WorldWideScience

Sample records for water pollution iii

  1. Water Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, H. J. M.

    1975-01-01

    Deals with water pollution in the following categories: a global view, self purification, local pollution, difficulties in chemical analysis, and remedies for water pollution. Emphasizes the extent to which man's activities have modified the cycles of certain elements. (GS)

  2. Water pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Institute, Marine

    2013-01-01

    Students will learn about what causes water pollution and how to be environmentally aware. *Note: Students should understand the concept of the water cycle before moving onto water pollution (see Lesson Plan “Oceans all Around Us”).

  3. Water Pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goni, J.

    1984-01-01

    This work is about the water pollution. The air and the water interaction cycles is the main idea of the geochemical pollution conception. In the water surface as well as in the deep aquifers we can found cough metals or minerals from the athmosferic air. The activities of mercury fluor and nitrates are important to the pollution study

  4. Water Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What is NIEHS Doing? Further Reading For Educators Introduction Water pollution is any contamination of water with ... NIEHS Newsletter) Karletta Chief Featured in Science Friday Film (April 2018) Chlorine Levels Help Detect Risk for ...

  5. Efficient artificial mineralization route to decontaminate Arsenic(III) polluted water - the Tooeleite Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malakar, Arindam; Das, Bidisa; Islam, Samirul; Meneghini, Carlo; de Giudici, Giovanni; Merlini, Marco; Kolen'Ko, Yury V.; Iadecola, Antonella; Aquilanti, Giuliana; Acharya, Somobrata; Ray, Sugata

    2016-05-01

    Increasing exposure to arsenic (As) contaminated ground water is a great threat to humanity. Suitable technology for As immobilization and removal from water, especially for As(III) than As(V), is not available yet. However, it is known that As(III) is more toxic than As(V) and most groundwater aquifers, particularly the Gangetic basin in India, is alarmingly contaminated with it. In search of a viable solution here, we took a cue from the natural mineralization of Tooeleite, a mineral containing Fe(III) and As(III)ions, grown under acidic condition, in presence of SO42- ions. Complying to this natural process, we could grow and separate Tooeleite-like templates from Fe(III) and As(III) containing water at overall circumneutral pH and in absence of SO42- ions by using highly polar Zn-only ends of wurtzite ZnS nanorods as insoluble nano-acidic-surfaces. The central idea here is to exploit these insoluble nano-acidic-surfaces (called as INAS in the manuscript) as nucleation centres for Tooeleite growth while keeping the overall pH of the aqueous media neutral. Therefore, we propose a novel method of artificial mineralization of As(III) by mimicking a natural process at nanoscale.

  6. Water Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    We all need clean water. People need it to grow crops and to operate factories, and for drinking and recreation. Fish and wildlife depend on ... and phosphorus make algae grow and can turn water green. Bacteria, often from sewage spills, can pollute ...

  7. Water Pollution. Project COMPSEP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz, H. B., Jr.

    This is an introductory program on water pollution. Examined are the cause and effect relationships of water pollution, sources of water pollution, and possible alternatives to effect solutions from our water pollution problems. Included is background information on water pollution, a glossary of pollution terminology, a script for a slide script…

  8. Ground water pollution through air pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cichorowski, G.; Michel, B.; Versteegen, D.; Wettmann, R.

    1989-01-01

    The aim of the investigation is to determine the significance of air pollutants for ground water quality and ground water use. The report summarizes present knowledge and assesses statements with a view to potential ground water pollution from the air. In this context pollution paths, the spreading behaviour of pollutants, and 'cross points' with burden potentials from other pollutant sources are presented. (orig.) [de

  9. Water Pollution, Teachers' Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavaroni, Charles W.; And Others

    One of three in a series about pollution, this teacher's guide for a unit on water pollution is designed for use in junior high school grades. It offers suggestions for extending the information and activities contained in the textual material for students. Chapter 1 discusses the problem of water pollution and involves students in processes of…

  10. The Other Water Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Kathy

    1978-01-01

    Nonpoint source pollution, water pollution not released at one specific identifiable point, now accounts for 50 percent of the nation's water pollution problem. Runoff is the primary culprit and includes the following sources: agriculture, mining, hydrologic modifications, and urban runoff. Economics, legislation, practices, and management of this…

  11. Water Pollution. Environmental Education Curriculum. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topeka Public Schools, KS.

    Water is one of the most polluted resources in our environment. Since everyone has the same basic need for pure water, it follows that all people should have a basic knowledge of the causes, results and solutions to the water pollution problem. This unit is designed for use with Level II and III educable mentally retarded students to present…

  12. The continental waters pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsily, G. de

    1996-01-01

    This work deals with the continental water pollution. The sewage affect considerably the quality of some rivers water and of some basins. Moreover, a slow and general damage of natural waters has been established. The direct effects on men and on the natural medium (climatic change, aquatic ecosystems, water cycle) are given as well as the protection means (waste processing, the water-bearing bed and underground water protection, the aquatic ecosystems protection and planning) used and future to abate the water pollution. (O.L.). 17 refs., 6 tabs

  13. Water Pollution, Causes and Cures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manufacturing Chemists Association, Washington, DC.

    This commentary on sources of water pollution and water pollution treatment systems is accompanied by graphic illustrations. Sources of pollution such as lake bottom vegetation, synthetic organic pollutants, heat pollution, radioactive substance pollution, and human and industrial waste products are discussed. Several types of water purification…

  14. Water Pollution Control Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1974

    1974-01-01

    A special report on the state of the water pollution control industry reveals that due to forthcoming federal requirements, sales and the backlogs should increase; problems may ensue because of shortages of materials and inflation. Included are reports from various individual companies. (MLB)

  15. Remote Sensing of Water Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, P. G.

    1971-01-01

    Remote sensing, as a tool to aid in the control of water pollution, offers a means of making rapid, economical surveys of areas that are relatively inaccessible on the ground. At the same time, it offers the only practical means of mapping pollution patterns that cover large areas. Detection of oil slicks, thermal pollution, sewage, and algae are discussed.

  16. Water pollution biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, C.F. [University of Essex, Colchester (United Kingdom). Dept. of Biology

    1996-12-31

    Chapter 4 of this book describes the effects of major types of pollutants on aquatic life. These are: organic pollution, eutrophication, acidification, toxic chemicals, oil, and radioactivity. The review includes an description of some of the methods of assessing the biological impacts of pollution. 50 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Exploring Water Pollution. Part 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    1976-01-01

    Lists over 30 outdoor science activities dealing with water formation, erosion, pollution, and other water-related topics. Provides, in addition, a selected bibliography of films, tapes, booklets and pamphlets, and filmstrips as additional reference materials. (CP)

  18. Assessment and mapping of water pollution indices in zone-III of municipal corporation of hyderabad using remote sensing and geographic information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi, S S; Vuppala, Padmaja; Reddy, M Anji

    2005-01-01

    A preliminary survey of area under Zone-III of MCH was undertaken to assess the ground water quality, demonstrate its spatial distribution and correlate with the land use patterns using advance techniques of remote sensing and geographical information system (GIS). Twenty-seven ground water samples were collected and their chemical analysis was done to form the attribute database. Water quality index was calculated from the measured parameters, based on which the study area was classified into five groups with respect to suitability of water for drinking purpose. Thematic maps viz., base map, road network, drainage and land use/land cover were prepared from IRS ID PAN + LISS III merged satellite imagery forming the spatial database. Attribute database was integrated with spatial sampling locations map in Arc/Info and maps showing spatial distribution of water quality parameters were prepared in Arc View. Results indicated that high concentrations of total dissolved solids (TDS), nitrates, fluorides and total hardness were observed in few industrial and densely populated areas indicating deteriorated water quality while the other areas exhibited moderate to good water quality.

  19. Water Pollution (Causes, Mechanisms, Solution).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandberg, Carl

    Written for the general public, this book illustrates the causes, status, problem areas, and prediction and control of water pollution. Water pollution is one of the most pressing issues of our time and the author communicates the complexities of this problem to the reader in common language. The purpose of the introductory chapter is to show what…

  20. Biology and Water Pollution Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Charles E.

    Within this text, the reader is attuned to the role biology can and should play in combating the alarming increase in water pollution. Both the urgency of the problem and the biological techniques that are being developed to cope with the water pollution crisis are scrutinized; what is and is not known about the problem is explained; past,…

  1. Post-main-sequence Evolution of Icy Minor Planets. III. Water Retention in Dwarf Planets and Exomoons and Implications for White Dwarf Pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malamud, Uri; Perets, Hagai B., E-mail: uri.mal@tx.technion.ac.il, E-mail: hperets@physics.technion.ac.il [Department of Physics, Technion (Israel)

    2017-11-01

    Studies suggest that the pollution of white dwarf (WD) atmospheres arises from the accretion of minor planets, but the exact properties of polluting material, and in particular the evidence for water in some cases are not yet understood. Several previous works studied the possibility of water surviving inside minor planets around evolving stars. However, they all focused on small, comet-sized to moonlet-sized minor planets, when the inferred mass inside the convection zones of He-dominated WDs could actually be compatible with much more massive minor planets. Here we explore for the first time, the water retention inside exoplanetary dwarf planets, or moderate-sized moons, with radii of the order of hundreds of kilometers. This paper concludes a series of papers that has now covered nearly the entire potential mass range of minor planets, in addition to the full mass range of their host stars. We find that water retention is (a) affected by the mass of the WD progenitor, and (b) it is on average at least 5%, irrespective of the assumed initial water composition, if it came from a single accretion event of an icy dwarf planet or moon. The latter prediction strengthens the possibility of habitability in WD planetary systems, and it may also be used in order to distinguish between pollution originating from multiple small accretion events and singular large accretion events. To conclude our work, we provide a code that calculates ice and water retention by interpolation and may be freely used as a service to the community.

  2. Municipal water pollution prevention program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-03-01

    EPA believes that the most effective and equitable means of assuring viability of this infrastructure is through environmentally preferred pollution prevention approaches especially through application of Municipal Water Pollution Prevention (MWPP). These approaches may enhance worker safety, improve the usability of sludge, increase the ability for local community expansion, and reduce operation and compliance costs. State-based municipal pollution prevention programs focus attention on a series of actions to prevent pollution in advance rather than taking more expensive corrective actions. MWPP encourages resource conservation to reduce water and energy use, appropriate pricing, toxicity reductions at the source, BOD reductions, recycling, proper treatment of wastes, and beneficial uses of sludge

  3. China's water pollution by persistent organic pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao Lianjun; Maruya, Keith A.; Snyder, Shane A.; Zeng, Eddy Y.

    2012-01-01

    Available data were reviewed to assess the status of contamination by persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), in drinking water sources and coastal waters of China. The levels of POPs in China's waters were generally at the high end of the global range. A comparison of China's regulatory limits indicated that PCBs in rivers and coastal water may pose potential human health risk. Occurrence of DDTs in some rivers of China may also pose health risk to humans using the regulatory limits of DDTs recommended by the European Union. Future monitoring of POPs in China's waters should be directed towards analytes of concern (e.g. PCBs and PCDD/Fs) and to fill data gaps for analytes (e.g. PBDEs, PCDD/Fs, and chlordane) and in watersheds/regions (e.g. West China) where data are scarce. - Highlights: ► Levels of POPs in China's aquatic systems were generally at the high end of the global range. ► New inputs of DDTs, likely related to the use of dicofol and anti-fouling paints, were found. ► Occurrence of PCBs and DDTs in some water bodies pay pose potential human health risk. ► Long-term monitoring of POPs in China's waters is needed to fill data gaps. - Occurrence, potential sources and ecological and human health risk of persistent organic pollutants in China's waters are reviewed.

  4. Landsat and water pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castruccio, P.; Fowler, T.; Loats, H., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Report presents data derived from satellite images predicting pollution loads after rainfall. It explains method for converting Landsat images of Eastern United States into cover maps for Baltimore/five county region.

  5. Water Pollution, and Treatments Part III: Biodegradation of Oil in Refineries Waste Water and Oils Adsorbed in Agricultural Wastes by Selected Strains of Cyanobacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Emary, M.M.; Ali, N.A.; Naguib, M.M.

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to determine the biological degradation of oil hydrocarbons and sulfur compounds of Marine Balayim crude oil and its refined products by selected indigenous Cyanobacteria strains. The oils used were Marine Balayim crude oil, skimmed oil and some refined products such as gasoline, kerosene, gas oil, fuel oil and petroleum coke. The selected organisms in the current study are the Blue-Green Algae Cyanobacteria, Oscillatoria limentica. This organism was collected from the hyper saline environment of the solar lake in Taba, Sinai, Egypt. The results obtained revealed that the utilization of such strains can be used for the bioremediation of oily waste water.

  6. Peatlands as Filters for Polluted Mine Water?—A Case Study from an Uranium-Contaminated Karst System in South Africa—Part III: Quantifying the Hydraulic Filter Component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Winde

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available As Part III of a four-part series on the filter function of peat for uranium (U, this paper focuses on the hydraulic component of a conceptual filter model introduced in Part II. This includes the quantification of water flow through the wetland as a whole, which was largely unknown and found to be significantly higher that anticipated. Apart from subaquatic artesian springs associated with the underlying karst aquifer the higher flow volumes were also caused by plumes of polluted groundwater moving laterally into the wetland. Real-time, quasi-continuous in situ measurements of porewater in peat and non-peat sediments indicate that rising stream levels (e.g., during flood conditions lead to the infiltration of stream water into adjacent peat deposits and thus allow for a certain proportion of flood water to be filtered. However, changes in porewater quality triggered by spring rains may promote the remobilization of possibly sorbed U.

  7. Water availability pollution and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, K.A.

    2001-01-01

    Water has played a very important role in the development of human society. Resources of water have shaped the development of people and nations. Management of water gave the birth to innovations and technologies. Our complex metropolitan civilization and advanced technologies have generated new demands for water. Its importance to society and government has never diminished. The growing concern over resources availability and a rapid spread of water pollution, the link between water supply and water quality have become more apparent. The global management of water demands economy in use, restricted chemical and sanitation emissions, population control, discouragement of urbanization and water pollution awareness can greatly assist in averting the water holocaust that the world is expecting to face in the years to come. The scientific community in Pakistan is required to diagnose these problems in a systematic way to give advance warning of expected water scarcity, water pollution, water related land degradation, urban growth and population to assure the water cycle integrity of our world. (author)

  8. China's water pollution by persistent organic pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Lian-Jun; Maruya, Keith A; Snyder, Shane A; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2012-04-01

    Available data were reviewed to assess the status of contamination by persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), in drinking water sources and coastal waters of China. The levels of POPs in China's waters were generally at the high end of the global range. A comparison of China's regulatory limits indicated that PCBs in rivers and coastal water may pose potential human health risk. Occurrence of DDTs in some rivers of China may also pose health risk to humans using the regulatory limits of DDTs recommended by the European Union. Future monitoring of POPs in China's waters should be directed towards analytes of concern (e.g. PCBs and PCDD/Fs) and to fill data gaps for analytes (e.g. PBDEs, PCDD/Fs, and chlordane) and in watersheds/regions (e.g. West China) where data are scarce. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Water Pollution Search | ECHO | US EPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Water Pollution Search within the Water Pollutant Loading Tool gives users options to search for pollutant loading information from Discharge Monitoring Report (DMR) and Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) data.

  10. Water pollution by agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Moss, Brian

    2007-01-01

    Agriculture disrupts all freshwater systems hugely from their pristine states. The former reductionist concept of pollution was of examining individual effects of particular substances on individual taxa or sub-communities in freshwater systems, an essentially ecotoxicological concept. It is now less useful than a more holistic approach that treats the impacts on the system as a whole and includes physical impacts such as drainage and physical modification of river channels and modification o...

  11. Water pollution by radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovard, P.

    1976-01-01

    Within the frame of the definition of a philosophy and politics of waste disposal and site selection, an analysis is made of the main elements of radioactive pollution of waters: sources of radioactivity, radionuclides classified according to their hazard, waste processing, disposal criteria and transfer processes in the compartments: water, suspended sediments, deposited sediments, biomass [fr

  12. The Pollution Detectives, Part III: Roadside Lead Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Phil

    1989-01-01

    Described is a simple test tube method developed lead analysis of samples of roadside soil. The relationship between the results and the traffic flow indicate car exhausts are the major source of lead pollution. Materials and procedures are detailed. An example of results is provided. (Author/CW)

  13. Water pollution from abandoned mines

    OpenAIRE

    Iversen, E.; Johannessen, M.

    1987-01-01

    The report provides a country-wide overview of abandoned pyrite mines where operations have been fairly extensive. The water pollution situation is assessed on the basis of reported investigations, inspections and chemical analyses from the individual areas. In cases where larger watercourses (Orkla, Gaula), and the upper stretch of the Glåma are affected the situation appears to be adequately described. However abandoned mine areas may also cause local pollution problems, and here documentat...

  14. Environmental Monitoring, Water Quality - Water Pollution Control Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — A Water Pollution Control Facility is a DEP primary facility type related to the Water Pollution Control Program. The sub-facility types related to Water Pollution...

  15. Plastic pollutants in water environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrowiec Bożena

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, wide applications of plastics result in plastic waste being present in the water environment in a wide variety of sizes. Plastic wastes are in water mainly as microplastics (the size range of 1 nm to < 5 mm. Microplastics have been recognized as an emerging threat, as well as ecotoxicological and ecological risk for water ecosystems. In this review are presented some of the physicochemical properties of plastic materials that determine their toxic effect on the aquatic environment. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs are mentioned as one of main sources of microplastics introduced into fresh water, and rivers are the pathways for the transportation of the pollutants to seas and oceans. But, effluents from tertiary wastewater treatment facilities can contain only minimally microplastic loads. The issue of discharge reduction of plastic pollutants into water environment needs activities in the scope of efficient wastewater treatment, waste disposal, recycling of plastic materials, education and public involvement.

  16. CISADANE RIVER WATER POLLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumoro Palupi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Sungai Cisadane berfungsi sebagai sumber air baku untuk sistem penyediaan air bersih wilayah Serpong dan Tangerang, Kabupaten Tangerang. Meskipun demikian, sungai Cisadane berfungsi pula sebagai tempat pembuangan limbah bagi rumah tangga dan industri yang berlokasi di sepanjang sungai tersebut. Untuk memperoleh gambaran mengenai tingkat pencemaran airnya, pada bulan September 1992 telah dilakukan pengambilan sampel air sungai Cisadane. Sampel air diambil di sebelah hulu intake instalasi pengolahan air di Cikokol (Tangerang dan Serpong, masing-masing sebanyak lima dan tiga lokasi. Sebanyak 21 parameter dianalisis, kemudian dihitung Individual Index (II dan Pollution Index (PI - nya. Hasil yang diperoleh, yang menggambarkan kualitas pencemaran air sungai Cisadane pada saat itu, adalah sebagai berikut : Tangerang PI=1891. Pencemar utama adalah fenol, dengan II- 110 dan lemak & minyak, dengan II = 2670.Serpong, PI=574. Pencemar utama adalah fenol, dengan 11 = 810 Parameter lain yang mempunyai II > 1 adalah oksigen terlarut, fosfat, zat besi, fecal coli, nitrat, COD dan zat padat tersuspensi. Hasil tersebut menggambarkan baliwa sungai Cisadane telah tercemar oleh limbah industri dan rumah tangga, serta mungkin pula telah tercemar oleh limbah pertanian, peternakan dan perbengkelan.

  17. Water Pollution Scrubber Activity Simulates Pollution Control Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Edward C., III; Waggoner, Todd C.

    2003-01-01

    A laboratory activity caused students to think actively about water pollution. The students realized that it would be easier to keep water clean than to remove pollutants. They created a water scrubbing system allowing them to pour water in one end and have it emerge clean at the other end. (JOW)

  18. Careers in Water Pollution Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water Pollution Control Federation, Washington, DC.

    Described are the activities, responsibilities, and educational and training requirements of the major occupations directly concerned with water pollution control. Also provided is an overview of employment trends, salaries, and projected demand for employees. Included in the appendix is a list of colleges and universities which offer…

  19. Water Pollution in School Curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Abraham

    1979-01-01

    Water pollution curriculum units of four environmental secondary science programs in Britain, Germany, Israel, and the United States are examined. Comparisons reveal the use of quite different approaches in central topic selection, use of the laboratory and other media, controversial issues, and teacher-student roles. (CS)

  20. Exploring Water Pollution. Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    1975-01-01

    This is part two of a three part article related to the science activity of exploring environmental problems. Part one dealt with background information for the classroom teacher. Presented here is a suggested lesson plan on water pollution. Objectives, important concepts and instructional procedures are suggested. (EB)

  1. Groundwater and surface water pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chae, Y.S.; Hamidi, A. [eds.

    2000-07-01

    This book contains almost all the technical know-how that is required to clean up the water supply. It provides a survey of up-to-date technologies for remediation, as well as a step-by-step guide to pollution assessment for both ground and surface waters. In addition to focusing on causes, effects, and remedies, the book stresses reuse, recycling, and recovery of resources. The authors suggest that through total recycling wastes can become resources.

  2. Combined air and water pollution control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, Billy C. (Inventor); Jarrell, Lamont (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A bioaquatic air pollution control system for controlling both water and atmospheric pollution is disclosed. The pollution control system includes an exhaust for directing polluted gases out of a furnace and a fluid circulating system which circulates fluid, such as waste water, from a source, past the furnace where the fluid flow entrains the pollutants from the furnace. The combined fluid and pollutants are then directed through a rock/plant/microbial filtering system. A suction pump pumps the treated waste water from the filter system past the exhaust to again entrain more pollutants from the furnace where they are combined with the fluid (waste water) and directed to the filter system.

  3. Water pollution by non-radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickenbrok, G.

    1974-01-01

    Water is in constant circulation from the ocean to the earth's atmosphere and back to the ocean. In the course of this cycle, the composition of the water is altered by natural and human influences. Depending on the prevailing conditions, the water may contain solute gases, undissolved substances, inorganic salts, organic compounds, and microorganisms of varying types and concentrations. Many of these substances are known to pollute the water and thus to threaten its various uses. Emitting sources of water pollutants are: waste waters, seepings from open dumpings, mineral fertilizers and biocides washed out from agricultural areas, water pollutants emitted during storage and transport, air pollutants, and erosions from roads. The thermal load is an additional factor. Technical and legal steps are necessary in order to prevent water pollution and to maintain the quality of water required for its various uses. These measures are treated in detail. (orig./AK) [de

  4. Modeling Water Pollution of Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Doležel

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The government of the Czech Republic decided that in the location to the west of Prague, capital city of the Czech Republic, some deep mines should be closed because of their low efficiency of coal mined i.e. small amounts and low quality of the coal extracted in the final stage of mining. The locations near Prague influenced the decision to do maintenance on the abandoned mines, as the thread of soil pollution was unacceptably high in the neighborhood of the capital city. Before the mines were closed it was necessary to separate existed extensive horizontal location of salt water below a clay layer in order not to deteriorate the upper fresh water. The salt water could not be allowed to pollute the upper layer with the fresh water, as many wells in villages in the neighborhood of the former mines would be contaminated. Two horizontal clay layers (an insulator and a semi-insulator separated the two horizons containing salt water and fresh water. Before starting deep mining, vertical shafts had to be constructed with concrete linings to enable the miners to access the depths. The salt water was draining away throughout the existence of the mine. The drainage was designed very carefully to avoid possible infiltration of salt water into the upper horizon. Before the mines were abandoned it was necessary to prevent contact between the two kinds of waters in the shafts. Several options were put forward, the most efficient of which appeared to be one that proposed filling the shafts with spoil soil and creating a joint seal made of disparate material at the interface between the salt water and fresh water to create a reliable stopper. The material for the spoil soil was delivered from deposits located not far from the shafts. This material consisted of a variety of grains of sand, big boulders of slate, slaty clay, sandstone, etc.. Chemical admixtures were considered to improve the flocculation of the filling material. The stopper was positioned at a

  5. Environment Of Underground Water And Pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Jeong Sang

    1998-02-15

    This book deals with environment of underground water and pollution, which introduces the role of underground water in hydrology, definition of related study of under water, the history of hydro-geology, basic conception of underground water such as origin of water, and hydrogeologic characteristic of aquifers, movement of underground water, hydrography of underground water and aquifer test analysis, change of an underground water level, and water balance analysis and development of underground water.

  6. GROUNDWATER, DRINKING WATER, ARSENIC POLLUTION, NORTH DAG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. O. Abdulmutalimova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article we studied the chemical particularities of ground water of the North Daghestan, using by population as drinking water. In particular we examined the problem of arsenic pollution.

  7. The Practice of Water Pollution Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenthun, Kenneth M.

    Water pollution techniques and practices, including data analysis, interpretation and display are described in this book intended primarily for the biologist inexperienced in this work, and for sanitary engineers, chemists, and water pollution control administrators. The characteristics of aquatic environments, their biota, and the effects of…

  8. Organ nic pollutants in underground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, H. H.

    1998-01-01

    Many organic compounds have been diagnosed in underground and surface waters, and there are many theories that explain the source of the dangerous materials on Punic health. The source of pollution could be the underground stored fuel or the polluted water in farms saturated with agricultural insecticides and chemical fertilizers, or there could be leaks in sewage water wastes. The source of pollution could also be the water surfaces in the areas of garbage disposal or industrial and home waste discharge. Due to the fact that the underground water is separated from oxygen in the air, its ability on self-purification is very low, in that the micro-organism that will do the dismantling and decomposition of the organic materials that pollute the water are in need for oxygen. In the event that underground water is subject to pollution m there are many methods for t resting the polluted water including the chemical decomposition method by injecting the polluted areas with neutralizing or oxidizing chemicals, such as Ozone, Chlorine or Hydrogen Peroxide. The mechanical methods could be used for getting rid of the volatile organic materials. As to biological decomposition, it is done with the use of bacteria in dismantling the poisonous materials into un poisonous materials. The preliminary analysis of water samples in one of the water wells in Sar ir and Tazarbo in Great Jamahirieh indicated that the concentration of total organic compounds (TOC) exceeded the internationally allowed limits. This indicates a deterioration of quality of some of underground water resources. It is well known that some of the organic pollutants have a great role in causing dangerous diseases, such as the polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons and some halogenated compounds that cause cancer. Therefore, much research is required in this field for diagnosing the polluting organic compounds and determining the suitability of this water for drinking or for human consumption. (author). 21 refs., 6 figs

  9. Water pollution control for underground coal gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humenick, M.J.

    1984-01-01

    Water pollution arising from underground gasification of coal is one of the important considerations in the eventual commercialization of the process. Because many coal seams which are amenable to in situ gasification are also ground-water aquifers, contaminants may be released to these ground waters during and after gasification. Also, when product gas is processed above ground for use, wastewater streams are generated which are too polluted to be discharged. The purpose of this paper is to characterize the nature of the groundwater and above-ground pollutants, discuss the potential long and short-term effects on ground water, propose control and restoration strategies, and to identify potential wastewater treatment schemes

  10. Pollutant infiltration and ground water management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Following a short overview of hazard potentials for ground water in Germany, this book, which was compiled by the technical committee of DVWK on ground water use, discusses the natural scientific bases of pollutant movement to and in ground water. It points out whether and to what extent soil/ground water systems can be protected from harmful influences, and indicates relative strategies. Two zones are distinguished: the unsaturated zone, where local defence and remedial measures are frequently possible, and the saturated zone. From the protective function of geological systems, which is always pollutant-specific, criteria are derived for judging the systems generally, or at least regarding entire classes of pollutants. Finally, the impact of the infiltration of pollutants into ground water on its use as drinking water is pointed out and an estimate of the cost of remedial measures is given. (orig.) [de

  11. Solar photocatalytic cleaning of polluted water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bockelmann, D.

    1994-01-01

    Alternatively to biological, physical and chemical methods of waste water cleaning, photocatalysis can be employed. In this residue-free method, titanium dioxide particles are brought into contact with polluted water as photocatalysts. Under UV irradiation at wave-lengths below 400 nm, change carriers are generated in the semiconductor particles that act so intensely oxidizing as to completely degrade almost all organic pollutants in waste water. In this process, the ultra-violet part of the solar spectrum can be harnessed to generate oxidation equivalents. Thus, solar photocatalytic waste water cleaning is excellently suited for developing countries. (BWI) [de

  12. Residuals Management and Water Pollution Control Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Public Affairs.

    This pamphlet addresses the problems associated with residuals and water quality especially as it relates to the National Water Pollution Control Program. The types of residuals and appropriate management systems are discussed. Additionally, one section is devoted to the role of citizen participation in developing management programs. (CS)

  13. Urbanization, Water Pollution, and Public Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, George W.; And Others

    Reviewed in this report is a study concerned with water pollution as it relates to urbanization within the Regional Plan Association's set of 21 contiguous New York, New Jersey and Connecticut counties centered upon the numerous bay and estuarial reaches of the Port of New York and New Jersey. With a time frame covering a decade of water quality…

  14. Criminalistic analysis of water pollution in Dagestan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Agarzaeva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Drinkable water in Republic of Dagestan is not correspond the demand of the norm of sanitary. Article 250 of Criminal code foresees the responsibility for pollution of water is necessary for correcting because of efficacious use.

  15. Water pollution and thermal power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maini, A.; Harapanahalli, A.B.

    1993-01-01

    There are a number of thermal power stations dotting the countryside in India for the generation of electricity. The pollution of environment is continuously increasing in the country with the addition of new coal based power stations and causing both a menace and a hazard to the biota. The paper reviews the problems arising out of water pollution from the coal based thermal power stations. (author). 2 tabs

  16. Modeling Water Pollution of Soil

    OpenAIRE

    V. Doležel; P. Procházka; V. Křístek

    2008-01-01

    The government of the Czech Republic decided that in the location to the west of Prague, capital city of the Czech Republic, some deep mines should be closed because of their low efficiency of coal mined i.e. small amounts and low quality of the coal extracted in the final stage of mining. The locations near Prague influenced the decision to do maintenance on the abandoned mines, as the thread of soil pollution was unacceptably high in the neighborhood of the capital city. Before the mines we...

  17. Plastic pollutants in water environment

    OpenAIRE

    Mrowiec Bożena

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, wide applications of plastics result in plastic waste being present in the water environment in a wide variety of sizes. Plastic wastes are in water mainly as microplastics (the size range of 1 nm to < 5 mm). Microplastics have been recognized as an emerging threat, as well as ecotoxicological and ecological risk for water ecosystems. In this review are presented some of the physicochemical properties of plastic materials that determine their toxic effect on the aquatic environment....

  18. Water pollution profile of coal washeries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, R.K.; Singh, Gurdeep

    1995-01-01

    Environmental problems in coal mining industry is increased with the demand of good quality of coal through coal washing/beneficiation activities. The coal washeries in general have been identified as one of the serious sources of water pollution particularly of Damodar river. Coal washeries though are designed on close water circuit, most of these however, fail to operate on close water circuit thus resulting in enormous quantity of effluents containing coal fines as well. This apart from posing serious water pollution problem also results into economic losses. The present study attempts to provide an insight into water pollution profile from coal washeries in Jharia coalfield. Various process parameters/unit operations in coal washing are also described. Effluents from various selected coal washeries of Jharia coalfield are sampled and analysed over a period of six months during 1993. Suspended solids, oil and grease and COD in the washery effluents are identified as the three major water quality parameters causing lots of concern for Damodar river pollution. Reasons for unavoidable discharge of effluents containing coal fines are also described. (author). 14 refs., 4 tabs., 2 figs

  19. Developments in Water Pollution Law and Policy in China: Effective Enough to Cope with Water Pollution Conflict?

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Qun

    2011-01-01

    Water pollution is one of the most serious environmental issues facing China. In 2005, an exceptionally serious water pollution accident in the Songhua River — caused by an unintended and sudden chemicals explosion — heralded an official recognition of a water pollution crisis in China. Although there have been new initiatives in national law and policy concerning water pollution that attempt to respond to issues of: social conflict caused by water pollution; government accountability; liabil...

  20. Naegleria fowleri in thermally polluted waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasprzak, W; Mazur, T; Cerva, L

    1982-01-01

    Two complexes of lakes and canals supplying water for two electric power plants, their steam condensors and an adjoining river were investigated by means of culture methods for the presence of Naegleria fowleri in Poland in the period from 1974 to 1980. Sixty-four strains of N. fowleri were isolated, 13 isolates being virulent for mice when instilled intranasally. These strains were found in the steam condensor of the power station A and in waters polluted with warm water of this plant. Pathogenic N. fowleri strains occurred also in an adjoining river connected with the water system of the power plant. The results show the possible role of the steam condensor A as an incubator and regular source of pollution with pathogenic amoebae for its own system of cooling waters and even the adjoining river.

  1. Developments in Water Pollution Law and Policy in China: Effective Enough to Cope with Water Pollution Conflict?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qun Du

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Water pollution is one of the most serious environmental issues facing China. In 2005, an exceptionally serious water pollution accident in the Songhua River — caused by an unintended and sudden chemicals explosion — heralded an official recognition of a water pollution crisis in China. Although there have been new initiatives in national law and policy concerning water pollution that attempt to respond to issues of: social conflict caused by water pollution; government accountability; liability of polluting entities; and citizens’ rights in cases of water pollution, the challenges for the rule of environmental law in effectively reducing water pollution accidents and resolving water pollution conflict still exist. There is an urgent need to strengthen compliance and enforcement. This paper discusses the issues of water pollution conflict and the possible resolutions offered through law and policy.

  2. Water quality and MTBE water pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buiatti, M.; Mascini, M.; Monanni, R.; Filipponi, M.; Piangoloni, A.; Mancini, G.

    2001-01-01

    The research project, here presented, was defined with the aim of evaluating the eventual presence of MTBE and the possible relative impact in water destined to human use; the territorial valence of the project was extended to the competence region n. 4 of the Tuscany water authority (AATO n. 4). University of Florence, ARPAT, AATO n. 4 and Nuove Acque SpA, in this role of manager for the integrated water cycle in the country, have productively contributed to the project [it

  3. Water Pollution Control Across the Nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Reviewed are accomplishments, problems, and frustrations faced by individual states in meeting requirements of P.L. 92-500, Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972. State Environmental officials complain the new law may be a hindrance to established cleanup programs. Statistics and charts are given. (BL)

  4. Water Pollution, Environmental Science Curriculum Guide Supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Harold J.

    This curriculum guide is a 40-day unit plan on water pollution developed, in part, from the National Science Foundation Environmental Science Institutes' Ninth Grade Environmental Science Curriculum Guide. This unit contains teacher lesson plans, suggested teacher and student modules, case studies, and activities to be developed by teachers…

  5. Public Information for Water Pollution Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water Pollution Control Federation, Washington, DC.

    This publication is a handbook for water pollution control personnel to guide them towards a successful public relations program. This handbook was written to incorporate the latest methods of teaching basic public information techniques to the non-professional in this area. Contents include: (1) a rationale for a public information program; (2)…

  6. Treatment of oil pollution on water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haywood, K.H.; Haywood, P.C.; Haywood, K.S.

    1991-01-01

    Oil or other polluting material on or near the surface of a body of water is treated by a device comprising a tube having a slot through which fluid within the tube emerges. A cover directs the emerging fluid over the curved outer surface of the tube. The fluid may be water or a mixture of water and a dispersant. The device may be provided with fins. Some or all of the treated water may be collected in a tank and some or all may be returned to the sea. The device may be rendered buoyant by a pair of floats or may be part of a larger sea-going vessel. (Author)

  7. Pollution of water sources and removal of pollutants by advanced drinking-water treatment in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L; Wang, B

    2000-01-01

    The pollution of water resources and drinking water sources in China is described in this paper with basic data. About 90% of surface waters and over 60% of drinking water sources in urban areas have been polluted to different extents. The main pollutants present in drinking water sources are organic substances, ammonia nitrogen, phenols, pesticides and pathogenic micro-organisms, some of which cannot be removed effectively by the traditional water treatment processes like coagulation, sedimentation, filtration and chlorination, and the product water usually does not meet Chinese national drinking water standards, when polluted source water is treated. In some drinking-water plants in China, advanced treatment processes including activated carbon filtration and adsorption, ozonation, biological activated carbon and membrane separation have been employed for further treatment of the filtrate from a traditional treatment system producing unqualified drinking water, to make final product water meet the WHO guidelines and some developed countries' standards, as well as the Chinese national standards for drinking water. Some case studies of advanced water treatment plants are described in this paper as well.

  8. E-Alerts: Environmental pollution and control (water pollution and control). E-mail newsletter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Topics of discussion include the following: Pollution by municipal wastes, agricultural wastes, industrial wastes, mine wastes, radioactive contaminants; Chemistry and analysis of pollutants; Thermal pollution; Oil pollution; Control techniques and equipment; Sewage treatment; Industrial waste water pretreatment; Hydrology and limnology; Biological and ecological effects; Waste water reuse; Laws, legislation, and regulations; Public administration; Economics; Land use

  9. E-Alerts: Environmental pollution and control (water pollution and control). E-mail newsletter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    Topics of discussion include the following: Pollution by municipal wastes, agricultural wastes, industrial wastes, mine wastes, radioactive contaminants; Chemistry and analysis of pollutants; Thermal pollution; Oil pollution; Control techniques and equipment; Sewage treatment; Industrial waste water pretreatment; Hydrology and limnology; Biological and ecological effects; Waste water reuse; Laws, legislation, and regulations; Public administration; Economics; Land use.

  10. Water resources and water pollution studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airey, P.

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear techniques are widely used in the investigation of the dynamics of the water cycle. This paper focusses on their contributions to the development of strategies for the sustainability of environmental resources. Emphasis has been placed on the role of environmental isotopes and radiotracers in evaluating models of complex environmental systems. Specific reference is made to 1) the construction of a marine radioactivity database for Asia and the Pacific, 2) the sustainability of groundwater in regions challenged by climate change, and 3) the applications of radiotracers to off-shore transport of sediments and contaminants

  11. Cleaning of polluted water using biological techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, M.

    1992-01-01

    Ground-water at many Danish locations has been polluted by organic substances. This pollution has taken place in relation to leaks or spills of, for example, petrol from leaky tanks or oil separators. The article describes a new biological technique for the purification of ground-water polluted by petrol and diesel oils leaked at a petrol station. The technique involves decompostion by bacteria. During decompostion the biomass in the filter increases and carbon dioxide and water is produced, so there is no waste product from this process. The two units consist of an oil-separator which separates the diesel oil and petrol from the water, and a bio-filter which is constructed as an aired-through inverted filter to which nutrient salts are continually added. The filter-material used is in the form of plastic rings on which the oil-decomposing bacteria grow and reproduce themselves. The system is further described. It is claimed that the bio-filter can decompose 7 kg of petrol and diesel oil in one week, larger ones decompose more. The servicelife of the system is expected to be 4-6 years. Current installation costs are 20.000 - 100.000 Danish kroner, according to size. (AB)

  12. Water Pollution Search | ECHO | US EPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ECHO, Enforcement and Compliance History Online, provides compliance and enforcement information for approximately 800,000 EPA-regulated facilities nationwide. ECHO includes permit, inspection, violation, enforcement action, and penalty information about facilities regulated under the Clean Air Act (CAA) Stationary Source Program, Clean Water Act (CWA) National Pollutant Elimination Discharge System (NPDES), and/or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Information also is provided on surrounding demographics when available.

  13. Radiation treatment of polluted water and wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-09-01

    Strategies to tackle environmental pollution have been receiving increasing attention throughout the world in recent years. Radiation processing using electron beam accelerators and gamma irradiators has shown very promising results in this area. Radiation processing in wastewater treatment is an additive-free process that uses the short lived reactive species formed during the radiolysis of water for efficient decomposition of pollutants therein. The rapid growth of the global population, together with the increased development of agriculture and industry, have led to the generation of large quantities of polluted industrial and municipal wastewater. The recognition that these polluted waters may pose a serious threat to humans has led technologists to look for cost effective technologies for their treatment. A variety of methods based on biological, chemical, photochemical and electrochemical processes are being explored for decomposing the chemical and biological contaminants present in the wastewaters. Studies in recent years have demonstrated the effectiveness of ionizing radiation such as, gamma rays and electron beams or in combination with other treatments, in the decomposition of refractory organic compounds in aqueous solutions and in the effective removal or inactivation of various microorganisms and parasites. The application of electron beam processing for drinking water, wastewater and groundwater treatment offers the promise of a cost effective process. The installation of the first full scale electron beam plant in Daegu, Republic of Korea, to treat 10 000 m 3 day -1 textile wastewater has demonstrated that the process is a cost effective technology when compared to conventional treatment. The regular operation of this facility provides operational data on reliability and additional data for a detailed economic evaluation. The IAEA has been supporting activities in this area by organizing advisory group meetings, consultants meetings, symposia and

  14. Monitoring and assessment of mercury pollution in the vicinity of a chloralkali plant. III. Concentration and genotoxicity of mercury in the industrial effluent and contaminated water of Rushikulya estuary, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, K K; Lenka, M; Panda, B B

    1992-01-01

    Aquatic mercury pollution of the Rushikulya estuary in the vicinity of the chloralkali plant at Ganjam, India was monitored over a period from October 1987 to May 1989. The concentrations of aquatic mercury in the water samples taken from the effluent channel and from different sites along the course of the estuary covering a distance of 2 km were periodically recorded and ranged from 0 to 0.5 mg/l. The bioconcentration and genotoxicity of aquatic mercury in the samples were assessed by the Allium micronucleus (MNC) assay. The frequency of cells with MNC was highly correlated not only with bioconcentrated mercury (root mercury) but also with the levels of aquatic mercury. The threshold assessment values such as effective concentration fifty (EC50) for root growth, lowest effective concentration tested (LECT), and highest ineffective concentration tested (HICT) for induction of MNC in Allium MNC assay for the present aquatic industrial mercury were determined to be 0.14, 0.06 and 0.02 mg/l, respectively.

  15. Water Quality Protection from Nutrient Pollution: Case ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water bodies and coastal areas around the world are threatened by increases in upstream sediment and nutrient loads, which influence drinking water sources, aquatic species, and other ecologic functions and services of streams, lakes, and coastal water bodies. For example, increased nutrient fluxes from the Mississippi River Basin have been linked to increased occurrences of seasonal hypoxia in northern Gulf of Mexico. Lake Erie is another example where in the summer of 2014 nutrients, nutrients, particularly phosphorus, washed from fertilized farms, cattle feedlots, and leaky septic systems; caused a severe algae bloom, much of it poisonous; and resulted in the loss of drinking water for a half-million residents. Our current management strategies for point and non-point source nutrient loadings need to be improved to protect and meet the expected increased future demands of water for consumption, recreation, and ecological integrity. This presentation introduces management practices being implemented and their effectiveness in reducing nutrient loss from agricultural fields, a case analysis of nutrient pollution of the Grand Lake St. Marys and possible remedies, and ongoing work on watershed modeling to improve our understanding on nutrient loss and water quality. Presented at the 3rd International Conference on Water Resource and Environment.

  16. Heavy Metals Pollution on Surface Water Sources in Kaduna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examine the effects of heavy metal pollutants to aquatic ecosystems and the environment by considering the role of urban, municipal, agricultural, industrial and other anthropogenic processes as sources of heavy metal pollution in surface water sources of Kaduna metropolis. Samples of the polluted water were ...

  17. Simultaneous oxidation and adsorption of As(III) from water by cerium modified chitosan ultrafine nanobiosorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Lingfan [School of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Research Center of Analysis and Test, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Zhu, Tianyi [School of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Liu, Xin, E-mail: liuxin@ecust.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Zhang, Wenqing, E-mail: zhwqing@ecust.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China)

    2016-05-05

    Highlights: • A novel ultrafine nanobiosorbent of cerium modified chitosan (Ce-CNB) was prepared. • The Ce-CNB possessed properties for simultaneous oxidation and adsorption As(III). • Adsorption of As(III) by Ce-CNB was in high efficiency. • Mechanisms for As(III) adsorption on Ce-CNB were elucidated. - Abstract: Since most existing arsenic removal adsorbents are difficult to effectively remove arsenite (As(III)), an urgent need is to develop an efficient adsorbent for removing As(III) from contaminated water. In this study, a novel ultrafine nanobiosorbent of cerium modified chitosan (Ce-CNB) with simultaneous oxidation and adsorption As(III) performance has been successfully developed. The resulting Ce-CNB with or without As(III) adsorption was characterized by FTIR, XRD, SEM, EDS, TEM, EMI and XPS analysis. Batch of adsorption experiments were performed to investigate the effects of various conditions on the As(III) adsorption. The adsorption behaviors were well described by the Langmuir isotherm and the pseudo-second-order kinetic model, with the maximum adsorption capacities of 57.5 mg g{sup −1}. The adsorption mechanisms for As(III) were (i) formed monodentate and bidentate complexes between hydroxyl groups and arsenite; and (ii) partial As(III) oxidized to As(V) followed by simultaneously adsorbed on the surface of Ce-CNB. This novel nanocomposite can be reused while maintaining a high removal efficiency and can be applied to treat 5.8 L of As(III)-polluted water with the effluent concentration lower than the World Health Organization standard, which suggests its great potential to remove As(III) from contaminated water.

  18. Experimental infrared measurements for hydrocarbon pollutant determination in subterranean waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lay-Ekuakille, A.; Palamara, I.; Caratelli, D.; Morabito, F.C.

    2013-01-01

    Subterranean waters are often polluted by industrial and anthropic effluents that are drained in subsoil. To prevent and control pollution, legislations of different developed countries require an online monitoring measurement, especially for detecting organic solvents (chlorinated and unchlorinated

  19. Zooplankton variability in polluted and unpolluted waters off Bombay

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gajbhiye, S.N.; Desai, B.N.

    Zooplankton abundance in the waters around Bombay was studied at Versova, Bombay Harbour (less polluted), Mahim and Thana (highly polluted) from October 1977 to December 1978. A rich zooplankton population was observed throughout the period of study...

  20. Water pollution control technology in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    This work is a compilation by members of the Committee for Studying Transfer of Environmental Technology on the expertise and technology developed by the members for controlling water pollution in Japan, together with consideration of issues concerning the transfer of environmental technologies to developing countries. The committee is composed of representatives for the Environment Agency, Japan, Osaka Prefectural Government, Osaka Municipal Government, and 25 companies such as manufacturers of environmental equipment. The document contains a total of 93 short papers grouped into sections on: industrial wastewater treatment; sewage treatment; right soil treatment; sludge treatment; and miscellaneous. One paper by the Kausai Electric Power Co., Inc., discusses waste water treatment systems in oil-fired thermal power plants; another describes an internally circulating fluidized bed boiler for cocombusting coal with industrial wastes.

  1. Field Operations and Enforcement Manual for Air Pollution Control. Volume III: Inspection Procedures for Specific Industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisburd, Melvin I.

    The Field Operations and Enforcement Manual for Air Pollution Control, Volume III, explains in detail the following: inspection procedures for specific sources, kraft pulp mills, animal rendering, steel mill furnaces, coking operations, petroleum refineries, chemical plants, non-ferrous smelting and refining, foundries, cement plants, aluminum…

  2. Water Pollution Detection Based on Hypothesis Testing in Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Luo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Water pollution detection is of great importance in water conservation. In this paper, the water pollution detection problems of the network and of the node in sensor networks are discussed. The detection problems in both cases of the distribution of the monitoring noise being normal and nonnormal are considered. The pollution detection problems are analyzed based on hypothesis testing theory firstly; then, the specific detection algorithms are given. Finally, two implementation examples are given to illustrate how the proposed detection methods are used in the water pollution detection in sensor networks and prove the effectiveness of the proposed detection methods.

  3. Grey water characterisation and pollutant loads in an urban slum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katukiza, A. Y.; Ronteltap, M.; Niwagaba, C. B.; Kansiime, F.; Lens, P. N. L.

    2015-01-01

    On-site sanitation provisions in urban slums rarely prioritise grey water management, yet it forms the largest fraction of wastewater. This study was carried out to characterise grey water and quantify its pollutant loads in Bwaise III (Uganda) and to provide data for grey water management in urban slums of developing countries. Samples were collected for analysis from ten representative households as well as from four tertiary drains and the main drainage channel for 7 months in two dry seasons. Grey water production was found to comprise 85 % of the domestic water consumption. The chemical oxygen demand concentration in the grey water generated by laundry, in the kitchen and in the bathroom was 9,225 ± 1,200 mg L-1, 71,250 ± 1,011 mg L-1 and 4,675 ± 750 mg L-1, while the BOD5 (biochemical oxygen demand) to COD ratio was 0.24 ± 0.05, 0.33 ± 0.08 and 0.31 ± 0.07, respectively. The maximum concentration of Escherichia coli and total coliforms was 2.05 9 107 cfu (100 mL)-1 and 1.75 9 108 cfu (100 mL)-1, respectively, in grey water from the bathroom, while that of Salmonella spp. was 7.32 9 106 cfu (100 mL)-1 from laundry. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed a significant difference in the concentration of COD, total suspended solids, total organic carbon, dissolved organic carbon, total phosphorus, sodium adsorption ratio, oil and grease, and Salmonella spp. in grey water from laundry, bathroom and kitchen (p/0.05). The high loads of COD ([500 kg day-1), total suspended solids ([200 kg day-1), nutrients (8.3 kg TKN day-1 and 1.4 kg total phosphorus day-1) and microorganisms (106 to 109 cfu c-1 day-1) originating from grey water in Bwaise III show that grey water poses a threat to the environment and a risk to human health in urban slums. Therefore, there is a need to prioritise grey water treatment in urban slums of developing countries to achieve adequate sanitation.

  4. Assessment of Water Quality and Identification of Polluted Risky Regions Based on Field Observations & GIS in the Honghe River Watershed, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Chang-An; Zhang, Wanchang; Zhang, Zhijie; Liu, Yuanmin; Deng, Cai; Nie, Ning

    2015-01-01

    Water quality assessment at the watershed scale requires not only an investigation of water pollution and the recognition of main pollution factors, but also the identification of polluted risky regions resulted in polluted surrounding river sections. To realize this objective, we collected water samplings from 67 sampling sites in the Honghe River watershed of China with Grid GIS method to analyze six parameters including dissolved oxygen (DO), ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N), nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N), nitrite nitrogen (NO2-N), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP). Single factor pollution index and comprehensive pollution index were adopted to explore main water pollutants and evaluate water quality pollution level. Based on two evaluate methods, Geo-statistical analysis and Geographical Information System (GIS) were used to visualize the spatial pollution characteristics and identifying potential polluted risky regions. The results indicated that the general water quality in the watershed has been exposed to various pollutants, in which TP, NO2-N and TN were the main pollutants and seriously exceeded the standard of Category III. The zones of TP, TN, DO, NO2-N and NH3-N pollution covered 99.07%, 62.22%, 59.72%, 37.34% and 13.82% of the watershed respectively, and they were from medium to serious polluted. 83.27% of the watershed in total was polluted by comprehensive pollutants. These conclusions may provide useful and effective information for watershed water pollution control and management. PMID:25768942

  5. Pollution characteristics and water quality in the Visakhapatnam harbour

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma, V.V.; Raju, G.R.K.; Babu, T.B.

    The impact of organic pollution on the quality of waters in the Visakhapatnam harbour has been studied over a year at 8 stations. The enrichment of nutrients in these waters enhances the eutrophication. The construction of outer harbour retards...

  6. Socio–economic benefits and pollution levels of water resources ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Communities are dependent on wetlands resources for income generation. However, anthropogenic activities that result into pollution of water are one of the major public health problems. Assessment of socio–economic activities and pollution levels of domestic water sources in Gulu Municipality, Pece wetland was done.

  7. Water pollution in Rawal lake Islamabad (part-1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, I.; Ali, S.; Tariq, M.; Ikram, M.

