it affects the performance and life-expectancy of the water-side heat exchanger. Environmental impacts related to groundwater heat pump system use are most influenced by water use and disposal methods. In general, recharge to the subsurface (usually via injection wells) is recommended. Legal restrictions on system use are often stricter at the municipal and county levels than at state and Federal levels. Although Federal regulations currently exist, the agencies are not equipped to regulate individual, domestic installations. Computer smulations indicate that under a variety of climatologic conditions, groundwater heat pumps use less energy than conventional heating and cooling equipment. Life-cycle cost comparisons with conventional equipment depend on alternative system choices and well cost options included in the groundwater heat pump system.

  3. Water-related constraints to the development of geothermal electric generating stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, R.C.; Shepherd, A.D.; Rosemarin, C.S.; Mayfield, M.W.

    1981-06-01

    The water-related constraints, which may be among the most complex and variable of the issues facing commercialization of geothermal energy, are discussed under three headings: (1) water requirements of geothermal power stations, (2) resource characteristics of the most promising hydrothermal areas and regional and local water supply situations, and (3) legal issues confronting potential users of water at geothermal power plants in the states in which the resource areas are located. A total of 25 geothermal resource areas in California, New Mexico, Oregon, Idaho, Utah, Hawaii, and Alaska were studied. Each had a hydrothermal resource temperature in excess of 150/sup 0/C (300/sup 0/F) and an estimated 30-year potential of greater than 100-MW(e) capacity.

  4. Investigation the Stability of Treated Water Produced from Six Stations in Babylon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadeel Ali Abdulhussein

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion and scaling are mutual problems appeared in water distribution systems. The strictness of such problems depends on the quality of the water conveyed and the characteristics of the pipeline material. For solving and minimizing such problems, the probability of corrosivity and scaling of water as well as the factors effecting them should be investigated.  Four water stability indices (Langlier Saturation Index (LSI, Ryznar Stability Index (RSI, Pockurius Scaling Index (PSI, and Aggressive Index (AIwere used to investigate the stability of treated water from six selected water treatment plants in Babylon province (Al-Hillah Al-Jadeed, Al-Hillah Al-Kadeem, Al-Taiyara, Al-Hussain, Al-Mahaweel and Al-Hashmia during 2009-2013. According to LSI the treated water quality of the all stations was oversaturated with CaCO3 during the whole studied period (positive LSI values with a potential of forming a protective layer from calcium carbonate. RSI, PSI and AI results displayed that the water quality was of moderately corrosive which can be considered not harmful for water distribution systems.

  5. Improved Design Tools for Surface Water and Standing Column Well Heat Pump Systems (DE-EE0002961)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spitler, J. D.; Culling, J. R.; Conjeevaram, K.; Ramesh, M.; Selvakumar, M.

    2012-11-30

    Ground-source heat pump (GSHP) systems are perhaps the most widely used “sustainable” heating and cooling systems, with an estimated 1.7 million installed units with total installed heating capacity on the order of 18 GW. They are widely used in residential, commercial, and institutional buildings. Standing column wells (SCW) are one form of ground heat exchanger that, under the right geological conditions, can provide excellent energy efficiency at a relatively low capital cost. Closed-loop surface water heat pump (SWHP) systems utilize surface water heat exchangers (SWHE) to reject or extract heat from nearby surface water bodies. For building near surface water bodies, these systems also offer a high degree of energy efficiency at a low capital cost. However, there have been few design tools available for properly sizing standing column wells or surface water heat exchangers. Nor have tools for analyzing the energy consumption and supporting economics-based design decisions been available. The main contributions of this project lie in providing new tools that support design and energy analysis. These include a design tool for sizing surface water heat exchangers, a design tool for sizing standing column wells, a new model of surface water heat pump systems implemented in EnergyPlus and a new model of standing column wells implemented in EnergyPlus. These tools will better help engineers design these systems and determine the economic and technical feasibility.

  6. EPA Office of Water (OW): STORET Water Quality Monitoring Stations Source Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Storage and Retrieval for Water Quality Data (STORET and the Water Quality Exchange, WQX) defines the methods and the data systems by which EPA compiles monitoring...

  7. EPA Office of Water (OW): STORET Water Quality Monitoring Stations NHDPlus Indexed Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Storage and Retrieval for Water Quality Data (STORET and the Water Quality Exchange, WQX) defines the methods and the data systems by which EPA compiles monitoring...

  8. Potential depletion of surface water in the Colorado River and agricultural drains by groundwater pumping in the Parker-Palo Verde-Cibola area, Arizona and California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leake, Stanley A.; Owen-Joyce, Sandra J.; Heilman, Julian A.

    2013-01-01

    Water use along the lower Colorado River is allocated as “consumptive use,” which is defined to be the amount of water diverted from the river minus the amount that returns to the river. Diversions of water from the river include surface water in canals and water removed from the river by pumping wells in the aquifer connected to the river. A complication in accounting for water pumped by wells occurs if the pumping depletes water in drains and reduces measured return flow in those drains. In that case, consumptive use of water pumped by the wells is accounted for in the reduction of measured return flow. A method is needed to understand where groundwater pumping will deplete water in the river and where it will deplete water in drains. To provide a basis for future accounting for pumped groundwater in the Parker-Palo Verde-Cibola area, a superposition model was constructed. The model consists of three layers of finite-difference cells that cover most of the aquifer in the study area. The model was run repeatedly with each run having a pumping well in a different model cell. The source of pumped water that is depletion of the river, expressed as a fraction of the pumping rate, was computed for all active cells in model layer 1, and maps were constructed to understand where groundwater pumping depletes the river and where it depletes drains. The model results indicate that if one or more drains exist between a pumping well location and the river, nearly all of the depletion will be from drains, and little or no depletion will come from the Colorado River. Results also show that if a well pumps on a side of the river with no drains in the immediate area, depletion will come from the Colorado River. Finally, if a well pumps between the river and drains that parallel the river, a fraction of the pumping will come from the river and the rest will come from the drains. Model results presented in this report may be considered in development or refinement of strategies

  9. Field campaign on sediment transport behaviour in a pressure main from pumping station to wastewater treatment plant in Berlin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunkel, M; Pawlowsky-Reusing, E

    2017-05-01

    wastewater treatment plant. It was found that the sediment transport behaviour is characterized by sedimentation up to a flow velocity of 0.35 m/s, while remobilization effects occur above 0.5 m/s. The assumption of bad sediment transport performance in the pressure main was confirmed. Therefore, the results can be used as a basis for further analysis, for example regarding periodical flushing as a means of cleaning the pressure main. The findings, especially regarding the methods and processes, are transferable and can be applied to other pressure mains in combined sewer systems. Besides the outlined evaluation of the sediment transport behaviour of the pressure main, the collected data were used in the project to calibrate a sewer system model, including a water quality model for the catchment area, and as a contribution towards an early physically based sediment transport modelling in InfoWorks CS.

  10. High Efficiency Water Heating Technology Development Final Report, Part II: CO2 and Absorption-Based Residential Heat Pump Water Heater Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gluesenkamp, Kyle R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Abdelaziz, Omar [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Patel, Viral K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mandel, Bracha T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); de Almeida, Valmor F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-05-01

    The two objectives of this project were to 1.demonstrate an affordable path to an ENERGY STAR qualified electric heat pump water heater (HPWH) based on low-global warming potential (GWP) CO2 refrigerant, and 2.demonstrate an affordable path to a gas-fired absorption-based heat pump water heater with a gas energy factor (EF) greater than 1.0. The first objective has been met, and the project has identified a promising low-cost option capable of meeting the second objective. This report documents the process followed and results obtained in addressing these objectives.

  11. Construction Progress of the S-IC Pump House Water Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    1963-01-01

    At its founding, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) inherited the Army's Jupiter and Redstone test stands, but much larger facilities were needed for the giant stages of the Saturn V. From 1960 to 1964, the existing stands were remodeled and a sizable new test area was developed. The new comprehensive test complex for propulsion and structural dynamics was unique within the nation and the free world, and they remain so today because they were constructed with foresight to meet the future as well as on going needs. Construction of the S-IC Static test stand complex began in 1961 in the west test area of MSFC, and was completed in 1964. The S-IC static test stand was designed to develop and test the 138-ft long and 33-ft diameter Saturn V S-IC first stage, or booster stage, weighing in at 280,000 pounds. Required to hold down the brute force of a 7,500,000-pound thrust produced by 5 F-1 engines, the S-IC static test stand was designed and constructed with the strength of hundreds of tons of steel and 12,000,000 pounds of cement, planted down to bedrock 40 feet below ground level. The foundation walls, constructed with concrete and steel, are 4 feet thick. The base structure consists of four towers with 40-foot-thick walls extending upward 144 feet above ground level. The structure was topped by a crane with a 135-foot boom. With the boom in the upright position, the stand was given an overall height of 405 feet, placing it among the highest structures in Alabama at the time. In addition to the stand itself, related facilities were constructed during this time. Built to the northeast of the stand was a newly constructed Pump House. Its function was to provide water to the stand to prevent melting damage during testing. The water was sprayed through small holes in the stand's 1900 ton flame deflector at the rate of 320,000 gallons per minute. This close up photograph, taken September 5, 1963, shows the ground level frame work for the Pump House and its massive

  12. EPA Office of Water (OW): Fish Consumption Advisories and Fish Tissue Sampling Stations NHDPlus Indexed Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Fish Consumption Advisories dataset contains information on Fish Advisory events that have been indexed to the EPA Office of Water NHDPlus v2.1 hydrology and stored in the Reach Addressing Database (RAD). NHDPlus is a database that interconnects and uniquely identifies the millions of stream segments or reaches that comprise the Nations' surface water drainage system. NHDPlus provides a national framework for assigning reach addresses to water quality related entities, such as fish advisories locations. Reach addresses establish the locations of these entities relative to one another within the NHD surface water drainage network in a manner similar to street addresses. The assignment of reach addresses is accomplished through a process known as reach indexing. Fish consumption advisories and fish tissue sampling stations are reported to EPA by the states. Sampling stations are the locations where a state has collected fish tissue data for use in advisory determinations. Fish consumption advisory locations are coded onto NHDPlus flowline features to create point and linear events. Fish consumption advisory locations are also coded onto NHDPlus waterbody features to create area events. In addition to NHDPlus-reach indexed data, there may also be custom events (point, line, or area) that are not associated with NHDPlus. Although these Fish consumption advisories are not represented in NHDPlus, the data created for them are in an EPA standard format that is co

  13. Two-phase numerical study of the flow field formed in water pump sump: influence of air entrainment

    OpenAIRE

    BAYEUL-LAINE, Annie-Claude; Simonet, Sophie; BOIS, Gérard; Issa, Abir

    2012-01-01

    In a pump sump it is imperative that the amount of non-homogenous flow and entrained air be kept to a minimum. Free air-core vortex occurring at a water-intake pipe is an important problem encountered in hydraulic engineering. These vortices reduce pump performances, may have large effects on the operating conditions and lead to increase plant operating costs.This work is an extended study starting from 2006 in LML and published by ISSA and al. in 2008, 2009 and 2010. Several cases of sump co...

  14. Exergoeconomic optimization of an ammonia–water hybrid absorption–compression heat pump for heat supply in a spraydrying facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas Kjær; Markussen, Wiebke Brix; Reinholdt, Lars

    2015-01-01

    load of 6.1 MW. The exhaust air from the drying process is 80 C. The implementation of anammonia–water hybrid absorption–compression heat pump to partly cover the heat load is investigated. A thermodynamic analysis is applied to determine optimal circulation ratios for a number of ammonia mass......Spray-drying facilities are among the most energy intensive industrial processes. Using a heat pump to recover waste heat and replace gas combustion has the potential to attain both economic and emissions savings. In the case examined a drying gas of ambient air is heated to 200 C yielding a heat...

  15. Exergoeconomic optimization of an ammonia-water hybrid heat pump for heat supply in a spray drying facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas Kjær; Markussen, Wiebke Brix; Reinholdt, Lars

    2014-01-01

    rate is 100,000 m3/h which yields a heat load of 6.1 MW. The exhaust air from the drying process is 80 XC. The implementation of an ammonia-water hybrid absorption-compression heat pump to partly cover the heat load is investigated. A thermodynamic analysis is applied to determine optimal circulation......Spray drying facilities are among the most energy intensive industrial processes. Using a heat pump to recover waste heat and replace gas combustion has the potential to attain both economic and emissions savings. In the case examined a drying gas of ambient air is heated to 200 XC. The inlet flow...

  16. Acoustic and optical methods to infer water transparency at Time Series Station Spiekeroog, Wadden Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Anne-Christin; Badewien, Thomas H.; Garaba, Shungudzemwoyo P.; Zielinski, Oliver

    2016-11-01

    Water transparency is a primary indicator of optical water quality that is driven by suspended particulate and dissolved material. A data set from the operational Time Series Station Spiekeroog located at a tidal inlet of the Wadden Sea was used to perform (i) an inter-comparison of observations related to water transparency, (ii) correlation tests among these measured parameters, and (iii) to explore the utility of both acoustic and optical tools in monitoring water transparency. An Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler was used to derive the backscatter signal in the water column. Optical observations were collected using above-water hyperspectral radiometers and a submerged turbidity metre. Bio-fouling on the turbidity sensors optical windows resulted in measurement drift and abnormal values during quality control steps. We observed significant correlations between turbidity collected by the submerged metre and that derived from above-water radiometer observations. Turbidity from these sensors was also associated with the backscatter signal derived from the acoustic measurements. These findings suggest that both optical and acoustic measurements can be reasonable proxies of water transparency with the potential to mitigate gaps and increase data quality in long-time observation of marine environments.

  17. Stress Corrosion Evaluation of Nitinol 60 for the International Space Station Water Recycling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, P. D.

    2016-01-01

    A stress corrosion cracking (SCC) evaluation of Nitinol 60 was performed because this alloy is considered a candidate bearing material for the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS), specifically in the Urine Processing Assembly of the International Space Station. An SCC evaluation that preceded this one during the 2013-2014 timeframe included various alloys: Inconel 625, Hastelloy C-276, titanium (Ti) commercially pure (CP), Ti 6Al-4V, extra-low interstitial (ELI) Ti 6Al-4V, and Cronidur 30. In that evaluation, most specimens were exposed for a year. The results of that evaluation were published in NASA/TM-2015-218206, entitled "Stress Corrosion Evaluation of Various Metallic Materials for the International Space Station Water Recycling System,"1 available at the NASA Scientific and Technical Information program web page: http://www.sti.nasa.gov. Nitinol 60 was added to the test program in 2014.

  18. Building America Case Study: Multifamily Central Heat Pump Water Heaters, Davis, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Hoeschele, E. Weitzel

    2017-03-01

    Although heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have gained significant attention in recent years as a high efficiency electric water heating solution for single family homes, central HPWHs for commercial or multi-family applications are not as well documented in terms of measured performance and cost effectiveness. To evaluate this technology, the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation team monitored the performance of a 10.5 ton central HPWH installed on a student apartment building at the West Village Zero Net Energy Community in Davis, California. Monitoring data collected over a 16-month period were then used to validate a TRNSYS simulation model. The TRNSYS model was then used to project performance in different climates using local electric rates. Results of the study indicate that after some initial commissioning issues, the HPWH operated reliably with an annual average efficiency of 2.12 (Coefficient of Performance). The observed efficiency was lower than the unit's rated efficiency, primarily due to the fact that the system rarely operated under steady-state conditions. Changes in the system configuration, storage tank sizing, and control settings would likely improve the observed field efficiency. Modeling results suggest significant energy savings relative to electric storage water heating systems (typical annual efficiencies around 0.90) providing for typical simple paybacks of six to ten years without any incentives. The economics versus gas water heating are currently much more challenging given the current low natural gas prices in much of the country. Increased market size for this technology would benefit cost effectiveness and spur greater technology innovation.

  19. Building America Case Study: Multifamily Central Heat Pump Water Heaters, Davis, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-03-08

    Although heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have gained significant attention in recent years as a high efficiency electric water heating solution for single family homes, central HPWHs for commercial or multi-family applications are not as well documented in terms of measured performance and cost effectiveness. To evaluate this technology, the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation team monitored the performance of a 10.5 ton central HPWH installed on a student apartment building at the West Village Zero Net Energy Community in Davis, California. Monitoring data collected over a 16-month period were then used to validate a TRNSYS simulation model. The TRNSYS model was then used to project performance in different climates using local electric rates. Results of the study indicate that after some initial commissioning issues, the HPWH operated reliably with an annual average efficiency of 2.12 (Coefficient of Performance). The observed efficiency was lower than the unit's rated efficiency, primarily due to the fact that the system rarely operated under steady-state conditions. Changes in the system configuration, storage tank sizing, and control settings would likely improve the observed field efficiency. Modeling results suggest significant energy savings relative to electric storage water heating systems (typical annual efficiencies around 0.90) providing for typical simple paybacks of six to ten years without any incentives. The economics versus gas water heating are currently much more challenging given the current low natural gas prices in much of the country. Increased market size for this technology would benefit cost effectiveness and spur greater technology innovation.

  20. West Village Community: Quality Management Processes and Preliminary Heat Pump Water Heater Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dakin, B.; Backman, C.; Hoeschele, M.; German, A.

    2012-11-01

    West Village, a multi-use project underway at the University of California Davis, represents a ground-breaking sustainable community incorporating energy efficiency measures and on-site renewable generation to achieve community-level Zero Net Energy (ZNE) goals. The project when complete will provide housing for students, faculty, and staff with a vision to minimize the community's impact on energy use by reducing building energy use, providing on-site generation, and encouraging alternative forms of transportation. This focus of this research is on the 192 student apartments that were completed in 2011 under Phase I of the West Village multi-year project. The numerous aggressive energy efficiency measures implemented result in estimated source energy savings of 37% over the B10 Benchmark. There are two primary objectives of this research. The first is to evaluate performance and efficiency of the central heat pump water heaters as a strategy to provide efficient electric water heating for net-zero all-electric buildings and where natural gas is not available on site. In addition, effectiveness of the quality assurance and quality control processes implemented to ensure proper system commissioning and to meet program participation requirements is evaluated. Recommendations for improvements that could improve successful implementation for large-scale, high performance communities are identified.

  1. West Village Community. Quality Management Processes and Preliminary Heat Pump Water Heater Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dakin, B. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Backman, C. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Hoeschele, M. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); German, A. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)

    2012-11-01

    West Village, a multi-use project underway at the University of California Davis, represents a ground-breaking sustainable community incorporating energy efficiency measures and on-site renewable generation to achieve community-level Zero Net Energy (ZNE) goals. When complete, the project will provide housing for students, faculty, and staff with a vision to minimize the community’s impact on energy use by reducing building energy use, providing on-site generation, and encouraging alternative forms of transportation. This focus of this research is on the 192 student apartments that were completed in 2011 under Phase I of the West Village multi-year project. The numerous aggressive energy efficiency measures implemented result in estimated source energy savings of 37% over the B10 Benchmark. There are two primary objectives of this research. The first is to evaluate performance and efficiency of the central heat pump water heaters as a strategy to provide efficient electric water heating for net-zero all-electric buildings and where natural gas is not available on site. In addition, effectiveness of the quality assurance and quality control processes implemented to ensure proper system commissioning and to meet program participation requirements is evaluated. Recommendations for improvements that could improve successful implementation for large-scale, high performance communities are identified.

  2. Research and development of a heat-pump water heater. Volume 2. R and D task reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunning, R.L.; Amthor, F.R.; Doyle, E.J.

    1978-08-01

    The heat pump water heater is a device that works much like a window air conditioner except that heat from the home is pumped into a water tank rather than to the outdoors. The objective established for the device is to operate with a Coefficient of Performance (COP) of 3 or, an input of one unit of electric energy would create three units of heat energy in the form of hot water. With such a COP, the device would use only one-third the energy and at one-third the cost of a standard resistance water heater. This Volume 2 contains the final reports of the three major tasks performed in Phase I. In Task 2, a market study identifies the future market and selects an initial target market and channel of distribution, all based on an analysis of the parameters affecting feasibility of the device and the factors that will affect its market acceptance. In the Task 3 report, the results of a design and test program to arrive at final designs of heat pumps for both new water heaters and for retrofitting existing water heaters are presented. In the Task 4 report, a plan for an extensive field demonstration involving use in actual homes is presented. Volume 1 contains a final summary report of the information in Volume 2.

  3. Performance of a Heat Pump Water Heater in the Hot-Humid Climate, Windermere, Florida (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzger, C.; Puttagunta, S.; Williamson, J.

    2013-11-01

    Over recent years, heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have become more readily available and more widely adopted in the marketplace. For a 6-month period, the Building America team Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings monitored the performance of a GE Geospring HPWH in Windermere, Florida. The study found that the HPWH performed 144% more efficiently than a traditional electric resistance water heater, saving approximately 64% on water heating annually. The monitoring showed that the domestic hot water draw was a primary factor affecting the system's operating efficiency.

  4. Technology Solutions Case Study: Performance of a Heat Pump Water Heater in the Hot-Humid Climate, Windermere, Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-11-01

    Over recent years, heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have become more readily available and more widely adopted in the marketplace. For a 6-month period, the Building America team Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings monitored the performance of a GE Geospring HPWH in Windermere, Florida. The study found that the HPWH performed 144% more efficiently than a traditional electric resistance water heater, saving approximately 64% on water heating annually. The monitoring showed that the domestic hot water draw was a primary factor affecting the system's operating efficiency.

  5. Introduction and development of soil thermal stabilization technologies at the objects of oil pumping station-2 (OPS-2 of "Kuyumba - Tayshet" trunk oil pipeline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sapsay Aleksey Nikolaevich

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the questions of designing the foundations for the Oil Pumping Station-2 site of "Kuyumba - Tayshet" trunk oil pipeline. The problems of choice and grounds for technical solutions are considered basing on the results of complex thermotechnical calculations. The construction territory of OPS-2 site of "Kuyumba - Tayshet" trunk oil pipeline is characterized by complex engineering and geocryological conditions: 1 presence of permafrost soil on 80 % of the site area; 2 absence of sufficiently widespread rocky soils under designed buildings and constructions; 3 transition of loamy grounds into yield during thawing. The buildings and facilities are designed on the basis of pile foundation type with high rigid foundation grill. The piles’ diameter is 325 mm and 426 mm, the total length of piles is 9-12 m. The full designed vertical loading, transferred to the pile, is ranging from 10.6 to 50.4 tf. According to the results of the calculations, in order to provide the necessary bearing capacity of piles, securing the perception of transmitted designed loadings, the equivalent temperature of the soil along the side surface of piles ( e should not be higher than -0,5 °C. Taking into account that the soil temperatures on the projected site mainly range from -0.1 to -0.3 °C, in order to lower their temperatures to the calculated values ventilated underground areas are arranged under the buildings and facilities and seasonally active cooling devices (soil thermal stabilizers are installed. Assembly technique and construction of ventilated underground areas with application of soil thermal stabilizers were developed earlier while designing the pipeline system "Zapolyarye - Oil Pumping Station Purpe". For confirmation of the accepted decisions forecasting thermotechnical calculations were performed with the use of a special computer program TermoStab 67-87, which allows simulating the changes of temperature regimes of the permafrost

  6. Sea Levels Online: Sea Level Variations of the United States Derived from National Water Level Observation Network Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water level records are a combination of the fluctuations of the ocean and the vertical land motion at the location of the station. Monthly mean sea level (MSL)...

  7. June 2013 Meteotsunami Captured by NOAA/NOS Coastal Water Level Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, K.; DiVeglio, C.; Welty, A.

