WorldWideScience

Sample records for water outer continental

  1. Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data represents geographic terms used within the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act (OCSLA or Act). The Act defines the United States outer continental shelf...

  2. Hydrocarbon production forecast for committed assets in the shallow water Outer Continental Shelf of the Gulf of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, Mark J.

    2009-01-01

    In 2007, the federal waters of the Gulf of Mexico averaged daily production of 1.3 million barrels of oil and 7.6 billion cubic feet of natural gas. The majority of oil is produced from deepwater fields in water depth greater than 1000 ft, while most gas production is extracted from the shelf. The Outer Continental Shelf is a mature province with over 3800 fixed structures and 6500 producing wells connected into an integrated pipeline network more than 30,000 miles in length. The purpose of this paper is to develop a methodology to forecast oil and gas production in the shallow water Gulf of Mexico. Structures are categorized according to age and production characteristics, and forecast procedures for each asset class are described and illustrated. The methodology is implemented using the inventory of committed assets circa December 2006. The expected amount of hydrocarbon production arising from the inventory of committed assets under stable reservoir and investment conditions is estimated to be 1056 MMbbl oil and 13.3 Tcf gas valued between $85 and 150 billion. The results of generalized regression models are presented with a discussion of the limitations of analysis. (author)

  3. 75 FR 1076 - Outer Continental Shelf Civil Penalties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-08

    ... initiate civil penalty proceedings; however, violations that cause injury, death, or environmental damage... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Minerals Management Service Outer Continental Shelf Civil Penalties... daily civil penalty assessment. SUMMARY: The Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act requires the MMS to...

  4. Climatic Atlas of the Outer Continental Shelf Waters and Coastal Regions of Alaska. Volume 2. Bering Sea. Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    Joe D. Elms , for their editorial evaluation of the vironmental Assessmant Program. Additional depends to a large extent on weather condi- isopleth...waves, icing rates are open waters and coastal sectionsofAlaska.The temperatures less than 8°C, winds of 25 knots lower. icing causes slippery decks...thereby bias the oceanic climatology towards fair weather. A recent study by Elms (1986), in which he compared the Volunteer Observing Ship (VOS) data

  5. Neogene sedimentation on the outer continental margin, southern Bering Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallier, T.L.; Underwood, M.B.; Gardner, J.V.; Barron, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    Neogene sedimentary rocks and sediments from sites on the outer continental margin in the southern Bering Sea and on the Alaska Peninsula are dominated by volcanic components that probably were eroded from an emergent Aleutian Ridge. A mainland continental source is subordinate. Most sediment in the marine environment was transported to the depositional sites by longshore currents, debris flows, and turbidity currents during times when sea level was near the outermost continental shelf. Fluctuations of sea level are ascribed both to worldwide glacio-eustatic effects and to regional vertical tectonics. Large drainage systems, such as the Yukon and Kuskokwim Rivers, had little direct influence on sedimentation along the continental slope and Unmak Plateau in the southern Bering Sea. Sediments from those drainage systems probably were transported to the floor of the Aleutian Basin, to the numerous shelf basins that underlie the outer continental shelf, and to the Arctic Ocean after passing through the Bering Strait. Environments of deposition at the sites along the outer continental margin have not changed significantly since the middle Miocene. The site on the Alaska Peninsula, however, is now emergent following shallow-marine and transitional sedimentation during the Neogene. ?? 1980.

  6. The continental waters pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsily, G. de

    1996-01-01

    This work deals with the continental water pollution. The sewage affect considerably the quality of some rivers water and of some basins. Moreover, a slow and general damage of natural waters has been established. The direct effects on men and on the natural medium (climatic change, aquatic ecosystems, water cycle) are given as well as the protection means (waste processing, the water-bearing bed and underground water protection, the aquatic ecosystems protection and planning) used and future to abate the water pollution. (O.L.). 17 refs., 6 tabs

  7. Potential alternative energy technologies on the Outer Continental Shelf.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D.; Environmental Assessment

    2007-04-20

    This technical memorandum (TM) describes the technology requirements for three alternative energy technologies for which pilot and/or commercial projects on the U.S. Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) are likely to be proposed within the next five to seven years. For each of the alternative technologies--wind, wave, and ocean current--the TM first presents an overview. After each technology-specific overview, it describes the technology requirements for four development phases: site monitoring and testing, construction, operation, and decommissioning. For each phase, the report covers the following topics (where data are available): facility description, electricity generated, ocean area (surface and bottom) occupied, resource requirements, emissions and noise sources, hazardous materials stored or used, transportation requirements, and accident potential. Where appropriate, the TM distinguishes between pilot-scale (or demonstration-scale) facilities and commercial-scale facilities.

  8. Grain Size Data from the NOAA Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains grain size data from samples acquired under the NOAA Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from the Outer...

  9. Adequacy of environmental information for outer continental shelf oil and gas decisions: Georges Bank. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Georges Bank, a large, shallow marine bank with important fishery resources and possibly important oil and gas resources, lies east of Massachusetts in the territorial waters of both the United States and Canada. The Department of the Interior has planned since 1974 to lease parts of the north Atlantic outer continental shelf (OCS)--including part of Georges Bank--for oil and gas exploration. As a result of public concern about the environmental impacts of oil and gas production on the U.S. OCS, Congress declared a moratorium on drilling on Georges Bank and an area to the southwest. The report--by the NRC's Committee to Review the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Studies Program and its panels on physical oceanography, ecology, and socioeconomics--reviews the adequacy of information bearing on the potential environmental impacts of OCS oil and gas activities for the Georges Bank sale area

  10. 77 FR 71612 - Atlantic Wind Lease Sale 2 (ATLW2) Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-03

    ... Wind Lease Sale 2 (ATLW2) Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf Offshore...), Interior. ACTION: Proposed Sale Notice for commercial leasing for wind power on the Outer Continental Shelf... sale of commercial wind energy leases on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) offshore Rhode Island and...

  11. BLM/OCS Southern California Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Baseline Studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data in this file were produced by Science Applications, Inc., prime contractor on the Bureau of Land Management/Outer Continental Shelf - Southern California...

  12. BLM/OCS South Texas Outer Continental Shelf (STOCS) Project Sediment Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The South Texas Outer Continental Shelf Project (STOCS) conducted by the University of Texas and the USGS with funding from BLM/NOAA. The USGS produced geochemical...

  13. 77 FR 10707 - Safety Zone; NOBLE DISCOVERER, Outer Continental Shelf Drillship, Chukchi and Beaufort Seas, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-23

    ... indigenous population; (4) the lack of any established shipping fairways, fueling and supply storage... location of the DRILLSHIP NOBLE DISCOVERER on the Outer Continental Shelf and its distance from both land...

  14. Diversity and Distribution Patterns of Cetaceans in the Subtropical Southwestern Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf and Slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Tullio, Juliana Couto; Gandra, Tiago B. R.; Zerbini, Alexandre N.; Secchi, Eduardo R.

    2016-01-01

    Temporal and spatial patterns of cetacean diversity and distribution were investigated through eight ship-based surveys carried out during spring and autumn between 2009 and 2014 on the outer continental shelf (~150m) and slope (1500m) off southeastern and southern Brazil (~23°S to ~34°S). The survey area was divided into southeast and south areas according to their oceanographic characteristics. Twenty-one species were observed in 503 sightings. The overall number of species was similar between the two areas, though it was higher in the spring in the south area. Five species were dominant and diversity varied more seasonally than spatially. ANOVA and kernel analyses showed that overall cetacean densities were higher in spring compared to autumn. Physeter macrocephalus, the most frequent species, concentrated throughout the south area at depths over 1000m in both seasons. Despite the overlapped occurrence at a broader scale, small delphinids presented latitudinal and in-offshore gradients as well as seasonal variation in distribution patterns, which could indicate habitat partitioning between some species. Delphinus delphis was only recorded in the south and its density decreased in areas where the presence of Stenella frontalis increased, mainly beyond the 250m isobath. Densities of S. longirostris and S. attenuata increased in lower latitudes and beyond the shelf break. The large delphinids Tursiops truncatus and Globicephala melas formed mixed groups in many occasions and were observed along the study area around depths of 500m. Grampus griseus was twice as frequent in the south area and densities increased in waters deeper than 600m. As expected, densities of both small and large migratory whales were higher during spring, over the continental slope, in the southeast area. The results presented here provided strong evidence on the importance of the outer continental shelf and slope to a diverse community of cetaceans occurring in the subtropical Southwestern

  15. 75 FR 71734 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Scientific Committee (SC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ... Environmental Studies Program (ESP) and environmental aspects of the offshore energy and marine minerals... oceanography, as well as studies of the social and economic impacts of OCS energy and marine minerals... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement Outer...

  16. Very large dune formation along the Ebro outer continental shelf (Western Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Iacono, Claudio; Guillén, Jorge; Puig, Pere; Ribó, Marta; Ballesteros, Maria; Palanques, Albert; Farrán, Marcelli; Acosta, Juan

    2010-05-01

    Large and very large subaqueous dunes have been observed in a number of outer shelf regions around the world, tipically developing on fossil sand bodies and ridges. Dunes observed on outer shelves usually display large dimensions with maximum wavelength reaching up to 500 m and heights up to 20 m. Forcing mechanisms able to induce their formation have been described as strong bottom currents related to tidal variations and water masses flowing under geostrophic conditions, generally controlled and enhanced by local geomorphologic configurations. In this study, such bed features have been recognized, mapped and measured around the Columbretes Islands (Ebro continental shelf - Western Mediterranean) with the aim to reconstruct which are the potential forcing processes that could generate them in relation to the local settings of the area. Swath-bathymetry around the Columbretes Islands was collected using 30 kHz and 180 kHz Multi Beam echo-sounders for a 50-400 m water depth range. Bathymetric data revealed the presence of three main relict sand bodies along the outer shelf, for a 80-116 m depth range, above which asymmetrical, slightly asymmetrical and symmetrical large and very large 2D and 3D subaqueous dunes were observed. Dunes range from 150 to 760 m in wavelength and from tens of cm to 6 m in height. These bedforms are composed of sandy sediments, presumably coming from the degraded relict sand bodies on which they developed, mixed to the fine fractions coming from the recent draping holocenic sediments. The orientation of the dunes is SSW and progressively turns to W directions moving towards the southernmost sector of the area, following the trend of the shelf-edge. Observed dunes display a strong asymmetric profile for those occurring along the shelf-edge (Symmetry Index (SI): 2.6) and lose progressively their asymmetry towards the inner portion of the shelf (SI: 0.5), being 0.6 the minimum SI value to classify the dunes as asymmetric. The subaqueous dunes

  17. 77 FR 24734 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Renewable Energy Program Leasing for Marine Hydrokinetic Technology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Ocean Energy Management [Docket No. BOEM-2012-0011] Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Renewable Energy Program Leasing for Marine Hydrokinetic Technology Testing Offshore Florida AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of the Availability of an...

  18. Managing the visual effects of outer continental shelf and other petroleum-related coastal development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip A. Marcus; Ethan T. Smith

    1979-01-01

    Five petroleum-related facilities often sited in the coastal zone during development of Outer Continental oil and gas can change the visual appearance of coastal areas. These facilities are service bases, platform fabrication yards, marine terminals and associated storage facilities, oil and gas processing facilities, and liquified natural gas terminals. Examples of...

  19. Impacts of Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) development on recreation and tourism. Volume 5. Program logic manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-04-01

    The final report for the project is presented in five volumes. This volume is the Programmer's Manual. It covers: a system overview, attractiveness component of gravity model, trip-distribution component of gravity model, economic-effects model, and the consumer-surplus model. The project sought to determine the impact of Outer Continental Shelf development on recreation and tourism.

  20. 76 FR 20367 - Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Off Delaware...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ... No. BOEM-2011-0008] Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Off... determination that no competitive interest exists in acquiring a commercial wind lease in the area offshore... a Request for Interest (RFI) in the Federal Register on April 26, 2010 (75 FR 21653). Bluewater Wind...

  1. 76 FR 14681 - Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Offshore Massachusetts...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-17

    ... No. BOEM-2010-0063] Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Offshore..., Regulation and Enforcement (BOEMRE), Interior. ACTION: Request for Interest (RFI) in Commercial Wind Energy... (BOEMRE) is reopening the comment period on the RFI in Commercial Wind Energy Leasing Offshore...

  2. 78 FR 36571 - North American Datum of 1983 (NAD 83) Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Provisional Official...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Ocean Energy Management [MMAA104000] North American Datum of 1983 (NAD 83) Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Provisional Official Protraction Diagram (OPDs) AGENCY... OPDs. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that effective with this publication two NAD 83-based OCS...

  3. 78 FR 59263 - Outer Continental Shelf Air Regulations Consistency Update for California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-26

    ..., Nitrogen dioxide, Nitrogen oxides, Outer continental shelf, Ozone, Particulate matter, Permits, Reporting... Solvents (Adopted 10/23/78) Rule 325 Crude Oil Production and Separation (Adopted 07/19/01) Rule 326... (Adopted 04/17/97) Rule 805 Air Quality Impact Analysis and Modeling (Adopted 04/17/97) Rule 808 New Source...

  4. Atlantic update, July 1986--June 1990: Outer Continental Shelf oil and gas activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpas, R.M.; Gould, G.J.

    1990-10-01

    This report describes outer continental shelf oil and gas activities in the Atlantic Region. This edition of the Atlantic Update includes an overview of the Mid-Atlantic Planning Area and a summary of the Manteo Prospect off-shore North Carolina. 6 figs., 8 tabs.

  5. 75 FR 68824 - Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Offshore Maryland-Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-09

    ... No. BOEM-2010-0038] Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Offshore..., Interior. ACTION: RFI in Commercial Wind Energy Leasing Offshore Maryland, and Invitation for Comments from... construction of a wind energy project(s) on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) offshore Maryland. The BOEMRE...

  6. 77 FR 52353 - Right-of-Way Grant of Submerged Lands on the Outer Continental Shelf to Support Renewable Energy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ... of Submerged Lands on the Outer Continental Shelf to Support Renewable Energy Development AGENCY... would be used to issue Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) renewable energy right-of-way (ROW) grants in order... renewable energy, but does not constitute a project easement. The ability of an ROW grantee to install such...

  7. 78 FR 47748 - Right-of-Way Grant of Submerged Lands on the Outer Continental Shelf to Support Renewable Energy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-06

    ...-Way Grant of Submerged Lands on the Outer Continental Shelf to Support Renewable Energy Development... will use Form 0009 to issue a renewable energy right-of- way (ROW) grant on the Outer Continental Shelf....gov/Renewable-Energy Program/ Regulatory-Information/Index.aspx. DATES: The ROW grant form will be...

  8. 78 FR 76643 - Atlantic Wind Lease Sale 3 (ATLW3) Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-18

    ...; MMAA104000] Atlantic Wind Lease Sale 3 (ATLW3) Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental.... ACTION: Proposed Sale Notice for Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf Offshore Maryland. SUMMARY: This document is the Proposed Sale Notice (PSN) for the sale of commercial wind...

  9. 78 FR 33897 - Atlantic Wind Lease Sale 2 (ATLW2) Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-05

    ... Management Atlantic Wind Lease Sale 2 (ATLW2) Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf Offshore Rhode Island and Massachusetts-- Final Sale Notice and Commercial Wind Lease Issuance and...; MMAA104000] Atlantic Wind Lease Sale 2 (ATLW2) Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental...

  10. Assessment of the U.S. outer continental shelf environmental studies program. 1. Physical oceanography. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Federal responsibility for oil and gas development on the U.S. outer continental shelf (OCS) resides with the Minerals Management Service (MMS) of the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI). The DOI's Environmental Studies Program (ESP) is the program through which MMS conducts environmental studies on the OCS and collects information to prepare environmental impact statements (EISs). It appeared to MMS in 1986 that the time was ripe to assess the status of the present program and to explore the needs for future studies. MMS requested an evaluation of the adequacy and applicability of ESP studies, a review of the general state of knowledge in the appropriate disciplines, and recommendations for future studies. Three panels were established, one of which, the Physical Oceanography Panel, investigated the physical oceanographic aspects of the ESP, the subject of the report, which is the first of three in a series. In reviewing the ESP's physical oceanography program, the panel evaluated the quality and relevance of studies carried out in waters under federal control, which extend from the limits of state jurisdictions (3-12 miles offshore) and include the central and outer continental shelf waters and the continental slope

  11. Risk evaluation for federally listed (roseate tern, piping plover) or candidate (red knot) bird species in offshore waters: A first step for managing the potential impacts of wind facility development on the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, Joanna [Division of Life Sciences, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8082 (United States); Conserve Wildlife, 516 Farnsworth Avenue, Bordentown, NJ 08505 (United States); Gordon, Caleb; Newman, James; Forcey, Greg [Pandion Systems, Inc. 102 NE 10th Ave, Gainesville, FL 32601 (United States); Lawrence, J. [Conserve Wildlife, 516 Farnsworth Avenue, Bordentown, NJ 08505 (United States); Vlietstra, Lucy [Department of Science, US Coast Guard Academy, 27 Mohegan Drive, New London, CT 06320 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    With a worldwide increase in attention toward developing a reliance on renewable energy, there is a need to evaluate the effects of these facilities (solar, wind, hydropower) on ecosystems. We conduct a hazard and risk evaluation for three species of birds that are listed, or candidates for listing, as federally threatened or endangered in the US, and that might occur offshore on the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf (AOCS) where wind power facilities could be developed. Our objectives were to: 1) provide conceptual models for exposure for each species, and 2) examine potential exposure and hazards of roseate tern (Sterna dougallii) and piping plover (Charadrius melodus, both federally endangered in the US) and red knot (Calidris canutus rufa, candidate species) in the AOCS. We used a weight-of-evidence approach to evaluate information from a review of technical literature. We developed conceptual models to examine the relative vulnerability of each species as a function of life stage and cycle (breeding, staging, migratory, wintering). These methods are useful for conducting environmental assessments when empirical data are insufficient for a full risk assessment. We determined that 1) Roseate terns are likely to be exposed to risk during the migratory and breeding season when they occur in the AOCS, as well as while staging. 2) Piping plovers are not likely to be at risk during the breeding season, but may be at risk during spring or fall migrations. Risk to this species is likely to be low from turbines located far from land as this species migrates mainly along the coast. 3) Red knots are potentially exposed to some risk during migration, especially long-distance migrants whose migratory routes take them over the AOCS. More information is required on exact spatio-temporal migration routes, flight altitudes (especially during ascent and descent), and behavioral avoidance of turbines by birds to ascertain their risk. (author)

  12. Heavy minerals in the sediments on the outer continental shelf between Vengurla and Mangalore on the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kidwai, R.M.; Nair, R.R.; Hashimi, N.H.

    Fifty-eight sediment samples from the outer continental shelf between Vengurla and Mangalore were analysed for heavy minerals consist of principally opaques, hornblende, epidote, garnet, sillimanite, hypersthene and zircon, with minor amounts...

  13. Bathymetry and acoustic backscatter of the mid and outer continental shelf, head of De Soto Canyon, northeastern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, James V.; Hughes-Clarke, John E.; Meyer, Larry A.

    2002-01-01

    The mid to outer continental shelf off Mississippi-Alabama and off northwest Florida were the focus of US Geological Survey (USGS) multibeam echosounder (MBES) mapping cruises in 2000 and 2001, respectively. These areas were mapped to investigate the extent of "deep-water reefs" first suggested by Ludwick and Walton (1957). The reefs off Mississippi and Alabama were initially described in water depths of 60 to 120 m (Ludwick and Walton, 1957) but the 2000 mapping found reef and hardgrounds to be much more extensive than previously thought (Gardner et al., 2001). The persistent trend of reef-like features along the outer shelf of Mississippi-Alabama suggested the trend might continue along the northwest Florida mid and outer shelf so a MBES-mapping effort was mounted in 2001 to test this suggestion. It is critical to determine the accurate location, geomorphology, and types of the ridges and reefs that occur in this region to understand the Quaternary history of the area and to assess their importance as benthic habitats for fisheries. The 2001 survey found a series of shelf-depth platforms with ridges (possibly reefs) constructed on their surfaces (Gardner et al., 2002). The area known as the "head of De Soto Canyon" is the large unmapped region between the 2000 and 2001 mapped areas. The head of De Soto Canyon is an outer shelf zone with a relatively steep western wall and a much gentler eastern wall. It was unknown prior to this cruise whether the reefs of the Mississippi-Alabama shelf continue eastward into the head of De Soto Canyon and connect with the ridges and reefs mapped on the northwest Florida outer shelf. The existence of carbonate-cemented latest Quaternary to Holocene sandstones along the western wall of the head of De Soto Canyon (Shipp and Hopkins, 1978; Benson et al., 1997; W.W. Schroeder, personnel comm., 2002) is of interest because of the potential benthic habitats they may represent. Precisely georeferenced high-resolution mapping of

  14. 76 FR 48861 - Notice of Issuance of Final Outer Continental Shelf Air Permit for Anadarko Petroleum Corporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-09

    ... Continental Shelf Air Permit for Anadarko Petroleum Corporation AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... final Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) air permit for Anadarko Petroleum Corporation (Anadarko). The permit... Petroleum Corporation regarding the project. EPA carefully reviewed each of the comments submitted and...

  15. Impacts of Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) development on recreation and tourism. Volume 3. Detailed methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-04-01

    The final report for the project is presented in five volumes. This volume, Detailed Methodology Review, presents a discussion of the methods considered and used to estimate the impacts of Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) oil and gas development on coastal recreation in California. The purpose is to provide the Minerals Management Service with data and methods to improve their ability to analyze the socio-economic impacts of OCS development. Chapter II provides a review of previous attempts to evaluate the effects of OCS development and of oil spills on coastal recreation. The review also discusses the strengths and weaknesses of different approaches and presents the rationale for the methodology selection made. Chapter III presents a detailed discussion of the methods actually used in the study. The volume contains the bibliography for the entire study.

  16. Impacts of Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) development on recreation and tourism. Volume 1. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-04-01

    The study was intended to provide the Mineral Management Service (MMS) with an analytical tool to evaluate possible economic impacts from Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) development. In particular, the study was designed to provide MMS staff who work on lease sale Energy Impact Statements with an objective technique for estimating the impacts to coastal communities from events that might occur as a result of lease sales: oil spills, onshore construction, and construction of platforms offshore. The project had several specific objectives: (1) provide profiles of 1982 socio-economic conditions in coastal communities, including an analysis of the relative importance of the tourist industry in each coastal county; (2) develop a methodology for determining the effects of OCS development on coastal recreation; and recommend mitigation measure that may reduce the negative effect of OCS development on coastal recreation using gravity and economic effects models.

  17. Environmental studies results: 1973-1992. Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    The Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Environmental Studies Program was initiated in 1973 under the Bureau of Land Management by the Secretary of the Interior. The Purpose of the program was to conduct studies needed to predict, assess and manage impacts on the human, marine and coastal environments of the OCS and nearshore areas that may be affected by oil and gas activities. The narrative summary updates the version printed in 1986, which covered studies managed by the MMS in the Atlantic OCS region between 1973 and 1985. Descriptions of the study results are divided into the following categories: baseline studies and environmental inventories, biology/ecology, drill site monitoring, endangered species, geology/chemistry, oil spill studies, physical oceanography/meteorology, and social and economic studies. Results of each major type of study are subdivided into North Atlantic, Mid-Atlantic, South Atlantic, and multiregional studies in chronological sequence

  18. 77 FR 40081 - Gulf of Mexico, Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Western Planning Area (WPA) and Central Planning...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Gulf of Mexico, Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Western Planning Area (WPA) and Central Planning Area (CPA), Oil and Gas Lease Sales for 2012-2017 AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability...

  19. Impacts of Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) development on recreation and tourism. Volume 4. User's manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-04-01

    The final report for the project is presented in five volumes. The project sought to determine the impact of Outer Continental Shelf development on recreation and tourism in California. This volume is the User's Guide. It includes the following topics: Introduction and Summary Guide; Input Data Files; Gravity Model Programs; Economic Effects Model Programs; Consumer Surplus Model Programs; References; and Appendices.

  20. 78 FR 8190 - Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Offshore North Carolina...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-05

    ...] Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Offshore North Carolina--Call for... Commercial Leasing for Wind Power Offshore North Carolina (Call), published on December 13, 2012 (77 FR 7204). DATES: BOEM must receive your nomination describing your interest in obtaining a commercial wind lease...

  1. 76 FR 4716 - Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Off Delaware, Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-26

    ... No. BOEM-2010-0075] Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Off... commercial wind development on the OCS off Delaware and requests submission of indications of competitive... received two nominations of proposed lease areas: One from Bluewater Wind Delaware LLC (Bluewater) and...

  2. 75 FR 21653 - Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Offshore Delaware-Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ... Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Offshore Delaware--Request for Interest (RFI... proposal. In June 2008, Bluewater Wind Delaware LLC announced that it signed a 25-year power purchase agreement with Delmarva Power to sell up to 200 megawatts (MW) of power to the utility from an offshore wind...

  3. 77 FR 47877 - Potential Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Offshore Maine...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-10

    ... Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Offshore Maine; Request for Interest... Request for a Commercial OCS Wind Lease, Request for Interest, and Request for Public Comment SUMMARY: The... (Statoil NA) to acquire an OCS wind lease; (2) solicit public input regarding the proposal, its potential...

  4. 75 FR 63345 - Oil and Gas and Sulphur Operations in the Outer Continental Shelf-Increased Safety Measures for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-14

    ... the Outer Continental Shelf in light of the Deepwater Horizon event on April 20, 2010, and resulting...) develop this report as a result of the Deepwater Horizon event on April 20, 2010. This event, which... investigations into the Deepwater Horizon event, that certain equipment, systems, and improved practices are...

  5. 76 FR 38294 - Oil and Gas and Sulphur Operations in the Outer Continental Shelf-Civil Penalties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-30

    ... affect in a material way the economy, productivity, competition, jobs, the environment, public health or... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement 30 CFR... Outer Continental Shelf--Civil Penalties AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and...

  6. 78 FR 9731 - Gulf of Mexico, Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Central Planning Area (CPA) Oil and Gas Lease Sale...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ... Environmental Impact Statement (Multisale FEIS). Authority: This NOA is published pursuant to the regulations... the NEPA process. The Multisale FEIS evaluated the environmental and socioeconomic impacts for CPA... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Gulf of Mexico, Outer Continental...

  7. 77 FR 68147 - Gulf of Mexico, Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Western Planning Area (WPA), Oil and Gas Lease...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-15

    ... Environmental Impact Statement (Multisale FEIS). Authority: This NOA is published pursuant to the regulations... NEPA process. The Multisale FEIS evaluated the environmental and socioeconomic impacts for WPA Lease... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Gulf of Mexico, Outer Continental...

  8. 76 FR 50245 - Gulf of Mexico (GOM), Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Western Planning Area (WPA), Oil and Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... (BOEMRE), Interior. ACTION: Notice of Availability (NOA) of a Final Supplemental Environmental Impact... sale's incremental contribution to the cumulative impacts on environmental and socioeconomic resources... Mexico (GOM), Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Western Planning Area (WPA), Oil and Gas Lease Sale for the...

  9. 75 FR 17156 - Gulf of Mexico, Outer Continental Shelf, Western Planning Area, Oil and Gas Lease Sale 215 (2010...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-05

    ... environmental assessment (EA) for proposed Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) oil and gas Lease Sale... Environmental Impact Statement; Volumes I and II (Multisale EIS, OCS EIS/EA MMS 2007-018) and in the Gulf of...; Western Planning Area Sales 210, 215, and 218--Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement...

  10. 77 FR 1019 - Renewable Energy Alternate Uses of Existing Facilities on the Outer Continental Shelf-Acquire a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-09

    ...-0045] RIN 1010-AD79 Renewable Energy Alternate Uses of Existing Facilities on the Outer Continental... rule related to acquiring a lease non-competitively for offshore renewable energy projects. DATES... or Timothy Redding, Renewable Energy, BOEM, at (703) 787-1219 or email [email protected

  11. 75 FR 19880 - Safety Zone; BW PIONEER at Walker Ridge 249, Outer Continental Shelf FPSO, Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    ... BW PIONEER, a Floating Production, Storage and Offloading (FPSO) system, at Walker Ridge 249 in the Outer Continental Shelf. The purpose of the safety zone is to protect the FPSO from vessels operating... reduces the threat of allisions, oil spills, and releases of natural gas, and thereby protects the safety...

  12. Sedimentology and geochemistry of surface sediments, outer continental shelf, southern Bering Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, J.V.; Dean, W.E.; Vallier, T.L.

    1980-01-01

    Present-day sediment dynamics, combined with lowerings of sea level during the Pleistocene, have created a mixture of sediments on the outer continental shelf of the southern Bering Sea that was derived from the Alaskan Mainland, the Aleutian Islands, and the Pribilof ridge. Concentrations of finer-grained, higher-organic sediments in the region of the St. George basin have further modified regional distribution patterns of sediment composition. Q-mode factor analysis of 58 variables related to sediment size and composition - including content of major, minor, and trace elements, heavy and light minerals, and clay minerals - reveals three dominant associations of sediment: 1. (1) The most significant contribution, forming a coarse-grained sediment scattered over most of the shelf consists of felsic sediment derived from the generally quartz-rich rocks of the Alaskan mainland. This sediment contains relatively high concentrations of Si, Ba, Rb, quartz, garnet, epidote, metamorphic rock fragments, potassium feldspar, and illite. 2. (2) The next most important group, superimposed on the felsic group consists of andesitic sediment derived from the Aleutian Islands. This more mafic sediment contains relatively high concentrations of Na, Ca, Ti, Sr, V, Mn, Cu, Fe, Al, Co, Zn, Y, Yb, Ga, volcanic rock fragments, glass, clinopyroxene, smectite, and vermiculite. 3. (3) A local group of basaltic sediment, derived from rocks of the Pribilof Islands, is a subgroup of the Aleutian andesite group. Accumulation of fine-grained sediment in St. George basin has created a sediment group containing relatively high concentrations of C, S, U, Li, B, Zr, Ga, Hg, silt, and clay. Sediment of the Aleutian andesite group exhibits a strong gradient, or "plume", with concentrations decreasing away from Unimak Pass and toward St. George basin. The absence of present-day currents sufficient to move even clay-size material as well as the presence of Bering submarine canyon between the Aleutian

  13. Net Heterotrophy in the Amazon Continental Shelf Changes Rapidly to a Sink of CO2 in the Outer Amazon Plume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Lefèvre

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Amazon continental shelf and adjacent oceanic area were sampled for inorganic and organic carbon parameters in order to improve data coverage and understanding of carbon cycling dynamics within this important region. Seasonal coverage of the Amazon plume on the French Guiana continental shelf further north, was provided by CO2 monitoring using a merchant ship sailing from France to French Guiana (2006–2016. Salinity ranged from 1 to 36 (transects in April 2013, and May 2014. At salinity below 10, strong outgassing was observed with fugacity of CO2 (fCO2 over 2,000 μatm. This region displayed net heterotrophy, fueled by organic matter with terrestrial origin, as shown by δ13C and δ15N values of suspended particles. A δ13C cross shelf average of −31% was measured during May 2014, contrasting with oceanic values in excess of −20%. The reactivity of this terrestrial material resulted in the local production of dissolved inorganic and organic carbon as well as fluorescent humic compounds. Further offshore, the dilution of freshwater by ocean waters created a sink for CO2, enhanced by biological activity. The strongest CO2 drawdowns, associated with high chlorophyll a concentrations, were observed on the French Guiana continental shelf in the outer Amazon plume, with fCO2 values below 150 μatm. Here, a CO2 sink was present almost throughout the year, with a seasonal maximum of −9.2 mmol CO2 m−2d−1 observed in June 2015. However, both the CO2 and salinity distributions could vary significantly within a few days, confirming the presence of many eddies in this region. The Amazon continental shelf hence behaved as a transition zone between an inshore source of CO2 to the atmosphere and an offshore sink. Some marine phytoplankton production was detected but occurred mainly close to the French Guiana shelf. A mean net CO2 outgassing of 44 ± 43.6 mmol m−2d−1 was estimated for the area. Quantifying the CO2 flux for the entire Amazon

  14. Chronobiology of deep-water decapod crustaceans on continental margins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguzzi, Jacopo; Company, Joan B

    2010-01-01

    Species have evolved biological rhythms in behaviour and physiology with a 24-h periodicity in order to increase their fitness, anticipating the onset of unfavourable habitat conditions. In marine organisms inhabiting deep-water continental margins (i.e. the submerged outer edges of continents), day-night activity rhythms are often referred to in three ways: vertical water column migrations (i.e. pelagic), horizontal displacements within benthic boundary layer of the continental margin, along bathymetric gradients (i.e. nektobenthic), and endobenthic movements (i.e. rhythmic emergence from the substrate). Many studies have been conducted on crustacean decapods that migrate vertically in the water column, but much less information is available for other endobenthic and nektobenthic species. Also, the types of displacement and major life habits of most marine species are still largely unknown, especially in deep-water continental margins, where steep clines in habitat factors (i.e. light intensity and its spectral quality, sediment characteristics, and hydrography) take place. This is the result of technical difficulties in performing temporally scheduled sampling and laboratory testing on living specimens. According to this scenario, there are several major issues that still need extensive research in deep-water crustacean decapods. First, the regulation of their behaviour and physiology by a biological clock is almost unknown compared to data for coastal species that are easily accessible to direct observation and sampling. Second, biological rhythms may change at different life stages (i.e. size-related variations) or at different moments of the reproductive cycle (e.g. at egg-bearing) based on different intra- and interspecific interactions. Third, there is still a major lack of knowledge on the links that exist among the observed bathymetric distributions of species and selected autoecological traits that are controlled by their biological clock, such as the

  15. Adequacy of environmental information for outer continental shelf oil and gas decisions: Florida and California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The environmental impacts of oil and gas production on the U.S. outer continental shelf (OCS) have been studied and debated for many years. The issues derive from the complexity of coastal and offshore marine processes and ecosystems, human socio-economic systems, and interactions with OCS oil and gas development activities. On Feb. 9, 1989, President Bush announced his decision to postpone leasing for OCS areas off southwestern Florida (sale 116, part 2), northern California (sale 91), and southern California (sale 95). At the same time, the President created a cabinet-level task force to review the environmental concerns for these three OCS areas, and he also requested independent advice from the National Research Council (NRC). The NRC was asked to assess the adequacy of the available scientific and technical information on estimated hydrocarbon resources and potential environmental effects for the three specified areas. The report, by the OCS Committee and its three panels dealing with ecology, physical oceanography, and socioeconomics, reviews the adequacy of information bearing upon the potential environmental impacts of OCS oil and gas activities for the three sale areas

  16. Direct impacts of outer continental shelf activities on wetland loss in the central Gulf of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, R.H.; Turner, R.E.

    1990-01-01

    The direct impacts of outer continental shelf (OCS) development on recent wetland loss in the northern Gulf of Mexico were quantified using aerial imagery, field surveys, and literature review. The total direct impacts accounted for an estimated 25.6 percent of total net wetland loss within the Louisiana portion of the study area from 1955/56 to 1978. Of the total direct impacts of 73,905 ha, OCS-related activities accounted for 11,589-13,631 ha of the wetland loss during the same time interval. Although this is a substantial areal loss, it represents only 4.0-4.7 percent of the total Louisiana wetland loss from 1955/56 to 1978, and 15.7-18.4 percent of direct impacts. Direct impacts from OCS pipelines averages 2.49 ha/km, lower than published guidelines, and totaled 12,012 ha. Lowest impacts are for backfilled pipelines in the Chenier Plain of western Louisiana and for small young pipeline canals does not appear to be an important factor for total new wetland loss in the coastal zone because few pipelines are open to navigation and, for the examples found, the impact width was not significantly different than for open pipelines closed to navigation. Navigation channels account for a minimum of 16,902 ha of habitat change. Direct impacts per unit length of navigation channel average 20 times greater than pipelines

  17. Oil-spill risk analysis: Gulf of Mexico (Proposed Lease Sales 131/135/137) Outer Continental Shelf. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannon, L.J.; LaBelle, R.P.; Lear, E.M.

    1991-09-01

    The Federal Government has proposed to offer Outer Continental Shelf lands in the Gulf of Mexico for oil and gas leasing. Because oil spills may occur from activities associated with offshore oil production, the Minerals Management Service conducts a formal risk assessment. In evaluating the significance of accidental oil spills, it is important to remember that the occurrence of such spills is fundamentally probabilistic. The effects of oil spills that could occur during oil and gas production must be considered. The report summarizes results of an oil spill risk analysis conducted for the proposed Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf Lease Sales 131/135/137. The objective of this analysis was to estimate relative risks associated with oil and gas production for the proposed lease sales

  18. Influence of submarine morphology on bottom water flow across the western Ross Sea continental margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, F.J.; Jacobs, S.S.

    2007-01-01

    Multibeam sonar bathymetry documents a lack of significant channels crossing outer continental shelf and slope of the western Ross Sea. This indicates that movement of bottom water across the shelf break into the deep ocean in this area is mainly by laminar or sheet flow. Subtle, ~20 m deep and up to 1000 m wide channels extend down the continental slope, into tributary drainage patterns on the upper rise, and then major erosional submarine canyons. These down-slope channels may have been formed by episodic pulses of rapid down slope water flow, some recorded on bottom current meters, or by sub-ice melt water erosion from an icesheet grounded at the margin. Narrow, mostly linear furrows on the continental shelf thought to be caused by iceberg scouring are randomly oriented, have widths generally less than 400 m and depths less than 30m, and extend to water depths in excess of 600 m.

  19. Formation waters of the Norwegian Continental Shelf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCartney, R. A.; Rein, E.

    2006-03-15

    New and previously published analyses of formation waters for the Norwegian Continental Shelf (NCS) have been evaluated and interpreted to determine the compositional distribution of formation waters in the region and factors controlling their compositions, and also to obtain information on subsurface fluid flow. Formation waters in the region are Na-Cl and Na-Ca-Cl-type waters that display a wide range of salinity (2500-212000 mg/kg Cl). Generally, the concentrations of most dissolved constituents are positively correlated with Cl so that their distribution in formation waters largely reflects the variations shown by salinity. Exceptions are SO4 which is generally low (less than 40 mg/l) regardless of Cl, and HCO3 and in-situ pH which are negatively correlated with Cl. The main factors determining the compositions of the formation waters are mixing of meteoric water (probably late-Jurassic to Eocene), ancient seawater and primary brine together with diagenetic reactions that have affected each of these components individually as well as mixtures of them. Evaluation of the distribution of salinity has helped us identify where vertical and/or lateral migration of brine from the evaporites has occurred. This has in turn provided us with information on the presence of leak-points and vertical mixing, although further investigation of the location of evaporites and basin palaeohydrogeology are required to determine whether regional lateral advection has occurred in the past. The results of this study may benefit oil exploration and production activities in the NCS including constraint of hydrocarbon migration models, economic evaluation of undrilled prospects, scale management and compartmentalisation studies. (Author)

  20. Outer Continental Shelf Stratigraphic Development and Sand Resource Potential: Integration of New and Legacy Geologic Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, M.; Harris, S.; Luciano, K. E.; Alexander, C. R., Jr.

    2017-12-01

    Following the impact of Hurricane Sandy on the U.S. Atlantic coast in 2012 the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), in cooperation with state partners, instituted several regional offshore resource studies for the near outer continental shelf (OCS) on the US East Coast. This study focuses on a portion of this region, offshore of South Carolina and Georgia, with a primary goal of identifying beach renourishment sands and wind-tower placement locations, and creating a conceptual model of the evolution of the shelf in these areas. New and previously collected data are being used to identify sediment distribution patterns, paleolandscapes, sand resources for beach renourishment projects, and feasible locations for offshore wind installations. New chirp subbottom profiler data ( 1000 km), sidescan sonar data ( 7900km2), magnetometer data ( 1700 km), and multibeam bathymetry data ( 430km2) have been processed and interpreted at the University of Charleston using SonarWiz7, QPS-Qimera and QPS-Fledermaus software suites. Areas of focus for the Atlantic Sand Assessment Program (ASAP) data collection along the SC and GA coast are located within the 3 to 8 nautical mile (nm) OCS offshore of (North to South) Little River, Cape Romain, Folly Beach, Hilton Head, Wassaw, Ossabaw, Jekyll, St. Simons, and Cumberland islands. Ravinement, pre-Holocene, and other seismic surfaces, along with internal geometries, were mapped in these distinctly different tidal and wave regimes. Holocene sediment thickness gradually increases to the south with several sediment wedges in excess of 40 meters thickness. Where mapped, subsurface paleochannels/valleys were identified and analyzed for their orientation and complexity, as well as their size and distribution. These paleochannels are more numerous and increasingly complex in the southern survey areas. The channels are possibly related to transgressive channeling, Pleistocene low-stand river channeling, and braided stream formation during

  1. Atlantic Offshore Seabird Dataset Catalog, Atlantic Coast and Outer Continental Shelf, from 1938-01-01 to 2013-12-31 (NODC Accession 0115356)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Several bureaus within the Department of Interior compiled available information from seabird observation datasets from the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf into a...

  2. Oil-spill risk analysis: Central and western Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf, Lease Sales 139 and 141. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, W.R.; Lear, E.M.

    1992-02-01

    The Federal Government has proposed to offer Outer Continental Shelf lands in the Gulf of Mexico for oil and gas leasing. Because oil spills may occur from activities associated with offshore oil production, the Minerals Management Service conducts a formal risk assessment. The effects of oil spills that could occur during oil and gas production must be considered. The report summarizes results of an oil spill risk analysis conducted for the proposed Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf Lease Sales 139 and 141

  3. Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf daily oil and gas production rate projections from 1999 through 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melancon, J.M.; Baud, R.D.

    1999-02-01

    This paper provides daily oil and gas production rate projections for the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) for the years 1999 through 2003. These projections represent daily oil and gas production estimates at calendar year end. In this report, daily oil production rates include both oil and condensate production, and daily gas production rates include both associated and nonassociated gas production. In addition to providing daily oil and gas production rate projections, the authors have included one figure and one table pertaining to leasing history and one table concerning exploration and development plan approvals

  4. Gulf of Mexico outer continental shelf daily oil and gas production rare projections from 1998 through 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melancon, J.M.; Roby, D.S.

    1998-02-01

    This paper provides daily oil and gas production rate projections for the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) for the years 1998 through 2002. These projections represent daily oil and gas production estimates at calendar year end. In this report, daily oil production rates include both oil and condensate production, and daily gas production rates include both associated and nonassociated gas production. In addition to providing daily oil and gas production rate projections, the authors have included one figure and one table pertaining to leasing history and one table concerning exploration and development plan approvals

  5. Movement and effects of spilled oil over the outer continental shelf; inadequacy of existent data for the Baltimore Canyon Trough area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knebel, Harley J.

    1974-01-01

    A deductive approach to the problem of determining the movement and effects of spilled oil over the Outer Continental Shelf requires that the potential paths of oil be determined first, in order that critical subareas may be defined for later studies. The paths of spilled oil, in turn, depend primarily on the temporal and spatial variability of four factors: the thermohaline structure of the waters, the circulation of the water, the winds, and the distribution of suspended matter. A review of the existent data concerning these factors for the Baltimore Canyon Trough area (a relatively well studied segment of the Continental Shelf) reveals that the movement and dispersal of potential oil spills cannot be reliably predicted. Variations in the thermohaline structure of waters and in the distribution of suspended matter are adequately known; the uncertainty is due to insufficient wind and storm statistics and to the lack of quantitative understanding of the relationship between the nontidal drift and its basic driving mechanisms. Similar inadequacies should be anticipated for other potentially leasable areas of the shelf because an understanding of the movement of spilled oil has not been the underlying aim of most previous studies.

  6. Trophic model of the outer continental shelf and upper slope demersal community of the southeastern Brazilian Bight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela C. Nascimento

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available It is increasingly recognized that demersal communities are important for the functioning of continental shelf and slope ecosystems around the world, including tropical regions. Demersal communities are most prominent in areas of high detritus production and transport, and they link benthic and pelagic biological communities. To understand the structure and role of the demersal community on the southeastern Brazilian Bight, we constructed a trophodynamic model with 37 functional groups to represent the demersal community of the outer continental shelf and upper slope of this area, using the Ecopath with Ecosim 6 (EwE approach and software. The model indicates high production and biomass of detritus and benthic invertebrates, and strong linkages of these components to demersal and pelagic sub-webs. The level of omnivory indexes in this ecosystem was high, forming a highly connected trophic web reminiscent of tropical land areas. Although high levels of ascendency may indicate resistance and resilience to disturbance, recent and present fisheries trends are probably degrading the biological community and related ecosystem services.

  7. Coupling between the continental carbon and water cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentine, P.; Lemordant, L. A.; Green, J. K.

    2017-12-01

    The continental carbon adn water cycles are fundamentally coupled through leaf gas exchange at the stomata level. IN this presnetation we will emphasize the importance of this coupling for the future of the water cycle (runoff, evaporation, soil moisture) and in turn the implications for the carbon cycle and the capacity of continents to act as a carbon dioxyde sink in the future. Opprtunites from coupled carbon-water monitoring platforms will be then emphasized.

  8. Water and Volatiles in the Outer Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasset, O.; Castillo-Rogez, J.; Guillot, T.; Fletcher, L. N.; Tosi, F.

    2017-10-01

    Space exploration and ground-based observations have provided outstanding evidence of the diversity and the complexity of the outer solar system. This work presents our current understanding of the nature and distribution of water and water-rich materials from the water snow line to the Kuiper Belt. This synthesis is timely, since a thorough exploration of at least one object in each region of the outer solar system has now been achieved. Next steps, starting with the Juno mission now in orbit around Jupiter, will be more focused on understanding the processes at work than on describing the general characteristics of each giant planet systems. This review is organized in three parts. First, the nature and the distribution of water and volatiles in giant and intermediary planets are described from their inner core to their outer envelopes. A special focus is given to Jupiter and Saturn, which are much better understood than the two ice giants (Uranus and Neptune) thanks to the Galileo and Cassini missions. Second, the icy moons will be discussed. Space missions and ground-based observations have revealed the variety of icy surfaces in the outer system. While Europa, Enceladus, and maybe Titan present past or even active tectonic and volcanic activities, many other moons have been dead worlds for more than 3 billion years. Ice compositions found at these bodies are also complex and it is now commonly admitted that icy surfaces are never composed of pure ices. A detailed review of the distribution of non-ice materials on the surfaces and in the tenuous atmospheres of the moons is proposed, followed by a more focused discussion on the nature and the characteristics of the liquid layers trapped below the cold icy crusts that have been suggested in the icy Galilean moons, and in Enceladus, Dione, and Titan at Saturn. Finally, the recent observations collected by Dawn at Ceres and New Horizons at Pluto, as well as the state of knowledge of other transneptunian objects

  9. 77 FR 75656 - Research Lease for Renewable Energy on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Offshore Virginia...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-21

    ..., its potential environmental consequences, and the use of the area in which the proposed project would..., including wind velocities, water levels, waves, and bird and bat activities, to support the future... DMME research project and any potential impacts that the project may have. BOEM will consider comments...

  10. Changes in continental Europe water cycle in a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouholahnejad, Elham; Schirmer, Mario; Abbaspour, Karim

    2015-04-01

    Changes in atmospheric water vapor content provide strong evidence that the water cycle is already responding to a warming climate. According to IPCC's last report on Climate Change (AR5), the water cycle is expected to intensify in a warmer climate as the atmosphere can hold more water vapor. This changes the frequency of precipitation extremes, increases evaporation and dry periods, and effects the water redistribution in land. This process is represented by most global climate models (GCMs) by increased summer dryness and winter wetness over large areas of continental mid to high latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere, associated with a reduction in water availability at continental scale. Observing changes in precipitation and evaporation directly and at continental scale is difficult, because most of the exchange of fresh water between the atmosphere and the surface happens the oceans. Long term precipitation records are available only from over the land and there are no measurement of evaporation or redistribution of precipitation over the land area. On the other hand, understanding the extent of climate change effects on various components of the water cycle is of strategic importance for public, private sectors, and policy makers when it comes to fresh water management. In order to better understand the extent of climate change impacts on water resources of continental Europe, we developed a distributed hydrological model of Europe at high spatial and temporal resolution using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). The hydrological model was calibrated for 1970 to 2006 using daily observation of streamflow and nitrate loads from 360 gauging stations across Europe. A vegetation growth routine was added to the model to better simulate evapotranspiration. The model results were calibrated with available agricultural crop yield data from other sources. As of future climate scenarios, we used the ISI-MIP project results which provides bias-corrected climate

  11. Seabed fluid expulsion along the upper slope and outer shelf of the U.S. Atlantic continental margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothers, D.S.; Ruppel, C.; Kluesner, J.W.; ten Brink, Uri S.; Chaytor, J.D.; Hill, J.C.; Andrews, B.D.; Flores, C.

    2014-01-01

    Identifying the spatial distribution of seabed fluid expulsion features is crucial for understanding the substrate plumbing system of any continental margin. A 1100 km stretch of the U.S. Atlantic margin contains more than 5000 pockmarks at water depths of 120 m (shelf edge) to 700 m (upper slope), mostly updip of the contemporary gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ). Advanced attribute analyses of high-resolution multichannel seismic reflection data reveal gas-charged sediment and probable fluid chimneys beneath pockmark fields. A series of enhanced reflectors, inferred to represent hydrate-bearing sediments, occur within the GHSZ. Differential sediment loading at the shelf edge and warming-induced gas hydrate dissociation along the upper slope are the proposed mechanisms that led to transient changes in substrate pore fluid overpressure, vertical fluid/gas migration, and pockmark formation.

  12. Oil-Spill Analysis: Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Lease Sales, Eastern Planning Area, 2003-2007 and Gulfwide OCS Program, 2003-2042

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-09-01

    The Federal Government plans to offer U.S. Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) lands in the Eastern Planning Area of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) for oil and gas leasing. This report summarizes results of that analysis, the objective of which was to estimate the risk of oil-spill contact to sensitive offshore and onshore environmental resources and socioeconomic features from oil spills accidentally occurring from the OCS activities.

  13. Human Water Use Impacts on the Strength of the Continental Sink for Atmospheric Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keune, Jessica; Sulis, Mauro; Kollet, Stefan; Siebert, Stefan; Wada, Yoshihide

    2018-05-01

    In the hydrologic cycle, continental landmasses constitute a sink for atmospheric moisture as annual terrestrial precipitation commonly exceeds evapotranspiration. Simultaneously, humans intervene in the hydrologic cycle and pump groundwater to sustain, for example, drinking water and food production. Here we use a coupled groundwater-to-atmosphere modeling platform, set up over the European continent, to study the influence of groundwater pumping and irrigation on the net atmospheric moisture import of the continental landmasses, which defines the strength of the continental sink. Water use scenarios are constructed to account for uncertainties of atmospheric feedback during the heatwave year 2003. We find that human water use induces groundwater-to-atmosphere feedback, which potentially weaken the continental sink over arid watersheds in southern Europe. This feedback is linked to groundwater storage, which suggests that atmospheric feedbacks to human water use may contribute to drying of watersheds, thereby raising water resources and socio-economic concerns beyond local sustainability considerations.