    2001-01-01

    Water pollution of Rawal Lake, one of the three major drinking water sources (21 MG) to Rawalpindi and Islamabad, by anionic pollutants is reported. Physicochemical analysis of water samples collected during September 1996 - January 1997, was carried out using ASTM and AOAC methods. Water samples from Rawal Lake and its tributaries were collected periodically and analyzed for pH, conductivity, turbidity, alkalinity, TDS, TSS, anions (chlorides, phosphates, nitrates, sulfates) and trace metals. (author)

  8. Testing water pollution in a two layer aquifer

    OpenAIRE

    García León, Manuel; Lin Ye, Jue

    2011-01-01

    Water bodies around urban areas may be polluted with chemical elements from urban or industrial activities. We study the case of underground water pollution. This is a serious problem, since under- ground water is high qualified drinkable water in a world where this natural resource is increasingly reduced. This study is focused on a two-layer aquifer. If the superficial layer is contaminated, the deeper layer could be spoiled as well. This contribution checks the equality of the mean or c...

  9. Use of solar energy for disinfection of polluted water

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Jamil; M.R. Ahmad; K. Ali; A. Habeeb; M. Hassan

    2009-01-01

    Polluted water is causing serious health problems especially in the rural areas of Pakistan. People have limited access to safe water supply and many diseases like diarrhea and gastrointestinal diseases are transmitted by consumption of polluted water. We have investigated the potential of using solar energy to pasteurize water. Low cost indigenously available materials have been utilized to design and fabricate a solar box type pasteurizer having a capacity of three liters. The p...

  10. Spatiotemporal Analysis of Heavy Metal Water Pollution in Transitional China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huixuan Li

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available China’s socioeconomic transitions have dramatically accelerated its economic growth in last three decades, but also companioned with continuous environmental degradation. This study will advance the knowledge of heavy metal water pollution in China from a spatial–temporal perspective. Specifically, this study addressed the following: (1 spatial patterns of heavy metal water pollution levels were analyzed using data of prefecture-level cities from 2004 to 2011; and (2 spatial statistical methods were used to examine the underlying socioeconomic and physical factors behind water pollution including socioeconomic transitions (industrialization, urbanization, globalization and economic development, and environmental characteristic (natural resources, hydrology and vegetation coverage. The results show that only Cr pollution levels increased over the years. The individual pollution levels of the other four heavy metals, As, Cd, Hg, and Pb, declined. High heavy metal water pollution levels are closely associated with both anthropogenic activities and physical environments, in particular abundant mineral resources and industrialization prosperity. On the other hand, economic development and urbanization play important roles in controlling water pollution problems. The analytical findings will provide valuable information for policy-makers to initiate and adjust protocols and strategies for protecting water sources and controlling water pollution; thus improving the quality of living environments.

  11. Laser and infrared techniques for water pollution control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geraci, A.L.; Landolina, F.; Pantani, L.; Cecchi, G.

    1993-01-01

    A remote sensing application for the control of oil pollution and water quality was developed by the National Council of Research at Florence, and the University of Catania, both in Italy. The application is based on the simultaneous use of active antipassive remote sensing systems (lidar and flir systems) from a helicopter. Water pollution characteristics were determined with the lidar system, in polluted areas of water detected, on a larger scale, by the flir system. Pollution characteristics detected included type of pollutant, type of oil, and oil thickness. The experiment, named LIRA, was carried out using an Italian Navy helicopter over sea areas around Sicily having a high risk of pollution. The results proved the effectiveness and usefulness of the techniques proposed

  12. Finite Difference Formulation for Prediction of Water Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johari, Hanani; Rusli, Nursalasawati; Yahya, Zainab

    2018-03-01

    Water is an important component of the earth. Human being and living organisms are demand for the quality of water. Human activity is one of the causes of the water pollution. The pollution happened give bad effect to the physical and characteristic of water contents. It is not practical to monitor all aspects of water flow and transport distribution. So, in order to help people to access to the polluted area, a prediction of water pollution concentration must be modelled. This study proposed a one-dimensional advection diffusion equation for predicting the water pollution concentration transport. The numerical modelling will be produced in order to predict the transportation of water pollution concentration. In order to approximate the advection diffusion equation, the implicit Crank Nicolson is used. For the purpose of the simulation, the boundary condition and initial condition, the spatial steps and time steps as well as the approximations of the advection diffusion equation have been encoded. The results of one dimensional advection diffusion equation have successfully been used to predict the transportation of water pollution concentration by manipulating the velocity and diffusion parameters.

  13. [Watershed water environment pollution models and their applications: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yao; Liang, Zhi-Wei; Li, Wei; Yang, Yi; Yang, Mu-Yi; Mao, Wei; Xu, Han-Li; Wu, Wei-Xiang

    2013-10-01

    Watershed water environment pollution model is the important tool for studying watershed environmental problems. Through the quantitative description of the complicated pollution processes of whole watershed system and its parts, the model can identify the main sources and migration pathways of pollutants, estimate the pollutant loadings, and evaluate their impacts on water environment, providing a basis for watershed planning and management. This paper reviewed the watershed water environment models widely applied at home and abroad, with the focuses on the models of pollutants loading (GWLF and PLOAD), water quality of received water bodies (QUAL2E and WASP), and the watershed models integrated pollutant loadings and water quality (HSPF, SWAT, AGNPS, AnnAGNPS, and SWMM), and introduced the structures, principles, and main characteristics as well as the limitations in practical applications of these models. The other models of water quality (CE-QUAL-W2, EFDC, and AQUATOX) and watershed models (GLEAMS and MIKE SHE) were also briefly introduced. Through the case analysis on the applications of single model and integrated models, the development trend and application prospect of the watershed water environment pollution models were discussed.

  14. Global gray water footprint and water pollution levels related to anthropogenic nitrogen loads to fresh water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mekonnen, Mesfin; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2015-01-01

    This is the first global assessment of nitrogen-related water pollution in river basins with a specification of the pollution by economic sector, and by crop for the agricultural sector. At a spatial resolution of 5 by 5 arc minute, we estimate anthropogenic nitrogen (N) loads to freshwater,

  15. Industrial water pollution, water environment treatment, and health risks in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Yang, Zhiming

    2016-11-01

    The negative health effects of water pollution remain a major source of morbidity and mortality in China. The Chinese government is making great efforts to strengthen water environment treatment; however, no studies have evaluated the effects of water treatment on human health by water pollution in China. This study evaluated the association between water pollution and health outcomes, and determined the extent to which environmental regulations on water pollution may lead to health benefits. Data were extracted from the 2011 and 2013 China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS). Random effects model and random effects Logit model were applied to study the relationship between health and water pollution, while a Mediator model was used to estimate the effects of environmental water treatment on health outcomes by the intensity of water pollution. Unsurprisingly, water pollution was negatively associated with health outcomes, and the common pollutants in industrial wastewater had differential impacts on health outcomes. The effects were stronger for low-income respondents. Water environment treatment led to improved health outcomes among Chinese people. Reduced water pollution mediated the associations between water environment treatment and health outcomes. The results of this study offer compelling evidence to support treatment of water pollution in China. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The pollution of water by nitrates of chemical fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halwani, Jalal

    1998-01-01

    The following article is a literature review that summarizes results from field studies devoted to chemical analysis of water in Lebanon. Agricultural practices and the use of fertilizers may affect surface waters, ground water and drinking water. Much attention has been given to their environmental consequences, especially those related to water pollution by Nitrates and human health. The Nitrate content should not exceed in drinking water more than 50 mg/l for adults and 25 mg/l for children and pregnant women. Studies suggest incorporation of quick remedial measures to combat pollution in marine environments

  17. Anisotropic diffusion of volatile pollutants at air-water interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-ping Chen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The volatile pollutants that spill into natural waters cause water pollution. Air pollution arises from the water pollution because of volatilization. Mass exchange caused by turbulent fluctuation is stronger in the direction normal to the air-water interface than in other directions due to the large density difference between water and air. In order to explore the characteristics of anisotropic diffusion of the volatile pollutants at the air-water interface, the relationship between velocity gradient and mass transfer rate was established to calculate the turbulent mass diffusivity. A second-order accurate smooth transition differencing scheme (STDS was proposed to guarantee the boundedness for the flow and mass transfer at the air-water interface. Simulations and experiments were performed to study the trichloroethylene (C2HCl3 release. By comparing the anisotropic coupling diffusion model, isotropic coupling diffusion model, and non-coupling diffusion model, the features of the transport of volatile pollutants at the air-water interface were determined. The results show that the anisotropic coupling diffusion model is more accurate than the isotropic coupling diffusion model and non-coupling diffusion model. Mass transfer significantly increases with the increase of the air-water relative velocity at a low relative velocity. However, at a higher relative velocity, an increase in the relative velocity has no effect on mass transfer.

  18. The latent causal chain of industrial water pollution in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Xin; Tang, Yanhong; Wong, Christina W Y; Zang, Hongyu

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discover the latent causal chain of industrial water pollution in China and find ways to cure the want on discharge of toxic waste from industries. It draws evidences from the past pollution incidents in China. Through further digging the back interests and relations by analyzing representative cases, extended theory about loophole derivations and causal chain effect is drawn. This theoretical breakthrough reflects deeper causality. Institutional defect instead of human error is confirmed as the deeper reason of frequent outbreaks of water pollution incidents in China. Ways for collaborative environmental governance are proposed. This paper contributes to a better understanding about the deep inducements of industrial water pollution in China, and, is meaningful for ensuring future prevention and mitigation of environmental pollution. It illuminates multiple dimensions for collaborative environmental governance to cure the stubborn problem.

  19. Management of Water for Consumption and Pollution in the Yitenga ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Management of Water for Consumption and Pollution in the Yitenga Basin, Burkina ... The first phase, funded under the project, 102474 Community of Practice in ... Gestion de l'eau de consommation et de la pollution dans le bassin versant de ...

  20. Estimation of water pollution by genetic biomarkers in tilapia and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGO

    2007-04-02

    Apr 2, 2007 ... environmental pollution. Acid phosphatase was used to estimate the effect of heavy metals pollutants as indica- ted by the analysis of water samples and gills of Cyprinus carpio (Ozmen et al., 2006). The enzyme was employed in fish liver to study the effects of the extensive dredging in Goteborg harbor ...

  1. The Water Quality Study and Sources of Pollution in Alur Ilmu, UKM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurul Afina Abd Mutalib; Othman Abdul Karim

    2015-01-01

    The Alur Ilmu UKM is a large storm water channel that serves to store water and flows into Langat River. The primary objective of this study are to identify the water quality and pollution levels, the sources of which may cause pollution and to measures the control pollution that occurs in the area. Water sampling was carried out in order to determine the quality of water. The sampling water was taken during no-rain and after rainfall. The area includes UKM Forest Reserve (Hutan Pendidikan Alam - HPA), Student Cafeteria (Teres Eko Niaga), Restaurant of Fakulti Sains dan Teknologi (FST), Student Centre (Pusanika), Fakulti Pendidikan Islam (FPI) and UKM Mosque. Eight water quality parameters for example consisting of Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), pH, Turbidity, Total Suspended Solids (TSS), Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN), Temperature, Oil and Grease were measured. The results shows that the water quality are in a class III and IV according to Water quality Index (WQI) and the water meet the standard B that set out in the Regulations of the Environmental Quality (Sewage and Effluent). (author)

  2. The problems of water pollution: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lumb, G.; Clare, A.S.

    1992-01-01

    Most potentially toxic chemicals eventually find their way into waterways. The most common source of this pollution is from the air. More than 50 percent of the chemical pollution of the Great Lakes is believed to come from airborne pollutants, and the main sources of this pollution are smokestacks (energy plants, nuclear or conventional; trash-to-steam incinerators; industrial factories, chemical and wood pulp) and road traffic exhaust. Chemicals may reach waterways directly through partially filtered or untreated sewage and waterway traffic, both industrial and pleasure; or they may be deposited into the soil and reach rivers and estuaries through leakage (PCBs on cables, landfills, and regular or low-level nuclear waste) or locally from fields (fertilizers, herbicides, phosphates, and other chemicals). 26 references

  3. [Study on the types and water pollution driving forces of the typical and medium-small-sized cities in the southern China based on the analysis of water environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Shi-Xing; Wang, La-Chun; Huo, Yu; Chen, Chang-Chun; Teng, Juan

    2009-07-15

    According to the major pollution sources of urban water environment, 10 indexes such as industrial sewage quantity were closen to establish evaluation indexes system about the types and influencing factors of the typical and medium-small-sized cities in the southern China. Case studies of 16 typical and medium-small-sized cities were taken in Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Hubei and Anhui provinces. Combined with SPSS 11.0 cluster analysis results, city types were divided in reference to the values of water resources comprehensive pollution indexes and economical development indexes. The driving forces about city water environment pollution were studied by principal component analysis method. The result indicates that the 16 cities belong to two categories and four sub-categories, which are rich economy as well as light pollution of water environment and poor economy as well as heavy pollution of water environment. The influencing factors of water environment pollution are in sequence of industrial water pollution, agricultural no-point source pollution and urban domestic water pollution. The main factors of water environment pollution influenced I category cities, II as well as IV category cities and III category cities are industrial water pollution, urban domestic pollution and agricultural no-point source pollution respectively.

  4. Learn About the Water Pollution Control (Section 106) Grant Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under CWA Section 106, EPA is authorized to provide grants to states, eligible interstate agencies, and eligible tribes to establish and administer programs, including enforcement programs,for the prevention, reduction, and elimination of water pollution.

  5. A Philosophy of Water Pollution Control--Past and Present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeffer, George J.

    1978-01-01

    An overview of water pollution control in the U.S. is given, leading to an analysis of present policy trends. A "rational environmental program" is called for to provide economic growth and environmental quality. (MDR)

  6. Assessment of water pollution by airborne measurement of chlorophyll

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvesen, J. C.; Weaver, E. C.; Millard, J. P.

    1972-01-01

    Remote measurement of chlorophyll concentrations to determine extent of water pollution is discussed. Construction and operation of radiometer to provide measurement capability are explained. Diagram of equipment is provided.

  7. Assessment of Heavy Metal Pollution in Drinking Water Due to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Akorede

    habitats, polluted the air, soil and water, as well as long term environmental .... chemical elements using the absorption of optical radiation. (light) by free atoms ... measures the concentrations of elements in digested samples down to parts per ...

  8. Recruitment and Employment of the Water Pollution Control Specialist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrard, J. H.; Sherrard, F. A.

    1979-01-01

    Presented are the basic principles of personnel recruitment and employment for the water pollution control field. Attention is given to determination of staffing requirements, effective planning, labor sources, affirmative action, and staffing policies. (CS)

  9. Pollutants impact bioassay from waters and soils in Banat region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crina Laura Mosneang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Analyses of water and soil samples by chemical methods identified the quantities of chlorides, nitrates and phosphates by comparison with the maximum limits of law. Acute toxicity tests on zebra fish embryos is an alternative test of water samples around swine farms in Banat region, because embryos are not subject to animal protection legislation during experiments. The use of Eisenia fetida earthworms as pollution indicators allowed assessment of avoidance behavior of potentially polluting soils collected from different distances from farms.

  10. Pollutants in drinking water - sources, harmful effects and removal procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qadeer, R.

    2005-01-01

    The underground water resources available for human consumption are being continuously contaminated by the natural sources and anthropogenic activities. The pollutants include toxic microorganism, inorganic and organic chemicals and radionuclide etc. This is an acute problem in our country, where free style way of disposal of industrial effluents into the natural water bodies contaminates the surface and ground water. These contaminants make their way into human body through contaminated drinking water, which leads to the malfunctioning of the body organs. Details of some pollutants present in drinking water, their source and harmful effects on human beings are reviewed in this communication Merits and demerits of methods used to remove the pollutants from drinking water are also discussed. (author)

  11. Regulations for the peat production water pollution control; Turvetuotannon vesiensuojeluohjeisto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savolainen, M.; Heikkinen, K.; Ihme, R. [ed.] [VTT Communities and Infrastructure, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The regulations for peat production water pollution control include the latest information on anti-pollution constructions applicable to peat production including field ditches, sedimentation basins, overland flow areas, forest soil saturation, evaporation basins, chemicalization, detention of runoff and artificial flood plains. Information on subsurface drainage in peat mining is also given. The regulations deal with environmental viewpoints, planning of water protection and information on how to build, use and maintain anti-pollution constructions. Special attention is given to the soil conditions, because they play an important role in the building of different constructions. (orig.) (48 refs.)

  12. Regulations for the peat production water pollution control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savolainen, M.; Heikkinen, K.; Ihme, R.

    1996-01-01

    The regulations for peat production water pollution control include the latest information on anti-pollution constructions applicable to peat production including field ditches, sedimentation basins, overland flow areas, forest soil saturation, evaporation basins, chemicalization, detention of runoff and artificial flood plains. Information on subsurface drainage in peat mining is also given. The regulations deal with environmental viewpoints, planning of water protection and information on how to build, use and maintain anti-pollution constructions. Special attention is given to the soil conditions, because they play an important role in the building of different constructions. (orig.) (48 refs.)

  13. Bio-assessment of water pollution in coal belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, P.K.

    1998-01-01

    Water pollution in coal belt has attracted attention of scientists as well as general people. Implication of water pollution on bio-system is still a more important issue and a lot of information has been accumulated. Apart from conventional methods of pollution monitoring, bio-monitoring is comparatively a new approach and a proper methodology is still in pipeline. The present study reviews various methods of bio-monitoring and compare various methodologies suggested at population level with conventional methods. The results indicated that the bio-assessment methodology can be a tool and hence be developed. (author)

  14. 18 CFR 410.1 - Basin regulations-Water Code and Administrative Manual-Part III Water Quality Regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Code and Administrative Manual-Part III Water Quality Regulations. 410.1 Section 410.1 Conservation of... CODE AND ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL-PART III WATER QUALITY REGULATIONS § 410.1 Basin regulations—Water Code and Administrative Manual—Part III Water Quality Regulations. (a) The Water Code of the Delaware River...

  15. Study on measuring social cost of water pollution: concentrated on Han River water system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kwang Im; Min, Dong Gee; Chung, Hoe Seong; Lim, Hyun Jeong; Kim, Mee Sook [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1999-12-01

    Following the economic development and the progress of urbanization, the damage on water pollution has been more serious but a social cost caused by water pollution cannot be measured. Although the need of water quality preservation is emphasized, a base material for public investment on enhancing water quality preservation is not equipped yet due to the absence of economic values of water resource. Therefore it measured a cost generated by leaving pollution not treated water quality in this study. To measure the usable value of water resource or the cost of water pollution all over the country should include a national water system, but this study is limited on the mainstream of Han River water system from North Han River through Paldang to Chamsil sluice gates. Further study on Nakdong River and Keum River water systems should be done. 74 refs., 4 figs., 51 tabs.

  16. Regulating water pollution in China and the European Union in terms of agricultural pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dai, Liping

    2015-01-01

    Regulatory instruments, are the most commonly used policy instruments in both China and the EU. This article explores how China and the EU establish their water quality objectives by regulation and how they design implementation strategies, with a particular focus of agricultural water pollution

  17. 14 CFR 1274.926 - Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts...-Water Pollution Control Acts. Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts July 2002 If this cooperative... 91-604) and section 308 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (33 U.S.C. 1251 et seq...

  18. Reservoir operation schemes for water pollution accidents in Yangtze River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-kang Xin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available After the Three Gorges Reservoir starts running, it can not only take into consideration the interest of departments such as flood control, power generation, water supply, and shipping, but also reduce or eliminate the adverse effects of pollutants by discharge regulation. The evolution of pollutant plumes under different operation schemes of the Three Gorges Reservoir and three kinds of pollutant discharge types were calculated with the MIKE 21 AD software. The feasibility and effectiveness of the reservoir emergency operation when pollution accidents occur were investigated. The results indicate that the emergency operation produces significant effects on the instantaneous discharge type with lesser effects on the constant discharge type, the impact time is shortened, and the concentration of pollutant is reduced. Meanwhile, the results show that the larger the discharge is and the shorter the operation duration is, the more favorable the result is.

  19. Biogas from organically high polluted industrial waste waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sixt, H

    1985-06-01

    Organically high polluted waste water sets special claims for an economical purification and the process treatment. Up to now these waste waters are being purified by anaerobic processes with simultaneous biogas generation. The fourstep anaerobic degradation is influenced by a lot of important parameters. Extensive researchers in the field of anaerobic microbiology has improved the knowledge of the fundamental principles. Parallel the reactor technology is developed worldwide. In general it seems that the fixed-film-reactor with immobilized bacteria has the best future to purify organically high polluted industrial waste water with short retention times under stable operation conditions.

  20. Stormwater Priority Pollutants Versus Surface Water Quality Criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Eva; Ledin, Anna; Baun, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Stormwater in urban areas comprises of a substantial part of the urban water cycle, dominating the flow in many small urban streams, and the pollution levels are sizeable. No stormwater quality criteria were found here and no European or national emission limit values exist. Stormwater pollutants...... however are present in levels exceeding most of the regulated surface water quality criteria and environmental quality standards. Therefore catchment characterisation is needed to chose suitable treatment prior to discharge into receiving surface waters, as the mixing may be insufficient in small streams....

  1. Pollution Impact and Alternative Treatment for Produced Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedar Yusran

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Oil and gas exploration and production are two of the activities that potentially cause pollution and environmental damage. The largest waste generated from this activity is produced water. Produced water contains hazardous pollutants of both organic and inorganic materials, so that the produced water of oil and gas production cannot be discharged directly to the environment. Uncontrolled discharge can lead to the environmental damage, killing the life of water and plants. The produced water needs to be handled and fulfill the quality standards before being discharged to the environment. Several studies to reduce the contaminants in the produced water were conducted by researchers. Among them were gravity based separation - flotation, separation technique based on filtration, and biological process treatment. Therefore, some of these methods can be used as an alternative waste handling of produced water.

  2. CONSTRUCTED WETLAND TECHNOLOGY TO PREVENT WATER RESOURCES POLLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeki Gökalp

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Discharge of untreated waste waters into surface waters creates significant pollution in these resources. Wastewaters are most of the time discharged into seas, rivers and other water bodies without any treatments due to high treatment costs both in Turkey and throughout the world. Constructed wetlands, also called as natural treatment systems, are used as an alternative treatment system to conventional high-cost treatment systems because of their low construction, operation and maintenance costs, energy demands, easy operation and low sludge generation. Today, constructed wetland systems are largely used to treat domestic wastewaters, agricultural wastewaters, industrial wastewater and runoff waters and ultimately to prevent water pollution and to improve water quality of receiving water bodies. In present study, currently implemented practices in design, construction, operation and maintenance of constructed wetlands were assessed and potential mistakes made in different phases these systems were pointed out and possible solutions were proposed to overcome these problems.

  3. Pollution Impact and Alternative Treatment for Produced Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedar, Yusran; Budiyono

    2018-02-01

    Oil and gas exploration and production are two of the activities that potentially cause pollution and environmental damage. The largest waste generated from this activity is produced water. Produced water contains hazardous pollutants of both organic and inorganic materials, so that the produced water of oil and gas production cannot be discharged directly to the environment. Uncontrolled discharge can lead to the environmental damage, killing the life of water and plants. The produced water needs to be handled and fulfill the quality standards before being discharged to the environment. Several studies to reduce the contaminants in the produced water were conducted by researchers. Among them were gravity based separation - flotation, separation technique based on filtration, and biological process treatment. Therefore, some of these methods can be used as an alternative waste handling of produced water.

  4. Drinking water pollution and risks for human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bressa, G.

    1999-01-01

    The hypothesis that most human tumors are caused by toxic substances found in the environment, and that their onset is therefore basically predictable, is earning wider and wider consent. The results of experimental studies carried out on animals have shown that some of the chemical pollutants found in drinking water possess cancerogenous activity. Their origin and can vary a lot because most public water supplies come from rivers, lakes, or from groundwater tables, and, therefore, contain pollutants from agricultural land waste water, from industrial waste and from deliberate or accidental inputs. As a consequence, this kind of pollution can involve some risks for human health as a result of both direct use of tainted water or indirect use through food [it

  5. Estimation of water pollution by genetic biomarkers in tilapia and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was aimed at the estimation of water pollution with heavy metals using four biomarkers as well as to study the species-site interaction. Two species of tilapia as well as two catfish species caught from four sites that represent differential environmental stresses were used for this purpose. Water samples and gills ...

  6. Models of Fate and Transport of Pollutants in Surface Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okome, Gloria Eloho

    2013-01-01

    There is the need to answer very crucial questions of "what happens to pollutants in surface waters?" This question must be answered to determine the factors controlling fate and transport of chemicals and their evolutionary state in surface waters. Monitoring and experimental methods are used in establishing the environmental states.…

  7. Bacterial indicators of faecal pollution of water supplies and public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacterial indicators of faecal pollution of water supplies and their significance to public health are reviewed in this paper, to highlight their levels of general acceptability and suitability as safeguards against health hazards associated with water supplies. Regular bacteriological analysis with the sole aim of detecting faecal ...

  8. Soluble and insoluble pollutants in fog and rime water samples

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fišák, Jaroslav; Stoyanova, V.; Chaloupecký, Pavel; Řezáčová, Daniela; Tsacheva, Ts.; Kupenova, T.; Marinov, M.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 4, Sp. Iss. 2 (2009), S123-S130 ISSN 1801-5395 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/09/1918; GA AV ČR 1QS200420562 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : fog water * rime water * pollutant concentration Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology

  9. Pollutant Concentrations in the Rime and Fog Water

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fišák, Jaroslav; Tesař, Miroslav; Fottová, D.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 1 (2008), S68-S73 ISSN 1801-5395 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3042301; GA AV ČR 1QS200420562 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517; CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : fog water * rime water * pollutant concentration Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology

  10. Spectrophotometric determination of thorium using arsenazo III in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rio, M.A.P. do; Godoy, J.M. de.

    1985-01-01

    A spectrophotometric determination of thorium with arsenazo III (1,8 dihidroxynaphtaline - 3,6 sulfanic acid - 2,7 bis (azo-2) - phenil argonic acid) was carried out aiming to analyse this element in water. In order to eliminate possible interferences, a coprecipitation with lantanium fluoride was used followed by an extration with 0,2 M TTA (tenoil-trifluor - aceton) / Benzen. The results showed a good agreement with the ones obtained by alfa-spectrometry. (Author) [pt

  11. Water Quality Trading when Nonpoint Pollution Loads are Stochastic

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosh, Gaurav; Shortle, James

    2009-01-01

    We compare two tradable permit markets in their ability to meet a stated environmental target at least cost when some polluters have stochastic and non-measurable emissions. The environmental target is of the safety-first type, which requires probabilistic emissions control. One market is built around the trading ratio, which defines the substitution rate between stochastic and deterministic pollution, and is modeled on existing markets for water quality trading. The other market is built aro...

  12. Experimental infrared measurements for hydrocarbon pollutant determination in subterranean waters

    OpenAIRE

    Lay-Ekuakille, A.; Palamara, I.; Caratelli, D.; Morabito, F.C.

    2013-01-01

    Subterranean waters are often polluted by industrial and anthropic effluents that are drained in subsoil. To prevent and control pollution, legislations of different developed countries require an online monitoring measurement, especially for detecting organic solvents (chlorinated and unchlorinated ones). Online measurements include both real-time and no real-time measurements. In general, it is difficult to implement real-time measurements in stricto sensu for online acquisitions on aqueous...

  13. A contribution on the problem of ground water pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zilliox, L.; Muntzer, P.; Kresser, W.

    1982-01-01

    The authors present the underlying physics of processes relevant to the problem of ground water pollution. A series of models are discussed which include two-dimensional diffusion from a point source of pollution in a uniform homogeneous medium and the modifying effect of inhomogeneities, together with displacement processes for miscible liquids in saturated porous media. In conclusion an account of laboratory and theoretical investigations of these diffusion processes in layered media of different permeabilities is given. (J.R.B.)

  14. Pollution of Lahore canal water in the city premises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, Z.; Baig, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    Water contamination is one of the major environmental pollution problems facing Pakistan because it has a direct impact on the health of human beings and crops. Lahore Canal water is being used both for irrigation and a source of ground water recharge. For the best use of this water, extent of pollution and its effect on soil hydraulic properties needs to be studied. For this purpose, water samples from twenty three sites and soil samples from three sites were collected along the Canal within the city limits of Lahore. The survey of the area from Jallo Park to Mall Road, show that all the abadies/colonies and industries situated on both sides of the canal dump their waste water and garbage in to canal. This result in increase of salinity as well as BOD and COD values which were found maximum at the locations of Herbuns Pura, Mughal Pura Dharam Pura, and Thoker Niaz Baig. (authors)

  15. The use of gamma radiation and polymeric materials in the removal of some toxic pollutants from polluted water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, M. E.M.

    2002-01-01

    Gamma radiation degradation of polluted water containing different anionic detergents (Texapon, Acyl Sarcoside, Diethanol Amide of Coconut Fatty Acid, Alkyl Sulfonate and Leonil UN-ET) and non-ionic detergents (Alkyl Polyglycol Ether, Hostapal SF-ET, Hostapal CV-ET and Tween-60) were studied as a function of the detergent Concentration, Ph, dose and dose rate. The synergistic effects resulting from adding different additives such as nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen peroxide on the degradation process were investigated and showed that radiation degradation resulted in degrading the pollutants to a high extent (Between 80-95%). The ability of using Granular Activated Carbon, Agricultural By Products (Sugar Cane Bagasse and Rice Straw), Ion Exchange Resins (Merck II, III and IV) and the grafted polymeric membranes from Low Density Polyethylene were carried out. From the results, It can be concluded that, the gamma radiation coupled with adsorption was the best method for removing these pollutants and down their concentrations below the maximum permissible value according to the FAO regulations than the adsorption process alone and it was the most economic one

  16. MERCURY SEPARATION FROM POLLUTANT WATER USING ZEOLITES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenic is known to be a hazardous contaminant in drinking water that causes arsenical dermatitis and skin cancer. In the present work, the potential use of a variety of synthetic zeolites for removal of arsenic from water has been examined at room temperature. Experiments have...

  17. Composting and water pollution; Kompostointi vesistoen kuormittajana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ettala, M. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland)

    2000-07-01

    The composting of biowaste collected separately is becoming increasingly common. However, numerous structural and operational problems are involved. The study deals with the water and nitrogen balances in composting, demonstrating a substantial nitrogen load on waters due to the practice. (orig.)

  18. CONSTRUCTED WETLAND TECHNOLOGY TO PREVENT WATER RESOURCES POLLUTION

    OpenAIRE

    Zeki Gökalp; Sedat Karaman; Ismail Taş; Halil Kirnak

    2016-01-01

    Discharge of untreated waste waters into surface waters creates significant pollution in these resources. Wastewaters are most of the time discharged into seas, rivers and other water bodies without any treatments due to high treatment costs both in Turkey and throughout the world. Constructed wetlands, also called as natural treatment systems, are used as an alternative treatment system to conventional high-cost treatment systems because of their low construction, operation and maintenance c...

  19. Analytical methods applied to water pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudin, G.

    1977-01-01

    A comparison of different methods applied to water analysis is given. The discussion is limited to the problems presented by inorganic elements, accessible to nuclear activation analysis methods. The following methods were compared: activation analysis: with gamma-ray spectrometry, atomic absorption spectrometry, fluorimetry, emission spectrometry, colorimetry or spectrophotometry, X-ray fluorescence, mass spectrometry, voltametry, polarography or other electrochemical methods, activation analysis-beta measurements. Drinking-water, irrigation waters, sea waters, industrial wastes and very pure waters are the subjects of the investigations. The comparative evaluation is made on the basis of storage of samples, in situ analysis, treatment and concentration, specificity and interference, monoelement or multielement analysis, analysis time and accuracy. The significance of the neutron analysis is shown. (T.G.)

  20. Landscape planning for agricultural nonpoint source pollution reduction III: Assessing phosphorus and sediment reduction potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diebel, M.W.; Maxted, J.T.; Robertson, Dale M.; Han, S.; Vander Zanden, M. J.

    2009-01-01

    Riparian buffers have the potential to improve stream water quality in agricultural landscapes. This potential may vary in response to landscape characteristics such as soils, topography, land use, and human activities, including legacies of historical land management. We built a predictive model to estimate the sediment and phosphorus load reduction that should be achievable following the implementation of riparian buffers; then we estimated load reduction potential for a set of 1598 watersheds (average 54 km2) in Wisconsin. Our results indicate that land cover is generally the most important driver of constituent loads in Wisconsin streams, but its influence varies among pollutants and according to the scale at which it is measured. Physiographic (drainage density) variation also influenced sediment and phosphorus loads. The effect of historical land use on present-day channel erosion and variation in soil texture are the most important sources of phosphorus and sediment that riparian buffers cannot attenuate. However, in most watersheds, a large proportion (approximately 70%) of these pollutants can be eliminated from streams with buffers. Cumulative frequency distributions of load reduction potential indicate that targeting pollution reduction in the highest 10% of Wisconsin watersheds would reduce total phosphorus and sediment loads in the entire state by approximately 20%. These results support our approach of geographically targeting nonpoint source pollution reduction at multiple scales, including the watershed scale. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  1. Strategies to water pollution control in western China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANGWenchao; CHENGJijian; LONGTengrui; HEQiang

    2003-01-01

    Problems of and main limiting factors to Chinese western eco-environment are analyzea firstly and principles of integrating water pollution control with water resources planning and management, with ecological construction and with economic development planning and setting control priorities according to local conditions are proposed. Following strategies for water pollution control are suggested: 1) a master plan for western area need to be established as soon as possible; 2) total emission control should be regarded as the basic policy and measures such as clean production, charging and subsidy need to be implemented; 3) point sources pollution control should be considered the main task in short term and centralized wasteweter treatment plants by using sustainable processes should be constructed primarily for large and medium-size cities with heavier pollution; 4) sound institutional and regulation systems need to be established to create an enabling environment; 5) multiple investment system should be established; and 6) studies of pragmatic theories and methodologies for water pollution control and cost-effective technologies appropriate to western area, and training of local technicians need to be enhanced as well.

  2. Land use and water pollution in Puerto Rico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbona, S.I.

    1991-01-01

    In Puerto Rico, previous water-quality analyses have indicated that most surface-water bodies, as well as ground water, are polluted with both organic and inorganic substances. Contributions to water-quality deterioration come from point and nonpoint sources. These pose a threat on a densely populated island. Urban and industrial development occurred rapidly with a lag in the required infrastructure for expansion. Water pollution has been a by-product of this process and is regarded as the most serious environmental problem on the island. This study examines water-quality parameters in three hydrological basins. It attempts to determine how extensive a problem it is and how the concentration of pollutants compare in different land-use situations. A total of 33 sampling sites distributed among the three watersheds was chosen. Fifteen water-quality parameters were examined. All of the water bodies in spatial association with the land use considered presented detectable concentrations of the selected water-quality parameters

  3. The main factors of water pollution in Danube River basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Gasparotti

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposed herewith aims to give an overview on the pollution along the Danube River. Water quality in Danube River basin (DRB is under a great pressure due to the diverse range of the human activities including large urban center, industrial, agriculture, transport and mining activities. The most important aspects of the water pollution are: organic, nutrient and microbial pollution, , hazardous substances, and hydro-morphological alteration. Analysis of the pressures on the Danube River showed that a large part of the Danube River is subject to multiple pressures and there are important risks for not reaching good ecological status and good chemical status of the water in the foreseeable future. In 2009, the evaluation based on the results of the Trans National Monitoring Network showed for the length of water bodies from the Danube River basin that 22% achieved good ecological status or ecological potential and 45% river water bodies achieved good chemical status. Another important issue is related to the policy of water pollution.

  4. Sediment, water pollution indicators for heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabaleiro, S.; Horn, A.

    2010-01-01

    The complexity of an aquatic system requires consideration of its dynamics: spatial and temporal variations of physical, chemical and biological. Heavy metals have peculiar behavior in the aquatic system and may not be available in the waters, but on sediments.The sub-basin of the Sarandi stream is responsible for the contamination of Pampulha Lake. The Instituto Mineiro das Águas – IGAM - uses tool for monitoring the quality of surface water for developing strategies for conservation, restoration and rational use of water resources. So through the indices: IQA ( Indice de qualidade de águas) Index of water quality, and TC- toxic contamination, reduces conflicts, implements the disciplining of the environmental economy.This study determined the monitoring of sediment and water of Sarandi Stream, so in the samples collected during dry and rainy seasons (2007- 2008) were analyzed heavy metals (Cu, Cd, Cr, Co, Ni, Zn, Pb) and physical-chemical factors (conductivity, solids dissolved, temperature, turbidity). This allowed the determination of Hackanson factors of contamination and Muller Index geoaccumulation, indicating very high contamination in sediments regarding the elements Cr, Cu, and Cd, and high contamination for Pb, Zn, and Mn. The comparison with the indices of water quality- IQA (IGAM - 2006, 2007 and 2008), combined with exploratory data analysis and graphs of correlation between the variables indicated favorable conditions for metals contamination on water and sediment for these metals, besides allowing the identification of its source

  5. Research on water pollution induced by coal mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Q.; Dong, D.; Fu, Y.; Bai, X.; Sun, Z. [China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou (China). Dept of Resource Exploitation Engineering

    2002-01-01

    Water environment problems induced by mining were studied. Influences of coal mining on runoff of rivers and on water sources were discussed. And the forming mechanism of acid water was analysed. The result shows that the mining activity is gradually changing the co-environment of adjacent areas, especially the water. With the water sources being continually polluted, the underground water has some poisonous or harmful ions in the process of dynamic exchange of water. The falling level of water table results in an increase of depression cone, and the seepage of rivers and the increasing range of acid water have more or less influence on water sources. All these are threatening the normal life of human beings. 11 refs., 2 figs.

  6. Kaschnitz, Enzensberger, and Sandig: The Ecopoetics of Water Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Charlotte Melin

    2016-01-01

    This ecocritical reading of Marie Luise Kaschnitz’s poetic cycle “Rückkehr nach Frankfurt” ‘Return to Frankfurt’ (1945/46), Hans Magnus Enzensberger’s epic poem Der Untergang der Titanic ‘ The Sinking of the Titanic ’ (1978), and a 21st-century poem by Ulrike Almut Sandig analyzes key shifts in poetic representations of water pollution. The essay explores underlying cultural and political attitudes about water that define literary depictions of its pollution. It argue...

  7. Modelling water fluxes for the analysis of diffuse pollution at the river basin scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, de M.; Meinardi, C.R.; Wendland, F.; Kunkel, R.

    2000-01-01

    Diffuse pollution is a significant and sometimes even major component of surface water pollution. Diffuse inputs of pollutants to the surface water are related to runoff of precipitation. This means that the analysis of diffuse pollutant fluxes from the land surface to the surface water requires an

  8. Effect of air and water pollutants on human health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhondia, D

    1973-01-01

    The two basic approaches in the study of the influence of air and water pollutants on human health are reviewed. The first one is an experimental or toxicological approach, concerned with biochemical, physiological, and clinical lesions, with the mechanism of the genesis of such lesions, and with the possible relations between the toxic dose and the extent or degree of the lesions. Thus, considerable changes in the electrolyte and trace element concentrations in the organism were observed following short-term exposure to such air pollutants as ozone and nitrogen dioxide which cause emphysema in a short time. Rather stable equilibrium between the uptake and excretion of lead was established. The increase in the blood lead level is accompanied by a decrease in the aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity, a change believed to have no functional consequence. The other, epidemiological, approach is based on the study of human populations actually exposed to pollutants in daily life. Such epidemiological studies are complicated by the large number of extraneous variables playing a significant role in such discrete effects. Epidemiological studies are concerned with the establishment of relationships between specific or nonspecific mortality and morbidity associated with the actual pollution level as compared with control areas and control populations. A qualitative relationship between the increasing pollution level and advanced date of death was determinef for populations with respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. A relationship was found between the high pollution level and the number of patients hospitalized during high-pollution in Los Angeles.

  9. Bacterial Pollution in River Waters and Gastrointestinal Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilia Rodríguez-Tapia

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Currently, one of Mexico’s most severe environmental problems is the high levels of pollution of many of its rivers. The present article focuses on the relationship between total coliform bacteria levels and the increase of human digestive tract diseases in the highly polluted Atoyac River in the central Mexican states of Puebla and Tlaxcala. Pollution has become a potential health hazard for people living in nearby river communities. Based on data collected from six of the most contaminated riverside municipalities, two environmental models were developed taking into consideration the health of the entire population, not simply that of its individual members. Such models estimate a health-disease function that confirm the link between Atoyac River pollution and the incidence of gastrointestinal diseases. The causal relation between pollution and gastrointestinal disease incentivizes the creation of epidemiological and public health programs aimed at reducing the environmental health impact of the pollution associated with the Atoyac River. The results presented here are the first of their kind of this river and will serve as basis for future research exploring other similarly contaminated riparian communities. As the causes of pollution are directly related to the economic development and population growth of the region, further research should be conducted for prevention of diseases, educational programs, water remediation and conservation programs that will have a positive impact on the quality of life of the population presently at risk.

  10. Bacterial Pollution in River Waters and Gastrointestinal Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Tapia, Lilia; Morales-Novelo, Jorge A

    2017-05-04

    Currently, one of Mexico's most severe environmental problems is the high levels of pollution of many of its rivers. The present article focuses on the relationship between total coliform bacteria levels and the increase of human digestive tract diseases in the highly polluted Atoyac River in the central Mexican states of Puebla and Tlaxcala. Pollution has become a potential health hazard for people living in nearby river communities. Based on data collected from six of the most contaminated riverside municipalities, two environmental models were developed taking into consideration the health of the entire population, not simply that of its individual members. Such models estimate a health-disease function that confirm the link between Atoyac River pollution and the incidence of gastrointestinal diseases. The causal relation between pollution and gastrointestinal disease incentivizes the creation of epidemiological and public health programs aimed at reducing the environmental health impact of the pollution associated with the Atoyac River. The results presented here are the first of their kind of this river and will serve as basis for future research exploring other similarly contaminated riparian communities. As the causes of pollution are directly related to the economic development and population growth of the region, further research should be conducted for prevention of diseases, educational programs, water remediation and conservation programs that will have a positive impact on the quality of life of the population presently at risk.

  11. Biomonitoring chromium III or VI soluble pollution by moss chlorophyll fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yang-Er; Mao, Hao-Tian; Ma, Jie; Wu, Nan; Zhang, Chao-Ming; Su, Yan-Qiu; Zhang, Zhong-Wei; Yuan, Ming; Zhang, Huai-Yu; Zeng, Xian-Yin; Yuan, Shu

    2018-03-01

    We systematically compared the impacts of four Cr salts (chromic chloride, chromic nitrate, potassium chromate and potassium bichromate) on physiological parameters and chlorophyll fluorescence in indigenous moss Taxiphyllum taxirameum. Among the four Cr salts, K 2 Cr 2 O 7 treatment resulted in the most significant decrease in photosynthetic efficiency and antioxidant enzymes, increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS), and obvious cell death. Different form the higher plants, although hexavalent Cr(VI) salt treatments resulted in higher accumulation levels of Cr and were more toxic than Cr(III) salts, Cr(III) also induced significant changes in moss physiological parameters and chlorophyll fluorescence. Our results showed that Cr(III) and Cr(VI) could be monitored distinguishably according to the non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) fluorescence of sporadic purple and sporadic lavender images respectively. Then, the valence states and concentrations of Cr contaminations could be evaluated according to the image of maximum efficiency of PSII photochemistry (Fv/Fm) and the quantum yield of PSII electron transport (ΦPSII). Therefore, this study provides new ideas of moss's sensibility to Cr(III) and a new method to monitor Chromium contaminations rapidly and non-invasively in water. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Abatement vs. treatment for efficient diffuse source water pollution management in terrestrial-marine systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roebeling, P C; Cunha, M C; Arroja, L; van Grieken, M E

    2015-01-01

    Marine ecosystems are affected by water pollution originating from coastal catchments. The delivery of water pollutants can be reduced through water pollution abatement as well as water pollution treatment. Hence, sustainable economic development of coastal regions requires balancing of the marginal costs from water pollution abatement and/or treatment and the associated marginal benefits from marine resource appreciation. Water pollution delivery reduction costs are, however, not equal across abatement and treatment options. In this paper, an optimal control approach is developed and applied to explore welfare maximizing rates of water pollution abatement and/or treatment for efficient diffuse source water pollution management in terrestrial-marine systems. For the case of diffuse source dissolved inorganic nitrogen water pollution in the Tully-Murray region, Queensland, Australia, (agricultural) water pollution abatement cost, (wetland) water pollution treatment cost and marine benefit functions are determined to explore welfare maximizing rates of water pollution abatement and/or treatment. Considering partial (wetland) treatment costs and positive water quality improvement benefits, results show that welfare gains can be obtained, primarily, through diffuse source water pollution abatement (improved agricultural management practices) and, to a minor extent, through diffuse source water pollution treatment (wetland restoration).

  13. Water Pollution Detection by Reflectance Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goolsby, A. D.

    1971-01-01

    Measurement of the intensity of light reflected from various planar liquid surfaces has been performed. The results of this brief study show that the presence of a film of foreign material floating on a reference substrate is easily detected by reflectance measurement if the two liquids possess significantly different refractive indices, for example, oil (n = 1.40) and water (n = 1.33). Additional study of various optical configurations, and the building and testing of a prototype monitoring device revealed that the method is sufficiently practical for application to continuous water quality monitoring.

  14. Water Quality Assessment and Determining the Carrying Capacity of Pollution Load Batang Kuranji River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewata, I.; Adri, Z.

    2018-04-01

    This study aims to determine the water quality and carrying capacity of pollution load Batang Kuranji River in the headwaters, middle, and downstream. This research is descriptive quantitative parameters of pH, BOD, COD, TSS, and DOES Depictions of river water quality refer to RegulationNo.82/2001, while determination of carrying capacity of pollution load river refers to the Kep Men LHNo.10/2003.The result is Kuranji Batang River water quality upstream region included in either category who meet the quality standard first class ofPP82/2001. TSS concentrations at head waters of 21 mg/L, BOD1,6 mg/L, COD7,99mg/L and DO 7,845 mg/L. While the carrying capacity of pollution load river in upstream region included in both categories namely BOD of 4,4 kg/sec, COD 273,60 kg/sec, TSS906,00kg/sec, and DO parameters of 49.20 kg/sec. Middle region (point 2, 3, and 4) water quality Batang Kuranji River has exceeded the quality standard of 82/2001 for class II and class III. Meanwhile, carrying capacity of pollution load river in area included in ugly category. The calculation is done with application Qual2Kw show that carrying capacity of pollution load river of BOD -857.3 kg/sec, COD -777.40 kg/sec, TSS +9511.5 kg/sec, and DO +69.30 kg/sec.

  15. Pollutant source identification model for water pollution incidents in small straight rivers based on genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shou-ping; Xin, Xiao-kang

    2017-07-01

    Identification of pollutant sources for river pollution incidents is an important and difficult task in the emergency rescue, and an intelligent optimization method can effectively compensate for the weakness of traditional methods. An intelligent model for pollutant source identification has been established using the basic genetic algorithm (BGA) as an optimization search tool and applying an analytic solution formula of one-dimensional unsteady water quality equation to construct the objective function. Experimental tests show that the identification model is effective and efficient: the model can accurately figure out the pollutant amounts or positions no matter single pollution source or multiple sources. Especially when the population size of BGA is set as 10, the computing results are sound agree with analytic results for a single source amount and position identification, the relative errors are no more than 5 %. For cases of multi-point sources and multi-variable, there are some errors in computing results for the reasons that there exist many possible combinations of the pollution sources. But, with the help of previous experience to narrow the search scope, the relative errors of the identification results are less than 5 %, which proves the established source identification model can be used to direct emergency responses.

  16. Pollution source localization in an urban water supply network based on dynamic water demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xuesong; Zhu, Zhixin; Li, Tian

    2017-10-27

    Urban water supply networks are susceptible to intentional, accidental chemical, and biological pollution, which pose a threat to the health of consumers. In recent years, drinking-water pollution incidents have occurred frequently, seriously endangering social stability and security. The real-time monitoring for water quality can be effectively implemented by placing sensors in the water supply network. However, locating the source of pollution through the data detection obtained by water quality sensors is a challenging problem. The difficulty lies in the limited number of sensors, large number of water supply network nodes, and dynamic user demand for water, which leads the pollution source localization problem to an uncertainty, large-scale, and dynamic optimization problem. In this paper, we mainly study the dynamics of the pollution source localization problem. Previous studies of pollution source localization assume that hydraulic inputs (e.g., water demand of consumers) are known. However, because of the inherent variability of urban water demand, the problem is essentially a fluctuating dynamic problem of consumer's water demand. In this paper, the water demand is considered to be stochastic in nature and can be described using Gaussian model or autoregressive model. On this basis, an optimization algorithm is proposed based on these two dynamic water demand change models to locate the pollution source. The objective of the proposed algorithm is to find the locations and concentrations of pollution sources that meet the minimum between the analogue and detection values of the sensor. Simulation experiments were conducted using two different sizes of urban water supply network data, and the experimental results were compared with those of the standard genetic algorithm.

  17. The Overview Of Water Pollution In The World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Vang Le

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Water is a precious resource but not everyone is aware of it. More than 1 billion people are missing about 20 to 50 liters of clean water each day to cater for basic needs such as eating and bathing. The phenomenon of oil exploration ocean shipping and petroleum-contaminated wastes is one of the causes of water pollution. It is estimated that about 1 billion tons of oil are transported by sea each year. Part of this volume about 0.1 to 0.3 is thrown into the sea in a relatively legal way the washing of oil tankers with seawater. The shipwreck is relatively regular disposal of lubricant or accidental dropping gasoline. The permeation rate of petroleum is seven times that of water which will cause the groundwater to become contaminated. About 1.6 million tons of hydrocarbons are discharged by rivers of industrialized nations. From the above causes we see that human consciousness is the main cause of pollution of water environment. Resources are not endless with the exploitation of an indiscriminate wing rampant run for market economy benefits without the appropriate treatment the water pollution is a certain matter. The importance is inevitable if people are unaware of the importance of water for life in the near future the resources will be exhausted.

  18. Chemical modelling as a management tool for water pollution control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limpitlaw, D. [University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa). Dept. of Mining Engineering

    1996-12-31

    In a colliery currently being re-mined by opencast methods, the coal seam was originally extracted using bord and pillar mining. Depressions in the seam floor have facilitated the formation of large underground water bodies. This water has become acidic and contaminated by heavy metals. Mine water is treated by a liming plant and then released into evaporation pans. Seepage from the pans enters a natural wetlands. The de-watering of old workings ahead of mining periodically subjects the liming plant to large quantities of low quality water, and a nett export of salts such as sulphate occurs. As the mine is situated in a sensitive river catchment, this pollution is unacceptable. A chemical speciation program developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency was used to analyse effluent from the liming plant and wetland. Liming plant effluent water was found to vary greatly due to the conditions prevalent in the different water bodies. The liming plant and wetland were periodically subjected to pollution loads beyond the wetland`s assimilative capacity, resulting failure of the system. Despite this, the software provided evidence of the wetland`s pollution-ameliorating potential. 8 refs., 12 figs.