    2014-12-01

    On June 13, 2013, a north-south oriented, long formation of strong storms passed eastward over the New Jersey coast. Three hours later, while the weather was calm, a sudden runup of water along the New Jersey and New England coasts was witnessed despite no nearby seismic activity. Post-event analysis revealed that a rare meteotsunami impacted the East Coast of the United States. The strong pressure jump associated with the storms generated an ocean wave that became amplified when the speed of the storms reached the speed of the wave, creating resonance. The wave approached the Mid-Atlantic shelf break and reflected back, explaining the time lag between the passing storms and the incoming wave. The National Water Level Observing Network (NWLON) stations maintained by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Ocean Service (NOS) Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services (CO-OPS) measured strong water level oscillations at several stations along the eastern seaboard. The detided one-minute data show the tsunami signal with maximum amplitudes ranging from 0.16 m at Nantucket Island, MA to 0.61 m. at Newport, RI. The Narragansett Bay stations captured the meteotsunami wave propagating northward and diminishing towards the innermost part of the Bay. The Atlantic City, NJ station captured the 3.2-mb pressure jump in the six-minute barometer data from the passing storms as well as the incoming wave that hit three hours later with a maximum amplitude of 0.47 m. Along the U.S. coast, harbor shape and orientation contributed to the strength of the tsunami wave, and some stations that were in shadowed areas did not measure a strong signal despite being in an area of measurable impact. Meteotsunamis pose a threat to the U.S. coastline, and without high-resolution observations and models these events cannot be quantitatively forecasted. NOAA does not currently have an operational warning system but the June 2013 meteotsunami provides an

  8. Ground-water system, estimation of aquifer hydraulic properties, and effects of pumping on ground-water flow in Triassic sedimentary rocks in and near Lansdale, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, Lisa A.; Goode, Daniel J.

    1999-01-01

    Ground water in Triassic-age sedimentary fractured-rock aquifers in the area of Lansdale, Pa., is used as drinking water and for industrial supply. In 1979, ground water in the Lansdale area was found to be contaminated with trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, and other man-made organic compounds, and in 1989, the area was placed on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) National Priority List as the North Penn Area 6 site. To assist the USEPA in the hydrogeological assessment of the site, the U.S. Geological Survey began a study in 1995 to describe the ground-water system and to determine the effects of changes in the well pumping patterns on the direction of ground-water flow in the Lansdale area. This determination is based on hydrologic and geophysical data collected from 1995-98 and on results of the simulation of the regional ground-water-flow system by use of a numerical model.Correlation of natural-gamma logs indicate that the sedimentary rock beds strike generally northeast and dip at angles less than 30 degrees to the northwest. The ground-water system is confined or semi-confined, even at shallow depths; depth to bedrock commonly is less than 20 feet (6 meters); and depth to water commonly is about 15 to 60 feet (5 to 18 meters) below land surface. Single-well, aquifer-interval-isolation (packer) tests indicate that vertical permeability of the sedimentary rocks is low. Multiple-well aquifer tests indicate that the system is heterogeneous and that flow appears primarily in discrete zones parallel to bedding. Preferred horizontal flow along strike was not observed in the aquifer tests for wells open to the pumped interval. Water levels in wells that are open to the pumped interval, as projected along the dipping stratigraphy, are drawn down more than water levels in wells that do not intersect the pumped interval. A regional potentiometric map based on measured water levels indicates that ground water flows from Lansdale towards discharge

  9. Offshore Floating Wind Turbine-driven Deep Sea Water Pumping for Combined Electrical Power and District Cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sant, T.; Buhagiar, D.; Farrugia, R. N.

    2014-06-01

    A new concept utilising floating wind turbines to exploit the low temperatures of deep sea water for space cooling in buildings is presented. The approach is based on offshore hydraulic wind turbines pumping pressurised deep sea water to a centralised plant consisting of a hydro-electric power system coupled to a large-scale sea water-cooled air conditioning (AC) unit of an urban district cooling network. In order to investigate the potential advantages of this new concept over conventional technologies, a simplified model for performance simulation of a vapour compression AC unit was applied independently to three different systems, with the AC unit operating with (1) a constant flow of sea surface water, (2) a constant flow of sea water consisting of a mixture of surface sea water and deep sea water delivered by a single offshore hydraulic wind turbine and (3) an intermittent flow of deep sea water pumped by a single offshore hydraulic wind turbine. The analysis was based on one year of wind and ambient temperature data for the Central Mediterranean that is known for its deep waters, warm climate and relatively low wind speeds. The study confirmed that while the present concept is less efficient than conventional turbines utilising grid-connected electrical generators, a significant portion of the losses associated with the hydraulic transmission through the pipeline are offset by the extraction of cool deep sea water which reduces the electricity consumption of urban air-conditioning units.

  10. International Space Station USOS Potable Water Dispenser On-Orbit Functionality Versus Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toon, Katherine P.; Lovell, Randal W.

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) currently provides potable water dispensing for rehydrating crewmember food and drinking packages. There is one system located in the United States On-orbit Segment (USOS) and one system in the Russian Segment. Shuttle mission STS-126 delivered the USOS Potable Water Dispenser (PWD) to ISS on ULF2; subsequent activation occurred on November 2008. The PWD is capable of supporting an ISS crew of six, but nominally supplies only half this crew size. The PWD design provides incremental quantities of hot and ambient temperature potable water to US food and beverage packages. PWD receives iodinated water from the US Water Recovery System (WRS) Fuel Cell Water Bus, which feeds from the Water Processing Assembly (WPA). The PWD removes the biocidal iodine to make the water potable prior to dispensing. A heater assembly contained within the unit supplies up to 2.0 L of hot water (65 to 93 ?C) every 30 min. During a single meal, this quantity of water supports three to four crewmembers? food rehydration and beverages. The unit design has a functional life expectancy of 10 years, with replacement of limited life items, such as filters. To date, the PWD on-orbit performance is acceptable. Since activation of the PWD, there were several differences between on-orbit functionality and expected performance of hardware design. The comparison of on-orbit functionality to performance of hardware design is discussed for the following key areas: 1) microbial contamination, 2) no-dispense and water leakage scenarios, and 3) under-dispense scenarios.

  11. Radar Interferometry for Monitoring Land Subsidence Due to Over-Pumping Ground Water in Crete, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertikas, S. P.; Papadaki, E. S.

    2010-03-01

    The level of water in several wells at the Messara valley, Crete, Greece has dropped 40 meters over the last 20 years. Anecdotal reports describe cracks in the concrete foundations of some residential structures around the valley. These also suggest that ground subsidence may exceed one centimeter, at least, over a period of recharging and withdrawal ground water.Conventional differential SAR interferometry using ERS-SAR and ALOS-PALSAR images, as well as the stacking technique have been applied to monitor this ground deformation. The used images covered the period from 1992 to 2000 and 2007-2009, respectively.A total of 29 ERS-1&2 SAR and 7 ALOS images have been used for forming interferograms. Image pairs with Doppler difference less than 0.20 pulse repetition frequency, and perpendicular baseline smaller than 100m have been used for processing. A Digital Elevation Model with 20-m pixel size and ±7 m height accuracy has also been incorporated in interferometric processing. Atmospheric artifacts have been compensated by using image stacking.The valley to be monitored is densely cultivated and irrigated. Thus, loss of coherence in images has been observed in the C-Band and could not be overcome. Consequently, interferometric results with the ERS-SAR images have been limited. On the other hand, processing of L-band data has brought up a ground deformation that amounted to a subsidence of at least 4 cm/yr. The correlation of the observed ground deformation with respect to water pumping and other geological parameters has also been investigated.

  12. Fate of Water Pumped from Underground and Contributions to Sea Level Rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Yoshihide; Lo, Min-Hui; Yeh, Pat J.-F.; Reager, John T.; Famiglietti, James S.; Wu, Ren-Jie; Tseng, Yu-Heng

    2016-01-01

    The contributions from terrestrial water sources to sea-level rise, other than ice caps and glaciers, are highly uncertain and heavily debated1-5. Recent assessments indicate that groundwater depletion (GWD) may become the most important positive terrestrial contribution6-10 over the next 50 years, probably equal in magnitude to the current contributions from glaciers and ice caps6. However, the existing estimates assume that nearly 100% of groundwater extracted eventually ends up in the oceans. Owing to limited knowledge of the pathways and mechanisms governing the ultimate fate of pumped groundwater, the relative fraction of global GWD that contributes to sea-level rise remains unknown. Here, using a coupled climate-hydrological model11,12 simulation, we show that only 80% of GWDends up in the ocean. An increase in runo to the ocean accounts for roughly two-thirds, whereas the remainder results from the enhanced net flux of precipitation minus evaporation over the ocean, due to increased atmospheric vapour transport from the land to the ocean. The contribution of GWD to global sea-level rise amounted to 0.02 (+/- 0.004)mm yr(sup-1) in 1900 and increased to 0.27 (+/- 0.04)mm yr(sup-1) in 2000. This indicates that existing studies have substantially overestimated the contribution of GWD to global sea-level rise by a cumulative amount of at least 10 mm during the twentieth century and early twenty-first century. With other terrestrial water contributions included, we estimate the net terrestrial water contribution during the period 1993-2010 to be +0.12 +/-0.04)mm yr(sup-1), suggesting that the net terrestrialwater contribution reported in the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report report is probably overestimated by a factor of three.

  13. The integration of water loop heat pump and building structural thermal storage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marseille, T.J.; Schliesing, J.S.

    1991-10-01

    Many commercial buildings need heat in one part and, at the same time, cooling in another part. Even more common is the need for heating during one part of the day and cooling during another in the same spaces. If that energy could be shifted or stored for later use, significant energy might be saved. If a building's heating and cooling subsystems could be integrated with the building's structural mass and used to collect, store, and deliver energy, the energy might be save cost-effectively. To explore this opportunity, researchers at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) examined the thermal interactions between the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system and the structure of a commercial building. Computer models were developed to simulate the interactions in an existing building located in Seattle, Washington, to determine how these building subsystems could be integrated to improve energy efficiency. The HVAC subsystems in the existing building were modeled. These subsystems consist of decentralized water-source heat pumps (WSHP) in a closed water loop, connected to cooling towers for heat rejection during cooling mode and boilers to augment heating. An initial base case'' computer model of the Seattle building, as-built, was developed. Metered data available for the building were used to calibrate this model to ensure that the analysis would provide information that closely reflected the operation of a real building. The HVAC system and building structure were integrated in the model using the concrete floor slabs as thermal storage media. The slabs may be actively charged during off-peak periods with the chilled water in the loop and then either actively or passively discharged into the conditioned space during peak periods. 21 refs., 37 figs., 17 tabs.

  14. Impact of Ducting on Heat Pump Water Heater Space Conditioning Energy Use and Comfort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widder, Sarah H.; Petersen, Joseph M.; Parker, Graham B.; Baechler, Michael C.

    2014-07-21

    Increasing penetration of heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) in the residential sector will offer an important opportunity for energy savings, with a theoretical energy savings of up to 63% per water heater and up to 11% of residential energy use (EIA 2009). However, significant barriers must be overcome before this technology will reach widespread adoption in the Pacific Northwest region and nationwide. One significant barrier noted by the Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance (NEEA) is the possible interaction with the homes’ space conditioning system for units installed in conditioned spaces. Such complex interactions may decrease the magnitude of whole-house savings available from HPWH installed in the conditioned space in cold climates and could lead to comfort concerns (Larson et al. 2011; Kresta 2012). Modeling studies indicate that the installation location of HPWHs can significantly impact their performance and the resultant whole-house energy savings (Larson et al. 2012; Maguire et al. 2013). However, field data are not currently available to validate these results. This field evaluation of two GE GeoSpring HPWHs in the PNNL Lab Homes is designed to measure the performance and impact on the Lab Home HVAC system of a GE GeoSpring HPWH configured with exhaust ducting compared to an unducted GeoSpring HPWH during heating and cooling season periods; and measure the performance and impact on the Lab Home HVAC system of the GeoSpring HPWH with both supply and exhaust air ducting as compared to an unducted GeoSpring HPWH during heating and cooling season periods. Important metrics evaluated in these experiments include water heater energy use, HVAC energy use, whole house energy use, interior temperatures (as a proxy for thermal comfort), and cost impacts. This technical report presents results from the PNNL Lab Homes experiment.

  15. Response of the Rio Grande and shallow ground water in the Mesilla Bolson to irrigation, climate stress, and pumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, J.; Ohlmacher, G.; Utz, D.; Kutianawala, M.

    1999-01-01

    The El Paso-Ciudad Juarez metropolitan area obtains its water from the Rio Grande and intermontane-basin aquifers. Shallow ground water in this region is in close communications with the surface water system. A major problem with both systems is salinity. Upstream usage of the water in the Rio Grande for irrigation and municipalities has led to concentration of soluble salts to the point where the surface water commonly exceeds drinking water standards. Shallow ground water is recharged by surface water (primarily irrigation canals and agricultural fields) and discharges to surface water (agricultural drains) and deeper ground water. The source of water entering the Rio Grande varies seasonally. During the irrigation season, water is released from reservoirs and mixes with the return flow from irrigation drains. During the non-irrigation season (winter), flow is from irrigation drains and river water quality is indicative of shallow ground water. The annual cycle can be ascertained from the inverse correlation between ion concentrations and discharge in the river. Water-quality data indicate that the salinity of shallow ground water increases each year during a drought. Water-management strategies in the region can affect water quality. Increasing the pumping rate of water-supply wells will cause shallow ground water to flow into the deeper aquifers and degrade the water quality. Lining the canals in the irrigation system to stop water leakage will lead to water quality degradation in shallow ground water and, eventually, deep ground water by removing a major source of high quality recharge that currently lowers the salinity of the shallow ground water.

  16. Electromembrane recycling of highly mineralized alkaline blowdown water from evaporative water treatment plants at thermal power stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chichirova, N. D.; Chichirov, A. A.; Lyapin, A. I.; Minibaev, A. I.; Silov, I. Yu.; Tolmachev, L. I.

    2016-12-01

    Thermal power stations (TPS) are the main source of highly mineralized effluents affecting the environment. An analysis of their water systems demonstrates that alkaline effluents prevail at TPSs. Extraction of an alkali from highly mineralized effluents can make the recycling of effluents economically feasible. A method is proposed of electromembrane recycling of liquid alkaline highly mineralized wastes from TPSs. The process includes electromembrane apparatuses of two types, namely, a diffusion dialysis extractor (DDE) intended for extraction of the alkali from a highly mineralized solution having a complex composition and an electrodialysis concentrator for increasing the concentration of the extracted solution to a value suitable for use in water treatment plants at TPSs. For implementation of the first process (i.e. the extraction of alkali from alkaline-salt solution) various membranes from various manufacturers were studied: CM-PAD and AM-PAD (Ralex, Czechia), MK-40, MA-40, MA-41, MA-414, and MB-2 (OOO OKhK "Shchekinoazot", Russia), AR103-QDF and CR61-CMP (Ionies Inc., USA). The experiments demonstrate that the acceptable degree of separation of the alkali and the salt is achieved in a pair of cation-exchange membranes with the efficiency of separation being higher without an electric field. The highest efficiency was attained with Russian-made membranes (MK-40, OOO OKhK "Shchekinoazot"). A full scale experiment on recycling of highly-mineralized blowdown water from the evaporating water treatment system at the Kazan cogeneration power station No. 3 (TETs-3) was performed in a pilot unit consisting of two electromembrane apparatuses made by UAB "Membraninės Technologijos LT". In the experiments every ton of blowdown water yielded 0.1 t of concentrated alkaline solution with an alkali content of up to 4 wt % and 0.9 t of the softened salt solution suitable for the reuse in the TPS cycle. The power rate is 6 kWh / ton of blowdown water.

  17. International Space Station (ISS) Potable Water Dispenser (PWD) Beverage Adapter (BA) Redesign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgerly, Rachel; Benoit, Jace; Shindo, David

    2012-01-01

    The Potable Water Dispenser used on the International Space Station (ISS) interfaces with food and drink packages using the Beverage Adapter and Needle. Unexpected leakage has been seen in this interface. The Beverage Adapter used on ]orbit was returned to the ground for Test, Teardown, and Evaluation. The results of that investigation prompted a redesign of the Beverage Adapter and Needle. The Beverage Adapter materials were changed to be more corrosion resistant, and the Needle was redesigned to preclude leakage. The redesigns have been tested and proven.

  18. A low cost micro-station to monitor soil water potential for irrigation management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannutelli, Edoardo; Masseroni, Daniele; Facchi, Arianna; Gandolfi, Claudio; Renga, Filippo

    2014-05-01

    The RISPArMiA project (which stands for "reduction of water wastage through the continuous monitoring of agri-environmental parameters") won in 2013 the contest called "LINFAS - The New Ideas Make Sustainable Agriculture" and sponsored by two Italian Foundations (Fondazione Italiana Accenture and Fondazione Collegio Università Milanesi). The objective of the RISPArMiA project is to improve the irrigation efficiency at the farm scale, by providing the farmer with a valuable decision support system for the management of irrigation through the use of low-cost sensors and technologies that can easily be interfaced with Mobile devices. Through the installation of tensiometric sensors within the cropped field, the soil water potential can be continuously monitored. Using open hardware electronic platforms, a data-logger for storing the measured data will be built. Data will be then processed through a software that will allow the conversion of the monitored information into an irrigation advice. This will be notified to the farmer if the measured soil water potential exceed literature crop-specific tensiometric thresholds. Through an extrapolation conducted on the most recent monitored data, it will be also possible to obtain a simple soil water potential prevision in absence of rain events. All the information will be sent directly to a virtual server and successively on the farmer Mobile devices. Each micro-station is completely autonomous from the energy point of view, since it is powered by batteries recharged by a solar panel. The transmission modulus consists of a GSM apparatus with a SIM card. The use of free platforms (Arduino) and low cost sensors (Watermark 200SS tensiometers and soil thermocouples) will significantly reduce the costs of construction of the micro-station which are expected to be considerably lower than those required for similar instruments on the market today . Six prototype micro-stations are actually under construction. Their field testing

  19. THEORETICAL FLOW MODEL THROUGH A CENTRIFUGAL PUMP USED FOR WATER SUPPLY IN AGRICULTURE IRRIGATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SCHEAUA Fanel Dorel

    2017-05-01

    motion of the rotor. A theoretical model for calculating the flow of the working fluid through the interior of a centrifugal pump model is presented in this paper as well as the numerical analysis on the virtual model performed with the ANSYS CFX software in order to highlight the flow parameters and flow path-lines that are formed during centrifugal pump operation.

  20. GNSS-Derived Water Vapour for Riyadh from SOLA IGS Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghrabi, Abdullrahman; Alothman, Abdulaziz; Fernandes, Rui; Aodah, Souad

    2017-04-01

    Water vapor is the most abundant and highly variable component of the important gases in the atmosphere. It influences many physical and thermodynamical processes in the atmosphere and plays an important role in the hydrological cycle and has effects on our climate and weather systems. Water vapour affects the electromagnetic radiation through the atmosphere, which is of significance in fields of astronomy, radar, communications and remote sensing. Precipitable water vapor (PWV) is the amount of water obtained if all the water vapor in the atmosphere were to be compressed to the point at which it condenses into liquid. PWV is difficult to measure adequately due to its variable distribution both spatially and temporally. Most of the current techniques (e.g., radiosondes or satellites) are only available at few locations and not continuously (few observations per day at most). However, in the last decades, GPS observations have been proven to accurately measure the ZTD (Zenith Tropospheric Delay) at high frequencies (normally every 5 minutes) above the station. This quantity can be converted to PWV if temperature and pressure is know at the station location. In early 2004, King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) established a GPS network for geodetic and geophysical applications to contribute to the International GNSS Service IGS. In this study, we will present the first PWV measurements obtained from Global Navigation Satellite System GNSS receiver at the Solar Village (SOLA), 60 km from Riyadh. GNSS observations for the period between 2004-2006 are used to study the daily and seasonal variations of ZTD, and consequently of PWV in SOLA. In addition, we also compare the GNSS-derived PWV with sunphotometer and radiosonde estimates at SOLA in order to evaluate the compatibility of these techniques in a dry climate as the one in Riyadh.

  1. Heat transfer enhancement and pumping power optimization using CuO-water nanofluid through rectangular corrugated pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehin, Musfequs; Ehsan, Mohammad Monjurul; Islam, A. K. M. Sadrul

    2017-06-01

    Heat transfer enhancement by corrugation in fluid domain is a popular method. The rate of improvement is more when it is used highly thermal conductive fluid as heating or cooling medium. In this present study, heat transfer augmentation was investigated numerically by implementing corrugation in the fluid domain and nanofluid as the base fluid in the turbulent forced convection regime. Finite volume method (FVM) was applied to solve the continuity, momentum and energy equations. All the numerical simulations were considered for single phase flow. A rectangle corrugated pipe with 5000 W/m2 constant heat flux subjected to the corrugated wall was considered as the fluid domain. In the range of Reynolds number 15000 to 40000, thermo-physical and hydrodynamic behavior was investigated by using CuO-water nanofluid from 1% to 5% volume fraction as the base fluid through the corrugated fluid domain. Corrugation justification was performed by changing the amplitude of the corrugation and the corrugation wave length for obtaining the increased heat transfer rate with minimum pumping power. For using CuO-water nanofluid, augmentation was also found more in the rectangle corrugated pipe both in heat transfer and pumping power requirement with the increase of Reynolds number and the volume fraction of nanofluid. For the increased pumping power, optimization of pumping power by using nanofluid was also performed for economic finding.

  2. The Dynamic Characteristic Analysis of the Water Lubricated Bearing-Rotor System in Seawater Desalination Pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Ye

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the water lubricated bearing-rotor system in seawater desalination pump, this paper is based on the coupling between the lubricating flow field and the rotor dynamics. The fluid-solid interaction (FSI method, Rigid Body, was adopted to study the journal orbit of the bearing-rotor system under the periodic unbalancing load. The influences of geometric and working parameter to the journal orbit were combined to analyze the stability and reliability of the bearing-rotor system. The result shows that increasing the rotating speed would increase the journal whirling amplitude and the system sensitivity to the external excitation and unbalancing load were promoted; increasing the aspect ratio would reduce the journal whirling amplitude and cause the system to be more unstable; increasing the inlet pressure would reduce the journal whirling amplitude and cause the system to be more unstable; increasing the unbalancing load would reduce the stability margin and the system is easy to be unstable if obstructed; increasing the radial clearance would reduce the journal whirling amplitude and cause the system to be more unstable. The attitude angle has no influence on the journal whirling amplitude but would influence the stability of system and the value of attitude angle should not be large.

  3. WiFi Data Acquisition System Applied to a Photovoltaic Powered Water Pumping Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro César Silveira JUCÁ

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The present paper describes how to design and assemble a low cost online monitoring and WiFi data acquisition system using free software applied to microgeneration based on renewable energy sources. The development of online monitoring systems for microgeneration plants based on renewable energy sources is becoming more important, considering that monitoring and data acquisition systems are applicable in stages of the microgeneration process. The monitoring and data acquisition WiFi system was developed using an embedded WiFi modem (Wifly coupled to a microcontrolled board based on the free tool SanUSB. This monitoring system was applied to a photovoltaic (PV water pumping plant without batteries, so as the control system and the wireless communication with the online server, which is also autonomous and powered by PV panel. The free software for online monitoring and WiFi data acquisition allows the analysis of stored data and charts through mobile devices as notebooks, tablets and smartphones.

  4. Air-to-Water Heat Pumps With Radiant Delivery in Low-Load Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backman, C. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States). Davis Energy Group; German, A. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States). Davis Energy Group; Dakin, B. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States). Davis Energy Group; Springer, D. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States). Davis Energy Group

    2013-12-01

    Space conditioning represents nearly 50% of average residential household energy consumption, highlighting the need to identify alternative cost-effective, energy-efficient cooling and heating strategies. As homes are better built, there is an increasing need for strategies that are particularly well suited for high performance, low load homes. ARBI researchers worked with two test homes in hot-dry climates to evaluate the in-situ performance of air-to-water heat pump (AWHP) systems, an energy efficient space conditioning solution designed to cost-effectively provide comfort in homes with efficient, safe, and durable operation. Two monitoring projects of test houses in hot-dry climates were initiated in 2010 to test this system. Both systems were fully instrumented and have been monitored over one year to capture complete performance data over the cooling and heating seasons. Results are used to quantify energy savings, cost-effectiveness, and system performance using different operating modes and strategies. A calibrated TRNSYS model was developed and used to evaluate performance in various climate regions. This strategy is most effective in tight, insulated homes with high levels of thermal mass (i.e. exposed slab floors).