  14. An oilspill risk analysis for the Gulf of Mexico outer continental shelf lease area; regional environmental impact statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBelle, R.P.

    1982-01-01

    An oilspill risk analysis was conducted for the Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf (OCS)lease area region. Results of the analysis can be used to determine relative risks associated with oil production in different regions to be offered in OCS Lease Sales 72, 74, and 79. The analysis considered the probability of spill occurrences based on historical trends; likely movement of oil slicks based on a climatological model; and locations of major environmental resources which could be vulnerable to spilled oil. The times between spill occurrence and contact with resources were estimated to aid in estimating slick characteristics. Critical assumptions made for this particular analysis were (1) that oil exists in the lease area, and (2) that oil will be, found and produced from tracts sold in sales 72, 74, and 79. On the basis of a most likely resource estimate of 241 million barrels of oil to be produced over an 18-year production life from sales to be held in 1983 (sales 72, 74, 79), it was calculated that approximately one oilspill of 1,000 barrels or larger will occur. The estimated probability that one or more oilspills of 1,000 barrels or larger will occur and contact land after being at sea less than 30 days is 41-percent. For a high resource estimate case of sales to be held in 1983, 717 million barrels are estimated to be produced over an 18-year production life with an 83-percent chance of one or more spills of 1,000 barrels or larger occurring and contacting land within 30 days. These results depend upon the routes and methods chosen to transport oil from OCS platforms to shore. Given a total development scenario in which 5.6 billion barrels of oil are estimated to be present and produced, it was calculated that 18 oilspills of 1,000 barrels or larger will occur over the 40-year production life of the proposed lease area. The estimated probability that one or more oilspills of 1,000 barrels or larger will occur and contact land after being at sea less than

  15. Uncertainty in Analyzed Water and Energy Budgets at Continental Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Robertson, F. R.; Mocko, D.; Chen, J.

    2011-01-01

    Operational analyses and retrospective-analyses provide all the physical terms of mater and energy budgets, guided by the assimilation of atmospheric observations. However, there is significant reliance on the numerical models, and so, uncertainty in the budget terms is always present. Here, we use a recently developed data set consisting of a mix of 10 analyses (both operational and retrospective) to quantify the uncertainty of analyzed water and energy budget terms for GEWEX continental-scale regions, following the evaluation of Dr. John Roads using individual reanalyses data sets.

  16. Numerical modeling of oil spills in continental and estuarine waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goeury, C.

    2012-10-01

    The application of the European Water Framework Directive on water quality for human consumption and industrial activities creates a need for water quality assessment and monitoring systems. The MIGR'HYCAR research project (http://www.migrhycar.com) was initiated to provide decisional tools for risks connected to oil spills in continental waters (rivers, lakes and estuaries), which represent more than 50% of accidental spills in France. Within the framework of this project, a new numerical oil spill model has been developed, as part of the TELEMAC hydro-informatics system (http://www.opentelemac.org), by combining Lagrangian and Eulerian methods. The Lagrangian model describes the transport of an oil spill near the free surface. The oil spill model enables to simulate the main processes driving oil plumes: advection, diffusion, oil beaching, oil re-floating, evaporation, dissolution, spreading and volatilization. Though generally considered as a minor process, dissolution is important from the point of view of toxicity. To model dissolved oil in water, an Eulerian advection-diffusion model is used. The fraction of dissolved oil is represented by a passive tracer. This approach is able to follow dissolved hydrocarbons in the water column. Laboratory experiments were conducted to characterise the numerous kinetics of the processes listed above. In addition, meso-scale dynamic experiments in artificial channels and test cases derived from the literature are used to validate the numerical model. (author)

  17. Global multi-scale segmentation of continental and coastal waters from the watersheds to the continental margins

    KAUST Repository

    Laruelle, G. G.; Dü rr, H. H.; Lauerwald, R.; Hartmann, J.; Slomp, C. P.; Regnier, P. A. G.

    2012-01-01

    files. Our analysis provides detailed insights into the distributions of coastal and continental shelf areas and how they connect with incoming riverine fluxes. The segmentation is also used to re-evaluate the global estuarine CO2 flux at the air–water interface combining global and regional average emission rates derived from local studies.

  18. 76 FR 30956 - Outer Continental Shelf, Alaska OCS Region, Chukchi Sea Planning Area, Oil and Gas Lease Sale 193

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ... Point Hope et al., v. Salazar, No. 1:08-cv-00004-RRB (D. Alaska)]. The sale was conducted in February... Continental Shelf, Alaska OCS Region, Chukchi Sea Planning Area, Oil and Gas Lease Sale 193 AGENCY: Bureau of...: BOEMRE announces the availability of a Revised Draft SEIS, OCS Oil and Gas Lease Sale 193, Chukchi Sea...

  19. 75 FR 16830 - Geological and Geophysical Exploration (G&G) on the Mid- and South Atlantic Outer Continental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Minerals Management Service Geological and Geophysical Exploration (G&G..., geological and geochemical sampling, and remote sensing. These activities could support siting needs for... Continental Shelf (see http://www.mms.gov/ld/PDFs/GreenBook-LeasingDocument.pdf ) and MMS's Geological and...

  20. 78 FR 45557 - Gulf of Mexico, Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Western Planning Area (WPA) Oil and Gas Lease Sale...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ... Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (WPA 233/ CPA 231 Supplemental EIS). WPA Lease Sale 233, scheduled... EIS evaluated the environmental and socioeconomic impacts for WPA Lease Sale 233. SUPPLEMENTARY... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Ocean Energy Management [MMAA104000] Gulf of Mexico, Outer...

  1. 76 FR 70478 - Gulf of Mexico (GOM), Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Western Planning Area (WPA), Oil and Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Gulf of Mexico (GOM), Outer... studies, NEPA analysis, resource evaluation, economic analysis, and renewable energy. BSEE is responsible... Program AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), Interior. ACTION: Notice of Availability (NOA...

  2. Total water content thresholds for shallow landslides, Outer Western Carpathians

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bil, M.; Andrašík, R.; Zahradníček, Pavel; Kubeček, J.; Sedonik, J.; Štěpánek, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 2 (2016), s. 337-347 ISSN 1612-510X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-19831S; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0248 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : data quality -control * debris flows * rainfall thresholds * equivalent * depth * failures * example * europe * model * Landslides * Threshold * Snowmelt * Time series * Antecedent rainfall * Outer Western Carpathians Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.657, year: 2016

  3. Munitions and Explosives of Concern Survey Methodology and In-field Testing for Wind Energy Areas on the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuVal, C.; Carton, G.; Trembanis, A. C.; Edwards, M.; Miller, J. K.

    2017-12-01

    Munitions and explosives of concern (MEC) are present in U.S. waters as a result of past and ongoing live-fire testing and training, combat operations, and sea disposal. To identify MEC that may pose a risk to human safety during development of offshore wind facilities on the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) is preparing to develop guidance on risk analysis and selection processes for methods and technologies to identify MEC in Wind Energy Areas (WEA). This study developed a process for selecting appropriate technologies and methodologies for MEC detection using a synthesis of historical research, physical site characterization, remote sensing technology review, and in-field trials. Personnel were tasked with seeding a portion of the Delaware WEA with munitions surrogates, while a second group of researchers not privy to the surrogate locations tested and optimized the selected methodology to find and identify the placed targets. This in-field trial, conducted in July 2016, emphasized the use of multiple sensors for MEC detection, and led to further guidance for future MEC detection efforts on the Atlantic OCS. An April 2017 follow on study determined the fate of the munitions surrogates after the Atlantic storm season had passed. Using regional hydrodynamic models and incorporating the recommendations from the 2016 field trial, the follow on study examined the fate of the MEC and compared the findings to existing research on munitions mobility, as well as models developed as part of the Office of Naval Research Mine-Burial Program. Focus was given to characterizing the influence of sediment type on surrogate munitions behavior and the influence of mophodynamics and object burial on MEC detection. Supporting Mine-Burial models, ripple bedforms were observed to impede surrogate scour and burial in coarse sediments, while surrogate burial was both predicted and observed in finer sediments. Further, incorporation of

  4. Integrating remotely sensed surface water extent into continental scale hydrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revilla-Romero, Beatriz; Wanders, Niko; Burek, Peter; Salamon, Peter; de Roo, Ad

    2016-12-01

    In hydrological forecasting, data assimilation techniques are employed to improve estimates of initial conditions to update incorrect model states with observational data. However, the limited availability of continuous and up-to-date ground streamflow data is one of the main constraints for large-scale flood forecasting models. This is the first study that assess the impact of assimilating daily remotely sensed surface water extent at a 0.1° × 0.1° spatial resolution derived from the Global Flood Detection System (GFDS) into a global rainfall-runoff including large ungauged areas at the continental spatial scale in Africa and South America. Surface water extent is observed using a range of passive microwave remote sensors. The methodology uses the brightness temperature as water bodies have a lower emissivity. In a time series, the satellite signal is expected to vary with changes in water surface, and anomalies can be correlated with flood events. The Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) is a Monte-Carlo implementation of data assimilation and used here by applying random sampling perturbations to the precipitation inputs to account for uncertainty obtaining ensemble streamflow simulations from the LISFLOOD model. Results of the updated streamflow simulation are compared to baseline simulations, without assimilation of the satellite-derived surface water extent. Validation is done in over 100 in situ river gauges using daily streamflow observations in the African and South American continent over a one year period. Some of the more commonly used metrics in hydrology were calculated: KGE', NSE, PBIAS%, R 2 , RMSE, and VE. Results show that, for example, NSE score improved on 61 out of 101 stations obtaining significant improvements in both the timing and volume of the flow peaks. Whereas the validation at gauges located in lowland jungle obtained poorest performance mainly due to the closed forest influence on the satellite signal retrieval. The conclusion is that

  5. Global multi-scale segmentation of continental and coastal waters from the watersheds to the continental margins

    KAUST Repository

    Laruelle, G. G.; Dü rr, H. H.; Lauerwald, R.; Hartmann, J.; Slomp, C. P.; Goossens, N.; Regnier, P. A. G.

    2013-01-01

    Past characterizations of the land-ocean continuum were constructed either from a continental perspective through an analysis of watershed river basin properties (COSCATs: COastal Segmentation and related CATchments) or from an oceanic perspective, through a regionalization of the proximal and distal continental margins (LMEs: large marine ecosystems). Here, we present a global-scale coastal segmentation, composed of three consistent levels, that includes the whole aquatic continuum with its riverine, estuarine and shelf sea components. Our work delineates comprehensive ensembles by harmonizing previous segmentations and typologies in order to retain the most important physical characteristics of both the land and shelf areas. The proposed multi-scale segmentation results in a distribution of global exorheic watersheds, estuaries and continental shelf seas among 45 major zones (MARCATS: MARgins and CATchments Segmentation) and 149 sub-units (COSCATs). Geographic and hydrologic parameters such as the surface area, volume and freshwater residence time are calculated for each coastal unit as well as different hypsometric profiles. Our analysis provides detailed insights into the distributions of coastal and continental shelf areas and how they connect with incoming riverine fluxes. The segmentation is also used to re-evaluate the global estuarine CO2 flux at the air-water interface combining global and regional average emission rates derived from local studies. © 2013 Author(s).

  6. Global multi-scale segmentation of continental and coastal waters from the watersheds to the continental margins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Laruelle

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Past characterizations of the land–ocean continuum were constructed either from a continental perspective through an analysis of watershed river basin properties (COSCATs: COastal Segmentation and related CATchments or from an oceanic perspective, through a regionalization of the proximal and distal continental margins (LMEs: large marine ecosystems. Here, we present a global-scale coastal segmentation, composed of three consistent levels, that includes the whole aquatic continuum with its riverine, estuarine and shelf sea components. Our work delineates comprehensive ensembles by harmonizing previous segmentations and typologies in order to retain the most important physical characteristics of both the land and shelf areas. The proposed multi-scale segmentation results in a distribution of global exorheic watersheds, estuaries and continental shelf seas among 45 major zones (MARCATS: MARgins and CATchments Segmentation and 149 sub-units (COSCATs. Geographic and hydrologic parameters such as the surface area, volume and freshwater residence time are calculated for each coastal unit as well as different hypsometric profiles. Our analysis provides detailed insights into the distributions of coastal and continental shelf areas and how they connect with incoming riverine fluxes. The segmentation is also used to re-evaluate the global estuarine CO2 flux at the air–water interface combining global and regional average emission rates derived from local studies.

  7. Global multi-scale segmentation of continental and coastal waters from the watersheds to the continental margins

    KAUST Repository

    Laruelle, G. G.

    2012-10-04

    Past characterizations of the land–ocean continuum were constructed either from a continental perspective through an analysis of watershed river basin properties (COSCATs: COastal Segmentation and related CATchments) or from an oceanic perspective, through a regionalization of the proximal and distal continental margins (LMEs: large marine ecosystems). Here, we present a global-scale coastal segmentation, composed of three consistent levels, that includes the whole aquatic continuum with its riverine, estuarine and shelf sea components. Our work delineates comprehensive ensembles by harmonizing previous segmentations and typologies in order to retain the most important physical characteristics of both the land and shelf areas. The proposed multi-scale segmentation results in a distribution of global exorheic watersheds, estuaries and continental shelf seas among 45 major zones (MARCATS: MARgins and CATchments Segmentation) and 149 sub-units (COSCATs). Geographic and hydrologic parameters such as the surface area, volume and freshwater residence time are calculated for each coastal unit as well as different hypsometric pro- files. Our analysis provides detailed insights into the distributions of coastal and continental shelf areas and how they connect with incoming riverine fluxes. The segmentation is also used to re-evaluate the global estuarine CO2 flux at the air–water interface combining global and regional average emission rates derived from local studies.

  8. Global multi-scale segmentation of continental and coastal waters from the watersheds to the continental margins

    KAUST Repository

    Laruelle, G. G.

    2013-05-29

    Past characterizations of the land-ocean continuum were constructed either from a continental perspective through an analysis of watershed river basin properties (COSCATs: COastal Segmentation and related CATchments) or from an oceanic perspective, through a regionalization of the proximal and distal continental margins (LMEs: large marine ecosystems). Here, we present a global-scale coastal segmentation, composed of three consistent levels, that includes the whole aquatic continuum with its riverine, estuarine and shelf sea components. Our work delineates comprehensive ensembles by harmonizing previous segmentations and typologies in order to retain the most important physical characteristics of both the land and shelf areas. The proposed multi-scale segmentation results in a distribution of global exorheic watersheds, estuaries and continental shelf seas among 45 major zones (MARCATS: MARgins and CATchments Segmentation) and 149 sub-units (COSCATs). Geographic and hydrologic parameters such as the surface area, volume and freshwater residence time are calculated for each coastal unit as well as different hypsometric profiles. Our analysis provides detailed insights into the distributions of coastal and continental shelf areas and how they connect with incoming riverine fluxes. The segmentation is also used to re-evaluate the global estuarine CO2 flux at the air-water interface combining global and regional average emission rates derived from local studies. © 2013 Author(s).

  9. 78 FR 45558 - Western Gulf of Mexico Planning Area (WPA) Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Oil and Gas Lease Sale...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ... meters Initial period 0 to $25.00 per acre or fraction thereof for blocks in water depths less than 400 meters $100.00 per acre or fraction thereof for blocks in water depths of 400 meters or deeper BOEM will... specified minimum bid of $25.00 per acre or fraction thereof for blocks in water depths less than 400 meters...

  10. 78 FR 9420 - Central Gulf of Mexico Planning Area (CPA) Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Oil and Gas Lease Sale 227

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ... less than 400 meters. $100.00 per acre or fraction thereof for blocks in water depths of 400 meters or... less than 400 meters, and $100.00 per acre or fraction thereof for blocks in water depths of 400 meters... leases in 0 to less than 400 meters of water depth completed to a drilling depth of 20,000 feet TVD SS or...

  11. 77 FR 65408 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Western Planning Area (WPA) Gulf of Mexico (GOM) Oil and Gas Lease...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-26

    ... leases in depths less than 400 meters with an initial period longer than 5 years, royalty rates, minimum... $25.00 per acre or fraction thereof for blocks in water depths of less than 400 meters. $100.00 per acre or fraction thereof for blocks in water depths of 400 meters or deeper. Rental Rates Annual rental...

  12. 76 FR 70473 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Western Planning Area (WPA) Gulf of Mexico (GOM) Oil and Gas Lease...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-14

    ... period of the lease term for blocks in water depths of 400 meters to less than 1,600 meters, (2) the minimum bonus bid has increased for blocks in water depths of 400 meters or deeper, (3) no deepwater... meters and (2) 400 meters or more. Successful Bidders: The BOEM requires each company that has been...

  13. 77 FR 5039 - Accommodation Service Provided on Vessels Engaged in U.S. Outer Continental Shelf Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    ... this context, we note that neither Coast Guard nor international standards for MODUs, OSVs, cargo and... accommodation vessel Jupiter 1 with over 700 persons aboard in relatively shallow, calm water in the Bay of... worse had it occurred in deep water, far from shore and rescue assets, or in more severe environmental...

  14. 77 FR 10711 - Safety Zone; KULLUK, Outer Continental Shelf Mobile Offshore Drilling Unit (MODU), Beaufort Sea, AK

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-23

    ... environment given the sensitivity of the environmental and subsistence importance to the indigenous population... Shelf and its distance from both land and safety fairways. Vessels traversing waters near the proposed...

  15. 75 FR 6874 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Central Planning Area (CPA) Gulf of Mexico (GOM) Oil and Gas Lease...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-12

    ... for blocks in water depths of 400 meters to less than 1,600 meters. Blocks in 400 to less than 800... resulting from this lease sale. Leases in water depths of 400 meters to less than 800 meters will be offered... still may require the full 10-year term. In both the 400-800 and 800-1,600 meter cases, the lease...

  16. 77 FR 5820 - Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf Offshore Massachusetts-Call for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ... submitting such information as a separate attachment. Treatment of confidential information is addressed in... the cliffs, changes to sediment transport, and impacts to grey seal breeding areas (Muskeget being... and pursue measures to minimize and fully mitigate impacts to tribal cultural, wildlife, water and...

  17. 78 FR 52239 - Oil and Gas and Sulphur Operations on the Outer Continental Shelf-Oil and Gas Production Safety...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-22

    ...] Electronic-based emergency shutdown systems (ESDs); [cir] Valve closure timing; [cir] Valve leakage rates... assembly of valves, gauges, and chokes mounted on a well casinghead used to control the production and flow of oil or gas. Dry tree completions are the standard for OCS shallow water platforms, with the tree...

  18. 75 FR 26091 - Safety Zone; Riser for DEEPWATER HORIZON at Mississippi Canyon 252 Outer Continental Shelf MODU...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ... the Gulf of Mexico AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is... personnel involved in oil pollution response efforts. Placing a safety zone around the riser will... the water's surface and subsurface. DATES: Effective Date: This rule is effective in the CFR on May 11...

  19. 77 FR 29683 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Consolidated Central Gulf of Mexico Planning Area Sale; 216/222

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    ... than 400 meters of water depth completed to a drilling depth of 20,000 feet TVD SS or deeper may... are specified as (1) less than 400 meters and (2) 400 meters or more. Successful Bidders: BOEM... summarized in the following table: [[Page 29686

  20. Temporal variability of the Circumpolar Deep Water inflow onto the Ross Sea continental shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castagno, Pasquale; Falco, Pierpaolo; Dinniman, Michael S.; Spezie, Giancarlo; Budillon, Giorgio

    2017-02-01

    The intrusion of Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW) is the primary source of heat, salt and nutrients onto Antarctica's continental shelves and plays a major role in the shelf physical and biological processes. Different studies have analyzed the processes responsible for the transport of CDW across the Ross Sea shelf break, but until now, there are no continuous observations that investigate the timing of the intrusions. Also, few works have focused on the effect of the tides that control these intrusions. In the Ross Sea, the CDW intrudes onto the shelf in several locations, but mostly along the troughs. We use hydrographic observations and a mooring placed on the outer shelf in the middle of the Drygalski Trough in order to characterize the spatial and temporal variability of CDW inflow onto the shelf. Our data span from 2004 to the beginning of 2014. In the Drygalski Trough, the CDW enters as a 150 m thick layer between 250 and 400 m, and moves upward towards the south. At the mooring location, about 50 km from the shelf break, two main CDW cores can be observed: one on the east side of the trough spreading along the west slope of Mawson Bank from about 200 m to the bottom and the other one in the central-west side from 200 m to about 350 m depth. A signature of this lighter and relatively warm water is detected by the instruments on the mooring at bottom of the Drygalski Trough. High frequency periodic CDW intrusion at the bottom of the trough is related to the diurnal and spring/neap tidal cycles. At lower frequency, a seasonal variability of the CDW intrusion is noticed. A strong inflow of CDW is observed every year at the end of December, while the CDW inflow is at its seasonal minimum during the beginning of the austral fall. In addition an interannual variability is also evident. A change of the CDW intrusion before and after 2010 is observed.

  1. Impact of climate forcing uncertainty and human water use on global and continental water balance components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Müller Schmied

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of water balance components using global hydrological models is subject to climate forcing uncertainty as well as to an increasing intensity of human water use within the 20th century. The uncertainty of five state-of-the-art climate forcings and the resulting range of cell runoff that is simulated by the global hydrological model WaterGAP is presented. On the global land surface, about 62 % of precipitation evapotranspires, whereas 38 % discharges into oceans and inland sinks. During 1971–2000, evapotranspiration due to human water use amounted to almost 1 % of precipitation, while this anthropogenic water flow increased by a factor of approximately 5 between 1901 and 2010. Deviation of estimated global discharge from the ensemble mean due to climate forcing uncertainty is approximately 4 %. Precipitation uncertainty is the most important reason for the uncertainty of discharge and evapotranspiration, followed by shortwave downward radiation. At continental levels, deviations of water balance components due to uncertain climate forcing are higher, with the highest discharge deviations occurring for river discharge in Africa (−6 to 11 % from the ensemble mean. Uncertain climate forcings also affect the estimation of irrigation water use and thus the estimated human impact of river discharge. The uncertainty range of global irrigation water consumption amounts to approximately 50 % of the global sum of water consumption in the other water use sector.

  2. Transport and transfer rates in the waters of the continental shelf. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biscaye, P.E.

    1980-09-01

    The goal of govern project is to understand and quantify the processes that the transport and dispersal of energy-related pollutants introduced to the waters of the continental shelf and slope. The report is divided into sections dealing with processes associated with suspended solids; processes associated with sediments sinks for radionuclides and other pollutants; and spreading of water characteristics and species in solution

  3. The European water framework directive: A challenge for nearshore, coastal and continental shelf research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borja, Ángel

    2005-09-01

    The European Water Framework Directive (WFD) establishes a framework for the protection of groundwater, inland surface waters, estuarine waters, and coastal waters. The WFD constitutes a new view of the water resources management in Europe because, for the first time, water management is: (i) based mainly upon biological and ecological elements, with ecosystems being at the centre of the management decisions; (ii) applied to European water bodies, as a whole; and (iii) based upon the whole river basin, including also the adjacent coastal area. Although the marine water bodies affected by the WFD relate to only 19.8% of the whole of the European continental shelf, its application constitutes a challenge and an opportunity in nearshore, coastal and continental shelf research. This contribution highlights some of the main tasks and the research to be undertaken in the coming years, proposing investigations into: typologies; physico-chemical processes; indicator species; reference conditions; integration of the quality assessment; methodologies in determining ecological status, etc.

  4. Distribution of marine birds on the mid- and North-Atlantic US outer continental shelf. Technical progress report, January 1978-July 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, K.D.; Pittman, G.L.; Fitch, S.J.

    1980-09-01

    The species composition, distribution, and abundance of marine birds on continental shelf waters from Cape Hatteras to the Bay of Fundy were examined using ships-of-opportunity. Northern Fulmar, Cory's Shearwater, Greater Shearwater, Sooty Shearwater, Wilson's Storm-Petrel, Gannet, Red Phalarope, Great Black-backed Gull, Herring Gull, and Black-legged Kittiwake were the most abundant and common species. These species were ecologically dominant within the bird community in numbers and biomass. Georges Bank and Gulf of Marine regions generally had greatest estimates of standing stock and biomass; whereas, in the Middle Atlantic region these estimates were consistently lowest. Species diversity throughout the study area was greatest in spring and least in fall. Oceanic fronts at the continental shelf break and at Nantucket Shoals influenced the distribution of Wilson's Storm-Petrels and Red Phalaropes. Fishing activities were particularly important to Larus gull distribution. Fishes, squids, and crustaceans were the most important groups of prey items in diets of nine bird species. An oiled bird or pollution index was developed. According to the index, frequency of oiled birds was greatest in winter and spring, and gulls made up the majority of species with oiled plumages.

  5. High water content in primitive continental flood basalts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Qun-Ke; Bi, Yao; Li, Pei; Tian, Wei; Wei, Xun; Chen, Han-Lin

    2016-05-04

    As the main constituent of large igneous provinces, the generation of continental flood basalts (CFB) that are characterized by huge eruption volume (>10(5) km(3)) within short time span (primitive CFB in the early Permian Tarim large igneous province (NW China), using the H2O content of ten early-formed clinopyroxene (cpx) crystals that recorded the composition of the primitive Tarim basaltic melts and the partition coefficient of H2O between cpx and basaltic melt. The arc-like H2O content (4.82 ± 1.00 wt.%) provides the first clear evidence that H2O plays an important role in the generation of CFB.

  6. Comment on “Large-scale bedforms along a tideless outer shelf setting in the western Mediterranean” by Lo Iacono et al. (2010) in Continental Shelf Research vol 30, pp. 1802-1813

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flemming, B. W.

    2013-01-01

    Lo Iacono et al. (2010) report the discovery of large (but degraded) subaqueous dunes on the outer continental shelf NE of Valencia, western Mediterranean Sea. They argue that the dunes, after having been generated sometime in the past, are being episodically rejuvenated by high-energy flow events to the present day. Because the height vs. wavelength relation of the dunes falls below the global mean trend predicted by the equation of Flemming (1988), they claim to have discovered a new, low-amplitude type of flow-transverse bedform which typically occurs on microtidal current-swept outer continental shelves. A close inspection of the evidence shows that the reasoning of Lo Iacono et al. (2010) is flawed and that their interpretations and conclusions are premature and unjustified.

  7. geochemical characterization the waters of foggaras the continental

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    B. Benaricha, A. Khaldi, A. Elouissi, S. Mouassa, M. Zaagane

    2017-01-01

    Jan 1, 2017 ... supplied by the water of Foggaras system from the underground water ... The fougaras irrigation technique is to install a slightly sloping gallery that drains ..... track their hearts occupied by Triassic salt-bearing rocks , rainwater ...

  8. Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) and the Continental-scale International Project (GCIP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vane, Deborah

    1993-01-01

    A discussion of the objectives of the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) and the Continental-scale International Project (GCIP) is presented in vugraph form. The objectives of GEWEX are as follows: determine the hydrological cycle by global measurements; model the global hydrological cycle; improve observations and data assimilation; and predict response to environmental change. The objectives of GCIP are as follows: determine the time/space variability of the hydrological cycle over a continental-scale region; develop macro-scale hydrologic models that are coupled to atmospheric models; develop information retrieval schemes; and support regional climate change impact assessment.

  9. Water Distribution in the Continental and Oceanic Upper Mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peslier, Anne H.

    2015-01-01

    Nominally anhydrous minerals such as olivine, pyroxene and garnet can accommodate tens to hundreds of ppm H2O in the form of hydrogen bonded to structural oxygen in lattice defects. Although in seemingly small amounts, this water can significantly alter chemical and physical properties of the minerals and rocks. Water in particular can modify their rheological properties and its distribution in the mantle derives from melting and metasomatic processes and lithology repartition (pyroxenite vs peridotite). These effects will be examined here using Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) water analyses on minerals from mantle xenoliths from cratons, plume-influenced cratons and oceanic settings. In particular, our results on xenoliths from three different cratons will be compared. Each craton has a different water distribution and only the mantle root of Kaapvaal has evidence for dry olivine at its base. This challenges the link between olivine water content and survival of Archean cratonic mantle, and questions whether xenoliths are representative of the whole cratonic mantle. We will also present our latest data on Hawaii and Tanzanian craton xenoliths which both suggest the intriguing result that mantle lithosphere is not enriched in water when it interacts with melts from deep mantle upwellings (plumes).

  10. Vegetation physiology controls continental water cycle responses to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemordant, L. A.; Swann, A. L. S.; Cook, B.; Scheff, J.; Gentine, P.

    2017-12-01

    Abstract per se:Predicting how climate change will affect the hydrologic cycle is of utmost importance for ecological systems and for human life and activities. A typical perspective is that global warming will cause an intensification of the mean state, the so-called "dry gets drier, wet gets wetter" paradigm. While this result is robust over the oceans, recent works suggest it may be less appropriate for terrestrial regions. Using Earth System Models (ESMs) with decoupled surface (vegetation physiology, PHYS) and atmospheric (radiative, ATMO) CO2 responses, we show that the CO2 physiological response dominates the change in the continental hydrologic cycle compared to radiative and precipitation changes due to increased atmospheric CO2, counter to previous assumptions. Using multiple linear regression analysis, we estimate the individual contribution of each of the three main drivers, precipitation, radiation and physiological CO2 forcing (see attached figure). Our analysis reveals that physiological effects dominate changes for 3 key indicators of dryness and/or vegetation stress (namely LAI, P-ET and EF) over the largest fraction of the globe, except for soil moisture which exhibits a more complex response. This highlights the key role of vegetation in controlling future terrestrial hydrologic response.Legend of the Figure attached:Decomposition along the three main drivers of LAI (a), P-ET (b), EF (c) in the control run. Green quantifies the effect of the vegetation physiology based on the run PHYS; red and blue quantify the contribution of, respectively, net radiation and precipitation, based on multiple linear regression in ATMO. Pie charts show for each variable the fraction (labelled in %) of land under the main influence (more than 50% of the changes is attributed to this driver) of one the three main drivers (green for grid points dominated by vegetation physiology, red for grid points dominated by net radiation, and blue for grid points dominated by the

  11. Four contamination indexes for continental waters characterization. Formulation and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, A; Restrepo, R; Vina, G

    1997-01-01

    In this paper four indices of contamination, which qualify different water aspects are presents. Such indices allow for an overall assessment of the environmental status of the water bodies. These indices have been derived from accumulative experiences in hydro biological monitoring in the Colombian Petroleum industry for six years. Multivariable statistics was used. The indices were developed based on legislation from several countries, in accordance with the concentration of the different parameters and water usages. This indices of contamination (ICO) are: ICOMI (mineralization), ICOMO (organics contamination), ICOSUS (suspended solids) and ICOTRO (trophic system). The indices are easy to estimate (mathematically and/or graphically) and allow the identification the type of environmental problem, existing as demonstrated with examples and the near to zero correlations found. Thanks to the minimum number of variables, the application of these indices also diminishes monitoring and evaluation costs. In view of the advantages above mentioned is worth considering integrating the indices in to the national legislation

  12. Fluorescent dissolved organic matter in the continental shelf waters ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM) of southwestern Bay of Bengal surface water during southwest monsoon consisted five fluorophores, three humic-like and two protein-like. The humification index (HIX) and humic fluorophores, viz., visible (C), marine (M) and UV (A) humic-likes indicated, better than ...

  13. Water-fluxed melting of the continental crust: A review

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Weinberg, R. F.; Hasalová, Pavlína

    212-215, January (2015), s. 158-188 ISSN 0024-4937 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : aqueous fluids * crustal anatexis * granites * silicate melts * water-fluxed melting Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 3.723, year: 2015

  14. Uranium, radium and 40K isotopes in bottled mineral waters from Outer Carpathians, Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlowska, B.; Walencik, A.; Dorda, J.; Przylibski, T.A.

    2007-01-01

    Radioactivity content in commercially bottled mineral waters from Outer Carpathians was investigated on the basis of 28 samples. Activity concentration results for radium isotopes 226,228 Ra, uranium isotopes 234,238 U and isotopic ratios 234 U/ 238 U were determined. The correlations between investigated isotopes and calculated potassium 40 K ions dissolved in water were carried out. The results show a correlation between TDS (total dissolved solids) values and dissolved radionuclides. High correlation coefficients were observed between total radium content and 40 K. The isotopic ratio of 234 U/ 238 U varies in the range from 1.6 to 7 in all investigated waters which means that there is no radioactive equilibrium between the parent nuclide 238 U and its daughter 234 U. The effective radiation dose coming from studied radium and uranium radionuclides consumed with mineral water from the Outer Carpathians obtained by a statistical Pole is equal to 4.3μSv/year (58 l/year water consumption) and do not exceed the permissible limit equal to 100μSv/year. Assuming 0.5 l consumption per day, i.e. 182.5 l/year, the effective dose is equal to 13.4μSv/year, what is still below the unit

  15. Transport and transfer rates in the waters of the continental shelf. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biscaye, P.E.; Broecker, W.S.; Feely, H.W.; Gerard, R.D.

    1976-04-01

    The report is to the Energy Research and Development Administration on accomplishments of the Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory geochemistry and physical oceanography groups during the 1975-1976 funding period on grant E(11-1)2185. Goals are to obtain detailed, quantitative knowledge of the rates of mixing within coastal waters of the New York Bight and across the continental slope and the exchange of water masses and species transported within them between shelf and Atlantic Ocean waters. The research is aimed at understanding the chemical, physical, and biological processes which control the origin, dispersal, and fate of particulate matter and trace metals, and to ultimately model the impact of energy related pollutants on the continental shelf

  16. Atlantic water variability on the SE Greenland continental shelf and its relationship to SST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, D. A.; Straneo, F.; Rosing-Asvid, A.; Stenson, G.; Davidson, F. J.; Hammill, M.

    2012-12-01

    Interaction of warm, Atlantic-origin water (AW) and colder, polar origin water (PW) advecting southward in the East Greenland Current (EGC) influences the heat content of water entering Greenland's outlet glacial fjords. Here we use depth and temperature data derived from deep-diving seals to map out water mass variability across the continental shelf and to augment existing bathymetric products. We find two dominant modes in the vertical temperature structure: a cold mode, with the typical AW/PW layering observed in the EGC, and a warm mode, where AW is present throughout the water column. The prevalence of these modes varies seasonally and spatially across the continental shelf, implying distinct AW pathways. In addition, we find that satellite sea surface temperatures (SST) correlate significantly with temperatures in the upper 50 m (R=0.54), but this correlation decreases with depth (R=0.22 at 200 m), and becomes insignificant below 250 m. Thus, care must be taken in using SST as a proxy for heat content, as AW mainly resides in these deeper layers. Regional map showing the location of all seal tracks originating from Canada and Greenland (stars). Tracks passing inside (red) or outside (blue) the SE Greenland region (black) were subdivided into continental shelf regions (green boxes) near Sermilik Fjord (SF), Cape Farewell (CF) and Kangerdlugssuaq Fjord (KG). GEBCO bathymetry is contoured at 200, 1000, 2000, and 3000 m.

  17. Origin, behaviour and fate of radionuclides in continental waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyrolle-Boyer, Frederique

    2015-01-01

    In this report for Accreditation to Supervise Research (HDR), the author first proposes an overview of his research works to outline how they relate to each other, and gives a summary of his PhD and post-PhD research works. Then, he more particularly reports and comments his works related to the origin of radionuclides: natural and artificial origin, liquid releases from nuclear installations, persistence of atmospheric fall-outs due to surface nuclear tests and to the Chernobyl accident, atmospheric fall-outs in France due to the Fukushima accident. He comments results obtained by another researcher related to the tracing of radionuclide origin in the Rhone river, and reports activity level measurements performed within French waters (and more particularly in the Rhone river, and in irrigation canals). He proposes a focus of the behaviour and coefficients of solid/solution distribution in the case of the Rhone river and of Fukushima water streams. He briefly comments the radiological quality of drinking waters (exposure to radiations and regulation, case of the Rhone river and of neighbouring coastal rivers). He discusses the flow of radionuclides towards the sea environment and proposes some material assessments. Results of various researches performed by the author or made under his supervision are discussed. They relate to extreme events (impact of floods on contaminant transport), to storages and sedimentary archives, and to the use of tritium and carbon 14 to study long cycles. Research perspectives are then discussed on various issues: consequences of typhoons and roles of organic particles in the transport or transfer of radioactivity in the case of Fukushima rivers, estuarine reactions [fr

  18. Impact of Water Withdrawals from Groundwater and Surface Water on Continental Water Storage Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doell, Petra; Hoffmann-Dobrev, Heike; Portmann, Felix T.; Siebert, Stefan; Eicker, Annette; Rodell, Matthew; Strassberg, Gil

    2011-01-01

    Humans have strongly impacted the global water cycle, not only water flows but also water storage. We have performed a first global-scale analysis of the impact of water withdrawals on water storage variations, using the global water resources and use model WaterGAP. This required estimation of fractions of total water withdrawals from groundwater, considering five water use sectors. According to our assessment, the source of 35% of the water withdrawn worldwide (4300 cubic km/yr during 1998-2002) is groundwater. Groundwater contributes 42%, 36% and 27% of water used for irrigation, households and manufacturing, respectively, while we assume that only surface water is used for livestock and for cooling of thermal power plants. Consumptive water use was 1400 cubic km/yr during 1998-2002. It is the sum of the net abstraction of 250 cubic km/yr of groundwater (taking into account evapotranspiration and return flows of withdrawn surface water and groundwater) and the net abstraction of 1150 km3/yr of surface water. Computed net abstractions indicate, for the first time at the global scale, where and when human water withdrawals decrease or increase groundwater or surface water storage. In regions with extensive surface water irrigation, such as Southern China, net abstractions from groundwater are negative, i.e. groundwater is recharged by irrigation. The opposite is true for areas dominated by groundwater irrigation, such as in the High Plains aquifer of the central USA, where net abstraction of surface water is negative because return flow of withdrawn groundwater recharges the surface water compartments. In intensively irrigated areas, the amplitude of seasonal total water storage variations is generally increased due to human water use; however, in some areas, it is decreased. For the High Plains aquifer and the whole Mississippi basin, modeled groundwater and total water storage variations were compared with estimates of groundwater storage variations based on

  19. Atmospheric water vapor transport: Estimation of continental precipitation recycling and parameterization of a simple climate model. M.S. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brubaker, Kaye L.; Entekhabi, Dara; Eagleson, Peter S.

    1991-01-01

    The advective transport of atmospheric water vapor and its role in global hydrology and the water balance of continental regions are discussed and explored. The data set consists of ten years of global wind and humidity observations interpolated onto a regular grid by objective analysis. Atmospheric water vapor fluxes across the boundaries of selected continental regions are displayed graphically. The water vapor flux data are used to investigate the sources of continental precipitation. The total amount of water that precipitates on large continental regions is supplied by two mechanisms: (1) advection from surrounding areas external to the region; and (2) evaporation and transpiration from the land surface recycling of precipitation over the continental area. The degree to which regional precipitation is supplied by recycled moisture is a potentially significant climate feedback mechanism and land surface-atmosphere interaction, which may contribute to the persistence and intensification of droughts. A simplified model of the atmospheric moisture over continents and simultaneous estimates of regional precipitation are employed to estimate, for several large continental regions, the fraction of precipitation that is locally derived. In a separate, but related, study estimates of ocean to land water vapor transport are used to parameterize an existing simple climate model, containing both land and ocean surfaces, that is intended to mimic the dynamics of continental climates.

  20. NEWS Climatology Project: The State of the Water Cycle at Continental to Global Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodell, Matthew; LEcuyer, Tristan; Beaudoing, Hiroko Kato; Olson, Bill

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Energy and Water Cycle Study (NEWS) program fosters collaborative research towards improved quantification and prediction of water and energy cycle consequences of climate change. In order to measure change, it is first necessary to describe current conditions. The goal of the NEWS Water and Energy Cycle Climatology project is to develop "state of the global water cycle" and "state of the global energy cycle" assessments based on data from modern ground and space based observing systems and data integrating models. The project is a multiinstitutional collaboration with more than 20 active contributors. This presentation will describe results of the first stage of the water budget analysis, whose goal was to characterize the current state of the water cycle on mean monthly, continental scales. We examine our success in closing the water budget within the expected uncertainty range and the effects of forcing budget closure as a method for refining individual flux estimates.

  1. Global multi-scale segmentation of continental and coastal waters from the watersheds to the continental margins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laruelle, G.G.; Dürr, H.H.; Lauerwald, R.; Hartmann, J.; Slomp, C.P.; Goossens, N.; Regnier, P.A.G.

    2013-01-01

    Past characterizations of the land–ocean continuum were constructed either from a continental perspective through an analysis of watershed river basin properties (COSCATs: COastal Segmentation and related CATchments) or from an oceanic perspective, through a regionalization of the proximal and

  2. Carbon and oxygen dynamics on the Louisiana continental shelf: role of water column primary production and respiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    We conducted a multi-year study of the Louisiana continental shelf (LCS) to better understand the linkages between water column net metabolism and the formation of hypoxia (dissolved oxygen respiration (R) and primary p...

  3. High-resolution Continental Scale Land Surface Model incorporating Land-water Management in United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, S.; Pokhrel, Y. N.

    2016-12-01

    Land surface models have been used to assess water resources sustainability under changing Earth environment and increasing human water needs. Overwhelming observational records indicate that human activities have ubiquitous and pertinent effects on the hydrologic cycle; however, they have been crudely represented in large scale land surface models. In this study, we enhance an integrated continental-scale land hydrology model named Leaf-Hydro-Flood to better represent land-water management. The model is implemented at high resolution (5km grids) over the continental US. Surface water and groundwater are withdrawn based on actual practices. Newly added irrigation, water diversion, and dam operation schemes allow better simulations of stream flows, evapotranspiration, and infiltration. Results of various hydrologic fluxes and stores from two sets of simulation (one with and the other without human activities) are compared over a range of river basin and aquifer scales. The improved simulations of land hydrology have potential to build consistent modeling framework for human-water-climate interactions.

  4. Towards improved hydrologic predictions using data assimilation techniques for water resource management at the continental scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naz, Bibi; Kurtz, Wolfgang; Kollet, Stefan; Hendricks Franssen, Harrie-Jan; Sharples, Wendy; Görgen, Klaus; Keune, Jessica; Kulkarni, Ketan

    2017-04-01

    More accurate and reliable hydrologic simulations are important for many applications such as water resource management, future water availability projections and predictions of extreme events. However, simulation of spatial and temporal variations in the critical water budget components such as precipitation, snow, evaporation and runoff is highly uncertain, due to errors in e.g. model structure and inputs (hydrologic parameters and forcings). In this study, we use data assimilation techniques to improve the predictability of continental-scale water fluxes using in-situ measurements along with remotely sensed information to improve hydrologic predications for water resource systems. The Community Land Model, version 3.5 (CLM) integrated with the Parallel Data Assimilation Framework (PDAF) was implemented at spatial resolution of 1/36 degree (3 km) over the European CORDEX domain. The modeling system was forced with a high-resolution reanalysis system COSMO-REA6 from Hans-Ertel Centre for Weather Research (HErZ) and ERA-Interim datasets for time period of 1994-2014. A series of data assimilation experiments were conducted to assess the efficiency of assimilation of various observations, such as river discharge data, remotely sensed soil moisture, terrestrial water storage and snow measurements into the CLM-PDAF at regional to continental scales. This setup not only allows to quantify uncertainties, but also improves streamflow predictions by updating simultaneously model states and parameters utilizing observational information. The results from different regions, watershed sizes, spatial resolutions and timescales are compared and discussed in this study.

  5. Climate model biases in seasonality of continental water storage revealed by satellite gravimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Sean; Milly, P.C.D.

    2006-01-01

    Satellite gravimetric observations of monthly changes in continental water storage are compared with outputs from five climate models. All models qualitatively reproduce the global pattern of annual storage amplitude, and the seasonal cycle of global average storage is reproduced well, consistent with earlier studies. However, global average agreements mask systematic model biases in low latitudes. Seasonal extrema of low‐latitude, hemispheric storage generally occur too early in the models, and model‐specific errors in amplitude of the low‐latitude annual variations are substantial. These errors are potentially explicable in terms of neglected or suboptimally parameterized water stores in the land models and precipitation biases in the climate models.

  6. Particle residence times in waters of the Yangtze and Amazon continental shelves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKee, B.A.; Nittrouer, C.A.; DeMaster, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    Water column and seabed samples were analyzed for naturally occurring Th-234 to determine particle residence times in Yangtze and Amazon continental-shelf waters. On the Yangtze shelf, the water column was vertically well-mixed and suspended-sediment concentrations decreased offshore (from 230 mg/l near the river mouth to 2 mg/l in mid-shelf waters). Particle residence times increased offshore and ranged from 3.2 hours (12 m water depth) to 7.3 days (60 m water depth). Particle residence times ranged from 3 to 30 times shorter than values predicted by settling of discrete (4-8 micron) particles, suggesting that particles were settling in aggregate form. On the Amazon shelf, a two-layer estuarine flow dominated shelf circulation. Suspended-sediment concentrations on the inner shelf (10-12 m water depth) were much greater in bottom waters (range: 100-880 mg/l) than in surface waters (range 5-60 mg/l) as a result of resuspension. Particle residence times ranged from 1.1 days in surface waters to 2.5 days in bottom waters. Particles probably underwent several cycles of resuspension before permanent removal from the water column

  7. Contribution of climate-driven change in continental water storage to recent sea-level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milly, P. C. D.; Cazenave, A.; Gennero, C.

    2003-01-01

    Using a global model of continental water balance, forced by interannual variations in precipitation and near-surface atmospheric temperature for the period 1981–1998, we estimate the sea-level changes associated with climate-driven changes in storage of water as snowpack, soil water, and ground water; storage in ice sheets and large lakes is not considered. The 1981–1998 trend is estimated to be 0.12 mm/yr, and substantial interannual fluctuations are inferred; for 1993–1998, the trend is 0.25 mm/yr. At the decadal time scale, the terrestrial contribution to eustatic (i.e., induced by mass exchange) sea-level rise is significantly smaller than the estimated steric (i.e., induced by density changes) trend for the same period, but is not negligibly small. In the model the sea-level rise is driven mainly by a downtrend in continental precipitation during the study period, which we believe was generated by natural variability in the climate system. PMID:14576277

  8. Transport and transfer rates in the waters of the continental shelf and slope: SEEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biscaye, P.E.; Anderson, R.F.

    1993-01-01

    The overall Shelf Edge Exchange Processes (SEEP) Program, which began in 1980 or 1981, had as its goal the testing of a hypothesis with respect to the fate of particulate matter formed in and introduced into the waters of the continental shelf adjacent to the northern east coast of the US, i.e., the MAB. The original hypothesis was that a large proportion of the particles in general, and of the particulate organic carbon (POC) in particular, was exported from the shelf, across the shelf/slope break and front, into the waters of, and, to some degree, deposited in the sediments of the continental slope. This hypothesis was based on budgets of organic carbon and lead-210 that did not account for a large proportion of those species in the waters or sediments of the shelf, and on a carbon-rich band of sediments centered on the slope at ∼1,000 m water depth. The results of the first SEEP experiment, south of New England and Long Island (SEEP-1) suggested, but did not prove, that there was only a relatively small proportion of the carbon which was exported from the shelf to the slope. The objective of the second experiment -- SEEP-2 -- done under the subject grant, was to tighten the experiment in terms of the kinds of data collected, and to focus it more on the shelf and only the upper slope, where shelf-derived particles were thought to be deposited

  9. The importance of lake-specific characteristics for water quality across the continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Emily K; Patil, Vijay P; Oliver, Samantha K; Hetherington, Amy L; Brentrup, Jennifer A; Zwart, Jacob A; Winters, Kirsten M; Corman, Jessica R; Nodine, Emily R; Woolway, R Iestyn; Dugan, Hilary A; Jaimes, Aline; Santoso, Arianto B; Hong, Grace S; Winslow, Luke A; Hanson, Paul C; Weathers, Kathleen C

    2015-06-01

    Lake water quality is affected by local and regional drivers, including lake physical characteristics, hydrology, landscape position, land cover, land use, geology, and climate. Here, we demonstrate the utility of hypothesis testing within the landscape limnology framework using a random forest algorithm on a national-scale, spatially explicit data set, the United States Environmental Protection Agency's 2007 National Lakes Assessment. For 1026 lakes, we tested the relative importance of water quality drivers across spatial scales, the importance of hydrologic connectivity in mediating water quality drivers, and how the importance of both spatial scale and connectivity differ across response variables for five important in-lake water quality metrics (total phosphorus, total nitrogen, dissolved organic carbon, turbidity, and conductivity). By modeling the effect of water quality predictors at different spatial scales, we found that lake-specific characteristics (e.g., depth, sediment area-to-volume ratio) were important for explaining water quality (54-60% variance explained), and that regionalization schemes were much less effective than lake specific metrics (28-39% variance explained). Basin-scale land use and land cover explained between 45-62% of variance, and forest cover and agricultural land uses were among the most important basin-scale predictors. Water quality drivers did not operate independently; in some cases, hydrologic connectivity (the presence of upstream surface water features) mediated the effect of regional-scale drivers. For example, for water quality in lakes with upstream lakes, regional classification schemes were much less effective predictors than lake-specific variables, in contrast to lakes with no upstream lakes or with no surface inflows. At the scale of the continental United States, conductivity was explained by drivers operating at larger spatial scales than for other water quality responses. The current regulatory practice of using

  10. Mapping probabilities of extreme continental water storage changes from space gravimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusche, J.; Eicker, A.; Forootan, E.; Springer, A.; Longuevergne, L.