  19. The Synergic Characteristics of Surface Water Pollution and Sediment Pollution with Heavy Metals in the Haihe River Basin, Northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peiru Kong

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic environmental deterioration is becoming a serious problem due to rapid urbanization and economic development, particularly in developing countries. As two important components of the aquatic environment, water quality and sediment pollution are widely considered to be concerns; however, they are considered separately in most cases. The relationship between water quality and sediment pollution with heavy metals has been little addressed. In this study, the Haihe River Basin (HRB, one of the most polluted areas in China, was used as a case study, and the eutrophication index (EI and the potential ecological risk index (RI were employed to evaluate water quality and sediment pollution of heavy metals, respectively. The results showed that generally in the HRB, the water quality was poor, while the risk of heavy metal pollution was relatively low. Surface water quality was mainly influenced by sewage discharges from human daily life, and heavy metal pollution was affected by industry structure, in that the areas with resource/energy consumption industries and high-pollution industries often have high risks of heavy metal pollution Synergic pollution from water eutrophication and sediment pollution with heavy metals was found, especially in the central areas of the HRB, and it was largely dependent on the type of human activities. In the places with intensive human activities, such as secondary industry, eutrophication occurred simultaneously with heavy metal pollution, other than in less human-affected areas. These findings are useful for planning aquatic environment protections and river ecosystem management.

  20. Deep challenges for China's war on water pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dongmei; Currell, Matthew J; Cao, Guoliang

    2016-11-01

    China's Central government has released an ambitious plan to tackle the nation's water pollution crisis. However, this is inhibited by a lack of data, particularly for groundwater. We compiled and analyzed water quality classification data from publicly available government sources, further revealing the scale and extent of the crisis. We also compiled nitrate data in shallow and deep groundwater from a range of literature sources, covering 52 of China's groundwater systems; the most comprehensive national-scale assessment yet. Nitrate pollution at levels exceeding the US EPA's maximum contaminant level (10 mg/L NO 3 N) occurs at the 90th percentile in 25 of 36 shallow aquifers and 10 out of 37 deep or karst aquifers. Isotopic compositions of groundwater nitrate (δ 15 N and δ 18 O NO3 values ranging from -14.9‰ to 35.5‰ and -8.1‰ to 51.0‰, respectively) indicate many nitrate sources including soil nitrogen, agricultural fertilizers, untreated wastewater and/or manure, and locally show evidence of de-nitrification. From these data, it is clear that contaminated groundwater is ubiquitous in deep aquifers as well as shallow groundwater (and surface water). Deep aquifers contain water recharged tens of thousands of years before present, long before widespread anthropogenic nitrate contamination. This groundwater has therefore likely been contaminated due to rapid bypass flow along wells or other conduits. Addressing the issue of well condition is urgently needed to stop further pollution of China's deep aquifers, which are some of China's most important drinking water sources. China's new 10-point Water Pollution Plan addresses previous shortcomings, however, control and remediation of deep groundwater pollution will take decades of sustained effort. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Water Pollution Abstracts. Volume 43, Number 4, Abstracts 645-849.

    Science.gov (United States)

    WATER POLLUTION, *ABSTRACTS, PURIFICATION, WASTES(INDUSTRIAL), CONTROL, SEWAGE, WATER SUPPLIES, PUBLIC HEALTH, PETROLEUM PRODUCTS, DEGRADATION, DAMS...ESTUARIES, PLANKTON, PHOTOSYNTHESIS, VIRUSES, SEA WATER , MICROBIOLOGY, UNITED KINGDOM.

  2. Surface Water Quality Assessment and Prioritize the Factors Pollute This Water Using Topsis Fuzzy Hierarchical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Komasi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Nowadays, according to growth of industry and increasing population, water resources are seriousely shortened. This lack of water resources will require special management to be considered in industry and agriculture. Among the various sources of water, surface waters are more susceptible to infection. The most important of these sources of pollution are industrial pollution, detergent, pesticides, radioactive materials, heat and salt concentration.  Materials & methods: In this article, at first the importance of each pollutant will be evaluated base on the effects and its results and then quality evaluation of surface water will be studied. In order to assess the relative importance of these pollutants primarily using TOPSIS software, prioritize these factors as one of the hierarchical analysis and then is modeled with decision tree method using Weka software, the importance of each factor is evaluated and if it does not meet the minimal importance of the decision tree will be removed. Results: The results obtained from the Topsis fuzzy analysis indicate that surface water and groundwater are exposed to pollution about 74% and 26% respectively among the six pollutants examined in this study. In addition, results obtaned from the hierarchical tree in software Weka has shown that the heat factor, soluble salts and industrial pollutants give impac factor or purity about 0.1338, 0.0523 and 1.2694 respectively. Conclusion: Surface water is at greater risk of being polluted compared with groundwater. The heat factor and low concentration of dissolved salts have the low impact and industrial pollutants are considered as the most influential factors in surface water pollution.

  3. Introduction to Instrumental Analysis of Water Pollutants. Training Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Water Program Operations (EPA), Cincinnati, OH. National Training and Operational Technology Center.

    This course is designed for those requiring an introduction to instruments commonly used in water pollution analyses. Examples are: pH, conductivity, dissolved oxygen meters, spectrophotometers, turbidimeters, carbon analyzer, and gas chromatographs. Students should have a basic knowledge of analytical chemistry. (CO)

  4. The Role of Monitoring in Controlling Water Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Allan

    1971-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of trends in the national water pollution control effort and to describe the role of monitoring in that effort, particularly in relation to the responsibilities of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). I hope the paper will serve as a useful framework for the more specific discussions of monitoring technology to follow.

  5. Urban water pollution by heavy metals and health implication in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies of common heavy metals were conducted at Onitsha, Anambra State, the most urbanized city in Southeastern Nigeria. It was discovered that both surface and subsurface water were heavily polluted. Seven (7) heavy metals namely: arsenic (As+2), cadmium (Cd+2), lead (Pb+2), mercury (Hg+2), zinc (Zn+2), copper ...

  6. Management of Water for Consumption and Pollution in the Yitenga ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    13 sept. 2007 ... Management of Water for Consumption and Pollution in the Yitenga Basin, Burkina Faso - Phase II. The first phase, funded under the project, 102474 Community of Practice in Ecohealth (sub-Saharan Africa), consisted of a study of the risk of diarrheal diseases or their resurgence in the area of the Yitenga ...

  7. Geophysical techniques for the study of ground water pollution: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Geophysical techniques for the study of ground water pollution: A review. IB Osazuwa, NK Abdulahi. Abstract. No Abstract. Nigerian Journal of Physics Vol. 20 (1) 2008: pp.163-174. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  8. Forewarning model for water pollution risk based on Bayes theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jun; Jin, Juliang; Guo, Qizhong; Chen, Yaqian; Lu, Mengxiong; Tinoco, Luis

    2014-02-01

    In order to reduce the losses by water pollution, forewarning model for water pollution risk based on Bayes theory was studied. This model is built upon risk indexes in complex systems, proceeding from the whole structure and its components. In this study, the principal components analysis is used to screen out index systems. Hydrological model is employed to simulate index value according to the prediction principle. Bayes theory is adopted to obtain posterior distribution by prior distribution with sample information which can make samples' features preferably reflect and represent the totals to some extent. Forewarning level is judged on the maximum probability rule, and then local conditions for proposing management strategies that will have the effect of transforming heavy warnings to a lesser degree. This study takes Taihu Basin as an example. After forewarning model application and vertification for water pollution risk from 2000 to 2009 between the actual and simulated data, forewarning level in 2010 is given as a severe warning, which is well coincide with logistic curve. It is shown that the model is rigorous in theory with flexible method, reasonable in result with simple structure, and it has strong logic superiority and regional adaptability, providing a new way for warning water pollution risk.

  9. Escherichia coli. A sanitary methodology for faecal water pollution tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonadonna, L.

    2001-01-01

    Among the traditional indictors of faecal water pollution, Escherichia coli has shown to fit better with the definition of indicator organism. Till now its recovery has been time-consuming and needs confirmation tests. In this report more rapid and direct methods, based on enzymatic reactions, are presented [it

  10. Radiological monitoring. Controlling surface water pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morin, Maxime

    2018-01-01

    Throughout France, surface waters (from rivers to brooks) located at the vicinity of nuclear or industrial sites, are subject to regular radiological monitoring. An example is given with the radiological monitoring of a small river near La Hague Areva's plant, where contaminations have been detected with the help of the French IRSN nuclear safety research organization. The sampling method and various measurement types are described

  11. Mine water pollution in Scotland. Nature, extent and preventative strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younger, P.L. [Water Resource Systems Research Laboratory, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Newcastle, NE1 7RU Newcastle Upon Tyne (United Kingdom)

    2001-01-29

    Scotland was one of the world's first industrialised countries, and has therefore also been one of the first countries to experience wholesale post-industrial dereliction. Water pollution arising from abandoned mines, particularly abandoned coal mines, is second only to sewage as a source of freshwater pollution nation-wide, and in many coalfield catchments it is the pre-eminent source. Most of the pollution is due to net-alkaline ferruginous waters emerging from deep mines. Scrutiny of records from 80 deep mine discharges reveals that iron concentrations in these waters are only likely to exceed 20 mg/l, and the pH to be below 6.5, where the discharge emerges within 0.5 km of the outcrop of the shallowest mined seam. The bulk of mature near-outcrop mine water discharges in Scotland have<50 mg/l total Fe, and concentrations>100 mg/l are only likely where a marine bed lies within 25 m of the worked seam. Where the nearest marine bed is more than 80 m above or below the seam, then the total iron will be less than 4 mg/l, and in most cases less than 1 mg/l. Net-acidic mine waters are far more rare than net-alkaline waters in Scotland, and are most commonly associated with unreclaimed spoil heaps (bings). Both net-alkaline and net-acidic discharges have detrimental effects on the hydrochemistry and biological integrity of receiving waters. Scotland has recently pioneered the use of pre-emptive pump-and-treat solutions to prevent mine water pollution, and has also experienced the successful introduction of passive treatment technology for both abandoned and active workings.

  12. Spatial and temporal variability of surface water pollution in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbers, Gert-Jan; Becker, Mathias; Nga, La Thi; Sebesvari, Zita; Renaud, Fabrice G

    2014-07-01

    Surface water pollution in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta (MD) could threaten human, animal and ecosystem health given the fact that this water source is intensively used for drinking, irrigation and domestic services. We therefore determined the levels of pollution by organic pollutants, salts, metals and microbial indicators by (bi)monthly monitoring of canals between November 2011 and July 2012 at 32 sampling locations, representing fresh and saline/brackish environments. The results were compared with national water quality guidelines, between the studied regions and with water quality data from main waterways. Key factors explaining the observed levels of pollution in surface water were identified through principal component analysis (PCA). Temporal variations due to tidal regime and seasonality were also assessed. Based on regression models, the spatial variability of five water quality parameters was visualized using GIS based maps. Results indicate that pH (max. 8.6), turbidity (max. 461 FTU), maximum concentrations of ammonium (14.7 mg L(-1)), arsenic (44.1 μg L(-1)), barium (157.5 μg L(-1)), chromium (84.7 μg L(-1)), mercury (45.5 μg L(-1)), manganese (1659.7 μg L(-1)), aluminum (14.5 mg L(-1)), iron (17.0 mg L(-1)) and the number of Escherichia coli (87,000 CFU 100 mL(-1)) and total coliforms (2,500,000 CFU 100 mL(-1)) in canals exceed the thresholds set by Vietnamese quality guidelines for drinking and domestic purposes. The PCA showed that i) urbanization; ii) metal leaching from soils; iii) aquaculture; and iv) tidal regime explain 85% of the variance of surface water quality attributes. Significant differences in water quality were found due to daily tidal regime and as a result of seasonality. Surface water quality maps for dissolved oxygen, ammonium, ortho-phosphate, manganese and total coliforms were developed to highlight hot-spot areas of pollution. The results of this study can assist policy makers in developing water management strategies

  13. New technological methods for protecting underground waters from agricultural pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavlyanov, Gani

    2015-04-01

    The agricultural production on the irrigated grounds can not carry on without mineral fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides. Especially it is shown in Uzbekistan, in cultivation of cotton. There is an increase in mineralization, rigidity, quantity of heavy metals, phenols and other pollutions in the cotton fields. Thus there is an exhaustion of stocks of fresh underground waters. In the year 2003 we were offered to create the ecological board to prevent pollution to get up to a level of subsoil waters in the top 30 centimeter layer of the ground. We carried out an accumulation and pollution processing. This layer possesses a high adsorbing ability for heavy metals, mineral oil, mineral fertilizers remnants, defoliants and pesticides. In order to remediate a biological pollution treatment processing should be take into account. The idea is consisted in the following. The adsorption properties of coal is all well-known that the Angren coal washing factories in Tashkent area have collected more than 10 million tons of the coal dust to mix with clays. We have picked up association of anaerobic microorganisms which, using for development, destroys nutrients of coal waste pollutions to a harmless content for people. Coal waste inoculation also are scattered by these microorganisms on the field before plowing. Deep (up to 30 cm) plowing brings them on depth from 5 up to 30 cm. Is created by a plough a layer with necessary protective properties. The norm of entering depends on the structure of ground and the intensity of pollutions. Laboratory experiments have shown that 50% of pollutions can be treated by the ecological board and are processed up to safe limit.

  14. 15 CFR 923.45 - Air and water pollution control requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air and water pollution control....45 Air and water pollution control requirements. The program must incorporate, by reference or otherwise, all requirements established by the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (Clean Water...

  15. 40 CFR 40.140-3 - Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... such safe water and such elimination or control of water pollution for all native villages in the State... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 40... FEDERAL ASSISTANCE RESEARCH AND DEMONSTRATION GRANTS § 40.140-3 Federal Water Pollution Control Act. (a...

  16. Drainage treatment technology for water pollution prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebise, Sen' ichi

    1988-03-01

    Drainage is purified either at terminal treatment plants or by septic tanks for sewage. At terminal treatment plants, sewage is purified by activated sludge prosessing or by biological treatment equipment. By the normal activated sludge processing, only 20 - 30 % of nitrogen and phosphur can be removed. To solve this problem, many advanced processing systems have been employed, representative systems being coagulating sedimentation, rapid filtration, recirculating nitro-denitrification, etc. The coagulating sedimentation is a treatment process in which such metallic salt coagulations as aluminum, iron, etc. are injected and mixed with sewage, and then phosphur and the like are sedimented in the form of grains. The rapid filtration requires no large space, and can reliably remove suspended matter. For large scale septic tank processing system, advance treatment processing is supplemented to improve the quality of treated water. Among other systems of sewage purification are oxidized channel, oxidized pond, soil treatment, etc. (2 figs, 2 refs)

  17. A simulation of water pollution model parameter estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibler, J. F.

    1976-01-01

    A parameter estimation procedure for a water pollution transport model is elaborated. A two-dimensional instantaneous-release shear-diffusion model serves as representative of a simple transport process. Pollution concentration levels are arrived at via modeling of a remote-sensing system. The remote-sensed data are simulated by adding Gaussian noise to the concentration level values generated via the transport model. Model parameters are estimated from the simulated data using a least-squares batch processor. Resolution, sensor array size, and number and location of sensor readings can be found from the accuracies of the parameter estimates.

  18. Self-Propelled Micromotors for Cleaning Polluted Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    We describe the use of catalytically self-propelled microjets (dubbed micromotors) for degrading organic pollutants in water via the Fenton oxidation process. The tubular micromotors are composed of rolled-up functional nanomembranes consisting of Fe/Pt bilayers. The micromotors contain double functionality within their architecture, i.e., the inner Pt for the self-propulsion and the outer Fe for the in situ generation of ferrous ions boosting the remediation of contaminated water.The degradation of organic pollutants takes place in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, which acts as a reagent for the Fenton reaction and as main fuel to propel the micromotors. Factors influencing the efficiency of the Fenton oxidation process, including thickness of the Fe layer, pH, and concentration of hydrogen peroxide, are investigated. The ability of these catalytically self-propelled micromotors to improve intermixing in liquids results in the removal of organic pollutants ca. 12 times faster than when the Fenton oxidation process is carried out without catalytically active micromotors. The enhanced reaction–diffusion provided by micromotors has been theoretically modeled. The synergy between the internal and external functionalities of the micromotors, without the need of further functionalization, results into an enhanced degradation of nonbiodegradable and dangerous organic pollutants at small-scale environments and holds considerable promise for the remediation of contaminated water. PMID:24180623

  19. Design an effective storm water pollution prevention plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vivona, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    A case history shows ''how'' to plan and organize a storm water pollution prevention program (SWPPP). Using easy-to-use worksheets and guidelines, hydrocarbon processing industry (HPI) operators can build upon existing best management practices (i.e., housekeeping procedures, visual inspections, spill prevention programs, etc.) to meet tighter restrictions set by National Pollutant Discharge Elimination system (NPDES) permits. Especially in high rainfall areas, storm water poses an intermittent, but large volume problem. The facility's site size is another factor that impacts the scope and cost for SWPPP. The five steps to implementing a SWPPP are: Planning and organization; Assessment; Best management practice (BMP) identification; Implementation; Evaluation and monitoring. Initially, HPI operators must identify all potential contamination sources and past spills and leak areas. Following the SWPP guidelines, operators can map out a cost-effective storm water program that meets all NPDES requirements

  20. Current status of surface water pollution in Punjab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashir, M.T.; Ghauri, Moin-ud-Din

    2001-01-01

    Eleven years investigations (1988-99) on river Ravi revealed that U.C. canal with a capacity of 220 m/sup 3//s at the tail and Q.B. Link canal with capacity of 410 m/sup 3//s are mainly responsible for higher flows during dry season. A decreasing trend has been observed in the DO levels indicating increasing pollution. An increasing trend has been observed in BOD, SS, TDS and Indicators. Even with the discharge of pollution from U.C. canal, Hudiara Nullah and Lahore city BOD at Balkoi was unexpectedly low. Problems confronting environment engineers regarding surface water pollution control has been highlighted and their solutions has been recommended. (author)

  1. Analysis of gold(I/III)-complexes by HPLC-ICP-MS demonstrates gold(III) stability in surface waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ta, Christine; Reith, Frank; Brugger, Joël; Pring, Allan; Lenehan, Claire E

    2014-05-20

    Understanding the form in which gold is transported in surface- and groundwaters underpins our understanding of gold dispersion and (bio)geochemical cycling. Yet, to date, there are no direct techniques capable of identifying the oxidation state and complexation of gold in natural waters. We present a reversed phase ion-pairing HPLC-ICP-MS method for the separation and determination of aqueous gold(III)-chloro-hydroxyl, gold(III)-bromo-hydroxyl, gold(I)-thiosulfate, and gold(I)-cyanide complexes. Detection limits for the gold species range from 0.05 to 0.30 μg L(-1). The [Au(CN)2](-) gold cyanide complex was detected in five of six waters from tailings and adjacent monitoring bores of working gold mines. Contrary to thermodynamic predictions, evidence was obtained for the existence of Au(III)-complexes in circumneutral, hypersaline waters of a natural lake overlying a gold deposit in Western Australia. This first direct evidence for the existence and stability of Au(III)-complexes in natural surface waters suggests that Au(III)-complexes may be important for the transport and biogeochemical cycling of gold in surface environments. Overall, these results show that near-μg L(-1) enrichments of Au in environmental waters result from metastable ligands (e.g., CN(-)) as well as kinetically controlled redox processes leading to the stability of highly soluble Au(III)-complexes.

  2. Experimental infrared measurements for hydrocarbon pollutant determination in subterranean waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay-Ekuakille, A.; Palamara, I.; Caratelli, D.; Morabito, F. C.

    2013-01-01

    Subterranean waters are often polluted by industrial and anthropic effluents that are drained in subsoil. To prevent and control pollution, legislations of different developed countries require an online monitoring measurement, especially for detecting organic solvents (chlorinated and unchlorinated ones). Online measurements include both real-time and no real-time measurements. In general, it is difficult to implement real-time measurements in stricto sensu for online acquisitions on aqueous effluents since they need to be processed by a modeling. This research presents an experimental measurement system based on infrared (IR) spectroscopy for aqueous effluents containing hydrocarbons and capable of displaying excellent values of pollutant concentrations even in instable conditions; the system is able to detect pollutants either in laminar or turbulent flow. The results show the possibility of avoiding the use of "Pitot tube" that is employed to create a stagnation point in order to convert kinetic energy into potential one. This conversion allows the transformation of a turbulent flow in a laminar flow making easy measurement of pollutants included in an aqueous effluent. Obviously, "Pitot tube" is also used for other fluid effluents. The obtained results have been compared with those produced by means of sophisticated IR instrumentation for laboratory applications.

  3. Kaschnitz, Enzensberger, and Sandig: The Ecopoetics of Water Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Melin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This ecocritical reading of Marie Luise Kaschnitz’s poetic cycle “Rückkehr nach Frankfurt” ‘Return to Frankfurt’ (1945/46, Hans Magnus Enzensberger’s epic poem Der Untergang der Titanic ‘ The Sinking of the Titanic ’ (1978, and a 21st-century poem by Ulrike Almut Sandig analyzes key shifts in poetic representations of water pollution. The essay explores underlying cultural and political attitudes about water that define literary depictions of its pollution. It argues that these texts register a conceptual turn away from aesthetic appreciation of water in terms of its culturally rich, purifying properties and toward scientific understanding that emphasizes the social and legal dimensions of water pollution. Ecocritical interpretation of such works, thus, enables deeper understanding of ongoing transformations in the lyric genre. The concluding interpretation of Sandig’s text points to the increasing presence of unnatural elements in representations of the environment as symptomatic of broader literary changes. It argues that developments in German nature poetry since 1945 have increasingly led poets to experiment with expressive possibilities for lyric poetry that foreground cathartic responses to human and environmental history.

  4. A Study on Water Pollution Source Localization in Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The water pollution source localization is of great significance to water environment protection. In this paper, a study on water pollution source localization is presented. Firstly, the source detection is discussed. Then, the coarse localization methods and the localization methods based on diffusion models are introduced and analyzed, respectively. In addition, the localization method based on the contour is proposed. The detection and localization methods are compared in experiments finally. The results show that the detection method using hypotheses testing is more stable. The performance of the coarse localization algorithm depends on the nodes density. The localization based on the diffusion model can yield precise localization results; however, the results are not stable. The localization method based on the contour is better than the other two localization methods when the concentration contours are axisymmetric. Thus, in the water pollution source localization, the detection using hypotheses testing is more preferable in the source detection step. If concentration contours are axisymmetric, the localization method based on the contour is the first option. And, in case the nodes are dense and there is no explicit diffusion model, the coarse localization algorithm can be used, or else the localization based on diffusion models is a good choice.

  5. Effects of Polluted Water on the Metallic Water Pipelines

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul-Khaliq M. Hussain; Bashir A. Tantosh; El-Sadeg A. Abdalla

    2010-01-01

    Corrosion of metallic water pipelines buried below ground surface is a function of the nature of the surrounding soil and groundwater. This gives the importance of knowing the physical and chemical characteristics of the pipe-s surrounding environment. The corrosion of externally – unprotected metallic water pipelines, specially ductile iron pipes, in localities with aggressive soil conditions is becoming a significant problem. Anticorrosive protection for metallic water ...

  6. Treatment of Arsenazo III contaminated heavy water stored at Darlington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suryanarayan, S.; Husain, A.; Williams, D.

    2010-01-01

    Darlington Nuclear Generating Station (DNGS) has accumulated over 48 drums of chemistry laboratory waste arising from analysis of heavy water (D 2 O). Several organic, including Arsenazo III, and inorganic contaminants present in these drums results in high total organic carbon (TOC) and conductivity. These drums have not been processed due to uncertainties related to clean-up of Arsenazo III contaminated heavy water. This paper provides details of chemical characterization as well as bench scale studies performed to demonstrate the feasibility of treating the downgraded D 2 O to the stringent target specifications of <1 ppm TOC and <0.1mS/m conductivity, required for feed to the Station Upgrading Plant (SUP). Both ionic organic species such as glycolate, acetate and formate as well as neutral organics such as acetone, methanol and ethylene glycol were detected in all the samples. Morpholine and propylene glycol were detected in one sample. Arsenazo III was determined to be not a major contaminant (maximum 8.4 ppm) in these waste drums, compared to the other organic contaminants present. Various unit processes such as pH adjustment, granular activated carbon (GAC), ion exchange resin (IX), UV-peroxide oxidation (UV-H 2 O 2 ) treatments, nanofiltration (NF) as well as reverse osmosis (RO) were tested on a bench scale both singly as well as in various combinations to evaluate their ability to achieve the stringent target conductivity and TOC specifications. Among the various bench scale tests evaluated, the successive processing train used at DNGS and consisting of GAC+IX+UV/H 2 O 2 +IX (polishing) unit operations was found to meet target specifications for both conductivity and TOC. Unit processes comprising (GAC+IX) and (RO-double pass + GAC+IX) met conductivity targets but failed to meet TOC specifications. The results of GAC+IX tests clearly emphasize the importance of using low flow rates for successful reduction in both conductivity as well as TOC. Detailed

  7. Operation Clean Feather: Reducing oil pollution in Newfoundland waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chardine, J.W.; Pelly, G.

    1994-01-01

    Oil pollution of marine waters around Newfoundland, and particularly in the vicinity of Placentia Bay, is a frequent occurrence. Many oiled seabirds are found on beaches in the bay, particularly in winter. The most likely pollution sources are ship operators who dump waste oils from bilges and slop tanks. In an effort to reduce the chronic discharge of waste oil into Placentia Bay, and thus the incidence of bird oiling, Operation Clean Feather was launched in 1991-92 and consisted of weekly surveys of Placentia Bay beaches, sampling of oil from vessels using the bay and from oiled birds and beaches, and experimentation to determine possible recovery rates of birds oiled at sea. The operation was considered a success at a number of levels. Significant reductions in numbers of oiled birds were noted in both 1991 and 1992 compared to 1989 or 1990. Estimated oil-related mortality was reduced to ca 25% of levels seen in the two years prior to the operation. The operation also provided the opportunity to test and refine an organizational framework designed to deal with the problem of chronic oil pollution reports. Communication efforts heightened the awareness of the oil pollution problem in Newfoundland waters. These efforts included distribution of pamphlets in various languages to ship operators, describing the seriousness of oil-related marine bird mortality and warning of the substantial fines that can be imposed under the Canada Shipping Act. 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  8. Water quality assessment of the Borska Reka river using the WPI (Water Pollution Index method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milijašević Dragana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Borska Reka river (47 km long, 373 km2 of basin area is located in eastern Serbia and it is the biggest tributary of the river Veliki Timok. It is also one of the most polluted watercourses in Serbia. Using the data of the Republic Hydrometeorological Service of Serbia, the paper analyzes water pollution using the combined physical-chemical WPI index (water pollution index over two periods: 1993-1996 and 2006-2009. The analysis of parameters showed significantly increased values of heavy metals (especially iron and manganese which are indicators of inorganic pollution (primarily because of mining, but also increased values of organic pollution indicators (Biological Oxygen Demand-BOD5, ammonium, coliform germs, as the result of uncontrolled domestic wastewater discharge.

  9. Removal of arsenic from water using manganese (III) oxide: Adsorption of As(III) and As(V).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaeivelni, Kamel; Khodadoust, Amid P

    2016-01-01

    Removal of arsenic from water was evaluated with manganese (III) oxide (Mn2O3) as adsorbent. Adsorption of As(III) and As(V) onto Mn2O3 was favorable according to the Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption equilibrium equations, while chemisorption of arsenic occurred according to the Dubinin-Radushkevich equation. Adsorption parameters from the Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin equations showed a greater adsorption and removal of As(III) than As(V) by Mn2O3. Maximum removal of As(III) and As(V) occurred at pH 3-9 and at pH 2, respectively, while removal of As(V) in the pH range of 6-9 was 93% (pH 6) to 61% (pH 9) of the maximum removal. Zeta potential measurements for Mn2O3 in As(III) was likely converted to As(V) solutions indicated that As(III) was likely converted to As(V) on the Mn2O3 surface at pH 3-9. Overall, the effective Mn2O3 sorbent rapidly removed As(III) and As(V) from water in the pH range of 6-9 for natural waters.

  10. Contribution of Nutrient Pollution to Water Scarcity in the Water-Rich Northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, R. L.; Lopez, C.; Vorosmarty, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    Most studies of water stress focus on water-scarce regions such as drylands. Yet, even water-rich regions can be water stressed due to local water withdrawals that exceed supply or due to water pollution that makes water unusable. The northeastern United States (NE) is a water-rich region relative to the rest of the country, as it concentrates about 50% of total renewable water of the country. Yes the NE features relatively high water withdrawals, ~50 km3/yr, for thermo-power generation, agriculture, and industry, as well as to support a human population of about 70 million. At the same time, rivers and streams in the NE suffer from nutrient pollution, largely from agricultural and urban land uses. We asked: to what extent is the NE water stressed, and how do water withdrawals and water quality each contribute to water scarcity across the NE? We used information on county-level water withdrawals and runoff to calculate a water scarcity index (WSI) for 200 hydrologic units across the NE from 1987 to 2002. We used data on surface water concentrations of nitrogen to calculate the additional water necessary to dilute surface water pollution to weak, moderate, and strong water quality standards derived from the literature. Only considering withdrawals, we found that approximately 10% of the NE was water stressed. Incorporating a moderate water quality standard, 25% of the NE was water stressed. We calculated a dilution burden by sectors of water users and found that public utilities faced 41% of the total dilution burden for the region, followed by irrigation users at 21%. Our results illustrate that even water rich regions can experience water stress and even scarcity, where withdrawals exceed surface water supplies. Water quality contributes to water stress and can change the spatial patterns of water stress across a region. The common approach to address scarcity has required the use of inter-basin water transfers, or in the case of water quality-caused scarcity

  11. Drugs in Your Drinking Water: Removing Pharmaceutical Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, K.

    2017-12-01

    Pharmaceuticals, mostly estrogen-based hormones and antibiotics, are increasingly polluting waterways and contaminating municipal drinking water sources. A 2008 study funded by the American Water Works Association Research Foundation and the WateReuse Foundation tested 19 drinking water treatment plants across the United States. The study found pharmaceuticals and metabolites at all of the locations tested. These plants provide drinking water for over 28 million Americans - yet only five states test for pharmaceuticals. A 2007 US Government Accountability Office study of male smallmouth bass showed ovarian tissue in their gonads and concluded the combination of EDCs (Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals) likely caused the feminization of the male fish. The purpose of this project is to determine whether bivalves can effectively remove pharmaceuticals as well as other CECs (Contaminants of Emerging Concern).Pharmaceuticals, specifically ibuprofen, were found to be resistant to chemical and mechanical filtration methods, such as coffee grounds and activated carbon, so biological filtration methods are used. Three types of common mollusks (Sphaeriidae `fingernail clams', freshwater mussels, scallops) will be used to assess the potential for biological remediation of the chemical pollutants. Fifteen specimens of each species will be used - a total of 45 individuals. Each group of five will be introduced to either an NSAID (ibuprofen), oil (vegetable) or hormone (estrogen, pending approval). This creates an array of 3 species and 3 contaminants, for a 3x3 grid of nine sample groups. Water is contaminated with pollutant levels similar to EPA measurements. The concentration will be measured before and after the introduction of the specimens using a UV spectrophotometer, at regular time intervals. As mollusks are capable of filtering up to two liters of water a day, the 37.8 liter tanks are filtered at a rate of 10 liters a day. A successful trial of bivalves reducing and

  12. Water pollution monitoring in Tirrenian Sea 1991-1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scipioni, A.; Napoli, M.; Cavolo, F.

    1996-01-01

    A marine environmental research programme is in course of carrying out for some years in a definite coastal zone of the southern Tirrenian Sea in order to point out possible significant pollutions, identify their origin and study the appropriate preventive and protective measures. In the first stage of the programme the analysis of the actual water quality was done, by evaluation of several indicators (temperature, conductivity, pH, turbidity and suspended sediments, dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll a, nutrients concentration, bacteriological parameters) at three different distances from the shore: 50 m, 500 m and 1 mile. The analysis of the collected values shows that the actual water quality is on the whole quite satisfactory, except for some restricted areas in which a bacteriological pollution, due to high concentrations of coliforms and Streptococcus faecalis, has been pointed out

  13. Water born pollutants sampling using porous suction samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baig, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    The common standard method of sampling water born pollutants in the vadoze zone is core sampling and it is followed by extraction of pore fluid. This method does not allow sampling at the same location next time and again later on. There is an alternative approach for sampling fluids (water born pollutants) from both saturated and unsaturated regions of vadose zone using porous suction samplers. There are three types of porous suction samplers, vacuum-operated, pressure-vacuum lysimeters, high pressure vacuum samples. The suction samples are operated in the range of 0-70 centi bars and usually consist of ceramic and polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE). The operation range of PTFE is higher than ceramic cups. These samplers are well suited for in situ and repeated sampling form the same location. This paper discusses the physical properties and operating condition of such samplers to the utilized under our environmental sampling. (author)

  14. TESTING OF CARBONACEOUS ADSORBENTS FOR REMOVAL OF POLLUTANTS FROM WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAISA NASTAS

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Testing of carbonaceous adsorbents for removal of pollutants from water. Relevant direction for improving of quality of potable water is application of active carbons at various stages of water treatments. This work includes complex research dealing with testing of a broad spectrum of carbonaceous adsorbents for removal of hydrogen sulfide and nitrite ions from water. The role of the surface functional groups of carbonaceous adsorbents, their acid-basic properties, and the influence of the type of impregnated heteroatom (N, O, or metals (Fe, Cu, Ni, on removal of hydrogen sulfide species and nitrite ions have been researched. The efficiency of the catalyst obtained from peach stones by impregnation with Cu2+ ions of oxidized active carbon was established, being recommended for practical purposes to remove the hydrogen sulfide species from the sulfurous ground waters. Comparative analysis of carbonaceous adsorbents reveals the importance of surface chemistry for oxidation of nitrite ions.

  15. Use of solar energy for disinfection of polluted water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Jamil

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Polluted water is causing serious health problems especially in the rural areas of Pakistan. People have limited access to safe water supply and many diseases like diarrhea and gastrointestinal diseases are transmitted by consumption of polluted water. We have investigated the potential of using solar energy to pasteurize water. Low cost indigenously available materials have been utilized to design and fabricate a solar box type pasteurizer having a capacity of three liters. The performance study of the pasteurizer was performed during the month of May 2008. The designed pasteurizer maintained water temperature in the range of60 oC to 70 oC continuously for more than an hour which is enough for deactivation of coliform bacteria. The maximum water temperature on a clear sunny day was found to be 67 oC, corresponding to an ambient temperature of40 oC. With the pasteurizer facing south, a very little repositioning was required. The low cost and operational simplicity of the pasteurizer make it affordable and usable. It is more useful in rural areas where other sources of energy like electricity and gas are not easily available

  16. 40 CFR 40.145-2 - Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 40... FEDERAL ASSISTANCE RESEARCH AND DEMONSTRATION GRANTS § 40.145-2 Federal Water Pollution Control Act. (a... or control of acid or other mine water pollution; and (2) That the State shall provide legal and...

  17. 45 CFR 2543.86 - Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution... Water Pollution Control Act. Contracts and subgrants of amounts in excess of $100,000 shall contain a... regulations issued pursuant to the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.) and the Federal Water Pollution...

  18. Study of Water Pollution Early Warning Framework Based on Internet of Things

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chengfang, H.; Xiao, X.; Dingtao, S.; Bo, C.; Xiongfei, W.

    2016-06-01

    In recent years, with the increasing world environmental pollution happening, sudden water pollution incident has become more and more frequently in China. It has posed a serious threat to water safety of the people living in the water source area. Conventional water pollution monitoring method is manual periodic testing, it maybe miss the best time to find that pollution incident. This paper proposes a water pollution warning framework to change this state. On the basis of the Internet of things, we uses automatic water quality monitoring technology to realize monitoring. We calculate the monitoring data with water pollution model to judge whether the water pollution incident is happen or not. Water pollution warning framework is divided into three layers: terminal as the sensing layer, it with the deployment of the automatic water quality pollution monitoring sensor. The middle layer is the transfer network layer, data information implementation is based on GPRS wireless network transmission. The upper one is the application layer. With these application systems, early warning information of water pollution will realize the high-speed transmission between grassroots units and superior units. The paper finally gives an example that applying this pollution warning framework to water quality monitoring of Beijing, China, it greatly improves the speed of the pollution warning responding of Beijing.

  19. STUDY OF WATER POLLUTION EARLY WARNING FRAMEWORK BASED ON INTERNET OF THINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Chengfang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, with the increasing world environmental pollution happening, sudden water pollution incident has become more and more frequently in China. It has posed a serious threat to water safety of the people living in the water source area. Conventional water pollution monitoring method is manual periodic testing, it maybe miss the best time to find that pollution incident. This paper proposes a water pollution warning framework to change this state. On the basis of the Internet of things, we uses automatic water quality monitoring technology to realize monitoring. We calculate the monitoring data with water pollution model to judge whether the water pollution incident is happen or not. Water pollution warning framework is divided into three layers: terminal as the sensing layer, it with the deployment of the automatic water quality pollution monitoring sensor. The middle layer is the transfer network layer, data information implementation is based on GPRS wireless network transmission. The upper one is the application layer. With these application systems, early warning information of water pollution will realize the high-speed transmission between grassroots units and superior units. The paper finally gives an example that applying this pollution warning framework to water quality monitoring of Beijing, China, it greatly improves the speed of the pollution warning responding of Beijing.

  20. Water Pollution Search Results Help - TRI | ECHO | US EPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ECHO, Enforcement and Compliance History Online, provides compliance and enforcement information for approximately 800,000 EPA-regulated facilities nationwide. ECHO includes permit, inspection, violation, enforcement action, and penalty information about facilities regulated under the Clean Air Act (CAA) Stationary Source Program, Clean Water Act (CWA) National Pollutant Elimination Discharge System (NPDES), and/or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Information also is provided on surrounding demographics when available.

  1. Water Pollution Search Criteria Help | ECHO | US EPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ECHO, Enforcement and Compliance History Online, provides compliance and enforcement information for approximately 800,000 EPA-regulated facilities nationwide. ECHO includes permit, inspection, violation, enforcement action, and penalty information about facilities regulated under the Clean Air Act (CAA) Stationary Source Program, Clean Water Act (CWA) National Pollutant Elimination Discharge System (NPDES), and/or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Information also is provided on surrounding demographics when available.

  2. Dashboard and Water Pollution Search Comparison.png ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    ECHO, Enforcement and Compliance History Online, provides compliance and enforcement information for approximately 800,000 EPA-regulated facilities nationwide. ECHO includes permit, inspection, violation, enforcement action, and penalty information about facilities regulated under the Clean Air Act (CAA) Stationary Source Program, Clean Water Act (CWA) National Pollutant Elimination Discharge System (NPDES), and/or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Information also is provided on surrounding demographics when available.

  3. Protamine precipitation of two reovirus particle types from polluted waters.

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, D J; Ridinger, D N; Spendlove, R S; Barnett, B B

    1982-01-01

    Two forms of virus particle are released from reovirus-infected cell cultures, infectious reovirus and potentially infectious reovirus (PIV). PIV particle forms have a complete outer coat and are not infectious until the outer coat is altered or removed. The PIV concentration in polluted waters, however, has not been determined. Protamine sulfate precipitation, using 0.25% fetal bovine serum and 0.005% protamine sulfate for the first precipitation of the sample and 0.0025% for the second, was...

  4. Analysis of point source pollution and water environmental quality variation trends in the Nansi Lake basin from 2002 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiliang; Liu, Xiaohui; Wang, Yufan; Guo, Xiaochun; Lu, Shaoyong

    2016-03-01

    Based on the data analysis of the water environmental quality and economic development from 2002 to 2012 in the Nansi Lake basin, the correlation and change between the water environmental quality and economic development were studied. Results showed that the GDP and wastewater emissions of point source in the Nansi Lake basin had an average annual growth of 7.30 and 7.68 %, respectively, from 2002 to 2012. The emissions of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) had the average annual decrease of 7.69 and 6.79 % in 2012, respectively, compared to 2002. Basin water quality overall improved, reaching the Class III of the "Environmental quality standards for surface water (GB3838-2002)," in which the main reason was that sewage treatment rate increased gradually and was above 90 % in 2012 (an increase of 10 % compared to 2002) with the progress of pollution abatement technology and the implementation of relevant policies and regulations. The contribution of water environmental pollution was analyzed from related cities (Ji'ning, Zaozhuang, Heze). Results indicated that Ji'ning had the largest contribution to water pollution of the Nansi Lake basin, and the pollutant from domestic sources accounted for a higher percentage compared to industrial sources. The wastewater, COD, and NH3-N mainly came from mining and washing of coal, manufacture of raw chemical materials and chemical products, papermaking industry, and food processing industry. According to the water pollution characteristics of the Nansi Lake basin, the basin pollution treatment strategy and prevention and treatment system were dissected to provide a scientific basis for prevention and control of lakeside point source pollution along the Nansi Lake.

  5. Adaptive hierarchical grid model of water-borne pollutant dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borthwick, A. G. L.; Marchant, R. D.; Copeland, G. J. M.

    Water pollution by industrial and agricultural waste is an increasingly major public health issue. It is therefore important for water engineers and managers to be able to predict accurately the local behaviour of water-borne pollutants. This paper describes the novel and efficient coupling of dynamically adaptive hierarchical grids with standard solvers of the advection-diffusion equation. Adaptive quadtree grids are able to focus on regions of interest such as pollutant fronts, while retaining economy in the total number of grid elements through selective grid refinement. Advection is treated using Lagrangian particle tracking. Diffusion is solved separately using two grid-based methods; one is by explicit finite differences, the other a diffusion-velocity approach. Results are given in two dimensions for pure diffusion of an initially Gaussian plume, advection-diffusion of the Gaussian plume in the rotating flow field of a forced vortex, and the transport of species in a rectangular channel with side wall boundary layers. Close agreement is achieved with analytical solutions of the advection-diffusion equation and simulations from a Lagrangian random walk model. An application to Sepetiba Bay, Brazil is included to demonstrate the method with complex flows and topography.

  6. THE MOST IMPORTANT POLLUTANTS OF EASTERN SLOVAKIA WATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Hrušková

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available As the area of the Slovak Republic is 49,036 km², there are many potential contaminants that can affect its population. In the socialist era the town of Strážske located in the Košice Municipal Region was the centre of production of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB inter alia and nowadays about 3,500 metric tonnes of PCB are persisting there and present the greatest PCB environmental risk in the central Europe. The heavy metal contamination in Slovakia is caused by the natural background as well as by the former mining activities. In Slovakia there are about 17 thousand old mining works, i.e. adits, stocks, and impoundments. Contamination of the ground and surface waters in the Spiš–Gemer Ore Mountain (SGOM area is caused by mine drainage. Arsenic, antimony, copper, mercury, cadmium, and zinc are the main pollutants of natural waters. All contaminated areas are currently monitored according to the national and EU legislation and nutrient load reduction programmes. As a result of this the level of inorganic and organic micropollutants in surface water and water reservoirs will be reduced together with the negative impact of water pollution on the environment in Eastern Slovakia region.

  7. The impact of land use on microbial surface water pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Christiane; Rechenburg, Andrea; Rind, Esther; Kistemann, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    Our knowledge relating to water contamination from point and diffuse sources has increased in recent years and there have been many studies undertaken focusing on effluent from sewage plants or combined sewer overflows. However, there is still only a limited amount of microbial data on non-point sources leading to diffuse pollution of surface waters. In this study, the concentrations of several indicator micro-organisms and pathogens in the upper reaches of a river system were examined over a period of 16 months. In addition to bacteria, diffuse pollution caused by Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium spp. was analysed. A single land use type predestined to cause high concentrations of all microbial parameters could not be identified. The influence of different land use types varies between microbial species. The microbial concentration in river water cannot be explained by stable non-point effluent concentrations from different land use types. There is variation in the ranking of the potential of different land use types resulting in surface water contamination with regard to minimum, median and maximum effects. These differences between median and maximum impact indicate that small-scale events like spreading manure substantially influence the general contamination potential of a land use type and may cause increasing micro-organism concentrations in the river water by mobilisation during the next rainfall event. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Emission of Air Pollutants in the Hot Water Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzysztof, Nowak; Maria, Bukowska; Danuta, Proszak-Miąsik; Sławomir, Rabczak

    2017-10-01

    The result of the deteriorating condition of the environment and climate change is to increase the efficient use of fuel and energy and the rational use of energy resources. Great potential for reducing consumption of fossil fuels are stuck in heating systems ranging from generation, transmission and distribution and ending with the recipients rationalize their consumption of heat. Efficient production of heat is obtained during optimal boiler load. The boiler type WR operates with the highest efficiency of 80-85%, the rate of fuel consumption is the lowest, and the process is close to complete combustion. In such conditions to the atmosphere are emitted mainly: SO2, CO2 and NOX. Pollutants such as CO, CH4, HF, HCl, NH3, etc., are the result of incomplete and imperfect combustion, that is, when the boiler is working inefficiently [1-3]. Measurements of pollutant concentrations were performed using an analyzer FTIR Gasmet DX4000. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy is a technique of measuring that allows a very precise identification of qualitative and quantitative range of compounds, including gaseous pollutants. Device used to measure the concentrations of gaseous pollutants allow determining the amount of carbon, sulphur and nitrogen compounds, which measurement is not defined any rules, including chlorine compounds, hydrogen, methane, ammonia and volatile organic compounds. In this publication presents part of the literature the use of heat for domestic hot water production in summer and heating demand in winter. Described the characteristics of the water boilers WR type used for heating. Presents the results study of the emissions in the production of hot water for the summer and winter seasons.

  9. STABILITY: AN INVESTIGATION OF AS(III)/AS(V) STABILITY IN IRON RICH DRINKING WATER MATRICES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenic in drinking water is predominantly inorganic arsenic. The two oxidation states of inorganic arsenic are As(III)(pKa=9.3) and As(V)(pKa2=6.9). The distribution of As(III) and AS(V) in a water is dependent on the redox potential of the water. The actual distribution can ...

  10. Water resources management, water pollution, and water protection in Japan; Wasserwirtschaft, Wasserverschmutzung und Gewaesserschutz in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zorn, T. [Hokkaido Univ., Graduate School of Agriculture, Div. of Forestry, Institute of Forest Policy, Sapporo (Japan)

    1996-06-01

    Japan`s balance in environmental-oriented water resources management is contradictory. Some improvements have been achieved, for instance in the treatment of industrial discharges and, in particular, in reducing emissions of toxic heavy metals. Conversely, with other forms of pollution, such as the organic load, no progress has been made so far; in some instances the situation has even deteriorated. However, measures for an advanced protection of waters are planned. New construction, extension, and modernization of wastewater treatment plants are a priority objective in environmental policy. A positive impact on water quality can be expected when the implementation of an emission-charges system for industries and the development of sewerage systems for households, based on the polluter-pays-principle, will be completed. (orig.) [Deutsch] Japans umweltorientierte, wasserwirtschaftliche Bilanz ist zwiespaeltig. Es wurden partiell einige Verbesserungen erzielt, wie z.B. bei der Reinigung industrieller Abwaesser und besonders der Minderung von Eintraegen toxischer Schwermetalle. Bei anderen Belastungsformen, so etwa bei den organischen, liegen dagegen kaum Fortschritte, teilweise sogar Verschlechterungen vor. Ein weitergehender Gewaesserschutz ist jedoch geplant. Neu- und Ausbau sowie Verbesserung von Klaeranlagen sind erklaertes Hauptziel der Umweltpolitik. Mit einer Verbesserung der Gewaesserqualitaet ist zu rechnen, wenn die Installation des Emissionsabgabensystems fuer Industriebetriebe und der Ausbau der Entsorgungseinrichtungen fuer Haushalte, die sich nach dem Verursacherprinzip orientieren, erfolgreich abgeschlossen sind. (orig.)

  11. Monitoring of pesticides water pollution-The Egyptian River Nile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahshan, Hesham; Megahed, Ayman Mohamed; Abd-Elall, Amr Mohamed Mohamed; Abd-El-Kader, Mahdy Abdel-Goad; Nabawy, Ehab; Elbana, Mariam Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants represent about 95 % of the industrial sector effluents in Egypt. Contamination of the River Nile water with various pesticides poses a hazardous risk to both human and environmental compartments. Therefore, a large scale monitoring study was carried on pesticides pollution in three geographical main regions along the River Nil water stream, Egypt. Organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides were extracted by liquid-liquid extraction and analyzed by GC-ECD. Organochlorine pesticides mean concentrations along the River Nile water samples were 0.403, 1.081, 1.209, 3.22, and 1.192 μg L -1 for endrin, dieldrin, p, p'-DDD, p, p'-DDT, and p, p'-DDE, respectively. Dieldrin, p, p'-DDT, and p, p'-DDE were above the standard guidelines of the World Health Organization. Detected organophosphorus pesticides were Triazophos (2.601 μg L -1 ), Quinalphos (1.91 μg L -1 ), fenitrothion (1.222 μg L -1 ), Ethoprophos (1.076 μg L -1 ), chlorpyrifos (0.578 μg L -1 ), ethion (0.263 μg L -1 ), Fenamiphos (0.111 μg L -1 ), and pirimiphos-methyl (0.04 μg L -1 ). Toxicity characterization of organophosphorus pesticides according to water quality guidelines indicated the hazardous risk of detected chemicals to the public and to the different environmental compartments. The spatial distribution patterns of detected pesticides reflected the reverse relationship between regional temperature and organochlorine pesticides distribution. However, organophosphorus was distributed according to the local inputs of pollutant compounds. Toxicological and water quality standards data revealed the hazardous risk of detected pesticides in the Egyptian River Nile water to human and aquatic life. Thus, our monitoring data will provide viewpoints by which stricter legislation and regulatory controls can be admitted to avoid River Nile pesticide water pollution.

  12. Impact study of an accidental pollution and an agricultural pollution on the subsoil water resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Tabach, E.

    2005-07-01

    This work deals with the protection of groundwater resources against accidental and agricultural pollutions. It comprises three parts: part 1 is a bibliographic analysis of pollutants transfer mechanisms in the non-saturated zone. It presents the techniques of numerical resolution of the equations controlling these transfers (mechanistic approach). Approaches of data processing-type are also presented. The advantage of neural networks, more and more used in the environmental domain, is emphasized. The second part treats of the migration of non-miscible pollutants (of hydrocarbon or chlorinated solvent type) in the non-saturated zone from an accidental pollution source (a road accident). After a bibliographic analysis of the reference accident, of the most often road transported pollutants and of the available softwares, the area under study is presented with the tests performed at the laboratory for the determination of the permeability coefficient at saturation and the Van Genuchten parameters of the covering layer. The results of the parametric study are given for a reference example using the NAPL-Simulator code. This study allows to outline the main parameters which are used for the construction of a database for the calibration of the neural network-based model. This model is used in the case of the impact study of the road works between Avesnes-sur-Helpes and Maubeuge carried out on the captation fields of Bachant syncline. The third part treats of the migration of a diffuse pollution of agricultural origin (nitrates) in the non-saturated zone. The area under study is presented with the in-situ follow up results of surface fertilizer supplies and of nitrate profile measurements performed for some logging. The construction of the database is detailed. The input data retained are the surface nitrogen supplies, the thickness of the soil beneath the root zone, the water table depth and the time. Finally, the artificial neural networks model and its application to

  13. System of environmental and economic accounting for water pollution and the result analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yarong

    2017-10-01

    With the gradual acceleration of China's industrialization process, the environmental pollution caused by industrial production is more and more serious, especially water pollution. To construct a System of Environmental and Economic Accounting for water pollution, to a certain extent, can promote the green development of national economy in China. The System of Environmental and Economic Accounting for water pollution is analyzed and studied in this paper.