  5. Air-to-Water Heat Pumps With Radiant Delivery in Low-Load Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backman, C. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); German, A. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Dakin, B. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Springer, D. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Space conditioning represents nearly 50% of average residential household energy consumption, highlighting the need to identify alternative cost-effective, energy-efficient cooling and heating strategies. As homes are better built, there is an increasing need for strategies that are particularly well suited for high performance, low load homes. ARBI researchers worked with two test homes in hot-dry climates to evaluate the in-situ performance of air-to-water heat pump systems, an energy efficient space conditioning solution designed to cost-effectively provide comfort in homes with efficient, safe, and durable operation. Two monitoring projects of test houses in hot-dry climates were initiated in 2010 to test this system. Both systems were fully instrumented and have been monitored over one year to capture complete performance data over the cooling and heating seasons. Results are used to quantify energy savings, cost-effectiveness, and system performance using different operating modes and strategies. A calibrated TRNSYS model was developed and used to evaluate performance in various climate regions. This strategy is most effective in tight, insulated homes with high levels of thermal mass (i.e. exposed slab floors).

  6. Biological pump control of the fate and distribution of hydrophobic organic pollutants in water and plankton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizzetto, Luca; Gioia, Rosalinda; Li, Jun; Borgå, Katrine; Pomati, Francesco; Bettinetti, Roberta; Dachs, Jordi; Jones, Kevin C

    2012-03-20

    The goal of this study was to experimentally assess the coupling between primary producer biomass dynamics and the distribution and fate of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in a lake pelagic ecosystem. This was done by following the short-term evolution of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in water and biota (phytoplankton and zooplankton) and the variability of bioconcentration (BCF), biomagnification (BMF), and bioaccumulation (BAF) factors during the development of a typical spring ecological progression in which the phytoplankton bloom is followed by a peak in the zooplankton abundance. The bulk of compounds with log K(OW) > 6.5 in the lake epilimnion was mainly associated with primary producer biomass. The phytoplankton biological pump was a major driver of POP export from the epilimnion, causing the decline of dissolved-phase concentrations. The BCF of phytoplankton for the more hydrophobic PCBs showed minima during the period of biomass climax. The concentration in the zooplankton of all selected PCBs sharply declined from March to May, with BAFs having minima in the post algal bloom phase. Biomagnification occurred during the pre algal bloom and algal bloom phases but appeared to be absent during the post algal bloom. This study highlights the occurrence of a prompt and complex response in the fate and distribution of POPs to dynamic biogeochemical control. Within the frame of the ecological succession, phytoplankton and zooplankton biomass dynamics produced bioaccumulation metrics varying over 1-2 orders of magnitude in the time frame of a few weeks and resulted in reduced trophic web exposure.

  7. International Space Station USOS Potable Water Dispenser On-Orbit Functionality vs Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toon, Katherine P.; Lovell, Randal W.

    2009-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) currently provides potable water dispensing for rehydrating crewmembers food and drinking packages with one system located in the United States On-orbit Segment (USOS) and one system in the Russian Segment. The USOS Potable Water Dispenser (PWD) was delivered to ISS on ULF2, Shuttle Mission STS-126, and was subsequently activated in November 2008. The PWD activation on ISS is capable of supporting an ISS crew of six but nominally supplies only half the crew. The PWD is designed to provide incremental quantities of hot and ambient temperature potable water to US style food packages. PWD receives iodinated water from the US Laboratory Fuel Cell Water Bus, which is fed from the Water Processing Assembly (WPA). The PWD removes the biocidal iodine to make the water potable prior to dispensing. A heater assembly contained within the unit supplies up to 2.0 liters of hot water (65 to 93oC) every thirty minutes. This quantity supports three to four crewmembers to rehydrate their food and beverages from this location during a single meal. The unit is designed to remain functional for up to ten years with replacement of limited life items such as filters. To date, the PWD on-orbit performance has been acceptable. Since activation of the PWD, there have been several differences between on-orbit functionality and expected performance of hardware design. The comparison of on-orbit functionality to performance of hardware design is outlined for the following key areas: microbiology, PWD to food package water leakage, no-dispense scenarios, under-dispense scenarios, and crewmember feedback on actual on-orbit use.

  8. Residential energy-tax-credit eligibility: a case study for the heat-pump water heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohn, S M; Cardell, N S

    1982-09-01

    Described are the methodology and results of an analysis to determine the eligibility of an energy-efficient item for the residential energy-tax credit. Although energy credits are granted only on a national basis, an attempt to determine the tax-credit eligibility for an item such as the heat-pump water heater (HPWH) analyzing national data is inappropriate. The tax-credit eligibility of the HPWH is evaluated for the ten federal regions to take into consideration the regional differences of: (1) HPWH annual efficiency, (2) existing water heater stocks by fuel type, (3) electricity, fuel oil, and natural-gas price variations, and (4) electric-utility oil and gas use for electricity generation. A computer model of consumer choice of HPWH selection as well as a computer code evaluating the economics of tax-credit eligibility on a regional basis were developed as analytical tools for this study. The analysis in this report demonstrates that the HPWH meets an important criteria for eligibility by the Treasury Department for an energy tax credit (nationally, the estimated dollar value of savings of oil and gas over the lifetime of those HPWH's sold during 1981 to 1985 due to the tax credit exceeds the revenue loss to the treasury). A natural-gas price-deregulation scenario is one of two fuel scenarios that are evaluated using the equipment choice and tax-credit models. These two cases show the amounts of oil and gas saved by additional HPWH units sold (due to the tax credit during 1981 to 1985 (range from 13.9 to 23.1 million barrels of oil equivalent over the lifetime of the equipment.

  9. Water, energy and agricultural landuse trends at Shiroro hydropower station and environs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adegun, Olubunmi; Ajayi, Olalekan; Badru, Gbolahan; Odunuga, Shakirudeen

    2018-02-01

    The study examines the interplay among water resources, hydropower generation and agricultural landuse at the Shiroro hydropower station and its environs, in north-central Nigeria. Non-parametric trend analysis, hydropower footprint estimation, reservoir performance analysis, change detection analysis, and inferential statistics were combined to study the water-energy and food security nexus. Results of Mann-Kendall test and Sen's slope estimator for the period 1960 to 2013 showed a declining rainfall trend at Jos, around River Kaduna headwaters at -2.6 mm yr-1, while rainfall at Kaduna and Minna upstream and downstream of the reservoir respectively showed no trend. Estimates of hydropower footprint varied between 130.4 and 704.1 m3 GJ-1 between 1995 and 2013. Power generation reliability and resilience of the reservoir was 31.6 and 38.5 % respectively with year 2011 being the most vulnerable and least satisfactory. In addition to poor reliability and resilience indices, other challenges militating against good performance of hydropower generation includes population growth and climate change issues as exemplified in the downward trend observed at the headwaters. Water inflow and power generation shows a weak positive relationship with correlation coefficient (r) of 0.48, indicating less than optimal power generation. Total area of land cultivated increased from 884.59 km2 in 1986 prior to the commissioning of the hydropower station to 1730.83 km2 in 2016 which signifies an increased contribution of the dam to ensuring food security. The reality of reducing upstream rainfall amount coupled with high water footprint of electricity from the reservoir, therefore requires that a long term roadmap to improve operational coordination and management have to be put in place.

  10. Optimal design and operation of booster chlorination stations layout in water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohar, Ziv; Ostfeld, Avi

    2014-07-01

    This study describes a new methodology for the disinfection booster design, placement, and operation problem in water distribution systems. Disinfectant residuals, which are in most cases chlorine residuals, are assumed to be sufficient to prevent growth of pathogenic bacteria, yet low enough to avoid taste and odor problems. Commonly, large quantities of disinfectants are released at the sources outlets for preserving minimum residual disinfectant concentrations throughout the network. Such an approach can cause taste and odor problems near the disinfectant injection locations, but more important hazardous excessive disinfectant by-product formations (DBPs) at the far network ends, of which some may be carcinogenic. To cope with these deficiencies booster chlorination stations were suggested to be placed at the distribution system itself and not just at the sources, motivating considerable research in recent years on placement, design, and operation of booster chlorination stations in water distribution systems. The model formulated and solved herein is aimed at setting the required chlorination dose of the boosters for delivering water at acceptable residual chlorine and TTHM concentrations for minimizing the overall cost of booster placement, construction, and operation under extended period hydraulic simulation conditions through utilizing a multi-species approach. The developed methodology links a genetic algorithm with EPANET-MSX, and is demonstrated through base runs and sensitivity analyses on a network example application. Two approaches are suggested for dealing with water quality initial conditions and species periodicity: (1) repetitive cyclical simulation (RCS), and (2) cyclical constrained species (CCS). RCS was found to be more robust but with longer computational time. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Water, energy and agricultural landuse trends at Shiroro hydropower station and environs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Adegun

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The study examines the interplay among water resources, hydropower generation and agricultural landuse at the Shiroro hydropower station and its environs, in north-central Nigeria. Non-parametric trend analysis, hydropower footprint estimation, reservoir performance analysis, change detection analysis, and inferential statistics were combined to study the water-energy and food security nexus. Results of Mann–Kendall test and Sen's slope estimator for the period 1960 to 2013 showed a declining rainfall trend at Jos, around River Kaduna headwaters at −2.6 mm yr−1, while rainfall at Kaduna and Minna upstream and downstream of the reservoir respectively showed no trend. Estimates of hydropower footprint varied between 130.4 and 704.1 m3 GJ−1 between 1995 and 2013. Power generation reliability and resilience of the reservoir was 31.6 and 38.5 % respectively with year 2011 being the most vulnerable and least satisfactory. In addition to poor reliability and resilience indices, other challenges militating against good performance of hydropower generation includes population growth and climate change issues as exemplified in the downward trend observed at the headwaters. Water inflow and power generation shows a weak positive relationship with correlation coefficient (r of 0.48, indicating less than optimal power generation. Total area of land cultivated increased from 884.59 km2 in 1986 prior to the commissioning of the hydropower station to 1730.83 km2 in 2016 which signifies an increased contribution of the dam to ensuring food security. The reality of reducing upstream rainfall amount coupled with high water footprint of electricity from the reservoir, therefore requires that a long term roadmap to improve operational coordination and management have to be put in place.

  12. Microbial Surveillance of Potable Water Sources of the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Rebekah J.; Ott, C. Mark; Skuratov, Vladimir M.; Pierson, Duane L.

    2005-01-01

    To mitigate risk to the crew, the microbial surveillance of the quality of potable water sources of the International Space Station (ISS) has been ongoing since before the arrival of the first permanent crew. These water sources have included stored ground-supplied water, water produced by the shuttle fuel cells during flight, and ISS humidity condensate that is reclaimed and processed. Monitoring was accomplished using a self-contained filter designed to allow bacterial growth and enumeration during flight. Upon return to earth, microbial isolates were identified using 16S ribosomal gene sequencing. While the predominant isolates were common Gramnegative bacteria including Ralstonia eutropha, Methylobacterium fujisawaense, and Spingomonas paucimobilis, opportunistic pathogens such as Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were also isolated. Results of in-flight enumeration have indicated a fluctuation of bacterial counts above system design specifications. Additional in-flight monitoring capability for the specific detection of coliforms was added in 2004; no coliforms have been detected from any potable water source. Neither the bacterial concentrations nor the identification of the isolates recovered from these samples has suggested a threat to crew health.

  13. Analog Fixed Maximum Power Point Control for a PWM Step-downConverter for Water Pumping Installations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltran, H.; Perez, E.; Chen, Zhe

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a Fixed Maximum Power Point analog control used in a step-down Pulse Width Modulated power converter. The DC/DC converter drives a DC motor used in small water pumping installations, without any electric storage device. The power supply is provided by PV panels working around...... their maximum power point, with a fixed operating voltage value. The control circuit implementation is not only simple and cheap, but also robust and reliable. System protections and adjustments are also proposed. Simulations and hardware are reported in the paper for a 150W water pumping application system....... The proposed Optimal Power Point fix voltage control system is analyzed in comparison to other complex controls....

  14. Design of water pumping system by wind turbine for using in coastal areas of Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Muhammad Mahbubul; Tasnim, Tamanna; Doha, Umnia

    2017-06-01

    In this work, a theoretical analysis has been carried out to analyze the prospect of Wind Pumping System (WPS) for using in coastal areas of Bangladesh. Wind speed data of three coastal areas of Bangladesh-Kutubdia, Patenga and Sathkhira has been analyzed and an optimal wind turbine viable for this wind speed range has been designed using the simulation software Q-blade. The simulated turbine is then coupled with a rotodynamic pump. The output of the Wind Pumping System (WPS) for the three coastal areas has been studied.

  15. Commercialization of air conditioning heat pump/water heater. Final technical report, Volume 2: Appendix A through E

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-30

    This is the final technical report on a commercialization project for an air conditioning heat pump water heater. The objective of the project was to produce a saleable system which would be economically competitive with natural gas and cost effective with regard to initial cost versus annual operating costs. The development and commercialization of the system is described. Compiled data included in numerous figures, tables and graphs.

  16. Coastal meteorological and water temperature data from National Water Level Observation Network (NWLON) and Physical Oceanographic Real-Time System (PORTS) stations of the NOAA Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services (CO-OPS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Water Level Observation Network (NWLON) is a network of long-term water level stations operated and maintained by CO-OPS. NWLON stations are located on...

  17. Research on a Household Dual Heat Source Heat Pump Water Heater with Preheater Based on ASPEN PLUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Gou

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a dual heat source heat pump bathroom unit with preheater which is feasible for a single family. The system effectively integrates the air source heat pump (ASHP and wastewater source heat pump (WSHP technologies, and incorporates a preheater to recover shower wastewater heat and thus improve the total coefficient of performance (COP of the system, and it has no electric auxiliary heating device, which is favorable to improve the security of the system operation. The process simulation software ASPEN PLUS, widely used in the design and optimization of thermodynamic systems, was used to simulate various cases of system use and to analyze the impact of the preheater on the system. The average COP value of a system with preheater is 6.588 and without preheater it is 4.677. Based on the optimization and analysis, under the standard conditions of air at 25 °C, relative humidity of 70%, wastewater at 35 °C, wastewater flow rate of 0.07 kg/s, tap water at 15 °C, and condenser outlet water temperature at 50 °C, the theoretical COP of the system can reach 9.784 at an evaporating temperature of 14.96 °C, condensing temperature of 48.74 °C, and preheated water temperature of 27.19 °C.

  18. ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF AN OPEN-LOOP GROUND-WATER HEAT PUMP SYSTEM IN AN URBAN AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgia Baccino

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a multidisciplinary methodology for analyzing the opportunities for exploitation of open-loop groundwater heat pump is proposed. The approach starts from a model for calculation of a time profile of thermal requirements (heat and domestic hot water. This curve is then coupled with a model of the control system in order to determine the heat pump operation, which includes its energy performances (primary energy consumption as well as profiles of water discharge to the aquifer in terms of mass flow rate and temperature. Then the thermo-fluid dynamics of the aquifer is performed in order to determine the system impact on the environment as on possible other systems. The application to a case study in the Piedmont region, in Italy, is proposed. Energy analysis of the system shows that ground-water heat pumps constitute an interesting option in areas with small housing density, where there is not district heating. In comparison with typical heating/cooling systems, environmental benefits are related with reduction in global emissions. These benefits may be significantly enhanced using renewables as the primary energy source to produce electricity. The analysis also shows that possible issues related with the extension of the subsurface thermal plume may arise in the case of massive utilization of this technology.

  19. Quantifying Systemic Efficiency using Exergy and Energy Analysis for Ground Source Heat Pumps: Domestic Space Conditioning and Water Heating Applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ally, Moonis Raza [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL; Gehl, Anthony C [ORNL; Munk, Jeffrey D [ORNL

    2017-01-01

    Although air temperatures over land surfaces show wide seasonal and daily variations, the ground, approximately 10 meters below the earth s surface, remains relatively stable in temperature thereby serving as an energy source or sink. Ground source heat pumps can heat, cool, and supply homes with hot water efficiently by utilizing the earth s renewable and essentially inexhaustible energy resources, saving fossil fuels, reducing greenhouse gas emissions, and lowering the environmental footprint. In this paper, evidence is shown that ground source heat pumps can provide up to 79%-87% of domestic hot water energy needs, and up to 77% of space heating needs with the ground s thermal energy resources. The case refers to a 12-month study conducted at a 253 m2 research house located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, 36.01 N 84.26 W in a mixed-humid climate with HDD of 2218 C-days and CDD of 723 C-days under simulated occupancy conditions. A single 94.5m vertical bore interfaced the heat pump with the ground. The research shows that this technology is capable of achieving US DOE targets of 25 % and 35% energy savings in HVAC, and in water heating, respectively by 2030. It is also a viable technology to meet greenhouse gas target emissions under the IECC 2012 Standard, as well as the European Union (EU) 2020 targets of using renewable energy resources. The paper quantifies systemic efficiencies using Exergy analysis of the major components, clearly pointing areas for further improvement.

  20. Trends in Surface-Water Quality at Selected Ambient-Monitoring Network Stations in Kentucky, 1979-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, Angela S.; Martin, Gary R.

    2009-01-01

    Increasingly complex water-management decisions require water-quality monitoring programs that provide data for multiple purposes, including trend analyses, to detect improvement or deterioration in water quality with time. Understanding surface-water-quality trends assists resource managers in identifying emerging water-quality concerns, planning remediation efforts, and evaluating the effectiveness of the remediation. This report presents the results of a study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Kentucky Energy and Environment Cabinet-Kentucky Division of Water, to analyze and summarize long-term water-quality trends of selected properties and water-quality constituents in selected streams in Kentucky's ambient stream water-quality monitoring network. Trends in surface-water quality for 15 properties and water-quality constituents were analyzed at 37 stations with drainage basins ranging in size from 62 to 6,431 square miles. Analyses of selected physical properties (temperature, specific conductance, pH, dissolved oxygen, hardness, and suspended solids), for major ions (chloride and sulfate), for selected metals (iron and manganese), for nutrients (total phosphorus, total nitrogen, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, nitrite plus nitrate), and for fecal coliform were compiled from the Commonwealth's ambient water-quality monitoring network. Trend analyses were completed using the S-Plus statistical software program S-Estimate Trend (S-ESTREND), which detects trends in water-quality data. The trend-detection techniques supplied by this software include the Seasonal Kendall nonparametric methods for use with uncensored data or data censored with only one reporting limit and the Tobit-regression parametric method for use with data censored with multiple reporting limits. One of these tests was selected for each property and water-quality constituent and applied to all station records so that results of the trend procedure could be compared among

  1. Development of the International Space Station (ISS) Fine Water Mist (FWM) Portable Fire Extinguisher ICES Abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Anna L.; Carlile, Christie; Graf, John; Young, Gina

    2011-01-01

    NASA is developing a Fine Water Mist (FWM) Portable Fire Extinguisher (PFE) for use on the International Space Station. The International Space Station presently uses two different types of fire extinguishers: a water foam extinguisher in the Russian Segment, and a carbon dioxide extinguisher in the US Segment and Columbus and Kibo pressurized elements. Changes in emergency breathing equipment make Fine Water Mist operationally preferable. Supplied oxygen breathing systems allow for safe discharge of a carbon dioxide fire extinguisher, without concerns of the crew inhaling unsafe levels of carbon dioxide. But the Portable Breathing Apparatus (PBA) offers no more than 15 minutes of capability, and continued use of hose based supplied oxygen system increases the oxygen content in a fire situation. NASA has developed a filtering respirator cartridge for use in a fire environment. It is qualified to provide up to 90 minutes of capability, and because it is a filtering respirator it does not add oxygen to the environment. The fire response respirator cartridge does not filter carbon dioxide (CO2), so a crew member discharging a CO2 fire extinguisher while wearing this filtering respirator would be at risk of inhaling unsafe levels of CO2. FWM extinguishes a fire without creating a large volume of air with reduced oxygen and elevated CO2. The following paper will discuss the unique functional and performance requirements that have been levied on the FWM PFE. In addition, the NASA ISS specific fire standards will be described which were developed to establish acceptable extinguisher performance. The paper will also discuss the flight hardware design. The fin e water mist fire extinguisher has two major elements: (1) the nozzle and crew interface, and (2) the tank. The nozzle and crew interface have been under development for several years. They have gone through several design iterations, and have been part of more than 400 fire challenge and spray characterizations. The

  2. Model for the Study of Automating a System of Pumping Water from Upstream to Downstream Hydropower Plant Using Siemens S7-200 PLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Raduca

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the realization of an experimental model for studying didactic use automation system pumping water from upstream to downstream hydropower. As command and control unit was used PLC Siemens S7-200.

  3. Heat Pump Water Heater Technology: Experiences of Residential Consumers and Utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashdown, BG

    2004-08-04

    This paper presents a case study of the residential heat pump water heater (HPWH) market. Its principal purpose is to evaluate the extent to which the HPWH will penetrate the residential market sector, given current market trends, producer and consumer attributes, and technical parameters. The report's secondary purpose is to gather background information leading to a generic framework for conducting market analyses of technologies. This framework can be used to compare readiness and to factor attributes of market demand back into product design. This study is a rapid prototype analysis rather than a detailed case analysis. For this reason, primary data collection was limited and reliance on secondary sources was extensive. Despite having met its technical goals and having been on the market for twenty years, the HPWH has had virtually no impact on contributing to the nation's water heating. In some cases, HPWH reliability and quality control are well below market expectations, and early units developed a reputation for unreliability, especially when measured against conventional water heaters. In addition to reliability problems, first costs of HPWH units can be three to five times higher than conventional units. Without a solid, well-managed business plan, most consumers will not be drawn to this product. This is unfortunate. Despite its higher first costs, efficiency of an HPWH is double that of a conventional water heater. The HPWH also offers an attractive payback period of two to five years, depending on hot water usage. On a strict life-cycle basis it supplies hot water very cost effectively. Water heating accounts for 17% of the nation's residential consumption of electricity (see chart at left)--water heating is second only to space heating in total residential energy use. Simple arithmetic suggests that this figure could be reduced to the extent HPWH technology displaces conventional water heating. In addition, the HPWH offers other

  4. Energy conservation and the reaching for the key indicator for energy efficiency performance - a case study of water pumping systems; Conservacao de energia e a busca de indicador chave de desempenho de eficiencia energetica - um estudo de caso de sistemas de bombeamento de agua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariotoni, Carlos Alberto [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo. Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico (NIPE)]. E-mail: cam@fec.unicamp.br; Canada, Claudete Bezerra dos Santos [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo. Grupo de Planejamento Energetico e Sistemas Eletricos (GPESE)]. E-mail: claudete@fec.unicamp.br

    2006-07-01

    Aiming to analyze the consumption of energy in the process of water pumping of the Treated Water Elevatory stations and the Booster, using an indicator of energy efficiency, the water deliverer of the State of Sao Paulo - SABESP, through the Electromechanical Division and Management of Electric Energy of the ML - Metropolitan East, comes developing rationalization of consumption actions of electric energy, resulting an annual average economy of US$365.510,18 . The energy efficiency indicator demonstrates the improvement of the operational performance of the electrical and hydraulic system in the EEAT of Itaquera, which presents efficiency standard and it assists the water deliverer in the process of pumping and in what refers to the sustainable development. This article revises the process followed by the water deliverer and presents the indicator of energy efficiency.

  5. Strategic market approach for entering the Indian solar water pump market : plan the marketing strategy for solar off-grid applications

    OpenAIRE

    Almanasreh, Khalil

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the strategic market approach for investing in solar water pumps market (SWP) in India, and Punjab state as a business case. The main research question is: What is an appropriate strategic market approach to invest in solar water pump market in India? The study focuses on the marketing strategy and strategic planning to enter the Indian market. The thesis follows the qualitative study design where the data was collected by observing the market and interviewing main sta...

