WorldWideScience

Sample records for water processing plant

  1. Water processing in power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marquardt, K.

    1984-01-01

    Surface water can be treated to a high degree of efficiency by means of new compact processes. The quantity of chemicals to be dosed can easily be adjusted to the raw water composition by intentional energy supply via agitators. In-line coagulations is a new filtration process for reducing organic substances as well as colloids present in surface water. The content of organic substances can be monitored by measuring the plugging index. Advanced ion-exchanger processes (fluidised-bed, compound fluidised-bed and continuously operating ion exchanger plants) allow the required quantity of chemicals as well as the plant's own water consumption to be reduced, thus minimising the adverse effect on the environment. The reverse-osmosis process is becoming more and more significant due to the low adverse effect on the environment and the given possibilities of automation. As not only ionogenic substances but also organic matter are removed by reverse osmosis, this process is particularly suited for treating surface water to be used as boiler feed water. The process of vacuum degassing has become significant for the cold removal of oxygen. (orig.) [de

  2. Water-integrated scheduling of batch process plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pulluru, Sai Jishna; Akkerman, Renzo

    2017-01-01

    Efficient water management is becoming increasingly important in production systems, but companies often do not have any concrete strategies to implement. While there are numerous technological options for improving water efficiency in process plants, there is a lack of effective decision support to

  3. Water-integrated scheduling of batch process plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pulluru, Sai Jishna; Akkerman, Renzo

    2018-01-01

    Efficient water management is becoming increasingly important in production systems, but companies often do not have any concrete strategies to implement. While there are numerous technological options for improving water efficiency in process plants, there is a lack of effective decision support to

  4. Gas stripping and recirculation process in heavy water separation plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazzer, D.B.; Thayer, V.R.

    1976-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide is stripped from hot effluent, in a heavy water separation plant of the dual temperature isotope separation type, by taking liquid effluent from the hot tower before passage through the humidifier, passing the liquid through one or more throttle devices to flash-off the H 2 S gas content, and feeding the gas into an absorption tower containing incoming feed water, for recycling of the gas through the process

  5. Plant life management processes and practices for heavy water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, K.-S.; Cleveland, J.; Clark, C.R.

    2006-01-01

    responsibility for achievement of specific SSC lifetime. This paper discusses an overview of PLiM programs and considerations. This includes key objectives of such programs, regulatory considerations, asset management perspectives, integration of methodologies into current programs, organizational and technology infrastructure considerations, importance of effective plant data management and finally, benefits and costs. This paper is summary of the IAEA technical documents on 'Guidelines on Plant Life Management Processes and Practices for Heavy Water Reactors'. (author)

  6. Water hammer and cavitational hammer in process plant pipe systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudlik, A.; Schoenfeld, S.B.H.; Hagemann, O.; Fahlenkamp, H.

    2003-01-01

    Fast acting valves are often applied for quick safety shut-down of pipelines for liquids and gases in the chemical and petrochemical industry as well as in power plants and state water supplies. The fast deceleration of the liquid leads to water hammer upstream the valve and to cavitational hammer downstream the fast closing valve. The valve characteristics given by manufacturers are usually measured at steady state flow conditions of the liquid. In comparison, the dynamic characteristics depend on the initial liquid velocity, valve closing velocity, the absolute pipe pressure and the pipe geometry. Fraunhofer UMSICHT conducts various test series examining valve dynamic characteristics in order of the dynamic analysis of pressure surges in fast closing processes. Therefore a test rig is used which consists of two pipelines of DN 50 and DN 100 with an approximate length of 230 m each. In this paper the results of performed pressure surge experiments with fast closing and opening valves will be compared to calculations of commercial software programs such as MONA, FLOWMASTER 2. Thus the calculation software for water supply, power plants oil and gas and chemical industry can be permanently improved. (orig.)

  7. Liquid radioactive waste processing system for pressurized water reactor plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    This Standard sets forth design, construction, and performance requirements, with due consideration for operation, of the Liquid Radioactive Waste Processing System for pressurized water reactor plants for design basis inputs. For the purpose of this Standard, the Liquid Radioactive Waste Processing System begins at the interfaces with the reactor coolant pressure boundary and the interface valve(s) in lines from other systems, or at those sumps and floor drains provided for liquid waste with the potential of containing radioactive material; and it terminates at the point of controlled discharge to the environment, at the point of interface with the waste solidification system, and at the point of recycle back to storage for reuse

  8. TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESS ASSESSMENT OF THE DRINKING WATER TREATMENT AT TARGU-MURES WATER TREATMENT PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CORNELIA DIANA HERTIA

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to assess the technological process of obtaining drinking water at Targu-Mures water treatment plant. The assessment was performed before changing the technological process and four months were chosen to be analized during 2008: January, April, July and October for its efficiency analysis on treatment steps. Mures River is the water source for the water treatment plant, being characterized by unsteady flow and quality parameters with possible important variability in a very short period of time. The treatment technological process is the classic one, represented by coagulation, sedimentation, filtration and disinfection, but also prechlorination was constantly applied as additional treatment during 2008. Results showed that for the measured parameters, raw water at the water treatment plant fits into class A3 for surface waters, framing dictated by the bacterial load. The treatment processes efficiency is based on the performance calculation for sedimentation, filtration, global and for disinfection, a better conformation degree of technological steps standing out in January in comparison to the other three analyzed months. A variable non-compliance of turbidity and residual chlorine levels in the disinfected water was observed constantly. Previous treatment steps managed to maintain a low level of oxidisability, chlorine consumption and residual chlorine levels being also low. 12% samples were found inconsistent with the national legislation in terms of bacteriological quality. Measures for the water treatment plant retechnologization are taken primarily for hyperchlorination elimination, which currently constitutes a discomfort factor (taste, smell, and a generating factor of chlorination by-products.

  9. Integration of drinking water treatment plant process models and emulated process automation software

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Worm, G.I.M.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this research is to limit the risks of fully automated operation of drinking water treatment plants and to improve their operation by using an integrated system of process models and emulated process automation software. This thesis contains the design of such an integrated system.

  10. Process simulation of heavy water plants - a powerful analytical tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, A.I.

    1978-10-01

    The commercially conscious designs of Canadian GS (Girdler-Sulphide) have proved sensitive to process conditions. That, combined with the large scale of our units, has meant that computer simulation of their behaviour has been a natural and profitable development. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited has developed a family of steady state simulations to describe all of the Canadian plants. Modelling of plant conditions has demonstrated that the simulation description is very precise and it has become an integral part of the industry's assessments of both plant operation and decisions on capital expenditures. The simulation technique has also found extensive use in detailed designing of both the rehabilitated Glace Bay and the new La Prade plants. It has opened new insights into plant design and uncovered a radical and significant flowsheet change for future designs as well as many less dramatic but valuable lesser changes. (author)

  11. Evaluation of Effectiveness Technological Process of Water Purification Exemplified on Modernized Water Treatment Plant at Otoczna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordanowska Joanna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the work of the Water Treatment Plant in the town of Otoczna, located in the Wielkopolska province, before and after the modernization of the technological line. It includes the quality characteristics of the raw water and treated water with particular emphasis on changes in the quality indicators in the period 2002 -2012 in relation to the physicochemical parameters: the content of total iron and total manganese, the ammonium ion as well as organoleptic parameters(colour and turbidity. The efficiency of technological processes was analysed, including the processes of bed start up with chalcedonic sand to remove total iron and manganese and ammonium ion. Based on the survey, it was found that the applied modernization helped solve the problem of water quality, especially the removal of excessive concentrations of iron, manganese and ammonium nitrogen from groundwater.

  12. Evaluation of Effectiveness Technological Process of Water Purification Exemplified on Modernized Water Treatment Plant at Otoczna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordanowska, Joanna; Jakubus, Monika

    2014-12-01

    The article presents the work of the Water Treatment Plant in the town of Otoczna, located in the Wielkopolska province, before and after the modernization of the technological line. It includes the quality characteristics of the raw water and treated water with particular emphasis on changes in the quality indicators in the period 2002 -2012 in relation to the physicochemical parameters: the content of total iron and total manganese, the ammonium ion as well as organoleptic parameters(colour and turbidity). The efficiency of technological processes was analysed, including the processes of bed start up with chalcedonic sand to remove total iron and manganese and ammonium ion. Based on the survey, it was found that the applied modernization helped solve the problem of water quality, especially the removal of excessive concentrations of iron, manganese and ammonium nitrogen from groundwater. It has been shown that one year after modernization of the technological line there was a high reduction degree of most parameters, respectively for the general iron content -99%, general manganese - 93% ammonia - 93%, turbidity - 94%. It has been proved, that chalcedonic turned out to be better filter material than quartz sand previously used till 2008. The studies have confirmed that the stage of modernization was soon followed by bed start-up for removing general iron from the groundwater. The stage of manganese removal required more time, about eight months for bed start-up. Furthermore, the technological modernization contributed to the improvement of the efficiency of the nitrification process.

  13. Plant-wide (BSM2) evaluation of reject water treatment with a SHARON-Anammox process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volcke, Eveline; Gernaey, Krist; Vrecko, Darko

    2006-01-01

    treatment plant, reject water treatment with a combined SHARON-Anammox process seems a promising option. The simulation results indicate that significant improvements of the effluent quality of the main wastewater treatment plant can be realized. An economic evaluation of the different scenarios......In wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) equipped with sludge digestion and dewatering systems, the reject water originating from these facilities contributes significantly to the nitrogen load of the activated sludge tanks, to which it is typically recycled. In this paper, the impact of reject water...

  14. Cooling tower make-up water processing for nuclear power plants: a comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andres, O; Flunkert, F; Hampel, G; Schiffers, A [Rheinisch-Westfaelisches Elektrizitaetswerk A.G., Essen (Germany, F.R.)

    1977-01-01

    In water-cooled nuclear power plants, 1 to 2% of the total investment costs go to cooling tower make-up water processing. The crude water taken from rivers or stationary waters for cooling must be sufficiently purified regarding its content of solids, carbonate hardness and corrosive components so as to guarantee an operation free of disturbances. At the same time, the processing methods must be selected for operational-economic reasons in such a manner that waste water and waste problems are kept small regarding environmental protection. The various parameters described have a decisive influence on the processing methods of the crude water, individual processes (filtration, sedimentation, decarbonization) are described, circuit possibilities for cooling water systems are compared and the various processes are analyzed and compared with regard to profitableness and environmental compatability.

  15. The function of advanced treatment process in a drinking water treatment plant with organic matter-polluted source water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Huirong; Zhang, Shuting; Zhang, Shenghua; Lin, Wenfang; Yu, Xin

    2017-04-01

    To understand the relationship between chemical and microbial treatment at each treatment step, as well as the relationship between microbial community structure in biofilms in biofilters and their ecological functions, a drinking water plant with severe organic matter-polluted source water was investigated. The bacterial community dynamics of two drinking water supply systems (traditional and advanced treatment processes) in this plant were studied from the source to the product water. Analysis by 454 pyrosequencing was conducted to characterize the bacterial diversity in each step of the treatment processes. The bacterial communities in these two treatment processes were highly diverse. Proteobacteria, which mainly consisted of beta-proteobacteria, was the dominant phylum. The two treatment processes used in the plant could effectively remove organic pollutants and microbial polution, especially the advanced treatment process. Significant differences in the detection of the major groups were observed in the product water samples in the treatment processes. The treatment processes, particularly the biological pretreatment and O 3 -biological activated carbon in the advanced treatment process, highly influenced the microbial community composition and the water quality. Some opportunistic pathogens were found in the water. Nitrogen-relative microorganisms found in the biofilm of filters may perform an important function on the microbial community composition and water quality improvement.

  16. Reuse of process water in a waste-to-energy plant: An Italian case of study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardoni, Davide; Catenacci, Arianna; Antonelli, Manuela

    2015-09-01

    The minimisation of water consumption in waste-to-energy (WtE) plants is an outstanding issue, especially in those regions where water supply is critical and withdrawals come from municipal waterworks. Among the various possible solutions, the most general, simple and effective one is the reuse of process water. This paper discusses the effectiveness of two different reuse options in an Italian WtE plant, starting from the analytical characterisation and the flow-rate measurement of fresh water and process water flows derived from each utility internal to the WtE plant (e.g. cooling, bottom ash quenching, flue gas wet scrubbing). This census allowed identifying the possible direct connections that optimise the reuse scheme, avoiding additional water treatments. The effluent of the physical-chemical wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), located in the WtE plant, was considered not adequate to be directly reused because of the possible deposition of mineral salts and clogging potential associated to residual suspended solids. Nevertheless, to obtain high reduction in water consumption, reverse osmosis should be installed to remove non-metallic ions (Cl(-), SO4(2-)) and residual organic and inorganic pollutants. Two efficient solutions were identified. The first, a simple reuse scheme based on a cascade configuration, allowed 45% reduction in water consumption (from 1.81 to 0.99m(3)tMSW(-1), MSW: Municipal Solid Waste) without specific water treatments. The second solution, a cascade configuration with a recycle based on a reverse osmosis process, allowed 74% reduction in water consumption (from 1.81 to 0.46m(3)tMSW(-1)). The results of the present work show that it is possible to reduce the water consumption, and in turn the wastewater production, reducing at the same time the operating cost of the WtE plant. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Water chemistry data acquisition, processing, evaluation and diagnostic systems in Light Water Reactors: Future improvement of plant reliability and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, S.; Takiguchi, H.; Ishigure, K.

    2006-01-01

    Data acquisition, processing and evaluation systems have been applied in major Japanese PWRs and BWRs to provide (1) reliable and quick data acquisition with manpower savings in plant chemical laboratories and (2) smooth and reliable information transfer among chemists, plant operators, and supervisors. Data acquisition systems in plants consist of automatic and semi-automatic instruments for chemical analyses, e. g., X-ray fluorescence analysis and ion chromatography, while data processing systems consist of PC base-sub-systems, e.g., data storage, reliability evaluation, clear display, and document preparation for understanding the plant own water chemistry trends. Precise and reliable evaluations of water chemistry data are required in order to improve plant reliability and safety. For this, quality assurance of the water chemistry data acquisition system is needed. At the same time, theoretical models are being applied to bridge the gaps between measured water chemistry data and the information desired to understand the interaction of materials and cooling water in plants. Major models which have already been applied for plant evaluation are: (1) water radiolysis models for BWRs and PWRs; (2) crevice radiolysis model for SCC in BWRs; and (3) crevice pH model for SG tubing in PWRs. High temperature water chemistry sensors and automatic plant diagnostic systems have been applied in only restricted areas. ECP sensors are gaining popularity as tools to determine the effects of hydrogen injection in BWR systems. Automatic plant diagnostic systems based on artificial intelligence will be more popular after having sufficient experience with off line diagnostic systems. (author)

  18. The use of process simulation models in virtual commissioning of process automation software in drinking water treatment plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Worm, G.I.M.; Kelderman, J.P.; Lapikas, T.; Van der Helm, A.W.C.; Van Schagen, K.M.; Rietveld, L.C.

    2012-01-01

    This research deals with the contribution of process simulation models to the factory acceptance test (FAT) of process automation (PA) software of drinking water treatment plants. Two test teams tested the same piece of modified PA-software. One team used an advanced virtual commissioning (AVC)

  19. Impacts of oil sands process water on fen plants: Implications for plant selection in required reclamation projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pouliot, Rémy; Rochefort, Line; Graf, Martha D.

    2012-01-01

    Fen plant growth in peat contaminated with groundwater discharges of oil sands process water (OSPW) was assessed in a greenhouse over two growing seasons. Three treatments (non-diluted OSPW, diluted OSPW and rainwater) were tested on five vascular plants and four mosses. All vascular plants tested can grow in salinity and naphthenic acids levels currently produced by oil sands activity in northwestern Canada. No stress sign was observed after both seasons. Because of plant characteristics, Carex species (C. atherodes and C. utriculata) and Triglochin maritima would be more useful for rapidly restoring vegetation and creating a new peat-accumulating system. Groundwater discharge of OSPW proved detrimental to mosses under dry conditions and ensuring adequate water levels would be crucial in fen creation following oil sands exploitation. Campylium stellatum would be the best choice to grow in contaminated areas and Bryum pseudotriquetrum might be interesting as it has spontaneously regenerated in all treatments. - Highlights: ► Fen plant growth was assessed under groundwater discharges of oil sands process water. ► Sedge and grass species were not stressed after two growing seasons in greenhouse. ► Carex species and Triglochin maritima would be helpful in created contaminated fens. ► In dry conditions, contaminated groundwater discharge was detrimental for mosses. ► Campylium stellatum would be the best choice in created fens with contaminated water. - Sedges and grasses tolerated the contact with oil sands process water and could probably grow well in contaminated created fens, but mosses were particularly affected under dry conditions.

  20. Plants in water-controlled ecosystems: active role in hydrologic processes and response to water stress. III. Vegetation water stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porporato, A.; Laio, F.; Ridolfi, L.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, I.

    The reduction of soil moisture content during droughts lowers the plant water potential and decreases transpiration; this in turn causes a reduction of cell turgor and relative water content which brings about a sequence of damages of increasing seriousness. A review of the literature on plant physiology and water stress shows that vegetation water stress can be assumed to start at the soil moisture level corresponding to incipient stomatal closure and reach a maximum intensity at the wilting point. The mean crossing properties of these soil moisture levels crucial for water stress are derived analytically for the stochastic model of soil moisture dynamics described in Part II (F. Laio, A. Porporato, L. Ridolfi, I. Rodriguez-Iturbe. Adv. Water Res. 24 (7) (2001) 707-723). These properties are then used to propose a measure of vegetation water stress which combines the mean intensity, duration, and frequency of periods of soil water deficit. The characteristics of vegetation water stress are then studied under different climatic conditions, showing how the interplay between plant, soil, and environment can lead to optimal conditions for vegetation.

  1. Ammonia-water exchange front end process for ammonia-hydrogen heavy water plants (Preprint No. PD-1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadhukhan, H.K.; Varadarajan, T.G.; Nair, N.K.; Das, S.K.; Nath, G.K.

    1989-04-01

    The ammonia-hydrogen exchange process, which utilizes the deutrium exchange between liquid ammonia and gaseous hydrogen is a parasitic process and the heavy water plants (HWP) based on this process has to be linked with the fertilizer plant (FP) for its enormous requirements of hydrogen (synthesis gas, N 2 +3H 2 ). This dependence of HWP on FP gives rise to certain constraints which are listed. These deficiencies of the ammonia-hydrogen process can be overcome to a great extent by delinking the HWP from FP by incorporating NH 3 -H 2 O exchange as the front end step. In addition to the elimination of the above limitations, by employing water as the ultimate feed for the HWP, the plant capacity can be increased substantially and this would go a long way in achieving economies of the large capacity plants. A schematic diagram of this integrated plant is given. Some of the results of developmental efforts and feasibility studies of this NH 3 -H 2 O exchange are briefly reviewed. (author). 4 figs

  2. Synergy of sewage water treatment plants and processing of manure; Synergie RWZI en mestverwerking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisschops, I.; Weijma, J.; Van Eekert, M.; Spanjers, H. [Lettinga Associates Foundation LeAF, Wageningen (Netherlands); Timmerman, M.; Fe Buisonje, F. [Wageningen UR Livestock Research WLR, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2011-05-15

    The goal of this study is to explore profitable ways of processing manure in sewage water treatment plants. Technological options are explored for processing manure, the availability of manure in the surroundings, the space taken up by manure digestion and annual costs and benefits [Dutch] Het doel van deze studie is te verkennen hoe mest op rendabele wijze in rwzi's (rioolwaterzuiveringsinstallaties) verwerkt kunnen worden. Er is gekeken naar de technologische mogelijkheden om mest te kunnen verwerken, de beschikbaarheid van mest in de omgeving, ruimtebeslag van mestvergisting, en jaarlijkse kosten en opbrengsten.

  3. Ionic behavior of treated water at a water purification plant

    OpenAIRE

    Yanagida, Kazumi; Kawahigashi, Tatsuo

    2012-01-01

    [Abstract] Water at each processing stage in a water purification plant was extracted and analyzed to investigate changes of water quality. Investigations of water at each processing stage at the water purification plant are discussed herein.

  4. Effect of water purification process in radioactive content: analysis on small scale purification plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez del Rio, H.; Quiroga S, J. C.; Davila R, J. I.; Mireles G, F.

    2009-10-01

    Water from small scale purification plants is a low cost alternative for consumers in comparison to the bottled commercial presentations. Because of its low cost per liter, the consumption of this product has increased in recent years, stimulating in turn the installation of purification systems for these small businesses. The purpose of this study was to estimate the efficiency of small scale purification systems located in the cities of Zacatecas and Guadalupe, Zacatecas, to reduce the radioactive content of water. It was measured the total alpha and beta activity in water samples of entry and exit to process, through the liquid scintillation technique. In general it was observed that the process is more efficient in removing alpha that beta activity. The fraction of total alpha activity removed varied between 27 and 100%, while between 0 and 77% of the total beta activity was removed by the analyzed plants. In all cases, the total radioactivity level was lower than the maximum permissible value settled by the official mexican standard for drinking water. (Author)

  5. Online total organic carbon (TOC) monitoring for water and wastewater treatment plants processes and operations optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assmann, Céline; Scott, Amanda; Biller, Dondra

    2017-08-01

    Organic measurements, such as biological oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) were developed decades ago in order to measure organics in water. Today, these time-consuming measurements are still used as parameters to check the water treatment quality; however, the time required to generate a result, ranging from hours to days, does not allow COD or BOD to be useful process control parameters - see (1) Standard Method 5210 B; 5-day BOD Test, 1997, and (2) ASTM D1252; COD Test, 2012. Online organic carbon monitoring allows for effective process control because results are generated every few minutes. Though it does not replace BOD or COD measurements still required for compliance reporting, it allows for smart, data-driven and rapid decision-making to improve process control and optimization or meet compliances. Thanks to the smart interpretation of generated data and the capability to now take real-time actions, municipal drinking water and wastewater treatment facility operators can positively impact their OPEX (operational expenditure) efficiencies and their capabilities to meet regulatory requirements. This paper describes how three municipal wastewater and drinking water plants gained process insights, and determined optimization opportunities thanks to the implementation of online total organic carbon (TOC) monitoring.

  6. Chemical and ecotoxicological assessments of water samples before and after being processed by a Water Treatment Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Teresa Rosim Monteiro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Physicochemical and ecotoxicological measurements were employed to appraise the water quality of the Corumbataí River raw water (RW intake, and that of its filtered (FW and treated (TW waters, processed by the Water Treatment Plant (WTP of Piracicaba (SP, Brazil during 2010. Some herbicides: ametrine, atrazine, simazine and tebuthiuron, were measured, with levels ranging from 0.01 to 10.3 µg L-1 . These were lower than those required to produce ecotoxicological effects to aquatic life based on published literature. Similarly, trihalomethanes, such as chloroform and bromodichloromethane produced as a result of the WTP process were also shown to be present in concentrations that would neither harm environmental nor human health. Elevated free chlorine concentrations found in FW and TW were credibly responsible for toxicity effects observed in algae and daphnids. (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and Daphnia magna. In contrast, results of toxicity testing conducted with Hydra attenuata suggested that this organism is resistant to free chorine and could be used for drinking water evaluations. Coupling bioassays with chemical analyses proved valuable to uncover putative cause-effect relationships existing between physical, chemical and toxic results, as well as in optimizing data interpretation of water quality.

  7. First technical report about tracer applications to processes assessment in a portable water potabilizing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez Antola, R.; Giosa Porley, P.

    1996-03-01

    Radioactive and fluorescent tracers were applied to measure the distribution of residence times in each of the four subsystems of a portable water purifying plant: the mechanical flocculation unit, the hydraulic flocculation unit, the sedimentation unit, and the sand filter. This report begins by a revision of the physicochemical processes produced in each of the above mentioned subsystems, connected in series. Then a mathematical model of residence time distribution for each unit is constructed, with free parameters that can be estimated from the experimental results obtained with tracers. Tracer methodology for this kind of field experiment is reviewed. Their possible short comes are briefly discussed for each of the intended tracers. The tracer experiments done with rhodamine and uranine are described. The experimental results are reported and the residence time distributions obtained with different tracers were carefully compared. In order to make the field experiments, five different values of global water flow were sustained, pumping in steady state: two under the nominal (design) value, two above the design flow and one equal to the nominal water flow. The model parameters were determined using a software package, D TR , made in France and supplied by the IAEA in the framework of the project. It was discovered that the diffuser in the sedimentation unit was not working as intended, and some guidelines for its re-design could be given to the process engineers. Also, process engineers received information about some amount of by-pass flow and death zones, as well as their variations with plant's global water flow

  8. Startup of Pumping Units in Process Water Supplies with Cooling Towers at Thermal and Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berlin, V. V., E-mail: vberlin@rinet.ru; Murav’ev, O. A., E-mail: muraviov1954@mail.ru; Golubev, A. V., E-mail: electronik@inbox.ru [National Research University “Moscow State University of Civil Engineering,” (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    Aspects of the startup of pumping units in the cooling and process water supply systems for thermal and nuclear power plants with cooling towers, the startup stages, and the limits imposed on the extreme parameters during transients are discussed.

  9. Water and Nitrogen Limitations of Ecosystem Processes Across Three Dryland Plant Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltz, C.; Lauenroth, W. K.; Burke, I. C.

    2017-12-01

    The availability of water and nitrogen (N) play a major role in controlling the distribution of ecosystem types and the rates of ecosystem processes across the globe. Both these resources are being altered by human activity. Anthropogenic fixation of N has increased inputs into the biosphere from 0.5 kg N ha-1 yr-1 to upwards of 10 kg N ha-1 yr-1, while the amount and seasonality of precipitation are expected to continue to change. Within dryland environments, the relationships between increasingly available N and ecosystem processes are especially complex due to dryland's characteristic strong limitation by low and highly variable precipitation. Other experiments have shown that this interplay between N and water can cause temporally complex co-limitation and spatially complex responses with variable effects on ecosystems, such as those to net primary productivity, soil respiration, and plant community composition. Research spanning multiple dryland plant communities is critical for generalizing findings to the 40% of the Earth's terrestrial surface covered in dryland ecosystems. Given IPCC projections in which both N availability and precipitation are altered, examining their interactive effect across multiple plant communities is critical to increasing our understanding of the limitations to ecosystem process in drylands. We are studying a gradient of three plant communities representing a C4 grassland (shortgrass steppe), a C3/C4 grassland (mixed grass prairie), and a shrub-dominated ecosystem with C3 and C4 grasses (sagebrush steppe). We added two levels of N (10 kg N ha-1 and 100 kg N ha-1) and increased summer monthly precipitation by 20%. Sites responded differently to treatments, with the scale of effect varying by treatment. The high-level nitrogen increased soil N availability and soil respiration, while decreasing soil carbon in the labile pool in the upper soil layers. These results will allow for better understanding of increased N in combination with

  10. Treatment of fuel oil contaminated waste water from liquid fuel processing plants associated to thermal power plants or heat and power cogeneration plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrescu, S.

    1996-01-01

    According to the statistical data presented in the most important European and world meetings on environmental protection, the oil product amounts which pollute the surface water is estimated to be of about 6 mill. tones yearly out of which 35 %, 10 %, and 1 % come from oil tanks, natural sources, and offshore drilling, respectively, while 54 % reach seas and oceans trough rivers, rains a.o. Among the water consumers and users of Romania, the thermal power plants, belonging to RENEL (Romanian Electricity Authority), are the greatest. A part of the water with modified chemical-physical parameters, used for different technological processes, have to be discharged from the user precinct directly towards natural agents or indirectly through public sewage networks as domestic and industrial waste water. These waste waters need an adequate treatment before discharging as to meet the requirements imposed by the norms and regulations related to environment protection. For this purpose, before discharging, after using, the water must be circulated through the treatment plants designed and operated as to ensure the correction of the inadequate values of the residual water parameters. The paper presents the activities developed in the Institute for Power Studies and Design concerning the environmental protection against pollution produced by the entire power generation circuit, from the design phase up to product supplying. (author). 1 tab., 2 refs

  11. Cyber-physical system for a water reclamation plant: Balancing aeration, energy, and water quality to maintain process resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Junjie

    Aeration accounts for a large fraction of energy consumption in conventional water reclamation plants (WRPs). Although process operations at older WRPs can satisfy effluent permit requirements, they typically operate with excess aeration. More effective process controls at older WRPs can be challenging as operators work to balance higher energy costs and more stringent effluent limitations while managing fluctuating loads. Therefore, understandings of process resilience or ability to quickly return to original operation conditions at a WRP are important. A state-of-art WRP should maintain process resilience to deal with different kinds of perturbations even after optimization of energy demands. This work was to evaluate the applicability and feasibility of cyber-physical system (CPS) for improving operation at Metropolitan Water Reclamation District of Greater Chicago (MWRDGC) Calumet WRP. In this work, a process model was developed and used to better understand the conditions of current Calumet WRP, with additional valuable information from two dissolved oxygen field measurements. Meanwhile, a classification system was developed to reveal the pattern of historical influent scenario based on cluster analysis and cross-tabulation analysis. Based on the results from the classification, typical process control options were investigated. To ensure the feasibility of information acquisition, the reliability and flexibility of soft sensors were assessed to typical influent conditions. Finally, the process resilience was investigated to better balance influent perturbations, energy demands, and effluent quality for long-term operations. These investigations and evaluations show that although the energy demands change as the influent conditions and process controls. In general, aeration savings could be up to 50% from the level of current consumption; with a more complex process controls, the saving could be up to 70% in relatively steady-state conditions and at least 40

  12. Waste minimization through process optimization/integration and resource management at eco-friendly Heavy Water Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nageshri, Jagdish; Gupta, S.K.

    2004-01-01

    Heavy Water Board has celebrated 2003 as Environmental Conservation Year captivating a range of enviro-friendly measures. This article attempts to give a brief overview of the outcome of systems and adapted procedures for waste minimization through process integration and resource management at Heavy Water Plants

  13. Oxidation-reduction processes in ground water at Naval Weapons Industrial Reserve Plant, Dallas, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, S.A.; Braun, Christopher L.; Lee, Roger W.

    2003-01-01

    Concentrations of trichloroethene in ground water at the Naval Weapons Industrial Reserve Plant in Dallas, Texas, indicate three source areas of chlorinated solvents?building 1, building 6, and an off-site source west of the facility. The presence of daughter products of reductive dechlorination of trichloroethene, which were not used at the facility, south and southwest of the source areas are evidence that reductive dechlorination is occurring. In places south of the source areas, dissolved oxygen concentrations indicated that reduction of oxygen could be the dominant process, particularly south of building 6; but elevated dissolved oxygen concentrations south of building 6 might be caused by a leaking water or sewer pipe. The nitrite data indicate that denitrification is occurring in places; however, dissolved hydrogen concentrations indicate that iron reduction is the dominant process south of building 6. The distributions of ferrous iron indicate that iron reduction is occurring in places south-southwest of buildings 6 and 1; dissolved hydrogen concentrations generally support the interpretation that iron reduction is the dominant process in those places. The generally low concentrations of sulfide indicate that sulfate reduction is not a key process in most sampled areas, an interpretation that is supported by dissolved hydrogen concentrations. Ferrous iron and dissolved hydrogen concentrations indicate that ferric iron reduction is the primary oxidation-reduction process. Application of mean first-order decay rates in iron-reducing conditions for trichloroethene, dichloroethene, and vinyl chloride yielded half-lives for those solvents of 231, 347, and 2.67 days, respectively. Decay rates, and thus half-lives, at the facility are expected to be similar to those computed. A weighted scoring method to indicate sites where reductive dechlorination might be likely to occur indicated strong evidence for anaerobic biodegradation of chlorinated solvents at six sites

  14. Operating experiences of Heavy Water Plant at Talcher using bithermal ammonia-hydrogen exchange process (Paper No. 1.9)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haldar, T.K.; Manoj Kumar; Ramamurty, C.B.

    1992-01-01

    A heavy water plant employing bithermal ammonia-hydrogen exchange process was set up at Talcher (India). The energy consumption in the process is lower as compared to monothermal process. The plant performance was affected by various problems and has resulted in low heavy water production. The problems are: (i)formation of solid deposits, (ii)inability of exchange towers to process design gas flow rates, (iii)inadequate exchange efficiency of the sieve trays provided as exchange trays, and (iv)differential amide concentration in different plant sections. These problems and their effect on the overall plant performance are discussed in detail and modifications to improve the performance are suggested. (author). 4 figs

  15. Solid radioactive waste processing system for light water cooled reactor plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Design, construction and performance requirements are given for the operation of the solid radioactive waste processing system for light water-cooled reactor plants. All radioactive or contaminated materials, including spent air and liquid filter elements, spent bead resins, filter sludge, spent powdered resins, evaporator and reverse osmosis concentrates, and dry radioactive wastes are to be processed in appropriate portions of the system. Sections of the standard cover: overall system requirements; equipment requirement; controls and instrumentation; physical arrangement; system capacity and redundancy; operation and maintenance; and system construction and testing. Provisions contained in this standard are to take precedence over ANS-51.1-1973(N18.2-1973) and its revision, ANS-51.8-1975(N18.2a-1975), Sections 2.2 and 2.3. The product resulting from the solid radioactive waste processing system must meet criteria imposed by standards and regulations for transportation and burial (Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 71, Title 49, Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 100 to 199). As a special feature, all statements in this standard which are related to nuclear safety are set off in boxes

  16. Water And Waste Water Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Byeong Ju

    1988-04-01

    This book shows US the distribution diagram of water and waste water processing with device of water processing, and device of waste water processing, property of water quality like measurement of pollution of waste water, theoretical Oxygen demand, and chemical Oxygen demand, processing speed like zero-order reactions and enzyme reactions, physical processing of water and waste water, chemical processing of water and waste water like neutralization and buffering effect, biological processing of waste water, ammonia removal, and sludges processing.

  17. Polyhydroxyalkanoate Production on Waste Water Treatment Plants: Process Scheme, Operating Conditions and Potential Analysis for German and European Municipal Waste Water Treatment Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo Pittmann

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA as a side stream process on a municipal waste water treatment plant (WWTP and a subsequent analysis of the production potential in Germany and the European Union (EU. Therefore, tests with different types of sludge from a WWTP were investigated regarding their volatile fatty acids (VFA production-potential. Afterwards, primary sludge was used as substrate to test a series of operating conditions (temperature, pH, retention time (RT and withdrawal (WD in order to find suitable settings for a high and stable VFA production. In a second step, various tests regarding a high PHA production and stable PHA composition to determine the influence of substrate concentration, temperature, pH and cycle time of an installed feast/famine-regime were conducted. Experiments with a semi-continuous reactor operation showed that a short RT of 4 days and a small WD of 25% at pH = 6 and around 30 °C is preferable for a high VFA production rate (PR of 1913 mgVFA/(L×d and a stable VFA composition. A high PHA production up to 28.4% of cell dry weight (CDW was reached at lower substrate concentration, 20 °C, neutral pH-value and a 24 h cycle time. A final step a potential analysis, based on the results and detailed data from German waste water treatment plants, showed that the theoretically possible production of biopolymers in Germany amounts to more than 19% of the 2016 worldwide biopolymer production. In addition, a profound estimation regarding the EU showed that in theory about 120% of the worldwide biopolymer production (in 2016 could be produced on European waste water treatment plants.

  18. Wastewater treatment and reuse. Indian power plant turns sewage into process water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langer, S.; Schroedter, F.; Demmerle, C. [ERM Lahmeyer International, Neu-Isenburg (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    Lahmeyer International provided consulting services for a private Indian investor of a 200 MW diesel engine power plant, in reviewing and controlling the EPC Contractor from Korea with regard to the treatment plant for dosmestic wastewater and the reverse osmosis plant for desalination. The wastewater treatment and subsequent water treatment for cooling water production comprised: mechanical treatment, biological treatment of domestic wastewater, lime softening, sand filtration, disinfection, micro-filtration, reverse osmosis. The services as Owner's Engineer included: (1) the review of the EPC Contractor's treatment concept, (2) the selection of internationally renowned manufacturer, (3) the review of the detailed design (including civil, mechanical, electrical and I and C work), and (4) onsite technical assistance to the Client during construction and commissioning phase. (orig.)

  19. Process engineering considerations in the design of the water treatment plant for the Rum Jungle rehabilitation project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackland, M.C.

    1983-01-01

    The Rum Jungle rehabilitation programme includes the treatment of around 4 million cubic metres of water that has been polluted by previous treatment operations and acidic seepage containing heavy metal salts from slowly oxidising overburden dumps. The water to be treated is of low pH and contains high sulphate levels. Project rehabilitation criteria and the basic chemistry of metal salts in solution were considered in arriving at the final process design. In order to achieve a cost effective plant design, the process was translated into a flow sheet that used unit operations that are more typical of the extractive metallurgical than the traditional water treatment industry. Consideration of the unit operations and the operating aspects of the plant are discussed

  20. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant full-scale feed preparation testing with water and process simulant slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaskill, J.R.; Larson, D.E.; Abrigo, G.P.

    1996-03-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant was intended to convert selected, pretreated defense high-level waste and transuranic waste from the Hanford Site into a borosilicate glass. A full-scale testing program was conducted with nonradioactive waste simulants to develop information for process and equipment design of the feed-preparation system. The equipment systems tested included the Slurry Receipt and Adjustment Tank, Slurry Mix Evaporator, and Melter-Feed Tank. The areas of data generation included heat transfer (boiling, heating, and cooling), slurry mixing, slurry pumping and transport, slurry sampling, and process chemistry. 13 refs., 129 figs., 68 tabs

  1. Modification of water treatment plant at Heavy Water Plant (Kota)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gajpati, C.R.; Shrivastava, C.S.; Shrivastava, D.C.; Shrivastava, J.; Vithal, G.K.; Bhowmick, A.

    2008-01-01

    Heavy Water Production by GS process viz. H 2 S - H 2 O bi-thermal exchange process requires a huge quantity of demineralized (DM) water as a source of deuterium. Since the deuterium recovery of GS process is only 18-19%, the water treatment plant (WTP) was designed and commissioned at Heavy Water Plant (Kota) to produce demineralized water at the rate of 680 m 3 /hr. The WTP was commissioned in 1980 and till 2005; the plant was producing DM water of required quality. It was having three streams of strong cation resin, atmospheric degasser and strong anion exchange resin with co-current regeneration. In 2001 a new concept of layered bed resin was developed and engineered for water treatment plant. The concept was attractive in terms of saving of chemicals and thus preservation of environment. Being an ISO 9000 and ISO 14000 plant, the modification of WTP was executed in 2005 during major turn around. After modification, a substantial amount of acid and alkali is saved

  2. Cleaning conveyor belts in the chicken-cutting area of a poultry processing plant with 45°c water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, V M; Pereira, J G; Zanette, C M; Nero, L A; Pinto, J P A N; Barcellos, V C; Bersot, L S

    2014-03-01

    Conveyor belts are widely used in food handling areas, especially in poultry processing plants. Because they are in direct contact with food and it is a requirement of the Brazilian health authority, conveyor belts are required to be continuously cleaned with hot water under pressure. The use of water in this procedure has been questioned based on the hypothesis that water may further disseminate microorganisms but not effectively reduce the organic material on the surface. Moreover, reducing the use of water in processing may contribute to a reduction in costs and emission of effluents. However, no consistent evidence in support of removing water during conveyor belt cleaning has been reported. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to compare the bacterial counts on conveyor belts that were or were not continuously cleaned with hot water under pressure. Superficial samples from conveyor belts (cleaned or not cleaned) were collected at three different times during operation (T1, after the preoperational cleaning [5 a.m.]; T2, after the first work shift [4 p.m.]; and T3, after the second work shift [1:30 a.m.]) in a poultry meat processing facility, and the samples were subjected to mesophilic and enterobacterial counts. For Enterobacteriaceae, no significant differences were observed between the conveyor belts, independent of the time of sampling or the cleaning process. No significant differences were observed between the counts of mesophilic bacteria at the distinct times of sampling on the conveyor belt that had not been subjected to continuous cleaning with water at 45°C. When comparing similar periods of sampling, no significant differences were observed between the mesophilic counts obtained from the conveyor belts that were or were not subjected to continuous cleaning with water at 45°C. Continuous cleaning with water did not significantly reduce microorganism counts, suggesting the possibility of discarding this procedure in chicken processing.

  3. Brackish and seawater desalination for process and demineralised water production for large power plants in the North Sea region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagel, Rolf [Hager + Elsaesser GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany); Brinkmann, Juergen [RWE Technology GmbH, Essen (Germany)

    2010-06-15

    Large power plants for power generation from fossil fuels are constantly being optimised in order to improve their efficiency. One element of the overall considerations is once-through cooling with brackish or seawater on sites near the sea. In addition to the higher overall efficiency, such sites - thanks to their connection to ocean shipping - also offer infrastructural advantages regarding fuel supply and residual material disposal compared to inland sites. Because the cooling water intake and discharge structures have to be built anyway, they lend themselves to also producing the process and demineralised water from the brackish or seawater. In this case, the use of fresh or drinking water as resources can be minimised. In the following report, we present a pilot study using ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis on a North Sea site with raw water intake from a seaport basin. (orig.)

  4. Fate of artificial sweeteners through wastewater treatment plants and water treatment processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shaoli; Ren, Yuhang; Fu, Yingying; Gao, Xingsheng; Jiang, Cong; Wu, Gang; Ren, Hongqiang

    2018-01-01

    Five full-scale wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in China using typical biodegradation processes (SBR, oxidation ditch, A2/O) were selected to assess the removal of four popular artificial sweeteners (ASs). All four ASs (acesulfame (ACE), sucralose (SUC), cyclamate (CYC) and saccharin (SAC)) were detected, ranging from 0.43 to 27.34μg/L in the influent. Higher concentrations of ASs were measured in winter. ACE could be partly removed by 7.11–50.76% through biodegradation and especially through the denitrifying process. The A2/O process was the most efficient at biodegrading ASs. Adsorption (by granular activated carbon (GAC) and magnetic resin) and ultraviolet radiation-based advanced oxidation processes (UV/AOPs) were evaluated to remove ASs in laboratory-scale tests. The amounts of resin adsorbed were 3.33–18.51 times more than those of GAC except for SUC. The adsorption ability of resin decreased in the order of SAC > ACE > CYC > SUC in accordance with the pKa. Degradation of ASs followed pseudo-first-order kinetics in UV/H2O2 and UV/PDS. When applied to the secondary effluent, ASs could be degraded from 30.87 to 99.93% using UV/PDS in 30 minutes and UV/PDS was more efficient and economic. PMID:29293534

  5. Fate of artificial sweeteners through wastewater treatment plants and water treatment processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shaoli; Ren, Yuhang; Fu, Yingying; Gao, Xingsheng; Jiang, Cong; Wu, Gang; Ren, Hongqiang; Geng, Jinju

    2018-01-01

    Five full-scale wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in China using typical biodegradation processes (SBR, oxidation ditch, A2/O) were selected to assess the removal of four popular artificial sweeteners (ASs). All four ASs (acesulfame (ACE), sucralose (SUC), cyclamate (CYC) and saccharin (SAC)) were detected, ranging from 0.43 to 27.34μg/L in the influent. Higher concentrations of ASs were measured in winter. ACE could be partly removed by 7.11-50.76% through biodegradation and especially through the denitrifying process. The A2/O process was the most efficient at biodegrading ASs. Adsorption (by granular activated carbon (GAC) and magnetic resin) and ultraviolet radiation-based advanced oxidation processes (UV/AOPs) were evaluated to remove ASs in laboratory-scale tests. The amounts of resin adsorbed were 3.33-18.51 times more than those of GAC except for SUC. The adsorption ability of resin decreased in the order of SAC > ACE > CYC > SUC in accordance with the pKa. Degradation of ASs followed pseudo-first-order kinetics in UV/H2O2 and UV/PDS. When applied to the secondary effluent, ASs could be degraded from 30.87 to 99.93% using UV/PDS in 30 minutes and UV/PDS was more efficient and economic.

  6. Fate of artificial sweeteners through wastewater treatment plants and water treatment processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaoli Li

    Full Text Available Five full-scale wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs in China using typical biodegradation processes (SBR, oxidation ditch, A2/O were selected to assess the removal of four popular artificial sweeteners (ASs. All four ASs (acesulfame (ACE, sucralose (SUC, cyclamate (CYC and saccharin (SAC were detected, ranging from 0.43 to 27.34μg/L in the influent. Higher concentrations of ASs were measured in winter. ACE could be partly removed by 7.11-50.76% through biodegradation and especially through the denitrifying process. The A2/O process was the most efficient at biodegrading ASs. Adsorption (by granular activated carbon (GAC and magnetic resin and ultraviolet radiation-based advanced oxidation processes (UV/AOPs were evaluated to remove ASs in laboratory-scale tests. The amounts of resin adsorbed were 3.33-18.51 times more than those of GAC except for SUC. The adsorption ability of resin decreased in the order of SAC > ACE > CYC > SUC in accordance with the pKa. Degradation of ASs followed pseudo-first-order kinetics in UV/H2O2 and UV/PDS. When applied to the secondary effluent, ASs could be degraded from 30.87 to 99.93% using UV/PDS in 30 minutes and UV/PDS was more efficient and economic.

  7. Quantification of water usage at a South African platinum processing plant

    OpenAIRE

    Haggard, EL; Sheridan, CM; Harding, KG

    2015-01-01

    The mining industry utilises 3% of the total water withdrawn in South Africa and is one of the industries responsible for the deterioration of water quality in South Africa. Mine water requirements can be reduced with correct implementation and/ or improvement of current mine water management strategies. Any reduction in mine water requirements will reduce the demand on current water resources and hence the impact on water quality. The direct water footprint for 2 concentrators, a smelter and...

  8. Nitrogen removal on recycling water process of wastewater treatment plant effluent using subsurface horizontal wetland with continuous feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazkiaturrizki, T.; Soewondo, P.; Handajani, M.

    2018-01-01

    Recycling water is a generic term for water reclamation and reuse to solve the scarcity of water. Constructed wetlands have been recognized as providing many benefits for wastewater treatment including water supply and control by recycling water. This research aims to find the best condition to significantly remove nitrogen using constructed wetland for recycling water of Bojongsoang Waste Water Treatment Plan (WWTP) effluent. Using media of soil, sand, gravel, and vegetation (Typha latifolia and Scirpus grossus) with an aeration system, BOD and COD parameters have been remarkably reduced. On the contrary, the removal efficiency for nitrogen is only between 50-60%. Modifications were then conducted by three step of treatment, i.e., Step I is to remove BOD/COD using Typha latifolia with an aeration system, Step II is todecrease nitrogen using Scirpus grossus with/without aeration, and Step III isto complete the nitrogen removal with denitrification process by Glycine max without aeration. Results of the research show that the nitrogen removal has been successfully increased to a high efficiency between 80-99%. The combination of aeration system and vegetation greatly affects the nitrogen removal. The vegetation acts as the organic nitrogen consumer (plant uptake) for amino acids, nitrate, and ammonium as nutrition, as well as theoxygen supplier to the roots so that aerobic microsites are formed for ammonification microorganisms.

  9. NMR, water and plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As, H. van.

    1982-01-01

    This thesis describes the application of a non-destructive pulsed proton NMR method mainly to measure water transport in the xylem vessels of plant stems and in some model systems. The results are equally well applicable to liquid flow in other biological objects than plants, e.g. flow of blood and other body fluids in human and animals. The method is based on a pulse sequence of equidistant π pulses in combination with a linear magnetic field gradient. (Auth.)

  10. Application of solar energy to the supply of industrial process hot water. Aerotherm final report, 77-235. [Can washing in Campbell Soup plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-01-01

    The objectives of the Solar Industrial Process Hot Water Program are to design, test, and evaluate the application of solar energy to the generation and supply of industrial process hot water, and to provide an assessment of the economic and resource benefits to be gained. Other objectives are to stimulate and give impetus to the use of solar energy for supplying significant amounts of industrial process heat requirements. The plant selected for the design of a solar industrial process hot water system was the Campbell Soup facility in Sacramento, California. The total hot water demand for this plant varies between 500 and 800 gpm during regular production shifts, and hits a peak of over 1,000 gpm for approximately one hour during the cleanup shift. Most of the hot water is heated in the boiler room by a combination of waste heat recovery and low pressure (5 psi) steam-water heat exchangers. The hot water emerges from the boiler room at a temperature between 160/sup 0/F and 180/sup 0/F and is transported to the various process areas. Booster heaters in the process areas then use low pressure (5 psi) or medium pressure (20 psi) steam to raise the temperature of the water to the level required for each process. Hot water is used in several processes at the Campbell Soup plant, but the can washing process was selected to demonstrate the feasibility of a solar hot water system. A detailed design and economic analysis of the system is given. (WHK)

  11. On the application of nonhomogeneous Poisson process to the reliability analysis of service water pumps of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz Saldanha, Pedro Luiz da.

    1995-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the nonhomogeneous Poisson process as a model to rate of occurrence of failures when it is not constant, and the times between failures are not independent nor identically distributed. To this evaluation, an analyse of reliability of service water pumps of a typical nuclear power plant is made considering the model discussed in the last paragraph, as long as the pumps are effectively repairable components. Standard statistical techniques, such as maximum likelihood and linear regression, are applied to estimate parameters of nonhomogeneous Poisson process model. As a conclusion of the study, the nonhomogeneous Poisson process is adequate to model rate of occurrence of failures that are function of time, and can be used where the aging mechanisms are present in operation of repairable systems. (author). 72 refs., 45 figs., 21 tabs

  12. Ferrous Metal Processing Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes ferrous metal processing plants in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team (MIT) of the...

  13. Nonferrous Metal Processing Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes nonferrous metal processing plants in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team (MIT) of the...

  14. Use of steam condensate exchange process for recovery of deuterium from condensate of ammonia plant as adopted at Heavy Water Plant, Talcher (Paper No. 2.5)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, S.; Saha, P.

    1992-01-01

    This paper highlights the use of steam-condensate exchange system for recovery of deuterium from condensate of ammonia plant, which is adopted at Heavy Water Plant, Talcher. Deuterium concentration in the condensate leaving the steam-condensate exchange column can be brought down very close to the deuterium concentration in water thereby achieving practically complete deuterium recovery. (author). 2 tabs., 1 fig

  15. Radiological assessment of water treatment processes in a water treatment plant in Saudi Arabia: Water and sludge radium content, radon air concentrations and dose rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Jaseem, Q.Kh., E-mail: qjassem@kacst.edu.sa [Nuclear Science Research Institute (NSRI), King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST), P.O. Box 6086, Riyadh 11442 (Saudi Arabia); Almasoud, Fahad I. [Nuclear Science Research Institute (NSRI), King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST), P.O. Box 6086, Riyadh 11442 (Saudi Arabia); Ababneh, Anas M. [Physics Dept., Faculty of Science, Islamic University in Madinah, Al-Madinah, P.O. Box 170 (Saudi Arabia); Al-Hobaib, A.S. [Nuclear Science Research Institute (NSRI), King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST), P.O. Box 6086, Riyadh 11442 (Saudi Arabia)

    2016-09-01

    There is an increase demand for clean water sources in Saudi Arabia and, yet, renewable water resources are very limited. This has forced the authorities to explore deep groundwater which is known to contain large concentrations of radionuclides, mainly radium isotopes. Lately, there has been an increase in the number of water treatment plants (WTPs) around the country. In this study, a radiological assessment of a WTP in Saudi Arabia was performed. Raw water was found to have total radium activity of 0.23 Bq/L, which exceeds the international limit of 0.185 Bq/L (5 pCi/L). The WTP investigated uses three stages of treatment: flocculation/sedimentation, sand filtration and reverse osmosis. The radium removal efficiency was evaluated for each stage and the respective values were 33%, 22% and 98%. Moreover, the activity of radium in the solid waste generated from the WTP in the sedimentation and sand filtrations stages were measured and found to be 4490 and 6750 Bq/kg, respectively, which exceed the national limit of 1000 Bq/kg for radioactive waste. A radiological assessment of the air inside the WTP was also performed by measuring the radon concentrations and dose rates and were found in the ranges of 2–18 Bq/m{sup 3} and 70–1000 nSv/h, respectively. The annual effective dose was calculated and the average values was found to be 0.3 mSv which is below the 1 mSv limit. - Highlights: • Radiological assessment of groundwater treatment plant was performed. • Radium Removal efficiency was calculated for different stages during water treatment. • Radium concentrations in sludge were measured and found to exceed the national limit for radioactive waste. • Air radon concentrations and dose rates were monitored in the water treatment plant. • The Reverse Osmosis (RO) unit was found to record the highest air radon concentrations and dose rates.

  16. Process control analysis requirement in NH3-H2 exchange bi-thermal Heavy Water Plant (Talcher) (Paper No. 6.8)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pattnaik, S.P.; Mishra, G.C.

    1992-01-01

    Heavy Water Plant, Talcher is based on bithermal NH 3 -H 2 exchange process. Isotopic exchange of deuterium takes place between gaseous hydrogen and liquid ammonia with potassium amide as catalyst. The process control analysis requirement in NH 3 -H 2 exchange dual temperature process is described. (author). 4 refs., 4 figs

  17. Data processing technologies and diagnostics for water chemistry and corrosion control in nuclear power plants (DAWAC). Report of a coordinated research project 2001-2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    This publication provides information on the current status and development trends in monitoring, diagnostics and control of water chemistry and corrosion of core and primary circuit materials in water cooled power reactors. It summarizes the results of an IAEA Coordinated Research Project and focuses on the methods for development, qualification and implementation of water chemistry expert systems at nuclear power plants. These systems are needed to have full benefit from using on-line sensors in real time mode when sensor signals, and other chemistry and operational data, are collected and continuously analysed with data acquisition and evaluation software. Technical knowledge was acquired in water chemistry control techniques (grab sampling, on-line monitoring, data collecting and processing, etc), plant chemistry and corrosion diagnostics, plant monitoring (corrosion, chemistry, activity) and plant chemistry improvement (analytical models and practices). This publication covers contributions from leading experts in water chemistry/corrosion, representing organizations from 16 countries with the largest nuclear capacities

  18. Support on water chemistry and processes for nuclear power plant auxiliary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chocron, M.; Becquart, E.; La Gamma, A.M.; Schoenbrod, B.; Allemandi, W.; Fernandez, A.N.; Ovando, L.

    2002-01-01

    In particular PHWRs have a system devoted to the purification and upgrading of the collected heavy water leaks. The purification train is fed with different degradation ratios (D 2 O/H 2 O), activities and impurities. The water is distilled in a packed bed column filled with a mesh type packing. The mesh wire is made of a bronze substrate covered by copper oxides whose current composition has been determined by Moessbauer spectroscopy. With the purpose of minimizing the column stack corrosion, the water is pre-treated in a train consisting of an activated charcoal bed-strong cationic-anionic resin and a final polishing mixed bed resin. Ionic chemicals like acetic acid (whose provenance is suspected to come from the air treatment/D 2 O recovery system where the regeneration is performed at high temperature) are detected by the conductivity and ion chromatography when they concentrate at the column bottom. Traces of oils are retained by the charcoal bed but some compounds extracted by the aqueous phase are suspected to be responsible for the resins fouling or precursors of potentially aggressive agents inside the distillation column. Those species have been detected and identified by gaseous chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In the present work, the identification, evaluation of alternatives for the retention and results compared to the original products present in the water upgrading purification train have been summarized. (authors)

  19. Support on water chemistry and processes for nuclear power plant auxiliary systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chocron, M.; Becquart, E.; La Gamma, A.M.; Schoenbrod, B. [Unidad de Actividad Quimica, Gcia. Centro Atomico Constituyentes, Comision Nacional de Energia, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Allemandi, W.; Fernandez, A.N.; Ovando, L. [Central Nuclear Embalse, Nucleoelectrica Argentina S.A. (Argentina)

    2002-07-01

    In particular PHWRs have a system devoted to the purification and upgrading of the collected heavy water leaks. The purification train is fed with different degradation ratios (D{sub 2}O/H{sub 2}O), activities and impurities. The water is distilled in a packed bed column filled with a mesh type packing. The mesh wire is made of a bronze substrate covered by copper oxides whose current composition has been determined by Moessbauer spectroscopy. With the purpose of minimizing the column stack corrosion, the water is pre-treated in a train consisting of an activated charcoal bed-strong cationic-anionic resin and a final polishing mixed bed resin. Ionic chemicals like acetic acid (whose provenance is suspected to come from the air treatment/D{sub 2}O recovery system where the regeneration is performed at high temperature) are detected by the conductivity and ion chromatography when they concentrate at the column bottom. Traces of oils are retained by the charcoal bed but some compounds extracted by the aqueous phase are suspected to be responsible for the resins fouling or precursors of potentially aggressive agents inside the distillation column. Those species have been detected and identified by gaseous chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In the present work, the identification, evaluation of alternatives for the retention and results compared to the original products present in the water upgrading purification train have been summarized. (authors)

  20. Wetland Surface Water Processes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1993-01-01

    .... Temporary storage includes channel, overbank, basin, and groundwater storage. Water is removed from the wetland through evaporation, plant transpiration, channel, overland and tidal flow, and groundwater recharge...