  14. [Water pollution and health risks at Yaoundé, Cameroon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youmbi, Jean Ghislain Tabué; Feumba, Roger; Njitat, Valérie Tsama; de Marsily, Ghislain; Ekodeck, Georges Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article consists of developing an ecosystemic approach to collect information about groundwater pollution in order to determine its origin and infer the health risks in Mingoa's watershed through the study of 12 spontaneous settlements. From an environmental point of view, family interviews and direct observations allowed us to inventory springs, wells and latrines, and to collect information. So, we have selected, on the basis of predefined criteria, 21 wells and springs for physico-chemical and bacteriological laboratory analyses. Two hundred children aged less than 5 years were subjected to KOAP examination. A number of 1224 latrines were inventoried, for an average use of 15 people per latrine, producing 913.3 kg/year of excreta. Most of 91% of people use these latrines. The superficial aquifers, connected to the wells and springs, present high values of nitrogen, phosphorous pollutant and fecal contamination indicators (coliforms and fecal streptococcus), which make water inappropriate to human consumption. PCA analysis establishes that water pollution comes mainly from traditional pit latrines. The overall prevalence of diarrhea and parasite infestation was important (=40%). The presence of cysts of Entamoeba histolytica, Ascaris limbricoides, and Entamoeba coli confirms this high prevalence and testify to very approximate hygiene and environment conditions. Copyright © 2013 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Loading functions for assessment of water pollution from nonpoint sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McElroy, A.D.; Chiu, S.Y.; Nebgen, J.W.; Aleti, A.; Bennett, F.W.

    1976-05-01

    Methods for evaluating the quantity of water pollutants generated from nonpoint sources including agriculture, silviculture, construction, mining, runoff from urban areas and rural roads, and terrestrial disposal are developed and compiled for use in water quality planning. The loading functions, plus in some instances emission values, permit calculation of nonpoint source pollutants from available data and information. Natural background was considered to be a source and loading functions were presented to estimate natural or background loads of pollutants. Loading functions/values are presented for average conditions, i.e., annual average loads expressed as metric tons/hectare/year (tons/acre/year). Procedures for estimating seasonal or 30-day maximum and minimum loads are also presented. In addition, a wide variety of required data inputs to loading functions, and delineation of sources of additional information are included in the report. The report also presents an evaluation of limitations and constraints of various methodologies which will enable the user to employ the functions realistically

  16. Application of remote sensing methods for detection of water pollution degree in rivers and water reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krzyworzeka, M.; Piasek, Z.

    1997-01-01

    The paper presents non-contact registration methods of the electromagnetic radiation which can be used for the detection of water pollution in rivers and water reservoirs. These methods include aerial photographs, satellite images and thermograms. The satellite images need reprocessing to obtain the mutual comparability of the images from various multispectral scanners (TM and MSS)

  17. Polychlorinated Biphenyls Water Pollution along the River Nile, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Mohamed Megahed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ten polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB congeners were determined in water samples collected along the River Nile using gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD. PCB concentrations ranged from 14 to 20 μg/L, which were higher than those reported in previous studies, indicating serious PCB pollution in the River Nile. PCB congener profiles varied depending on the sampling sties. PCB-138 was the predominant congener accounting for more than 18% of total PCBs. The composition of PCB congeners in the water revealed that highly chlorinated PCB technical mixtures such as Aroclor 1254 was the main PCB production historically used in Egypt. An increasing trend in PCB levels from the upper stream to the Nile estuaries was observed. The calculated flux of PCBs indicated that 6.8 tons of PCBs is dumped into the Mediterranean Sea each year from the River Nile. The hazard quotients and carcinogenic risk caused by PCB pollution in the River Nile were above the acceptable level indicating that PCBs in the River Nile water pose adverse health effects for all age groups. Our findings revealed that PCBs possess a serious risk to the Egyptian population that depends mainly on the River Nile as a source of water. Thus, stricter legislation and regulatory controls should be applied to reduce the risk of PCBs in Egypt.

  18. Polychlorinated Biphenyls Water Pollution along the River Nile, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megahed, Ayman Mohamed; Dahshan, Hesham; Abd-El-Kader, Mahdy A; Abd-Elall, Amr Mohamed Mohamed; Elbana, Mariam Hassan; Nabawy, Ehab; Mahmoud, Hend A

    2015-01-01

    Ten polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were determined in water samples collected along the River Nile using gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD). PCB concentrations ranged from 14 to 20 μg/L, which were higher than those reported in previous studies, indicating serious PCB pollution in the River Nile. PCB congener profiles varied depending on the sampling sties. PCB-138 was the predominant congener accounting for more than 18% of total PCBs. The composition of PCB congeners in the water revealed that highly chlorinated PCB technical mixtures such as Aroclor 1254 was the main PCB production historically used in Egypt. An increasing trend in PCB levels from the upper stream to the Nile estuaries was observed. The calculated flux of PCBs indicated that 6.8 tons of PCBs is dumped into the Mediterranean Sea each year from the River Nile. The hazard quotients and carcinogenic risk caused by PCB pollution in the River Nile were above the acceptable level indicating that PCBs in the River Nile water pose adverse health effects for all age groups. Our findings revealed that PCBs possess a serious risk to the Egyptian population that depends mainly on the River Nile as a source of water. Thus, stricter legislation and regulatory controls should be applied to reduce the risk of PCBs in Egypt.

  19. Baptism and the pollution of Africa’s water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben J. de Klerk

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Water often moves us to wonder, joy, terror or peace, and many times, water moves us to prayer. On the other hand, it is projected that, because of water shortages, by 2020, several African countries will experience a 50% reduction in crop yields. Between 75 and 250 million Africans will confront freshwater shortages. Water plays an important role in baptism: the requirements of Christian baptism are the use of water and calling upon the name of the Triune God. Baptism as a water bath is the fulfilment of the Old Testament washings. Nobody could and still can appear before God as an unclean person; baptism stresses the importance of cleansing. The research question that is discussed in this article is the following: in what way may baptism, as holy sign and seal of the washing away of sins by the blood and Spirit of Jesus Christ, contribute to sensitise believers to combat waste in our rivers and dams and the pollution of our waters? Two aspects of baptism are discussed, namely cleansing and going under and coming up from the water as sign and seal of partaking in Christ’s death and resurrection.

  20. Management of polluted waters from a repository at Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridderstolpe, Peter; Straae, Daniel

    2007-05-01

    During both the construction and the deposition phase of the final repository, several kinds of polluted waters will occur that must be handled. The waters under consideration in this report are (1) sanitary wastewater, (2) drainage water from the repository, (3) leachate from the rock stockpile and (4) storm water. The aim of this report has been to produce an overview of the different flows of polluted waters and their properties, as well as to propose adequate strategies for their treatment. The report is part of SKB's environmental impact assessment work, but is also meant to be a usable tool in further planning. The sanitary wastewater clearly is the polluted water that possesses the greatest potential risk to human health and the environment. On the other hand it is fully treatable, which means that nuisance and negative environmental impact can be avoided. It is during the construction phase that the largest amounts of both water and pollutants are to be expected. Therefore, the prevailing conditions during construction phase are proposed to be used for dimensioning of technical solutions as well as for environmental impact assessments. The study of different techniques for treatment of sanitary wastewater has included a method called 'open wastewater planning'. The method helps its users to consider the local physical conditions and the prerequisites of the planned activities, as well as the legislative, practical and economical demands. The work comprises three different technical solutions that have been outlined on system level, all of which responds to the national environmental legislation as well as what has been considered as reasonable practical and economical demands. Before the final decision is made, it is recommended that the alternatives are evaluated from a broad perspective by SKB, taking into consideration the value of recycling and goodwill. Discharged leachate from the rock stockpile is expected to contain the greatest amount of nitrogen

  1. Environmental health research in the UK and European Union : research priorities in water and air pollution control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ince, M; Wheatley, A [Loughborough Univ. of Technology (United Kingdom). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1997-12-31

    The contents are involvement of the European community, integration of research and development programmes ; surface water quality and pollution incidents; surface water pollution in the UK ; eutrophication ; drinking water quality ; causes and current treatment for removal of pollutants ; future causes of water pollution ; and , water and wastewater research.

  2. Environmental health research in the UK and European Union : research priorities in water and air pollution control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ince, M.; Wheatley, A.

    1996-01-01

    The contents are involvement of the European community, integration of research and development programmes ; surface water quality and pollution incidents; surface water pollution in the UK ; eutrophication ; drinking water quality ; causes and current treatment for removal of pollutants ; future causes of water pollution ; and , water and wastewater research

  3. Water Pollution abatement programme, The Czech republic Pollution abatement analysis and strengthening of water resources management, Odra River Catchment, phase II

    OpenAIRE

    Dagestad, K.; Ratnaweera, H.; Ibrekk, H.O.; Hansen, J.H.; Tridlica, L.; Brezina, P.; Skacel, A.

    1995-01-01

    Odra river is extremely polluted by organic matter, nitrates, ammonia, phosphorus, bacteria, particles, heavy metals and other micro pollutants from municipalities, industries and agriculture. The poor water quality severely affects the ecology and represents a risk to human health. The water has a very limited value of use. This report presents an abatement programme with both technical and accompanying measures. In order to identify the major polluters several multi criteria analysis have b...

  4. Limiting Factors for Microbial Fe(III)-Reduction In a Landfill Leachate Polluted Aquifer (Vejen, Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Heron, Gorm; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    1995-01-01

    Aquifer sediment samples from two locations within the anaerobic leachate plume of a municipal landfill were compared with respect to microbiology (especially Fe(III)-reduction) and geochemistry. The samples close to the landfill were characterized by low contents of Fe(III), whereas samples from...... the more distant cluster were rich in Fe(III)-oxides. The active microbial population seemed to be less dense in samples more distant from the landfill (measured by ATP and phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA)), but the microbial communities were very similar in the two sample clusters according...... to the composition of PLFA. Very little, if any, Fe(III)-reduction was observed close to the landfill, but all the more distant samples showed evident microbially mediated Fe(III)-reduction. After amendment with both acetate and Fe(III), all the samples showed a potential for Fe(III)-reduction, and the in situ Fe...

  5. Extraction and Ozonation of organic pollutants in drinking waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenawi, I.M.; Barsoum, B.N.; Abdelhaflz, M.M.

    2006-01-01

    The continuous liquid-liquid, CLLE, and solid-phase, SPE. extraction techniques were used to study a problem of international relevance. The work was incident on the evaluation of the efficiency and optimisation of extruding techniques, CLLE. SPE and CLLEt-SPE, towards chlorinated pesticides and phenolic compounds from the Giza treatment plant station (Egypt), where the degree of pollution of such substances in drinking waters must be reduced. The total recoveries, rs, using SPE ranged between I).74 -0.87, whereas, the values were much less using the other two methods (0.158 - 0.1961; indicating the preferability of the SF'E technique. Analytical results were obtained through the various chromatographic techniques, liquid or gas. with adequately chosen detectors. A simple mathematical algorithm has been empirically developed allowing the assessment and comparison of the efficiencies of the three extracting procedures. Further treatment with ozone resulted in the oxidation and elimination of organic pollutants, with consequent improvement of water quality (total pesticide content 0.332-0.19μgL -1 ). A useful ozone treatment unit, capable of dealing with the emanation of contaminants in tap water, was built

  6. New Photocatalysis for Effective Degradation of Organic Pollutants in Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei Chaleshtori, M.; Saupe, G. B.; Masoud, S.

    2009-12-01

    The presence of harmful compounds in water supplies and in the discharge of wastewater from chemical industries, power plants, and agricultural sources is a topic of global concern. The processes and technologies available at the present time for the treatment of polluted water are varied that include traditional water treatment processes such as biological, thermal and chemical treatment. All these water treatment processes, have limitations of their own and none is cost effective. Advanced oxidation processes have been proposed as an alternative for the treatment of this kind of wastewater. Heterogeneous photocatalysis has recently emerged as an efficient method for purifying water. TiO2 has generally been demonstrated to be the most active semiconductor material for decontamination water. One significant factor is the cost of separation TiO2, which is generally a powder having a very small particle size from the water after treatment by either sedimentation or ultrafiltration. The new photocatalyst, HTiNbO5, has been tested to determine whether its photocatalytic efficiency is good enough for use in photocatalytic water purification since it has high surface area and relatively large particle size. The larger particle sizes of the porous materials facilitate catalyst removal from a solution, after purification has taken place. It can be separated from water easily than TiO2, a significant technical improvement that might eliminate the tedious final filtration necessary with a slurry. These materials are characterized and tested as water decontamination photocatalysts. The new catalyst exhibited excellent catalytic activity, but with a strong pH dependence on the photo efficiency. These results suggest that elimination of the ion exchange character of the catalyst may greatly improve its performance at various pHs. This new research proposes to study the effects of a topotactic dehydration reaction on these new porous material catalysts.

  7. Investigation of formaldehyde pollution of tap water and rain water using a novel visual colorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murai, K; Okano, M; Kuramitz, H; Hata, N; Kawakami, T; Taguchi, S

    2008-01-01

    The pollution of tap water and rain water with formaldehyde in Toyama Pref., Japan was investigated by means of a simple, rapid and cost-effective visual colorimetry developed by us. The levels of formaldehyde in three tap waters from different sources of dams on mountainside and a well-water pumped in urban area in Toyama Pref. were lower than 0.01 mg L(-1) that was the detection limit of the colorimetry. On the other hand, rain waters were seriously polluted with formaldehyde. Rain waters were sampled from three different sites (urban area, top of hill and industrial area) in Toyama Pref. from autumn to winter in 2006. The levels of formaldehyde in the rain waters ranged from 0.07 to 0.30 mg L(-1). The analytical results by the visual colorimetry were in good agreement with those obtained by GC-MS method. It was confirmed that the colorimetry is excellent for practical use for the determination of formaldehyde. It must be concerned about the pollution of rainwater with formaldehyde, when rain water is applied for tap water and miscellaneous purpose. Copyright IWA Publishing 2008.

  8. The relative sensitivity of freshwater species to antimony(III): Implications for water quality guidelines and ecological risk assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obiakor, Maximilian Obinna; Tighe, Matthew; Wang, Zhen; Ezeonyejiaku, Chigozie Damian; Pereg, Lily; Wilson, Susan C

    2017-11-01

    Antimony (Sb) is a pollutant in many jurisdictions, yet its threat to aquatic biota is unclear. Water quality guidelines (WQGs) for Sb are not well established and large uncertainty factors are commonly applied in derivation. We constructed freshwater species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) for Sb(III) using available acute toxicity data sourced from temperate and tropical regional studies. A tiered ecological risk assessment (ERA) approach using risk quotients (RQs) was applied for characterisation of risks presented by Sb(III) concentrations measured in the freshwater environment. Multiple parametric models were fitted for each SSD, with the optimal model used to derive the 5% hazardous concentration (HC5), defined as protective of 95% of species, and the corresponding predicted no effect concentration (PNEC). The HC5 values for whole and temperate SSDs were estimated at 781 and 976 μg L -1 Sb(III), respectively, while the PNECs for both datasets were 156 and 195 μg L -1 Sb(III), respectively. Due to limited tropical data, a temperate-to-tropic extrapolation factor of 10 was used to estimate an interim PNEC for tropical regions of 20 μg L -1 Sb(III). Based on published freshwater Sb(III) concentration values across a range of locations, potential ecological risks posed by Sb(III) in some freshwater systems studied would be classified as medium to high risk, but the majority of locations sampled would fall into the low ecological risk category. Our results facilitate the understanding of toxic effects of Sb(III) to freshwater species but also demonstrate that data for Sb ERA are extremely limited.

  9. Pollution impact of cement production on air, soil and water in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pollution impact of cement production on air, soil and water in a production location in Nigeria. ... Journal of Science and Technology (Ghana) ... location from the pollution source, which served as control for particulate and soil sampling.

  10. Sunlight technologies for photochemical deactivation of organic pollutants in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acher, A.; Fischer, E.; Tornheim, R. [The Volcani Center, Inst. of Soils and Water, Bet Dagan (Israel); Manor, Y. [Sheba Medical Center, Central Virology Lab., Ramat Gan (Israel)

    1997-12-31

    Sensitized-photochemical oxidation methods aimed at use in water treatment technologies for deactivation of biotic (microorganisms) and/or of xenobiotic (pesticides) pollutants in water were developed using global solar radiation or concentrated sunlight (up to 250 suns). The solar global radiation was used either for detoxification of industrial waste water from a pesticide factory to allow their discharge into the urban sewer, or for disinfection of domestric effluents to be used in crop irrigation. The disinfection process was eventually carried out in an experimental pilot-scale plant, capable of disinfection up to 50 m{sup 3}/h of effluent supplied by an activated sludge sewage treatment plant located in Tel-Aviv area. The treated effluents did not show any regrowth of the microorganisms during 7 days. The solar concentrated radiation experiments performed using facilities of the Sun Tower of The Weizman Institute of Science, Rehovot. The concentrated sunlight was provided by different combination of several computer controlled heliostates, up to 8, that track the sun and focus the received sunlight onto the target situated on the roof of the sun-tower. The sunlight intensities measured on the target reached up to 200 kW/m{sup 2}. The experiments were performed either batch- or continuous-wise. The water-samples exposed to disinfection were the above effluent, filtered and supplemented with vaccine strain poliovirus or with different concentrations of an industrial potential pollutant (bromacil), MB 2 mg/L and two concentrations of dissolved oxygen (8.0 or 40.0 mg O{sub 2}/L). An exposure time of 2-3 seconds at 150 kW/m{sup 2} was decreased the microorganisms alive (counts) by five orders of magnitude. A comparison between the two above water treatment technologies is presented. (orig./SR)

  11. The use of bacteria for detecting toxic effects of pollutants in soil and water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obiakor, Maximilian; Wilson, Susan; Tighe, Matthew; Pereg, Lily

    2017-04-01

    Microbial abundance and diversity are essential for sustaining soil structure and function and have been strongly linked to human health and wellbeing. Antimony (Sb) in the environment can present an ecological hazard and depending on concentration can be lethal. The toxic effects of Sb(III) and Sb(V) on the model soil bacterium Azospirillum brasilense Sp7 were assessed in exposure-dose-response assays and water samples from an Sb contaminated creek were analyzed for bacterial mortality. In both cases, Sb(III) and Sb(V) greatly affected the survival of A. brasilense Sp7 cells. The Sb(III) had a greater toxic effect than Sb(V) at all concentrations tested. Critical concentrations of Sb also caused variant colonies to appear, indicating both acute and sub-lethal effects, which were dose and time dependent. This work demonstrates the usefulness of A. brasilense as an indicator species to detect harmful effects of an environmental pollutant of emerging concern.

  12. Nitrate pollution of shallow ground water in chaj doab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, S. D.; Akram, W.; Ahmad, M.; Rafiq, M.

    2000-01-01

    Chaj Doab is an interfluvial tract of land bounded by the rivers Chenab and Jhelum. Agriculture is the main economic activity in the area. In order to increase crop production,. natural and industrial fertilizers are excessively used. Shallow groundwater is the main source of water for domestic and agricultural usage. Nitrate in the soil is carried to the groundwater by precolating water. Concentration of nitrate in groundwater which used to be less than 3 mg/l has crossed the WHO limit of 45 mg/l at several places principally due to the excessive use of fertilizers. In order to avoid serious consequences of nitrate pollution of groundwater, application of fertilizers will have to be judiciously practiced. (author)

  13. ASSESSMENT OF GROUND WATER POLLUTION IN PARKING AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Piekutin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Creation of rain sewer is connected with dehydration of roads and coexisting objects. The paper presents a discussion upon the issue of groundwater contamination by petroleum compounds and other pollutants from transport based on studies of groundwater within the parking lots. The study included 9 parking areas, including 7 in Bialystok, 1 in a residential area outside of Bialystok in Ignatki, and one in Kleosin. The tested waters were subject to determination of COD, total suspension, and petroleum substances expressed as a mineral oil index. The studies have shown that the concentrations of determined parameters were in most cases proportional to the larger runoffs and concentration of petroleum compounds increased with the increase of suspension. It has been shown that from part of the parking lots, the meteoric water was discharged directly into watercourses and exceeds the permissible limits regulated by the Decree.

  14. The potential of PIXE analytical work in water pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, H.; Takahashi, Y.; Ishii, K. [Dept. of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi (JP)] [and others

    1999-07-01

    A method has been developed and tested for PIXE analysis of soluble and insoluble constituents in a variety of water samples in our surroundings. Insoluble components were filtered on a Nuclepore filter of 0.4-{mu}m pores. For soluble fractions, a target of major components was made from a 0.15-ml filtrate evaporated on a user-made polycarbonate film, and in turn heavy metals in trace amounts were preconcentrated in a PIXE-target through the use of a combination of dibenzyldithiocarbamate-chelation with subsequent condensation into dibenzylidene-D-sorbitol gels. These three kinds of targets were analyzed with a PIXE system of 3-MeV proton beams. The widespread concentrations (several tenths of ppb to a few tens of ppm) of {approx}24 elements from Na to Pb were determined simultaneously in a precision sufficient to reveal the elemental distribution between the soluble and insoluble fractions of various aqueous sample such as river water, rain water and water leaking from disposal sites of industrial wastes. Hence, the methodology for preparing three types of targets promotes the PIXE analysis to a truly effective means for monitoring a water-pollution problem in our surroundings. (author)

  15. The potential of PIXE analytical work in water pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, H.; Takahashi, Y.; Ishii, K.

    1999-01-01

    A method has been developed and tested for PIXE analysis of soluble and insoluble constituents in a variety of water samples in our surroundings. Insoluble components were filtered on a Nuclepore filter of 0.4-μm pores. For soluble fractions, a target of major components was made from a 0.15-ml filtrate evaporated on a user-made polycarbonate film, and in turn heavy metals in trace amounts were preconcentrated in a PIXE-target through the use of a combination of dibenzyldithiocarbamate-chelation with subsequent condensation into dibenzylidene-D-sorbitol gels. These three kinds of targets were analyzed with a PIXE system of 3-MeV proton beams. The widespread concentrations (several tenths of ppb to a few tens of ppm) of ∼24 elements from Na to Pb were determined simultaneously in a precision sufficient to reveal the elemental distribution between the soluble and insoluble fractions of various aqueous sample such as river water, rain water and water leaking from disposal sites of industrial wastes. Hence, the methodology for preparing three types of targets promotes the PIXE analysis to a truly effective means for monitoring a water-pollution problem in our surroundings. (author)

  16. Management of polluted waters from a repository at Oskarshamn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridderstolpe, Peter; Straae, Daniel

    2007-05-01

    During both the construction and the deposition phase of the final repository, several kinds of polluted waters will occur that must be handled. The waters under consideration in this report are (1) sanitary wastewater, (2) drainage water from the repository, (3) leachate from the rock stockpile and (4) storm water. The aim of this report has been to produce an overview of the different flows of polluted waters and their properties, as well as to propose adequate strategies for their treatment. Several different alternatives of action have been investigated and compared in terms of environmental impact, economy and technical aspects. The report is part of SKB's environmental impact assessment work, but is also meant to be a usable tool in further planning. It is during the construction phase that the largest amounts of both water and pollutants are to be expected. Therefore, the conditions during the construction phase are proposed to be used for dimensioning of technical solutions as well as for environmental impact assessments. The study of different techniques for treatment of sanitary wastewater has included a method called 'open wastewater planning'. The work comprises six different technical solutions that have been outlined on system level, all of which responds to the national environmental legislation, as well as what has been considered as reasonable practical and economical demands. A urine diverting system combined with a local system for treatment of wastewater has been found to be the most interesting solution. The least attractive alternative in relation to the claimed demands is a traditional system for mixed wastewater connected to the existing wastewater treatment plant at the Oskarshamn nuclear power plant. This is mostly due to the high estimated cost for the connection pipe. Discharged leachate from the rock stockpile is expected to contain the greatest amount of nitrogen, at most 6 tonnes a year. Drainage water from the repository will also

  17. Use of multiple water surface flow constructed wetlands for non-point source water pollution control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dan; Zheng, Binghui; Liu, Yan; Chu, Zhaosheng; He, Yan; Huang, Minsheng

    2018-05-02

    Multiple free water surface flow constructed wetlands (multi-FWS CWs) are a variety of conventional water treatment plants for the interception of pollutants. This review encapsulated the characteristics and applications in the field of ecological non-point source water pollution control technology. The roles of in-series design and operation parameters (hydraulic residence time, hydraulic load rate, water depth and aspect ratio, composition of influent, and plant species) for performance intensification were also analyzed, which were crucial to achieve sustainable and effective contaminants removal, especially the retention of nutrient. The mechanism study of design and operation parameters for the removal of nitrogen and phosphorus was also highlighted. Conducive perspectives for further research on optimizing its design/operation parameters and advanced technologies of ecological restoration were illustrated to possibly interpret the functions of multi-FWS CWs.

  18. Microbial Flora Isolated from Polluted and Non-Polluted Coastal Waters of Karachi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaheen, A.; Baig, H. S.; Kazmi, S. U.

    2016-01-01

    Marine pollution has now become worldwide environmental concern. Continuous discharge of untreated industrial effluent, municipal and power plant contaminated wastewater has been a serious threat to marine habitat, aesthetic values and interest of visitors to coastal areas. Karachi is the largest city of Pakistan and industrial hub of the Arabian Sea. In this investigation, samples of sediment, water, flora and fauna were taken from nine selected stations on Karachi coast included three stations represented major creeks i.e. Korangi, Gizri and Chinna Creek. These samples were taken during north-east and south-west monsoonal period in 2014. Bacterial flora isolated and identified from samples collected from these sites by conventional method. Among isolated and identified bacteria e.g. Vibrio alginolyticus, Escherichia coli and Streptococuss anginosus were the most dominant species contributing 21.43, 19.64 and 15.18 percent of total assemblage respectively. Among selected sample stations, Korangi creek station was found to be most polluted with coliform and other pathogenic bacteria. These results clearly indicate that threats from these pathogens are not only to marine life but also to the large number of visitors coming to beaches and residents of surrounding area. Moreover; immediate action should be taken to restrict the growth of these pathogens by taking measures to treat the municipal and industrial effluent to avoid outbreak of any disease in future. (author)

  19. Pollution prevention opportunity assessment for the K-25 Site Toxic Substances Control Act Incinerator Operations, Level III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    A Level III pollution prevention opportunity assessment (PPOA) was performed for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Incinerator to evaluate pollution prevention (P2) options for various waste streams: The main objective of this study was to identify and evaluate options to reduce the quantities of each waste stream generated by the TSCA Incinerator operations to realize significant environmental and/or economic benefits from P2. For each of the waste streams, P2 options were evaluated following the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) hierarchy to (1) reduce the quantity of waste generated, (2) recycle the waste, and/or (3) use alternate waste treatment or segregation methods. This report provides process descriptions, identification and evaluation of P2 options, and final recommendations

  20. Protecting water resources from pollution in the Lake Badovc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avdullahi, Sabri; Fejza, Islam; Tmava, Ahmet [Faculty of Geosciences and Technology, University of Prishtina, Str. Parku Industrial, 40000 Mitrovic, Republic of Kosova

    2012-07-01

    In recent years, the international community has witnessed incidence of climate variability and human activities. The objective of this paper is protecting water resources from pollution in the catchments area of Lake Badovc. The catchments area of the Lake Badovc has a size of 109 km² and the active storage volume of the lake is assessed to 26.4 Mill.m3. Around 28% of the total population of Municipality of Prishtina supply with drinking water from Lake Badovc. The hydrologic modelling system used, is HEC-HMS developed by the Hydrologic Engineering Centre of the US Corps of Engineers. The model is designed to simulate the rainfall-runoff processes of catchments areas and is applicable to a wide range of geographic areas.Water samples are taken from two streams reach Lake Badovc and from the lake in three different depths (5m, 10m and 15m) at different locations. Concerning the environment impact more than 140 interviews were conducted and questionnaires filled in the period October-November for Mramor area, concentrating on the most important issues: building, water supply, wastewater disposal and west disposal.

  1. Water pollution control legislation in Israel: understanding implementation processes from an actor-centered approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hophmayer Tokich, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    In the State of Israel, advanced legislation for the management of scarce water resources, including legislation to prevent water pollution, were put in place in the early stages of the State’s formation. Despite that, on-going uncontrolled pollution has deteriorated the quality of water sources for

  2. Ground-water pollution determined by boron isotope systematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vengosh, A.; Kolodny, Y.; Spivack, A.J.

    1998-01-01

    Boron isotopic systematics as related to ground-water pollution is reviewed. We report isotopic results of contaminated ground water from the coastal aquifers of the Mediterranean in Israel, Cornia River in north-western Italy, and Salinas Valley, California. In addition, the B isotopic composition of synthetic B compounds used for detergents and fertilizers was investigated. Isotopic analyses were carried out by negative thermal ionization mass spectrometry. The investigated ground water revealed different contamination sources; underlying saline water of a marine origin in saline plumes in the Mediterranean coastal aquifer of Israel (δ 11 B=31.7 per mille to 49.9 per mille, B/Cl ratio ∼1.5x10 -3 ), mixing of fresh and sea water (25 per mille to 38 per mille, B/Cl∼7x10 -3 ) in saline water associated with salt-water intrusion to Salinas Valley, California, and a hydrothermal contribution (high B/Cl of ∼0.03, δ 11 B=2.4 per mille to 9.3 per mille) in ground water from Cornia River, Italy. The δ 11 B values of synthetic Na-borate products (-0.4 per mille to 7.5 per mille) overlap with those of natural Na-borate minerals (-0.9 per mille to 10.2 per mille). In contrast, the δ 11 B values of synthetic Ca-borate and Na/Ca borate products are significantly lower (-15 per mille to -12.1 per mille) and overlap with those of the natural Ca-borate minerals. We suggest that the original isotopic signature of the natural borate minerals is not modified during the manufacturing process of the synthetic products, and it is controlled by the crystal chemistry of borate minerals. The B concentrations in pristine ground-waters are generally low ( 11 B=39 per mille), salt-water intrusion and marine-derived brines (40 per mille to 60 per mille) are sharply different from hydrothermal fluids (δ 11 B=10 per mille to 10 per mille) and anthropogenic sources (sewage effluent: δ 11 B=0 per mille to 10 per mille; boron-fertilizer: δ 11 B=-15 per mille to 7 per mille). some

  3. Application of cyclodextrin nanoporous polymers in the removal of organic pollutants from water

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    M.Sc. The removal of organic pollutants from industrial and municipal water is a great challenge to water providers worldwide. Some of these pollutants are very toxic and pose serious health risks to both humans and animals. Additionally, the presence of organic pollutants in the water often leads to the corrosion of turbines used for power generation at power stations. This obviously makes the power generation process less efficient and thus has cost implications, especially for the end u...

  4. Ecotoxicological Assessment of Water and Sediment Pollution of the Iskar River bellow Samokov

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Diadovski

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available A system of integral ecological indices has been worked out to assess the level of pollution of water and sediments with hazardous substances. A model for the dynamics of the integral index for water and sediments pollution is proposed. This index was applied for ecotoxicological assessment of water and sediments pollution of the Iskar river bellow Samokov. A modification method on time series analysis is applied.

  5. Pollution characterization of waste water of an industrial zone - Example of a dairy water clarification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazourli, S.; Ziati, M.; Boudiba, L.; Fedaoui, D.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is the estimation of the polluting load generated by domestic effluents added to those of various industries in one of the most important industrial zone in Africa. Analysis of waste water showed strong and irregular pollution which is prejudicial for the aquatic receiving medium (river, sea). This pollution is confirmed among others by COD/BOD ratio which may attain the value of 1.8. Pre-treatment by coagulation floculation of waste water used in a dairy belonging to this industrial zone showed a considerable reduction of the initial pollution by a systematic decreasing of pollution parameters. Aluminium sulphates and iron chloride tested in this experience have reduced considerably all the studied parameters; the organic charge has received a very significant reduction up to 99%. The discharge of treated effluent in the surrounding river or its use for recycling aims is then possible for this industry. However, the formed sludge can be the subject of a suitable treatment for possible agricultural, avicolous valorisation or other. (author)

  6. Status of water pollution in relation to industrialization in Rajasthan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajput, Ritu Singh; Pandey, Sonali; Bhadauria, Seema

    2017-09-26

    India is a large and densely populated country; its economy is largely agricultural. Making the best use of the country's manpower has always posed a challenge. Industrialization could become a dominant component of the economy and displace agriculture. Traditional livelihoods of occupational groups are threatened by the practice of disposing untreated industrial waste into rivers and bodies of water. These uncontrolled disposals impact local natural resources with negative long-term effects. Industrialization is the development of intellectual and financial trade that changes a predominantly rustic culture into a modern one. Many industrial units discharge wastewater locally without treatment. Many industries directly discharged their waste into lakes, rivers and ocean. Water contamination impacts the environment. Pesticides, chemical, waste oil and heavy metals are regularly transported into their waters. Humans and other living organisms can accumulate heavy metals from industrial discharges in their tissues. Industrial waste may be reactive, corrosive, flammable, or toxic. When untreated sewage is emptied into rivers, it causes diseases like typhoid, dysentery and cholera. Natural elements and plant supplements like nitrate and phosphates stimulate growth of algae on the water surface. The algae reduce the oxygen in the water and cause eutrophication. It is harmful to the water ecosystem. In Rajasthan proper, there are a number of sites bordering rivers and lakes where the pace of industrialization has proceeded far beyond the ability of regulators to establish and enforce meaningful limits on the amount of point source pollution permitted to the various industrial complexes, which include cement, chemical, fertilizer, textile, mining, quarrying, dyeing and printing facilities. The scale of the problem is obvious to the casual observer, but actual documentation of the total impact remains to be done.

  7. Operation and Maintenance of Water Pollution Control Facilities: A WPCF White Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, William R.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Presented are the recommendations of the Water Pollution Control Federation for operation and maintenance consideration during the planning design, construction, and operation of wastewater treatment facilities. (CS)

  8. Surface water pollution and water quality studies at Prestea Goldfields Limited (P. G. L.) Prestea, Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ampong, Charles Horace

    1993-11-01

    Prestea is a mining community developed around Prestea Goldfields Limited, which is engaged in mining Sulphide gold ores known to give rise to several environmental problems like air pollution in the form of emissions of arsenic or arsenous oxides, with concurrent production of large amounts of Sulphur dioxide. As a result of extensive mining since 1929 using underground methods, involving about 18 million tons of ore, an estimated 3.5 - 4 million tons of tailings have been left on the surface in the vicinity of both current and historic treatment sites. Since the mine is located in an area of heavy rainfall, incessant rain will flush contaminants from tailings dumps and waste sites into the downstream environment and subsequently into surface waters. Water supply for the population in the area is derived from rivers and streams flowing in the area, supplemented by boreholes and spring water. Not much is known with respect to pollution levels along the rivers and streams which serve as water for domestic uses by settlers along these river banks and around. It therefore became necessary to carry out studies to ascertain the pollution levels of various water resources and to make some suggestions to guide pollution of these waters and uses of them as well. Water sampling was carried out in the rivers and streams. A spring water and well water were also sampled as reference data to ascertain background levels of pollutants. The work highlights activities of the mine and that of the surrounding inhabitants which are likely to result in the pollution of surface waters. It also discusses results of water samples within the area, Sample analysis included determination of parameters like pH, Temperature, Conductivity, Alkalinity, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Total Suspended Solids (TSS), Total Solids (TS), Total hardness, Cyanide and Sulphate concentrations among others. Concentrations of some heavy metals were also determined. Based on standards prevailing in the country

  9. Remote sensing in the mixing zone. [water pollution in Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villemonte, J. R.; Hoopes, J. A.; Wu, D. S.; Lillesand, T. M.

    1973-01-01

    Characteristics of dispersion and diffusion as the mechanisms by which pollutants are transported in natural river courses were studied with the view of providing additional data for the establishment of water quality guidelines and effluent outfall design protocols. Work has been divided into four basic categories which are directed at the basic goal of developing relationships which will permit the estimation of the nature and extent of the mixing zone as a function of those variables which characterize the outfall structure, the effluent, and the river, as well as climatological conditions. The four basic categories of effort are: (1) the development of mathematical models; (2) laboratory studies of physical models; (3) field surveys involving ground and aerial sensing; and (4) correlation between aerial photographic imagery and mixing zone characteristics.

  10. utilization of some agricultural wastes in treating water pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gad, H.M.H.H.

    2003-01-01

    Rice husks, a locally available agricultural by-product, were investigated with aim of producing good adsorbing materials suitable for remediating water pollution . Raw lignocellulose was treated through various procedures: simple carbonization to high temperature, pyrolysis under flowing steam at moderate temperatures and chemical activation with H 3 PO 4 followed by pyrolysis at moderate temperature . A partially deashed precursor was obtained by boiling in alkali solution, thereafter botanical residue was steam activated at a single temperature, and leachate acidified whereby silica was precipitated, many types of adsorbents were thus derived: chars, activated carbon and silica. the obtained various categories of sorbents were characterized by different techniques to asses their physico-chemical and adsorptive properties . this involved: ash content, thermogravimetry, FTIR, electron microscopy, N 2 gas adsorption at 77 k and adsorption capacity from solution using probe molecules

  11. Using devitalized moss for active biomonitoring of water pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debén, S; Fernández, J A; Carballeira, A; Aboal, J R

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents the results of an experiment carried out for the first time in situ to select a treatment to devitalize mosses for use in active biomonitoring of water pollution. Three devitalizing treatments for the aquatic moss Fontinalis antipyretica were tested (i.e. oven-drying at 100 °C, oven-drying with a 50-80-100 °C temperature ramp, and boiling in water), and the effects of these on loss of material during exposure of the transplants and on the accumulation of different heavy metals and metalloids were determined. The suitability of using devitalized samples of the terrestrial moss Sphagnum denticulatum to biomonitor aquatic environments was also tested. The structure of mosses was altered in different ways by the devitalizing treatments. Devitalization by boiling water led to significantly less loss of material (p treatments. However, devitalization by oven-drying with a temperature ramp yielded more stable results in relation to both loss of material and accumulation of elements. With the aim of standardizing the moss bag technique, the use of F. antipyretica devitalized by oven-drying with a temperature ramp is recommended, rather than other devitalization treatments or use of S. denticulatum. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Water quality assessment by pollution-index method in the coastal waters of Hebei Province in western Bohai Sea, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuguang; Lou, Sha; Kuang, Cuiping; Huang, Wenrui; Chen, Wujun; Zhang, Jianle; Zhong, Guihui

    2011-10-01

    Sources of pollution discharges and water quality samples at 27 stations in 2006 in the coastal waters of Hebei Province, western Bohai Sea, have been analyzed in this study. Pollutant loads from industrial sewages have shown stronger impact on the water environment than those from the general sewages. Analysis indicates that pollution of COD is mainly resulted from land-based point pollutant sources. For phosphate concentration, non-point source pollution from coastal ocean (fishing and harbor areas) plays an important role. To assess the water quality conditions, Organic Pollution Index and Eutrophication Index have been used to quantify the level of water pollution and eutrophication conditions. Results show that pollution was much heavier in the dry season than flood season in 2006. Based on COD and phosphate concentrations, results show that waters near Shahe River, Douhe River, Yanghe River, and Luanhe River were heavily polluted. Water quality in the Qinhuangdao area was better than those in the Tangshan and Cangzhou areas. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Macro-invertebrate decline in surface water polluted with imidacloprid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessa C Van Dijk

    Full Text Available Imidacloprid is one of the most widely used insecticides in the world. Its concentration in surface water exceeds the water quality norms in many parts of the Netherlands. Several studies have demonstrated harmful effects of this neonicotinoid to a wide range of non-target species. Therefore we expected that surface water pollution with imidacloprid would negatively impact aquatic ecosystems. Availability of extensive monitoring data on the abundance of aquatic macro-invertebrate species, and on imidacloprid concentrations in surface water in the Netherlands enabled us to test this hypothesis. Our regression analysis showed a significant negative relationship (P<0.001 between macro-invertebrate abundance and imidacloprid concentration for all species pooled. A significant negative relationship was also found for the orders Amphipoda, Basommatophora, Diptera, Ephemeroptera and Isopoda, and for several species separately. The order Odonata had a negative relationship very close to the significance threshold of 0.05 (P = 0.051. However, in accordance with previous research, a positive relationship was found for the order Actinedida. We used the monitoring field data to test whether the existing three water quality norms for imidacloprid in the Netherlands are protective in real conditions. Our data show that macrofauna abundance drops sharply between 13 and 67 ng l(-1. For aquatic ecosystem protection, two of the norms are not protective at all while the strictest norm of 13 ng l(-1 (MTR seems somewhat protective. In addition to the existing experimental evidence on the negative effects of imidacloprid on invertebrate life, our study, based on data from large-scale field monitoring during multiple years, shows that serious concern about the far-reaching consequences of the abundant use of imidacloprid for aquatic ecosystems is justified.

  14. Macro-Invertebrate Decline in Surface Water Polluted with Imidacloprid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dijk, Tessa C.; Van Staalduinen, Marja A.; Van der Sluijs, Jeroen P.

    2013-01-01

    Imidacloprid is one of the most widely used insecticides in the world. Its concentration in surface water exceeds the water quality norms in many parts of the Netherlands. Several studies have demonstrated harmful effects of this neonicotinoid to a wide range of non-target species. Therefore we expected that surface water pollution with imidacloprid would negatively impact aquatic ecosystems. Availability of extensive monitoring data on the abundance of aquatic macro-invertebrate species, and on imidacloprid concentrations in surface water in the Netherlands enabled us to test this hypothesis. Our regression analysis showed a significant negative relationship (Pmacro-invertebrate abundance and imidacloprid concentration for all species pooled. A significant negative relationship was also found for the orders Amphipoda, Basommatophora, Diptera, Ephemeroptera and Isopoda, and for several species separately. The order Odonata had a negative relationship very close to the significance threshold of 0.05 (P = 0.051). However, in accordance with previous research, a positive relationship was found for the order Actinedida. We used the monitoring field data to test whether the existing three water quality norms for imidacloprid in the Netherlands are protective in real conditions. Our data show that macrofauna abundance drops sharply between 13 and 67 ng l−1. For aquatic ecosystem protection, two of the norms are not protective at all while the strictest norm of 13 ng l−1 (MTR) seems somewhat protective. In addition to the existing experimental evidence on the negative effects of imidacloprid on invertebrate life, our study, based on data from large-scale field monitoring during multiple years, shows that serious concern about the far-reaching consequences of the abundant use of imidacloprid for aquatic ecosystems is justified. PMID:23650513

  15. Industrial water pollution: characterization, classification, measurements; Pollution industrielle de l`eau: caracterisation, classification, mesure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boeglin, J.C. [Institut de Recherches Hydrologiques, IRH-environnement, 54 - Nancy (France)]|[Institut de Promotion Industrielle, IPI-environnement indistriel, 68 - Colmar (France)]|[Centre International de l`eau de Nancy, 54 (France)

    1999-01-01

    In this work is described: 1)the characterization of the industrial wastes pollution and the study of their harmfulness and effects on the environment 2)a classification of the pollution for the different industries 3)the measurements and control of the industrial pollution. (authors) 5 refs.

  16. Pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dürr, E.; Jaffe, R.; Nonini, D.M.

    2014-01-01

    This essay points to the role of pollution in understanding the social construction of hierarchies and urban space. Conceptualizations of pollution and approaches to waste management always reflect the Zeitgeist and tend to be politically charged. We argue that an ethnographic approach to pollution

  17. Can SA afford to continue polluting its water resources? – With special reference to water pollution in two important catchment areas

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, S

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The reuse potential of industrial, agricultural and domestic return flows in any region is directly dependent on the quality of treatment processes and the intended reuse applications. Although the direct recycling of polluted water for potable use...

  18. Use of Bentonite in residual waters of tanneries for the removal of Cr(III)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Echavarria Isaza, Adriana; Moreno Casaf, Monica; Ramirez Ochoa, Claudia; Tamayo Martinez, Claudia; Saldarriaga Molina, Carlos

    1998-01-01

    An efficient procedure is reported for Cr(III) removal from tannery waste waters by means of natural and chemically treated bentonites. The best result was obtained using 20 mL of effluent with 7.5 grams of Bentonite. With this quantity it was removed the total amount of chromium III present in the sample

  19. Farmers, Trust, and the Market Solution to Water Pollution: The Role of Social Embeddedness in Water Quality Trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariola, Matt J.

    2012-01-01

    Water quality trading (WQT) is a market arrangement in which a point-source water polluter pays farmers to implement conservation practices and claims the resulting benefits as credits toward meeting a pollution permit. Success rates of WQT programs nationwide are highly variable. Most of the literature on WQT is from an economic perspective…

  20. Degradation of pollutants and elimination of pathogens of waste water by adsorption of accelerated electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez M, I.

    1991-10-01

    This report presents a position of the pollutants degradation of the industrial residual waters, it intends a method that consists on making pass residual water, treated biologically by a packed column with activated carbon. The carbon retains the pollutants and the water goes out with a purity that allows the reuse. In simultaneous form to the adsorption of pollutants are made pass electrons through the column of carbon, the electrons will destroy to the polluting adsorbed in the carbon; the pollutants degrade until CO 2 that escapes as gas. The active sites of the carbon are empty and clever to be occupied by other pollutants. This process is continuous and it is repeated while water is passing by the column and electrons through this. (Author)

  1. Pollution of south of Tehran ground waters with heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmasi, R.; Tavassoli, A.

    2006-01-01

    The reuse of nutrients and organic matter in wastewater sludge via on agricultural lands application is a desirable goal. However, trace or heavy metals present in sludge pose the risk of human or phyto toxicity from land application. The aim of this research is possibility of ground water pollution of south of Tehran because of ten years irrigation with Ni, Cd and Pb borne waste water. For this purpose, 6 soil samples from southern parts of Tehran city and 2 ones from Zanjan city without lime and organic matter were selected. The soils differed in their texture from sandy to clayey. Each soil sample in duplicate and uniformly packed into PVC columns. Soil samples were irrigated with Cd, Pb and Ni-added wastewater. After irrigating, the columns were cut and the soils separated from sectioned pieces and their heavy metal concentrations (Pb, Cd and Ni) were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometer y use of HNO 3 , 4N solution. Because of high sorption capacity of these elements by soils, these metals were accumulated in surface layer of the soils. Movement in the soils without lime and organic matter were as low as other samples. Ni has had the most accumulation or the least vertical movement, and Pb the opposite ones

  2. Effect of air and water pollutants on human health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rondia, D.

    1973-01-01

    Toxicological and epidemiological studies on the effects of air pollutants on human health are reviewed. The epidemiological approach is based on the study of the human population actually exposed to air pollutants in daily life. Levels of increasing toxicity were established for the commonest air pollutants such as lead, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and various allergens. The effects of pollution on immunology and adaptation, of carbon monoxide on carboxyhemoglobin levels, of sulfur dioxide on mortality and morbidity in urban areas, of nitrogen oxides on electrolytes and glutathion, of ozone and NO/sub x/ on respiratory diseases, and of pollutants on chronic bronchitis are reviewed.

  3. Characterization and source apportionment of water pollution in Jinjiang River, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haiyang; Teng, Yanguo; Yue, Weifeng; Song, Liuting

    2013-11-01

    Characterizing water quality and identifying potential pollution sources could greatly improve our knowledge about human impacts on the river ecosystem. In this study, fuzzy comprehensive assessment (FCA), pollution index (PI), principal component analysis (PCA), and absolute principal component score-multiple linear regression (APCS-MLR) were combined to obtain a deeper understanding of temporal-spatial characterization and sources of water pollution with a case study of the Jinjiang River, China. Measurement data were obtained with 17 water quality variables from 20 sampling sites in the December 2010 (withered water period) and June 2011 (high flow period). FCA and PI were used to comprehensively estimate the water quality variables and compare temporal-spatial variations, respectively. Rotated PCA and receptor model (APCS-MLR) revealed potential pollution sources and their corresponding contributions. Application results showed that comprehensive application of various multivariate methods were effective for water quality assessment and management. In the withered water period, most sampling sites were assessed as low or moderate pollution with characteristics pollutants of permanganate index and total nitrogen (TN), whereas 90% sites were classified as high pollution in the high flow period with higher TN and total phosphorus. Agricultural non-point sources, industrial wastewater discharge, and domestic sewage were identified as major pollution sources. Apportionment results revealed that most variables were complicatedly influenced by industrial wastewater discharge and agricultural activities in withered water period and primarily dominated by agricultural runoff in high flow period.

  4. Water pollution in estuaries and coastal zones. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the studies of water pollution in estuaries and coastal zones. Citations examine the development, management, and protection of estuary and coastal resources. Topics include pollution sources, environmental monitoring, water chemistry, eutrophication, models, land use, government policy, and laws and regulations. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  5. Can control of soil erosion mitigate water pollution by sediments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickson, R J

    2014-01-15

    The detrimental impact of sediment and associated pollutants on water quality is widely acknowledged, with many watercourses in the UK failing to meet the standard of 'good ecological status'. Catchment sediment budgets show that hill slope erosion processes can be significant sources of waterborne sediment, with rates of erosion likely to increase given predicted future weather patterns. However, linking on-site erosion rates with off-site impacts is complicated because of the limited data on soil erosion rates in the UK and the dynamic nature of the source-pathway-receptor continuum over space and time. Even so, soil erosion control measures are designed to reduce sediment production (source) and mobilisation/transport (pathway) on hill slopes, with consequent mitigation of pollution incidents in watercourses (receptors). The purpose of this paper is to review the scientific evidence of the effectiveness of erosion control measures used in the UK to reduce sediment loads of hill slope origin in watercourses. Although over 73 soil erosion mitigation measures have been identified from the literature, empirical data on erosion control effectiveness are limited. Baseline comparisons for the 18 measures where data do exist reveal erosion control effectiveness is highly variable over time and between study locations. Given the limitations of the evidence base in terms of geographical coverage and duration of monitoring, performance of the different measures cannot be extrapolated to other areas. This uncertainty in effectiveness has implications for implementing erosion/sediment risk reduction policies, where quantified targets are stipulated, as is the case in the EU Freshwater Fish and draft Soil Framework Directives. Also, demonstrating technical effectiveness of erosion control measures alone will not encourage uptake by land managers: quantifying the costs and benefits of adopting erosion mitigation is equally important, but these are uncertain and difficult to

  6. Analyse of pollution sources in Horna Nitra river basin using the system GeoEnviron such as instrument for groundwater and surface water pollution risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutnik, P.