  6. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program: Analysis of Pressurized Water Reactor Station Blackout Caused by External Flooding Using the RISMC Toolkit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Curtis [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mandelli, Diego [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Prescott, Steven [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Alfonsi, Andrea [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rabiti, Cristian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cogliati, Joshua [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kinoshita, Robert [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-08-01

    The existing fleet of nuclear power plants is in the process of extending its lifetime and increasing the power generated from these plants via power uprates. In order to evaluate the impact of these factors on the safety of the plant, the Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) project aims to provide insight to decision makers through a series of simulations of the plant dynamics for different initial conditions (e.g., probabilistic analysis and uncertainty quantification). This report focuses, in particular, on the application of a RISMC detailed demonstration case study for an emergent issue using the RAVEN and RELAP-7 tools. This case study looks at the impact of a couple of challenges to a hypothetical pressurized water reactor, including: (1) a power uprate, (2) a potential loss of off-site power followed by the possible loss of all diesel generators (i.e., a station black-out event), (3) and earthquake induces station-blackout, and (4) a potential earthquake induced tsunami flood. The analysis is performed by using a set of codes: a thermal-hydraulic code (RELAP-7), a flooding simulation tool (NEUTRINO) and a stochastic analysis tool (RAVEN) – these are currently under development at the Idaho National Laboratory.

  7. Complex use of waste in wastewater and circulating water treatment from oil in heat power stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaeva, L. A.; Iskhakova, R. Ya.

    2017-06-01

    Sewage and circulating water from oil of thermal power plants (TPP) generated in fuel-oil shops during washing of electrical equipment and its running into the storm drainage system from the industrial site has been considered in the paper. It has been suggested to use the carbonate sludge of water treatment modified with hydrophobing emulsion as a sorption material for waste and circulating water treatment in thermal power plants. The carbonate sludge is waste accumulated in clarifiers at the stage of natural water pretreatment. General technical characteristics of the sludge, such as moisture, bulk density, total pore volume, ash, etc., have been determined. It has been found that the sludge without additional treatment is a hydrophilic material that has low adsorption capacity and wettability with nonpolar compounds. Therefore, the sludge is treated with organosilicon compounds to reduce the moisture capacity and increase its floatation. Several types of sorption materials based on the carbonate sludge subjected to surface and volume hydrophobization have been developed. During the volume treatment, the hydrophobing compound has been introduced into the material along with the plastifier. In case of the surface treatment, heat-treated granules have been soaked into hydrophobing emulsion. It has been shown that surface hydrophobization is most economically advantageous, because it reduces the consumption of water-repelling agent, wherein the total pore volume and sorption capacity during surface hydrophobization increase by 45 and 25% compared to that during volume hydrophobization. Based on the obtained results, the most effective sorption material has been chosen. To produce this material, it is necessary to sequentially carry out mixing of carbonate sludge with the binder, granulation, calcination, impregnation with a waterrepellent emulsion, and drying of the finished material. The suggested technology to produce the material and use it as a sorbent allows

  8. Installation of the Light-Water Breeder Reactor at the Shippingport Atomic Power Station (LWBR Development Program)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massimino, R.J.; Williams, D.A.

    1983-05-01

    This report summarizes the refueling operations performed to install a Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) core into the existing pressurized water reactor vessel at the Shippingport Atomic Power Station. Detailed descriptions of the major installation operations (e.g., primary system preconditioning, fuel installation, pressure boundary seal welding) are included as appendices to this report; these operations are of technical interest to any reactor servicing operation, whether the reactor is a breeder or a conventional light water non-breeder core.

  9. Commercial Integrated Heat Pump with Thermal Storage --Demonstrate Greater than 50% Average Annual Energy Savings, Compared with Baseline Heat Pump and Water Heater (Go/No-Go) FY16 4th Quarter Milestone Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Bo [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Baxter, Van D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rice, C. Keith [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Abu-Heiba, Ahmad [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-03-01

    For this study, we authored a new air source integrated heat pump (AS-IHP) model in EnergyPlus, and conducted building energy simulations to demonstrate greater than 50% average energy savings, in comparison to a baseline heat pump with electric water heater, over 10 US cities, based on the EnergyPlus quick-service restaurant template building. We also assessed water heating energy saving potentials using ASIHP versus gas heating, and pointed out climate zones where AS-IHPs are promising.

  10. Southeast Regional Experiment Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-08-01

    This is the final report of the Southeast Regional Experiment Station project. The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC), a research institute of the University of Central Florida (UCF), has operated the Southeast Regional Experiment Station (SE RES) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) since September 1982. Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque (SNLA) provides technical program direction for both the SE RES and the Southwest Regional Experiment Station (SW RES) located at the Southwest Technology Development Institute at Las Cruces, New Mexico. This cooperative effort serves a critical role in the national photovoltaic program by conducting system evaluations, design assistance and technology transfer to enhance the cost-effective utilization and development of photovoltaic technology. Initially, the research focus of the SE RES program centered on utility-connected PV systems and associated issues. In 1987, the SE RES began evaluating amorphous silicon (a-Si) thin-film PV modules for application in utility-interactive systems. Stand-alone PV systems began receiving increased emphasis at the SE RES in 1986. Research projects were initiated that involved evaluation of vaccine refrigeration, water pumping and other stand-alone power systems. The results of this work have led to design optimization techniques and procedures for the sizing and modeling of PV water pumping systems. Later recent research at the SE RES included test and evaluation of batteries and charge controllers for stand-alone PV system applications. The SE RES project provided the foundation on which FSEC achieved national recognition for its expertise in PV systems research and related technology transfer programs. These synergistic products of the SE RES illustrate the high visibility and contributions the FSEC PV program offers to the DOE.

  11. Building America Case Study: Indoor Heat Pump Water Heaters During Summer in a Hot-Dry Climate, Redding, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-06-15

    Heat pump water heaters offer a significant opportunity to improve water heating performance for the over 40% of U.S. households that heat domestic hot water using electric resistance storage water heaters. Numerous field studies have also been completed documenting performance in a variety of climates and applications. More recent evaluation efforts have focused attention on the performance of May through September 2014, with ongoing winter monitoring being sponsored by California utility partners. Summer results show favorable system performance with extrapolated annual water heating savings of 1,466 to 2,300 kWh per year, based on the observed hot water loads. Additional summer space cooling benefits savings of 121 to 135 kWh per year were projected, further increasing the water heating savings by 5-9%. Given the project schedule for 2014 completion, no heating season impacts were able to be monitored. May through September 2014, with ongoing winter monitoring being sponsored by California utility partners. Summer results show favorable system performance with extrapolated annual water heating savings of 1,466 to 2,300 kWh per year, based on the observed hot water loads. Additional summer space cooling benefits savings of 121 to 135 kWh per year were projected, further increasing the water heating savings by 5-9%. Given the project schedule for 2014 completion, no heating season impacts were able to be monitored.

  12. Dynamics in a Water Interfacial Boundary Layer Investigated with IR Polarization-Selective Pump-Probe Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Rongfeng; Yan, Chang; Nishida, Jun; Fayer, Michael D

    2017-05-04

    The dynamics of water molecules near the surfactant interface in large Aerosol-OT reverse micelles (RMs) (w 0 = 16-25) was investigated with IR polarization-selective pump-probe experiments using the SeCN - anion as a vibrational probe. Linear absorption spectra of RMs (w 0 = 25-2) can be decomposed into the weighted sum of the SeCN - spectra in bulk water and the spectrum of the SeCN - anion interacting with the interfacial sulfonate head groups (w 0 = 1). The spectra of the large RMs, w 0 ≥ 16, are overwhelmingly dominated by the bulk water component. Anisotropy decays (orientational relaxation) of the anion for w 0 ≥ 16 displayed bulk water relaxation (1.4 and 4.5 ps) plus an additional slow decay with a time constant of ∼13 ps. The amplitude of the slow decay was too large to be associated with SeCN - in contact with the interface on the basis of the linear spectrum decomposition. The results indicate that the observed slow components arise from SeCN - in a water boundary layer, in which water molecules are perturbed by the interface but are not directly associated with it. This layer is the transition between water in direct contact with the interface and bulk water in the large RM cores. In the boundary layer, the water dynamics is slow compared to that in bulk water.

  13. Two-phase numerical study of the flow field formed in water pump sump: influence of air entrainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayeul-Lainé, A. C.; Simonet, S.; Bois, G.; Issa, A.

    2012-11-01

    In a pump sump it is imperative that the amount of non-homogenous flow and entrained air be kept to a minimum. Free air-core vortex occurring at a water-intake pipe is an important problem encountered in hydraulic engineering. These vortices reduce pump performances, may have large effects on the operating conditions and lead to increase plant operating costs.This work is an extended study starting from 2006 in LML and published by ISSA and al. in 2008, 2009 and 2010. Several cases of sump configuration have been numerically investigated using two specific commercial codes and based on the initial geometry proposed by Constantinescu and Patel. Fluent and Star CCM+ codes are used in the previous studies. The results, obtained with a structured mesh, were strongly dependant on main geometrical sump configuration such as the suction pipe position, the submergence of the suction pipe on one hand and the turbulence model on the other hand. Part of the results showed a good agreement with experimental investigations already published. Experiments, conducted in order to select best positions of the suction pipe of a water-intake sump, gave qualitative results concerning flow disturbances in the pump-intake related to sump geometries and position of the pump intake. The purpose of this paper is to reproduce the flow pattern of experiments and to confirm the geometrical parameter that influences the flow structure in such a pump. The numerical model solves the Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations and VOF multiphase model. STAR CCM+ with an adapted mesh configuration using hexahedral mesh with prism layer near walls was used. Attempts have been made to calculate two phase unsteady flow for stronger mass flow rates and stronger submergence with low water level in order to be able to capture air entrainment. The results allow the knowledge of some limits of numerical models, of mass flow rates and of submergences for air entrainment. In the validation of this

  14. Development of the International Space Station Fine Water Mist Portable Fire Extinguisher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriquez, Branelle; Young, GIna

    2013-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is developing a Fine Water Mist (FWM) Portable Fire Extinguisher (PFE) for use on the International Space Station (ISS). The ISS presently uses two different types of fire extinguishers: a water foam extinguisher in the Russian Segments, and a carbon dioxide extinguisher in the United States Orbital Segments, which include Columbus and Kibo pressurized elements. Currently, there are operational and compatibility concerns with the emergency breathing equipment and the carbon dioxide extinguisher. ISS emergency response breathing equipment does not filter carbon dioxide; therefore, crew members are required to have an oxygen supply present during a fire event since the carbon dioxide PFE creates an unsafe breathing environment. The ISS program recommended a nontoxic fire extinguisher to mitigate this operational risk. The FWM PFE can extinguish a fire without creating a hazardous breathing environment for crewmembers. This paper will discuss the unique functional and performance requirements that have been levied on the FWM PFE, identify unique microgravity design considerations for liquid and gas systems, and discuss the NASA ISS specific fire standards that were developed to establish an acceptable portable fire extinguisher s performance.

  15. Development of the International Space Station (ISS) Fine Water Mist (FWM) Portable Fire Extinguisher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriquez, Branelle; Graf, John; Carlile, Christie; Young, GIna

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is developing a Fine Water Mist (FWM) Portable Fire Extinguisher (PFE) for use on the International Space Station (ISS). The ISS presently uses two different types of fire extinguishers: a water foam extinguisher in the Russian Segment, and a carbon dioxide extinguisher in the United States Orbital Segments, which include Columbus and Kibo pressurized elements. Currently, there are operational concerns with the emergency breathing equipment and the carbon dioxide extinguisher. The toxicity of the carbon dioxide requires the crew members to have an oxygen supply present during a fire event, therefore inherently creating an unsafe environment. The FWM PFE extinguishes a fire without creating a hazardous breathing environment for crew members. The following paper will discuss the unique functional and performance requirements that have been levied on the FWM PFE, identify unique microgravity design considerations for liquid and gas systems, as well as discuss the NASA ISS specific fire standards that were developed to establish an acceptable portable fire extinguisher s performance.

  16. Optimization of hybrid system (wind-solar energy) for pumping water

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR OKE

    The hybrid generator is constituted of a wind generator and photovoltaic field. To be able to transform the hybrid energy into electricity and exploit the Moto-pump, it is necessary to arrange an energizing system that ensures the conversion of energy. The command system ensures the control of the different components.

  17. Measurement station for interim inspections of Lightbridge metallic fuel rods at the Halden Boiling Water Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartmann C.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Lightbridge Corporation has developed a new Uranium-Zirconium based metallic fuel. The fuel rods aremanufactured via a co-extrusion process, and are characterized by their multi-lobed (cruciform-shaped cross section. The fuel rods are also helically-twisted in the axial direction. Two experimental fuel assemblies, each containing four Lightbridge fuel rods, are scheduled to be irradiated in the Halden Boiling Water Reactor (HBWR starting in 2018. In addition to on-line monitoring of fuel rod elongation and critical assembly conditions (e.g. power, flow rates, coolant temperatures, etc. during the irradiation, several key parameters of the fuel will be measured out-of-core during interim inspections. An inspection measurement station for use in the irradiated fuel handling compartment at the HBWR has therefore been developed for this purpose. The multi-lobed cladding cross section combined with the spiral shape of the Lightbridge metallic fuel rods requires a high-precision guiding system to ensure good position repeatability combined with low-friction guiding. The measurement station is equipped with a combination of instruments and equipment supplied from third-party vendors and instruments and equipment developed at Institute for Energy Technology (IFE. Two sets of floating linear voltage differential transformer (LVDT pairs are used to measure swelling and diameter changes between the lobes and the valleys over the length of the fuel rods. Eddy current probes are used to measure the thickness of oxide layers in the valleys and on the lobe tips and also to detect possible surface cracks/pores. The measurement station also accommodates gamma scans. Additionally, an eddy-current probe has been developed at IFE specifically to detect potential gaps or discontinuities in the bonding layer between the metallic fuel and the Zirconium alloy cladding. Potential gaps in the bonding layer will be hidden behind a 0.5-1.0 mm thick cladding wall. It has

  18. Measurement station for interim inspections of Lightbridge metallic fuel rods at the Halden Boiling Water Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, C.; Totemeier, A.; Holcombe, S.; Liverud, J.; Limi, M.; Hansen, J. E.; Navestad, E. AB(; )

    2018-01-01

    Lightbridge Corporation has developed a new Uranium-Zirconium based metallic fuel. The fuel rods aremanufactured via a co-extrusion process, and are characterized by their multi-lobed (cruciform-shaped) cross section. The fuel rods are also helically-twisted in the axial direction. Two experimental fuel assemblies, each containing four Lightbridge fuel rods, are scheduled to be irradiated in the Halden Boiling Water Reactor (HBWR) starting in 2018. In addition to on-line monitoring of fuel rod elongation and critical assembly conditions (e.g. power, flow rates, coolant temperatures, etc.) during the irradiation, several key parameters of the fuel will be measured out-of-core during interim inspections. An inspection measurement station for use in the irradiated fuel handling compartment at the HBWR has therefore been developed for this purpose. The multi-lobed cladding cross section combined with the spiral shape of the Lightbridge metallic fuel rods requires a high-precision guiding system to ensure good position repeatability combined with low-friction guiding. The measurement station is equipped with a combination of instruments and equipment supplied from third-party vendors and instruments and equipment developed at Institute for Energy Technology (IFE). Two sets of floating linear voltage differential transformer (LVDT) pairs are used to measure swelling and diameter changes between the lobes and the valleys over the length of the fuel rods. Eddy current probes are used to measure the thickness of oxide layers in the valleys and on the lobe tips and also to detect possible surface cracks/pores. The measurement station also accommodates gamma scans. Additionally, an eddy-current probe has been developed at IFE specifically to detect potential gaps or discontinuities in the bonding layer between the metallic fuel and the Zirconium alloy cladding. Potential gaps in the bonding layer will be hidden behind a 0.5-1.0 mm thick cladding wall. It has therefore been

  19. Ground-water level changes to multiple distant earthquakes at earthquake-groundwater monitoring stations in Jeju Island, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, E.; Kang, T. S.

    2016-12-01

    Hydrological responses caused by earthquakes have been documented for thousands of years and recently many studies have been conducted for investigating its underlying mechanisms. Such responses include level changes, temperature changes, chemical composition variation, and liquefaction. Among these phenomena, this study focuses on ground-water level changes. There are two kinds of ground-water level changes: one is co-seismic change that occurs simultaneously with earthquake, and the other is gradual change that occurs gradually after earthquake. A temporary seismograph network which is consisting of 20 broadband seismographs has been operated in Jeju Island since October 2013, and all these seismographs are colocated with some of ground-water monitoring stations distributed in the island. Continuous simultaneous observations of such two different physical quantities provide a good chance for direct comparison between them. Sampling rate of seismographs was set to 200Hz and ground-water monitoring time interval was set to 1 minute. Raw data from the ground-water monitoring stations were corrected for the effects of atmospheric pressure and earth tide to get only ground-water level changes. On May 30, 2015, an earthquake of M 7.8 occurred at Chichi-shima, Japan. In response to the earthquake, ground-water level changes were observed at both the earthquake and groundwater monitoring stations in Jeju Island. Ground-water level began to change after three minutes of the earthquake origin time. The largest change with the maximum amplitude of 8.1 cm was observed after six minutes after the origin time. Seismograms at the same stations were compared with the ground-water level data. The results will be presented and the physical relationship between earthquake ground motions and the corresponding hydrogeological response will be discussed.

  20. Optimization of Wastewater Lift Stations for Reduction of Energy Usage and Greenhouse Gas Emissions (WERF Report INFR3R11)

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the major contributions of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions from water resource recovery facilities results from the energy used by the pumping regime of the lift stations. This project demonstrated an energy-efficient control method of lift station system operation that uti...

  1. Turbulent flow analysis and cavitation prediction in axial cooling water pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Vazifeshenas

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this literature is to investigate the performance and three-dimensional flow field in an axial flow CW pump and observing cavitation phenomenon in specified situations. Computational Fluid Dynamic software FLUENT 6.3 was utilized to simulate the whole flow field of the pump to capture all features in the domain. RNG k-ε model combined with standard wall functions is used to deal with the turbulent nature of the problem. Two principal domains are verified: 1 the rotor domain which includes four moving impellers. 2 the stator domain which includes nine static vanes. Hence, the rotor-stator interaction was treated with Moving Reference Frame (MRF technique. Pressure contour and streamlines of the simulation are shown here. The performance curve of the model is in good agreement with the reference power plant data. Finally, the cavitation region defined with the vaporization pressure is demonstrated for cases with different flow rates.

  2. Efficiency optimization of a photovoltaic water pumping system for irrigation in Ouargla, Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louazene, M. L.; Garcia, M. C. Alonso; Korichi, D.

    2017-02-01

    This work is technical study to contribute to the optimization of pumping systems powered by solar energy (clean) and used in the field of agriculture. To achieve our goals, we studied the techniques that must be entered on a photovoltaic system for maximum energy from solar panels. Our scientific contribution in this research is the realization of an efficient photovoltaic pumping system for irrigation needs. To achieve this and extract maximum power from the PV generator, two axes have been optimized: 1. Increase in the uptake of solar radiation by choice an optimum tilt angle of the solar panels, and 2. it is necessary to add an adaptation device, MPPT controller with a DC-DC converter, between the source and the load.

  3. Performance analysis of photovoltaic-powered water-pumping systems using switched reluctance motor drives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metwally, Hamid M. B.; Anis, Wagdy R.

    A photovoltaic-powered (PV) pumping system that uses a switched reluctance motor (SRM) is investigated. The motor is supplied by a d.c. voltage through a switching circuit. The drive circuit is much simpler than the normal d.c./a.c. inverter that is required to supply the induction motor. The efficiency of the SRM is considerably higher than that of equivalent d.c. or induction motors. In addition, because of the simple construction, the SRM is cheaper. By virtue of these advantages of the SRM, the proposed system has higher efficiency and lower cost compared with other systems. A design example is studied in detail to explore the advantages of PV pumping systems based on this new drive. It is found that the operating efficiency of the motor is about 85% during most of its working time. The matching efficiency between the PV array and the proposed system approaches 95%. The major part of the losses takes place in the pump and the riser pipes; this loss represents one-third of the total available energy.

  4. Total nutrient and sediment loads, trends, yields, and nontidal water-quality indicators for selected nontidal stations, Chesapeake Bay Watershed, 1985–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langland, Michael J.; Blomquist, Joel D.; Moyer, Douglas; Hyer, Kenneth; Chanat, Jeffrey G.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Chesapeake Bay Program (CBP) partners, routinely reports long-term concentration trends and monthly and annual constituent loads for stream water-quality monitoring stations across the Chesapeake Bay watershed. This report documents flow-adjusted trends in sediment and total nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations for 31 stations in the years 1985–2011 and for 32 stations in the years 2002–2011. Sediment and total nitrogen and phosphorus yields for 65 stations are presented for the years 2006–2011. A combined nontidal water-quality indicator (based on both trends and yields) indicates there are more stations classified as “improving water-quality trend and a low yield” than “degrading water-quality trend and a high yield” for total nitrogen. The same type of 2-way classification for total phosphorus and sediment results in equal numbers of stations in each indicator class.

  5. Energy saving by reducing the diameter of the impeller for water pumping in the dilution stage of honey in alcohol production. Distillery "Paradise."

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edelvy Bravo Amarante

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The sugar industry is a big consumer of the resource water in all its processes, including the alcohol production industry, one of the derivatives of its main process. Associated to water consumption there are important energetic expenses mainly for the necessity of using electro-pumps for its transfer. In the alcohol production the highest values of water consumed are concentrated in the fermentation stage. In the industry, object of study the highest consumptions are associated to the molasses dilution stage in alcohol production. This is the reason why this investigation is developed with the objective of assessing the water pumping system in the dilution stage in the distillery "Paradise", located in Sancti Spiritus, Cuba. As a result of this analysis it is proposed the reduction of the diameter of the pump impeller, it would make possible to save 38 249 kW-h per year, equivalent to $ 8 315, 67 per year.

  6. Seasonal performance calculation for residential heat pumps with combined space heating and hot water production (FHBB method)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wemhoener, C.; Afjei, Th

    2003-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of work done at the University of Applied Sciences Basel, in Muttenz, Switzerland, on the development of a simple method of calculating the seasonal performance of residential heat pumps that are used to simultaneously provide heat for both space heating and hot water preparation. The report reviews the 'state of the art' concerning calculation methods and existing standards and discusses the shortcomings of some of these methods as a basis for the further development. The principles of the method proposed are explained and the calculation steps involved are described. Sources for base-data for the individual calculation steps are described, such as meteorological data, heat-source temperature, heating and hot water demand and the coefficient of performance of the heat pumps used. Also, heat losses due to cyclic operation, test procedures and factors for simultaneous operation are discussed, whereby both theoretical values and results from simulations are presented. Finally, the method is applied to two sample systems.

  7. High Efficiency Water Heating Technology Development Final Report. Part I, Lab/Field Performance Evaluation and Accelerated Life Testing of a Hybrid Electric Heat Pump Water Heater (HPWH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, Van D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Murphy, Richard W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rice, C. Keith [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Linkous, Randall Lee [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-04-01

    DOE has supported efforts for many years with the objective of getting a water heater that uses heat pump technology (aka a heat pump water heater or HPWH) successfully on the residential equipment market. The most recent previous effort (1999-2002) produced a product that performed very well in ORNL-led accelerated durability and field tests. The commercial partner for this effort, Enviromaster International (EMI), introduced the product to the market under the trade name Watter$aver in 2002 but ceased production in 2005 due to low sales. A combination of high sales price and lack of any significant infrastructure for service after the sale were the principal reasons for the failure of this effort. What was needed for market success was a commercial partner with the manufacturing and market distribution capability necessary to allow economies of scale to lead to a viable unit price together with a strong customer service infrastructure. General Electric certainly meets these requirements, and knowing of ORNL s expertise in this area, approached ORNL with the proposal to partner in a CRADA to produce a high efficiency electric water heater. A CRADA with GE was initiated early in Fiscal Year, 2008. GE initially named its product the Hybrid Electric Water Heater (HEWH).