  1. Technical feasibility of the electrode ionization process for the makeup water treatment system of the thermal cycle of the CAREM-25 nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramilo, Lucia B.; Chocron, Mauricio

    2003-01-01

    In thermal cycles of PWRs nuclear power plants with once-through steam generators as the CAREM-25, makeup water of very high purity is required to minimizing the induction of corrosion phenomena, fundamentally in the steam generators and other thermal cycle components. The makeup water treatment systems include several stages, of which the demineralization is the purification stage. The required makeup water purity is obtained in this stage. Historically, ultrapure water systems were based completely on ion exchange technology. Now, the electrode ionization process (EDI) has replaced the ion exchange technology used traditionally in the demineralization stage. Continuous demineralization in an EDI stack consists of three coupled processes: ion exchange, continuous ion removal by transport through the ion exchange resin and membranes into the concentrate stream, continuous regeneration by hydrogen and hydroxyl ions derived from the water splitting reaction and driven by the applied direct current. EDI process allows to obtain ultrapure water, with practically no use of chemical reagents and with technologies of continuous process. The objective of this work is the analysis of the electrode ionization process (EDI) for its implementation in the makeup water treatment system of the thermal cycle of the CAREM-25 nuclear power plant. The obtained results allow to assure the technical feasibility of implementation of the electrode ionization process, EDI, in the makeup water treatment system of the thermal cycle of this Argentinean nuclear power plant. (author)

  2. Power plant process computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, R.

    1982-01-01

    The concept of instrumentation and control in nuclear power plants incorporates the use of process computers for tasks which are on-line in respect to real-time requirements but not closed-loop in respect to closed-loop control. The general scope of tasks is: - alarm annunciation on CRT's - data logging - data recording for post trip reviews and plant behaviour analysis - nuclear data computation - graphic displays. Process computers are used additionally for dedicated tasks such as the aeroball measuring system, the turbine stress evaluator. Further applications are personal dose supervision and access monitoring. (orig.)

  3. ORNL process waste treatment plant modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, J.P.

    1982-01-01

    The ORNL Process Waste Treatment Plant removes low levels of radionuclides (primarily Cs-137 and Sr-90) from process waste water prior to discharge. The previous plant operation used a scavenging precipitaton - ion exchange process which produced a radioactive sludge. In order to eliminate the environmental problems associated with sludge disposal, the plant is being converted to a new ion exchange process without the precipitation process

  4. Transuranium processing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, L.J.

    1983-01-01

    The Transuranium Processing Plant (TRU) is a remotely operated, hot-cell, chemical processing facility of advanced design. The heart of TRU is a battery of nine heavily shielded process cells housed in a two-story building. Each cell, with its 54-inch-thick walls of a special high-density concrete, has enough shielding to stop the neutrons and gamma radiation from 1 gram of 252/sub Cf/ and associated fission products. Four cells contain chemical processing equipment, three contain equipment for the preparation and inspection of HFIR targets, and two cells are used for analytical chemistry operations. In addition, there are eight laboratories used for process development, for part of the process-control analyses, and for product finishing operations. Although the Transuranium Processing Plant was built for the purpose of recovering transuranium elements from targets irradiated in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR), it is also a highly versatile facility which has extensive provisions for changing and modifying equipment. Thus, it was a relatively simple matter to install a Solvent Extraction Test Facility (SETF) in one of the TRU chemical processing cells for use in the evaluation and demonstration of solvent extraction flowsheets for the recovery of fissile and fertile materials from irradiated reactor fuels. The equipment in the SETF has been designed for process development and demonstrations and the particular type of mixer-settler contactors was chosen because it is easy to observe and sample

  5. Microbial Communities Shaped by Treatment Processes in a Drinking Water Treatment Plant and Their Contribution and Threat to Drinking Water Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Yu, Shuili; Li, Lei; Liu, Guicai; Gu, Zhengyang; Liu, Minmin; Liu, Zhiyuan; Ye, Yubing; Xia, Qing; Ren, Liumo

    2017-01-01

    chlorine. These resistant bacteria and, especially potential pathogens should receive more attention. Redundancy analysis (RDA) showed that turbidity, ammonia nitrogen and total organic carbon (TOC) exerted significant effects on community profiles. Overall, this study provides insight into variations of microbial communities in the treatment processes and aids the optimization of drinking water treatment plant design and operation for public health. PMID:29312177

  6. Heavy water plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, D.G.

    1978-01-01

    This invention provides an auxiliary contactor column or exchange tower to receive stripped gas and vapour from a stripper. An auxiliary supply of heated feed water is passed in isotope exchanging relation with the gas in the auxiliary contactor to raise the deuterium content of the gas, which then is returned to the main process, at the hot tower or at the feed absorption tower as already described in relation to previous practice. Flow balance between gas and water in the auxiliary contactor is achieved relatively simply by monitoring the deuterium content of the hot water leaving the contactor column, and regulating the supply of hot water, to the contactor column in response thereto. (author)

  7. [Energy Consumption Comparison and Energy Saving Approaches for Different Wastewater Treatment Processes in a Large-scale Reclaimed Water Plant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Min; Li, Ya-ming; Wei, Yuan-song; Lü, Jian; Yu, Da-wei; Liu, Ji-bao; Fan, Yao-bo

    2015-06-01

    Energy consumption is the main performance indicator of reclaimed water plant (RWP) operation. Methods of specific energy consumption analysis, unit energy consumption analysis and redundancy analysis were applied to investigate the composition and spatio-temporal distribution of energy consumption in Qinghe RWP with inverted A2/O, A2/O and A2/O-MBR processes. And the A2/ O-MBR process was mainly analyzed to identify the main nodes and causes for high energy consumption, approaches for energy saving were explored, and the energy consumption before and after upgrading for energy saving was compared. The results showed that aeration was the key factor affecting energy consumption in both conventional and A2/O-MBR processes, accounting for 42.97% and 50.65% of total energy consumption, respectively. A pulsating aeration allowed an increasing membrane flux and remarkably reduced the energy consumption of the A2/O-MBR process while still meeting the effluent standard, e.g., the membrane flux was increased by 20%, and the energy consumptions per kiloton wastewater and kilogram COD(removed) were decreased by 42.39% to 0.53 kW-h-kg-3 and by 54.74% to 1.29 kW x h x kg(-1), respectively. The decrease of backflow ratio in the A2/O-MBR process within a certain range would not deteriorate the effluent quality due to its insignificant correlation with the effluent quality, and therefore may be considered as one of the ways for further energy saving.

  8. Wet water glass production plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Mirjana S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The IGPC Engineering Department designed basic projects for a wet hydrate dissolution plant, using technology developed in the IGPC laboratories. Several projects were completed: technological, machine, electrical, automation. On the basis of these projects, a production plant of a capacity of 75,000 t/y was manufactured, at "Zeolite Mira", Mira (VE, Italy, in 1997. and 1998, increasing detergent zeolite production, from 50,000 to 100,000 t/y. Several goals were realized by designing a wet hydrate dissolution plant. The main goal was increasing the detergent zeolite production. The technological cycle of NaOH was closed, and no effluents emitted, and there is no pollution (except for the filter cake. The wet water glass production process is fully automatized, and the product has uniform quality. The production process can be controlled manually, which is necessary during start - up, and repairs. By installing additional process equipment (centrifugal pumps and heat exchangers technological bottlenecks were overcome, and by adjusting the operation of autoclaves, and water glass filters and also by optimizing the capacities of process equipment.

  9. Process Experimental Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henze, H.

    1986-01-01

    The Process Experimental Pilot Plant (PREPP) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) was built to convert transuranic contaminated solid waste into a form acceptable for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), located near Carlsbad, New Mexico. There are about 2.0 million cubic ft of transuranic waste stored at the Transuranic Storage Area of the INEL's Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). The Stored Waste Examination Pilot Plant (SWEPP) located at the RWMC will examine this stored transuranic waste to determine if the waste is acceptable for direct shipment to and storage at WIPP, or if it requires shipment to PREPP for processing before shipment to WIPP. The PREPP process shreds the waste, incinerates the shredded waste, and cements (grouts) the shredded incinerated waste in new 55-gal drums. Unshreddable items are repackaged and returned to SWEPP. The process off-gas is cleaned prior to its discharge to the atmosphere, and complies with the effluent standards of the State of Idaho, EPA, and DOE. Waste liquid generated is used in the grouting operation

  10. Radiological assessment of water treatment processes in a water treatment plant in Saudi Arabia: Water and sludge radium content, radon air concentrations and dose rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jaseem, Q Kh; Almasoud, Fahad I; Ababneh, Anas M; Al-Hobaib, A S

    2016-09-01

    There is an increase demand for clean water sources in Saudi Arabia and, yet, renewable water resources are very limited. This has forced the authorities to explore deep groundwater which is known to contain large concentrations of radionuclides, mainly radium isotopes. Lately, there has been an increase in the number of water treatment plants (WTPs) around the country. In this study, a radiological assessment of a WTP in Saudi Arabia was performed. Raw water was found to have total radium activity of 0.23Bq/L, which exceeds the international limit of 0.185Bq/L (5pCi/L). The WTP investigated uses three stages of treatment: flocculation/sedimentation, sand filtration and reverse osmosis. The radium removal efficiency was evaluated for each stage and the respective values were 33%, 22% and 98%. Moreover, the activity of radium in the solid waste generated from the WTP in the sedimentation and sand filtrations stages were measured and found to be 4490 and 6750Bq/kg, respectively, which exceed the national limit of 1000Bq/kg for radioactive waste. A radiological assessment of the air inside the WTP was also performed by measuring the radon concentrations and dose rates and were found in the ranges of 2-18Bq/m(3) and 70-1000nSv/h, respectively. The annual effective dose was calculated and the average values was found to be 0.3mSv which is below the 1mSv limit. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Plants in water-controlled ecosystems: active role in hydrologic processes and response to water stress. I. Scope and general outline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Iturbe, I.; Porporato, A.; Laio, F.; Ridolfi, L.

    This series of four papers studies the complex dynamics of water-controlled ecosystems from the hydro-ecological point of view [e.g., I. Rodriguez-Iturbe, Water Resour. Res. 36 (1) (2000) 3-9]. After this general outline, the role of climate, soil, and vegetation is modeled in Part II [F. Laio, A. Porporato, L. Ridolfi, I. Rodriguez-Iturbe, Adv. Water Res. 24 (7) (2001) 707-723] to investigate the probabilistic structure of soil moisture dynamics and the water balance. Particular attention is given to the impact of timing and amount of rainfall, plant physiology, and soil properties. From the statistical characterization of the crossing properties of arbitrary levels of soil moisture, Part III develops an expression for vegetation water stress [A. Porporato, F. Laio, L. Ridolfi, I. Rodriguez-Iturbe, Adv. Water Res. 24 (7) (2001) 725-744]. This measure of stress is then employed to quantify the response of plants to soil moisture deficit as well as to infer plant suitability to given environmental conditions and understand some of the reasons for possible coexistence of different species. Detailed applications of these concepts are developed in Part IV [F. Laio, A. Porporato, C.P. Fernandez-Illescas, I. Rodriguez-Iturbe, Adv. Water Res. 24 (7) (2001) 745-762], where we investigate the dynamics of three different water-controlled ecosystems.

  12. Water regime of steam power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oesz, Janos

    2011-01-01

    The water regime of water-steam thermal power plants (secondary side of pressurized water reactors (PWR); fossil-fired thermal power plants - referred to as steam power plants) has changed in the past 30 years, due to a shift from water chemistry to water regime approach. The article summarizes measures (that have been realised by chemists of NPP Paks) on which the secondary side of NPP Paks has become a high purity water-steam power plant and by which the water chemistry stress corrosion risk of heat transfer tubes in the VVER-440 steam generators was minimized. The measures can also be applied to the water regime of fossil-fired thermal power plants with super- and subcritical steam pressure. Based on the reliability analogue of PWR steam generators, water regime can be defined as the harmony of construction, material(s) and water chemistry, which needs to be provided in not only the steam generators (boiler) but in each heat exchanger of steam power plant: - Construction determines the processes of flow, heat and mass transfer and their local inequalities; - Material(s) determines the minimal rate of general corrosion and the sensitivity for local corrosion damage; - Water chemistry influences the general corrosion of material(s) and the corrosion products transport, as well as the formation of local corrosion environment. (orig.)

  13. Advanced water chemistry management in power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regis, V.; Sigon, F.

    1995-01-01

    Advanced water management based on low external impact cycle chemistry technologies and processes, effective on-line water control and monitoring, has been verified to improve water utilization and to reduce plant liquid supply and discharge. Simulations have been performed to optimize system configurations and performances, with reference to a 4 x 320 MWe/once-through boiler/AVT/river cooled power plant, to assess the effectiveness of membrane separation technologies allowing waste water reuse, to enhance water management system design and to compare these solutions on a cost/benefit analysis. 6 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  14. Plant extraction process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    A method for producing a plant extract comprises incubating a plant material with an enzyme composition comprising a lipolytic enzyme.......A method for producing a plant extract comprises incubating a plant material with an enzyme composition comprising a lipolytic enzyme....

  15. The Optimization-Based Design and Synthesis of Water Network for Water Management in an Industrial Process: Refinery Effluent Treatment Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sueviriyapan, Natthapong; Siemanond, Kitipat; Quaglia, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    The increasing awareness of the sustainability of water resources has become an important issue. Many process industries contribute to high water consumption and wastewater generation. Problems in industrial water management include the processing of complex contaminants in wastewater, selection...... of wastewater treatment technologies, as well as water allocation, limited reuse, and recycling strategies. Therefore, a water and wastewater treatment network design requires the integration of both economic and environmental perspectives. The aim of this work was to modify and develop a generic model......-based synthesis process for a water/wastewater treatment network design problem utilizing the framework of Quaglia et al. (2013) in order to effectively design, synthesize, and optimize an industrial water management problem using different scenarios (both existing and retrofit system design). The model...

  16. Study on The Use of Sludge From Yogyakarta Waste Water Processing Plant as Environmental Friendly Organic Fertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M-Yazid; Mintargo-K; M-E-Supriyatni; Budiono

    2005-01-01

    Study on feasibility of the use of sludge from Yogjakarta Waste Water Processing Plant (JWWPP) as organic fertilizer with several aspects to be considered, such as plant nutrient content, heavy metal content and its pathogenic microbial. From the observation result is expected can be used as an input data for analyzing the use of sludge impact as fertilizer. Sludge sample was taken from JWWPP that located at Bantul. Sludge sample was dried at the room temperature, ground and weighed to be appropriate to the analysis type. The macro element content was analyzed using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA), then counted using Ge(Li) Gamma Spectrometer. The heavy metal content, such as Pb, Cd and Hg was analyzed using AAS, while for Sm, Th, Sb, Cr and Co contents were analyzed using NAA. Sample was irradiated in order to kill pathogenic microbial, using varied doses which are 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 kGy. Microbial observation was carried out at Microbiological Laboratory of Biological Faculty-Gadjah Mada University that include of total bacteria, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus and Salmonella. The average macro element content was determined from the analysis result, N is 4.10 ± 0.007 ppm, P is 640.51 ± 14.34, K is 3.04 ± 0.06 ppm, while micro element content consist of Mg is 79.31 ± 6.48 ppm, Zn is 599.8 ± 42.2 ppm, Cu is 16.13 ± 0.4 ppm, Ca is 117.6 ± 9.20 ppm and Fe is 4.35 ± 0.18 ppm. The range of heavy metal content consist of Pb is 73.27 - 125.65 ppm, Cd is 1.44 - 2.59 ppm, while Hg is undetected. Another that Sm is 0.04 - 18.68 ppm, Th is 2.20 - 6.37 ppm; Sb is 1.06 - 76.37 ppm, Cr is 1.94 - 51.40 ppm and Co is 0.57 - 84.03 ppm. The greatest bacteria population is Salmonella sp, then Streptococcus and the latest is Escherichia coli. The analysis result can be deduced that sludge from JWWPP can be used as organic fertilizer with specific treatment to decrease Cu, Fe and Zn content to be less then the critical value to hinder the growth of a plant. While the

  17. Assets optimization at Heavy Water Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiremath, S.C.

    2006-01-01

    In the world where the fittest can only survive, manufacturing and production enterprises are under intense pressure to achieve maximum efficiency in each and every field related to the ultimate production of plant. The winners will be those that use their assets, i.e men, material, machinery and money most effectively. The objective is to optimize the utilization of all plant assets-from entire process lines to individual pressure vessels, piping, process machinery, and vital machine components. Assets of Heavy Water Plants mainly consist of Civil Structures, Equipment and Systems (Mechanical, Electrical) and Resources like Water, Energy and Environment

  18. A two-stage predictive model to simultaneous control of trihalomethanes in water treatment plants and distribution systems: adaptability to treatment processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Tello, Antonio; Arias-Borrego, Ana; García-Barrera, Tamara; Gómez-Ariza, José Luis

    2017-10-01

    The trihalomethanes (TTHMs) and others disinfection by-products (DBPs) are formed in drinking water by the reaction of chlorine with organic precursors contained in the source water, in two consecutive and linked stages, that starts at the treatment plant and continues in second stage along the distribution system (DS) by reaction of residual chlorine with organic precursors not removed. Following this approach, this study aimed at developing a two-stage empirical model for predicting the formation of TTHMs in the water treatment plant and subsequently their evolution along the water distribution system (WDS). The aim of the two-stage model was to improve the predictive capability for a wide range of scenarios of water treatments and distribution systems. The two-stage model was developed using multiple regression analysis from a database (January 2007 to July 2012) using three different treatment processes (conventional and advanced) in the water supply system of Aljaraque area (southwest of Spain). Then, the new model was validated using a recent database from the same water supply system (January 2011 to May 2015). The validation results indicated no significant difference in the predictive and observed values of TTHM (R 2 0.874, analytical variance distribution systems studied, proving the adaptability of the new model to the boundary conditions. Finally the predictive capability of the new model was compared with 17 other models selected from the literature, showing satisfactory results prediction and excellent adaptability to treatment processes.

  19. Water filtration using plant xylem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S H Boutilier

    Full Text Available Effective point-of-use devices for providing safe drinking water are urgently needed to reduce the global burden of waterborne disease. Here we show that plant xylem from the sapwood of coniferous trees--a readily available, inexpensive, biodegradable, and disposable material--can remove bacteria from water by simple pressure-driven filtration. Approximately 3 cm(3 of sapwood can filter water at the rate of several liters per day, sufficient to meet the clean drinking water needs of one person. The results demonstrate the potential of plant xylem to address the need for pathogen-free drinking water in developing countries and resource-limited settings.

  20. Hypermetabolic Conversion of Plant Oil into Water: Endothermic Biochemical Process Stimulated by Juvenile Hormone in the European Firebug, L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Sláma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The physiological and biochemical mechanisms that enable insects to feed on dry food to secure enough water for larval growth were investigated. The study was carried out with a plethora of physiological methods, ranging from the simple volumetric determination of O 2 consumption and water intake to more advanced methods such as scanning microrespirography and thermovision imaging of insect's body temperature. The experiments were done on the European firebug, Pyrrhocoris apterus , which feeds exclusively on dry linden seeds. In order to survive, it needs to drink water or suck a sap from plants occasionally. It was found that the young larval instars compensate the occasional water deficiency by the increased production of metabolic water. The juvenile hormone (JH-dependent production of metabolic water, which was previously found in other species consuming dry food, was achieved in P. apterus by total metabolic combustion of the dietary lipid (neutral seed oil. The water-producing, hypermetabolic larvae were heated from inside by endothermic energy released from the uncoupling of oxidation from oxidative phosphorylation. The “warm”, hypermetabolic larvae burning the dietary oil into CO 2 and water showed the increased rates of respiratory metabolism. Microrespirographic recording of these larvae revealed the ratio of the respiratory quotient (RQ, CO 2 /O 2 of 0.7, which indicated the breakdown of a pure triglyceride. The warm hypermetabolic larvae could be easily spotted and distinguished from the “cold” larvae on the screen of a thermovision camera. The last instar larvae lacking the JH were always only cold. They metabolized a carbohydrate substrate exclusively (RQ = 1.0, while the dietary lipid was stored in the fat body. In comparison with the hypermetabolic larvae of some other species fed on dry food, which exhibited the highest rates of O 2 consumption ever recorded in a living organism (10–20 mL O 2 /g per hour, the metabolic

  1. Construction of a model of the process of accumulation of radionuclides of corrosion products on the equipment in nuclear power plants with boiling-water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tevlin, S.A.

    1985-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of corrosion of the structural materials of the reactor loop. This problem can be solved by constructing physical models of the process of accumulation of radionuclides on the equipment at nuclear power plants and by constructing the analytical apparatus for describing them. These models are presented here, and allow the analyzing of the effect of separate states and thermophysical factors, determination of the basic factors, and the ability to foresee in timely fashion the water state and structural measures required to lower the rate of growth and to decrease the amount of radionuclides deposited on the equipment in the nuclear power plant

  2. Extractability of radiocesium from processed green tea leaves with hot water. The first emergent tea leaves harvested after the TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagami, K.; Uchida, S.; Ishii, N.

    2012-01-01

    In some tea tree planting areas within 300 km from the TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP), it was found that newly emerged tea plant leaves for green tea contained two radiocesium species (cesium-134 and cesium-137). In this study, using processed green tea leaves for drinking, extraction ratios of radiocesium under several brew conditions were observed. When 90 deg C water was used, 50-70% of radiocesium was extracted into the water, while 54-60% of radiocesium was extracted with 60 deg C water. A part of radiocesium would be removed from leaves if the leaves were washed with 20 and 60 deg C water before brewing, and the efficiencies were 11 and 32%, respectively. Newly emerged camellia leaves were used to simulate the radiocesium removal ratio from raw tea leaves by washing and boiling; radioactivity concentration was decreased to 60% of the original concentration with washing and 10 min boiling. From these results, it was found that almost half of the radiocesium would not be removed from raw or processed tea leaves. The values obtained in the present study could be used for internal radiation dose estimation from tea leaves. (author)

  3. Plants in water-controlled ecosystems: active role in hydrologic processes and response to water stress. IV. Discussion of real cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laio, F.; Porporato, A.; Fernandez-Illescas, C. P.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, I.

    Three water-controlled ecosystems are studied here using the stochastic description of soil moisture dynamics and vegetation water stress proposed in Part II (F. Laio, A. Porporato, L. Ridolfi, I. Rodriguez-Iturbe, Adv. Water Res. 24 (7) (2001) 707-723) and Part III (A. Porporato, F. Laio, L. Ridolfi, I. Rodriguez-Iturbe, Adv. Water Res. 24 (7) (2001) 725-744) of this series of papers. In the savanna of Nylsvley (South Africa) the very diverse physiological characteristics of the existing plants give rise to different strategies of soil moisture exploitation. Notwithstanding these differences, the vegetation water stress for all the species turns out to be very similar, suggesting that coexistence might be attained also through differentiation of water use. The case of the savanna of Southern Texas points out how rooting depth and interannual rainfall variability can impact soil moisture dynamics and vegetation water stress. Because of the different responses to water stress of trees and grasses, external climatic forcing could be at the origin of the dynamic equilibrium allowing coexistence in this ecosystem. Finally, the analysis of a short grass steppe in Colorado provides an interesting example of the so-called inverse texture effect, whereby preferential conditions for vegetation are dependent on soil texture and rainfall. Sites which are more favorable during wet conditions may become less suitable to the same vegetation type during drier years. Such an effect is important to explain the predominance of existing species, as well as to investigate their reproductive strategies.

  4. Development of waste water reuse water system for power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, K K; Kim, D H; Weon, D Y; Yoon, S W; Song, H R [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    1. Status of waste water discharge at power plants 2. Present status of waste water reuse at power plants 3. Scheme of waste water reuse at power plants 4. Standardization of optimum system for waste water reuse at power plants 5. Establishment of low cost zero discharge system for waste water 6. Waste water treatment technology of chemical cleaning. (author). 132 figs., 72 tabs.

  5. Development of waste water reuse water system for power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, K.K.; Kim, D.H.; Weon, D.Y.; Yoon, S.W.; Song, H.R. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    1. Status of waste water discharge at power plants 2. Present status of waste water reuse at power plants 3. Scheme of waste water reuse at power plants 4. Standardization of optimum system for waste water reuse at power plants 5. Establishment of low cost zero discharge system for waste water 6. Waste water treatment technology of chemical cleaning. (author). 132 figs., 72 tabs.

  6. A Process for Evaluating Adverse Environmental Impacts by Cooling-Water System Entrainment at a California Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.P. Ehrler

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A study to determine the effects of entrainment by the Diablo Canyon Power Plant (DCPP was conducted between 1996 and 1999 as required under Section 316(b of the Clean Water Act. The goal of this study was to present the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA and Central Coast Regional Water Quality Control Board (CCRWQCB with results that could be used to determine if any adverse environmental impacts (AEIs were caused by the operation of the plant’s cooling-water intake structure (CWIS. To this end we chose, under guidance of the CCRWQCB and their entrainment technical working group, a unique approach combining three different models for estimating power plant effects: fecundity hindcasting (FH, adult equivalent loss (AEL, and the empirical transport model (ETM. Comparisons of the results from these three approaches provided us a relative measure of confidence in our estimates of effects. A total of 14 target larval fish taxa were assessed as part of the DCPP 316(b. Example results are presented here for the kelp, gopher, and black-and-yellow (KGB rockfish complex and clinid kelpfish. Estimates of larval entrainment losses for KGB rockfish were in close agreement (FH is approximately equals to 550 adult females per year, AEL is approximately equals to 1,000 adults [male and female] per year, and ETM = larval mortality as high as 5% which could be interpreted as ca. 2,600 1 kg adult fish. The similar results from the three models provided confidence in the estimated effects for this group. Due to lack of life history information needed to parameterize the FH and AEL models, effects on clinid kelpfish could only be assessed using the ETM model. Results from this model plus ancillary information about local populations of adult kelpfish suggest that the CWIS might be causing an AEI in the vicinity of DCPP.

  7. Tritium in water and plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, L.A.; Winter, M.

    1977-10-01

    A summary is presented of the results obtained in programs on the measurement of the T concentration in the immediate and more distant environment of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center (KFK). The amount of T released with the waste water and the exhaust air from the KFK in the years 1969 until 1976 is indicated. The total releases ranged from 2000 Ci/a to 5200 Ci/a in the period of reporting. The fractions contained in the exhaust air and in the waste water were subjected to considerable variations over the years. The results of measurements for water samples are presented as annual mean values. The annual values of measured results obtained for precipitations on the site clearly exceed the values measured at sampling stations outside the KFK. Of the surface waters monitored the rivers Rhine and Neckar showed the highest T values. In smaller flowing waters the T concentration is also influenced by the percentage of waste water from communities. Obviously the tritium content of the ground and drinking water depends on the depth of sampling. Drinking water raised from a small depth in the vicinity of the Rhine is subjected to the same variations as the water from the river Rhine. To find out relations to the T offer of the relevant media close to the plants, the T concentrations in tissue water of plants and in air humidity, ground water and precipitations were investigated. Variations of the T concentration in air humidity correlate with the variations of the T concentration in the tissue water of plants. The T concentration level in the tissue water of plants is close to the T concentration in air humidity. The following time constants and half-lives, respectively, are found: for oak and hornbeam leaves 2+-1 days, for spruce needles 3+-1.5 days, for pine needles 6+-3 days. The dispersion of T released into the air and into the water is dealt with briefly. (orig.) [de

  8. Nuclear power plant life management processes: Guidelines and practices for heavy water reactors. Report prepared within the framework of the Technical Working Groups on Advanced Technologies for Heavy Water Reactors and on Life Management of Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    The time is right to address nuclear power plant life management and ageing management issues in terms of processes and refurbishments for long term operation and license renewal aspects of heavy water reactors (HWRs) because some HWRs are close to the design life. In general, HWR nuclear power plant (NPP) owners would like to keep their NPPs in service as long as they can be operated safely and economically. This involves the consideration of a number of factors, such as the material condition of the plant, comparison with current safety standards, the socio-political climate and asset management/ business planning considerations. This TECDOC deals with organizational and managerial means to implement effective plan life management (PLiM) into existing plant in operating HWR NPPs. This TECDOC discusses the current trend of PLiM observed in NPPs to date and an overview of PLiM programmes and considerations. This includes key objectives of such programs, regulatory considerations, an overall integrated approach, organizational and technology infrastructure considerations, importance of effective plant data management and finally, human issues related to ageing and finally integration of PLiM with economic planning. Also general approach to HWR PLiM, including the key PLiM processes, life assessment for critical structures and components, conditions assessment of structures and components and obsolescence is mentioned. Technical aspects are described on component specific technology considerations for condition assessment, example of a proactive ageing management programme, and Ontario power generation experiences in appendices. Also country reports from Argentina, Canada, India, the Republic of Korea and Romania are attached in the annex to share practices and experiences to PLiM programme. This TECDOC is primarily addressed to both the management (decision makers) and technical staff (engineers and scientists) of NPP owners/operators and technical support

  9. Study of the first section of an enrichment plant of heavy water by the Girdler sulfide process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavez T, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    The present paper describes the behaviour of the capital and operating cost with driving forces for a design. It is referred from the first stage of enrichment for heavy water production by the Girdler Sulfide process. A most useful procedure for analyzing a process or control system is by means of the Second Law of Thermodynamics. Determining where the irreversibilities of a process or control systems are generally indicated is where the greatest improvements can be made, particularly as they relate to operating cost. Thermodynamic analyses based on the concepts of irreversible entropy increases have frequently been suggested as pointers to sources of inefficiency in chemical processes. Optimization of chemical processes coupled with appropriate control systems is one of the areas where industry is presently making significant advances in conserving energy. The process was considered as a black box with incoming and outgoing energy flows at different levels. Furthermore, a generalized discussion of the cost with respect to the optimization parameters is done, where the irreversibilities of the process are place and a generalized discussion from the successful application of the approach in this study are shown. (Author)

  10. MRPP: multiregion processing plant code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kee, C.W.; McNeese, L.E.

    1976-09-01

    The report describes the machine solution of a large number (approximately 52,000) of simultaneous linear algebraic equations in which the unknowns are the concentrations of nuclides in the fuel salt of a fluid-fueled reactor (MSBR) having a continuous fuel processing plant. Most of the equations define concentrations at various points in the processing plant. The code allows as input a generalized description of a processing plant flowsheet; it also performs the iterative adjustment of flowsheet parameters for determination of concentrations throughout the flowsheet, and the associated effect of the specified processing mode on the overall reactor operation

  11. Water system integration of a chemical plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Pingyou; Feng Xiao; Qian Feng; Cao Dianliang

    2006-01-01

    Water system integration can minimize both the freshwater consumption and the wastewater discharge of a plant. In industrial applications, it is the key to determine reasonably the contaminants and the limiting concentrations, which will decide the freshwater consumption and wastewater discharge of the system. In this paper, some rules to determine the contaminants and the limiting concentrations are proposed. As a case study, the water system in a chemical plant that produces sodium hydroxide and PVC (polyvinyl chloride) is integrated. The plant consumes a large amount of freshwater and discharges a large amount of wastewater, so minimization of both the freshwater consumption and the wastewater discharge is very important to it. According to the requirements of each water using process on the water used in it, the contaminants and the limiting concentrations are determined. Then, the optimal water reuse scheme is firstly studied based on the water network with internal water mains. To reduce the freshwater consumption and the wastewater discharge further, decentralized regeneration recycling is considered. The water using network is simplified by mixing some of the used water. After the water system integration, the freshwater consumption is reduced 25.5%, and the wastewater discharge is reduced 48%

  12. Water quality maintaining device of power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Minoru; Inami, Ichiro.

    1994-01-01

    The device of the present invention reduces the amount of leaching materials of ion exchange resins from a water processing system of a BWR tyep plant, improves the water quality of reactor water to maintain the water at high purity. That is, steams used for power generation are condensated in a condensate system. A condensate filter and a condensate desalter for cleaning the condensates are disposed. A resin storage hopper is disposed for supplying the ion exchange resins to the water processing system. A device for supplying a nitrogen gas or an inert gas is disposed in the hopper. With such a constitution, the ion exchange resins in the water processing system are maintained in a nitrogen gas or inert gas atmosphere or at a low dissolved oxygen level in an operation stage in the power plant. Accordingly, degradation of the ion exchange resins in the water processing system is suppressed and the amount of the leaching material from the resins is reduced. As a result, the amount of the resins leached into the reactor is reduced, so that the reactor water quality can be maintained at high purity. (I.S.)

  13. Design of ANFIS Structures and GMDH Type-Neural Network for Prediction of Optimum Coagulant Dosage in Water Treatment Process Case Study: Great Water Treatment Plant in Guilan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allahyar Daghbandan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Given the increasing importance of surface water bodies as supply sources of drinking water and regarding the requirement for using different chemicals at various stages of water treatment processes, it is essential to investigate coagulant consumption in water treatment plants. Determination of the required dosage of coagulants used in the coagulation and flocculation unit is one of the most important decisions in water treatment operations. For this purpose, the jar test is generally used to determine the type and concentration of suitable coagulants in a water treatment plant. However, the test is rather time-consuming and unreliable due to the inaccurate results it yields. Instead, intelligent methods can be employed to overcome this shortcoming of the jar test. In this study, experimental data were collected over the period from 2011 to 2012 and further refined for study. Two non-linear models based on adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS and GMDH-type neural networks were then developed and experimental results were used to determine the optimum poly-aluminium chloride dosage for use at Guilan water treatment plant. The effects of input parameters including temperature, pH, turbidity, suspended solids, electrical conductivity, and color were investigated on coagulant dosage. The ANFIS model was found to outperform the GMDH model in predicting the required poly-aluminium chloride dosage.

  14. Evaluation of virus removal efficiency of coagulation-sedimentation and rapid sand filtration processes in a drinking water treatment plant in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asami, Tatsuya; Katayama, Hiroyuki; Torrey, Jason Robert; Visvanathan, Chettiyappan; Furumai, Hiroaki

    2016-09-15

    In order to properly assess and manage the risk of infection by enteric viruses in tap water, virus removal efficiency should be evaluated quantitatively for individual processes in actual drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs); however, there have been only a few studies due to technical difficulties in quantifying low virus concentration in water samples. In this study, the removal efficiency of indigenous viruses was evaluated for coagulation-sedimentation (CS) and rapid sand filtration (RSF) processes in a DWTP in Bangkok, Thailand by measuring the concentration of viruses before and after treatment processes using real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Water samples were collected and concentrated from raw source water, after CS, and after RSF, and inhibitory substances in water samples were reduced by use of a hydrophobic resin (DAX-8). Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) and JC polyomavirus (JC PyV) were found to be highly prevalent in raw waters, with concentrations of 10(2.88 ± 0.35) and 10(3.06 ± 0.42) copies/L (geometric mean ± S.D.), respectively. Step-wise removal efficiencies were calculated for individual processes, with some variation observed between wet and dry seasons. During the wet season, PMMoV was removed less by CS and more by RSF on average (0.40 log10 vs 1.26 log10, respectively), while the reverse was true for JC PyV (1.91 log10 vs 0.49 log10, respectively). Both viruses were removed similarly during the dry season, with CS removing the most virus (PMMoV, 1.61 log10 and 0.78 log10; JC PyV, 1.70 log10, and 0.59 log10; CS and RSF, respectively). These differences between seasons were potentially due to variations in raw water quality and the characteristics of the viruses themselves. These results suggest that PMMoV and JC PyV, which are more prevalent in environmental waters than the other enteric viruses evaluated in this study, could be useful in determining viral fate for the risk management of viruses in water treatment

  15. Process control in biogas plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo; Oleskowicz-Popiel, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Efficient monitoring and control of anaerobic digestion (AD) processes are necessary in order to enhance biogas plant performance. The aim of monitoring and controlling the biological processes is to stabilise and optimise the production of biogas. The principles of process analytical technology...

  16. New plant improves radwaste processing at the Tokai-2 BWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    New plant for radiowaste processing at the Tokaj-2 NPP, put in operation in September, 1986, is described. The plant includes five systems providing processing of drianage water, solid waste combustion, decrease of volume and solidification of concentrated wastes, waste storage and flushing water processing. Pressed tablets represent the final product of the waste processing. New plant enables to reduce sufficiently the volume of radioactive wastes

  17. Review of 'plant available water' aspects of water use efficiency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Review of 'plant available water' aspects of water use efficiency under ... model relating the water supply from a layered soil profile to water demand; the ... and management strategies to combat excessive water losses by deep drainage.

  18. Process and plant safety

    CERN Document Server

    Hauptmanns, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Accidents in technical installations are random events. Hence they cannot be totally avoided. Only the probability of their occurrence may be reduced and their consequences be mitigated. The book proceeds from hazards caused by materials and process conditions to indicating technical and organizational measures for achieving the objectives of reduction and mitigation. Qualitative methods for identifying weaknesses of design and increasing safety as well as models for assessing accident consequences are presented. The quantitative assessment of the effectiveness of safety measures is explained. The treatment of uncertainties plays a role there. They stem from the random character of the accident and from lacks of knowledge on some of the phenomena to be addressed. The reader is acquainted with the simulation of accidents, safety and risk analyses and learns how to judge the potential and limitations of mathematical modelling. Risk analysis is applied amongst others to “functional safety” and the determinat...

  19. Water Conservation Study, Badger Army Ammunition Plant, Baraboo, Wisconsin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this water conservation study is to identify projects which will result in energy maintenance and cost savings in the process water distribution system at Badger Army Ammunition Plant (BAAP...

  20. Water Conservation Study. Badger Army Ammunition Plant, Baraboo, Wisconsin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this water conservation study is to identify projects which will result in energy maintenance and cost savings in the process water distribution system at Badger Army Ammunition Plant (BAAP...

  1. Mass Customization of process plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Lars

    2006-01-01

    This case study describes how F.L.Smidth A/S, a manufacturer of large processing plants for cement production, has applied the principles of mass customisation in the area of highly complex, custom engineered products. The company has based its sales process on a configuration system to achieve...

  2. (Plant growth with limited water)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    The work supported by DOE in the last year built on our earlier findings that stem growth in soybean subjected to limited water is inhibited first by a physical limitation followed in a few hours by metabolic changes that reduce the extensibility of the cell walls. With time, there is modest recovery in extensibility and a 28kD protein accumulates in the walls of the growth-affected cells. A 31kD protein that was 80% similar in amino acid sequence also was present but did not accumulate in the walls of the stem cells. Explorations of the mRNA for these proteins showed that the mRNA for the 28kD protein increased in the shoot in response to water deprivation but the mRNA for the 31kD protein did not accumulate. In contrast, the roots continued to grow and the mRNA for the 31kD protein accumulated but the mRNA for the 28kD protein was undetectable. We also explored how growth occurs in the absence of an external water supply. We found that, under these conditions, internal water is mobilized from surrounding nongrowing or slowly growing tissues and is used by rapidly growing cells. We showed that a low water potential is normally present in the enlarging tissues and is the likely force that extracts water from the surrounding tissues. We found that it involved a gradient in water potential that extended from the xylem to the outlying cells in the enlarging region and was not observed in the slowly growing basal tissue of the stems of the same plant. The gradient was measured directly with single cell determinations of turgor and osmotic potential in intact plants. The gradient may explain instances of growth inhibition with limited water when there is no change in the turgor of the enlarging cells. 17 refs.

  3. Thermal band image processing on the warm water discharges of nuclear power plants and the drifting of Echizen-Jellyfishes by using terra/aqua-MODIS data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Yoshinobu; Fujita, Yusuke

    2005-01-01

    At the Awara campus (lat. 36.264degN, long, 136.235degE) of Fukui University of Technology, a Terra/Aqua-MODIS receiving system is operated from September, 2003. This paper deals with the thermal band image processing by using the received MODIS data. In chapter 2, we investigate the image representation of the warm water discharges of nuclear power plants located with Wakasa Bay of Fukui Prefecture. In chapter 3, we describe the image processing of the drifting of Echizen-Jellyfishes. The Echizen-Jellyfish, a kind of big jellyfish, whose scientific name is Nemopilema nomurai Kishinouye, appeared in large quantities in 2003 and did serious damage to the fishery in Japan Sea. (author)

  4. Plant water relations I: uptake and transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plants, like all living things, are mostly water. Water is the matrix of life, and its availability determines the distribution and productivity of plants on earth. Vascular plants evolved structures that enable them to transport water long distances with little input of energy, but the hollow trach...

  5. Evaluation of biocide efficacy on microbiological induced corrosion of pipes and equipment from the 'process water system' of Embalse nuclear power plant (CNE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forte Giacobone, A F; Burkart, A L; Pizarro, R; Rodriguez S; Belloni, M; Croatto, F; Ferrari, F; Herrera, C; Mendizabal, M; Montes, J; Rodriguez Aliciardi, M; Saucedo, R; Ovando, L

    2012-01-01

    In order to improve water quality, and mitigate recurrent bio corrosion phenomena affecting the components of the Process Water System of the CNE, a combined water treatment adding a commercial biocide product, based on bromide, to the currently injected chlorine was proposed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the added biocide on the kinetics of biofilm formation and growth, which is the precursor process to microbiological corrosion, and on the corrosion rates of carbon steel of pipes, heat exchanger shells and other system devices. For this purpose, a test bench was designed and built, reproducing the flow conditions at certain parts of the system. This facility was installed in the filtration shed of the Water Plant of the CNE. The test bench consisted of two parallel chambers, I and II, each in turn divided into a section for determining biofilm growth and corrosion rates of carbon steel coupons and another one to measure the kinetics of biofilm growth on stainless steel coupons. Both chambers received lake water chlorinated for 15 minutes each day. The chamber II received also the biocide. The corrosion rate in carbon steel coupons was evaluated by weight loss and Linear Polarization Resistance (LPR) measurements. The kinetics of biofilm growth on carbon steel coupons was measured using disruptive methods followed by quantification of the protein and carbohydrate content as an estimation of total biomase. The following bacterial groups were quantified through the dilution-extinction method: total aerobic bacteria, acid-producing bacteria, total anaerobic bacteria, sulfate reducing bacteria and bacteria precipitating iron and manganese. On the stainless steel coupons, the percent of coverage was evaluated by epi fluorescence microscopy. The corrosion rate results obtained both by weight loss as by LPR, showed no significant differences between both chambers, with and without biocide. Regarding the kinetics of biofilm growth on carbon steel

  6. Dynamic modelling of Industrial Heavy Water Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teruel, F.E.

    1997-01-01

    The dynamic behavior of the isotopic enrichment unites of the Industrial Heavy Water Plant, located in Arroyito, Neuquen, Argentina, was modeled and simulated in the present work. Dynamic models of the chemical and isotopic interchange processes existent in the plant, were developed. This served as a base to obtain representative models of the different unit and control systems. The developed models were represented in a modular code for each unit. Each simulator consists of approximately one hundred non-linear-first-order differential equations and some other algebraic equation, which are time resolved by the code. The different simulators allow to change a big number of boundary conditions and the control systems set point for each simulation, so that the program become very versatile. The output of the code allows to see the evolution through time of the variables of interest. An interface which facilitates the use of the first enrichment stage simulator was developed. This interface allows an easy access to generate wished events during the simulation and includes the possibility to plot evolution of the variables involved. The obtained results agree with the expected tendencies. The calculated nominal steady state matches by the manufacturer. The different steady states obtained, agree with previous works. The times and tendencies involved in the transients generated by the program, are in good agreement with the experience obtained at the plant. Based in the obtained results, it is concluded that the characteristic times of the plant are determined by the masses involved in the process. Different characteristics in the system dynamic behavior were generated with the different simulators, and were validated by plant personnel. This work allowed to understand the different process involved in the heavy water manufacture, and to develop a very useful tool for the personnel of the plant. (author). 14 refs., figs., tabs. plant. (author). 14 refs., figs., tabs

  7. Advanced light water reactor plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giedraityte, Zivile

    2008-01-01

    For nuclear power to be competitive with the other methods of electrical power generation the economic performance should be significantly improved by increasing the time spent on line generating electricity relative to time spent off-line conducting maintenance and refueling. Maintenance includes planned actions (surveillances) and unplanned actions (corrective maintenance) to respond to component degradation or failure. A methodology is described which is used to resolve maintenance related operating cycle length barriers. Advanced light water nuclear power plant is designed with the purpose to maximize online generating time by increasing operating cycle length. (author)

  8. State of the art in the process design of large sea water desalination plants; Estado del arte en el diseno del proceso de plantas desaladoras de agua de mar de gran capacidad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Sanchez, J. M.; Sanchez Castillo, N.; Sanchez Castillo, R.

    2008-07-01

    The desalination of seawater is used in commercial operations worldwide in order to obtain large quantities of proper water for population supply, irrigation or industrial uses. The designs of the processes which are involved in desalination are changing all the time. In this paper the evolution of the processes of seawater desalination plants will be discussed. It will focus on large Reverse Osmosis desalination plants: also it will discuss the reasons of this evolution. (Author) 8 refs.

  9. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant Process Efficiency improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griebenow, B.

    1996-03-01

    In response to decreasing funding levels available to support activities at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) and a desire to be cost competitive, the Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) and Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company have increased their emphasis on cost-saving measures. The ICPP Effectiveness Improvement Initiative involves many activities to improve cost effectiveness and competitiveness. This report documents the methodology and results of one of those cost cutting measures, the Process Efficiency Improvement Activity. The Process Efficiency Improvement Activity performed a systematic review of major work processes at the ICPP to increase productivity and to identify nonvalue-added requirements. A two-phase approach was selected for the activity to allow for near-term implementation of relatively easy process modifications in the first phase while obtaining long-term continuous improvement in the second phase and beyond. Phase I of the initiative included a concentrated review of processes that had a high potential for cost savings with the intent of realizing savings in Fiscal Year 1996 (FY-96.) Phase II consists of implementing long-term strategies too complex for Phase I implementation and evaluation of processes not targeted for Phase I review. The Phase II effort is targeted for realizing cost savings in FY-97 and beyond

  10. Plant responses to water stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Rup Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Terrestrial plants most often encounter drought stress because of erratic rainfall which has become compounded due to present climatic changes.Responses of plants to water stress may be assigned as either injurious change or tolerance index. One of the primary and cardinal changes in response to drought stress is the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which is being considered as the cause of cellular damage. However, recently a signaling role of such ROS in triggering the ROS scavenging system that may confer protection or tolerance against stress is emerging. Such scavenging system consists of antioxidant enzymes like SOD, catalase and peroxidases, and antioxidant compounds like ascorbate, reduced glutathione; a balance between ROS generation and scavenging ultimately determines the oxidative load. As revealed in case of defence against pathogen, signaling via ROS is initiated by NADPH oxidase-catalyzed superoxide generation in the apoplastic space (cell wall) followed by conversion to hydrogen peroxide by the activity of cell wall-localized SOD. Wall peroxidase may also play role in ROS generation for signaling. Hydrogen peroxide may use Ca2+ and MAPK pathway as downstream signaling cascade. Plant hormones associated with stress responses like ABA and ethylene play their role possibly via a cross talk with ROS towards stress tolerance, thus projecting a dual role of ROS under drought stress. PMID:22057331

  11. Potential Study of Water Extraction from Selected Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Water is absorbed by the roots of a plant and transported subsequently as a liquid to all parts of the plant before being released into the atmosphere as transpiration. In this study, seven(7selected plant species collected from urban, rural and forested areas were studied and characterized. The water was collected using transparent plastic bag that being tied to the tree branches. Then, the vapouris water trapped inside the plastic bag and through the condensation process, it become water droplets. Water quality parameters such as temperature, pH value, DO, turbidity, colour, magnesium, calcium, nitrate and chloride were analyzed. The analysis was compared to drinking water quality standard set by the Ministry of Health Malaysia. Based on the results, it shows that banana leaf has a higher rate of water extraction compared to others. Thus, the plant can be categorised as a helpful guide for emergency use of water or as an alternative source to survival.

  12. New nuclear plant design and licensing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luangdilok, W.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes latest developments in the nuclear power reactor technology with emphasis on three areas: (1) the US technology of advanced passive light water reactors (AP600 and S BWR), (2) regulatory processes that certify their safety, and (3) current engineering concerns. The goal is to provide and insight of how the government's regulatory agency guarantees public safety by looking into how new passive safety features were designed and tested by vendors and how they were re-evaluated and retested by the US NRC. The paper then discusses the US 1989 nuclear licensing reform (10 CFR Part 52) whose objectives are to promote the standardization of nuclear power plants and provide for the early and definitive resolution of site and design issues before plants are built. The new licensing process avoids the unpredictability nd escalated construction cost under the old licensing process. Finally, the paper summarizes engineering concerns found in current light water reactors that may not go away in the new design. The concerns are related the material and water chemistry technology in dealing with corrosion problems in water-cooled nuclear reactor systems (PWRs and BWRs). These engineering concerns include core shroud cracking (BWRs), jet pump hold-down beam cracking (BWRs), steam generator tube stress corrosion cracking (PWR)

  13. Purification of Water by Aquatic Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Morimitsu, Katsuhito; Kawahigashi, Tatsuo

    2013-01-01

    [Abstract] Water quality purification of many water systems including those occurring in rivers depends to a great degree on water quality purification activities of aquatic plants and microbes. This paper presents a discussion of results, based on laboratory experiments, of purification by aquatic plants.

  14. Overcoming technology - obsolescence: a case study in Heavy Water Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, O.P.; Sonde, R.R.; Wechalekar, A.K.

    2002-01-01

    Ammonia based Heavy Water Plants in India are set up essentially in conjunction with fertiliser plants for the supply of feed synthesis gas. Earlier ammonia was being produced in fertiliser plants using high-pressure technology which was highly energy intensive. However with fast developments in the field of production of ammonia, fertiliser plants are switching over to low pressure technology. Ammonia based heavy water plants have to operate on pressures corresponding to that of fertiliser plants. Due to low pressures in production of ammonia, heavy water plants would also be required to operate at low pressures than the existing operating pressures. This problem was faced at Heavy Water Plant at Baroda where GSFC supplying synthesis gas switched over to low pressure technology making it imperative on the part of Heavy Water Board to carry out modification to the main plant for continued operation of Heavy Water Plant, Baroda. Anticipating similar problems due to production of ammonia at lower pressures in other fertiliser plants linked to existing Heavy Water Plants, it became necessary for HWB to develop water ammonia front end. The feed in such a case would be water instead of synthesis gas. This would enable HWB to dispense with dependence on fertiliser plants especially if grass-root ammonia based heavy water plants are to be set up. Incorporation of water ammonia front end would enable HWB to de link ammonia based heavy water plants with fertiliser plants. This paper discusses the advantage of de linking heavy water plant respective fertiliser plant by incorporating water ammonia front end and technical issues related to front end technology. A novel concept of ammonia absorption refrigeration (AAR) was considered for the process integration with the front end. The incorporation of AAR with water ammonia front-end configuration utilizes liquid ammonia refrigerant to generate refrigeration without additional energy input which otherwise would have been

  15. Plant experience with temporary reverse osmosis makeup water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polidoroff, C.

    1986-01-01

    Pacific Gas and Electric (PG and E) Company's Diablo Canyon Power Plant (DCPP), which is located on California's central coast, has access to three sources of raw water: creek water, well water, and seawater. Creek and well water are DCPP's primary sources of raw water; however, because their supply is limited, these sources are supplemented with seawater. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the temporary, rental, reverse osmosis systems used by PG and E to process DCPP's raw water into water suitable for plant makeup. This paper addresses the following issues: the selection of reverse osmosis over alternative water processing technologies; the decision to use vendor-operated temporary, rental, reverse osmosis equipment versus permanent PG and E-owned and -operated equipment; the performance of DCPP's rental reverse osmosis systems; and, the lessons learned from DCPP's reverse osmosis system rental experience that might be useful to other plants considering renting similar equipment

  16. Electrolytic process for upgrading heavy water (Preprint No. PD-16)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rammohan, K.; Sadhukhan, H.K.

    1989-04-01

    In the reactor system the heavy water gets depleted in concentration due to leakages, intermixing and vapour collection in boiler vault system etc. Electrolysis of water was used as a secondary plant to enrich the dilute heavy water produced in the primery plant by hydrogen-sulfide-water exchange process. The studies made in the development of this process for the upgrading of downgra ded heavy water by setting up a full size Electrolyser Test Assembly are discussed a nd complete design of a heavy water upgrading plant based on electrolytic process for MAPS and NAPP is described. (author). 7 refs., 5 figs

  17. TBP production plant effluent treatment process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sriniwas, C.; Sugilal, G.; Wattal, P.K.

    2004-06-01

    TBP production facility at Heavy Water Plant, Talcher generates about 2000 litres of effluent per 200 kg batch. The effluent is basically an aqueous solution containing dissolved and dispersed organics such as dibutyl phosphate, butanol etc. The effluent has high salinity, chemical oxygen demand (30-80 g/L) and pungent odour. It requires treatment before discharge. A chemical precipitation process using ferric chloride was developed for quantitative separation of organics from the aqueous part of the effluent. This process facilitates the discharge of the aqueous effluent. Results of the laboratory and bench scale experiments on actual effluent samples are presented in this report. (author)

  18. Enhancing Elementary Pre-service Teachers' Plant Processes Conceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Stephen L.; Lotter, Christine; Fann, Xumei; Taylor, Laurie

    2016-06-01

    Researchers examined how an inquiry-based instructional treatment emphasizing interrelated plant processes influenced 210 elementary pre-service teachers' (PTs) conceptions of three plant processes, photosynthesis, cellular respiration, and transpiration, and the interrelated nature of these processes. The instructional treatment required PTs to predict the fate of a healthy plant in a sealed terrarium (Plant-in-a-Jar), justify their predictions, observe the plant over a 5-week period, and complete guided inquiry activities centered on one of the targeted plant processes each week. Data sources included PTs' pre- and post-predictions with accompanying justifications, course artifacts such as weekly terrarium observations and science journal entries, and group models of the interrelated plant processes occurring within the sealed terraria. A subset of 33 volunteer PTs also completed interviews the week the Plant-in-a-Jar scenario was introduced and approximately 4 months after the instructional intervention ended. Pre- and post-predictions from all PTs as well as interview responses from the subgroup of PTs, were coded into categories based on key plant processes emphasized in the Next Generation Science Standards. Study findings revealed that PTs developed more accurate conceptions of plant processes and their interrelated nature as a result of the instructional intervention. Primary patterns of change in PTs' plant process conceptions included development of more accurate conceptions of how water is used by plants, more accurate conceptions of photosynthesis features, and more accurate conceptions of photosynthesis and cellular respiration as transformative processes.

  19. Phytoremediation potential of water caltrop (Trapa natans L.) using municipal wastewater of the activated sludge process-based municipal wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vinod; Chopra, A K

    2018-01-01

    Phytoremediation experiments were carried out to assess the phytoremediation potential of water caltrop (Trapa natans L.) using municipal wastewater collected from the activated sludge process- (ASP) based municipal wastewater treatment plant. The results revealed that T. natans significantly (P ≤ .05/P ≤ .01/P ≤ .001) reduced the contents of total dissolved solids (TDS), electrical conductivity (EC), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD 5 ), chemical oxygen demand, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, phosphate ([Formula: see text]), sodium (Na + ), potassium (K + ), calcium (Ca 2+ ), magnesium (Mg 2+ ), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), standard plate count, and most probable number of the municipal wastewater after phytoremediation experiments. The maximum removal of these parameters was obtained at 60 days of the phytoremediation experiments, but the removal rate of these parameters was gradually increased from 15 to 45 days and it was slightly decreased at 60 days. Most contents of Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn were translocated in the leaves of T. natans, whereas most contents of Cr and Pb were accumulated in the root of T. natans after phytoremediation experiments. The contents of different biochemical components were recorded in the order of total sugar > crude protein > total ash > crude fiber > total fat in T. natans after phytoremediation of municipal wastewater. Therefore, T. natans was found to be effective for the removal of different parameters of municipal wastewater and can be used effectively to reduce the pollution load of municipal wastewater drained from the ASP-based treatment plants.