    2016-12-01

    Using data from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission, we derive statistically robust 'hotspot' regions of high probability of peak anomalous - i.e. with respect to the seasonal cycle - water storage (of up to 0.7 m one-in-five-year return level) and flux (up to 0.14 m/mon). Analysis of, and comparison with, up to 32 years of ERA-Interim reanalysis fields reveals generally good agreement of these hotspot regions to GRACE results, and that most exceptions are located in the Tropics. However, a simulation experiment reveals that differences observed by GRACE are statistically significant, and further error analysis suggests that by around the year 2020 it will be possible to detect temporal changes in the frequency of extreme total fluxes (i.e. combined effects of mainly precipitation and floods) for at least 10-20% of the continental area, assuming that we have a continuation of GRACE by its follow-up GRACE-FO. J. Kusche et al. (2016): Mapping probabilities of extreme continental water storage changes from space gravimetry, Geophysical Research Letters, accepted online, doi:10.1002/2016GL069538

  11. Water masses transform at mid-depths over the Antarctic Continental Slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead Silvester, Jess; Lenn, Yueng-Djern; Polton, Jeffrey; Phillips, Helen E.; Morales Maqueda, Miguel

    2017-04-01

    The Meridional Overturning Circulation (MOC) controls the oceans' latitudinal heat distribution, helping to regulate the Earth's climate. The Southern Ocean is the primary place where cool, deep waters return to the surface to complete this global circulation. While water mass transformations intrinsic to this process predominantly take place at the surface following upwelling, recent studies implicate vertical mixing in allowing transformation at mid-depths over the Antarctic continental slope. We deployed an EM-Apex float near Elephant Island, north of the Antarctic Peninsula's tip, to profile along the slope and use potential vorticity to diagnose observed instabilities. The float captures direct heat exchange between a lens of Upper Circumpolar Deep Water (UCDW) and surrounding Lower Circumpolar Deep Waters (LCDW) at mid-depths and over the course of several days. Heat fluxes peak across the top and bottom boundaries of the UCDW lens and peak diffusivities across the bottom boundary are associated with shear instability. Estimates of diffusivity from shear-strain finestructure parameterisation and heat fluxes are found to be in reasonable agreement. The two-dimensional Ertel potential vorticity is elevated both inside the UCDW lens and along its bottom boundary, with a strong contribution from the shear term in these regions and instabilities are associated with gravitational and symmetric forcing. Thus, shear instabilities are driving turbulent mixing across the lower boundary between these two water masses, leading to the observed heat exchange and transformation at mid-depths over the Antarctic continental slope. This has implications for our understanding of the rates of upwelling and ocean-atmosphere exchanges of heat and carbon at this critical location.

  12. Clay sediment accumulation rates on the monsoon-dominated western continental shelf and slope region of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Borole, D.V.

    Clay accumulation rates shown in sediment cores from the nearshore to outer continental shelf and slope regions in water depths of 10-1246 m on the western continental margins of India were determined by the 210Pb dating technique. The 210Pb excess...

  13. The Role of Overshooting Convection in Elevated Stratospheric Water Vapor over the Summertime Continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, R. L.; Ray, E. A.; Rosenlof, K. H.; Bedka, K. M.; Schwartz, M. J.; Read, W. G.; Troy, R. F.

    2016-12-01

    The NASA ER-2 aircraft sampled the UTLS region over North America during the NASA Studies of Emissions and Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys (SEAC4RS) field mission. On four flights targeting convectively-influenced air parcels, in situ measurements of enhanced water vapor in the lower stratosphere over the summertime continental United States were made using the JPL Laser Hygrometer (JLH Mark2). Water vapor mixing ratios greater than 10 ppmv, twice the stratospheric background levels, were measured at pressure levels between 80 and 160 hPa. Through satellite observations and analysis, we make the connection between these in situ water measurements and overshooting cloud tops. The overshooting tops (OT) are identified from a SEAC4RS OT detection product based on satellite infrared window channel brightness temperature gradients. Back-trajectory analysis ties enhanced water to OT one to seven days prior to the intercept by the aircraft. The trajectory paths are dominated by the North American Monsoon (NAM) anticyclonic circulation. This connection suggests that ice is convectively transported to the overworld stratosphere in OT events and subsequently sublimated; such events may irreversibly enhance stratospheric water vapor in the summer over Mexico and the United States. Regional context is provided by water observations from the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS).

  14. Enhanced stratospheric water vapor over the summertime continental United States and the role of overshooting convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Robert L.; Ray, Eric A.; Rosenlof, Karen H.; Bedka, Kristopher M.; Schwartz, Michael J.; Read, William G.; Troy, Robert F.; Chin, Keith; Christensen, Lance E.; Fu, Dejian; Stachnik, Robert A.; Bui, T. Paul; Dean-Day, Jonathan M.

    2017-05-01

    The NASA ER-2 aircraft sampled the lower stratosphere over North America during the field mission for the NASA Studies of Emissions and Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys (SEAC4RS). This study reports observations of convectively influenced air parcels with enhanced water vapor in the overworld stratosphere over the summertime continental United States and investigates three case studies in detail. Water vapor mixing ratios greater than 10 ppmv, which is much higher than the background 4 to 6 ppmv of the overworld stratosphere, were measured by the JPL Laser Hygrometer (JLH Mark2) at altitudes between 16.0 and 17.5 km (potential temperatures of approximately 380 to 410 K). Overshooting cloud tops (OTs) are identified from a SEAC4RS OT detection product based on satellite infrared window channel brightness temperature gradients. Through trajectory analysis, we make the connection between these in situ water measurements and OT. Back trajectory analysis ties enhanced water to OT 1 to 7 days prior to the intercept by the aircraft. The trajectory paths are dominated by the North American monsoon (NAM) anticyclonic circulation. This connection suggests that ice is convectively transported to the overworld stratosphere in OT events and subsequently sublimated; such events may irreversibly enhance stratospheric water vapor in the summer over Mexico and the United States. A regional context is provided by water observations from the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS).

  15. Distribution of Upper Circumpolar Deep Water on the warming continental shelf of the West Antarctic Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto, Nicole; Martinson, Douglas G.; Kohut, Josh; Schofield, Oscar

    2017-07-01

    We use autonomous underwater vehicles to characterize the spatial distribution of Upper Circumpolar Deep Water (UCDW) on the continental shelf of the West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) and present the first near-synoptic measurements of mesoscale features (eddies) containing UCDW on the WAP. Thirty-three subsurface eddies with widths on the order of 10 km were detected during four glider deployments. Each eddy contributed an average of 5.8 × 1016 J to the subpycnocline waters, where a cross-shelf heat flux of 1.37 × 1019 J yr-1 is required to balance the diffusive loss of heat to overlying winter water and to the near-coastal waters. Approximately two-thirds of the heat coming onto the shelf diffuses across the pycnocline and one-third diffuses to the coastal waters; long-term warming of the subpycnocline waters is a small residual of this balance. Sixty percent of the profiles that contained UCDW were part of a coherent eddy. Between 20% and 53% of the lateral onshore heat flux to the WAP can be attributed to eddies entering Marguerite Trough, a feature in the southern part of the shelf which is known to be an important conduit for UCDW. A northern trough is identified as additional important location for eddy intrusion.

  16. Transport and transfer rates in the waters of the Continental Shelf. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biscaye, P.E.

    1978-07-01

    The present contract year has been one of transition from an emphasis on field work and sample gathering to the predominance of sample and data analysis and the formulation of testable hypotheses concerning specific processes in the New York Bight. We have begun to understand the seasonal transition in the role of phytoplankton vs. grazing zooplankton in forming the particles on which some reactive pollutants are removed. Using natural radioactive tracers we have estimated the removal rates of reactive metals from the surface waters and these range over an order of magnitude from most rapid nearshore to least rapid over the upper continental slope. Once removed nearshore, however, these tracers, and the pollutants for which they proxy, do not remain permanently in the sediments but appear to be remobilized (probably by oxidation) during the winter and are reintroduced into the water column. Work on transport and mixing processes of pollutants which are or behave like those in solution has continued along several fronts. Hydrographic data on the structure of the water column continues to give a description of the system that is crucial to understanding geochemical and biological processes which affect pollutants. Hydrographic characterization of water masses from the data sets of cruises has resulted in hypotheses concerning the renewal of shelf water by direct exchange between shelf and upper slope water

  17. Indexes of contamination for characterization of continental waters and discharges. Formulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, Restrepo R; Cardenosa, M

    1999-01-01

    Contamination indexes (ICO) for characterization of natural water bodies and industrial discharges have been formulated in previous works by Ramirez, et al, 1997 in this work, complementary indexes not correlated with other ICOS previously developed are established thus resulting in a complementary tool to be applied in the interpretation and characterization on continental surface water bodies. First, a pH index (ICOpH) is obtained to determine ph incidence on water quality interpretation. A temperature index (ICOTEM) is also obtained to evaluate effluent incidence on receiving water bodies. ICOTEM is based on temperature difference of the wastewater discharge and the water body. Finally, indexes for the evaluation of aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons are also developed based on data collected on sediments and fish tissue samples. These hydrocarbon compounds are highly viable to accumulate and produce long-term detrimental effects on living organisms. These latter indexes have been developed based on data of nearly 130 samples collected during monitoring campaigns in streams and water bodies affected by discharges of the petroleum industry or by accidental spills of crude oil or hydrocarbon by-products in Colombian streams; its also possible that anthropic influence other than petroleum discharges might be affecting the streams included in the monitoring campaigns

  18. The assemblage composition and structure of swimming crabs (Portunoidea) in continental shelf waters of southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, L. S.; Frameschi, I. F.; Costa, R. C.; Castilho, A. L.; Fransozo, A.

    2015-02-01

    Three regions along the Brazilian coast characterized by the occurrence of contrasting natural phenomena, such as upwellings and continental input, were surveyed to determine the composition and structure of the assemblage of swimming crabs. Twelve monthly collections were undertaken (July 2010 to June 2011) in Macaé, Rio de Janeiro (MAC); Ubatuba, São Paulo (UBA); and São Francisco do Sul, Santa Catarina (SFS). The lowest values ​​of the phi sediment grain size measure, bottom temperature and the highest values of organic matter and salinity were measured in MAC. In all, 10,686 individuals were collected, belonging to six species of Portunoidea: Arenaeus cribrarius, Callinectes danae, Callinectes ornatus, Callinectes sapidus, Achelous spinicarpus and Achelous spinimanus. A Multiple Response Permutation Procedure (MRPP) test indicated that the species composition differed significantly among the sampling sites, showing substantial heterogeneity in the composition and abundance of species among regions. The results suggest that C. danae was more abundant in waters with lower salinity and lower organic matter content. In contrast, A. spinimanus is positively correlated with these factors, showing a greater abundance under the opposite conditions. Callinectes ornatus appeared not to show strong selectivity for particular habitat characteristics. We conclude from these findings that areas affected by different phenomena produce changes in the composition and abundance of the assemblage of Portunoidea. Although the strength of eutrophication differs between UBA and MAC, the substantial continental inflow affecting SFS favors the development of species that complete their life cycle in the estuary.

  19. Debris Flows and Water Tracks in Continental Antarctica: Water as a geomorphic agent in a hyperarid polar desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauber, E.; Sassenroth, C.; De Vera, J.-P.; Schmitz, N.; Reiss, D.; Hiesinger, H.; Johnsson, A.

    2017-09-01

    Most studies using Antarctica as a Mars analogue have focused on the McMurdo Dry Valleys, which are among the coldest and driest places on Earth. However, other ice-free areas in continental Antarctica also display landforms that can inform the study of the possible geomorphic impact of water in a polar desert. Here we present a new analogue site in the interior of the Transantarctic Mountains in Northern Victoria Land. Gullies show unambiguous evidence for debris flows, and water tracks act as shallow subsurface pathways of water on top of the permafrost tale. Both processes are driven by meltwater from glacier ice and snow in an environ-ment which never experiences rainfall and in which the air temperatures probably never exceed 0°C.

  20. Physico-chemical forms and migration in continental waters of radium from uranium mining and milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benes, P.

    1982-01-01

    Recent advances in knowledge of the physico-chemical forms and migration of radium in continental waters are reviewed and recommendations for future research in this field are given. Computations of solution equilibria based on the reported and newly determined stability constants and solubilities of radium compounds show that a significant percentage of dissolved radium can exist in some waste and natural waters as an RaSO 4 ion pair, besides a significant percentage of Ra 2+ ions. The formation of a solid phase consisting mainly of sparingly soluble radium compounds can be excluded in waste and natural waters. Model experiments revealed that radium can be bound in complexes with some as yet unidentified ligands, probably of organic nature. Direct determinations of the physico-chemical forms of radium in surface and groundwaters were mostly confined to the analysis of the ratio of dissolved to particulate forms of radium. Ratios from 0.01 to 100 were found, depending on the type of water examined. Recently a newly suggested method of selective dissolution was applied to characterize the nature of particulate forms of radium in surface waters. Migration of radium is reviewed, covering the release of radium from its source, its transport in ground and surface waters and its deposition in various sinks. Factors influencing radium release from the sources into the hydrosphere are discussed. The following processes affecting radium migration are discussed: adsorption of dissolved radium on suspended solids and bottom sediments, coprecipitation of radium with solids formed in waste waters or in natural waters, sedimentation of particulate forms of radium in reservoirs and streams, resuspension of bottom sediments and dissolution of radium from suspended solids or bottom sediments

  1. Oil, gas potential in shallow water: Peru`s continental shelf basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuniga-Rivero, F.; Keeling, J.A.; Hay-Roe, H. [BPZ and Associates Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    1998-11-16

    This third article of a series highlights the three sedimentary basins that underlie the 16 million acres of continental shelf adjacent to a 650-mile stretch of Peruvian coastline. This area lies roughly between the ports of Chiclayo and Pisco. These basins offer a variety of reservoirs, traps, and source-rock potential in water depths of less than 1,000 ft. They are characterized by a thick sequence of Neogene strata, underlain by Paleogene, Mesozoic, and Upper Paleozoic sediments down to as much as 7 sec two-way time on modern seismic records. In some places the sedimentary section may reach an aggregate thickness in excess of 50,000 ft. From north to south these contiguous shelf basins are the Sechura-Salaverry, Huacho, and Pisco basins. All three basins are described.

  2. Continental-scale water fluxes from continuous GPS observations of Earth surface loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsa, A. A.; Agnew, D. C.; Cayan, D. R.

    2015-12-01

    After more than a decade of observing annual oscillations of Earth's surface from seasonal snow and water loading, continuous GPS is now being used to model time-varying terrestrial water fluxes on the local and regional scale. Although the largest signal is typically due to the seasonal hydrological cycle, GPS can also measure subtle surface deformation caused by sustained wet and dry periods, and to estimate the spatial distribution of the underlying terrestrial water storage changes. The next frontier is expanding this analysis to the continental scale and paving the way for incorporating GPS models into the National Climate Assessment and into the observational infrastructure for national water resource management. This will require reconciling GPS observations with predictions from hydrological models and with remote sensing observations from a suite of satellite instruments (e.g. GRACE, SMAP, SWOT). The elastic Earth response which transforms surface loads into vertical and horizontal displacements is also responsible for the contamination of loading observations by tectonic and anthropogenic transients, and we discuss these and other challenges to this new application of GPS.

  3. Decision-centric adaptation appraisal for water management across Colorado’s Continental Divide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David N. Yates

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A multi-step decision support process was developed and applied to the physically and legally complex case of water diversions from the Upper Colorado River across the Continental Divide to serve cities and farms along Colorado’s Front Range. We illustrate our approach by simulating the performance of an existing drought-response measure, the Shoshone Call Relaxation Agreement (SCRA [the adaptation measure], using the Water Evaluation and Planning (WEAP tool [the hydrologic cycle and water systems model]; and the Statistical DownScaling Model (SDSM-DC [the stochastic climate scenario generator]. Scenarios relevant to the decision community were analyzed and results indicate that this drought management measure would provide only a small storage benefit in offsetting the impacts of a shift to a warmer and drier future climate coupled with related environmental changes. The analysis demonstrates the importance of engaging water managers in the development of credible and computationally efficient decision support tools that accurately capture the physical, legal and contractual dimensions of their climate risk management problems.

  4. The role of deep-water sedimentary processes in shaping a continental margin: The Northwest Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, David C.; Campbell, D.C.; Gardner, J.V.; Piper, D.J.W.; Chaytor, Jason; Rebesco, M.

    2017-01-01

    The tectonic history of a margin dictates its general shape; however, its geomorphology is generally transformed by deep-sea sedimentary processes. The objective of this study is to show the influences of turbidity currents, contour currents and sediment mass failures on the geomorphology of the deep-water northwestern Atlantic margin (NWAM) between Blake Ridge and Hudson Trough, spanning about 32° of latitude and the shelf edge to the abyssal plain. This assessment is based on new multibeam echosounder data, global bathymetric models and sub-surface geophysical information.The deep-water NWAM is divided into four broad geomorphologic classifications based on their bathymetric shape: graded, above-grade, stepped and out-of-grade. These shapes were created as a function of the balance between sediment accumulation and removal that in turn were related to sedimentary processes and slope-accommodation. This descriptive method of classifying continental margins, while being non-interpretative, is more informative than the conventional continental shelf, slope and rise classification, and better facilitates interpretation concerning dominant sedimentary processes.Areas of the margin dominated by turbidity currents and slope by-pass developed graded slopes. If sediments did not by-pass the slope due to accommodation then an above grade or stepped slope resulted. Geostrophic currents created sedimentary bodies of a variety of forms and positions along the NWAM. Detached drifts form linear, above-grade slopes along their crests from the shelf edge to the deep basin. Plastered drifts formed stepped slope profiles. Sediment mass failure has had a variety of consequences on the margin morphology; large mass-failures created out-of-grade profiles, whereas smaller mass failures tended to remain on the slope and formed above-grade profiles at trough-mouth fans, or nearly graded profiles, such as offshore Cape Fear.

  5. The Pattern Across the Continental United States of Evapotranspiration Variability Associated with Water Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster, Randal D.; Salvucci, Guido D.; Rigden, Angela J.; Jung, Martin; Collatz, G. James; Schubert, Siegfried D.

    2015-01-01

    The spatial pattern across the continental United States of the interannual variance of warm season water-dependent evapotranspiration, a pattern of relevance to land-atmosphere feedback, cannot be measured directly. Alternative and indirect approaches to estimating the pattern, however, do exist, and given the uncertainty of each, we use several such approaches here. We first quantify the water dependent evapotranspiration variance pattern inherent in two derived evapotranspiration datasets available from the literature. We then search for the pattern in proxy geophysical variables (air temperature, stream flow, and NDVI) known to have strong ties to evapotranspiration. The variances inherent in all of the different (and mostly independent) data sources show some differences but are generally strongly consistent they all show a large variance signal down the center of the U.S., with lower variances toward the east and (for the most part) toward the west. The robustness of the pattern across the datasets suggests that it indeed represents the pattern operating in nature. Using Budykos hydroclimatic framework, we show that the pattern can largely be explained by the relative strength of water and energy controls on evapotranspiration across the continent.

  6. Connecting seas : western Palaearctic continental flyway for water birds in the perspective of changing land use and climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Eerden, MR; Drent, RH; Stahl, J; Bakker, JP

    The western Palaearctic continental flyway that connects the tundra and taiga belts of Russia with north-west Europe is the major migratory avenue for an estimated 9.3 million herbivorous water birds ( swans, geese and ducks). Agricultural practices together with protection measures subsidize the

  7. Climatic Atlas of the Outer Continental Shelf Waters and Coastal Regions of Alaska. Volume 1. Gulf of Alaska, Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    80 90 70- 60 60 60 60 60 60 iso ,o50 0 40 / 40 0 30 30 30 30 0 20 20 20 00 30 40 50 C07 ogooo 00 00 I2030405060 70 09I0 o 0 10 2 30 40506 100 010...too 1 3 1 + 1 2 5 4 1 + 1 41013 8 3 1 + + 1 1 2 1 1 + . NI" N NIt NE 2244 + I + + 4I 14 + 4 1 I 1+144+ SNEI NE i+ NE 2 2+ + E 1 2 + + + 1 + + + 4...IRECTION- WIND DIRECTION - WIND DIRECTION- DIURN AL VARIATION ISO ) DIU2N AL VARIATION 3830 D IUR NAL VARIATION 3005 DIV ONL V ARIATION -138 000 0.00.0

  8. Climatic Atlas of the Outer Continental Shelf Waters and Coastal Regions of Alaska. Volume 3. Chukchi-Beaufort Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    activities Joe D. Elms , for their editorial evaluation of the vironmental Assessmant Program. Additional depends to a large extent on weathcr cond...winds of 25 knots lower. icing causes slippery decks, renders moving (13 meters per second) or more, and air tempera- parts inoperable, and, in extreme...try to avoid foul weather an thereby bias the oceanic climatology towards fair weather. A recent study by Elms (1986), in which he compared the

  9. The effects of the fiscal terms applied to offshore petroleum exploitation of new fields: a comparative study of the UK, Norway, Denmark, Netherlands, Australia, China, Indonesia, Egypt, Nigeria, and United States outer continental shelf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemp, A.G.; Reading, D.; Macdonald, B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper examines the comparative impact of petroleum taxation in the UK, Norway, Denmark, the Netherlands, Australia, Nigeria, China, Indonesia, Egypt and U.S. Outer Continental Shelf at the field development stage. The emphasis is on the effects in offshore operating situations. The study examines the operation of the systems under (a) a range of field sizes typical for each of the regimes, (b) a variety of oil prices ($15, $18, and $23 per barrel in real terms), and (c) a wide range of field development costs. The results indicate that generally the complex fiscal instruments employed are not well-targetted on economic rents. Frequently the systems are regressive with respect to both oil price and development case changes. In the UK and Australia the schemes are related to profits in a reasonably sensitive manner and are less likely to cause disincentives to field developments than in other countries. Even where systems are ostensibly profit-related they may have effects similar to imposts based on gross revenues (such as ceilings on cost recovery). In most jurisdictions it is likely that discretionary changes will be required when the operating environment exhibits marked variations. (author)

  10. The human right of access to drinking water: a continental analysis based on World Water Forums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Zorzi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available At the end of the 1980s, development and human rights were treated as separate issues, with distinct and divergent strategies and goals. After two decades, our understanding of the issue has evolved, and it has become clear that there is no way to separate the two issues. Currently, interest in human rights is increasing, and is focusing particularly on developing a consensus based upon international standards in order to promote and protect such rights. In this context, after numerous negotiations, the right to access potable water has come to be understood as a human right. This paper discusses the issue of water as a human right based upon the analysis of the World Water Forum which has existed since 1997 and involves the public, private and scientific sectors. The qualitative textual analysis was based upon documentation of these events.

  11. Continental Scale research of the coupled carbon and water cycles in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleugh, Helen; van Gorsel, Eva; Held, Alex; Huete, Alfredo; Karan, Mirko; Liddell, Michael; Phinn, Stuart; Prentice, Colin

    2013-04-01

    Cover provides a national expert network and data delivery service for provision of Australian biophysical remote sensing time-series data, continental-scale map products, and select high-resolution datasets over TERN OzFlux and Supersites. Integration of data streams and modeling is carried out through the TERN eMAST Facility. This presentation will give an overview of the infrastructure related to research in biogeochemistry through TERN. We will show how the deployment of large-scale infrastructure, observations, the curation of data and assimilation and integration of data into modelling is enhancing our process understanding of carbon uptake and water use in a large range of ecosystems.

  12. Effects of Contrast Agent and Outer Volume Saturation Bands on Water Suppression and Shimming of Hepatic Single-Volume Proton MR Spectroscopy at 3.0T

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine whether administration of gadolinium diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA and whether placement of the outer volume saturation bands significantly affect shimming and water suppression on hepatic MR spectroscopic prescanning. Method. Region of interest (ROI of 2 cm × 2 cm × 2 cm was carefully positioned in the region of the middle portion of the right hepatic lobe. 32 patients were examined before and after administration of Gd-DTPA with and without outer-volume saturation bands. Linewidths (Full-Width Half-Maximum (FWHM and water suppression were obtained. A paired t-test for comparison of means was used. Results. (1 The group with the outer volume saturation bands demonstrated slightly better water suppression effect than the group without outer volume saturation bands before administration. (2 The group with the outer volume saturation bands demonstrated better water suppression effect than the group without outer volume saturation bands after administration. (3 Both shimming and water suppression effectswere decreased on enhanced MR spectroscopic prescanning (all P<0.05. Conclusions. Placement of the outer volume saturation bands is helpful to improve water suppression both before and after contrast agent administration. Gd-DTPA exerts a slightly adverse effect (a statistically significant but clinically unimportant on magnetic resonance spectroscopic prescanning at 3T.

  13. Continental Margins of the Arctic Ocean: Implications for Law of the Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, David

    2016-04-01

    A coastal State must define the outer edge of its continental margin in order to be entitled to extend the outer limits of its continental shelf beyond 200 M, according to article 76 of the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea. The article prescribes the methods with which to make this definition and includes such metrics as water depth, seafloor gradient and thickness of sediment. Note the distinction between the "outer edge of the continental margin", which is the extent of the margin after application of the formula of article 76, and the "outer limit of the continental shelf", which is the limit after constraint criteria of article 76 are applied. For a relatively small ocean basin, the Arctic Ocean reveals a plethora of continental margin types reflecting both its complex tectonic origins and its diverse sedimentation history. These factors play important roles in determining the extended continental shelves of Arctic coastal States. This study highlights the critical factors that might determine the outer edge of continental margins in the Arctic Ocean as prescribed by article 76. Norway is the only Arctic coastal State that has had recommendations rendered by the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf (CLCS). Russia and Denmark (Greenland) have made submissions to the CLCS to support their extended continental shelves in the Arctic and are awaiting recommendations. Canada has yet to make its submission and the US has not yet ratified the Convention. The various criteria that each coastal State has utilized or potentially can utilize to determine the outer edge of the continental margin are considered. Important criteria in the Arctic include, 1) morphological continuity of undersea features, such as the various ridges and spurs, with the landmass, 2) the tectonic origins and geologic affinities with the adjacent land masses of the margins and various ridges, 3) sedimentary processes, particularly along continental slopes, and 4) thickness and

  14. IODP Expedition 307 Drills Cold-Water Coral Mound Along the Irish Continental Margin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor Williams

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Over the past decade, oceanographic and geophysical surveys along the slope of the Porcupine Seabight off the southwestern continental margin of Ireland have identified upwards of a thousand enigmatic mound-like structures (Figs. 1 and 2. The mounds of the Porcupine Seabight rise from the seafl oor in water depths of 600–900 m and formimpressive conical bodies several kilometers wide and up to 200 m high. Although a few mounds such as Thérèse Mound and Galway Mound are covered by a thriving thicket of coldwater corals, most mound tops and fl anks are covered by dead coral rubble or are entirely buried by sediment (De Mol et al., 2002; Fig. 2, Beyer et al., 2003. Lophelia pertusa (Fig.3 and Madrepora oculata are the most prominent cold-water corals growing without photosynthetic symbionts. The widespread discovery of large and numerous coral-bearing banks and the association of these corals with the mounds have generated signifi cant interest as to the composition, origin and development of these mound structures.Challenger Mound, in the Belgica mound province, has an elongated shape oriented along a north-northeast to south-southwest axis and ispartially buried under Pleistocene drift sediments. In high-resolution seismic profiles the mounds appear to root on an erosion surface (van Rooij et al., 2003. During IODP Expedition307 the Challenger Mound in the Porcupine Seabight was drilled with the goal of unveiling the origin and depositional processes withinthese intriguing sedimentary structures. Challenger Mound, unlike its near neighbors the Thérèse and Galway mounds, has little to no livecoral coverage and, therefore, was chosen as the main target for drilling activities, so that no living ecosystem would be disturbed.

  15. Continental divide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, F.J.

    1991-01-01

    The historical precedents to the idea of continent-wide diversion of water in North America are reviewed, starting from early perceptions of continental drainage and the era of canal building that reached its peak in the mid-1800s. The attitude that natural landscapes can be rearranged to suit human needs has persisted from that era with the proposal for continent-wide water diversion megaprojects, many involving the movement of water from Canada to the southwestern USA. Over 50 water diversions exist in Canada, with a total diverted flow of 4,400 m 3 /s. The density of interconnected and almost-connected lakes and rivers has favored such diversions. Of these diversions, 95% of their storage capacity and 96% of their flow is for hydroelectric power generation. The number of diversions in the USA is similar but water volumes are only a sixth of those in Canada, and the water is mainly used for irrigation or water supply. Experience in both countries shows that diversions are contained by political boundaries. No large-scale diversion of fresh water across the international boundary has received any government support, and no significant change in this policy is anticipated. In the water-short areas of the USA, conservation and reallocation of water resources are receiving priority. 19 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Spatially Resolving Ocean Color and Sediment Dispersion in River Plumes, Coastal Systems, and Continental Shelf Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurin, Dirk Alexander; Mannino, Antonio; Franz, Bryan

    2013-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing of ocean color in dynamic coastal, inland, and nearshorewaters is impeded by high variability in optical constituents, demands specialized atmospheric correction, and is limited by instrument sensitivity. To accurately detect dispersion of bio-optical properties, remote sensors require ample signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) to sense small variations in ocean color without saturating over bright pixels, an atmospheric correction that can accommodate significantwater-leaving radiance in the near infrared (NIR), and spatial and temporal resolution that coincides with the scales of variability in the environment. Several current and historic space-borne sensors have met these requirements with success in the open ocean, but are not optimized for highly red-reflective and heterogeneous waters such as those found near river outflows or in the presence of sediment resuspension. Here we apply analytical approaches for determining optimal spatial resolution, dominant spatial scales of variability ("patches"), and proportions of patch variability that can be resolved from four river plumes around the world between 2008 and 2011. An offshore region in the Sargasso Sea is analyzed for comparison. A method is presented for processing Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Aqua and Terra imagery including cloud detection, stray lightmasking, faulty detector avoidance, and dynamic aerosol correction using short-wave- and near-infrared wavebands in extremely turbid regions which pose distinct optical and technical challenges. Results showthat a pixel size of approx. 520 mor smaller is generally required to resolve spatial heterogeneity in ocean color and total suspended materials in river plumes. Optimal pixel size increases with distance from shore to approx. 630 m in nearshore regions, approx 750 m on the continental shelf, and approx. 1350 m in the open ocean. Greater than 90% of the optical variability within plume regions is resolvable with

  17. Amazon water lenses and the influence of the North Brazil Current on the continental shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prestes, Yuri O.; Silva, Alex Costa da; Jeandel, Catherine

    2018-05-01

    The exchange processes on the Amazon continental shelf in northern Brazil are subject to complex interactions that involve forcings derived from distinct sources. The Amazon shelf is a unique and highly dynamic environment in which considerable discharge of freshwater enters the Atlantic Ocean, producing extensive Amazon Water Lenses (AWL). In addition to the presence of the AWL, the shelf is influenced by the semidiurnal oscillations of the tides and the strong North Brazil Current (NBC), a boundary current of the western Atlantic. The present study was based primarily on the influence of the freshwater input and the NBC on the shelf and the Amazon Shelf Break (ASB) off the mouth of the Pará River. For this purpose, hydrographic and hydrodynamic data were obtained by moorings of the AMANDES Project (April-July 2008), located on the Amazon shelf and the ASB. Spectral analysis and the continuous wavelet transform were applied to define tidal (high frequency/short period) and subtidal (low frequency/long period) signals. The results indicated that on both the shelf and the break, the semidiurnal tides are responsible for the residual landward transport and are predominantly across-shelf. Low-frequency motions in the synoptic bands and the AWL are related to spatial changes in the velocity field, mainly on the ASB in the along-shelf direction. The flow of the NBC can be interpreted as an along-shelf low-frequency oscillation capable of altering the spatial configuration of the velocity field, although its influence is perceived only in the absence of the AWL.

  18. Retrospective Snow Analysis Across the Continental United States for the National Water Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsten, L. R.; Gochis, D.; Dugger, A. L.; McCreight, J. L.; Barlage, M. J.; Fall, G. M.; Olheiser, C.

    2016-12-01

    For large portions of the United States, snow plays a vital role in hydrologic prediction. This is particularly true in the mountain west where snowmelt contributes up to 80% of total streamflow runoff. The Office of Water Prediction (OWP) will begin running the National Water Model (NWM) during the second half of 2016, which is a continental-scale implementation of the WRF-Hydro community hydrologic modeling framework. Assessing and benchmarking the performance of the snow component of the NWM is important for future research-to-operations activities and for forecasters to better understand NWM output. For this study, WRF-Hydro was ran using the same domain and physics options as the NWM (1 km LSM, 250m overland routing, and NHDPlus Version 2.1 channel network). The land surface component chosen is Noah-MP land surface model. Forcing from the National Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS-2) was downscaled from the native 0.125 degree resolution to the 1 km modeling domain to drive the model. The model was ran over a 5-year retrospective period to gauge multi-year performance of the snow states. Output was analyzed against both in-situ observations, such as SNOTEL, and the Snow Data Assimilation System (SNODAS). In addition, gridded snow states and SNODAS grids were aggregated to Omernik-derived ecological regions. This was done in order to break up snow analysis by regions that share similar ecological and physiographic characteristics. Results show WRF-Hydro is able to capture peak timing across most of the mountain west fairly well. In terms of magnitudes, the model struggles across portions of the west with a low bias. This is especially true in the Cascades, which could be traced back to precipitation partitioning issues in the model. Across the central Rockies, the model exhibits a lower dry bias showing improved performance there. Previous literature suggests a dry bias in the precipitation out west may be contributing to model performance. East of the

  19. Benthic foraminiferal distribution in surface sediments along continental slope of the southern Okinawa Trough:dependance on water masses and food supply

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向荣; 李铁刚; 杨作升; 阎军; 曹奇原

    2003-01-01

    Benthic foraminiferal analysis of 29 samples in surface sediments from the southern Oki-nawa Trough is carried out. The results indicate that benthic foraminiferal abundance decreases rapidlywith increasing water depth. Percentage frequencies of agglutinated foraminifera further confirm themodem shallow carbonate lysocline in the southern Okinawa Trough. From continental shelf edge to thebottom of Okinawa Trough, benthic foraminiferal fauna in the surface sediments can be divided into 5assemblages: (1) Continental shelf break assemblage, dominated by Cibicides pseudoungerianus, corre-sponds to subsurface water mass of the Kuroshio Current; (2) upper continental slope assemblage, domi-nated by Cassidulina carinata, Globocassidulina subglobosa, corresponds to intermediate water mass of the Kuroshio Current; (3) intermediate continental slope assemblage, dominated by Uvigerina hispi-da, corresponds to the Okinawa Trough deep water mass above the carbonate lysocline; (4) lower con-tinental slope- trough bottom assemblage, dominated by Pullenia bulloides, Epistominella exigua andCibicidoides hyalinus, corresponds to deep water mass of the Okinawa Trough; and (5) trough bottomagglutinated assemblage, dominated by Rhabdammina spp., Bathysiphon flavidus, corresponds tostrongly dissolved environment of the trough bottom. The benthic foraminiferal fauna in the southemOkinawa Trough are controlled jointly by water masses and food supply. Water temperature, oxygenconcentration and carbonate dissolution of the water masses are important controlling factors especiallyfor the continental shelf break and trough bottom assemblages. The food supply also plays an importantrole in these benthic foraminiferal assemblages along the westem slope of the Okinawa Trough. Both theabundance and the 5 assemblages of benthic foraminifera correspond well to the organic matter supplyalong the continental slope and a lateral transport of TSM (total suspended matter) and POC (particulateorganic

  20. Trophic Ecology and Movement Patters of Tiger Sharks (Galeocerdo Cuvier) off the Western North Atlantic Coastal and Continental Shelf Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancho, G.; Edman, R.; Frazier, B.; Bubley, W.

    2016-02-01

    Understanding the trophic dynamics and habitat utilization of apex predators is central to inferring their influence on different marine landscapes and to help design effective management plans for these animals. Tiger sharks (Galeocerdo cuvier) are abundant in shelf and offshore Gulf Stream waters of the western North Atlantic Ocean, and based on movements from individuals captured in Florida and Bahamas, seem to avoid coastal and shelf waters off South Carolina and Georgia. This contradicts reports of tiger sharks regularly being caught nearshore by anglers in these states, indicating that separate sub-populations may exist in the western North Atlantic. In the present study we captured Tiger Sharks in coastal waters off South Carolina in 2014 and 2015 in order to describe their movement patterns through acoustic and satellite tagging, and trophic dynamics through stable isotope analyses. Movement data show that these tiger sharks repeatedly visit particular inshore areas and mainly travel over the continental shelf, but rarely venture offshore beyond the continental shelf edge. Ongoing C and N stable isotope analyses of muscle, blood and skin tissues from adult and juvenile tiger sharks, as well as from potential prey species and primary producers, will help determine if their diets are based on inshore, shelf or offshore based food webs. Tiger sharks exploiting nearshore environments and shelf waters have much higher probabilities of interacting with humans than individuals occupying far offshore Gulf Stream habitats.

  1. Isotopic equilibrium between precipitation and water vapor: evidence from continental rains in central Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderberg, K.; Gerlein, C.; Kemeny, P. C.; Caylor, K. K.

    2013-12-01

    An accurate understanding of the relationships between the isotopic composition of liquid water and that of water vapor in the environment can help describe hydrologic processes across many scales. One such relationship is the isotopic equilibrium between falling raindrops and the surrounding vapor. The degree of equilibration is used to model the isotopic composition of precipitation in isotope-enable general circulation models and land-atmosphere exchange models. Although this equilibrium has been a topic of isotope hydrology research for more than four decades, few studies have included vapor measurements to validate modeling efforts. Recent advances in laser technology have allowed for in situ vapor measurements at high temporal resolution (e.g., >1 Hz). Here we present concomitant rain and vapor measurements for a series of 17 rain events during the 'Continental' rainy season (June through August) at Mpala Research Center in central Kenya. Rain samples (n=218) were collected at intervals of 2 to 35 minutes (median of 3 minutes) depending on the rain rate (0.4 to 10.5 mm/hr). The volume-weighted mean rain values for δ18O, δ2H and D-excess (δ2H - 8* δ18O) were 0.1 ‰, 10.7 ‰, and 10.1 ‰. These values are more enriched than the annual weighted means reported for the area (-2.2 ‰, -7.6 ‰, and 11.0 ‰, respectively). Vapor was measured continuously at ~2Hz (DLT-100, Los Gatos Research), with an inverted funnel intake 4m above the ground surface. The mean vapor isotopic composition during the rain events was -10.0 +/- 1.2 ‰ (1 σ) for δ18O and -73.9 +/- 7.0 ‰ for δ2H. The difference between the rain sample isotopic composition and that of liquid in isotopic equilibrium with the corresponding vapor at the ambient temperature was 0.8 +/- 2.2 ‰ for δ18O and 6.2 +/- 7.0 ‰ for δ2H. This disequilibrium was found to correlate with the natural log of rain rate (R2 of 0.26 for δ18O and 0.46 for δ2H), with lower rain rates having larger

  2. The Myanmar continental shelf

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaswamy, V.; Rao, P.S.

    reveal a minimum of 18 m thick strata of modern muds (Fig. 2g). At the outer boundary of the Gulf of Myanmar Continental Shelf 8 Martaban (15oN Latitude), brown muds overlie coarse sands indicating that modern deltaic sediments... on the Myeik Bank (Rodolfo, 1969a). Modern sediments on the Ayeyarwady shelf General composition, Texture and Grain-size: The distribution and sediment texture on the Ayeyarwady shelf shows fine-grained sediments comprising silty-clay and clayey...

  3. The Deposition and Accumulation of Microplastics in Marine Sediments and Bottom Water from the Irish Continental Shelf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jake; Lusher, Amy; Thompson, Richard C; Morley, Audrey

    2017-09-07

    Microplastics are widely dispersed throughout the marine environment. An understanding of the distribution and accumulation of this form of pollution is crucial for gauging environmental risk. Presented here is the first record of plastic contamination, in the 5 mm-250 μm size range, of Irish continental shelf sediments. Sixty-two microplastics were recovered from 10 of 11 stations using box cores. 97% of recovered microplastics were found to reside shallower than 2.5 cm sediment depth, with the area of highest microplastic concentration being the water-sediment interface and top 0.5 cm of sediments (66%). Microplastics were not found deeper than 3.5 ± 0.5 cm. These findings demonstrate that microplastic contamination is ubiquitous within superficial sediments and bottom water along the western Irish continental shelf. Results highlight that cores need to be at least 4-5 cm deep to quantify the standing stock of microplastics within marine sediments. All recovered microplastics were classified as secondary microplastics as they appear to be remnants of larger items; fibres being the principal form of microplastic pollution (85%), followed by broken fragments (15%). The range of polymer types, colours and physical forms recovered suggests a variety of sources. Further research is needed to understand the mechanisms influencing microplastic transport, deposition, resuspension and subsequent interactions with biota.

  4. Outer magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schardt, A.W.; Behannon, K.W.; Lepping, R.P.; Carbary, J.F.; Eviatar, A.; Siscoe, G.L.

    1984-01-01

    Similarities between the Saturnian and terrestrial outer magnetosphere are examined. Saturn, like earth, has a fully developed magnetic tail, 80 to 100 RS in diameter. One major difference between the two outer magnetospheres is the hydrogen and nitrogen torus produced by Titan. This plasma is, in general, convected in the corotation direction at nearly the rigid corotation speed. Energies of magnetospheric particles extend to above 500 keV. In contrast, interplanetary protons and ions above 2 MeV have free access to the outer magnetosphere to distances well below the Stormer cutoff. This access presumably occurs through the magnetotail. In addition to the H+, H2+, and H3+ ions primarily of local origin, energetic He, C, N, and O ions are found with solar composition. Their flux can be substantially enhanced over that of interplanetary ions at energies of 0.2 to 0.4 MeV/nuc

  5. Control of water uptake by rice ( Oryza sativa L.): role of the outer part of the root.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranathunge, Kosala; Steudle, Ernst; Lafitte, Renee

    2003-06-01

    A new pressure-perfusion technique was used to measure hydraulic and osmotic properties of the outer part of roots (OPR) of 30-day-old rice plants (lowland cultivar: IR64, and upland cultivar: Azucena). The OPR comprised rhizodermis, exodermis, sclerenchyma and one cortical cell layer. The technique involved perfusion of aerenchyma of segments from two different root zones (20-50 mm and 50-100 mm from the tip) at precise rates using aerated nutrient solution. The hydraulic conductivity of the OPR (Lp(OPR)=1.2x10(-6) m s(-1) MPa(-1)) was larger by a factor of 30 than the overall hydraulic conductivity (Lp(r)=4x10(-8) m s(-1) MPa(-1)) as measured by pressure chamber and root pressure probe. Low reflection coefficients were obtained for mannitol and NaCl for the OPR (sigma(sOPR)=0.14 and 0.09, respectively). The diffusional water permeability ( P(dOPR)) estimated from isobaric flow of heavy water was smaller by three orders of magnitude than the hydraulic conductivity (Lp(OPR)/ P(fOPR)). Although detailed root anatomy showed well-defined Casparian bands and suberin lamellae in the exodermis, the findings strongly indicate a predominantly apoplastic water flow in the OPR. The Lp(OPR) of heat-killed root segments increased by a factor of only 2, which is in line with the conclusion of a dominating apoplastic water flow. The hydraulic resistance of the OPR was not limiting the passage of water across the root cylinder. Estimations of the hydraulic properties of aerenchyma suggested that the endodermis was rate-limiting the water flow, although the aerenchyma may contribute to the overall resistance. The resistance of the aerenchyma was relatively low, because mono-layered cortical septa crossing the aerenchyma ('spokes') short-circuited the air space between the stele and the OPR. Spokes form hydraulic bridges that act like wicks. Low diffusional water permeabilities of the OPR suggest that radial oxygen losses from aerenchyma to medium are also low. It is concluded that

  6. Hydrologic consistency as a basis for assessing complexity of monthly water balance models for the continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Guillermo F.; Gupta, Hoshin V.

    2011-12-01

    Methods to select parsimonious and hydrologically consistent model structures are useful for evaluating dominance of hydrologic processes and representativeness of data. While information criteria (appropriately constrained to obey underlying statistical assumptions) can provide a basis for evaluating appropriate model complexity, it is not sufficient to rely upon the principle of maximum likelihood (ML) alone. We suggest that one must also call upon a "principle of hydrologic consistency," meaning that selected ML structures and parameter estimates must be constrained (as well as possible) to reproduce desired hydrological characteristics of the processes under investigation. This argument is demonstrated in the context of evaluating the suitability of candidate model structures for lumped water balance modeling across the continental United States, using data from 307 snow-free catchments. The models are constrained to satisfy several tests of hydrologic consistency, a flow space transformation is used to ensure better consistency with underlying statistical assumptions, and information criteria are used to evaluate model complexity relative to the data. The results clearly demonstrate that the principle of consistency provides a sensible basis for guiding selection of model structures and indicate strong spatial persistence of certain model structures across the continental United States. Further work to untangle reasons for model structure predominance can help to relate conceptual model structures to physical characteristics of the catchments, facilitating the task of prediction in ungaged basins.

  7. Origin and Distribution of Water Contents in Continental and Oceanic Lithospheric Mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peslier, Anne H.

    2013-01-01

    The water content distribution of the upper mantle will be reviewed as based on the peridotite record. The amount of water in cratonic xenoliths appears controlled by metasomatism while that of the oceanic mantle retains in part the signature of melting events. In both cases, the water distribution is heterogeneous both with depth and laterally, depending on localized water re-enrichments next to melt/fluid channels. The consequence of the water distribution on the rheology of the upper mantle and the location of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary will also be discussed.

  8. Ingestion of marine litter by loggerhead sea turtles, Caretta caretta, in Portuguese continental waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolau, Lídia; Marçalo, Ana; Ferreira, Marisa; Sá, Sara; Vingada, José; Eira, Catarina

    2016-02-15

    The accumulation of litter in marine and coastal environments is a major threat to marine life. Data on marine litter in the gastrointestinal tract of stranded loggerhead turtles, Caretta caretta, found along the Portuguese continental coast was presented. Out of the 95 analysed loggerheads, litter was present in 56 individuals (59.0%) and most had less than 10 litter items (76.8%) and less than 5 g (dm) (96.8%). Plastic was the main litter category (frequency of occurrence=56.8%), while sheet (45.3%) was the most relevant plastic sub-category. There was no influence of loggerhead stranding season, cause of stranding or size on the amount of litter ingested (mean number and dry mass of litter items per turtle). The high ingested litter occurrence frequency in this study supports the use of the loggerhead turtle as a suitable tool to monitor marine litter trends, as required by the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Incorporating soil variability in continental soil water modelling: a trade-off between data availability and model complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, L.; Crosbie, R. S.; Doble, R.; van Dijk, A. I. J. M.

    2012-04-01

    Developing a continental land surface model implies finding a balance between the complexity in representing the system processes and the availability of reliable data to drive, parameterise and calibrate the model. While a high level of process understanding at plot or catchment scales may warrant a complex model, such data is not available at the continental scale. This data sparsity is especially an issue for the Australian Water Resources Assessment system, AWRA-L, a land-surface model designed to estimate the components of the water balance for the Australian continent. This study focuses on the conceptualization and parametrization of the soil drainage process in AWRA-L. Traditionally soil drainage is simulated with Richards' equation, which is highly non-linear. As general analytic solutions are not available, this equation is usually solved numerically. In AWRA-L however, we introduce a simpler function based on simulation experiments that solve Richards' equation. In the simplified function soil drainage rate, the ratio of drainage (D) over storage (S), decreases exponentially with relative water content. This function is controlled by three parameters, the soil water storage at field capacity (SFC), the drainage fraction at field capacity (KFC) and a drainage function exponent (β). [ ] D- -S- S = KF C exp - β (1 - SFC ) To obtain spatially variable estimates of these three parameters, the Atlas of Australian Soils is used, which lists soil hydraulic properties for each soil profile type. For each soil profile type in the Atlas, 10 days of draining an initially fully saturated, freely draining soil is simulated using HYDRUS-1D. With field capacity defined as the volume of water in the soil after 1 day, the remaining parameters can be obtained by fitting the AWRA-L soil drainage function to the HYDRUS-1D results. This model conceptualisation fully exploits the data available in the Atlas of Australian Soils, without the need to solve the non

  10. Distribution of suspended particulate matter in the waters of eastern continental margin of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, Ch.M.

    Distribution of total suspended matter (TSM) in surface and near bottom (approximately 5 m above sea bed) waters reveals a wide variation in concentration and composition. TSM varies from 0.05 to 122 mg.l/1 in surface waters, and from 0.25 top 231...

  11. Water Content of Earth's Continental Mantle Is Controlled by the Circulation of Fluids or Melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peslier, Anne; Woodland, Alan B.; Bell, David R.; Lazarov, Marina; Lapen, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    A key mission of the ARES Directorate at JSC is to constrain models of the formation and geological history of terrestrial planets. Water is a crucial parameter to be measured with the aim to determine its amount and distribution in the interior of Earth, Mars, and the Moon. Most of that "water" is not liquid water per se, but rather hydrogen dissolved as a trace element in the minerals of the rocks at depth. Even so, the middle layer of differentiated planets, the mantle, occupies such a large volume and mass of each planet that when it is added at the planetary scale, oceans worth of water could be stored in its interior. The mantle is where magmas originate. Moreover, on Earth, the mantle is where the boundary between tectonic plates and the underlying asthenosphere is located. Even if mantle rocks in Earth typically contain less than 200 ppm H2O, such small quantities have tremendous influence on how easily they melt (i.e., the more water there is, the more magma is produced) and deform (the more water there is, the less viscous they are). These two properties alone emphasize that to understand the distribution of volcanism and the mechanism of plate tectonics, the water content of the mantle must be determined - Earth being a template to which all other terrestrial planets can be compared.

  12. A water column study of methane around gas flares located at the West Spitsbergen continental margin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gentz, Torben; Damm, Ellen; von Deimling, Jens Schneider

    2014-01-01

    L1. Our results suggest that the methane dissolved from gas bubbles is efficiently trapped below the pycnocline and thus limits the methane concentration in surface water and the air–sea exchange during summer stratification. During winter the lateral stratification breaks down and fractions...... and ebullition of methane into the water column at more than 250 sites in an area of 665 km2. We conducted a detailed study of a subregion of this area, which covers an active gas ebullition area of 175 km2 characterized by 10 gas flares reaching from the seafloor at ∼245 m up to 50 m water depth to identify...... in the δ13CCH4 values point to a 13C depleted methane source (∼ –60‰ VPDB) being mainly mixed with a background values of the ambient water (∼–37.5‰ VPDB). A gas bubble dissolution model indicates that ∼80% of the methane released from gas bubbles into the ambient water takes place below the pycnocline...

  13. Food supply mechanisms for cold-water corals along a continental shelf edge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiem, Øyvind; Ravagnan, Elisa; Fosså, Jan Helge; Berntsen, Jarle

    2006-05-01

    In recent years it has been documented that deep-water coral reefs of the species Lophelia pertusa are a major benthic habitat in Norwegian waters. However, basic information about the biology and ecology of this species is still unknown. Lophelia live and thrive under special environmental conditions of which factors such as temperature, water depth, water movement and food supply are important. The present work explores the hypothesis that Lophelia forms reefs in places where the encounter rate of food particles is sufficiently high and stable over long periods of time for continuous growth. This is done by relating the distribution of reefs with the results of numerical ocean modelling. Numerical simulations have been performed with an idealized bottom topography similar to what is found outside parts of the Norwegian coast. In the simulations the model is first forced with an along slope jet and then with an idealized atmospheric low pressure. The model results show that the encounter rates between the particles and the water layer near the seabed are particularly high close to the shelf break. This may indicate that many Lophelia reefs are located along the shelf edges because the supply of food is particularly good in these areas. A sensitivity study of the particle supply in the area close to the seabed for increasing latitude has also been done. This shows that the Ekman transport in the benthic layer tends to create a steady supply of food for benthic organisms near the shelf edge away from the equator.