  8. Water pumping system using solar photovoltaic induction motor; Sistema de bombeamento de agua com energia solar fotovoltaica utilizando motor de inducao trifasico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Eduardo Henrique Pereira de; Bezerra, Luiz Daniel Santos; Antunes, Fernando Luiz Marcelo [Universidade Federal do Ceara (DEE/PPGEE/UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica. Programa de Pos -Graduacao em Engenharia Eletrica; Borges Neto, Manuel Rangel [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Petrolina (CEFET), PE (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    One of the main difficulties to people who live in remote areas or isolated community and not grid connected, certainly is to access potable drink water. In the world, more than 6000 children dies everyday by some kind of illnesses associated to non-potable drink water. At state of Ceara, during the dry weather periods, remain water reservoir becomes practically a mud puddle, as a result, people and animals are forced to drink this inappropriate water. To minimize this consequences in this periods some water is distributed by tankers but, sometimes, even this water is not enough potable. Underground water is an alternative to mitigate this problem. The most common technique is the use of direct current (DC) pumps set supplied by solar photovoltaic systems. However, this kind of pump-set is relatively expensive and too hard to maintain. This paper brings an alternative lower expensive and sustainable to water pumping system, it uses a three phase induction machine coupled to an underwater centrifugal pump supplied by solar photovoltaic energy system. (author)

  9. Penis Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... appointment might be less involved. Choosing a penis pump Some penis pumps are available without a prescription, ... doesn't get caught in the ring. Penis pumps for penis enlargement Many advertisements in magazines and ...

  10. Conditioning of cooling water in power stations. Feedback from twenty years of experience with acid feeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goffin, C.; Duvivier, L.; Girasa, E. [LABORELEC, Chemistry of Water (Belgium); Brognez, J. [ELECTRABEL, TIHANGE Nuclear Power Station (Belgium)

    2002-07-01

    In the late 1970's and early 1980's, with the development of the nuclear programme in many European countries, the recirculation of cooling water in power stations became an issue which required urgent attention. The concentration of several plants of 1000 MW or more on sites along inland waterways actually made simple once-through cooling impossible, owing to the risk of an unacceptable rise in the river's water temperature. The chemical composition of natural freshwater in western European waterways is such that when it becomes slightly concentrated, scale is rapidly formed. The relatively low solubility of calcium carbonate and the degassing of the carbon dioxide during close contact between the water and air in the heat exchangers of the cooling tower explain this precipitation tendency. Fairly soon, experts in the electricity power generation companies highlighted the need for on-site, pilot loop simulations, in order to foresee the physico-chemical phenomena that could arise in industrial installations. The number of financially justifiable processing possibilities could be briefly summarised by the following three solutions: to adapt the concentration factor in order to be under the calcium carbonate solubility limit and thereby avoid the need for any water conditioning; to accept concentration factors of between 1.4 and 1.9 and control the calcium carbonate precipitation through controlled acid injection in the circulation water; to raise the concentration factor over 5 and soften the makeup water through the addition of lime and flocculant. The last of these solutions was rarely ever used in Belgium and France. It was however widely used in Germany. Its application requires a greater investment and leads to higher operating costs than acid injection. Furthermore, it leads to the problem of daily drying and disposal of several dozen tonnes of sludge, which have to be recycled or dumped. In an increasingly stringent environmental context, this

  11. CO2 Solar Assisted Heat Pump System for Water heating, Drying, and Cooling.

    OpenAIRE

    Nana, Oluwafemi Samuel

    2017-01-01

    Solar energy is often considered as waste energy in the world as only few percentage of the solar energy reaching the earth being harnessed for use. With growing demand in heating and cooling demands around the world, it has become imperative that research be focused on how to make use of this waste energy. Heat pumps are considered better in meeting cooling and heating loads, a CO2 as choice refrigerant. Not only those CO2 have better thermodynamic properties, it is environmentally friendly ...

  12. Potential of Power Generation by Solar Batteries for Operating Irrigation Pumps in Ishigaki Island

    OpenAIRE

    Hao, Aimin; Marui, Atsushi; Haraguchi, Tomokazu; Nakano, Yoshisuke

    2006-01-01

    Electricity generated by solar batteries has many merits. Especially in a small island where there are not enough water resources, adequate and cheap electricity is prerequisite for agriculture. First, trials to estimate electricity generation by solar battery were conducted using the limited data on solar radiation energy. Second, operation times were estimated for various pumps placed in the pumping station in Ishigaki Island. It was clarified that there was a tendency that operation times ...

  13. Regional Climate Zone Modeling of a Commercial Absorption Heat Pump Hot Water Heater Part 1: Southern and South Central Climate Zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geoghegan, Patrick J [ORNL; Shen, Bo [ORNL; Keinath, Christopher M. [Stone Mountain Technologies, Inc., Johnson City; Garrabrant, Michael A. [Stone Mountain Technologies, Inc., Johnson City

    2016-01-01

    Commercial hot water heating accounts for approximately 0.78 Quads of primary energy use with 0.44 Quads of this amount from natural gas fired heaters. An ammonia-water based commercial absorption system, if fully deployed, could achieve a high level of savings, much higher than would be possible by conversion to the high efficiency nonheat-pump gas fired alternatives. In comparison with air source electric heat pumps, the absorption system is able to maintain higher coefficients of performance in colder climates. The ammonia-water system also has the advantage of zero Ozone Depletion Potential and low Global Warming Potential. A thermodynamic model of a single effect ammonia-water absorption system for commercial space and water heating was developed, and its performance was investigated for a range of ambient and return water temperatures. This allowed for the development of a performance map which was then used in a building energy modeling software. Modeling of two commercial water heating systems was performed; one using an absorption heat pump and another using a condensing gas storage system. The energy and financial savings were investigated for a range of locations and climate zones in the southern and south central United States. A follow up paper will analyze northern and north/central regions. Results showed that the system using an absorption heat pump offers significant savings.

  14. Water-Resources Data and Hydrogeologic Setting at the Raleigh Hydrogeologic Research Station, Wake County, North Carolina, 2005-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSwain, Kristen Bukowski; Bolich, Richard E.; Chapman, Melinda J.; Huffman, Brad A.

    2009-01-01

    Water-resources data were collected to describe the hydrologic conditions at the Raleigh hydrogeologic research station, located in the Piedmont Physiographic Province of North Carolina. Data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and the North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Division of Water Quality, from May 2005 through September 2007 are presented in this report. Three well clusters and four piezometers were installed at the Raleigh hydrogeologic research station along an assumed flow path from recharge to discharge areas. Each well cluster includes four wells to monitor the regolith, transition zone, and shallow and deep bedrock. Borehole, surface, and waterborne geophysics were conducted to examine the lithology and physical properties of the bedrock and to determine the aerial extent of near vertical diabase dikes. Slug tests were conducted in the wells at each cluster to determine the hydraulic conductivity of the formation tapped by each well. Periodic water-level altitudes were measured in all wells and in four piezometers. Continuous hourly water levels were measured in wells for variable periods of time during the study, and a surface-water gage collected 15-minute stage data from April to June 2006. In October 2005 and April 2006, water-quality samples were collected from a tributary and in all wells at the Raleigh hydrogeologic research station. Continuous water-quality data were collected hourly in three wells from December 2005 through January 2007 and every 15 minutes in the tributary from May to June 2006. In August 2006, streambed temperatures and drive-point ground-water samples were collected across lines of section spanning the Neuse River.

  15. Trace Metals in Cloud Water Sampled at the Puy De Dôme Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Bianco

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Concentrations of 33 metal elements were determined by ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry analysis for 24 cloud water samples (corresponding to 10 cloud events collected at the puy de Dôme station. Clouds present contrasted chemical composition with mainly marine and continental characteristics; for some cloud events, a further anthropogenic source can be superimposed on the background level. In this context, measurements of trace metals may help to evaluate the impact of anthropogenic and natural sources on the cloud and to better discriminate the origin of the air masses. The metal concentrations in the samples are low (between 16.4 µg L−1 and 1.46 mg L−1. This could be explained by the remoteness of the puy de Dôme site from local sources. Trace metals are then used to confirm and refine a previous sample classification. A principal component analysis (PCA using the pH value and the concentrations of Cl−, NO3−, SO42−, Na+ and NH4+ is performed considering 24 cloud samples. This first analysis shows that 18 samples are of marine origin and 6 samples are classified as continental. The same statistical approach is used adding trace metal concentration. Zn and Mg elements are the most abundant trace metals for all clouds. A higher concentration of Cd is mainly associated to clouds from marine origins. Cu, As, Tl and Sb elements are rather found in the continental samples than in the marine ones. Mg, V, Mn and Rb elements mainly found in soil particles are also more concentrated in the samples from continental air mass. This new PCA including trace metal confirms the classification between marine and continental air masses but also indicates that one sample presenting low pH and high concentrations of SO42−, Fe, Pb and Cu could be rather attributed to a polluted event.

  16. Water productivity mapping using Landsat 8 satellite together with weather stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Renato A. M.; Hernandez, Fernando B. T.; de C. Teixeira, Antônio H.; Leivas, Janice Freitas; Coaguila, Daniel Noe; Neale, Christopher M.

    2016-10-01

    The use of remote sensing satellite in conjunction with models and meteorological data enable the mapping of biophysical properties of agroecosystems with satisfactory accuracy. The main goal of this research was to determine the spatial-temporal agro-ecological indicators of water productivity in watersheds with different types of land use and occupation, using Landsat 8 images, agro-meteorological stations and application of Monteith and SAFER (Simple Algorithm for Retrieving Evapotranspiration) models to estimate the production biomass (BIO) and the actual evapotranspiration (ET), respectively. Incident global solar radiation (RS ↓) is observed seasonality of radiation during the year. Higher RS ↓levels happen during the first and the last four months, when the Sun is around its zenith positions in the study region. During the natural dry period in the region, the RS↓ is lower because winter solstice time for the Southern Hemisphere, this condition it is verified the reducing in the values of ET and BIO. Average values of biophysical properties for the study period were 0.54, 0.16 and 301 K for Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, albedo and surface temperature, respectively. The highest value of BIO was 105 kg ha-1d-1 and occurred in July 2013. The lowest value was 15.9 kg ha-1d-1 and occurred in October 2014. ET showed a value of 1.65 mm d-1 in the rainy period and 0.64 during the dry period in the study area. The highest average ET occurred in the irrigated area (June 2014), with a value of 1.89 mm d-1 and a maximum of 2.46 mm d-1. WP average for the evaluated period was 3.06 Kg m-3, with the largest value of 4.91 Kg m-3 in June 2013 and a minimum value of 2.45 Kg m-3 in September 2013.

  17. Iron, manganese, and lead at Hawaii Ocean Time-series station ALOHA: Temporal variability and an intermediate water hydrothermal plume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyle, E.A.; Bergquist, B.A.; Kayser, R.A.; Mahowald, N. [MIT, Cambridge, MA (US)

    2005-02-15

    Trace metal clean techniques were used to sample Hawaii Ocean Time-series (HOT) station ALOHA on seven occasions between November 1998 and October 2002. On three occasions, full water column profile samples were obtained; on the other four occasions, surface and near-surface euphotic zone profiles were obtained. Low Fe concentrations (< 0.1 nmol kg{sup -1}) are seen in the lower euphotic zone, and Fe concentrations increase to a maximum in intermediate waters. In the deepwaters (> 2500 m), the concentrations we observe (0.4-0.5 nmol kg{sup -1}) are significantly lower than some other deep North Pacific stations but are similar to values that have been reported for a station 350 miles to the northeast. We attribute these low deepwater values to transport of low-Fe Antarctic Bottom Water into the basin and a balance between Fe regeneration and scavenging in the deep water. Near-surface waters have higher Fe levels than observed in the lower euphotic zone. Significant temporal variability is seen in near-surface Fe concentrations (ranging from 0.2-0.7 nmol kg{sup -1}); we attribute these surface Fe fluctuations to variable dust deposition, biological uptake, and changes in the mixed layer depth. This variability could occur only if the surface layer Fe residence time is less than a few, years, and based on that constraint, it appears that a higher percentage of the total Fe must be released from North Pacific aerosols compared to North Atlantic aerosols. We attribute the surface water Pb decrease to the elimination of leaded gasoline in Japan and to some extent by the U.S. and Canada. We attribute most of the remaining Pb in Pacific surface waters to Asian emissions, more likely due to high-temperature industrial activities such as coal burning rather than to leaded gasoline consumption.

  18. Analysis of a Hybrid PV/Thermal Solar-Assisted Heat Pump System for Sports Center Water Heating Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Bai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of solar energy provides an alternative way to replace the primary source of energy, especially for large-scale installations. Heat pump technology is also an effective means to reduce the consumption of fossil fuels. This paper presents a practical case study of combined hybrid PV/T solar assisted heat pump (SAHP system for sports center hot water production. The initial design procedure was first presented. The entire system was then modeled with the TRNSYS 16 computation environment and the energy performance was evaluated based on year round simulation results. The results show that the system COP can reach 4.1 under the subtropical climate of Hong Kong, and as compared to the conventional heating system, a high fractional factor of energy saving at 67% can be obtained. The energy performances of the same system under different climatic conditions, that include three other cities in France, were analyzed and compared. Economic implications were also considered in this study.

  19. Experimental evaluation of a heat pump for the water-supply heating of a public swimming pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, R.; Vaca, M.; Terres, H.; Lizardi, A.; Morales, J.; Chávez, S.

    2017-01-01

    In this work the analysis of the thermodynamic behavior of heat pumps (HP) which supply the energy needed in the public pool at the Aquatic Center of Azcapotzalco was performed. There are 18 installed HP’s but only those needed to provide the energy required are alternately activated. The evaluation was conducted during May and June of 2015. We selected one of the HP to implement temperature and pressure gauges at the inlet and outlet of the compressor. The measurements were made every day at three times, 6:30, 13:00 and 18:00 hours. In a period of 24 hours, 1 000 L evaporated, there was no variation registered overnight, since the pool was covered with plastic to avoid loss of the fluid. The heat pump provided 150 kW to maintain the water temperature at the right level of operation, namely 28 °C. The coefficients of performance (COP) of the HP were 6.39 at 6:30, 7.42 at 13:00 and 7:32 at 18:00 hrs., values which are very close to the one provided by the manufacturer.

  20. Simulation of boiling water reactor one-pump trip transient by SIMULATE-3K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nozaki, Kenichiro, E-mail: nozaki-kenichirou@tepsys.co.jp [Tepco Systems Corporation, 2-37-28 Eitai, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-0034 (Japan); Hotta, Akithoshi, E-mail: hotta-akitoshi1@tepsys.co.jp [Tepco Systems Corporation, 2-37-28 Eitai, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-0034 (Japan); Kosaka, Sinya, E-mail: kosaka-shinya@tepsys.co.jp [Tepco Systems Corporation, 2-37-28 Eitai, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-0034 (Japan); Suehiro, Shoichi, E-mail: suehiro-shouichi@tepsys.co.jp [Tepco Systems Corporation, 2-37-28 Eitai, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-0034 (Japan); Fujiwara, Daisuke, E-mail: fujiwara-daisuke@tepsys.co.jp [Tepco Systems Corporation, 2-37-28 Eitai, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-0034 (Japan); Mizokami, Sinya, E-mail: mizokami.shinya@tepco.co.jp [Tokyo Electric Power Company, 1-3 Uchisaiwai-cho, 1-Chome, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-8560 (Japan)

    2013-11-15

    To validate models relevant to the transitional in-core 3-D power behavior, the 3-D core kinetics code SIMULATE-3K was applied to an analysis of one-pump trip test performed in a BWR-5 plant which includes large distortion of the power distribution due to the local insertion of control rods. The core boundary conditions required by SIMULATE-3K were calculated by the plant system analysis code RETRAN-3D. It was found that the transitional APRM signal and LPRM signals calculated by SIMULATE-3K agreed well with the measured data. The results showed that the transitional in-core 3-D power behavior can be appropriately predicted by SIMULATE-3K.

  1. Simulation of boiling water reactor one-pump trip transient by SIMULATE-3K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nozaki, K.; Hotta, A.; Kosaka, S.; Suehiro, S.; Fujiwara, D., E-mail: nozaki-kenichirou@tepsys.co.jp, E-mail: hotta-akitoshi1@tepsys.co.jp, E-mail: kosaka-shinya@tepsys.co.jp, E-mail: suehiro-shouichi@tepsys.co.jp, E-mail: fujiwara-daisuke@tepsys.co.jp [TEPCO Systems, Tokyo (Japan); MIzokami, S., E-mail: mizokami.shinya@tepco.co.jp [Tokyo Electric Power Company, Tokyo (Japan)

    2011-07-01

    To validate models relevant to the transitional in-core 3-D power behavior, the 3-D core kinetics code SIMULATE-3K was applied to an analysis of one-pump trip test performed in a BWR-5 plant which includes large distortion of the power distribution due to the local insertion of control rods. The core boundary conditions required by SIMULATE-3K were calculated by the plant system analysis code RETRAN-3D. It was found that the transitional APRM signal and LPRM signals calculated by SIMULATE-3K agreed well with the measured data. The results showed that the transitional in-core 3-D power behavior can be appropriately predicted by SIMULATE-3K. (author)

  2. Simulated effects of groundwater pumping and artificial recharge on surface-water resources and riparian vegetation in the Verde Valley sub-basin, Central Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leake, Stanley A.; Pool, Donald R.

    2010-01-01

    In the Verde Valley sub-basin, groundwater use has increased in recent decades. Residents and stakeholders in the area have established several groups to help in planning for sustainability of water and other resources of the area. One of the issues of concern is the effect of groundwater pumping in the sub-basin on surface water and on groundwater-dependent riparian vegetation. The Northern Arizona Regional Groundwater-Flow Model by Pool and others (in press) is the most comprehensive and up-to-date tool available to understand the effects of groundwater pumping in the sub-basin. Using a procedure by Leake and others (2008), this model was modified and used to calculate effects of groundwater pumping on surface-water flow and evapotranspiration for areas in the sub-basin. This report presents results for the upper two model layers for pumping durations of 10 and 50 years. Results are in the form of maps that indicate the fraction of the well pumping rate that can be accounted for as the combined effect of reduced surface-water flow and evapotranspiration. In general, the highest and most rapid responses to pumping were computed to occur near surface-water features simulated in the modified model, but results are not uniform along these features. The results are intended to indicate general patterns of model-computed response over large areas. For site-specific projects, improved results may require detailed studies of the local hydrologic conditions and a refinement of the modified model in the area of interest.

  3. Champagne Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A.

    2004-01-01

    The term champagne heat pump denotes a developmental heat pump that exploits a cycle of absorption and desorption of carbon dioxide in an alcohol or other organic liquid. Whereas most heat pumps in common use in the United States are energized by mechanical compression, the champagne heat pump is energized by heating. The concept of heat pumps based on other absorption cycles energized by heat has been understood for years, but some of these heat pumps are outlawed in many areas because of the potential hazards posed by leakage of working fluids. For example, in the case of the water/ammonia cycle, there are potential hazards of toxicity and flammability. The organic-liquid/carbon dioxide absorption/desorption cycle of the champagne heat pump is similar to the water/ammonia cycle, but carbon dioxide is nontoxic and environmentally benign, and one can choose an alcohol or other organic liquid that is also relatively nontoxic and environmentally benign. Two candidate nonalcohol organic liquids are isobutyl acetate and amyl acetate. Although alcohols and many other organic liquids are flammable, they present little or no flammability hazard in the champagne heat pump because only the nonflammable carbon dioxide component of the refrigerant mixture is circulated to the evaporator and condenser heat exchangers, which are the only components of the heat pump in direct contact with air in habitable spaces.

  4. Centrifugal pumps

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, HH

    1981-01-01

    Centrifugal Pumps describes the whole range of the centrifugal pump (mixed flow and axial flow pumps are dealt with more briefly), with emphasis on the development of the boiler feed pump. Organized into 46 chapters, this book discusses the general hydrodynamic principles, performance, dimensions, type number, flow, and efficiency of centrifugal pumps. This text also explains the pumps performance; entry conditions and cavitation; speed and dimensions for a given duty; and losses. Some chapters further describe centrifugal pump mechanical design, installation, monitoring, and maintenance. The

  5. Methods to determine pumped irrigation-water withdrawals from the Snake River between Upper Salmon Falls and Swan Falls Dams, Idaho, using electrical power data, 1990-95

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maupin, Molly A.

    1999-01-01

    Pumped withdrawals compose most of the irrigation-water diversions from the Snake River between Upper Salmon Falls and Swan Falls Dams in southwestern Idaho. Pumps at 32 sites along the reach lift water as high as 745 feet to irrigate croplands on plateaus north and south of the river. The number of pump sites at which withdrawals are being continuously measured has been steadily decreasing, from 32 in 1990 to 7 in 1998. A cost-effective and accurate means of estimating annual irrigation-water withdrawals at pump sites that are no longer continuously measured was needed. Therefore, the U.S. Geological Survey began a study in 1998, as part of its Water-Use Program, to determine power-consumption coeffi- cients (PCCs) for each pump site so that withdrawals could be estimated by using electrical powerconsumption and total head data. PCC values for each pump site were determined by using withdrawal data that were measured by the U.S. Geological Survey during 1990–92 and 1994–95, energy data reported by Idaho Power Company during the same period, and total head data collected at each site during a field inventory in 1998. Individual average annual withdrawals for the 32 pump sites ranged from 1,120 to 44,480 acre-feet; average PCC values ranged from 103 to 1,248 kilowatthours per acre-foot. During the 1998 field season, power demand, total head, and withdrawal at 18 sites were measured to determine 1998 PCC values. Most of the 1998 PCC values were within 10 percent of the 5-year average, which demonstrates that withdrawals for a site that is no longer continuously measured can be calculated with reasonable accuracy by using the PCC value determined from this study and annual power-consumption data. K-factors, coefficients that describe the amount of energy necessary to lift water, were determined for each pump site by using values of PCC and total head and ranged from 1.11 to 1.89 kilowatthours per acre-foot per foot. Statistical methods were used to define the

  6. Optimization of energy cost in water supply system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimoch, Izabela; Bartkiewicz, Ewelina

    2017-11-01

    The decreasing amount of fossil fuels and deteriorating air quality forces the governments to introduce a rational energy management in all sectors of economy. At the beginning of the twenty-first century many water supply systems (WSSs) were oversized because of the reduction of water consumption, especially in industry. This resulted in high energy consumption in the pumping stations. Improving pumps operation will decrease energy consumption and also the water prices. The purpose of this paper is to present a method of energy optimization in WSSs. This paper presents an analysis of energy consumption in a selected water supply system. In this study pumps located in water treatment plants and pumping station cooperating with the tanks are analyzed. The study used hydraulic model of the WSS created in MOSKAN-W, which defines pumpś parameters such as flow, head, and efficiency. Using optimization options of calculation software several scenarios of energy costs were prepared.

  7. Universal turbine for drinking-water power stations; Universell einsetzbare Turbine fuer Wasserversorgungen. Nutzung von Druckreduzierenergie im Gegendruckbereich - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schindelholz, B.; Fritschi, M.

    2009-03-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at a universal turbine for use in drinking-water power stations. The aims of the project are discussed and the importance of the turbine's axle seal is stressed. The use of this Pelton turbine operating in a cushion of compressed air is discussed. Counter-pressure control is discussed, as is the air inflow which is needed to replace the air carried out by the water. Industry-partners involved in the project are noted. The importance of using such small-hydro schemes to help meet energy needs is discussed.

  8. Operational Performance Characterization of a Heat Pump System Utilizing Recycled Water as Heat Sink and Heat Source in a Cool and Dry Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piljae Im

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The wastewater leaving from homes and businesses contains abundant low-grade energy, which can be utilized through heat pump technology to heat and cool buildings. Although the energy in the wastewater has been successfully utilized to condition buildings in other countries, it is barely utilized in the United States, until recently. In 2013, the Denver Museum of Nature & Science at Denver, the United States implemented a unique heat pump system that utilizes recycled wastewater from a municipal water system to cool and heat its 13,000 m2 new addition. This recycled water heat pump (RWHP system uses seven 105 kW (cooling capacity modular water-to-water heat pumps (WWHPs. Each WWHP uses R-410A refrigerant, has two compressors, and can independently provide either 52 °C hot water (HW or 7 °C chilled water (CHW to the building. This paper presents performance characterization results of this RWHP system based on the measured data from December 2014 through August 2015. The annual energy consumption of the RWHP system was also calculated and compared with that of a baseline Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC system which meets the minimum energy efficiencies that are allowed by American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE 90.1-2013. The performance analysis results indicate that recycled water temperatures were favorable for effective operation of heat pumps. As a result, on an annual basis, the RWHP system avoided 50% of source energy consumption (resulting from reduction in natural gas consumption although electricity consumption was increased slightly, reduced CO2 emissions by 41%, and saved 34% in energy costs as compared with the baseline system.