    2004-01-01

    In this presentation author deals with the analyse of pollution sources in Horna Nitra river basin using the system GeoEnviron such as instrument for groundwater and surface water pollution risk assessment

  7. Radiation-thermal purification of waste water from oil pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustafaev, I.; Guliyeva, N.; Rzayev, R.; Yagubov, K.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: During the extraction, preparation, transportation and refining of oil the sewages containing oil contaminations are produced. The concentration of oil content in the water depends on used technology and may vary from a thousandths parts up to tens percents. There is a necessity of cleaning this pollution up to a permissible level. There are numerous methods (adsorption, mechanical, chemical and etc) of treating of waster water from oil contaminations. Radiation-chemical method is one of the effective among the above mentioned methods. The results of radiation-thermal decomposition of n-heptane micro-admixtures in water medium are adduced. The main parameters of radiolysis change within the intervals: temperature 20-400 o C, absorbed dose - 0†10.8 kGy at dose rate 3.6 kGy/h. The correlation of n-heptane concentration and water steam changed within [C 5 H 1 2]/[H 2 O] (1-100) 10-5. Total concentration of steam was about 10 20 molec/ml. As a product of decomposition are observed H 2 , CO, CH 4 , C 2 H 4 , C 2 H 6 , C 3 H 8 , C 3 H 6 , C 4 H 8 , hydrocarbons C 5 , and C 6 . The changes of n-heptane concentration in the reactor also were established. The chain regime of n-heptane decomposition at high temperatures in the irradiated mixture is observed. The critical value of temperature and mixture ratio of components, under which the break of chain process of normal n-heptane occurs are defined. The mechanisms of proceeding radiation thermal processes in hydrocarbons-water system are discussed. At the temperatures higher than 300 o C the radiation-thermal decompositions of hydrocarbon micro-impurities in water into gas products occurs according a chain mechanism and the radiation-chemical yield of the decomposition exceeds 100 molec/100eV. This method can be used for purification of sewages from oil contaminations

  8. Distributed Water Pollution Source Localization with Mobile UV-Visible Spectrometer Probes in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjie Ma

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Pollution accidents that occur in surface waters, especially in drinking water source areas, greatly threaten the urban water supply system. During water pollution source localization, there are complicated pollutant spreading conditions and pollutant concentrations vary in a wide range. This paper provides a scalable total solution, investigating a distributed localization method in wireless sensor networks equipped with mobile ultraviolet-visible (UV-visible spectrometer probes. A wireless sensor network is defined for water quality monitoring, where unmanned surface vehicles and buoys serve as mobile and stationary nodes, respectively. Both types of nodes carry UV-visible spectrometer probes to acquire in-situ multiple water quality parameter measurements, in which a self-adaptive optical path mechanism is designed to flexibly adjust the measurement range. A novel distributed algorithm, called Dual-PSO, is proposed to search for the water pollution source, where one particle swarm optimization (PSO procedure computes the water quality multi-parameter measurements on each node, utilizing UV-visible absorption spectra, and another one finds the global solution of the pollution source position, regarding mobile nodes as particles. Besides, this algorithm uses entropy to dynamically recognize the most sensitive parameter during searching. Experimental results demonstrate that online multi-parameter monitoring of a drinking water source area with a wide dynamic range is achieved by this wireless sensor network and water pollution sources are localized efficiently with low-cost mobile node paths.

  9. Distributed Water Pollution Source Localization with Mobile UV-Visible Spectrometer Probes in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Junjie; Meng, Fansheng; Zhou, Yuexi; Wang, Yeyao; Shi, Ping

    2018-02-16

    Pollution accidents that occur in surface waters, especially in drinking water source areas, greatly threaten the urban water supply system. During water pollution source localization, there are complicated pollutant spreading conditions and pollutant concentrations vary in a wide range. This paper provides a scalable total solution, investigating a distributed localization method in wireless sensor networks equipped with mobile ultraviolet-visible (UV-visible) spectrometer probes. A wireless sensor network is defined for water quality monitoring, where unmanned surface vehicles and buoys serve as mobile and stationary nodes, respectively. Both types of nodes carry UV-visible spectrometer probes to acquire in-situ multiple water quality parameter measurements, in which a self-adaptive optical path mechanism is designed to flexibly adjust the measurement range. A novel distributed algorithm, called Dual-PSO, is proposed to search for the water pollution source, where one particle swarm optimization (PSO) procedure computes the water quality multi-parameter measurements on each node, utilizing UV-visible absorption spectra, and another one finds the global solution of the pollution source position, regarding mobile nodes as particles. Besides, this algorithm uses entropy to dynamically recognize the most sensitive parameter during searching. Experimental results demonstrate that online multi-parameter monitoring of a drinking water source area with a wide dynamic range is achieved by this wireless sensor network and water pollution sources are localized efficiently with low-cost mobile node paths.

  10. Assessing water pollution level and gray water footprint of anthropogenic nitrogen in agricultural system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guorui; Chen, Han; Yu, Chaoqing

    2017-04-01

    Water pollution has become a global problem which is one of the most critical issues of today's water treatment. At a spatial resolution of 10km, we use the DeNitrification-DeComposition (DNDC) model to simulate the biogeochemical processes for major cropping systems from 1955 to 2014, estimate the anthropogenic nitrogen loads to fresh, and calculate the resultant grey water footprints and N-related water pollution level in China. The accumulated annual Nitrogen loads to fresh from agricultural system is 0.38Tg in 1955 and 4.42Tg in 2014, while the grey water footprints vary from 1.53 billion m3 to 17.67 billion m3, respectively. N loads in north of China contributes much more on the N leaching because of the high fertilizer but in south of China, it is mainly focused on the N runoff because of the heavy rain. There are more than 25% of grids with WPL>1 (exceed the water capacity of assimilation), which is mainly located on the North China Plain.

  11. Using devitalized moss for active biomonitoring of water pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debén, S.; Fernández, J.A.; Carballeira, A.; Aboal, J.R.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experiment carried out for the first time in situ to select a treatment to devitalize mosses for use in active biomonitoring of water pollution. Three devitalizing treatments for the aquatic moss Fontinalis antipyretica were tested (i.e. oven-drying at 100 °C, oven-drying with a 50-80-100 °C temperature ramp, and boiling in water), and the effects of these on loss of material during exposure of the transplants and on the accumulation of different heavy metals and metalloids were determined. The suitability of using devitalized samples of the terrestrial moss Sphagnum denticulatum to biomonitor aquatic environments was also tested. The structure of mosses was altered in different ways by the devitalizing treatments. Devitalization by boiling water led to significantly less loss of material (p < 0.01) than the oven-drying treatments. However, devitalization by oven-drying with a temperature ramp yielded more stable results in relation to both loss of material and accumulation of elements. With the aim of standardizing the moss bag technique, the use of F. antipyretica devitalized by oven-drying with a temperature ramp is recommended, rather than other devitalization treatments or use of S. denticulatum. - Highlights: • Devitalization treatments of the aquatic moss Fontinalis antipyretica were tested. • Loss of material during the exposure and accumulation of contaminants were evaluated. • The use of mosses devitalized by oven-drying with a temperature ramp is recommended. • The use of Sphagnum denticulatum as biomonitor of aquatic environments is not suitable. - Selection of a devitalization treatment as a contribution for standardizing moss bag technique.

  12. Water pollution and environmental governance systems of the Tai and Chao Lake Basins in China in an international perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lei Qiu; M.P. van Dijk (Meine Pieter); H. Wang (Huimin)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractThe Tai and Chao Lake basins are currently facing a serious water pollution crisis associated with the absence of an effective environmental governance system. The water pollution and the water governance system of the two basins will be compared. The reasons for water pollution in

  13. Kinetics of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) removal from water by two floating macrophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maine, M A; Hadad, H R; Sánchez, G; Caffaratti, S; Pedro, M C

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to compare Cr(III) and Cr(VI) removal kinetics from water by Pistia stratiotes and Salvinia herzogii. The accumulation in plant tissues and the effects of both Cr forms on plant growth were also evaluated. Plants were exposed to 2 and 6 mg L(-1) of Cr(III) or Cr(VI) during 30 days. At the end of the experiment, Cr(VI) removal percentages were significantly lower than those obtained for Cr(III) for both macrophytes. Cr(III) removal kinetics involved a fast and a slow component. The fast component was primarily responsible for Cr(III) removal while Cr(VI) removal kinetics involved only a slow process. Cr accumulated principally in the roots. In the Cr(VI) treatments a higher translocation from roots to aerial parts than in Cr(III) treatments was observed. Both macrophytes demonstrated a high ability to remove Cr(III) but not Cr(VI). Cr(III) inhibited the growth at the highest studied concentration of both macrophytes while Cr(VI) caused senescence. These results have important implications in the use of constructed wetlands for secondary industrial wastewater treatment. Common primary treatments of effluents containing Cr(VI) consists in its reduction to Cr(III). Cr(III) concentrations in these effluents are normally below the highest studied concentrations in this work.

  14. A review on environmental monitoring of water organic pollutants identified by EU guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, João C G; Ribeiro, Ana R; Barbosa, Marta O; Pereira, M Fernando R; Silva, Adrián M T

    2018-02-15

    The contamination of fresh water is a global concern. The huge impact of natural and anthropogenic organic substances that are constantly released into the environment, demands a better knowledge of the chemical status of Earth's surface water. Water quality monitoring studies have been performed targeting different substances and/or classes of substances, in different regions of the world, using different types of sampling strategies and campaigns. This review article aims to gather the available dispersed information regarding the occurrence of priority substances (PSs) and contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) that must be monitored in Europe in surface water, according to the European Union Directive 2013/39/EU and the Watch List of Decision 2015/495/EU, respectively. Other specific organic pollutants not considered in these EU documents as substances of high concern, but with reported elevated frequency of detection at high concentrations, are also discussed. The search comprised worldwide publications from 2012, considering at least one of the following criteria: 4 sampling campaigns per year, wet and dry seasons, temporal and/or spatial monitoring of surface (river, estuarine, lake and/or coastal waters) and ground waters. The highest concentrations were found for: (i) the PSs atrazine, alachlor, trifluralin, heptachlor, hexachlorocyclohexane, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate; (ii) the CECs azithromycin, clarithromycin, erythromycin, diclofenac, 17α-ethinylestradiol, imidacloprid and 2-ethylhexyl 4-methoxycinnamate; and (iii) other unregulated organic compounds (caffeine, naproxen, metolachlor, estriol, dimethoate, terbuthylazine, acetaminophen, ibuprofen, trimethoprim, ciprofloxacin, ketoprofen, atenolol, Bisphenol A, metoprolol, carbofuran, malathion, sulfamethoxazole, carbamazepine and ofloxacin). Most frequent substances as well as those found at highest concentrations in different seasons and regions, together with

  15. A new technology for harnessing the dye polluted water and dye collection in the chemical factory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A new technology for harnessing the dye polluted water and dyecollection was developed. It is based on the enhanced evaporation by using solar, wind, and air temperature energy and additional heat-electric energy. It consists of four parts: (1) evaporation carrier system (evaporation carrier and frame for evaporation carrier) for polluted water; (2) polluted water circulating system (pumping-spraying-collecting); (3) heating system; (4) workshop with polluted water reservoir-tanks and rainfall prevention roof. The polluted water was (heated in case necessary) sprayed to the evaporation carrier system and the water was evaporated when it moved in the space and downward along the carrier mainly by using natural (solar, wind, and air temperature energy). In case, when there is no roof for the carrier system, thepolluted water can be stored in the reservoirs (storage volume for about 20 days). The first 10-25 mm rainfall also need to be stored in the reservoirs to meet the state standard for discharging wastewater. The dye may be collected at the surface in the reservoir-tanks and the crystallized salt may be collected at the bottom plate. The black-color wastewater released by the factory is no more discharged to the surface water system of Taihu Lake Basin. About 2 kg dye and 200 kg industrial salt may be collected from each tone of the polluted water. The non-pollution production of dye may be realized by using this technology with environmental, economical and social benefits.

  16. Studies on the removal of arsenic (III) from water by a novel hybrid material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandal, Sandip; Padhi, T.; Patel, R.K.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The removal of As (III) is about 98% at pH 7 with the hybrid material (ZrO-EA). → The hybrid material exhibits specific surface area of 201.62 m 2 /g. → The adsorption of arsenic (III) from aqueous solution by the hybrid material is spontaneous. → The material could be easily regenerated with sodium hydroxide at pH 12. - Abstract: The present work provides a method for removal of the arsenic (III) from water. An ion-exchanger hybrid material zirconium (IV) oxide-ethanolamine (ZrO-EA) is synthesized and characterized which is subsequently used for the removal of selective arsenic (III) from water containing 10,50,100 mg/L of arsenic (III) solution. The probable practical application for arsenic removal from water by this material has also been studied. The various parameters affecting the removal process like initial concentration of As (III), adsorbent dose, contact time, temperature, ionic strength, and pH are investigated. From the data of results, it is indicated that, the adsorbent dose of 0.7 mg/L, contact time 50 min after which the adsorption process comes to equilibrium, temperature (25 ± 2), solution pH (5-7), which are the optimum conditions for adsorption. The typical adsorption isotherms are calculated to know the suitability of the process. The column studies showed 98% recovery of arsenic from water especially at low concentration of arsenic in water samples.

  17. Disproportionation of hydroxylamine by water-soluble iron(III) porphyrinate compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bari, Sara E; Amorebieta, Valentín T; Gutiérrez, María M; Olabe, José A; Doctorovich, Fabio

    2010-01-01

    The reactions of hydroxylamine (HA) with several water-soluble iron(III) porphyrinate compounds, namely iron(III) meso-tetrakis-(N-ethylpyridinium-2yl)-porphyrinate ([Fe(III)(TEPyP)](5+)), iron(III) meso-tetrakis-(4-sulphonatophenyl)-porphyrinate ([Fe(III)(TPPS)](3-)), and microperoxidase 11 ([Fe(III)(MP11)]) were studied for different [Fe(III)(Porph)]/[HA] ratios, under anaerobic conditions at neutral pH. Efficient catalytic processes leading to the disproportionation of HA by these iron(III) porphyrinates were evidenced for the first time. As a common feature, only N(2) and N(2)O were found as gaseous, nitrogen-containing oxidation products, while NH(3) was the unique reduced species detected. Different N(2)/N(2)O ratios obtained with these three porphyrinates strongly suggest distinctive mechanistic scenarios: while [Fe(III)(TEPyP)](5+) and [Fe(III)(MP11)] formed unknown steady-state porphyrinic intermediates in the presence of HA, [Fe(III)(TPPS)](3-) led to the well characterized soluble intermediate, [Fe(II)(TPPS)NO](4-). Free-radical formation was only evidenced for [Fe(III)(TEPyP)](5+), as a consequence of a metal centered reduction. We discuss the catalytic pathways of HA disproportionation on the basis of the distribution of gaseous products, free radicals formation, the nature of porphyrinic intermediates, the Fe(II)/Fe(III) redox potential, the coordinating capabilities of each complex, and the kinetic analysis. The absence of NO(2)(-) revealed either that no HAO-like activity was operative under our reaction conditions, or that NO(2)(-), if formed, was consumed in the reaction milieu.

  18. Impacts of soil and water pollution on food safety and health risks in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yonglong; Song, Shuai; Wang, Ruoshi; Liu, Zhaoyang; Meng, Jing; Sweetman, Andrew J; Jenkins, Alan; Ferrier, Robert C; Li, Hong; Luo, Wei; Wang, Tieyu

    2015-04-01

    Environmental pollution and food safety are two of the most important issues of our time. Soil and water pollution, in particular, have historically impacted on food safety which represents an important threat to human health. Nowhere has that situation been more complex and challenging than in China, where a combination of pollution and an increasing food safety risk have affected a large part of the population. Water scarcity, pesticide over-application, and chemical pollutants are considered to be the most important factors impacting on food safety in China. Inadequate quantity and quality of surface water resources in China have led to the long-term use of waste-water irrigation to fulfill the water requirements for agricultural production. In some regions this has caused serious agricultural land and food pollution, especially for heavy metals. It is important, therefore, that issues threatening food safety such as combined pesticide residues and heavy metal pollution are addressed to reduce risks to human health. The increasing negative effects on food safety from water and soil pollution have put more people at risk of carcinogenic diseases, potentially contributing to 'cancer villages' which appear to correlate strongly with the main food producing areas. Currently in China, food safety policies are not integrated with soil and water pollution management policies. Here, a comprehensive map of both soil and water pollution threats to food safety in China is presented and integrated policies addressing soil and water pollution for achieving food safety are suggested to provide a holistic approach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Removal of organic pollutants from produced water using Fenton oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afzal Talia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Produced water (PW is the largest stream of wastewater from oil and gas exploration. It is highly polluted and requires proper treatment before disposal. The main objective of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of Fenton oxidation in degradation of organic matter in PW. The role of operating factors viz., H2O2 concentration (0.12 × 10-3 moles/L to 3 moles/L, [H2O2]/[Fe2+] molar ratio (2 to 75, and reaction time (30 to 200 minutes, on COD removal was determined through a series of batch experiments conducted in acidic environment at room temperature. The experiments were conducted with 500 mL PW samples in 1L glass beakers covered on the outside with aluminum foil to protect them from sunlight. Pre-decided amounts of ferrous sulfate heptahydrate (FeSO4.7H2O and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 were added to initiate the Fenton reaction. An increase in COD removal was observed with increase in reaction time and [H2O2]/[Fe2+] molar ratio. COD removal also increased with H2O2 concentration up to 0.01 moles/L; further increase in H2O2 concentration decreased the COD removal efficiency. Over 90% COD removal was achieved under optimum reaction conditions. The study indicates that Fenton oxidation is effective for remediation of PW in terms of organic matter removal.

  20. Removal of organic pollutants from produced water using Fenton oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzal, Talia; Hasnain Isa, Mohamed; Mustafa, Muhammad Raza ul

    2018-03-01

    Produced water (PW) is the largest stream of wastewater from oil and gas exploration. It is highly polluted and requires proper treatment before disposal. The main objective of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of Fenton oxidation in degradation of organic matter in PW. The role of operating factors viz., H2O2 concentration (0.12 × 10-3 moles/L to 3 moles/L), [H2O2]/[Fe2+] molar ratio (2 to 75), and reaction time (30 to 200 minutes), on COD removal was determined through a series of batch experiments conducted in acidic environment at room temperature. The experiments were conducted with 500 mL PW samples in 1L glass beakers covered on the outside with aluminum foil to protect them from sunlight. Pre-decided amounts of ferrous sulfate heptahydrate (FeSO4.7H2O) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) were added to initiate the Fenton reaction. An increase in COD removal was observed with increase in reaction time and [H2O2]/[Fe2+] molar ratio. COD removal also increased with H2O2 concentration up to 0.01 moles/L; further increase in H2O2 concentration decreased the COD removal efficiency. Over 90% COD removal was achieved under optimum reaction conditions. The study indicates that Fenton oxidation is effective for remediation of PW in terms of organic matter removal.

  1. Sudden water pollution accidents and reservoir emergency operations: impact analysis at Danjiangkou Reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hezhen; Lei, Xiaohui; Shang, Yizi; Duan, Yang; Kong, Lingzhong; Jiang, Yunzhong; Wang, Hao

    2018-03-01

    Danjiangkou Reservoir is the source reservoir of the Middle Route of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project (MRP). Any sudden water pollution accident in the reservoir would threaten the water supply of the MRP. We established a 3-D hydrodynamic and water quality model for the Danjiangkou Reservoir, and proposed scientific suggestions on the prevention and emergency management for sudden water pollution accidents based on simulated results. Simulations were performed on 20 hypothetical pollutant discharge locations and 3 assumed amounts, in order to model the effect of pollutant spreading under different reservoir operation types. The results showed that both the location and mass of pollution affected water quality; however, different reservoir operation types had little effect. Five joint regulation scenarios, which altered the hydrodynamic processes of water conveyance for the Danjiangkou and Taocha dams, were considered for controlling pollution dispersion. The results showed that the spread of a pollutant could be effectively controlled through the joint regulation of the two dams and that the collaborative operation of the Danjiangkou and Taocha dams is critical for ensuring the security of water quality along the MRP.

  2. Study of pollution effect on water quality of Grogol River, DKI Jakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amira, S.; Astono, W.; Hendrawan, D.

    2018-01-01

    A study has been conducted to identify the incoming pollutants and assess the water quality in Grogol River, DKI Jakarta, Indonesia, which has a length of 13.35 km and consists of two segments. The water quality assessment is determined by pollution index method, referring to Minister of Environment Decree No. 15/2013 on The Guidelines of Water Quality Status. The samples were taken both in rainy and dry seasons at 7 sampling points. Based on the analyses of 10 key parameters and the calculation of pollution index value, it can be concluded that Grogol River is low polluted in rainy season and moderate polluted in dry season. The information obtained from this research can be used for decision making to improve the water quality of Grogol River.

  3. Water pollution control. High performances finishing processing; Lutte contre la pollution des eaux. Finitions a haute performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilles, P.

    1999-04-01

    The sewage recovery or recycling is an efficient way to control the water resources conservation. This paper characterizes in a first part the residual pollutants of an effluent rejected in the natural medium. It deals then the recycling and the water recovery objectives to present the possible processing. The author emphasizes some modern high performances engineering as, granular material filtration, membrane filtration, osmosis, UV disinfection, flocculation activated carbon or chemical oxidation. (A.L.B.)

  4. Water pollution - control of pollution regulations: water pollution from abandoned mines; pre-notification of mine abandonment consultation paper and draft regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    The paper contains proposals to specify the content of the pre-abandonment notices which UK mine operators will be required to give in the future. The proposals are designed to enhance the Environment Agency`s ability to tackle water pollution from abandoned mines. They set out the precise contents of the notification, which mine operators will have to send to the Agency at least six months in advance of any intended abandonment. The regulations will cover coal and non-coal mines. Estimated compliance costs to business have been drawn up following consultation with the Department of Trade and Industry, the Health and Safety Executive, the Coal Authority and the Environment Agency. The regulations are due in late spring 1998.

  5. Tackling non-point source water pollution in British Columbia : an action plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    British Columbia`s approach to water quality management is discussed. The BC efforts include regulating `end of pipe` point discharges from industrial and municipal outfalls. The major remaining cause of water pollution is from non-point sources (NPS). NPS water pollution is caused by the release of pollutants from different and diffuse sources, mostly unregulated and associated with urbanization, agriculture and other forms of land development. The importance of dealing with such problems on an immediate basis to avoid a decline in water quality in the province is emphasized. Major sources of water pollution in British Columbia include: land development, agriculture, storm water runoff, onsite sewage systems, forestry, atmospheric deposition, and marine activities. 3 tabs.

  6. Paying for Pollution: Water Quality and Effluent Charges. Proceedings from a Conference (Chicago, Illinois, May 19, 1977).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conservation Foundation, Washington, DC.

    This publication gives the proceedings from a 1977 conference sponsored by the Conservation Foundation. Participants discuss the appropriate means to control water pollution, emphasizing the use of effluent charges as economic incentive for polluters to clean up their waters. (MA)

  7. Diversity as a measure of water pollution and an aid for biological water analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, S.R.; Sharma, A.K.; Goel, D.P.

    1987-01-01

    Five aquatic ecosystems, Yamuna river, Krishna river Eastern Kalinadi, Kadrabad drain and Peacock lake have been studied with reference to disversity and physico-chemical characteristics and biological indices; a list of species have been selected with reference to polluted, mildly polluted or unpolluted water conditions. Though it is difficult to call any species strictly indicator species, certain species of Bacillariophyceae, bottom biota and Entomostraca can be regarded as indicative species; the quantitative distributions of the species of different groups have been analysed statistically. Margalef's Community Diversity Index (d), Shannon Weaver Function, coefficient of rank correlation and partial and multiple correlation coefficient were calculated as to find out the order of precedence in different taxonomical groups and the linear regression against BOD and the whole biocenosis were calculated, which indicate the relation as diversity d=6.7854-0.0080 BOD+-0.9695 where r/sup 2/=B=0.7365. Similarly, multiple linear regressions were also calculated using diversity against BOD, pH and temperature for each aquatic ecosystem. All these observations indicate that diversity of organisms can be used to measure the water pollution intensity.

  8. 19 CFR 4.66b - Pollution of coastal and navigable waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pollution of coastal and navigable waters. 4.66b... coastal and navigable waters. (a) If any Customs officer has reason to believe that any refuse matter is being or has been deposited in navigable waters or any tributary of any navigable waters in violation of...

  9. An application of Landsat and computer technology to potential water pollution from soil erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, W. J.

    1981-01-01

    Agricultural activity has been recognized as the primary source of nonpoint source water pollution. Water quality planners have needed information that is timely, accurate, easily reproducible, and relatively inexpensive to utilize to implement 'Best Management Practices' for water quality. In this paper, a case study shows how the combination of satellite data, which can give accurate land-cover/land-use information, and a computerized geographic information system, can assess nonpoint pollution at a regional scale and be cost effective.

  10. Water Pollution and Water Quality Assessment of Major Transboundary Rivers from Banat (Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea-Mihaela Dunca

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on water resources management and shows the need to enforce the existing international bilateral agreements and to implement the Water Framework Directive of the European Union in order to improve the water quantity and quality received by a downstream country of a common watershed, like Timiş-Bega hydrographical basin, shared by two countries (Romania and Serbia. The spatial trend of water quality index (WQI and its subindexes are important for determining the locations of major pollutant sources that contribute to water quality depletion in this basin. We compared the values of WQI obtained for 10 sections of the two most important rivers from Banat, which have a great importance for socioeconomic life in southwestern part of Romania and in northeastern part of Serbia. In order to assess the water quality, we calculated the WQI for a long period of time (2004–2014, taking into account the maximum, minimum, and the mean annual values of physical, chemical, and biological parameters (DO, pH, BOD5, temperature, total P, N-NO2−, and turbidity. This article highlights the importance of using the water quality index which has not been sufficiently explored in Romania and for transboundary rivers and which is very useful in improving rivers water quality.

  11. Risk analysis of emergent water pollution accidents based on a Bayesian Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Caihong; Yi, Yujun; Yang, Zhifeng; Sun, Jie

    2016-01-01

    To guarantee the security of water quality in water transfer channels, especially in open channels, analysis of potential emergent pollution sources in the water transfer process is critical. It is also indispensable for forewarnings and protection from emergent pollution accidents. Bridges above open channels with large amounts of truck traffic are the main locations where emergent accidents could occur. A Bayesian Network model, which consists of six root nodes and three middle layer nodes, was developed in this paper, and was employed to identify the possibility of potential pollution risk. Dianbei Bridge is reviewed as a typical bridge on an open channel of the Middle Route of the South to North Water Transfer Project where emergent traffic accidents could occur. Risk of water pollutions caused by leakage of pollutants into water is focused in this study. The risk for potential traffic accidents at the Dianbei Bridge implies a risk for water pollution in the canal. Based on survey data, statistical analysis, and domain specialist knowledge, a Bayesian Network model was established. The human factor of emergent accidents has been considered in this model. Additionally, this model has been employed to describe the probability of accidents and the risk level. The sensitive reasons for pollution accidents have been deduced. The case has also been simulated that sensitive factors are in a state of most likely to lead to accidents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Method of and device for detecting oil pollutions on water surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belov, Michael Leonidovich [Moscow, RU; Gorodnichev, Victor Aleksandrovich [Moscow, RU; Kozintsev, Valentin Ivanovich [Moscow, RU; Smimova, Olga Alekseevna [Moscow, RU; Fedotov, Yurii Victorovich [Moscow, RU; Khroustaleva, Anastasiva Michailovnan [Moscow, RU

    2008-08-26

    Detection of oil pollution on water surfaces includes providing echo signals obtained from optical radiation of a clean water area at two wavelengths, optically radiating an investigated water area at two wavelengths and obtaining echo signals from the optical radiation of the investigated water area at the two wavelengths, comparing the echo signals obtained from the radiation of the investigated area at two wavelengths with the echo signals obtained from the radiation of the clean water area, and based on the comparison, determining presence or absence of oil pollution in the investigated water area.

  13. A review of ion and metal pollutants in urban green water infrastructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Md Imran; Daly, Edoardo; Maggi, Federico

    2014-02-01

    In urban environments, the breakdown of chemicals and pollutants, especially ions and metal compounds, can be favoured by green water infrastructures (GWIs). The overall aim of this review is to set the basis to model GWIs using deterministic approaches in contrast to empirical ones. If a better picture of chemicals and pollutant input and an improved understanding of hydrological and biogeochemical processes affecting these pollutants were known, GWIs could be designed to efficiently retain these pollutants for site-specific meteorological patterns and pollutant load. To this end, we surveyed the existing literature to retrieve a comprehensive dataset of anions and cations, and alkaline and transition metal pollutants incoming to urban environments. Based on this survey, we assessed the pollution load and ecological risk indexes for metals. The existing literature was then surveyed to review the metal retention efficiency of GWIs, and possible biogeochemical processes related to inorganic metal compounds were proposed that could be integrated in biogeochemical models of GWIs. © 2013.

  14. Toward quantifying water pollution abatement in response to installing buffers on crop land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael G. Dosskey

    2001-01-01

    The scientific research literature is reviewed (i) for evidence of how much reduction in nonpoint source pollution can be achieved by installing buffers on crop land, (ii) to summarize important factors that can affect this response, and (iii) to identify remaining major information gaps that limit our ability to make probable estimates. This review is intended to...

  15. Vehicle for removing pollutants, especially oil, from the surface of waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornelissen, J

    1968-11-28

    A vessel for removing pollutants from the surface of water consists of wings extending transversally from the axis of the vessel. The wings are partially immersed in the water and are arranged at an angle, so that when the vessel is in motion, the oil is driven over the upper edge of the wing into a separation chamber. The chamber has a circular cross section and ends in an opening in the hull of the ship, where the polluting oil is collected. The opening and the channel have such a shape that the mixture of water and pollutant enters the opening in a turbulent stream. (8 claims)

  16. EVALUATION OF WATER POLLUTION STATUS IN SIRET HYDROGRAPHICAL BASIN (SUCEAVA REGION DUE TO AGRICULTURAL ACTIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Zaharia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The study presents data concerning the water pollution status of Siret hydrographical basin (i.e. surface and ground waters, lakes in Suceava County area (different controlling/monitoring sections due to agricultural productive activities, especially regarding some quality indicators (nitrogen-based nutrient concentrations evaluated for 2008. These data are recommending the necessity of continuous monitoring of water quality in the Siret River hydrographical basin, in all existing control sections, for identification of any pollution episodes, non-reported by polluters to the local environmental regulators.

  17. Pricing of Water Resources With Depletable Externality: The Effects of Pollution Charges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitabatake, Yoshifusa

    1990-04-01

    With an abstraction of a real-world situation, the paper views water resources as a depletable capital asset which yields a stream of services such as water supply and the assimilation of pollution discharge. The concept of the concave or convex water resource depletion function is then introduced and applied to a general two-sector, three-factor model. The main theoretical contribution is to prove that when the water resource depletion function is a concave rather than a convex function of pollution, it is more likely that gross regional income will increase with a higher pollution charge policy. The concavity of the function is meant to imply that with an increase in pollution released, the ability of supplying water at a certain minimum quality level diminishes faster and faster. A numerical example is also provided.

  18. Study on spraying water soluble resin to reduce pollution for Fukushima daiichi NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Qiong; Guo Ruiping; Zhang Chunming; Han Fujuan; Hua Jie; Zhang Jiankui

    2012-01-01

    After Fukushima nuclear accident, Tokyo electric power company used the method of spraying water soluble resin synthesis at the scene of the accident, to restrain and control the spread of the radioactive dust, by forming consolidation layer in pollution area surface. This paper briefly introduced the accident, motivation of spraying water soluble resin, spraying range and implementation process. According to the relevant report on Fukushima nuclear accident, the effect of spraying water soluble resin for reducing pollution was analyzed. The mechanism of reducing pollution for water soluble resin and the application prospect were discussed. Spraying water soluble resin for fixing radioactive dust has reasonable reducing pollution effect. It is worth to use as reference and study in China. (authors)

  19. Spectrophotometric determination of iron (III) in tap water using 8 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-11-14

    Nov 14, 2011 ... Beers law was obeyed in the range of 1 to 14 ug/ml Fe3+. The recovery was between 98.60 ... Federal and state regulations limit the iron content of drinking water to <1 ppm, though iron is easily .... weighed and dissolved in chloroform in a 100 ml volumetric flask and made up to the mark with chloroform.

  20. Using the soil and water assessment tool to estimate dissolved inorganic nitrogen water pollution abatement cost functions in central portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roebeling, P C; Rocha, J; Nunes, J P; Fidélis, T; Alves, H; Fonseca, S

    2014-01-01

    Coastal aquatic ecosystems are increasingly affected by diffuse source nutrient water pollution from agricultural activities in coastal catchments, even though these ecosystems are important from a social, environmental and economic perspective. To warrant sustainable economic development of coastal regions, we need to balance marginal costs from coastal catchment water pollution abatement and associated marginal benefits from coastal resource appreciation. Diffuse-source water pollution abatement costs across agricultural sectors are not easily determined given the spatial heterogeneity in biophysical and agro-ecological conditions as well as the available range of best agricultural practices (BAPs) for water quality improvement. We demonstrate how the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) can be used to estimate diffuse-source water pollution abatement cost functions across agricultural land use categories based on a stepwise adoption of identified BAPs for water quality improvement and corresponding SWAT-based estimates for agricultural production, agricultural incomes, and water pollution deliveries. Results for the case of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) surface water pollution by the key agricultural land use categories ("annual crops," "vineyards," and "mixed annual crops & vineyards") in the Vouga catchment in central Portugal show that no win-win agricultural practices are available within the assessed BAPs for DIN water quality improvement. Estimated abatement costs increase quadratically in the rate of water pollution abatement, with largest abatement costs for the "mixed annual crops & vineyards" land use category (between 41,900 and 51,900 € tDIN yr) and fairly similar abatement costs across the "vineyards" and "annual crops" land use categories (between 7300 and 15,200 € tDIN yr). Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  1. Horse paddocks - an emerging source of agricultural water pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masud Parvage, Mohammed; Ulén, Barbro; Kirchmann, Holger

    2015-04-01

    columns (0-20 cm) from the different segments of the paddock were isolated and potential leaching losses of P, N and carbon (C) were measured from two representative horse paddock (a clay and a loamy sand) following simulated rainfall events in the laboratory. Results showed that the leachate concentrations and net release of P, N, and dissolved organic C (DOC) from paddock topsoils were highest in feeding and excretion areas and considerably higher from the loamy sand than the clay paddock topsoil. It was concluded that: i) horse paddocks pose a potential threat to water quality via leaching of excess P and N, ii) feeding and excretion areas are potential hotspots for highly enhanced leaching losses, and iii) paddocks established on sandy soils are particularly susceptible to high losses.

  2. An Instructors Guide to Water Pollution. Test Edition. AAAS Study Guides on Contemporary Problems, No. 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, David E.

    This is one of several study guides on contemporary problems produced by the American Association for the Advancement of Science with support of the National Science Foundation. This study guide on water pollution includes the following units: (1) Overview of World Pollution; (2) History, Definition, Criteria; (3) Ecosystem Theory; (4) Biological…

  3. Field Studies for Key Stage 4 on Mine Water Pollution: A University and Museum Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, Jeremy D.; Berry, Stuart D.; Ambrose, Jayne L.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes how a university and a museum have worked together to create a "How science works" workshop entitled "What's in our water?" The workshop teaches students about the continuing pollution from a disused coal mine, how the pollution is cleaned up using a state-of-the-art treatment works and how scientists…

  4. Assessment of air, water and land-based sources of pollution in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A quantitative assessment of air, water and land-based sources of pollution to the coastal zone of the Accra-Tema Metropolitan Area of Ghana was conducted by making an emission inventory from information on industrial, commercial and domestic activities. Three sources of air pollution were analysed, viz, emission from ...

  5. The use of radio-release methods for the determination of some water pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toelgyessy, J.; Klehr, E.H.; Dillinger, P.; Harangozo, M.

    1980-01-01

    Starting from the problem of water pollutant determination the use of 85 Kr for determining the pH value and pollutants such as oxygen, dichromate, vanadium, and hydrochloric acid is described in detail. Various types of apparatuses for carrying out the analyses are presented

  6. Making Water Pollution a Problem in the Classroom Through Computer Assisted Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, John D.

    Alternative means for dealing with water pollution control are presented for students and teachers. One computer oriented program is described in terms of teaching wastewater treatment and pollution concepts to middle and secondary school students. Suggestions are given to help teachers use a computer simulation program in their classrooms.…

  7. Assessment of WQI and Microbial pollution for two water treatment plants in Baghdad city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed AliAl-Hashimi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Tigris River is the main water source for all water treatment plants in Baghdad city. In current study, Water Quality Index (WQI and microbial pollution was obtained for two water treatment plants and their networks in Baghdad city Al-Karama and Al-Wathba WTP for both raw and treated water, In order to assess water suitability as a source of domestic water supply. Physical, chemical, and Microbialparameters werestudied fora period of four months (March-June, 2014. The parameters which were taken into account for the present work are pH, turbidity (Nephelometric Turbidity Unit, Total Alkalinity (TA, Electrical Conductivity (EC, Calcium (Ca++, Magnesium (Mg++, Total Hardness (TH, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS,Chloride (Cl-, and Most Probable Number (MPN method as microbial pollution indicator. The results indicate that WQI for untreated Tigris water was classified as "unfit for human consumption" at both WTPs intakes and along study period and after water passing through the sequence treatment units in WTPs its quality is gradually increased and finally, the treated water quality ranged from "Good" to " Moderately polluted" at both All-Karama and Al-Wathba WTPs. In networks the quality of water ranged between "Good" to "moderately polluted" in Al-Karama WTP network and between "Moderately polluted" to "severely polluted" in Al-Wathba WTP network. For Microbiological pollution, MPN throughout the period of study was between (0-150 cell/100ml at Al-Karama WTP and between (0- 240 cell/100ml at Al-Wathba WTP. The highest value obtained was (240 cell/100ml at raw water in Al- Wathba WTP intake in June, while the lowest value obtained was (0 cell/100ml at all chlorinated samples.

  8. Cure for the nation`s water pollution problem: Section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCune, J.F.

    1998-08-31

    This paper discusses federal and state implementation of the water quality-based strategy. It focuses on the development and implementation of water quality standards-based limitations (namely, total maximum daily loads or TMDLs) under section 303(d). It addresses the impact of such limitations on entities and activities that generate water pollution.

  9. Appropriation System: water rights in the western United States; water pollution problems peculiar to the uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worcester, T.E.

    1976-01-01

    The legal framework surrounding water rights acquisition and usage in the western United States and the steps which should be taken in analyzing potential sources of water are dealt with. Some of the applicable water pollution control laws and regulations are discussed briefly

  10. 75 FR 43554 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (“Clean Water...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (``Clean Water Act'') Notice is hereby given that on July 21, 2010, a proposed Consent Decree... Sections 301 and 308 of the Clean Water Act, 33 U.S.C. 1311 and 1318, at thirteen of its facilities in...

  11. Exploratory analysis of fines for water pollution in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabil Haque

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available As a consequence of rapid industrialization, the waterbodies of Bangladesh have transformed into seasonal dead zones from the ensuing pollution. Despite having environmental regulations to control industrial pollution, lack of effective enforcement has jeopardized environmental quality. Evaluation of enforcement mechanisms have not gained attention from researchers until recently. This qualitative and descriptive analysis illustrates the current enforcement regime for environmental compliance in Bangladesh focusing on fines levied on polluters. Although there are no official guidelines for fines based on type of violation, this paper identified that there are differences of fines among violation based on historical data. It was also found that textile factories are not penalized heavily compared to non-textile factories. Repeat offenders were found to be penalized at the same rate. This study can be used to design appropriate penalty structure based on violation types, and reform the enforcement system so that polluters pay principle is actually implemented.

  12. Pollution induced tidal variability in water quality of Mahim Estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Zingde, M.D.; Sabnis, M.M.

    Variability of water quality due to release of wastewater in Mahim Estuary (Maharashtra, India) and associated nearshore waters is discussed. The mixing of low salinity contaminated estuary water with high salinity bay water was considerably...

  13. Radioactive pollution of the Chernobyl cooling pond bottom sediments. I. Water-physical properties, chemical compound and radioactive pollution of pore water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. Pirnach

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available First results of complex research of the Chernobyl cooling pond bottom sediments are presented. The general problematic is considered. Information about vertical distribution of bottom sediments water-physical properties, and also ionic compound and radioactive pollution 137Cs and 90Sr of pore water is received. The inventory of bottom sediments pore water activity is calculated. Strong correlations between concentration in pore water 137Cs, K +, NH4 + within the selected sediments columns are found out. Results of researches are intended for the forecast of radioecological situation change in the cooling pond water-soil complex during drying-up.

  14. The characteristics and evaluation of water pollution in Ganjiang Tail River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W. J.; Li, Z. B.; Zou, D. S.; Ren, C. J.; Pei, Q. B.

    2017-08-01

    The water quality in Ganjiang River has an important impact on the ecological environment of Poyang Lake, because Ganjiang River is an important water supply of Poyang Lake. In this paper, the electrical conductivity (ED), turbidity (NTU), suspended solids (SS), total phosphorus (NP), total nitrogen (NT), ammonia nitrogen (NH4-N), nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N), and chemical oxygen demand quantity (COD) have been considered as indicators of water quality while performing an assessment of water in Ganjiang River. We evaluated and analyzed comprehensively the quality of surface and underground water by using the Water Quality Identification Index Method. The sample water was retrieved every 50 days from eight monitoring points located in three sections of downstream Ganjiang River in Nanchang city; the study was conducted from September 10, 2015 to June 1, 2016. The results indicate that the pollution index of northern, central, and southern tributaries in Ganjiang River downstream are 3.807, 3.567, and 3.795, respectively; these results were obtained by performing the primary pollutants quality identification index method (PP-WQI); the pollution index for the same tributaries was found to be 3.8077, 3.5003, 3.7465, respectively when we performed comprehensive water quality identification index method (CWQI). The water pollution grades are between level 3 and level 4. The main pollutants are COD, TN, and SS; moreover, there is a linear relationship between the pollution index in groundwater and surface water. The water quality is the best in the central branch, and worst in the south; the water quality is moderate in the north. Furthermore, the water of upstream is better than that of downstream. Finally, the water quality is worst in summer but best in winter.

  15. Upper Blackstone Water Pollution Abatement District Chief Operator Recognized for Outstanding Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph Nowak, a resident of Ware Mass. and Chief Operator of the Upper Blackstone Water Pollution Abatement District (District) in Milbury, Mass., was honored by EPA with a 2016 Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant Operator of the Year Excellence Award.

  16. Setting Up a Special Collection on Water Pollution in a University Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlander, Janet

    1974-01-01

    The establishment of a special collection within the university library, the complexities of identifying and collecting reports in the environmental area, locating agencies concerned with water pollution, and recording the location of other local collections of data are described. (Author)

  17. Pollutant dispersion studies - An update on the problems in Indian coastal waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Swamy, G.N.

    Pollutant dispersion problems along the Indian coastal waters are characterisEd. by site-specificity, as a result of seasonal and physiographic variabilities. Presence of large rivers, estuaries and backwaters add to the problems of waste disposal...

  18. Numerical analyses of soft bottom macroinvertebrates to diagnose the pollution in tropical coastal waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Harkantra, S.N.; Rodrigues, N.R.

    of techniques to assess the impact of pollution on benthic community structure. Hence, to test this hypotheses some of the univariate and multivariate techniques were applied to soft bottom macro-invertebrates data of coastal waters of Mangalore, central west...

  19. Lack of data for predicting storm water pollutant removal by post-construction best management practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The project objective was to conduct a detailed literature review of storm water pollutants and mitigation technologies and synthesize : the information so that INDOT can implement project results into standards. Because it is a municipal separate st...

  20. A Curriculum Activities Guide to Water Pollution and Environmental Studies, Volume II - Appendices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershey, John T., Ed.; And Others

    This publication, Volume II of a two volume set of water pollution studies, contains seven appendices which support the studies. Appendix 1, Water Quality Parameters, consolidates the technical aspects of water quality including chemical, biological, computer program, and equipment information. Appendix 2, Implementation, outlines techniques…

  1. Water pollution causes ultrastructural and functional damages in Pellia neesiana (Gottsche) Limpr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basile, Adriana; Sorbo, Sergio; Lentini, Marco; Conte, Barbara; Esposito, Sergio

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this work is to evaluate the effects of freshwater pollution in the heavily contaminated Sarno River (Campania, South Italy), using Pellia neesiana (Pelliaceae Metzgeriales) in order to propose this liverwort as a potential bioindicator, able to record the effects of water pollution, particularly the one related to metal (loid) contamination. Samples of P. neesiana in nylon bags were disposed floating for one week on the waters of Sarno River in three sites characterised by an increasing pollution. As control, some specimens were cultured in vitro in Cd- and Pb-added media, at the same pollutants' levels as measured in the most polluted site. P. neesiana cell ultrastructure was modified and severe alterations were observed in chloroplasts from samples exposed in the most polluted site, and Cd- and Pb-cultured samples. Concurrently, a strong increase in the occurrence of Heat shock proteins 70 (HSP70) was detected in gametophytes following the pollution gradient. In conclusion, ultrastructural damages can be directly related to HSP 70 occurrence in liverwort tissues, and proportional to the degree of pollution present in the river; thus our study suggests P. neesiana as an affordable bioindicator of freshwaters pollution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Intertidal beach sands as monitors for heavy metal pollution in coastal water bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacerda, L.D. de; Pfeiffer, W.C.; Fiszman, M.

    Intertidal beach sands were investigated for their use as indicators of metal transport in a contaminated water body, Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and are proposed as an alternative and rapid screening method to determine metal pollution status of coastal areas. The results showed that, at least for Cu, Cr, Zn and Pb, beach sands can be included in the existing environmental monitoring programs for heavy metal pollution in water bodies. (Author) [pt

  3. Interpolation of extensive routine water pollution monitoring datasets: methodology and discussion of implications for aquifer management

    OpenAIRE

    Yuval; Y. Rimon; E. R. Graber; A. Furman

    2013-01-01

    A large fraction of the fresh water available for human use is stored in groundwater aquifers. Since human activities such as mining, agriculture, industry and urbanization often result in incursion of various pollutants to groundwater, routine monitoring of water quality is an indispensable component of judicious aquifer management. Unfortunately, groundwater pollution monitoring is expensive and usually cannot cover an aquifer with the spatial resolution necessary for making adequate...

  4. Effects of Abandoned Arsenic Mine on Water Resources Pollution in North West of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Esmail Fatehifar; Sakineh Jadidi; Bahram Vosugh; Fazel Khaleghi; Mohammad Mosaferi; Behzad Hajalilou

    2011-01-01

    Background: Pollution due to mining activities could have an important role in health andwelfare of people who are living in mining area. When mining operation finishes, environmentof mining area can be influenced by related pollution e.g. heavy metals emission to waterresources. The present study was aimed to evaluate Valiloo abandoned arsenic mine effectson drinking water resources quality and possible health effects on the residents of miningarea in the North West of Iran.Methods: Water sa...

  5. Pollutants in drinking water: their sources, harmful effects and removal procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qadeer, R.

    2004-01-01

    The underground water resources available for human consumption are being continuously contaminated by the natural sources and anthropogenic activities. The pollutants include toxic microorganism, inorganic and organic chemical and radionuclide etc. this is an acute problem in our country, where free style way of disposal of industrial effluents into the natural water bodies contaminates the surface and ground water. These contaminants make their way into human body through contaminated drinking water, which leads to the malfunctioning of the body organs. Details of some pollutants present in drinking water, their source and harmful effects on human beings are reviewed in this communication. Merits and demerits of methods used to remove the pollutants from drinking water are also discussed. (author)

  6. Chromatographic determination of the rate and extent of absorption of air pollutants by sea water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolakaki, S.; Vassilakos, C.; Katsanos, N.A.

    1994-01-01

    A simple chromatographic method is developed to determine the rate constant for expulsion of an air pollutant from water or its diffusion parameter in the liquid, the rate constant for chemical reaction of the pollutant with water, its mass transfer coefficient in the liquid, and the partition coefficient between liquid water and air. From these physicochemical parameters, the absorption rate by sea water and, therefore, the depletion rate of a polluting substance from the air can be calculated, together with the equilibrium state of this absorption. The method has been applied to nitrogen dioxide being absorbed by triple-distilled water and by sea water, at various temperatures. From the temperature variation of the reaction rate constant and of the partition coefficient, the activation energy for the reaction and the differential heat of solution were determined. (orig.)

  7. Risk assessment of water pollution sources based on an integrated k-means clustering and set pair analysis method in the region of Shiyan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunhui; Sun, Lian; Jia, Junxiang; Cai, Yanpeng; Wang, Xuan

    2016-07-01

    Source water areas are facing many potential water pollution risks. Risk assessment is an effective method to evaluate such risks. In this paper an integrated model based on k-means clustering analysis and set pair analysis was established aiming at evaluating the risks associated with water pollution in source water areas, in which the weights of indicators were determined through the entropy weight method. Then the proposed model was applied to assess water pollution risks in the region of Shiyan in which China's key source water area Danjiangkou Reservoir for the water source of the middle route of South-to-North Water Diversion Project is located. The results showed that eleven sources with relative high risk value were identified. At the regional scale, Shiyan City and Danjiangkou City would have a high risk value in term of the industrial discharge. Comparatively, Danjiangkou City and Yunxian County would have a high risk value in terms of agricultural pollution. Overall, the risk values of north regions close to the main stream and reservoir of the region of Shiyan were higher than that in the south. The results of risk level indicated that five sources were in lower risk level (i.e., level II), two in moderate risk level (i.e., level III), one in higher risk level (i.e., level IV) and three in highest risk level (i.e., level V). Also risks of industrial discharge are higher than that of the agricultural sector. It is thus essential to manage the pillar industry of the region of Shiyan and certain agricultural companies in the vicinity of the reservoir to reduce water pollution risks of source water areas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. [Effect of antecedent dry period on water quality of urban storm runoff pollution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Bo

    2009-12-01

    Identified the main factor influencing urban rainfall-runoff pollution provides a scientific basis for urban rainfall-runoff pollution control and management. Therefore, starting in May 2006, a study was conducted to characterize water quality from representative land uses types in Zhenjiang to analyse the effect of antecedent dry period on stormwater runoff quality. The results show that the beginning of rainfall, with the increase of antecedent dry periods, the percentages of less than 40 microm is increased, the correlation of the water quality parameters (TN, TP, Zn, Pb, Cu, TSS and COD) and antecedent dry period shows a significant positive correlation, dissolved pollutants in the initial period surface runoff is increased. These findings show that facilitating the recognition of antecedent dry periods is the main factor influencing the change in concentration and partitioning of pollutants to provide the scientific basis for non-point source pollution control and management.

  9. A Targeted "Capture" and "Removal" Scavenger toward Multiple Pollutants for Water Remediation based on Molecular Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Shen, Haijing; Hu, Xiaoxia; Li, Yan; Li, Zhihao; Xu, Jinfan; Song, Xiufeng; Zeng, Haibo; Yuan, Quan

    2016-03-01

    For the water remediation techniques based on adsorption, the long-standing contradictories between selectivity and multiple adsorbability, as well as between affinity and recyclability, have put it on weak defense amid more and more severe environment crisis. Here, a pollutant-targeting hydrogel scavenger is reported for water remediation with both high selectivity and multiple adsorbability for several pollutants, and with strong affinity and good recyclability through rationally integrating the advantages of multiple functional materials. In the scavenger, aptamers fold into binding pockets to accommodate the molecular structure of pollutants to afford perfect selectivity, and Janus nanoparticles with antibacterial function as well as anisotropic surfaces to immobilize multiple aptamers allow for simultaneously handling different kinds of pollutants. The scavenger exhibits high efficiencies in removing pollutants from water and it can be easily recycled for many times without significant loss of loading capacities. Moreover, the residual concentrations of each contaminant are well below the drinking water standards. Thermodynamic behavior of the adsorption process is investigated and the rate-controlling process is determined. Furthermore, a point of use device is constructed and it displays high efficiency in removing pollutants from environmental water. The scavenger exhibits great promise to be applied in the next generation of water purification systems.

  10. [GIS and scenario analysis aid to water pollution control planning of river basin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shao-ping; Cheng, Sheng-tong; Jia, Hai-feng; Ou, Zhi-dan; Tan, Bin

    2004-07-01

    The forward and backward algorithms for watershed water pollution control planning were summarized in this paper as well as their advantages and shortages. The spatial databases of water environmental function region, pollution sources, monitoring sections and sewer outlets were built with ARCGIS8.1 as the platform in the case study of Ganjiang valley, Jiangxi province. Based on the principles of the forward algorithm, four scenarios were designed for the watershed pollution control. Under these scenarios, ten sets of planning schemes were generated to implement cascade pollution source control. The investment costs of sewage treatment for these schemes were estimated by means of a series of cost-effective functions; with pollution source prediction, the water quality was modeled with CSTR model for each planning scheme. The modeled results of different planning schemes were visualized through GIS to aid decision-making. With the results of investment cost and water quality attainment as decision-making accords and based on the analysis of the economic endurable capacity for water pollution control in Ganjiang river basin, two optimized schemes were proposed. The research shows that GIS technology and scenario analysis can provide a good guidance to the synthesis, integrity and sustainability aspects for river basin water quality planning.