  14. Importance of Rain Evaporation and Continental Convection in the Tropical Water Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worden, John; Noone, David; Bowman, Kevin; Beer, R.; Eldering, A.; Fisher, B.; Gunson, M.; Goldman, Aaron; Kulawik, S. S.; Lampel, Michael; hide

    2007-01-01

    Atmospheric moisture cycling is an important aspect of the Earth's climate system, yet the processes determining atmospheric humidity are poorly understood. For example, direct evaporation of rain contributes significantly to the heat and moisture budgets of clouds, but few observations of these processes are available. Similarly, the relative contributions to atmospheric moisture over land from local evaporation and humidity from oceanic sources are uncertain. Lighter isotopes of water vapour preferentially evaporate whereas heavier isotopes preferentially condense and the isotopic composition of ocean water is known. Here we use this information combined with global measurements of the isotopic composition of tropospheric water vapour from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) aboard the Aura spacecraft, to investigate aspects of the atmospheric hydrological cycle that are not well constrained by observations of precipitation or atmospheric vapour content. Our measurements of the isotopic composition of water vapour near tropical clouds suggest that rainfall evaporation contributes significantly to lower troposphere humidity, with typically 20% and up to 50% of rainfall evaporating near convective clouds. Over the tropical continents the isotopic signature of tropospheric water vapour differs significantly from that of precipitation, suggesting that convection of vapour from both oceanic sources and evapotranspiration are the dominant moisture sources. Our measurements allow an assessment of the intensity of the present hydrological cycle and will help identify any future changes as they occur.

  15. Analysis of confidence in continental-scale groundwater recharge estimates for Africa using a distributed water balance model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, Jonathan; Mansour, Majdi; Bonsor, Helen; Pachocka, Magdalena; Wang, Lei; MacDonald, Alan; Macdonald, David; Bloomfield, John

    2014-05-01

    There is a growing need for improved access to reliable water in Africa as population and food production increases. Currently approximately 300 million people do not have access to a secure source of safe drinking water. To meet these current and future demands, groundwater will need to be increasingly abstracted; groundwater is more reliable than surface water sources due to its relatively long response time to meteorological stresses and therefore is likely to be a more secure water resource in a more variable climate. Recent studies also quantified the volumes of groundwater potentially available which suggest that, if exploited, groundwater could help to meet the demand for fresh water. However, there is still considerable uncertainty as to how these resources may respond in the future due to changes in groundwater recharge and abstraction. Understanding and quantifying groundwater recharge is vital as it forms a primary indicator of the sustainability of underlying groundwater resources. Computational hydrological models provide a means to do this, but the complexity of recharge processes in Africa mean that these simulations are often highly uncertain. This study aims to evaluate our confidence in simulating groundwater recharge over Africa based on a sensitivity analysis using a distributed hydrological model developed by the British Geological Survey, ZOODRM. The model includes land surface, canopy, river, soil and groundwater components. Each component is able to exchange water and as such, forms a distributed water balance of Africa. The components have been parameterised using available spatial datasets of African vegetation, land-use, soil and hydrogeology while the remaining parameters have been estimated by calibrating the model to available river flow data. Continental-scale gridded precipitation and potential evapotranspiration datasets, based on remotely sensed and ground observations, have been used to force the model. Following calibration, the

  16. The George V Land Continental Margin (East Antarctica): new Insights Into Bottom Water Production and Quaternary Glacial Processes from the WEGA project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caburlotto, A.; de Santis, L.; Lucchi, R. G.; Giorgetti, G.; Damiani, D.; Macri', P.; Tolotti, R.; Presti, M.; Armand, L.; Harris, P.

    2004-12-01

    The George Vth Land represents the ending of one of the largest subglacial basin (Wilkes Basin) of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS). Furthermore, its coastal areas are zone of significant production of High Salinity Shelf Water (HSSW). Piston and gravity cores and high resolution echo-sounding (3.5 kHz) and Chirp profiles collected in the frame of the joint Australian and Italian WEGA (WilkEs Basin GlAcial History) project provide new insights into the Quaternary history of the EAIS and the HSSW across this margin: from the sediment record filling and draping valleys and banks along the continental shelf, to the continuous sedimentary section of the mound-channel system on the continental rise. The discovery of a current-lain sediment drift (Mertz Drift, MD) provides clues to understanding the age of the last glacial erosive events, as well as to infer flow-pathways of bottom-water masses changes. The MD shows disrupted, fluted reflectors due to glacial advance during the LGM (Last Glacial Maximum) in shallow water, while undisturbed sediment drift deposited at greater water depth, indicates that during the LGM the ice shelf was floating over the deep sector of the basin. The main sedimentary environment characterising the modern conditions of the continental rise is dominated by the turbiditic processes with a minor contribution of contour currents action. Nevertheless, some areas (WEGA Channel) are currently characterised by transport and settling of sediment through HSSW, originating in the shelf area. This particular environment likely persisted since pre-LGM times. It could indicate a continuous supply of sedimentary material from HSSW during the most recent both glacial and interglacial cycles. This would be consistent with the results obtained in the continental shelf suggesting that the Ice Sheet was not grounding over some parts of the continental shelf. Furthermore, the comparison of the studied area with other Antarctic margins indicate that, contrary

  17. Mapping probabilities of extreme continental water storage changes from space gravimetry

    OpenAIRE

    Kusche , Jürgen; Eicker , Annette; Forootan , Ehsan; Springer , Anne; Longuevergne , Laurent

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Using data from the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission, we derive statistically robust " hot spot " regions of high probability of peak anomalous—i.e., with respect to the seasonal cycle—water storage (of up to 0.7 m one-in-five-year return level) and flux (up to 0.14 m/month). Analysis of, and comparison with, up to 32 years of ERA-Interim reanalysis fields reveals generally good agreement of these hot spot regions to GRACE results and that most e...

  18. Estimating continental water storage variations in Central Asia area using GRACE data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dapeng, Mu; Zhongchang, Sun; Jinyun, Guo

    2014-01-01

    The goal of GRACE satellite is to determine time-variations of the Earth's gravity, and particularly the effects of fluid mass redistributions at the surface of the Earth. This paper uses GRACE Level-2 RL05 data provided by CSR to estimate water storage variations of four river basins in Asia area for the period from 2003 to 2011. We apply a two-step filtering method to reduce the errors in GRACE data, which combines Gaussian averaging function and empirical de-correlation method. We use GLDAS hydrology to validate the result from GRACE. Special averaging approach is preformed to reduce the errors in GLDAS. The results of former three basins from GRACE are consistent with GLDAS hydrology model. In the Tarim River basin, there is more discrepancy between GRACE and GLDAS. Precipitation data from weather station proves that the results of GRACE are more plausible. We use spectral analysis to obtain the main periods of GRACE and GLDAS time series and then use least squares adjustment to determine the amplitude and phase. The results show that water storage in Central Asia is decreasing

  19. Algorithm Development and Validation of CDOM Properties for Estuarine and Continental Shelf Waters Along the Northeastern U.S. Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannino, Antonio; Novak, Michael G.; Hooker, Stanford B.; Hyde, Kimberly; Aurin, Dick

    2014-01-01

    An extensive set of field measurements have been collected throughout the continental margin of the northeastern U.S. from 2004 to 2011 to develop and validate ocean color satellite algorithms for the retrieval of the absorption coefficient of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (aCDOM) and CDOM spectral slopes for the 275:295 nm and 300:600 nm spectral range (S275:295 and S300:600). Remote sensing reflectance (Rrs) measurements computed from in-water radiometry profiles along with aCDOM() data are applied to develop several types of algorithms for the SeaWiFS and MODIS-Aqua ocean color satellite sensors, which involve least squares linear regression of aCDOM() with (1) Rrs band ratios, (2) quasi-analytical algorithm-based (QAA based) products of total absorption coefficients, (3) multiple Rrs bands within a multiple linear regression (MLR) analysis, and (4) diffuse attenuation coefficient (Kd). The relative error (mean absolute percent difference; MAPD) for the MLR retrievals of aCDOM(275), aCDOM(355), aCDOM(380), aCDOM(412) and aCDOM(443) for our study region range from 20.4-23.9 for MODIS-Aqua and 27.3-30 for SeaWiFS. Because of the narrower range of CDOM spectral slope values, the MAPD for the MLR S275:295 and QAA-based S300:600 algorithms are much lower ranging from 9.9 and 8.3 for SeaWiFS, respectively, and 8.7 and 6.3 for MODIS, respectively. Seasonal and spatial MODIS-Aqua and SeaWiFS distributions of aCDOM, S275:295 and S300:600 processed with these algorithms are consistent with field measurements and the processes that impact CDOM levels along the continental shelf of the northeastern U.S. Several satellite data processing factors correlate with higher uncertainty in satellite retrievals of aCDOM, S275:295 and S300:600 within the coastal ocean, including solar zenith angle, sensor viewing angle, and atmospheric products applied for atmospheric corrections. Algorithms that include ultraviolet Rrs bands provide a better fit to field measurements than

  20. Continental tectonics and continental kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allegre, C.J.; Jaupart, C.; Paris-7 Univ., 75

    1985-01-01

    We present a model of continental growth which combines the results of geochemical studies and tectonic ideas about the evolution of continents through geological time. The process of continental growth is mainly controlled by surface phenomena. Continental material is extracted from the mantle along subduction zones at the periphery of oceans, and is destroyed in collision zones where it is remobilized and made available for subduction. We derive an equation for S, the portion of the Earth's surface occupied by continents, which reads as follows: dS/dt=a . √(1-S)-b . S. Coefficients a and b depend on the geometry of plates, on their number and on their velocities. We assume that they decrease exponentially with time with the same time-scale α. This model satisfies both geochemical and tectonic constraints, and allows the integration of several current observations in a single framework. (orig.)

  1. Physical (Hydrography), chemical (CTD), and biological (Water Quality) processes of the Texas-Louisiana continental shelf, 2013 (NCEI Accession 0162440)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Two sets of CTD data were taken during the 2013 Shelfwide Hypoxia cruise off the Louisiana continental shelf. Hydrographic data were obtained with the LUMCON SeaBird...

  2. mizuRoute version 1: A river network routing tool for a continental domain water resources applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizukami, Naoki; Clark, Martyn P.; Sampson, Kevin; Nijssen, Bart; Mao, Yixin; McMillan, Hilary; Viger, Roland; Markstrom, Steven; Hay, Lauren E.; Woods, Ross; Arnold, Jeffrey R.; Brekke, Levi D.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the first version of a stand-alone runoff routing tool, mizuRoute. The mizuRoute tool post-processes runoff outputs from any distributed hydrologic model or land surface model to produce spatially distributed streamflow at various spatial scales from headwater basins to continental-wide river systems. The tool can utilize both traditional grid-based river network and vector-based river network data. Both types of river network include river segment lines and the associated drainage basin polygons, but the vector-based river network can represent finer-scale river lines than the grid-based network. Streamflow estimates at any desired location in the river network can be easily extracted from the output of mizuRoute. The routing process is simulated as two separate steps. First, hillslope routing is performed with a gamma-distribution-based unit-hydrograph to transport runoff from a hillslope to a catchment outlet. The second step is river channel routing, which is performed with one of two routing scheme options: (1) a kinematic wave tracking (KWT) routing procedure; and (2) an impulse response function – unit-hydrograph (IRF-UH) routing procedure. The mizuRoute tool also includes scripts (python, NetCDF operators) to pre-process spatial river network data. This paper demonstrates mizuRoute's capabilities to produce spatially distributed streamflow simulations based on river networks from the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Geospatial Fabric (GF) data set in which over 54 000 river segments and their contributing areas are mapped across the contiguous United States (CONUS). A brief analysis of model parameter sensitivity is also provided. The mizuRoute tool can assist model-based water resources assessments including studies of the impacts of climate change on streamflow.

  3. Net primary productivity (NPP) and associated parameters for the U.S. outer continental shelf waters, 1998-2009 (NODC Accession 0071184)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession consists of monthly net primary productivity (NPP) estimates for 1998-2009 derived from the Vertically Generalized Production Model (VGPM) for the 26...

  4. A study on the applicability of the ecosystem model on water quality prediction in urban river outer moats of Yedo Castle, Nihonbashi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakinuma, Daiki; Tsushima, Yuki; Ohdaira, Kazunori; Yamada, Tadashi

    2015-04-01

    The objective of the study is to elucidate the waterside environment in the outer moats of Yedo Castle and the downstream of Nihonbashi River in Tokyo. Scince integrated sewage system has been installed in the area around the outer moats of Yedo Castle and the Nihon River basin, when rainfall exceeds more than the sewage treatment capacity, overflowed untreated wastewater is released into the moats and the river. Because the moats is a closed water body, pollutants are deposited to the bottom without outflowing. While reeking offensive odors due to the decomposition, blue-green algae outbreaks affected by the residence time and eluted nutrient causes problems. Scince the Nihonbashi River is a typical tidal river in urban area, the water pollution problems in the river is complicated. This study clarified the characteristics of the water quality in terms of dissolved oxygen saturation through on-site observations. In particular, dissolved oxygen saturation in summer, it is clarified that variations from a supersaturated state due to the variations of horizontal insolation intensity and water temperature up to hypoxic water conditions in the moats. According to previous studies on the water quality of Nihonbashi River, it is clarified that there are three types of variations of dissolved oxygen which desided by rainfall scale. The mean value of dissolved oxygen saturation of all layers has decreased by about 20% at the spring tide after dredging, then it recoveres gradually and become the value before dredging during about a year. Further more, in places where sewage inflows, it is important to developed a ecosystem medel and the applicability of the model. 9 variables including cell quota (intracellular nutrients of phytoplankton) of phosphorus and nitrogen with considerring the nitrification of ammonia nitrogen are used in the model. This model can grasp the sections (such as oxygen production by photosynthesis of phytoplankton, oxygen consumption by respiration of

  5. Flux of energy and essential elements through the continental shelf ecosystem. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomeroy, L.R.

    1981-11-30

    There are three distinct but not mutually exclusive areas of research in this contract, studies of intrusions of the west wall of the Gulf Stream onto the outer continental shelf, studies of the flux of materials across nearshore density fronts, and advances in understanding of the planktonic food web of the continental shelf. Studies of frontal events on the outer and inner continental shelf involve distinctive physical and chemical regimes and have proven to require distinctive biological approaches. The studies of the food web run through our work on both of the frontal regimes, but certain aspects have become subjects in their own right. We have developed a simulation model of the flux of energy through the continental shelf food web which we believe to be more realistic than previous ones of its type. We have examined several of the many roles of dissolved organic compounds in sea water which originate either from release by phytoplankton, digestive processes or metabolites of zooplankton, or extracellular digestion of microorganisms. Methods have been developed under this contract to measure both the chelating capacity of naturally occurring organic materials and the copper concentration in the water. It has been possible to characterize the effects, both toxic and stimulatory, of copper on photosynthesis of naturally occurring phytoplankton populations. It is possible to characterize in considerable detail the course of biological events associated with meanders of the Gulf Stream. We are now in a position to explain the limits to biological productivity of the outer continental shelf of the southeastern US and the reasons why that biological production moves through the food web in the characteristic way that it does.

  6. Sedimentary Characterization of Nazca Ridge ODP Site 1237: Plio-Pleistocene Record of Continental Erosion and Bottom Water Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dileo, K. V.; Joseph, L. H.

    2005-12-01

    strength of the depositing current, range from ~1.005 to ~1.051 and indicate that most samples have experienced current influence from bottom water currents. Calcium carbonate percentages are high (~90%) at the base of the record, decline gradually from ~60 until ~30 mcd (~1.2 Ma), and maintain a low percentage (~10%) for the remainder of the record although calcareous nannofossils are still abundant. Although not described shipboard as a lithologic boundary, a number of gradual, but distinct, changes in the characteristics analyzed in this study occur at ~3 Ma. Increased ash input from 3 to 1 Ma is not likely the only reason for the changes noted, although the ash may be indicative of increased activity and mountain building in the Columbian Andes; detailed terrigenous MARs will aid in interpretation of continental conditions at this time. Tighter age control and grain size analyses (combined with the AMS results) may provide insight into the effects of Northern Hemisphere glaciation on oceanic currents off the coast of Peru.

  7. Physical (Hydrography), chemical (CTD), and biological (Water Quality) processes of the Texas-Louisiana continental shelf, 2012 (NCEI Accession 0162101)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Two sets of CTD data were taken during the 2012 surveys of the Louisiana continental shelf—Transect C off Terrebonne Bay and Transect F off Atchafalaya Bay and the...

  8. Diagenesis and reservoir quality evolution of palaeocene deep-water, marine sandstones, the Shetland-Faroes Basin, British continental shelf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansurbeg, H. [Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Villavaegen 16, SE 752 36 Uppsala (Sweden); Morad, S. [Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Villavaegen 16, SE 752 36 Uppsala (Sweden); Department of Petroleum Geosciences, The Petroleum Institute, P.O. Box 2533, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Salem, A. [Faculty of Education at Kafr El-Sheikh, Tanta University, Kafr El-Sheikh (Egypt); Marfil, R.; Caja, M.A. [Departmento Petrologia y Geoquimica, Facultad de Geologia, UCM, 28040 Madrid (Spain); El-ghali, M.A.K. (Geology Department, Al-Fateh University, P.O. Box 13696, Libya); Nystuen, J.P. [Department of Geosciences, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1047 Blindern, NO-0316 Oslo (Norway); Amorosi, A. [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Bologna, Via Zamboni 67, 40127 Bologna (Italy); Garcia, D. [Centre SPIN, Department GENERIC, Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Saint Etienne 158, Cours Fauriel 42023, Saint-Etienne (France); La Iglesia, A. [Instituto de Geologia Economica (CSIC-UCM), Facultad de Geologia, UCM, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2008-06-15

    The Palaeocene, deep-water marine sandstones recovered from six wells in the Shetland-Faroes Basin represent lowstand, transgressive and highstand systems tract turbiditic sediments. Mineralogic, petrographic, and geochemical analyses of these siliciclastics are used to decipher and discuss the diagenetic alterations and subsequent reservoir quality evolution. The Middle-Upper Palaeocene sandstones (subarkoses to arkoses) from the Shetland-Faroes Basin, British continental shelf are submarine turbiditic deposits that are cemented predominantly by carbonates, quartz and clay minerals. Carbonate cements (intergranular and grain replacive calcite, siderite, ferroan dolomite and ankerite) are of eogenetic and mesogenetic origins. The eogenetic alterations have been mediated by marine, meteoric and mixed marine/meteoric porewaters and resulted mainly in the precipitation of calcite ({delta}{sup 18}O{sub V-PDB}=-10.9 permille and -3.8 permille), trace amounts of non-ferroan dolomite, siderite ({delta}{sup 18}O{sub V-PDB}=-14.4 permille to -0.6 permille), as well as smectite and kaolinite in the lowstand systems tract (LST) and highstand systems tract (HST) turbiditic sandstone below the sequence boundary. Minor eogenetic siderite has precipitated between expanded and kaolinitized micas, primarily biotite. The mesogenetic alterations are interpreted to have been mediated by evolved marine porewaters and resulted in the precipitation of calcite ({delta}{sup 18}O{sub V-PDB}=-12.9 permille to -7.8 permille) and Fe-dolomite/ankerite ({delta}{sup 18}O{sub V-PDB}=-12.1 permille to -6.3 permille) at temperatures of 50-140 and 60-140 C, respectively. Quartz overgrowths and outgrowth, which post- and pre-date the mesogenetic carbonate cements is more common in the LST and TST of distal turbiditic sandstone. Discrete quartz cement, which is closely associated with illite and chlorite, is the final diagenetic phase. The clay minerals include intergranular and grain replacive

  9. Contribution to the study of maximum levels for liquid radioactive waste disposal into continental and sea water. Treatment of some typical samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bittel, R.; Mancel, J.

    1968-10-01

    The most important carriers of radioactive contamination of man are the whole of foodstuffs and not only ingested water or inhaled air. That is the reason why, in accordance with the spirit of the recent recommendations of the ICRP, it is proposed to substitute the idea of maximum levels of contamination of water to the MPC. In the case of aquatic food chains (aquatic organisms and irrigated foodstuffs), the knowledge of the ingested quantities and of the concentration factors food/water permit to determinate these maximum levels, or to find out a linear relation between the maximum levels in the case of two primary carriers of contamination (continental and sea waters). The notion of critical food-consumption, critical radioelements and formula of waste disposal are considered in the same way, taking care to attach the greatest possible importance to local situations. (authors) [fr

  10. Improving National Water Modeling: An Intercomparison of two High-Resolution, Continental Scale Models, CONUS-ParFlow and the National Water Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijerina, D.; Gochis, D.; Condon, L. E.; Maxwell, R. M.

    2017-12-01

    Development of integrated hydrology modeling systems that couple atmospheric, land surface, and subsurface flow is growing trend in hydrologic modeling. Using an integrated modeling framework, subsurface hydrologic processes, such as lateral flow and soil moisture redistribution, are represented in a single cohesive framework with surface processes like overland flow and evapotranspiration. There is a need for these more intricate models in comprehensive hydrologic forecasting and water management over large spatial areas, specifically the Continental US (CONUS). Currently, two high-resolution, coupled hydrologic modeling applications have been developed for this domain: CONUS-ParFlow built using the integrated hydrologic model ParFlow and the National Water Model that uses the NCAR Weather Research and Forecasting hydrological extension package (WRF-Hydro). Both ParFlow and WRF-Hydro include land surface models, overland flow, and take advantage of parallelization and high-performance computing (HPC) capabilities; however, they have different approaches to overland subsurface flow and groundwater-surface water interactions. Accurately representing large domains remains a challenge considering the difficult task of representing complex hydrologic processes, computational expense, and extensive data needs; both models have accomplished this, but have differences in approach and continue to be difficult to validate. A further exploration of effective methodology to accurately represent large-scale hydrology with integrated models is needed to advance this growing field. Here we compare the outputs of CONUS-ParFlow and the National Water Model to each other and with observations to study the performance of hyper-resolution models over large domains. Models were compared over a range of scales for major watersheds within the CONUS with a specific focus on the Mississippi, Ohio, and Colorado River basins. We use a novel set of approaches and analysis for this comparison

  11. Particle flux across the mid-European continental margin

    CERN Document Server

    Antia, A N; Peinert, R

    1999-01-01

    Results are presented from particle flux studies using sediment trap and current meter moorings along a transect at the European continental margin at 49 degrees N within the Ocean Margin Exchange (OMEX) project. Two moorings were placed, at the mid- and outer slope in water depths of 1500 and 3660 m, with traps at 600 and 1050 m and at 580, 1440 and 3220 m, respectively. Residual currents at the mid- slope follow the slope contour, whereas seasonal off-slope flow was registered at the outer slope. At 600 m on the slope fluxes are similar to those in the abyssal North Atlantic. The flux of all components (bulk dry weight, particulate organic and inorganic carbon, lithogenic matter and opal) increased with water depth. Highest fluxes were recorded at 1440 m at the outer slope, where off- slope residual currents mediate particle export. The injection of biogenic and lithogenic particles below the depth of winter mixing results in the export of particles from shallower waters. Calculated lateral fluxes of partic...

  12. Continental Rifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosendahl, B. R.

    Continental Rifts, edited by A. M. Quennell, is a new member of the Benchmark Papers in Geology Series, edited in toto by R. W. Fairbridge. In this series the individual volume editors peruse the literature on a given topic, select a few dozen papers of ostensibly benchmark quality, and then reorder them in some sensible fashion. Some of the original papers are republished intact, but many are chopped into “McNuggets™” of information. Depending upon the volume editor, the chopping process can range from a butchering job to careful and prudent pruning. The collecting, sifting, and reorganizing tasks are, of course, equally editor-sensitive. The end product of this series is something akin to a set of Reader's Digest of Geology.

  13. Stability and behavior of the outer array of small water Cherenkov detectors, outriggers, in the HAWC observatory

    OpenAIRE

    Capistrán, T.; Torres, I.; Moreno, E.; collaboration, for the HAWC

    2017-01-01

    The High-Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) Observatory is used for detecting TeV gamma rays. HAWC is operating at 4,100 meters above level sea on the slope of the Sierra Negra Volcano in the State of Puebla, Mexico, and consists of an array of 300 water Cherenkov detectors (WCDs) covering an area of 22,000 $m^2$. Each WCD is equipped with four photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) to detect Cherenkov emission in the water from secondary particles of extensive air-shower (EAS) that are produced in the in...

  14. Recent trends in the abundance of plaice Pleuronectes platessa and cod Gadus morhua in shallow coastal waters of the Northeastern Atlantic continental shelf – a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dutz, Jörg; Støttrup, Josianne Gatt; Stenberg, Claus

    2016-01-01

    of the southern distribution boundary in the Bay of Biscay and deepening of stocks in the North Sea. In contrast, no trend in shallow water abundance of plaice similar to a decline in deep-water stocks during the 1970s and their slow recovery during the 2000s is apparent in the Skagerrak/Kattegat. Although......Shallow, near-shore water habitats on the continental shelf of the Northeast Atlantic have been productive fishing areas in the past. Here, we review the present knowledge about (i) recent trends in the abundance of plaice and cod in these habitats and (ii) hypotheses regarding the factors...... responsible for any trends. At present, only a few studies exist on the trends of abundance of plaice or cod, namely from the Bay of Biscay, the North Sea and the Skagerrak/Kattegat. They suggest a declining abundance in coastal, shallow areas and – at least for plaice – a latitudinal gradient with an erosion...

  15. Final Scientific/Technical Report: Characterizing the Response of the Cascadia Margin Gas Hydrate Reservoir to Bottom Water Warming Along the Upper Continental Slope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, Evan A. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Johnson, H. Paul [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Salmi, Marie [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Whorley, Theresa [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2017-11-10

    The objective of this project is to understand the response of the WA margin gas hydrate system to contemporary warming of bottom water along the upper continental slope. Through pre-cruise analysis and modeling of archive and recent geophysical and oceanographic data, we (1) inventoried bottom simulating reflectors along the WA margin and defined the upper limit of gas hydrate stability, (2) refined margin-wide estimates of heat flow and geothermal gradients, (3) characterized decadal scale temporal variations of bottom water temperatures at the upper continental slope of the Washington margin, and (4) used numerical simulations to provide quantitative estimates of how the shallow boundary of methane hydrate stability responds to modern environmental change. These pre-cruise results provided the context for a systematic geophysical and geochemical survey of methane seepage along the upper continental slope from 48° to 46°N during a 10-day field program on the R/V Thompson from October 10-19, 2014. This systematic inventory of methane emissions along this climate-sensitive margin corridor and comprehensive sediment and water column sampling program provided data and samples for Phase 3 of this project that focused on determining fluid and methane sources (deep-source vs. shallow; microbial, thermogenic, gas hydrate dissociation) within the sediment, and how they relate to contemporary intermediate water warming. During the 2014 research expedition, we sampled nine seep sites between ~470 and 520 m water depth, within the zone of predicted methane hydrate retreat over the past 40 years. We imaged 22 bubble plumes with heights commonly rising to ~300 meters below sea level with one reaching near the sea surface. We collected 22 gravity cores and 20 CTD/hydrocasts from the 9 seeps and at background locations (no acoustic evidence of seepage) within the depth interval of predicted downslope retreat of the methane hydrate stability zone. Approximately 300 pore water

  16. Interaction between continental and estuarine waters in the wetlands of the northern coastal plain of Samborombón Bay, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carol, Eleonora; Mas-Pla, Josep; Kruse, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Inland and estuarine water flows define wetland hydrology on the Samborombón Bay. • Hydrochemistry in shell-ridges and tidal plains is due to water–rock interaction. • Mixing, evaporation and halite dissolution determine salinity in marshes. • Water flow from the shell-ridges control the overall wetland water quality. • These wetlands are complex hydrological systems with vulnerable water resources. - Abstract: On the Samborombón Bay coastline, located in the Río de la Plata estuary in Buenos Aires province (Argentina), a complex hydrological system has developed at the interface between continental and estuarine water, where significant wetlands develop. The main hydrogeological units, namely the shell ridges, the tidal plain and the marsh areas, have been identified using geomorphological criteria. Water table, hydrochemical and isotopic data have been used to determine their hydrological features, as well as those of the streams and canals. Evaporation processes, in particular, have been considered when depicting chemical and isotopic changes in surface waters in streams and marsh areas. The shell ridges represent a hydrogeological unit in which rainwater is stored, constituting a lens-shaped freshwater aquifer. In this unit, just as in the tidal plain, carbonate dissolution and ion exchange are the main processes regulating water chemistry. On the other hand, in the marsh and surface waters, processes such as mixing with estuarine water and evaporation predominate. These processes control water fluxes and the salinity of the wetland areas and, consequently, their ability to preserve the existing biodiversity. This study shows the importance of knowledge of hydrochemical processes in any proposal concerning the management and preservation of this type of wetland

  17. Volatile components and continental material of planets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florenskiy, K.P.; Nikolayeva, O.V.

    1984-01-01

    It is shown that the continental material of the terrestrial planets varies in composition from planet to planet according to the abundances and composition of true volatiles (H 2 0, CO 2 , etc.) in the outer shells of the planets. The formation of these shells occurs very early in a planet's evolution when the role of endogenous processes is indistinct and continental materials are subject to melting and vaporizing in the absence of an atmosphere. As a result, the chemical properties of continental materials are related not only to fractionation processes but also to meltability and volatility. For planets retaining a certain quantity of true volatile components, the chemical transformation of continental material is characterized by a close interaction between impact melting vaporization and endogeneous geological processes

  18. High-efficiency removal of NOx using dielectric barrier discharge nonthermal plasma with water as an outer electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, ZHAO; Feng, YU; Amin, ZHOU; Cunhua, MA; Bin, DAI

    2018-01-01

    With the rapid increase in the number of cars and the development of industry, nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions have become a serious and pressing problem. This work reports on the development of a water-cooled dielectric barrier discharge reactor for gaseous NOx removal at low temperature. The characteristics of the reactor are evaluated with and without packing of the reaction tube with 2 mm diameter dielectric beads composed of glass, ZnO, MnO2, ZrO2, or Fe2O3. It is found that the use of a water-cooled tube reduces the temperature, which stabilizes the reaction, and provides a much greater NO conversion efficiency (28.8%) than that obtained using quartz tube (14.1%) at a frequency of 8 kHz with an input voltage of 6.8 kV. Furthermore, under equivalent conditions, packing the reactor tube with glass beads greatly increases the NO conversion efficiency to 95.85%. This is because the dielectric beads alter the distribution of the electric field due to the influence of polarization at the glass bead surfaces, which ultimately enhances the plasma discharge intensity. The presence of the dielectric beads increases the gas residence time within the reactor. Experimental verification and a theoretical basis are provided for the industrial application of the proposed plasma NO removal process employing dielectric bead packing.

  19. Flux of energy and essential elements through the continental shelf ecosystem. Progress report, May 31, 1980-May 31, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomeroy, L R

    1981-02-01

    There are three distinct areas of research reported, studies of intrusions of the west wall of the Gulf Stream onto the outer continental shelf, studies of the flux of materials across near-shore density fronts, and advances in the understanding of the planktonic food web of the continental shelf. Studies of frontal events on the outer and inner continental shelf involve distinctive physical and chemical regimes and have proven to required distinctive biological approaches. A simulation model of the flux of energy through the continental shelf food web was developed. It represents realistically both details of the energy transfers within the plankton community and the termanal production of fishes. It was discovered that the fecal ribbons of pelagic tunicates break up into flocculent material visually and chemically identical with the flocculent organic aggregates present in sea water. Subsequent experimental work with tunicate fecal matter indicates that some of the naturally occurring aggregates are indeed fecal. This makes it possible to understand and quantify for the first time the production and fate of that population of seston. An examination was made of several of the many roles of dissolved organic compounds in sea water which originate either from release by phytoplankton, digestive processes or metabolites of zooplankton, or extracellular digestion of microorganisms.

  20. Role of deep-Earth water cycling in the growth and evolution of continental crust: Constraints from Cretaceous magmatism in southeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Wang, Xuan-Ce; Wilde, Simon A.; Liu, Liang; Li, Wu-Xian; Yang, Xuemei

    2018-03-01

    The late Mesozoic igneous province in southeast China provides an excellent opportunity to understand the processes that controlled the growth and evolution of Phanerozoic continental crust. Here we report petrological, whole-rock geochemical and isotopic data, and in situ zircon U-Pb-Lu-Hf isotopic data from granitoids and associated gabbros in the Pingtan and Tong'an complexes, southeast China. Through combining the new results with published datasets in southeast China, we show that the Early Cretaceous magmatic rocks are dominated by juvenile Nd-Hf isotopic compositions, whereas the Late Cretaceous ones display less radiogenic Nd-Hf isotope signatures. Furthermore, Nd-Hf isotope systematics are coupled with decreasing abundance of hydrous minerals and an increase of zircon saturation temperatures. Compiled zircon Hf-O data indicates that the 117-116 Ma granites have zircon δ18O values ranging from mantle values (close to 5.3‰) to as low as 3.9‰, but with dominantly positive initial epsilon Hf (εHf(t)) values. Zircon grains from 105 to 98 Ma rocks have δ18O values plotting within the mantle-like range (6.5‰ - 4.5‰), but mainly with negative εHf(t) values. Zircon grains from ca. 87 Ma rocks have positive εHf(t) values (+ 9.8 to + 0.7) and a large range of δ18O values (6.3‰ - 3.5‰). The variations in Hf-Nd-O isotopic compositions are correlated with decreasing abundance of magma water contents, presenting a case that water-fluxed melting generated large-scale granitic magmatism. Deep-Earth water cycling provides an alternative or additional mechanism to supply volatiles (e.g., H2O) for hydrous basaltic underplating, continental crustal melting, and magmatic differentiation.

  1. Contribution to the tritium continental effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, R.R.; Froehlich, K.; Hebert, D.

    1987-01-01

    The results of tritium measurements of atmospheric water vapour and precipitation samples for 1982 and 1983 are presented. The data were used to establish a simple model describing the tritium continental effect taking into account re-evaporation of tritium from the continental land surfaces and man-made tritium. (author)

  2. Contribution to the tritium continental effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, R.R.; Froehlich, K.; Hebert, D.

    1987-01-01

    The results of tritium measurements of atmospheric water vapour and precipitation samples for 1982 and 1983 are presented. The data were used to establish a simple model describing the tritium continental effect taking into account re-evaporation of tritium from the continental land surfaces. Some comments on man made tritium are given. (author)

  3. Humidification of the Arctic: Effects of more open ocean water on land temperatures and tundra productivity along continental and maritime bioclimate transects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, U. S.; Walker, D. A.; Raynolds, M. K.; Epstein, H. E.

    2017-12-01

    Amplified Arctic warming linked to declining sea-ice extent led to generally enhanced productivity of the tundra biome during the period 1982-2008. After about 2002, coinciding with a recent precipitous decline in sea ice, large areas of the Arctic began showing reversals of previous positive productivity trends. To better understand these recent vegetation productivity declines and whether they are associated with differences in a general humidification of portions of the Arctic, we focus analysis on two transects with ground information: the more continental North America Arctic Transect (NAAT) and the more maritime Eurasia Arctic Transect (EAT). We compare ground information with satellite-derived trends in open water, summer terrestrial temperatures, and vegetation greenness and changes in continentality of the two transects, as indicated by the differences in the annual maximum and minimum mean monthly temperatures. Areas adjacent to perennial sea ice along in the northern parts of the NAAT exhibit climates with positive trends in summer warmth, but negative greening trends, possibly due to soil drying. Southern parts of the NAAT in the vicinity of more open water show positive greenness trends. Along the EAT, cooling midsummer conditions and reduced greenness appear to be caused by cloudier conditions, and possibly later snow melt during the period of maximum potential photosynthesis. Ground-based environmental and vegetation data indicate that biomass, particularly moss biomass is much greater along the more maritime EAT, indicating a buffering effect of the vegetation that will act to damp productivity as humidification of the Arctic proceeds. This multi-scale analysis is one step in the direction of understanding the drivers of tundra vegetation productivity in the Arctic.

  4. Molecular Gut Content Profiling to Investigate the In Situ Grazing and Selectivity of Dolioletta gegenbauri in Summer Continental Shelf Intrusion Waters of the South Atlantic Bight, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, T. L.; Frazier, L.; Gibson, D. M.; Paffenhofer, G. A.; Frischer, M. E.

    2016-02-01

    Gelatinous metazooplankton play a crucial role in marine planktonic food webs and it has been suggested that they may become increasingly important in the Future Ocean. However, largely due to methodological challenges and reliance on laboratory cultivation approaches, the in situ diet of zooplankton with complex life histories and diverse prey choices remains poorly investigated. This is particularly true for the gelatinous zooplankton including the pelagic tunicate, Dolioletta gegenbauri that form large blooms in productive subtropical continental shelf environments. To investigate the diet of D. gegenbauri we developed a molecular gut profiling approach based on the use of a Peptide Nucleic Acid (PNA) PCR blocker. Using a doliolid-specific PNA blocker, it was possible to enrich the amplification of prey and parasite DNA from whole animal DNA extracts of doliolids. Gut contents from the water column, wild and captive-fed doliolids were profiled after PNA-PCR by denaturing HPLC (dHPLC), clone library and next generation sequencing (NGS) approaches. Studies were conducted during 5 summer cruises in the mid-shelf of the South Atlantic Bight. Comparison of gut profiles to available prey in the water column revealed evidence of prey selection towards larger prey species, including diatoms, dinoflagelletes and also metazoan prey that were likely captured as larvae and eggs. Wild-caught doliolids contained significantly more metazoan sequences than did the captive-fed doliolids. Ingestion of metazoan prey suggests that metazoans may contribute both the nutrition of doliolids and the potential role of doliolids as trophic cascade agents in continental shelf pelagic food webs.

  5. 77 FR 16258 - Notice of Public Scoping Meetings on an Environmental Impact Statement for Proposed Outer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-20

    ... an Environmental Impact Statement for Proposed Outer Continental Shelf Gulf of Mexico Eastern... initiating in preparation for completing an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) under the National... and Gas Lease Sale 224: Eastern Planning Area, Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (OCS...

  6. Continental Divide Trail

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This shapefile was created to show the proximity of the Continental Divide to the Continental Divide National Scenic Trail in New Mexico. This work was done as part...

  7. Silicic acid enrichment of subantarctic surface water from continental inputs along the Patagonian archipelago interior sea (41-56°S)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Rodrigo; Silva, Nelson; Reid, Brian; Frangopulos, Máximo

    2014-12-01

    We estimated Si∗, the surplus or deficit of orthosilicic acid (DSi) relative to nitrate available for diatom growth, in the Chilean Patagonian Archipelago Interior Sea (PAIS). Si∗ and salinity were negatively correlated in the PAIS because of the mixing of high nitrate, low DSi subantarctic surface water and high DSi, low nitrate continental freshwater runoff. Both the slope and the intercept of this relationship decreased from northern to southern Patagonia, which was likely a consequence of reduced DSi inputs from several overlapping hydrological, biological and geological drivers along this gradient. In general, lower freshwater DSi concentrations were expected below 46°S, and a lower total DSi load was expected from reduced runoff below 51°S. The north-south decreasing DSi concentration trend may be linked to dilutions from a higher proportion of runoff in latitudes with higher precipitation rates (45-53°S), the transition to more resistant granitic rocks and glacial melt-water from the Northern and Southern Patagonia Ice Fields (46-51°S) and a reduced density of volcanoes active during the Holocene (48-56°S). The intensification of a southward DSi deficit may be a forcing factor involved in the reported southward reductions in plankton biomass and a more frequent occurrence of non-diatom blooms in southern PAIS.

  8. Hydrogeological Modelling of the Geothermal Waters of Alaşehir in the Continental Rift Zone of the Gediz, Western Anatolia, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ӧzgür, Nevzat; Bostancı, Yesim; Anilır Yürük, Ezgi

    2017-12-01

    In western Anatolia, Turkey, the continental rift zones of the Büyük Menderes, Küçük Menderes and Gediz were formed by extensional tectonic features striking E-W generally and representing a great number of active geothermal systems, epithermal mineralizations and volcanic rocks from Middle Miocene to recent. The geothermal waters are associated with the faults which strike preferentially NW-SE and NE-SW and locate diagonal to general strike of the rift zones of the Menderes Massif. These NW-SE and NE-SW striking faults were probably generated by compressional tectonic regimes which leads to the deformation of uplift between two extensional rift zones in the Menderes Massif. The one of these rift zones is Gediz which is distinguished by a great number of geothermal waters such as Alaşehir, Kurşunlu, Çamurlu, Pamukkale and Urganlı. The geothermal waters of Alaşehir form the biggest potential in the rift zone of Gediz with a capacity of about 100 to 200 MWe. Geologically, the gneisses from the basement rocks in the study area which are overlain by an Paleozoic to Mesozoic intercalation of mica schists, quartzites and marbles, a Miocene intercalation of conglomerates, sandstones and clay stones and Plio-Quaternary intercalation of conglomerates, sandstones and clay stones discordantly. In the study area, Paleozoic to Mesozoic quartzites and marbles form the reservoir rocks hydrogeologically. The geothermal waters anions with Na+K>Ca>Mg dominant cations and HCO3>Cl> dominant anions are of Na-HCO3 type and can be considered as partial equilibrated waters. According to the results of geochemical thermometers, the reservoir temperatures area of about 185°C in accordance with measured reservoir temperatures. Stabile isotopes of δ18O versus δ2H of geothermal waters of Alaşehir deviate from the meteoric water line showing an intensive water-rock interaction under high temperature conditions. These data are well correlated with the results of the

  9. Simulated water budget of a small forested watershed in the continental/maritime hydroclimatic region of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang Wei; Timothy E. Link; Andrew T. Hudak; John D. Marshall; Kathleen L. Kavanagh; John T. Abatzoglou; Hang Zhou; Robert E. Pangle; Gerald N. Flerchinger

    2016-01-01

    Annual streamflows have decreased across mountain watersheds in the Pacific Northwest of the United States over the last ~70 years; however, in some watersheds, observed annual flows have increased. Physically based models are useful tools to reveal the combined effects of climate and vegetation on long-term water balances by explicitly simulating the internal...

  10. Determining biotoxins in continental waters colonised by Azolla; Determinacion de biotoxinas en aguas continentales colonizadas por Azolla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prada A-Buylla, J.; Sanchez Crespo, R.; Verdigo Althofer, M. [Confederacion Hidrografica del Guadina. Ciudad Real (Spain)

    1999-07-01

    During the period 1993-95, the presence of Azolla ferns was observed in the air/water interface along several kilometres of the river Guadina in both Spain and Portugal. This fern is symbiotically associated with the cyano-bacteria Anabaena azollae that is capable of fixing atmospheric nitrogen, which can lead to vegetable growth and eutrophication. At the same time, the cyanobacteria may generate biotoxins, in which case a study is made of the hepatotoxins forming a family of 53 related cyclic peptides. Those consisting of seven aminoacids receive the name of microcystines, while formed by five aminoacids arc called nodulaincs. Chromatography was used to determine the presence of these peptides in the water from six sampling points. Microcystine-LR was found at concentrations of around 0.3 g/l at three points. (Author) 5 refs.

  11. Estimating total alkalinity for coastal ocean acidification monitoring at regional to continental scales in Australian coastal waters

    KAUST Repository

    Baldry, Kimberlee; Hardman-Mountford, Nick; Greenwood, Jim

    2017-01-01

    Owing to a lack of resources, tools, and knowledge, the natural variability and distribution of Total Alkalinity (TA) has been poorly characterised in coastal waters globally, yet variability is known to be high in coastal regions due to the complex interactions of oceanographic, biotic, and terrestrially-influenced processes. This is a particularly challenging task for the vast Australian coastline, however, it is also this vastness that demands attention in the face of ocean acidification (OA). Australian coastal waters have high biodiversity and endemism, and are home to large areas of coral reef, including the Great Barrier Reef, the largest coral reef system in the world. Ocean acidification threatens calcifying marine organisms by hindering calcification rates, threatening the structural integrity of coral reefs and other ecosystems. Tracking the progression of OA in different coastal regions requires accurate knowledge of the variability in TA. Thus, estimation methods that can capture this variability at synoptic scales are needed. Multiple linear regression is a promising approach in this regard. Here, we compare a range of both simple and multiple linear regression models to the estimation of coastal TA from a range of variables, including salinity, temperature, chlorophyll-a concentration and nitrate concentration. We find that regionally parameterised models capture local variability better than more general coastal or open ocean parameterised models. The strongest contribution to model improvement came through incorporating temperature as an input variable as well as salinity. Further improvements were achieved through the incorporation of either nitrate or chlorophyll-a, with the combination of temperature, salinity, and nitrate constituting the minimum model in most cases. These results provide an approach that can be applied to satellite Earth observation and autonomous in situ platforms to improve synoptic scale estimation of TA in coastal waters.

  12. Estimating total alkalinity for coastal ocean acidification monitoring at regional to continental scales in Australian coastal waters

    KAUST Repository

    Baldry, Kimberlee

    2017-06-01

    Owing to a lack of resources, tools, and knowledge, the natural variability and distribution of Total Alkalinity (TA) has been poorly characterised in coastal waters globally, yet variability is known to be high in coastal regions due to the complex interactions of oceanographic, biotic, and terrestrially-influenced processes. This is a particularly challenging task for the vast Australian coastline, however, it is also this vastness that demands attention in the face of ocean acidification (OA). Australian coastal waters have high biodiversity and endemism, and are home to large areas of coral reef, including the Great Barrier Reef, the largest coral reef system in the world. Ocean acidification threatens calcifying marine organisms by hindering calcification rates, threatening the structural integrity of coral reefs and other ecosystems. Tracking the progression of OA in different coastal regions requires accurate knowledge of the variability in TA. Thus, estimation methods that can capture this variability at synoptic scales are needed. Multiple linear regression is a promising approach in this regard. Here, we compare a range of both simple and multiple linear regression models to the estimation of coastal TA from a range of variables, including salinity, temperature, chlorophyll-a concentration and nitrate concentration. We find that regionally parameterised models capture local variability better than more general coastal or open ocean parameterised models. The strongest contribution to model improvement came through incorporating temperature as an input variable as well as salinity. Further improvements were achieved through the incorporation of either nitrate or chlorophyll-a, with the combination of temperature, salinity, and nitrate constituting the minimum model in most cases. These results provide an approach that can be applied to satellite Earth observation and autonomous in situ platforms to improve synoptic scale estimation of TA in coastal waters.

  13. Community structure and ecological function of deep-water sponge grounds in the Traenadypet MPA—Northern Norwegian continental shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutti, Tina; Bannister, Raymond John; Fosså, Jan Helge

    2013-10-01

    Sponges within the 300 km2 Trænadypet coral MPA (Marine Protected Area) were mapped using photographic techniques. Three types of sponge communities were identified. The eastern side of the central circular depression was dominated by fan-shaped Phakellia ventilabrum sponges and further characterized by Mycale lingua and Oceanapia spp. sponges. Phakellia ventilabrum abundance (0.34 ind m-2) was positively correlated with the number of drop stones found. The western side of the depression was dominated by Geodia barretti, G. macandrewii and G. atlantica with an estimated average abundance of 0.40 ind m-2 and a biomass of 2.4 kg WW m-2. A third type of sponge community was found on both sides of the depression (in between the small scattered cold-water coral reefs constituting the MPA), which was characterized by Mycale lingua (0.20 ind m-2) and Oceanapia spp. (0.10 ind m-2), and which supported a high average Geodiidea biomass (1.6 kg WW m-2). The two last communities were both of the boreal ostur type and seemed to form continuous belts along the 2 km transects surveyed only interrupted by a few 15-30 m long empty patches. Within the MPA the average overall biomass of Geodiidea sponges was 1.8 kg WW m-2 and the overall sponge abundance was 1 ind m-2. Water pumping rates and respiration of Geodia barretti were measured, equating to 3000 l kg-1 DW day-1 and 1.5 μmol O2 g-1 DW h-1, respectively. Up-scaling this to the MPA as a whole suggests that the population of G. barretti alone could filter approximately 250 million m3 of water and consume 60 t of carbon daily. This demonstrates the important ecological function of sponges as nutrient vectors and points out the MPA as an ecologically significant area that should be carefully managed and monitored.

  14. Lagrangian circulation of the North Atlantic Central Water over the abyssal plain and continental slopes of the Bay of Biscay: description of selected mesoscale features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Serpette

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Between 1994 and 2001, several experiments (ARCANE, SEFOS, INTERAFOS were conducted to directly measure the general and mesoscale Lagrangian circulations over the Bay of Biscay abyssal plain and slopes. Two levels (~100 m and ~450 m were selected to cover the North Atlantic Central Water range. Two types of Lagrangian instruments, drogued surface drifters tracked by satellite (Surdrift and acoustically tracked subsurface floats (Rafos and Marvor, were used. Overall, more than 36 instrument-years were collected in the Bay of Biscay region (43-49°N, 01-12°W. The weak general circulation in the Bay of Biscay is seen to be highly influenced by the occurrence of several mesoscale coherent features, notably slope currents and eddies, and these affect the exchanges between the abyssal plain and the slopes. The objective of this paper is to depict some specific examples of the observed mesoscale field. Selected float trajectories are shown and used to discuss observations of slope currents and of both anticyclonic and cyclonic eddies. Slope currents exhibit alternation of poleward and equatorward directions, depending on both the period and the geographic area considered. Although the generation process of mesoscale eddies is difficult to observe unambiguously from Lagrangian instruments, eddies are nevertheless ubiquitous over the abyssal plain. Some characteristics of the observed cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies are presented. Smaller anticyclones, localised over the outer shelf and interpreted in terms of ajustment of slope water intrusions, are also depicted.

  15. Bacterial biomass and heterotrophic potential in the waters of the Chesapeake Bay plume and contiguous continental shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kator, H. I.; Zubkoff, P. L.

    1981-01-01

    Seasonal baseline data on bacterial biomass and heterotrophic uptake in the Chesapeake Bay plume and contiguous Atlantic Ocean shelf waters are discussed. Viable count bacterial numbers in surface water samples collected during June 1980 ranged from a maximum of 190,000 MPN (most probable number)/ml at the Bay mouth to a minimum of 7900 MPN/ml offshore. Similarly, direct count densities ranged from 1,800,000 BU (bacterial units)/ml to 24,000 BU/ml. Heterotrophic potential (V max) was largest at the Bay mouth and lowest offshore. Biomass and V max values usually decreased with depth although subsurface maxima were occasionally observed at inshore stations. Correlation of biomass and heterotrophic potential data with selected hydrographic variables was determind with a nonparametric statistic. Results indicate viable counts are positively and significantly correlated with total chlorophyll, temperature, direct count and V max during June 1980; significant negative correlations are obtained with salinity and depth. Calculations of bacterial standing crop are discussed.