  20. Water protection in coke-plant design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.I. Alekseev [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15

    Wastewater generation, water consumption, and water management at coke plants are considered. Measures to create runoff-free water-supply and sewer systems are discussed. Filters for water purification, corrosion inhibitors, and biocides are described. An integrated single-phase technology for the removal of phenols, thiocyanides, and ammoniacal nitrogen is outlined.

  1. Possibilities of tritium removal from waste waters of pressurized water reactors and fuel reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribnikar, S.V.; Pupezin, J.D.

    1975-01-01

    Starting from parameters known for heavy water production processes, a parallel was made with separation of tritium from water. The quantity in common is the total cascade flow. The most efficient processes appear to be hydrogen sulfide, water exchange, hydrogen- and water distillation. Prospects of application of new processes are discussed briefly. Problems concerning detritiation of pressurized water reactors and large fuel reprocessing plants are analyzed. Detritiation of the former should not present problems. With the latter, economical detritiation can be achieved only after some plant flow patterns are changed. (U.S.)

  2. Regulation of Water in Plant Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowles, Richard V.

    2010-01-01

    Cell water relationships are important topics to be included in cell biology courses. Differences exist in the control of water relationships in plant cells relative to control in animal cells. One important reason for these differences is that turgor pressure is a consideration in plant cells. Diffusion and osmosis are the underlying factors…

  3. Water use, productivity and interactions among desert plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehleringer, J.R.

    1992-11-17

    Water plays a central role affecting all aspects of the dynamics in aridland ecosystems. Productivity, stability, and competitive interactions among ecosystem components within aridlands are key processes related directly to water in deserts. The ecological studies in this project revolve around one fundamental premise: that integrated aspects of plant metabolism provide insight into the structure and function of plant communities and ecosystems. While it is difficult to extrapolate from instantaneous physiological observations to higher scales, such as whole plant performance or to interactions between plants as components of ecosystems, several key aspects of plant metabolism are scalable. Analyses of stable isotopic composition in plant tissues at natural abundance levels provide a useful tool that can provide insight into the consequences of physiological processes over temporal and spatial scales. Some plant processes continuously fractionate among light and heavy stable isotopic forms of an element; over time this results in integrated measures of plant metabolism. For example, carbon isotope fractionation during photosynthesis results in leaf carbon isotopic composition that is a measure of the set-point for photosynthetic metabolism and of water-use efficiency. Thus it provides information on the temporal scaling of a key physiological process. In contrast, hydrogen is not fractionated during water uptake through the root. Soil water availability in shallow, deep, and/or groundwater layers vary spatially; therefore hydrogen isotope ratios of xylem sap provide a direct measure of the water source currently used by a plant. The longer-term record of carbon and hydrogen isotope ratios is recorded annually in xylem tissues (tree rings). The research in this project addresses variation in stable isotopic composition of aridland plants and its consequences for plant performance and community-level interactions.

  4. Water quality diagnosis system for power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igarashi, Hiroo; Fukumoto, Toshihiko

    1991-01-01

    An AI diagnose system for the water quality control of a BWR type reactor is divided into a general diagnosing section for generally classifying the water quality conditions of the plant depending on a causal relation between the symptom of the water quality abnormality and its causes, generally diagnosing the position and the cause of the abnormality and ranking the items considered to be the cause, and a detail diagnosing section for a further diagnosis based on the result of the diagnosis in the former section. The general diagnosing section provides a plurality of threshold values showing the extent of the abnormality depending on the cause to the causal relation between the causes and the forecast events previously formed depending on the data of process sensors in the plant. Since the diagnosis for the abnormality and normality is given not only as an ON or OFF mode but also as the extent thereof, it can enter the detailed diagnosis in the most plausible order, based on a plurality of estimated causes, to enable to find the case and take a counter-measure in an early stage. (N.H.)

  5. Possible effects of regulating hydroponic water temperature on plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water temperature can affect many physiological processes during plant growth and development. Temperatures below or above optimum levels may influence plant metabolic activities positively or negatively. This may include accumulation of different metabolites such as phenolic compounds, reactive oxygen species ...

  6. Processes for manufacture of products from plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    Disclosed herein is a process for inhibiting browning of plant material comprising adding a chelating agent to a disrupted plant material and adjusting the pH to a value of 2.0 to 4.5. Processes for manufacture of soluble and insoluble products from a plant material are also disclosed. Soluble...

  7. Water conservation by 3 R's - case histories of Heavy Water Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, A.K.; Hiremath, S.C.

    2005-01-01

    The basics of water conservation revolve around three R's of Reduce, Recycle, and Reuse. The Heavy Water Plants are an excellent example of water savings, and these case studies will be of interest to the chemical industry. The issues involved with water conservation and re-use in different Heavy Water Plants are of different nature. In H 2 S-H 2 O process plants the water consumption has been substantially decreased as compared to the design water needs. To quote the figures HWP (Kota) was designed to consume 2280 m 3 /hr water, which included 453 m 3 /hr water as feed for deuterium extraction. Today the plant operates with only 1250 m 3 /hr water while processing 500 m 3 /hr feed; and is headed to decrease the total water consumption to 700 m 3 /hr. Similarly at HWP (Manuguru) the design had provided 5600 m 3 /hr water consumption, which is today operating with only 1750 m 3 /hr and poised to operate with 1600 m 3 /hr. The issues of water conservation in Ammonia Hydrogen exchange plants have an additional dimension since water losses mean direct loss of heavy water production. In adjoining ammonia plants deuterium shifts to steam in the reformer and shift converter, and this excess steam is condensed as rich condensate. It becomes incumbent on the fertilizer plant to maintain a tight discipline for conserving and re-using the rich condensate so that deuterium concentration in the synthesis gas is maintained. Efforts are also underway to utilize rich condensate of GSFC in the newly developed technology of water ammonia exchange at HWP (Baroda) and we are targeting 20% production gains by implementation of this scheme and with no increase in the pollution load. These case histories will be of interest to Chemical Process Industry. (author)

  8. Improved method of degassing of feed water at Heavy Water Plant, Kota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, G K; Agrawal, A K [Heavy Water Plant, Kota (India)

    1994-06-01

    Heavy Water Plant (Kota) processes 450 MT/hr of feed water as the source of deuterium using water/hydrogen sulphide exchange process for the production of heavy water. Plant design has limited the ingress of dissolved oxygen in feed water to 0.2 ppm. However, even this low limit on dissolved oxygen has been found unacceptable during plant operation as over an operational period of 3-4 years accumulation of sulphur due to oxidation of hydrogen sulphide on exchange tower trays poses major operational problems. This paper discusses the results of nitrogen injection used for reducing the ingress of dissolved oxygen in the feed water system of the plant. (author). 1 fig.

  9. Improved method of degassing of feed water at Heavy Water Plant, Kota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnan, G.K.; Agrawal, A.K.

    1994-01-01

    Heavy Water Plant (Kota) processes 450 MT/hr of feed water as the source of deuterium using water/hydrogen sulphide exchange process for the production of heavy water. Plant design has limited the ingress of dissolved oxygen in feed water to 0.2 ppm. However, even this low limit on dissolved oxygen has been found unacceptable during plant operation as over an operational period of 3-4 years accumulation of sulphur due to oxidation of hydrogen sulphide on exchange tower trays poses major operational problems. This paper discusses the results of nitrogen injection used for reducing the ingress of dissolved oxygen in the feed water system of the plant. (author)

  10. Hydraulic modelling of drinking water treatment plant operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Worm, G.I.M.; Mesman, G.A.M.; Van Schagen, K.M.; Borger, K.J.; Rietveld, L.C.

    2009-01-01

    The flow through a unit of a drinking water treatment plant is one of the most important parameters in terms of a unit's effectiveness. In the present paper, a new EPAnet library is presented with the typical hydraulic elements for drinking water treatment processes well abstraction, rapid sand

  11. Oxygen isotope analysis of plant water without extraction procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gan, K.S.; Wong, S.C.; Farquhar, G.D.; Yong, J.W.H.

    2001-01-01

    Isotopic analyses of plant water (mainly xylem, phloem and leaf water) are gaming importance as the isotopic signals reflect plant-environment interactions, affect the oxygen isotopic composition of atmospheric O 2 and CO 2 and are eventually incorporated into plant organic matter. Conventionally, such isotopic measurements require a time-consuming process of isolating the plant water by azeotropic distillation or vacuum extraction, which would not complement the speed of isotope analysis provided by continuous-flow IRMS (Isotope-Ratio Mass Spectrometry), especially when large data sets are needed for statistical calculations in biological studies. Further, a substantial amount of plant material is needed for water extraction and leaf samples would invariably include unenriched water from the fine veins. To measure sub-microlitre amount of leaf mesophyll water, a new approach is undertaken where a small disc of fresh leaf is cut using a specially designed leaf punch, and pyrolysed directly in an IRMS. By comparing with results from pyrolysis of the dry matter of the same leaf, the 18 O content of leaf water can be determined without extraction from fresh leaves. This method is validated using a range of cellulose-water mixtures to simulate the constituents of fresh leaf. Cotton leaf water δ 18 O obtained from both methods of fresh leaf pyrolysis and azeotropic distillation will be compared. The pyrolysis technique provides a robust approach to measure the isotopic content of water or any volatile present in a homogeneous solution or solid hydrous substance

  12. Water Supply Treatment Sustainability of Panching Water Supply Treatment Process - Water Footprint Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Edriyana A.; Malek, Marlinda Abdul; Moni, Syazwan N.; Zulkifli, Nabil F.; Hadi, Iqmal H.

    2018-03-01

    In many parts of the world, freshwater is scarce and overexploited. The purpose of this study is to determine the water footprint of Water Supply Treatment Process (WSTP) at Panching Water Treatment Plant (WTP) as well as to identify the sustainability of the Sg. Kuantan as an intake resource due to the effect of land use development. The total water footprint (WF) will be calculated by using WF accounting manual. The results obtained shows that the water intake resource is still available but it is believed that it will not be able to cope with the increasing WF. The increment of water demand percentage by 1.8% from 2015 to 2016 has increased 11 times higher of the water footprint percentage, 19.9%. This result shows that the water consumption during the water supply treatment process is two times higher than the demand thus it shows the inefficient of the water management

  13. Consequences of potential accidents in heavy water plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croitoru, C.; Lazar, R.E.; Preda, I.A.; Dumitrescu, M.

    2002-01-01

    Heavy water plants achieve the primary isotopic concentration by H 2 O-H 2 S chemical exchange. In these plants are stored large quantities of hydrogen sulphide (high toxic, corrosive, flammable and explosive) maintained in process at relative high temperatures and pressures. It is required an assessment of risks associated with the potential accidents. The paper presents adopted model for quantitative consequences assessment in heavy water plants. Following five basic steps are used to identify the risks involved in plants operation: hazard identification, accident sequences development, H 2 S emissions calculus, dispersion analyses and consequences determination. A brief description of each step and some information from risk assessment for our heavy water pilot plant are provided. Accident magnitude, atmospheric conditions and population density in studied area were accounted for consequences calculus. (author)

  14. The Role of Plant Water Storage on Water Fluxes within the Coupled Soil-Plant-Atmosphere System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C. W.; Duman, T.; Parolari, A.; Katul, G. G.

    2015-12-01

    Plant water storage (PWS) contributes to whole-plant transpiration (up to 50%), especially in large trees and during severe drought conditions. PWS also can impact water-carbon economy as well as the degree of resistance to drought. A 1-D porous media model is employed to accommodate transient water flow through the plant hydraulic system. This model provides a mechanistic representation of biophysical processes constraining water transport, accounting for plant hydraulic architecture and the nonlinear relation between stomatal aperture and leaf water potential when limited by soil water availability. Water transport within the vascular system from the stem base to the leaf-lamina is modeled using Richards's equation, parameterized with the hydraulic properties of the plant tissues. For simplicity, the conducting flow in the radial direction is not considered here and the capacitance at the leaf-lamina is assumed to be independent of leaf water potential. The water mass balance in the leaf lamina sets the upper boundary condition for the flow system, which links the leaf-level transpiration to the leaf water potential. Thus, the leaf-level gas exchange can be impacted by soil water availability through the water potential gradient from the leaf lamina to the soil, and vice versa. The root water uptake is modeled by a multi-layered macroscopic scheme to account for possible hydraulic redistribution (HR) in certain conditions. The main findings from the model calculations are that (1) HR can be diminished by the residual water potential gradient from roots to leaves at night due to aboveground capacitance, tree height, nocturnal transpiration or the combination of the three. The degree of reduction depends on the magnitude of residual water potential gradient; (2) nocturnal refilling to PWS elevates the leaf water potential that subsequently delays the onset of drought stress at the leaf; (3) Lifting water into the PWS instead of HR can be an advantageous strategy

  15. Primary processes during water radiolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pikaev, A.K.

    1980-01-01

    Briefly reviewed are investigations of primary process mechanism taking place during radiolysis of water and similar systems, executed by direct and indirect methods. A conclusion is made on the important role of the water structure during radiolysis of aqueous solutions of some substances. A necessity to take account of this factor during consideration of radiolysis theoretical models is pointed out

  16. Water treatment for 500 MWe PHWR plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasist, Sudheer; Sharma, M.C.; Agarwal, N.K.

    1995-01-01

    Large quantities of treated water is required for power generation. For a typical 500 MWe PHWR inland station with cooling towers, raw water at the rate of 6000 m 3 /hr is required. Impurities in cooling water give rise to the problems of corrosion, scaling, microbiological contamination, fouling, silical deposition etc. These problems lead to increased maintenance cost, reduced heat transfer efficiency, and possible production cut backs or shutdowns. The problems in coastal based power plants are more serious because of the highly corrosive nature of sea water used for cooling. An overview of the cooling water systems and water treatment method is enumerated. (author). 2 refs., 1 fig

  17. Combined production of fish and plants in recirculating water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naegel, L.C.A.

    1977-01-01

    A pilot plant of ca 2000 l of recirculating fresh water for intensive fish production was constructed in a controlled-environment greenhouse. The feasibility was examined of using nutrients from fish wastewater, mainly oxidized nitrogenous compounds, for plant production, combined with an activated sludge system for water purification. The reduction of nitrates, formed during the extended aeration process by nitrifying bacteria, was not sufficient by higher plants and unicellular algae alone to reduce the nitrate concentration in our system significantly. An additional microbial denitrification step had to be included to effect maximal decrease in nitrogenous compounds. For fish culture in the pilot plant Tilapia mossambica and Cyprinus carpio were chosen as experimental fishes. Both fish species showed significant weight increases during the course of the experiment. Ice-lettuce and tomatoes were tested both in recirculating water and in batch culture. The unicellular algae Scenedesmus spp. were grown in a non-sterile batch culture. All plants grew well in the wastewater without additional nutrients. Determination of the physical and chemical parameters for optimum water purification, the most suitable ratio of denitrification by plants and by microorganisms, and the most favourable fish and plant species for combined culture in recirculating water are important and of current interest in view of the increasing demand for clean, fresh water, and the pressing need to find new ways of producing protein for human nutrition under prevailing conditions of an exponentially expanding world population.

  18. Water management and productivity in planted forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Nettles

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available As climate variability endangers water security in many parts of the world, maximizing the carbon balance of plantation forestry is of global importance. High plant water use efficiency is generally associated with lower plant productivity, so an explicit balance in resources is necessary to optimize water yield and tree growth. This balance requires predicting plant water use under different soil, climate, and planting conditions, as well as a mechanism to account for trade-offs in ecosystem services. Several strategies for reducing the water use of forests have been published but there is little research tying these to operational forestry. Using data from silvicultural and biofuel feedstock research in pine plantation ownership in the southeastern USA, proposed water management tools were evaluated against known treatment responses to estimate water yield, forest productivity, and economic outcomes. Ecosystem impacts were considered qualitatively and related to water use metrics. This work is an attempt to measure and compare important variables to make sound decisions about plantations and water use.

  19. Process for the preparation of ammonia and heavy water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandrin, C.

    1980-01-01

    A process for the production of ammonia and heavy water comprises the steps of enriching a flow of water with deuterium in a monothermal isotropic process; supplying a first portion of the deuterium-enriched water to a heavy water preparation plant to produce heavy water and hydrogen; storing a second portion of the deuterium-enriched water substantially without interruption during the colder half of a year; electrolytically dissociating the stored deuterium-enriched water substantially without interruption during the wamer half of a year to form hydrogen; storing a portion of the electrolytically-produced hydrogen during said warmer half of a year while supplying the remainder to a synthesis circuit of a synthesizing plant and subsequently supplying the stored hydrogen to the synthesis circuit during said colder half of a year; removing some of the synthesis gas mixture from the synthesis circuit of the synthesizing plant; burning the removed synthesis gas mixture with air to produce a mixture consisting mainly of water and nitrogen; thereafter condensing and separating the water from the mixture of water and nitrogen; supplying the nitrogen of the mixture of water and nitrogen, the hydrogen from the heavy water preparation plant and the electrolytically-produced hydrogen to the synthesis circuit of the synthesizing plant to produce ammonia; and collecting deuterium-depleted water resulting from said burning step and feeding the collected deuterium-depleted water into the monothermal process

  20. Method for the utilization of waste heat, especially from nuclear power plants, in connection with processing sewage water and industrial waste water and in connection with the generation of motional energy whilst continuous heat recovery takes place and a device for carrying out this method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borst, A.H.

    1977-01-01

    A method is proposed by which the waste heat for nuclear power plants is used for distilling waste water, thus creating drinking water. A pressure vessel with appropriate pipes and control elementes, in which this process is to be carried out, is described. (UWI) [de

  1. Hypermetabolic Conversion of Plant Oil into Water: Endothermic Biochemical Process Stimulated by Juvenile Hormone in the European Firebug, Pyrrhocoris apterus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sláma, Karel; Lukáš, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The physiological and biochemical mechanisms that enable insects to feed on dry food to secure enough water for larval growth were investigated. The study was carried out with a plethora of physiological methods, ranging from the simple volumetric determination of O 2 consumption and water intake to more advanced methods such as scanning microrespirography and thermovision imaging of insect's body temperature. The experiments were done on the European firebug, Pyrrhocoris apterus , which feeds exclusively on dry linden seeds. In order to survive, it needs to drink water or suck a sap from plants occasionally. It was found that the young larval instars compensate the occasional water deficiency by the increased production of metabolic water. The juvenile hormone (JH)-dependent production of metabolic water, which was previously found in other species consuming dry food, was achieved in P. apterus by total metabolic combustion of the dietary lipid (neutral seed oil). The water-producing, hypermetabolic larvae were heated from inside by endothermic energy released from the uncoupling of oxidation from oxidative phosphorylation. The "warm", hypermetabolic larvae burning the dietary oil into CO 2 and water showed the increased rates of respiratory metabolism. Microrespirographic recording of these larvae revealed the ratio of the respiratory quotient (RQ, CO 2 /O 2 ) of 0.7, which indicated the breakdown of a pure triglyceride. The warm hypermetabolic larvae could be easily spotted and distinguished from the "cold" larvae on the screen of a thermovision camera. The last instar larvae lacking the JH were always only cold. They metabolized a carbohydrate substrate exclusively (RQ = 1.0), while the dietary lipid was stored in the fat body. In comparison with the hypermetabolic larvae of some other species fed on dry food, which exhibited the highest rates of O 2 consumption ever recorded in a living organism (10-20 mL O 2 /g per hour), the metabolic difference between the

  2. Heavy Water - Industrial Separation Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peculea, M.

    1984-01-01

    This monograph devoted to the heavy water production mainly presents the Romanian experience in the field which started in early sixties from the laboratory scale production and reached now the level of large scale industrial production at ROMAG-Drobeta, Romania. The book is structured in eleven chapters entitled: Overview, The main physical properties, Sources, Uses, Separation factor and equilibrium constant, Mathematical modelling of the separation process, Thermodynamical considerations on the isotope separation, Selection criteria for heavy water separation processes, Industrial installations for heavy water production, Prospects, Acknowledgements. 200 Figs., 90 Tabs., 135 Refs

  3. Evaluating the impact of an ammonia-based post-combustion CO2 capture process on a steam power plant with different cooling water temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnenberg, Sebastian; Darde, Victor Camille Alfred; Oexmann, Jochen

    2012-01-01

    The use of aqueous ammonia is a promising option to capture carbon dioxide from the flue gas of coal-fired power plants. Compared to a capture process using monoethanolamine (MEA), the use of ammonia can reduce the heat requirement of the CO2 desorption significantly, although an additional effort...... pressure, solvent circulation rate, solvent recycling rate and chilling temperature) are evaluated and the optimal configuration with respect to the overall net efficiency penalty is determined.The study shows that the configuration of the process with absorption at low temperature (approximately 10°C...

  4. Plant-based remediation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Dharmendra Kumar (ed.) [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK.CEN), Mol (Belgium). Radiological Impact and Performance Assessment Division

    2013-11-01

    A valuable source of information for scientists in the field of environmental pollution and remediation. Describes the latest biotechnological methods for the treatment of contaminated soils. Includes case studies and protocols. Phytoremediation is an emerging technology that employs higher plants for the clean-up of contaminated environments. Basic and applied research have unequivocally demonstrated that selected plant species possess the genetic potential to accumulate, degrade, metabolize and immobilize a wide range of contaminants. The main focus of this volume is on the recent advances of technologies using green plants for remediation of various metals and metalloids. Topics include biomonitoring of heavy metal pollution, amendments of higher uptake of toxic metals, transport of heavy metals in plants, and toxicity mechanisms. Further chapters discuss agro-technological methods for minimizing pollution while improving soil quality, transgenic approaches to heavy metal remediation and present protocols for metal remediation via in vitro root cultures.

  5. Chilled water optimization at Beek INEOS PVC Plant : ammonia cycle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karami Alaghinloo, B.

    2012-01-01

    In BEEK INEOS PVC plant, polymerization takes place in a suspension process in twenty reactors in five lines. As the reaction is exothermic, a 17MW chilled water unit (CWU) removing heat from reactors which are producing different grades in batch processes. The objective of the project was to

  6. Estimating plant root water uptake using a neural network approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qiao, D M; Shi, H B; Pang, H B

    2010-01-01

    but has not yet been addressed. This paper presents and tests such an approach. The method is based on a neural network model, estimating the water uptake using different types of data that are easy to measure in the field. Sunflower grown in a sandy loam subjected to water stress and salinity was taken......Water uptake by plant roots is an important process in the hydrological cycle, not only for plant growth but also for the role it plays in shaping microbial community and bringing in physical and biochemical changes to soils. The ability of roots to extract water is determined by combined soil...... and plant characteristics, and how to model it has been of interest for many years. Most macroscopic models for water uptake operate at soil profile scale under the assumption that the uptake rate depends on root density and soil moisture. Whilst proved appropriate, these models need spatio-temporal root...

  7. Water intaking facility of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, Kazuhito; Iwata, Nobukatsu; Ochiai, Kanehiro.

    1994-01-01

    In a water intaking facility of a nuclear power plant, a dam is disposed at a position near a sea shore for preventing sea water introduced in open conduit from flowing to the outer sea upon ebbing of tsunamis. The upper end of the dam is set lower than the lower end of a water-intake pipe of a sea water pump of an ordinary system. A water-intake pipe is disposed to such a length that a sea water pump of an emergency system continues to suck the sea water when the water level of the introduced sea water is lowered than the upper end of the dam during the ebb tide. In addition, a means for stopping the operation of the sea water pump of the ordinary system upon starting of the ebb is disposed. Upon reactor scram for occurrence of earthquakes and the like, either the sea water pump in the ordinary system or the seawater pump in the emergency system operates to ensure required amount of sea water for cooling the reactor. In addition, even if the level of the sea water is lowered than the upper end of the dam, since the sea water pump in the emergency system continues to suck sea water, unnecessary suction for sea water by the ordinary sea water pumps can be eliminated. (N.H.)

  8. Water retention capacity of tissue cultured plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klerk, de G.J.M.; Wijnhoven, F.

    2005-01-01

    Leaves rapidly close their stomata after detachment resulting in a strong reduction of water loss. It has been reported that detached leaves of in vitro produced plants show continuous water loss indicating that they are unable to close the stomata properly and/or that their cuticle is

  9. Reliability of reactor plant water cleanup pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearson, J.L.

    1979-01-01

    Carolina Power and Light Company's Brunswick 2 nuclear plant experienced a high reactor water cleanup pump-failure rate until inlet temperature and flow were reduced and mechanical modifications were implemented. Failures have been zero for about one year, and water cleanup efficiency has increased

  10. Treatment of waters before use. Processes and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouchet, P.

    2006-01-01

    Some industrial processes require a water without any particulate in suspension and stable with respect to various aspects: no post-precipitations, no interference with storage and distribution equipments (corrosion or fouling), no development of bacterial, algal or other type of fauna (no chemical nutrients) etc. The water preparation process used will be different depending on the origin of the water (surface or underground). This article describes, first, the different type of treatments depending on the origin of the water and on the quality requested (clear and stable water, drinkable water, specific complementary processes, different processing files). Then, in a second part, the application of these processes to some industries are given (beverage, food, textile, paper, steel-making, aerospace and automotive, petroleum, power plants, ultra-pure waters) and in particular the preparation of demineralized water for nuclear power plants is described. (J.S.)

  11. Drought Tip: Keeping Plants Alive under Drought or Water Restrictions

    OpenAIRE

    Hartin, Janet; Oki, Loren; Fujino, Dave; Faber, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Plants that don't receive enough water eventually show signs of water stress. During a drought or under water restrictions aimed at water conservation, keeping plants alive can be particularly difficult.

  12. Water use, productivity and interactions among desert plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehleringer, J.R.

    1992-11-17

    Productivity, stability, and competitive interactions among ecosystem components within aridlands are key processes related directly to water in deserts. This project assumes that integrated aspects of plant metabolism provide insight into the structure and function of plant communities and ecosystems. While it is difficult to extrapolate from instantaneous physiological observations to higher scales, such as whole plant performance or to the interactions between plants as components of ecosystems, several key aspects of plant metabolism are scalable. Analyses of stable isotopic composition in plant tissues at natural abundance levels provide a useful tool that can provide insight into the consequences of physiological processes over temporal and spatial scales. Some plant processes continuously fractionate among light and heavy stable isotopic forms of an element; over time this results in integrated measures of plant metabolism. For example, carbon isotope fractionation during photosynthesis results in leaf carbon isotopic composition that is a measure of the set-point for photosynthetic metabolism and of water-use efficiency. Thus it provides information on the temporal scaling of a key physiological process.

  13. Water use, productivity and interactions among desert plants. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehleringer, J.R.

    1992-11-17

    Productivity, stability, and competitive interactions among ecosystem components within aridlands are key processes related directly to water in deserts. This project assumes that integrated aspects of plant metabolism provide insight into the structure and function of plant communities and ecosystems. While it is difficult to extrapolate from instantaneous physiological observations to higher scales, such as whole plant performance or to the interactions between plants as components of ecosystems, several key aspects of plant metabolism are scalable. Analyses of stable isotopic composition in plant tissues at natural abundance levels provide a useful tool that can provide insight into the consequences of physiological processes over temporal and spatial scales. Some plant processes continuously fractionate among light and heavy stable isotopic forms of an element; over time this results in integrated measures of plant metabolism. For example, carbon isotope fractionation during photosynthesis results in leaf carbon isotopic composition that is a measure of the set-point for photosynthetic metabolism and of water-use efficiency. Thus it provides information on the temporal scaling of a key physiological process.

  14. Active condensation of water by plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prokhorov Alexey Anatolievich

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to some peculiarities of water condensation on the surface of plants . Arguments in support of the hypothesis that in decreasing temperature of leaves and shoots below the dew point, the plant can actively condense moisture from the air, increasing the duration of dewfall are presented. Evening dewfall on plant surfaces begins before starting the formation of fog. Morning condensation continues for some time after the air temperature exceeds the dew point . The phenomenon in question is found everywhere, but it is particularly important for plants in arid ecosystems.

  15. Pilot plant for exploitation of geothermal waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojiljković Dragan T.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In Sijarinska spa, there are some 15 mineral and thermomineral springs, that are already being used for therapeutic purposes. For the exploitation of heat energy boring B-4 is very interesting. It is a boring of a closed type, with the water temperature of about 78°C and a flow rate of about 33 l/s. Waters with the flow rate of about 6 l/s are currently used for heating of the Gejzer hotel, and waters of the flow rate of about 0,121 l/s for the pilot drying plant. The paper presents this pilot plant. .

  16. Chemical process engineering in the transuranium processing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, E.D.; Bigelow, J.E.

    1976-01-01

    Since operation of the Transuranium Processing Plant began, process changes have been made to counteract problems caused by equipment corrosion, to satisfy new processing requirements, and to utilize improved processes. The new processes, equipment, and techniques have been incorporated into a sequence of steps which satisfies all required processing functions

  17. PRIMING OF A LOW CAPACITY WASTE WATER TREATEMENT PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Luminiţa Jurj

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In wastewater treatment plants, secondary biologic treatment is generally compulsory for the localities having less than 10,000 equivalent inhabitants, with a supplementary removal of nutrients if the area is a sensitive one. For the areas which are not suitable for centralized household used water collecting network individual treatment devices or collective low capacity devices are recommended. For certain settlements, for instance for the mountainous dispersed villages, or for detached individual households or farms the collective devices can not be an economic solution as involves high maintenance costs and exploiting problems due to long pipes for low flow rates. Priming is one of the starting up processes of a waste water treatment plant. This is not a very difficult process and requires no specialized staff. However, for helping the owners of a low capacity treatment plant, priming of ORM 5 type mechanical - biological equipment consisting in a tank with four compartments, designed for five equivalent inhabitants was studied inside the plant of Timisoara municipality. For the experimental tests waste water from the Timisoara city sewage network was used. This is mixed waste water resulted from faecal/domestic, industrial and rain water. The study comprised tests in unfavorable technological conditions. The conclusions of the monitoring process underline the need of control of the aeration process and the negative technological and consequently the negative economic effect of the less effective process control.

  18. Citrus processing waste water treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawash, S; Hafez, A J; El-Diwani, G

    1988-02-01

    The process utilizes biological treatment to decompose organic matter and decreases the COD to a value of 230 ppm, using 161 of air per 1 of treated waste water for a contact time of 2.5 h. Ozone is used subsequently for further purification of the waste water by destroying refractory organics. This reduces the COD to a value of 40 ppm, and consequently also lowers the BOD. Ozone also effectively removed the yellow-brown colour due to humic substances in dissolved or colloidal form; their oxidation leaves the water sparkling. Iron and manganese are also eliminated.

  19. An evaluation of a water treatment plant with improved overall effectiveness as an objective

    OpenAIRE

    Homsi, Ibrahim J.

    1995-01-01

    The XYZ water Authority (Authority) supplies a population of approximately one million people with drinking water. This water is being produced by three water treatment plants and several independent well sites. The River water Treatment Plant (WTP), the Authority's largest and most modern of all three plants has been experiencing, over a period of ten years, severe and premature equipment failures which are causing process interruptions, production losses and high maintenance cost. These fai...

  20. Heavy water GS process R and D achievements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bancroft, A.R.

    1978-10-01

    R and D support of Canadian heavy water production plants during the past five years has involved mainly AECL and Ontario Hydro, and their contractors. Testing has been done in the production plants, in two pilot plants and in research laboratories on topics that include sieve tray design, in-plant behaviour of oil and sulfur and choice of antifoam agent to control excessive foaming. The benefits are increased production through higher plant flows and higher extraction of deuterium from the feed, less down time because of process problems and lower cost for materials used to control water chemistry. (author)

  1. Plants for water recycling, oxygen regeneration and food production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenheim, D. L.

    1991-01-01

    During long-duration space missions that require recycling and regeneration of life support materials the major human wastes to be converted to usable forms are CO2, hygiene water, urine and feces. A Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) relies on the air revitalization, water purification and food production capabilities of higher plants to rejuvenate human wastes and replenish the life support materials. The key processes in such a system are photosynthesis, whereby green plants utilize light energy to produce food and oxygen while removing CO2 from the atmosphere, and transpiration, the evaporation of water from the plant. CELSS research has emphasized the food production capacity and efforts to minimize the area/volume of higher plants required to satisfy all human life support needs. Plants are a dynamic system capable of being manipulated to favour the supply of individual products as desired. The size and energy required for a CELSS that provides virtually all human needs are determined by the food production capacity. Growing conditions maximizing food production do not maximize transpiration of water; conditions favoring transpiration and scaling to recycle only water significantly reduces the area, volume, and energy inputs per person. Likewise, system size can be adjusted to satisfy the air regeneration needs. Requirements of a waste management system supplying inputs to maintain maximum plant productivity are clear. The ability of plants to play an active role in waste processing and the consequence in terms of degraded plant performance are not well characterized. Plant-based life support systems represent the only potential for self sufficiency and food production in an extra-terrestrial habitat.

  2. Cooling water requirements and nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, T.S.

    2010-01-01

    Indian nuclear power programme is poised to scuttle the energy crisis of our time by proposing joint ventures for large power plants. Large fossil/nuclear power plants (NPPs) rely upon water for cooling and are therefore located near coastal areas. The amount of water a power station uses and consumes depends on the cooling technology used. Depending on the cooling technology utilized, per megawatt existing NPPs use and consume more water (by a factor of 1.25) than power stations using other fuel sources. In this context the distinction between 'use' and 'consume' of water is important. All power stations do consume some of the water they use; this is generally lost as evaporation. Cooling systems are basically of two types; Closed cycle and Once-through, of the two systems, the closed cycle uses about 2-3% of the water volumes used by the once-through system. Generally, water used for power plant cooling is chemically altered for purposes of extending the useful life of equipment and to ensure efficient operation. The used chemicals effluent will be added to the cooling water discharge. Thus water quality impacts on power plants vary significantly, from one electricity generating technology to another. In light of massive expansion of nuclear power programme there is a need to develop new ecofriendly cooling water technologies. Seawater cooling towers (SCT) could be a viable option for power plants. SCTs can be utilized with the proper selection of materials, coatings and can achieve long service life. Among the concerns raised about the development of a nuclear power industry, the amount of water consumed by nuclear power plants compared with other power stations is of relevance in light of the warming surface seawater temperatures. A 1000 MW power plant uses per day ∼800 ML/MW in once through cooling system; while SCT use 27 ML/MW. With the advent of new marine materials and concrete compositions SCT can be constructed for efficient operation. However, the

  3. Waste water pilot plant research, development, and demonstration permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    This permit application has been prepared to obtain a research, development, and demonstration permit to perform pilot-scale treatability testing on the 242-A Evaporator process condensate waste water effluent stream. It provides the management framework, and controls all the testing conducted in the waste water pilot plant using dangerous waste. It also provides a waste acceptance envelope (upper limits for selected constituents) and details the safety and environmental protection requirements for waste water pilot plant testing. This permit application describes the overall approach to testing and the various components or requirements that are common to all tests. This permit application has been prepared at a sufficient level of detail to establish permit conditions for all waste water pilot plant tests to be conducted

  4. Pressurised-water reactor plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergloeff, D.

    1976-01-01

    This additional patent improves the plant described in main patent 2244562 where the primary coolant pump is built into the housing of the steam raising unit, by overcoming certain difficulties in the transition from the specially extensive tube floor of the steam raising unit to the narrow crossection of the pump penetration. This is achieved by the formation of an unsymmetrical inlet funnel between the tube floor of the steam raising unit and the suction side of the pump. A side wall of the funnel forms the separating wall between the inlet and the outlet chamber below the tube floor of the steam raising unit. The crossection of the inlet funnel is reduced towards the pump by 2/3 to 1/3. Even laminar flow conditions are obtained at all flow velocities. Erosion, which disturbs flow and causes cavitation, no longer occurs. (ORU) [de

  5. Water chemistry diagnosis system for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igarashi, Hiroo; Koya, Hiroshi; Osumi, Katsumi.

    1990-01-01

    The water quality control for the BWRs in Japan has advanced rapidly recently, and as to the dose reduction due to the decrease of radioactivity, Japan takes the position leading the world. In the background of the advanced water quality control like this and the increase of nuclear power plants in operation, the automation of arranging a large quantity of water quality control information and the heightening of its reliability have been demanded. Hitachi group developed the water quality synthetic control system which comprises the water quality data management system to process a large quantity of water quality data with a computer and the water quality diagnosis system to evaluate the state of operation of the plants by the minute change of water quality and to carry out the operational guide in the aspect of water quality control. To this water quality diagnosis system, high speed fuzzy inference is applied in order to do rapid diagnosis with fuzzy data. The trend of development of water quality control system, the construction of the water quality synthetic control system, the configuration of the water quality diagnosis system and the development of algorithm and the improvement of the reliability of maintenance are reported. (K.I.)

  6. Issues evaluation process at Rocky Flats Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, L.C.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes the issues evaluation process for Rocky Flats Plant as established in July 1990. The issues evaluation process was initiated February 27, 1990 with a Charter and Process Overview for short-term implementation. The purpose of the process was to determine the projects required for completion before the Phased Resumption of Plutonium Operations. To determine which projects were required, the issues evaluation process and emphasized risk mitigation, based on a ranking system. The purpose of this report is to document the early design of the issues evaluation process to record the methodologies used that continue as the basis for the ongoing Issues Management Program at Rocky Flats Plant

  7. Model feedstock supply processing plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Bautin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The model of raw providing the processing enterprises entering into vertically integrated structure on production and processing of dairy raw materials, differing by an orientation on achievement of cumulative effect by the integrated structure acting as criterion function which maximizing is reached by optimization of capacities, volumes of deliveries of raw materials and its qualitative characteristics, costs of industrial processing of raw materials and demand for dairy production is developed.

  8. The effect of plant water storage on water fluxes within the coupled soil-plant system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cheng-Wei; Domec, Jean-Christophe; Ward, Eric J; Duman, Tomer; Manoli, Gabriele; Parolari, Anthony J; Katul, Gabriel G

    2017-02-01

    In addition to buffering plants from water stress during severe droughts, plant water storage (PWS) alters many features of the spatio-temporal dynamics of water movement in the soil-plant system. How PWS impacts water dynamics and drought resilience is explored using a multi-layer porous media model. The model numerically resolves soil-plant hydrodynamics by coupling them to leaf-level gas exchange and soil-root interfacial layers. Novel features of the model are the considerations of a coordinated relationship between stomatal aperture variation and whole-system hydraulics and of the effects of PWS and nocturnal transpiration (Fe,night) on hydraulic redistribution (HR) in the soil. The model results suggest that daytime PWS usage and Fe,night generate a residual water potential gradient (Δψp,night) along the plant vascular system overnight. This Δψp,night represents a non-negligible competing sink strength that diminishes the significance of HR. Considering the co-occurrence of PWS usage and HR during a single extended dry-down, a wide range of plant attributes and environmental/soil conditions selected to enhance or suppress plant drought resilience is discussed. When compared with HR, model calculations suggest that increased root water influx into plant conducting-tissues overnight maintains a more favorable water status at the leaf, thereby delaying the onset of drought stress. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  9. Treatment of some power plant waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konecny, C.; Vanura, P.; Franta, P.; Marhol, M.; Tejnecky, M.; Fidler, J.

    1987-01-01

    Major results are summed up obtained in 1986 in the development of techniques for the treatment of coolant in the fuel transport and storage tank, of reserve coolant in the primary circuit and of waste water from the special nuclear power plant laundries, containing new washing agent Alfa-DES. A service test of the filter filled with Czechoslovak-made cation exchanger Ostion KSN in the boric acid concentrate filter station showed that the filter can be used in some technological circuits of nuclear power plants. New decontamination agents are also listed introduced in production in Czechoslovakia for meeting the needs of nuclear power plants. (author). 6 refs

  10. Heavy water physical verification in power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morsy, S.; Schuricht, V.; Beetle, T.; Szabo, E.

    1986-01-01

    This paper is a report on the Agency experience in verifying heavy water inventories in power plants. The safeguards objectives and goals for such activities are defined in the paper. The heavy water is stratified according to the flow within the power plant, including upgraders. A safeguards scheme based on a combination of records auditing, comparing records and reports, and physical verification has been developed. This scheme has elevated the status of heavy water safeguards to a level comparable to nuclear material safeguards in bulk facilities. It leads to attribute and variable verification of the heavy water inventory in the different system components and in the store. The verification methods include volume and weight determination, sampling and analysis, non-destructive assay (NDA), and criticality check. The analysis of the different measurement methods and their limits of accuracy are discussed in the paper

  11. Effect of water purification process in radioactive content: analysis on small scale purification plants; Efecto del proceso de purificacion de agua en el contenido radiactivo: analisis en plantas purificadoras a pequena escala

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez del Rio, H.; Quiroga S, J. C.; Davila R, J. I.; Mireles G, F. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Calle Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98000, Zacatecas (Mexico)], e-mail: hlopez@uaz.edu.mx

    2009-10-15

    Water from small scale purification plants is a low cost alternative for consumers in comparison to the bottled commercial presentations. Because of its low cost per liter, the consumption of this product has increased in recent years, stimulating in turn the installation of purification systems for these small businesses. The purpose of this study was to estimate the efficiency of small scale purification systems located in the cities of Zacatecas and Guadalupe, Zacatecas, to reduce the radioactive content of water. It was measured the total alpha and beta activity in water samples of entry and exit to process, through the liquid scintillation technique. In general it was observed that the process is more efficient in removing alpha that beta activity. The fraction of total alpha activity removed varied between 27 and 100%, while between 0 and 77% of the total beta activity was removed by the analyzed plants. In all cases, the total radioactivity level was lower than the maximum permissible value settled by the official mexican standard for drinking water. (Author)

  12. Adaptation to the KMT Fixed Biomass on Moving Bed process in the waste water treatment plant in Tafalla and Olite, Navarra, Spain; Adaptacion al proceso KMT de Biomasa Fija sobre Lecho Movil en la EDAR de Tafalla y Olite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortacans, J. A.; Rodrigo, J. C.; Garcia Gamuza, J.

    2001-07-01

    This article describes the remodeling carried out on the Tafalla and Olite waste water treatment plant in 2000to enable it to cope with a larger flow and load without having to construct new treatment lines. This was made possible by adapting the existing conventional active sludge process to the KMT Fixed Biomass on Moving Bed process. The article also shows how the final two-stage design was verified by means of pilot plant trials. These experiments tested the technical viability of installing a first high-load reactor prior to the existing primary decantation as a way of dealing with the seasonal effluents from the wine-cellars in the region and of obtaining partial nitrification in the last biological tank of the second stage during the rest of the year. (Author) 7 refs.

  13. Possibilities for reorientation the activity of heavy water plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pop, F.; Croitoru, C.; Titescu, Gh.; Stefanescu, I.; Hodor, I.; Cuna, S. . E-mail of corresponding author: pop.floarea@icsi.ro; Pop, F.)

    2005-01-01

    In Romania heavy water is produced by H 2 O-H 2 S chemical exchange (GS process) and by water distillation, simultaneously working two lines. The distillation plants have high separation capacity, a distillation line being able to concentrate water from two GS lines. The paper presents data regarding possibilities to use one distillation line for oxygen 18 production, as pre-concentrates or finite products. Using a simulation program it was calculated oxygen 18 concentration in heavy water produced, maximum 18 O concentration of pre-concentrate obtained on distillation line and the separation cascade dimensions for obtain 95% 18 O, with first and second stage having same dimensions like a distillation plant from Romanian heavy water factory. Oxygen-18 separation factor is much lower than deuterium separation factor. For this reason, oxygen-18 is a very expensive product. (author)

  14. Possibilities for reorientation of activity in Heavy Water Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pop, F.; Croitoru, C.; Titescu, Gh.; Stefanescu, I.; Hodor, I.; Cuna, S.

    2004-01-01

    In Romania heavy water is produced by H 2 O-H 2 S chemical exchange (GS process) and by water distillation, in two lines working simultaneously. The distillation plants have high separation capacity, a distillation line being able to concentrate water from two GS lines. The paper presents data regarding possibilities to use one distillation line for oxygen - 18 production, as pre-concentrates or finite products. A simulation program was used to calculate the oxygen - 18 concentration in the heavy water produced, maximum 18 O concentration of pre-concentrate obtained on distillation line and the separation cascade sizes to obtain 95% 18 O, with first and second stage having the same sizes like the distillation plant from the Romanian heavy water factory. Oxygen-18 separation factor is much lower than deuterium separation factor. For this reason, oxygen-18 is a very expensive product. (authors)

  15. Commissioning performance activities of Heavy Water Plant (Hazira) (Paper No. 1.4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Heavy Water Plant, Hazira is the fourth in the line of plants based on monothermal NH 3 -H 2 exchange process. The experience gained during operation of other heavy water plants is reflected in the construction, commissioning and operation of HWP, Hazira. This paper aims at outlining the strategy adopted for both commissioning and operation. (author)

  16. Cost effective water treatment program in Heavy Water Plant (Manuguru)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohapatra, C.; Prasada Rao, G.

    2002-01-01

    Water treatment technology is in a state of continuous evolution. The increasing urgency to conserve water and reduce pollution has in recent years produced an enormous demand for new chemical treatment programs and technologies. Heavy water plant (Manuguru) uses water as raw material (about 3000 m 3 /hr) and its treatment and management has benefited the plant in a significant way. It is a fact that if the water treatment is not proper, it can result in deposit formation and corrosion of metals, which can finally leads to production losses. Therefore, before selecting treatment program, complying w.r.t. quality requirements, safety and pollution aspects cost effectiveness shall be examined. The areas where significant benefits are derived, are raw water treatment using polyelectrolyte instead of inorganic coagulant (alum), change over of regenerant of cation exchangers from hydrochloric acid to sulfuric acid and in-house development of cooling water treatment formulation. The advantages and cost effectiveness of these treatments are discussed in detail. Further these treatments has helped the plant in achieving zero discharge and indirectly increased cost reduction of final product (heavy water); the dosage of 3 ppm of polyelectrolyte can replace 90 ppm alum at turbidity level of 300 NTU of raw water which has resulted in cost saving of Rs. 15-20 lakhs in a year beside other advantages; the change over of regenerant from HCl to H 2 SO 4 will result in cost saving of at least Rs.1.4 crore a year besides other advantages; the change over to proprietary formulation to in-house formulation in cooling water treatment has resulted in a saving about Rs.11 lakhs a year. To achieve the above objectives in a sustainable way the performance results are being monitored. (author)

  17. Process plant equipment operation, control, and reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Holloway, Michael D; Onyewuenyi, Oliver A

    2012-01-01

    "Process Plant Equipment Book is another great publication from Wiley as a reference book for final year students as well as those who will work or are working in chemical production plants and refinery…" -Associate Prof. Dr. Ramli Mat, Deputy Dean (Academic), Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia "…give[s] readers access to both fundamental information on process plant equipment and to practical ideas, best practices and experiences of highly successful engineers from around the world… The book is illustrated throughout with numerous black & white p

  18. Depth and temporal variations in water quality of the Snake River Plain aquifer in well USGS-59 near the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frederick, D.B.; Johnson, G.S.

    1997-03-01

    In-situ measurements of the specific conductance and temperature of ground water in the Snake River Plain aquifer were collected in observation well USGS-59 near the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. These parameters were monitored at various depths in the aquifer from October 1994 to August 1995. The specific conductance of ground water in well USGS-59, as measured in the borehole, ranged from about 450 to 900 microS/cm at standard temperature (25 C). The pumping cycle of the production wells at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant causes changes in borehole circulation patterns, and as a result the specific conductance of ground water at some depths in the well varies by up to 50% over a period of about 14 hours. However, these variations were not observed at all depths, or during each pumping cycle. The temperature of ground water in the well was typically between 12.8 and 13.8 C. The results of this study indicate that temporal variations in specific conductance of the ground water at this location are caused by an external stress on the aquifer--pumping of a production well approximately 4,000 feet away. These variations are believed to result from vertical stratification of water quality in the aquifer and a subsequent change in intrawell flow related to pumping. When sampling techniques that do not induce a stress on the aquifer (i.e., thief sampling) are used, knowledge of external stresses on the system at the time of sampling may aid in the interpretation of geochemical data

  19. Developments in nuclear power plant water chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruzetti, K.; Wood, C.J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper illustrates the changing role of water chemistry in current operation of nuclear power plants. Water chemistry was sometimes perceived as the cause of materials problems, such as denting in PWR steam generators and intergranular stress corrosion cracking in BWRs. However, starting in the last decade, new chemistry options have been introduced to mitigate stress corrosion cracking and reduce fuel performance concerns. In BWRs and PWRs alike, water chemistry has evolved to successfully mitigate many problems as they have developed. The increasing complexity of the chemistry alternatives, coupled with the pressures to increase output and reduce costs, have demonstrated the need for new approaches to managing plant chemistry, which are addressed in the final part of this paper. (orig.)

  20. Extraction of deuterium from D-rich process condensate of ammonia plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haldar, T K; Kumar, Manoj; Ramamurty, C B [Heavy Water Board, Department of Atomic Energy, Mumbai (India)

    1994-06-01

    Heavy water plants based on ammonia-hydrogen exchange process receives feed synthesis gas from the adjacent fertilizer plants. The production capacity of such heavy water plants is directly proportional to the deuterium-content in feed synthesis gas. The chemical process involved in gas generation section of the fertilizer plant includes catalytic steam-reforming of natural gas/naphtha/fuel oil followed by shift conversion, alternatively coal classification followed by shift conversion. Effective extraction of deuterium from the deuterium-rich process condensate can boost the production capacity of heavy water plants considerably. This paper discusses various possible methods to achieve this objective. (author). 5 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  1. Energy conservation and management strategies in Heavy Water Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamath, H.S.

    2002-01-01

    In the competitive industrial environment it is essential that cost of the product is kept at the minimum possible. Energy conservation is an important aspect in achieving this as energy is one of the key recourses for growth and survival of industry. The process of heavy water production being very complex and energy intensive, Heavy Water board has given a focussed attention for initiating various measures for reducing the specific energy consumption in all the plants. The initiative resulted in substantial reduction in specific energy consumption and brought in savings in cost. The cumulative reduction of specific energy consumption has been over 30% over the last seven years and the total savings for the last three years on account of the same has been about Rs. 190 crore. The paper describes the strategies adopted in the heavy water plants for effecting the above achievements. The paper covers the details of some of the energy saving schemes carried out at different heavy water plants through case studies. The case studies of schemes implemented at HWPs are general in nature and is applicable for any other industry. The case studies cover the modifications with re-optimisation of the process parameters, improvements effected in utility units like refrigeration and cooling water systems, improvements in captive power plant cycle and improved recycle scheme for water leading to reduced consumptions. The paper also mentions the innovative ammonia absorption refrigeration with improved coefficient of performance and HWB's efforts in development of the system as an integrated unit of the ammonia water deuterium exchange process for heavy water production. HWB also has taken up R and D on various other schemes for improvements in energy consumption for future activities covering utilisation of low grade energy for generation of refrigeration. (author)

  2. Recent computer applications in boiling water reactor power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraga, Shoji; Joge, Toshio; Kiyokawa, Kazuhiro; Kato, Kanji; Nigawara, Seiitsu

    1976-01-01

    Process computers in boiling water reactor power plants have won the position of important equipments for the calculation of the core and plant performances and for data logging. Their application technique is growing larger and larger every year. Here, two systems are introduced; plant diagnostic system and computerized control panel. The plant diagnostic system consists of the part processing the signals from a plant, the operation part mainly composed of a computer to diagnose the operating conditions of each system component using input signal, and the result display (CRT or typewriter). The concept on the indications on control panels in nuclear power plants is changing from ''Plant parameters and to be indicated on panel meters as much as possible'' to ''Only the data required for operation are to be indicated.'' Thus the computerized control panel is attracting attention, in which the process computer for processing the operating information and CRT display are introduced. The experimental model of that panel comprises and operator's console and a chief watchmen's console. Its functions are dialogic data access and the automatic selection of preferential information. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  3. STUDY ON WASTE WATER TREATMENT PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana DUMITRU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Biogas is more and more used as an alternative source of energy, considering the fact that it is obtained from waste materials and it can be easily used in cities and rural communities for many uses, between which, as a fuel for households. Biogas has many energy utilisations, depending on the nature of the biogas source and the local demand. Generally, biogas can be used for heat production by direct combustion, electricity production by fuel cells or micro-turbines, Combined Hest and Power generation or as vehicle fuel. In this paper we search for another uses of biogas and Anaerobe Digestion substrate, such as: waste water treatment plants and agricultural wastewater treatment, which are very important in urban and rural communities, solid waste treatment plants, industrial biogas plants, landfill gas recovery plants. These uses of biogas are very important, because the gas emissions and leaching to ground water from landfill sites are serious threats for the environment, which increase more and more bigger during the constant growth of some human communities. That is why, in the developed European countries, the sewage sludge is treated by anaerobe digestion, depending on national laws. In Romania, in the last years more efforts were destined to use anaerobe digestion for treating waste waters and management of waste in general. This paper can be placed in this trend of searching new ways of using with maximum efficiency the waste resulted in big communities.

  4. Dose Assurance in Radiation Processing Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Arne; Chadwick, K.H.; Nam, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    Radiation processing relies to a large extent on dosimetry as control of proper operation. This applies in particular to radiation sterilization of medical products and food treatment, but also during development of any other process. The assurance that proper dosimetry is performed...... at the radiation processing plant can be obtained through the mediation of an international organization, and the IAEA is now implementing a dose assurance service for industrial radiation processing....

  5. Water quality in New Zealand's planted forests: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenda R. Baillie; Daniel G. Neary

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviewed the key physical, chemical and biological water quality attributes of surface waters in New Zealand’s planted forests. The purpose was to: a) assess the changes in water quality throughout the planted forestry cycle from afforestation through to harvesting; b) compare water quality from planted forests with other land uses in New Zealand; and c)...

  6. Carbide process picked for Chinese polyethylene plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alperowicz, N.

    1993-01-01

    Union Carbide (Danbury, CT) is set to sign up its eighth polyethylene (PE) license in China. The company has been selected to supply its Unipol technology to Jilin Chemical Industrial Corp. (JCIC) for a 100,000-m.t./year linear low-density PE (LLDPE) plant at Jilin. The plant will form part of a $2-billion petrochemical complex, based on a 300,000-m.t./year ethylene unit awarded to a consortium made up of Samsung Engineering (Seoul) and Linde. A 10,000-m.t./year butene-1 unit will also be built. Toyo Engineering, Snamprogetti, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, and Linde are competing for the contract to supply the LLDPE plant. The signing is expected this spring. Two contenders are vying to supply an 80,000-m.t./year phenol plant for JCIC. They are Mitsui Engineering, offering the Mitsui Petrochemical process, and Chisso, with UOP technology. Four Unipol process PE plants are under construction in China and three are in operation. At Guangzhou, Toyo Engineering is building a 100,000-m.t./year plant, due onstream in 1995, while Snamprogetti is to finish construction of two plants in the same year at Zhonguyan (120,000 m.t./year) and at Maoming (140,000 m.t./year). The Daquing Design Institute is responsible for the engineering of a 60,000-m.t./year Unipol process PE plant, expected onstream early in 1995. Existing Unipol process PE plants are located in Qilu (60,000 m.t./year LLDPE and 120,000 m.t./year HDPE) and at Taching (60,000 m.t./year HDPE)

  7. First technical report about tracer applications to processes assessment in a portable water potabilizing plant; Primer informe de avance sobre ensayos con uranina de una Planta Potabilizadora Portatil de OSE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez Antola, R; Giosa Porley, P

    1996-03-15

    Radioactive and fluorescent tracers were applied to measure the distribution of residence times in each of the four subsystems of a portable water purifying plant: the mechanical flocculation unit, the hydraulic flocculation unit, the sedimentation unit, and the sand filter. This report begins by a revision of the physicochemical processes produced in each of the above mentioned subsystems, connected in series. Then a mathematical model of residence time distribution for each unit is constructed, with free parameters that can be estimated from the experimental results obtained with tracers. Tracer methodology for this kind of field experiment is reviewed. Their possible short comes are briefly discussed for each of the intended tracers. The tracer experiments done with rhodamine and uranine are described. The experimental results are reported and the residence time distributions obtained with different tracers were carefully compared. In order to make the field experiments, five different values of global water flow were sustained, pumping in steady state: two under the nominal (design) value, two above the design flow and one equal to the nominal water flow. The model parameters were determined using a software package, {sup D}TR{sup ,} made in France and supplied by the IAEA in the framework of the project. It was discovered that the diffuser in the sedimentation unit was not working as intended, and some guidelines for its re-design could be given to the process engineers. Also, process engineers received information about some amount of by-pass flow and death zones, as well as their variations with plant's global water flow.