  9. Alternative cooling water flow path for RHR heat exchanger and its effect on containment response during extended station blackout for Chinshan BWR-4 plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuann, Yng-Ruey, E-mail: ryyuann@iner.gov.tw

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Motivating alternative RHR heat exchanger tube-side flow path and determining required capacity. • Calculate NSSS and containment response during 24-h SBO for Chinshan BWR-4 plant. • RETRAN and GOTHIC models are developed for NSSS and containment, respectively. • Safety relief valve blowdown flow and energy to drywell are generated by RETRAN. • Analyses are performed with and without reactor depressurization, respectively. - Abstract: The extended Station Blackout (SBO) of 24 h has been analyzed with respect to the containment response, in particular the suppression pool temperature response, for the Chinshan BWR-4 plant of MARK-I containment. The Chinshan plant, owned by Taiwan Power Company, has twin units with rated core thermal power of 1840 MW each. The analysis is aimed at determining the required alternative cooling water flow capacity for the residual heat removal (RHR) heat exchanger when its tube-side sea water cooling flow path is blocked, due to some reason such as earthquake or tsunami, and is switched to the alternative raw water source. Energy will be dissipated to the suppression pool through safety relief valves (SRVs) of the main steam lines during SBO. The RETRAN model is used to calculate the Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) response and generate the SRV blowdown conditions, including SRV pressure, enthalpy, and mass flow rate. These conditions are then used as the time-dependent boundary conditions for the GOTHIC code to calculate the containment pressure and temperature response. The shaft seals of the two recirculation pumps are conservatively assumed to fail due to loss of seal cooling and a total leakage flow rate of 36 gpm to the drywell is included in the GOTHIC model. Based on the given SRV blowdown conditions, the GOTHIC containment calculation is performed several times, through the adjustment of the heat transfer rate of the RHR heat exchanger, until the criterion that the maximum suppression pool temperature

  10. Trends in surface-water quality at selected National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN) stations, in Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Atiq U.; Fogarty, Lisa R.

    2005-01-01

    To demonstrate the value of long-term, water-quality monitoring, the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ), in cooperation with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), initiated a study to evaluate potential trends in water-quality constituents for selected National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN) stations in Michigan. The goal of this study is to assist the MDEQ in evaluating the effectiveness of water-pollution control efforts and the identification of water-quality concerns. The study included a total of nine NASQAN stations in Michigan. Approximately 28 constituents were analyzed for trend tests. Station selection was based on data availability, land-use characteristics, and station priority for the MDEQ Water Chemistry Monitoring Project. Trend analyses were completed using the uncensored Seasonal Kendall Test in the computer program Estimate Trend (ESTREND), a software program for the detection of trends in water-quality data. The parameters chosen for the trend test had (1) at least a 5-year period of record (2) about 5 percent of the observations censored at a single reporting limit, and (3) 40 percent of the values within the beginning one-fifth and ending one-fifth of the selected period. In this study, a negative trend indicates a decrease in concentration of a particular constituent, which generally means an improvement in water quality; whereas a positive trend means an increase in concentration and possible degradation of water quality. The results of the study show an overall improvement in water quality at the Clinton River at Mount Clemens, Manistee River at Manistee, and Pigeon River near Caseville. The detected trend for these stations show decreases in concentrations of various constituents such as nitrogen compounds, conductance, sulfate, fecal coliform bacteria, and fecal streptococci bacteria. The negative trend may indicate an overall improvement in agricultural practices, municipal and industrial wastewater

  11. Optimization of hybrid system (wind-solar energy) for pumping water

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR OKE

    Southern countries, Tunisia is also suffering from water scarcity due to the global warming and climate change. To meet water needs, several strategies .... where TSV is the true solar time, which is equal to time legal corrected by a due gap aside between the longitude of the place and the longitude references (Perrin 1963).

  12. Dimensionamento de motores para o bombeamento de água Sizing motors for water pumping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delly Oliveira Filho

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O dimensionamento de motores com potência acima da necessária acarreta maior custo inicial, menor rendimento e menor fator de potência. Desde 1996, que se fabricam no Brasil motores elétricos com fator de serviço maior do que a unidade, obedecendo a valores prescritos em norma. O fator de serviço informa a potência disponível do motor em regime contínuo para as condições de carga nominal. A literatura técnica de dimensionamento de motores para acionamento de bombas hidráulicas indica a necessidade da adoção de acréscimos na potência dos motores. Tanto o fator de serviço, quanto o acréscimo na potência constituem fatores de segurança para o dimensionamento. Estes fatores de segurança têm a função de suprir maior demanda de potência devido a variações nas condições de trabalho, como curvas características da bomba ou do motor, e a qualidade de energia, como oscilação e desequilíbrio do sinal de tensão. Conclui-se que não seja utilizado acréscimo na potência no dimensionamento de motores com fator de serviço maior do que a unidade para acionamento de bomba hidráulica, tendo em vista que o superdimensionamento pode acarretar redução de rendimento do sistema e maior custo inicial. O dimensionamento que considera, simultaneamente, os dois fatores de segurança, implica superdimensionamento de 15% a 88%.Sizing motors with power above the required implies in higher initial cost, lower performance and lower power factor. Since 1996, that electrical motor is built in Brazil with service factors greater than the unity, obeying the standard values. The service factor informs the motor's available power in continuous regime under nominal condition. The technical literature for sizing motors to operate hydraulic pumps indicates the need of adoption of sizing factors in the motor's power. Both the service factor and the sizing factor are security factors to size motors. These safety factors have the function to supply

  13. High-Capacity, Portable Firefighting Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Ralph A.

    1988-01-01

    Report describes an evaluation of firefighting module that delivers water at 5,000 gal/min (320 L/s). Is compact, self-contained, portable water pump. Besides firefighting, module used for flood control, pumping water into large vessels, and pump water from sinking ships.

  14. Thermal Interface Evaluation of Heat Transfer from a Pumped Loop to Titanium-Water Thermosyphons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworske, Donald A.; Sanzi, James L.; Gibson, Marc A.; Sechkar, Edward A.

    2009-01-01

    Titanium-water thermosyphons are being considered for use in the heat rejection system for lunar outpost fission surface power. Key to their use is heat transfer between a closed loop heat source and the heat pipe evaporators. This work describes laboratory testing of several interfaces that were evaluated for their thermal performance characteristics, in the temperature range of 350 to 400 K, utilizing a water closed loop heat source and multiple thermosyphon evaporator geometries. A gas gap calorimeter was used to measure heat flow at steady state. Thermocouples in the closed loop heat source and on the evaporator were used to measure thermal conductance. The interfaces were in two generic categories, those immersed in the water closed loop heat source and those clamped to the water closed loop heat source with differing thermal conductive agents. In general, immersed evaporators showed better overall performance than their clamped counterparts. Selected clamped evaporator geometries offered promise.

  15. Performance of Wind Pump Prototype

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mulu

    Energy demand for water pumping has been growing in the country for both drinking water and irrigation. The source of energy for ... stroke pump yielded more water and its efficiency curve elevated smoothly and reached peak at about 10 m/s and ..... Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal. Democratic ...

  16. Efforts to Reduce International Space Station Crew Maintenance for the Management of the Extravehicular Mobility Unit Transport Loop Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, John W.; Etter, David; Rector, Tony; Boyle, Robert; Vandezande, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    The EMU (Extravehicular Mobility Unit) contains a semi-closed-loop re-circulating water circuit (Transport Loop) to absorb heat into a LCVG (Liquid Coolant and Ventilation Garment) worn by the astronaut. A second, single-pass water circuit (Feed-water Loop) provides water to a cooling device (Sublimator) containing porous plates, and that water sublimates through the porous plates to space vacuum. The cooling effect from the sublimation of this water translates to a cooling of the LCVG water that circulates through the Sublimator. The quality of the EMU Transport Loop water is maintained through the use of a water processing kit (ALCLR Airlock Cooling Loop Remediation) that is used to periodically clean and disinfect the water circuit. Opportunities to reduce crew time associated with on-orbit ALCLR operations include a detailed review of the historical water quality data for evidence to support an extension to the implementation cycle. Furthermore, an EMU returned after 2-years of use on the ISS (International Space Station) is being used as a test bed to evaluate the results of extended and repeated ALCLR implementation cycles. Finally, design, use and on-orbit location enhancements to the ALCLR kit components are being considered to allow the implementation cycle to occur in parallel with other EMU maintenance and check-out activities, and to extend the life of the ALCLR kit components. These efforts are undertaken to reduce the crew-time and logistics burdens for the EMU, while ensuring the long-term health of the EMU water circuits for a post-Shuttle 6-year service life.

  17. Improvements to water use and water stress estimates with the addition of IR and net radiometers to weather stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is often estimated with the Penman-Monteith (P-M) equation. Net radiation (Rn) is a major component of the surface energy balance and an input to the P-M equation, but it is challenging and expensive to measure accurately. For these reasons, most weather stations do not inclu...

  18. Efficiency of small wind generator powered water pumping systems; Rendimento de unidade de bombeamento de agua acionada por gerador eolico de pequeno porte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Mendeleyev Guerreiro; Carvalho, Paulo Cesar Marques de; Costa, Levy Ferreira [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica; Borges Neto, Manuel Rangel [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Petrolina (CEFET), PE (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The present paper aims to evaluate the efficiency of a small wind generator powered water pumping system; the generator is a permanent magnet generator of 1 kw of axial flow, using three fiber glass blades with 2.46 m diameter. The used centrifugal pump is connected to a 0.5 c v motor, three-phase, frequency of 60 Hz, rotational speed of 3450 rpm. For the efficiency evaluation a shell anemometer, a flow and pressure sensor were used, connected to a data logger to the collection and storage of the data. An energy analyzer was also used to collect the current, voltage and power generated from the wind generator. (author)

  19. Hydrogeology and water quality of the Floridan aquifer system and effects of Lower Floridan aquifer pumping on the Upper Floridan aquifer at Fort Stewart, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, John S.; Cherry, Gregory C.; Gonthier, Gerard

    2011-01-01

    Test drilling, field investigations, and digital modeling were completed at Fort Stewart, GA, during 2009?2010, to assess the geologic, hydraulic, and water-quality characteristics of the Floridan aquifer system and evaluate the effect of Lower Floridan aquifer (LFA) pumping on the Upper Floridan aquifer (UFA). This work was performed pursuant to the Georgia Environmental Protection Division interim permitting strategy for new wells completed in the LFA that requires simulation to (1) quantify pumping-induced aquifer leakage from the UFA to LFA, and (2) identify the equivalent rate of UFA pumping that would produce the same maximum drawdown in the UFA that anticipated pumping from LFA well would induce. Field investigation activities included (1) constructing a 1,300-foot (ft) test boring and well completed in the LFA (well 33P028), (2) constructing an observation well in the UFA (well 33P029), (3) collecting drill cuttings and borehole geophysical logs, (4) collecting core samples for analysis of vertical hydraulic conductivity and porosity, (5) conducting flowmeter and packer tests in the open borehole within the UFA and LFA, (6) collecting depth-integrated water samples to assess basic ionic chemistry of various water-bearing zones, and (7) conducting aquifer tests in new LFA and UFA wells to determine hydraulic properties and assess interaquifer leakage. Using data collected at the site and in nearby areas, model simulation was used to assess the effects of LFA pumping on the UFA. Borehole-geophysical and flowmeter data indicate the LFA at Fort Stewart consists of limestone and dolomitic limestone between depths of 912 and 1,250 ft. Flowmeter data indicate the presence of three permeable zones at depth intervals of 912-947, 1,090-1,139, and 1,211?1,250 ft. LFA well 33P028 received 50 percent of the pumped volume from the uppermost permeable zone, and about 18 and 32 percent of the pumped volume from the middle and lowest permeable zones, respectively. Chemical

  20. Investigation of the heat pump water heater using economizer vapor injection system and mixture of R22/R600a

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Cao; Kai, Wang; Shouguo, Wang; Ziwen, Xing; Pengcheng, Shu [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, 28 Xianing west road, Xi' an 710049 (China)

    2009-05-15

    This paper presents the experimental study of a heat pump water heater (HPWH) using economizer vapor injection system and mixture of R22/R600a. Performances of HPWH using economizer vapor injection system are compared with that at different mixed mass ratios of R22/R600a. Study demonstrates that the heating capacity and energy efficiency ratio (EER) of the unit increased, and the discharge temperature of compressor decreased when using vapor injection and mixing refrigerant of R22/R600a. It is also found that the HPWH unit with economizer vapor injection system has a better performance for the high outlet water temperature under lower temperature conditions at 15% mass ratio of R600a for the mixing refrigerant. In addition, fundamental and practical influence of vapor injection pressure on the HPWH performance has been investigated experimentally. The simplified model is proposed for predicting the optimal vapor injection pressure of compressor using the mixing refrigerant R22/R600a. (author)

  1. Occurrence of microbial indicators and Clostridium perfringens in wastewater, water column samples, sediments, drinking water, and Weddell seal feces collected at McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisle, J.T.; Smith, J.J.; Edwards, D.D.; McFeters, G.A.

    2004-01-01

    McMurdo Station, Antarctica, has discharged untreated sewage into McMurdo Sound for decades. Previous studies delineated the impacted area, which included the drinking water intake, by using total coliform and Clostridium perfringens concentrations. The estimation of risk to humans in contact with the impacted and potable waters may be greater than presumed, as these microbial indicators may not be the most appropriate for this environment. To address these concerns, concentrations of these and additional indicators (fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, enterococci, coliphage, and enteroviruses) in the untreated wastewater, water column, and sediments of the impacted area and drinking water treatment facility and distribution system at McMurdo Station were determined. Fecal samples from Weddell seals in this area were also collected and analyzed for indicators. All drinking water samples were negative for indicators except for a single total coliform-positive sample. Total coliforms were present in water column samples at higher concentrations than other indicators. Fecal coliform and enterococcus concentrations were similar to each other and greater than those of other indicators in sediment samples closer to the discharge site. C. perfringens concentrations were higher in sediments at greater distances from the discharge site. Seal fecal samples contained concentrations of fecal coliforms, E. coli, enterococci, and C. perfringens similar to those found in untreated sewage. All samples were negative for enteroviruses. A wastewater treatment facility at McMurdo Station has started operation, and these data provide a baseline data set for monitoring the recovery of the impacted area. The contribution of seal feces to indicator concentrations in this area should be considered.

  2. Microbial biofilm studies of the environmental control and life support system water recovery test for Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, E. B.; Obenhuber, D. C.; Huff, T. L.

    1992-01-01

    NASA is developing a water recovery system (WRS) for Space Station Freedom to reclaim human waste water for reuse by astronauts as hygiene or potable water. A water recovery test (WRT) currently in progress investigates the performance of a prototype of the WRS. Analysis of biofilm accumulation, the potential for microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) in the WRT, and studies of iodine disinfection of biofilm are reported. Analysis of WRT components indicated the presence of organic deposits and biofilms in selected tubing. Water samples for the WRT contained acid-producing and sulfate-reducing organisms implicated in corrosion processes. Corrosion of an aluminum alloy was accelerated in the presence of these water samples; however, stainless steel corrosion rates were not accelerated. Biofilm iodine sensitivity tests using an experimental laboratory scale recycled water system containing a microbial check valve (MCV) demonstrated that an iodine concentration of 1 to 2 mg/L was ineffective in eliminating microbial biofilm. For complete disinfection, an initial concentration of 16 mg/L was required, which was gradually reduced by the MCV over 4 to 8 hours to 1 to 2 mg/L. This treatment may be useful in controlling biofilm formation.

  3. Experimental Investigation on the Influence of Refrigerant Charge on the Performance of Trans-critical CO2 Water-Water Heat Pump

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Ze; Xue, Rong; Chen, Shuangtao; Song, Shijie; Hou, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Natural refrigerant CO2 is widely used in refrigeration and heat pump systems. It is of great significance for reductions of ozone depletion and global warming. The efficiency of heat pump system is affected by many factors. The amount of refrigerant charge in the heat pump is a primary parameter that influences the energy efficiency. Undercharge or overcharge of refrigerant degrade its performance and deteriorate system reliability. Therefore, heat pump should be charged with an optimum amou...

  4. Impacts on groundwater recharge areas of megacity pumping: analysis of potential contamination of Kolkata, India, water supply

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sahu, Paulami; Michael, Holly A; Voss, Clifford I; Sikdar, Pradip K

    2013-01-01

    .... Heavy pumping of groundwater beneath these urban centres, particularly in regions with low natural topographic gradients, such as deltas and floodplains, can fundamentally alter the hydrological system...

  5. Heat pumps

    CERN Document Server

    Macmichael, DBA

    1988-01-01

    A fully revised and extended account of the design, manufacture and use of heat pumps in both industrial and domestic applications. Topics covered include a detailed description of the various heat pump cycles, the components of a heat pump system - drive, compressor, heat exchangers etc., and the more practical considerations to be taken into account in their selection.

  6. Architectural Survey of a Water Tower in Youngstown Air Reserve Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    engineered Roman aqueducts that —to this day— transfer water over long distances. Aqueducts use gravity to convey water from higher to lower elevations...Hazlehurst 1904, p 1). While water sys- tems materials and designs have changed, the basic gravity -fed concept used by the Romans remains the same. The...oldest water system in the United States dates from 1754 when Hans Christopher Christiansen erected a 225,000-gal standpipe in Bethlehem , PA

  7. Ground water heat pumps and cooling with ground water basins as seasonal storage; Grundvandsvarmepumper og -koeling med grundvandsmagasiner som saesonlager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-04-15

    Ground water temperature is constant all the year round, in Denmark approximately 9 deg. C, which is ideal for a number of cooling purposes including cooling of buildings. The structures in which the ground water flows (sand, gravel and chalk) are efficient for storing coldness and heat over longer periods. By using seasonal storage of low-temperature heat and coldness in ground water layers close to the terrain it is feasible to reach profitable energy savings of up to 90% for cooling and heating of e.g. hotels, airports, shopping malls, office buildings and other larger buildings. At the same time the large energy savings means major reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions. (BA)

  8. CFD simulation of reverse water-hammer induced by collapse of draft-tube cavity in a model pump-turbine during runaway process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoxi; Cheng, Yongguang; Xia, Linsheng; Yang, Jiandong

    2016-11-01

    This paper reports the preliminary progress in the CFD simulation of the reverse water-hammer induced by the collapse of a draft-tube cavity in a model pump-turbine during the runaway process. Firstly, the Fluent customized 1D-3D coupling model for hydraulic transients and the Schnerr & Sauer cavitation model for cavity development are introduced. Then, the methods are validated by simulating the benchmark reverse water-hammer in a long pipe caused by a valve instant closure. The simulated head history at the valve agrees well with the measured data in literature. After that, the more complicated reverse water-hammer in the draft-tube of a runaway model pump-turbine, which is installed in a model pumped-storage power plant, is simulated. The dynamic processes of a vapor cavity, from generation, expansion, shrink to collapse, are shown. After the cavity collapsed, a sudden increase of pressure can be evidently observed. The process is featured by a locally expending and collapsing vapor cavity that is around the runner cone, which is different from the conventional recognition of violent water- column separation. This work reveals the possibility for simulating the reverse water-hammer phenomenon in turbines by 3D CFD.

  9. Production of demineralized water for use in thermal power stations by advanced treatment of secondary wastewater effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsoyiannis, Ioannis A; Gkotsis, Petros; Castellana, Massimo; Cartechini, Fabricio; Zouboulis, Anastasios I

    2017-04-01

    The operation and efficiency of a modern, high-tech industrial full-scale water treatment plant was investigated in the present study. The treated water was used for the supply of the boilers, producing steam to feed the steam turbine of the power station. The inlet water was the effluent of municipal wastewater treatment plant of the city of Bari (Italy). The treatment stages comprised (1) coagulation, using ferric chloride, (2) lime softening, (3) powdered activated carbon, all dosed in a sedimentation tank. The treated water was thereafter subjected to dual-media filtration, followed by ultra-filtration (UF). The outlet of UF was subsequently treated by reverse osmosis (RO) and finally by ion exchange (IX). The inlet water had total organic carbon (TOC) concentration 10-12 mg/L, turbidity 10-15 NTU and conductivity 3500-4500 μS/cm. The final demineralized water had TOC less than 0.2 mg/L, turbidity less than 0.1 NTU and conductivity 0.055-0.070 μS/cm. Organic matter fractionation showed that most of the final DOC concentration consisted of low molecular weight neutral compounds, while other compounds such as humic acids or building blocks were completely removed. It is notable that this plant was operating under "Zero Liquid Discharge" conditions, implementing treatment of any generated liquid waste. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [Transport processes of low-level radioactive liquid effluent of nuclear power station in closed water body].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guo-Zheng; Xu, Zong-Xue

    2012-07-01

    The transport processes of low-level radioactive liquid effluent of Xianning nuclear power station in the closed water body Fushui Reservoir are simulated using the EFDC model. Six nuclides concentration distribution with different half-lives in the reservoir are analyzed under the condition of 97% guarantee rate incoming water and four-running nuclear power units. The results show that the nuclides concentration distribution is mainly affected by the flow field of the reservoir and the concentration is decided by the half-lives of nuclide and the volume of incoming water. In addition, the influence region is enlarged as increasing of half-life and tends to be stable when the half-life is longer than 5 years. Moreover, the waste water discharged from the outlet of the nuclear power plant has no effect on the water-intake for the outlet located at the upstream of the water-intake and the flow field flows to the dam of the reservoir.

  11. Heat pumps

    CERN Document Server

    Brodowicz, Kazimierz; Wyszynski, M L; Wyszynski

    2013-01-01

    Heat pumps and related technology are in widespread use in industrial processes and installations. This book presents a unified, comprehensive and systematic treatment of the design and operation of both compression and sorption heat pumps. Heat pump thermodynamics, the choice of working fluid and the characteristics of low temperature heat sources and their application to heat pumps are covered in detail.Economic aspects are discussed and the extensive use of the exergy concept in evaluating performance of heat pumps is a unique feature of the book. The thermodynamic and chemical properties o

  12. 33 CFR 183.524 - Fuel pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel pumps. 183.524 Section 183... SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Equipment Standards § 183.524 Fuel pumps. (a) Each diaphragm pump must not leak fuel from the pump if the primary diaphragm fails. (b) Each electrically...

  13. Solar-powered pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsten, C. C. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A solar powered pump particularly suited for intermittently delivering a stream of water is reported. The pump is characterized by a housing adapted to be seated in a source of water having a water discharge port disposed above the water line of the source, a sump including a valved inlet port through which water is introduced to the sump, disposed beneath the water line, a displacer supported for vertical reciprocation in said housing, an air passageway extended between the vertically spaced faces of the displacer, and a tipple disposed adjacent to the water discharge port adapted to be filled in response to a discharge of water from the housing. Air above a displacer is expanded in response to solar energy impinging on the housing and transferred into pressurizing relation with the sump for forcing water from the sump.

  14. Stress Corrosion Evaluation of Various Metallic Materials for the International Space Station Water Recycling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, P. D.

    2015-01-01

    A stress corrosion evaluation was performed on Inconel 625, Hastelloy C276, titanium commercially pure (TiCP), Ti-6Al-4V, Ti-6Al-4V extra low interstitial, and Cronidur 30 steel as a consequence of a change in formulation of the pretreatment for processing the urine in the International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Urine Processing Assembly from a sulfuric acid-based to a phosphoric acid-based solution. The first five listed were found resistant to stress corrosion in the pretreatment and brine. However, some of the Cronidur 30 specimens experienced reduction in load-carrying ability.

  15. Final Report IEA HPP Annex 28. Test procedure and seasonal performance calculation for residential heat pumps with combined space and domestic hot water heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wemhoener, C.; Afjei, T.