  11. BACOPA MONNIERI (L. PENNELL –A GOOD BIOMARKER OF WATER POLLUTION/CONTAMINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain. K

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Effect of water pollution on Bacopa monnieri was studied by culturing their rooted propagules in various polluted water samples and Hoagland nutrient medium artificially contaminated with different micro-level concentrations of HgCl2. Anatomical observations of those plants showed safranin-stained masses deposited in the xylem vessels of stem. The plants treated in chemical solutions which are free from metallic ions, under threshold level of HgCl2, and control plants were devoid of such deposits. Similar deposits were observed in plants cultured in various local water samples. Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometric analyses of these water samples and the bioaccumulation property of the plant detected the presence of Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn at various levels. The occurrence of the localized stained deposits in the xylem vessels of the stem of the plants cultured in polluted/contaminated aqueous medium, eventhough the growth medium contamination is micro-levels, is indicative of high sensitivity of Bacopa monnieri plants towards water pollution irrespective of the chemical nature of the pollutants. Although these stained deposits are not specific to any individual element that causes pollution, detection of water contamination is possible by observing the safranin-stained masses in the xylem vessels of this medicinal plant.

  12. Political economy of transnational water pollution: what do the LMB data (1985-2000) say?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Rongxing; Yang, Kaizhong

    2003-10-01

    On the basis of the cross-section and time-series data of the Lower Mekong Basin (LMB)--including large sections of Thailand, Lao PDR, Vietnam, and Cambodia, we find little evidence in support of the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis. Instead, our regressions support the general views that water pollution had been positively related to income level and that, as a result of the end of the Cold War era, it had been significantly reduced in the 1990s vis-à-vis the 1980s. In most circumstances, water resources were more seriously polluted in the transnational border areas than in the other areas. Specifically, the estimated coefficients on the political boundary dummies show that political influence on transnational water pollution was more significant in areas near "the international border along which the river runs" (denoted by BORDER2) than in places near "the international border across which the river runs" (denoted by BORDER1). The estimated coefficients on the ASEAN dummy present some information about the positive role of the Association for Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) membership in the reduction of transnational water pollution. Finally, the country-specific dummies are found to present conflicting information about the transnational differences of water pollution, although Thailand is found to have the least water pollution in the LMB.

  13. Storm water pollution prevention plan for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published the final storm water regulation on November 16, 1990. The storm water regulation is included in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) regulations. An NPDES permit was issued for the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995, and was effective on July 1, 1995. The permit requires that a Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan (SWP3) be developed by December 28, 1995, and be fully implemented by July 1, 1996; this plan has been developed to fulfill that requirement. The outfalls and monitoring points described in this plan contain storm water discharges associated with industrial activities as defined in the NPDES regulations. For storm water discharges associated with industrial activity, including storm water discharges associated with construction activity, that are not specifically monitored or limited in this permit, Y-12 Plant personnel will meet conditions of the General Storm Water Rule 1200-4-10. This document presents the programs and physical controls that are in place to achieve the following objectives: ensure compliance with Section 1200-4-10-.04(5) of the TDEC Water Quality Control Regulations and Part 4 of the Y-12 Plant NPDES Permit (TN0002968); provide operating personnel with guidance relevant to storm water pollution prevention and control requirements for their facility and/or project; and prevent or reduce pollutant discharge to the environment, in accordance with the Clean Water Act (CWA) and the Tennessee Water Quality Control Act

  14. Storm water pollution prevention plan for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published the final storm water regulation on November 16, 1990. The storm water regulation is included in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) regulations. An NPDES permit was issued for the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995, and was effective on July 1, 1995. The permit requires that a Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan (SWP3) be developed by December 28, 1995, and be fully implemented by July 1, 1996; this plan has been developed to fulfill that requirement. The outfalls and monitoring points described in this plan contain storm water discharges associated with industrial activities as defined in the NPDES regulations. For storm water discharges associated with industrial activity, including storm water discharges associated with construction activity, that are not specifically monitored or limited in this permit, Y-12 Plant personnel will meet conditions of the General Storm Water Rule 1200-4-10. This document presents the programs and physical controls that are in place to achieve the following objectives: ensure compliance with Section 1200-4-10-.04(5) of the TDEC Water Quality Control Regulations and Part 4 of the Y-12 Plant NPDES Permit (TN0002968); provide operating personnel with guidance relevant to storm water pollution prevention and control requirements for their facility and/or project; and prevent or reduce pollutant discharge to the environment, in accordance with the Clean Water Act (CWA) and the Tennessee Water Quality Control Act.

  15. Case-specific comparison of water pollution control alternatives in peat production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savolainen, M.; Kaasinen, A.; Heikkinen, K.; Ihme, R.; Kaemae, T.; Alasaarela, E.

    1996-01-01

    The present practice water pollution control in peat production and the elements of planning were analyzed, the water purification methods were classified and their weaknesses estimated. Furthermore, the cost of the water purification constructions was estimated and their significance for the watercourses evaluated. 54 peat production plans were chosen from the catchment areas of the rivers Iijoki, Siikajoki and Pyhaejoki. The suitability of the chosen water pollution control methods was evaluated on the basis of the plans and, further, on the basis of field surveys. The suitability of the purification methods to practical water pollution control was assessed by making plans for 15 peat mining areas. There is a need to develop the planning and implementation of water pollution control in peat mining. The methods that are used do not always work in the expected way in practice. Despite this planning is compatible with the water protection program and the regulations that are in force. The study gives a good idea of how to update the planning instructions for water pollution control. The accompanying report includes plan for 11 peat mining areas. (orig.)

  16. Case-specific comparison of water pollution control alternatives in peat production; Turvetuotannon vesiensuojeluvaihtoehtojen tapauskohtainen vertailu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savolainen, M.; Kaasinen, A.; Heikkinen, K.; Ihme, R.; Kaemae, T.; Alasaarela, E.

    1996-12-31

    The present practice water pollution control in peat production and the elements of planning were analyzed, the water purification methods were classified and their weaknesses estimated. Furthermore, the cost of the water purification constructions was estimated and their significance for the watercourses evaluated. 54 peat production plans were chosen from the catchment areas of the rivers Iijoki, Siikajoki and Pyhaejoki. The suitability of the chosen water pollution control methods was evaluated on the basis of the plans and, further, on the basis of field surveys. The suitability of the purification methods to practical water pollution control was assessed by making plans for 15 peat mining areas. There is a need to develop the planning and implementation of water pollution control in peat mining. The methods that are used do not always work in the expected way in practice. Despite this planning is compatible with the water protection program and the regulations that are in force. The study gives a good idea of how to update the planning instructions for water pollution control. The accompanying report includes plan for 11 peat mining areas. (orig.)

  17. Batch sorption-desorption of As(III) from waste water by magnetic palm kernel shell activated carbon using optimized Box-Behnken design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyika, Chinedum; Asri, Nur Asilayana Mohd; Majid, Zaiton Abdul; Jaafar, Jafariah; Yahya, Adibah

    2017-12-01

    In this study, we converted activated carbon (AC) into magnetic activated carbon (MAC), which was established to have removed arsenic (III) from wastewater. Arsenic (III) is a toxic heavy metal which is readily soluble in water and can be detrimental to human health. The MAC was prepared by incorporating Fe3O4 into the AC by using Fe3O4 extracted from a ferrous sulfate solution, designated: magnetic palm kernel shell from iron suspension (MPKSF). Batch experiments were conducted using two methods: (1) one-factor-at-a-time and (2) Box-Behnken statistical analysis. Results showed that the optimum conditions resulted in 95% of As(III) removal in the wastewater sample. The adsorption data were best fitted to the Langmuir isotherm. The adsorption of As(III) onto the MPKSF was confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry analysis which detected the presence of As(III) of 0.52% on the surface of the MPKSF. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis of the MPKSF-As presented a peak at 573 cm-1, which was assigned to M-O (metal-oxygen) bending, indicating the coordination of As(III) with oxygen through the formation of inner-sphere complexation, thereby indicating a covalent bonding between the MPKSF functional groups and As(III). The findings suggested that the MPKSF exhibited a strong capacity to efficiently remove As(III) from wastewater, while the desorption studies showed that the As(III) was rigidly bound to the MPKSF thereby eliminating the possibility of secondary pollution.

  18. Reducing the Risk of Water Pollution in Vulnerable Coastal ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Outcomes to improve water quality The team will recommend ways to minimize exposure to contaminants and to ... for improving access to potable water will prepare a regional strategy for integrated water management. ... Total funding.

  19. Combination of aquatic species and safeners improves the remediation of copper polluted water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panfili, Ivan; Bartucca, Maria Luce; Ballerini, Eleonora; Del Buono, Daniele

    2017-12-01

    In the last decades, many anthropogenic activities have resulted in heavy metal contamination of freshwaters and surrounding environments. This poses serious threats to human health. Phytoremediation is a cost-effective technology which is useful for remediating polluted soils and water. Recently, the use of aquatic free-floating plants has been proposed to remediate polluted water. In this context, a study on the capacity of two aquatic plants, Lemna minor (duckweed) and Salvinia auriculata (salvinia), to remediate Cu +2 (Cu) polluted water was carried out. Initially, the species were exposed to different copper concentrations (1, 5, 10, 20 and 50μmolL -1 ) in order to assess Cu +2 toxicity to the plants. In addition, plants were treated with two safeners (benoxacor and dichlormid), with the aim of pointing out any safening effect of these compounds on the aquatic species. Toxicity tests showed that safened plants had a greater Cu resistance, especially at the higher Cu doses. Finally, unsafened and safened plants were tested in the decontamination of water polluted by copper (1.2mgL -1 ). In general, duckweed removed higher amounts of Cu from polluted water than salvinia, and, surprisingly, for both the species the safeners significantly increased the plants' capacity to remove the metal from the polluted waters. Lastly, an HPLC-based method was developed and standardized to monitor the residual amounts of the two safeners in the water. While dichlormid was completely absorbed by duckweed within few days after the treatments, some residual amounts of both safeners were found in salvinia vegetated water after two weeks. In conclusion, the results of this research show that the use of aquatic species in combination with safeners is an attractive and reliable tool to make plants more effective in phytoremediation of water polluted with metals (or other toxic compounds). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Solar photocatalytic cleaning of polluted water. Solare Reinigung verschmutzter Waesser mittels Photokatalyse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bockelmann, D

    1994-01-01

    Alternatively to biological, physical and chemical methods of waste water cleaning, photocatalysis can be employed. In this residue-free method, titanium dioxide particles are brought into contact with polluted water as photocatalysts. Under UV irradiation at wave-lengths below 400 nm, change carriers are generated in the semiconductor particles that act so intensely oxidizing as to completely degrade almost all organic pollutants in waste water. In this process, the ultra-violet part of the solar spectrum can be harnessed to generate oxidation equivalents. Thus, solar photocatalytic waste water cleaning is excellently suited for developing countries. (BWI)

  1. Acid mine drainage: mining and water pollution issues in British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    The importance of protecting water quality and some of the problems associated with mineral development are described. Negative impacts of mining operations such as sedimentation, water disturbances, and water pollution from waste rock and tailings are considered. Mining wastes, types of water pollution from mining, the legacy of acid mine drainage, predicting acid mine drainage, preventing and mitigating acid mine drainage, examples from the past, and cyanide heap-leaching are discussed. The real costs of mining at the Telkwa open pit coal mine are assessed. British Columbia mines that are known for or are potentially acid generating are shown on a map. 32 refs., 10 figs.

  2. A comparison of the cost associated with pollution prevention measures to that required to treat polluted water resources

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oelofse, Suzanna HH

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available by nitrogen and particularly phosphorous (Hart, 2006). The main sources of nutrient pollution are sewage effluent and agricultural run-off. The discharge of nitrogen (as nitrates) and phosphorus (as phosphates) to inland rivers, lakes and dams causes... mg/ℓ (DWAF, 1996a). Table 2: TDS of natural water (DWAF, 1996a) Geological formations in contact with water TDS (mg/ℓ) Granite, siliceous sand and well-leached soils < 30 Precambium shield areas < 65 Palaeozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary rock...

  3. Pre-service primary school teachers’ abilities in explaining water and air pollution scientifically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukmannudin; Sopandi, W.; Sujana, A.; Sukardi, R.

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the ability of pre-service primary school teachers (PSPST) in explaining the phenomenon of water and air pollution scientifically. The research method used descriptive method of analysis with qualitative approach. The respondents were PSPTP at 4th semester. This study used a four-tier instrument diagnostic test. The number of subjects was 84 PSPTP at Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia, Kampus Daerah Sumedang. The results demonstrate the ability of PSPST in explaining water and air pollution scientifically. The results show that only 6% of PSPST who are able to explain the phenomenon of water pollution and only 4% of PSPST who are able to explain the phenomenon of air pollution. The fact should be attention for PSPST because these understanding are crucial in the process of learning activities in the classroom.

  4. Foreign trade and pollution: the case of South China water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Hui; Ai, Danxiang; Lin, Yuling

    2017-01-01

    With rapid economic growth, South China has to face the most serious water pollution. However, whether or not such kind of water pollution is mainly caused by foreign trade is questionable. And, how the trade mode will be changed by pollution and corresponding regulation is also uncertain. In this paper, a fully endogenous model, which integrate economic growth, energy use and pollution, is designed to interpret the interrelation among these key variables in South China. Through this model, a new possibility of water environment Kuznets curve change has been investigated. Attribute to mixed two stage feasible general least square estimation method, we conclude that foreign trade has strong influence on environment change rate and the turning point. It can make the virtuous circle of between economic growth and environment improvement come early or later in different circumstances. Export and import play different role in such process and have counter effects on environment.

  5. Water Pollution Control Legislation in Israel: Understanding Implementation Processes from an Actor-Centered Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Hophmayer-Tokich

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the State of Israel, advanced legislation for the management of scarce water resources, including legislation to prevent water pollution, were put in place in the early stages of the State’s formation. Despite that, on-going uncontrolled pollution has deteriorated the quality of water sources for decades, with the main source of pollution being untreated or partially treated domestic wastewater. This has been mainly the result of lack of enforcement of the existing laws. During the 1990s and onwards, a shift to forceful enforcement has been observed and wastewater treatment substantially improved. The paper analyzes the implementation processes of the pollution control legislations (the lack-of and the shift to forceful enforcement based on an actor-centered approach, using the contextual interaction theory.

  6. Implications of water pollution for aquacultural development in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pollution is an age – long problem which has become wide spread due to increase in human population, expanding human settlement and advances in production technologies. Similarly, aquaculture is also on the increase but as a result of increase in the demand of cheap, high quality protein necessitated by high ...

  7. Regional approaches to water pollution in the environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijtema, P.E.; Eliás, V.

    1996-01-01

    The book gives the main lectures of a NATO workshop dealing with aspects of regional modelling and practical experiences concerning pollution problems related to industrial, agricultural, municipal and former military sites. Special emphasis is given on the Black Triangle in Central Europe, because

  8. Spatio-Temporal Variations and Source Apportionment of Water Pollution in Danjiangkou Reservoir Basin, Central China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Chen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the spatio-temporal variation and the potential source of water pollution could greatly improve our knowledge of human impacts on the environment. In this work, data of 11 water quality indices were collected during 2012–2014 at 10 monitoring sites in the mainstream and major tributaries of the Danjiangkou Reservoir Basin, Central China. The fuzzy comprehensive assessment (FCA, the cluster analysis (CA and the discriminant analysis (DA were used to assess the water pollution status and analyze its spatio-temporal variation. Ten sites were classified by the high pollution (HP region and the low pollution (LP region, while 12 months were divided into the wet season and the dry season. It was found that the HP region was mainly in the small tributaries with small drainage areas and low average annual discharges, and it was also found that most of these rivers went through urban areas with industrial and domestic sewages input into the water body. Principal component analysis/factor analysis (PCA/FA was applied to reveal potential pollution sources, whereas absolute principal component score-multiple linear regression (APCS-MLR was used to identify their contributions to each water quality variable. The study area was found as being generally affected by industrial and domestic sewage. Furthermore, the HP region was polluted by chemical industries, and the LP region was influenced by agricultural and livestock sewage.

  9. Baseline metals pollution profile of tropical estuaries and coastal waters of the Straits of Malacca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Looi, Ley Juen; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin; Wan Johari, Wan Lutfi; Yusoff, Fatimah Md.; Hashim, Zailina

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Order of metals distribution were as follow: Fe > Al > Se > Cu > As > Zn > Mn > Ni > Ba > Pb > Cd > Cr > Co. • As and Cu levels have exceeded Malaysia Marine Water Quality Criteria and Standard. • Seven principal components of PCA were extracted from estuaries and coastal waters. • Mineral-related parameters are main pollution sources in the waters. -- Abstract: The status report on metal pollution in tropical estuaries and coastal waters is important to understand potential environmental health hazards. Detailed baseline measurements were made on physicochemical parameters (pH, temperature, redox potential, electrical conductivity, salinity, dissolved oxygen, total dissolved solid), major ions (Na, Ca, Mg, K, HCO 3 , Cl, SO 4 and NO 3 ) and metals concentrations ( 27 Al, 75 As, 138 Ba, 9 Be, 111 Cd, 59 Co, 63 Cu, 52 Cr, 57 Fe, 55 Mn, 60 Ni, 208 Pb, 80 Se, 66 Zn) at estuaries and coastal waters along the Straits of Malacca. Principal component analysis (PCA) was employed to reveal potential pollution sources. Seven principal components were extracted with relation to pollution contribution from minerals-related parameters, natural and anthropogenic sources. The output from this study will generate a profound understanding on the metal pollution status and pollution risk of the estuaries and coastal system

  10. Industrial pollution and the management of river water quality: a model of Kelani River, Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawardena, Asha; Wijeratne, E M S; White, Ben; Hailu, Atakelty; Pandit, Ram

    2017-08-19

    Water quality of the Kelani River has become a critical issue in Sri Lanka due to the high cost of maintaining drinking water standards and the market and non-market costs of deteriorating river ecosystem services. By integrating a catchment model with a river model of water quality, we developed a method to estimate the effect of pollution sources on ambient water quality. Using integrated model simulations, we estimate (1) the relative contribution from point (industrial and domestic) and non-point sources (river catchment) to river water quality and (2) pollutant transfer coefficients for zones along the lower section of the river. Transfer coefficients provide the basis for policy analyses in relation to the location of new industries and the setting of priorities for industrial pollution control. They also offer valuable information to design socially optimal economic policy to manage industrialized river catchments.

  11. Flow Velocity Effects on Fe(III Clogging during Managed Aquifer Recharge Using Urban Storm Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinqiang Du

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Storm water harvesting and storage has been employed for nearly a hundred years, and using storm water to recharge aquifers is one of the most important ways to relieve water scarcity in arid and semi-arid regions. However, it cannot be widely adopted because of clogging problems. The risk of chemical clogging is mostly associated with iron oxyhydroxide precipitation; anhydrous ferric oxide (HFO clogging remains a problem in many wellfields. This paper investigates Fe(III clogging levels at three flow velocities (Darcy velocities, 0.46, 1.62 and 4.55 m/d. The results indicate that clogging increases with flow velocity, and is mostly affected by the first 0–3 cm of the column. The highest water velocity caused full clogging in 35 h, whereas the lowest took 53 h to reach an stable 60% reduction in hydraulic conductivity. For the high flow velocity, over 90% of the HFO was deposited in the 0–1 cm section. In contrast, the lowest flow velocity deposited only 75% in this section. Fe(III deposition was used as an approximation for Fe(OH3. High flow velocity may promote Fe(OH3 flocculent precipitate, thus increasing Fe(III deposition. The main mechanism for a porous matrix interception of Fe(III colloidal particles was surface filtration. Thus, the effects of deposition, clogging phenomena, and physicochemical mechanisms, are more significant at higher velocities.

  12. The impact of different reference panels on spectral reflectance coefficients of some biological water pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenerowicz, Agnieszka; Walczykowski, Piotr

    2015-10-01

    Monitoring of water environment and ecosystem, detecting water contaminants and understanding water quality parameters are most important tasks in water management and protection of whole aquatic environment. Detection of biological contaminants play a very important role in preserving human health and water management. To obtain accurate and precise results of determination of the level of biological contamination and to distinguish its type it is necessary to determine precisely spectral reflectance coefficients of several water biological pollutants with inter alia spectroradiometer. This paper presents a methodology and preliminary results of acquisition of spectral reflectance coefficients with different reference panels (e.g. with 5%, 20%, 50%, 80% and 96% of reflectivity) of several biological pollutants. The authors' main task was to measure spectral reflectance coefficients of different biological water pollutants with several reference panels and to select optimal reference standard, which would allow for distinguish different types of several biological contaminants. Moreover it was necessary to indicate the spectral range in which it is possible to discriminate investigated samples of biological contaminants. By conducting many series of measurements of several samples of different types of biological pollutants, authors had concluded how the reflectivity of reference panel influences the accuracy of acquisition of spectral reflectance coefficients. This research was crucial in order to be able to distinguish several types of biological pollutants and to determine the useful spectral range for detection of different kinds of biological contaminants with multispectral and hyperspectral imagery.

  13. A comparative study of boron and arsenic (III) rejection from brackish water by reverse osmosis membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Teychene, Benoî t; Collet, Gaelle; Gallard, Hervé ; Croue, Jean Philippe

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to compare at lab-scale the rejection efficiency of several reverse osmosis membranes (RO) toward arsenic (III) and boron during the filtration of a synthetic brackish water. The effect of pH and operating conditions on the rejection of each RO membrane was studied. Two types of membrane were investigated: "brackish water" and "sea water" membranes. Our results showed that the metalloid rejection depends on the membrane type, pH and transmembrane pressure applied. Increasing pH above the dissociation constant (pKa) of each specie improves significantly the metalloid rejection by RO membranes, whatever the membrane type. Moreover, at identical operating conditions (pH, transmembrane pressure), results showed that the brackish water membranes have a higher water flux and exhibit lower metalloid rejection. The highest As(III) rejection value for the tested brackish water membranes was 99% obtained at pH = 9.6 and 40 bars, whereas it was found that the sea water RO membranes could highly reject As(III), more than 99%, even at low pH and low pressure (pH = 7.6 and 24 bars).Regarding Boron rejection, similar conclusions could be drawn. The sea water RO membranes exert higher removal, with a high rejection value above 96% over the tested conditions. More generally, this study showed that, whatever the operating conditions or the tested membranes, the boron and As(III) permeate concentrations are below the WHO guidelines. In addition, new data about the boron and arsenic permeability of each tested RO membrane was brought thanks to a theoretical calculation. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  14. A comparative study of boron and arsenic (III) rejection from brackish water by reverse osmosis membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Teychene, Benoît

    2013-02-01

    This study aims to compare at lab-scale the rejection efficiency of several reverse osmosis membranes (RO) toward arsenic (III) and boron during the filtration of a synthetic brackish water. The effect of pH and operating conditions on the rejection of each RO membrane was studied. Two types of membrane were investigated: "brackish water" and "sea water" membranes. Our results showed that the metalloid rejection depends on the membrane type, pH and transmembrane pressure applied. Increasing pH above the dissociation constant (pKa) of each specie improves significantly the metalloid rejection by RO membranes, whatever the membrane type. Moreover, at identical operating conditions (pH, transmembrane pressure), results showed that the brackish water membranes have a higher water flux and exhibit lower metalloid rejection. The highest As(III) rejection value for the tested brackish water membranes was 99% obtained at pH = 9.6 and 40 bars, whereas it was found that the sea water RO membranes could highly reject As(III), more than 99%, even at low pH and low pressure (pH = 7.6 and 24 bars).Regarding Boron rejection, similar conclusions could be drawn. The sea water RO membranes exert higher removal, with a high rejection value above 96% over the tested conditions. More generally, this study showed that, whatever the operating conditions or the tested membranes, the boron and As(III) permeate concentrations are below the WHO guidelines. In addition, new data about the boron and arsenic permeability of each tested RO membrane was brought thanks to a theoretical calculation. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  15. Water Pollution Prediction in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area and Countermeasures for Sustainable Development of the Water Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinghui Li

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Three Gorges Project was implemented in 1994 to promote sustainable water resource use and development of the water environment in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (hereafter “Reservoir Area”. However, massive discharge of wastewater along the river threatens these goals; therefore, this study employs a grey prediction model (GM to predict the annual emissions of primary pollution sources, including industrial wastewater, domestic wastewater, and oily and domestic wastewater from ships, that influence the Three Gorges Reservoir Area water environment. First, we optimize the initial values of a traditional GM (1,1 model, and build a new GM (1,1 model that minimizes the sum of squares of the relative simulation errors. Second, we use the new GM (1,1 model to simulate historical annual emissions data for the four pollution sources and thereby test the effectiveness of the model. Third, we predict the annual emissions of the four pollution sources in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area for a future period. The prediction results reveal the annual emission trends for the major wastewater types, and indicate the primary sources of water pollution in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area. Based on our predictions, we suggest several countermeasures against water pollution and towards the sustainable development of the water environment in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area.

  16. Water Pollution Prediction in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area and Countermeasures for Sustainable Development of the Water Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shuaijin; Qu, Xuexin

    2017-01-01

    The Three Gorges Project was implemented in 1994 to promote sustainable water resource use and development of the water environment in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (hereafter “Reservoir Area”). However, massive discharge of wastewater along the river threatens these goals; therefore, this study employs a grey prediction model (GM) to predict the annual emissions of primary pollution sources, including industrial wastewater, domestic wastewater, and oily and domestic wastewater from ships, that influence the Three Gorges Reservoir Area water environment. First, we optimize the initial values of a traditional GM (1,1) model, and build a new GM (1,1) model that minimizes the sum of squares of the relative simulation errors. Second, we use the new GM (1,1) model to simulate historical annual emissions data for the four pollution sources and thereby test the effectiveness of the model. Third, we predict the annual emissions of the four pollution sources in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area for a future period. The prediction results reveal the annual emission trends for the major wastewater types, and indicate the primary sources of water pollution in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area. Based on our predictions, we suggest several countermeasures against water pollution and towards the sustainable development of the water environment in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area. PMID:29077006

  17. Water Pollution Prediction in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area and Countermeasures for Sustainable Development of the Water Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yinghui; Huang, Shuaijin; Qu, Xuexin

    2017-10-27

    The Three Gorges Project was implemented in 1994 to promote sustainable water resource use and development of the water environment in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (hereafter "Reservoir Area"). However, massive discharge of wastewater along the river threatens these goals; therefore, this study employs a grey prediction model (GM) to predict the annual emissions of primary pollution sources, including industrial wastewater, domestic wastewater, and oily and domestic wastewater from ships, that influence the Three Gorges Reservoir Area water environment. First, we optimize the initial values of a traditional GM (1,1) model, and build a new GM (1,1) model that minimizes the sum of squares of the relative simulation errors. Second, we use the new GM (1,1) model to simulate historical annual emissions data for the four pollution sources and thereby test the effectiveness of the model. Third, we predict the annual emissions of the four pollution sources in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area for a future period. The prediction results reveal the annual emission trends for the major wastewater types, and indicate the primary sources of water pollution in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area. Based on our predictions, we suggest several countermeasures against water pollution and towards the sustainable development of the water environment in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area.

  18. Simultaneous Oxidation and Sequestration of As(III) from Water by Using Redox Polymer-Based Fe(III) Oxide Nanocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaolin; Wu, Mengfei; Dong, Hao; Li, Hongchao; Pan, Bingcai

    2017-06-06

    Water decontamination from As(III) is an urgent but still challenging task. Herein, we fabricated a bifunctional nanocomposite HFO@PS-Cl for highly efficient removal of As(III), with active chlorine covalently binding spherical polystyrene host for in situ oxidation of As(III) to As(V), and Fe(III) hydroxide (HFO) nanoparticles (NPs) embedded inside for specific As(V) removal. HFO@PS-Cl could work effectively in a wide pH range (5-9), and other substances like sulfate, chloride, bicarbonate, silicate, and humic acid exert insignificant effect on As(III) removal. As(III) sequestration is realized via two pathways, that is, oxidation to As(V) by the active chlorine followed by specific As(V) adsorption onto HFO NPs, and As(III) adsorption onto HFO NPs followed by oxidation to As(V). The exhausted HFO@PS-Cl could be refreshed for cyclic runs with insignificant capacity loss by the combined regeneration strategy, that is, alkaline solution to rinse the adsorbed As(V) and NaClO solution to renew the host oxidation capability. In addition, fixed-bed experiments demonstrated that the HFO@PS-Cl column could generate >1760 bed volume (BV) effluent from a synthetic As(III)-containing groundwater to meet the drinking water standard (nanocomposites, HFO@PS-N and HFO@D201 could only generate 450 and 600 BV effluents under otherwise identical conditions.

  19. Development of a Coupled Ocean-Hydrologic Model to Simulate Pollutant Transport in Singapore Coastal Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, V. P.

    2015-12-01

    Intensive agricultural, economic and industrial activities in Singapore and Malaysia have made our coastal areas under high risk of water pollution. A coupled ocean-hydrologic model is employed to perform three-dimensional simulations of flow and pollutant transport in Singapore coastal waters. The hydrologic SWAT model is coupled with the coastal ocean SUNTANS model by outputting streamflow and pollutant concentrations from the SWAT model and using them as inputs for the SUNTANS model at common boundary points. The coupled model is calibrated with observed sea surface elevations and velocities, and high correlation coefficients that exceed 0.97 and 0.91 are found for sea surface elevations and velocities, respectively. The pollutants are modeled as Gaussian passive tracers, and are released at five upstream locations in Singapore coastal waters. During the Northeast monsoon, pollutants released in Source 1 (Johor River), Source 2 (Tiram River), Source 3 (Layang River) and Source 4 (Layau River) enter the Singapore Strait after 4 days of release and reach Sentosa Island within 9 days. Meanwhile, pollutants released in Source 5 (Kallang River) reach Sentosa Island after 4 days. During the Southwest monsoon, the dispersion time is roughly doubled, with pollutants from Sources 1 - 4 entering the Singapore Strait only after 12 days of release due to weak currents.

  20. Chemical composition of water hyacinth (Eichhronia Crassipes) a comparison indication of heavy metal pollution in egyptian water bodies. Vol. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-sabour, M.F.; Abdel-Haleem, A.S.; Zohny, E.

    1996-01-01

    Water hyacinth is tested as an indicator for pollution in egyptian fresh surface waters. Chemical composition of water hyacinth as affected area of collection (water bodies) was studied and the suitability of this plant as a biological indicator for water pollution is discussed. Water hyacinth samples were collected three times per year for two years (1991-1993). Sample sites include one location in the river nile (at Helwan area), one site in Ismaillia canal, (at Mostrod industrial area), and one site in Abo-Zabal drain (at Abo-Zabal city). The concentration of 19 major major and trace elements in plant samples were determined by prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis. Results indicated that plant parts as well as location have a significant effect on elements content. Water hyacinth roots showed high affinity for accumulation of trace elements. 5 tabs

  1. Chemical composition of water hyacinth (Eichhronia Crassipes) a comparison indication of heavy metal pollution in egyptian water bodies. Vol. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-sabour, M F [Soil pollution unit, Soil and water Department. Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt); Abdel-Haleem, A S [Hot Lab. Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt); Zohny, E [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Beni-Sweif Branch, Cairo (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    Water hyacinth is tested as an indicator for pollution in egyptian fresh surface waters. Chemical composition of water hyacinth as affected area of collection (water bodies) was studied and the suitability of this plant as a biological indicator for water pollution is discussed. Water hyacinth samples were collected three times per year for two years (1991-1993). Sample sites include one location in the river nile (at Helwan area), one site in Ismaillia canal, (at Mostrod industrial area), and one site in Abo-Zabal drain (at Abo-Zabal city). The concentration of 19 major major and trace elements in plant samples were determined by prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis. Results indicated that plant parts as well as location have a significant effect on elements content. Water hyacinth roots showed high affinity for accumulation of trace elements. 5 tabs.

  2. Pollution source control by water utilities – characterisation and implications for water management: research results from England and Wales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiller, M.; McIntosh, B.S.; Seaton, R.A.F.; Jeffrey, P.

    2013-01-01

    The treatment of agriculturally polluted water to potable standards is costly for water companies. Changes in agricultural practice can reduce these costs while also meeting the objectives of European Union (EU) environmental legislation. In this paper, the uptake of source control interventions

  3. Simulation of Water Environmental Capacity and Pollution Load Reduction Using QUAL2K for Water Environmental Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruibin; Qian, Xin; Yuan, Xingcheng; Ye, Rui; Xia, Bisheng; Wang, Yulei

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, water quality degradation associated with rapid socio-economic development in the Taihu Lake Basin, China, has attracted increasing attention from both the public and the Chinese government. The primary sources of pollution in Taihu Lake are its inflow rivers and their tributaries. Effective water environmental management strategies need to be implemented in these rivers to improve the water quality of Taihu Lake, and to ensure sustainable development in the region. The aim of this study was to provide a basis for water environmental management decision-making. In this study, the QUAL2K model for river and stream water quality was applied to predict the water quality and environmental capacity of the Hongqi River, which is a polluted tributary in the Taihu Lake Basin. The model parameters were calibrated by trial and error until the simulated results agreed well with the observed data. The calibrated QUAL2K model was used to calculate the water environmental capacity of the Hongqi River, and the water environmental capacities of CODCr NH3-N, TN, and TP were 17.51 t, 1.52 t, 2.74 t and 0.37 t, respectively. The results showed that the NH3-N, TN, and TP pollution loads of the studied river need to be reduced by 50.96%, 44.11%, and 22.92%, respectively to satisfy the water quality objectives. Thus, additional water pollution control measures are needed to control and reduce the pollution loads in the Hongqi River watershed. The method applied in this study should provide a basis for water environmental management decision-making. PMID:23222206

  4. Simulation of water environmental capacity and pollution load reduction using QUAL2K for water environmental management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruibin; Qian, Xin; Yuan, Xingcheng; Ye, Rui; Xia, Bisheng; Wang, Yulei

    2012-12-07

    In recent years, water quality degradation associated with rapid socio-economic development in the Taihu Lake Basin, China, has attracted increasing attention from both the public and the Chinese government. The primary sources of pollution in Taihu Lake are its inflow rivers and their tributaries. Effective water environmental management strategies need to be implemented in these rivers to improve the water quality of Taihu Lake, and to ensure sustainable development in the region. The aim of this study was to provide a basis for water environmental management decision-making. In this study, the QUAL2K model for river and stream water quality was applied to predict the water quality and environmental capacity of the Hongqi River, which is a polluted tributary in the Taihu Lake Basin. The model parameters were calibrated by trial and error until the simulated results agreed well with the observed data. The calibrated QUAL2K model was used to calculate the water environmental capacity of the Hongqi River, and the water environmental capacities of COD(Cr) NH(3)-N, TN, and TP were 17.51 t, 1.52 t, 2.74 t and 0.37 t, respectively. The results showed that the NH(3)-N, TN, and TP pollution loads of the studied river need to be reduced by 50.96%, 44.11%, and 22.92%, respectively to satisfy the water quality objectives. Thus, additional water pollution control measures are needed to control and reduce the pollution loads in the Hongqi River watershed. The method applied in this study should provide a basis for water environmental management decision-making.

  5. Simulation of Water Environmental Capacity and Pollution Load Reduction Using QUAL2K for Water Environmental Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulei Wang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, water quality degradation associated with rapid socio-economic development in the Taihu Lake Basin, China, has attracted increasing attention from both the public and the Chinese government. The primary sources of pollution in Taihu Lake are its inflow rivers and their tributaries. Effective water environmental management strategies need to be implemented in these rivers to improve the water quality of Taihu Lake, and to ensure sustainable development in the region. The aim of this study was to provide a basis for water environmental management decision-making. In this study, the QUAL2K model for river and stream water quality was applied to predict the water quality and environmental capacity of the Hongqi River, which is a polluted tributary in the Taihu Lake Basin. The model parameters were calibrated by trial and error until the simulated results agreed well with the observed data. The calibrated QUAL2K model was used to calculate the water environmental capacity of the Hongqi River, and the water environmental capacities of CODCr NH3-N, TN, and TP were 17.51 t, 1.52 t, 2.74 t and 0.37 t, respectively. The results showed that the NH3-N, TN, and TP pollution loads of the studied river need to be reduced by 50.96%, 44.11%, and 22.92%, respectively to satisfy the water quality objectives. Thus, additional water pollution control measures are needed to control and reduce the pollution loads in the Hongqi River watershed. The method applied in this study should provide a basis for water environmental management decision-making.

  6. Gravitactic orientation of Euglena gracilis – a sensitive endpoint for ecotoxicological assessment of water pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziz eUllah

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Pollution of aquatic environments with natural and anthropogenically produced substances is one of the major environmental problems of the world. In many countries the decreasing quantity of water coupled with its increasing usage in multiple sectors has adversely affected water quality and caused problems of water pollution. Polluted water has been a main cause of adverse effects on plants, animals and humans throughout the world. Physicochemical analysis of water, which is a common method used for quality assessment of water, alone may not be enough as it cannot evaluate the impact on living organisms. Therefore, bioassessment of water and wastewater quality is considered to be essential to reflect the ultimate effects on living organisms. Many organisms like bacteria, algae, fish, invertebrates and protozoan are used as bioassay organisms for assessment of water quality. This review article elucidates the use of Euglena gracilis, a freshwater motile flagellate of the phylum Euglenophyta, as a suitable organism in ecotoxicological studies with special emphasis on its gravitactic orientation as a sensitive end point in ecotoxicological assessment of water pollutants.

  7. Effect of aquatic plants on 95Zr concentration in slightly polluted water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Jianjun; Yang Ziyin; Chen Hui

    2004-01-01

    Effect of three aquatic plants (Ceratophyllum demersum, Azolla caroliniana and Eichhornia crassipes) on 95 Zr concentration in slightly polluted water was studied by using isotope tracer techniques. The results showed that the aquatic plants had strong ability of 95 Zr concentration in water. The concentration factor (CF) were from 56.78 to 112.94, so three aquatic plants were suggested be bio-indicators for 95 Zr polluted water. The specific activity of 95 Zr in water decreased with time when the aquatic plants were put in slightly 95 Zr polluted water. The descent of specific activity of 95 Zr in water was very quick during the beginning period (0-3d). The time for the specific activity reduced to 50% was only 3 days, indicating that theres aquatic plants could be used to purge slightly 95 Zr polluted water. The effect of Eichhornia crassipes on purging 95 Zr in water was the best among the three aquatic plants. The specific activity of 95 Zr in bottom clay only decreased 5% after putting aquatic plants in water, indicating that desorption of 95 Zr from bottom clay was not easy. As the bottom clay had strong ability of adsorption and fixation to 95 Zr, the effect of aquatic plant on purging 95 Zr adsorbed by bottom clay was not visible

  8. A Model Study of the Photochemical Fate of As(III in Paddy-Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Carena

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The APEX (Aqueous Photochemistry of Environmentally-occurring Xenobiotics software previously developed by one of us was used to model the photochemistry of As(III in paddy-field water, allowing a comparison with biotic processes. The model included key paddy-water variables, such as the shielding effect of the rice canopy on incident sunlight and its monthly variations, water pH, and the photochemical parameters of the chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM occurring in paddy fields. The half-life times (t1/2 of As(III photooxidation to As(V would be ~20–30 days in May. In contrast, the photochemical oxidation of As(III would be much slower in June and July due to rice-canopy shading of radiation because of plant growth, despite higher sunlight irradiance. At pH < 8 the photooxidation of As(III would mainly be accounted for by reaction with transient species produced by irradiated CDOM (here represented by the excited triplet states 3CDOM*, neglecting the possibly more important reactions with poorly known species such as the phenoxy radicals and, to a lesser extent, with the hydroxyl radicals (HO•. However, the carbonate radicals (CO3•− could be key photooxidants at pH > 8.5 provided that the paddy-water 3CDOM* is sufficiently reactive toward the oxidation of CO32−. In particular, if paddy-water 3CDOM* oxidizes the carbonate anion with a second-order reaction rate constant near (or higher than 106 M−1·s−1, the photooxidation of As(III could be quite fast at pH > 8.5. Such pH conditions can be produced by elevated photosynthetic activity that consumes dissolved CO2.

  9. Determination of Chromium(III), Chromium(VI), and Chromium(III) acetylacetonate in water by ion-exchange disk extraction/metal furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamakura, Nao; Inui, Tetsuo; Kitano, Masaru; Nakamura, Toshihiro

    2014-01-01

    A new method for the separate determination of Chromium(III) (Cr(III)), Chromium(VI) (Cr(VI)), and Cr(III) acetylacetonate (Cr(acac) 3 ) in water was developed using a cation-exchange extraction disk (CED) and an anion-exchange extraction disk (AED) combined with metal furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (MFAAS). A 100-mL water sample was adjusted to pH 5.6 and passed through the CED placed on the AED. Cr(acac) 3 and Cr(III) were adsorbed on the CED, and Cr(VI) was adsorbed on the AED. The adsorbed Cr(acac) 3 was eluted with 50 mL of carbon tetrachloride, followed by the elution of Cr(III) with 50 mL of 3 mol L −1 nitric acid. Cr(VI) was eluted with 50 mL of 3 mol L −1 nitric acid. The chemical species of Cr eluted from the CED with carbon tetrachloride was identified as Cr(acac) 3 using infrared spectroscopy. The eluate of Cr(acac) 3 was diluted to 100 mL with carbon tetrachloride, and those of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) were diluted to 100 mL with deionized water. All of the solutions were subsequently analyzed by MFAAS. The calibration curve for the Cr(acac) 3 aqueous solutions exhibited good linearity in the range of 0.1 to 1 ng. The detection limit of Cr, which corresponded to three times the standard deviation (n = 10) of the blank values, was 20 pg. The recovery test for Cr(III), Cr(VI), and Cr(acac) 3 exhibited desirable results (96.0%–107%) when 5 μg of each species (50 μg L −1 ) was added to 100 mL water samples (i.e., tap water, rainwater, and bottled drinking water). In a humic acid solution, Cr(acac) 3 was quantitatively recovered (103%), but Cr(III) and Cr(VI) exhibited poor recoveries (i.e., 84.8% and 78.4%, respectively). - Highlights: • A determination method of Cr(III), Cr(VI), and Cr(III) acetylacetonate in water was developed. • The combination of ion-exchange resin disks with metal furnace AAS was used. • No effect of humic acid on the recovery of Cr(III) acetylacetonate was observed. • The proposed method enabled the determination

  10. Some research aspects for irradiation treatment of the polluted waters in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jingtian; Yun Guichun; Ha Hongfei

    1988-01-01

    This paper is a review of some aspects of research work on radiation treatment of surface and industrial polluted waters in China. These studies include: radiation-oxidized decomposition of phenols, cyanides and pesticides etc., radiation decolourization of wastewater from dyeworks, radiation modification of the biodegradability of saponificated wastewater as well as radiation sterilization of surface water, hospital sewage sludge, industrial cooling-water and water flooding in oil field. (author)

  11. Snow cover as a source of technogenic pollution of surface water during the snow melting period

    OpenAIRE

    Labuzova Olga; Noskova Tatyana; Lysenko Maria; Ovcharenko Elena; Papina Tatyana

    2016-01-01

    The study of pollutants in melt water of snow cover and snow disposal sites in the city of Barnaul showed that during the snow melting period the surface water is not subjected to significant technogenic impact according to a number of studied indices. The oils content is an exception: it can exceed MAC more than 20 times in river- water due to the melting of city disposal sites. Environmental damage due to an oils input into water resources during the snow melting period...

  12. Removal of Chromium (III from Water by Using Modified and Nonmodified Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muataz Ali Atieh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the environmental application of modified and nonmodified carbon nanotubes through the experiment removal of chromium trivalent (III from water. The aim was to find the optimal condition of the chromium (III removal from water under different treatment conditions of pH, adsorbent dosage, contact time and agitation speed. Multi wall carbon nanotubes (MW-CNTs were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The diameter of the carbon nanotubes produced varied from 20–40 nm with average diameter of 24 nm and 10 micrometer in length. Adsorption isotherms were used to model the adsorption behavior and to calculate the adsorption capacity of the absorbents. The results showed that, 18% of chromium (III removal was achieved using modified carbon nanotubes (M-CNTs at pH 7, 150 rpm, and 2 hours for a dosage of 150 mg of CNTs. The removal of Cr (III is mainly attributed to the affinity of chromium (III to the physical and chemical properties of the CNTs. The adsorption isotherms plots were well fitted with experimental data.

  13. Global Anthropogenic Phosphorus Loads to Fresh Water, Grey Water Footprint and Water Pollution Levels: A High-Resolution Global Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonnen, M. M.; Hoekstra, A. Y. Y.

    2014-12-01

    We estimated anthropogenic phosphorus (P) loads to freshwater, globally at a spatial resolution level of 5 by 5 arc minute. The global anthropogenic P load to freshwater systems from both diffuse and point sources in the period 2002-2010 was 1.5 million tonnes per year. China contributed about 30% to this global anthropogenic P load. India was the second largest contributor (8%), followed by the USA (7%), Spain and Brazil each contributing 6% to the total. The domestic sector contributed the largest share (54%) to this total followed by agriculture (38%) and industry (8%). Among the crops, production of cereals had the largest contribution to the P loads (32%), followed by fruits, vegetables, and oil crops, each contributing about 15% to the total. We also calculated the resultant grey water footprints, and relate the grey water footprints per river basin to runoff to calculate the P-related water pollution level (WPL) per catchment.

  14. Remote measurements of water pollution with a lidar polarimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheives, T. C.; Rouse, J. W., Jr.; Mayo, W. T., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    This paper examines a dual polarization laser backscatter system as a method for remote measurements of certain water quality parameters. Analytical models for describing the backscatter from turbid water and oil on turbid water are presented and compared with experimental data. Laser backscatter field measurements from natural waterways are presented and compared with simultaneous ground observations of the water quality parameters: turbidity, suspended solids, and transmittance. The results of this study show that the analytical models appear valid and that the sensor investigated is applicable to remote measurements of these water quality parameters and oil spills on water.-

  15. Oxidation of Cr(III)-Fe(III) Mixed-phase Hydroxides by Chlorine: Implications on the Control of Hexavalent Chromium in Drinking Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebeir, Michelle; Liu, Haizhou

    2018-05-17

    The occurrence of chromium (Cr) as an inorganic contaminant in drinking water is widely reported. One source of Cr is its accumulation in iron-containing corrosion scales of drinking water distribution systems as Cr(III)-Fe(III) hydroxide, i.e., FexCr(1-x)(OH)3(s), where x represents the Fe(III) molar content and typically varies between 0.25 and 0.75. This study investigated the kinetics of inadvertent hexavalent chromium Cr(VI) formation via the oxidation of FexCr(1-x)(OH)3(s) by chlorine as a residual disinfectant in drinking water, and examined the impacts of Fe(III) content and drinking water chemical parameters including pH, bromide and bicarbonate on the rate of Cr(VI) formation. Data showed that an increase in Fe(III) molar content resulted in a significant decrease in the stoichiometric Cr(VI) yield and the rate of Cr(VI) formation, mainly due to chlorine decay induced by Fe(III) surface sites. An increase in bicarbonate enhanced the rate of Cr(VI) formation, likely due to the formation of Fe(III)-carbonato surface complexes that slowed down the scavenging reaction with chlorine. The presence of bromide significantly accelerated the oxidation of FexCr(1-x)(OH)3(s) by chlorine, resulting from the catalytic effect of bromide acting as an electron shuttle. A higher solution pH between 6 and 8.5 slowed down the oxidation of Cr(III) by chlorine. These findings suggested that the oxidative conversion of chromium-containing iron corrosion products in drinking water distribution systems can lead to the occurrence of Cr(VI) at the tap, and the abundance of iron, and a careful control of pH, bicarbonate and bromide levels can assist the control of Cr(VI) formation.

  16. INTEGRATION OF RS/GIS FOR SURFACE WATER POLLUTION RISK MODELING. CASE STUDY: AL-ABRASH SYRIAN COASTAL BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Yaghi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently the topic of the quality of surface water (rivers – lakes and the sea is an important topics at different levels. It is known that there are two major groups of pollutants: Point Source Pollution (PSP and non-point Source pollution (NPSP. Historically most of the surface water pollution protection programs dealing with the first set of pollutants which comes from sewage pipes and factories drainage. With the growing need for current and future water security must stand on the current reality of the coastal rivers basin in terms of freshness and cleanliness and condition of water pollution. This research aims to assign the NPS pollutants that reach Al Abrash River and preparation of databases and producing of risk Pollution map for NPS pollutants in order to put the basin management plan to ensure the reduction of pollutants that reach the river. This research resulted of establishing of Databases of NPSP (Like pesticides and fertilizers and producing of thematic maps for pollution severity and pollution risk based on the pollution models designed in GIS environment and utilizing from remote sensing data. Preliminary recommendations for managing these pollutants were put.

  17. Integration of Rs/gis for Surface Water Pollution Risk Modeling. Case Study: Al-Abrash Syrian Coastal Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghi, Y.; Salim, H.

    2017-09-01

    Recently the topic of the quality of surface water (rivers - lakes) and the sea is an important topics at different levels. It is known that there are two major groups of pollutants: Point Source Pollution (PSP) and non-point Source pollution (NPSP). Historically most of the surface water pollution protection programs dealing with the first set of pollutants which comes from sewage pipes and factories drainage. With the growing need for current and future water security must stand on the current reality of the coastal rivers basin in terms of freshness and cleanliness and condition of water pollution. This research aims to assign the NPS pollutants that reach Al Abrash River and preparation of databases and producing of risk Pollution map for NPS pollutants in order to put the basin management plan to ensure the reduction of pollutants that reach the river. This research resulted of establishing of Databases of NPSP (Like pesticides and fertilizers) and producing of thematic maps for pollution severity and pollution risk based on the pollution models designed in GIS environment and utilizing from remote sensing data. Preliminary recommendations for managing these pollutants were put.

  18. Soil-water salinity pollution: extent, management and potential impacts on agricultural sustain ability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javid, M.A.; Ali, K.; Javed, M.; Mahmood, A.

    1999-01-01

    One of the significant environmental hazards of irrigated agriculture is the accumulation of salts in the soil. The presence of large quantities of certain soluble salts badly affects the physical, chemical, biological and fertility characteristics of the soils. This pollution of soil salinity and its toxic degradation directly affects plants, hence impacting the air filters of nature. The soil and water salinity has adversely reduced the yield of our major agricultural crops to an extent that agricultural sustainability is being threatened. Salinity has also dwindled the survival of marine life, livestock, in addition to damaging of construction works. The problem can be estimated from the fact that out of 16.2 m.ha of irrigated land of Pakistan, 6.3 . ha are salt affected in the Indus Plain. The state of water pollution can further be assessed from the fact that presently about 106 MAF of water is diverted from the rivers into the canals of the Indus Plain which contains 28 MT of salts. Due to soil and water pollution more than 40,000 ha of good irrigated land goes out of cultivation every year. This it has drastically reduced the potential of our agricultural lands. Hence, an estimated annual loss of Rs. 14,000 million has been reported due to this soil-water salinity pollution in Pakistan. Some management options to mitigate the soil - water salinity pollution are proposed. (author)

  19. Sustainability, Efficiency and Equitability of Water Consumption and Pollution in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesfin M. Mekonnen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the sustainability, efficiency and equity of water use in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC by means of a geographic Water Footprint Assessment (WFA. It aims to provide understanding of water use from both a production and consumption point of view. The study identifies priority basins and areas from the perspectives of blue water scarcity, water pollution and deforestation. Wheat, fodder crops and sugarcane are identified as priority products related to blue water scarcity. The domestic sector is the priority sector regarding water pollution from nitrogen. Soybean and pasture are priority products related to deforestation. We estimate that consumptive water use in crop production could be reduced by 37% and nitrogen-related water pollution by 44% if water footprints were reduced to certain specified benchmark levels. The average WF per consumer in the region is 28% larger than the global average and varies greatly, from 912 m3/year per capita in Nicaragua to 3468 m3/year in Bolivia. Ironically, the LAC region shows significant levels of undernourishment, although there is abundant water and food production in the region and substantial use of land and water for producing export crops like soybean.