  8. Water Extraction from Coal-Fired Power Plant Flue Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce C. Folkedahl; Greg F. Weber; Michael E. Collings

    2006-06-30

    The overall objective of this program was to develop a liquid disiccant-based flue gas dehydration process technology to reduce water consumption in coal-fired power plants. The specific objective of the program was to generate sufficient subscale test data and conceptual commercial power plant evaluations to assess process feasibility and merits for commercialization. Currently, coal-fired power plants require access to water sources outside the power plant for several aspects of their operation in addition to steam cycle condensation and process cooling needs. At the present time, there is no practiced method of extracting the usually abundant water found in the power plant stack gas. This project demonstrated the feasibility and merits of a liquid desiccant-based process that can efficiently and economically remove water vapor from the flue gas of fossil fuel-fired power plants to be recycled for in-plant use or exported for clean water conservation. After an extensive literature review, a survey of the available physical and chemical property information on desiccants in conjunction with a weighting scheme developed for this application, three desiccants were selected and tested in a bench-scale system at the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC). System performance at the bench scale aided in determining which desiccant was best suited for further evaluation. The results of the bench-scale tests along with further review of the available property data for each of the desiccants resulted in the selection of calcium chloride as the desiccant for testing at the pilot-scale level. Two weeks of testing utilizing natural gas in Test Series I and coal in Test Series II for production of flue gas was conducted with the liquid desiccant dehumidification system (LDDS) designed and built for this study. In general, it was found that the LDDS operated well and could be placed in an automode in which the process would operate with no operator intervention or

  9. Consequence of potential accidents in heavy water plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croitoru, C.; Lazar, R.E.; Preda, I.A.; Dumitrescu, M.

    1998-01-01

    Heavy water plants realize the primary isotopic concentrations of water using H 2 O-H 2 S chemical exchange and they are chemical plants. As these plants are handling and spreading large quantities of hydrogen sulphide (high toxic, corrosive, flammable and explosive as) maintained in the process at relative high temperatures and pressures, it is required an assessing of risks associated with the potential accidents. The H 2 S released in atmosphere as a result of an accident will have negative consequences to property, population and environment. This paper presents a model of consequences quantitative assessment and its outcome for the most dangerous accident in heavy water plants. Several states of the art risk based methods were modified and linked together to form a proper model for this analyse. Five basic steps to identify the risks involved in operating the plants are followed: hazard identification, accident sequence development, H 2 S emissions calculus, dispersion analyses and consequences determination. A brief description of each step and some information of analysis results are provided. The accident proportions, the atmospheric conditions and the population density in the respective area were accounted for consequences calculus. The specific results of the consequences analysis allow to develop the plant's operating safety requirements so that the risk remain at an acceptable level. (authors)

  10. Water hammer in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-07-01

    In the past few years, licensees of operating reactors have reported a large number of water hammer events during commercial operation. Most of these events resulted in damage to piping supports and restraints. A few cases involved small cracks or ruptures in feedwater systems. As a result, in 1977 the NRC staff initiated a review of reported water hammer events and of the potential for occurrence of water hammer in all fluid systems that could have an impact on plant safety. The objectives of the review were to identify the causes of water hammer events that could affect reactor safety and to recommend further staff actions needed to reduce the likelihood of such events

  11. Isolation of viruses from drinking water at the Point-Viau water treatment plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payment, P.

    1981-04-01

    Viruses were isolated from every sample of raw (100 L) and treated (1000 L) water collected at a water treatment plant drawing sewage-contaminated river water. Few plaque-forming isolates were formed but cytopathogenic viruses were isolated as frequently in drinking water as in raw water. In drinking water some samples contained more than 1 cytopathogenic unit per litre, but most contained 1-10/100 L. These viruses had not been inactivated or removed by prechlorination, flocculation, filtration, ozonation, and postchlorination. There were no coliforms present and a residual chlorine level had been maintained. Poliovirus type 1 was a frequent isolate but many isolates were nonpoliovirus. The presence of these viruses in drinking water raises questions about the efficacy of some water treatment processes to remove viruses from polluted water.

  12. Application of Activated Sludge Process at Phenol Water Treatment Station in Yanzhou Coal Mine Distract Coking Plant%活性污泥法在兖州矿区焦化厂酚水处理站的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许寒冰; 牟增越

    2001-01-01

    论述活性污泥法处理焦化酚水的若干问题,包括活性污泥的培养、驯化、运行工艺指标、参数,管理中应把握的几个工艺点,运行中常出现的问题及对策,几点探索和体会。%Some of the technical problems of phenol water treatment in coking plant by using the activated sludge process are discussed. These technical problems are including culture, domestication, operation process index of activated sludge; a few of process point control in management; often happened technical problems and countermeasures in operation.

  13. Steam plant for pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    This book discusses the research and development organisations and users to highlight those aspects of the steam turbine and associated plant which are particularly related to the PWR system. The contents include: Characteristics of the steam system (including feed train, dump system and safety aspects); overall design aspects of high and half speed turbines; design aspects of the steam generator and seismic considerations; moisture separators and reheaters; feed pumps and their drives; water treatment; safety related valves; operational experience; availability and performance

  14. Basic TRUEX process for Rocky Flats Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, R.A.; Chamberlain, D.B.; Dow, J.A.; Farley, S.E.; Nunez, L.; Regalbuto, M.C.; Vandegrift, G.F.

    1994-08-01

    The Generic TRUEX Model was used to develop a TRUEX process flowsheet for recovering the transuranics (Pu, Am) from a nitrate waste stream at Rocky Flats Plant. The process was designed so that it is relatively insensitive to changes in process feed concentrations and flow rates. Related issues are considered, including solvent losses, feed analysis requirements, safety, and interaction with an evaporator system for nitric acid recycle

  15. Review of 'plant available water' aspects of water use efficiency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    processes in the soil, has greatly enhanced understanding of the system, ... and management strategies to combat excessive water losses by deep drainage. ... risk clay and duplex soils and high runoff losses, in-field rainwater harvesting ...

  16. Two-loop feed water control system in BWR plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omori, Takashi; Watanabe, Takao; Hirose, Masao.

    1982-01-01

    In the process of the start-up and shutdown of BWR plants, the operation of changing over feed pumps corresponding to plant output is performed. Therefore, it is necessary to develop the automatic changeover system for feed pumps, which minimizes the variation of water level in reactors and is easy to operate. The three-element control system with the water level in reactors, the flow rate of main steam and the flow rate of feed water as the input is mainly applied, but long time is required for the changeover of feed pumps. The two-loop feed control system can control simultaneously two pumps being changed over, therefore it is suitable to the automatic changeover control system for feed pumps. Also it is excellent for the control of the recirculating valves of feed pumps. The control characteristics of the two-loop feed water control system against the external disturbance which causes the variation of water level in reactors were examined. The results of analysis by simulation are reported. The features of the two-loop feed water control system, the method of simulation and the evaluation of the two-loop feed water control system are described. Its connection with a digital feed water recirculation control system is expected. (Kako, I.)

  17. Desalting a process cooling water using nanofiltration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radier, R.G.J.; van Oers, C.W.; Steenbergen, A.; Wessling, Matthias

    2001-01-01

    The cooling water system of a chemical plant of Akzo Nobel is a partly open system. The site is located at the North Sea. The air in contact with the cooling water contains seawater droplets dissolving and increasing the chloride concentration. The cooling water contains chromate to protect the

  18. Water cooled type nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Shigeki.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To construct high efficiency a PWR type nuclear power plant with a simple structure by preparing high temperature and pressure water by a PWR type nuclear reactor and a pressurizer, converting the high temperature and high pressure water into steam with a pressure reducing valve and introducing the steam into a turbine, thereby generating electricity. Constitution: A pressurizer is connected downstream of a PWR type nuclear reactor, thereby maintaining the reactor at high pressure. A pressure-reducing valve is provided downstream of the pressurizer, the high temperature and pressure water is reduced in pressure, thereby producing steam. The steam is fed to a turbine, and electric power is generated by a generator connected to the turbine. The steam exhausted from the turbine is condensed by a condenser into water, and the water is returned through a feedwater heater to the reactor. Since the high temperature and pressure water in thus reduced in pressure thereby evaporating it, the steam can be more efficiently produced than by a steam generator. (Sekiya, K.)

  19. Hydraulic modelling of drinking water treatment plant operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. C. Rietveld

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The flow through a unit of a drinking water treatment plant is one of the most important parameters in terms of a unit's effectiveness. In the present paper, a new EPAnet library is presented with the typical hydraulic elements for drinking water treatment processes well abstraction, rapid sand filtration and cascade and tower aeration. Using this treatment step library, a hydraulic model was set up, calibrated and validated for the drinking water treatment plant Harderbroek. With the actual valve position and pump speeds, the flows were calculated through the several treatment steps. A case shows the use of the model to calculate the new setpoints for the current frequency converters of the effluent pumps during a filter backwash.

  20. Light water ultra-safe plant concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klevans, E.

    1989-01-01

    Since the accident at Three Mile Island (TMI), Penn State Nuclear Engineering Department Faculty and Staff have considered various methods to improve already safe reactor designs and public perception of the safety of Nuclear Power. During 1987 and 1988, the Department of Energy provided funds to the Nuclear Engineering Department at Penn State to investigate a plant reconfiguration originated by M.A. Schultz called ''The Light Water Ultra-Safe Plant Concept''. This report presents a final summary of the project with references to several masters' theses and addendum reports for further detail. The two year research effort included design verification with detailed computer simulation of: (a) normal operation characteristics of the unique pressurizing concept, (b) severe transients without loss of coolant, (c) combined primary and secondary system modeling, and (d) small break and large break loss of coolant accidents. Other studies included safety analysis, low power density core design, and control system design to greatly simplify the control room and required operator responses to plant upset conditions. The overall conclusion is that a reconfigured pressurized water reactor can achieve real and perceived safety improvements. Additionally, control system research to produce greatly simplified control rooms and operator requirements should be continued in future projects

  1. Springfield Processing Plant (SPP) Facility Information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leach, Janice; Torres, Teresa M.

    2012-10-01

    The Springfield Processing Plant is a hypothetical facility. It has been constructed for use in training workshops. Information is provided about the facility and its surroundings, particularly security-related aspects such as target identification, threat data, entry control, and response force data.

  2. Ultrasonic Sensing of Plant Water Needs for Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Gómez Álvarez-Arenas

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Fresh water is a key natural resource for food production, sanitation and industrial uses and has a high environmental value. The largest water use worldwide (~70% corresponds to irrigation in agriculture, where use of water is becoming essential to maintain productivity. Efficient irrigation control largely depends on having access to reliable information about the actual plant water needs. Therefore, fast, portable and non-invasive sensing techniques able to measure water requirements directly on the plant are essential to face the huge challenge posed by the extensive water use in agriculture, the increasing water shortage and the impact of climate change. Non-contact resonant ultrasonic spectroscopy (NC-RUS in the frequency range 0.1–1.2 MHz has revealed as an efficient and powerful non-destructive, non-invasive and in vivo sensing technique for leaves of different plant species. In particular, NC-RUS allows determining surface mass, thickness and elastic modulus of the leaves. Hence, valuable information can be obtained about water content and turgor pressure. This work analyzes and reviews the main requirements for sensors, electronics, signal processing and data analysis in order to develop a fast, portable, robust and non-invasive NC-RUS system to monitor variations in leaves water content or turgor pressure. A sensing prototype is proposed, described and, as application example, used to study two different species: Vitis vinifera and Coffea arabica, whose leaves present thickness resonances in two different frequency bands (400–900 kHz and 200–400 kHz, respectively, These species are representative of two different climates and are related to two high-added value agricultural products where efficient irrigation management can be critical. Moreover, the technique can also be applied to other species and similar results can be obtained.

  3. Effects of plant diversity on primary production and species interactions in brackish water angiosperm communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salo, Tiina; Gustafsson, Camilla; Boström, Christoffer

    2009-01-01

    Research on plant biodiversity and ecosystem functioning has mainly focused on terrestrial ecosystems, and our understanding of how plant species diversity and interactions affect processes in marine ecosystems is still limited. To investigate if plant species richness and composition influence...... plant productivity in brackish water angiosperm communities, a 14 wk field experiment was conducted. Using a replacement design with a standardized initial aboveground biomass, shoots of Zostera marina, Potamogeton filiformis and P. perfoliatus were planted on a shallow, sandy bottom in replicated...

  4. Water Footprint Assessment in Waste Water Treatment Plant: Indicator of the sustainability of urban water cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Llanos, Eva; Durán Barroso, Pablo; Matías Sánchez, Agustín; Fernández Rodríguez, Santiago; Guzmán Caballero, Raúl

    2017-04-01

    The seventeen Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) represent a challenge for citizens and countries around the world by working together to reduce social inequality, to fight poverty and climate change. The Goal six water and sanitation aims for ensuring, among others, the protection and restoration of water-related ecosystem (target 6.6) and encouraging the water use efficiency (target 6.3). The commitment to this goal is not only the development of sanitation infrastructure, but also incorporates the necessity of a sustainable and efficient management from ecological and economic perspectives. Following this approach, we propose a framework for assessing the waste water treatment plant (WWTP) management based on the Water Footprint (WF) principles. The WF as indicator is able to highlight the beneficial role of WWTPs within the environment and provide a complementary information to evaluate the impact of a WWTP regarding to the use of freshwater and energy. Therefore, the footprint family provides an opportunity to relate the reduction of pollutant load in a WWTP and the associated consumptions in terms of electricity and chemical products. As a consequence, the new methodology allows a better understanding of the interactions among water and energy resources, economic requirements and environmental risks. Because of this, the current technologies can be improved and innovative solutions for monitoring and management of urban water use can be integrated. The WF was calculated in four different WWTP located in the North East of Extremadura (SW Spain) which have activated sludge process as secondary treatment. This zone is characterized by low population density but an incipient tourism development. The WF estimation and its relationship with the electricity consumption examines the efficiency of each WWTP and identifies the weak points in the management in terms of the sustainability. Consequently, the WF establishes a benchmark for multidisciplinary decision

  5. Phase I: the pipeline-gas demonstration plant. Demonstration plant engineering and design. Volume 18. Plant Section 2700 - Waste Water Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-05-01

    Contract No. EF-77-C-01-2542 between Conoco Inc. and the US Department of Energy provides for the design, construction, and operation of a demonstration plant capable of processing bituminous caking coals into clean pipeline quality gas. The project is currently in the design phase (Phase I). This phase is scheduled to be completed in June 1981. One of the major efforts of Phase I is the process and project engineering design of the Demonstration Plant. The design has been completed and is being reported in 24 volumes. This is Volume 18 which reports the design of Plant Section 2700 - Waste Water Treatment. The objective of the Waste Water Treatment system is to collect and treat all plant liquid effluent streams. The system is designed to permit recycle and reuse of the treated waste water. Plant Section 2700 is composed of primary, secondary, and tertiary waste water treatment methods plus an evaporation system which eliminates liquid discharge from the plant. The Waste Water Treatment Section is designed to produce 130 pounds per hour of sludge that is buried in a landfill on the plant site. The evaporated water is condensed and provides a portion of the make-up water to Plant Section 2400 - Cooling Water.

  6. Self-supporting power plant. Capturing evaporated water and save energy a new source of water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daal, Ludwin; Vos, Frank de [KEMA Netherlands BV, Arnhem (Netherlands). Process and Cooling Water; KEMA Energy Consulting Co.Ltd, Beijing (China); Wageningen Univ. (Netherlands). Environmental Systems Analysis; Heijboer, Rob [KEMA Netherlands BV, Arnhem (Netherlands). Process and Cooling Water; Bekker, Bert [KEMA Energy Consulting Co.Ltd, Beijing (China); Gao, Xiu Xiu [Wageningen Univ. (Netherlands). Environmental Systems Analysis

    2013-07-01

    One of the major challenges of this century is the provision of water for a growing population and industry. The shortage in water resources in arid areas requires the availability of more efficient and cheaper water production processes. In some arid regions water is even more important than electricity. A large source of water is found in the form of evaporated water emitted from different industrial processes. If for example 20% of the evaporated water from the flue gas stream of a coal fired power plant would be captured, the plant would be self-supporting from a process water point of view. This is about 30m{sup 3} of water per hour. The results of the proof of principle project (2001-2008) show that >40% recovery can be achieved. Also an overall energy efficiency improvement can be achieved for industrial plants that reheat their flue gases. Calculations show that this can be about 1% overall efficiency for a coal fired power plant utilizing flue gas reheating. With an installed capacity of more than 600GWe in China, this energy saving results in a very large economic and fuel (coal) impact. This energy efficiency will most likely be the driving force to implement the technology in both water rich and water poor regions. For the capture of evaporated water no chemicals are used, there is no waste water formed and corrosion attack in stacks is mitigated. These results have led to the set up of a large international project named CapWa which aims to produce a membrane modular system suitable for industrial applications within 2-3years. The produced demin water from this system should be competitive with existing demin water technologies. The starting point will be the water vapour selective composite membranes that are developed in the proof of principle project. The CapWa project started in 2010 and consists of 14 partners of which 9 from the EU, 3 from the African continent and 2 from the Middle East.

  7. Ranstad - A new uranium-processing plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, A [AB Atomenergi, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1967-06-15

    A short outline is given of the decisions concerning the erection and operation of the Ranstad mill which was recently taken into operation. It is followed by a brief description of the geological conditions and the planning of the mining system, plant location, and the factory. The main part of the paper describes processes and equipment of the plant which has a capacity to treat approx. 850 000 tons of low-grade ore (alum shale) per year. The operational experience so far is also reviewed. The economy of uranium production at Ranstad is discussed and some development possibilities are indicated. (author)

  8. Waste processing system for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashinakagawa, Emiko; Tezuka, Fuminobu; Maesawa, Yukishige; Irie, Hiromitsu; Daibu, Etsuji.

    1996-01-01

    The present invention concerns a waste processing system of a nuclear power plant, which can reduce the volume of a large amount of plastics without burying them. Among burnable wastes and plastic wastes to be discarded in the power plant located on the sea side, the plastic wastes are heated and converted into oils, and the burnable wastes are burnt using the oils as a fuel. The system is based on the finding that the presence of Na 2 O, K 2 O contained in the wastes catalytically improves the efficiency of thermal decomposition in a heating atmosphere, in the method of heating plastics and converting them into oils. (T.M.)

  9. Radioactive waste processing method for a nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimoto, Y; Kuriyama, O

    1976-06-04

    Object is to subject radioactive liquid waste in a nuclear power plant to reverse permeation process after which it is vaporized and concentrated thereby decreasing the quantity of foam to be used to achieve effective concentration of the liquid waste. Liquid waste containing a radioactive material produced from a nuclear power plant is first applied with pressure in excess of osmotic pressure by a reverse permeation device and is separated into clean water and concentrated liquid by semi-permeable membrane. Next, the thus reverse-permeated and concentrated waste is fed to an evaporator which control foaming by the foam and then further reconcentrated for purification of the liquid waste.

  10. Removal of antibiotics from surface and distilled water in conventional water treatment processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, C.; Wang, Y.; Loftin, K.; Meyer, M.

    2002-01-01

    Conventional drinking water treatment processes were evaluated under typical water treatment plant conditions to determine their effectiveness in the removal of seven common antibiotics: carbadox, sulfachlorpyridazine, sulfadimethoxine, sulfamerazine, sulfamethazine, sulfathiazole, and trimethoprim. Experiments were conducted using synthetic solutions prepared by spiking both distilled/ deionized water and Missouri River water with the studied compounds. Sorption on Calgon WPH powdered activated carbon, reverse osmosis, and oxidation with chlorine and ozone under typical plant conditions were all shown to be effective in removing the studied antibiotics. Conversely, coagulation/flocculation/sedimentation with alum and iron salts, excess lime/soda ash softening, ultraviolet irradiation at disinfection dosages, and ion exchange were all relatively ineffective methods of antibiotic removal. This study shows that the studied antibiotics could be effectively removed using processes already in use many water treatment plants. Additional work is needed on by-product formation and the removal of other classes of antibiotics.

  11. Chemical process measurements in PWR-type nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaeser, E.

    1978-01-01

    In order to achieve high levels of availability of nuclear power plants equipped with pressurized water reactors, strict standards have to be applied to the purity of coolant and of other media. Chemical process measurements can meet these requirements only if programmes are established giving maximum information with minimum expenditure and if these programmes are realized with effective analytical methods. Analysis programmes known from literature are proved for their usefulness, and hints are given for establishing rational programmes. Analytical techniques are compared with each other taking into consideration both methods which have already been introduced into nuclear power plant practice and methods not yet generally used in practice, such as atomic absorption spectrophotometry, gas chromatography, etc. Finally, based on the state of the art of chemical process measurements in nuclear power plants, the trends of future development are pointed out. (author)

  12. The new regulations on handling the materials hazardous to water. Consequences for the operation of biowaste processing plants; Die neue Verordnung ueber Anlagen zum Umgang mit wassergefaehrdenden Stoffen. Konsequenzen fuer den Betrieb von Bioabfallbehandlungsanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oexle, Anno [Koehler und Klett Rechtsanwaelte Partnerschaft, Koeln (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    The new regulations on the handling materials hazardous to water include the classification of materials and mixtures, the categorization of wastes, plant specific requirements: general requirements, specific requirements with respect to the capacity of fermentation residual storage.

  13. Process for cooling waste water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohner, P

    1976-12-16

    The process for avoiding thermal pollution of waters described rests on the principle of the heat conduction tube, by which heat is conducted from the liquid space into the atmosphere at a lower temperature above it. Such a tube, here called a cooling tube, consists in its simplest form of a heat conducting corrugated tube, made, for example, of copper or a copper alloy or of precious metals, which is sealed to be airtight at both ends, and after evacuation, is partially filled with a medium of low boiling point. The longer leg of the tube, which is bent at right angles, lies close below the surface of the water to be cooled and parallel to it; the shorter leg projects vertically into the atmosphere. The liquid inside the cooling tube fills the horizontal part of the tube to about halfway. A certain part of the liquid is always evaporated in this part. The vapor rising in the vertical part of the tube condenses on the internal wall cooled by the air outside, and gives off its heat to the atmosphere. The condensed medium flows back down the vertical internal wall into the initial position in a continuous cycle. A further development contains a smooth plastic inner tube in an outer corrugated tube, which is shorter than the outer tube; it ends at a distance from the caps sealing the outer tube at both ends. In this design the angle between the vertical and horizontal leg is less than 90/sup 0/. The shorter leg projects vertically from the water surface, below which the longer leg rises slightly from the knee of tube. The quantity of the liquid is gauged as a type of siphon, so that the space between the outer and inner tube at the knee of the tube remains closed by the liquid medium. The medium evaporated from the surface in the long leg of the tube therefore flows over the inner tube, which starts above the level of the medium. Thus evaporation and condensation paths are separated.

  14. Pinellas Plant facts. [Products, processes, laboratory facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-09-01

    This plant was built in 1956 in response to a need for the manufacture of neutron generators, a principal component in nuclear weapons. The neutron generators consist of a miniaturized linear ion accelerator assembled with the pulsed electrical power supplies required for its operation. The ion accelerator, or neutron tube, requires ultra clean, high vacuum technology: hermetic seals between glass, ceramic, glass-ceramic, and metal materials: plus high voltage generation and measurement technology. The existence of these capabilities at the Pinellas Plant has led directly to the assignment of the lightning arrester connector, specialty capacitor, vacuum switch, and crystal resonator. Active and reserve batteries and the radioisotopically-powered thermoelectric generator draw on the materials measurement and controls technologies which are required to ensure neutron generator life. A product development and production capability in alumina ceramics, cermet (electrical) feedthroughs, and glass ceramics has become a specialty of the plant; the laboratories monitor the materials and processes used by the plant's commercial suppliers of ferroelectric ceramics. In addition to the manufacturing facility, a production development capability is maintained at the Pinellas Plant.

  15. Water column separation in power plant circulating water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papadakis, C.N.

    1977-01-01

    Power plant circulating water system condensers operate with a siphon. Column separation is a common occurence in such condensers during low pressure transients. The assumptions that no gas evolves from solution leads to very conservative values of maximum pressures upon rejoining of separated column. A less conservative method led to the development of a macroscopic mathematical model including the presence of air and vapor in a cavity which forms at the top of the condenser. The method of characteristics is used to solve the equations. A case study is analyzed to illustrate the applicability of the developed mathematical model and to provide comparisons of the results obtained

  16. Waste Water Treatment Plants and the Smart Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halvgaard, Rasmus; Tychsen, Peter; Munk-Nielsen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    at the right time is key to both lower plant electricity costs and actively help to balance the energy system. Predictions of the WWTP and sewer system operation could help a model based controller to adapt power consumption and production according to the energy system flexibility needs; incentivized through......, we must update their process control system to model based predictive control that monitors the changed flexible operation and plans ahead. The primary aim of a WWTP is to treat the incoming waste water as much as possible to ensure a sufficient effluent water quality and protect the environment...... of the recipient. The secondary aim is to treat the waste water using as little energy as possible. In the future waste water will be considered an energy resource, that contains valuable nutrients convertible to green biogas and in turn electricity and heat. In a Smart Grid consuming or producing energy...

  17. Alarm-Processing in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otazo, J; Fernandez, R

    2000-01-01

    Information overload due to the activation of a great number of alarms in a short time is a common problem for the operator in the control room of a industrial plant, mainly in complex process like the nuclear power plants.The problem is the conventional conception of the alarm system, that defines each alarm like a separated and independent entity of the global situation of the plant.A direct consequence is the generation of multiple alarms during a significative disturbance in the process, being most of them redundant and irrelevant to the actual process state wich involves an extra load to the operator, who wastes time in acting selecting the important alarms of the group that appears or lead to a an erroneous action.The present work first describes the techniques developed in the last years to attack the avalanche of alarms problem.Later we present our approach to alarm-processing: an expert system as alarm-filter.Our objective is collect in the system the state of the art in the development of advanced alarm systems, offering an improvement of the information flow to the operators through the suppression of nonsignificant alarms and a structured visualization of the process state.Such support is important during a disturbance for the identification of plant state, diagnosis, consequence prediction and corrective actions.The system is arranged in three stages: alarm-generation, alarm-filter and alarm-presentation.The alarm-generation uses conventional techniques or receives them from an external system.The alarm-filter uses suppression techniques based on: irrelevance analysis with the operation mode and the state of components, causal reasoning and static importance analysis.The alarm presentation is made through a structured way using a priority scheme with three level.The knowledge representation of each alarm is based on frames and a graph of alarms for global knowledge, where the connections between nodes represent causal and irrelevance relations

  18. Improvement of water desalination technologies in reverse osmosis plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vysotskii, S. P.; Konoval'chik, M. V.; Gul'ko, S. E.

    2017-07-01

    The strengthening of requirements for the protection of surface-water sources and increases in the cost of reagents lead to the necessity of using membrane (especially, reverse osmosis) technologies of water desalination as an alternative to ion-exchange technologies. The peculiarities of using reverse osmosis technologies in the desalination of waters with an increased salinity have been discussed. An analogy has been made between the dependence of the adsorptive capacity of ion-exchange resins on the reagent consumption during ion exchange and the dependence of the specific ion flux on the voltage in the electrodialysis and productivity of membrane elements on the excess of the pressure of source water over the osmotic pressure in reverse osmosis. It has been proposed to regulate the number of water desalination steps in reverse osmosis plants, which makes it possible to flexibly change the productivity of equipment and the level of desalinization, depending on the requirements for the technological process. It is shown that the selectivity of reverse osmotic membranes with respect to bivalent ions (calcium, magnesium, and sulfates) is approximately four times higher than the selectivity with respect to monovalent ions (sodium and chlorine). The process of desalination in reverse osmosis plants depends on operation factors, such as the salt content and ion composition of source water, the salt content of the concentrate, and the temperatures of solution and operating pressure, and the design features of devices, such as the length of the motion of the desalination water flux, the distance between membranes, and types of membranes and turbulators (spacers). To assess the influence of separate parameters on the process of reverse osmosis desalination of water solutions, we derived criteria equations by compiling problem solution matrices on the basis of the dimensional method, taking into account the Huntley complement. The operation of membrane elements was

  19. Defense Waste Processing Facility, Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After 10 years of research, development, and testing, the US Department of Energy is building a new facility which will prepare high-level radioactive waste for permanent disposal. The Defense Waste Processing Facility, known as the DWPF, will be the first production-scale facility of its kind in the United States. In the DWPF, high-level waste produced by defense activities at the Savannah River Plant will be processed into a solid form, borosilicate glass, suitable for permanent off-site geologic disposal. With construction beginning in the fall of 1983, the DWPT is scheduled to be operational in 1989. By 2005, the DWPF will have immobilized the backlog of high-level waste which has been accumulating in storage tanks at the Savannah River Plant since 1954. Canisters of the immobilized waste will then be ready for permanent disposal deep under the ground, safely isolated from the environment

  20. Concept of a cognitive-numeric plant and process modelizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vetterkind, D.

    1990-01-01

    To achieve automatic modeling of plant distrubances and failure limitation procedures, first the system's hardware and the present media (water, steam, coolant fluid) are formalized into fully computable matrices, called topographies. Secondly a microscopic cellular automation model, using lattice gases and state transition rules, is combined with a semi - microscopic cellular process model and with a macroscopic model, too. In doing this, at semi-microscopic level there are acting a cellular data compressor, a feature detection device and the Intelligent Physical Element's process dynamics. At macroscopic level the Walking Process Elements, a process evolving module, a test-and-manage device and abstracting process net are involved. Additionally, a diagnosis-coordinating and a counter measurements coordinating device are used. In order to automatically get process insights, object transformations, elementary process functions and associative methods are used. Developments of optoelectronic hardware language components are under consideration

  1. AIRBORNE MICROORGANISMS IN BROILER PROCESSING PLANTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KOTULA, A W; KINNER, J A

    1964-05-01

    Concentrations of total aerobic bacteria, molds, yeasts, coliforms, enterococci, and psychrophiles were determined in the air of two poultry processing plants with Andersen samplers and a mobile power supply. Total aerobic bacterial counts were highest in the dressing room, with diminishing numbers in the shackling, eviscerating, and holding rooms, when sampling was carried out during plant operation. The average counts per ft(3) of air in these four rooms were 2,200; 560; 230; and 62, respectively. (Each value is the average of 36 observations.) The number of organisms increased in the shackling and dressing rooms once processing was begun. Average total aerobic bacterial counts increased from 70 to 870 to 3,000 in the shackling room and from 310 to 4,900 to 7,000 in the dressing room when sampling was carried out at 5:00 am (before plant operations), 9:00 am, and 2:00 pm, respectively. (Each value is the mean of 12 observations.) Airborne molds might originate from a source other than the poultry being processed.

  2. Overview of radiotracer experiments for better understanding of wastewater and water treatment plants in Lima (Peru))

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvo, C.S.; Maghella, G.; Mamani, E.; Berne, P.; Brisset, P.; Leclerc, J.-P.

    2004-01-01

    The objectives of this paper are to present an overview of possible applications of the radiotracers for better understanding of water and waste water treatment plants. Numerous experiments have been carried out in different plants located in Lima. Four processes have been investigated: desanders, floculators, clarifiers and digesters. Depending on the studied process, the experimental results have been interpreted at different levels of complexity: from simple troubleshooting to the modelling of the flow behaviour inside the process. (author)

  3. Water in the physiology of plant: thermodynamics and kinetic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Cocucci

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Molecular properties of water molecule determine its role in plant physiology. At molecular level the properties of water molecules determine the behaviour of other plant molecules; in particular its physic characteristics are important in the operativeness of macromolecules and in plant thermoregulation. Plant water supply primarily dependent on thermodynamics properties in particular water chemical potential and its components, more recently there are evidences that suggest an important role in the water kinetic characteristics, depending, at cell membrane level, in particular plasmalemma, on the presence of specific water channel, the aquaporines controlled in its activity by a number of physiological and biochemical factors. Thermodynamics and kinetic factors controlled by physiological, biochemical properties and molecular effectors, control water supply and level in plants to realize their survival, growth and differentiation and the consequent plant production.

  4. Biorefinery plant design, engineering and process optimisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo; Ehimen, Ehiazesebhor Augustine

    2014-01-01

    Before new biorefinery systems can be implemented, or the modification of existing single product biomass processing units into biorefineries can be carried out, proper planning of the intended biorefinery scheme must be performed initially. This chapter outlines design and synthesis approaches...... applicable for the planning and upgrading of intended biorefinery systems, and includes discussions on the operation of an existing lignocellulosic-based biorefinery platform. Furthermore, technical considerations and tools (i.e., process analytical tools) which could be applied to optimise the operations...... of existing and potential biorefinery plants are elucidated....

  5. Biogeochemical processes in an urban, restored wetland of San Francisco Bay, California, 2007-2009; methods and data for plant, sediment and water parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windham-Myers, Lisamarie; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark C.; Agee, Jennifer L.; Kieu, Le H.; Kakouros, Evangelos; Erikson, Li H.; Ward, Kristen

    2010-01-01

    The restoration of 18 acres of historic tidal marsh at Crissy Field has had great success in terms of public outreach and visibility, but less success in terms of revegetated marsh sustainability. Native cordgrass (Spartina foliosa) has experienced dieback and has failed to recolonize following extended flooding events during unintended periodic closures of its inlet channel, which inhibits daily tidal flushing. We examined the biogeochemical impacts of these impoundment events on plant physiology and on sulfur and mercury chemistry to help the National Park Service land managers determine the relative influence of these inlet closures on marsh function. In this comparative study, we examined key pools of sulfur, mercury, and carbon compounds both during and between closure events. Further, we estimated the net hydrodynamic flux of methylmercury and total mercury to and from the marsh during a 24-hour diurnal cycle. This report documents the methods used and the data generated during the study.

  6. Analysis of selected elements in water in the drinking water preparation plants in Belgrade, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antanasijević Davor Z.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Belgrade's water supply relies mainly on the River Sava and groundwater supply wells, which are located in the vicinity of the river and Ada Ciganlija. In this paper, the content of aluminum, boron, chromium, manganese, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, arsenic, cadmium, barium and lead was analyzed in raw water as well as drinking water distributed by the Water Supply and Sewage of Belgrade. A total of 14 samples were examined from all water treatment plants that are part of the distribution system. The measurements were conducted using the inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS technique. The aim of this research was to examine the effectiveness of drinking water preparation process in the plants belonging to the Water Supply and Sewage of Belgrade. The content of certain elements varies considerably in raw water (river and groundwater: the concentration of boron in river water is two to three times lower than the concentration in groundwater; the concentration of arsenic in river water is ten to twenty five times lower than the concentration in groundwater; the concentration of aluminum in all groundwater samples was below the detection limit of the instrument (0.50 μg/dm3, whilst in the river water the content of aluminum was about 50 μg/dm3 and the concentration of manganese in the river water was up to 10 times lower than the concentrations in groundwater. In all drinking water samples the concentration of the elements were bellow the maximum allowed levels according to the Serbian regulations. Correlation coefficients determined for boron, manganese, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, arsenic, barium and lead, which were analyzed in raw waters, show that four groups of elements can be distinguished. Boron, manganese, arsenic and barium are related to each other and probably have a common natural origin; copper and lead probably have a common anthropogenic origin; correlation of nickel and cobalt was observed, while zinc was not in

  7. The organization closed water battery plant Aircraft Factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В.М. Ісаєнко

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available  The information on unrational water usage and losts is given in the article. The necessity of closed water cycle introduction is shown for the aircraft repairing plant. The principle scheme of closed cycle water usage is developed for the accumulator department of the aircraft repairing plant. Modern technological equipment is offered for implementation.

  8. Impacts of invasive alien plants on water quality, with particular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impacts of invasive alien plants on water quality, with particular emphasis on South ... their spread results in native species loss, increased biomass and fire intensity ... areas by changing the size, distribution and plant chemistry of the biomass.

  9. Elevated carbon dioxide: impacts on soil and plant water relations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kirkham, M. B

    2011-01-01

    .... Focusing on this critical issue, Elevated Carbon Dioxide: Impacts on Soil and Plant Water Relations presents research conducted on field-grown sorghum, winter wheat, and rangeland plants under elevated CO2...

  10. On fuzzy control of water desalination plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Titli, A. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 31 - Toulouse (France); Jamshidi, M. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Olafsson, F. [Institute of Technology, Norway (Norway)

    1995-12-31

    In this report we have chosen a sub-system of an MSF water desalination plant, the brine heater, for analysis, synthesis, and simulation. This system has been modelled and implemented on computer. A fuzzy logic controller (FLC) for the top brine temperature control loop has been designed and implemented on the computer. The performance of the proposed FLC is compared with three other conventional control strategies: PID, cascade and disturbance rejection control. One major concern on FLC`s has been the lack of stability criteria. An up to-date survey of stability of fuzzy control systems is given. We have shown stability of the proposed FLC using the Sinusoidal Input Describing Functions (SIDF) method. The potential applications of fuzzy controllers for complex and large-scale systems through hierarchy of rule sets and hybridization with conventional approaches are also investigated. (authors)

  11. Survival strategies of plants during water stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheuermann, R.; Stuhlfauth, T.; Sueltemeyer, D.; Fock, H.

    1989-01-01

    Fluorescence and gas exchange of bean, maize, sunflower and wooly foxglove were simultaneously measured at 250 μmol quanta/m 2 /s. Under severe water stresses conditions about 40% of the photochemical energy was converted to heat at PS II. This is interpreted as a protective mechanism against photoinhibitory damage when net CO 2 uptake is reduced by about 70%. After 14 CO 2 gas exchange, only in bean was a homogeneous distribution of radioactivity over the leaf observed. In all other plants we found a patchy distribution of regions with either an intensive or a reduced gas exchange. We conclude that CO 2 -recycling (photorespiration and reassimilation) behind closed stomata also contributed to energy dissipation under severe stress conditions

  12. On fuzzy control of water desalination plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Titli, A [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 31 - Toulouse (France); Jamshidi, M [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Olafsson, F [Institute of Technology, Norway (Norway)

    1996-12-31

    In this report we have chosen a sub-system of an MSF water desalination plant, the brine heater, for analysis, synthesis, and simulation. This system has been modelled and implemented on computer. A fuzzy logic controller (FLC) for the top brine temperature control loop has been designed and implemented on the computer. The performance of the proposed FLC is compared with three other conventional control strategies: PID, cascade and disturbance rejection control. One major concern on FLC`s has been the lack of stability criteria. An up to-date survey of stability of fuzzy control systems is given. We have shown stability of the proposed FLC using the Sinusoidal Input Describing Functions (SIDF) method. The potential applications of fuzzy controllers for complex and large-scale systems through hierarchy of rule sets and hybridization with conventional approaches are also investigated. (authors)

  13. Water hammer in USA nuclear power plants and it's evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shuqian.

    1987-01-01

    The results of evaluations about the water hammer events in USA nuclear power plants in recent years are summarily reported. The evaluations included underlying causes and frequency of water hammer events, damages incurred and systems affected. Through the evaluations about water hammer events and on the basis of past operation experiences in nuclear power plants, the design and operational modifications to prevent or mitigate water hammer events were presented. The NRC's current opinions relating to the water hammer problems are summarized, the importance of water hammer events for nuclear power plants construction in China is indicated

  14. Hazard and operability study of Heavy Water Plant, Manuguru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nayak, S K; Khilnaney, V K [Heavy Water Board, Department of Atomic Energy, Mumbai (India)

    1994-06-01

    The chemical process industry faces the tough challenge of achieving design productivity while maintaining high standards of safety. This task is particularly difficult than handling hazardous chemicals. Hazard and operability study (HazOp) is a technique which involves systematic and thorough study by a multidisciplinary team. This technique provides a means to analyse the design and modes of operations of a plant systematically so as to identify the potential occurrence of hazardous events and operational problems. HazOp is based on the premise that a hazard is not realised if the process is operated within its design intent. This paper gives an overall view of the HazOp study carried out at Heavy Water Plant, Manuguru. Some selected recommendations from this study are highlighted. (author). 2 refs., 5 figs.

  15. An alternative process to treat boiler feed water for reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guirgis, Adel; Ghosh, Jyoti P; Achari, Gopal; Langford, Cooper H; Banerjee, Daliya

    2012-09-01

    A bench-scale process to treat boiler feed water for reuse in steam generation was developed. Industrial water samples from a steam-assisted gravity drainage plant in northern Alberta, Canada, were obtained and samples characterized. The technology, which consists of coagulation-settling to remove oil/grease and particulates followed by an advanced oxidative treatment, led to clean water samples with negligible organic carbon. Coagulation followed by settling removed most particulates and some insoluble organics. The advanced oxidative treatment removed any remaining color in the samples, decreased the organic content to near-zero, and provided water ready for reuse.

  16. Real-time analysis of water movement in plant sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokota, Harumi; Furukawa, Jun; Tanoi, Keitaro

    2000-01-01

    To know the effect of drought stress on two cultivars of cowpea, drought tolerant (DT) and drought sensitive (DS), and to estimate vanadium treatment on plant activity, we performed real time 18 F labeled water uptake measurement by PETIS. Fluoride-18 was produced by bombarding a cubic ice target with 50 MeV protons using TIARA AVF cyclotron. Then 18 F labeled water was applied to investigate water movement in a cowpea plant. Real time water uptake manner could be monitored by PETIS. After the analysis by PETIS, we also measured the distribution of 18 F in a whole plant by BAS. When a cowpea plant was treated with drought stress, there was a difference in water uptake manner between DT and DS cultivar. When a cowpea plant was treated with V for 20 hours before the water uptake experiment, the total amount of 18 F labeled water absorption was found to be drastically decreased. (author)

  17. Real-time analysis of water movement in plant sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokota, Harumi; Furukawa, Jun; Tanoi, Keitaro [Graduate School, Tokyo Univ. (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    To know the effect of drought stress on two cultivars of cowpea, drought tolerant (DT) and drought sensitive (DS), and to estimate vanadium treatment on plant activity, we performed real time{sup 18}F labeled water uptake measurement by PETIS. Fluoride-18 was produced by bombarding a cubic ice target with 50 MeV protons using TIARA AVF cyclotron. Then {sup 18}F labeled water was applied to investigate water movement in a cowpea plant. Real time water uptake manner could be monitored by PETIS. After the analysis by PETIS, we also measured the distribution of {sup 18}F in a whole plant by BAS. When a cowpea plant was treated with drought stress, there was a difference in water uptake manner between DT and DS cultivar. When a cowpea plant was treated with V for 20 hours before the water uptake experiment, the total amount of {sup 18}F labeled water absorption was found to be drastically decreased. (author)

  18. Carbon-14 in reactor plant water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowles, G.K.

    1979-01-01

    The method for the analysis of 14 C in reactor plant water and various waste streams previously used at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory has been shown to be ineffective for samples which contain organic compounds. The previous method consisted of acidification and refluxing of the sample, precipitation of the liberated CO 2 , and subsequent analysis by the liquid scintillation method. The method was simple but it did not convert all compounds containing 14 C in the sample to CO 2 . The new method, while it is based on the previous method, has been improved by employing a strong oxidant, potassium persulfate and silver nitrate, for more complete oxidation of the organics to CO 2 . The new method yields 14 C values that have typically been one to two orders of magnitude higher than the values obtained using the former method. This indicates that most of the 14 C present in the current reactor water samples being analyzed is associated with trace amounts of organics

  19. Operating experiences on ammonia water exchange system at Heavy Water Plant, Talcher (paper No. 6.12)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkat Ram, D.; Sharma, A.K.

    1992-01-01

    The Heavy Water Plant at Talcher employs bithermal ammonia hydrogen exchange process for the production of heavy water. The paper describes about the existing ammonia water exchange column, its start-up, operating experience and the problems encountered in operation of the column. The operating experiences gained and the data collected over the last few years can be utilised for design and operation of new ammonia water exchange column. (V.R). 2 figs

  20. Characterization of NORM material produced in a water treatment plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suursoo, S.; Kiisk, M.; Jantsikene, A.; Koch, R.; Isakar, K.; Realo, E. [University of Tartu, Institute of Physics (Estonia); Lumiste, L. [Tallinn University of Technology (Estonia)

    2014-07-01

    In February 2012 a water treatment plant was opened in Viimsi, Estonia. The plant is designed for removal of iron, manganese, and radium from groundwater. The first 2 years of operation have shown that the purification process generates significant amounts of materials with elevated radium levels. The treatment plant is fed by nine wells, which open to radium-rich aquifers. Purification is achieved by aeration and filtration processes. Aerated water is led through two successive filter columns, first of them is filled with MnO{sub 2} coated material FMH and filtration sand, the second one with zeolite. The plant has five parallel treatment lines with a total of 95 tons of FMH + filtration sand, and 45 tons of zeolite. The average capacity of the facility has been 2400 m{sup 3}/day. Yearly input of radium to the plant is estimated to be 325 MBq for Ra-226, and 420 MBq for Ra-228. Most of the radium (about 90%) accumulates in the filter columns. Some 8-9% of it is removed by backwash water during regular filter backwash cycles. To characterize radium accumulation and its removal by backwash in detail, treatment line no. 5 is sampled monthly for filter materials and backwash water. A steady growth of radium activity concentrations is apparent in both filter materials. In the top layer of the first stage filter (FMH+sand), Ra-226 and Ra-228 activity concentrations (per unit dry weight) reached (1540 ± 60) Bq/kg and (2510 ± 50) Bq/kg (k=2), respectively, by April 2013. At the same time, radium content in the top layer of the second stage filter (zeolite) was an order of magnitude higher: (19 600 ± 130) Bq/kg for Ra-226, and (22 260 ± 170) Bq/kg for Ra-228 (k=2). Radium is not evenly distributed throughout the filter columns. A rough estimate can be given that after 1.25 years of operation (by April 2013) the accumulated activities in treatment line no. 5 reached 1000 MBq for Ra-226 and 1200 MBq for Ra-228. Although filters are the most important type of NORM

  1. Water Supply Treatment Sustainability of Semambu Water Supply Treatment Process - Water Footprint Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Edriyana A.; Malek, Marlinda Abdul; Moni, Syazwan N.; Hadi, Iqmal H.; Zulkifli, Nabil F.

    2018-03-01

    In this study, the assessment by using Water Footprint (WF) approach was conducted to assess water consumption within the water supply treatment process (WSTP) services of Semambu Water Treatment Plant (WTP). Identification of the type of WF at each stage of WSTP was carried out and later the WF accounting for the period 2010 – 2016 was calculated. Several factors that might influence the accounting such as population, and land use. The increasing value of total WF per year was due to the increasing water demand from population and land use activities. However, the pattern of rainfall intensity from the monsoonal changes was not majorly affected the total amount of WF per year. As a conclusion, if the value of WF per year keeps increasing due to unregulated development in addition to the occurrences of climate changing, the intake river water will be insufficient and may lead to water scarcity. The findings in this study suggest actions to reduce the WF will likely have a great impact on freshwater resources availability and sustainability.

  2. Energy optimization of integrated process plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandvig Nielsen, J

    1996-10-01

    A general approach for viewing the process synthesis as an evolutionary process is proposed. Each step is taken according to the present level of information and knowledge. This is formulated in a Process Synthesis Cycle. Initially the synthesis is conducted at a high abstraction level maximizing use of heuristics (prior experience, rules of thumbs etc). When further knowledge and information are available, heuristics will gradually be replaced by exact problem formulations. The principles in the Process Synthesis Cycle, is used to develop a general procedure for energy synthesis, based on available tools. The procedure is based on efficient use of process simulators with integrated Pinch capabilities (energy targeting). The proposed general procedure is tailored to three specific problems (Humid Air Turbine power plant synthesis, Nitric Acid process synthesis and Sulphuric Acid synthesis). Using the procedure reduces the problem dimension considerable and thus allows for faster evaluation of more alternatives. At more detailed level a new framework for the Heat Exchanger Network synthesis problem is proposed. The new framework is object oriented based on a general functional description of all elements potentially present in the heat exchanger network (streams, exchangers, pumps, furnaces etc.). (LN) 116 refs.

  3. Evaluation of Water Treatment Problems: Case Study of Maiduguri Water Treatment Plant (MWTP and Maiduguri Environs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Idris

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Water remains the most useful universal solvent to human being and other animals, because of its derivative importance. However, effort to improve on raw water treatment would continue to be a subject of concern, because the process procedures are been violated or not properly upheld. This study was carried out in order to identify peculiar problems associate with water treatment at the Maiduguri Water Treatment Plant (MWTP. This research study was based on prompt time-schedules and plant site-visits, interviewed questions were made and accessing the technology adopted in the process stages. Analytical data were obtained through the use of sampling bottles, camera, record sheets and other necessary laboratory equipment. The analysis showed that treated water contained excess chlorine and aluminum with 1.10mg/l and 0.68mg/l respectively. From this study, the following are the root causes: poor facility lay out, poor organizational and functional structures, wear of pump impellers and surface deterioration in the transmission line, lack of calibration test, constant head system not operation properly, lack of jar test conduction, improper maintenance of filter system, and the use of chemical coagulant. Inferences were made at the end of the research to enhance process efficiency, healthier and more economical treatment MWTP.

  4. The heavy water production plant at Arroyito, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecabert, R.

    1984-01-01

    The author describes the construction of an industrial heavy water production plant (Planta Industrial de Agua Pesada, PIAP) in Argentina. The heavy water enrichment is based on a hydrogen/ammonia isotope exchange. (Auth.)

  5. How to observe water movement in plants using neutron imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsushima, Uzuki

    2011-01-01

    Water in plants is one of the most important factors for life. Water availability, water distribution and water flow also regulate various plant physiological phenomena. However, non-destructive methods for the in-situ study of water transport are quite limited. Neutron Radiography (NR) seem to be appropriate methods to study water distribution in intact plants. Also the combination of NR with the low-contrast tracer D 2 O allows the direct visualization of water flow and the calculation of water flow rates in plants with a high resolution at the tissue level. This article gives general introduction into those two methods and report about most recent results of our experiments in this field. (author)

  6. Renewable energy in Switzerland - Potential of waste-water treatment plants, waste-incineration plants and drinking water supply systems - Strategical decisions in politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kernen, M.

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses how waste-water treatment plants, waste-incineration plants and drinking water supply systems make an important contribution to the production of renewable energy in Switzerland. Financing by the 'Climate-Cent' programme, which finances projects involving the use of renewable energy, is discussed. Figures are quoted on the electrical energy produced in waste-water treatment plants, waste-incineration plants and combined heat and power generation plant. Eco-balances of the various systems are discussed. Political efforts being made in Switzerland, including the 'Climate Cent', are looked at and promotion provided by new energy legislation is discussed. Eco-power and the processing of sewage gas to meet natural gas quality standards are discussed, as are energy analysis, co-operation between various research institutions and external costs

  7. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant Site Development Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, F.G.

    1994-02-01

    The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) mission is to receive and store spent nuclear fuels and radioactive wastes for disposition for Department of Energy (DOE) in a cost-effective manner that protects the safety of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) employees, the public, and the environment by: Developing advanced technologies to process spent nuclear fuel for permanent offsite disposition and to achieve waste minimization. Receiving and storing Navy and other DOE assigned spent nuclear fuels. Managing all wastes in compliance with applicable laws and regulations. Identifying and conducting site remediation consistent with facility transition activities. Seeking out and implementing private sector technology transfer and cooperative development agreements. Prior to April 1992, the ICPP mission included fuel reprocessing. With the recent phaseout of fuel reprocessing, some parts of the ICPP mission have changed. Others have remained the same or increased in scope

  8. Region 9 NPDES Facilities 2012- Waste Water Treatment Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Point geospatial dataset representing locations of NPDES Waste Water Treatment Plant Facilities. NPDES (National Pollution Discharge Elimination System) is an EPA permit program that regulates direct discharges from facilities that discharge treated waste water into waters of the US. Facilities are issued NPDES permits regulating their discharge as required by the Clean Water Act. A facility may have one or more outfalls (dischargers). The location represents the facility or operating plant.

  9. Region 9 NPDES Facilities - Waste Water Treatment Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Point geospatial dataset representing locations of NPDES Waste Water Treatment Plant Facilities. NPDES (National Pollution Discharge Elimination System) is an EPA permit program that regulates direct discharges from facilities that discharge treated waste water into waters of the US. Facilities are issued NPDES permits regulating their discharge as required by the Clean Water Act. A facility may have one or more outfalls (dischargers). The location represents the facility or operating plant.

  10. Diel biogeochemical processes in terrestrial waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimick, David A.; Gammons, Christopher H.

    2011-01-01

    Many biogeochemical processes in rivers and lakes respond to the solar photocycle and produce persistent patterns of measureable phenomena that exhibit a day–night, or 24-h, cycle. Despite a large body of recent literature, the mechanisms responsible for these diel fluctuations are widely debated, with a growing consensus that combinations of physical, chemical, and biological processes are involved. These processes include streamflow variation, photosynthesis and respiration, plant assimilation, and reactions involving photochemistry, adsorption and desorption, and mineral precipitation and dissolution. Diel changes in streamflow and water properties such as temperature, pH, and dissolved oxygen concentration have been widely recognized, and recently, diel studies have focused more widely by considering other constituents such as dissolved and particulate trace metals, metalloids, rare earth elements, mercury, organic matter, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), and nutrients. The details of many diel processes are being studied using stable isotopes, which also can exhibit diel cycles in response to microbial metabolism, photosynthesis and respiration, or changes in phase, speciation, or redox state. In addition, secondary effects that diel cycles might have, for example, on biota or in the hyporheic zone are beginning to be considered.This special issue is composed primarily of papers presented at the topical session “Diurnal Biogeochemical Processes in Rivers, Lakes, and Shallow Groundwater” held at the annual meeting of the Geological Society of America in October 2009 in Portland, Oregon. This session was organized because many of the growing number of diel studies have addressed just a small part of the full range of diel cycling phenomena found in rivers and lakes. This limited focus is understandable because (1) fundamental aspects of many diel processes are poorly understood and require detailed study, (2) the interests and expertise of individual

  11. STUDY OF PLANT-WIDE CONTROL IMPLEMENTATION IN PRODUCTION PROCESS OF GEOTHERMAL POWER PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KATHERIN INDRIAWATI

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The design of plant-wide control system to optimize electricity production in geothermal power plant is proposed in this research. The objective is to overcome the deficiency due to changes in the characteristics of production well and fluctuation in electricity demand load. The proposed plant-wide control system has two main tasks; to maintain production process at optimum value and to increase efficiency. The pressure in separator and condenser is maintained at the respective set points under electrical load fluctuations in order to ensure optimum efficiency. The control system also reduce the usage of auxialiary electrical power and increase efficiency. The task was performed by controlling inlet cooling water temperatures to the condenser. It was concluded that the proposed control structure was able to increase efficiency and maintain production.

  12. Californium production at the transuranium processing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, L.J.

    1976-01-01

    The Transuranium Processing Plant (TRU) at ORNL, which is the production, storage, and distribution center for the ERDA heavy element research program, is described. About 0.5 percent of 252 Cf is currently being produced. TRU is a hot-cell, chemical processing facility of advanced design. New concepts have been incorporated into the facility for absolute containment, remote operation, remote equipment installation, and remote maintenance. The facilities include a battery of nine heavily shielded process cells served by master-slave manipulators and eight laboratories, four on each of two floors. Processing includes chemical dissolution of the targets followed by a series of solvent extraction, ion exchange, and precipitation steps to separate and purify the transuranium elements. The transcurium elements Bk, Cf, Es, and Fm are distributed to users. Remote techniques are used to fabricate the Am and Cm into target rods for reirradiation in the HFIR. Californium-252 that is in excess of the needs of the heavy element research program and the Cf sales program is stored at TRU and processed repeatedly to recover the daughter product 248 Cm, which is a highly desirable research material

  13. Data processing software for purex plant process control laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kansara, V.P.; Achuthan, P.V.; Sridhar, S.; Ramanujam, A.; Dhumwad, R.K.