  16. Testing the generalized complementary relationship of evaporation with continental-scale long-term water-balance data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilagyi, Jozsef; Crago, Richard; Qualls, Russell J.

    2016-09-01

    The original and revised versions of the generalized complementary relationship (GCR) of evaporation (ET) were tested with six-digit Hydrologic Unit Code (HUC6) level long-term (1981-2010) water-balance data (sample size of 334). The two versions of the GCR were calibrated with Parameter-Elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM) mean annual precipitation (P) data and validated against water-balance ET (ETwb) as the difference of mean annual HUC6-averaged P and United States Geological Survey HUC6 runoff (Q) rates. The original GCR overestimates P in about 18% of the PRISM grid points covering the contiguous United States in contrast with 12% of the revised version. With HUC6-averaged data the original version has a bias of -25 mm yr-1 vs the revised version's -17 mm yr-1, and it tends to more significantly underestimate ETwb at high values than the revised one (slope of the best fit line is 0.78 vs 0.91). At the same time it slightly outperforms the revised version in terms of the linear correlation coefficient (0.94 vs 0.93) and the root-mean-square error (90 vs 92 mm yr-1).

  17. The Outer Space Treaty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christopher Daniel

    2018-01-01

    Negotiated at the United Nations and in force since 1967, the Outer Space Treaty has been ratified by over 100 countries and is the most important and foundational source of space law. The treaty, whose full title is "Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, Including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies," governs all of humankind's activities in outer space, including activities on other celestial bodies and many activities on Earth related to outer space. All space exploration and human spaceflight, planetary sciences, and commercial uses of space—such as the global telecommunications industry and the use of space technologies such as position, navigation, and timing (PNT), take place against the backdrop of the general regulatory framework established in the Outer Space Treaty. A treaty is an international legal instrument which balances rights and obligations between states, and exists as a kind of mutual contract of shared understandings, rights, and responsibilities between them. Negotiated and drafted during the Cold War era of heightened political tensions, the Outer Space Treaty is largely the product of efforts by the United States and the USSR to agree on certain minimum standards and obligations to govern their competition in "conquering" space. Additionally, the Outer Space Treaty is similar to other treaties, including treaties governing the high seas, international airspace, and the Antarctic, all of which govern the behavior of states outside of their national borders. The treaty is brief in nature and only contains 17 articles, and is not comprehensive in addressing and regulating every possible scenario. The negotiating states knew that the Outer Space Treaty could only establish certain foundational concepts such as freedom of access, state responsibility and liability, non-weaponization of space, the treatment of astronauts in distress, and the prohibition of non-appropriation of

  18. Retrospective evaluation of continental-scale streamflow nudging with WRF-Hydro National Water Model V1

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCreight, J. L.; Wu, Y.; Gochis, D.; Rafieeinasab, A.; Dugger, A. L.; Yu, W.; Cosgrove, B.; Cui, Z.; Oubeidillah, A.; Briar, D.

    2016-12-01

    The streamflow (discharge) data assimilation capability in version 1 of the National Water Model (NWM; a WRF-Hydro configuration) is applied and evaluated in a 5-year (2011-2015) retrospective study using NLDAS2 forcing data over CONUS. This talk will describe the NWM V1 operational nudging (continuous-time) streamflow data assimilation approach, its motivation, and its relationship to this retrospective evaluation. Results from this study will provide a an analysis-based (not forecast-based) benchmark for streamflow DA in the NWM. The goal of the assimilation is to reduce discharge bias and improve channel initial conditions for discharge forecasting (though forecasts are not considered here). The nudging method assimilates discharge observations at nearly 7,000 USGS gages (at frequency up to 1/15 minutes) to produce a (univariate) discharge reanalysis (i.e. this is the only variable affected by the assimilation). By withholding 14% nested gages throughout CONUS in a separate validation run, we evaluate the downstream impact of assimilation at upstream gages. Based on this sample, we estimate the skill of the streamflow reanalysis at ungaged locations and examine factors governing the skill of the assimilation. Comparison of assimilation and open-loop runs is presented. Performance of DA under both high and low flow regimes and selected flooding events is examined. Preliminary evaluation of nudging parameter sensitivity and its relationship to flow regime will be presented.

  19. Saturn's outer magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schardt, A. W.; Behannon, K. W.; Carbary, J. F.; Eviatar, A.; Lepping, R. P.; Siscoe, G. L.

    1983-01-01

    Similarities between the Saturnian and terrestrial outer magnetosphere are examined. Saturn, like Earth, has a fully developed magnetic tail, 80 to 100 RS in diameter. One major difference between the two outer magnetospheres is the hydrogen and nitrogen torus produced by Titan. This plasma is, in general, convected in the corotation direction at nearly the rigid corotation speed. Energies of magnetospheric particles extend to above 500 keV. In contrast, interplanetary protons and ions above 2 MeV have free access to the outer magnetosphere to distances well below the Stormer cutoff. This access presumably occurs through the magnetotail. In addition to the H+, H2+, and H3+ ions primarily of local origin, energetic He, C, N, and O ions are found with solar composition. Their flux can be substantially enhanced over that of interplanetary ions at energies of 0.2 to 0.4 MeV/nuc.

  20. Deep continental margin reflectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, J.; Heirtzler, J.; Purdy, M.; Klitgord, Kim D.

    1985-01-01

    In contrast to the rarity of such observations a decade ago, seismic reflecting and refracting horizons are now being observed to Moho depths under continental shelves in a number of places. These observations provide knowledge of the entire crustal thickness from the shoreline to the oceanic crust on passive margins and supplement Consortium for Continental Reflection Profiling (COCORP)-type measurements on land.

  1. Atlantic continental margin of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grow, John A.; Sheridan, Robert E.; Palmer, A.R.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of this Decade of North American Geology (D-NAG) volume will be to focus on the Mesozoic and Cenozoic evolution of the U.S. Atlantic continental margin, including the onshore coastal plain, related onshore Triassic-Jurassic rift grabens, and the offshore basins and platforms. Following multiple compressional tectonic episodes between Africa and North America during the Paleozoic Era that formed the Appalachian Mountains, the Mesozoic and Cenozoic Eras were dominated by tensional tectonic processes that separated Africa and North America. Extensional rifting during Triassic and Early Jurassic times resulted in numerous tensional grabens both onshore and offshore, which filled with nonmarine continental red beds, lacustrine deposits, and volcanic flows and debris. The final stage of this breakup between Africa and North America occurred beneath the present outer continental shelf and continental slope during Early or Middle Jurassic time when sea-floor spreading began to form new oceanic crust and lithosophere between the two continents as they drifted apart. Postrift subsidence of the marginal basins continued in response to cooling of the lithosphere and sedimentary loading.Geophysical surveys and oil-exploration drilling along the U.S. Atlantic continental margin during the past 5 years are beginning to answer many questions concerning its deep structure and stratigraphy and how it evolved during the rifting and early sea-floor-spreading stages of the separation of this region from Africa. Earlier geophysical studies of the U.S. continental margin used marine refraction and submarine gravity measurements. Single-channel seismic-reflection, marine magnetic, aeromagnetic, and continuous gravity measurements became available during the 1960s.

  2. Arctic Ocean outflow and glacier-ocean interactions modify water over the Wandel Sea shelf (northeastern Greenland)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dmitrenko, Igor A.; Kirillov, Sergey A.; Rudels, Bert

    2017-01-01

    The first-ever conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) observations on the Wandel Sea shelf in northeastern Greenland were collected in April-May 2015. They were complemented by CTDs taken along the continental slope during the Norwegian FRAM 2014-2015 drift. The CTD profiles are used to reveal...... the origin of water masses and interactions with ambient water from the continental slope and the tidewater glacier outlet. The subsurface water is associated with the Pacific water outflow from the Arctic Ocean. The underlying halocline separates the Pacific water from a deeper layer of polar water that has...... interacted with the warm Atlantic water outflow through the Fram Strait, recorded below 140 m. Over the outer shelf, the halocline shows numerous cold density-compensated intrusions indicating lateral interaction with an ambient polar water mass across the continental slope. At the front of the tidewater...

  3. TPS for Outer Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Ellerby, D.; Gage, P.; Gasch, M.; Hwang, H.; Prabhu, D.; Stackpoole, M.; Wercinski, Paul

    2018-01-01

    This invited talk will provide an assessment of the TPS needs for Outer Planet In-situ missions to destinations with atmosphere. The talk will outline the drivers for TPS from destination, science, mission architecture and entry environment. An assessment of the readiness of the TPS, both currently available and under development, for Saturn, Titan, Uranus and Neptune are provided. The challenges related to sustainability of the TPS for future missions are discussed.

  4. 76 FR 66078 - Notice of Industry Workshop on Technical and Regulatory Challenges in Deep and Ultra-Deep Outer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    ...-0087] Notice of Industry Workshop on Technical and Regulatory Challenges in Deep and Ultra-Deep Outer... discussions expected to help identify Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) challenges and technologies associated... structured venue for consultation among offshore deepwater oil and gas industry and regulatory experts in...

  5. Intra-annual variability of carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes in suspended organic matter in waters of the western continental shelf of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Maya

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Intra-annual variations of δ13C and δ15N of water-column suspended particulate organic matter (SPOM have been investigated to understand the biogeochemical cycling of C and N in the Western Continental Shelf of India (WCSI. The key issues being addressed are: how the δ15N of SPOM is affected by seasonally varying processes of organic matter production and respiration and how it relates to the δ15N of sedimentary organic matter that appears to show a decreasing trend despite an apparent intensification of seasonal oxygen deficiency over the past few decades? A secondary objective was to evaluate the sources of organic carbon. Elemental carbon and nitrogen concentrations, C/N ratios in SPOM, along with ancillary chemical and biological variables including phytoplankton pigment abundance were also determined on a seasonal basis (from March 2007 to September 2008, with the partial exception of the southwest (SW monsoon period. The results reveal significant shifts in isotopic signatures, especially δ15N, of SPOM before and after the onset of SW monsoon. Very low δ15N values, reaching a minimum of −4.17 ‰, are found during the pre-monsoon period. Our results provide the first direct evidence for the addition of substantial amounts of isotopically light nitrogen by the diazotrophs, especially Trichodesmium, in the region. The δ15N of SPOM is generally lower than the mean value (7.38 ‰ for surficial sediments, presumably because of diagenetic enrichment. The results support the view that sedimentary δ15N may not necessarily reflect denitrification intensity in the overlying waters due to diverse sources of nitrogen and variability of its isotopic composition. The observed intra-annual variability of δ13C of SPOM during the pre-monsoon and post-monsoon periods is generally small. Phytoplankton production and probably species

  6. Management of outer space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perek, Lubos

    1993-10-01

    Various aspects of space-environment management are discussed. Attention is called to the fact that, while space radio communications are already under an adequate management by the International Communications Union, the use of nuclear power sources is regulated by the recently adopted set of principles, and space debris will be discussed in the near future at the UN COPUOS, other aspects of management of outer space received little or no attention of the international community. These include the competency of crews and technical equipment of spacecraft launched by newcomers to space exploration; monitoring of locations and motions of space objects (now in national hands), with relevant data made accessible through a computer network; and the requirement to use space only for beneficial purposes and not for promoting narrow and debatable interests damaging the outer space environment and impeding on astronomical observations. It is suggested that some of these tasks would be best performed by an international space agency within the UN system of organizations.

  7. Aplicação do diagrama T-S estatístico: volumétrico à análise das massas de água da plataforma continental do Rio Grande do Sul The statistical volumetric T-S diagram applied to the analysis of water masses of Rio Grande do Sul continental shelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Bruner de Miranda

    1979-06-01

    Full Text Available The general characteristics of the seasonal variation of the thermohaline properties of the continental shelf water off Rio Grande do Sul, under non-conservative and quasi-synoptic conditions were analysed. The method applied - volumetric statistical T-S analysis allows the computation of the water masses budget from the knowledge of their temperature and salinity ranges. The data of 194 hydrographic stations from six oceanographic cruises between April 1968 and March 1969, were used. Water of Tropical and Subtropical origin (47,5% and 64% of the total volume during the winter and summer, respectively was always present during the observation period. Subantarctic water has its maximum and minimum influences during the winter (15% and summer (<3%, respectively. The average minimum and maximum temperature and salinity values of the water masses in the investigated region were observed in June (16,85ºC and 34,72‰, December (35,58‰ and March (20,82ºC.

  8. Outer atmospheric research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    The region above the earth from about 90 km to 150 km is a major part of the upper or outer atmosphere. It is relatively unexplored, being too high for balloons or aircraft and too low for persistent orbiting spacecraft. However, the concept of a tethered subsatellite, deployed downward from an orbiting, more massive craft such as the Space Shuttle, opens the possibility of a research capability that could provide global mapping of this region. The need for research in this thick spherical shell above the earth falls into two major categories: (1) scientific data for understanding and modeling the global atmosphere and thereby determining its role in the earth system, and (2) engineering data for the design of future aerospace vehicles that will operate there. This paper presents an overview and synthesis of the currently perceived research needs and the state-of-the-art of the proposed tethered research capability. 16 references

  9. Uncovering the glacial history of the Irish continental shelf (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, P.; Benetti, S.; OCofaigh, C.

    2013-12-01

    In 1999 the Irish Government initiated a €32 million survey of its territorial waters known as the Irish National Seabed Survey (INSS). The INSS is amongst the largest marine mapping programmes ever undertaken anywhere in the world and provides high-resolution multibeam, backscatter and seismic data of the seabed around Ireland. These data have been used to provide the first clear evidence for extensive glaciation of the continental shelf west and northwest of Ireland. Streamlined drumlins on the mid to outer shelf record former offshore-directed ice flow towards the shelf edge and show that the ice sheet was grounded in a zone of confluence where ice flowing onto the shelf from northwest Ireland merged with ice flowing across the Malin Shelf from southwest Scotland. The major glacial features on the shelf are well developed nested arcuate moraine systems that mark the position of the ice sheet margin and confirm that the former British Irish Ice Sheet was grounded as far as the shelf edge around 100 km offshore of west Donegal at the last glacial maximum. Distal to the moraines, on the outermost shelf, prominent zones of iceberg plough marks give way to the Barra/Donegal fan and a well developed system of gullies and canyons which incise the continental slope. Since 2008 several scientific cruises have retrieved cores from the shelf and slope to help build a more detailed understanding of glacial events in this region. This presentation will provide an overview of the glacial history of the Irish shelf and will discuss ongoing research programmes that are building on the initial research findings to produce a better understanding of the nature and timing of ice sheet events in this region.

  10. 33 CFR 165.1402 - Apra Outer Harbor, Guam-regulated navigation area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Apra Outer Harbor, Guam-regulated....1402 Apra Outer Harbor, Guam—regulated navigation area. (a) The following is a regulated navigation area—The waters of the Pacific Ocean and Apra Outer Harbor enclosed by a line beginning at latitude 13...

  11. Continental Mathematics League.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quartararo, Joseph

    2002-01-01

    This article describes the activities of the Continental Mathematics League, which offers a series of meets for children in grades 3 though 9. In addition, a Calculus League and a Computer Contest are offered. The league allows schools to participate by mail so that rural schools can participate. (CR)

  12. Vacuum Outer-Gap Structure in Pulsar Outer Magnetospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gui-Fang, Lin; Li, Zhang

    2009-01-01

    We study the vacuum outer-gap structure in the outer magnetosphere of rotation-powered pulsars by considering the limit of trans-field height through a pair production process. In this case, the trans-field height is limited by the photon-photon pair production process and the outer boundary of the outer gap can be extended outside the light cylinder. By solving self-consistently the Poisson equation for electrical potential and the Boltzmann equations of electrons/positrons and γ-rays in a vacuum outer gap for the parameters of Vela pulsar, we obtain an approximate geometry of the outer gap, i.e. the trans-field height is limited by the pair-production process and increases with the radial distance to the star and the width of the outer gap starts at the inner boundary (near the null charge surface) and ends at the outer boundary which locates inside or outside the light cylinder depending on the inclination angle. (geophysics, astronomy, and astrophysics)

  13. Nutrient regeneration and oxygen demand in Bering Sea continental shelf sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Gilbert T.; Phoel, William C.

    1992-04-01

    Measurements of seabed oxygen demand and nutrient regeneration were made on continental shelf sediments in the southeast Bering Sea from 1 to 15 June 1981. The mean seabed oxygen demand was relatively modest (267 μM O 2 m -2 h -1), equivalent to a utilization of 60 mg organic carbon m -2 day -1. The seasonal build up of ammonium over the mid-shelf domain was generated at least in part by the bottom biota, as previously suggested ( WHITLEDGEet al., 1986 , Continental Shelf Research, 5, 109-132), but on the outer shelf nitrate replaced ammonium as the dominant inorganic nitrogen compound that was regenerated from the sediments. Comparison of oxygen consumption with the organic matter in sedimenting particulate matter (sampled with sediment traps) could imply that benthic processes were not accounting for the fate of considerable quantities of organic matter. Benthic oxygen demand rates, however, probably lag behind the input of the spring bloom to the bottom, thus extending the remineralization process out over time. Consumption by small microheterotrophs in the water column was also a likely sink, although shelf export and advective transport north were possible as well. Estimated nitrification rates in surface sediments could account for only a small fraction of the abrupt increase in nitrate observed in the water column over the shelf just prior to the spring bloom.

  14. Spatial and tidal variation in food supply to shallow cold-water coral reefs of the Mingulay Reef complex (Outer Hebrides, Scotland)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duineveld, G.C.A.; Jeffreys, R.M.; Lavaleye, M.S.S.; Davies, A.J.; Bergman, M.J.N.; Watmough, T.; Witbaard, R.

    2012-01-01

    The finding of a previously undescribed cold-water coral reef (Banana Reef) in the Scottish Mingulay reef complex, with denser coverage of living Lophelia pertusa than the principal Mingulay 1 Reef, was the incentive for a comparative study of the food supply to the 2 reefs. Suspended particulate

  15. Reduction of PWR containment pressure after hypothetical accidents by water-cooling of the outer containment surface - annular space spray system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cremer, J.; Dietrich, D.P.; Roedder, P.

    1980-12-01

    The consequences of a core melt-out accident in the vicinity of a nuclear power station are determined by the integrity of the safety containment. This can be adversely affected by different events during the course of the core melt-out accident. The most important phenomenon is the contact between the melt and sump water. Due to the evaporation of the sump water, there is a continuous rise in pressure of the safety containment, which finally leads to failure due to excess pressure. In order to reduce the fission product release due to the resulting leakage, one must try to reduce the pressure as quickly as possible. As heat cannot be removed from the steel containment to the environment because of the thick concrete containment, it is best to bypass the insulating effect of the concrete by cooling the steel containment from outside. The aim of this investigation is therefore to work out a technically relatively simple system, which offers the possibility of backfitting, setting to work and repair. Such a system is an annular space spray system, by which the annular space between the concrete and steel containment has water pumped to the level of the dome and evenly sprayed over the top hemisphere. Mobile pumps on fire engines belonging to the fire brigade are sufficient to supply the cooling water and these will be available some hours after the accident occurs. The used spray water without any radioactive components is collected outside the reactor building and/or drained off. (orig./GL) [de

  16. Topographic features over the continental shelf off Visakhapatnam

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, T.C.S.; Machado, T.; Murthy, K.S.R.

    water depth and the continental shelfedge several interesting topographic features such as Terraces, Karstic structures associated with pinnacles and troughs and smooth dome shaped reef structures are recorded. The nature of these features...

  17. Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sewage effluent, continental and coastal waters from the Northwestern Mediterrean Sea: Comparison between two contrasted catchment areas (Marseilles Bay and Vermeille coast)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guigue, Catherine; Ferretto, Nicolas; Méjanelle, Laurence; Tedetti, Marc; Ghiglione, Jean-François; Goutx, Madeleine

    2014-05-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analysed from sewage treatment plant waters and surface waters collected in continental (rivers), harbour and off-shore marine sites from Marseilles Bay and Vermeille coastal areas between 2009 and 2013 (Northwestern Mediterranean Sea, France). After collection, water samples were first filtered on glass fiber filters, then PAHs from the dissolved phase were extracted using liquid-liquid or solid phase extraction (SPE) methods, while those from particles were treated according to Bligh and Dyer method. After a possible purification step, extracts were analysed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Regardless of the study area, dissolved and particulate PAH (18 parents + alkylated homologues) concentration averages were 150.2 ± 140.5 ng l-1and 39.4 ± 71.2 ng l-1, respectively. Interestingly, the concentration in dissolved PAHs was on average 3.8 higher than the concentration in particulate PAHs. In addition, a gradient of PAH concentrations was observed from coastal waters with the highest values in harbours and outlet sewage effluents and the lowest values in off-shore marine waters. Intermediate concentrations were recorded in continental waters. In the Marseilles Bay, dissolved PAH concentrations were significantly higher and associated to increased signatures of unburned and combusted fossil fuels, mainly from heating, during the cold period (November-April). In contrast, unburned petroleum signature dominated in the warm period (May-October), emphasizing the intense shipping traffic and urban/industrial activities occurring in one of the largest Mediterranean harbour and city. Conversely, in the Vermeille coastal waters, dissolved PAH concentrations were higher during the warm period when particulate PAHs displayed the lowest concentrations, suggesting a seasonal related partition between dissolved and particulate PAHs. In addition, in the Vermeille coastal waters, PAHs were dominated by

  18. Cold-seep carbonates of the middle and lower continental slope, northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Harry H.; Feng, Dong; Joye, Samantha B.

    2010-11-01

    Authigenic carbonates from cold seeps on the middle and lower continental slope of the northern Gulf of Mexico (GOM) exhibit a wide range of mineralogical and stable isotopic compositions. These carbonates consist of concretions and nodules in surface sediments, hardgrounds of crusts and isolated slabs, and mounded buildups of blocks and slabs of up to over 10 meters in relief above the surrounding seafloor. Mineralogically, the carbonates are dominated by high-Mg calcite (HMC) and aragonite. However, low levels (oil, seawater CO2, and 13C-enriched residual CO2 from methanogenesis. A similarly large variability in δ18O values (2.5 to 6.7‰ PDB) demonstrates the geochemical complexity of the slope, with some samples pointing toward an 18O-enriched oxygen source that is possibly related to advection of 18O-enriched formation water and/or to the decomposition of gas hydrate. A considerable range of mineralogical and isotopic variations in cold-seep carbonate composition was noted even within individual study sites. However, common trends occur across multiple geographic areas. This situation suggests that local controls on fluid and gas flux, types of seep hydrocarbons, the presence or absence of gas hydrate in the near-surface sediment, and chemosynthetic communities, as well as the temporal evolution of the local hydrocarbon reservoir, all may play a part in determining carbonate mineralogy and isotope geochemistry. The carbon isotope data clearly indicate that between-site variation is greater than within-site variation. Seep carbonates formed on the middle and lower continental slope of the GOM do not appear to be substantially different from those found on the upper slope (<1000-m water depth). The highly variable fluids and gases that leave their geochemical imprints on seep carbonate of the middle and lower continental slope are similar to their outer shelf and upper slope counterparts.

  19. Spatiotemporal patterns of plant water isotope values from a continental-scale sample network in Europe as a tool to improve hydroclimate proxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, D. B.; Kahmen, A.

    2016-12-01

    The hydrogen and oxygen isotopic composition of water available for biosynthetic processes in vascular plants plays an important role in shaping the isotopic composition of organic compounds that these organisms produce, including leaf waxes and cellulose in leaves and tree rings. Characterizing changes in large scale spatial patterns of precipitation, soil water, stem water, and leaf water isotope values over time is therefore useful for evaluating how plants reflect changes in the isotopic composition of these source waters in different environments. This information can, in turn, provide improved calibration targets for understanding the environmental signals that plants preserve. The pathway of water through this continuum can include several isotopic fractionations, but the extent to which the isotopic composition of each of these water pools varies under normal field conditions and over space and time has not been systematically and concurrently evaluated at large spatial scales. Two season-long sampling campaigns were conducted at nineteen sites throughout Europe over the 2014 and 2015 growing seasons to track changes in the isotopic composition of plant-relevant waters. Samples of precipitation, soil water, stem water, and leaf water were collected over more than 200 field days and include more than 500 samples from each water pool. Measurements were used to validate continent-wide gridded estimates of leaf water isotope values derived from a combination of mechanistic and statistical modeling conducted with temperature, precipitation, and relative humidity data. Data-model comparison shows good agreement for summer leaf waters, and substantiates the incorporation of modeled leaf waters in evaluating how plants respond to hydroclimate changes at large spatial scales. These results also suggest that modeled leaf water isotope values might be used in future studies in similar ecosystems to improve the coverage density of spatial or temporal data.

  20. Turbine airfoil with outer wall thickness indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, John J; James, Allister W; Merrill, Gary B

    2013-08-06

    A turbine airfoil usable in a turbine engine and including a depth indicator for determining outer wall blade thickness. The airfoil may include an outer wall having a plurality of grooves in the outer surface of the outer wall. The grooves may have a depth that represents a desired outer surface and wall thickness of the outer wall. The material forming an outer surface of the outer wall may be removed to be flush with an innermost point in each groove, thereby reducing the wall thickness and increasing efficiency. The plurality of grooves may be positioned in a radially outer region of the airfoil proximate to the tip.

  1. Mapping Mesophotic Reefs Along the Brazilian Continental Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, A.; Moura, R.; Amado Filho, G.; Ferreira, L.; Boni, G.; Vedoato, F.; D'Agostini, D.; Lavagnino, A. C.; Leite, M. D.; Quaresma, V.

    2017-12-01

    Submerged or drowned reefs constitute an important geological record of sea level variations, forming the substrate for the colonization of modern benthic mesophotic communities. Although mapping mesophotic reefs has increased in the last years, their spatial distribution is poorly known and the worldwide occurrence of this reef habitat maybe underestimated. The importance in recognizing the distribution of mesophotic reefs is that they can act as a refuge for corals during unsuitable environmental conditions and a repository for shallow water corals. Here we present the result of several acoustic surveys that mapped and discovered new mesophotic reefs along the Eastern and Equatorial Brazilian Continental Margin. Seabed mapping was carried out using multibeam and side scan sonars. Ground truthing was obtained using drop camera or scuba diving. Mesophotic reefs were mapped in water depths varying from 30 to 100m and under distinct oceanographic conditions, especially in terms of river load input and shelf width. Reefs showed distinct morphologies, from low relief banks and paleovalleys to shelf edge ridges. Extensive occurrence of low relief banks were mapped along the most important coralline complex province in the South Atlantic, the Abrolhos Shelf. These 30 to 40m deep banks, have no more than 3 meters in height and may represent fringing reefs formed during sea level stabilization. Paleovalleys mapped along the eastern margin showed the occurrence of coralgal ledges along the channel margins. Paleovalleys are usually deeper than 45m and are associated with outer shelf rhodolith beds. Shelf edge ridges (80 to 120m deep) were mapped along both margins and are related to red algal encrusting irregular surfaces that have more than 3m in height, forming a rigid substrate for coral growth. Along the Equatorial Margin, off the Amazon mouth, shelf edge patch reefs and rhodolith beds forming encrusting surfaces and shelf edge ridges were mapped in water depths greater

  2. Water-soluble Coenzyme Q10 formulation (Q-ter) promotes outer hair cell survival in a guinea pig model of noise induced hearing loss (NIHL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetoni, Anna Rita; Piacentini, Roberto; Fiorita, Antonella; Paludetti, Gaetano; Troiani, Diana

    2009-02-27

    The mitochondrial respiratory chain is a powerful source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) also in noise induced hearing loss (NIHL) and anti-oxidants and free-radicals scavengers have been shown to attenuate the damage. Coenzyme Q(10) (CoQ(10)) or ubiquinone has a bioenergetic role as a component of the mithocondrial respiratory chain, it inhibits mitochondrial lipid peroxidation, inducing ATP production and it is involved in ROS removal and prevention of oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. However the therapeutic application of CoQ(10) is limited by the lack of solubility and poor bio- availability, therefore it is a challenge to improve its water solubility in order to ameliorate the efficacy in tissues and fluids. This study was conducted in a model of acoustic trauma in the guinea pig where the effectiveness of CoQ(10) was compared with a soluble formulation of CoQ(10) (multicomposite CoQ(10) Terclatrate, Q-ter) given intraperitoneally 1 h before and once daily for 3 days after pure tone noise exposure (6 kHz for 1 h at 120 dB SPL). Functional and morphological studies were carried out by measuring auditory brainstem responses, scanning electron microscopy for hair cell loss count, active caspase 3 staining and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP labelling assay in order to identify initial signs of apoptosis. Treatments decreased active caspase 3 expression and the number of apoptotic cells, but animals injected with Q-ter showed a greater degree of activity in preventing apoptosis and thus in improving hearing. These data confirm that solubility of Coenzyme Q(10) improves the ability of CoQ(10) in preventing oxidative injuries that result from mitochondrial dysfunction.

  3. Protection of nuclear facilities against outer aggressions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aussourd, P.; Candes, P.; Le Quinio, R.

    1976-01-01

    The various types of outer aggressions envisaged in safety analysis for nuclear facilities are reviewed. These outer aggressions are classified as natural and non-natural phenomena, the latter depending on the human activities in the vicinity of nuclear sites. The principal natural phenomena able to constitute aggressions are atmospheric phenomena (strong winds, snow storms, hail, frosting mists), hydrologie phenomena such as tides, surges, flood, low waters, and geologic phenomena such as earthquakes. Artificial phenomena are concerned with aircraft crashes, projectiles, fire, possible ruptures of dams, and intentional human aggressions. The protection against intentional human aggressions is of two sorts: first, the possibility of access to the installations mostly sensitive to sabotage are to be prevented or reduced, secondly redundant circuits and functions must be separated for preventing their simultaneous destruction in the case when sabotage actors have reach the core of the facility [fr

  4. Messengers from outer space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jockers, K.

    1981-01-01

    In connection with the planned ESA space probe to Halley's Comet, a survey of our current knowledge of comets, and of open questions concerning them. The coma and the plasma and dust tail arise from the nucleus of the comet. Comets contain large amounts of water ice, and are surrounded by a gigantic cloud of hydrogen that is not visible to ground observation. The plasma tail arises by interaction with the solar wind. The cometary dust probably contains the most significant information on the origins of the solar system. Comets may contain prebiotic complex molecules. (orig.)

  5. Ultrasonic examination of defects close to the outer surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benoist, P.; Serre, M.; Champigny, F.

    1986-11-01

    During the examination of a pressurized water reactor vessel with an in Service Inspection Machine (MIS), various welds are scanned with immersion ultrasonic focused transducers from the inside of the vessel. Defects close to the outer surface are sometimes detected, and sizing with the successive 6 dB drop method leads to oversize some indications; this is caused by various reflections on the outer wall; the corner echo is of particular importance here. CEA and EDF have started an experimental program in order to study the response of volumetric and planar defects located near the outer surface. We present here the first results obtained with artificial defects. 2 refs

  6. A continental-scale hydrology and water quality model for Europe: Calibration and uncertainty of a high-resolution large-scale SWAT model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbaspour, K. C.; Rouholahnejad, E.; Vaghefi, S.; Srinivasan, R.; Yang, H.; Kløve, B.

    2015-05-01

    A combination of driving forces are increasing pressure on local, national, and regional water supplies needed for irrigation, energy production, industrial uses, domestic purposes, and the environment. In many parts of Europe groundwater quantity, and in particular quality, have come under sever degradation and water levels have decreased resulting in negative environmental impacts. Rapid improvements in the economy of the eastern European block of countries and uncertainties with regard to freshwater availability create challenges for water managers. At the same time, climate change adds a new level of uncertainty with regard to freshwater supplies. In this research we build and calibrate an integrated hydrological model of Europe using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) program. Different components of water resources are simulated and crop yield and water quality are considered at the Hydrological Response Unit (HRU) level. The water resources are quantified at subbasin level with monthly time intervals. Leaching of nitrate into groundwater is also simulated at a finer spatial level (HRU). The use of large-scale, high-resolution water resources models enables consistent and comprehensive examination of integrated system behavior through physically-based, data-driven simulation. In this article we discuss issues with data availability, calibration of large-scale distributed models, and outline procedures for model calibration and uncertainty analysis. The calibrated model and results provide information support to the European Water Framework Directive and lay the basis for further assessment of the impact of climate change on water availability and quality. The approach and methods developed are general and can be applied to any large region around the world.

  7. The continental lithosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artemieva, Irina

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the present study is to extract non-thermal signal from seismic tomography models in order to distinguish compositional variations in the continental lithosphere and to examine if geochemical and petrologic constraints on global-scale compositional variations in the mantle...... are consistent with modern geophysical data. In the lithospheric mantle of the continents, seismic velocity variations of a non-thermal origin (calculated from global Vs seismic tomography data [Grand S.P., 2002. Mantle shear-wave tomography and the fate of subducted slabs. Philosophical Transactions...... and evolution of Precambrian lithosphere: A global study. Journal of Geophysical Research 106, 16387–16414.] show strong correlation with tectono-thermal ages and with regional variations in lithospheric thickness constrained by surface heat flow data and seismic velocities. In agreement with xenolith data...

  8. Sonograph patterns of the central western continental shelf of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, P.S.

    knolls. A transition zone with tonal variations is present between 40 and 60 m water depth. Ground-truth data sediment and rock distribution maps indicate depositional (inner shelf), nondepositional or erosional (outer shelf) environments and a...

  9. The CMS Outer Hadron Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Acharya, Bannaje Sripathi; Banerjee, Sunanda; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhandari, Virender; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Chendvankar, Sanjay; Deshpande, Pandurang Vishnu; Dugad, Shashikant; Ganguli, Som N; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Kalmani, Suresh Devendrappa; Kaur, Manjit; Kohli, Jatinder Mohan; Krishnaswamy, Marthi Ramaswamy; Kumar, Arun; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mondal, Naba Kumar; Nagaraj, P; Narasimham, Vemuri Syamala; Patil, Mandakini Ravindra; Reddy, L V; Satyanarayana, B; Sharma, Seema; Singh, B; Singh, Jas Bir; Sudhakar, Katta; Tonwar, Suresh C; Verma, Piyush

    2006-01-01

    The CMS hadron calorimeter is a sampling calorimeter with brass absorber and plastic scintillator tiles with wavelength shifting fibres for carrying the light to the readout device. The barrel hadron calorimeter is complemented with a outer calorimeter to ensure high energy shower containment in CMS and thus working as a tail catcher. Fabrication, testing and calibrations of the outer hadron calorimeter are carried out keeping in mind its importance in the energy measurement of jets in view of linearity and resolution. It will provide a net improvement in missing $\\et$ measurements at LHC energies. The outer hadron calorimeter has a very good signal to background ratio even for a minimum ionising particle and can hence be used in coincidence with the Resistive Plate Chambers of the CMS detector for the muon trigger.

  10. Origin of Outer Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Matthew J.; Lindstrom, David (Technical Monitor)

    2005-01-01

    Our ongoing research program combines extensive deep and wide-field observations using a variety of observational platforms with numerical studies of the dynamics of small bodies in the outer solar system in order to advance the main scientific goals of the community studying the Kuiper belt and the outer solar system. These include: (1) determining the relative populations of the known classes of KBOs as well as other possible classes; ( 2 ) determining the size distributions or luminosity function of the individual populations or the Kuiper belt as a whole; (3) determining the inclinations distributions of these populations; (4) establishing the radial extent of the Kuiper belt; ( 5 ) measuring and relating the physical properties of different types of KBOs to those of other solar system bodies; and, (6) completing our systematic inventory of the satellites of the outer planets.

  11. Nuclear fuel grid outer strap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, R.; Craver, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    This patent describes a nuclear reactor fuel assembly grid. It comprises a first outer grip strap segment end. The first end having a first tab arranged in substantially the same plane as the plane defined by the first end; a second outer grip strap end. The second end having a second slot arranged in substantially the same plane as the plane defined by the second end, with the tab being substantially disposed in the slot, defining a socket therebetween; and a fort tine interposed substantially perpendicularly in the socket

  12. Four contamination indexes for continental waters characterization. Formulation and application; Cuatro indices de contaminacion para caracterizacion de aguas continentales. Formulaciones y aplicacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, A; Restrepo, R; Vina, G

    1997-12-01

    In this paper four indices of contamination, which qualify different water aspects are presents. Such indices allow for an overall assessment of the environmental status of the water bodies. These indices have been derived from accumulative experiences in hydro biological monitoring in the Colombian Petroleum industry for six years. Multivariable statistics was used. The indices were developed based on legislation from several countries, in accordance with the concentration of the different parameters and water usages. This indices of contamination (ICO) are: ICOMI (mineralization), ICOMO (organics contamination), ICOSUS (suspended solids) and ICOTRO (trophic system). The indices are easy to estimate (mathematically and/or graphically) and allow the identification the type of environmental problem, existing as demonstrated with examples and the near to zero correlations found. Thanks to the minimum number of variables, the application of these indices also diminishes monitoring and evaluation costs. In view of the advantages above mentioned is worth considering integrating the indices in to the national legislation.

  13. Microclimate, Water Potential, Transpiration, and Bole Dielectric Constant of Coniferous and Deciduous Tree Species in the Continental Boreal Ecotone of Central Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, R.; McDonald, K.; Way, J.; Oren, R.

    1994-01-01

    Tree canopy microclimate, xylem water flux and xylem dielectric constant have been monitored in situ since June 1993 in two adjacent natural forest stands in central Alaska. The deciduous stand represents a mature balsam poplar site on the Tanana River floodplain, while the coniferous stand consists of mature white spruce with some black spruce mixed in. During solstice in June and later in summer, diurnal changes of xylem water potential were measured to investigate the occurrence and magnitude of tree transpiration and dielectric constant changes in stems.

  14. A Continental-scale River Corridor Model to Synthesize Understanding and Prioritize Management of Water Purification Functions and Ecological Services in Large Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, J. W.; Gomez-Velez, J. D.; Scott, D.; Boyer, E. W.; Schmadel, N. M.; Alexander, R. B.; Eng, K.; Golden, H. E.; Kettner, A.; Konrad, C. P.; Moore, R. B.; Pizzuto, J. E.; Schwarz, G. E.; Soulsby, C.

    2017-12-01

    The functional values of rivers depend on more than just wetted river channels. Instead, the river channel exchanges water and suspended materials with adjacent riparian, floodplain, hyporheic zones, and ponded waters such as lakes and reservoirs. Together these features comprise a larger functional unit known as the river corridor. The exchange of water, solutes, and sediments within the river corridor alters downstream water quality and ecological functions, but our understanding of the large-scale, cumulative impacts is inadequate and has limited advancements in sustainable management practices. A problem with traditional watershed, groundwater, and river water quality models is that none of them explicitly accounts for river corridor storage and processing, and the exchanges of water, solutes, and sediments that occur many times between the channel and off-channel environments during a river's transport to the sea. Our River Corridor Working Group at the John Wesley Powell Center is quantifying the key components of river corridor functions. Relying on foundational studies that identified floodplain, riparian, and hyporheic exchange flows and resulting enhancement of chemical reactions at river reach scales, we are assembling the datasets and building the models to upscale that understanding onto 2.6 million river reaches in the U.S. A principal goal of the River Corridor Working group is to develop a national-scale river corridor model for the conterminous U.S. that will reveal, perhaps for the first time, the relative influences of hyporheic, riparian, floodplain, and ponded waters at large spatial scales. The simple but physically-based models are predictive for changing conditions and therefore can directly address the consequences and effectiveness of management actions in sustaining valuable river corridor functions. This presentation features interpretation of useful river corridor connectivity metrics and ponded water influences on nutrient and sediment

  15. The cold-water coral community as a hot spot of carbon cycling on continental margins: a food-web analysis from Rockall Bank (northeast Atlantic)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Oevelen, D.J.; Duineveld, G.; Lavaleye, M.; Mienis, F.; Soetaert, K.E.R.; Heip, C.H.R.

    2009-01-01

    We present a quantitative food-web analysis of the cold-water coral community, i.e., the assembly of living corals, dead coral branches and sediment beneath, associated with the reef-building Lophelia pertusa on the giant carbonate mounds at ~800-m depth at Rockall Bank. Carbon flows, 140 flows

  16. Functional model of water balance variability at the catchment scale : 2. Elasticity of fast and slow runoff components to precipitation change in the continental United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harman, C.J.; Troch, P.A.; Sivapalan, M.

    2011-01-01

    Assessing the sensitivity of annual streamflow to precipitation is challenging due to the complexity of the processes that control the water balance. A low-dimensional model can be useful to interrogate data in regional assessments of a large number of catchments, and can provide insights into the

  17. Getting Sloshed in Outer Space

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 12; Issue 12. Getting Sloshed in Outer Space - Liquid Behavior in Microgravity. N Ananthkrishnan. General Article Volume 12 Issue 12 December 2007 pp 40-45. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  18. Outer space structure and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeldovich, J.; Novikov, I.

    1975-01-01

    A brief account is presented answering the question of what in fact the outer space we observe consists of. The principle of spatial homogeneity of the universe and the idea of non-stationary cosmology are discussed. The origin and the future development of the universe are explained using the two above mentioned and some other hypotheses. (J.K.)

  19. Outer space structure and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeldovich, J; Novikov, I

    1975-10-01

    A brief account is presented answering the question of what in fact the outer space we observe consists of. The principle of spatial homogeneity of the universe and the idea of non-stationary cosmology are discussed. The origin and the future development of the universe are explained using the two above mentioned and some other hypotheses.

  20. Plasmas in the outer heliosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcher, J. W.; Richardson, J. D.; Lazarus, A. J.; Gazis, P. R.; Barnes, A.

    1995-01-01

    We review the observed properties of the solar wind in the outer heliosphere, including observations from Voyager and the Pioneers, as well as from inner heliospheric probes as appropriate. These observations are crucial to modeling of the heliosphere and its interactions with the interstellar medium, since the wind ram pressure and its temporal variations are important in understanding the distance to the termination shock and heliopause and how those boundaries might vary in time. We focus on results since Solar Wind 7. Among the issues we will discuss are: (1) the time scales for and statistical properties of variations in the ram pressure in the outer heliosphere, and how those variations might affect the morphology of the heliospheric/interstellar medium interface; (2) the question of possible solar wind slowing in the outer heliosphere due to the pick-up of interstellar ions; (3) the issue of whether there is bulk heating of the solar wind associated either with interstellar ion pick-up or with continued heating due to stream-stream interactions; (4) evidence for latitudinal variations in solar wind properties; and (5) the 1.3 year periodicities apparent in the outer heliosphere, and the close correspondence with similar variations seen with inner heliospheric probes.

  1. {sup 210}Pb-Excess and Sediment Accumulation Rates at the Iberian Continental Margin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, F. P.; Oliveira, J. M.; Soares, A. M. [Nuclear and Technological Institute, Sacavem (Portugal)

    2013-07-15

    Sediments from the continental shelf, slope, and rise at the continental margin of northern Portugal and the adjacent Iberian abyssal basin were analysed for 210Pb, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 14}C. Pb-210 derived sedimentation rates at the continental shelf off the Portuguese coast were 0.2-0.6 cm/a. In some cores from fine sediment deposits at the outer shelf, the {sup 210}Pb excess continuum was interrupted and sediment layers were missing, suggesting that events such as sediment slides could have occurred. Higher sedimentation rates were determined in locations at the rise of the continental slope, confirming enhanced deposition by sediment slides. In the deeper Iberian Abyssal Basin, using the {sup 14}C age of sediment layers the sedimentation rate was determined at 3.2 cm/ka, thus four orders of magnitude lower than at the continental shelf. The spatial distribution of sedimentation rates determined by radionuclide based chronologies, suggested that fine sediments from river discharges are deposited mainly at the outer continental shelf. These deposits may became unstable with time and, occasionally, originate sediment slides that are drained by the canyons and reach the deep sea. The Iberian abyssal basin receives some advective contribution of these sediment slides and the sedimentation rate is one order of magnitude higher than in other abyssal basins of the NE Atlantic Ocean. (author)

  2. Outer Synchronization of Complex Networks by Impulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Wen; Yan Zizong; Chen Shihua; Lü Jinhu

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates outer synchronization of complex networks, especially, outer complete synchronization and outer anti-synchronization between the driving network and the response network. Employing the impulsive control method which is uncontinuous, simple, efficient, low-cost and easy to implement in practical applications, we obtain some sufficient conditions of outer complete synchronization and outer anti-synchronization between two complex networks. Numerical simulations demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed impulsive control scheme. (general)

  3. Palaeomagnetism and the continental crust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piper, J.D.A.

    1987-01-01

    This book is an introduction to palaeomagnetism offering treatment of theory and practice. It analyzes the palaeomagnetic record over the whole of geological time, from the Archaean to the Cenozoic, and goes on to examine the impact of past geometries and movements of the continental crust at each geological stage. Topics covered include theory of rock and mineral magnetism, field and laboratory methods, growth and consolidation of the continental crust in Archaean and Proterozoic times, Palaeozoic palaeomagnetism and the formation of Pangaea, the geomagnetic fields, continental movements, configurations and mantle convection.

  4. Continental United States Hurricane Strikes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Continental U.S. Hurricane Strikes Poster is our most popular poster which is updated annually. The poster includes all hurricanes that affected the U.S. since...

  5. Turbine airfoil with a compliant outer wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Christian X [Oviedo, FL; Morrison, Jay A [Oviedo, FL

    2012-04-03

    A turbine airfoil usable in a turbine engine with a cooling system and a compliant dual wall configuration configured to enable thermal expansion between inner and outer layers while eliminating stress formation in the outer layer is disclosed. The compliant dual wall configuration may be formed a dual wall formed from inner and outer layers separated by a support structure. The outer layer may be a compliant layer configured such that the outer layer may thermally expand and thereby reduce the stress within the outer layer. The outer layer may be formed from a nonplanar surface configured to thermally expand. In another embodiment, the outer layer may be planar and include a plurality of slots enabling unrestricted thermal expansion in a direction aligned with the outer layer.

  6. Use of Geological, Geophysical and Geomorphological Information as support for the harmonization of the legal limits of the continental shelf between Brazil and Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, L.; Villena, H.

    2010-01-01

    The United Nations Convention of the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) establishes the juridical and legal frameworks which the Coastal States (C S) establish their respective outer limit of the continental shelf in which will exercise sovereignty rights under the resources in the on the seabed and seabed subsurface. The base to reach the delineation of continental shelf outer limit is ruled by the application the criteria which take into consideration mainly data and pieces of information from Geology, Geophysics and Geomorphology employed both lonely or conjunction. In the current presentation were employed both data carried out by Brazilian Continental Shelf Project (Laplace) and data from public domain. As the underwater features do not follow political limits, the goal of this proposal work is to present the integration of both data and pieces of information from geological, geophysical and geomorphologic characteristics in order to reach the harmonization of the Brazil and Uruguay continental shelf outer limit nearby their Maritime Lateral Boundary

  7. Effects of cold-water corals on fish diversity and density (European continental margin: Arctic, NE Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea): Data from three baited lander systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linley, T. D.; Lavaleye, M.; Maiorano, P.; Bergman, M.; Capezzuto, F.; Cousins, N. J.; D'Onghia, G.; Duineveld, G.; Shields, M. A.; Sion, L.; Tursi, A.; Priede, I. G.

    2017-11-01

    Autonomous photographic landers are a low-impact survey method for the assessment of mobile fauna in situations where methods such as trawling are not feasible or ethical. Three institutions collaborated through the CoralFISH project, each using differing lander systems, to assess the effects of cold-water corals on fish diversity and density. The Biogenic Reef Ichthyofauna Lander (BRIL, Oceanlab), Autonomous Lander for Biological Experiments (ALBEX, NIOZ) and the Marine Environment MOnitoring system (MEMO, CoNISMa) were deployed in four CoralFISH European study regions covering the Arctic, NE Atlantic and Mediterranean, namely Northern Norway (275-310 m depth), Belgica Mound Province (686-1025 m depth), the Bay of Biscay (623-936 m depth), and Santa Maria di Leuca (547-670 m depth). A total of 33 deployments were carried out in the different regions. Both the time of first arrival (Tarr) and the maximum observed number of fish (MaxN) were standardised between the different lander systems and compared between coral and reference stations as indicators of local fish density. Fish reached significantly higher MaxN at the coral stations than at the reference stations. Fish were also found to have significantly lower Tarr in the coral areas in data obtained from the BRIL and MEMO landers. All data indicated that fish abundance is higher within the coral areas. Fish species diversity was higher within the coral areas of Atlantic Ocean while in Northern Norway and Santa Maria di Leuca coral areas, diversity was similar at coral and reference stations but a single dominant species (Brosme brosme and Conger conger respectively) showed much higher density within the coral areas. Indicating that, while cold-water coral reefs have a positive effect on fish diversity and/or abundance, this effect varies across Europe's reefs.