    2007-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) - an executive summary - takes a look at testing procedures for compact heat pump units which combine the functions of space heating, domestic hot water preparation and - optionally - ventilation. The procedures were developed within the framework of Annex 28 of the International Energy Agency's IEA Heat Pump Programme entitled 'Test procedure and seasonal performance calculation for residential heat pumps with combined space and domestic hot water heating'. Work done at the Institute of Energy in Buildings at the University of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland is described. The results of a state-of-the-art survey are discussed and the resulting conclusions are presented. Further, testing procedures and calculation methods developed for the measurement of the seasonal performance factor of heat pumps are presented. Validation of these procedures is discussed and initial implementations based on the results obtained are presented. This work should lead later on to standardized procedures recognized by the standardization bodies.

  16. Performance Evaluation of the Operational Air Quality Monitor for Water Testing Aboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, William T.; Limero, Thomas F.; Gazda, Daniel B.; Minton, John M.; Macatangay, Ariel V.; Dwivedi, Prabha; Fernandez, Facundo M.

    2014-01-01

    Real-time environmental monitoring on ISS is necessary to provide data in a timely fashion and to help ensure astronaut health. Current real-time water TOC monitoring provides high-quality trending information, but compound-specific data is needed. The combination of ETV with the AQM showed that compounds of interest could be liberated from water and analyzed in the same manner as air sampling. Calibration of the AQM using water samples allowed for the quantitative analysis of ISS archival samples. Some calibration issues remain, but the excellent accuracy of DMSD indicates that ETV holds promise for as a sample introduction method for water analysis in spaceflight.

  17. Integrated subsurface water solutions for coastal environments through integrated pump&treat and aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdikaki, Martha; Kallioras, Andreas; Christoforidis, Christophoros; Iossifidis, Dimitris; Zafeiropoulos, Anastasios; Dimitriadis, Klisthenis; Makropoulos, Christos; Raat, Klaasjan; van den Berg, Gerard

    2016-04-01

    Coastal wetlands in semi-arid regions, as in Circum-Mediterranean, are considered important ecosystems that provide valuable services to human population and the environment, such as: flood protection, erosion control, wildlife habitat, water quality, recreation and carbon sequestration. Un-managed surface and groundwater exploitation in these areas usually leads to deterioration of such sensitive ecosystems by means of water resources degradation and/or increased salinity. Groundwater usually plays a vital role for the sustainability of these hydrological systems, as the underlying aquifers operate as regulators for both quantity and quality of their waters. Multi-layer and multi-objective Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) systems can be proved effective groundwater engineered solutions for the restoration of deteriorated coastal wetlands in semi- and arid regions. The plain of Marathon is a typical Mediterranean environment that hosts a naturally occurring -and today degraded- coastal wetland with the characteristics of a distinct ecosystem linked to a typical coastal hydrogeological system of a semi-arid region; and therefore can serve as a model for similar systems world-wide. The geo-hydrological setting of the area involves a multi-layer aquifer system consisting of (i) an upper un-consolidated formation of depositional unit dominated mostly by fluvial sediments and (ii) the surrounding and underlying karstified marbles; both being linked to the investigated wetland and also subjected to seawater encroachment. A smart engineered MAR system via an optimised Pump & Treat system integrated with an Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR) scheme in this area would include the abstraction of brackish groundwater from the deeper karst aquifer at a location close to the shoreline and direct treatment with Reverse Osmosis (RO). for desalination. Two-fold re-use scheme of the purified effluent can then be engineered for (i) the restoration of the coastal wetland; and (ii

  18. Bounding Limitations in the Practical Design of Adsorption Heat Pump Water Heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ally, Moonis Raza [ORNL; Sharma, Vishaldeep [ORNL; Gluesenkamp, Kyle R [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    The boundary temperatures for any sorption-based technology can be estimated on the basis of Trouton s hypothesis that isosteres, extrapolated to infinite pressure (or analogously to infinite temperature) meet at a single point. In this paper we discuss the consequences of this hypothesis for many sorption devices that are thermally operated, suitable for exploiting renewable energy resources, or making better use of high or low level thermal energy. Trouton s hypothesis is independent of the working fluids making it particularly useful to both liquid-vapor and solid-vapor systems. We exemplify the use of the derived boundary temperatures derived from Trouton s hypothesis to important processes such as ice making, space cooling in hot climates, deep freezing, and residential hot water production. The boundary temperatures help determine which sorption or solar heating technology may be better suited to serve the given application, or whether it is beyond the scope of sorption systems.

  19. Operation characteristic of a heat pump of mechanical vapor recompression propelled by fans and its performance analysis applied to waste-water treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weike, Pang; Wenju, Lin; Qilin, Pan; Wenye, Lin; Qunte, Dai; Luwei, Yang; Zhentao, Zhang

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a set of heat pump (called as Mechanical Vapor Recompression, MVR) propelled by a centrifugal fan is tested and it shows some special characteristic when it works together with a falling film evaporator. Firstly, an analysis of the fan's suction and discharge parameters at stable state, such as its pressure and temperature, indicates that a phenomenon of wet compression is probably to appear during vapor compression. As a result, superheat after saturated vapor is compressed is eliminated, which reduces discharge temperature of the system. It is because drops boil away and absorb the super heat into their latent heat during vapor compression. Meanwhile, drops in the suction vapor add to the compressed vapor, which increase the given heat of the MVR heat pump. Next, assistant electric heat could adjust and keep steady of the operating pressure and temperature of an MVR heat pump. With the evaporation temperature up to be high, heat balance is broken and supplement heat needs to increase. Thirdly, the performance of an MVR heat pump is affect by the balance of falling film and evaporation that has an effect on heat transfer. Then, two parameters standing for the performance are measured as it runs in practical condition. The two important parameters are consumptive electricity power and productive water capacity. According to theoretical work in ideal condition by calculation and fan's input power by measure as running, adiabatic efficiency (ηad) of a centrifugal fan is calculated when it is applied in a heat pump of MVR. Following, based on ηad, practical SMER and COP of an MVR heat pump are discovered to be correlative with it. Finally, in dependence on productive water in theory and in practice, displacement efficiency (ηv) of centrifugal fans is obtained when compressing vapor, and so provide some references of matching a fan for an MVR heat pump. On the other hand, it is helpful to research and develop MVR heat pumps, and also to check

  20. Hydrogeology and water quality of the Floridan aquifer system and effect of Lower Floridan aquifer pumping on the Upper Floridan aquifer at Hunter Army Airfield, Chatham County, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, John S.; Williams, Lester J.; Cherry, Gregory C.

    2010-01-01

    Test drilling and field investigations, conducted at Hunter Army Airfield (HAAF), Chatham County, Georgia, during 2009, were used to determine the geologic, hydraulic, and water-quality characteristics of the Floridan aquifer system and to evaluate the effect of Lower Floridan aquifer (LFA) pumping on the Upper Floridan aquifer (UFA). Field investigation activities included (1) constructing a 1,168-foot (ft) test boring and well completed in the LFA, (2) collecting drill cuttings and borehole geophysical logs, (3) collecting core samples for analysis of vertical hydraulic conductivity and porosity, (4) conducting flowmeter and packer tests in the open borehole within the UFA and LFA, (5) collecting depth-integrated water samples to assess basic ionic chemistry of various water-bearing zones, and (6) conducting aquifer tests in the new LFA well and in an existing UFA well to determine hydraulic properties and assess interaquifer leakage. Using data collected at the site and in nearby areas, model simulation was used to quantify the effects of interaquifer leakage on the UFA and to determine the amount of pumping reduction required in the UFA to offset drawdown resulting from the leakage. Borehole-geophysical and flowmeter data indicate the LFA at HAAF consists of limestone and dolomitic limestone between depths of 703 and 1,080 ft, producing water from six major permeable zones: 723-731; 768-785; 818-837; 917-923; 1,027-1,052; and 1,060-1,080 ft. Data from a flowmeter survey, conducted at a pumping rate of 748 gallons per minute (gal/min), suggest that the two uppermost zones contributed 469 gal/min or 62.6 percent of the total flow during the test. The remaining four zones contributed from 1.7 to 18 percent of the total flow. Grab water samples indicate that with the exception of fluoride, constituent concentrations in the LFA increased with depth; water from the deepest interval (1,075 ft) contained chloride and sulfate concentrations of 480 and 240 milligrams per

  1. A water pumping control system with a programmable logic controller (PLC) and industrial wireless modules for industrial plants--an experimental setup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayindir, Ramazan; Cetinceviz, Yucel

    2011-04-01

    This paper describes a water pumping control system that is designed for production plants and implemented in an experimental setup in a laboratory. These plants contain harsh environments in which chemicals, vibrations or moving parts exist that could potentially damage the cabling or wires that are part of the control system. Furthermore, the data has to be transferred over paths that are accessible to the public. The control systems that it uses are a programmable logic controller (PLC) and industrial wireless local area network (IWLAN) technologies. It is implemented by a PLC, an communication processor (CP), two IWLAN modules, and a distributed input/output (I/O) module, as well as the water pump and sensors. Our system communication is based on an Industrial Ethernet and uses the standard Transport Control Protocol/Internet Protocol for parameterisation, configuration and diagnostics. The main function of the PLC is to send a digital signal to the water pump to turn it on or off, based on the tank level, using a pressure transmitter and inputs from limit switches that indicate the level of the water in the tank. This paper aims to provide a convenient solution in process plants where cabling is not possible. It also has lower installation and maintenance cost, provides reliable operation, and robust and flexible construction, suitable for industrial applications. Copyright © 2010 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Hydrogeologic Setting, Ground-Water Flow, and Ground-Water Quality at the Langtree Peninsula Research Station, Iredell County, North Carolina, 2000-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pippin, Charles G.; Chapman, Melinda J.; Huffman, Brad A.; Heller, Matthew J.; Schelgel, Melissa E.

    2008-01-01

    A 6-year intensive field study (2000-2005) of a complex, regolith-fractured bedrock ground-water system was conducted at the Langtree Peninsula research station on the Davidson College Lake Campus in Iredell County, North Carolina. This research station was constructed as part of the Piedmont and Mountains Resource Evaluation Program, a cooperative study being conducted by the North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources and the U.S. Geological Survey. Results of the study characterize the distinction and interaction of a two-component ground-water system in a quartz diorite rock type. The Langtree Peninsula research station includes 17 monitoring wells and 12 piezometers, including 2 well transects along high to low topographic settings, drilled into separate parts of the ground-water-flow system. The location of the research station is representative of a metaigneous intermediate (composition) regional hydrogeologic unit. The primary rock type is mafic quartz diorite that has steeply dipping foliation. Primary and secondary foliations are present in the quartz diorite at the site, and both have an average strike of about N. 12 degree E. and dip about 60 degree in opposite directions to the southeast (primary) and the northwest (secondary). This rock is cut by granitic dikes (intrusions) ranging in thickness from 2 to 50 feet and having an average strike of N. 20 degree W. and an average dip of 66 degree to the southwest. Depth to consolidated bedrock is considered moderate to deep, ranging from about 24 to 76 feet below land surface. The transition zone was delineated and described in each corehole near the well clusters but had a highly variable thickness ranging from about 1 to 20 feet. Thickness of the regolith (23 to 68 feet) and the transition zone do not appear to be related to topographic setting. Delineated bedrock fractures are dominantly low angle (possibly stress relief), which were observed to be open to partially open at depths of

  3. Acceptability and use of portable drinking water and hand washing stations in health care facilities and their impact on patient hygiene practices, Western kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Sarah D; Otieno, Ronald; Ayers, Tracy L; Odhiambo, Aloyce; Faith, Sitnah H; Quick, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Many health care facilities (HCF) in developing countries lack access to reliable hand washing stations and safe drinking water. To address this problem, we installed portable, low-cost hand washing stations (HWS) and drinking water stations (DWS), and trained healthcare workers (HCW) on hand hygiene, safe drinking water, and patient education techniques at 200 rural HCFs lacking a reliable water supply in western Kenya. We performed a survey at baseline and a follow-up evaluation at 15 months to assess the impact of the intervention at a random sample of 40 HCFs and 391 households nearest to these HCFs. From baseline to follow-up, there was a statistically significant increase in the percentage of dispensaries with access to HWSs with soap (42% vs. 77%, phand washing (10% vs. 35%, phand washing steps correctly (32% vs. 43%, p = 0.01), and report treatment of stored drinking water using any method (73% vs. 92%, phand washing and drinking water stations in rural HCFs without access to 24-hour piped water helped assure that health workers had a place to wash their hands and provide safe drinking water. This HCF intervention may have also contributed to the improvement of hand hygiene and reported safe drinking water behaviors among households nearest to HCFs.

  4. A Comparison of Alkaline Water and Mediterranean Diet vs Proton Pump Inhibition for Treatment of Laryngopharyngeal Reflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalvan, Craig H; Hu, Shirley; Greenberg, Barbara; Geliebter, Jan

    2017-10-01

    Laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) is a common disorder with protean manifestations in the head and neck. In this retrospective study, we report the efficacy of a wholly dietary approach using alkaline water, a plant-based, Mediterranean-style diet, and standard reflux precautions compared with that of the traditional treatment approach of proton pump inhibition (PPI) and standard reflux precautions. To determine whether treatment with a diet-based approach with standard reflux precautions alone can improve symptoms of LPR compared with treatment with PPI and standard reflux precautions. This was a retrospective medical chart review of 2 treatment cohorts. From 2010 to 2012, 85 patients with LPR that were treated with PPI and standard reflux precautions (PS) were identified. From 2013 to 2015, 99 patients treated with alkaline water (pH >8.0), 90% plant-based, Mediterranean-style diet, and standard reflux precautions (AMS) were identified. The outcome was based on change in Reflux Symptom Index (RSI). Recorded change in the RSI after 6 weeks of treatment. Of the 184 patients identified in the PS and AMS cohorts, the median age of participants in each cohort was 60 years (95% CI, 18-82) and 57 years (95% CI, 18-93), respectively (47 [56.3%] and 61 [61.7%] were women, respectively). The percentage of patients achieving a clinically meaningful (≥6 points) reduction in RSI was 54.1% in PS-treated patients and 62.6% in AMS-treated patients (difference between the groups, 8.05; 95% CI, -5.74 to 22.76). The mean reduction in RSI was 27.2% for the PS group and 39.8% in the AMS group (difference, 12.10; 95% CI, 1.53 to 22.68). Our data suggest that the effect of PPI on the RSI based on proportion reaching a 6-point reduction in RSI is not significantly better than that of alkaline water, a plant-based, Mediterranean-style diet, and standard reflux precautions, although the difference in the 2 treatments could be clinically meaningful in favor of the dietary approach. The

  5. Model Based Predictive Control of AUVs for Station Keeping in a Shallow Water Wave Environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Riedel, Jeffery s; Healey, Anthony J

    2005-01-01

    .... In shallow water AUV operations, where large hydrodynamic forces are developed due to waves, knowledge of the sea is critical to allow for the design of a control system that will enable the vehicle...

  6. EPA Office of Water (OW): Fish Consumption Advisories and Fish Tissue Sampling Stations NHDPlus Indexed Datasets

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Fish Consumption Advisories dataset contains information on Fish Advisory events that have been indexed to the EPA Office of Water NHDPlus v2.1 hydrology and...

  7. Experimental Problems of New Constructions of Portable Submersible Pumps for Mining with Electric Motor Cooled by Water Jacket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej KORCZAK

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a new construction of a submersible pumping engine where new original solutions in flowing system and control system where introduced It let obtain high efficiency and fulfill user’s expectations. The article also contains experiments of the new pumping engine and their results. The results of numerical analysis of the movement of liquid in flowing channel is described and the analytical characteristics are compared with ones measured in laboratory. The work also presents the problems with constructing, research and certification of new submersible pumping engine which construction fulfils ATEX requirements for machines working in explosive conditions areas

  8. Centrifugal pumps

    CERN Document Server

    Gülich, Johann Friedrich

    2014-01-01

    This book gives an unparalleled, up-to-date, in-depth treatment of all kinds of flow phenomena encountered in centrifugal pumps including the complex interactions of fluid flow with vibrations and wear of materials. The scope includes all aspects of hydraulic design, 3D-flow phenomena and partload operation, cavitation, numerical flow calculations, hydraulic forces, pressure pulsations, noise, pump vibrations (notably bearing housing vibration diagnostics and remedies), pipe vibrations, pump characteristics and pump operation, design of intake structures, the effects of highly viscous flows, pumping of gas-liquid mixtures, hydraulic transport of solids, fatigue damage to impellers or diffusers, material selection under the aspects of fatigue, corrosion, erosion-corrosion or hydro-abrasive wear, pump selection, and hydraulic quality criteria. As a novelty, the 3rd ed. brings a fully analytical design method for radial impellers, which eliminates the arbitrary choices inherent to former design procedures. The d...

  9. Water chemistry of the secondary circuit at a nuclear power station with a VVER power reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyapkov, V. F.; Erpyleva, S. F.

    2017-05-01

    Results of implementation of the secondary circuit organic amine water chemistry at Russian nuclear power plant (NPP) with VVER-1000 reactors are presented. The requirements for improving the reliability, safety, and efficiency of NPPs and for prolonging the service life of main equipment items necessitate the implementation of new technologies, such as new water chemistries. Data are analyzed on the chemical control of power unit coolant for quality after the changeover to operation with the feed of higher amines, such as morpholine and ethanolamine. Power units having equipment containing copper alloy components were converted from the all-volatile water chemistry to the ethanolamine or morpholine water chemistry with no increase in pH of the steam generator feedwater. This enables the iron content in the steam generator feedwater to be decreased from 6-12 to 2.0-2.5 μg/dm3. It is demonstrated that pH of high-temperature water is among the basic factors controlling erosion and corrosion wear of the piping and the ingress of corrosion products into NPP steam generators. For NPP power units having equipment whose construction material does not include copper alloys, the water chemistries with elevated pH of the secondary coolant are adopted. Stable dosing of correction chemicals at these power units maintains pH25 of 9.5 to 9.7 in the steam generator feedwater with a maximum iron content of 2 μg/dm3 in the steam generator feedwater.

  10. Pumping life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sitsel, Oleg; Dach, Ingrid; Hoffmann, Robert Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The name PUMPKIN may suggest a research centre focused on American Halloween traditions or the investigation of the growth of vegetables – however this would be misleading. Researchers at PUMPKIN, short for Centre for Membrane Pumps in Cells and Disease, are in fact interested in a large family o......’. Here we illustrate that the pumping of ions means nothing less than the pumping of life....

  11. Ten years water and energy surface balance from the CNR-ISAC micrometeorological station in Salento peninsula (southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martano, P.; Elefante, C.; Grasso, F.

    2015-06-01

    Data of surface-atmosphere energy and water transfer from a ten years (2003-2013) period of activity of the ISAC-Lecce micrometeorological station (isac.cnr.it"target="_blank">http://www.basesperimentale.le.isac.cnr.it) have been analyzed: to the authors' knowledge this is the first decadal data set of surface-atmosphere transfer in Salento peninsula. The surface energy budget shows a tendency to a positive bias possibly due to several reasons that require more investigations. Some suitable indices related to the surface water balance, such as the precipitation intensity, the aridity index and the ground water infiltration fraction have been calculated. Possible trends of these annual averages in the decadal period are considered, also taking into account the statistical uncertainty associated to measurement errors and missing data. The results indicate a significant increasing in the precipitation intensity together with an experimental evidence of increasing of the ground water infiltration in the measurement area, that is in agreement with recent estimations for the whole Salento peninsula. On the other hand, recent studies show that seawater intrusion and salinization of the deep underground aquifer keep increasing in the same period.

  12. Surface-water sampling stations, National Water-Quality Assessment, Yellowstone River Basin, Montana, North Dakota, and Wyoming

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — As part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program, an investigation of the Yellowstone River Basin study unit is being conducted to...

  13. Satellite data and real time stations to improve water quality of Lake Manzalah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. Mohamed

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to choose suitable approach for generating quantitative water quality products from Medium-Spectral Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS imagery in near real-time. Four MERIS Case-II water processors included in the BEAM software package were studied for estimating the lake water quality. Chlorophyll-a (CHL, Turbidity (TUR products of the BEAM processors were compared to in situ data. No statistically significant correlations were observed between in situ data and individual top-of-atmosphere (TOA reflectances. By contrast, significant correlations were observed for the Band9/Band 7 ratio. Using uncorrected band ratios of TOA reflectances as input, coefficients of determination of 0.83 and 0.76 were obtained for TUR and CHL, respectively. The regression models for TUR and CHL were subsequently validated. The formulating regression models based on TOA reflectances is a valid approach to generate Earth Observation (EO based water quality information in an operational setting. The results revealed that the empirical models estimated for TUR and CHL are more appropriate to generate water quality products from MERIS imagery.

  14. International water and steam quality standards for thermal power station drum-type and waste heat recovery boilers with the treatment of boiler water with phosphates and NaOH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, T. I.; Orlov, K. A.; Dooley, R. B.

    2017-01-01

    One of the ways for improving the operational reliability and economy of thermal power station equipment, including combined-cycle equipment, is to decrease the rates of the corrosion of constructional materials and the formation of scales in the water-steam circuit. These processes can be reduced to a minimum via the use of water with a minimum content of admixtures and the correction treatment of a heat-transfer fluid. The International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam (IAPWS), which unites specialists from every country of the world, has developed water and steam quality standards for power station equipment of different types on the basis of theoretical studies and long-term experience in the operation of power plants in 21 countries. Different water chemistry regimes are currently used at conventional and combined-cycle thermal power stations. This paper describes the conditions for the implementation of water chemistry regimes with the use of sodium salts of phosphoric acid and NaOH for the quality correction of boiler water. Water and steam quality standards and some recommendations for their maintenance under different operational conditions are given for each of the considered water chemistry regimes. The standards are designed for the water-steam circuit of conventional and combined-cycle thermal power stations. It is pointed out that the quality control of a heat-transfer fluid must be especially careful at combined-cycle thermal power stations with frequent startups and shutdowns.

  15. Experimental Results and Model Calculations of a Hybrid Adsorption-Compression Heat Pump Based on a Roots Compressor and Silica Gel-Water Sorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Pal, M.; De Boer, R.; Wemmers, A.K.; Smeding, S.F.; Veldhuis, J.B.J.; Lycklama a Nijeholt, J.A.

    2013-10-15

    Thermally driven sorption systems can provide significant energy savings, especially in industrial applications. The driving temperature for operation of such systems limits the operating window and can be a barrier for market-introduction. By adding a compressor, the sorption cycle can be run using lower waste heat temperatures. ECN has recently started the development of such a hybrid heat pump. The final goal is to develop a hybrid heat pump for upgrading lower (<100C) temperature industrial waste heat to above pinch temperatures. The paper presents the first measurements and model calculations of a hybrid heat pump system using a water-silica gel system combined with a Roots type compressor. From the measurements can be seen that the effect of the compressor is dependent on where in the cycle it is placed. When placed between the evaporator and the sorption reactor, it has a considerable larger effect compared to the compressor placed between the sorption reactor and the condenser. The latter hardly improves the performance compared to purely heat-driven operation. This shows the importance of studying the interaction between all components of the system. The model, which shows reasonable correlation with the measurements, could proof to be a valuable tool to determine the optimal hybrid heat pump configuration.

  16. Diagnosis of feed water, condensate and circulation pumps in electric power plants; Diagnostico de bombas de agua de alimentacion, condensado y circulacion en centrales termoelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colin Castellanos, Carlos [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1991-12-31

    This article encompasses the analysis and the diagnosis of the pump`s performance that belong to the feed water, condensate and circulation systems of a fossil fuel power plant (FFPP). For this analysis pressure, temperature and flow data were collected by means of field installed instrumentation, as well as these pumps` motors current consumption and voltage values. Later on, the capacity and the pump efficiency are calculated and compared with the design values, to obtain the actual performance of the equipment with the aid of their characteristic curves (Q vs {Delta}H, Q vs {pi}, etc.). [Espanol] Este articulo comprende el analisis y el diagnostico de comportamiento de las bombas, las cuales forman parte de los sistemas de agua de alimentacion, condensado y circulacion de una central termoelectrica (CT). Para el analisis se recopilan datos de presion, temperatura y flujo de la instrumentacion instalada en campo, asi como de los valores de consumo de corriente y de voltaje en los motores de dichas bombas. Posteriormente, se calcula la capacidad y la eficiencia de las bombas en operacion real y se comparan con los valores de diseno, para obtener el comportamiento real del equipo con ayuda de las curvas caracteristicas (Q vs {Delta}H, Q vs {pi}, etcetera).