    1990-01-01

    A software has been developed at the Fuel Reprocessing Division, Trombay to meet the data processing needs of the Control Laboratory of a reprocessing plant. During the normal plant operations contents of over one hundred process tanks have to be sampled and analysed for regular monitoring. In order to speed up the computation and the reporting of results as well as to obtain the process performance data over a period of time a software has been developed. The package has been sucessfully demonstrated and implemented at the Plutonium Plant, Trombay. This has been in continuous use since May 1987 with highly satisfactory performance. The software is a totally menu-driven package which can be used by the laboratory analysts with a few hours of training. The features include data validation involving source tank identification, the nature of the sample, the range of expected results, any duplication in sample numbering etc. Audio indication of deviations from the expected input or output values are given with an option to override in case of abnormal samples. The progress of analysis can be obtained for a given sample at any given time. Incorporated in the software is the help menu for quick reference of analytical protocol to be followed for a given tank/method. The computations for the determinations are carried out after obtaining input values on a screen-form. Th e results can be displayed on the monitor or obtained in the form of a hard copy i n any desired format. (author). 17 figs., 2 refs

  14. Water chemistry guidance in nuclear power plants in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Shunsuke; Okada, Hidetoshi; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Naitoh, Masanori

    2012-01-01

    Water chemistry plays important roles in safe and reliable plant operation which are very critical for future power rate increases as well as aging plant management. Water chemistry control is required to satisfy the need for improved integrity of target materials, and at the same time it must be optimal for all materials and systems in a plant. Optimal water chemistry can be maintained by expert engineers who are knowledgeable about plant water chemistry, who have sufficient experience with plant operation, and whose knowledge is based on fundamental technologies. One of the latest subjects in the field of water chemistry is achieving suitable technical transfers, in which the achievements and experience with plant water chemistry accumulated by experts are successfully transferred to the next generation of engineers. For this purpose, documents on experience with water chemistry are being compiled as the guidance for water chemistry control and water chemistry standards, e.g., standards for chemical analysis procedures and guidance for water chemistry control procedures. This paper introduces the latest activities in Japan in establishing water chemistry guidance involving water chemistry standards, guidance documents and their supporting documents. (orig.)

  15. Water treatment process for nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marwan, M.A.; Khattab, M.S.; Hanna, A.N.

    1992-01-01

    Water treatment for purification is very important in reactor cooling systems as well as in many industrial applications. Since impurities in water are main source of problems, it is necessary to achieve and maintain high purity of water before utilization in reactor cooling systems. The present work investigate water treatment process for nuclear reactor utilization. Analysis of output water chemistry proved that demineralizing process is an appropriate method. Extensive experiments were conducted to determine economical concentration of the regenerates to obtain the optimum quantity of pure water which reached to 15 cubic meter instead of 10 cubic-meter per regeneration. Running cost is consequently decreased by about 30 %. output water chemistry agree with the recommended specifications for reactor utilization. The radionuclides produced in the primary cooling water due to reactor operation are determined. It is found that 70% of radioactive contaminants are retained by purification through resin of reactor filter. Decontamination factor and filter efficiency are also determined.5 fig., 3 tab

  16. Water retention in mushroom during sustainable processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paudel, E.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis deals with the understanding of the water holding capacity of mushroom, in the context of a redesign of their industrial processing. For designing food process the retention of food quality is of the utmost importance. Water holding capacity is an important quality aspect of

  17. Drinking water treatment plant costs and source water quality: An updated case study (2013-2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watershed protection can play an important role in producing safe drinking water. However, many municipalities and drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) lack the information on the potential benefits of watershed protection as an approach to improving source water quality. This...

  18. MONITORING ON PLANT LEAF WATER POTENTIAL USING NIR SPECTROSCOPY FOR WATER STRESS MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diding Suhandy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The performance of the calibration model with temperature compensation for on-plant leaf water potential (LWP determination in tomato plants was evaluated. During a cycle of water stress, the on-plant LWP measurement was conducted. The result showed that the LWP values under water stress and recovery from water stress could be monitored well. It showed that a real time monitoring of the LWP values using NIR spectroscopy could be possible.   Keywords: water stress, real time monitoring of leaf water potential, NIR spectroscopy, plant response-based

  19. Low-level radioactive waste processing at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    The Solid Radwaste Processing Source Book is presented as a supplement to the Liquid Radwaste Source Book released in 1990 and updated in 1991. The publication is the result of an industry-wide survey, and is intended as a resource for technical and managerial decisions involving of the processing of solid radioactive waste including ''wet'' and ''dry'' active waste as found at both Pressurized and Boiling Water Reactor sites. In addition to information on processes, vendors, volumes, and in-plant management activities, technology under consideration for future use and computer applications are listed. Together with key personnel and contact information contained in the Liquid Source Books, the collected data will be of great use when seeking specific, unbiased experience on which to base decisions related to so processing, disposal policy, or potential economic and regulatory impact

  20. Tritium formation and elimination in light-water electronuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolle, L.; Bazin, J.

    1977-01-01

    In light-water reactors, the tritium balance should be considered from both the working constraint and environmental pollution aspects. In light-water electronuclear stations with pressurized reactors using boric acid in solution for reactivity control, the amounts of tritium formed in the primary circuit are worthy of note. The estimations concerning the tritium production in a hypothetical 1000 MWe reactor are discussed. In the tritium build-up, the part which takes the tritium formed by fission in the fuel, owing to diffusion through cladding, is still difficult to estimate. The tritium balance in different working nuclear power stations are consequently of interest. But the tritium produced by ternary fission in the fuel is always much more abundant, and remains almost entirely confined in the uranium oxide if the fuel is clad with zircaloy. The annual quantity stored in the fuel elements is more than 20 times larger than that of the built up free tritium in the primary circuit water of a reactor. It reaches about 12,400 Ci in the hypothetical reactor. In the presently operated reprocessing plants, tritium is all going over in the effluents, and is almost entirely released in the environment. Taking into account the increasing quantities of high irradiated fuel to be reprocessed, it seems necessary to develop separation processes. Development work and tests have been achieved jointly by CEA and SAINT-GOBAIN TECHNIQUES NOUVELLES in order to: contain the tritium in the high activity part of the plant; and keep small the tritiated effluent volume, about 300 liters per ton of reprocessed uranium. It is then possible to envisage a storage for decay of isotopic separation processes. Such separation processes have been estimated by CEA assuming a daily output of 1500 liters of water containing 2,3 Ci.1 -1 of tritium, the desired decontamination factor being 100 [fr

  1. Purification of ammonia-containing trap waters from atomic power plant by ozone treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grachok, M.A.; Prokudina, S.A.; Shulyat'ev, M.I.

    1990-01-01

    The aim of research was to study the process of ozonation of ammonia-containing trap waters from the Kursk Atomic Power Plant both on the model solutions and on real ones. Different factors (pH of the medium, temperature, concentration of the initial substances) have been studied for their effect on ozonation of aqueous ammonia solutions, model solutions of trap waters from the Kursk Atomic Power Plant as well as ammonia-containing trap waters and liquid radioactive wastes delivered to special water treatment at the Kursk Atomic Power Plant. It is shown that in all the cases the highest rate of ammonia oxidation by ozone is observed in the alkaline medium (pH 1.4-11.0) and at 55 deg C. The obtained results have shown that a method of ozonation followed by evaporation of water to be purified can be used to treat ammonia-containing waters from atomic power plant

  2. A nuclear magnetic resonance study of plant-water relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinders, J.E.A.

    1987-01-01

    Water is one of the most important constituents of a plant. It is the medium in which many biological reactions take place and nutrients are transported throughout the plant in aqueous solutions. Because it serves as a hydrogen donor In photosynthesis water can be considered as one of the

  3. Grass plants crop water consumption model in urban parks located ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The most important issue is the to use of urban space to increase the number and size of green areas. As well as another important issue is to work towards maintaining these spaces. One such important effort is to meet the water needs of plants. Naturally, the amount of water needed by plants depends on the species.

  4. Safety system in a heavy water detritiation plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balteanu, O.; Stefan, I.; Retevoi, C.

    2003-01-01

    In a CANDU 6 type reactor a quantity of 55·10 15 Bq/year of tritium is generated, 95% being in the D 2 O moderator which can achieve a radioactivity of 2.5-3.5·10 12 Bq/kg. Tritium in heavy water contributes with 30-50% to the doses received by operation personnel and up to 20% to the radioactivity released in the environment. The large quantity of heavy water used in this type of reactors (500 tones) make storage very difficult, especially for environment. The extraction of tritium from tritiated heavy water of CANDU reactors solve the following problems: the radiation level in the operation area, the costs of maintenance and repair reduction due to reduction of personnel protection measures, the increase of NPP utilisation factor by shutdown time reduction for maintenance and repair, use the extracted tritium for fusion reactors and not for the last, lower costs and risk for storage heavy water waste. Heavy water detritiation methods, which currently are used in the industrial or experimental plant, are based on catalytic isotope exchange or electrolysis followed cryogenic distillation or permeation. The technology developed at Institute of Cryogenics and Isotope Separation is based upon catalytic exchange between tritiated water and deuterium, followed by cryogenic distillation of hydrogen isotopes. The nature of the fluids that are processed in detritiation requires the operation of the plant in safety conditions. The paper presents the safety system solution chose in order to solve this task, as well as a simulation of an incident and safety system response. The application software is using LabView platform that is specialised on control and factory automation applications. (author)

  5. Multi-modal sensor system for plant water stress assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant stress critically affects plant growth and causes significant loss of productivity and quality. When the plant is under water stress, it impedes photosynthesis and transpiration, resulting in changes in leaf color and temperature. Leaf discoloration in photosynthesis can be assessed by measu...

  6. An Update on Modifications to Water Treatment Plant Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water treatment plant (WTP) model is an EPA tool for informing regulatory options. WTP has a few versions: 1). WTP2.2 can help in regulatory analysis. An updated version (WTP3.0) will allow plant-specific analysis (WTP-ccam) and thus help meet plant-specific treatment objectives...

  7. Prototype plant for nuclear process heat (PNP) - operation of the pilot plant for hydrogasification of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruengel, N.; Dehms, G.; Fiedler, P.; Gerigk, H.P.; Ruddeck, W.; Schrader, L.; Schumacher, H.J.

    1988-04-01

    The Rheinische Braunkohlenwerke AG developed the process of hydrogasification of coal in a fluidized bed for generation of SNG. On basis of test results obtained in a semi-technical pilot plant of a through-put of 250 kg/h dried coal a large pilot plant was erected processing 10 t/h dried brown coal. This plant was on stream for about 14700 h, of which about 7800 h were with gasifier operation; during this time about 38000 t of dried brown coal of the Rhenish district were processed containing 4 to 25% of ash. At pressures of 60 to 120 bar and temperatures of 800 to 935 0 C carbon conversion rates up to 81 percent and methane amounts of 5000 m 3 (STP)/h were reached. The decisive parameter for methane generation was the hydrogen/coal-ratio. Even at high moisture contents, usually diminishing the methane yield from the coal essentially, by high hydrogen/coal-ratios high methane yields could be obtained. The gasifier itself caused no troubles during the total time operation. Difficulties with the original design of the residual char cooler could be overcome by change-over from water injection to liquid carbon dioxide. The design of the heat recovery system proved well. Alltogether so the size increasement of the gasifier from the semi-technical to the large pilot plant as well as the harmonization of gas generation and gas refining was proved. (orig.) With 20 refs., 20 tabs., 81 figs [de

  8. Essentials of water systems design in the oil, gas, and chemical processing industries

    CERN Document Server

    Bahadori, Alireza; Boyd, Bill

    2013-01-01

    Essentials of Water Systems Design in the Oil, Gas and Chemical Processing Industries provides valuable insight for decision makers by outlining key technical considerations and requirements of four critical systems in industrial processing plants—water treatment systems, raw water and plant water systems, cooling water distribution and return systems, and fire water distribution and storage facilities. The authors identify the key technical issues and minimum requirements related to the process design and selection of various water supply systems used in the oil, gas, and chemical processing industries. This book is an ideal, multidisciplinary work for mechanical engineers, environmental scientists, and oil and gas process engineers.

  9. Cooling water recipients for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahl, F.-E.; Saetre, H.J.

    1971-10-01

    The hydrographical and hydrological conditions at 17 prospective nuclear power plant sites in the Oslofjord district are evaluated with respect to their suitability as recipients for thermal discharges from nuclear power plants. No comparative evaluations are made. (JIW)

  10. Seismic re-evaluation of Heavy Water Plant, Kota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parulekar, Y.M.; Reddy, G.R.; Vaze, K.K.; Kushwaha, H.S.

    2003-10-01

    This report deals with seismic re-evaluation of Heavy Water Plant, Kota. Heavy Water Plant, Kota handles considerable amount of H 2 S gas, which is very toxic. During the original design stage as per IS 1893-1966 seismic coefficient for zone-I was zero. Therefore earthquake and its effects were not considered while designing the heavy water plant structures. However as per IS 1893 (1984) the seismic coefficient for zone-I is 0.01 g. Hence seismic re-evaluation of various structures of the heavy water plant is carried out. Analysis of the heavy water plant structures was carried out for self weight, equipment load and earthquake load. Pressure loading was also considered in case of H 2 S storage tanks. Soil structure interaction effect was considered in the analysis. The combined stresses in the structures due to earthquake and dead load were checked with the allowable stresses. (author)

  11. Water treatment process for nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marwan, M.A.; Khattab, M.S.; Hanna, A.N.

    1993-01-01

    Water treatment for purification is very important in reactor cooling systems as well as in many industrial applications. Since impurities in water are main source of problems, it is necessary to achieve and maintain high purity of water before utilization in reactor cooling systems. The present work investigates water treatment process for nuclear reactor utilization. Analysis of outwater chemistry proved that demineralizing process is an appropriate method. Extensive experiments were conducted to determine economical concentration of the regenerants to obtain the optimum quantity of pure water which reached to 15 cubic-meter instead of 10 cubic-meter per regeneration. Running cost is consequently decreased by about 30%. Output water chemistry agrees with the recommended specifications for reactor utilization. The radionuclides produced in the primary cooling water due to reactor operation are determined. It is found that 70% of radioactive contaminants are retained by purification through resin of reactor filter. Decontamination factor and filter efficiency are also determined

  12. Tritium concentration in the heavy water upgrading plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croitoru, C.; Pop, F.; Titescu, Gh.; Dumitrescu, M.; Ciortea, C.; Stefanescu, I.; Peculea, M.; Pitigoi, Gh.; Trancota, D. . E-mail of corresponding author: croitoru@icsi.ro; Croitoru, C.)

    2005-01-01

    In the course of time heavy water used in CANDU nuclear power plants, as moderator or coolant, degrades, as a result of its impurification with light water and tritium. Concentration diminution below 99.8% mol for moderator and 99.75% mol for coolant causes an inefficient functioning of CANDU reactor. By isotopic distillation, light water is removed. Simultaneously tritium concentration takes place. The heavy water upgrading plant from Cernavoda is an isotopic separation cascade with two stages. The paper presents, for this plant, a theoretical study of the tritium concentration. (author)

  13. Process technologies for water desalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramilo, Lucia B.; Gomez de Soler, Susana M.; Coppari, Norberto R.

    2003-01-01

    The use of the nuclear energy for simultaneous electricity and potable water production is an attractive, technically feasible, and safe alternative to fossil energy options. In Argentina the nuclear desalination option is being studied together with the alternative uses of the innovative advanced Argentinean CAREM reactor, in the research contract CNEA - IAEA to evaluate projects of nuclear desalination. The objective and scope of this work is to know the advantages and disadvantages of each desalination technology, distinctive characteristics of each of them, that make them adapt better to different uses and outline conditions and analysis of related antecedents of its use in the world. In this report a summarized description of those technologies is included by way of introduction, so as to highlight the main advantages and disadvantages of each of them. The improvements and innovations found in the last years for the different technologies are also included. (author)

  14. Process technologies for water desalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramilo, Lucia B.; Gomez de Soler, Susana M.; Coppari, Norberto R.

    2003-01-01

    The use of the nuclear energy for simultaneous electricity and potable water production is an attractive, technically feasible and safe alternative to fossil energy options. In Argentina the nuclear desalination option is being studied together with the alternative uses of the innovative advanced Argentinean CAREM reactor, in a research contract between CNEA and the IAEA to evaluate projects of nuclear desalination. This paper analyses the benefits and drawbacks of each desalination technology, the distinctive characteristics of the technology that fit better the different uses, and outlines the related antecedents of its application in the world. In this report a summarized description of those technologies is included by way of introduction, so as to highlight the main advantages and disadvantages of each of them. The improvements and innovations made in the last years for the different technologies are also described. (author)

  15. Technoeconomic analysis of a methanol plant based on gasification of biomass and electrolysis of water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lasse Røngaard; Houbak, N.; Elmegaard, Brian

    2010-01-01

    , and the low-temperature waste heat is used for district heat production. This results in high total energy efficiencies (similar to 90%) for the plants. The specific methanol costs for the six plants are in the range 11.8-25.3 (sic)/GJ(exergy). The lowest cost is obtained by a plant using electrolysis......Methanol production process configurations based on renewable energy sources have been designed. The processes were analyzed in the thermodynamic process simulation tool DNA. The syngas used for the catalytic methanol production was produced by gasification of biomass, electrolysis of water, CO2...... with a different syngas production method, were compared. The plants achieve methanol exergy efficiencies of 59-72%, the best from a configuration incorporating autothermal reforming of biogas and electrolysis of water for syngas production. The different processes in the plants are highly heat integrated...

  16. Effect of operation of ammonia plants on the performance of heavy water plants (Paper No. 2.7)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Heavy Water Plant, Hazira has two streams and each stream is designed to process 48 MT/hr of synthesis gas to produce the rated quantity of heavy water. However in actual practice, it is observed that actual gas composition is different from the above due to various reasons. This article describes effects of various parameters of ammonia plant on the functioning of heavy water plants, such as concentration of D/D+H in synthesis gas, concentration of hydrogen in synthesis gas, concentration of inerts in synthesis gas, pressure of synthesis gas, on stream days of ammonia plant, and concentration of impurities like CO/CO 2 in synthesis gas. (author). 2 figs

  17. Iodine-129 in aquatic organisms near nuclear fuels processing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, D.G.

    1975-04-01

    Concentrations of 129 I in two aquatic habitats near nuclear fuel processing plants were highest in algae and crustaceans. These two forms may be useful in future monitoring of 129 I. There is some indication of an increase in atom ratios and specific activity in aquatic organisms over that in water and sediments. Additional measurements should be made to verify this conclusion. Efforts should continue to measure the possible long term build-up of 129 I in aquatic environments receiving effluents from fuels reprocessing plants. Even at very low rates of release to the environment, the long physical half-life of 129 I creates the potential for build-up of this nuclide to significant levels. (U.S.)

  18. Chemical monitoring strategy for the assessment of advanced water treatment plant performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewes, J E; McDonald, J A; Trinh, T; Storey, M V; Khan, S J

    2011-01-01

    A pilot-scale plant was employed to validate the performance of a proposed full-scale advanced water treatment plant (AWTP) in Sydney, Australia. The primary aim of this study was to develop a chemical monitoring program that can demonstrate proper plant operation resulting in the removal of priority chemical constituents in the product water. The feed water quality to the pilot plant was tertiary-treated effluent from a wastewater treatment plant. The unit processes of the AWTP were comprised of an integrated membrane system (ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis) followed by final chlorination generating a water quality that does not present a source of human or environmental health concern. The chemical monitoring program was undertaken over 6 weeks during pilot plant operation and involved the quantitative analysis of pharmaceuticals and personal care products, steroidal hormones, industrial chemicals, pesticides, N-nitrosamines and halomethanes. The first phase consisted of baseline monitoring of target compounds to quantify influent concentrations in feed waters to the plant. This was followed by a period of validation monitoring utilising indicator chemicals and surrogate measures suitable to assess proper process performance at various stages of the AWTP. This effort was supported by challenge testing experiments to further validate removal of a series of indicator chemicals by reverse osmosis. This pilot-scale study demonstrated a simplified analytical approach that can be employed to assure proper operation of advanced water treatment processes and the absence of trace organic chemicals.

  19. Energy conservation measures adopted at Heavy Water Plant, Manuguru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, R.V.; Venugopal, M.

    1997-01-01

    The importance of conservation of energy is well recognised all over the world as the world reserves of fossil fuels will eventually run out depending on the rate of their use. This paper deals with various energy conservation schemes adopted at Heavy Water Plant, Manuguru (HWPM). Most energy conservation measures offer large financial saving with very short pay back periods. This fact has been well recognised by the management of HWPM as well as Heavy Water Board and their wholehearted and enthusiastic approach to energy conservation and energy management yielded very good results in reducing the operating cost. The process of energy conservation is not a one time exercise. Persistent efforts are on to identify the areas like condition of heat exchangers, margins in control valves, steam and condensate leakages etc. for further reduction in energy consumption

  20. Scaling root processes based on plant functional traits (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eissenstat, D. M.; McCormack, M. L.; Gaines, K.; Adams, T.

    2013-12-01

    There are great challenges to scaling root processes as variation across species and variation of a particular species over different spatial and temporal scales is poorly understood. We have examined tree species variation using multispecies plantings, often referred to by ecologists as 'common gardens'. Choosing species with wide variation in growth rate, root morphology (diameter, branching intensity) and root chemistry (root N and Ca concentration), we found that variation in root lifespan was well correlated with plant functional traits across 12 species. There was also evidence that localized liquid N addition could increase root lifespan and localized water addition diminished root lifespan over untreated controls, with effects strongest in the species of finest root diameter. In an adjacent forest, we have also seen tree species variation in apparent depth of rooting using water isotopes. In particular species of wood anatomy that was ring porous (e.g. oaks) typically had the deepest rooting depth, whereas those that had either diffuse-porous sapwood (maples) or tracheid sapwood (pines) were shallower rooted. These differences in rooting depth were related to sap flux of trees during and immediately after periods of drought. The extent that the patterns observed in central Pennsylvania are modulated by environment or indicative of other plant species will be discussed.

  1. The importance of the reliability study for the safety operation of chemical plants. Application in heavy water plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumitrescu, Maria; Lazar, Roxana Elena; Preda, Irina Aida; Stefanescu, Ioan

    1999-01-01

    Heavy water production in Romania is based on H 2 O-H 2 S isotopic exchange process followed by vacuum isotopic distillation. The heavy water plant are complex chemical systems, characterized by an ensemble of static and dynamic equipment, AMC components, enclosures. Such equipment must have a high degree of reliability, a maximum safety in technological operation and a high availability index. Safety, reliable and economical operation heavy water plants need to maintain the systems and the components at adequate levels of reliability. The paper is a synthesis of the qualitative and quantitative assessment reliability studies for heavy water plants. The operation analysis on subsystems, each subsystems being a well-defined unit, is required by the plant complexity. For each component the reliability indicators were estimated by parametric and non-parametric methods based on the plant operation data. Also, the reliability qualitative and quantitative assessment was done using the fault tree technique. For the dual temperature isotopic exchange plants the results indicate an increase of the MTBF after the first years of operation, illustrating both the operation experience increasing and maintenance improvement. Also a high degree of availability was illustrated by the reliability studies of the vacuum distillation plant. The establishment of the reliability characteristics for heavy water plant represents an important step, a guide for highlighting the elements and process liable to failure being at the same time a planning modality to correlate the control times with the maintenance operations. This is the way to minimise maintenance, control and costs. The main purpose of the reliability study was the safety increase of the plant operation and the support for decision making. (authors)

  2. Features in ammonia plant for maximising heavy water production (Paper No. 2.10)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tangri, N.N.; Singh, R.J.; Mukherjee, P.K.; Mishra, B.N.

    1992-01-01

    Whenever an ammonia plant is linked with heavy water production, a system should be foreseen in the design stage itself for total conservation of D 2 in synthesis gas and zero D 2 loss. The process should ensure recycle of D 2 rich condensate within the front end. This alone would be the single most important factor for improving heavy water production rate. The synthesis loop pressure should be chosen keeping in view the interest of heavy water plant (HWP). With vast experience in engineering NH 3 and HWP plants, it is possible to integrate HWP requirements at the design stage itself. (author)

  3. Facility for processing the condensates from nuclear power plants (BWR and PWR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucker, Georges.

    1975-01-01

    A plant for the processing of the condensates from boiling water or pressurized water nuclear power plants is presented. A series of couples of units for the processing of the condensates through mixed beds of ion exchange resins simultaneously ensures the filtration and demineralization of the condensates. When the resins are saturated, each mixed bed is transferred into a unit of regeneration of said resins. Each processing unit is a sphere made of a stainless material, and provided with a plurality of air and water pipes allowing the admission and evacuation of the various elements to be successively controlled [fr

  4. How Does Silicon Mediate Plant Water Uptake and Loss Under Water Deficiency?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daoqian Chen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In plants, water deficiency can result from a deficit of water from the soil, an obstacle to the uptake of water or the excess water loss; in these cases, the similar consequence is the limitation of plant growth and crop yield. Silicon (Si has been widely reported to alleviate the plant water status and water balance under variant stress conditions in both monocot and dicot plants, especially under drought and salt stresses. However, the underlying mechanism is unclear. In addition to the regulation of leaf transpiration, recently, Si application was found to be involved in the adjustment of root hydraulic conductance by up-regulating aquaporin gene expression and concentrating K in the xylem sap. Therefore, this review discusses the potential effects of Si on both leaf transpiration and root water absorption, especially focusing on how Si modulates the root hydraulic conductance. A growing number of studies support the conclusion that Si application improves plant water status by increasing root water uptake, rather than by decreasing their water loss under conditions of water deficiency. The enhancement of plant water uptake by Si is achievable through the activation of osmotic adjustment, improving aquaporin activity and increasing the root/shoot ratio. The underlying mechanisms of the Si on improving plant water uptake under water deficiency conditions are discussed.

  5. Nuclear fuel re-processing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Yuko; Honda, Takashi; Shoji, Saburo; Kobayashi, Shiro; Furuya, Yasumasa

    1989-01-01

    In a nuclear fuel re-processing plant, high Si series stainless steels not always have sufficient corrosion resistance in a solution containing only nitric acid at medium or high concentration. Further, a method of blowing NOx gases may possibly promote the corrosion of equipment constituent materials remarkably. In view of the above, the corrosion promoting effect of nuclear fission products is suppressed without depositing corrosive metal ions as metals in the nitric acid solution. That is, a reducing atmosphere is formed by generating NOx by electrolytic reduction thereby preventing increase in the surface potential of stainless steels. Further, an anode is disposed in the nitric acid solution containing oxidative metal ions to establish an electrical conduction and separate them by way of partition membranes and a constant potential or constant current is applied while maintaining an ionic state so as not to deposit metals. Thus, equipments of re-processing facility can be protected from corrosion with no particular treatment for wastes as radioactive materials. (K.M.)

  6. Process for recovering water enriched with deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandel, H.

    1975-01-01

    By the process proposed herewith, enrichment of deuterium in water by cooling water recirculation through series-connection of several cooling ciruits in the form of columns is obtained. With this method, conventional, open-type cooling towers without special installations can be applied, which is an important advantage as compared with a formerly proposed single-stage process with specially designed, complicated cooling towers. Series-connection of the cooling towers is carried out in such a way that the circulating water of a certain cooling circuit, which has a corresponding output value of deuterium enrichment, is conveyed to a succeeding circuit where further enrichment is achieved. The water enriched with deuterium is removed from the last cooling circuit of the series while an amount of fresch water equivalent to the water removed or evaporated altogether is fed to the first circuit of the series. (RB) [de

  7. The Impact of Rhizosphere Processes on Water Flow and Root Water Uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Nimrod; Kroener, Eva; Carminati, Andrea; Javaux, Mathieu

    2015-04-01

    For many years, the rhizosphere, which is the zone of soil in the vicinity of the roots and which is influenced by the roots, is known as a unique soil environment with different physical, biological and chemical properties than those of the bulk soil. Indeed, in recent studies it has been shown that root exudate and especially mucilage alter the hydraulic properties of the soil, and that drying and wetting cycles of mucilage result in non-equilibrium water dynamics in the rhizosphere. While there are experimental evidences and simplified 1D model for those concepts, an integrated model that considers rhizosphere processes with a detailed model for water and roots flow is absent. Therefore, the objective of this work is to develop a 3D physical model of water flow in the soil-plant continuum that take in consideration root architecture and rhizosphere specific properties. Ultimately, this model will enhance our understanding on the impact of processes occurring in the rhizosphere on water flow and root water uptake. To achieve this objective, we coupled R-SWMS, a detailed 3D model for water flow in soil and root system (Javaux et al 2008), with the rhizosphere model developed by Kroener et al (2014). In the new Rhizo-RSWMS model the rhizosphere hydraulic properties differ from those of the bulk soil, and non-equilibrium dynamics between the rhizosphere water content and pressure head is also considered. We simulated a wetting scenario. The soil was initially dry and it was wetted from the top at a constant flow rate. The model predicts that, after infiltration the water content in the rhizosphere remained lower than in the bulk soil (non-equilibrium), but over time water infiltrated into the rhizosphere and eventually the water content in the rhizosphere became higher than in the bulk soil. These results are in qualitative agreement with the available experimental data on water dynamics in the rhizosphere. Additionally, the results show that rhizosphere processes

  8. Co-regulation of water and K(+) transport in sunflower plants during water stress recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benlloch, Manuel; Benlloch-González, María

    2016-06-01

    16-day-old sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) plants were subjected to deficit irrigation for 12 days. Following this period, plants were rehydrated for 2 days to study plant responses to post-stress recovery. The moderate water stress treatment applied reduced growth in all plant organs and the accumulation of K(+) in the shoot. After the rehydration period, the stem recovered its growth and reached a similar length to the control, an effect which was not observed in either root or leaves. Moreover, plant rehydration after water stress favored the accumulation of K(+) in the apical zone of the stem and expanding leaves. In the roots of plants under water stress, watering to field capacity, once the plants were de- topped, rapidly favored K(+) and water transport in the excised roots. This quick and short-lived response was not observed in roots of plants recovered from water stress for 2 days. These results suggest that the recovery of plant growth after water stress is related to coordinated water and K(+) transport from the root to the apical zone of the ​​stem and expanding leaves. This stimulation of K(+) transport in the root and its accumulation in the cells of the growing zones of the ​​stem must be one of the first responses induced in the plant during water stress recovery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Development of an experimental approach to study coupled soil-plant-atmosphere processes using plant analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautz, Andrew C.; Illangasekare, Tissa H.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio; Heck, Katharina; Helmig, Rainer

    2017-04-01

    The atmosphere, soils, and vegetation near the land-atmosphere interface are in a state of continuous dynamic interaction via a myriad of complex interrelated feedback processes which collectively, remain poorly understood. Studying the fundamental nature and dynamics of such processes in atmospheric, ecological, and/or hydrological contexts in the field setting presents many challenges; current experimental approaches are an important factor given a general lack of control and high measurement uncertainty. In an effort to address these issues and reduce overall complexity, new experimental design considerations (two-dimensional intermediate-scale coupled wind tunnel-synthetic aquifer testing using synthetic plants) for studying soil-plant-atmosphere continuum soil moisture dynamics are introduced and tested in this study. Validation of these experimental considerations, particularly the adoption of synthetic plants, is required prior to their application in future research. A comparison of three experiments with bare soil surfaces or transplanted with a Stargazer lily/limestone block was used to evaluate the feasibility of the proposed approaches. Results demonstrate that coupled wind tunnel-porous media experimentation, used to simulate field conditions, reduces complexity, and enhances control while allowing fine spatial-temporal resolution measurements to be made using state-of-the-art technologies. Synthetic plants further help reduce system complexity (e.g., airflow) while preserving the basic hydrodynamic functions of plants (e.g., water uptake and transpiration). The trends and distributions of key measured atmospheric and subsurface spatial and temporal variables (e.g., soil moisture, relative humidity, temperature, air velocity) were comparable, showing that synthetic plants can be used as simple, idealized, nonbiological analogs for living vegetation in fundamental hydrodynamic studies.

  10. Intensifying drying process with creation of functional plant compositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zh. Petrova

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The process of drying agricultural raw products is associated with loss of bioactive substances by the products exposed to heat, light, oxygen, or рН medium. It is reasonable to enhance the table beet processing technology in order to achieve maximum betanin conservation at lower energy consumption. Materials and methods. Table beets, rhubarbs, lemons, and tomatoes were dried at temperature of 50 to 100 ºС, air speed of 1.5 to 3.5 m/s, heat carrier water content of 7 to 15 g/kg, and layer thickness of 2 to 20 mm. The betanіn content was determined via absorption spectra, using the optical density value at 540 nm wavelength. A differential microcalorimeter was used for measuring evaporation heat consumption. Results and discussion.The effect of raw product pre-drying preparation was studied. With no preliminary preparation, the loss of betanin after drying reaches 66 %. The preliminary preparation technology we have developed includes boiling whole root crops with optimal selection of acid medium and allows us to reduce the betanin loss down to 6 %. Regretfully, the process requires large energy consumption. Low energy consumption pre-drying preparation method was developed for antioxidant raw products with thermal processing replaced by blending. The betanin loss, in this case, does not exceed 5 %. Optimal drying temperature of betanin-containing raw stock, after its preliminary processing, is 60 °С. It allows to keep up to 95 % of betanіn. Specific heat consumption for water evaporation out of the developed table beet based antioxidant plant compositions, with addition of rhubarb and lemon, is less by 4 to 5 % as compared to the initial components. Conclusions. Dependence of betanin loss in plant raw stock on the material temperature and composition components, in the course of their pre-drying preparation, was found. It was also found that water evaporation heat, for some antioxidant plant compositions developed, is less

  11. Modeling of water treatment plant using timed continuous Petri nets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurul Fuady Adhalia, H.; Subiono, Adzkiya, Dieky

    2017-08-01

    Petri nets represent graphically certain conditions and rules. In this paper, we construct a model of the Water Treatment Plant (WTP) using timed continuous Petri nets. Specifically, we consider that (1) the water pump always active and (2) the water source is always available. After obtaining the model, the flow through the transitions and token conservation laws are calculated.

  12. Chemistry of the water in thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freier, R.K.

    1984-01-01

    This textbook and practical manual gives a comprehensive review of the scientific knowledge of water as operating substance and of the chemistry of water in thermal power plants. The fundamentals of water chemistry and of the conventional and nuclear water/steam circuit are described. The contents of the chapters are: 1. The atom, 2. The chemical bond, 3. The dissolving capacity of water, 4. Operational parameters and their measurement, 5. Corrosion, 6. The water/steam coolant loop of conventional plants (WSC), 7. The pressurized water reactor (PWR), 8. The boiling water reactor (BWR), 9. The total and partial desalination properties of ion exchangers, 10. The cooling water, 11. The failure of Harrisburg in a simple presentation. (HK) [de

  13. Combined biological treatment of sinter plant waste water, blast furnace gas scrubber water polluted groundwater and coke plant effluent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoine van Hoorn [Corus Staal, IJmuiden (Netherlands)

    2006-07-01

    Waste water from the Corus coke plant in IJmuiden had been handled by the activated sludge process since start-up in 1972 but in the eighties it was clear that although this removed most phenols, the rest of the COD and thiocyanate must also be removed before discharge. The paper describes the original water treatment process and the higher pressure gas scrubber system for removal of SO{sub 2}, heavy metals and other harmful components. It goes on to describe development of a combined biological treatment system, the heart of which is the so-called Bio 2000. The performance of this new plant is discussed. COD concentrations are very constant but Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN) concentrations fluctuate. COD, TKN and heavy metals are in compliance but cyanide and suspended solids are not always so. A method of overcoming this is being sought. This paper was presented at a COMA meeting in March 2005 held in Scunthorpe, UK. 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Instrumentation in Heavy Water Plant at Hazira (Paper No. 3.1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mistry, I.L.

    1992-01-01

    Heavy Water Plant at Hazira is based on monothermal ammonia-hydrogen exchange process and is hooked up to the two, 1350 T/day ammonia plants of M/s. KRIBHCO. An attempt is being made to highlight the salient features of instrumentation, philosophy of selection, brief description of the control system, operational experience, problems faced during commissioning and plant operation and few suggestions to improve the working and reliability of the instrumentation. (author)

  15. Fusion power plant for water desalination and reuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borisov, A.A.; Desjatov, A.V.; Izvolsky, I.M.; Serikov, A.G.; Smirnov, V.P.; Smirnov, Yu.N.; Shatalov, G.E.; Sheludjakov, S.V.; Vasiliev, N.N.; Velikhov, E.P.

    2001-01-01

    Development of industry and agriculture demands a huge fresh water consumption. Exhaust of water sources together with pollution arises a difficult problem of population, industry, and agriculture water supply. Request for additional water supply in next 50 years is expected from industrial and agricultural sectors of many countries in the world. The presented study of fusion power plant for water desalination and reuse is aimed to widen a range of possible fusion industrial applications. Fusion offers a safe, long-term source of energy with abundant resources and major environmental advantages. Thus fusion can provide an attractive energy option to society in the next century. Fusion power tokamak reactor based on RF DEMO-S project [Proc. ISFNT-5 (2000) in press; Conceptual study of RF DEMO-S fusion reactor (2000)] was chosen as an energy source. A steady state operation mode is considered with thermal power of 4.0 GW. The reactor has to operate in steady-state plasma mode with high fraction of bootstrap current. Average plant availability of ∼0.7 is required. A conventional type of water cooled blanket is the first choice, helium or lithium coolants are under consideration. Desalination plant includes two units: reverse osmosis and distillation. Heat to electricity conversion schemes is optimized fresh water production and satisfy internal plant electricity demand The plant freshwater capacity is ∼6000000 m 3 per day. Fusion power plant of this capacity can provide a region of a million populations with fresh water, heat and electricity

  16. Fusion power plant for water desalination and reuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borisov, A.A.; Desjatov, A.V.; Izvolsky, I.M.; Serikov, A.G.; Smirnov, V.P.; Smirnov, Yu.N.; Shatalov, G.E.; Sheludjakov, S.V.; Vasiliev, N.N. E-mail: vasiliev@nfi.kiae.ru; Velikhov, E.P

    2001-11-01

    Development of industry and agriculture demands a huge fresh water consumption. Exhaust of water sources together with pollution arises a difficult problem of population, industry, and agriculture water supply. Request for additional water supply in next 50 years is expected from industrial and agricultural sectors of many countries in the world. The presented study of fusion power plant for water desalination and reuse is aimed to widen a range of possible fusion industrial applications. Fusion offers a safe, long-term source of energy with abundant resources and major environmental advantages. Thus fusion can provide an attractive energy option to society in the next century. Fusion power tokamak reactor based on RF DEMO-S project [Proc. ISFNT-5 (2000) in press; Conceptual study of RF DEMO-S fusion reactor (2000)] was chosen as an energy source. A steady state operation mode is considered with thermal power of 4.0 GW. The reactor has to operate in steady-state plasma mode with high fraction of bootstrap current. Average plant availability of {approx}0.7 is required. A conventional type of water cooled blanket is the first choice, helium or lithium coolants are under consideration. Desalination plant includes two units: reverse osmosis and distillation. Heat to electricity conversion schemes is optimized fresh water production and satisfy internal plant electricity demand The plant freshwater capacity is {approx}6000000 m{sup 3} per day. Fusion power plant of this capacity can provide a region of a million populations with fresh water, heat and electricity.

  17. Tube failures due to cooling process problem and foreign materials in power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, J. [Kapar Energy Ventures Sdn Bhd, Jalan Tok Muda, Kapar 42200 (Malaysia); Purbolaksono, J., E-mail: judha@uniten.edu.m [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Tenaga Nasional, Km 7 Jalan Kajang-Puchong, Kajang 43009, Selangor (Malaysia); Beng, L.C. [Kapar Energy Ventures Sdn Bhd, Jalan Tok Muda, Kapar 42200 (Malaysia)

    2010-07-15

    Cooling process which uses water for heat transfer is an essential factor in coal-fired and nuclear plants. Loss of cooling upset can force the plants to shut down. In particular, this paper reports visual inspections and metallurgical examinations on the failed SA210-A1 right-hand side (RHS) water wall tube of a coal-fired plant. The water wall tube showed the abnormal outer surface colour and has failed with wide-open ductile rupture and thin edges indicating typical signs of short-term overheating. Metallurgical examinations confirmed the failed tube experiencing higher temperature operation. Water flow starvation due to restriction inside the upstream tube is identified as the main root cause of failure. The findings are important to take failure mitigation actions in the future operation. Discussion on the typical problems related to the cooling process in nuclear power plants is also presented.

  18. Tube failures due to cooling process problem and foreign materials in power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, J.; Purbolaksono, J.; Beng, L.C.

    2010-01-01

    Cooling process which uses water for heat transfer is an essential factor in coal-fired and nuclear plants. Loss of cooling upset can force the plants to shut down. In particular, this paper reports visual inspections and metallurgical examinations on the failed SA210-A1 right-hand side (RHS) water wall tube of a coal-fired plant. The water wall tube showed the abnormal outer surface colour and has failed with wide-open ductile rupture and thin edges indicating typical signs of short-term overheating. Metallurgical examinations confirmed the failed tube experiencing higher temperature operation. Water flow starvation due to restriction inside the upstream tube is identified as the main root cause of failure. The findings are important to take failure mitigation actions in the future operation. Discussion on the typical problems related to the cooling process in nuclear power plants is also presented.

  19. Investigation of Trihalomethanes in Drinking Water of Abbas Abad Water Treatment Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiani R

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chlorination is the most common and successful method for disinfection of drinking water, especially in developing countries. However, due to the probability of formation of disinfection by-products especially Trihalomethanes (THMs that are known as hazardous and usually carcinogenic compounds, this study was conducted to assess the investigation of THMs in drinking water of Abbas Abad water treatment plant in 2015. Methods: In this study, 81 water samples were gathered during autumn season of 2015. Temperature, pH, Ec, turbidity, and residual chlorine were measured on site. After samples preparation in the laboratory, THMs concentrations were determined using gas chromatography. All statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS statistical package. Results: The results showed that the minimum and maximum mean concentrations (µg/l for bromodichloromethane were 1.47 ± 0.57 and 1.90 ± 0.26, for bromoform were 1.47 ± 0.35 and 2.36 ± 1.10, for dibromochloromethane were 1.47 ± 0.42 and 1.53 ± 0.55, and for chloroform were 3.40 ± 0.70 and 7.53 ± 1.00, and all compounds were determined for stations 1 and 3, respectively. Also comparing the mean concentrations of assessed THMs with ISIRI and World Health Organization (WHO Maximum Permissible Limits (MPL showed significant differences (P < 0.05. Thus, the mean concentrations of all Trihalomethanes compounds were significantly lower than the maximum permissible limits. Conclusions: Although the mean concentrations of THMs were lower than MPL, yet due to discharge of restaurants and gardens’ wastewater into the Abbas Abad River, pre-chlorination process of water in Abbas Abad water treatment plant, high retention time and increasing loss of foliage into the water, especially in autumn season, the formation of Trihalomethanes compounds could increase. Therefore, periodic monitoring of THMs in drinking water distribution network is recommended.

  20. ANALISIS PENGOLAHAN AIR TERPRODUKSI DI WATER TREATING PLANT PERUSAHAAN EKSPLOITASI MINYAK BUMI (STUDI KASUS: PT XYZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pertiwi Andaran

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The exploration and production process of oil and its supporting operations always generates waste as by-product. If they are uncontrolled, it might decrease the environmental quality. Thus, it is necessary to manage and treat the waste in order to meet the regulation standard of quality and quantity. PT XYZ is an energy company, particularly oil and gas production, which its production activity generate a large amount of waste as well as produced water. Thus, PT XYZ must have facilities or produced water handling plant which could minimize pollution caused by produced water. PT XYZ already has a system of produced water handling with recycling principle. After oil and water separation including water treating at Water Treating Plant (WTP, produced water will be used for steam injection. This is the part of enhanced oil recovery by steam flooding in Duri Field. Besides, produced water could be used as backwash water at WTP, that is Oil Removal Filter (ORF and Water Softener, which is called brine water. If the produced water and brine water is over load the capacity of oil enhanced recovery injection, it might be disposed through injection to Disposal Well and there are certain condition that produced water should be discharged into canal. The objective f this study is to analyze the performance of a water treating plant in PT XYZ. Water Treating Plant is a facility for treating produced water. Basically, WTP is on good condition and each unit has high efficiency for separating oil and water (60-99%. Horizontal velocity at pit #A of API Separator was larger than the design criteria. In addition, Water Softeners have efficiency until 99% for the hardness.

  1. Operating boundaries of full-scale advanced water reuse treatment plants: many lessons learned from pilot plant experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bele, C; Kumar, Y; Walker, T; Poussade, Y; Zavlanos, V

    2010-01-01

    Three Advanced Water Treatment Plants (AWTP) have recently been built in South East Queensland as part of the Western Corridor Recycled Water Project (WCRWP) producing Purified Recycled Water from secondary treated waste water for the purpose of indirect potable reuse. At Luggage Point, a demonstration plant was primarily operated by the design team for design verification. The investigation program was then extended so that the operating team could investigate possible process optimisation, and operation flexibility. Extending the demonstration plant investigation program enabled monitoring of the long term performance of the microfiltration and reverse osmosis membranes, which did not appear to foul even after more than a year of operation. The investigation primarily identified several ways to optimise the process. It highlighted areas of risk for treated water quality, such as total nitrogen. Ample and rapid swings of salinity from 850 to 3,000 mg/l-TDS were predicted to affect the RO process day-to-day operation and monitoring. Most of the setpoints used for monitoring under HACCP were determined during the pilot plant trials.

  2. Water-Energy Correlations: Analysis of Water Technologies, Processes and Systems in Rural and Urban India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murumkar, A. R.; Gupta, S.; Kaurwar, A.; Satankar, R. K.; Mounish, N. K.; Pitta, D. S.; Virat, J.; Kumar, G.; Hatte, S.; Tripathi, R. S.; Shedekar, V.; George, K. J.; Plappally, A. K.

    2015-12-01

    In India, the present value of water, both potable and not potable, bears no relation to the energy of water production. However, electrical energy spent on ground water extraction alone is equivalent to the nation's hydroelectric capacity of 40.1 GWh. Likewise, desalinating 1m3 water of the Bay of Bengal would save three times the energy for potable ground water extraction along the coast of the Bay. It is estimated that every second woman in rural India expends 0.98 kWhe/m3/d for bringing water for household needs. Yet, the water-energy nexus remains to be a topic which is gravely ignored. This is largely caused by factors such as lack of awareness, defective public policies, and intrusive cultural practices. Furthermore, there are instances of unceasing dereliction towards water management and maintenance of the sparsely distributed water and waste water treatment plants across the country. This pollutes the local water across India apart from other geogenic impurities. Additionally, product aesthetics and deceptive advertisements take advantage of the abulia generated by users' ignorance of technical specifications of water technologies and processes in mismanagement of water use. Accordingly, urban residents are tempted to expend on energy intensive water technologies at end use. This worsens the water-energy equation at urban households. Cooking procedures play a significant role in determining the energy expended on water at households. The paper also evaluates total energy expense involved in cultivating some major Kharif and Rabi crops. Manual and traditional agricultural practices are more prominent than mechanized and novel agricultural techniques. The specific energy consumption estimate for different water technologies will help optimize energy expended on water in its life cycles. The implication of the present study of water-energy correlation will help plan and extend water management infrastructure at different locations across India.

  3. Facilities for treatment of radioactive contaminated water in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-02-01

    The standard applies to processes applied in facilities for treatment of radioactive contaminated water in nuclear power plants with LWR- and HTR-type reactors. It does not apply to the treatment of concentrates obtained in the decontamination of water. (orig.) [de

  4. Water in the Mendoza, Argentina, food processing industry: water requirements and reuse potential of industrial effluents in agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Elena Duek

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper estimates the volume of water used by the Mendoza food processing industry considering different water efficiency scenarios. The potential for using food processing industry effluents for irrigation is also assessed. The methodology relies upon information collected from interviews with qualified informants from different organizations and food-processing plants in Mendoza selected from a targeted sample. Scenarios were developed using local and international secondary information sources. The results show that food processing plants in Mendoza use 19.65 hm3 of water per year; efficient water management practices would make it possible to reduce water use by 64%, i.e., to 7.11 hm3. At present, 70% of the water is used by the fruit and vegetable processing industry, 16% by wineries, 8% by mineral water bottling plants, and the remaining 6% by olive oil, beer and soft drink plants. The volume of effluents from the food processing plants in Mendoza has been estimated at 16.27 hm3 per year. Despite the seasonal variations of these effluents, and the high sodium concentration and electrical conductivity of some of them, it is possible to use them for irrigation purposes. However, because of these variables and their environmental impact, land treatment is required.

  5. Plant interactions with changes in coverage of biological soil crusts and water regime in Mu Us Sandland, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shuqin; Pan, Xu; Cui, Qingguo; Hu, Yukun; Ye, Xuehua; Dong, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Plant interactions greatly affect plant community structure. Dryland ecosystems are characterized by low amounts of unpredictable precipitation as well as by often having biological soil crusts (BSCs) on the soil surface. In dryland plant communities, plants interact mostly as they compete for water resources, and the direction and intensity of plant interaction varies as a function of the temporal fluctuation in water availability. Since BSCs influence water redistribution to some extent, a greenhouse experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that the intensity and direction of plant interactions in a dryland plant community can be modified by BSCs. In the experiment, 14 combinations of four plant species (Artemisia ordosica, Artemisia sphaerocephala, Chloris virgata and Setaria viridis) were subjected to three levels of coverage of BSCs and three levels of water supply. The results show that: 1) BSCs affected plant interaction intensity for the four plant species: a 100% coverage of BSCs significantly reduced the intensity of competition between neighboring plants, while it was highest with a 50% coverage of BSCs in combination with the target species of A. sphaerocephala and C. virgata; 2) effects of the coverage of BSCs on plant interactions were modified by water regime when the target species were C. virgata and S. viridis; 3) plant interactions were species-specific. In conclusion, the percent coverage of BSCs affected plant interactions, and the effects were species-specific and could be modified by water regimes. Further studies should focus on effects of the coverage of BSCs on plant-soil hydrological processes.

  6. The water treatment in the dual-purpose nuclear plants of Babcock and Wilcox with straight pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martynova, O.I.

    1978-01-01

    A report is given on water processing and water chemistry in the dual-purpose nuclear power plants (as compared to the single-purpose nuclear power plants) of Babcock and Wilcox, with flow steam generators with straight pipes. The most important materials, especially regarding their corrosion resistance, and the water composition during 'hot' start-up of the Okonie-I power plant, the quality factors of the feedwater, the water quality factors of the steam generator with fast start-up and the experience with numerous corrosion-caused defects in steam generator pipes are dealt with from the aspect of optimum water processing and successful continuous operation. (HK) [de

  7. Prototype plant for nuclear process heat (PNP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duerrfeld, R.; Kraut-Giesen, G.

    1982-01-01

    1. Goals: Verification of owner's interests during experimental and engineering phase of nuclear coal gasification. 2. Method: 2.1 Witnessing and evaluating of experimental results from running test facilities. 2.2 Influencing experimental program. 2.3 Participation in important meetings of PNP-project. 3. Results: From present point of view the realization of nuclear coal gasification with a nuclear high temperature reactor (HTR) in accordance with the present technical status as well as meeting the existing safety regulations seems to be feasable. R+D-work will be needed for affirmation of design. The gasification of hard coal basing on the allothermal principal has proved to be possible. The examination of the gasifier on a pilot scale is not yet done. The design work for the pilot plant should be started immediately, particularly keeping in mind the decision for erection of PNP in 1990. The calculation of production costs in comparison to autothermal gasification processes is promising better economics, if uncertainties of investment calculation are deemed to be neglectable. (orig.) [de

  8. Estrogen-related receptor gamma disruption of source water and drinking water treatment processes extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Jiang, Weiwei; Rao, Kaifeng; Ma, Mei; Wang, Zijian; Kumaran, Satyanarayanan Senthik

    2011-01-01

    Environmental chemicals in drinking water can impact human health through nuclear receptors. Additionally, estrogen-related receptors (ERRs) are vulnerable to endocrine-disrupting effects. To date, however, ERR disruption of drinking water potency has not been reported. We used ERRgamma two-hybrid yeast assay to screen ERRgamma disrupting activities in a drinking water treatment plant (DWTP) located in north China and in source water from a reservoir, focusing on agonistic, antagonistic, and inverse agonistic activity to 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT). Water treatment processes in the DWTP consisted of pre-chlorination, coagulation, coal and sand filtration, activated carbon filtration, and secondary chlorination processes. Samples were extracted by solid phase extraction. Results showed that ERRgamma antagonistic activities were found in all sample extracts, but agonistic and inverse agonistic activity to 4-OHT was not found. When calibrated with the toxic equivalent of 4-OHT, antagonistic effluent effects ranged from 3.4 to 33.1 microg/L. In the treatment processes, secondary chlorination was effective in removing ERRgamma antagonists, but the coagulation process led to significantly increased ERRgamma antagonistic activity. The drinking water treatment processes removed 73.5% of ERRgamma antagonists. To our knowledge, the occurrence of ERRgamma disruption activities on source and drinking water in vitro had not been reported previously. It is vital, therefore, to increase our understanding of ERRy disrupting activities in drinking water.

  9. Sea water pumping-up power plant system combined with nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichiki, Tadaharu; Tanaka, Masayuki.

    1991-01-01

    It is difficult to find a site suitable to construction for a sea water pumping-up power plant at a place relatively near the electric power consumption area. Then, a nuclear power plant is set at the sea bottom or the land portion of a sea shore near the power consumption area. A cavity is excavated underground or at the bottom of the sea in the vicinity of the power plant to form a lower pond, and the bottom of the sea, as an upper pond and the lower pond are connected by a water pressure pipe and a water discharge pipe. A pump water turbine is disposed therebetween, to which electric power generator is connected. In addition, an ordinary or emergency cooling facility in the nuclear power plant is constituted such that sea water in the cavity is supplied by a sea water pump. Accordingly, the sea water pumping-up plant system in combination with the nuclear power plant is constituted with no injuring from salts to animals and plants on land in the suburbs of a large city. The cost for facilities for supplying power from a remote power plant to large city areas and power loss are decreased and stable electric power can be supplied. (N.H.)

  10. Japanese aquaculture with thermal water from power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroda, T.

    1977-01-01

    The present level of thermal aquaculture, utilizing thermal water which is waste cooling water from nuclear power plant, in Japan is reported. There are 13 major potential areas for thermal aquaculture in cooperation with conventional type thermal power plants, seven of which are actually operating. Aquaculture facilities of all these are on land, none in the sea. Of these seven centers, those that have already commercialized their nursery methods or are approaching that stage of research and development, are Tohoku Hatsuden Kogyo Ltd., Tsuruga Hama Land Ltd. and Kyushu Rinsan Ltd. Major problems faced specialists in Japanese thermal aquaculture are water temperature, water quality, radioactivity and costs. For keeping the water temperature constant all seasons, cooling or heating by natural sea water may be used. Even negligible amounts of radioactivity that nuclear power plants release into the sea will concentrate in the systems of marine life. A strict precautionary checking routine is used to detect radioactivity in marine life. (Kobatake, H.)