  20. A Recourse-Based Type-2 Fuzzy Programming Method for Water Pollution Control under Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Liu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a recourse-based type-2 fuzzy programming (RTFP method is developed for supporting water pollution control of basin systems under uncertainty. The RTFP method incorporates type-2 fuzzy programming (TFP within a two-stage stochastic programming with recourse (TSP framework to handle uncertainties expressed as type-2 fuzzy sets (i.e., a fuzzy set in which the membership function is also fuzzy and probability distributions, as well as to reflect the trade-offs between conflicting economic benefits and penalties due to violated policies. The RTFP method is then applied to a real case of water pollution control in the Heshui River Basin (a rural area of China, where chemical oxygen demand (COD, total nitrogen (TN, total phosphorus (TP, and soil loss are selected as major indicators to identify the water pollution control strategies. Solutions of optimal production plans of economic activities under each probabilistic pollutant discharge allowance level and membership grades are obtained. The results are helpful for the authorities in exploring the trade-off between economic objective and pollutant discharge decision-making based on river water pollution control.

  1. Waste water plant for radioactive polluted media, for example faeces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galler, L.

    1985-01-01

    In order to provide simple transport of radioactive polluted wastewater to a decay container using simple structural means, where aerobic decay is to take place during storage in the decay container, it is proposed that a sub-pressure source should be connected to the place of origin via a pressure-tight and closed decay container and that the gasous fluid extracted by the subpressure source should be returned to the decay container. (orig./PW) [de

  2. Uptake of arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury from polluted waters by the water hyacinth Eichornia crassipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chigbo, F.E.; Smith, R.W.; Shore, F.L.

    1982-01-01

    The water hyacinth Eichornia crassipes was studied as a pollution monitor for the simultaneous accumulation of arsenic, cadmium, lead and mecury. After cultivation of the plants for 2 days in tanks containing 10 ppm of each of the metals in aqueous solution, the plants were harvested and rinsed with tap water. The leaves and stems were separated and analysed for each of the metals. The ratio of the concentration of arsenic and mercury in the leaves to the concentrations in the stems was found to be 2:1. Cadmium and lead showed a concentration ratio in leaves to stems of about 1:1. The leaf concentration of arsenic was the lowest of the metals of 0.3428 mg g/sup -1/ of dried plant material whilst the leaf concentration of cadmium was highest at 0.5740 mg g/sup -1/ of dried plant material. Control plants were grown in unpolluted water. Plants grown in Bay St. Louis, Mississippi sewage lagoon were also analysed. The mercury concentrations of the leaves of plants grown in the sewage lagoon were significantly different from the control sample which had a concentration of 0.0700 mg g/sup -1/ of dried plant material.

  3. Voltammetric method to determine chromium (III) in potable water at level of ultra plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez B, Irene; Alvarado G, Ana L.

    2004-01-01

    It was established an analytical methodology to determine Cr (III) in drinking water using a voltammetric technique of Differential Pulse Cathodic Stripping Voltammetry with an Adsorptive Preconcentration of a complex Cr(III)-diethiltriaminpentaceticacid (Cr-DTPA) in a mercury drop. A dissolution of sodium nitrate was used as a supporting electrolyte. The optimized voltammetric parameters were: adsorption time, scan rate, absorption potential, p H, complex agent and sodium nitrate concentration. The linear range of the methodology is between 20 ng/L and 60 ng/L and the detection and quantification limits are 13 ng/L and 20 ng/L respectively. (Author) [es

  4. Determination of chromium(III) and total chromium in marine waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, M J [WRc, Henley Road, Medmenham, Marlow SL7 2HD (United Kingdom); Ravenscroft, J E [WRc, Henley Road, Medmenham, Marlow SL7 2HD (United Kingdom)

    1996-03-01

    The development of an analytical technique is described which may be used to determine chromium, chromium(III) and chromium(VI) in estuarine and coastal waters. The method is based on selective micro-solvent extraction with subsequent GFAAS. The technique has been applied in a major North Sea estuary. The results obtained confirm that thermodynamic factors alone cannot be relied upon to describe the form of chromium in estuaries. Kinetic factors appear to have a strong influence over speciation and lead to the persistence of Cr(III) species in environments where Cr(VI) would be expected to be present. (orig.). With 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Water Quality Protection from Nutrient Pollution: Case Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water bodies and coastal areas around the world are threatened by increases in upstream sediment and nutrient loads, which influence drinking water sources, aquatic species, and other ecologic functions and services of streams, lakes, and coastal water bodies. For example, incre...

  6. Determination of As(III and As(V in waters by chronopotentiometric stripping analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Švarc-Gajić Jaroslava V.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic is a naturally occurring toxic and carcinogenic element. The degree of the toxicity depends on its chemical form and the concentration. Application of a sensitive, selective, simple and rapid method for detection and monitoring of different oxidation states of arsenic in waters is of great importance because main route of population exposure is through drinking water. In this work chronopotentiometric stripping analysis (CSA was used for the determination of As(III and As(V in tap, well, river and rain waters from Vojvodina (Serbia. Gold film electrode on the glassy carbon support was used as the working electrode. The experimental parameters of the technique were investigated and optimized. Detection limit of the method for the electrolysis time of 600 s was 2 μg/dm3 of As(III.

  7. The genetic algorithm for the nonlinear programming of water pollution control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, J.; Zhang, J. [China University of Geosciences (China)

    1999-08-01

    In the programming of water pollution control system the combined method of optimization with simulation is used generally. It is not only laborious in calculation, but also the global optimum of the obtained solution is guaranteed difficult. In this paper, the genetic algorithm (GA) used in the nonlinear programming of water pollution control system is given, by which the preferred conception for the programming of waste water system is found in once-through operation. It is more succinct than the conventional method and the global optimum of the obtained solution could be ensured. 6 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Water Pollution Control Training: The Educational Role of the United States Environmental Protection Agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Frederick D.

    Presented are the results of a study to determine the perceived needs of environmental control education programs as seen by students, instructors, deans or program directors, and field-related employers in the field of water pollution control. Data were collected utilizing three approaches: survey instruments, information from Water Quality…

  9. Effect of water pollution on expression of immune response genes of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research was aimed to study quality of water in Lake Qarun and effects of pollution on expression of immune genes in Egyptian sole (Solea aegyptiaca) fish. The study was carried out from August 2006 to the end of April 2007. The water samples were collected from different locations of Lake Qarun at Al-Oberge within ...

  10. Water resources conservation and nitrogen pollution reduction under global food trade and agricultural intensification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Wenfeng; Yang, Hong; Liu, Yu; Kummu, Matti; Hoekstra, Arjen Y.; Liu, Junguo; Schulin, Rainer

    2018-01-01

    Global food trade entails virtual flows of agricultural resources and pollution across countries. Here we performed a global-scale assessment of impacts of international food trade on blue water use, total water use, and nitrogen (N) inputs and on N losses in maize, rice, and wheat production. We

  11. Amoco-US Environmental Protection Agency, pollution prevention project, Yorktown, Virginia: Surface water data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baloo, S.

    1991-08-01

    The report summarizes the surface water sampling program at the Amoco Refinery at Yorktown, Virginia. This was undertaken as a part of the joint project between Amoco Corporation and the United States Environmental Protection Agency to review pollution prevention alternatives at a petroleum refinery. The surface water data provides a snapshot of surface water pollutant generation and discharge from the refinery. Different process units contribute to the total wastewater flow of 460 GPM in the refinery. Water in the ditch system, which is non-process water, is free of organic contamination. Oil and grease, phenols, ammonia and sulfides are the significant components measured in the process wastewater. The concentrations of organics in most water streams leaving the individual process units are relatively low, in the 1-5 parts per million (ppm) range. A few individual streams such as the crude desalter brine and tank water draws have high pollutant loadings. Concentrations of metals in the refinery wastewater are very low. The wastewater treatment plant is very effective in reducing the pollutant loading in the water with overall removal efficiencies greater than 99% for most organics and inorganics

  12. Use of the landfill water pollution index (LWPI) for groundwater quality assessment near the landfill sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talalaj, Izabela A; Biedka, Pawel

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of the paper is to assess the groundwater quality near the landfill sites using landfill water pollution index (LWPI). In order to investigate the scale of groundwater contamination, three landfills (E, H and S) in different stages of their operation were taken into analysis. Samples of groundwater in the vicinity of studied landfills were collected four times each year in the period from 2004 to 2014. A total of over 300 groundwater samples were analysed for pH, EC, PAH, TOC, Cr, Hg, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu, as required by the UE legal acts for landfill monitoring system. The calculated values of the LWPI allowed the quantification of the overall water quality near the landfill sites. The obtained results indicated that the most negative impact on groundwater quality is observed near the old Landfill H. Improper location of piezometer at the Landfill S favoured infiltration of run-off from road pavement into the soil-water environment. Deep deposition of the groundwater level at Landfill S area reduced the landfill impact on the water quality. Conducted analyses revealed that the LWPI can be used for evaluation of water pollution near a landfill, for assessment of the variability of water pollution with time and for comparison of water quality from different piezometers, landfills or time periods. The applied WQI (Water Quality Index) can also be an important information tool for landfill policy makers and the public about the groundwater pollution threat from landfill.

  13. Controlling flooding and water pollution with upland and streamside vegetation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael Dosskey

    2003-01-01

    Substantial research and development effort in the U.S. is being spent on developing strategies that address flooding and water pollution problems in agricultural areas. Concerns have been raised about the costs of flood damage, degradation of productive farm land, and declining water quality that are now recognized as unintended consequences of intensive, high-yield...

  14. Monitoring air pollutants due to gas flaring using rain water | Rim ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mean levels of conductivity, TDS, and SO42- were within statutory safe limits, while that of pH, CO32- and NO3- were above the safe limits specified by the Federal Ministry of Environment guidelines and standards for drinking water quality. Keywords: rainwater, gas flare, pollutants, monitoring, water quality

  15. CALCULATED AND MEASURED VALUES OF LIQUID WATER CONTENT IN CLEAN AND POLLUTED ENVIRONMENTS

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fišák, Jaroslav; Řezáčová, Daniela; Mattanen, J.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 1 (2006), s. 121-130 ISSN 0039-3169 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA3042301 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : liquid water content * visibility * air pollutant * fog /cloud water Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 0.603, year: 2006

  16. Voluntary arrangements to cope with diffuse pollution from agriculture and their role in European water policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinz, I.; Andrews, K.; Brouwer, F.; Zabel, T.

    2002-01-01

    A limited number of Member States in the EU have gained experience with establishing co-operative agreements between agriculture and the water sector. Their main aim is to reduce or prevent water pollution caused by intensive farming practices. The research has shown that significant changes in

  17. We All Live Downstream. A Guide to Waste Treatment That Stops Water Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costner, Pat; And Others

    Based on the idea that the prevention and treatment of water pollution should begin at its source, this document focuses on some methods that individuals can use in their homes and businesses to treat wastewater. Chapter one, "What Is the Water Crisis?" explains the basic concepts of the hydrologic cycle, evapotranspiration, and the quantity of…

  18. Non-biological removal of organic pollutants from water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mersmann, A.; Kutzer, S.; Kajszika, H.; Wintrich, H.

    1995-01-01

    Contaminants present in waste water, seepage water and ground water include salts, heavy metals and organic compounds of low biodegradability. This paper considers the wide range of physico-chemical processes available for separation of such compounds from water and points out their optimal and economic range of application. Main subjects are desorption processes (air/steam stripping), adsorption processes (activated carbon, polymeric resins) and membrane separation processes. Alternative water treatment technologies (evaporation, distillation, liquid-liquid-extraction, oxidation, flocculation and precipitation) and combined processes are presented and discussed. (orig.) [de

  19. Oil palm biomass-based adsorbents for the removal of water pollutants--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Tanweer; Rafatullah, Mohd; Ghazali, Arniza; Sulaiman, Othman; Hashim, Rokiah

    2011-07-01

    This article presents a review on the role of oil palm biomass (trunks, fronds, leaves, empty fruit bunches, shells, etc.) as adsorbents in the removal of water pollutants such as acid and basic dyes, heavy metals, phenolic compounds, various gaseous pollutants, and so on. Numerous studies on adsorption properties of various low-cost adsorbents, such as agricultural wastes and its based activated carbons, have been reported in recent years. Studies have shown that oil palm-based adsorbent, among the low-cost adsorbents mentioned, is the most promising adsorbent for removing water pollutants. Further, these bioadsorbents can be chemically modified for better efficiency and can undergo multiple reuses to enhance their applicability at an industrial scale. It is evident from a literature survey of more than 100 recent papers that low-cost adsorbents have demonstrated outstanding removal capabilities for various pollutants. The conclusion is been drawn from the reviewed literature, and suggestions for future research are proposed.

  20. Direct versus indirect electrochemical oxidation of pesticide polluted drainage water containing sodium chloride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muff, Jens; Erichsen, Rasmus; Damgaard, Christian

    2008-01-01

    the treatment. Indirect electrochemical treatment, where a highly oxidized brine solution was added to the drainage water, revealed immediately reduction in COD, and similar to the direct treatment, degradation of all of the pesticide pollutants was obtained except for the O,O,O-triethyl-phosphoric acid......Drainage water from a depot of chemical waste, polluted with a mixture of organophosphates and degradation products was treated by a direct as well as an indirect electrochemical method using a Ti/Pt-Ir anode and Stainless Steel 304 cathode. With a concentration of 0.7%, sodium chloride...... concentrations. Analyses of the actual pollutants, Me-Parathion, parathion, malathion and degradation products, confirmed that the concentrations of all initial pollutants were eliminated during the treatment. The only exception was O,O,O-triethyl-phosphoric acid, a degradation product which was formed during...

  1. Direct versus indirect electrochemical oxidation of pesticide polluted drainage water containing sodium chloride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muff, Jens; Erichsen, Rasmus; Damgaard, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Drainage water from a depot of chemical waste, polluted with a mixture of organophosphates and degradation products was treated by a direct as well as an indirect electrochemical method using a Ti/Pt-Ir anode and Stainless Steel 304 cathode. With a concentration of 0.7%, sodium chloride...... the treatment. Indirect electrochemical treatment, where a highly oxidized brine solution was added to the drainage water, revealed immediately reduction in COD, and similar to the direct treatment, degradation of all of the pesticide pollutants was obtained except for the O,O,O-triethyl-phosphoric acid...... concentrations. Analyses of the actual pollutants, Me-Parathion, parathion, malathion and degradation products, confirmed that the concentrations of all initial pollutants were eliminated during the treatment. The only exception was O,O,O-triethyl-phosphoric acid, a degradation product which was formed during...

  2. Photolytic AND Catalytic Destruction of Organic Waste Water Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torosyan, V. F.; Torosyan, E. S.; Kryuchkova, S. O.; Gromov, V. E.

    2017-01-01

    The system: water supply source - potable and industrial water - wastewater - sewage treatment - water supply source is necessary for water supply and efficient utilization of water resources. Up-to-date technologies of waste water biological treatment require for special microorganisms, which are technologically complex and expensive but unable to solve all the problems. Application of photolytic and catalytically-oxidizing destruction is quite promising. However, the most reagents are strong oxidizers in catalytic oxidation of organic substances and can initiate toxic substance generation. Methodic and scientific approaches to assess bread making industry influence on the environment have been developed in this paper in order to support forecasting and taking technological decisions concerning reduction of this influence. Destructive methods have been tested: ultra violet irradiation and catalytic oxidation for extraction of organic compounds from waste water by natural reagents.

  3. Analysis on the relationship between economic development and water environment pollution in Shandong province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Zhang, Zhengxian

    2018-02-01

    With the continuous development of the economy of the Shandong Province watershed, a large number of pollutant emission, resulting in water quality of the basin has undergone significant changes. To study the Shandong Province watershed economic development and the relationship between the discharge of pollutants, in this paper, the relationship between economic growth and pollutant emissions in the Shandong Province watershed was established by Shandong Province watershed in 2002-2015 per capita GDP and wastewater, COD, ammonia nitrogen(AN) pollutant emissions. The data were analyzed by software such as SPSS, and the cubic equation model between various pollutants and economic indexes was fitted. To further make the relationship between pollutants and economic development map to study the conventional pollutant emissions and economic development trends. It is found that only the relationship between industrial wastewater discharge and per capita GDP is most coordinated, that is, industrial wastewater emissions with the continuous development of the basin economy, showing a tendency to rise first and then fall. Finally, ultimately based on the results of the study of the water environment and economic development proposals were proposed.

  4. Measuring a Level of Water Pollution in Sungai Pinang Using a Mathematical Model

    OpenAIRE

    Mahamud, Mohd Amirul; Ramasamy, Rajasegeran

    2013-01-01

    Mathematical models are now a popular tool in many applications such as physics, economics and engineering; and provide useful information for decision making and planning. Water pollution in Malaysia has reached a level that needs attention and intervention from environmental department and government. In order to make a strong case, this paper has done a study on measuring the pollution level of Sungai Pinang which is located in Penang Island, Malaysia. Advection-Dispersion equation is one ...

  5. Soil and water pollution in a banana production region in tropical Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Geissen, V.; Que Ramos, F.; Bastidas-Bastidas, de, P.J.; Díaz-González, G.; Bello-Mendoza, R.; Huerta-Lwanga, E.; Ruiz-Suárez, L.E.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of abundant Mancozeb (Mn, Zn— bisdithiocarbamate) applications (2.5 kg ha-1week-1 for 10 years) on soil and surface-, subsurface- and groundwater pollution were monitored in a banana production region of tropical Mexico. In soils, severe manganese accumulation was observed, wheras the main metabolite ethylenethiourea was near the detection limit. Surface and subsurface water was highly polluted with ethylenethiourea, the main metabolite of Mancozeb (22.5 and 4.3 lg L-1, respective...

  6. Factors influencing the efficiency of radiation-induced degradation of water pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Getoff, Nikola

    2002-01-01

    The efficiency of the radiation-induced degradation of water pollutants depends on several factors, such as kind and energy of radiation, absorbed dose, dose rate, pollutant concentration as well as synergistic effects of radiation and ozone or/and catalysts (e.g. TiO 2 ) and of the molecular structure of the pollutants. The role of the individual factors is illustrated by examples. The application of pulse radiolysis in addition to chemical analysis for elucidation of reaction mechanisms and optimization of the degradation treatment is also mentioned

  7. Ammonia pollution characteristics of centralized drinking water sources in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qing; Zheng, Binghui; Zhao, Xingru; Wang, Lijing; Liu, Changming

    2012-01-01

    The characteristics of ammonia in drinking water sources in China were evaluated during 2005-2009. The spatial distribution and seasonal changes of ammonia in different types of drinking water sources of 22 provinces, 5 autonomous regions and 4 municipalities were investigated. The levels of ammonia in drinking water sources follow the order of river > lake/reservoir > groundwater. The levels of ammonia concentration in river sources gradually decreased from 2005 to 2008, while no obvious change was observed in the lakes/reservoirs and groundwater drinking water sources. The proportion of the type of drinking water sources is different in different regions. In river drinking water sources, the ammonia level was varied in different regions and changed seasonally. The highest value and wide range of annual ammonia was found in South East region, while the lowest value was found in Southwest region. In lake/reservoir drinking water sources, the ammonia levels were not varied obviously in different regions. In underground drinking water sources, the ammonia levels were varied obviously in different regions due to the geological permeability and the natural features of regions. In the drinking water sources with higher ammonia levels, there are enterprises and wastewater drainages in the protected areas of the drinking water sources.

  8. Evaluation of hydrophobic treatments applied to stones used in andalusian cathedrals. III.-Accelerated weathering test with polluted atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villegas Sánchez, R.

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY In this work we study the weathering resistance of samples of five types of stone used in Andalusian Cathedrals, treated with six water repellent products, by subjecting the samples to a SO2 polluted atmosphere. To evaluate the alteration of the samples, besides visual observation of macroscopic aspect, changes in weight and the quantity of sulfate that remains on the surface have been measured. Also properties related with water have been measured after the test to determine if there have been any changes in the hydrophobic characteristics.

    En el presente artículo se estudia el comportamiento de muestras de cinco tipos de piedra utilizados en catedrales andaluzas, tratadas con seis productos hidrófugos, sometiéndolas a un ensayo acelerado de alteración en atmósfera contaminada con SO2 . Para evaluar la alteración, además de la observación visual de las manifestaciones macroscópicas, se ha medido la variación de peso de las muestras expuestas y la cantidad de sulfato que permanece en la superficie tras el ensayo. Así mismo, se han detectado los cambios experimentados en las propiedades hidrófugas conferidas por los tratamientos, mediante la medida de propiedades relacionadas con el movimiento del agua.

  9. An Ontology-Underpinned Emergency Response System for Water Pollution Accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoliang Meng

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available With the unceasing development and maturation of environment geographic information system, the response to water pollution accidents has been digitalized through the combination of monitoring sensors, management servers, and application software. However, most of these systems only achieve the basic and general geospatial data management and functional process tasks by adopting mechanistic water-quality models. To satisfy the sustainable monitoring and real-time emergency response application demand of the government and public users, it is a hotspot to study how to make the water pollution information being semantic and make the referred applications intelligent. Thus, the architecture of the ontology-underpinned emergency response system for water pollution accidents is proposed in this paper. This paper also makes a case study for usability testing of the water ontology models, and emergency response rules through an online water pollution emergency response system. The system contributes scientifically to the safety and sustainability of drinking water by providing emergency response and decision-making to the government and public in a timely manner.

  10. River Water Pollution Status and Water Policy Scenario in Ethiopia: Raising Awareness for Better Implementation in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awoke, Aymere; Beyene, Abebe; Kloos, Helmut; Goethals, Peter L. M.; Triest, Ludwig

    2016-10-01

    Despite the increasing levels of pollution in many tropical African countries, not much is known about the strength and weaknesses of policy and institutional frameworks to tackle pollution and ecological status of rivers and their impacts on the biota. We investigated the ecological status of four large river basins using physicochemical water quality parameters and bioindicators by collecting samples from forest, agriculture, and urban landscapes of the Nile, Omo-Gibe, Tekeze, and Awash River basins in Ethiopia. We also assessed the water policy scenario to evaluate its appropriateness to prevent and control pollution. To investigate the level of understanding and implementation of regulatory frameworks and policies related to water resources, we reviewed the policy documents and conducted in-depth interviews of the stakeholders. Physicochemical and biological data revealed that there is significant water quality deterioration at the impacted sites (agriculture, coffee processing, and urban landscapes) compared to reference sites (forested landscapes) in all four basins. The analysis of legal, policy, and institutional framework showed a lack of cooperation between stakeholders, lack of knowledge of the policy documents, absence of enforcement strategies, unavailability of appropriate working guidelines, and disconnected institutional setup at the grass root level to implement the set strategies as the major problems. In conclusion, river water pollution is a growing challenge and needs urgent action to implement intersectoral collaboration for water resource management that will eventually lead toward integrated watershed management. Revision of policy and increasing the awareness and participation of implementers are vital to improve ecological quality of rivers.

  11. River Water Pollution Status and Water Policy Scenario in Ethiopia: Raising Awareness for Better Implementation in Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awoke, Aymere; Beyene, Abebe; Kloos, Helmut; Goethals, Peter L M; Triest, Ludwig

    2016-10-01

    Despite the increasing levels of pollution in many tropical African countries, not much is known about the strength and weaknesses of policy and institutional frameworks to tackle pollution and ecological status of rivers and their impacts on the biota. We investigated the ecological status of four large river basins using physicochemical water quality parameters and bioindicators by collecting samples from forest, agriculture, and urban landscapes of the Nile, Omo-Gibe, Tekeze, and Awash River basins in Ethiopia. We also assessed the water policy scenario to evaluate its appropriateness to prevent and control pollution. To investigate the level of understanding and implementation of regulatory frameworks and policies related to water resources, we reviewed the policy documents and conducted in-depth interviews of the stakeholders. Physicochemical and biological data revealed that there is significant water quality deterioration at the impacted sites (agriculture, coffee processing, and urban landscapes) compared to reference sites (forested landscapes) in all four basins. The analysis of legal, policy, and institutional framework showed a lack of cooperation between stakeholders, lack of knowledge of the policy documents, absence of enforcement strategies, unavailability of appropriate working guidelines, and disconnected institutional setup at the grass root level to implement the set strategies as the major problems. In conclusion, river water pollution is a growing challenge and needs urgent action to implement intersectoral collaboration for water resource management that will eventually lead toward integrated watershed management. Revision of policy and increasing the awareness and participation of implementers are vital to improve ecological quality of rivers.

  12. Identification of hotspots and trends of fecal surface water pollution in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reder, Klara; Flörke, Martina; Alcamo, Joseph

    2015-04-01

    Water is the essential resource ensuring human life on earth, which can only prosper when water is available and accessible. But of importance is not only the quantity of accessible water but also its quality, which in case of pollution may pose a risk to human health. The pollutants which pose a risk to human health are manifold, covering several groups such as pathogens, nutrients, human pharmaceuticals, heavy metals, and others. With regards to human health, pathogen contamination is of major interest as 4% of all death and 5.7% of disability or ill health in the world can be attributed to poor water supply, sanitation and personal and domestic hygiene. In developing countries, 2.6 billion people lacked access to improved sanitation in 2011. The lack of sanitation poses a risk to surface water pollution which is a threat to human health. A typical indicator for pathogen pollution is fecal coliform bacteria. The objective our study is to assess fecal pollution in the developing regions Africa, Asia and Latin America using the large-scale water quality model WorldQual. Model runs were carried-out to calculate in-stream concentrations and the respective loadings reaching rivers for the time period 1990 to 2010. We identified hotspots of fecal coliform loadings and in-stream concentrations which were further analyzed and ranked in terms of fecal surface water pollution. Main findings are that loadings mainly originate from the domestic sector, thus loadings are high in highly populated areas. In general, domestic loadings can be attributed to the two subsectors domestic sewered and domestic non sewered. The spatial distribution of both sectors varies across catchments. Hotspot pattern of in-stream concentrations are similar to the loadings pattern although they are different in seasonality. As the dilution varies with climate its dilution capacity is high during seasons with high precipitation, which in turn decreases the in-stream concentrations. The fecal

  13. Determination of sources and analysis of micro-pollutants in drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Md Pauzi Abdullah; Soh Shiau Chian

    2004-01-01

    The objectives of the research are (I) to develop and validate method performance of solid phase micro-extraction (SPME); (II) to identify, monitor and assess the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in drinking water supplies and (III) to evaluate the relevancy of the guidelines set in the National Standard for Drinking Water Quality 2001

  14. Preservation of water samples for arsenic(III/V) determinations: An evaluation of the literature and new analytical results

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleskey, R. Blaine; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Maest, A.S.

    2004-01-01

    Published literature on preservation procedures for stabilizing aqueous inorganic As(III/V) redox species contains discrepancies. This study critically evaluates published reports on As redox preservation and explains discrepancies in the literature. Synthetic laboratory preservation experiments and time stability experiments were conducted for natural water samples from several field sites. Any field collection procedure that filters out microorganisms, adds a reagent that prevents dissolved Fe and Mn oxidation and precipitation, and isolates the sample from solar radiation will preserve the As(III/V) ratio. Reagents that prevent Fe and Mn oxidation and precipitation include HCl, H 2SO4, and EDTA, although extremely high concentrations of EDTA are necessary for some water samples high in Fe. Photo-catalyzed Fe(III) reduction causes As(III) oxidation; however, storing the sample in the dark prevents photochemical reactions. Furthermore, the presence of Fe(II) or SO 4 inhibits the oxidation of As(III) by Fe(III) because of complexation reactions and competing reactions with free radicals. Consequently, fast abiotic As(III) oxidation reactions observed in the laboratory are not observed in natural water samples for one or more of the following reasons: (1) the As redox species have already stabilized, (2) most natural waters contain very low dissolved Fe(III) concentrations, (3) the As(III) oxidation caused by Fe(III) photoreduction is inhibited by Fe(II) or SO4.

  15. Preservation of water samples for arsenic(III/V) determinations: an evaluation of the literature and new analytical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCleskey, R.Blaine; Nordstrom, D.Kirk; Maest, Ann S.

    2004-01-01

    Published literature on preservation procedures for stabilizing aqueous inorganic As(III/V) redox species contains discrepancies. This study critically evaluates published reports on As redox preservation and explains discrepancies in the literature. Synthetic laboratory preservation experiments and time stability experiments were conducted for natural water samples from several field sites. Any field collection procedure that filters out microorganisms, adds a reagent that prevents dissolved Fe and Mn oxidation and precipitation, and isolates the sample from solar radiation will preserve the As(III/V) ratio. Reagents that prevent Fe and Mn oxidation and precipitation include HCl, H 2 SO 4 , and EDTA, although extremely high concentrations of EDTA are necessary for some water samples high in Fe. Photo-catalyzed Fe(III) reduction causes As(III) oxidation; however, storing the sample in the dark prevents photochemical reactions. Furthermore, the presence of Fe(II) or SO 4 inhibits the oxidation of As(III) by Fe(III) because of complexation reactions and competing reactions with free radicals. Consequently, fast abiotic As(III) oxidation reactions observed in the laboratory are not observed in natural water samples for one or more of the following reasons: (1) the As redox species have already stabilized, (2) most natural waters contain very low dissolved Fe(III) concentrations, (3) the As(III) oxidation caused by Fe(III) photoreduction is inhibited by Fe(II) or SO 4

  16. Water pollution control technology and strategy for river-lake systems: a case study in Gehu Lake and Taige Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yimin; Zhang, Yongchun; Gao, Yuexiang; Zhang, Houhu; Cao, Jianying; Cai, Jinbang; Kong, Xiangji

    2011-07-01

    The Taoge water system is located in the upstream of Taihu Lake basin and is characterized by its multi-connected rivers and lakes. In this paper, current analyses of hydrology, hydrodynamics and water pollution of Gehu Lake and Taige Canal are presented. Several technologies are proposed for pollution prevention and control, and water environmental protection in the Taihu Lake basin. These included water pollution control integration technology for the water systems of Gehu Lake, Taige Canal and Caoqiao River. Additionally, river-lake water quality and quantity regulation technology, ecological restoration technology for polluted and degraded water bodies, and water environmental integration management and optimization strategies were also examined. The main objectives of these strategies are to: (a) improve environmental quality of relative water bodies, prevent pollutants from entering Gehu Lake and Taige Canal, and ensure that the clean water after the pre-treatment through Gehu Lake is not polluted before entering the Taihu Lake through Taige Canal; (b) stably and efficiently intercept and decrease the pollution load entering the lake through enhancing the river outlet ecological system structure function and water self-purifying capacity, and (c) designate Gehu Lake as a regulation system for water quality and water quantity in the Taoge water system and thus guarantee the improvement of the water quality of the inflow into Taihu Lake.

  17. Marine pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albaiges, J.

    1989-01-01

    This book covers the following topics: Transport of marine pollutants; Transformation of pollutants in the marine environment; Biological effects of marine pollutants; Sources and transport of oil pollutants in the Persian Gulf; Trace metals and hydrocarbons in Syrian coastal waters; and Techniques for analysis of trace pollutants

  18. Flotation-Separation of the Pollutant Species of Chromium, Cadmium and Lead from aqueous Solutions and Natural Waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghazy, S.E.; Kabil, M.A.; Shallaby, A.M.; Ammar, N.S.

    1999-01-01

    This work aims to present simple, rapid and accurate procedures to recover the pollutant species of chromium, cadmium and lead from different types of water using the flotation technique. To achieve this goal, precipitate flotation was the method of choice for this investigation using oleic acid (HOL) as a surfactant. Cr(III) as its hydroxide and Cr(VI) as Ag 2 CrO 4 or Ag 2 Cr 2 O 7 are removed in 6.5±0.2 and 6-75 ph range, respectively. 2,4,6-Tri(2-pyridyl)-1,3,5-triazine (TPTA), in the presence of KI, is a good collector for quantitative separation of trace amounts of Cd(II) in the ph range 6-7.5. Chloranilic acid (CAA) is found to be the most effective complexing agent for the flotation of trace amounts of Pb(II) over the ph range 4-7. The effects of surfactant and analyte concentrations, foreign ions and temperature have been examined. The application of this procedure to recover these analytes added to natural samples has been investigated. Also, a procedure for sective separation of Cr(III) from Cr(VI) either in aqueous solutions or in saline water is proposed. Moreover, a mechanism of flotation is suggested

  19. [Grain Size Distribution Characteristics of Suspended Particulate Matter as Influenced by the Apparent Pollution in the Eutrophic Urban Landscape Water Body].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Dan-yan; Pan, Yang; Huang, Yong; Bao, Wei; Li, Qian-qian

    2016-03-15

    Grain size distribution characteristics of suspended particulate matter (SPM) reflects the apparent polluted condition of the urban landscape water. In order to explore the internal relationship between the eutrophication of urban landscape water's apparent pollution and grain size distribution of SPM, and its influencing factors, this paper selected five representative sampling sites in Feng Jin River which is a typical eutrophication river in Suzhou City, measured the grain size distribution of SPM, sensation pollution index (SPI) and water quality index, and analyzed their correlation. The results showed that: The rich nutrient water possessed a similar characteristics in grain size distribution. The grain size distribution of SPM in water was multimodal, and the the peak position was roughly the same; the grain size distribution of SPM was composed by multiple components. It could be roughly divided into six parts with the particle size range of every group being 516 µm. The component III was superior (with an average volume fraction of 38.3%-43.2%), and its volume fraction had a significant positive relation with the SPI value and the Chl-a content. The increase of component III volume fraction was the reflection of particle size's result of increasing SPI value. The increase of component III volume fraction was mainly derived from the increasing algal content. The volume fraction of group IV + group VI + group V was significantly higher under the condition of exogenous enter. When there was no exogenous component, the volume fraction of group IV + group VI + group V had a significant negative correlation with SPI value; when there were exogenous components, the volume fraction of group IV + group VI + group V had a weak positive correlation with SPI value, but the correlation did not reach a significant level. Environmental factors (Fv/Fm and DO) and exogenous factors had an influence by functioning on the algal content which signified the polluted material

  20. A Review of Removal of Pollutants from Water/Wastewater Using Different Types of Nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. Amin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapidly increasing population, depleting water resources, and climate change resulting in prolonged droughts and floods have rendered drinking water a competitive resource in many parts of the world. The development of cost-effective and stable materials and methods for providing the fresh water in adequate amounts is the need of the water industry. Traditional water/wastewater treatment technologies remain ineffective for providing adequate safe water due to increasing demand of water coupled with stringent health guidelines and emerging contaminants. Nanotechnology-based multifunctional and highly efficient processes are providing affordable solutions to water/wastewater treatments that do not rely on large infrastructures or centralized systems. The aim of the present study is to review the possible applications of the nanoparticles/fibers for the removal of pollutants from water/wastewater. The paper will briefly overview the availability and practice of different nanomaterials (particles or fibers for removal of viruses, inorganic solutes, heavy metals, metal ions, complex organic compounds, natural organic matter, nitrate, and other pollutants present in surface water, ground water, and/or industrial water. Finally, recommendations are made based on the current practices of nanotechnology applications in water industry for a stand-alone water purification unit for removing all types of contaminants from wastewater.

  1. 75 FR 7627 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-22

    .... (``Defendants'') under the pre-treatment requirements of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (Clean Water... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Notice is hereby given that on February 16, 2010, a proposed Consent Decree was filed...

  2. 23 CFR 633.211 - Implementation of the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Water Pollution Control Act. 633.211 Section 633.211 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...) implementing requirements with respect to the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act are... Contracts (Appalachian Contracts) § 633.211 Implementation of the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water...

  3. Mining and Metal Pollution: Assessment of Water Quality in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The quality of water in mining communities is uncertain since metals associated with acid mine drainage are known to saturate these waters. Previous studies in Tarkwa, an area noted for gold and manganese extraction, have reported large concentrations of aluminium, arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, manganese and ...

  4. USE OF SYNTHETIC ZEOLITES FOR ARSENATE REMOVAL FROM POLLUTANT WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenic is known to be a hazardous contaminant in drinking water that causes arsenical dermatitis and skin cancer. In the present work, the potential use of a variety of synthetic zeolites for removal of arsenic from water below the current and proposed EPA MCL has been examined...

  5. Macro-invertebrate decline in surface water polluted with imidacloprid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, T.; van Staalduinen, M.A.; van der Sluijs, J.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073427489

    Imidacloprid is one of the most widely used insecticides in the world. Its concentration in surface water exceeds the water quality norms in many parts of the Netherlands. Several studies have demonstrated harmful effects of this neonicotinoid to a wide range of non-target species. Therefore we

  6. Energy dispersion X-ray fluorescence techniques in water pollution analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holynska, B.

    1980-01-01

    Advantages and limitations of energy dispersion X-ray fluorescence methods for analysis of pollutants in water are discussed. The necessary equipment for X-ray measurement of insoluble and dissolved trace metals in water is described. Different techniques of enrichment of trace metals are presented: ion exchange on selective Chelex-100 exchanger, precipitation with chelating agents DDTC and APDC, and adsorption on activated carbon. Some results obtained using different preconcentration methods for trace metals determination in different waters are presented. (author)

  7. Silica coated magnetite nanoparticles for removal of heavy metal ions from polluted waters

    CERN Document Server

    Dash, Monika

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic removal of Hg2+ and other heavy metal ions like Cd2+, Pb2+ etc. using silica coated magnetite particles from polluted waters is a current topic of active research to provide efficient water recycling and long term high quality water. The technique used to study the bonding characteristics of such kind of nanoparticles with the heavy metal ions is a very sensitive hyperfine specroscopy technique called the perturbed angular correlation technique (PAC).

  8. Environmental Lead Pollution in an Urban Soft-water Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beattie, A. D.; Moore, M. R.; Devenay, W. T.; Miller, A. R.; Goldberg, A.

    1972-01-01

    An investigation has been reported on the clinical and metabolic effects of lead acquired by soft domestic water from lead plumbing systems in 23 Glasgow households. The lead content of water from cold taps was up to 18 times the upper acceptable limit and was proportional to the amount of lead in the plumbing system. The blood lead of 71 inhabitants of these houses showed a significant positive correlation with water lead content. Delta-aminolaevulic acid dehydrase activity, an extremely sensitive indicator of lead exposure, showed a significant negative correlation with water-lead content. Atmospheric lead was within acceptable limits in all but one house and no significant correlation could be found with biochemical measurements. A small number of clinical abnormalities were found but could not be directly attributed to lead toxicity. The results of the study underline the possible danger to health of lead plumbing systems in soft-water regions. PMID:5031207

  9. Research project on the thermal pollution of waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinlein; Becker

    1977-01-01

    The results of essentially completed and current research and development projects - as far as available in a short time - are explained in the present study, compared and their practicle applicability indicated. The number of publications in the literature index is split up into the single specialist fields as follows: 13% hydrodynamics (propagation caculations, models, measurements); 45% biology-chemistry (effects on micro and macro fauna of waters, on water contents, mathematical models of oxygen balance and biocenosis); 31% hydrometeorology including problems on the thermal economy of the waters as well as special thermal load calculations; 5% heat introduction into ground water; 6% others e.g. use of remote sensing for temperature measurement. The current research projects in the FRG are split up into the following single specialist fields: 16% hydromechanics; 42% biology-chemistry; 24% hydrometeorology including thermal economy; 10% use of ground water; 8% others (almost exclusively problems in connection with the use of remote sensing methods). (orig.) [de

  10. Criminal sanctions applicable to Federal water pollution control measures. Master's thesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, J.C.

    1991-09-30

    Overkill or not enough: Two decades ago, Congress realized that a system of civil remedies alone, devoid of any lasting punitive consequences, was inadequate to insure compliance with environmental protection statutes. Other than the Rivers and Harbors Act of 1899, which was designed to protect navigation, Federal criminal sanctions were not applicable to water pollution offenses. The Federal Water Pollution Control Act, more commonly known as the Clean Water Act (CWA), was twenty-four years old before Federal criminal enforcement of its provisions was allowed. But since the early 1970's, the criminal provisions of the CWA have been strengthened, the United States Department of Justice has beefed up its environmental enforcement efforts, and environmental polluters have been prosecuted. This Federal effort is now approaching overkill.

  11. Aerospace methods for the study of water resources and their pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupriianov, V V; Usachev, V F [eds.

    1981-01-01

    Papers are presented on such topics as the use of satellite remote sensing data to study meltage runoff in mountain basins, the investigation of the dynamics of snow cover, the use of satellite multispectral photography to study snow meltage fronts, and the evaluation of the pollution of snow cover in industrial regions on the basis of remote sensing data. Also considered are the determination of the albedo and brightness coefficients of snow cover, the use of remote sensing to study subsurface water and tectonic structures, the investigation of the thermal pollution of rivers on the basis of infrared aerial photography, remote sensing methods for monitoring water quality, and microwave sensing methods for the investigation of water resources and their pollution.

  12. Variation of the solvation number of Eu(III) in mixed system of methanol and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suganuma, H.; Arisaka, M.; Omori, T.; Satoh, I.; Choppin, G.R.

    1999-01-01

    The stability constants (β 1 ) of the monofluoride complex of Eu(III) have been determined in mixed solvents of methanol and water at a 0.10 M ionic strength using a solvent extraction technique. The values of ln β 1 increase as the mole fraction of methanol in the mixed solvent system increases. The variation in the stability constants can be correlated with both the large effect due to the solvation of F and the small effect due to both (1) the solvation of cations in connection with complexation and (2) the electrostatic attraction between Eu 3+ and F - . Based on the variation in the sum of (1) and (2) in water and the mixed solvent solutions, it was determined that the coordination number (CN) of Eu(III) varied from a mixture of CN = 9 and 8 to CN = 8 at about a 0.03 mole fraction of methanol in the mixed solvent. (orig.)

  13. Study of polluted water mixing on sediment of Lahore canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asim, M.

    2016-01-01

    People living in societies along the canals which pass through the urban areas, are adding domestic and industrial waste water and wastes into them like Lahore canal. This untreated industrial and municipal waste and contaminated water may become a risk to irrigation water quality and sediment moving in it in the form of suspended load. The results disclose that as suspended sediment concentration increases the pH value drops. Consequently it can be established from results that they are inversely related to each other but this behaviour is generally due to effect of rain water runoff. The suspended sediment content was at its highest during monsoon season. Similarly pH values varied considerably from limit of 6.5-8.4. Other water quality chemical parameters did not stray from their recommended limits. The dumping of waste water from pipes did not have any major effect on the water quality of the canal due to its less percentage to the total canal discharge. (author)

  14. Microplastic pollution in the surface waters of Italian Subalpine Lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sighicelli, Maria; Pietrelli, Loris; Lecce, Francesca; Iannilli, Valentina; Falconieri, Mauro; Coscia, Lucia; Di Vito, Stefania; Nuglio, Simone; Zampetti, Giorgio

    2018-05-01

    Plastic debris incidence in marine environment was already highlighted in the early 1970s. Over the last decade, microplastic pollution in the environment has received increasing attention and is now an emerging research area. Many studies have focused on quantifying microplastic abundance in the marine environment, while there are relatively few data on microplastic occurrence in freshwater environment. Recent studies have reported high concentrations of microplastics in lakes and rivers, although the understanding of several factors influencing source, transport and fate is still limited. This study compares different lakes and the common factors, which could influence the occurrence and distribution of microplastics. The three subalpine lakes monitored include Lake Maggiore, Iseo and Garda. The selected sampling transects reflect the hydrologic conditions, the morphometric characteristics of these lakes, and other factors influencing the release of plastics debris in lakes. Particles of microplastics (plastic particles. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. INTRODUCTION Heavy metal pollution of water has become a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and today most water resources are still being contaminated with ... remain in the ecosystem and eventually move from one compartment ..... Technical Document Guidelines on metals and alloys used .... Methods for measuring the toxicity and.

  16. Laser Remote Sensing of Pollution on Water Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunkin, A. F.; Surovegin, Aleksander L.

    1992-01-01

    One of the most important problems of modern environmental science is the detection and identification of various impurities in the ocean. Sources of impurities in sea water are diverse. The most common of them are accidental transport, agricultural, and oil industry spills. Once the ecological balance is disturbed, biological processes in sea water become affected, resulting in changes in chlorophyll concentrations, water turbidity, and temperature. During the last few years, we have created new types of lidars and arranged nearly ten aircraft and shipboard expeditions. Some aircraft expeditions dealt with terrestrial investigations. Others were devoted to oceanological research, the results of which are discussed here. Emphasis is on the detection of phytoplankton chlorophyll and hydrocarbon in sea water.

  17. Abundance of pollution indicator and pathogenic bacteria in Mumbai waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaiah, N.; Kolhe, V.; Sadhasivan, A

    As a part of environmental assessment in the Mumbai Harbour region, where large numbers of ships either take in ballast from- or discharge their ballast, many groups of indicator and human pathogenic bacteria were quantified. Samples (water...

  18. Rapid assessment of water pollution by airborne measurement of chlorophyll content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvesen, J. C.; Weaver, E. C.; Millard, J. P.

    1971-01-01

    Present techniques of airborne chlorophyll measurement are discussed as an approach to water pollution assessment. The differential radiometer, the chlorophyll correlation radiometer, and an infrared radiometer for water temperature measurements are described as the key components of the equipment. Also covered are flight missions carried out to evaluate the capability of the chlorophyll correlation radiometer in measuring the chlorophyll content in water bodies with widely different levels of nutrients, such as fresh-water lakes of high and low eutrophic levels, marine waters of high and low productivity, and an estuary with a high sediment content. The feasibility and usefulness of these techniques are indicated.

  19. Practical Application of Aptamer-Based Biosensors in Detection of Low Molecular Weight Pollutants in Water Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Water pollution has become one of the leading causes of human health problems. Low molecular weight pollutants, even at trace concentrations in water sources, have aroused global attention due to their toxicity after long-time exposure. There is an increased demand for appropriate methods to detect these pollutants in aquatic systems. Aptamers, single-stranded DNA or RNA, have high affinity and specificity to each of their target molecule, similar to antigen-antibody interaction. Aptamers can be selected using a method called Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential enrichment (SELEX. Recent years we have witnessed great progress in developing aptamer selection and aptamer-based sensors for low molecular weight pollutants in water sources, such as tap water, seawater, lake water, river water, as well as wastewater and its effluents. This review provides an overview of aptamer-based methods as a novel approach for detecting low molecular weight pollutants in water sources.

  20. Hydrophilic and amphiphilic water pollutants: using advanced analytical methods for classic and emerging contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giger, Walter [GRC, Giger Research Consulting, Zurich (Switzerland); Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Duebendorf (Switzerland)

    2009-01-15

    Organic pollutants are a highly relevant topic in environmental science and technology. This article briefly reviews historic developments, and then focuses on the current state of the art and future perspectives on the qualitative and quantitative trace determination of polar organic contaminants, which are of particular concern in municipal and industrial wastewater effluents, ambient surface waters, run-off waters, atmospheric waters, groundwaters and drinking waters. The pivotal role of advanced analytical methods is emphasized and an overview of some contaminant classes is presented. Some examples of polar water pollutants, which are discussed in a bit more detail here, are chosen from projects tackled by the research group led by the author of this article. (orig.)

  1. Mine water pollution studies in Chapha Incline, Umaria Coalfield, Eastern Madhya Pradesh, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pathak, V.; Banerjee, A.K. [Hari Singh Gour University, Sagar (India). Dept. of Chemistry

    1992-06-01

    Mining effects physical and chemical changes in the mine environment resulting in water pollution. Based on the geological distribution the coal mines in the state of Madhya Pradesh, the Coalfield can be categorised into three basins Northern, Southern and Satpura. The Northern belt lies along the Sone Valley whilst the Southern one lies within Mahanadi Valley and the Satpura basin lies south of the alluvial tract. Mine water pollution study reported in this paper is concerned with Chapha Incline, Umaria Coalfield in Eastern Madhya Pradesh. The water analysis was carried out on representative samples obtained from the site on pre-Monsoon and post-monsoon seasons, and reference samples were obtained from the area in the vicinity of the site of investigation. The samples were analysed in the laboratory for determining water quality parameters including trace element detection and microbial analyses. The chemical analysis results of mine water are presented in the form of Durov diagrams. 10 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. [Analysis of fluorescence spectrum of petroleum-polluted water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Miao-Fen; Song, Qing-Jun; Xing, Xu-Feng; Jian, Wei-Jun; Liu, Yuan; Zhao, Zu-Long

    2014-09-01

    In four ratio experiments, natural waters, sampled from the mountain reservoir and the sea water around Dalian city, were mixed with the sewage from petroleum refinery and petroleum exploitation plants. The fluorescence spectra of water samples containing only chromophoric dissolved organic matters(CDOM), samples containing only petroleum, and samples containing a mixture of petroleum and CDOM were analyzed, respectively. The purpose of this analysis is to provide a basis for determining the contribution of petroleum substances and CDOM to the total absorption coefficient of the petroleum-contaminated water by using fluorescence technique. The results showed that firstly, CDOM in seawater had three main fluorescence peaks at Ex: 225-230 nm/Em: 320-330 nm, Ex: 280 nm/Em: 340 nm and Ex: 225-240 nm/Em: 430-470 nm, respectively, and these may arise from the oceanic chlorophyll. CDOM in natural reservoir water had two main fluorescence peaks at EX: 240- 260 nm/Em: 420-450 nm and Ex: 310~350 nm/Em: 420--440 nm, respectively, and these may arise from the terrestrial sources; secondly, the water samples containing only petroleum extracted with n-hexane had one to three fluorescence spectral peaksat Ex: 220-240 nm/Em: 320-340 nm, Ex: 270-290 nm/Em: 310-340 nm and Ex: 220-235 nm/Em: 280-310 nm, respectively, caused by their hydrocarbon component; finally, the water samples containing both petroleum and CDOM showed a very strong fluorescence peak at Ex: 230-250 nm/Em: 320-370 nm, caused by the combined effect of CDOM and petroleum hydrocarbons.

  3. Astyanax fasciatus as bioindicator of water pollution of Rio dos Sinos, RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. H. SCHULZ

    Full Text Available The effects of an increasing downriver pollution gradient on the reproductive system of Astyanax fasciatus were investigated in the Rio dos Sinos, RS. The comparison of mean oocyte diameters, gonadal indices and gonado-somatic relationships of specimens captured in polluted areas with individuals from unpolluted reference sites revealed a significant decrease of these parameters with increasing water pollution. High loads of organic and industrial sewage are considered responsible for these effects. Condition factors showed an inverse relationship, and increased significantly in downriver polluted areas. The declining gonadal indices showed that energy was allocated to somatic growth. The results of the study recommend the use of A. fasciatus in biomonitoring essays.