  8. Morphology and sediment dynamics of the northern Catalan continental shelf, northwestern Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, Ruth; Canals, Miquel; Sanz, José Luis; Lastras, Galderic; Amblas, David; Micallef, Aaron

    2014-01-01

    The northern Catalan continental shelf, in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea, extends along 200 km from the Cap de Creus submarine canyon to the Llobregat Delta, in the vicinity of the city of Barcelona. In this paper we present the results of a systematic investigation of this area by means of very high-resolution multibeam bathymetry to fully assess its morphological variability. The causative factors and processes determining such variability are subsequently interpreted. The shelf is divided in three segments by two prominent submarine canyons: the northernmost Roses Shelf is separated from the intermediate La Planassa Shelf by the La Fonera Canyon, while the boundary between the La Planassa Shelf and the southernmost Barcelona Shelf is marked by the Blanes Canyon. These two canyons are deeply incised in the continental margin, with their heads located at only 0.8 and 5 km from the shore, respectively. The seafloor character reflects the influence of external controlling factors on the geomorphology and sediment dynamics of the northern continental shelf of Catalonia. These factors are the geological setting, the volume and nature of sediment input, and the type and characteristics of processes leading to sediment redistribution, such as dense shelf water cascading (DSWC) and eastern storms. The interaction of all these factors determines sediment dynamics and allows subdividing the northern Catalan continental shelf into three segments: the erosional-depositional Roses Shelf to the north, the non-depositional La Planassa Shelf in the middle, and the depositional Barcelona Shelf to the south. Erosional features off the Cap de Creus Peninsula and an along-shelf subdued channel in the outer shelf illustrate prevailing sediment dynamics in the Roses segment, which is dominated by erosional processes, local sediment accumulations and the southward bypass of sediment. The rocky character of the seafloor immediately north of the Blanes Canyon head demonstrates that

  9. Ocean-Continent Transition Structure of the Pelotas Magma-Rich Continental Margin, South Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkin, Caroline; Kusznir, Nick; Roberts, Alan; Manatschal, Gianreto; McDermott, Ken

    2017-04-01

    Rifted continental margins in the southern South Atlantic are magma-rich showing well developed volcanic extrusives known as seaward dipping reflectors (SDRs). Here we examine the magma-rich continental rifted margin of the Pelotas Basin, offshore Brazil. Deep seismic reflection data displays a large package of seaward dipping reflectors with an approximate width of 200 km and a varying thickness of 10 km to 17 km that have previously been interpreted as volcanic SDRs. We examine these SDRs to explore if they are composed predominantly of basaltic or sedimentary-volcaniclastic material. We also study the thickness of the crustal basement beneath the SDRs. Additionally we investigate if these SDRs are underlain by thin 'hyper-extended' continental crust or if they have been deposited on new magmatic basement. The answers to these questions are important in understanding the structure and formation processes of magma-rich continental margins. We use gravity inversion to investigate SDR composition by varying the proportion of basalt to sediments-volcaniclastics (basalt fraction) which determines the SDR densities in the gravity inversion. By matching the Moho depth and two-way travel time from gravity inversion and deep seismic reflection data, we determine the lateral variation in basalt fraction of the SDRs. Our analysis suggests: 1) There is an overall pattern of SDR basalt fraction and bulk density decreasing oceanward. This could be due to increasing sediment content oceanward or it could result from the change in basalt flows to hyaloclastites as water depth increases. 2) The SDR package can be split into two distinct sub packages based on the basalt fraction results, where the proximal side of each package has a higher basalt fraction and density. 3) The inner SDR package contains reflectors that bear a resemblance to the SDRs described by Hinz (1981) corresponding to syn-tectonic volcanic eruptions into an extensional basin, while the outer SDR package has

  10. 75 FR 16828 - Notice of Intent To Prepare and Scope an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Outer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ... impacts to tourism and recreation activities, and ecological impacts from potential degradation of marine... Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Oil and Gas Leasing Program for 2012.... The EIS will analyze the potential impacts of the adoption of the proposed 5-year program. Background...

  11. 77 FR 34405 - Environmental Documents Prepared for Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of Mexico Outer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ... Geophysical Survey, SEA M09- Planning Area of the 013. Gulf of Mexico. Energy Resource Technology GOM, South... Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Region AGENCY... documents prepared for OCS mineral proposals by the Gulf of Mexico OCS Region SUMMARY: BOEM, in accordance...

  12. Traditional Mapuche ecological knowledge in Patagonia, Argentina: fishes and other living beings inhabiting continental waters, as a reflection of processes of change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aigo, Juana; Ladio, Ana

    2016-12-07

    Understanding how people interpret environmental change and develop practices in response to such change is essential to comprehend human resource use. In the cosmology of the American indigenous peoples, as among the Mapuche people, freshwater systems are considered a living entity, where animals have an enormous role to play in the universe of meaning. However, human adaptive responses to freshwater system dynamics are scarcely examined. In this work a survey is carried out in three Mapuche communities of Argentine Patagonia to assess their traditional knowledge of the fishes and other non-human living beings that inhabit lakes and rivers. Both material and symbolic aspects are included, as are the differences in knowledge and use of the fishes between past and present times. Our methods were based on a quali-quantitative fieldwork approach. In-depth interviews were carried out with 36 individuals from three rural Mapuche populations in Neuquén province (Patagonia, Argentina). Free listing was used for inquiring about fish knowledge and use. Fishes were identified scientifically and ethnotaxonomically. In-depth analysis of the discourses was conducted, documenting the recognition, perception, and cultural significance of fluvial environments and their inhabitants. Quantitative survey results were analyzed with categorical statistical methods. The body of knowledge of the communities studied reflects the socio-environmental changes experienced by Patagonian freshwater bodies. According to local perception, non-human beings live in these water bodies, guarding the environment, and they should not be disturbed. At present, five different fish species are identified, three of which are exotic, having been introduced at the beginning of the 20th century by the white man. These exotic trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss and Salvelinus fontinalis) are considered ill omens, indicators of the white man's presence, and therefore their appearance presages negative events for the

  13. Mitochondrial dysfunction underlying outer retinal diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lefevere, Evy; Toft-Kehler, Anne Katrine; Vohra, Rupali

    2017-01-01

    Dysfunction of photoreceptors, retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) or both contribute to the initiation and progression of several outer retinal disorders. Disrupted Müller glia function might additionally subsidize to these diseases. Mitochondrial malfunctioning is importantly associated with outer...

  14. WORKSHOP: Inner space - outer space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    During the first week of May, the Fermilab theoretical astrophysics group hosted an international conference on science at the interface of particle physics and cosmology/astrophysics. The conference (Inner Space-Outer Space) was attended by a very diverse group of more than 200 physical scientists, including astronomers, astrophysicists, cosmologists, low-temperature physicists, and elementary particle theorists and experimentalists. The common interest which brought this diverse group to gether is the connection between physics on the smallest scale probed by man - the realm of elementary particle physics - and physics on the largest scale imaginable (the entire Universe) - the realm of cosmology

  15. WORKSHOP: Inner space - outer space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1984-09-15

    During the first week of May, the Fermilab theoretical astrophysics group hosted an international conference on science at the interface of particle physics and cosmology/astrophysics. The conference (Inner Space-Outer Space) was attended by a very diverse group of more than 200 physical scientists, including astronomers, astrophysicists, cosmologists, low-temperature physicists, and elementary particle theorists and experimentalists. The common interest which brought this diverse group to gether is the connection between physics on the smallest scale probed by man - the realm of elementary particle physics - and physics on the largest scale imaginable (the entire Universe) - the realm of cosmology.

  16. Outer scale of atmospheric turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukin, Vladimir P.

    2005-10-01

    In the early 70's, the scientists in Italy (A.Consortini, M.Bertolotti, L.Ronchi), USA (R.Buser, Ochs, S.Clifford) and USSR (V.Pokasov, V.Lukin) almost simultaneously discovered the phenomenon of deviation from the power law and the effect of saturation for the structure phase function. During a period of 35 years we have performed successively the investigations of the effect of low-frequency spectral range of atmospheric turbulence on the optical characteristics. The influence of the turbulence models as well as a outer scale of turbulence on the characteristics of telescopes and systems of laser beam formations has been determined too.

  17. Density functional theory studies on the solvent effects in Al(H2O)63+ water-exchange reactions: the number and arrangement of outer-sphere water molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Zhang, Jing; Dong, Shaonan; Zhang, Fuping; Wang, Ye; Bi, Shuping

    2018-03-07

    Density functional theory (DFT) calculations combined with cluster models are performed at the B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p) level for investigating the solvent effects in Al(H 2 O) 6 3+ water-exchange reactions. A "One-by-one" method is proposed to obtain the most representative number and arrangement of explicit H 2 Os in the second hydration sphere. First, all the possible ways to locate one explicit H 2 O in second sphere (N m ' = 1) based on the gas phase structure (N m ' = 0) are examined, and the optimal pathway (with the lowest energy barrier) for N m ' = 1 is determined. Next, more explicit H 2 Os are added one by one until the inner-sphere is fully hydrogen bonded. Finally, the optimal pathways with N m ' = 0-7 are obtained. The structural and energetic parameters as well as the lifetimes of the transition states are compared with the results obtained with the "Independent-minimum" method and the "Independent-average" method, and all three methods show that the pathway with N m ' = 6 may be representative. Our results give a new idea for finding the representative pathway for water-exchange reactions in other hydrated metal ion systems.

  18. Mass-physical properties of surficial sediments on the Rhoˆne continental margin: implications for the nepheloid benthic layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassefiere, Bernard

    1990-09-01

    Mass-physical properties of the surficial (upper 5 m) sediments on the Gulf of Lions continental margin were analysed, from more than 100 short (1 m) and longer (5 m) cores obtained during several cruises. Data include water content, unit weight, Atterberg limits (liquid limit, plastic limit, plasticity index), shear strength and compression index, and are used to determine: first, the mass property distribution, according to the main parameters influencing mass-physical properties; the relationships between these properties and the nepheloid layer on the shelf. The shoreline (lagoons) and inner shelf are characterized by low density and shear strength and high water content deposits, due to electrochemical flocculation of the sediment. The outer shelf is blanketed by higher density and shear strength and lower water content deposits generated by normal settling of suspended particles. On the inner shelf, during river peak discharges, a short-term thin bottom layer of "yogurt-like" [ FASS (1985) Geomarine Letters, 4, 147-152; FASS (1986) Continental Shelf Research, 6, 189-208] fluid-mud (unit weight lower than 1.3 mg m -3) is supplied, by a bottom nepheloid layer. During stormy periods, this "yogurt-like" layer (about 10 cm thick) partly disappears by resuspension of suspended particulate matter; this is advected, in the bottom nepheloid layer, over the shelf and the canyons within the upper slope.

  19. Dynamics of tidal and non-tidal currents along the southwest continental shelf of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Aruna, C.; Ravichandran, C.; Srinivas, K.; Rasheed, P.A.A.; Lekshmi, S.

    are predominantly mixed, semidiurnal in nature. Motion over any continental shelf is governed by the tide-driven oscillatory flow. In this paper, tidal and non-tidal characteristics of the waters of Southwest continental shelf of India are assessed using...

  20. Suspended particulate layers and internal waves over the southern Monterey Bay continental shelf: an important control on shelf mud belts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheriton, Olivia M.; McPhee-Shaw, Erika E.; Shaw, William J.; Stanton, Timothy P.; Bellingham, James G.; Storlazzi, Curt D.

    2014-01-01

    Physical and optical measurements taken over the mud belt on the southern continental shelf of Monterey Bay, California documented the frequent occurrence of suspended particulate matter features, the majority of which were detached from the seafloor, centered 9–33 m above the bed. In fall 2011, an automated profiling mooring and fixed instrumentation, including a thermistor chain and upward-looking acoustic Doppler current profiler, were deployed at 70 m depth for 5 weeks, and from 12 to 16 October a long-range autonomous underwater vehicle performed across-shelf transects. Individual SPM events were uncorrelated with local bed shear stress caused by surface waves and bottom currents. Nearly half of all observed SPM layers occurred during 1 week of the study, 9–16 October 2011, and were advected past the fixed profiling mooring by the onshore phase of semidiurnal internal tide bottom currents. At the start of the 9–16 October period, we observed intense near-bed vertical velocities capable of lifting particulates into the middle of the water column. This “updraft” event appears to have been associated with nonlinear adjustment of high-amplitude internal tides over the mid and outer shelf. These findings suggest that nonlinear internal tidal motions can erode material over the outer shelf and that, once suspended, this SPM can then be transported shoreward to the middle and shallow sections of the mud belt. This represents a fundamental broadening of our understanding of how shelf mud belts may be built up and sustained.

  1. 77 FR 15382 - Outer Continental Shelf Scientific Committee; Notice of Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    ... Committee provides advice on the feasibility, appropriateness, and scientific value of the OCS Environmental... relevance of the research and data being produced to meet BOEM's scientific information needs for decision...

  2. Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program. Final reports of principal investigators. Volume 74

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    The volume contains: synthesis of seismicity studies for western Alaska; bottom and near-bottom sediment dynamics in Norton Sound; integration of circulation data in the Beaufort Sea; numerical modeling of storm surges in the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas; numerical modeling of storm surges in Norton Sound; Yukon delta oceanography and meteorology; and superstructure icing and wave hindcast statistics in the Navarin and St. George Basin areas

  3. 76 FR 30184 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Renewable Energy Program Interim Policy Leasing for Marine...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ... Marine Hydrokinetic Technology Testing Offshore Florida AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management.... On June 11, 2010 Florida Atlantic University's (FAU) Southeast National Marine Renewable Energy... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement [Docket...

  4. 77 FR 5545 - Commercial Leasing for Wind Power Development on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Offshore...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    ... development of the offshore wind energy industry, offshore wind energy projects, and associated supply chain... to chart a path forward to provide for reliable energy supplies at reasonable rates and increase the..., including endangered leatherback (Dermochelys coriacea), Kemp's ridley (Lepidochelys kempi) and green...

  5. 78 FR 64237 - Information Collection: General and Oil and Gas Production Requirements in the Outer Continental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ... OCS Lands Act, other applicable laws, and BOEM regulations; and does not unreasonably interfere with.... The form requests general information about the reservoir and the company, volumetric data, and fluid...

  6. 77 FR 5561 - Information Collection Activities: Oil, Gas, and Sulphur Operations in the Outer Continental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    ...; appeal INCs 0 [exempt under 5 CFR 1320.4(a)(2), (c)]. Performance Standards 109(a); 110 Submit welding... installation records for any anti-two block safety devices; all inspection, testing, and maintenance for at...(c) Retain welding plan and drawings of safe- 1 welding areas at site; designated person advises in...

  7. 76 FR 65521 - Information Collection; Geological and Geophysical Explorations of the Outer Continental Shelf...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-21

    ...,'' enter BOEM-2011-0036 then click search. Follow the instructions to submit public comments and view... Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), per Secretarial Order 3299. Regulations to carry out these... burdens that are associated with cost recovery monies collected are based on actual submittals through Pay...

  8. 77 FR 52630 - Outer Continental Shelf Air Regulations Consistency Update for California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-30

    ... expressly to prevent exploration and development of the OCS and that they are applicable to OCS sources. 40... Granting Permits (Adopted 04/17/97) Rule 206 Conditional Approval of Authority to Construct or Permit to... 331 Fugitive Emissions Inspection and Maintenance (Adopted 12/ 10/91) Rule 332 Petroleum Refinery...

  9. 76 FR 1389 - Outer Continental Shelf Air Regulations Consistency Update for California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-10

    ... expressly to prevent exploration and development of the OCS and that they are applicable to OCS sources. 40... (Adopted 04/17/97) Rule 204 Applications (Adopted 04/17/97) Rule 205 Standards for Granting Permits... Maintenance (Adopted 12/ 10/91) Rule 332 Petroleum Refinery Vacuum Producing Systems, Wastewater Separators...

  10. 76 FR 15898 - Outer Continental Shelf Air Regulations; Consistency Update for California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    ... expressly to prevent exploration and development of the OCS and that they are applicable to OCS sources. 40... Standards for Granting Permits (Adopted 04/17/97) Rule 206 Conditional Approval of Authority to Construct or.../ 00) Rule 331 Fugitive Emissions Inspection and Maintenance (Adopted 12/ 10/91) Rule 332 Petroleum...

  11. 77 FR 72744 - Outer Continental Shelf Air Regulations Consistency Update for California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ... exploration and development of the OCS and that they are applicable to OCS sources. 40 CFR 55.1. EPA has also... 04/17/97) Rule 205 Standards for Granting Permits (Adopted 04/17/97) Rule 206 Conditional Approval of.../ 12) Rule 331 Fugitive Emissions Inspection and Maintenance (Adopted 12/ 10/91) Rule 332 Petroleum...

  12. 75 FR 24966 - Notice on Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Lease Sales

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-06

    ... Company, Inexco Oil Company. Group VI. Eni Petroleum Co. Inc., Eni Petroleum US LLC, Eni Oil US LLC, Eni Marketing Inc., Eni BB Petroleum Inc., Eni US Operating Co. Inc., Eni BB Pipeline LLC. Group VII. Petrobras...

  13. 78 FR 64243 - Notice on Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Lease Sales

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ... III Eni Petroleum Co. Inc. Eni Petroleum US LLC Eni Oil US LLC Eni Marketing Inc. Eni BB Petroleum Inc. Eni US Operating Co. Inc. Eni BB Pipeline LLC Group IV Exxon Mobil Corporation ExxonMobil Exploration...

  14. 77 FR 64826 - Notice on Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Lease Sales

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-23

    .... Eni Petroleum Co. Inc. Eni Petroleum US LLC Eni Oil US LLC Eni Marketing Inc Eni BB Petroleum Inc. Eni US Operating Co. Inc. Eni BB Pipeline LLC Group VII. Statoil ASA Statoil Gulf of Mexico LLC Statoil...

  15. 78 FR 27430 - Notice on Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Lease Sales

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    ... III. Eni Petroleum Co. Inc. Eni Petroleum US LLC Eni Oil US LLC Eni Marketing Inc. Eni BB Petroleum Inc. Eni US Operating Co. Inc. Eni BB Pipeline LLC Group IV. Exxon Mobil Corporation ExxonMobil...

  16. 76 FR 28449 - Notice on Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Lease Sales

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ... Company, Inexeco Oil Company. Group VI. Eni Petroleum Co. Inc., Eni Petroleum US LLC, Eni Oil US LLC, Eni Marketing Inc., Eni BB Petroleum Inc., Eni US Operating Co. Inc., Eni BB Pipeline LLC. Group VII. Petrobras...

  17. 76 FR 4129 - Notice on Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Lease Sales

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-24

    ... Eni Petroleum Co. Inc. Eni Petroleum US LLC. Eni Oil US LLC. Eni Marketing Inc. Eni BB Petroleum Inc. Eni US Operating Co. Inc. Eni BB Pipeline LLC. Group VII Petrobras America Inc. Petroleo Brasileiro S...

  18. 76 FR 67759 - Notice on Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Lease Sales

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-02

    ... and Exploration Company Inexeco Oil Company Group VI Eni Petroleum Co. Inc. Eni Petroleum US LLC Eni Oil US LLC Eni Marketing Inc Eni BB Petroleum Inc. Eni US Operating Co. Inc. Eni BB Pipeline LLC Group...

  19. 78 FR 48180 - Consolidation of Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection For Outer Continental Shelf Activities...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-07

    ... within their geographic area such as Federal On-Scene Coordinator (FOSC) for oil and hazardous material... comments submitted in response to this request include the reasoning behind the comment to better inform...

  20. 77 FR 30551 - Commercial Renewable Energy Transmission on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Offshore Rhode...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    ... transmission grid on the Rhode Island mainland to Block Island. Deepwater Wind proposes to connect an onshore... Island LLC (Deepwater Wind) Transmission System (BITS) proposal submitted to the Bureau of Ocean Energy... electrical power from Deepwater Wind's proposed 30 megawatt (MW) offshore wind energy project located in...

  1. 76 FR 37274 - Outer Continental Shelf Air Regulations Consistency Update for Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-27

    ..., the Alaska Eskimo Whaling Commission asked EPA to clarify the rational for excluding 18 AAC 50.040(h... United States Court of Appeals for the appropriate circuit by August 26, 2011. Filing a petition for...

  2. 76 FR 43230 - Outer Continental Shelf Air Regulations Consistency Update for Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-20

    ... protected. The http://www.regulations.gov Web site is an ``anonymous access'' system, which means EPA will... public docket and made available on the Internet. If you submit an electronic comment, EPA recommends... the Internet and will be publicly available only in hard copy form. Publicly available docket...

  3. 77 FR 74512 - Interim Policy Leasing for Renewable Energy Data Collection Facility on the Outer Continental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    ... Company to conduct data collection and technology testing activities in one of the following ways: 1... Management Service, now BOEM, announced an interim policy for authorizing the issuance of leases for the installation of offshore data collection and technology testing facilities on the OCS (72 FR 62673). An...

  4. 78 FR 45965 - Research Lease on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Offshore Virginia, Request for Competitive...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-30

    ... Atlantic Wind One (ATLW1), as described in the following section. Relationship of the DMME Proposal to the...'s Virginia Intergovernmental Task Force and is intended to balance the protection of environmentally sensitive areas and minimize space-use conflicts while maximizing the area available for commercial offshore...

  5. 76 FR 2254 - Notice of Arrival on the Outer Continental Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    ... Department of Homeland Security. FR Federal Register. ISM International Safety Management. ISSC International... Management (ISM) code notice; Cargo Declaration; and International Ship and Port Facility code (ISPS) notice... issuance of the foreign floating facility's International Safety Management certificate (ISM), if any, and...

  6. 75 FR 82055 - Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Offshore Massachusetts...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... Island and BOEMRE/Massachusetts Renewable Energy Task Forces in moving forward with renewable energy... of Gay Head (Aquinnah), the Mashpee Wampanoag Tribe, and representatives from the towns of Tisbury... interest invalid. In that case, BOEMRE would not move forward with your indication of interest submitted in...

  7. 26 CFR 301.9001 - Statutory provisions; Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act Amendments of 1978.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... that such limitation shall be increased to the extent necessary to permit any moneys recovered or... meet potential obligations of the Fund. (2) The Secretary of the Treasury may invest any excess in the... interest on, and the proceeds from the sale of, any obligations held in the Fund shall be deposited in and...

  8. 77 FR 19321 - Geological and Geophysical Exploration on the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf (OCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Geological and Geophysical... Statement (PEIS) to evaluate potential environmental effects of multiple Geological and Geophysical (G&G... limited to, seismic surveys, sidescan-sonar surveys, electromagnetic surveys, geological and geochemical...

  9. Heavy minerals from the outer south-west continental shelf of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gujar, A.R.; Mislankar, P.G.; Wagle, B.G.

    stream_size 8 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Giornale_Geol_52_91.pdf.txt stream_source_info Giornale_Geol_52_91.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  10. 77 FR 27480 - Outer Continental Shelf Scientific Committee; Announcement of Plenary Session

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-10

    ... data being produced to meet BOEM's scientific information needs for decision making and may recommend.../ecology, physical sciences, and social sciences) to review the specific research plans of BOEM's regional... Committee business. [[Page 27481

  11. 75 FR 52546 - Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement Outer Continental Shelf (OCS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-26

    ... through the Director of the BOEM. The SC will review the relevance of the research and data being produced..., September 15, the Committee will meet in discipline breakout sessions (i.e., biology/ecology, physical... business. The meetings are open to the public. Approximately 30 visitors can be accommodated on a first...

  12. 76 FR 23331 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Scientific Committee (SC); Announcement of Plenary Session

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-26

    ... and data being produced to meet BOEMRE scientific information needs for decision making and may...., biology/ecology, physical sciences, and social sciences) to review the specific studies plans of the... continue with Committee business. The meetings are open to the public. Approximately 40 visitors can be...

  13. 78 FR 25100 - Outer Continental Shelf Scientific Committee; Announcement of Plenary Session

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-29

    ... data being produced to meet BOEM's scientific information needs for decision making and may recommend.... Discipline breakout groups (i.e., biology/ecology, physical sciences, and social sciences) will meet from 1... Committee business will be discussed from 3:30 p.m. to 4:30 p.m. The meetings are open to the public...

  14. 77 FR 5560 - Commercial Wind Lease Issuance and Site Assessment Activities on the Atlantic Outer Continental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    ....gov/Renewable-Energy-Program/Smart-from-the-Start/Index.aspx . Authority: This NOA of an EA and FONSI... Interior Ken Salazar announced the ``Smart from the Start'' renewable energy initiative to accelerate the... additional opportunities for public involvement pursuant to NEPA and the White House Council on Environmental...

  15. 76 FR 70156 - Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Study (PEIS) for Proposed 5-Year Outer Continental Shelf...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ..., or both from the public record, and we will honor such a request to the extent allowable by law. If..., TX 77032; December 7, 2011, Mobile, AL at the Renaissance Mobile Riverview Plaza Hotel, 64 South... Airport Hotel, 2150 Veterans Memorial Boulevard, Kenner, LA 70062. In Washington, DC, the hearing will be...

  16. 78 FR 5836 - Adjustment of Service Fees for Outer Continental Shelf Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ... Energy Management, Economics Division, 381 Elden Street, HM 3310, Herndon, Virginia 20170. FOR FURTHER... is calculated as the percentage difference between the measure of the level of prices for a...

  17. Ecological risk assessment and natural resource management on the Outer Continental Shelf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goeke, G.; Roscigno, P.F.

    1993-01-01

    Since 1988 beginning with the Drilling Impact Assessment Task Force, Minerals Management Service (MMS) has used formal risk analysis methodologies in the Gulf of Mexico to determine the potential impact of gas and oil activities son natural resources. In the process, a list of assumptions, critical for the assessment of potential impacts, was generated. These assumptions were incorporated into a scenario where several levels of certainty described the hazards in terms of expected frequency of effects and the seriousness of the consequences. A risk matrix was generated from these assumptions and was used to generate a risk assessment for the various impact-producing factors on ecological endpoints. Recommendations for risk management were also provided so that decision-makers were given insight into acceptable/unacceptable levels of risk. This process insured that those issues with the highest potential impact were given the highest priority in terms of resources. One of the most important aspect so f the development of a risk assessment was determining the frequency of effects of the impact-producing factors. A paucity of data concerning the effects of impact-producing factors on estuarine and marine ecosystems remains the primary limiting factor in the development of ecological risk assessments. Presented here is a broad outline of the risk assessment methodology using chemosynthetic communities found in the Gulf of Mexico as an example

  18. 77 FR 5830 - Commercial Wind Leasing and Site Assessment Activities on the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ... Areas (WEAs), and utilizes coordinated environmental studies, large-scale planning processes, and... proposal will be given full environmental review at that time. BOEM is seeking public input regarding the... characterization activities (i.e., geological and geophysical surveys and core samples), a lessee must submit the...

  19. 77 FR 4056 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Scientific Committee (SC); Announcement of Plenary Session

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-26

    ... Hotel in Reston, Virginia. The meeting will serve as a venue to introduce the newest members of the.... ADDRESSES: Reston Sheraton Hotel, 11810 Sunrise Valley Drive Reston, Virginia, 20191, telephone (703) 620... Budget's Circular A-63, Revised. Dated: January 23, 2012. Alan Thornhill, Chief Environmental Officer...

  20. 75 FR 3423 - Outer Continental Shelf Air Regulations Consistency Update for Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-21

    ... response, using the definition of burden provided in 44 U.S.C. 3502(2). List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 55 Environmental protection, Administrative practice and procedures, Air pollution control, Hydrocarbons...

  1. 76 FR 29156 - Outer Continental Shelf Air Regulations Consistency Update for California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-20

    ... response, using the definition of burden provided in 44 U.S.C. 3502(2). The Congressional Review Act, 5 U.S... procedures, Air pollution control, Hydrocarbons, Incorporation by reference, Intergovernmental relations... OCS Sources: Rule 102 Definitions (Adopted 09/20/10). Rule 103 Severability (Adopted 10/23/78). Rule...

  2. 75 FR 3617 - Outer Continental Shelf Air Regulations Update To Include New Jersey State Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-22

    ... control requirements N.J.A.C. 7:27-16.18. Leak detection and repair N.J.A.C. 7:27-16.19. Application of cutback and emulsified asphalts N.J.A.C. 7:27-16.21. Natural gas pipelines N.J.A.C. 7:27-16.22. Emission... compound leaks N.J.A.C. 7:27B-3.15. Procedures for the direct detection of fugitive volatile organic...

  3. 76 FR 79206 - Commercial Renewable Energy Transmission on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Offshore Mid...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ...-circuit, high-voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission line that would collect power generated by wind...-voltage alternating current into HVDC using voltage sourced converters. Each offshore converter platform... transmission grid at up to seven locations where AWC terrestrial converter stations would convert the HVDC...

  4. Outer continental shelf oil and gas activities. Pacific update: August 1987 - November 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slitor, Douglas L.; Wiese, Jeffrey D.; Karpas, Robert M.

    1990-01-01

    This Pacific Update focuses on the geology and petroleum potential of the Central California and Washington-Oregon OCS Planning Areas. This report discusses the following topics: offshore oil and gas resources of the Pacific region; project-specific developments and status; and magnitude and timing of offshore developments. (CBS)

  5. 77 FR 61308 - Outer Continental Shelf Air Regulations; Consistency Update for California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-09

    ... Specific Source Standards (Adopted 07/06/76) Rule 74.1 Abrasive Blasting (Adopted 11/12/91) Rule 74.2... Oil Field Drilling Operations (Adopted 01/08/91) Rule 74.20 Adhesives and Sealants (Adopted 01/11/05...

  6. 78 FR 14917 - Outer Continental Shelf Air Regulations Consistency Update for California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ...) (Adopted 09/9/08) Rule 74 Specific Source Standards (Adopted 07/06/76) Rule 74.1 Abrasive Blasting (Adopted... (Adopted 06/13/00) Rule 74.16 Oil Field Drilling Operations (Adopted 01/08/91) Rule 74.20 Adhesives and...

  7. 78 FR 27427 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Geological and Geophysical Exploration Activities in the Gulf of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    ... timeframe. The activities considered within this PEIS are associated with GOM OCS oil and gas exploration... and NMFS as the PEIS is developed. Background: A variety of G&G techniques are used to characterize... surveys are conducted to: (1) Obtain data for hydrocarbon exploration and production; (2) aid in siting...

  8. Socioeconomic impacts of outer continental shelf oil and gas development; a bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattison, Malka L.

    1977-01-01

    The bibliography lists reports which are concerned primarily with the socioeconomic impacts of OCS oil and gas development or which, although not primarily concerned with such impacts, include sections that contain significant discussion of them. Several of the cited reports do not address socioeconomic issues directly, but have been included because of their value in providing a broad picture of OCS oil and gas development and the associated terminology and/or techical aspects. (Sinha - OEIS)

  9. 75 FR 55277 - Outer Continental Shelf Air Regulations; Consistency Update for California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-10

    ... of Minor Violation and Guidelines for Issuance of Notice to Comply (Adopted 11/13/98) Rule 118...) Rule 473 Disposal of Solid and Liquid Wastes (Adopted 05/07/76) Rule 474 Fuel Burning Equipment-Oxides...

  10. 76 FR 79705 - Information Collection Activities: Operations in the Outer Continental Shelf for Minerals Other...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-22

    ...-0005 then click search. Follow the instructions to submit public comments and view all related... delineation plan, including environmental 40. (e)(2);. information, contingency plan, monitoring program, and...); 13(d), Submit testing delineation plan, including 40. (e)(2);. environmental information, contingency...

  11. Ooid turbidites from the Central Western continental margin of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, P.S.

    Gravity displaced debris flows/turbidites have been observed in five box cores collected between water depths of 649 and 3,627 m from the Central Western continental margin of India. Studies on grain size, carbonate content, and coarse fraction...

  12. Modern sedimentary processes along the Doce river adjacent continental shelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria da Silva Quaresma

    Full Text Available In areas of the continental shelf where sediment supply is greater than the sediment dispersion capacity, an extensive terrigenous deposits and consequently submerged deltas can be formed. The Eastern Brazilian shelf is characterized by the occurrence of river feed deltas in between starving coasts. Herein, modern sedimentary processes acting along the Doce river adjacent continental shelf are investigated. The main objective was to understand the shelf sediment distribution, recognizing distinct sedimentary patterns and the major influence of river sediment discharge in the formation of shelf deposits. The study used 98 surficial samples that were analyzed for grain size, composition and bulk density. Results revealed 3 distinct sectors: south - dominated by mud fraction with a recent deposition from riverine input until 30 m deep and from this depth bioclastic sands dominate; central north - sand mud dominated, been recognized as a bypass zone of resuspended sediment during high energy events; and north - relict sands with high carbonate content. The modern sedimentation processes along the Doce river continental shelf is dominated by distinct sedimentary regimes, showing a strong fluvial influence associated with wave/wind induced sediment dispersion and a carbonate regime along the outer shelf. These regimes seem to be controlled by the distance from the river mouth and bathymetric gradients.

  13. Gravity anomalies over a segment of Pratap ridge and adjoining shelf margin basin, western continental margin of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Subrahmanyam, V.; Rao, D.G.; Ramprasad, T.; KameshRaju, K.A.; Rao, M.G.

    Bathymetric and gravity data totalling 2000 line km on the continental margin off Goa and Mulki, west of India have been studied. The free-air gravity anomalies vary between -60 to 25 mgals with prominent NNW-SSE trends in the outer shelf region...

  14. The outer Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henery, D. [Shell Internationale Petroleum Maatschappij BV, Den Haag (Netherlands)

    1996-12-31

    This paper deals with the offshore activity in the Gulf of Mexico. Up to the end of 1995 there have been close to 300 exploratory wells drilled in water depths beyond 450 metres, and over 50 development wells. In addition approximately 1.500 leases have been awarded in the deep water. Themes discussed are deep water discoveries, average well rates, and key learnings points

  15. Mining of phosphorite resources from the Indian continental shelf will help food production

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Qasim, S.Z.; Nair, R.R.

    of phosphorite deposits would depend on several technical and economic factors Phosphorites occur in water depths upto 200 meters of the western continental shelf of India These are the areas associated with upwelling The relationship between phosphorite deposits...

  16. Outer grid strap protruding spring repair apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widener, W.H.

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes a nuclear fuel assembly grid spring repair apparatus for repairing a spring formed on an outer strap of a fuel assembly grid and having a portion protruding outwardly beyond the strap, the apparatus comprising: (a) a support frame defining an opening and having means defining a guide channel extending along the opening in a first direction; (b) means mounted on the frame and being adjustable for attaching the frame to the outer strap of the support grid so that the frame opening is aligned with the outwardly protruding spring on the outer strap; (c) an outer slide having a passageway defined therethrough and being mounted in the guide channel for reciprocable movement along the frame opening in the first direction for aligning the passageway with the outwardly protruding portion of the spring on the outer strap. The outer slide also has means defining a guide way extending along the passageway in a second direction generally orthogonal to the first direction; (d) a spring reset mechanism being operable for resetting the protruding spring to a nonprotruding position relative to the outer strap when the mechanism is aligned with the protruding portion of the spring; and (e) an inner slide supporting the spring reset mechanism and being mounted to the guide way for reciprocable movement along the passageway of the outer slide in the second direction for aligning the spring reset mechanism with the protruding portion of the spring on the outer strap

  17. Biological, physical and chemical properties at the Subtropical Shelf Front Zone in the SW Atlantic Continental Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muelbert, José H.; Acha, Marcelo; Mianzan, Hermes; Guerrero, Raúl; Reta, Raúl; Braga, Elisabete S.; Garcia, Virginia M. T.; Berasategui, Alejandro; Gomez-Erache, Mónica; Ramírez, Fernando

    2008-07-01

    The physical aspects of the Subtropical Shelf Front (STSF) for the Southwest Atlantic Continental Shelf were previously described. However, only scarce data on the biology of the front is available in the literature. The main goal of this paper is to describe the physical, chemical and biological properties of the STSF found in winter 2003 and summer 2004. A cross-section was established at the historically determined location of the STSF. Nine stations were sampled in winter and seven in summer. Each section included a series of conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) stations where water samples from selected depths were filtered for nutrient determination. Surface samples were taken for chlorophyll a (Chl- a) determination and plankton net tows carried out above and below the pycnocline. Results revealed that winter was marked by an inner-shelf salinity front and that the STSF was located on the mid-shelf. The low salinity waters in the inner-shelf indicated a strong influence of freshwater, with high silicate (72 μM), suspended matter (45 mg l -1), phosphate (2.70 μM) and low nitrate (1.0 μM) levels. Total dissolved nitrogen was relatively high (22.98 μM), probably due to the elevated levels of organic compound contribution close to the continental margin. Surface Chl -a concentration decreased from coastal well-mixed waters, where values up to 8.0 mg m -3 were registered, to offshore waters. Towards the open ocean, high subsurface nutrients values were observed, probably associated to South Atlantic Central Waters (SACW). Zooplankton and ichthyoplankton abundance followed the same trend; three different groups associated to the inner-, mid- and outer-shelf region were identified. During summer, diluted waters extended over the shelf to join the STSF in the upper layer; the concentration of inorganic nutrients decreased in shallow waters; however, high values were observed between 40 and 60 m and in deep offshore waters. Surface Chl -a ranged 0.07-1.5 mg m -3

  18. Late Neogene foraminifera from the northern Namibian continental shelf and the transition to the Benguela Upwelling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergh, Eugene W.; Compton, John S.; Frenzel, Peter

    2018-05-01

    Middle Miocene to Plio-Pleistocene foraminifera provide insights into the palaeoenvironment on the northern Namibian continental shelf located at the far northern end of the present-day Benguela Upwelling System (BUS). Biostratigraphy and Strontium Isotope Stratigraphy (SIS) of the recovered basal olive-green mud unit indicate an age of 16 to 14 Ma. A sharp, erosional contact separates the basal mud from the overlying Plio-Pleistocene gravelly pelletal phosphorite sands. Grain size data, P/B ratios and benthic diversity indices indicate a change between the middle Miocene and overlying Plio-Pleistocene palaeoenvironments linked to the timing and conditions associated with the initiation of the BUS. The different lithological units and microfossil assemblages in the olive-green mud unit and the overlying pelletal phosphorite units support the late Miocene initiation of the BUS and the northwards migration of the Angola-Benguela Front. Planktic foraminifera indicate a shift from warmer surface water conditions to cooler conditions during the initiation of the BUS. Benthic palaeobathymetric ranges and P/B ratios are consistent with outer shelf water depths suggesting a deeper palaeoenvironment during the Mid-Miocene Climatic Optimum (MMCO) than today. Benthic foraminifera in the middle Miocene are dominated by large (>1 mm) taxa and adapted to oligotrophic environments before the initiation of the BUS. The benthic assemblage composition indicates that bottom water conditions changed to eutrophic conditions during the Plio-Pleistocene under intensified upwelling conditions.

  19. Western Ross Sea continental slope gravity currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Arnold L.; Orsi, Alejandro H.; Muench, Robin; Huber, Bruce A.; Zambianchi, Enrico; Visbeck, Martin

    2009-06-01

    Antarctic Bottom Water of the world ocean is derived from dense Shelf Water that is carried downslope by gravity currents at specific sites along the Antarctic margins. Data gathered by the AnSlope and CLIMA programs reveal the presence of energetic gravity currents that are formed over the western continental slope of the Ross Sea when High Salinity Shelf Water exits the shelf through Drygalski Trough. Joides Trough, immediately to the east, offers an additional escape route for less saline Shelf Water, while the Glomar Challenger Trough still farther east is a major pathway for export of the once supercooled low-salinity Ice Shelf Water that forms under the Ross Ice Shelf. The Drygalski Trough gravity currents increase in thickness from ˜100 to ˜400 m on proceeding downslope from ˜600 m (the shelf break) to 1200 m (upper slope) sea floor depth, while turning sharply to the west in response to the Coriolis force during their descent. The mean current pathway trends ˜35° downslope from isobaths. Benthic-layer current and thickness are correlated with the bottom water salinity, which exerts the primary control over the benthic-layer density. A 1-year time series of bottom-water current and hydrographic properties obtained on the slope near the 1000 m isobath indicates episodic pulses of Shelf Water export through Drygalski Trough. These cold (34.75) pulses correlate with strong downslope bottom flow. Extreme examples occurred during austral summer/fall 2003, comprising concentrated High Salinity Shelf Water (-1.9 °C; 34.79) and approaching 1.5 m s -1 at descent angles as large as ˜60° relative to the isobaths. Such events were most common during November-May, consistent with a northward shift in position of the dense Shelf Water during austral summer. The coldest, saltiest bottom water was measured from mid-April to mid-May 2003. The summer/fall export of High Salinity Shelf Water observed in 2004 was less than that seen in 2003. This difference, if real

  20. Improved method of measurement for outer leak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Guang

    2012-01-01

    Pneumatic pipeline is installed for the airborne radioactivity measurement equipment, air tightness and outer leak rate are essential for the testing of the characteristics, both in the national criteria and ISO standards, an improved practical method is available for the measurement of the outer air leak rate based on the engineering experiences for the equipment acceptance and testing procedure. (authors)

  1. Mean Lagrangian drift in continental shelf waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drivdal, M.; Weber, J. E. H.

    2012-04-01

    The time- and depth-averaged mean drift induced by barotropic continental shelf waves (CSW's) is studied theoretically for idealized shelf topography by calculating the mean volume fluxes to second order in wave amplitude. The waves suffer weak spatial damping due to bottom friction, which leads to radiation stress forcing of the mean fluxes. In terms of the total wave energy density E¯ over the shelf region, the radiation stress tensor component S¯11 for CSW's is found to be different from that of shallow water surface waves in a non-rotating ocean. For CSW's, the ratio ¯S11/¯E depends strongly on the wave number. The mean Lagrangian flow forced by the radiation stress can be subdivided into a Stokes drift and a mean Eulerian drift current. The magnitude of the latter depends on the ratio between the radiation stress and the bottom stress acting on the mean flow. When the effect of bottom friction acts equally strong on the waves and the mean current, calculations for short CSW's show that the Stokes drift and the friction-dependent wave-induced mean Eulerian current varies approximately in anti-phase over the shelf, and that the latter is numerically the largest. For long CSW's they are approximately in phase. In both cases the mean Lagrangian current, which is responsible for the net particle drift, has its largest numerical value at the coast on the shallow part of the shelf. Enhancing the effect of bottom friction on the Eulerian mean flow, results in a general current speed reduction, as well as a change in spatial structure for long waves. Applying realistic physical parameters for the continental shelf west of Norway, calculations yield along-shelf mean drift velocities for short CSW's that may be important for the transport of biological material, neutral tracers, and underwater plumes of dissolved oil from deep water drilling accidents.

  2. Continental growth and mantle hydration as intertwined feedback cycles in the thermal evolution of Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höning, Dennis; Spohn, Tilman

    2016-06-01

    A model of Earth's continental coverage and mantle water budget is discussed along with its thermal evolution. The model links a thermal evolution model based on parameterized mantle convection with a model of a generic subduction zone that includes the oceanic crust and a sedimentary layer as carriers of water. Part of the subducted water is used to produce continental crust while the remainder is subducted into the mantle. The total length of the subduction zones is calculated from the total surface area of continental crust assuming randomly distributed continents. The mantle viscosity is dependent of temperature and the water concentration. Sediments are generated by continental crust erosion, and water outgassing at mid-oceanic ridges closes the water cycle. We discuss the strongly coupled, non-linear model using a phase plane defined by the continental coverage and mantle water concentration. Fixed points are found in the phase plane at which the rates of change of both variables are zero. These fixed points evolve with time, but in many cases, three fixed points emerge of which two are stable and an intermediate point is unstable with respect to continental coverage. With initial conditions from a Monte-Carlo scheme we calculate evolution paths in the phase plane and find a large spread of final states that all have a mostly balanced water budget. The present day observed 40% continental surface coverage is found near the unstable fixed point. Our evolution model suggests that Earth's continental coverage formed early and has been stable for at least 1.5 Gyr. The effect of mantle water regassing (and mantle viscosity depending on water concentration) is found to lower the present day mantle temperature by about 120 K, but the present day mantle viscosity is affected little. The water cycle thus complements the well-known thermostat effect of viscosity and mantle temperature. Our results further suggest that the biosphere could impact the feedback cycles by

  3. A relatively reduced Hadean continental crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaozhi; Gaillard, Fabrice; Scaillet, Bruno

    2014-05-01

    processes such as metamorphism, weathering and erosion. Thus, zircons in granites of shallow crust may record the chemical/isotopic composition of the deep crust that is otherwise inaccessible, and offer robust records of the magmatic and crust-forming events preserved in the continental crust. In fact, due to the absence of suitable rock records (in particular for periods older than ~4.0 Ga), studies in recent years concerning the nature, composition, growth and evolution of the continental crust, and especially the Hadean crust, have heavily relied on inherited/detrital zircons. Natural igneous zircons incorporate rare-earth elements (REE) and other trace elements in their structure at concentrations controlled by the temperature, pressure, fO2 and composition of their crystallization environment. Petrological observations and recent experiments have shown that the concentration of Ce relative to other REE in igneous zircons can be used to constrain the fO2 during their growth. By combining available trace-elements data of igneous zircons of crustal origin, we show that the Hadean continental crust was significantly more reduced than its modern counterpart and experienced progressive oxidation till ~3.6 billions years ago. We suggest that the increase in the oxidation state of the Hadean continental crust is related to the progressive decline in the intensity of meteorite impacts during the late veneer. Impacts of carbon- and hydrogen-rich materials during the formation of Hadean granitic crust must have favoured strongly reduced magmatism. The conjunction of cold, wet and reduced granitic magmatism during the Hadean implies the degassing of methane and water. When impacts ended, magma produced by normal decompression melting of the mantle imparted more oxidizing conditions to erupted lavas and the related crust.

  4. Incorporation of squalene into rod outer segments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, R.K.; Fliesler, S.J.

    1990-01-01

    We have reported previously that squalene is the major radiolabeled nonsaponifiable lipid product derived from [ 3 H]acetate in short term incubations of frog retinas. In the present study, we demonstrate that newly synthesized squalene is incorporated into rod outer segments under similar in vitro conditions. We show further that squalene is an endogenous constituent of frog rod outer segment membranes; its concentration is approximately 9.5 nmol/mumol of phospholipid or about 9% of the level of cholesterol. Pulse-chase experiments with radiolabeled precursors revealed no metabolism of outer segment squalene to sterols in up to 20 h of chase. Taken together with our previous absolute rate studies, these results suggest that most, if not all, of the squalene synthesized by the frog retina is transported to rod outer segments. Synthesis of protein is not required for squalene transport since puromycin had no effect on squalene incorporation into outer segments. Conversely, inhibition of isoprenoid synthesis with mevinolin had no effect on the incorporation of opsin into the outer segment. These latter results support the conclusion that the de novo synthesis and subsequent intracellular trafficking of opsin and isoprenoid lipids destined for the outer segment occur via independent mechanisms

  5. Upscaling the impact of convective overshooting (COV) through BRAMS: a continental and wet-season scale study of the water vapour (WV) budget in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behera, Abhinna; Rivière, Emmanuel; Marécal, Virginie; Rysman, Jean-François; Claud, Chantal; Burgalat, Jérémie

    2017-04-01

    The stratospheric water vapour (WV) has a conceding impact on the radiative and chemical budget of Earth's atmosphere. The convective overshooting (COV) at the tropics is well admitted for playing a role in transporting directly WV to the stratosphere. Nonetheless, its impact on the lower stratosphere is yet to be determined at global scale, as the satellite and other air-borne measurements are not of having fine enough resolution to quantify this impact at large scale. Therefore, efforts have been made to quantify the influence of COV over the WV budget in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) through modelling. Our approach is to build two synthetic tropical wet-seasons; where one would be having only deep convection (DC) but no COV at all, and the second one would be having the COV, and in both cases the WV budget in the TTL would be estimated. Before that, a French-Brazilian TRO-pico campaign was carried out at Bauru, Brazil in order to understand the influence of COV on the WV budget in the TTL. The radio-sounding, and the small balloon-borne WV measurements from the campaign are being utilized to validate the model simulation. Brazilian version of Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (BRAMS) is used with a single grid system to simulate a WV variability in a wet-season. Grell's convective parameterization with ensemble closure, microphysics with double moment scheme and 7 types of hydrometeors are incorporated to simulate the WV variability for a wet-season at the tropics. The grid size of simulation is chosen to be 20 km x 20 km horizontally and from surface to 30 km altitude, so that there cannot be COV at all, only DC due to such a relatively coarse resolution. The European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) operational analyses data are used every 6 hours for grid initialization and boundary conditions, and grid center nudging. The simulation is carried out for a full wet-season (Nov 2012 - Mar 2013) at Brazilian scale, so that it would

  6. Whither the UK Continental Shelf?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemp, A.G.

    1999-01-01

    The development of the oil and gas fields on the United Kingdom continental shelf has been carried out with remarkable success. However, low oil prices now threaten fresh investment and make it likely that both oil and gas output will start to fall in about 2001. The impact of a number of different price scenarios on further development is assessed. It is concluded that continuing technological improvements and the provision of adequate incentives by government should ensure a long productive future for the province. (UK)

  7. Small RNAs controlling outer membrane porins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentin-Hansen, Poul; Johansen, Jesper; Rasmussen, Anders A

    2007-01-01

    are key regulators of environmental stress. Recent work has revealed an intimate interplay between small RNA regulation of outer membrane proteins and the stress-induced sigmaE-signalling system, which has an essential role in the maintenance of the integrity of the outer membrane.......Gene regulation by small non-coding RNAs has been recognized as an important post-transcriptional regulatory mechanism for several years. In Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella, these RNAs control stress response and translation of outer membrane proteins and therefore...

  8. Continental smokers couple mantle degassing and distinctive microbiology within continents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossey, Laura J.; Karlstrom, Karl E.; Schmandt, Brandon; Crow, Ryan R.; Colman, Daniel R.; Cron, Brandi; Takacs-Vesbach, Cristina D.; Dahm, Clifford N.; Northup, Diana E.; Hilton, David R.; Ricketts, Jason W.; Lowry, Anthony R.

    2016-02-01

    The discovery of oceanic black (and white) smokers revolutionized our understanding of mid-ocean ridges and led to the recognition of new organisms and ecosystems. Continental smokers, defined here to include a broad range of carbonic springs, hot springs, and fumaroles that vent mantle-derived fluids in continental settings, exhibit many of the same processes of heat and mass transfer and ecosystem niche differentiation. Helium isotope (3He/4He) analyses indicate that widespread mantle degassing is taking place in the western U.S.A., and that variations in mantle helium values correlate best with low seismic-velocity domains in the mantle and lateral contrasts in mantle velocity rather than crustal parameters such as GPS, proximity to volcanoes, crustal velocity, or composition. Microbial community analyses indicate that these springs can host novel microorganisms. A targeted analysis of four springs in New Mexico yield the first published occurrence of chemolithoautotrophic Zetaproteobacteria in a continental setting. These observations lead to two linked hypotheses: that mantle-derived volatiles transit through conduits in extending continental lithosphere preferentially above and at the edges of mantle low velocity domains. High CO2 and other constituents ultimately derived from mantle volatiles drive water-rock interactions and heterogeneous fluid mixing that help structure diverse and distinctive microbial communities.

  9. Thermal models pertaining to continental growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, P.; Ashwal, L.

    1988-01-01

    Thermal models are important to understanding continental growth as the genesis, stabilization, and possible recycling of continental crust are closely related to the tectonic processes of the earth which are driven primarily by heat. The thermal energy budget of the earth was slowly decreasing since core formation, and thus the energy driving the terrestrial tectonic engine was decreasing. This fundamental observation was used to develop a logic tree defining the options for continental growth throughout earth history

  10. Progress towards Continental River Dynamics modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Cheng-Wei; Zheng, Xing; Liu, Frank; Maidment, Daivd; Hodges, Ben

    2017-04-01

    The high-resolution National Water Model (NWM), launched by U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) in August 2016, has shown it is possible to provide real-time flow prediction in rivers and streams across the entire continental United States. The next step for continental-scale modeling is moving from reduced physics (e.g. Muskingum-Cunge) to full dynamic modeling with the Saint-Venant equations. The Simulation Program for River Networks (SPRNT) provides a computational approach for the Saint-Venant equations, but obtaining sufficient channel bathymetric data and hydraulic roughness is seen as a critical challenge. However, recent work has shown the Height Above Nearest Drainage (HAND) method can be applied with the National Elevation Dataset (NED) to provide automated estimation of effective channel bathymetry suitable for large-scale hydraulic simulations. The present work examines the use of SPRNT with the National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) and HAND-derived bathymetry for automated generation of rating curves that can be compared to existing data. The approach can, in theory, be applied to every stream reach in the NHD and thus provide flood guidance where none is available. To test this idea we generated 2000+ rating curves in two catchments in Texas and Alabama (USA). Field data from the USGS and flood records from an Austin, Texas flood in May 2015 were used as validation. Large-scale implementation of this idea requires addressing several critical difficulties associated with numerical instabilities, including ill-posed boundary conditions generated in automated model linkages and inconsistencies in the river geometry. A key to future progress is identifying efficient approaches to isolate numerical instability contributors in a large time-space varying solution. This research was supported in part by the National Science Foundation under grant number CCF-1331610.