  11. Scenarios for low carbon and low water electric power plant ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the water-energy nexus, water use for the electric power sector is critical. Currently, the operational phase of electric power production dominates the electric sector's life cycle withdrawal and consumption of fresh water resources. Water use associated with the fuel cycle and power plant equipment manufacturing phase is substantially lower on a life cycle basis. An outstanding question is: how do regional shifts to lower carbon electric power mixes affect the relative contribution of the upstream life cycle water use? To test this, we examine a range of scenarios comparing a baseline with scenarios of carbon reduction and water use constraints using the MARKet ALlocation (MARKAL) energy systems model with ORD's 2014 U.S. 9-region database (EPAUS9r). The results suggest that moving toward a low carbon and low water electric power mix may increase the non-operational water use. In particular, power plant manufacturing water use for concentrating solar power, and fuel cycle water use for biomass feedstock, could see sharp increases under scenarios of high deployment of these low carbon options. Our analysis addresses the following questions. First, how does moving to a lower carbon electricity generation mix affect the overall regional electric power water use from a life cycle perspective? Second, how does constraining the operational water use for power plants affect the mix, if at all? Third, how does the life cycle water use differ among regions under

  12. Low-cost engineering techniques in sustainable operation of a rural clean water plant in thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pengchai, P.; Keawkhun, K.; Suwapaet, N.

    2012-01-01

    Problems of water supply in many rural regions of Thailand result from the lack of awareness and financial limitations. Payanghang Clean Water Plant is an example of the rural water plant that has been suffering from the poor operation since 2003. The objective of this study was to modify the operation processes of this water plant to achieve cleaner water and better financial condition. Low-cost engineering techniques, such as the use of floating switches in filtration ponds, the use of water drip system for alum dosing and the addition of Tamarindus indica Linn seed solution was applied. As a result, 76% of turbidity removal efficiency was derived. Although, the difference was not statistically significant at 95% confidence level, higher removal efficiency in comparison with the one before modification (65%) suggested better operation. In the view of financial aspect, l07 dollars (1 baht = 0.0326 U.S. dollar) benefit was obtained from 7 month-operation period. (author)

  13. Improved liquid waste processing system of PWR plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suehiro, Kazuyasu

    1977-01-01

    Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. has engaged in the improvement and enhancement of waste-processing facilities for PWR power stations, and recently established the improved processing system. With this system, it becomes possible to contain radioactive waste gas semi-permanently within plants and to recycle waste liquid after the treatment, thus to make the release of radioactive wastes practically zero. The improved system has the following features, namely the recycling system is adopted, drain is separated and each separated drain is treated by specialized process, the reboiler type evaporator and the reverse osmosis equipment are used, and the leakless construction is adopted for the equipments. The radioactive liquid wastes in PWR power stations are classified into coolant drain, drain from general equipments, chemical drain and cleaning water. The outline of the improved processing system and the newly developed equipments such as the reboiler type evaporator and the reverse osmosis equipment are explained. With the evaporator, the concentration rate of waste liquid can be raised to about three times, and foaming waste can be treated efficiently. The decontamination performance is excellent. The reverse osmosis treatment is stable and reliable method, and is useful for the treatment of cleaning water. It is also effective for concentrating treatment. The unmanned automatic operation is possible. (Kako, I.)

  14. Validation of a spatial–temporal soil water movement and plant water uptake model

    KAUST Repository

    HEPPELL, J.; PAYVANDI, S.; ZYGALAKIS, K.C.; SMETHURST, J.; FLIEGE, J.; ROOSE, T.

    2014-01-01

    © 2014, (publisher). All rights reserved. Management and irrigation of plants increasingly relies on accurate mathematical models for the movement of water within unsaturated soils. Current models often use values for water content and soil

  15. Space Station Water Processor Process Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, David

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the results of the development program conducted under contract NAS8-38250-12 related to the International Space Station (ISS) Water Processor (WP) Process Pump. The results of the Process Pumps evaluation conducted on this program indicates that further development is required in order to achieve the performance and life requirements for the ISSWP.

  16. Radiation safety experience in upgrading 2-5% heavy water wastes at Heavy Water Plant, Nangal (Preprint No. SA-7)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadhukhan, H.K.; Behl, D.; Ramraj; Iyengar, T.S.; Sadarangani, S.H.; Vaze, P.K.; Soman, S.D.

    1989-04-01

    This paper describes the radiological safety experience in upgrading 2-5% heavy water wastes at Heavy Water Plant at Nangal at the third stage electrolysers. The feed water concentrations at the third stage electrolyer was determined after a safety analysis study and pilot plant experiment, which gave the optimal concentrations of 1 to 1.5 mCi (3.7 to 5.5 x 10 7 Bq) per litre per minute feed from a submerged SS tank containing 2-5% heavy water wastes. This process not only yielded an efficient recovery of reactor grade heavy water but contained the tritium activity in the third stage electrolysers and in the final product viz., heavy water. The tritium concentrations were continuously monitore d by liquid scintillation counting method at all the three stages of electrolysis plant, the distillation plant, the heavy water filling rooms, the drains, the ambient air, the product fertilizer (calcium ammonia nitrate) and the Sutlej River and found to be well within the safety limits set for general public at large. The HD and D 2 process streams in the palnt were monitored using fill-in type of ionization chambers designed for the purpose, which served a D 2 inventory check as well. There was no internal exposure to any personnel during the entire period of programme. (author). 2 tabs

  17. Information interfaces for process plant diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lind, M.

    1984-02-01

    The paper describes a systematic approach to the design of information interfaces for operator support in diagnosing complex systems faults. The need of interpreting primary measured plant variables within the framework of different system representations organized into an abstraction hierarchy is identified from an analysis of the problem of diagnosing complex systems. A formalized approach to the modelling of production systems, called Multilevel Flow Modelling, is described. A MFM model specifies plant control requirements and the associated need for plant information and provide a consistent context for the interpretation of real time plant signals in diagnosis of malfunctions. The use of MFM models as a basis for functional design of the plant instrumentation system is outlined, and the use of knowledge Based (Expert) Systems for the design of man-machine interfaces is mentioned. Such systems would allow an active user participation in diagnosis and thus provide the basis for cooperative problem solving. 14 refs. (author)

  18. Hydrogen-water isotopic exchange process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, H.

    1983-01-01

    Deuterium is concentrated in a hydrogen-water isotopic exchange process enhanced by the use of catalyst materials in cold and hot tower contacting zones. Water is employed in a closed liquid recirculation loop that includes the cold tower, in which deuterium is concentrated in the water, and the upper portion of the hot tower in which said deuterium is concentrated in the hydrogen stream. Feed water is fed to the lower portion of said hot tower for contact with the circulating hydrogen stream. The feed water does not contact the water in the closed loop. Catalyst employed in the cold tower and the upper portion of the hot tower, preferably higher quality material, is isolated from impurities in the feed water that contacts only the catalyst, preferably of lower quality, in the lower portion of the hot zone. The closed loop water passes from the cold zone to the dehumidification zone, and a portion of said water leaving the upper portion of the hot tower can be passed to the humidification zone and thereafter recycled to said closed loop. Deuterium concentration is enhanced in said catalytic hydrogen-water system while undue retarding of catalyst activity is avoided

  19. NPDES Permit for Crow Nation Water Treatment Plants in Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under NPDES permit MT-0030538, the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs is authorized to discharge from the Crow Agency water treatment plants via the wastewater treatment facility located in Bighorn County, Montana to the Little Bighorn River.

  20. Review of 'plant available water' aspects of water use efficiency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... enhanced understanding of the system, thereby enabling the formulation of a quantitative model relating the water supply from a layered soil profile to water demand; the formulation of logical quantitative definitions for crop-ecotope specific upper and lower limits of available water; the identification of the harmful rootzone ...

  1. Sea water pipeline for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueno, Ken-ichi.

    1992-01-01

    Heating coils, for example, are wound around sea water pipelines as a heater. The outer wall surface of the sea water pipelines is heated by the heating coils. The inner wall surfaces of the sea water pipelines can be warmed to higher than a predetermined temperature by heating the outer wall surfaces to die out marine organisms deposited at the inner surfaces. Further, thermocouples for the external wall and the internal wall are disposed so that the temperature at the inner wall surface of the sea water pipelines can be controlled. Further, a temperature keeping material is disposed at the external surface of the sea water system pipelines. With such a constitution, the marine organisms deposited on the internal wall surface of the sea water system pipelines are died out to suppress the deposition amount of the marine organisms. Accordingly, the maintenance and the operation reliability is improved after maintenance. (I.N.)

  2. Intact plant MRI for the study of cell water relations, membrane permeability, cell-to-cell and long distance water transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    As, van H.

    2007-01-01

    Water content and hydraulic conductivity, including transport within cells, over membranes, cell-to-cell, and long-distance xylem and phloem transport, are strongly affected by plant water stress. By being able to measure these transport processes non-invasely in the intact plant situation in

  3. The Conceptual Design of an Integrated Nuclearhydrogen Production Plant Using the Sulfur Cycle Water Decomposition System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farbman, G. H.

    1976-01-01

    A hydrogen production plant was designed based on a hybrid electrolytic-thermochemical process for decomposing water. The sulfur cycle water decomposition system is driven by a very high temperature nuclear reactor that provides 1,283 K helium working gas. The plant is sized to approximately ten million standard cubic meters per day of electrolytically pure hydrogen and has an overall thermal efficiently of 45.2 percent. The economics of the plant were evaluated using ground rules which include a 1974 cost basis without escalation, financing structure and other economic factors. Taking into account capital, operation, maintenance and nuclear fuel cycle costs, the cost of product hydrogen was calculated at $5.96/std cu m for utility financing. These values are significantly lower than hydrogen costs from conventional water electrolysis plants and competitive with hydrogen from coal gasification plants.

  4. Best available technology equivalent controls for B Plant Process Condensate: Tank farm process technology section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-11-01

    This report evaluates whether proposed controls for the B Plant Process Condensate effluent stream are equivalent to Best Available Technology (BAT) economically achievable. Methods to determine whether the proposed controls for the BCP were equivalent to BAT originated from the Guidance Document for the Hanford Site. The BAT performance standards, which originate from the Clean Water Act, are to be applied to all contaminated liquid effluent discharges currently going to the soil column at the Hanford Site. The B Plant BAT evaluation addressed pollutants that had not been regulated traditionally under Federal or State water-pollution control programs. As a result, only comparisons could be made to existing radiation and water quality standards, and a BAT determination based on the effluent guidelines method (as outlined in the BAT Guidance Document) was not possible. Due to the variability and inconsistency of factors with comparable streams, such as the effluent stream at the Savannah River Plant, a BAT determination by the technology transfer method and treatability studies method was not possible. By using the generic treatment systems method, a one-or two-stage treatment system for dissolved solids removal was concluded to be equivalent to BAT. By performing two economic achievability tests, a one-stage treatment system consisting of mixed bed ion exchange columns was considered to be cost effective and equivalent to BAT. 13 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs

  5. Enhancing Elementary Pre-Service Teachers' Plant Processes Conceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Stephen L.; Lotter, Christine; Fann, Xumei; Taylor, Laurie

    2016-01-01

    Researchers examined how an inquiry-based instructional treatment emphasizing interrelated plant processes influenced 210 elementary pre-service teachers' (PTs) conceptions of three plant processes, photosynthesis, cellular respiration, and transpiration, and the interrelated nature of these processes. The instructional treatment required PTs to…

  6. Water management of the Dukovany nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabusic, P.

    1990-01-01

    Industrial water for the Dukovany nuclear power plant is taken from a reservoir built on the Jihlava river. The volume of the reservoir is 17.1 million m 3 . The water taken serves mainly as the make-up water for the cooling circuit and is treated by clearing; it is also used for the preparation of demineralized water for making up the condensate circuit and for the preparation of soft water for making up the heat piping. The consumption of industrial water is 1 to 2 m 3 /s. Waste waters are released into rainwater drainage, sewage drainage and industrial water drainage. Waste waters are segregated according to the place of their origin and are purified, mainly on ion exchangers and on an evaporator. In normal conditions, they are returned to the operation. Concentrated liquid residues and solid wastes will be stored by using the multiple containment system. The most important radioisotopes that may be present in nuclear power plant waste waters, the water and radionuclide balance of the Dukovany nuclear power plant, and chemical and radiological data on the Dukovany waste waters (1989) are tabulated. (P.A.). 6 refs

  7. Assessment of water sources to plant growth in rice based cropping systems by stable water isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahindawansha, Amani; Kraft, Philipp; Racela, Heathcliff; Breuer, Lutz

    2016-04-01

    Rice is one of the most water-consuming crops in the world. Understanding water source utilization of rice will help us to improve water use efficiency (WUE) in paddy management. The objectives of our study are to evaluate the isotopic compositions of surface ponded water, soil water, irrigation water, groundwater, rain water and plant water and based on stable water isotope signatures to evaluate the contributions of various water sources to plant growth (wet rice, aerobic rice and maize) together with investigating the contribution of water from different soil horizons for plant growth in different maturity periods during wet and dry seasons. Finally we will compare the water balances and crop yields in both crops during both seasons and calculate the water use efficiencies. This will help to identify the most efficient water management systems in rice based cropping ecosystems using stable water isotopes. Soil samples are collected from 9 different depths at up to 60 cm in vegetative, reproductive and matured periods of plant growth together with stem samples. Soil and plant samples are extracted by cryogenic vacuum extraction. Root samples are collected up to 60 cm depth from 10 cm intercepts leading calculation of root length density and dry weight. Groundwater, surface water, rain water and irrigation water are sampled weekly. All water samples are analyzed for hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios (d18O and dD) using Los Gatos Research DLT100. Rainfall records, ground water level, surface water level fluctuations and the amount of water irrigated in each field will be measured during the sampling period. The direct inference approach which is based on comparing isotopic compositions (dD and d18O) between plant stem water and soil water will be used to determine water sources taken up by plant. Multiple-source mass balance assessment can provide the estimated range of potential contributions of water from each soil depth to root water uptake of a crop. These

  8. Growing under water - how plants cope with low CO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ole; Hinke, Anne Bækbo; Konnerup, Dennis

    2017-01-01

    Aquatic plants are never short of water but instead they are challenged with low light and slow movement of oxygen (O₂) and carbon dioxide (CO₂). In the present paper, we focus on CO₂ limitation of underwater photosynthesis and the various strategies to overcome the limitation resulting from...... evolutionary adaptation to growth under water. Knowledge of such strategies helps you to select the right CO₂ environment and thereby maximize the chances that your favorite plants flourish....

  9. Valuation of Embalse Nuclear Power Plant and of heavy water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, D.E.

    2008-01-01

    The author describes the Nuclear Power Plant characteristics, the building work, the heavy water valuation criteria and the reasons why he considers that any capital good can be valuated by means of cash-flow. The value of replacement of Embalse Nuclear Power Plant is of U$S 1.593.538.000 (authors) [es

  10. Embalse nuclear power plant and heavy water valuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Daniel E.

    2008-01-01

    The author describes the nuclear power plant characteristics, the building work, the heavy water valuation criteria and the reasons why he considers that any capital good can be valued by the cash-flow method. The Embalse nuclear power plant replacement value is of U$S 1.593.538.000. (author) [es

  11. Gas exchange under water. Acclimation of terrestrial plants to submergence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mommer, L.

    2005-01-01

    Gas exchange between the plant and the environment is severely hampered when plants are submerged, leading to oxygen and energy deficits. A straightforward way to reduce these shortages of oxygen and carbohydrates would be prolonged photosynthesis under water, but this has received only little

  12. Optimization of scheduling system for plant watering using electric cars in agro techno park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktavia Adiwijaya, Nelly; Herlambang, Yudha; Slamin

    2018-04-01

    Agro Techno Park in University of Jember is a special area used for the development of agriculture, livestock and fishery. In this plantation, the process of watering the plants is according to the frequency of each plant needs. This research develops the optimization of plant watering scheduling system using edge coloring of graph. This research was conducted in 3 stages, namely, data collection phase, analysis phase, and system development stage. The collected data was analyzed and then converted into a graph by using bipartite adjacency matrix representation. The development phase is conducted to build a web-based watering schedule optimization system. The result of this research showed that the schedule system is optimal because it can maximize the use of all electric cars to water the plants and minimize the number of idle cars.

  13. Control system for technological processes in tritium processing plants with process analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Retevoi, Carmen Maria; Stefan, Iuliana; Balteanu, Ovidiu; Stefan, Liviu; Bucur, Ciprian

    2005-01-01

    Integration of a large variety of installations and equipment into a unitary system for controlling the technological process in tritium processing nuclear facilities appears to be a rather complex approach particularly when experimental or new technologies are developed. Ensuring a high degree of versatility allowing easy modifications in configurations and process parameters is a major requirement imposed on experimental installations. The large amount of data which must be processed, stored and easily accessed for subsequent analyses imposes development of a large information network based on a highly integrated system containing the acquisition, control and technological process analysis data as well as data base system. On such a basis integrated systems of computation and control able to conduct the technological process could be developed as well protection systems for cases of failures or break down. The integrated system responds to the control and security requirements in case of emergency and of the technological processes specific to the industry that processes radioactive or toxic substances with severe consequences in case of technological failure as in the case of tritium processing nuclear plant. In order to lower the risk technological failure of these processes an integrated software, data base and process analysis system are developed, which, based on identification algorithm of the important parameters for protection and security systems, will display the process evolution trend. The system was checked on a existing plant that includes a removal tritium unit, finally used in a nuclear power plant, by simulating the failure events as well as the process. The system will also include a complete data base monitoring all the parameters and a process analysis software for the main modules of the tritium processing plant, namely, isotope separation, catalytic purification and cryogenic distillation

  14. Sludge quantification at water treatment plant and its management scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Tarique; Ahmad, Kafeel; Alam, Mehtab

    2017-08-15

    Large volume of sludge is generated at the water treatment plants during the purification of surface water for potable supplies. Handling and disposal of sludge require careful attention from civic bodies, plant operators, and environmentalists. Quantification of the sludge produced at the treatment plants is important to develop suitable management strategies for its economical and environment friendly disposal. Present study deals with the quantification of sludge using empirical relation between turbidity, suspended solids, and coagulant dosing. Seasonal variation has significant effect on the raw water quality received at the water treatment plants so forth sludge generation also varies. Yearly production of the sludge in a water treatment plant at Ghaziabad, India, is estimated to be 29,700 ton. Sustainable disposal of such a quantity of sludge is a challenging task under stringent environmental legislation. Several beneficial reuses of sludge in civil engineering and constructional work have been identified globally such as raw material in manufacturing cement, bricks, and artificial aggregates, as cementitious material, and sand substitute in preparing concrete and mortar. About 54 to 60% sand, 24 to 28% silt, and 16% clay constitute the sludge generated at the water treatment plant under investigation. Characteristics of the sludge are found suitable for its potential utilization as locally available construction material for safe disposal. An overview of the sustainable management scenario involving beneficial reuses of the sludge has also been presented.

  15. Waste water treatment plant city of Kraljevo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinović Dragan D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In all countries, in the fight for the preservation of environmental protection, water pollution, waste water is one of the very serious and complex environmental problems. Waste waters pollute rivers, lakes, sea and ground water and promote the development of micro-organisms that consume oxygen, which leads to the death of fish and the occurrence of pathogenic microbes. Water pollution and determination of its numerous microbiological contamination, physical agents and various chemical substances, is becoming an increasing health and general social problem. Purification of industrial and municipal waste water before discharge into waterways is of great importance for the contamination of the water ecosystems and the protection of human health. To present the results of purification of industrial and municipal wastewater in the city center Kraljevo system for wastewater treatment. The investigated physical and chemical parameters were performed before and after the city's system for wastewater treatment. The results indicate that the effect of purification present the physical and chemical parameters in waste water ranges from 0 - 19%.

  16. Monitoring for the Presence of Parasitic Protozoa and Free-living Amoebae in Drinking Water Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amany Saad Amer.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Contamination of drinking water by microorganisms represents a major human health hazard in many parts of the world. The main objective of drinking water treatment is to provide microbiologically safe drinking water. The conventional drinking water treatment and disinfection has proved to be one of the major public health advances in modern times. A number of processes; namely water treatment, disinfection and changes influence the quality of drinking water delivered to the customer’s tap during transport of treated water via the distribution system. At least 325 water-associated outbreaks of parasitic protozoan disease have reported. In this study, drinking water from treatment plants evaluated for the presence of parasitic protozoa. Water samples collected from two main points: (a outlet of the water treatment plants (b distribution system at different distances from the water treatment plants. Protozoa were concentrated from each water sample by adsorption and accumulation on the nitrocellulose membrane filters (0.45 μm pore size and detected by conventional staining methods.

  17. Application of solar energy to the supply of industrial process hot water: preliminary design and performance report. Volume I. Technical report. Aerotherm report TR-76-219. [For can washing at Campbell Soup Plant in Sacramento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1976-10-14

    The design and performance of a solar hot water system for can washing at the Campbell Soup Plant in Sacramento, California, are presented. The collector field is located on the roof of the finished products warehouse of the Campbell Soup Sacramento plant. Water is supplied from a 3.8 cm (1/sup 1///sub 2/ in.) supply line which is located directly below an existing roof access hatch. A supply pipe will be brought up through that hatch. The water flow will then be split into two manifold lines which supply the dual rows of flat plate collectors. The preheated water from the flat plates is then passed into six sets of parallel connected concentrators. Each set consist of eight 1.83 x 3.05 m (6 x 10 foot) modules connected in series. The water from these units is gathered in a 3.8 cm (1/sup 1///sub 2/ in.) insulated pipe which transports it to the storage tank. This pipe will be attached to an existing pipe run until it reaches the can washing building. From there the pipe will follow the can washing building around to the storage tank. The storage tank is a 75,200 1 (20,000 gal) steel tank which is coated internally with a USDA approved phenolic liner. The outside of the tank is insulated. A 2.2 kw (3 hp) motor is used to pump the stored water for the tank into the can washing line. Detail drawings and descriptions of the collector field, installation, piping, controls, data acquisition equipment, and roof structure are included. Furthermore, a program schedule with equipment and manpower costs for successfully completing Phase II of this contract is included. Also included is an organization chart of the Phase II program personnel. (WHK)

  18. Electronic data processing codes for California wildland plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merton J. Reed; W. Robert Powell; Bur S. Bal

    1963-01-01

    Systematized codes for plant names are helpful to a wide variety of workers who must record the identity of plants in the field. We have developed such codes for a majority of the vascular plants encountered on California wildlands and have published the codes in pocket size, using photo-reductions of the output from data processing machines. A limited number of the...

  19. Cost analysis of light water reactor power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mooz, W.E.

    1978-06-01

    A statistical analysis is presented of the capital costs of light water reactor (LWR) electrical power plants. The objective is twofold: to determine what factors are statistically related to capital costs and to produce a methodology for estimating these costs. The analysis in the study is based on the time and cost data that are available on U.S. nuclear power plants. Out of a total of about 60 operating plants, useful capital-cost data were available on only 39 plants. In addition, construction-time data were available on about 65 plants, and data on completed construction permit applications were available for about 132 plants. The cost data were first systematically adjusted to constant dollars. Then multivariate regression analyses were performed by using independent variables consisting of various physical and locational characteristics of the plants. The dependent variables analyzed were the time required to obtain a construction permit, the construction time, and the capital cost

  20. Environmental-friendly wool fabric finishing by some water plant extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šmelcerović Miodrag

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, environmental-friendly finishing of wool fabric were processed with several water extract plants, such as hibiscus, St. John's wort, and marigold. The plant extracts have good basis in the commercial dyeing of wool, for garment and carpet industry. At the same time, the environmental-friendly finishing by water extracts plants shows very good fastness of the antimicrobial properties and coloration of wool fabric. From an ecological viewpoint, the substitution of chemical dyes with "natural products" may represent not only a strategy to reduce risk and pollutants but also an opportunity for new markets and new businesses, which can expend involving of ecology in trade policy.

  1. Water chemistry control in thermal and nuclear power plants. 9. Nuclear fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The chemical management of fuels in nuclear power plants aims at maintenance of the soundness of nuclear fuels and at reduction of the radiation exposure of the working employees. With regard to the former, particular attention should be paid to the fabrication process of fuel assembly, mainly for chemical management for fuel cladding tubes together with fuel pellet-clad chemical interactions, and to the outer tubes in the power plants. With regard to the latter, the fabrication process should be carefully controlled to prevent radioactive impurity increase in primary cooling water systems by maintaining cleaning level and decreasing surface contamination. Reactions of zircalloy with water or hydrogen forming ZrH 2 , sintered density of UO 2 pellet controlling water content, pellet-clad interactions, stress corrosion cracking, crud induced fuel failure, behaviors of such fission products as I, Xe, Kr, and Cs in plants are also important to water and chemical management of nuclear fuels. (S. Ohno)

  2. Cycle water chemistry based on film forming amines at power plants: evaluation of technical guidance documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyachenko, F. V.; Petrova, T. I.

    2017-11-01

    Efficiency and reliability of the equipment in fossil power plants as well as in combined cycle power plants depend on the corrosion processes and deposit formation in steam/water circuit. In order to decrease these processes different water chemistries are used. Today the great attention is being attracted to the application of film forming amines and film forming amine products. The International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam (IAPWS) consolidated the information from all over the World, and based on the research studies and operating experience of researchers and engineers from 21 countries, developed and authorized the Technical Guidance Document: “Application of Film Forming Amines in Fossil, Combined Cycle, and Biomass Power Plants” in 2016. This article describe Russian and International technical guidance documents for the cycle water chemistries based on film forming amines at fossil and combined cycle power plants.

  3. St. Louis demonstration final report: refuse processing plant equipment, facilities, and environmental evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiscus, D.E.; Gorman, P.G.; Schrag, M.P.; Shannon, L.J.

    1977-09-01

    The results are presented of processing plant evaluations of the St. Louis-Union Electric Refuse Fuel Project, including equipment and facilities as well as assessment of environmental emissions at both the processing and the power plants. Data on plant material flows and operating parameters, plant operating costs, characteristics of plant material flows, and emissions from various processing operations were obtained during a testing program encompassing 53 calendar weeks. Refuse derived fuel (RDF) is the major product (80.6% by weight) of the refuse processing plant, the other being ferrous metal scrap, a marketable by-product. Average operating costs for the entire evaluation period were $8.26/Mg ($7.49/ton). The average overall processing rate for the period was 168 Mg/8-h day (185.5 tons/8-h day) at 31.0 Mg/h (34.2 tons/h). Future plants using an air classification system of the type used at the St. Louis demonstration plant will need an emissions control device for particulates from the large de-entrainment cyclone. Also in the air exhaust from the cyclone were total counts of bacteria and viruses several times higher than those of suburban ambient air. No water effluent or noise exposure problems were encountered, although landfill leachate mixed with ground water could result in contamination, given low dilution rates.

  4. Model development for prediction of soil water dynamics in plant production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhengfeng; Jin, Huixia; Zhang, Kefeng

    2015-09-01

    Optimizing water use in agriculture and medicinal plants is crucially important worldwide. Soil sensor-controlled irrigation systems are increasingly becoming available. However it is questionable whether irrigation scheduling based on soil measurements in the top soil could make best use of water for deep-rooted crops. In this study a mechanistic model was employed to investigate water extraction by a deep-rooted cabbage crop from the soil profile throughout crop growth. The model accounts all key processes governing water dynamics in the soil-plant-atmosphere system. Results show that the subsoil provides a significant proportion of the seasonal transpiration, about a third of water transpired over the whole growing season. This suggests that soil water in the entire root zone should be taken into consideration in irrigation scheduling, and for sensor-controlled irrigation systems sensors in the subsoil are essential for detecting soil water status for deep-rooted crops.

  5. Industrial wastewater minimization using water pinch analysis: a case study on an old textile plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujang, Z; Wong, C L; Manan, Z A

    2002-01-01

    Industrial wastewater minimization can be conducted using four main strategies: (i) reuse; (ii) regeneration-reuse; (iii) regeneration-recycling; and (iv) process changes. This study is concerned with (i) and (ii) to investigate the most suitable approach to wastewater minimization for an old textile industry plant. A systematic water networks design using water pinch analysis (WPA) was developed to minimize the water usage and wastewater generation for the textile plant. COD was chosen as the main parameter. An integrated design method has been applied, which brings the engineering insight using WPA that can determine the minimum flowrate of the water usage and then minimize the water consumption and wastewater generation as well. The overall result of this study shows that WPA has been effectively applied using both reuse and regeneration-reuse strategies for the old textile industry plant, and reduced the operating cost by 16% and 50% respectively.

  6. Water relations of woody perennial plant species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth A. Shackel

    2007-09-01

    Significance and impact of study: SWP as a standard method for quantifying water stress in grapevine and other crops will aid research in the development of reliable management practices to improve crop productivity and quality.

  7. Thermoeconomic analysis of a power/water cogeneration plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamed, Osman A.; Al-Washmi, Hamed A.; Al-Otaibi, Holayil A.

    2006-01-01

    Cogeneration plants for simultaneous production of water and electricity are widely used in the Arabian Gulf region. They have proven to be more thermodynamically efficient and economically feasible than single purpose power generation and water production plants. Yet, there is no standard or universally applied methodology for determining unit cost of electric power generation and desalinated water production by dual purpose plants. A comprehensive literature survey to critically assess and evaluate different methods for cost application in power/water cogeneration plants is reported in this paper. Based on this analysis, an in-depth thermoeconomic study is carried out on a selected power/water cogeneration plant that employs a regenerative Rankine cycle. The system incorporates a boiler, back pressure turbine (supplying steam to two MSF distillers), a deaerator and two feed water heaters. The turbine generation is rated at 118 MW, while MSF distiller is rated at 7.7 MIGD at a top brine temperature of 105 deg. C. An appropriate costing procedure based on the available energy accounting method which divides benefits of the cogeneration configuration equitably between electricity generation and water production is used to determine the unit costs of electricity and water. Capital charges of common equipment such as the boiler, deaerator and feed water heaters as well as boiler fuel costs are distributed between power generated and desalinated water according to available energy consumption of the major subsystems. A detailed sensitivity analysis was performed to examine the impact of the variation of fuel cost, load and availability factors in addition to capital recovery factor on electricity and water production costs

  8. THE WATER FROM NATURE AND THE EROSION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. PANDI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The water from nature and the erosion process. Studying earth's surface erosion process is necessary for practical reasons. The theoretical approach requires knowledge of the alluvial system’s structure and operation as the cascade sequence of fluvial system’s mass and energy. Geosystem research methodology requires that the water energy and the role of adjacent surface must be expressed. The expression of water power can be grouped according to the shape of movement and action in the basin. A particular, important case is the energy variation in a basin-slope. An important role in energy expressions is considering the existence in nature of biphasic fluid - water as dispersion phase and solid particles as dispersed phase. The role of the adjacent surface is taken into account by using the erosion resistance indicator, which is calculated using the indicator of geological resistance and the indicator of plant protection. The evolution of natural systems, therefore of river basins too, leads to energy diminishing, thus affecting their dynamic balance. This can be expressed using the concept of entropy. Although erosion processes are usual natural phenomena for the evolution of river basins, they induce significant risks in certain circumstances. Depending on the circulated water energies, water basins can be ranked in terms of potential risks.

  9. Test operation of the uranium ore processing pilot plant and uranium conversion plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, I.S.; Lee, K.I.; Whang, S.T.; Kang, Y.H.; Lee, C.W.; Chu, J.O.; Lee, I.H.; Park, S.C.

    1983-01-01

    For the guarantee of acid leaching process of the Uranium Ore Processing Pilot Plnat, the KAERI team performed the test operation in coorperation with the COGEMA engineers. The result of the operation was successful achieving the uranium leaching efficiency of 95%. Completing the guarentee test, a continuous test operation was shifted to reconform the reproducibility of the result and check the functions of every units of the pilot plant feeding the low-grade domestic ore, the consistency of the facility was conformed that the uranium can easily be dissolved out form the ore between the temperature range of 60degC-70degC for two hours of leaching with sulfuric acid and could be obtained the leaching efficiency of 92% to 95%. The uranium recovery efficiencies for the processes of extraction and stripping were reached to 99% and 99.6% respectively. As an alternative process for the separation of solid from the ore pulp, four of the Counter Current Decanters were shifted replacing the Belt Filter and those were connected in a series, which were not been tested during the guarantee operation. It was found out that the washing efficiencies of the ore pulp in each tests for the decanters were proportionally increased according to the quantities of the washing water. As a result of the test, it was obtained that washing efficiencies were 95%, 85%, 83% for the water to ore ratio of 3:1, 2:1, 1.5:1 respectively. (Author)

  10. Water recovery in a concentrated solar power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza, Aikifa; Higgo, Alex R.; Alobaidli, Abdulaziz; Zhang, TieJun

    2016-05-01

    For CSP plants, water consumption is undergoing increasing scrutiny particularly in dry and arid regions with water scarcity conditions. Significant amount of water has to be used for parabolic trough mirror cleaning to maintain high mirror reflectance and optical efficiency in sandy environment. For this specific purpose, solar collectors are washed once or twice every week at Shams 1, one of the largest CSP plant in the Middle East, and about 5 million gallons of demineralized water is utilized every year without further recovery. The produced waste water from a CSP plant contains the soiling i.e. accumulated dust and some amount of organic contaminants, as indicated by our analysis of waste water samples from the solar field. We thus need to develop a membrane based system to filter fine dust particulates and to degrade organic contaminant simultaneously. Membrane filtration technology is considered to be cost-effective way to address the emerging problem of a clean water shortage, and to reuse the filtered water after cleaning solar collectors. But there are some major technical barriers to improve the robustness and energy efficiency of filtration membranes especially when dealing with the removal of ultra-small particles and oil traces. Herein, we proposed a robust and scalable nanostructured inorganic microporous filtration copper mesh. The inorganic membrane surface wettability is tailored to enhance the water permeability and filtration flux by creating nanostructures. These nanostructured membranes were successfully employed to recover water collected after cleaning the reflectors of solar field of Shams 1. Another achievement was to remove the traces of heat transfer fluid (HTF) from run-off water which was collected after accidental leakage in some of the heat exchangers during the commissioning of the Shams 1 for safe disposal into the main stream. We hope, by controlling the water recovery factor and membrane reusability performance, the membrane

  11. Comparative water use of wattle thickets and indigenous plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The net difference in evapotranspiration (ET) between riparian thickets of alien trees and riparian fynbos may be quite different, due to the yearlong availability of soil water and enhanced plant growth in riparian zones. The water use of alien invasive trees in South Africa remains largely unknown, adding further uncertainty ...

  12. ARSENIC REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER BY IRON REMOVAL PLANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents a long term performance study of two iron removal water treatment plants to remove arsenic from drinking water sources. Performance information was collected from one system located in midwest for one full year and at the second system located in the farwest...

  13. Hydrogen-water isotopic exchange process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, H.

    1984-01-01

    The objects of this invention are achieved by a dual temperature isotopic exchange process employing hydrogen-water exchange with water passing in a closed recirculation loop between a catalyst-containing cold tower and the upper portion of a catalyst-containing hot tower, with feed water being introduced to the lower portion of the hot tower and being maintained out of contact with the water recirculating in the closed loop. Undue retarding of catalyst activity during deuterium concentration can thus be avoided. The cold tower and the upper portion of the hot tower can be operated with relatively expensive catalyst material of higher catalyst activity, while the lower portion of the hot tower can be operated with a relatively less expensive, more rugged catalyst material of lesser catalyst activity. The feed water stream, being restricted solely to the lower portion of the hot tower, requires minimal pretreatment for the removal of potential catalyst contaminants. The catalyst materials are desirably coated with a hydrophobic treating material so as to be substantially inaccessible to liquid water, thereby retarding catalyst fouling while being accessible to the gas for enhancing isotopic exchange between hydrogen gas and water vapor. A portion of the water of the closed loop can be passed to a humidification zone to heat and humidify the circulating hydrogen gas and then returned to the closed loop

  14. Covariance of oxygen and hydrogen isotopic compositions in plant water: species effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, L.W.; DeNiro, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    Leaf water becomes enriched in the heavy isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen during evapotranspiration. The magnitude of the enrichment has been shown to be influenced by temperature and humidity, but the effects of species—specific factors on leaf water enrichment of D and 18 O have not been studied for different plants growing together. Accordingly, to learn whether leaf water enrichment patterns and processes for D and 18 O are different for individual species growing under the same environmental conditions we tested the proposal that leaf waters in plants with crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) show higher slopes (m in the leaf water equation °D = m ° 18 O + b) than in C 3 plants. We determined the relationships between the stable hydrogen (°D) and oxygen (° 18 O) isotope ratios of leaf waters collected during the diurnal cycle of evapotranspiration for Yucca schidigera, Ephedra aspera, Agave deserti, Prunus ilicifolia, Yucca whipplei, Heteromeles arbutifolia, Dyckia fosteriana, Simmondsia chinensis, and Encelia farinosa growing at two sites in southern California. Slopes (m in the above leaf water equation) ranged from 1.50 to 3.21, compared to °8 for meteoric water, but differences in slope could not be attributed to carboxylation pathway (CAM vs. C 3 ) nor climate (coastal California vs. Sonoran Desert). Higher slopes were correlated with greater overall ranges of leaf water enrichment of D and 18 O. Water in plants with higher slopes also differed most from unaltered meteoric water. Leaf water isotope ratios in plants with lower slopes were better correlated with temperature and humidity. The findings indicate that m in the aforementioned equation is related to the overall residence time for water in the leaf and proportions of water subjected to repeated evapotranspiration enrichments of heavy isotopes

  15. Use of reactor plants of enhanced safety for sea water desalination, industrial and district heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panov, Yu.; Polunichev, V.; Zverev, K.

    1997-01-01

    Russian designers have developed and can deliver nuclear complexes to provide sea water desalination, industrial and district heating. This paper provides an overview of these designs utilizing the ABV, KLT-40 and ATETS-80 reactor plants of enhanced safety. The most advanced nuclear powered water desalination project is the APVS-80. This design consists of a special ship equipped with the distillation desalination plant powered at a level of 160 MW(th) utilizing the type KLT-40 reactor plant. More than 20 years of experience with water desalination and reactor plants has been achieved in Aktau and Russian nuclear ships without radioactive contamination of desalinated water. Design is also proceeding on a two structure complex consisting of a floating nuclear power station and a reverse osmosis desalination plant. This new technology for sea water desalination provides the opportunity to considerably reduce the specific consumption of power for the desalination of sea water. The ABV reactor is utilized in the ''Volnolom'' type floating nuclear power stations. This design also features a desalinator ship which provides sea water desalination by the reverse osmosis process. The ATETS-80 is a nuclear two-reactor cogeneration complex which incorporates the integral vessel-type PWR which can be used in the production of electricity, steam, hot and desalinated water. (author). 9 figs

  16. Dynamic modelling of water demand, water availability and adaptation strategies for power plants to global change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, Hagen; Voegele, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    According to the latest IPCC reports, the frequency of hot and dry periods will increase in many regions of the world in the future. For power plant operators, the increasing possibility of water shortages is an important challenge that they have to face. Shortages of electricity due to water shortages could have an influence on industries as well as on private households. Climate change impact analyses must analyse the climate effects on power plants and possible adaptation strategies for the power generation sector. Power plants have lifetimes of several decades. Their water demand changes with climate parameters in the short- and medium-term. In the long-term, the water demand will change as old units are phased out and new generating units appear in their place. In this paper, we describe the integration of functions for the calculation of the water demand of power plants into a water resources management model. Also included are both short-term reactive and long-term planned adaptation. This integration allows us to simulate the interconnection between the water demand of power plants and water resources management, i.e. water availability. Economic evaluation functions for water shortages are also integrated into the water resources management model. This coupled model enables us to analyse scenarios of socio-economic and climate change, as well as the effects of water management actions. (author)

  17. Regulation of Water Balance of the Plant from the Different Geo-Environmental Locations

    OpenAIRE

    Astghik R. Sukiasyan

    2016-01-01

    Under the drought stress condition, the plants would grow slower. Temperature is one of the most important abiotic factors which suppress the germination processes. However, the processes of transpiration are regulated directly by the cell water, which followed to an increase in volume of vacuoles. During stretching under the influence of water pressure, the cell goes into the state of turgor. In our experiments, lines of the semi-dental sweet maize of Armenian population from various zones o...

  18. Environmental aspects for water power plants along the river Lech

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiechtl, H

    1984-03-01

    During the past four decades, a number of water power plants has been put up along the river Lech between Fuessen to Augsburg; this section being under the concession of BAWAG. With the present report, the author shows how and by what means water power plants can be designed ecologically beneficial, and he furthermore demonstrates that modern technics and conservation of environment are very well compatible with each other. The use of water power as an indigenous, nonpolluting and constantly regenerating source of energy, also in the future, is pointed out.

  19. Optimal control of a waste water cleaning plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellina V. Grigorieva

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a model of a waste water treatment plant is investigated. The model is described by a nonlinear system of two differential equations with one bounded control. An optimal control problem of minimizing concentration of the polluted water at the terminal time T is stated and solved analytically with the use of the Pontryagin Maximum Principle. Dependence of the optimal solution on the initial conditions is established. Computer simulations of a model of an industrial waste water treatment plant show the advantage of using our optimal strategy. Possible applications are discussed.

  20. Investigating water transport through the xylem network in vascular plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hae Koo; Park, Joonghyuk; Hwang, Ildoo

    2014-04-01

    Our understanding of physical and physiological mechanisms depends on the development of advanced technologies and tools to prove or re-evaluate established theories, and test new hypotheses. Water flow in land plants is a fascinating phenomenon, a vital component of the water cycle, and essential for life on Earth. The cohesion-tension theory (CTT), formulated more than a century ago and based on the physical properties of water, laid the foundation for our understanding of water transport in vascular plants. Numerous experimental tools have since been developed to evaluate various aspects of the CTT, such as the existence of negative hydrostatic pressure. This review focuses on the evolution of the experimental methods used to study water transport in plants, and summarizes the different ways to investigate the diversity of the xylem network structure and sap flow dynamics in various species. As water transport is documented at different scales, from the level of single conduits to entire plants, it is critical that new results be subjected to systematic cross-validation and that findings based on different organs be integrated at the whole-plant level. We also discuss the functional trade-offs between optimizing hydraulic efficiency and maintaining the safety of the entire transport system. Furthermore, we evaluate future directions in sap flow research and highlight the importance of integrating the combined effects of various levels of hydraulic regulation.

  1. NOM characterization and removal at six Southern African water treatment plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Haarhoff

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Organic pollution is a major concern during drinking water treatment. Major challenges attributed to organic pollution include the proliferation of pathogenic micro-organisms, prevalence of toxic and physiologically disruptive organic micro-pollutants, and quality deterioration in water distribution systems. A major component of organic pollution is natural organic matter (NOM. The operational mechanisms of most unit processes are well understood. However, their interaction with NOM is still the subject of scientific research. This paper takes the form of a meta-study to capture some of the experiences with NOM monitoring and analysis at a number of Southern African Water Treatment Plants. It is written from the perspective of practical process selection, to try and coax some pointers from the available data for the design of more detailed pilot work. NOM was tracked at six water treatment plants using dissolved organic carbon (DOC measurements. Fractionation of the DOC based on biodegradability and molecular weight distribution was done at a water treatment plant in Namibia. A third fractionation technique using ion exchange resins was used to assess the impact of ozonation on DOC. DOC measurements alone did not give much insight into NOM evolution through the treatment train. The more detailed characterization techniques showed that different unit processes preferentially remove different NOM fractions. Therefore these techniques provide better information for process design and optimisation than the DOC measurement which is routinely done during full scale operation at these water treatment plants.

  2. Water releasing electric generating device for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umehara, Toshihiro; Tomohara, Yasutaka; Usui, Yoshihiko.

    1994-01-01

    Warm sea water discharged after being used for cooling in an equipment of a coastal nuclear powder plant is discharged from a water discharge port to a water discharge pit, and a conduit vessel is disposed in front of the water discharge port for receiving overflown warm sea water. The warm sea water taken to the conduit vessel is converted to a fallen flow and charged to a turbine generator under water, and electric power is generated by the water head energy of the fallen flow before it is discharged to the water discharge pit. The conduit vessel incorporates a foam preventing unit having spiral flow channels therein, so that the warm sea water taken to the conduit vessel is flown into the water discharge pit after consuming the water head energy while partially branched and flown downwardly and gives lateral component to the downwarding flowing direction. Then, warm sea water is made calm when it is flown into the water discharge pit and, accordingly, generation of bubbles on the water surface of the water discharge pit is avoided. (N.H.)

  3. Importance of water quality in container plant production

    Science.gov (United States)

    John M. Ruter

    2013-01-01

    High substrate pH is a major problem for producers of container-grown plants and seedlings. The primary cause of high substrate pH is irrigation water with high alkalinity. Alkalinity is defined as the capacity of water to neutralize acids. Some alkalinity in irrigation water is beneficial as it serves as a buffer to large swings in pH levels, but high alkalinity in...

  4. Active THz inspection of water content in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etayo, D.; Iriarte, J. C.; Palacios, I.; Teniente, J.; Ederra, I.; Gonzalo, R.

    2010-04-01

    The THz range offers the possibility of measuring water content. This can be useful in wine industry to control plants water levels and also to decrease irrigation costs. This paper presents a THz imaging system used to characterise water content in leaves using frequency and time domain methods from 0.14 to 0.22 THz. Our results show the possibility of getting useful information out of the preformed measurements.

  5. Water vulnerabilities for existing coal-fired power plants.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D.; Kuiper, J.; Environmental Science Division

    2010-08-19

    This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements the Existing Plants Research Program's overall research effort by evaluating water issues that could impact power plants. Water consumption by all users in the United States over the 2005-2030 time period is projected to increase by about 7% (from about 108 billion gallons per day [bgd] to about 115 bgd) (Elcock 2010). By contrast, water consumption by coal-fired power plants over this period is projected to increase by about 21% (from about 2.4 to about 2.9 bgd) (NETL 2009b). The high projected demand for water by power plants, which is expected to increase even further as carbon-capture equipment is installed, combined with decreasing freshwater supplies in many areas, suggests that certain coal-fired plants may be particularly vulnerable to potential water demand-supply conflicts. If not addressed, these conflicts could limit power generation and lead to power disruptions or increased consumer costs. The identification of existing coal-fired plants that are vulnerable to water demand and supply concerns, along with an analysis of information about their cooling systems and related characteristics, provides information to help focus future research and development (R&D) efforts to help ensure that coal-fired generation demands are met in a cost-effective manner that supports sustainable water use. This study identified coal-fired power plants that are considered vulnerable to water demand and supply issues by using a geographical information system (GIS) that facilitated the analysis of plant-specific data for more than 500 plants in the NETL's Coal Power Plant Database (CPPDB) (NETL 2007a) simultaneously with 18 indicators of water demand and supply. Two types of demand indicators were

  6. Optimization of Water Chemistry to Ensure Reliable Water Reactor Fuel Performance at High Burnup and in Ageing Plant (FUWAC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-10-01

    This report presents the results of the Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Optimization of Water Chemistry to Ensure Reliable Water Reactor Fuel Performance at High Burnup and in Ageing Plants (FUWAC, 2006-2009). It provides an overview of the results of the investigations into the current state of water chemistry practice and concerns in the primary circuit of water cooled power reactors including: corrosion of primary circuit materials; deposit composition and thickness on the fuel; crud induced power shift; fuel oxide growth and thickness; radioactivity buildup in the reactor coolant system (RCS). The FUWAC CRP is a follow-up to the DAWAC CRP (Data Processing Technologies and Diagnostics for Water Chemistry and Corrosion Control in Nuclear Power Plants 2001-2005). The DAWAC project improved the data processing technologies and diagnostics for water chemistry and corrosion control in nuclear power plants (NPPs). With the improved methods for controlling and monitoring water chemistry now available, it was felt that a review of the principles of water chemistry management should be undertaken in the light of new materials, more onerous operating conditions, emergent issues such as CIPS, also known as axial offset anomaly (AOA) and the ageing of operating power plant. In the framework of this CRP, water chemistry specialists from 16 nuclear utilities and research organizations, representing 15 countries, exchanged experimental and operational data, models and insights into water chemistry management. The CD-ROM attached to this IAEA-TECDOC includes the report itself, detailed progress reports of three Research Coordination Meetings (RCMs) (Annexes I-III) and the reports and presentations made during the project by the participants.

  7. Electrophysiological assessment of water stress in fruit-bearing woody plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos-Rojas, Liliana; Tapia, Franco; Gurovich, Luis A

    2014-06-15

    Development and evaluation of a real-time plant water stress sensor, based on the electrophysiological behavior of fruit-bearing woody plants is presented. Continuous electric potentials are measured in tree trunks for different irrigation schedules, inducing variable water stress conditions; results are discussed in relation to soil water content and micro-atmospheric evaporative demand, determined continuously by conventional sensors, correlating this information with tree electric potential measurements. Systematic and differentiable patterns of electric potentials for water-stressed and no-stressed trees in 2 fruit species are presented. Early detection and recovery dynamics of water stress conditions can also be monitored with these electrophysiology sensors, which enable continuous and non-destructive measurements for efficient irrigation scheduling throughout the year. The experiment is developed under controlled conditions, in Faraday cages located at a greenhouse area, both in Persea americana and Prunus domestica plants. Soil moisture evolution is controlled using capacitance sensors and solar radiation, temperature, relative humidity, wind intensity and direction are continuously registered with accurate weather sensors, in a micro-agrometeorological automatic station located at the experimental site. The electrophysiological sensor has two stainless steel electrodes (measuring/reference), inserted on the stem; a high precision Keithley 2701 digital multimeter is used to measure plant electrical signals; an algorithm written in MatLab(®), allows correlating the signal to environmental variables. An electric cyclic behavior is observed (circadian cycle) in the experimental plants. For non-irrigated plants, the electrical signal shows a time positive slope and then, a negative slope after restarting irrigation throughout a rather extended recovery process, before reaching a stable electrical signal with zero slope. Well-watered plants presented a

  8. Experiences on sea water reverse osmosis plant at Anuvijay township, Kudankulam Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasubramanian, M.R.; Selvavinayagam, P.; Singaravelan, S.; Ramdoss, R.; Sundar, R.S.

    2007-01-01

    Sea water reverse Osmosis plant SWRO of KKNPP is located at Anuvijay township, Chettikulam, Tirunelveli District, Tamilnadu. The objective of SWRO is to produce 2400 M 3 of potable quality water per day. This plant consists of four streams, each having a capacity of 25 M 3 /hr. Each stream is having 9 pressure tube in parallel and each pressure tube has 6 polyamide spiral wound membrane in series. (author)

  9. Plant water use efficiency over geological time--evolution of leaf stomata configurations affecting plant gas exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assouline, Shmuel; Or, Dani

    2013-01-01

    Plant gas exchange is a key process shaping global hydrological and carbon cycles and is often characterized by plant water use efficiency (WUE - the ratio of CO2 gain to water vapor loss). Plant fossil record suggests that plant adaptation to changing atmospheric CO2 involved correlated evolution of stomata density (d) and size (s), and related maximal aperture, amax . We interpreted the fossil record of s and d correlated evolution during the Phanerozoic to quantify impacts on gas conductance affecting plant transpiration, E, and CO2 uptake, A, independently, and consequently, on plant WUE. A shift in stomata configuration from large s-low d to small s-high d in response to decreasing atmospheric CO2 resulted in large changes in plant gas exchange characteristics. The relationships between gas conductance, gws , A and E and maximal relative transpiring leaf area, (amax ⋅d), exhibited hysteretic-like behavior. The new WUE trend derived from independent estimates of A and E differs from established WUE-CO2 trends for atmospheric CO2 concentrations exceeding 1,200 ppm. In contrast with a nearly-linear decrease in WUE with decreasing CO2 obtained by standard methods, the newly estimated WUE trend exhibits remarkably stable values for an extended geologic period during which atmospheric CO2 dropped from 3,500 to 1,200 ppm. Pending additional tests, the findings may affect projected impacts of increased atmospheric CO2 on components of the global hydrological cycle.

  10. Energy conservation measures adopted in heavy water plants (Paper No. 1.8)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundaresan, S.; Lakshmanan, S.

    1992-01-01

    Energy use can be significantly reduced in the process plants by systematically reviewing the original design and operating practices. While designing a chemical process plant, sometimes the designers go for high margin in certain areas anticipating to suit process conditions which finally result in wastage of energy if those conditions are not realised in the actual operation of the plant. Similarly some of the operating practices evolved since commissioning, might be resulting in uneconomical use of energy when they are not checked by the regular review of the operating practices. This paper deals with the various efforts made by Heavy Water Plant, Tuticorin, in identifying the potential energy losses and steps taken to minimise them, which not only resulted in substantial energy savings but also helped in debottle-necking of the plant. (author)

  11. Plants Clean Air and Water for Indoor Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Wolverton Environmental Services Inc., founded by longtime government environmental scientist B.C. "Bill" Wolverton, is an environmental consulting firm that gives customers access to the results of his decades of cutting-edge bioremediation research. Findings about how to use plants to improve indoor air quality have been published in dozens of NASA technical papers and in the book, "How to Grow Fresh Air: 50 Houseplants That Purify Your Home or Office." The book has now been translated into 12 languages and has been on the shelves of bookstores for nearly 10 years. A companion book, "Growing Clean Water: Nature's Solution to Water Pollution," explains how plants can clean waste water. Other discoveries include that the more air that is allowed to circulate through the roots of the plants, the more effective they are at cleaning polluted air; and that plants play a psychological role in welfare in that people recover from illness faster in the presence of plants. Wolverton Environmental is also working in partnership with Syracuse University, to engineer systems consisting of modular wicking filters tied into duct work and water supplies, essentially tying plant-based filters into heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. Also, the company has recently begun to assess the ability of the EcoPlanter to remove formaldehyde from interior environments. Wolverton Environmental is also in talks with designers of the new Stennis Visitor's Center, who are interested in using its designs for indoor air-quality filters

  12. No evidence of complementary water use along a plant species richness gradient in temperate experimental grasslands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dörte Bachmann

    Full Text Available Niche complementarity in resource use has been proposed as a key mechanism to explain the positive effects of increasing plant species richness on ecosystem processes, in particular on primary productivity. Since hardly any information is available for niche complementarity in water use, we tested the effects of plant diversity on spatial and temporal complementarity in water uptake in experimental grasslands by using stable water isotopes. We hypothesized that water uptake from deeper soil depths increases in more diverse compared to low diverse plant species mixtures. We labeled soil water in 8 cm (with 18O and 28 cm depth (with ²H three times during the 2011 growing season in 40 temperate grassland communities of varying species richness (2, 4, 8 and 16 species and functional group number and composition (legumes, grasses, tall herbs, small herbs. Stable isotope analyses of xylem and soil water allowed identifying the preferential depth of water uptake. Higher enrichment in 18O of xylem water than in ²H suggested that the main water uptake was in the upper soil layer. Furthermore, our results revealed no differences in root water uptake among communities with different species richness, different number of functional groups or with time. Thus, our results do not support the hypothesis of increased complementarity in water use in more diverse than in less diverse communities of temperate grassland species.