  4. Astyanax fasciatus as bioindicator of water pollution of Rio dos Sinos, RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SCHULZ U. H.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of an increasing downriver pollution gradient on the reproductive system of Astyanax fasciatus were investigated in the Rio dos Sinos, RS. The comparison of mean oocyte diameters, gonadal indices and gonado-somatic relationships of specimens captured in polluted areas with individuals from unpolluted reference sites revealed a significant decrease of these parameters with increasing water pollution. High loads of organic and industrial sewage are considered responsible for these effects. Condition factors showed an inverse relationship, and increased significantly in downriver polluted areas. The declining gonadal indices showed that energy was allocated to somatic growth. The results of the study recommend the use of A. fasciatus in biomonitoring essays.

  5. Economic Estimation of the Losses Caused by Surface Water Pollution Accidents in China From the Perspective of Water Bodies' Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hong; You, Zhen; Liu, Bo

    2016-01-22

    The number of surface water pollution accidents (abbreviated as SWPAs) has increased substantially in China in recent years. Estimation of economic losses due to SWPAs has been one of the focuses in China and is mentioned many times in the Environmental Protection Law of China promulgated in 2014. From the perspective of water bodies' functions, pollution accident damages can be divided into eight types: damage to human health, water supply suspension, fishery, recreational functions, biological diversity, environmental property loss, the accident's origin and other indirect losses. In the valuation of damage to people's life, the procedure for compensation of traffic accidents in China was used. The functional replacement cost method was used in economic estimation of the losses due to water supply suspension and loss of water's recreational functions. Damage to biological diversity was estimated by recovery cost analysis and damage to environmental property losses were calculated using pollutant removal costs. As a case study, using the proposed calculation procedure the economic losses caused by the major Songhuajiang River pollution accident that happened in China in 2005 have been estimated at 2263 billion CNY. The estimated economic losses for real accidents can sometimes be influenced by social and political factors, such as data authenticity and accuracy. Besides, one or more aspects in the method might be overestimated, underrated or even ignored. The proposed procedure may be used by decision makers for the economic estimation of losses in SWPAs. Estimates of the economic losses of pollution accidents could help quantify potential costs associated with increased risk sources along lakes/rivers but more importantly, highlight the value of clean water to society as a whole.

  6. Geochemical modelling and speciation studies of metal pollutants present in selected water systems in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magu, M. M.; Govender, P. P.; Ngila, J. C.

    2016-04-01

    Metal pollutants in water poses great threats to living beings and hence requires to be monitored regularly to avoid loss of lives. Various analytical methods are available to monitor these pollutants in water and can be improved with time. Modelling of metal pollutants in any water system helps chemists, engineers and environmentalists to greatly understand the various chemical processes in such systems. Water samples were collected from waste water treatment plant and river from highlands close to its source all the way to the ocean as it passing through areas with high anthropogenic activities. Pre-concentration of pollutants in the samples was done through acid digestion and metal pollutants were analysed using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectra (ICP-OES) to determine the concentration levels. Metal concentrations ranged between 0.1356-0.4658 mg/L for Al; 0.0031-0.0050 mg/L for Co, 0.0019-0.0956 mg/L for Cr; 0.0028-0.3484 mg/L for Cu; 0.0489-0.3474 mg/L for Fe; 0.0033-0.0285 mg/L for Mn; 0.0056-0.0222 mg/L for Ni; 0.0265-0.4753 mg/L for Pb and 0.0052-0.5594 mg/L for Zn. Modelling work was performed using PHREEQC couple with Geochemist's workbench (GWB) to determine speciation dynamics and bioavailability of these pollutants. Modelling thus adds value to analytical methods and hence a better complementary tool to laboratory-based experimental studies.

  7. New techniques for analysis of organic pollutants in drinking water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kissinger, L.D.

    1979-01-01

    An abstractor packing prepared by coating Chromosorb G AW/DMCS with copper(II) chloride was effective for removal of amines from gas-chromatographic streams, but it did not affect the chromatographic behavior of nonamine compounds. By using pre-columns packed with the abstractor packing, solventless chromatograms were obtained for samples in pyridine. A method was developed for determining haloforms in drinking water by sorption of the haloforms on columns packed with acetylated XAD-2. A pre-column of the abstractor packing was used to remove the pyridine solvent from the samples containing the haloforms concentrated from waters. Detection limits for the four chloro-, bromo- haloforms in a 100-ml water sample using an electron capture detector were below 1 ppB. Addition of ascorbic acid to chlorinated waters was effective for stopping the production of haloforms. Design of the inlet allowed samples to be introduced to the capillary column in a Tracor model 550 gas chromatograph with or without splitting of the carrier-gas stream. An exit splitter was implemented that carried the effluent from the capillary column to two detectors. The capillary-column system was applied to the analysis of trace components in complex mixtures. Small columns packed with Florisil were used to fractionate mixtures of organic compounds by gravity-flow liquid chromatography. Three fractions of organic compounds were collected from the Florisil columns. The recovery and elution behavior of many organic compounds was investigated. Organic compounds from fifteen waters were fractionated on Florisil.

  8. Occurrence, composition and ecological restoration of organic pollutants in water environment of South Canal, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y. Z.; Lin, C.; Zhou, X. S.; Zhang, Y.; Han, C. G.

    2017-08-01

    Ecological restoration of polluted river water was carried out in South Canal by adding microbial water purifying agents and biological compound enzymes. The objective of present study was to investigate the ecological restoration effect of organic pollutants by this efficient immobilized microbial technologies, analysis the occurrence and composition of organic pollutants including fifteen persistent organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), seventeen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and eighteen organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) both in natural water environment and ecological restoration area of South Canal, China. Results showed that the total concentrations of OCPs ranged from 1.11 to 1.78 ng·L-1, PAHs from 52.76 to 60.28 ng·L-1, and OPPs from 6.51 to 17.50 ng·L-1. Microbial water purifying agents and biological compound enzymes essentially had no effects on biological degradation of OCPs and PAHs in the river, but could remove OPPs with degradation rates ranging from 19.6% to 62.8% (35.2% in average). Degradation mechanisms of microbial water purifying agents and biological compound enzymes on OCPs, PAHs and OPPs remained to be further studied. This technology has a certain value in practical ecological restoration of organic pollutants in rivers and lakes.

  9. A method for screening for the risk of chronic effects of surface water pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldán, Přemysl; Badurová, Jana

    2013-01-01

    The article describes a method for screening for the risk of chronic surface water pollution which was developed at the T. G. Masaryk Water Research Institute. The approach, which is based on exotoxicological analyses, can be classed as a rapid method of assessment. The degree of risk of chronic effects surface water pollution is determined from an evaluation of two major parameters-toxicity and genotoxicity. As the method utilizes relative simple procedures for sample collection, pretreatment of the sample, chemical analyses, bioassays and results assessment, this approach is suitable for widespread practical use. Extensive utilization of this approach for assessing river basins in the Czech Republic has proved its suitability for a more sophisticated detection of the biological impact of surface water pollution. This is documented in the article where the method is used in a study of the Bílina River, and in the overview of the results of the risk assessment of chronic effects of surface water pollution in selected sections of three international river basins in the Czech Republic.

  10. The Impact of Vegetative Slope on Water Flow and Pollutant Transport through Embankments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liting Sheng

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Embankments are common structures along rivers or lakes in riparian zones in plain areas. They should have natural slopes instead of slopes covered by concrete or other hard materials, in order to rebuild sustainable ecosystems for riparian zones. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of vegetative slopes on water flow and pollutant transport through the embankments. Three embankments with different slope treatments (a bare slope, a slope covered in centipede grass, a slope covered in tall fescue were examined, and three inflow applications of pollute water with different concentration of total nitrogen (TN and total phosphorus (TP used to simulate different agricultural non-point pollution levels. The results showed that the water flux rates of the three embankments were relatively stable under all inflow events, and almost all values were higher than 80%. The embankments with vegetative slopes had better nitrogen removal than the bare slope under all events, and the one with tall fescue slope was best, but the benefits of vegetative slopes decreased with increasing inflow concentration. Moreover, there were no significant differences between the embankments on phosphorus removal, for which the reductions were all high (above 90% with most loads remaining in the front third of embankment bodies. Overall, the embankments with vegetative slopes had positive effects on water exchange and reducing non-point pollutant into lake or river water, which provides a quantitative scientific basis for the actual layout of lakeshores.

  11. Water, heat, and airborne pollutants effects on transpiration of urban trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hua; Ouyang Zhiyun; Chen Weiping; Wang Xiaoke; Zheng Hua; Ren Yufen

    2011-01-01

    Transpiration rates of six urban tree species in Beijing evaluated by thermal dissipation method for one year were correlated to environmental variables in heat, water, and pollutant groups. To sort out colinearity of the explanatory variables, their individual and joint contributions to variance of tree transpiration were determined by the variation and hierarchical partitioning methods. Majority of the variance in transpiration rates was associated with joint effects of variables in heat and water groups and variance due to individual effects of explanatory group were in comparison small. Atmospheric pollutants exerted only minor effects on tree transpiration. Daily transpiration rate was most affected by air temperature, soil temperature, total radiation, vapor pressure deficit, and ozone. Relative humidity would replace soil temperature when factors influencing hourly transpiration rate was considered. - Highlights: → Heat, water, pollutants effect on transpiration was evaluated by partitioning method. → Urban tree transpiration was mainly affected by combined effects of these variables. → The heat and water variables affected transpiration of urban trees. → The urban air pollution merely acts as an antagonistic factor. - Heat and water related environmental variables affected transpiration of urban trees and ozone was an added yet minor stress factor.

  12. Effects of chronic pollution and water flow intermittency on stream biofilms biodegradation capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rožman, Marko; Acuña, Vicenç; Petrović, Mira

    2018-02-01

    A mesocosm case study was conducted to gain understanding and practical knowledge on biofilm emerging contaminants biodegradation capacity under stressor and multiple stressor conditions. Two real life scenarios: I) biodegradation in a pristine intermittent stream experiencing acute pollution and II) biodegradation in a chronically polluted intermittent stream, were examined via a multifactorial experiment using an artificial stream facility. Stream biofilms were exposed to different water flow conditions i.e. permanent and intermittent water flow. Venlafaxine, a readily biodegradable pharmaceutical was used as a measure of biodegradation capacity while pollution was simulated by a mixture of four emerging contaminants (erythromycin, sulfisoxazole, diclofenac and imidacloprid in addition to venlafaxine) in environmentally relevant concentrations. Biodegradation kinetics monitored via LC-MS/MS was established, statistically evaluated, and used to link biodegradation with stress events. The results suggest that the effects of intermittent flow do not hinder and may even stimulate pristine biofilm biodegradation capacity. Chronic pollution completely reduced biodegradation in permanent water flow experimental treatments while no change in intermittent streams was observed. A combined effect of water flow conditions and emerging contaminants exposure on biodegradation was found. The decrease in biodegradation due to exposure to emerging contaminants is significantly greater in streams with permanent water flow suggesting that the short and medium term biodegradation capacity in intermittent systems may be preserved or even greater than in perennial streams. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Exchanges across land-water-scape boundaries in urban systems: strategies for reducing nitrate pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadenasso, M L; Pickett, S T A; Groffman, P M; Band, L E; Brush, G S; Galvin, M F; Grove, J M; Hagar, G; Marshall, V; McGrath, B P; O'Neil-Dunne, J P M; Stack, W P; Troy, A R

    2008-01-01

    Conservation in urban areas typically focuses on biodiversity and large green spaces. However, opportunities exist throughout urban areas to enhance ecological functions. An important function of urban landscapes is retaining nitrogen thereby reducing nitrate pollution to streams and coastal waters. Control of nonpoint nitrate pollution in urban areas was originally based on the documented importance of riparian zones in agricultural and forested ecosystems. The watershed and boundary frameworks have been used to guide stream research and a riparian conservation strategy to reduce nitrate pollution in urban streams. But is stream restoration and riparian-zone conservation enough? Data from the Baltimore Ecosystem Study and other urban stream research indicate that urban riparian zones do not necessarily prevent nitrate from entering, nor remove nitrate from, streams. Based on this insight, policy makers in Baltimore extended the conservation strategy throughout larger watersheds, attempting to restore functions that no longer took place in riparian boundaries. Two urban revitalization projects are presented as examples aimed at reducing nitrate pollution to stormwater, streams, and the Chesapeake Bay. An adaptive cycle of ecological urban design synthesizes the insights from the watershed and boundary frameworks, from new data, and from the conservation concerns of agencies and local communities. This urban example of conservation based on ameliorating nitrate water pollution extends the initial watershed-boundary approach along three dimensions: 1) from riparian to urban land-water-scapes; 2) from discrete engineering solutions to ecological design approaches; and 3) from structural solutions to inclusion of individual, household, and institutional behavior.

  14. Validity of the Environmental Kuznets Curve Hypotheses in Water Pollution A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hediyeh Alishiri

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Among the different environmental pollutions, water pollution is of especial importance due to the rather unchanging supply of this vital resource on a global scale and because of the dire consequences of its pollution for human health. The relationship between water production and its pollution can thus established and used as a measure of environmental degradation. This relationship can then be captured and analyzed in terms of environmental Kuznets hypotheses. It may be claimed that the early stages of economic growth is associated with lower per capita income and water pollution but the trend is reversed with increasing per capita income and improved economic growth. The present study was conducted using the panel data technique and the Kuznets environmental hypotheses were examined for the two groups of developed and developing countries under the two scenarios of using either per capita GDP or the share of industry to the added value in GDP as an indicator of economic growth. Results indicate that under both scenarios, Kuznets hypotheses are confirmed when studying the situation in developing countries but refuted in the case of developed countries.

  15. Nitrate removal from polluted water by using a vegetated floating system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartucca, Maria Luce; Mimmo, Tanja; Cesco, Stefano; Del Buono, Daniele

    2016-01-15

    Nitrate (NO3(-)) water pollution is one of the most prevailing and relevant ecological issues. For instance, the wide presence of this pollutant in the environment is dramatically altering the quality of superficial and underground waters. Therefore, we set up a floating bed vegetated with a terrestrial herbaceous species (Italian ryegrass) with the aim to remediate hydroponic solutions polluted with NO3(-). The floating bed allowed the plants to grow and achieve an adequate development. Ryegrass was not affected by the treatments. On the contrary, plant biomass production and total nitrogen content (N-K) increased proportionally to the amount of NO3(-) applied. Regarding to the water cleaning experiments, the vegetated floating beds permitted to remove almost completely all the NO3(-) added from the hydroponic solutions with an initial concentration of 50, 100 and 150 mg L(-1). Furthermore, the calculation of the bioconcentration factor (BCF) indicated this species as successfully applicable for the remediation of solutions polluted by NO3(-). In conclusion, the results highlight that the combination of ryegrass and the floating bed system resulted to be effective in the remediation of aqueous solutions polluted by NO3(-). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of gamma irradiation on some organic pollutants in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dessouki, A.M.; Abdel-Aal, S.

    1998-01-01

    In the present study, a try was made to explain the degradation kinetics due to irradiation of aqueous solutions of some commercial dyes, in the absence of other specific pollutants of the textile and dyeing industry. These dyes are: two acid dyes, namely Nylomine Blue AG (Acid Blue 25) and Erionyl Red 2B (Acid Red 116). A combined treatment of gamma irradiation and conventional methods was applied to some waste solutions in manageable volumes. Factors affecting the radiolysis of the dye such as dye concentration, irradiation dose, dose rate and pH of the solutions were studied. The effect of different additives such as nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen peroxide and sodium hypochlorite on the degradation process were investigated. The effect of irradiation dose on the different dye solutions at various concentrations, showed that the acid dye (Acid Red 116) was very sensitive to gamma radiation. Using a low dose rate (0.3 Gy/Sec.) resulted in more degradation of the dyes than using higher dose rates (0.61 and 1.22 Gy/Sec.). The effect of the pH of the dye solutions proved to vary according to the type of the dye. Synergistic treatment of the dye solutions by irradiation and conventional methods showed that the saturation of the dye solutions with nitrogen did not enhance the radiation degradation of these dyes. On the contrary, addition of oxygen resulted in a remarkable enhancement of the radiation degradation of the dye solutions. Also, the addition of sodium hypochlorite (5% by weight) and the oxidation by hydrogen peroxide of concentration between 2 mM and 10 mM resulted in more radiation degradation. The radiochemical yield of the degradation process. The effect of the additives on the degradation process was in the following sequence according to more degradation of the dye molecules (NaOCl>H 2 O 2 >O 2 >Air>N 2 ). Adsorption purification of the dyes onto GAC and Strong Cation Exchanger Merck I showed the best adsorption was at pH=3 followed by the neutral medium

  17. Unexpected attraction of polarotactic water-leaving insects to matt black car surfaces: mattness of paintwork cannot eliminate the polarized light pollution of black cars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miklos Blaho

    Full Text Available The horizontally polarizing surface parts of shiny black cars (the reflection-polarization characteristics of which are similar to those of water surfaces attract water-leaving polarotactic insects. Thus, shiny black cars are typical sources of polarized light pollution endangering water-leaving insects. A new fashion fad is to make car-bodies matt black or grey. Since rough (matt surfaces depolarize the reflected light, one of the ways of reducing polarized light pollution is to make matt the concerned surface. Consequently, matt black/grey cars may not induce polarized light pollution, which would be an advantageous feature for environmental protection. To test this idea, we performed field experiments with horizontal shiny and matt black car-body surfaces laid on the ground. Using imaging polarimetry, in multiple-choice field experiments we investigated the attractiveness of these test surfaces to various water-leaving polarotactic insects and obtained the following results: (i The attractiveness of black car-bodies to polarotactic insects depends in complex manner on the surface roughness (shiny, matt and species (mayflies, dolichopodids, tabanids. (ii Non-expectedly, the matt dark grey car finish is much more attractive to mayflies (being endangered and protected in many countries than matt black finish. (iii The polarized light pollution of shiny black cars usually cannot be reduced with the use of matt painting. On the basis of these, our two novel findings are that (a matt car-paints are highly polarization reflecting, and (b these matt paints are not suitable to repel polarotactic insects. Hence, the recent technology used to make matt the car-bodies cannot eliminate or even can enhance the attractiveness of black/grey cars to water-leaving insects. Thus, changing shiny black car painting to matt one is a disadvantageous fashion fad concerning the reduction of polarized light pollution of black vehicles.

  18. Unexpected attraction of polarotactic water-leaving insects to matt black car surfaces: mattness of paintwork cannot eliminate the polarized light pollution of black cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaho, Miklos; Herczeg, Tamas; Kriska, Gyorgy; Egri, Adam; Szaz, Denes; Farkas, Alexandra; Tarjanyi, Nikolett; Czinke, Laszlo; Barta, Andras; Horvath, Gabor

    2014-01-01

    The horizontally polarizing surface parts of shiny black cars (the reflection-polarization characteristics of which are similar to those of water surfaces) attract water-leaving polarotactic insects. Thus, shiny black cars are typical sources of polarized light pollution endangering water-leaving insects. A new fashion fad is to make car-bodies matt black or grey. Since rough (matt) surfaces depolarize the reflected light, one of the ways of reducing polarized light pollution is to make matt the concerned surface. Consequently, matt black/grey cars may not induce polarized light pollution, which would be an advantageous feature for environmental protection. To test this idea, we performed field experiments with horizontal shiny and matt black car-body surfaces laid on the ground. Using imaging polarimetry, in multiple-choice field experiments we investigated the attractiveness of these test surfaces to various water-leaving polarotactic insects and obtained the following results: (i) The attractiveness of black car-bodies to polarotactic insects depends in complex manner on the surface roughness (shiny, matt) and species (mayflies, dolichopodids, tabanids). (ii) Non-expectedly, the matt dark grey car finish is much more attractive to mayflies (being endangered and protected in many countries) than matt black finish. (iii) The polarized light pollution of shiny black cars usually cannot be reduced with the use of matt painting. On the basis of these, our two novel findings are that (a) matt car-paints are highly polarization reflecting, and (b) these matt paints are not suitable to repel polarotactic insects. Hence, the recent technology used to make matt the car-bodies cannot eliminate or even can enhance the attractiveness of black/grey cars to water-leaving insects. Thus, changing shiny black car painting to matt one is a disadvantageous fashion fad concerning the reduction of polarized light pollution of black vehicles.

  19. Effect of gamma irradiation on some organic pollutants in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dessouki, A.M.; Abdel-Aal, S.E.; Ismail, S.A.

    1998-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The degradation kinetics due to irradiation of aqueous solutions of two acid dyes, namely Sandolane Milling N-Bl and Telon Fast Red and a basic dye (Sandocryl Blue B-3G) has been investigated. The factors affecting the radiolysis of the dyes such as dye concentration, irradiation dose, dose rate and pH of the solutions were studied. The effect of irradiation dose on various dye concentrations showed the complete destruction of the dyes at a dose of 4 kGy for low dye concentrations (20-50 mg/l), while at higher concentrations (100 mg/l) a dose of 20 kGy did not achieve the same effect. A combined treatment of the dye solutions by gamma irradiation and conventional methods showed that the saturation of these solutions did not enhance the degradation of the dyes. However, the addition of oxygen, hydrogen peroxide and sodium hypochlorite to the dye solutions coupled with γ-irradiation resulted in a remarkable enhancement in the degradation process and complete degradation of these pollutants was achieved using much lower doses of gamma radiation

  20. Buffering capacity: its relevance in soil and water pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stigliani, W.M. [University of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls (United States)

    1996-02-01

    Buffering capacities in soils are essential for neutralizing or immobilizing inputs of acids and heavy metals. There are four major buffering regimes, each of which operates in a defined pH range. When the rate of pollutant inputs exceeds the rate of natural replenishment of the buffer in a specific regime, the supply of buffer will be exhausted over time, and the soil may switch to a regime at lower pH. As the pH of the soil declines, so does its capacity to immobilize heavy metals. If the soil initially has a moderately high buffering capacity, the time scale before exhaustion is on the order of decades to a century. Over this time there may be no observable environmental effects. When the effects do become obvious, it may be too late to reverse the damage. The importance of buffering capacity as a valued environmental resource must be recognized, and its preservation must be a major component of long-term soil protection policies. (Author). 17 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Inactivation of Laccase by the Attack of As (III) Reaction in Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jinyuan; Lu, Kun; Dong, Shipeng; Huang, Qingguo; Mao, Liang

    2018-03-06

    Laccase is a multicopper oxidase containing four coppers as reaction sites, including one type 1, one type 2, and two type 3. We here provide the first experimental data showing that As (III) can be effectively removed from water and transformed to As (V) through reactions mediated by laccase with the presence of oxygen. To this end, the As (III) removal, As (V) yields, total protein, active laccase, and copper concentrations in the aqueous phase were determined, respectively. Additionally, electron paramagnetic resonance spectra and UV-vis spectra were applied to probe possible structural changes of the laccase during the reaction. The data offer the first evidence that laccase can be inactivated by As (III) attack thus leading to the release of type 2 copper. The released copper has no reactivity with the As (III). These findings provide new ideas into a significant pathway likely to master the environmental transformation of arsenite, and advance the understanding of laccase inactivation mechanisms, thus providing a foundation for optimization of enzyme-based processes and potential development for removal and remediation of arsenite contamination in the environment.

  2. Removal of Lanthanum (III) From Aqueous Solution Using Non-Living Water Hyacinth Roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aly, A.; Amer, H.A.; Shawky, S.; Shawky, S.; Kandil, A.T.

    2013-01-01

    Removal of lanthanum (III) from aqueous solution using dried roots of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) has been investigated. The roots have been characterized by determining the ash percentage, the ph of the slurry, the elemental composition, the thermal gravimetric analysis, the surface area, the pore size, the zeta potential and ph of zero point charge. A surface area of 128 m 2 /g has been found and the micropore structure of the roots has been confirmed. Zeta potential and ph of zero point charge of the roots surfaces showed that they are positively charged within the ph range from 2 to 7.5. Sorption is rapid and depends on ph, weight of roots, concentration of lanthanum (III) and ionic strength. The sorption of lanthanum (III) was confirmed by scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive spectroscopy and the release of Ca +2 , Mg +2 and K +1 after sorption of lanthanum (III) have been indicated an ion exchange mechanism. Fourier transform infrared spectra indicated surface complexation mechanism, and sorption isotherms and kinetics were discussed. The roots were tested for removal of radioactive lanthanum ( 140 La) from simulated radioactive waste. Accepted June 2013.

  3. Organic Pollutants in Shale Gas Flowback and Produced Waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butkovskyi, Andrii; Bruning, Harry; Kools, Stefan A.E.; Rijnaarts, Huub H.M.; Wezel, van Annemarie P.

    2017-01-01

    Organic contaminants in shale gas flowback and produced water (FPW) are traditionally expressed as total organic carbon (TOC) or chemical oxygen demand (COD), though these parameters do not provide information on the toxicity and environmental fate of individual components. This review addresses

  4. Environmental assessment of ground water pollution by heavy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the concentrations of heavy metals in well water and bioaccumulation of the most abundant metals in chicken tissues in some areas in the province of Mecca Almokaramah, Saudi Arabia. Among the heavy metals (Cd, Zn, Cr, Mn, Cu Hg, Pb and Ni) studied, ...

  5. Water quality characteristics and pollution levels of heavy metals in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main aim of this study was to assess the level of water quality of Lake Haiq, Ethiopia with respect to selected physical ... gated using standard analytical procedures. the level of the studied heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn) was determined using the .... no known discharge and hence used as reference site. Sampling ...

  6. Survival of Vibrio cholerae in industrially polluted water, with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    containing industrial effluents. The effect of iron as well as pH on the survival of Vibrio cholerae (non-O1, El Tor and classical strains) in water samples from 12 points, where selected industrial effluents were discharged into rivers, was studied.

  7. Riparian shrub buffers reduce surface water pollutant loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. A. Geyer; C. Barden; K. Mankin; D. Devlin

    2003-01-01

    Surface water resources in Kansas often contain concentrations of pesticides, nutrients, and sediments that are of concern to local citizens. The United States Geological Survey reported in 1999 that 97 percent of streams and 82 percent of lakes in Kansas would not fully support all uses as designated by state statutes (U.S. Geological Survey 1999). Bacteria and...

  8. Soil and water pollution in a banana production region in tropical Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissen, Violette; Ramos, Franzisco Que; de J Bastidas-Bastidas, Pedro; Díaz-González, Gilberto; Bello-Mendoza, Ricardo; Huerta-Lwanga, Esperanza; Ruiz-Suárez, Luz E

    2010-10-01

    The effects of abundant Mancozeb (Mn, Zn-bisdithiocarbamate) applications (2.5 kg ha⁻¹week⁻¹ for 10 years) on soil and surface-, subsurface- and groundwater pollution were monitored in a banana production region of tropical Mexico. In soils, severe manganese accumulation was observed, wheras the main metabolite ethylenethiourea was near the detection limit. Surface and subsurface water was highly polluted with ethylenethiourea, the main metabolite of Mancozeb (22.5 and 4.3 μg L⁻¹, respectively), but not with manganese. In deep ground water, no ethylenethiourea was detected. The level of pollution in the region presents a worrisome risk for aquatic life and for human health.

  9. Spectrophotometric Determination of Nano Amounts of Gallium (III) using 2-(5-Bromo-2-Pyridylazo)-5-Diethyl aminophenol Reagent in Water Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandil, A.T.; Abd El-Atty, N.; El-Naggar, W.S.A.; Hafez, W.S.; Lasheen, T.A.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to develop a simple and sensitive spectrophotometric method for determination of nano amounts of Ga(III) using 2-(5-Bromo-2-Pyridylazo)-5-Diethyl aminophenol (5-Br-PADAP) reagent. The factors affecting the determination procedure including absorption spectra, ph value, surfactant type and dye reagent concentration were studied and optimized. Interferences had also been evaluated. Maximum absorbance was obtained at 573 nm at ph 2.75, after 5 minutes mixing time. The proposed method was valid for Ga(III) concentration determination ranging from 0.005 to 1.25 Μg ml -1 in aqueous solution. However, the detection limit was decreased up to 0.001 Μg ml-1 in the presence of methanol. The ratio between Ga(III) and 5-Br-PADAP was found to be 1:1 with apparent molar absorptivity 1.12 × 10 5 l mol -1 cm -1 and coefficient of variation 0.44%. The elucidation of the complex composition was proved using FTIR technique. The method was applied for the determination of Ga(III) in some polluted water samples from different sources.

  10. Economic Estimation of the Losses Caused by Surface Water Pollution Accidents in China From the Perspective of Water Bodies’ Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Yao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of surface water pollution accidents (abbreviated as SWPAs has increased substantially in China in recent years. Estimation of economic losses due to SWPAs has been one of the focuses in China and is mentioned many times in the Environmental Protection Law of China promulgated in 2014. From the perspective of water bodies’ functions, pollution accident damages can be divided into eight types: damage to human health, water supply suspension, fishery, recreational functions, biological diversity, environmental property loss, the accident’s origin and other indirect losses. In the valuation of damage to people’s life, the procedure for compensation of traffic accidents in China was used. The functional replacement cost method was used in economic estimation of the losses due to water supply suspension and loss of water’s recreational functions. Damage to biological diversity was estimated by recovery cost analysis and damage to environmental property losses were calculated using pollutant removal costs. As a case study, using the proposed calculation procedure the economic losses caused by the major Songhuajiang River pollution accident that happened in China in 2005 have been estimated at 2263 billion CNY. The estimated economic losses for real accidents can sometimes be influenced by social and political factors, such as data authenticity and accuracy. Besides, one or more aspects in the method might be overestimated, underrated or even ignored. The proposed procedure may be used by decision makers for the economic estimation of losses in SWPAs. Estimates of the economic losses of pollution accidents could help quantify potential costs associated with increased risk sources along lakes/rivers but more importantly, highlight the value of clean water to society as a whole.

  11. Economic Estimation of the Losses Caused by Surface Water Pollution Accidents in China From the Perspective of Water Bodies’ Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hong; You, Zhen; Liu, Bo

    2016-01-01

    The number of surface water pollution accidents (abbreviated as SWPAs) has increased substantially in China in recent years. Estimation of economic losses due to SWPAs has been one of the focuses in China and is mentioned many times in the Environmental Protection Law of China promulgated in 2014. From the perspective of water bodies’ functions, pollution accident damages can be divided into eight types: damage to human health, water supply suspension, fishery, recreational functions, biological diversity, environmental property loss, the accident’s origin and other indirect losses. In the valuation of damage to people’s life, the procedure for compensation of traffic accidents in China was used. The functional replacement cost method was used in economic estimation of the losses due to water supply suspension and loss of water’s recreational functions. Damage to biological diversity was estimated by recovery cost analysis and damage to environmental property losses were calculated using pollutant removal costs. As a case study, using the proposed calculation procedure the economic losses caused by the major Songhuajiang River pollution accident that happened in China in 2005 have been estimated at 2263 billion CNY. The estimated economic losses for real accidents can sometimes be influenced by social and political factors, such as data authenticity and accuracy. Besides, one or more aspects in the method might be overestimated, underrated or even ignored. The proposed procedure may be used by decision makers for the economic estimation of losses in SWPAs. Estimates of the economic losses of pollution accidents could help quantify potential costs associated with increased risk sources along lakes/rivers but more importantly, highlight the value of clean water to society as a whole. PMID:26805869

  12. Polluted Runoff: Nonpoint Source Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonpoint Source (NPS) pollution is caused by rainfall or snowmelt moving over and through the ground, it picks up and carries natural and human-made pollutants, depositing them into lakes, rivers, wetlands, coastal waters and ground waters.

  13. [Nitrogen and phosphate pollution characteristics and eutrophication evaluation for typical urban landscape waters in Hefei City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ru-Zhong; Liu, Ke-Feng; Qian, Jing; Yang, Ji-Wei; Zhang, Pian-Pian

    2014-05-01

    To understand the water environment regimes of the city-circling water system in Hefei City, six typical landscape waters were chosen to investigate pollution characteristics of nitrogen and phosphate and evaluate water eutrophication level according to the monitoring data of water physicochemical characteristics and chlorophyll content from September 2012 to July 2013. Study results showed that (1) the six waters mentioned above have been seriously polluted by nitrogen and phosphorus loadings, with the monthly mean values of total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations far exceeding the universally accepted threshold values of water eutrophication; (2) the nitrogen contents in the waters of Nanfeihe River, Heichiba and Yuhuatang scenic spots exhibited a markedly monthly variation, and both TP and PO(3-)(4)-P in Nanfeihe River showed a fluctuated characteristic with high concentrations while presenting a significant upward trend in Yuhuatang scenic spot; (3) the average values of TN/TP ratios for Yuhuatang and Heichiba scenic spots were 104.7 and 158.3, respectively, and the ratios for Baohe Park, Yinhe Park, Xiaoyaojin Park, and city segment of Nanfeihe River were 16.8, 18.7, 6.4 and 16.8, respectively, indicating that the scenic waters of Yuhuatang and Heichiba were phosphate-limited whereas Xiaoyaojin Park was nitrogen-limited; (4) all the six scenic waters were, in general, subsumed under just two broad categories, namely Hechiba scenic spot and Nanfeihe River, which were seriously polluted, and clustered together, and the others fall into the second class; and (5) water eutrophication appraisal result indicated that the six waters were all in the state of eutrophication, and could be arranged in the order of eutrophication level, Yinhe Park > Heichiba scenic spot > city segment of Nanfeihe River > Xiaoyaojin Park > Yuhuatang scenic spot > Baohe Park.

  14. Nitrate pollution and surface water chemistry in Shimabara, Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, K.; Amano, H.

    2017-12-01

    Shimabara city has been experiencing serious nitrate pollution in groundwater. To evaluate nitrate pollution and water chemistry in surface water, water samples were collected at 42 sampling points in 15 rivers in Shimabara including a part of Unzen city from January to February 2017. Firstly, spatial distribution of water chemistry was assessed by describing stiff and piper-trilinear diagrams using major ions concentrations. Most of the samples showed Ca-HCO3 or Ca-(NO3+SO4) water types. It corresponds to groundwater chemistry. Some samples were classified into characteristic water types such as Na-Cl, (Na+K)-HCO3, and Ca-Cl. These results indicate sea water mixing and anthropogenic pollution. At the upstream of Nishi-river, although water chemistry showed Ca-HCO3, ions concentrations were higher than that of the other rivers. It indicates that this site was affected by the peripheral anthropogenic activities. Secondly, nitrate-pollution assessment was performed by using NO3-, NO2-, coprostanol (5β(H)-Cholestan-3β-ol), and cholestanol (5α(H)-Cholestan-3β-ol). NO2-N was detected at the 2 sampling points and exceeded drinking standard 0.9 mg L-1 for bottle-fed infants (WHO, 2011). NO3-N + NO2-N concentrations exceeded Japanese drinking standard 10 mg L-1 at 18 sampling points. The highest concentration was 27.5 mg L-1. Higher NO3-N levels were observed in the rivers in the northern parts of the study area. Coprostanol has been used as a fecal contamination indicator, since it can be found in only feces of higher animals. Coprostanol concentrations at 8 sampling points exceeded 700 ng L-1 (Australian drinking water standard). Coprostanol has a potential to distinguish the nitrate pollution sources between chemical fertilizer or livestock wastes, since water samples with similar NO3-N + NO2-N concentration showed distinct coprostanol concentration. The sterols ratio (5β/ (5β+5α)) exceeded 0.5 at 18 sampling points. This reveals that fecal pollution has occurred.

  15. Modeling the contribution of point sources and non-point sources to Thachin River water pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffner, Monika; Bader, Hans-Peter; Scheidegger, Ruth

    2009-08-15

    Major rivers in developing and emerging countries suffer increasingly of severe degradation of water quality. The current study uses a mathematical Material Flow Analysis (MMFA) as a complementary approach to address the degradation of river water quality due to nutrient pollution in the Thachin River Basin in Central Thailand. This paper gives an overview of the origins and flow paths of the various point- and non-point pollution sources in the Thachin River Basin (in terms of nitrogen and phosphorus) and quantifies their relative importance within the system. The key parameters influencing the main nutrient flows are determined and possible mitigation measures discussed. The results show that aquaculture (as a point source) and rice farming (as a non-point source) are the key nutrient sources in the Thachin River Basin. Other point sources such as pig farms, households and industries, which were previously cited as the most relevant pollution sources in terms of organic pollution, play less significant roles in comparison. This order of importance shifts when considering the model results for the provincial level. Crosschecks with secondary data and field studies confirm the plausibility of our simulations. Specific nutrient loads for the pollution sources are derived; these can be used for a first broad quantification of nutrient pollution in comparable river basins. Based on an identification of the sensitive model parameters, possible mitigation scenarios are determined and their potential to reduce the nutrient load evaluated. A comparison of simulated nutrient loads with measured nutrient concentrations shows that nutrient retention in the river system may be significant. Sedimentation in the slow flowing surface water network as well as nitrogen emission to the air from the warm oxygen deficient waters are certainly partly responsible, but also wetlands along the river banks could play an important role as nutrient sinks.

  16. Water pollution control in river basin by interactive fuzzy interval multiobjective programming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, N.B.; Chen, H.W. [National Cheng-Kung Univ., Tainan (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Environmental Engineering; Shaw, D.G.; Yang, C.H. [Academia Sinica, Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China). Inst. of Economics

    1997-12-01

    The potential conflict between protection of water quality and economic development by different uses of land within river basins is a common problem in regional planning. Many studies have applied multiobjective decision analysis under uncertainty to problems of this kind. This paper presents the interactive fuzzy interval multiobjective mixed integer programming (IFIMOMIP) model to evaluate optimal strategies of wastewater treatment levels within a river system by considering the uncertainties in decision analysis. The interactive fuzzy interval multiobjective mixed integer programming approach is illustrated in a case study for the evaluation of optimal wastewater treatment strategies for water pollution control in a river basin. In particular, it demonstrates how different types of uncertainty in a water pollution control system can be quantified and combined through the use of interval numbers and membership functions. The results indicate that such an approach is useful for handling system complexity and generating more flexible policies for water quality management in river basins.

  17. Adapting ecological risk valuation for natural resource damage assessment in water pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuzhen; Wu, Desheng

    2018-07-01

    Ecological risk assessment can address requirements of natural resource damage assessment by quantifying the magnitude of possible damages to the ecosystem. This paper investigates an approach to assess water damages from pollution incident on the basis of concentrations of contaminants. The baseline of water pollution is determined with not-to-exceed concentration of contaminants required by water quality standards. The values of damage cost to water quality are estimated through sewage treatment cost. To get a reliable estimate of treatment cost, DEA is employed to classify samples of sewage plants based on their efficiency of sewage treatment. And exponential fitting is adopted to determine the relation between treatment cost and the decrease of COCs. The range of damage costs is determined through the fitting curves respectively based on efficient and inefficient samples. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. 76 FR 43230 - National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System-Cooling Water Intake Structures at Existing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-20

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 122 and 125 [EPA-HQ-OW-2008-0667, FRL-9441-8] RIN 2040-AE95 National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System--Cooling Water Intake Structures at Existing Facilities and Phase I Facilities AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule...

  19. Spatiotemporal mapping of ground water pollution in a Greek lignite basin, using geostatistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modis, K.

    2010-01-01

    An issue of significant interest in the mining industry in Greece is the occurrence of chemical pollutants in ground water. Ammonium, nitrites and nitrates concentrations have been monitored through an extensive sampling network in the Ptolemais lignite opencast mining area in Greece. Due to intensive mining efforts in the area, the surface topology is continuously altered, affecting the life span of the water boreholes and resulting in messy spatiotemporal distribution of data. This paper discussed the spatiotemporal mapping of ground water pollution in the Ptolemais lignite basin, using geostatistics. More specifically, the spatiotemporal distribution of ground water contamination was examined by the application of the bayesian maximum entropy theory which allows merging spatial and temporal estimations in a single model. The paper provided a description of the site and discussed the materials and methods, including samples and statistics; variography; and spatiotemporal mapping. It was concluded that in the case of the Ptolemais mining area, results revealed an underlying average yearly variation pattern of pollutant concentrations. Inspection of the produced spatiotemporal maps demonstrated a continuous increase in the risk of ammonium contamination, while risk for the other two pollutants appeared in hot spots. 18 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs.

  20. Training Course on Water Pollution. Red Sea & Gulf of Aden Programme (PERSGA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arab Organization for Education and Science, Cairo (Egypt).

    This document presents a training course on water pollution developed by the staff of the National Research Center, Cairo, Egypt. This course, which is organized by the Arab League Educational, Cultural and Scientific Organization (ALECSO), is intended for Junior Bachelor of Science (B.S.) graduates from various Arab countries. The duration of the…

  1. Water pollution: A review of microbial quality and health concerns of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reviewed aquatic ecosystem pollution with particular reference to pathogens in water, sediment and fish and their human health concerns. It highlighted the historical perspective of the relationship between microbes and humans regarding the “ranging war” between them, arising from the reckless exploitation of ...

  2. Ground water pollution due to aquaculture in east coast region of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Ground water quality parameters were studied for pollution due to aquaculture in the east coast region of district Andhrapradesh, India. Over a period of two years, 46 groundwater samples were collected for analyses. The results showed that the alkalinity ranged from 120 - 482 mg/L, and pH ranged from 7.1 to 8.6.

  3. Assessment of heavy metal pollution in drinking water due to mining ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mining and smelting activities are the main causes for the increasing pollution of heavy metals from water sources. The toxicity of these heavy metals from the mining, milling and smelting companies can cause harmful and even lethal effects on the human health. The objective of this study was to investigate the level of As, ...

  4. Analysis of asymmetries in air pollution with water resources, and energy consumption in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashouri, Mohammad Javad; Rafei, Meysam

    2018-04-17

    Iran should pay special attention to its excessive consumption of energy and air pollution due to the limited availability of water resources. This study explores the effects of the consumption of energy and water resources on air pollution in Iran from 1971 to 2014. It utilizes the non-linear autoregressive distributed lag approach to establish a robust relationship between the variables which show that both long- and short-run coefficients are asymmetrical. The positive and negative aspects of the long-run coefficients of energy consumption and water resources were found to be 0.19, - 1.63, 0.18, and 2.36, respectively, while only the negative ones were significant for energy consumption. Based on the cumulative effects, it can be established that there are important and significant differences in the responses of air pollution to positive and negative changes in water productivity and energy consumption. In particular, CO 2 gas emissions are affected by negative changes in H 2 O productivity both in terms of the total and the GDP per unit of energy use in Iran. In regard to short-run results, considerable asymmetric effects occur on all the variables for CO 2 emissions. Based on the results obtained, some recommendations are presented, which policymakers can adopt in efforts to address the issues of pollution and consumption.

  5. The Intervention of Adult Education in Surface Water Pollution in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The vulnerability of surface water in the Niger-Delta Region of Nigeria to frequent oil spills and has other pollutants have had negative effects on the fragile mangrove ecosystem, wildlife, aquatic resources and most importantly on man. It is in this regard that the intervention of adult education came into being to see that the ...

  6. Spatiotemporal mapping of ground water pollution in a Greek lignite basin, using geostatistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modis, K. [National Technical Univ. of Athens, Athens (Greece)

    2010-07-01

    An issue of significant interest in the mining industry in Greece is the occurrence of chemical pollutants in ground water. Ammonium, nitrites and nitrates concentrations have been monitored through an extensive sampling network in the Ptolemais lignite opencast mining area in Greece. Due to intensive mining efforts in the area, the surface topology is continuously altered, affecting the life span of the water boreholes and resulting in messy spatiotemporal distribution of data. This paper discussed the spatiotemporal mapping of ground water pollution in the Ptolemais lignite basin, using geostatistics. More specifically, the spatiotemporal distribution of ground water contamination was examined by the application of the bayesian maximum entropy theory which allows merging spatial and temporal estimations in a single model. The paper provided a description of the site and discussed the materials and methods, including samples and statistics; variography; and spatiotemporal mapping. It was concluded that in the case of the Ptolemais mining area, results revealed an underlying average yearly variation pattern of pollutant concentrations. Inspection of the produced spatiotemporal maps demonstrated a continuous increase in the risk of ammonium contamination, while risk for the other two pollutants appeared in hot spots. 18 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs.

  7. Nature and analysis of chemical species: pollution effects on surface waters and groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, R.H.F.

    1975-01-01

    A literature review of 103 items covers: nutrients in surface waters; runoff and waste discharges primarily from energy-intensive activities; groundwater pollution causes, effects, controls and monitoring; land and subsurface wastewater disposal; radionuclides; biological effects; thermal effluents; and biological and mathematical models for rivers

  8. Application of energy dispersive X-ray fluorescent technique in the pollution study of water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Htun, Kyi

    1993-03-01

    The abundance of major trace elements in water in the surface well, tube well, lake and river were measured. The technique outlined here is very useful in the study of the pollution of environmental radioactivity. For the above measurements the Si(Li) X-ray detection system was used in conjunction with a personal computer

  9. The effect of water solubles on Kelvin effects of the Maritime Polluted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this work microphysical properties of Maritime Polluted aerosols wereextracted from Optical Properties of Aerosols and Clouds (OPAC) after varying the concentrations of water soluble at five different levels. The analytical expressions for the changes in the equilibrium relative humidity (RH), effective radii, effective ...

  10. Method for the prioritization of areas experiencing microbial pollution of surface water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Venter, SN

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The increased threat of faecal pollution in recent years and the high priority of protecting human health by the government led to the initiation of a national microbial monitoring programme for surface water in South Africa. According to the design...

  11. A Novel Nanohybrid Nanofibrous Adsorbent for Water Purification from Dye Pollutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Homaeigohar, Shahin; Zillohu, Ahnaf; Abdelaziz, Ramzy

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we devised a novel nanofibrous adsorbent made of polyethersulfone (PES) for removal of methylene blue (MB) dye pollutant from water. The polymer shows a low isoelectric point thus at elevated pHs and, being nanofibrous, can offer a huge highly hydroxylated surface area for adsorption...

  12. Water Quality & Pollutant Source Monitoring: Field and Laboratory Procedures. Training Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Water Program Operations (EPA), Cincinnati, OH. National Training and Operational Technology Center.

    This training manual presents material on techniques and instrumentation used to develop data in field monitoring programs and related laboratory operations concerned with water quality and pollution monitoring. Topics include: collection and handling of samples; bacteriological, biological, and chemical field and laboratory methods; field…

  13. Trace metal pollution in Umtata River | Fatoki | Water SA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dissolved trace metals, i.e Fe, Mn, Al, Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd were determined in the Umtata River. High levels of Al, Cd, Pb, Zn and. Cu were observed, which may affect the “health” of the aquatic ecosystem. The high levels of Al, Cd and Pb may also affect the health of the rural community that uses the river water directly for ...

  14. Mobility of pollutants in the soil-water-plant system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerzabek, M.H.; Algader, S.; Gottwald, B.; Schaffer, K.; Mueck, K.; Streit, S.; Urbanich, E.

    1995-01-01

    The present report describes the first results obtained from lysimeter experiments started in 1990. The lysimeter plant consists of twelf soil monoliths from four different sites (three replicates each). Since 1990 the following agricultural crops were grown: endive, corn, winterwheat, mustard, sugar beet and potato. The mean yields of corn and sugar beet were distinctly above average. Gravitational water ranged from 3.9 % to 18.3 % of precipitation plus irrigation water, calculated as half years average values excluding the first six months of operation. The two brown earths on sediments exhibited a mean percentage of app. 10 %. The brown earth on silicate rock and the gleysol showed average values of 20 %. In 1990 the top layers (20 cm) were contaminated with three radionuclides. The leaching of the artificial contaminants 60 Co, 137 Cs and 226 Ra differed distinctly between the elements. The lowest leaching rates were observed for 137 Cs, followed by 60 Co. The 226 Ra-concentrations in the gravitational water were clearly higher than that of the other nuclides. However, it has to be proved, if the measured radium originates from the contaminated top layers or comes from natural 226 Ra from the bottom layer of the soil profile. (author)

  15. Persistent organic pollutants in four bivalve species from Svalbard waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieweg, Ireen; Hop, Haakon; Brey, Thomas; Huber, Sandra; Ambrose, William G.; Locke V, William L.; Gabrielsen, Geir W.

    2012-01-01

    Organochlorine compounds (OC) were determined in Arctic bivalves (Mya truncata, Serripes groenlandicus, Hiatella arctica and Chlamys islandica) from Svalbard with regard to differences in geographic location, species and variations related to their size and age. Higher chlorinated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB 101–PCB 194), chlordanes and α-hexachlorocyclohexane (α-HCH) were consistently detected in the bivalves and PCBs dominated the OC load in the organisms. OC concentrations were highest in Mya truncata and the lowest in Serripes groenlandicus. Species-specific OC levels were likely related to differences in the species’ food source, as indicated by the δ 13 C results, rather than size and age. Higher OC concentrations were observed in bivalves from Kongsfjorden compared to the northern sampling locations Liefdefjorden and Sjuøyane. The spatial differences might be related to different water masses influencing Kongsfjorden (Atlantic) and the northern locations (Arctic), with differing phytoplankton bloom situations. - Highlights: ► Organochlorine compounds (OC) were analyzed in 4 bivalve species from Svalbard. ► Polychlorinated biphenyls dominated the OC load observed in the bivalves. ► Atlantic water influenced bivalves had higher OC levels than those from Arctic water. ► Location and species, rather than size and age, determined the OC pattern found. - New findings of organochlorines in Arctic bivalves that are central for evaluating the importance of geographical location and species for the organochlorine pattern in benthic organisms.

  16. Snow cover as a source of technogenic pollution of surface water during the snow melting period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labuzova Olga

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The study of pollutants in melt water of snow cover and snow disposal sites in the city of Barnaul showed that during the snow melting period the surface water is not subjected to significant technogenic impact according to a number of studied indices. The oils content is an exception: it can exceed MAC more than 20 times in river- water due to the melting of city disposal sites. Environmental damage due to an oils input into water resources during the snow melting period can be more than 300000 thousand rubles.

  17. Calculation of the surface water pollution index in the evaluation of environmental component of product life cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олег Аскольдович Проскурнин

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The assessment feasibility of the combined effect of the product life cycle on the environment is grounded. As an example, the pollution of surface waters at the production stage is considered in the article. A mechanism of ranking indicators of surface water pollution according to their importance is proposed. An algorithm for checking the consistency of the statistical expert judgment in determining weight coefficient for the indicators of pollution, based on the use of the concordance coefficient, is given

  18. Detection limits of pollutants in water for PGNAA using Am-Be source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khelifi, R.; Amokrane, A.; Bode, P.

    2007-01-01

    A basic PGNAA facility with an Am-Be neutron source is described to analyze the pollutants in water. The properties of neutron flux were determined by MCNP calculations. In order to determine the efficiency curve of a HPGe detector, the prompt-gamma rays from chlorine were used and an exponential curve was fitted. The detection limits for typical water sample are also estimated using the statistical fluctuations of the background level in the areas of recorded the prompt-gamma spectrum

  19. Water pollution analysis and detection. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning water pollution analysis, detection, monitoring, and regulation. Citations review online systems, bioassay monitoring, laser-based detection, sensor and biosensor systems, metabolic analyzers, and microsystem techniques. References cover fiber-optic portable detection instruments and rapid detection of toxicants in drinking water. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  20. Identifying potential surface water sampling sites for emerging chemical pollutants in Gauteng Province, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, F; Dabrowski, JM; Forbes, PBC

    2017-01-01

    Emerging chemical pollutants (ECPs) are defined as new chemicals which do not have a regulatory status, but which may have an adverse effect on human health and the environment. The occurrence and concentrations of ECPs in South African water bodies are largely unknown, so monitoring is required in order to determine the potential threat that these ECPs may pose. Relevant surface water sampling sites in the Gauteng Province of South Africa were identified utilising a geographic information sy...