  11. Mg/Ca of Continental Ostracode Shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, E.; Forester, R. M.; Marco-Barba, J.; Mezquita, F.

    2007-12-01

    Marine ionic chemistry is thought to remain constant. This, together with the belief that marine calcifiers partition Mg/Ca in a systematic manner as functions of temperature (and Mg/Ca) of water forms the basis of the Mg/Ca thermometer. In continental settings both of these assumptions are usually not true. Continental waters contain a wide variety of solutes in absolute and relative ion concentrations. Hence, waters with identical Mg/Ca may have very different concentrations of Mg and Ca and very different anions. Here we use two examples to focus on the effects of ion chemistry on Mg/Ca partitioning in continental ostracode shells and we ignore the complexities of solute evolution, which can change Mg/Ca over timescales of minutes to millennia. Palacios-Fest and Dettman (2001) conducted a monthly study of ,Cypridopsis vidua at El Yeso Lake in Sonora, Mexico. They established a relation between temperature and average shell Mg/Ca using regression analyses on averaged data. When their Mg/Ca-temperature relation is applied to monthly ,C. vidua data from Page Pond near Cleveland, Ohio, water temperatures of -8 to -1°C are obtained. The observed Mg/Ca ranges for El Yeso Lake (0.31 to 0.46) and Page Pond (0.33 to 0.46) are similar, as are their specific conductivities (700 to 850μS for El Yeso Lake; 400 to 600μS for Page Pond). However, [Ca] is 140-260 mg/L for El Yeso, but only 70-90 mg/L for Page Pond. Page Pond data, in fact, shows a good temperature shell Mg/Ca relation for .C. vidua, but the relation is different from that at El Yeso. Hence, shell Mg/Ca is a multi-valued, family of curves function of temperature and Mg/Ca of water that depends on the [Mg] and [Ca] values in water and perhaps other factors. Our second example comes from sites near Valencia, Spain and involves shell data for ,Cyprideis torosa, an estuarine ostracode that is tolerant of a wide range of salinity and can live in continental waters as long as the carbonate alkalinity to Ca ratio is

  12. Using continental land loading for routine data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, L.

    2013-12-01

    The availability of the hydrological models that are updated regularly made it feasible to apply for analysis of space geodesy data a reduction for 3D displacements caused by the changes in the continental water storage on a routine basis, as it is done for a long time with ocean loading and atmospheric pressure loading. The service of the continental storage water loading was launched in 2013. The service utilizes the outputs of several hydrological models and provides the 3D time series in the form of global maps with 1-3 hour time resolution, time series for the set of ~1000 space geodesy sites, and an on-demand web-based application that allows a user to compute and download the time series of displacements for user-specified sites. The design of such a service and experience of its running are summarized. The loading series were validated by processing all available VLBI data. Results of validation are presented. Impact of using continental water storage for data reduction on estimates of other parameters, such as station velocities, is discussed.

  13. Considerations about the recommendations of the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf on the Amazon fan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Fernandes More

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2004, Brazil submitted to the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf (CLCS a Submission for the outer limit of the Brazilian continental shelf for its extension beyond the limits of 200 nautical miles. In 2007, the CLCS presented its recommendations, however it did not recommend four areas proposed by Brazil, the Amazon Fan among them. The objective of this study is to present the main legal and technical aspects of the controversy about the Amazon Fan, in order to evaluate some alternatives for a future submission, new or revised.

  14. Monthly hydroclimatology of the continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Thomas; Devineni, Naresh; Sankarasubramanian, A.

    2018-04-01

    Physical/semi-empirical models that do not require any calibration are of paramount need for estimating hydrological fluxes for ungauged sites. We develop semi-empirical models for estimating the mean and variance of the monthly streamflow based on Taylor Series approximation of a lumped physically based water balance model. The proposed models require mean and variance of monthly precipitation and potential evapotranspiration, co-variability of precipitation and potential evapotranspiration and regionally calibrated catchment retention sensitivity, atmospheric moisture uptake sensitivity, groundwater-partitioning factor, and the maximum soil moisture holding capacity parameters. Estimates of mean and variance of monthly streamflow using the semi-empirical equations are compared with the observed estimates for 1373 catchments in the continental United States. Analyses show that the proposed models explain the spatial variability in monthly moments for basins in lower elevations. A regionalization of parameters for each water resources region show good agreement between observed moments and model estimated moments during January, February, March and April for mean and all months except May and June for variance. Thus, the proposed relationships could be employed for understanding and estimating the monthly hydroclimatology of ungauged basins using regional parameters.

  15. Considering bioactivity in modelling continental growth and the Earth's evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höning, D.; Spohn, T.

    2013-09-01

    The complexity of planetary evolution increases with the number of interacting reservoirs. On Earth, even the biosphere is speculated to interact with the interior. It has been argued (e.g., Rosing et al. 2006; Sleep et al, 2012) that the formation of continents could be a consequence of bioactivity harvesting solar energy through photosynthesis to help build the continents and that the mantle should carry a chemical biosignature. Through plate tectonics, the surface biosphere can impact deep subduction zone processes and the interior of the Earth. Subducted sediments are particularly important, because they influence the Earth's interior in several ways, and in turn are strongly influenced by the Earth's biosphere. In our model, we use the assumption that a thick sedimentary layer of low permeability on top of the subducting oceanic crust, caused by a biologically enhanced weathering rate, can suppress shallow dewatering. This in turn leads to greater vailability of water in the source region of andesitic partial melt, resulting in an enhanced rate of continental production and regassing rate into the mantle. Our model includes (i) mantle convection, (ii) continental erosion and production, and (iii) mantle water degassing at mid-ocean ridges and regassing at subduction zones. The mantle viscosity of our model depends on (i) the mantle water concentration and (ii) the mantle temperature, whose time dependency is given by radioactive decay of isotopes in the Earth's mantle. Boundary layer theory yields the speed of convection and the water outgassing rate of the Earth's mantle. Our results indicate that present day values of continental surface area and water content of the Earth's mantle represent an attractor in a phase plane spanned by both parameters. We show that the biologic enhancement of the continental erosion rate is important for the system to reach this fixed point. An abiotic Earth tends to reach an alternative stable fixed point with a smaller

  16. A Facies Model for Temperate Continental Glaciers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Gail Mowry

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the presence and dynamics of continental glaciers in the domination of the physical processes of erosion and deposition in the mid-latitudes during the Pleistocene period. Describes the use of a sedimentary facies model as a guide to recognizing ancient temperate continental glacial deposits. (TW)

  17. How Continental Bank outsourced its "crown jewels.".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, R L

    1993-01-01

    No industry relies more on information than banking does, yet Continental, one of America's largest banks, outsources its information technology. Why? Because that's the best way to service the customers that form the core of the bank's business, says vice chairman Dick Huber. In the late 1970s and early 1980s, Continental participated heavily with Penn Square Bank in energy investments. When falling energy prices burst Penn Square's bubble in 1982, Continental was stuck with more than $1 billion in bad loans. Eight years later when Dick Huber came on board, Continental was working hard to restore its once solid reputation. Executives had made many tough decisions already, altering the bank's focus from retail to business banking and laying off thousands of employees. Yet management still needed to cut costs and improve services to stay afloat. Regulators, investors, and analysts were watching every step. Continental executives, eager to focus on the bank's core mission of serving business customers, decided to outsource one after another in-house service--from cafeteria services to information technology. While conventional wisdom holds that banks must retain complete internal control of IT, Continental bucked this argument when it entered into a ten-year, multimillion-dollar contract with Integrated Systems Solutions Corporation. Continental is already reaping benefits from outsourcing IT. Most important, Continental staffers today focus on their true core competencies: intimate knowledge of customers' needs and relationships with customers.

  18. Oscillations of the Outer Boundary of the Outer Radiation Belt During Sawtooth Oscillations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Hun Kim

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available We report three sawtooth oscillation events observed at geosynchronous orbit where we find quasi-periodic (every 2-3 hours sudden flux increases followed by slow flux decreases at the energy levels of ˜50-400 keV. For these three sawtooth events, we have examined variations of the outer boundary of the outer radiation belt. In order to determine L values of the outer boundary, we have used data of relativistic electron flux observed by the SAMPEX satellite. We find that the outer boundary of the outer radiation belt oscillates periodically being consistent with sawtooth oscillation phases. Specifically, the outer boundary of the outer radiation belt expands (namely, the boundary L value increases following the sawtooth particle flux enhancement of each tooth, and then contracts (namely, the boundary L value decreases while the sawtooth flux decreases gradually until the next flux enhancement. On the other hand, it is repeatedly seen that the asymmetry of the magnetic field intensity between dayside and nightside decreases (increases due to the dipolarization (the stretching on the nightside as the sawtooth flux increases (decreases. This implies that the periodic magnetic field variations during the sawtooth oscillations are likely responsible for the expansion-contraction oscillations of the outer boundary of the outer radiation belt.

  19. Reproductive cycle and population structure of the deep-water shrimp Aristeus antillensis A. Milne Edwards & Bouvier, 1909 (Decapoda: Aristeidae on southeast Brazilian continental slope Ciclo reproductivo y estructura poblacional del camarón de aguas profundas Aristeus antillensis A. Milne Edwards & Bouvier, 1909 (Decapoda: Aristeidae en el talud continental del sureste de Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Ricardo Pezzuto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The "alistado shrimp" (Aristeus antillensis is one of the targets of the trawling fleet operating since 2002 along the continental slope of the Brazilian Economic Exclusive Zone between 700 and 800 m depth. Catches of the species occur mainly in two small fishing grounds located on the east coast of Espirito Santo State (19-22°S. This paper aimed to obtain the first biological data for this species along the Brazilian coast. A total of 13,797 individuals were sampled aboard fishing vessels by observers on almost all fishing hauls, corresponding to 10 to 20% of the total catch recorded in the period. Males and females are sexually mature at 25.4 and 40.2 mm carapace length, respectively, based on an analysis of the proportions of individuals with fused petasma (males and spermatophores in the thelycum (females. The proportion of impregnated females was higher than 80% year round, suggesting a continuous reproductive cycle, although preliminary in-formation on gonadal development points to possible seasonal reproduction. In general, mature females, which attain larger sizes than males, domínate the catches (M:F = 0.12:1. However, populational groups including males and juveniles of both sexes occupy the fishing grounds in different periods of the year, probably reflecting migratory movements whose directions and driving forces are not completely understood yet. A depth-stratified population structure by sex and size is hypothesized.La gamba de aguas profundas Aristeus antillensis es uno de los recursos explotados por la flota de arrastre, que está operando desde el año 2002 en el talud continental de la Zona Econômica Exclusiva de Brasil, entre 700 y 800 m de profundidad. Las capturas de esta especie se realizan básicamente en dos pequeños fondos de pesca que se encuentran en la costa este de la región de Espirito Santo (19-22°S. Este trabajo tiene por objetivo obtener los primeros antecedentes biológicos de esta especie en la costa

  20. Shallow structure and stratigraphy of the carbonate West Florida continental slope and their implications to sedimentation and geohazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Larry J.

    1983-01-01

    An 1800-joule sparker survey of the West Florida continental slope between about 26?N and 29?15?N showed a top bed of Pleistocene age forming an irregular drape over a surface that is probably Pliocene. The contact between the top two layers is unconformable in the south and, in some places, shows karst collapse and solution features. Karst topography grades into a more hummocky erosional surface to the north, which in turn smoothes out; the contact become conformable still further north. A period of folding, which is widespread over the outer portion of the study area and which may be related to large scale mass wasting, occurred at about the same time represented by the unconformity. Significant subsidence has occurred as late as Pleistocene. The surface layer thins to a minimum (0 in the south) at about 525-meters water depth and then thickens again dramatically to the west, downslope. This thinning is interpreted to be due to the Loop Current, which flows from north to south in the area and which acts to block deposition and scour the bottom. Despite the fact that the margin is dominated by carbonates, usually associated with low sedimentation rates, there is widespread evidence of mass wasting affecting ancient and surficial deposits on the outer part of the upper slope. Three potential groups of geohazards identified are: 1. Potential bottom failure in areas where a thin top layer overlies the karst surface. 2. Potential for sliding and slumping. 3. Scour due to currents which could also affect drilling and engineering activities.

  1. Antarctic new particle formation from continental biogenic precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.-M. Kyrö

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Over Antarctica, aerosol particles originate almost entirely from marine areas, with minor contribution from long-range transported dust or anthropogenic material. The Antarctic continent itself, unlike all other continental areas, has been thought to be practically free of aerosol sources. Here we present evidence of local aerosol production associated with melt-water ponds in continental Antarctica. We show that in air masses passing such ponds, new aerosol particles are efficiently formed and these particles grow up to sizes where they may act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN. The precursor vapours responsible for aerosol formation and growth originate very likely from highly abundant cyanobacteria Nostoc commune (Vaucher communities of local ponds. This is the first time freshwater vegetation has been identified as an aerosol precursor source. The influence of the new source on clouds and climate may increase in future Antarctica, and possibly elsewhere undergoing accelerating summer melting of semi-permanent snow cover.

  2. Antarctic new particle formation from continental biogenic precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyrö, E.-M.; Kerminen, V.-M.; Virkkula, A.; Dal Maso, M.; Parshintsev, J.; Ruíz-Jimenez, J.; Forsström, L.; Manninen, H. E.; Riekkola, M.-L.; Heinonen, P.; Kulmala, M.

    2013-04-01

    Over Antarctica, aerosol particles originate almost entirely from marine areas, with minor contribution from long-range transported dust or anthropogenic material. The Antarctic continent itself, unlike all other continental areas, has been thought to be practically free of aerosol sources. Here we present evidence of local aerosol production associated with melt-water ponds in continental Antarctica. We show that in air masses passing such ponds, new aerosol particles are efficiently formed and these particles grow up to sizes where they may act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). The precursor vapours responsible for aerosol formation and growth originate very likely from highly abundant cyanobacteria Nostoc commune (Vaucher) communities of local ponds. This is the first time freshwater vegetation has been identified as an aerosol precursor source. The influence of the new source on clouds and climate may increase in future Antarctica, and possibly elsewhere undergoing accelerating summer melting of semi-permanent snow cover.

  3. Padrões de abundância, riqueza e diversidade de moluscos bivalves na plataforma continental ao largo de Ubatuba, São Paulo, Brasil: uma comparação metodológica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soares-Gomes Abílio

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The diversity and richness patterns of bivalve molluscs were studied on the continental shelf of Ubatuba (23º38'S, 45º14'W and 23º25'S, 44º51'W between 15-120 metres depth. The samples were taken with a rectangular dredge and a beam trawl. The results showed higher values of richness, diversity and evenness for inner shelf (from coast to nearly 50 m depth and greater values of abundance for outer shelf (from 50 to around 120 m depth. This pattern might be due to the higher instability of the inner shelf, which is influenced by the seasonal intrusion of the South Atlantic Central Water (SACW and the occurrence of cold fronts. Sanders' rarefation curves, distribution and abundance curves and DIMO model were used and the results compared. The Qinghong's model proved to be a good tool for summarizes the results of diversity in a such plural account.

  4. Sorting of bacterial lipoproteins to the outer membrane by the Lol system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, Shin-ichiro; Tokuda, Hajime

    2010-01-01

    Bacterial lipoproteins comprise a subset of membrane proteins with a lipid-modified cysteine residue at their amino termini through which they are anchored to the membrane. In Gram-negative bacteria, lipoproteins are localized on either the inner or the outer membrane. The Lol system is responsible for the transport of lipoproteins to the outer membrane.The Lol system comprises an inner-membrane ABC transporter LolCDE complex, a periplasmic carrier protein, LolA, and an outer membrane receptor protein, LolB. Lipoproteins are synthesized as precursors in the cytosol and then translocated across the inner membrane by the Sec translocon to the outer leaflet of the inner membrane, where lipoprotein precursors are processed to mature lipoproteins. The LolCDE complex then mediates the release of outer membrane-specific lipoproteins from the inner membrane while the inner membrane-specific lipoproteins possessing Asp at position 2 are not released by LolCDE because it functions as a LolCDE avoidance signal, causing the retention of these lipoproteins in the inner membrane. A water-soluble lipoprotein-LolA complex is formed as a result of the release reaction mediated by LolCDE. This complex traverses the hydrophilic periplasm to reach the outer membrane, where LolB accepts a lipoprotein from LolA and then catalyzes its incorporation into the inner leaflet of the outer membrane.

  5. Outer planet probe cost estimates: First impressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niehoff, J.

    1974-01-01

    An examination was made of early estimates of outer planetary atmospheric probe cost by comparing the estimates with past planetary projects. Of particular interest is identification of project elements which are likely cost drivers for future probe missions. Data are divided into two parts: first, the description of a cost model developed by SAI for the Planetary Programs Office of NASA, and second, use of this model and its data base to evaluate estimates of probe costs. Several observations are offered in conclusion regarding the credibility of current estimates and specific areas of the outer planet probe concept most vulnerable to cost escalation.

  6. Effects of energy-related activities on the Atlantic Continental Shelf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manowitz, B [ed.

    1975-01-01

    Sixteen papers were presented and are announced separately. Coastal waters, continental shelf geology and aquatic ecosystems are studied for modelling basic data for assessment of possible environmental impacts from offshore energy development. Sediment transport and wave phenomena are modelled for understanding water pollution transport and diffusion. (PCS)

  7. Imperfections of the North-Atlantic wind-driven ocean circulation: continental geometry and windstress shape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, H.A.; Molemaker, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    Multiple equilibria of the wind-driven gyres have been found in idealized quasi- geostrophic and shallow water models.In this paper we demonstrate that multiple equilibria persist within a reduced gravity shallow water model under quite realis- tic continental geometry and windstress orcing for

  8. Plankton community respiration, net ecosystem metabolism, and oxygen dynamics on the Louisiana continental shelf: implications for hypoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    We conducted a multi-year study of the Louisiana continental shelf (LCS) to better understand the linkages between water column metabolism and the formation of hypoxia (dissolved oxygen respiration rates (WR) were measured on 10 cr...

  9. Mud depocenters on continental shelves—appearance, initiation times, and growth dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanebuth, Till J. J.; Lantzsch, Hendrik; Nizou, Jean

    2015-12-01

    Mud accumulates on continental shelves under a variety of environmental conditions and results in a diverse formation of mud depocenters (MDCs). Their three-dimensional architectures have been in the focus of several recent studies. Due to some terminological confusion concerning MDCs, the present study sets out to define eight individual MDC types in terms of surface sediment distribution and internal geometry. Under conditions of substantial sediment supply, prodeltas (distal zones off river deltas; triangular sheets), subaqueous deltas (disconnected from deltas by strong normal-to-shore currents; wedge-like clinoforms), and mud patches (scattered distribution) and mud blankets (widespread covers) are formed. Forced by hydrodynamic conditions, mud belts in the strict sense (detached from source; elongated bodies), and shallow-water contourite drifts (detached from source; growing normal to prevailing current direction; triangular clinoforms) develop. Controlled by local morphology, mud entrapments (in depressions, behind morphological steps) and mud wedges (triangular clinoforms growing in flow direction) are deposited. Shelf mud deposition took place (1) during early outer-shelf drowning (~14 ka), (2) after inner-shelf inundation to maximum flooding (9.5-6.5 ka), and (3) in sub-recent times (near the fluvial source, (2) uni-directional, extending along advective current transport paths, and (3) progradational, forming clinoforms that grow either parallel or normal to the bottom current direction. Classical mud belts may be initiated around defined nuclei, the remote sites of which are determined by seafloor morphology rather than the location of the source. From a stratigraphic perspective, mud depocenters coincide with sea-level highstand-related, shelf-wide condensed sections. They often show a conformable succession from transgressive to highstand systems tract stages.

  10. Video Tutorial of Continental Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurani, A. S.; Juwaedah, A.; Mahmudatussa'adah, A.

    2018-02-01

    This research is motivated by the belief in the importance of media in a learning process. Media as an intermediary serves to focus on the attention of learners. Selection of appropriate learning media is very influential on the success of the delivery of information itself both in terms of cognitive, affective and skills. Continental food is a course that studies food that comes from Europe and is very complex. To reduce verbalism and provide more real learning, then the tutorial media is needed. Media tutorials that are audio visual can provide a more concrete learning experience. The purpose of this research is to develop tutorial media in the form of video. The method used is the development method with the stages of analyzing the learning objectives, creating a story board, validating the story board, revising the story board and making video tutorial media. The results show that the making of storyboards should be very thorough, and detailed in accordance with the learning objectives to reduce errors in video capture so as to save time, cost and effort. In video capturing, lighting, shooting angles, and soundproofing make an excellent contribution to the quality of tutorial video produced. In shooting should focus more on tools, materials, and processing. Video tutorials should be interactive and two-way.

  11. Continental energy plan. Canadian perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The 'continental energy plan' was first mentioned by US President George Bush during his election campaign, and relates to the adjustment of energy resources development in Canada and Mexico. The US energy policy aims to reduce US dependence on middle east oil supplies, increase US energy production, increase regional integration of energy supplies throughout North America, increase US refining capacity, reduce regulatory barriers, increase use of alternative energies, and to increase support for research and development. Under the Canada/US FTA (Free Trade Agreement) and NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement), not less than 50% of Canadian crude oil and natural gas are imported to the US market. As for Mexico, it exempted most portions of its energy sector from the agreement during the NAFTA negotiations. Now that Mexico itself is facing energy shortage, however, it is anticipated that under President Vincente Fox it will adopt a policy like that of Canada and start development by introducing foreign money into the fields of oil, gas, and electricity. (NEDO)

  12. Arctic Ocean outflow and glacier–ocean interactions modify water over the Wandel Sea shelf (northeastern Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Dmitrenko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The first-ever conductivity–temperature–depth (CTD observations on the Wandel Sea shelf in northeastern Greenland were collected in April–May 2015. They were complemented by CTDs taken along the continental slope during the Norwegian FRAM 2014–2015 drift. The CTD profiles are used to reveal the origin of water masses and interactions with ambient water from the continental slope and the tidewater glacier outlet. The subsurface water is associated with the Pacific water outflow from the Arctic Ocean. The underlying halocline separates the Pacific water from a deeper layer of polar water that has interacted with the warm Atlantic water outflow through the Fram Strait, recorded below 140 m. Over the outer shelf, the halocline shows numerous cold density-compensated intrusions indicating lateral interaction with an ambient polar water mass across the continental slope. At the front of the tidewater glacier outlet, colder and turbid water intrusions were observed at the base of the halocline. On the temperature–salinity plots these stations indicate a mixing line that is different from the ambient water and seems to be conditioned by the ocean–glacier interaction. Our observations of Pacific water are set within the context of upstream observations in the Beaufort Sea and downstream observations from the Northeast Water Polynya, and clearly show the modification of Pacific water during its advection across the Arctic Ocean. Moreover, ambient water over the Wandel Sea slope shows different thermohaline structures indicating the different origin and pathways of the on-shore and off-shore branches of the Arctic Ocean outflow through the western Fram Strait.

  13. Arctic Ocean outflow and glacier-ocean interactions modify water over the Wandel Sea shelf (northeastern Greenland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitrenko, Igor A.; Kirillov, Sergey A.; Rudels, Bert; Babb, David G.; Toudal Pedersen, Leif; Rysgaard, Søren; Kristoffersen, Yngve; Barber, David G.

    2017-12-01

    The first-ever conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) observations on the Wandel Sea shelf in northeastern Greenland were collected in April-May 2015. They were complemented by CTDs taken along the continental slope during the Norwegian FRAM 2014-2015 drift. The CTD profiles are used to reveal the origin of water masses and interactions with ambient water from the continental slope and the tidewater glacier outlet. The subsurface water is associated with the Pacific water outflow from the Arctic Ocean. The underlying halocline separates the Pacific water from a deeper layer of polar water that has interacted with the warm Atlantic water outflow through the Fram Strait, recorded below 140 m. Over the outer shelf, the halocline shows numerous cold density-compensated intrusions indicating lateral interaction with an ambient polar water mass across the continental slope. At the front of the tidewater glacier outlet, colder and turbid water intrusions were observed at the base of the halocline. On the temperature-salinity plots these stations indicate a mixing line that is different from the ambient water and seems to be conditioned by the ocean-glacier interaction. Our observations of Pacific water are set within the context of upstream observations in the Beaufort Sea and downstream observations from the Northeast Water Polynya, and clearly show the modification of Pacific water during its advection across the Arctic Ocean. Moreover, ambient water over the Wandel Sea slope shows different thermohaline structures indicating the different origin and pathways of the on-shore and off-shore branches of the Arctic Ocean outflow through the western Fram Strait.

  14. 27 CFR 9.207 - Outer Coastal Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Outer Coastal Plain. 9.207... Outer Coastal Plain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Outer Coastal Plain”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Outer Coastal Plain” is a term of viticultural...

  15. The Açu Reef morphology, distribution, and inter reef sedimentation on the outer shelf of the NE Brazil equatorial margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Nascimento Silva, Luzia Liniane; Gomes, Moab Praxedes; Vital, Helenice

    2018-05-01

    Submerged reefs, referred to as the Açu Reefs, have been newly observed on both sides of the Açu Incised Valley on the northeastern equatorial Brazilian outer shelf. This study aims to understand the roles of shelf physiography, its antecedent morphologies, and its inter reef sedimentation on the different development stages of the biogenic reef during last deglacial sea-level rise. The data sets consist of side-scan sonar imagery, one sparker seismic profile, 76 sediment samples, and underwater photography. Seven backscatter patterns (P1 to P7) were identified and associated with eleven sedimentary carbonate and siliciclastic facies. The inherited relief, the mouth of the paleo incised valley, and the interreef sediment distribution play major controls on the deglacial reef evolution. The reefs occur in a depth-limited 25-55 m water depth range and in a 6 km wide narrow zone of the outer shelf. The reefs crop out in a surface area over 100 km2 and occur as a series of NW-SE preferentially orientated ridges composed of three parallel ridge sets at 45, 35, and 25 m of water depth. The reefs form a series of individual, roughly linear ridges, tens of km in length, acting as barriers in addition to scattered reef mounds or knolls, averaging 4 m in height and grouped in small patches and aggregates. The reefs, currently limited at the transition between the photic and mesophotic zones, are thinly covered by red algae and scattered coral heads and sponges. Taking into account the established sea-level curves from the equatorial Brazilian northeastern shelf / Rochas Atoll and Barbados, the shelf physiography, and the shallow bedrock, the optimal conditions for reef development had to occur during a time interval (11-9 kyr BP) characterized by a slowdown of the outer shelf flooding, immediately following Meltwater Pulse-1B. This 2 kyr short interval provided unique conditions for remarkable reef backstepping into distinct parallel ridge sets. Furthermore, the Açu Reefs

  16. Biogeochemistry of southern Australian continental slope sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veeh, H.H.; Crispe, A.J.; Heggie, D.T.

    1999-01-01

    Sediment cores from the middle to lower slope of the southern continental margin of Australia between the Great Australian Bight and western Tasmania are compared in terms of marine and terrigenous input signals during the Holocene. The mass accumulation rates of carbonate, organic carbon, biogenic Ba. and Al are corrected for lateral sediment input (focusing), using the inventory of excess 230 Th in the sediment normalised to its known production rate in the water column above each site. The biogenic signal is generally higher in the eastern part of the southern margin probably due to enhanced productivity associated with seasonal upwelling off southeastern South Australia and the proximity of the Subtropical Front, which passes just south of Tasmania. The input of Al, representing the terrigenous signal, is also higher in this region reflecting the close proximity of river runoff from the mountainous catchment of southeastern Australia. The distribution pattern of Mn and authigenic U, together with pore-water profiles of Mn ++ , indicate diagenetic reactions driven by the oxidation of buried organic carbon in an oxic to suboxic environment. Whereas Mn is reduced at depth and diffuses upwards to become immobilised in a Mn-rich surface layer. U is derived from seawater and diffuses downward into the sediment, driven by reduction and precipitation at a depth below the reduction zone of Mn. The estimated removal rate of U from seawater by this process is within the range of U removal measured in hemipelagic sediments from other areas, and supports the proposition that hemipelagic sediments are a major sink of U in the global ocean. Unlike Mn, the depth profile of sedimentary Fe appears to be little affected by diagenesis, suggesting that little of the total Fe inventory in the sediment is remobilised and redistributed as soluble Fe. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  17. Outer-2-independent domination in graphs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    independent dominating set of a graph is a set of vertices of such that every vertex of ()\\ has a neighbor in and the maximum vertex degree of the subgraph induced by ()\\ is at most one. The outer-2-independent domination ...

  18. Intershell correlations in photoionization of outer shells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amusia, M.Ya. [The Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); A.F. Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation); Chernysheva, L.V. [A.F. Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation); Drukarev, E.G. [National Research Center “Kurchatov Institute”, Konstantinov Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, St. Petersburg 188300 (Russian Federation)

    2016-02-15

    We demonstrate that the cross sections for photoionization of the outer shells are noticeably modified at the photon energies close to the thresholds of ionization of the inner shells due to correlations with the latter. The correlations may lead to increase or to decrease of the cross sections just above the ionization thresholds.

  19. Outer-2-independent domination in graphs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Outer-2-independent domination in graphs. MARCIN KRZYWKOWSKI1,2,∗, DOOST ALI MOJDEH3 and MARYEM RAOOFI4. 1Department of Pure and Applied Mathematics, University of Johannesburg,. Johannesburg, South Africa. 2Faculty of Electronics, Telecommunications and Informatics, Gdansk University.

  20. Intershell correlations in photoionization of outer shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amusia, M.Ya.; Chernysheva, L.V.; Drukarev, E.G.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate that the cross sections for photoionization of the outer shells are noticeably modified at the photon energies close to the thresholds of ionization of the inner shells due to correlations with the latter. The correlations may lead to increase or to decrease of the cross sections just above the ionization thresholds.

  1. Exploration of the continental margins of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Siddiquie, H.N.; Hashimi, N.H.; Vora, K.H.; Pathak, M.C.

    impetus from sponsored surveys of other organizations, chiefly the oil industry, ports and harbours as well as industries disposing of their effluents in the marine environment. By now the entire western continental shelf and a large part...

  2. The carbon budget in the outer solar nebula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonelli, D P; Pollack, J B; McKay, C P; Reynolds, R T; Summers, A L

    1989-01-01

    Detailed models of the internal structures of Pluto and Charon, assuming rock and water ice as the only constituents, indicate that the mean silicate mass fraction of this two-body system is on the order of 0.7; thus the Pluto/Charon system is significantly "rockier" than the satellites of the giant planets (silicate mass fraction approximately 0.55). This compositional contrast reflects different formation mechanisms: it is likely that Pluto and Charon formed directly from the solar nebula, while the circumplanetary nebulae that produced the giant planet satellites were derived from envelopes that surrounded the forming giant planets (envelopes in which icy planetesimals dissolved more readily than rocky planetesimals). Simple cosmic abundance calculations, and the assumption that the Pluto/Charon system formed directly from solar nebula condensates, strongly suggest that the majority of the carbon in the outer solar nebula was in the form of carbon monoxide; these results are consistent with (1) inheritance from the dense molecular clouds in the interstellar medium (where CH4/CO nebula chemistry. Theoretical predictions of the C/H enhancements in the atmospheres of the giant planets, when compared to the actual observed enhancements, suggest that 10%, or slightly more, of the carbon in the outer solar nebula was in the form of condensed materials (although the amount of condensed C may have dropped slightly with increasing heliocentric distance). Strict compositional limits computed for the Pluto/Charon system using the densities of CH4 and CO ices indicate that these pure ices are at best minor components in the interiors of these bodies, and imply that CH4 and CO ices were not the dominant C-bearing solids in the outer nebula. Clathrate-hydrates could not have appropriated enough CH4 or CO to be the major form of condensed carbon, although such clathrates may be necessary to explain the presence of methane on Pluto after its formation from a CO-rich nebula

  3. Continental Contributions to Philosophy of Science

    OpenAIRE

    REGINE KATHER

    2006-01-01

    The author reviews the book Continental Philosophy of Science, edited by Gary Gutting. Introductory remarks about the historical relationship between philosophy and science are followed by a presentation and discussion of different philosophies of science and commentaries on the eleven German and French authors whose texts are found in this volume. In addition to her assessment of Guttings’s collection, the author’s overall conclusion is that one characteristic trait of the Continental philos...

  4. Coordination: southeast continental shelf studies. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, D.W.

    1981-02-01

    The objectives are to identify important physical, chemical and biological processes which affect the transfer of materials on the southeast continental shelf, determine important parameters which govern observed temporal and spatial varibility on the continental shelf, determine the extent and modes of coupling between events at the shelf break and nearshore, and determine physical, chemical and biological exchange rates on the inner shelf. Progress in meeting these research objectives is presented. (ACR)

  5. A Two-Dimensional Post-Stack Seismic Inversion for Acoustic Impedance of Gas and Hydrate Bearing Deep-Water Sediments Within the Continental Slope of the Ulleung Basin, East Sea, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keumsuk Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A post-stack inversion of 2D seismic data was conducted to estimate the spatial distribution of acoustic impedance associated with gas and hydrates in the Ulleung Basin, East Sea, Korea constrained by logs from three boreholes drilled on its continental margin. A model-based inversion was applied to a Plio-Quaternary succession composed of alternations of unconsolidated mass-flow deposits/turbidites. A comparison of seismic reflections and synthetic data computed from impedance logs is shown for two zones. An upper (steep slope zone contains a moderately continuous, possibly bottom-simulating reflector feature along the corresponding section. This feature may be associated with a lithology boundary near a drill site in addition to, or instead of, a stability boundary of gas hydrates (i.e., gas below and hydrates above. The lower (gentle slope zone has locally cross-cutting reflection patterns that are more likely to be attributed to gas- and hydrate-related physical phenomena than to spatiotemporal changes in lithology. This seismic inversion is informative and useful, making a contribution to enhance the interpretability of the seismic profiles for a potential hydrate recovery.

  6. The Continental Market Seen from the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romieu, Michel

    1998-01-01

    In this presentation, the Chairman of a French gas company (Elf) comments on the evolution of the Continental gas market from a British point of view. He first discusses the differences between the US, British and Continental gas markets, recalls the provisions of the European Gas Directive and states why a fully competitive system is a long-term prospect in Continental Europe. Seen from the UK, the provisions of the EU directive may appear modest. Due to the long transportation, British gas companies may find it hard to compete on the gas market of Continental Europe. When Inter connector, the gas pipeline connecting the gas markets in UK and the Continent, begins operation, there will be a flow of gas from the UK to the Continent according to already signed contracts. But there may be contractual flows both ways. Gas prices will level off between the UK and Northern Europe, at least for the industry. The continental markets will change gradually, the Gas Directive and the Inter connector will help the move towards a more competitive gas industry, but the fundamentals will not change: low gas prices for the next few years, competition between the big three exporters to Continental Europe, and long-term contracts that will extend beyond 2005

  7. A multi-factor approach for process-based seabed characterization: example from the northeastern continental margin of the Korean peninsula (East Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukur, Deniz; Um, In-Kwon; Chun, Jong-Hwa; Kim, So-Ra; Lee, Gwang-Soo; Kim, Yuri; Kong, Gee-Soo; Horozal, Senay; Kim, Seong-Pil

    2018-04-01

    This study investigates sediment transport and depositional processes from a newly collected dataset comprising sub-bottom chirp profiles, multibeam bathymetry, and sediment cores from the northeastern continental margin of Korea in the East Sea (Japan Sea). Twelve echo-types and eleven sedimentary facies have been defined and interpreted as deposits formed by shallow-marine, hemipelagic sedimentation, bottom current, and mass-movement processes. Hemipelagic sedimentation, which is acoustically characterized by undisturbed layered sediments, appears to have been the primary sedimentary process throughout the study area. The inner and outer continental shelf (shallow-marine sedimentary processes. Two slope-parallel canyons, 0.2-2 km wide and up to 30 km long, appear to have acted as possible conduits for turbidity currents from the shallower shelf into the deep basins. Bottom current deposits, expressed as erosional moats immediately below topographic highs, are prevalent on the southern lower slope at water depths of 400-450 m. Mass-movements (i.e., slides/slumps, debris flow deposits) consisting of chaotic facies characterize the lower slope and represent one of the most important sedimentary processes in the study area. Piston cores confirm the presence of mass-transport deposits (MTDs) that are characterized by mud clasts of variable size, shape, and color. Multibeam bathymetry shows that large-scale MTDs are chiefly initiated on the lower slope (400-600 m) with gradients up to 3° and where they produce scarps on the order of 100 m in height. Sandy MTDs also occur on the upper continental slope adjacent to the seaward edge of the shelf terrace. Earthquakes associated with tectonic activity and the development of fluid overpressure is considered as the main conditioning factor for destabilizing the slope sediments. Overall, the sedimentary processes show typical characteristics of a fine-grained clastic slope apron and change down-slope and differ within each

  8. Acute Zonal Cone Photoreceptor Outer Segment Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Tomas S; Sandhu, Harpal S; Serrano, Leona W; Traband, Anastasia; Lau, Marisa K; Adamus, Grazyna; Avery, Robert A

    2017-05-01

    The diagnostic path presented narrows down the cause of acute vision loss to the cone photoreceptor outer segment and will refocus the search for the cause of similar currently idiopathic conditions. To describe the structural and functional associations found in a patient with acute zonal occult photoreceptor loss. A case report of an adolescent boy with acute visual field loss despite a normal fundus examination performed at a university teaching hospital. Results of a complete ophthalmic examination, full-field flash electroretinography (ERG) and multifocal ERG, light-adapted achromatic and 2-color dark-adapted perimetry, and microperimetry. Imaging was performed with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), near-infrared (NIR) and short-wavelength (SW) fundus autofluorescence (FAF), and NIR reflectance (REF). The patient was evaluated within a week of the onset of a scotoma in the nasal field of his left eye. Visual acuity was 20/20 OU, and color vision was normal in both eyes. Results of the fundus examination and of SW-FAF and NIR-FAF imaging were normal in both eyes, whereas NIR-REF imaging showed a region of hyporeflectance temporal to the fovea that corresponded with a dense relative scotoma noted on light-adapted static perimetry in the left eye. Loss in the photoreceptor outer segment detected by SD-OCT co-localized with an area of dense cone dysfunction detected on light-adapted perimetry and multifocal ERG but with near-normal rod-mediated vision according to results of 2-color dark-adapted perimetry. Full-field flash ERG findings were normal in both eyes. The outer nuclear layer and inner retinal thicknesses were normal. Localized, isolated cone dysfunction may represent the earliest photoreceptor abnormality or a distinct entity within the acute zonal occult outer retinopathy complex. Acute zonal occult outer retinopathy should be considered in patients with acute vision loss and abnormalities on NIR-REF imaging, especially if

  9. Generation of continental rifts, basins, and swells by lithosphere instabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourel, Loïc.; Milelli, Laura; Jaupart, Claude; Limare, Angela

    2013-06-01

    Continents may be affected simultaneously by rifting, uplift, volcanic activity, and basin formation in several different locations, suggesting a common driving mechanism that is intrinsic to continents. We describe a new type of convective instability at the base of the lithosphere that leads to a remarkable spatial pattern at the scale of an entire continent. We carried out fluid mechanics laboratory experiments on buoyant blocks of finite size that became unstable due to cooling from above. Dynamical behavior depends on three dimensionless numbers, a Rayleigh number for the unstable block, a buoyancy number that scales the intrinsic density contrast to the thermal one, and the aspect ratio of the block. Within the block, instability develops in two different ways in an outer annulus and in an interior region. In the outer annulus, upwellings and downwellings take the form of periodically spaced radial spokes. The interior region hosts the more familiar convective pattern of polygonal cells. In geological conditions, such instabilities should manifest themselves as linear rifts striking at a right angle to the continent-ocean boundary and an array of domal uplifts, volcanic swells, and basins in the continental interior. Simple scaling laws for the dimensions and spacings of the convective structures are derived. For the subcontinental lithospheric mantle, these dimensions take values in the 500-1000 km range, close to geological examples. The large intrinsic buoyancy of Archean lithospheric roots prevents this type of instability, which explains why the widespread volcanic activity that currently affects Western Africa is confined to post-Archean domains.

  10. Performance of the LHCb Outer Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Arink, R; Bachmann, S.; Bagaturia, Y.; Band, H.; Bauer, Th.; Berkien, A.; Farber, Ch.; Bien, A.; Blouw, J.; Ceelie, L.; Coco, V.; Deckenhoff, M.; Deng, Z.; Dettori, F.; van Eijk, D.; Ekelhof, R.; Gersabeck, E.; Grillo, L.; Hulsbergen, W.D.; Karbach, T.M.; Koopman, R.; Kozlinskiy, A.; Langenbruch, Ch.; Lavrentyev, V.; Linn, Ch.; Merk, M.; Merkel, J.; Meissner, M.; Michalowski, J.; Morawski, P.; Nawrot, A.; Nedos, M.; Pellegrino, A.; Polok, G.; van Petten, O.; Rovekamp, J.; Schimmel, F.; Schuylenburg, H.; Schwemmer, R.; Seyfert, P.; Serra, N.; Sluijk, T.; Spaan, B.; Spelt, J.; Storaci, B.; Szczekowski, M.; Swientek, S.; Tolk, S.; Tuning, N.; Uwer, U.; Wiedner, D.; Witek, M.; Zeng, M.; Zwart, A.

    2014-01-01

    The LHCb Outer Tracker is a gaseous detector covering an area of 5x6 m2 with 12 double layers of straw tubes. The detector with its services are described together with the commissioning and calibration procedures. Based on data of the first LHC running period from 2010 to 2012, the performance of the readout electronics and the single hit resolution and efficiency are presented. The efficiency to detect a hit in the central half of the straw is estimated to be 99.2%, and the position resolution is determined to be approximately 200 um. The Outer Tracker received a dose in the hottest region corresponding to 0.12 C/cm, and no signs of gain deterioration or other ageing effects are observed.

  11. The Outer Space as an Educational Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Pérez, Melquíades; Hernández-López, Montserrat

    2017-06-01

    STEAM is an educational approach to learning that uses Science, Technology, Engineering, the Arts and Mathematics as access points for guiding student inquiry, dialogue, and critical thinking. The end results are students who take thoughtful risks, engage in experiential learning, persist in problem-solving, embrace collaboration, and work through the creative process. The Outer Space is a window to the past and the future of our travel around the history of the Universe and can be used as a educational tool in primary and secondary education. This paper talks about the integration of the resources of European Space Agency, Space Awareness, Nuclio, Scientix and Schoolnet as motivation to integrate STEAM methodology in secondary education. Keywords: STEAM, outer space, motivation, methodology

  12. The Outer Banks of North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Robert; Lins, Harry F.; Smith, Jodi Jones

    2016-12-27

    The Outer Banks of North Carolina are excellent examples of the nearly 300 barrier islands rimming the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the United States. These low, sandy islands are among the most dynamic natural landscapes occupied by man. Beach sands move offshore, onshore, and along the shore in the direction of the prevailing longshore currents. In this way, sandy coasts continuously adjust to different tide, wave, and current conditions and to rising sea level that causes the islands to migrate landward.Despite such changes, barrier islands are of considerable environmental importance. The Outer Banks are home to diverse natural ecosystems that are adapted to the harsh coastal environment. Native species tend to be robust and many are specifically adapted to withstand salt spray, periodic saltwater flooding, and the islands’ well-drained sandy soil. The Outer Banks provide an important stopover for birds on the Atlantic flyway, and many species inhabit the islands year round. In addition, Outer Banks beaches provide an important nesting habitat for five endangered or threatened sea turtle species.European explorers discovered North Carolina’s barrier islands in the 16th century, although the islands were not permanently settled until the middle 17th century. By the early 19th century, shipbuilding and lumber industries were among the most successful, until forest resources were depleted. Commercial fishing eventually followed, and it expanded considerably after the Civil War. By the Great Depression, however, little industry existed on the Outer Banks. In response to the effects of a severe hurricane in 1933, the National Park Service and the Civilian Conservation Corps proposed a massive sand-fixation program to stabilize the moving sand and prevent storm waves from sweeping across the entire width of some sections of the islands. Between 1933 and 1940, this program constructed sand fencing on 185 kilometers (115 miles) of beach and planted grass seedlings

  13. Cryovolcanism in the outer solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissler, Paul E.

    2015-01-01

    Cryovolcanism is defined as the extrusion of liquids and vapors of materials that would be frozen solid at the planetary surface temperatures of the icy bodies of the outer solar system. Active cryovolcanism is now known to occur on Saturn's moon Enceladus and on Neptune's moon Triton and is suspected on Jupiter's moon Europa, while evidence for past cryovolcanic activity is widespread throughout the outer solar system. This chapter examines the mechanisms and manifestations of cryovolcanism, beginning with a review of the materials that make up these unusual ‘‘magmas’’ and the means by which they might erupt and concluding with a volcanologist's tour of the farthest reaches of the solar system.

  14. Outer crust of nonaccreting cold neutron stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruester, Stefan B.; Hempel, Matthias; Schaffner-Bielich, Juergen

    2006-01-01

    The properties of the outer crust of nonaccreting cold neutron stars are studied by using modern nuclear data and theoretical mass tables, updating in particular the classic work of Baym, Pethick, and Sutherland. Experimental data from the atomic mass table from Audi, Wapstra, and Thibault of 2003 are used and a thorough comparison of many modern theoretical nuclear models, both relativistic and nonrelativistic, is performed for the first time. In addition, the influences of pairing and deformation are investigated. State-of-the-art theoretical nuclear mass tables are compared to check their differences concerning the neutron drip line, magic neutron numbers, the equation of state, and the sequence of neutron-rich nuclei up to the drip line in the outer crust of nonaccreting cold neutron stars

  15. Boundary layers of the earth's outer magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastman, T. E.; Frank, L. A.

    1984-01-01

    The magnetospheric boundary layer and the plasma-sheet boundary layer are the primary boundary layers of the earth's outer magnetosphere. Recent satellite observations indicate that they provide for more than 50 percent of the plasma and energy transport in the outer magnetosphere although they constitute less than 5 percent by volume. Relative to the energy density in the source regions, plasma in the magnetospheric boundary layer is predominantly deenergized whereas plasma in the plasma-sheet boundary layer has been accelerated. The reconnection hypothesis continues to provide a useful framework for comparing data sampled in the highly dynamic magnetospheric environment. Observations of 'flux transfer events' and other detailed features near the boundaries have been recently interpreted in terms of nonsteady-state reconnection. Alternative hypotheses are also being investigated. More work needs to be done, both in theory and observation, to determine whether reconnection actually occurs in the magnetosphere and, if so, whether it is important for overall magnetospheric dynamics.

  16. Boundary layers of the earth's outer magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eastman, T.E.; Frank, L.A.

    1984-01-01

    The magnetospheric boundary layer and the plasma-sheet boundary layer are the primary boundary layers of the earth's outer magnetosphere. Recent satellite observations indicate that they provide for more than 50 percent of the plasma and energy transport in the outer magnetosphere although they constitute less than 5 percent by volume. Relative to the energy density in the source regions, plasma in the magnetospheric boundary layer is predominantly deenergized whereas plasma in the plasma-sheet boundary layer has been accelerated. The reconnection hypothesis continues to provide a useful framework for comparing data sampled in the highly dynamic magnetospheric environment. Observations of flux transfer events and other detailed features near the boundaries have been recently interpreted in terms of nonsteady-state reconnection. Alternative hypotheses are also being investigated. More work needs to be done, both in theory and observation, to determine whether reconnection actually occurs in the magnetosphere and, if so, whether it is important for overall magnetospheric dynamics. 30 references

  17. Differential Rotation within the Earth's Outer Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hide, R.; Boggs, D. H.; Dickey, J. O.

    1998-01-01

    Non-steady differential rotation drive by bouyancy forces within the Earth's liquid outer core (OC) plays a key role not only in the generation of the main geomagnetic field by the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) dynamo process but also in the excitation of irregular fluctuations in the angular speed of rotation of the overlying solid mantle, as evidenced by changes in the length of the day (LOD) on decadal and longer timescales (1-8).

  18. Fluxgate magnetometers for outer planets exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuna, M. H.

    1974-01-01

    The exploration of the interplanetary medium and the magnetospheres of the outer planets requires the implementation of magnetic field measuring instrumentation with wide dynamic range, high stability, and reliability. The fluxgate magnetometers developed for the Pioneer 11 and Mariner-Jupiter-Saturn missions are presented. These instruments cover the range of .01 nT to 2 million nT with optimum performance characteristics and low power consumption.

  19. Outer Limits of Biotechnologies: A Jewish Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D. Loike

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A great deal of biomedical research focuses on new biotechnologies such as gene editing, stem cell biology, and reproductive medicine, which have created a scientific revolution. While the potential medical benefits of this research may be far-reaching, ethical issues related to non-medical applications of these technologies are demanding. We analyze, from a Jewish legal perspective, some of the ethical conundrums that society faces in pushing the outer limits in researching these new biotechnologies.

  20. Differential Response to Heat Stress in Outer and Inner Onion Bulb Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galsurker, Ortal; Doron-Faigenboim, Adi; Teper-Bamnolker, Paula; Daus, Avinoam; Lers, Amnon; Eshel, Dani

    2018-05-18

    Brown protective skin formation in onion bulbs can be induced by rapid postharvest heat treatment. Onions that were peeled to different depths and were exposed to heat stress showed that only the outer scale formed dry brown skin, whereas the inner scales maintained high water content and did not change color. Our results reveal that browning of the outer scale during heat treatment is due to an enzymatic process that is associated with high levels of oxidation components, such as peroxidase and quercetin glucoside. De-novo transcriptome analysis revealed differential molecular responses of the outer and inner scales to the heat stress. Genes involved in lipid metabolism, oxidation pathways and cell-wall modification were highly expressed in the outer scale during heating. Defense-response-related genes such as those encoding heat-shock proteins, antioxidative stress defense or production of osmoprotectant metabolites were mostly induced in the inner scale in response to the heat exposure. These transcriptomic data led to a conceptual model that suggests sequential processes for browning development and desiccation of the outer scales versus processes associated with defense response and heat tolerance in the inner scale. Thus, the observed physiological differences between the outer and inner scales is supported by the identified molecular differences.