  13. Advanced applications of water cooled nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-07-01

    By August 2007, there were 438 nuclear power plants (NPPs) in operation worldwide, with a total capacity of 371.7 GW(e). Further, 31 units, totaling 24.1 GW(e), were under construction. During 2006 nuclear power produced 2659.7 billion kWh of electricity, which was 15.2% of the world's total. The vast majority of these plants use water-cooled reactors. Based on information provided by its Member States, the IAEA projects that nuclear power will grow significantly, producing between 2760 and 2810 billion kWh annually by 2010, between 3120 and 3840 billion kWh annually by 2020, and between 3325 and 5040 billion kWh annually by 2030. There are several reasons for these rising expectations for nuclear power: - Nuclear power's lengthening experience and good performance: The industry now has more than 12 000 reactor years of experience, and the global average nuclear plant availability during 2006 reached 83%; - Growing energy needs: All forecasts project increases in world energy demand, especially as population and economic productivity grow. The strategies are country dependent, but usually involve a mix of energy sources; - Interest in advanced applications of nuclear energy, such as seawater desalination, steam for heavy oil recovery and heat and electricity for hydrogen production; - Environmental concerns and constraints: The Kyoto Protocol has been in force since February 2005, and for many countries (most OECD countries, the Russian Federation, the Baltics and some countries of the Former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe) greenhouse gas emission limits are imposed; - Security of energy supply is a national priority in essentially every country; and - Nuclear power is economically competitive and provides stability of electricity price. In the near term most new nuclear plants will be evolutionary water cooled reactors (Light Water Reactors (LWRs) and Heavy Water Reactors (HWRs), often pursuing economies of scale. In the longer term, innovative designs that

  14. Proceedings: Distributed digital systems, plant process computers, and networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    These are the proceedings of a workshop on Distributed Digital Systems, Plant Process Computers, and Networks held in Charlotte, North Carolina on August 16--18, 1994. The purpose of the workshop was to provide a forum for technology transfer, technical information exchange, and education. The workshop was attended by more than 100 representatives of electric utilities, equipment manufacturers, engineering service organizations, and government agencies. The workshop consisted of three days of presentations, exhibitions, a panel discussion and attendee interactions. Original plant process computers at the nuclear power plants are becoming obsolete resulting in increasing difficulties in their effectiveness to support plant operations and maintenance. Some utilities have already replaced their plant process computers by more powerful modern computers while many other utilities intend to replace their aging plant process computers in the future. Information on recent and planned implementations are presented. Choosing an appropriate communications and computing network architecture facilitates integrating new systems and provides functional modularity for both hardware and software. Control room improvements such as CRT-based distributed monitoring and control, as well as digital decision and diagnostic aids, can improve plant operations. Commercially available digital products connected to the plant communications system are now readily available to provide distributed processing where needed. Plant operations, maintenance activities, and engineering analyses can be supported in a cost-effective manner. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database

  15. First operational experiences with the new biological waste water treatment plant at HKM; Erste Betriebserfahrungen mit der neuen biologischen Abwasserbehandlungsanlage der HKM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Wendt; L. Nelles

    2002-07-01

    The common process of coke oven gas purification in by-product plant produces process water that is namely composed of excess flushing water from the crude tar decantation and waste water from NH{sub 3} and H{sub 2}S scrubbers. In 1959, the coke plant at HKM (formerly Mannesmann Huettenwerken Huckingen AG) was commissioned. This plant made use of the phenol removal process. Utilizing the phenolsolvan method the phenols toxic to microbes were removed from ammonia waste water and crude phenol recovered. The process water was subsequently steam stripped in strippers and deacidifiers. After more than 40 years of operation the need for modernization of the phenol removal plant arose. As a consequence of more stringent limits on coke plant effluents that have already been in place for several years the HKM came to a resolution to construct a new biological waste water treatment plant instead of renewing the phenol removal plant.

  16. Clinch river breeder reactor plant steam generator water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Hoesen, D.; Lowe, P.A.

    1975-01-01

    The recent problems experienced by some LWR Steam Generators have drawn attention to the importance of system water quality and water/ steam side corrosion. Several of these reactor plants have encountered steam generator failures due to accelerated tube corrosion caused, in part, by poor water quality and corrosion control. The CRBRP management is aware of these problems, and the implications that they have for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CPBRP) Steam Generator System (SGS). Consequently, programs are being implemented which will: 1) investigate the corrosion mechanisms which may be present in the CRBRP SGS; 2) assure steam generator integrity under design and anticipated off-normal water quality conditions; and 3) assure that the design water quality levels are maintained at all times. However, in order to understand the approach being used to examine this potential problem, it is first necessary to look at the CRBRP SGS and the corrosion mechanisms which may be present

  17. Clinch river breeder reactor plant steam generator water quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Hoesen, D; Lowe, P A

    1975-07-01

    The recent problems experienced by some LWR Steam Generators have drawn attention to the importance of system water quality and water/ steam side corrosion. Several of these reactor plants have encountered steam generator failures due to accelerated tube corrosion caused, in part, by poor water quality and corrosion control. The CRBRP management is aware of these problems, and the implications that they have for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CPBRP) Steam Generator System (SGS). Consequently, programs are being implemented which will: (1) investigate the corrosion mechanisms which may be present in the CRBRP SGS; (2) assure steam generator integrity under design and anticipated off-normal water quality conditions; and (3) assure that the design water quality levels are maintained at all times. However, in order to understand the approach being used to examine this potential problem, it is first necessary to look at the CRBRP SGS and the corrosion mechanisms which may be present.

  18. Analysis of water hammer events in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Masahiro; Yanagi, Chihiro

    1999-01-01

    A water hammer issue in nuclear power plants was one of unresolved safety issues listed by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission and was regarded as resolved. But later on, the water hammer events are still experienced intermittently, while the number of the events is decreasing. We collected water hammer events of PWRs in Japan and the United States and relevant documents, analyzed them, and studied corrective actions taken by Japanese plants. As a result, it is confirmed that preventive measured in design, operation etc. have been already taken and that mitigation mechanisms against water hammer have also been considered. However, it is clarified that attention should be continuously paid to operation of valves and/or pumps, as the prevention of water hammer still relies on operation. (author)

  19. High purity heavy water production: need for total organic carbon determination in process water streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayushi; Kumar, Sangita D.; Reddy, A.V.R.; Vithal, G.K.

    2009-01-01

    In recent times, demand for high purity heavy water (99.98% pure) in industries and laboratories has grown by manifold. Its application started in nuclear industry with the design of CANDU reactor, which uses natural uranium as fuel. In this reactor the purest grade of heavy water is used as the moderator and the primary coolant. Diverse industrial applications like fibre optics, medicine, semiconductors etc. use high purity heavy water extensively to achieve better performance of the specific material. In all these applications there is a stringent requirement that the total organic carbon content (TOC) of high purity heavy water should be very low. This is because the presence of TOC can lead to adverse interactions in different applications. To minimize the TOC content in the final product there is a need to monitor and control the TOC content at each and every stage of heavy water production. Hence a simple, rapid and accurate method was developed for the determination of TOC content in process water samples. The paper summarizes the results obtained for the TOC content in the water samples collected from process streams of heavy water production plant. (author)

  20. Plant Cytokinesis: Terminology for Structures and Processes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smertenko, A.; Assaad, F.F.; Baluška, F.; Bezanilla, M.; Buschmann, B.; Drakakaki, G.; Hauser, M.T.; Janson, M.; Mineyuki, Y.; Moore, I.; Mueller, S.; Murata, T.; Otegui, M.S.; Panteris, E.; Rasmussen, C.; Schmit, A. C.; Šamaj, J.; Samuels, L.; Staehelin, L. A.; Van Damme, D.; Wasteneys, G.; Žárský, Viktor

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 12 (2017), s. 885-894 ISSN 0962-8924 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : cell plate formation * microtubule-associated protein * dividing root- cell s * preprophase-band formation * cortical division zone * trans-golgi network * physcomitrella-patens * arabidopsis-thaliana * somatic cytokinesis * tobacco by-2 Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 15.333, year: 2016

  1. Lead uptake of water plants in water stream at Kiteezi landfill site ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2Chemistry Laboratory, Uganda Industrial Research Institute, P. O. Box 7086, Kampala, Uganda. Received ... contain heavy metals which compromise water quality .... MATERIALS AND METHODS ... discharged out of the waste water treatment plant pipes. ... with deionized water twice and separated into shoots, stems and.

  2. Microbial pathogens in source and treated waters from drinking water treatment plants in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    An occurrence survey was conducted on selected pathogens in source and treated drinking water collected from 25 drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) in the United States. Water samples were analyzed for the protozoa Giardia and Cryptosporidium (EPA Method 1623); the fungi Asp...

  3. Absorption process for removing krypton from the off-gas of an LMFBR fuel reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephenson, M.J.; Dunthorn, D.I.; Reed, W.D.; Pashley, J.H.

    1975-01-01

    The Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant selective absorption process for the collection and recovery of krypton and xenon is being further developed to demonstrate, on a pilot scale, a fluorocarbon-based process for removing krypton from the off-gas of an LMFBR fuel reprocessing plant. The new ORGDP selective absorption pilot plant consists of a primary absorption-stripping operation and all peripheral equipment required for feed gas preparation, process solvent recovery, process solvent purification, and krypton product purification. The new plant is designed to achieve krypton decontamination factors in excess of 10 3 with product concentration factors greater than 10 4 while processing a feed gas containing typical quantities of common reprocessing plant off-gas impurities, including oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, water, xenon, iodine, and methyl iodide. Installation and shakedown of the facility were completed and some short-term tests were conducted early this year. The first operating campaign using a simulated reprocessing plant off-gas feed is now underway. The current program objective is to demonstrate continuous process operability and performance for extended periods of time while processing the simulated ''dirty'' feed. This year's activity will be devoted to routine off-gas processing with little or no deliberate system perturbations. Future work will involve the study of the system behavior under feed perturbations and various plant disturbances. (U.S.)

  4. Monitoring and controlling the biological purification process in a waste water treatment plant using a respirometry analyser; Vigilancia y control del proceso de la depuracion biologica en una EDAR por medio de un analizador de respirometria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano, J. E.

    2004-07-01

    In a waste water biological treatment, we have to take into account that the activated sludge is a living and breathing process, and a lack of bioactivity information might cause serious confusion about control criteria on the biological reactor. For this reason, to get bioactivity information in a timely manner through the respiration analysis would be a real breakthrough in better process control. Therefore, to identify the respiration rates and calculate their derived parameters represents the guidelines of respirometry and can be considered as the most sensitive variables on the basis of which activated sludge process theory can be validated. (Author)

  5. Process Information System - Nuclear Power Plant Krsko

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandic, D.; Barbic, B.; Linke, B.; Colak, I.

    1998-01-01

    Original NEK design was using several Process Computer Systems (PCS) for both process control and process supervision. PCS were built by different manufacturers around different hardware and software platforms. Operational experience and new regulatory requirements imposed new technical and functional requirements on the PCS. Requirements such as: - Acquisition of new signals from the technological processes and environment - Implementation of new application programs - Significant improvement of MMI (Man Machine Interface) - Process data transfer to other than Main Control Room (MCR) locations - Process data archiving and capability to retrieve same data for future analysis were impossible to be implemented within old systems. In order to satisfy new requirements, NEK has decided to build new Process Information System (PIS). During the design and construction of the PIS Project Phase I, in addition to the main foreign contractor, there was significant participation of local architect engineering and construction companies. This paper presents experience of NEK and local partners. (author)

  6. An organic profile of a pressurised water reactor secondary plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eeden, Nestor van; Stwayi, Mandisibuntu; Gericke, Gerhard

    2012-01-01

    Make-up water addition to the steam/water cycle at Koeberg Nuclear Power Station usually results in a corresponding increase of the chloride concentration in the steam generator blowdown system. During plant transients, when higher than normal make-up is required to the secondary plant, the concentration of chloride occasionally exceeds the limiting value for the station chemistry performance indicator. Irrespective of this, the demineralised water make-up supply tanks, which are routinely analysed for chloride, are within all recognised acceptable standards for secondary water make-up and therefore these tanks do not initially appear to be the source of chloride contamination. Water treatment at the plant relies essentially on ion exchange, which has been proven to be very effective in removing inorganic ionic species such as chloride. Organic compounds are less effectively removed by ion exchange and may pass through the treatment system, and these organics can reside undetected in the make-up water tanks. Historically, the elevated chloride concentration following high system make-up has been attributed to chlorinated organic compounds known as trihalomethanes being present in the make-up water tanks, but no rigorous study had been undertaken. As it has been assumed that the majority of chloride in the secondary system originates from the make-up water organic impurities, it was considered important to confirm this by compiling an organic profile of the secondary plant. The use of organic additives was also taken into account in the profile. This work has confirmed the contribution from trihalomethanes and has also found that other organochlorides contribute even more significantly to the overall chloride inventory of the secondary plant. (orig.)

  7. Animal or plant: which is the better fog water collector?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nørgaard, Thomas; Ebner, Martin; Dacke, Marie

    2012-01-01

    Occasional fog is a critical water source utilised by plants and animals in the Namib Desert. Fog basking beetles (Onymacris unguicularis, Tenebrionidae) and Namib dune bushman grass (Stipagrostris sabulicola, Poaceae) collect water directly from the fog. While the beetles position themselves optimally for fog water collection on dune ridges, the grass occurs predominantly at the dune base where less fog water is available. Differences in the fog-water collecting abilities in animals and plants have never been addressed. Here we place beetles and grass side-by-side in a fog chamber and measure the amount of water they collect over time. Based on the accumulated amount of water over a two hour period, grass is the better fog collector. However, in contrast to the episodic cascading water run-off from the grass, the beetles obtain water in a steady flow from their elytra. This steady trickle from the beetles' elytra to their mouth could ensure that even short periods of fog basking--while exposed to predators--will yield water. Up to now there is no indication of specialised surface properties on the grass leafs, but the steady run-off from the beetles could point to specific property adaptations of their elytra surface.

  8. Animal or plant: which is the better fog water collector?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Nørgaard

    Full Text Available Occasional fog is a critical water source utilised by plants and animals in the Namib Desert. Fog basking beetles (Onymacris unguicularis, Tenebrionidae and Namib dune bushman grass (Stipagrostris sabulicola, Poaceae collect water directly from the fog. While the beetles position themselves optimally for fog water collection on dune ridges, the grass occurs predominantly at the dune base where less fog water is available. Differences in the fog-water collecting abilities in animals and plants have never been addressed. Here we place beetles and grass side-by-side in a fog chamber and measure the amount of water they collect over time. Based on the accumulated amount of water over a two hour period, grass is the better fog collector. However, in contrast to the episodic cascading water run-off from the grass, the beetles obtain water in a steady flow from their elytra. This steady trickle from the beetles' elytra to their mouth could ensure that even short periods of fog basking--while exposed to predators--will yield water. Up to now there is no indication of specialised surface properties on the grass leafs, but the steady run-off from the beetles could point to specific property adaptations of their elytra surface.

  9. Methane transport and emissions from soil as affected by water table and vascular plants

    OpenAIRE

    Bhullar, Gurbir S; Iravani, Majid; Edwards, Peter J; Olde Venterink, Harry

    2013-01-01

    Background: The important greenhouse gas (GHG) methane is produced naturally in anaerobic wetland soils. By affecting the production, oxidation and transport of methane to the atmosphere, plants have a major influence upon the quantities emitted by wetlands. Different species and functional plant groups have been shown to affect these processes differently, but our knowledge about how these effects are influenced by abiotic factors such as water regime and temperature remains limited. Here...

  10. Cooling water in the study of nuclear power plants sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, J.J.C.

    1990-01-01

    The location of an electric power plant has its limitations as regards the availability of apt sites. The radiosanitary risk, seismic risk and the overload capacity of the ground can be generically enumerated, being the cooling water availability for an electric power plant a basic requirement. Diverse cooling systems may be employed but the aim must always be that thermal contamination in the immediate environment be the least possible. (Author) [es

  11. New water intake systems for thermal and nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishchuk, T.B.; Samodel'nikov, B.T.

    1989-01-01

    Problems arising during design of water intake and spillway structures for the auxiliary water supply system of thermal and nuclear power plants connected with the provision of their reliable operation and with the effect on the temperature condition of reservoirs and their ecology are investigated. Design providing for the connection of intake channel and catch drain for a through (transition) channel and supplying a water transition flow by ejecting water outputs is suggested. The variant considered is effective for seas, lakes and reservoirs with adverse conditions for natural cooling and it is suitable for regions with seismicity up to 5-6 balls

  12. Future of robots in nuclear plants and processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, J.J.; Byrd, J.S.

    1985-01-01

    The role of robotics at the Savannah River Plant and Laboratory is reviewed. The site's remote process areas are described briefly, and existing remote handling equipment and robots are discussed. Three technology areas under development and relating to process automation are reviewed. These are: inspection systems to detect and evaluate process problems or to determine equipment integrity, process monitoring systems to analyze plant operations and to supply information in the event of an unusual occurrence, and remote manipulator systems and controls to handle instruments and tools. A technique is presented for employing future intelligent robots through process networks. These networks will represent the integration of robotic technology with dedicated process knowledge bases

  13. Occurrence of selected pharmaceuticals at drinking water purification plants in Japan and implications for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simazaki, Dai; Kubota, Reiji; Suzuki, Toshinari; Akiba, Michihiro; Nishimura, Tetsuji; Kunikane, Shoichi

    2015-06-01

    The present study was performed to determine the occurrence of 64 pharmaceuticals and metabolites in source water and finished water at 6 drinking water purification plants and 2 industrial water purification plants across Japan. The analytical methods employed were sample concentration using solid-phase extraction cartridges and instrumental analysis by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry (LC/MS), or trimethylsilyl derivatization followed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Thirty-seven of the 64 target substances were detected in the source water samples. The maximum concentrations in the source water were mostly below 50 ng/L except for 13 substances. In particular, residual concentrations of iopamidol (contrast agent) exceeded 1000 ng/L at most facilities. Most of the residual pharmaceuticals and metabolites in the source water samples were removed in the course of conventional and/or advanced drinking water treatments, except for 7 pharmaceuticals and 1 metabolite, i.e., amantadine, carbamazepine, diclofenac, epinastine, fenofibrate, ibuprofen, iopamidol, and oseltamivir acid. The removal ratios of the advanced water treatment processes including ozonation and granular activated carbon filtration were typically much higher than those of the conventional treatment processes. The margins of exposure estimated by the ratio of daily minimum therapeutic dose to daily intake via drinking water were substantial, and therefore the pharmacological and physiological impacts of ingesting those residual substances via drinking water would be negligible. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. An evaluation of water hammer in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serkiz, A.

    1983-01-01

    Water hammer can occur as a result of to steam-void collapse, steam-driven slugs of water, pump startup into voided lines, and inadverdent closures of valves; the result is large hydraulic pressure loads. Since 1968, about 150 water hammer events have been reported in U.S. nuclear power plants; damage has been confined to pipe hangers and snubbers. The increase in reported water hammer events in the 1970s led to the designation of water hammer as Unresolved Safety Issue A-1 in 1979. Since the mid-1970s reported occurrences and their underlying phenomena have been studied, and corrective design and operational measures have been implemented. This paper presents the results of generic evaluations of water hammer occurrence and reported damage and sets forth technical findings. These findings indicate that good design practices and operational procedures can minimize the occurrence of water hammer

  15. Nuclear reactor plant for production process heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, M.

    1979-01-01

    The high temperature reactor is suitable as a heat source for carrying out endothermal chemical processes. A heat exchanger is required for separating the reactor coolant gases and the process medium. The heat of the reactor is transferred at a temperature lower than the process temperature to a secondary gas and is compressed to give the required temperature. The compression energy is obtained from the same reactor. (RW) [de

  16. Organizational processes and nuclear power plant safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landy, F.J.; Jacobs, R.R.; Mathieu, J.

    1991-01-01

    The paper describes the effects organizational factors have on the risk associated with the operation of nuclear power plants. The described research project addresses three methods for identifying the organizational factors that impact safety. The first method consists of an elaborate theory-based protocol dealing with decision making procedures, interdepartmental coordination of activities, and communications. The second, known as goals/means/measures protocol, deals with identifying safey related goals. The third method is known as behaviorally anchored rating scale development. The paper discusses the importance of the convergence of these three methods to identify organizational factors essential to reactor safety

  17. Process and system for treating waste water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olesen, Douglas E.; Shuckrow, Alan J.

    1978-01-01

    A process of treating raw or primary waste water using a powdered, activated carbon/aerated biological treatment system is disclosed. Effluent turbidities less than 2 JTU (Jackson turbidity units), zero TOC (total organic carbon) and in the range of 10 mg/l COD (chemical oxygen demand) can be obtained. An influent stream of raw or primary waste water is contacted with an acidified, powdered, activated carbon/alum mixture. Lime is then added to the slurry to raise the pH to about 7.0. A polyelectrolyte flocculant is added to the slurry followed by a flocculation period -- then sedimentation and filtration. The separated solids (sludge) are aerated in a stabilization sludge basin and a portion thereof recycled to an aerated contact basin for mixing with the influent waste water stream prior to or after contact of the influent stream with the powdered, activated carbon/alum mixture.

  18. Process monitoring for reprocessing plant safeguards: a summary review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, H.T.; Ehinger, M.H.; Wachter, J.W.; Hebble, T.L.

    1986-10-01

    Process monitoring is a term typically associated with a detailed look at plant operating data to determine plant status. Process monitoring has been generally associated with operational control of plant processes. Recently, process monitoring has been given new attention for a possible role in international safeguards. International Safeguards Project Office (ISPO) Task C.59 has the goal to identify specific roles for process monitoring in international safeguards. As the preliminary effort associated with this task, a review of previous efforts in process monitoring for safeguards was conducted. Previous efforts mentioned concepts and a few specific applications. None were comprehensive in addressing all aspects of a process monitoring application for safeguards. This report summarizes the basic elements that must be developed in a comprehensive process monitoring application for safeguards. It then summarizes the significant efforts that have been documented in the literature with respect to the basic elements that were addressed

  19. Do rock fragments participate to plant water and mineral nutrition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korboulewsky, Nathalie; Tétégan, Marion; Besnault, Adeline; Cousin, Isabelle

    2010-05-01

    Rock fragments modify soil properties, and can be a potential reservoir of water. Besides, recent studies showed that this coarse soil fraction is chemically active, release nutrients, and could therefore be involved in biogeochemical nutrient cycles. However, these studies carried out on rock fragments, crushed pebbles or mineral particles do not answer the question whether the coarse soil fraction has significant nutritive functions. Only a couple of studies were conducted on plants, one on grass and the other on coniferous seedlings. This present work attempted to assess if pebbles may act as water and nutrient sources for poplar saplings, a deciduous species. Remoulded soils were set up in 5 L-pots with three percentages of pebbles: 0, 20, and 40% in volume. We used, as substrate either fine earth or sand (quartz), and as rock fragments either calcareous or inert pebbles (quartz). Additional modalities were settled with sand mixed with 20 and 40% pebbles enriched with nutrients. Both fine earth and calcareous pebbles were collected from the Ap horizon of a calcareous lacustrine limestone silty soil located in the central region of France. After cleaning, all pebbles were mixed to reach a bulk density in pots of 1.1 g/cm3 for the fine earth and 1.5 g/cm3 for the sand. Ten replicates were settled per modality, and one cutting of Populus robusta was planted in each. The experiment was conducted under controlled conditions. All pots were saturated at the beginning of the experiment, then irrigated by capillarity and controlled to maintain a moderate water stress. Growth and evapotranspiration were followed regularly, while water stress status was measured by stomatal conductivity every day during two drying periods of 10 days. After three months, plants were collected, separated in below- and above-ground parts for biomass and cation analysis (Ca, Mg, K). Results showed that pebbles can participate to plant nutrition, but no reduction of water stress was observed

  20. Uranium removal from water by five aquatic plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Nan; Ding Dexin; Li Guangyue; Wang Yongdong; Li Le; Zheng Jifang

    2012-01-01

    Hydroponic solution culture experiments were conducted on the growth of Eichhornia crassipes, Lemna minor L, Azolla imbircata, Potamogeton crispus, and Alligator alternanthera Herb in water with 0.15, 1.50 and 15.00 mg . L -1 concentrations of uranium, and on the uranium removal from the water by the aquatic plants. For the 21 days of hydroponic solution culture experiments, Azolla imbircata exhibited the strongest resistance to uranium and its growth inhibition rates induced by the water with 0.15, 1.50 and 15.00 mg · L -1 concentrations of uranium were 4.56%, 2.48%, 6.79%, respectively, and the uranium removal rates from the water by the plant amounted to 94%, 97% and 92%, respectively. Further experiments revealed that the most uranium removal could be achieved when 7.5 g Azolla imbircata was grown in 1 L of water, and the time required for the plant to reduce the uranium concentration in water with 1.25, 2.50, 5.00 and 10.00 mg · L -l concentrations of uranium below that stipulated in the national emission standards of China were 17, 19, 23 and 25 days, respectively. The results have laid foundation for further studies of phytoremediation of uranium contaminated water. (authors)

  1. A study on the water chemistry in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chae, Sung Ki; Yang, Kyung Rin; Koo Je Hyoo; Lee, Eun Hee; Kim, Joung Soo; Jang, Soon Shik; Park, Su Hoon; Song, Myung Ho; Jeon, Kyung Soo

    1987-12-01

    Significant corrosion-failures occurring in the important components or facilities in the secondary-side system cause various problems in safety due to the leakage of radioactive substances and consequently induce the reduction of the operational efficiency of the plants. In addition, the replacement of the failed components or facilities results in the tremendous expenses and a long term shutdown. The objective of the research was to ensure the safety and integrity of the plants, to improve the efficiency of the plant operation, and to prevent the shortening of plant life by improving the controlling technique of the water chemistry and minimizing the corrosion-failures in the important components and/or facilities of the plants

  2. Uptake of antibiotics from irrigation water by plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azanu, David; Mortey, Christiana; Darko, Godfred

    2016-01-01

    The capacity of carrot (Daucus corota L.) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), two plants that are usually eaten raw, to uptake tetracycline and amoxicillin (two commonly used antibiotics) from irrigated water was investigated in order to assess the indirect human exposure to antibiotics through...... tested concentrations of 0.1-15 mg L(-1). Tetracycline was detected in all plant samples, at concentrations ranging from 4.4 to 28.3 ng/g in lettuce and 12.0-36.8 ng g(-1) fresh weight in carrots. Amoxicillin showed absorption with concentrations ranging from 13.7 ng g(-1) to 45.2 ng g(-1) for the plant...

  3. Energy and water conservation at lignite-fired power plants using drying and water recovery technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Ming; Qin, Yuanzhi; Yan, Hui; Han, Xiaoqu; Chong, Daotong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Pre-drying and water recovery technologies were used to conserve energy and water. • The energy and water conservation potential were analyzed with reference cases. • The air-cooling unit produces water when the water content of lignite is high enough. • Influences of main parameters on energy and water conservation were analyzed. - Abstract: Lignite is considered as a competitive energy raw material with high security of supply viewed from a global angle. However, lignite-fired power plants have many shortcomings, including high investment, low energy efficiency and high water use. To address these issues, the drying and water recovery technologies are integrated within lignite-fired power plants. Both air-cooling and wet-cooling units with three kinds of lignite as feeding fuel were analyzed quantitatively. Results showed that energy conservation and water conservation are obtained simultaneously. The power plant firing high moisture lignite becomes more environmental friendly with higher power generation efficiency and a lower water makeup rate than the one firing low moisture lignite. And further calculation revealed that the air-cooling unit needs no makeup water and even produces some water as it generates power, when the water carrying coefficient is higher than 40 g/MJ.

  4. The shift from plant-plant facilitation to competition under severe water deficit is spatially explicit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Michael J; Pugnaire, Francisco I; Armas, Cristina; Rodríguez-Echeverría, Susana; Schöb, Christian

    2017-04-01

    The stress-gradient hypothesis predicts a higher frequency of facilitative interactions as resource limitation increases. Under severe resource limitation, it has been suggested that facilitation may revert to competition, and identifying the presence as well as determining the magnitude of this shift is important for predicting the effect of climate change on biodiversity and plant community dynamics. In this study, we perform a meta-analysis to compare temporal differences of species diversity and productivity under a nurse plant ( Retama sphaerocarpa ) with varying annual rainfall quantity to test the effect of water limitation on facilitation. Furthermore, we assess spatial differences in the herbaceous community under nurse plants in situ during a year with below-average rainfall. We found evidence that severe rainfall deficit reduced species diversity and plant productivity under nurse plants relative to open areas. Our results indicate that the switch from facilitation to competition in response to rainfall quantity is nonlinear. The magnitude of this switch depended on the aspect around the nurse plant. Hotter south aspects under nurse plants resulted in negative effects on beneficiary species, while the north aspect still showed facilitation. Combined, these results emphasize the importance of spatial heterogeneity under nurse plants for mediating species loss under reduced precipitation, as predicted by future climate change scenarios. However, the decreased water availability expected under climate change will likely reduce overall facilitation and limit the role of nurse plants as refugia, amplifying biodiversity loss.

  5. Nuclear plant needs for new process instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, J.; Belew, M.

    1991-01-01

    Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is initiating projects to investigate new sensor designs for pressure and hydrogen measurements. The intent is to develop new sensors that are highly accurate with inherently low-maintenance requirements. Criteria have been developed, with utility review and input, for evaluating pressure sensor technology. The first phase will evaluate all pressure-sensing concepts, including new techniques such as fiber optics, digital silicon, reductance, acoustics, and others (exploratory research). Concepts that appear most attractive for meeting the utility criteria will be extended. The second phase would be conceptual development, laboratory testing, market surveys, manufacturing assessments, plant implementation assessments, and a cost/benefits assessment. Assuming positive results from phase 2, phase 3 would be prototype sensor development and host plant testing. Phase 4 (funded outside EPRI) would be qualification testing. Hydrogen sensor assessment studies are under way to determine the need for improved hydrogen sensor designs. If the results of the assessment indicate a need, a project to develop improved hydrogen sensors utilizing a similar multiphase approach will also be initiated

  6. Purification effects of five landscape plants on river landscape water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Sun; Lei, Zheng; Mao, Qinqing; Ji, Qingxin

    2017-12-01

    Five species of landscape plants which are scindapsus aureus, water hyacinth, cockscomb, calendula officinalis and salvia splendens were used as experimental materials to study their removal effects on nitrogen, phosphorus, chemical oxygen demand (CODMn) and suspended solids (SS) in urban river water. The results show that the 5 landscape plants have good adaptability and vitality in water body, among them, water hyacinth had the best life signs than the other 4 plants, and its plant height and root length increased significantly. They have certain removal effects on the nitrogen, phosphorus, CODMn (Chemical Oxygen Demand) and SS (Suspended Substance) in the landscape water of Dalong Lake, Xuzhou. Scindapsus aureus, water hyacinth, cockscomb, calendula officinalis and salvia splendens on the removal rate of total nitrogen were 76.69%, 78.57%, 71.42%, 69.64%, 67.86%; the ammonia nitrogen removal rate were 71.06%, 74.28%, 67.85%, 63.02%, 59.81%;the total phosphorus removal rate were 78.70%, 81.48%, 73.15%, 72.22%, 68.52%;the orthophosphate removal rates were 78.37%, 80.77%, 75.96%, 75.96%, 71.15%;the removal rate of CODMn was 52.5%, 55.35%, 46.02%, 45.42%, 44.19%; the removal rate of SS was 81.4%, 86%, 79.1%, 76.7%, 74.42%.The purification effect of 5 kinds of landscape plants of Dalong Lake in Xuzhou City: water hyacinth> scindapsus aureus>cockscomb>calendula officinalis>salvia splendens.

  7. Plants in constructed wetlands help to treat agricultural processing wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Grismer

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the past three decades, wineries in the western United States and sugarcane processing for ethanol in Central and South America have experienced problems related to the treatment and disposal of process wastewater. Both winery and sugarcane (molasses wastewaters are characterized by large organic loadings that change seasonally and are detrimental to aquatic life. We examined the role of plants for treating these wastewaters in constructed wetlands. In the greenhouse, subsurface-flow flumes with volcanic rock substrates and plants steadily removed approximately 80% of organic-loading oxygen demand from sugarcane process wastewater after about 3 weeks of plant growth; unplanted flumes removed about 30% less. In field studies at two operational wineries, we evaluated the performance of similar-sized, paired, subsurface constructed wetlands with and without plants; while both removed most of the oxygen demand, removal rates in the planted system were slightly greater and significantly different from those of the unplanted system under field conditions.

  8. Modeling coupled nitrogen and water use strategies of plant productivity through hydraulic traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, D. S.; Savoy, P.; Pleban, J. R.; Tai, X.; Ewers, B. E.; Sperry, J.; Weinig, C.

    2016-12-01

    Changes in heat, nutrient, and drought stresses create novel environments that threaten the health of forests and viability of crop production. Here a trait-based conceptual model finds tradeoffs in maximum hydraulic conductance (Kmax), root to leaf area ratio (RLA) and vulnerability to cavitation (VC) based on the energy costs of acquiring water and nitrogen (N) to support gross primary production (GPP). The atmosphere supplies carbon to and demands water from plants via their stomata. The demand for water increases at higher temperatures due to increased vapor pressure deficits. The lost water is replenished by a passive wicking process that pulls water and N from the soil into roots and up water-filled xylem tubes. When water is in short supply the cost of getting it is high as measured by a decline in K and stomatal closure. Soil N dynamics also influence plant water use. When N is abundant, plants grow low VC fine roots with lower specific root length (m g-1), low Kmax, and maintain a relatively low RLA. In low N environments, N is costly and fine roots gain efficiency by building less robust (or higher VC) xylem with higher Kmax and higher RLA. What happens when the cost of acquiring water changes from high to low under low and high N costs? We incorporated the conceptual model into TREES, which couples whole plant hydraulics to carbon allocation, root-rhizosphere expansion/contraction and, also new for this study, a rhizosphere-root centric microbe-plant N dynamics. We used two experimental studies (drought, N) and two drought-prone fluxnet sites to test the conceptual model at individual plant and regional scales, respectively, and with frequent short versus infrequent long dry periods. When water was not limiting the hydraulic tradeoffs suppressed differences in GPP between the N use strategies. When water was in short supply, however, low RLA&VC plants dropped GPP early during drought because of low Kmax. Since these plants had low VC roots they also

  9. [Mercury dynamics of several plants collected from the water-level fluctuation zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir area during flooding and its impact on water body].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiang; Zhang, Cheng; Sun, Rong-guo; Wang, Ding-yong

    2014-12-01

    Submerged plants are a major source for the abnormal elevation of methylmercury in reservoir. Several specific plants (Echinochloa crusgalli, Cynodondactylon and Corn stover) were collected and inundated in a simulated aquatic environment in the laboratory for investigating the mercury (Hg) dynamics in plants and the release process into water, aiming to find out the properties of Hg dynamics of plants under inundation conditions and its impact on water body in the Water-Level Fluctuation Zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir Area. The results showed that the contents of total mercury in several plants were in the range of 9. 21-12.07 ng x g(-1), and the percentage content of methylmercury (MeHg) was about 1%-2%. The content of total mercury (THg) in plants gradually decreased, by 35.81%-55.96%, whereas that of the dissolved mercury (DHg) increased sharply, by 103.23% -232.15%, which indicated an emission of Hg from plants to water in the process of decomposition. Furthermore, the state of inundation provided sufficient conditions for the methylation process in plants and therefore caused an increase of the content of methylmercury in the plant residues, which was 3.04-6.63 times as much as the initial content. The concentration of dissolved methylmercury (DMeHg) in the overlying water also increased significantly by 14.84- 16.05 times compared with the initial concentration. Meanwhile, the concentration of dissolved oxygen (DO) in the overlying water was significantly and negatively correlated with DMeHg. On the other hand, the concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the overlying water was significantly and positively correlated with DMeHg. During the whole inundation period, the increase of DHg in the overlying water accounted for 41.74% -47.01% of the total amount of THg emission, and there was a negative correlation between the content of THg in plant residues and that of DHg in the overlying water.

  10. Potential of light water reactors for future nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gueldner, R.

    2003-01-01

    Energy consumption worldwide is going to increase further in the next few decades. Reliable supplies of electricity can be achieved only by centralized power plant structures. In this scenario, nuclear power plants are going to play a leading role as reliable and competitive plants, also under deregulated market conditions. Today, light water reactors have achieved a leading position, both technically and economically, contributing 85% to worldwide electricity generation in nuclear plants. They will continue to be a proven technology in power generation. In many countries, activities therefore are concentrated on extending the service life of plants beyond a period of forty years. New nuclear generating capacities are expected to be created and added from the end of this decade onward. Most of this capacity will be in light water reactors. The concepts of third-generation reactors will meet all economic and technical safety requirements of the 21st century and will offer considerable potential for further development. Probably some thirty years from now, fourth-generation nuclear power plants will be ready for commercial application. These plants will penetrate especially new sectors of the energy markets. Public acceptance of new nuclear power plants is not a matter of reactor lines, provided that safety requirements are met. The important issue is the management of radioactive waste. The construction of new nuclear power plants in Western Europe and North America mainly hinges on the ability to explain to the public that there is a need for new plants and that nuclear power is fundamental to assuring sustainable development. (orig.)

  11. Seismic re-evaluation of piping systems of heavy water plant, Kota

    CERN Document Server

    Mishra, R; Soni, R S; Venkat-Raj, V

    2002-01-01

    Heavy Water Plant, Kota is the first indigenous heavy water plant built in India. The plant started operation in the year 1985 and it is approaching the completion of its originally stipulated design life. In view of the excellent record of plant operation for the past so many years, it has been planned to carry out various exercises for the life extension of the plant. In the first stage, evaluation of operation stresses was carried out for the process critical piping layouts and equipment, which are connected with 25 process critical nozzle locations, identified based on past history of the plant performance. Fatigue life evaluation has been carried out to fmd out the Cumulative Usage Factor, which helps in arriving at a decision regarding the life extension of the plant. The results of these exercises have been already reported separately vide BARC/200I /E/O04. In the second stage, seismic reevaluation of the plant has been carried out to assess its ability to maintain its integ:rity in case of a seismic e...

  12. The latest make-up water treatment plant for power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokomizo, Yuichi

    1997-01-01

    As the change of the outside environment surrounding power stations, the strengthening of the environmental standard of water quality and the upgrading of required water quality standard are described. The reduction of colloidal silica in thermal power plant water and the reduction of iron and organic chlorine in PWR water are necessary. Recently it became difficult to secure water for power stations, and in dry season, the water for power stations is sometimes cut for securing livelihood and agricultural water. For the means of securing stable water source, the installation of seawater desalting plants increased. The types, the constitution of the plants and the operation performance are reported. Recently the water treatment technology using MF, UF and RO membranes has become to be adopted. The relation of the substances to be removed to the range of filtration of respective membranes is shown. The conventional method is the combination of coagulative sedimentation, filtration and ion exchange resin, but the membrane technology uses UF and RO membranes. The technical features of UF (ultrafiltration) and RO (reverse osmosis) membrane facilities and deaerating membrane are explained. (K.I.)

  13. Deposit control in process cooling water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkataramani, B.

    1981-01-01

    In order to achieve efficient heat transfer in cooling water systems, it is essential to control the fouling of heat exchanger surfaces. Solubilities of scale forming salts, their growth into crystals, and the nature of the surfaces play important roles in the deposition phenomenon. Condensed phosphates, organic polymers and compounds like phosphates are effective in controlling deposition of scale forming salts. The surface active agents inhibit crystal growth and modify the crystals of the scale forming salts, and thus prevent deposition of dense, uniformly structured crystalline mass on the heat transfer surface. Understanding the mechanism of biofouling is essential to control it by surface active agents. Certain measures taken in the plant, such as back flushing, to control scaling, sometimes may not be effective and can be detrimental to the system itself. (author)

  14. Within plant resistance to water flow in tomato and sweet melons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Efficient water resource management in relation to water use and crop yields is premised on the knowledge of plant resistance to water flow. However, such studies are limited and for most crops, the within plant resistance to water flow remains largely unknown. In this study, within plant resistance to water transport ...

  15. Nuclear power/water pumping-up composite power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamura, Kiyoshi.

    1995-01-01

    In a nuclear power/water pumping-up composite power plant, a reversible pump for pumping-up power generation connected to a steam turbine is connected to an upper water reservoir and a lower water reservoir. A pumping-up steam turbine for driving the turbine power generator, a hydraulic pump for driving water power generator by water flowing from the upper water reservoir and a steam turbine for driving the pumping-up pump by steams from a nuclear reactor are disposed. When power demand is small during night, the steam turbine is rotated by steams of the reactor, to pump up the water in the lower water reservoir to the upper water reservoir by the reversible pump. Upon peak of power demand during day time, power is generated by the steams of the reactor, as well as the reversible pump is rotated by the flowing water from the upper water reservoir to conduct hydraulic power generation. Alternatively, hydraulic power generation is conducted by flowing water from the upper reservoir. Since the number of energy conversion steps in the combination of nuclear power generation and pumping-up power generation is reduced, energy loss is reduced and utilization efficiency can be improved. (N.H.)

  16. The primary processes by impact of ionizing radiations with water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Znamirovschi, V.; Mastan, I.; Cozar, O.

    1976-01-01

    The problem concerning primary processes in radiolysis of water is discussed. The results on the excitation and ionization of water molecule, dissociation of the parent-molecular ion of water and dissociation of excited molecule of water are presented. (author)

  17. Scenarios for low carbon and low water electric power plant operations: implications for upstream water use

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The dataset includes all data used in the creation of figures and graphs in the paper: "Scenarios for low carbon and low water electric power plant operations:...

  18. Validation of a spatial–temporal soil water movement and plant water uptake model

    KAUST Repository

    HEPPELL, J.

    2014-06-01

    © 2014, (publisher). All rights reserved. Management and irrigation of plants increasingly relies on accurate mathematical models for the movement of water within unsaturated soils. Current models often use values for water content and soil parameters that are averaged over the soil profile. However, many applications require models to more accurately represent the soil–plant–atmosphere continuum, in particular, water movement and saturation within specific parts of the soil profile. In this paper a mathematical model for water uptake by a plant root system from unsaturated soil is presented. The model provides an estimate of the water content level within the soil at different depths, and the uptake of water by the root system. The model was validated using field data, which include hourly water content values at five different soil depths under a grass/herb cover over 1 year, to obtain a fully calibrated system for plant water uptake with respect to climate conditions. When compared quantitatively to a simple water balance model, the proposed model achieves a better fit to the experimental data due to its ability to vary water content with depth. To accurately model the water content in the soil profile, the soil water retention curve and saturated hydraulic conductivity needed to vary with depth.

  19. Multiphase simulation of mine waters and aqueous leaching processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajarre Risto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Managing of large amounts of water in mining and mineral processing sites remains a concern in both actively operated and closed mining areas. When the mining site with its metal or concentrate producing units is operational, the challenge is to find either ways for economical processing with maximum yields, while minimizing the environmental impact of the water usage and waste salt treatments. For safe closure of the site, the environmental control of possible drainage will be needed. For both challenges, the present-day multiphase process simulations tools can be used to provide improved accuracy and better economy in controlling the smooth and environmentally sound operation of the plant. One of the pioneering studies in using the multiphase thermodynamic software in simulation of hydrometallurgical processes was that of Koukkari et al. [1]. The study covered the use of Solgasmix equilibrium software for a number of practical acid digesters. The models were made for sulfuric acid treatments in titania pigment production and in NPK fertilizer manufacturing. During the past two decades the extensive data assessment has taken place particularly in geochemistry and a new versions of geochemical multiphase equilibrium software has been developed. On the other hand, there has been some progress in development of the process simulation software in all the aforementioned fields. Thus, the thermodynamic simulation has become a tool of great importance in development of hydrometallurgical processes. The presentation will cover three example cases of either true pilot or industrial systems including a South African acid mine water drainage treatment, hydrometallurgical extraction of rare earths from uranium leachate in Russia and a multistage process simulation of a Finnish heap leaching mine with its subsequent water treatment system.

  20. Condensing and water supplying systems in an atomic power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinmura, Akira.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To reduce heat loss and eliminate accumulation of drain in water supplying and heating units in an atomic power plant by providing a direct contact type drain cooler between a gland-exhauster vapor condenser and a condensing and de-salting means, the drain from each water supplying and heating unit being collected in said cooler for heating the condensed water. Structure: Condensed water from a condenser is fed by a low pressure condensing pump through an air ejector and gland-exhauster vapor condenser to the direct-contact type drain cooler and is condensed in each water supply heater. Next, it is heated by drain fed through a drain level adjuster valve and an orifice and then forced by a medium pressure condenser pump into the condensing and de-salting means. It is then supplied by a high pressure condensing pump into the successive water supply heater. (Kamimura, M.)

  1. Increasing Water System Efficiency with Ultrafiltration Pre-treatment in Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majamaa, Katariina; Suarez, Javier; Gasia Eduard

    2012-09-01

    Water demineralization with reverse osmosis (RO) membranes has a long and successful history in water treatment for power plants. As the industry strives for more efficient, reliable and compact water systems, pressurized hollow-fiber ultrafiltration (UF) has become an increasingly appealing pre-treatment technology. Compared to conventional, non- membrane based pretreatments, ultrafiltration offers higher efficiency in the removal of suspended solids, microorganisms and colloidal matter, which are all common causes for operational challenges experienced in the RO systems. In addition, UF is more capable of handling varying feed water qualities and removes the risk of particle carry-over often seen with conventional filtration techniques. Ultrafiltration is a suitable treatment technology for various water types from surface waters to wastewater, and the more fluctuating or challenging the feed water source is, the better the benefits of UF are seen compared to conventional pretreatments. Regardless of the feed water type, ultrafiltration sustains a constant supply of high quality feed water to downstream RO, allowing a more compact and cost efficient RO system design with improved operational reliability. A detailed focus on the design and operational aspects and experiences of two plants is provided. These examples demonstrate both economical UF operation and tangible impact of RO process improvement. Experience from these plants can be leveraged to new projects. (authors)

  2. Water chemistry at RBMK plants: Problems and solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamet, V.; Yurmanov, V.

    2002-01-01

    After around 15 years of operation RBMK-1000 units undergo a major refit, which includes safety system upgrading, fuel tube replacement, etc. The above upgrading has created problems for water chemistry. In particular, in late 80's in-core insertion time of the portion of control rods was reduced 10-fold thanks to a transfer from water to filming cooling of scram channels. Scram channels are cooled with inner surface water film cooling and nitrogen is injected into heads via special pipelines. Such cooling system modernization ensures fast insertion of absorber rods. The above upgrade intensified nitric acid radiolytic generation in water coolant and pH 25 value shift to acid conditions (up to 4.5). The results of corrosion tests in such conditions proved the necessity to improve water chemistry to ensure corrosion protection of scram/control rod and circuit components, especially those made out of aluminium alloy. Since 1990 the new revision of the RBMK-1000 water chemistry standard specified the new normal operational limit and action levels for possible temporary deviations of pH 25 value. RBMK plant specific measures were implemented at RBMK plants to meet the above requirements of the 1990 revision of the RBMK-1000 water chemistry standard. Clean-up systems of the above circuit were upgraded to ensure intensive absorption of nitric acid from water and pH 25 maintenance in a slightly acid area. (authors)

  3. Water chemistry at RBMK plants: Problems and solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamet, V.; Yurmanov, V. [VNIIAES (Russian Federation)

    2002-07-01

    After around 15 years of operation RBMK-1000 units undergo a major refit, which includes safety system upgrading, fuel tube replacement, etc. The above upgrading has created problems for water chemistry. In particular, in late 80's in-core insertion time of the portion of control rods was reduced 10-fold thanks to a transfer from water to filming cooling of scram channels. Scram channels are cooled with inner surface water film cooling and nitrogen is injected into heads via special pipelines. Such cooling system modernization ensures fast insertion of absorber rods. The above upgrade intensified nitric acid radiolytic generation in water coolant and pH{sub 25} value shift to acid conditions (up to 4.5). The results of corrosion tests in such conditions proved the necessity to improve water chemistry to ensure corrosion protection of scram/control rod and circuit components, especially those made out of aluminium alloy. Since 1990 the new revision of the RBMK-1000 water chemistry standard specified the new normal operational limit and action levels for possible temporary deviations of pH{sub 25} value. RBMK plant specific measures were implemented at RBMK plants to meet the above requirements of the 1990 revision of the RBMK-1000 water chemistry standard. Clean-up systems of the above circuit were upgraded to ensure intensive absorption of nitric acid from water and pH{sub 25} maintenance in a slightly acid area. (authors)

  4. Mathematics for Water and Wastewater Treatment Plant Operators. Water and Wastewater Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Dakota Dept. of Environmental Protection, Pierre.

    This booklet is intended to aid the prospective waste treatment plant operator or drinking water plant operator in learning to solve mathematical problems, which is necessary for Class I certification. It deals with the basic mathematics which a Class I operator may require in accomplishing day-to-day tasks. The book also progresses into problems…

  5. Coal Preparation and Processing Plants New Source Performance Standards (NSPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about the NSPS regulation for coal preparation and processing plants by reading the rule summary, the rule history, the code of federal regulation text, the federal register, and additional docket documents

  6. Plant Water Use in Owens Valley, CA: Understanding the Influence of Climate and Depth to Groundwater

    OpenAIRE

    Pataki, Diane E

    2008-01-01

    There is a long-standing controversy in Owens Valley, California about the potential impacts of water exports on the local ecosystem. It is currently extremely difficult to attribute changes in plant cover and community composition to hydrologic change, as the interactions between ecological and hydrologic processes are relatively poorly understood. Underlying predictions about losses of grasslands and expansion of shrublands in response to declining water tables in Owens Valley are assumptio...

  7. Pressurized water reactor nuclear power plant. Environmental characterization information report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The typical plant chosen for characterization is a 10000-MWe nameplate rating with wet-natural-draft cooling towers and modern radwaste control and processing equipment. The process, plant operating parameters, resources needed, and the environmental residuals and products associated with the power plant are presented. Annual resource usage and pollutant discharges are shown in English and metric units, assuming an annual plant capacity factor of 70%. In addition to annual quantities, the summary table gives quantities in terms of 10 12 Btu (about 293 million kWh) of electrical energy produced for comparison among energy processes. Supporting information and calculation procedures for the data are given. Thirteen environmental points of interest are discussed individually. Cost information, typical radioactive releases, and use of cooling ponds as an alternative cooling method are discussed in appendixes. A glossary and list of acronyms and abbreviations are provided

  8. Screen-based process control in nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinz, W.; Arnoldt, C.; Hessler, C.

    1993-01-01

    Requirements, development and conceptual design of a screen-based control room for nuclear power plants are outlined. The control room consists of three or four equally equipped operator workstations comprising screens for process information and manual process control. A plant overview will assist the coordination among the operators. A safety classified backup system (safety control area) is provided to cover postulated failures of the control means. Some aspects of ergonomical validation and of future development trends are discussed. (orig.) [de

  9. Egg processing plant sanitation, SSOPs, and GMPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The basis of food safety programs in processing facilities is prerequisite programs such as sanitation and good manufacturing practices. Thoughtful, thorough, and complete sanitation programs are necessary to enhance the food safety of products and reduce the likelihood of foodborne illness. Egg p...

  10. Safeguards planning in a plant design process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinrich, L.A.

    1977-01-01

    The safeguards efforts for the partitioning fuel cycle are considered. Included in the discussion are the organization of the safeguards study, the development of safeguards criteria, the expression of these criteria as requirements for facility design, and some preliminary details of the implementation of these requirements in facility and process layout

  11. Identifying Energy Savings in Water and Wastewater Plants - Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-03-01

    Since 1976, Industrial Assessment Centers (IACs) administered by the U.S. Department of Energy have supported small and medium-sized American manufacturers to reduce their energy use and improve their productivity and competitiveness. DOE is now offering up to 50 assessments per year at no cost to industrial or municipal water and wastewater plants.

  12. Identifying Energy Savings in Water and Wastewater Plants - Iowa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-03-01

    Since 1976, Industrial Assessment Centers (IACs) administered by the U.S. Department of Energy have supported small and medium-sized American manufacturers to reduce their energy use and improve their productivity and competitiveness. DOE is now offering up to 50 assessments per year at no cost to industrial or municipal water and wastewater plants.

  13. Identifying Energy Savings in Water and Wastewater Plants - West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-03-01

    Since 1976, Industrial Assessment Centers (IACs) administered by the U.S. Department of Energy have supported small and medium-sized American manufacturers to reduce their energy use and improve their productivity and competitiveness. DOE is now offering up to 50 assessments per year at no cost to industrial or municipal water and wastewater plants.

  14. Identifying Energy Savings in Water and Wastewater Plants - Indiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-03-01

    Since 1976, Industrial Assessment Centers (IACs) administered by the U.S. Department of Energy have supported small and medium-sized American manufacturers to reduce their energy use and improve their productivity and competitiveness. DOE is now offering up to 50 assessments per year at no cost to industrial or municipal water and wastewater plants.

  15. Identifying Energy Savings in Water and Wastewater Plants - Wisconsin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-03-01

    Since 1976, Industrial Assessment Centers (IACs) administered by the U.S. Department of Energy have supported small and medium-sized American manufacturers to reduce their energy use and improve their productivity and competitiveness. DOE is now offering up to 50 assessments per year at no cost to industrial or municipal water and wastewater plants.

  16. Classroom Techniques to Illustrate Water Transport in Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakrim, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    The transport of water in plants is among the most difficult and challenging concepts to explain to students. It is even more difficult for students enrolled in an introductory general biology course. An easy approach is needed to demonstrate this complex concept. I describe visual and pedagogical examples that can be performed quickly and easily…

  17. Performance of Canadian commercial nuclear units and heavy water plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodhead, L.W.; Ingolfsrud, L.J.

    The operating history of Canadian commercial CANDU type reactors, i.e. Pickering generating station-A, is described. Capacity factors and unit energy costs are analyzed in detail. Equipment performance highlights are given. The performance of the two Canadian heavy water plants is described and five more are under construction or planned. (E.C.B.)

  18. Plant-wide Control Strategy for Improving Produced Water Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhenyu; Pedersen, Simon; Løhndorf, Petar Durdevic

    2016-01-01

    This work focuses on investigation and development of an innovative Produced Water Treatment (PWT) technology for offshore oil & gas production by employing the model-based plant-wide control strategy. The key contributions lie in two folds: (i) the advanced anti-slug analysis and control...

  19. Short-term acclimation to warmer temperatures accelerates leaf carbon exchange processes across plant types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nicholas G; Dukes, Jeffrey S

    2017-11-01

    While temperature responses of photosynthesis and plant respiration are known to acclimate over time in many species, few studies have been designed to directly compare process-level differences in acclimation capacity among plant types. We assessed short-term (7 day) temperature acclimation of the maximum rate of Rubisco carboxylation (V cmax ), the maximum rate of electron transport (J max ), the maximum rate of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase carboxylation (V pmax ), and foliar dark respiration (R d ) in 22 plant species that varied in lifespan (annual and perennial), photosynthetic pathway (C 3 and C 4 ), and climate of origin (tropical and nontropical) grown under fertilized, well-watered conditions. In general, acclimation to warmer temperatures increased the rate of each process. The relative increase in different photosynthetic processes varied by plant type, with C 3 species tending to preferentially accelerate CO 2 -limited photosynthetic processes and respiration and C 4 species tending to preferentially accelerate light-limited photosynthetic processes under warmer conditions. R d acclimation to warmer temperatures caused a reduction in temperature sensitivity that resulted in slower rates at high leaf temperatures. R d acclimation was similar across plant types. These results suggest that temperature acclimation of the biochemical processes that underlie plant carbon exchange is common across different plant types, but that acclimation to warmer temperatures tends to have a relatively greater positive effect on the processes most limiting to carbon assimilation, which differ by plant type. The acclimation responses observed here suggest that warmer conditions should lead to increased rates of carbon assimilation when water and nutrients are not limiting. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Japanese aquaculture: use of thermal water from power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroda, Takeya

    1983-01-01

    There is some merit of thermal water from power plants in the effect to marine life. Since 1963, the research and development on the aquaculture using this warm water have been carried out at some twenty power plants, seven nuclear and thirteen thermal, some of which are now in the commercial stage. These fish farming projects are operated variously from seed to adult fish production. They can also be classified as land and sea facilities, conforming to the characteristics of the respective sea areas. The current situation in this field and the future prospect are described: thermal aquaculture including seed production and adult fish farming; the projects in nuclear and thermal power plants, respectively; future problems in the facilities, breeding environment and marine life for cultivation. (Mori, K.)

  1. Industrial applications for remote operation in a processing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermier, J.; Le Guennec, R.

    1984-01-01

    In the first part of this article, J. Hermier covers the use of remote handling equipment in the UP2-400 plant at La Hague near Cherbourg, in which for the most part master/slave mechanism remote handling units are used with a number of these employed in daily processing operations. As regards this subject, it is useful to remember that, at the time of the designing of this plant (UP2-400), this was the only equipment available on the market with remote-controlled remote handling equipment. In the second part, before speaking about the development of remote operation equipment in the plants now under construction and attempting to project what might be the remote operation role in future plants, R. Le Guennec reviews the problems faced by engineering in designing industrial-sized processing plants and, consequently, the motivations of engineering when faced with a choice between several possible solutions [fr

  2. Improvements done at Heavy Water Plant (Manuguru) to increase the standards of environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rama Rao, V.V.S.; Gupta, R.V.; Pandey, B.L.