  17. Analysis and simulation of water supply systems with photovoltaic pumping; Analise e simulacao de sistemas de abastecimento de agua com tecnologia fotovoltaica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilela, Olga de Castro

    1996-09-01

    During the last two decades, a remarkable progress on the technology of photovoltaic pumping systems (PVP) has been observed. The decrease in the costs of the photovoltaic module and the increase in the efficiency of photovoltaic pumping systems (generator and motor-pump) make PVP systems a good option for rural communities. Most analysis and simulations of PVP systems, utility function, assume the existence of a linear relationship between the hydraulic power and the solar collected radiation. Usually, more general relations exist between those variables. This work presents a new procedure for the analysis and simulation of PVP systems, which uses the utility function to consider the fluctuations in solar radiation, and leads to analytical solutions for PVP systems whose behavior can be represented by general functions, including linear relations as a particular case. The system analyzed considers the energy source (solar radiation) and the components of the water supply system like water source, photovoltaic array, subsystem for conversion of electric into hydraulic energy and, finally, hydraulic network. An analytical procedure to calculate absorbed solar radiation in the optical layers of the photovoltaic module was developed, substituting the conventional ray tracing method. The volume of pumped water was obtained integrating the water flow rate through time, considering the fluctuations related to the behavior of solar radiation and the minimum level of radiation necessary to produce useful energy. The mathematical properties of the utility function allow to derive analytical solutions for the integrals of water flow and hydraulic power. At the same time, we developed a spreadsheet which allows tho visualize the behavior of all variables involved in the process and offers the possibility of simulating different situations in order to maximize the amount of pumped water for any given system. The results obtained through the new procedure were compared with

  18. Hazard Evaluation for the Saltwell Chempump and a Saltwell Centrifugal Pump Design using Service Water for Lubrication and Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GRAMS, W.H.

    2000-11-16

    This report documents results of a preliminary hazard analysis (PHA) covering the existing Crane Chempump and the new salt well pumping design. Three hazardous conditions were identified for the Chempump and ten hazardous conditions were identified for the new salt well pump design. This report also presents the results of the control decision/allocation process. A backflow preventer and associated limiting condition for operation were assigned to one hazardous condition with the new design.

  19. The Deisch drinking-water power station in Grengiols - Concession project; Trinkwasserkraftwerk Deisch Grengiols VS. Konzessionsprojekt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiller, B.

    2005-07-01

    In this final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE), a project that aims to make use of the potential energy in the drinking-water supply system in Grengiols, Switzerland is looked at. A project is described that aims to make use of the height difference between the Martisberg springs and the reservoir in Grengiols. The specially designed 20 kW Pelton turbine proposed is described. A second, 40 kW turbine is to use excess water from the reservoir. Figures are presented on the energy production to be expected from the installation and the costs involved. The advantages offered by the construction of drinking-water power generation systems are stressed.

  20. Feasibility study and energy efficiency estimation of geothermal power station based on medium enthalpy water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borsukiewicz-Gozdur Aleksandra

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the work presented are the results of investigations regarding the effectiveness of operation of power plant fed by geothermal water with the flow rate of 100, 150, and 200 m3/h and temperatures of 70, 80, and 90 °C, i. e. geothermal water with the parameters available in some towns of West Pomeranian region as well as in Stargard Szczecinski (86.4 °C, Poland. The results of calculations regard the system of geothermal power plant with possibility of utilization of heat for technological purposes. Analyzed are possibilities of application of different working fluids with respect to the most efficient utilization of geothermal energy. .

  1. Parabolic stationing method application to intertidal shellfish (Sinonovacula constricta) and growing waters microbiological monitoring in Yueqing Bay, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Lei; Liu, Huan; Xu, Dan; Gu, Beiqiao

    2017-03-15

    This study reported microbiological monitoring by parabolic stationing method for S. constricta and their growing waters, and application for the first time in Yueqing Bay, China. The results indicated that numbers of Escherichia coli and aerobic colony count in S. constricta flesh showed an approximate 'parabola' distribution across the whole shellfish bed. Numbers of faecal coliform in seawater samples were significantly higher in the top of the bay, and lower in the lower half of the bay, whilst higher located in the edge of the bay than the center in contrast to three sampling sites on the same latitude. Numbers of total bacterial count were not significantly correlated with faecal coliform in seawater samples. Finally, the shellfish production areas were classified based on three batches of E. coli monitoring. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Proper Sizing of Circulation Pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Nørgaard, Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    The paper describes the preliminary results from field tests of replacing various types of old pumps used for circulating water in heating systems in single- and double-family houses with new types of pumps. The tests were carried out in Denmark for the Danish Electricity Savings Trust......, but the results can be applied to Europe in general. Despite the small sample of houses involved in the test, 15 houses, some rather safe conclusions can be drawn from the results, which showed that newly developed pumps with power consumption around 5-8 W, can perform the task of circulating the water...... sufficiently to keep the houses satisfactorily warm during the heating season of the test. The old replaced pumps used 5-10 times more power. In Europe alone, a gradual replacement of the present vastly oversized pumps with such small but sufficient pumps can save the construction of 17 large power plants...

  3. Microbiological Characterization of the International Space Station Water Processor Assembly External Filter Assembly S/N 01

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Natalee; Wilson, Mark; Yoets, Airan; Yoets, Airan; Molina, Thomas; Bruce, Rebekah; Sitler, Glenn; Carter, Layne

    2012-01-01

    The External Filter Assembly (EFA) S/N 01 is a mesh screen filter with a pore size of approximately 300 micron that was installed in the International Space Station (ISS) Water Processor Assembly (WPA) between the Waste Tank and the Mostly Liquid Separator (MLS) on February 11, 2010 to protect clearances in the MLS solenoid valve SV_1121_3. A removal & replacement of the EFA Filter was performed on March 22, 2011 in response to increasing pressure across the Waste Tank solenoid valve SV_1121_1 and the EFA Filter. The EFA Filter was returned on ULF6 and received in the Boeing Huntsville Laboratory on June 13, 2011. The filter was aseptically removed from the housing, and the residual water was collected for enumeration and identification of bacteria and fungi. Swab samples of the filter surface were also collected for microbiological enumeration and identification. Sample analyses were performed by Boeing Huntsville Laboratory and NASA Johnson Space Center Microbiology for comparison. Photographic documentation of the EFA filter was performed using a stereo microscope and environmental scanning electron microscope. This paper characterizes the amount and types of microorganisms on the filter surface and in the residual water from the filter housing following 1 year of utilization in the ISS WPA.

  4. A Flooding Induced Station Blackout Analysis for a Pressurized Water Reactor Using the RISMC Toolkit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Mandelli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we evaluate the impact of a power uprate on a pressurized water reactor (PWR for a tsunami-induced flooding test case. This analysis is performed using the RISMC toolkit: the RELAP-7 and RAVEN codes. RELAP-7 is the new generation of system analysis codes that is responsible for simulating the thermal-hydraulic dynamics of PWR and boiling water reactor systems. RAVEN has two capabilities: to act as a controller of the RELAP-7 simulation (e.g., component/system activation and to perform statistical analyses. In our case, the simulation of the flooding is performed by using an advanced smooth particle hydrodynamics code called NEUTRINO. The obtained results allow the user to investigate and quantify the impact of timing and sequencing of events on system safety. In addition, the impact of power uprate is determined in terms of both core damage probability and safety margins.

  5. Effect of water chemistry upsets on the dynamics of corrective reagent dosing systems at thermal power stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronov, V. N.; Yegoshina, O. V.; Bolshakova, N. A.; Yarovoi, V. O.; Latt, Aie Min

    2016-12-01

    Typical disturbances in the dynamics of a corrective reagent dosing system under unsteady-state conditions during the unsatisfactory operation of a chemical control system with some water chemistry upsets at thermal and nuclear power stations are considered. An experimental setup representing a physical model for the water chemistry control system is described. The two disturbances, which are most frequently encountered in water chemistry control practice, such as a breakdown or shutdown of temperature compensation during pH measurement and an increase in the heat-transfer fluid flow rate, have been modeled in the process of study. The study of the effect produced by the response characteristics of chemical control analyzers on the operation of a reagent dosing system under unsteady-state conditions is important for the operative control of a water chemistry regime state. The effect of temperature compensation during pH measurement on the dynamics of an ammonia-dosing system in the manual and automatic cycle chemistry control modes has been studied. It has been demonstrated that the reading settling time of a pH meter in the manual ammonia- dosing mode grows with a breakdown in temperature compensation and a simultaneous increase in the temperature of a heat-transfer fluid sample. To improve the efficiency of water chemistry control, some systems for the quality control of a heat-transfer fluid by a chemical parameter with the obligatory compensation of a disturbance in its flow rate have been proposed for use. Experimental results will possibly differ from industrial data due to a great length of sampling lines. For this reason, corrective reagent dosing systems must be adapted to the conditions of a certain power-generating unit in the process of their implementation.

  6. Full-Scale Validation of a Comprehensive Criterion to Predict Fish-Friendliness of Pumps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krakers, L.A.; Kruyt, Nicolaas P.; Rutjes, H.A.

    2015-01-01

    Many pumping stations in drainage & irrigation applications are currently equipped with conventional (not fish friendly designed) pumps. Field tests have been performed [1] for several pump types of a certain size at certain pumping conditions to assess survival rates of fish passing through pumps.

  7. Supercritical waste oxidation pump investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thurston, G.; Garcia, K.

    1993-02-01

    This report investigates the pumping techniques and pumping equipment that would be appropriate for a 5,000 gallon per day supercritical water oxidation waste disposal facility. The pumps must boost water, waste, and additives from atmospheric pressure to approximately 27.6 MPa (4,000 psia). The required flow ranges from 10 gpm to less than 0.1 gpm. For the higher flows, many commercial piston pumps are available. These pumps have packing and check-valves that will require periodic maintenance; probably at 2 to 6 month intervals. Several commercial diaphragm pumps were also discovered that could pump the higher flow rates. Diaphragm pumps have the advantage of not requiring dynamic seals. For the lower flows associated with the waste and additive materials, commercial diaphragm pumps. are available. Difficult to pump materials that are sticky, radioactive, or contain solids, could be injected with an accumulator using an inert gas as the driving mechanism. The information presented in this report serves as a spring board for trade studies and the development of equipment specifications.

  8. Nonazeotropic Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ealker, David H.; Deming, Glenn

    1991-01-01

    Heat pump collects heat from water circulating in heat-rejection loop, raises temperature of collected heat, and transfers collected heat to water in separate pipe. Includes sealed motor/compressor with cooling coils, evaporator, and condenser, all mounted in outer housing. Gradients of temperature in evaporator and condenser increase heat-transfer efficiency of vapor-compression cycle. Intended to recover relatively-low-temperature waste heat and use it to make hot water.

  9. Principle and characteristics of heat pump air conditioning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lu

    2017-05-01

    The application of heat pump technology in building energy saving has been paid more and more attention. By analyzing the principle and characteristics of air source heat pump, ground source heat pump and water source heat pump, the problems and prospects of heat pump technology in China are pointed out.

  10. Contamination of ground water, surface water, and soil, and evaluation of selected ground-water pumping alternatives in the Canal Creek area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorah, Michelle M.; Clark, Jeffrey S.

    1996-01-01

    Chemical manufacturing, munitions filling, and other military-support activities have resulted in the contamination of ground water, surface water, and soil in the Canal Creek area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Chlorinated volatile organic compounds, including 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane and trichloroethylene, are widespread ground-water contaminants in two aquifers that are composed of unconsolidated sand and gravel. Distribution and fate of chlorinated organic compounds in the ground water has been affected by the movement and dissolution of solvents in their dense immiscible phase and by microbial degradation under anaerobic conditions. Detection of volatile organic contaminants in adjacent surface water indicates that shallow contaminated ground water discharges to surface water. Semivolatile organic compounds, especially polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, are the most prevalent organic contaminants in soils. Various trace elements, such as arsenic, cadmium, lead, and zinc, were found in elevated concentrations in ground water, surface water, and soil. Simulations with a ground-water-flow model and particle tracker postprocessor show that, without remedial pumpage, the contaminants will eventually migrate to Canal Creek and Gunpowder River. Simulations indicate that remedial pumpage of 2.0 million gallons per day from existing wells is needed to capture all particles originating in the contaminant plumes. Simulated pumpage from offsite wells screened in a lower confined aquifer does not affect the flow of contaminated ground water in the Canal Creek area.

  11. Modeling of a Flooding Induced Station Blackout for a Pressurized Water Reactor Using the RISMC Toolkit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandelli, Diego; Prescott, Steven R; Smith, Curtis L; Alfonsi, Andrea; Rabiti, Cristian; Cogliati, Joshua J; Kinoshita, Robert A

    2011-07-01

    In the Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) approach we want to understand not just the frequency of an event like core damage, but how close we are (or are not) to key safety-related events and how might we increase our safety margins. The RISMC Pathway uses the probabilistic margin approach to quantify impacts to reliability and safety by coupling both probabilistic (via stochastic simulation) and mechanistic (via physics models) approaches. This coupling takes place through the interchange of physical parameters and operational or accident scenarios. In this paper we apply the RISMC approach to evaluate the impact of a power uprate on a pressurized water reactor (PWR) for a tsunami-induced flooding test case. This analysis is performed using the RISMC toolkit: RELAP-7 and RAVEN codes. RELAP-7 is the new generation of system analysis codes that is responsible for simulating the thermal-hydraulic dynamics of PWR and boiling water reactor systems. RAVEN has two capabilities: to act as a controller of the RELAP-7 simulation (e.g., system activation) and to perform statistical analyses (e.g., run multiple RELAP-7 simulations where sequencing/timing of events have been changed according to a set of stochastic distributions). By using the RISMC toolkit, we can evaluate how power uprate affects the system recovery measures needed to avoid core damage after the PWR lost all available AC power by a tsunami induced flooding. The simulation of the actual flooding is performed by using a smooth particle hydrodynamics code: NEUTRINO.

  12. Heat pump using dual heat sources of air and water. Performance with heat sources arranged in parallel; Mizu kuki ryonetsugen heat pump no kenkyu. Netsugen heiretsu unten ni okeru seino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, S.; Miura, N.; Sato, S. [Kanagawa Institute of Technology, Kanagawa (Japan); Uchikawa, Y.; Hamada, K. [Kubota Corp., Osaka (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    A heat pump system using water and air as heat sources was built and evaluated for its performance. In this system, evaporators may be operated singly or as connected in parallel or series, and, for each case, the quantity of heat acquired may be measured and system performance may be quantitatively evaluated. The findings follow. When the two heat sources are equal in temperature in the single-evaporator operation, the evaporation temperature is about 7{degree}C higher on the water side than on the air side, and the performance coefficient is about 0.7 higher. When the air heat source temperature is 25{degree}C in the parallel operation, like quantities of heat are obtained from both heat sources, and collection of heat from the water increases with a decrease in the air heat source temperature but, with an increase, collection from the air increases. When the air heat source temperature decreases, the evaporation temperature decreases in the single-evaporator working on the air and in the parallel operation but it levels off in the single-evaporator working on the water alone. When the water heat source temperature decreases, evaporation temperature drop is sharper in the single-evaporator working on the water than in the parallel operation, which suggests the transfer from the parallel operation to the single-evaporator working on the air. In the single-evaporator operation on the water heat source, the evaporation temperature linearly decreases with an increase in superheating. 1 ref., 10 figs.

  13. Comparison of solar heat pump systems to conventional methods for residential heating, cooling, and water heating. Volume 1: Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, P. J.; Morehouse, J. H.

    1980-04-01

    Since the purpose of space conditioning equipment is to provide thermal comfort, models were formulated to force this requirement on all systems. The thermal performance maps (fraction of the load met with free energy versus collector area) presented include the effects of the comfort requirement and of parasitic energy consumption for blower and pump operation. Economic comparisons were made after sizing collectors and storage for the combined solar heat pump systems in a manner which was sensitive to climate as well as to the thermal and economic characteristics of each particular system. This, combined with life cycle cost analysis, allows collector cost goals to be established which, if met, will allow combined solar heat pump systems to compete with conventional alternatives.

  14. Conditions and Characteristics of Water Crystallization on the Working Surface of Evaporator Heat Pumps in Reservoirs with Low Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksimov Vyacheslav I.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Is carried out the mathematical simulation of heat transfer processes in the small environment of vaporizer camera of heat pump (HP when the source of low-potential energy is present. Are obtained the temperature distributions, which characterize thermal condition HP. Is carried out the comparative analysis of the results of mathematical simulation and experimental data from the work of heat-pumping installation in the conditions of relatively low (up to 4 °C temperatures. In the experiments, the partial freezing around of the tubes of vaporizer is established. It is revealed, that the formation of the layer of ice on the surface of vaporizer leads to the temperature contrast by the volume of liquid in the camera and reduction in the effectiveness in the work of heat-pumping installation.

  15. A Fosmid Cloning Strategy for Detecting the Widest Possible Spectrum of Microbes from the International Space Station Drinking Water System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangdun Choi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, fosmid cloning strategies were used to assess the microbial populations in water from the International Space Station (ISS drinking water system (henceforth referred to as Prebiocide and Tank A water samples. The goals of this study were: to compare the sensitivity of the fosmid cloning strategy with that of traditional culture-based and 16S rRNA-based approaches and to detect the widest possible spectrum of microbial populations during the water purification process. Initially, microbes could not be cultivated, and conventional PCR failed to amplify 16S rDNA fragments from these low biomass samples. Therefore, randomly primed rolling-circle amplification was used to amplify any DNA that might be present in the samples, followed by size selection by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The amplified high-molecular-weight DNA from both samples was cloned into fosmid vectors. Several hundred clones were randomly selected for sequencing, followed by Blastn/Blastx searches. Sequences encoding specific genes from Burkholderia, a species abundant in the soil and groundwater, were found in both samples. Bradyrhizobium and Mesorhizobium, which belong to rhizobia, a large community of nitrogen fixers often found in association with plant roots, were present in the Prebiocide samples. Ralstonia, which is prevalent in soils with a high heavy metal content, was detected in the Tank A samples. The detection of many unidentified sequences suggests the presence of potentially novel microbial fingerprints. The bacterial diversity detected in this pilot study using a fosmid vector approach was higher than that detected by conventional 16S rRNA gene sequencing.

  16. Fire-station solar-energy system--Kansas City, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Screen-walled, flat-plate air collectors are part of award-winning architectural design; concrete-box storage subsystem, domestic hot-water preheat tank, blowers, pumps, heat exchangers, ducting, controls, and plumbing complete solar system. Design provides half of space heating and 75 percent of heat for domestic hot-water for fire station. Report includes historical narrative of project along with detailed drawings, charts, and product literature.

  17. Seaglider surveys at Ocean Station Papa: Circulation and water mass properties in a meander of the North Pacific Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelland, Noel A.; Eriksen, Charles C.; Cronin, Meghan F.

    2016-09-01

    A Seaglider autonomous underwater vehicle augmented the Ocean Station Papa (OSP; 50°N, 145°W) surface mooring, measuring spatial structure on scales relevant to the monthly evolution of the moored time series. During each of three missions from June 2008 to January 2010, a Seaglider made biweekly 50 km × 50 km surveys in a bowtie-shaped survey track. Horizontal temperature and salinity gradients measured by these surveys were an order of magnitude stronger than climatological values and sometimes of opposite sign. Geostrophically inferred circulation was corroborated by moored acoustic Doppler current profiler measurements and AVISO satellite altimetry estimates of surface currents, confirming that glider surveys accurately resolved monthly scale mesoscale spatial structure. In contrast to climatological North Pacific Current circulation, upper-ocean flow was modestly northward during the first half of the 18 month survey period, and weakly westward during its latter half, with Rossby number O>(0.01>). This change in circulation coincided with a shift from cool and fresh to warm, saline, oxygen-rich water in the upper-ocean halocline, and an increase in vertical fine structure there and in the lower pycnocline. The anomalous flow and abrupt water mass transition were due to the slow growth of an anticyclonic meander within the North Pacific Current with radius comparable to the scale of the survey pattern, originating to the southeast of OSP.

  18. Satellite Propellant Pump Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Steven J.; Veres, Joseph P.; Hah, Chunill; Nerone, Anthony L.; Cunningham, Cameron C.; Kraft, Thomas G.; Tavernelli, Paul F.; Fraser, Bryan

    2005-01-01

    NASA Glenn initiated a satellite propellant pump technology demonstration program. The goal was to demonstrate the technologies for a 60 percent efficient pump at 1 gpm flow rate and 500 psia pressure rise. The pump design and analysis used the in-house developed computer codes named PUMPA and HPUMP3D. The requirements lead to a 4-stage impeller type pump design with a tip diameter of 0.54 inches and a rotational speed of 57,000 rpm. Analyses indicated that flow cavitation was not a problem in the design. Since the flow was incompressible, the stages were identical. Only the 2-stage pump was designed, fabricated, assembled, and tested for demonstration. Water was selected as the surrogate fluid for hydrazine in this program. Complete mechanical design including stress and dynamic analyses were conducted. The pump was driven by an electric motor directly coupled to the impellers. Runs up to 57,000 rpm were conducted, where a pressure rise of 200 psia at a flow rate of 0.8 gpm was measured to validate the design effort.

  19. Lunar Base Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, D.; Fischbach, D.; Tetreault, R.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this project was to investigate the feasibility of constructing a heat pump suitable for use as a heat rejection device in applications such as a lunar base. In this situation, direct heat rejection through the use of radiators is not possible at a temperature suitable for lde support systems. Initial analysis of a heat pump of this type called for a temperature lift of approximately 378 deg. K, which is considerably higher than is commonly called for in HVAC and refrigeration applications where heat pumps are most often employed. Also because of the variation of the rejection temperature (from 100 to 381 deg. K), extreme flexibility in the configuration and operation of the heat pump is required. A three-stage compression cycle using a refrigerant such as CFC-11 or HCFC-123 was formulated with operation possible with one, two or three stages of compression. Also, to meet the redundancy requirements, compression was divided up over multiple compressors in each stage. A control scheme was devised that allowed these multiple compressors to be operated as required so that the heat pump could perform with variable heat loads and rejection conditions. A prototype heat pump was designed and constructed to investigate the key elements of the high-lift heat pump concept. Control software was written and implemented in the prototype to allow fully automatic operation. The heat pump was capable of operation over a wide range of rejection temperatures and cooling loads, while maintaining cooling water temperature well within the required specification of 40 deg. C +/- 1.7 deg. C. This performance was verified through testing.

  20. Development of Abnormal Operating Strategies for Station Blackout in Shutdown Operating Mode in Pressurized Water Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Duk-Joo; Lee, Seung-Chan; Sung, Je-Joong; Ha, Sang-Jun [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Su-Hyun [FNC Tech. Co., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Loss of all AC power is classified as one of multiple failure accident by regulatory guide of Korean accident management program. Therefore we need develop strategies for the abnormal operating procedure both of power operating and shutdown mode. This paper developed abnormal operating guideline for loss of all AC power by analysis of accident scenario in pressurized water reactor. This paper analyzed the loss of ultimate heat sink (LOUHS) in shutdown operating mode and developed the operating strategy of the abnormal procedure. Also we performed the analysis of limiting scenarios that operator actions are not taken in shutdown LOUHS. Therefore, we verified the plant behavior and decided operator action to taken in time in order to protect the fuel of core with safety. From the analysis results of LOUHS, the fuel of core maintained without core uncovery for 73 minutes respectively for opened RCS states after the SBO occurred. Therefore, operator action for the emergency are required to take in 73 minutes for opened RCS state. Strategy is to cooldown by using spent fuel pool cooling system. This method required to change the plant design in some plant. In RCS boundary closed state, first abnormal operating strategy in shutdown LOUHS is first abnormal operating strategy in shutdown LOUHS is to remove the residual heat of core by steam dump flow and auxiliary feedwater of SG.