    1997-01-01

    The Heavy Water Plant at Manuguru is designed to produce 185 MTY of nuclear grade heavy water based on bithermal H 2 S-H 2 O exchange process and handles large inventory of H 2 S gas (about 400 MT). As H 2 S gas is very toxic, corrosive and hazardous in nature, extreme care has been taken in the design of plant, selection of equipment and materials adhering to stringent fabrication procedures and codes to ensure the production of heavy water in a safe manner. This paper highlights the improvements done at Heavy Water Plant (Manuguru) to increase the standards of environmental protection. The safety assessment of a hazardous plant is a continuous process. Apart from the extreme care taken in the design, construction, commissioning and operation of the plant, review of each and every safety related unusual occurrence by various levels of review committees as stipulated and speedy implementation of the recommendations goes in a long way in increasing the standards of environmental protection

  3. High performance biological process for waste water treatment proven in operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timm, C.; Wienands, H.; Brauch, G.; Schlaeger, M.

    1993-01-01

    A BIOMEMBRAT plant has been in operation for over one year at the Thor Chemie GmbH facility at Speyer, Germany. The process is particularly suitable for waste water with a high organic content and with degradation-resistant components or high nitrogen contents. This article presents the operating results obtained so far with the waste water treatment plant and the operator's experience. (orig.) [de

  4. Improvement of chemical control in the water-steam cycle of thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajakovic-Ognjanovic, Vladana N.; Zivojinovic, Dragana Z.; Grgur, Branimir N.; Rajakovic, Ljubinka V.

    2011-01-01

    A more effective chemical control in the water-steam cycle (WSC) of thermal power plants (TPP) is proposed in this paper. Minimization of corrosion effects by the production of ultra pure water and its strict control is the basis of all the investigated processes. The research involved the analysis of water samples in the WSC through key water quality parameters and by the most convenient analytical tools. The necessity for the stricter chemical control is demonstrated through a concrete example of the TPP Nikola Tesla, Serbia. After a thorough analysis of the chemical control system of the WSC, diagnostic and control parameters were chosen for continuous systematic measurements. Sodium and chloride ions were recognized as the ions which indicate the corrosion potential of the water and give insight into the proper production and maintenance of water within the WSC. Chemical transformations of crucial corrosion elements, iron and silica, were considered and related to their quantitative values. - Research highlights: → The more effective chemical control in the water-steam cycle of thermal power plant Nikola Tesla, Serbia. → In chemical control the diagnostic and control parameters were optimized and introduced for the systematic measurements in the water-steam cycle. → Sodium and chloride ions were recognized as ions which indicate corrosion potential of water and give insight to proper function of production and maintenance of water within water-team cycle. → Chemical transformations of crucial corrosion elements, iron and silica are considered and related with their quantitative values.

  5. Nuclear pre-mRNA processing in plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, A.S.N. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States). Dept. of Biology and Program in Molecular Plant Biology; Golovkin, M. (eds.) [Thomas Jefferson Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Microbiology

    2008-07-01

    This volume of CTMI, entitled Nuclear premRNA Processing in Plants, with 16 chapters from leading scientists in this area, summarizes recent advances in nuclear pre-mRNA processing and its role in plant growth and development. It provides researchers in the field, as well as those in related areas, with an up-to-date and comprehensive, yet concise, overview of the current status and future potential of this research in understanding plant biology. The first four chapters focus on spliceosome composition, genome-wide alternative splicing, and splice site requirements for U1 and U12 introns using computational and empirical approaches. Analysis of sequenced plant genomes has revealed that 80% of all protein-coding nuclear genes contain one or more introns. The lack of an in vitro plant splicing system has made it difficult to identify general and plant-specific components of splicing machinery in plants. The next three chapters focus on serine/arginine-rich (SR) proteins, a family of highly conserved proteins, which are known to play key roles in constitutive and regulated splicing of pre-mRNA and other aspects of RNA metabolism in metazoans. These proteins engage both in RNA binding and protein.protein interactions and function as splicing regulators at multiple stages of spliceosome assembly. This family of proteins has expanded considerably in plants with several plant-specific SR proteins. Several serendipitous discoveries made using forward genetics are indicating that RNA metabolism (alternative splicing, alternative polyadenylation, mRNA transport) plays an important role in many aspects of plant growth and development and in plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. The next seven chapters focus on these aspects of RNA metabolism. The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) regulates a number of physiological processes during plant growth and development. The next chapter or A.B. Rose discusses the ways introns affect gene expression both positively and

  6. Nuclear pre-mRNA processing in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, A.S.N.; Golovkin, M.

    2008-01-01

    This volume of CTMI, entitled Nuclear premRNA Processing in Plants, with 16 chapters from leading scientists in this area, summarizes recent advances in nuclear pre-mRNA processing and its role in plant growth and development. It provides researchers in the field, as well as those in related areas, with an up-to-date and comprehensive, yet concise, overview of the current status and future potential of this research in understanding plant biology. The first four chapters focus on spliceosome composition, genome-wide alternative splicing, and splice site requirements for U1 and U12 introns using computational and empirical approaches. Analysis of sequenced plant genomes has revealed that 80% of all protein-coding nuclear genes contain one or more introns. The lack of an in vitro plant splicing system has made it difficult to identify general and plant-specific components of splicing machinery in plants. The next three chapters focus on serine/arginine-rich (SR) proteins, a family of highly conserved proteins, which are known to play key roles in constitutive and regulated splicing of pre-mRNA and other aspects of RNA metabolism in metazoans. These proteins engage both in RNA binding and protein.protein interactions and function as splicing regulators at multiple stages of spliceosome assembly. This family of proteins has expanded considerably in plants with several plant-specific SR proteins. Several serendipitous discoveries made using forward genetics are indicating that RNA metabolism (alternative splicing, alternative polyadenylation, mRNA transport) plays an important role in many aspects of plant growth and development and in plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. The next seven chapters focus on these aspects of RNA metabolism. The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) regulates a number of physiological processes during plant growth and development. The next chapter or A.B. Rose discusses the ways introns affect gene expression both positively and

  7. Straw gasification biochar increases plant available water capacity and plant growth in coarse sandy soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Veronika; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Petersen, Carsten Tilbæk

    Gasification biochar (GB) contains recalcitrant carbon that can contribute to soil carbon sequestration and soil quality improvement. However, the impact of GB on plant available water capacity (AWC) and plant growth in diverse soil types needs further reserach. A pot experiment with spring barley...... the characteristic low compressibility and high friction giving much better conditions for root penetration increasing yield potentials. Furthermore, risk of drought in dry periods, and nutrient losses in wet periods in coarser soil types is also reduced...

  8. B Plant process piping replacement feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howden, G.F.

    1996-01-01

    Reports on the feasibility of replacing existing embedded process piping with new more corrosion resistant piping between cells and between cells and a hot pipe trench of a Hanford Site style canyon facility. Provides concepts for replacement piping installation, and use of robotics to replace the use of the canyon crane as the primary means of performing/supporting facility modifications (eg, cell lining, pipe replacement, equipment reinstallation) and operational maintenenace

  9. Process and plant for manipulating radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baatz, H.; Rittscher, D.

    1979-01-01

    To prepare waste for engineered storage, it is vitrified or calcined (pelleted) into solid pieces in a hot cell. Subsequently the pieces are filled into a radiation protection container made of spherulite cast iron, in which there is a liquid metal. The pieces are embedded in this metal matrix. During the embedding process, the radiation protection container may be heated externally or internally (lost heat device). (DG) [de

  10. Water quality control method and device for nuclear power plant and nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagase, Makoto; Asakura, Yamato; Uetake, Naoto; Sawa, Toshio; Uchida, Shunsuke; Takeda, Renzo; Osumi, Katsumi.

    1993-01-01

    In a BWR type nuclear power plant, water quality of coolants is controlled so as to lower deposition rate of Co ions in reactor water on a fuel cladding tube. The water quality control method includes (1) decreasing an iron concentration in feedwater to less than 0.1ppb, (2) adjusting coolants weakly acidic and (3) controlling dissolved oxygen concentration in reactor water to 20ppb. This can decrease 60 Co ion concentration even if 60 Co ion concentration is increased by the change of environment for the operation in future, such as an operation with hydrogen injection and extention of fuel burnup degree. (T.M.)

  11. Radiation processing applications in the Czechoslovak water treatment technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vacek, K.; Pastuszek, F.; Sedlacek, M.

    1986-01-01

    The regeneration of biologically clogged water wells by radiation proved to be a successful and economically beneficial process among other promising applications of ionizing radiation in the water supply technology. The application conditions and experience are mentioned. The potential pathogenic Mycobacteria occuring in the warm washing and bathing water are resistant against usual chlorine and ozone concentrations. The radiation sensitivity of Mycobacteria allowed to suggest a device for their destroying by radiation. Some toxic substances in the underground water can be efficiently degraded by gamma radiation directly in the wells drilled as a hydraulic barrier surrounding the contaminated land area. Substantial decrease of CN - concentration and C.O.D. value was observed in water pumped from such well equipped with cobalt sources and charcoal. The removing of pathogenic contamination remains to be the main goal of radiation processing in the water purification technologies. The decrease of liquid sludge specific filter resistance and sedimentation acceleration by irradiation have a minor technological importance. The hygienization of sludge cake from the mechanical belt filter press by electron beam appears to be the optimum application in the Czechoslovak conditions. The potatoes and barley crop yields from experimental plots treated with sludge were higher in comparison with using the manure. Biological sludge from the municipal and food industry water purification plants contains nutritive components. The proper hygienization is a necessary condition for using them as a livestock feed supplement. Feeding experiments with broilers and pigs confirmed the possibility of partial (e.g. 50%) replacement of soya-, bone, or fish flour in feed mixtures by dried sludge hygienized either by heat or by the irradiation. (author)

  12. Radiation processing applications in the Czechoslovak water treatment technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacek, K.; Pastuszek, F.; Sedláček, M.

    The regeneration of biologically clogged water wells by radiation proved to be a successful and economically beneficial process among other promising applications of ionizing radiation in the water supply technology. The application conditions and experience are mentioned. The potential pathogenic Mycobacteria occuring in the warm washing and bathing water are resistant against usual chlorine and ozone concentrations. The radiation sensitivity of Mycobacteria allowed to suggest a device for their destroying by radiation. Some toxic substances in the underground water can be efficiently degraded by gamma radiation directly in the wells drilled as a hydraulic barrier surrounding the contaminated land area. Substantial decrease of CN - concentration and C.O.D. value was observed in water pumped from such well equipped with cobalt sources and charcoal. The removing of pathogenic contamination remains to be the main goal of radiation processing in the water purification technologies. The decrease of liquid sludge specific filter resistance and sedimentation acceleration by irradiation have a minor technological importance. The hygienization of sludge cake from the mechanical belt filter press by electron beam appears to be the optimum application in the Czechoslovak conditions. The potatoes and barley crop yields from experimental plots treated with sludge were higher in comparison with using the manure. Biological sludge from the municipal and food industry water purification plants contains nutritive components. The proper hygienization is a necessary condition for using them as a livestock feed supplement. Feeding experiments with broilers and pigs confirmed the possibility of partial (e.g. 50%) replacement of soya-, bone- or fish flour in feed mixtures by dried sludge hygienized either by heat or by the irradiation.

  13. Alarm processing system using AI techniques for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Joon On; Chang, Soon Heung

    1990-01-01

    An alarm processing system (APS) has been developed using artificial intelligence (AI) techniques. The alarms of nuclear power plants (NPP's) are classified into the generalized and special alarms. The generalized alarms are also classified into the global and local alarms. For each type of alarms, the specific processing rules are applied to filter and suppress unnecessary and potentially misleading alarms. The local processing are based on 'model-based reasoning.' The global and special alarms are processed by using the general cause-consequence check rules. The priorities of alarms are determined according to the plant state and the consistencies between them

  14. AI-based alarm processing for a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, N.J.; Kim, I.S.; Hwang, I.K.; Lee, D.Y.; Ham, C.S.

    1996-01-01

    A real-time expert system is implemented using artificial intelligence and object-oriented technology for alarm processing and presentation in a nuclear power plant. The knowledge base is constructed based on some schemes to process and display alarms to the plant operators. The activated alarms are dynamically prioritized by the reasoning rules, and then, presented on the process mimic overview and by some other means. To demonstrate the proposed system, the alarm processing and presentation is carried out in a simulated environment of the TMI-2 accident

  15. Water chemistry control of PWR nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hino, Yuichi; Makino, Ichiro; Yamauchi, Sumio; Fukuda, Fumihito.

    1992-01-01

    In PWR power plants, the primary system taking heat out of nuclear reactors and the secondary system generating steam and driving turbines are completely separated by steam generators, accordingly, by mutually independent water treatment, both systems are to be maintained in the optimal conditions. Namely, primary system is the closed water circulation circuit of simple liquid phase though under high temperature, high pressure condition, therefore, water shows the stable physical and chemical properties, and the minute water treatment for restraining the corrosion of structural materials and reducing radioactivity can be done. Secondary system is similar to the condensate and feedwater system of thermal power plants, and is the circuit for liquid-vapor two-phase transformation, but due to the local concentration of impurities by evaporation, the strict requirement is set for secondary water quality. However, secondary system can be treated in the state without radioactivity, and this is a great merit. The outline, basic concept and execution of primary water quality control, and the outline, concept, control criteria, facilities and execution of secondary water quality control are reported. (K.I.)

  16. Plant water potential improves prediction of empirical stomatal models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William R L Anderegg

    Full Text Available Climate change is expected to lead to increases in drought frequency and severity, with deleterious effects on many ecosystems. Stomatal responses to changing environmental conditions form the backbone of all ecosystem models, but are based on empirical relationships and are not well-tested during drought conditions. Here, we use a dataset of 34 woody plant species spanning global forest biomes to examine the effect of leaf water potential on stomatal conductance and test the predictive accuracy of three major stomatal models and a recently proposed model. We find that current leaf-level empirical models have consistent biases of over-prediction of stomatal conductance during dry conditions, particularly at low soil water potentials. Furthermore, the recently proposed stomatal conductance model yields increases in predictive capability compared to current models, and with particular improvement during drought conditions. Our results reveal that including stomatal sensitivity to declining water potential and consequent impairment of plant water transport will improve predictions during drought conditions and show that many biomes contain a diversity of plant stomatal strategies that range from risky to conservative stomatal regulation during water stress. Such improvements in stomatal simulation are greatly needed to help unravel and predict the response of ecosystems to future climate extremes.

  17. Two-phase water hammer in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    Water hammer events keep recurring in nuclear power plants. In the mid-1970s, water hammer was designated to be an unresolved safety issue (USI A-1) due to its high frequency of occurrence and the severity of the attendant damages. Between 1969 and 1981, a significant number of water hammer incidents (more than 12 events per year) involving BWRs and PWRs have been reported and evaluated. After intensive evaluations of the events, in late 1983, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff concluded that water hammer was not a serious contributor to the degradation of plant safety and it has been taken off the list of the unresolved safety issues. The frequency decreased to around 11 events per year between 1981 and 1985. Nevertheless, 11 events per year are still unacceptable high, especially in light of the financial losses caused by most events. Some events are not required to be reported. The number of the unreported events are estimated to be five to ten times as many as the reported events. The implication is that water hammer in nuclear power plants still needs attention and is a problem that has not been fundamentally resolved

  18. Oxidative processes in power plant oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forlerer, Elena; Zambrano, Debora N.

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyzes the chemical properties differences between thermal-oxidation and radioactive-oxidation in turbine oils in order to estimate the oils' Service Life. The oils were Turbine R type, provided by Repsol-YPF with only few additives such as: anti rust, antioxidant, anticorrosion and without viscosity index improvers. The oils were ISO 32 and ISO 68 grade -with viscosity index 95- and API (American Petroleum Institute) group I, due to its viscosity index (95), the percent of paraffinic component ( 0.03%). Different samples from the heavy water main pumps were collected with different service times and radiation fields during an Embalse NPP's outage. For comparison purposes oils from feedwater pumps systems that convey light water to the steam generators in the Turbine building -without radiation- were obtained. The properties studied by ASTM standards were: colour (visual inspection), Viscosity Index VI (ASTM D227/93), viscosity at 40 C degrees (ASTM D445/96) and Total Acid Number, TAN (ASTM D974-97). Oxidative degradation of base oils could be described by two successive mechanisms that allow the definition of two stages: Primary and Secondary Oxidation. Primary oxidation begins with the thermal generation of alkylation's reactions and acid products formation. Radiation damage operates by two mechanisms: scission and cross-linking. The first one generates free radicals of low molecular weight while the other one can build-up complex molecular networks with high or low solubility in the base oil. Moreover, radiation damage destroys additives molecules and generates colour centres different from oxidative colour modification. Due to scission and cross-linking alkyl group substitution in the aromatic rings are formed. Then, radiation acts as a precursor of Primary Oxidation. Both, thermal and radioactive, damage mechanisms can act simultaneously making the isolated analysis for each one very difficult. To manage it, a Relative Damage Index (RDI) has been

  19. Application of a stable finite element hydrodynamic calculation model for improving mixing process in waste water treatment plants; Aplicacion de un modelo estable de calculo hidrodinamico en Elementos Finitos para la mejora de los procesos de mezcla en plantas de tratamiento de aguas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vellando, P.; Lucas, T.

    2003-07-01

    This article describes a hydrodynamic study carried out with a view to improving the behaviour of the mixing processes that tale place in waste water treatment plants . The treatment units talen as a benchmark were the neutralisation tans in the liquid effluents treatment plant of Endesa's thermal production unit in As Pontes. However, the characteristics of the mixing processes in the units studied here are very similar to those that are employed in a large number of large waste water treatment plants. The hydrodynamic study made use of an adapted version of the finite elements program known as Hydrafen which was developed at the Escuela Superior de Ingenieros de Caminos, Canales y Puertos in La Coruna. Unlike currently available commercial programs, this code makes it possible to perform and optimum assessment of the hydrodynamic performance of this type of facility, as it successfully resolves the Navier-Stokes equations governing the incompressible viscous flow. In the light of the numerical results obtained solutions are suggested to improve the operation of the mixing process under study. (Author) 19 refs.

  20. Using composting for control seed germination of invasive plant (water hyacinth) in Extremadura (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrador, Juana; Gordillo, Judit; Ruiz, Trinidad; Albano, Eva; Moreno, Marta M.

    2016-04-01

    The biotransformation of the invasive water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) by composting has been showed as a viable alternative to offset the economic cost of eliminating an invasive plant giving a value to the by-product; however, as result of the propagative plant capacity, it was necessary to check if the composting process could eliminate the germination seed rate. Despite the high temperatures and the biochemical biotransformation processes of the composting components, in the case of seed water hyacinth, with a recovery rate of 100%, damage was observed in some parts of the seed anatomy such as in the outer teguments; however, other parts of the seed coat and the endosperm maintained their integrity. A microscopic analysis revealed that the embryo was noticeable and this was supported by the rate of seed germination observed (3.5 ± 0.96%). The results indicate that the use of water hyacinth for compost production is not completely safe from an environmental perspective. Keywords: Eichhornia crassipes, water hyacinth, invasive plant, seed anatomy, seed germination rate, compost. References: Ruiz T., Martín de Rodrigo E., Lorenzo G., Albano E., Morán R., Sánchez J.M. 2008. The Water Hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes: an invasive plant in the Guadiana River Basin (Spain). Aquatic Invasions Volume 3, Issue 1:42-53.

  1. Predictive Control Applied to a Solar Desalination Plant Connected to a Greenhouse with Daily Variation of Irrigation Water Demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Roca

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The water deficit in the Mediterranean area is a known matter severely affecting agriculture. One way to avoid the aquifers’ exploitation is to supply water to crops by using thermal desalination processes. Moreover, in order to guarantee long-term sustainability, the required thermal energy for the desalination process can be provided by solar energy. This paper shows simulations for a case study in which a solar multi-effect distillation plant produces water for irrigation purposes. Detailed models of the involved systems are the base of a predictive controller to operate the desalination plant and fulfil the water demanded by the crops.

  2. Tests of cooling water pumps at Dukovany nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travnicek, J.

    1986-01-01

    Tests were performed to examine the operating conditions of the 1600 BQDV cooling pumps of the main coolant circuit of unit 1 of the Dukovany nuclear power plant. For the pumps, the performance was tested in the permissible operating range, points were measured below this range and the guaranteed operating point was verified. Pump efficiency was calculated from the measured values. The discussion of the measurement of parameters has not yet been finished because the obtained values of the amount delivered and thus of the pump efficiency were not up to expectation in all detail. It was also found that for obtaining the guaranteed flow the pump impeller had to be opened to 5deg -5.5deg instead of the declared 3deg. Also tested were pump transients, including the start of the pump, its stop, the operation and failure of one of the two pumps. In these tests, pressures were also measured at the inlet and the outlet of the inner part of the TG 11 turbine condenser. It was shown that the time course and the pressure course of the processes were acceptable. In addition to these tests, pressure losses in the condenser and the cooling water flow through the feed pump electromotor cooler wre tested for the case of a failure of one of the two pumps. (E.S.)

  3. Impacts of fresh and aged biochars on plant available water and water use efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability of soils to hold sufficient plant available water (PAW) between rainfall events is critical to crop productivity. Most studies indicate that biochar amendments decrease soil bulk density and increase soil water retention. However, limited knowledge exists regarding biochars ability to in...

  4. Radioecological investigations of phytocommunities higher water plant in upper Kiev water reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan'kov, I.V.; Volkova, E.N.; Shirokaya, Z.O.; Karapish, V.A.; Dremlyuga, S.V.

    1997-01-01

    The dose loads of the highest water plants it determined and ecological role of phytocommunities in radionuclides distribution and migration in water reservoir is shown. The ' critical zones ' for characteristic types of phytocommunities are determined. It is marked that radionuclides accumulation by macrophits depends on species and ecological group

  5. Analysis of the Difference of Radon Concentration between Water Treatment Plant and Tap water in house

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Jeongil; Yoo, Donghan; Kim, Heereyoung [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    As importance for the health, measurements and analysis about radon is active recently. Especially, radon concentration measurement about underground water which people drink was been carried out by the environment organizations in Korea and has been hot-issued because of the high radon concentration in water source. In present study, the difference of radon concentration among water source, water treatment plant and tap water in house is analyzed. It makes sense that the radon concentration in water treatment plant can represent the radon concentration in the tap water. Through the above experiments, the difference of the radon concentration between water treatment plant and tap water in house is figured out. It contributes to confirm more specific basis for estimating the annual radon exposure for the public. With further experiments and analysis, it is thought that it will be used as tool to assess more qualitatively for the radon concentration in tap water. Finally, this Fundamental approach will help in making new regulations about radon.

  6. Analysis of the Difference of Radon Concentration between Water Treatment Plant and Tap water in house

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Jeongil; Yoo, Donghan; Kim, Heereyoung

    2013-01-01

    As importance for the health, measurements and analysis about radon is active recently. Especially, radon concentration measurement about underground water which people drink was been carried out by the environment organizations in Korea and has been hot-issued because of the high radon concentration in water source. In present study, the difference of radon concentration among water source, water treatment plant and tap water in house is analyzed. It makes sense that the radon concentration in water treatment plant can represent the radon concentration in the tap water. Through the above experiments, the difference of the radon concentration between water treatment plant and tap water in house is figured out. It contributes to confirm more specific basis for estimating the annual radon exposure for the public. With further experiments and analysis, it is thought that it will be used as tool to assess more qualitatively for the radon concentration in tap water. Finally, this Fundamental approach will help in making new regulations about radon

  7. Covariance of oxygen and hydrogen isotopic composition in plant water: Species effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, L.W.; DeNiro, M.J. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (United States))

    1989-12-01

    Leaf water becomes enriched in the heavy isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen during evapotranspiration. The magnitude of the enrichment has been shown to be influenced by temperature and humidity, but the effects of species-specific factors on leaf water enrichment of D and {sup 18}O have not been studied for different plants growing together. To learn whether leaf water enrichment patterns and processes for D and {sup 18}O are different for individual species growing under the same environmental conditions the authors tested the proposal that leaf waters in plants with crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) show high sloped (m in the leaf water equation {delta}D = m {delta}{sup 18}O + b) than in C{sub 3} plants. They determined the relationships between the stable hydrogen ({delta}D) and oxygen ({delta}{sup 18}O) isotope ratios of leaf waters collected during the diurnal cycle of evapotranspiration for Yucca schidigera, Ephedra aspera, Agave deserti, Prunus ilicifolia, Yucca whipplei, Heteromeles arbutifolia, Dyckia fosteriana, Simmondsia chinensis, and Encelia farinosa growing at two sites in southern California. The findings indicate that m in the aforementioned equation is related to the overall residence time for water in the leaf and proportions of water subjected to repeated evapotranspiration enrichments of heavy isotopes.

  8. REMOVAL OF ARSENIC FROM DRINKING WATER SUPPLIES BY IRON REMOVAL PROCESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This design manual is an in-depth presentation of the steps required to design and operate a water treatment plant for removal of arsenic in the As (V) form from drinking water using an iron removal process. The manual also discusses the capital and operating costs including many...

  9. The effect of water-swelling polymer composition on radiocesium transfer in 'water - soil - plant' system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavakalyan, N.; Sergeeva, S.; Voskanyan, P. [Yerevan Institute ' Plastpolymer' Yerevan, 0007, 127 Arshacunats (Armenia); Tadevosyan, A.; Pyuskyulyan, K. [Institute of Hydroponics Problems NAS RA, Yerevan, 0082, 108 Noragyugh (Armenia); Mihranyan, A. [Division of Materials Science, Luleaa University of Technology, LuleAa SE-971 87 (Sweden); Tsuruoka, S. [Research Center for Exotic Nanocarbons, Shinshu University, Nagano,380-8553,4-17-1 Wakasato (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    Due to the relatively long half-life (T{sub 1/2} = 30 years) and high solubility {sup 137}Cs presents a serious threat to the environment. The study on radioactive cesium transfer into plants and its distribution in different parts of plants (roots, stems and leaves) is among the tasks of agricultural radioecology. The problem has become especially urgent in connection with the accident at Fukushima nuclear power plant. The present work describes potential countermeasures to regulate radiocesium transfer from soil to agricultural plants. As countermeasure the use polymer hydrogels is offered. Water-swelling polymers are of great interest for their practical application as effective absorbents of humidity at growth of agricultural plants. Composite polymer hydrogels containing an inorganic phase are of special interest, as numerous inorganic fillers exhibit the ability to absorb radionuclides. Optimal samples of hydrogels based on ammonium acrylate with good water-swelling and water-retention were obtained. Samples with the same polymer matrix - ammonium acrylate - and such fillers as silica gel, synthetic aluminosilicate, bentonite and zeolite from Armenian deposits were used. Developed gels with and without fillers are applicable for multiple uses in the processes of water sorption and desorption. For preliminary assessment of radiocesium migration in 'water - soil- plant' system we studied sorption of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 134}Cs from water. In the experiments, water with the specific radioactivity (1.86-4.38)x10{sup 4} Bq/L was used for {sup 137}Cs, while for {sup 134}Cs we used (2.175- 3.41)x10{sup 4} Bq/L water. Low-background gamma spectrometer with pure Ge detector and supporting 'GENIE' software were used for measurements. Non-filled gels of ammonium acrylate actually did not absorb radiocesium from water. Cesium sorption by filled gels of ammonium acrylate depended on the filler type and quantity. The optimal quantity of filler was

  10. Plant interactions with changes in coverage of biological soil crusts and water regime in Mu Us Sandland, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuqin Gao

    Full Text Available Plant interactions greatly affect plant community structure. Dryland ecosystems are characterized by low amounts of unpredictable precipitation as well as by often having biological soil crusts (BSCs on the soil surface. In dryland plant communities, plants interact mostly as they compete for water resources, and the direction and intensity of plant interaction varies as a function of the temporal fluctuation in water availability. Since BSCs influence water redistribution to some extent, a greenhouse experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that the intensity and direction of plant interactions in a dryland plant community can be modified by BSCs. In the experiment, 14 combinations of four plant species (Artemisia ordosica, Artemisia sphaerocephala, Chloris virgata and Setaria viridis were subjected to three levels of coverage of BSCs and three levels of water supply. The results show that: 1 BSCs affected plant interaction intensity for the four plant species: a 100% coverage of BSCs significantly reduced the intensity of competition between neighboring plants, while it was highest with a 50% coverage of BSCs in combination with the target species of A. sphaerocephala and C. virgata; 2 effects of the coverage of BSCs on plant interactions were modified by water regime when the target species were C. virgata and S. viridis; 3 plant interactions were species-specific. In conclusion, the percent coverage of BSCs affected plant interactions, and the effects were species-specific and could be modified by water regimes. Further studies should focus on effects of the coverage of BSCs on plant-soil hydrological processes.

  11. Hydrological balance and water transport processes of partially sealed soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timm, Anne; Wessolek, Gerd

    2017-04-01

    With increased urbanisation, soil sealing and its drastic effects on hydrological processes have received a lot of attention. Based on safety concerns, there has been a clear focus on urban drainage and prevention of urban floods caused by storm water events. For this reason, any kind of sealing is often seen as impermeable runoff generator that prevents infiltration and evaporation. While many hydrological models, especially storm water models, have been developed, there are only a handful of empirical studies actually measuring the hydrological balance of (partially) sealed surfaces. These challenge the general assumption of negligible infiltration and evaporation and show that these processes take place even for severe sealing such as asphalt. Depending on the material, infiltration from partially sealed surfaces can be equal to that of vegetated ones. Therefore, more detailed knowledge is needed to improve our understanding and models. In Berlin, two partially sealed weighable lysimeters were equipped with multiple temperature and soil moisture sensors in order to study their hydrological balance, as well as water and heat transport processes within the soil profile. This combination of methods affirms previous observations and offers new insights into altered hydrological processes of partially sealed surfaces at a small temporal scale. It could be verified that not all precipitation is transformed into runoff. Even for a relatively high sealing degree of concrete slabs with narrow seams, evaporation and infiltration may exceed runoff. Due to the lack of plant roots, the hydrological balance is mostly governed by precipitation events and evaporation generally occurs directly after rainfall. However, both surfaces allow for upward water transport from the upper underlying soil layers, sometimes resulting in relatively low evaporation rates on days without precipitation. The individual response of the surfaces differs considerably, which illustrates how

  12. Suitability of second pass RO as a substitute for high quality MSF product water in Nuclear Desalination Demonstration Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murugan, V.; Venkatesh, P.; Balasubramanian, C.; Nagaraj, R.; Yadav, Manoj Kumar; Prabhakar, S.; Tewari, P.K.

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear Desalination Demonstration Plant at Kalpakkam consists of both Multi Stage Flash Distillation (MSF) and Seawater Reverse Osmosis (SWRO) process to produce desalinated water. It supplies part of highly pure water from MSF to Madras Atomic Power Station for its boiler feed requirements and remaining water is blend with SWRO product water and sent to other common facilities located inside Kalpakkam campus. A critical techno-economic analysis is carried out to find out the suitability of second pass RO to sustain the availability of highly pure water in case of MSF plant shutdown. (author)

  13. IMPROVING TACONITE PROCESSING PLANT EFFICIENCY BY COMPUTER SIMULATION, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William M. Bond; Salih Ersayin

    2007-03-30

    This project involved industrial scale testing of a mineral processing simulator to improve the efficiency of a taconite processing plant, namely the Minorca mine. The Concentrator Modeling Center at the Coleraine Minerals Research Laboratory, University of Minnesota Duluth, enhanced the capabilities of available software, Usim Pac, by developing mathematical models needed for accurate simulation of taconite plants. This project provided funding for this technology to prove itself in the industrial environment. As the first step, data representing existing plant conditions were collected by sampling and sample analysis. Data were then balanced and provided a basis for assessing the efficiency of individual devices and the plant, and also for performing simulations aimed at improving plant efficiency. Performance evaluation served as a guide in developing alternative process strategies for more efficient production. A large number of computer simulations were then performed to quantify the benefits and effects of implementing these alternative schemes. Modification of makeup ball size was selected as the most feasible option for the target performance improvement. This was combined with replacement of existing hydrocyclones with more efficient ones. After plant implementation of these modifications, plant sampling surveys were carried out to validate findings of the simulation-based study. Plant data showed very good agreement with the simulated data, confirming results of simulation. After the implementation of modifications in the plant, several upstream bottlenecks became visible. Despite these bottlenecks limiting full capacity, concentrator energy improvement of 7% was obtained. Further improvements in energy efficiency are expected in the near future. The success of this project demonstrated the feasibility of a simulation-based approach. Currently, the Center provides simulation-based service to all the iron ore mining companies operating in northern

  14. Life Support Systems: Wastewater Processing and Water Management

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Life Support Systems project Wastewater Processing and Water Management task: Within an integrated life support system, water...

  15. Competition for light and water in a coupled soil-plant system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoli, Gabriele; Huang, Cheng-Wei; Bonetti, Sara; Domec, Jean-Christophe; Marani, Marco; Katul, Gabriel

    2017-10-01

    It is generally accepted that resource availability shapes the structure and function of many ecosystems. Within the soil-plant-atmosphere (SPA) system, resource availability fluctuates in space and time whereas access to resources by individuals is further impacted by plant-to-plant competition. Likewise, transport and transformation of resources within an individual plant is governed by numerous interacting biotic and abiotic processes. The work here explores the co-limitations on water losses and carbon uptake within the SPA arising from fluctuating resource availability and competition. In particular, the goal is to unfold the interplay between plant access and competition for water and light, as well as the impact of transport/redistribution processes on leaf-level carbon assimilation and water fluxes within forest stands. A framework is proposed that couples a three-dimensional representation of soil-root exchanges with a one-dimensional description of stem water flow and storage, canopy photosynthesis, and transpiration. The model links soil moisture redistribution, root water uptake, xylem water flow and storage, leaf potential and stomatal conductance as driven by supply and demand for water and carbon. The model is then used to investigate plant drought resilience of overstory-understory trees simultaneously competing for water and light. Simulation results reveal that understory-overstory interactions increase ecosystem resilience to drought (i.e. stand-level carbon assimilation rates and water fluxes can be sustained at lower root-zone soil water potentials). This resilience enhancement originates from reduced transpiration (due to shading) and hydraulic redistribution in soil supporting photosynthesis over prolonged periods of drought. In particular, the presence of different rooting systems generates localized hydraulic redistribution fluxes that sustain understory transpiration through overstory-understory interactions. Such complex SPA dynamics

  16. Steam turbine chemistry in light water reactor plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svoboda, Robert; Haertel, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    Steam turbines in boiling water reactor (BWR) and pressurized water reactor (PWR) power plants of various manufacturers have been affected by corrosion fatigue and stress corrosion cracking. Steam chemistry has not been a prime focus for related research because the water in nuclear steam generating systems is considered to be of high purity. Steam turbine chemistry however addresses more the problems encountered in fossil fired power plants on all volatile treatment, where corrosive environments can be formed in zones where wet steam is re-evaporated and dries out, or in the phase transition zone, where superheated steam starts to condense in the low-pressure (LP) turbine. In BWR plants the situation is aggravated by the fact that no alkalizing agents are used in the cycle, thus making any anionic impurity immediately acidic. This is illustrated by case studies of pitting corrosion of a 12 % Cr steel gland seal and of flow-oriented corrosion attack on LP turbine blades in the phase transition zone. In PWR plants, volatile alkalizing agents are used that provide some buffering of acidic impurities, but they also produce anionic decomposition products. (orig.)

  17. Carbon dioxide and water transport through plant aquaporins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groszmann, Michael; Osborn, Hannah L; Evans, John R

    2017-06-01

    Aquaporins are channel proteins that function to increase the permeability of biological membranes. In plants, aquaporins are encoded by multigene families that have undergone substantial diversification in land plants. The plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs) subfamily of aquaporins is of particular interest given their potential to improve plant water relations and photosynthesis. Flowering plants have between 7 and 28 PIP genes. Their expression varies with tissue and cell type, through development and in response to a variety of factors, contributing to the dynamic and tissue specific control of permeability. There are a growing number of PIPs shown to act as water channels, but those altering membrane permeability to CO 2 are more limited. The structural basis for selective substrate specificities has not yet been resolved, although a few key amino acid positions have been identified. Several regions important for dimerization, gating and trafficking are also known. PIP aquaporins assemble as tetramers and their properties depend on the monomeric composition. PIPs control water flux into and out of veins and stomatal guard cells and also increase membrane permeability to CO 2 in mesophyll and stomatal guard cells. The latter increases the effectiveness of Rubisco and can potentially influence transpiration efficiency. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Recent experience in water chemistry control at PWR plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makino, Ichiro

    2000-01-01

    At present, 23 units of PWRs are under operation in all of Japan, among which 11 units are operated by the Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc. (KEP). Plant availability in KEP's PWRs has been improved for the past several years, through their successive stable operation. Recently, a focus is given not only to maintenance of plant integrity, but also to preventive maintenance and water chemistry control. Various measures have been carried out to enhance exposure reduction of the primary water chemistry control in the Japanese PWRs. As a result, environmental dose equivalent rate is decreasing. A secondary system is now under excellent condition because of application of diversified measures for prevention of the SG tube corrosion. At present, the water chemistry control measures which take into account of efficient chemistry control and plant aging deterioration prevention, are being examined to use for both primary and secondary systems in Japanese PWRs, to further enhance their plant integrity and availability. And, some of them are currently being actually applied. (G.K.)

  19. Study on the TOC concentration in raw water and HAAs in Tehran's water treatment plant outlet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoochani, Mahboobeh; Rastkari, Noushin; Nabizadeh Nodehi, Ramin; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Nasseri, Simin; Nazmara, Shahrokh

    2013-11-12

    A sampling has been undertaken to investigate the variation of haloacetic acids formation and nature organic matter through 81 samples were collected from three water treatment plant and three major rivers of Tehran Iran. Changes in the total organic matter (TOC), ultraviolet absorbance (UV254), specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA) were measured in raw water samples. Haloacetic acids concentrations were monitored using a new static headspace GC-ECD method without a manual pre-concentration in three water treatment plants. The average concentration of TOC and HAAs in three rivers and three water treatment plants in spring, summer and fall, were 4, 2.41 and 4.03 mg/L and 48.75, 43.79 and 51.07 μg/L respectively. Seasonal variation indicated that HAAs levels were much higher in spring and fall.

  20. Problems of pricing fresh water obtained from a sea water desalination plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaussens, J.

    1967-01-01

    Integrating a double-purpose desalination and electricity generating plant into a water supply system alters the conditions in which the other water and electricity sources are used, as the peak and the base load water and electricity demands have to be met at the least cost. This paper attempts to show how the problem of determining optimal water supply structures can be approached, in definite cases, but against a global economic back-ground. It becomes necessary to define the competition between classical resources and desalination plants, as these plants introduce into optimum studies new factors due to the peculiar shape of their production functions. These new factors (fixed and proportional costs structures, flow availabilities) are studied in relation to the production functions in various management cases (private monopoly, public monopoly). (author) [fr

  1. Scenarios for Low Carbon and Low Water Electric Power Plant Operations: Implications for Upstream Water Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodder, Rebecca S; Barnwell, Jessica T; Yelverton, William H

    2016-11-01

    Electric sector water use, in particular for thermoelectric operations, is a critical component of the water-energy nexus. On a life cycle basis per unit of electricity generated, operational (e.g., cooling system) water use is substantially higher than water demands for the fuel cycle (e.g., natural gas and coal) and power plant manufacturing (e.g., equipment and construction). However, could shifting toward low carbon and low water electric power operations create trade-offs across the electricity life cycle? We compare business-as-usual with scenarios of carbon reductions and water constraints using the MARKet ALlocation (MARKAL) energy system model. Our scenarios show that, for water withdrawals, the trade-offs are minimal: operational water use accounts for over 95% of life cycle withdrawals. For water consumption, however, this analysis identifies potential trade-offs under some scenarios. Nationally, water use for the fuel cycle and power plant manufacturing can reach up to 26% of the total life cycle consumption. In the western United States, nonoperational consumption can even exceed operational demands. In particular, water use for biomass feedstock irrigation and manufacturing/construction of solar power facilities could increase with high deployment. As the United States moves toward lower carbon electric power operations, consideration of shifting water demands can help avoid unintended consequences.

  2. Fluoride content in water in and around heavy water plant Manuguru colony

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohapatra, C.; Dubey, S.K.; Reddy, A.R.; Ravi Kumar, T.S.P.; Selvaraj, S.

    1996-01-01

    Fluoride concentration in water used for human consumption has significant importance with respect to its toxic effects. Hence there was a need for analysing fluoride concentration in drinking water primarily used at Heavy water Plant, Manuguru (HWP (M)) colony and its nearby villages. We found that at HWP (M) colony there is not much variation in the fluoride concentration. However, nearby villages are having wide variation from 0.79 to 5.1 ppm. (author). 5 refs., 1 tab

  3. Determination of Properties of Selected Fresh and Processed Medicinal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley G. Cabrera

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to determine the chemical properties, bioactive compounds, antioxidant activity and toxicity level of fresh and processed medicinal plants such as corn (Zea mays silk, pancitpancitan (Peperomiapellucida leaves, pandan (Pandanus amaryllifolius leaves, and commercially available tea. The toxicity level of the samples was measured using the Brine Shrimp Lethality Assay (BSLA. Statistical analysis was done using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS. Results showed that in terms of chemical properties there is significant difference between fresh and processed corn silk except in crude fiber content was noted. Based on proximate analyses of fresh and processed medicinal plants specifically in terms of % moisture, %crude protein and % total carbohydrates were also observed. In addition, there is also significant difference on bioactive compound contents such as total flavonoids and total phenolics between fresh and processed corn silk except in total vitamin E (TVE content. Pandan and pancit-pancitan showed significant difference in all bioactive compounds except in total antioxidant content (TAC. Fresh pancit-pancitan has the highest total phenolics content (TPC and TAC, while the fresh and processed corn silk has the lowest TAC and TVE content, respectively. Furthermore, results of BSLA for the three medicinal plants and commercially available tea extract showed after 24 hours exposure significant difference in toxicity level was observed. The percentage mortality increased with an increase in exposure time of the three medicinal plants and tea extract. The results of the study can served as baseline data for further processing and commercialization of these medicinal plants.

  4. Water, plants, and early human habitats in eastern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magill, Clayton R; Ashley, Gail M; Freeman, Katherine H

    2013-01-22

    Water and its influence on plants likely exerted strong adaptive pressures in human evolution. Understanding relationships among water, plants, and early humans is limited both by incomplete terrestrial records of environmental change and by indirect proxy data for water availability. Here we present a continuous record of stable hydrogen-isotope compositions (expressed as δD values) for lipid biomarkers preserved in lake sediments from an early Pleistocene archaeological site in eastern Africa--Olduvai Gorge. We convert sedimentary leaf- and algal-lipid δD values into estimates for ancient source-water δD values by accounting for biochemical, physiological, and environmental influences on isotopic fractionation via published water-lipid enrichment factors for living plants, algae, and recent sediments. Reconstructed precipitation and lake-water δD values, respectively, are consistent with modern isotopic hydrology and reveal that dramatic fluctuations in water availability accompanied ecosystem changes. Drier conditions, indicated by less negative δD values, occur in association with stable carbon-isotopic evidence for open, C(4)-dominated grassland ecosystems. Wetter conditions, indicated by lower δD values, are associated with expanded woody cover across the ancient landscape. Estimates for ancient precipitation amounts, based on reconstructed precipitation δD values, range between approximately 250 and 700 mm · y(-1) and are consistent with modern precipitation data for eastern Africa. We conclude that freshwater availability exerted a substantial influence on eastern African ecosystems and, by extension, was central to early human proliferation during periods of rapid climate change.

  5. Model-Based Control of Drinking-Water Treatment Plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Schagen, K.M.

    2009-01-01

    The drinking water in the Netherlands is of high quality and the production cost is low. This is the result of extensive research in the past decades to innovate and optimise the treatment processes. The processes are monitored and operated by motivated and skilled operators and process

  6. Data list of nuclear power plants of pressurized-water reactor type in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izumi, Fumio; Harayama, Yasuo

    1981-08-01

    This report has collected and compiled the data concerning performances, equipments and installations for nuclear power plants of the pressurized-water reactor type in Japan. The data used in the report are based on informations that were collected before December in 1980. The report is edited by modifing changes of the data appeared after publication of 1979 edition (JAERI-M 8947), and extending the data-package to cover new plants proposed thereafter. All data have been processed and tabulated with a computer program FREP, which has been developed as an exclusive use of data processing. (author)

  7. Solvent purification using a current of water vapour. A continuous process applicable to chemical plants treating irradiated fuels; Purification des solvants par entrainement a la vapeur d'eau. Procede continu applicable aux usines chimiques de traitement des combustibles irradies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auchapt, P R; Sautray, R R; Girard, B R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre de Production de Plutonium, Marcoule (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    The pilot plant described in this report is intended for the continuous purification of the solvent used in the plutonium extraction plant at Marcoule, by separating the impurities (fission products). This physical separation is operated by carrying over in a water vapour stream. The contaminating products, only slightly volatile, remain in the form of the droplets and are separated; the vaporised solvent and the water vapour used are condensed and then separated. The originality of the installation resides in the system for pulverising the liquid and in the operating conditions: low working pressure and temperature. The systematic analysis of the various parameters (percentage of residue; flow, pressure and temperature ratios etc...) has shown their influence on the decontamination. The activity due to the zirconium-niobium is undetectable after treatment, and it is easy to obtain decontamination factors of 300 for the ruthenium. The, presence of uranium is favorable for the decontamination. As a conclusion, some extra-technical considerations are given concerning in particular the approximate cost price of the treated solvent per litre. (authors) [French] L'installation pilote decrite dans ce rapport est destinee a purifier, en continu, le solvant utilise a l'usine d'extraction du plutonium de Marcoule, en separant les impuretes (produits de fission). Cette separation physique est realisee par entrainement a la vapeur d'eau. Les produits contaminants, peu volatils, restant sous forme de gouttelettes, sont separes; le solvant vaporise ainsi que la vapeur d'entrainement sont condenses puis separes. L'originalite de l'installation reside dans le systeme de pulverisation du liquide et dans les conditions operatoires: faible pression et basse temperature de fonctionnement. L'analyse systematique des differents parametres (pourcentage de residus, rapport de debits, pression et temperature, etc...) a mis en evidence leur influence sur la decontamination. L'activite en

  8. Influence of fly dust from coking plants on some biological processes of plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masek, V

    1972-03-01

    The influence of three typical samples of fly dust from a coking plant on enzymatic reactions, photosynthesis, chlorophyll concentration in leaves of bean plants was studied. The hydrolysis of starch with amylases and of the albumen with pepsin at 37 C and the inversion of sacharosis by invertase in a buffered environment were also examined. None of the three dust samples had a significant effect on enzymatic reactions. Applying the dust samples to the leaves of young bean plants reduced the intensity of photosynthesis and chlorophyll concentration. In aqueous extracts, the dust samples liberated only small quantities of nutrients, plants which were grown in a dust suspension showed no increase of dry substance and growth rate. A stimulating effect of the dust samples on root growth was determined. Mixing the dust samples with the soil influenced the accessibility of water to plants. 17 references, 6 figures, 9 tables.

  9. Energy efficiency improvements in sewage sludge processing plants; Energetische Optimierung der Klaerschlammaufbereitung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vetter, H.; Burger, S.

    2006-07-01

    From October 1st, 2006, sewage sludge may no longer be used as a fertilizer by farmers in Switzerland. Mechanical dewatering and drying of the sludge are the pre-stages of incineration. Based on a monitoring campaign and the results thereof, recommendations aiming at improving the energy efficiency have been worked out for use by waste water treatment plant operators and engineers for the design of drying plants. From the energetic point of view, solar drying of sludge is the best process. However, due to the large area required and the limited drying capacity, solar drying cannot be implemented everywhere. Therefore, three further drying processes have been monitored for eleven months: the fluidized bed drying process at the waste water treatment plant (WWTP) of the Region Berne, the low temperature/air recirculation dryer at WWTP Schwyz and the middle-temperature belt dryer at WWTP Wohlen. The electric energy consumption of the three investigated sludge drying processes was between 22 and 94 kWh per ton of evaporated water. The low temperature dryer showed the lowest energy consumption. The thermal energy consumption (expressed in useful energy) was between 648 and 1'033 kWh per ton of evaporated water, with the middle temperature dryer having the lowest consumption. On the other hand, the most advantageous process is the low temperature dryer if the comparison is based on the final energy consumption. This process has the advantage of making possible the integration of low-temperature waste heat. For whole Switzerland, the energy savings potential is estimated to be 133 GWh/year for fuel and 32 GWh/year for electricity, provided the drying process with the lowest energy consumption is implemented. It is recommended to conduct another measuring campaign at the first just commissioned sludge drying plant comprising a heat pump using waste water as a heat source, to check the effective energy savings. (author)

  10. Conservation-reuse of water in fossil-fuel power plants including water treatment plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, T.S.R.

    1984-02-01

    The various areas where the conservation-reuse of water is possible are discussed. However, water conservation, especially effluent volume reduction-treatment reuse, should be seen in the light of pollution control measures. Some of the areas indicated recover a small quantity of water but they should be viewed in the light of well yield being not adequate, or having high salinity or having an increase of well water salinity after some use. Some of the methods can only be adopted at the design stage whereas others could be incorporated at the site.

  11. Water chemistry related problems in captive power plant of Heavy Water Plant [Manuguru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasada Rao, G.; Mohapatra, C.

    2000-01-01

    This study is intended to improve the power generating capacity of Turbo Generator-3 in CPP. It was observed that steam flow through TG-3 was not as per rated; however there were no abnormal vibrations. After stopping and opening the turbine, deposits were found on turbine blade. Turbine blade scales were analysed for all the stages, HP, middle, LP, casings. Boiler drum water, feed water, DM water, filter water chemistry were studied. LP blade scale mainly consists of silica, whereas HP blade scale consists of iron oxide, sodium phosphate, silica etc. It was concluded that less generating capacity of power was because of scaling on turbine blade. (author)

  12. A Feasibility Study of Optimal Nuclear Desalination Process for Industrial Water Supply in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hyunchul; Han, Kiin

    2013-01-01

    Seawater Desalination can be an alternative technology for water production based on salt separation from seawater. Seawater desalination can produce freshwater with necessary quality by choosing an appropriate desalination process and posttreatment methods of the product water. The commercial seawater desalination processes which are proven and reliable for large scale freshwater production are MSF and MED for evaporative desalination and RO for membrane desalination. Vapor compression plants based on thermal and mechanical compression are also employed for the small and medium capacity ranges. The aim of this study is to compare the characteristics and cost of each process methods and suggest the most efficient and effective method of desalination for an industrial water supply to the National Industrial Complex nearby Nuclear Power Plant. The costs associated with desalination depend on many factors such as capital, energy, labor, chemicals that are specific to the location, plant capacity, product salinity pre-treatment necessities, and other site-related costs for land, plant and brine disposal. A detailed analysis of each situation is thus required to estimate desalination costs. It could be stated that RO cost is lower than distillation one in energy and environmental terms. The optimal capacity(10,000 m 3 /day) was decided to analyze the estimated water usage in nuclear power plants. And then compared the availability of each process, energy consumption, O and M and economic aspects. In terms of economic feasibility study, RO is the most recommendable process in nuclear power plants in Korea

  13. Energy supply waste water treatment plant West Brabant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poldervaart, A; Schouten, G J

    1983-09-01

    For the energy supply for the waste water treatment plant (rwzi-Bath) of the Hoogheemraadschap West-Brabant three energy sources are used: biogas of the digesters, natural gas and electricity delivered by the PZEM. For a good balance between heat/power demand and production a heat/power plant is installed. By using this system a high efficiency for the use of energy will be obtained. To save energy the oxygen concentration in the aerationtanks is automatically controlled by means of regulating the position of the air supply control valves and the capacity and number of the turbocompressors. For the oxygen controlsystem a Siemens PLC is used.

  14. Water chemistry experience of nuclear power plants in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishigure, Kenkichi; Abe, Kenji; Nakajima, Nobuo; Nagao, Hiroyuki; Uchida, Shunsuke.

    1989-01-01

    Japanese LWRs have experienced several troubles caused by corrosions of structural materials in the past ca. 20 years of their operational history, among which are increase in the occupational radiation exposures, intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) of stainless steel piping in BWR, and steam generator corrosion problems in PWR. These problems arised partly from the improper operation of water chemistry control of reactor coolant systems. Consequently, it has been realized that water chemistry control is one of the most important factors to attain high availability and reliability of LWR, and extensive researches and developments have been conducted in Japan to achieve the optimum water chemistry control, which include the basic laboratory experiments, analyses of plant operational data, loop tests in operating plants and computer code developments. As a result of the continuing efforts, the Japanese LWR plants have currently attained a very high performance in their operation with high availability and low occupational radiation exposures. A brief review is given here on the R and D of water chemistry in Japan. (author)

  15. Financial Benefits of Process Data Reconciliation in Power Generating Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansky, Andy

    2006-01-01

    Process Data Reconciliation (PDR) is a certified method that calculates the most likely values considering process measurement uncertainties and closing all energy- and material balances where all inter-dependencies within the entire plant process are fulfilled in a covariance matrix. There are three main factors that generate the financial benefits for the user of reconciled data, depending on the type of plant and base/peak load behaviour: Increased efficiency / maximized output, Time advantage in retrieving 'lost' megawatts, Reduction of maintenance costs. (author)

  16. A painless approach to use distributed digital-control system for Heavy Water Plant- Tuticorin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potti, V S; Krishnan, S; Rao, V C; Lamba, D S [Heavy Water Project, Tuticorin (India)

    1994-06-01

    Heavy Water Plant (Tuticorin) production is based on mono thermal process of ammonia-hydrogen exchange and is connected with a 1100 tons per day capacity ammonia plant of M/s Southern Petrochemical Industries Limited for getting its feed. The deuterium concentration in the syngas (N{sub 2} + 3H{sub 2}) is extracted through ammonia-hydrogen exchange process and finally burnt with air in the final product unit to get heavy water. The depleted syngas is sent back to M/s SPIC`s synthesis unit. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the instrumentation requirements of heavy water production, problems encountered in use of DDCS along with remedial action taken for the back up facility. (author). 3 refs., 2 figs.

  17. A painless approach to use distributed digital-control system for Heavy Water Plant- Tuticorin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potti, V.S.; Krishnan, S.; Rao, V.C.; Lamba, D.S.

    1994-01-01

    Heavy Water Plant (Tuticorin) production is based on mono thermal process of ammonia-hydrogen exchange and is connected with a 1100 tons per day capacity ammonia plant of M/s Southern Petrochemical Industries Limited for getting its feed. The deuterium concentration in the syngas (N 2 + 3H 2 ) is extracted through ammonia-hydrogen exchange process and finally burnt with air in the final product unit to get heavy water. The depleted syngas is sent back to M/s SPIC's synthesis unit. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the instrumentation requirements of heavy water production, problems encountered in use of DDCS along with remedial action taken for the back up facility. (author)

  18. Chemical process and plant design bibliography 1959-1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, M.S.

    1991-01-01

    This book is concerned specifically with chemical process in formation and plant equipment design data. It is a source for chemical engineers, students and academics involved in process and design evaluation. Over 500 chemical categories are included, from Acetaldehyde to zirconium Dioxide, with cross-referencing within the book to appropriate associated chemicals

  19. Multilevel flow modelling of process plant for diagnosis and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lind, M.

    1982-08-01

    The paper describes the multilevel flow modelling methodology which can be used to construct functional models of energy and material processing systems. The models describe mass and energy flow topology on different levels of abstraction and represent the hierarchical functional structure of complex systems. A model of a nuclear power plant (PWR) is presented in the paper for illustration. Due to the consistency of the method, multilevel flow models provide specifications of plant goals and functions and may be used as a basis for design of computer-based support systems for the plant operator. Plant control requirements can be derived from the models and due to independence of the actual controller implementation the method may be used as basic for design of control strategies and for the allocation of control tasks to the computer and the plant operator. (author)

  20. Multilevel Flow Modelling of Process Plant for Diagnosis and Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Morten

    1982-01-01

    The paper describes the multilevel flow modelling methodology which can be used to construct functional models of energy and material processing systems. The models describe mass and energy flow topology on different levels of abstraction and represent the hierarchical functional structure...... of complex systems. A model of a nuclear power plant (PWR) is presented in the paper for illustration. Due to the consistency of the method, multilevel flow models provide specifications of plant goals and functions and may be used as a basis for design of computer-based support systems for the plant...... operator. Plant control requirements can be derived from the models and due to independence of the actual controller implementation the method may be used as a basis for design of control strategies and for the allocation of control tasks to the computer and the plant operator....