  1. Contributions to knowledge of the continental margin of Uruguay. Uruguayan continental margin: Physiographic and seismic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preciozzi, F

    2014-01-01

    This work is about the kind of continental margins such as a )Atlantic type passive margins which can be hard or soft b) An active or Pacific margins that because of the very frequent earthquakes develop a morphology dominated by tectonic processes. The Uruguayan continental margin belongs to a soft Atlantic margin

  2. Pan-Arctic distributions of continental runoff in the Arctic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichot, Cédric G; Kaiser, Karl; Hooker, Stanford B; Amon, Rainer M W; Babin, Marcel; Bélanger, Simon; Walker, Sally A; Benner, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    Continental runoff is a major source of freshwater, nutrients and terrigenous material to the Arctic Ocean. As such, it influences water column stratification, light attenuation, surface heating, gas exchange, biological productivity and carbon sequestration. Increasing river discharge and thawing permafrost suggest that the impacts of continental runoff on these processes are changing. Here, a new optical proxy was developed and implemented with remote sensing to determine the first pan-Arctic distribution of terrigenous dissolved organic matter (tDOM) and continental runoff in the surface Arctic Ocean. Retrospective analyses revealed connections between the routing of North American runoff and the recent freshening of the Canada Basin, and indicated a correspondence between climate-driven changes in river discharge and tDOM inventories in the Kara Sea. By facilitating the real-time, synoptic monitoring of tDOM and freshwater runoff in surface polar waters, this novel approach will help understand the manifestations of climate change in this remote region.

  3. Condições hidrográficas na plataforma continental ao largo de Ubatuba: variações sazonais e em média escala Hydrographic conditions on the continental shelf off Ubatuba: seasonal and meso-scale variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belmiro Mendes de Castro Filho

    1987-01-01

    estruturas térmica e halina, tem provavelmente um importante papel na troca de massas de água entre a costa e o talude, contribuindo para o enriquecimento das águas da plataforma continental através dos movimentos ascendentes que ocorrem em seu núcleo.Hydrographic conditions on the continental shelf offshore of Ubatuba have shown different water mass distributions for summer (December, 1985 and winter (July, 1986. Two physical domains were identified: inner shelf and outer shelf, both separated by a front particularly well defined during the winter, The inner shelf has a two layer vertical stratification during summer, with a strong thermocline at mid-depths. During winter this region shows almost no stratification, During summer the upper layer (depths smaller than 20 m is filled with Coastal Water (CW, which interacts with Tropical Water (TW offshore. South Atlantic Central Water (SACA predominates in the lower layer during surrmer. Vertical interaction between CW and SACA is restricted to a band near the coast. During winter SACA does not penetrate towards the coast in the lower layer and, as a consequence, the inner shelf shows the presence of CW only. For winter interactions between CW and SACA are observed only across the front that separates inner and outer shelf. For this season there is also a noticeable intrusion of TW towards the coast on the upper layer of the outer shelf. A descriptive model for the wind driven seasonal circulation of the inner shelf is sugested, based on: 1 the water mass distributions observed and: 2 meteorological conditions from a coastal station located southward of Ubatuba, The outer shelf dynamics seems to suffer strong influence from the Brazil Current. Eddies or meanders with characteristics of frontal eddies, have been observed on both seasons on the outer shelf. These eddies should play an important role on the water mass exchange between the shelf and the slope, contributing for the enrichment of shelf waters by the upward

  4. Benthic oxygen consumption on continental shelves off eastern Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jonathan; Emerson, Craig W.; Hargrave, Barry T.; Shortle, Jeannette L.

    1991-08-01

    The consumption of phytoplankton production by the benthos is an important component of organic carbon budgets for continental shelves. Sediment texture is a major factor regulating benthic processes because fine sediment areas are sites of enhanced deposition from the water column, resulting in increased organic content, bacterial biomass and community metabolism. Although continental shelves at mid- to high latitudes consist primarily of coarse relict sediments ( PIPER, Continental Shelf Research, 11, 1013-1035), shelf regions of boreal and subarctic eastern Canada contain large areas of silt and clay sediments ( FADER, Continental Shelf Research, 11, 1123-1153). We collated estimates of benthic oxygen consumption in coarse (<20% silt-clay, <0.5% organic matter) and fine sediments (20% silt-clay, 0.5% organic matter) for northwest Atlantic continental shelves including new data for Georges Bank, the Scotian Shelf, the Grand Banks of Newfoundland and Labrador Shelf. Estimates were applied to the areal distribution of sediment type on these shelves to obtain a general relationship between sediment texture and benthic carbon consumption. Mean benthic oxygen demand was 2.7 times greater in fine sediment than in coarse sediment, when normalized to mean annual temperature. In terms of carbon equivalents, shelf regions with minimal fine sediment (Georges Bank, the Grand Banks of Newfoundland-northeast Newfoundland) consumed only 5-8% of annual primary production. Benthos of the Gulf of Maine (100% fine sediment) and the Scotian Shelf (35% fine sediment) utilized 16-19% of primary production. Although 32% of the Labrador Shelf area contained fine sediments, benthic consumption of pelagic production (8%) was apparently limited by low mean annual temperature (2°C). These results indicate that incorporation of sediment-specific oxygen uptake into shelf carbon budgets may increase estimates of benthic consumption by 50%. Furthermore, respiration and production by large

  5. Water physical and chemical data from current meter and bottle casts from the COLUMBUS ISELIN as part of the Ocean Continental Shelf - Mid Atlantic (OCS - Mid Atlantic) project, 1975-10-27 to 1975-11-06 (NODC Accession 7700454)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water physical and chemical data were collected using current meter and bottle casts from the COLUMBUS ISELIN from October 27, 1975 to November 6, 1975. Data were...

  6. Water physical and chemical data from current meter and bottle casts from the GILLISS as part of the Ocean Continental Shelf - Mid Atlantic (OCS - Mid Atlantic) project, 1976-02-04 to 1976-09-14 (NODC Accession 7700477)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water physical and chemical data were collected using current meter and bottle casts from the GILLISS and other platforms from February 4, 1976 to September 14,...

  7. Seasonal Dynamics of Dissolved Organic Carbon Under Complex Circulation Schemes on a Large Continental Shelf: The Northern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Feifei; Dai, Minhan; Cao, Zhimian; Wu, Kai; Zhao, Xiaozheng; Li, Xiaolin; Chen, Junhui; Gan, Jianping

    2017-12-01

    We examined the distribution and seasonality of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) based on a large data set collected from the northern South China Sea (NSCS) shelf under complex circulation schemes influenced by river plume, coastal upwelling, and downwelling. The highest surface values of ˜117 μmol L-1 were observed nearshore in summer suggesting high DOC supplies from the river inputs, whereas the lowest surface values of ˜62 μmol L-1 were on the outer shelf in winter due to entrainment of DOC-poor subsurface water under strengthened vertical mixing. While the summer coastal upwelling brought lower DOC from offshore depth to the nearshore surface, the winter coastal downwelling delivered higher surface DOC to the midshelf deep waters from the inner shelf fueled by the China Coastal Current (CCC) transporting relatively high DOC from the East China Sea to the NSCS. The intensified winter downwelling generated a cross-shelf DOC transport of 3.1 × 1012 g C over a large shelf area, which induced a significant depression of the NSCS DOC inventory in winter relative to in autumn. In addition to the variable physical controls, net biological production of DOC was semiquantified in both the river plume (2.8 ± 3.0 μmol L-1) and coastal upwelling (3.1 ± 1.3 μmol L-1) in summer. We demonstrated that the NSCS shelf had various origins of DOC including riverine inputs, inter-shelf transport and in situ production. Via cross-shelf transport, the accumulated DOC would be exported to and stored in the deep ocean, suggesting that continental shelves are a potentially effective carbon sink.

  8. Benthic organism data from the South Texas Outer Continental Shelf (STOCS) and the Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida (MAFLA) Outer Continental Shelf studies from 16 May 1974 to 20 February 1978 (NODC Accession 8500179)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic organisms data were collected using sediment sampler and net casts BELLOWS and other platforms in the Gulf of Mexico from 16 May 1974 to 20 February 1978....

  9. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... www.girlshealth.gov/ Home Nutrition Nutrition basics Water Water Did you know that water makes up more ... to drink more water Other drinks How much water do you need? top Water is very important, ...

  10. Permafrost warming and vegetation changes in continental Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guglielmin, Mauro; Dalle Fratte, Michele; Cannone, Nicoletta

    2014-01-01

    Continental Antarctica represents the last pristine environment on Earth and is one of the most suitable contexts to analyze the relations between climate, active layer and vegetation. In 2000 we started long-term monitoring of the climate, permafrost, active layer and vegetation in Victoria Land, continental Antarctica. Our data confirm the stability of mean annual and summer air temperature, of snow cover, and an increasing trend of summer incoming short wave radiation. The active layer thickness is increasing at a rate of 0.3 cm y −1 . The active layer is characterized by large annual and spatial differences. The latter are due to scarce vegetation, a patchy and very thin organic layer and large spatial differences in snow accumulation. The active layer thickening, probably due to the increase of incoming short wave radiation, produced a general decrease of the ground water content due to the better drainage of the ground. The resultant drying may be responsible for the decline of mosses in xeric sites, while it provided better conditions for mosses in hydric sites, following the species-specific water requirements. An increase of lichen vegetation was observed where the climate drying occurred. This evidence emphasizes that the Antarctic continent is experiencing changes that are in total contrast to the changes reported from maritime Antarctica. (paper)

  11. MAGSAT anomaly map and continental drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemouel, J. L. (Principal Investigator); Galdeano, A.; Ducruix, J.

    1981-01-01

    Anomaly maps of high quality are needed to display unambiguously the so called long wave length anomalies. The anomalies were analyzed in terms of continental drift and the nature of their sources is discussed. The map presented confirms the thinness of the oceanic magnetized layer. Continental magnetic anomalies are characterized by elongated structures generally of east-west trend. Paleomagnetic reconstruction shows that the anomalies found in India, Australia, and Antarctic exhibit a fair consistency with the African anomalies. It is also shown that anomalies are locked under the continents and have a fixed geometry.

  12. Contribution to the study of maximum levels for liquid radioactive waste disposal into continental and sea water. Treatment of some typical samples; Contribution a l'etude des niveaux limites relatifs a des rejets d'effluents radioactifs liquides dans les eaux continentales et oceaniques. Traitement de quelques exemples types

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bittel, R; Mancel, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires, departement de la protection sanitaire

    1968-10-01

    The most important carriers of radioactive contamination of man are the whole of foodstuffs and not only ingested water or inhaled air. That is the reason why, in accordance with the spirit of the recent recommendations of the ICRP, it is proposed to substitute the idea of maximum levels of contamination of water to the MPC. In the case of aquatic food chains (aquatic organisms and irrigated foodstuffs), the knowledge of the ingested quantities and of the concentration factors food/water permit to determinate these maximum levels, or to find out a linear relation between the maximum levels in the case of two primary carriers of contamination (continental and sea waters). The notion of critical food-consumption, critical radioelements and formula of waste disposal are considered in the same way, taking care to attach the greatest possible importance to local situations. (authors) [French] Les vecteurs essentiels de la contamination radioactive de l'homme sont les aliments dans leur ensemble, et non seulement l'eau ingeree ou l'air inhale. C'est pourquoi, en accord avec l'esprit des recentes recommandations de la C.I.P.R., il est propose de substituer aux CMA la notion de niveaux limites de contamination des eaux. Dans le cas des chaines alimentaires aquatiques (organismes aquatiques et aliments irrigues), la connaissance des quantites ingerees et celle des facteurs de concentration aliments/eau permettent de determiner ces niveaux limites dans le cas de deux vecteurs primaires de contamination (eaux continentales et eaux oceaniques). Les notions de regime alimentaire critique, de radioelement critique et de formule de rejets sont envisagees, dans le meme esprit, avec le souci de tenir compte le plus possible des situations locales. (auteurs)

  13. Issues concerning outer space investments in international law ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Issues concerning outer space investments in international law. ... Recent improvements in technology have in essence increased the viability of outer space as the next frontier for international investment and development. In addition to ... Key words: Outer Space, Investments, International Law, International Space Station ...

  14. Recent sediment transport and deposition in the Nazaré Canyon, Portuguese continental margin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Stigter, H.C.; Boer, W.; de Jesus Mendes, P.A.; Jesus, C.C.; Thomsen, L.; van den Bergh, G.D.; van Weering, T.C.E.

    2007-01-01

    Processes, pathways and fluxes of sediment transport and deposition in the Nazaré submarine canyon, Portuguese continental margin, were investigated by water column profiling of suspended particulate matter, recording of near-bottom currents and suspended particulate matter fluxes with benthic

  15. Dark matter in the outer solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, T.; Cruikshank, D.; De Bergh, C.; Geballe, T.

    1994-01-01

    There are now a large number of small bodies in the outer solar system that are known to be covered with dark material. Attempts to identify that material have been thwarted by the absence of discrete absorption features in the reflection spectra of these planetesimals. An absorption at 2.2 micrometers that appeared to be present in several objects has not been confirmed by new observations. Three absorptions in the spectrum of the unusually red planetesimal 5145 Pholus are well-established, but their identity remains a mystery.

  16. Inner and Outer Life at Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda

    2012-01-01

    involving people to people interactions offered by psychodynamic theories and methods take up a pivotal position. Psychoanalytic organisational and work life research explores how work, organisations and individuals are affected by psychic dynamics, the influence of the unconscious in the forms of human...... development and interaction situated in a societal context. Based on this substantial work I draw upon two influential psychoanalytical positions—the British Tavistock position and German psychoanalytic social psychology in order to situate and identify how to understand the inner and outer life at work...

  17. The urgency of outer territories anthropology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš Milenković

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the context of transforming a part of Serbian anthropology into social theoretic management of identity, I suggest both comparative historiographic and ethnographic learning from societies with similar post-colonial experience, with the aim to include the discipline into an urgent defense of Serbia and Belgrade from further ethno-profiteering interests of elites in/from outer territories, left over on the ruins of our ill judged, resource incompatible, exaggerated or immoral twentieth century adventures. Serbian anthropology, written by anthropologists to whom Serbia and Belgrade are "homeland" by origin or civilized choice, should play the key role in the defense of Serbian citizens from the interest of elites in/from the outer "homelands", particularly by revealing the processes for which it is, as a discipline, most expert at – the professionalization of ethnicity, interactive and hybrid nature of identity, instrumental nature of tradition and the identity politics in general. Having in mind the latest attempt, a particularly successful one, conducted by the end of the 20th and the beginning of the 21st century that the lives, health, well-being, dignity and future of persons born in and loyal to the interest of Serbia and Belgrade, in large scale, thoroughly and long term be sacrificed and dedicated to the interests of ethno-profiteering elites in/from outer territories, in this article I point to the possibility to, along with the comparative learning from the above mentioned post-colonial experiences, delicate experiences of urgent anthropology be applied as well as the rich tradition of collective research. This text analyzes the results of first such research, that represenst the initial, praiseworthy and a brave step in the wise striving to engage social sciences and humanities in a search of expert and not mythical/daily-political solutions of the key problem of the Serbian nation – that of how to settle the interests of the

  18. A preliminary assessment of geologic framework and sediment thickness studies relevant to prospective US submission on extended continental shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Deborah R.; Childs, Jonathan R.; Hammar-Klose, Erika; Dadisman, Shawn; Edgar, N. Terrence; Barth, Ginger A.

    2004-01-01

    Under the provisions of Articles 76 and 77 of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), coastal States have sovereign rights over the continental shelf territory beyond 200-nautical mile (nm) from the baseline from which the territorial sea is measured if certain conditions are met regarding the geologic and physiographic character of the legal continental shelf as defined in those articles. These claims to an extended continental shelf must be supported by relevant bathymetric, geophysical and geological data according to guidelines established by the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf (CLCS, 1999). In anticipation of the United States becoming party to UNCLOS, Congress in 2001 directed the Joint Hydrographic Center/Center for Coastal and Ocean Mapping at the University of New Hampshire to conduct a study to evaluate data relevant to establishing the outer limit of the juridical continental shelf beyond 200 nm and to recommend what additional data might be needed to substantiate such an outer limit (Mayer and others, 2002). The resulting report produced an impressive and sophisticated GIS database of data sources. Because of the short time allowed to complete the report, all seismic reflection data were classified together; the authors therefore recommended that USGS perform additional analysis on seismic and related data holdings. The results of this additional analysis are the substance of this report, including the status of geologic framework, sediment isopach research, and resource potential in the eight regions1 identified by Mayer and others (2002) where analysis of seismic data might be crucial for establishing an outer limit . Seismic reflection and refraction data are essential in determining sediment thickness, one of the criteria used in establishing the outer limits of the juridical continental shelf. Accordingly, the initial task has been to inventory public-domain seismic data sources, primarily those regionally

  19. 78 FR 20423 - Oil and Gas and Sulphur Operations in the Outer Continental Shelf-Revisions to Safety and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-05

    ... Enforcement (BSEE); Interior. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This final rule will revise and add several new... 63610). That rule established a new Subpart S in 30 CFR part 250, requiring all OCS operators to have a... to developing and implementing stop work authority (SWA) and ultimate work authority (UWA), requiring...

  20. Progoniada and Goniadella (Annelida : Polychaeta : Goniadidae) from the outer continental shelf and slope off south-eastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Rizzo, AE; Amaral, ACZ

    2004-01-01

    Species of the genera Progoniada and Goniadella and are recorded from off the Brazilian coast, from depths of 93 to 808 m. The description of Progoniada regularis is complemented with new data on the number of chevrons and micrognaths. Goniadella revizee sp. nov. is described; it differs from the five known species of the genus mainly in having acicular chaetae above the dorsal cirrus, together with 20-21 uniramous chactigcers. The proboscideal pilpillae of both species are illustrated by sca...

  1. 77 FR 50855 - Oil and Gas and Sulphur Operations on the Outer Continental Shelf-Increased Safety Measures for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-22

    ... preventers, well casing and cementing, secondary intervention, unplanned disconnects, recordkeeping, and well.... The second table relates to broader topics and general questions not connected to a specific section... marine riser package (LMRP) understated. The cost to pull a disconnect (under Sec. BOP for a visual...

  2. 77 FR 71621 - Atlantic Wind One (ATLW1) Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-03

    ...,799 acres, the amount of rent payment will be $338,397 per year. The Lessee also must pay rent for any... Lessee must also pay the greater of $5.00 per acre per year or $450.00 per year. Operating Fee: The... then click ``search.'' Follow the instructions to submit public comments. 2. Written Comments: In...

  3. 75 FR 25291 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Mid-Atlantic Proposed Oil and Gas Lease Sale 220

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... 27 at Elizabeth City State University Fine Arts Complex in Elizabeth City, North Carolina. These..., 1201 Elmwood Park Boulevard, New Orleans, LA 70123-2394, telephone (504) 736-3233. SUPPLEMENTARY... period and made announcements in a press release and other media. On January 7, 2009, MMS published a...

  4. 76 FR 8962 - Renewable Energy Alternate Uses of Existing Facilities on the Outer Continental Shelf-Acquire a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-16

    ... under NAICS Code 325120 (Industrial Gas Manufacturing). The definition for this code is: ``This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing industrial organic and inorganic gases in...

  5. 75 FR 72679 - Renewable Energy Alternate Uses of Existing Facilities on the Outer Continental Shelf-Acquire a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-26

    ... produce hydrogen and fall under NAICS Code 325120 (Industrial Gas Manufacturing). The definition for this code is: ``This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing industrial organic and inorganic gases in compressed, liquid, or solid forms.'' Given the original findings of the...

  6. 76 FR 28178 - Renewable Energy Alternate Uses of Existing Facilities on the Outer Continental Shelf-Acquire a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-16

    ... (Industrial Gas Manufacturing). The definition for this code is: ``This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing industrial organic and inorganic gases in compressed, liquid, or solid...

  7. 78 FR 59968 - Potential Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Offshore Oregon...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... technical and financial qualifications can be found at: http://www.boem.gov/Renewable-Energy-Program... submissions of indications of interest in obtaining a commercial lease for wind energy development on the OCS... area described in this notice, the potential environmental consequences of wind energy development in...

  8. 78 FR 760 - Potential Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Offshore New...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ... technical and financial qualifications can be found at: http://www.boem.gov/Renewable-Energy-Program... lease for wind energy development on the OCS offshore New York for the area identified in this notice... project to supply the Long Island and New York City region with renewable energy, consistent with New York...

  9. 78 FR 60892 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Alaska OCS Region, Chukchi Sea Planning Area, Proposed Oil and Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ... Area offer greater resource potential, while minimizing potential conflicts with environmental.... Existing Information An extensive Environmental Studies Program, including environmental, social, and... limiting conflicts with environmentally sensitive areas and subsistence use by making certain...

  10. 78 FR 59715 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Alaska OCS Region, Chukchi Sea Planning Area, Proposed Oil and Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-27

    ... resource potential, while minimizing potential conflicts with environmental subsistence considerations... extensive Environmental Studies Program, including environmental, social, and economic studies in the... while limiting conflicts with environmentally sensitive areas and subsistence use by making certain...

  11. 77 FR 18260 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Alaska OCS Region, Cook Inlet Planning Area, Proposed Oil and Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-27

    ...), environmental, biological, archaeological, and socioeconomic conditions or potential conflicts, or other..., and development; --Identify potential environmental effects and potential use conflicts; --Develop the.... 6. Existing Information: An extensive environmental, social, and economic Studies Program has been...

  12. 75 FR 81950 - Flaring Versus Venting To Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the Outer Continental Shelf; Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ..., safety, and economics. Industry comments also recommended that, in addition to considering requiring... improve over the next few years now that regulations at 30 CFR part 250, subpart K have been implemented...

  13. 76 FR 56683 - Oil and Gas and Sulphur Operations in the Outer Continental Shelf-Revisions to Safety and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    ... implementation of SEMS programs, and establishing requirements for reporting unsafe working conditions. In... be under investigation, the event further illustrates the importance of ensuring safe operations on... safer and with appropriate protections for workers and the environment. BOEMRE may consider further...

  14. 78 FR 14116 - Gulf of Mexico (GOM), Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Eastern Planning Area (EPA) Lease Sale 225...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-04

    ... a limited number of paper copies. In keeping with the Department of the Interior's mission to.... However, if you require a paper copy, BOEM will provide one upon request if copies are still available. 1...:00 p.m. EDT; Panama City Beach, Florida: Wednesday, March 27, 2013, Wyndham Bay Point Resort, 4114...

  15. 75 FR 16833 - Preliminary Revised 5-Year Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Oil and Gas Leasing Program for 2007-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ... sensitivity analysis is expanded, it is important to remember that the Secretary's decisions are not based on... study will summarize what information is available, where knowledge gaps exist, and what research is... commenters to focus on the expanded relative environmental sensitivity analysis and the Secretary's revisions...

  16. 78 FR 65705 - Request for Comments on the Annual Progress Report on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Oil and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    ... comments submitted by mail or through its Internet submission system. Please submit your comments using... not be considered. BOEM will not consider anonymous comments. BOEM will make available for inspection... Confidential Information.'' Internet: Federal eRulemaking Portal: http://www.regulations.gov . Under the tab...

  17. Impacts of Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) development on recreation and tourism. Volume 2. Final report and case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-04-01

    The final report for the project is comprised of five volumes. The volume presents the study conclusions, summarizes the methodology used (more detail is found in Volume 3), discusses four case study applications of the model, and contains profiles of coastal communities in an Appendix.

  18. 76 FR 22130 - Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf Offshore New Jersey-Call for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-20

    ... and assess tourism and related economic sectors. To comply with the BRP's recommendations, the New..., among other things, risk harm to the historic resources or impede the use of a traditional religious...

  19. 77 FR 3771 - Notice of Issuance of Final Outer Continental Shelf Air Permit for Shell Offshore, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-25

    ... locations within Shell's DeSoto Canyon and Lloyd Ridge lease locations on the OCS in the Gulf of Mexico... INFORMATION CONTACT: Lori Shepherd, Air Permits Section, Air Planning Branch, Air, Pesticides and Toxics... effective on December 30, 2011. Dated: January 12, 2012. Beverly H. Banister, Director, Air, Pesticides and...

  20. 77 FR 39164 - Safety Zone; KULLUK, Outer Continental Shelf Mobile Offshore Drilling Unit (MODU), Beaufort Sea, AK

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-02

    ... maritime traffic in the vicinity of the areas; (6) the types of vessels navigating in the vicinity of the... Observers and possibly Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement (BOEMRE) personnel... the Arctic Ocean than normal due to increased vessel traffic in the Arctic Ocean. Consequently, the...

  1. 77 FR 38718 - Safety Zone; NOBLE DISCOVERER, Outer Continental Shelf Drillship, Chukchi and/or Beaufort Seas, AK

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... vicinity of the areas; (6) the types of vessels navigating in the vicinity of the area; (7) the structural... employees, third party contractors, Alaska Native Marine Mammal Observers and possibly Bureau of Ocean... the Arctic Ocean than normal due to increased vessel traffic in the Arctic Ocean. Consequently, the...

  2. 76 FR 22139 - Gulf of Mexico (GOM), Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Western Planning Area (WPA), Oil and Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-20

    ... EIS and the 2009-2012 SEIS and to consider the Deepwater Horizon event. This Draft SEIS provides... activities and accidental events, including a possible large-scale event, associated with the proposed WPA...

  3. 77 FR 2991 - Gulf of Mexico (GOM), Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Central Planning Area (CPA), Oil and Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ... circumstances and information arising from, among other things, the Deepwater Horizon event. This Final... Supplemental EIS and in consideration of the Deepwater Horizon event, including scientific journals; interviews... resources and socioeconomic factors. This analysis considers both routine activities and accidental events...

  4. 77 FR 67394 - Gulf of Mexico (GOM), Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Western Planning Area (WPA) Lease Sale 233...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-09

    ... information in light of the Deepwater Horizon event. This Draft Supplemental EIS provides updates on the... consideration of the Deepwater Horizon event, reviewing scientific journals, available scientific data, and... impacts of routine activities and accidental events, and the proposed lease sales' incremental...

  5. 75 FR 63609 - Oil and Gas and Sulphur Operations in the Outer Continental Shelf-Safety and Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-15

    ... Horizon event on April 20, 2010. Although the cause of the event is presently under investigation, it... the need for a comprehensive SEMS program. The recent Deepwater Horizon incident is a significant... results of inspections and evaluations, or as a result of an event. The operator must update the...

  6. 76 FR 70156 - Proposed 5-Year Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Oil and Gas Leasing Program for 2012-2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... Analysis for the OCS 5-Year Program 2012-2017: Theory and Methodology (BOEM 050-2011), a paper containing a..., which remain the two areas of highest resource potential and interest, the Proposed Program schedules..., and setting the fiscal terms and conditions by individual lease sale, based on a current assessment of...

  7. 75 FR 62418 - Notice of Intent To Conduct a Review of Categorical Exclusions for Outer Continental Shelf Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-08

    ... drilling beyond 50 feet of consolidated rock or beyond 300 feet of unconsolidated rock, including contracts... dating back to the late 1970s and now BOEMRE is initiating another cycle of review as proposed herein. To...

  8. 78 FR 1759 - Notice of Approval of Clean Air Act Outer Continental Shelf Minor Source/Title V Minor Permit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-09

    ... documents relevant to the above-referenced permits are available for public inspection during normal... permit decisions, to the extent it is available, may be sought by filing a petition for review in the... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR PART 52 [FRL-9767-5] Notice of Approval of Clean Air Act...

  9. 78 FR 55230 - Safety and Environmental Management System Requirements for Vessels on the U.S. Outer Continental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-10

    ...\\ including the regulation of workplace safety and health.\\2\\ The Coast Guard's regulatory authority extends... 147 [Docket No. USCG-2012-0779] RIN 1625-AC05 Safety and Environmental Management System Requirements... a vessel-specific Safety and Environmental Management System (SEMS) that incorporates the management...

  10. 75 FR 20271 - Oil and Gas and Sulphur Operations in the Outer Continental Shelf-Oil and Gas Production...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-19

    ... decrease in pressure, an increase in temperature, or both) from storage vessels or other low-pressure... pressures. We explain the length of time that gas may be flared or vented for each situation and clarify... the resource that is lost and the volume of greenhouse gas emissions these practices contribute to the...

  11. 77 FR 41448 - Notice of Availability of the Proposed Final Five Year Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Oil and Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ... President and Congress. After a period of at least 60 days from the date it was submitted to the President... (3 areas off Alaska and 3 areas in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM)). Maps A and B show the areas proposed... not under congressional moratorium pursuant to the Gulf of Mexico Energy Security Act of 2006 (GOMESA...

  12. 78 FR 52562 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Gulf of Mexico (GOM), Oil and Gas Lease Sales, Central Planning...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-23

    ... Prepare a Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). SUMMARY: Consistent with the regulations... Supplemental EIS will update the environmental and socioeconomic analyses in the Gulf of Mexico OCS Oil and Gas... Area Lease Sales 227, 231, 235, 241, and 247, Final Environmental Impact Statement (OCS EIS/EA BOEM...

  13. 78 FR 64242 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Gulf of Mexico (GOM), Oil and Gas Lease Sales, Western Planning...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ... (NOA) of the Draft Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and Public Meetings. SUMMARY: BOEM... Impact Statement (OCS EIS/EA BOEM 2012-019) (2012- 2017 WPA/CPA Multisale EIS) and in the Gulf of Mexico... Lease Sale 231, Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (OCS EIS/EA BOEM 2013-0118) (WPA 233...

  14. 78 FR 21969 - Gulf of Mexico (GOM), Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Western Planning Area (WPA) Lease Sale 233...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-12

    .... ACTION: Notice of Availability (NOA) of the Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (EIS... Environmental Impact Statement (OCS EIS/EA BOEM 2012-019) (2012-2017 Multisale EIS), completed in July 2012, in... to the cumulative impacts on environmental and socioeconomic resources. The oil and gas resource...

  15. 78 FR 42544 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Gulf of Mexico (GOM), Oil and Gas Lease Sale, Western Planning...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... Prepare a Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) SUMMARY: Consistent with the regulations... 248; Central Planning Area (CPA) Lease Sales 227, 231, 235, 241, and 247, Final Environmental Impact... Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (OCS EIS/EA BOEM 2013-0118) (WPA 233/CPA 231 Supplemental EIS). The...

  16. 75 FR 22623 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Mid-Atlantic Proposed Oil and Gas Lease Sale 220 and Geological and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ... (canceling the Sale); (3) implementing appropriate restrictions on oil and gas activities based on... during scoping help us form the content of the EIS and are summarized for Departmental decisionmakers... City State University Fine Arts Complex, 1704 Weeksville Road, Elizabeth City, North Carolina 27909...

  17. 76 FR 51383 - Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Offshore Rhode Island and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-18

    ... Rhode Island and Massachusetts recognizes the benefits of collaborating in the evaluation and potential... appropriate; (3) A preliminary schedule of proposed activities, including those leading to commercial...

  18. 77 FR 5552 - Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf Offshore Maryland-Call for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    ... and sport-fishing, ship wrecks, important fishing grounds, artificial reefs, natural corals, and... by building structures in proximity to shipping routes is affected by numerous factors including, but... the location, character, or ownership of historic resources if it determines that disclosure may...

  19. 75 FR 69122 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Western and Central Planning Areas, Gulf of Mexico (GOM) Oil and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ... focus on updating the baseline conditions and potential environmental effects of oil and natural gas.... Comments Public meetings will be held in locations near these areas in early to mid November 2010. The...

  20. 75 FR 54372 - BOEMRE Information Collection Activity: 1010-0081, Operations in the Outer Continental Shelf for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-07

    ..., you should comment and provide your total capital and startup cost components or annual operation... cost factors, including system and technology acquisition, expected useful life of capital equipment, discount rate(s), and the period over which you incur costs. Capital and startup costs include, among other...

  1. 77 FR 74204 - Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf Offshore North Carolina-Call for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-13

    ... potential, and economics. The study, entitled, Coastal Wind, Energy for North Carolina's Future: A Study of... Chapter 2 and Appendix B of the BOEM Renewable Energy Framework Guide Book available at: http://www.BOEM... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Ocean Energy Management [Docket No. BOEM-2012-0088...

  2. 78 FR 54417 - Oil and Gas and Sulphur Operations on the Outer Continental Shelf-Oil and Gas Production Safety...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-04

    ... for routine operations. Sec. 250.818 Additional safety equipment--dry trees. Sec. 250.821 Emergency... length of training, whether the training was hands-on or classroom, the training frequency, and the...

  3. 77 FR 24980 - Record of Decision for Authorizing the Use of Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Sand Resources in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-26

    ... storm-induced wave impacts and coastal erosion. In the Congressionally-authorized Martin County HSDR... (OCSLA) (43 U.S.C. 1337(k)(2)). Under OCSLA, BOEM can convey, on a noncompetitive basis, the rights to...

  4. 78 FR 44150 - Atlantic Wind Lease Sale 1 (ATLW1) Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ... user login information and instructions for accessing the Auction Manual and Alternative Bidding Form... importance of which was highlighted by comments received in response to the Auction Format Information... Auction Auction System Technical Supplement and Auction Manual BOEM has created an Auction System...

  5. 78 FR 60208 - Oil and Gas and Sulphur Operations in the Outer Continental Shelf-Adjustment of Service Fees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    ... the IPD-GDP from 2007 through 2012, thus reflecting the rate of inflation over 5 years. The inflation... establish the 2013 cost recovery service fee. While BEA may revise the inflation rate in the future, BSEE... will periodically adjust fees for inflation according to changes in the Implicit Price Deflator for...

  6. Outer Continental Shelf oil and gas technology: short course held in Washington, D. C. , May 26--27, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    Manuscript is presented here from tape recordings of this two-day short course, which was concerned with the institutional factors, emphasizing nontechnical and technical aspects and barriers--social, environmental, economic, etc. Sponsored by ERDA and the University of Oklahoma, background information is first presented on ERDA's energy authorities, priorities, goals and mission. Later, such subjects as economic growth and energy demands, energy supplies in the near future, and domestic energy supplies are addressed; finally, the present status of offshore activities are summarized.

  7. 76 FR 19122 - Record of Decision (ROD) for Authorizing the Use of Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Sand Resources...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-06

    ... a technical partner for NASA. The PEIS assessed the physical, biological, and social/human impacts... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement Record of... Protection Program AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement (BOEMRE), Interior...

  8. Nd isotope constraints on ocean circulation, paleoclimate, and continental drainage during the Jurassic breakup of Pangea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dera, Guillaume; Prunier, Jonathan; Smith, Paul L.

    2015-01-01

    , western Russia, and North America. Combined with an extensive compilation of published εNd(t) data, our results show that the continental sources of Nd were very heterogeneous across the world. Volcanic inputs from a Jurassic equivalent of the modern Pacific Ring of Fire contributed to radiogenic ε......-Tethyan, and western Russian waters varied quite similarly through time, in response to regional changes in oceanic circulation, paleoclimate, continental drainage, and volcanism. Three positive shifts in εNd(t) values occurred successively in these epicontinental seas during the Pliensbachian, in the Aalenian...

  9. Methane Group Ions in Saturn’s Outer Magnetosphere?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sittler, E. C.; Hartle, R. E.; Cooper, J. F.; Johnson, R. E.; Smith, H.; Shappirio, M.; Reisenfeld, D. B.

    2009-12-01

    Yelle et al. [2008] have estimated from Cassini Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) measurements that methane is escaping from Titan’s upper atmosphere at the rate of 2.5-3.0×109 mol/cm2/s and in order to explain this loss rate Strobel [2008] has proposed a hydrodynamic escape model to explain such high loss rates. This translates to loss of 2.8×1027 methane mol/s. The consequence of this work is the formation of a methane torus around Saturn which will dissociate to CH3 and other fragments of methane. The CH3 will then become ionized to form CH3+ with pickup energies ≈ keV after which it can be detected by the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) Ion Mass Spectrometer (IMS). Up till now the ion composition within Saturn’s outer magnetosphere in the vicinity of Titan’s orbit have yielded negative results with water group ions W+ dominating. The water group ions probably result from the emission of fast neutrals from the Enceladus torus via charge exchange reactions but still gravitationally bound to Saturn [see Johnson et al., 2005 and Sittler et al. 2006] and then become ionized in the outer magnetosphere as ~≈keV pickup ions. The CAPS IMS produces two ion composition data products, one called Straight Through (ST) and the other Linear Electric Field (LEF). The first has a higher sensitivity, while the latter has a greater discrimination in time-of-flight (TOF). For ST data O+ and CH4+ have similar TOF with the primary discriminator being the O- fragment which appears at a different TOF than for mass 16 ions. One can also look for other discriminators called ghost peaks. In case of LEF W+ ions produce TOF peak close to that for atomic O+ and the methane will produce TOF close to that for atomic C+ which has a significantly different(shorter) TOF than O+. We will be reporting on our continual search for methane ions within Saturn’s outer magnetosphere. References: 1. Yelle, R. V., J. Cui and I.C.F. Müller-Wodarg, JGR, 2008. 2. Strobel, D. F., Icarus

  10. Heating of the outer solar atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, E.N.

    1983-01-01

    The author discusses the idea that there must be a source of magnetic fields somewhere below the solar surface. He starts by considering present day ideas about the sun's internal structure. The sun has a radius of approximately 700,000 km, of which the outer 100,000 km or so is the convective zone, according to mixing-length models. The dynamo is believed to operate in the convective zone, across which there may be a 5-10% variation in the angular velocity. There are the stretched east-west fields similar to the ones in the earth's core. Associated with these are poloidal fields which contribute to a net dipole moment of the sun and are generated by a dynamo. The author shows that essentially no magnetic field configuration has an equilibrium; they dissipate quickly in spite of the high conductivity in fluid motions and heating. This is probably the major part of the heating of the sun's outer atmosphere. (Auth.)

  11. Cosmics in the LHCb Outer Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel

    2010-01-01

    The LHCb experiment at the Large Hadron Collider studies the decay of B mesons to test the description of CP violation in the Standard Model and to search for new physics. The decay $B_s \\to \\mu^+ \\mu^-$ has been identified as very promising in the search for new physics. An excellent invariant mass resolution is required to suppress backgrounds to this decay. This in turn requires a momentum resolution of dp/p = 0.4%. The Outer Tracker is part of the LHCb tracking system and has been commissioned with cosmic muons. The noise in the Outer Tracker is shown to be less than 0.05%. To use drift time information in the reconstruction of cosmic tracks, the event time must be known. Four methods to obtain the event time are studied and compared. It is shown that the event time can be obtained with a resolution better than 2.6 ns. Using drift time information, tracks are reconstructed with a resolution of 344 $\\mu$m. Knowledge of the event time enables the calibration of electronic time offsets and the r(t)– relati...

  12. Gamma rays from pulsar outer gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiang, J.; Romani, R.W.; Cheng Ho

    1993-01-01

    We describe a gamma ray pulsar code which computes the high energy photon emissivities from vacuum gaps in the outer magnetosphere, after the model outlined by Cheng, Ho and Ruderman (1986) and Ho (1989). Pair-production due to photon-photon interactions and radiation processes including curvature, synchrotron and inverse Compton processes are computed with an iterative scheme which converges to self-consistent photon and particle distributions for a sampling of locations in the outer magnetosphere. We follow the photons from these distributions as they propagate through the pulsar magnetosphere toward a distant observer. We include the effects of relativistic aberration, time-of-flight delays and reabsorption by photon-photon pair-production to determine an intensity map of the high energy pulsar emission on the sky. Using data from radio and optical observations to constrain the geometry of the magnetosphere as well as the possible observer viewing angles, we derive light curves and phase dependent spectra which can be directly compared to data from the Compton Observatory. Observations for Crab, Vela and the recently identified gamma ray pulsars Geminga, PSR1706-44 aNd PSR 1509-58 will provide important tests of our model calculations, help us to improve our picture of the relevant physics at work in pulsar magnetospheres and allow us to comment on the implications for future pulsar discoveries

  13. Residual Stress Testing of Outer 3013 Containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, K.

    2004-01-01

    A Gas Tungsten Arc Welded (GTAW) outer 3013 container and a laser welded outer 3013 container have been tested for residual stresses according to the American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM) Standard G-36-94 [1]. This ASTM standard describes a procedure for conducting stress-corrosion cracking tests in boiling magnesium chloride (MgCl2) solution. Container sections in both the as-fabricated condition as well as the closure welded condition were evaluated. Significantly large residual stresses were observed in the bottom half of the as-fabricated container, a result of the base to can fabrication weld because through wall cracks were observed perpendicular to the weld. This observation indicates that regardless of the closure weld technique, sufficient residual stresses exist in the as-fabricated container to provide the stress necessary for stress corrosion cracking of the container, at the base fabrication weld. Additionally, sufficiently high residual stresses were observed in both the lid and the body of the GTAW as well as the laser closure welded containers. The stresses are oriented perpendicular to the closure weld in both the container lid and the container body. Although the boiling MgCl2 test is not a quantitative test, a comparison of the test results from the closure welds shows that there are noticeably more through wall cracks in the laser closure welded container than in the GTAW closure welded container

  14. Radioiodination of an outer membrane protein in intact Rickettsia prowazekii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.K.; Winkler, H.H.

    1980-01-01

    Intact Rickettsia prowazekii was radiolabeled with the glucose oxidase-lactoperoxidase method of iodination. Separation of the rickettsial extract into cytoplasmic, outer and inner membrane fractions demonstrated that the outer membrane was preferentially labeled. Analysis of the polypeptides of these fractions on high-resolution slab polyacrylamide gels showed that most of the 125 I was in polypeptide T49, an outer membrane constituent. Additional outer membrane polypeptides were iodinated in broken envelope preparations, demonstrating that T49 is uniquely accessible to the external environment and the asymmetric polypeptide organization of the outer membrane

  15. Coordination: Southeast Continental Shelf studies. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, D.W.

    1981-02-01

    An overview of the Oceanograhic Program of Skidaway Institute of Oceanograhy is presented. Included are the current five year plan for studies of the Southeast Continental Shelf, a summary of research accomplishments, proposed research for 1981-1982, current status of the Savannah Navigational Light Tower, and a list of publications. (ACR)

  16. Atmospheric residence times of continental aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balkanski, Y.J.

    1991-01-01

    The global atmospheric distributions of Rn-222 are simulated with a three-dimensional model of atmospheric transport based on the meteorology of the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) general circulation model. The short-lived radioactive gas Rn-222 (half-life = 3.8d) is emitted almost exclusively from land, at a relatively uniform rate; hence it is an excellent tracer of continental influences. Lead-210 is produced by decay of Rn-222 and immediately condenses to preexisting aerosol surfaces. It provides an excellent measure of aerosol residence times in the atmosphere because its source is accurately defined by the Rn-222 distribution. Results from the three-dimensional model are compared to measurements of Rn-222 and Pb-210 atmospheric concentrations to evaluate model's long-range transport over oceanic regions and to study the deposition mechanisms of atmospheric aerosols. Model results for Rn-222 are used to examine the long-range transport of continental air over two selected oceanic regions, the subantarctic Indian Ocean and the North Pacific. It is shown that the fast transport of air from southern Africa causes substantial continental pollution at southern mid-latitudes, a region usually regarded as pristine. Air over the North Pacific is heavily impacted by continental influences year round, but the altitude at which the transport occurs varies seasonally. Observations of aerosols at island sites, which are commonly used as diagnostics of continental influences, may be misleading because they do not account for influences at high altitude and because aerosols are efficiently scavenged by deposition during transport. The study of Pb-210 focuses on defining the residence times of submicron aerosols in the troposphere. Scavenging in wet convective updrafts is found to provide the dominant sink on a global scale

  17. Modification of Salmonella Lipopolysaccharides Prevents the Outer Membrane Penetration of Novobiocin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobre, Thatyane M.; Martynowycz, Michael W.; Andreev, Konstantin; Kuzmenko, Ivan; Nikaido, Hiroshi; Gidalevitz, David

    2015-12-01

    Small hydrophilic antibiotics traverse the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria through porin channels. Large lipophilic agents traverse the outer membrane through its bilayer, containing a majority of lipopolysaccharides in its outer leaflet. Genes controlled by the two-component regulatory system PhoPQ modify lipopolysaccharides. We isolate lipopolysaccharides from isogenic mutants of Salmonella sp., one lacking the modification, the other fully modified. These lipopolysaccharides were reconstituted asmonolayers at the air-water interface, and their properties, aswell as their interaction with a large lipophilic drug, novobiocin, was studied. X-ray reflectivity showed that the drug penetrated the monolayer of the unmodified lipopolysaccharides reaching the hydrophobic region,butwas prevented fromthis penetration intothemodified lipopolysaccharides.Results correlatewith behavior of bacterial cells, which become resistant to antibiotics after PhoPQ-regulated modifications. Grazing incidence x-ray diffraction showed that novobiocin produced a striking increase in crystalline coherence length, and the size of the near-crystalline domains.

  18. Relation between the continental TCZ and the TCZ over Equatorial ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    So the relationship between the continental and oceanic TCZ is complex. On the one hand, the oceanic TCZ maintains the continental TCZ by propagations, on the other it tries to suppress it by competition.

  19. Plankton community respiration, net ecosystem metabolism, and oxygen dynamics on the Louisiana continental shelf: Implications for hypoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrell, Michael C.; Stanley, Roman S.; Lehrter, John C.; Hagy, James D.

    2013-01-01

    We conducted a multi-year study of the Louisiana continental shelf (LCS) to better understand the linkages between water column metabolism and the formation of hypoxia (dissolved oxygen Continental Shelf Research, 29: 1861-1872) to estimate net water column metabolism. There was consistent evidence of net heterotrophy, particularly in western transects, and in deeper waters (>40 m depth), indicating a net organic carbon deficit on the LCS. We offer a simple scale argument to suggest that riverine and inshore coastal waters may be significant sources of organic carbon to account for this deficit. This study provided unprecedented, continental shelf scale coverage of heterotrophic metabolism, which is useful for constraining models of oxygen, carbon, and nutrient dynamics along the LCS.

  20. Thallium isotope composition of the upper continental crust and rivers - An investigation of the continental sources of dissolved marine thallium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, S.G.; Rehkamper, M.; Porcelli, D.; Andersson, P.; Halliday, A.N.; Swarzenski, P.W.; Latkoczy, C.; Gunther, D.

    2005-01-01

    The thallium (Tl) concentrations and isotope compositions of various river and estuarine waters, suspended riverine particulates and loess have been determined. These data are used to evaluate whether weathering reactions are associated with significant Tl isotope fractionation and to estimate the average Tl isotope composition of the upper continental crust as well as the mean Tl concentration and isotope composition of river water. Such parameters provide key constraints on the dissolved Tl fluxes to the oceans from rivers and mineral aerosols. The Tl isotope data for loess and suspended riverine detritus are relatively uniform with a mean of ??205Tl = -2.0 ?? 0.3 (??205Tl represents the deviation of the 205Tl/203Tl isotope ratio of a sample from NIST SRM 997 Tl in parts per 104). For waters from four major and eight smaller rivers, the majority were found to have Tl concentrations between 1 and 7 ng/kg. Most have Tl isotope compositions very similar (within ??1.5 ??205Tl) to that deduced for the upper continental crust, which indicates that no significant Tl isotope fractionation occurs during weathering. Based on these results, it is estimated that rivers have a mean natural Tl concentration and isotope composition of 6 ?? 4 ng/kg and ??205Tl = -2.5 ?? 1.0, respectively. In the Amazon estuary, both additions and losses of Tl were observed, and these correlate with variations in Fe and Mn contents. The changes in Tl concentrations have much lower amplitudes, however, and are not associated with significant Tl isotope effects. In the Kalix estuary, the Tl concentrations and isotope compositions can be explained by two-component mixing between river water and a high-salinity end member that is enriched in Tl relative to seawater. These results indicate that Tl can display variable behavior in estuarine systems but large additions and losses of Tl were not observed in the present study. Copyright ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd.

  1. 78 FR 32184 - Importation of Fresh Apricots From Continental Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    .... APHIS-2011-0132] RIN 0579-AD62 Importation of Fresh Apricots From Continental Spain AGENCY: Animal and... United States of fresh apricots from continental Spain. This action will allow interested persons... importation of fruits and vegetables to allow the importation of fresh apricots from continental Spain into...

  2. 78 FR 6227 - Importation of Fresh Apricots From Continental Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-30

    .... APHIS-2011-0132] RIN 0579-AD62 Importation of Fresh Apricots From Continental Spain AGENCY: Animal and... continental Spain. As a condition of entry, fresh apricots from continental Spain would have to be produced in... organization of Spain certifying that the fruit is free from all quarantine pests and has been produced in...

  3. 78 FR 32183 - Importation of Avocados From Continental Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    .... APHIS-2012-0002] RIN 0579-AD63 Importation of Avocados From Continental Spain AGENCY: Animal and Plant... continental Spain (excluding the Balearic Islands and Canary Islands) into the United States. This action will... avocados from continental Spain (excluding the Balearic Islands and Canary Islands) into the United States...

  4. Paleoenvironmental Evolution of Continental Carbonates in West-Central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EMILIANO C. OLIVEIRA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This paper presents a sedimentological and stratigraphical study of Quaternary (Middle to Late Pleistocene/Holocene continental carbonates outcrops inside Pantanal Basin and its surroundings, especially in Serra da Bodoquena, Pantanal do Miranda and Corumbá/Ladário plateau, in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, as well as in Serra das Araras, in the state of Mato Grosso. The aim is to understand the depositional paleoenvironments and analyse climate and tectonic influences in their genesis and evolution. The results show that the deposition of these continental carbonates started in the Middle to Late Pleistocene and have continued, with some interruptions, until the present days. Sedimentary successions were identified in the different areas, without complete correlation. Two sedimentary successions separated by an erosional surface were described in Serra da Bodoquena and Serra das Araras. In Corumbá and Pantanal do Miranda, only one succession was described. These successions were deposited in elongated lakes parallel to fault planes; small lakes, related plains and plateaus; springs related to cliffs produced by faulting; rivers conditioned by topographic variation. The climatic interpretation, without proper temporal resolution, obtained by the stable-isotope composition and stratigraphic interpretation, indicates alternation of dry and wet periods. The Neoproterozoic faults with their neotectonics and the subsidence of the Pantanal Basin, are the major control for carbonated water flow and development of depositional areas, gradually turning plateaus into slight tilted areas, allowing the evolution of depositional systems from lakes to rivers.

  5. Geochemistry of sediments of the western Canadian continental shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, R. W.; Pedersen, T. F.

    1991-08-01

    Few chemical data exist for the sedimentary environment off the Canadian west coast. Here we define the chemical nature of the shelf sediments by examining the important sources of material (natural and anthropogenic) to the region and processes relevant to diagenesis. Slightly more data exist for the continental shelf to the south (Washington) and north (Alaska), however it is clear that the sedimentary environment of these neighbouring shelves differs importantly from the Canadian portion. The British Columbia shelf receives little modern terrigenous detritus due mainly to isolation from terrestrial sediment sources by fiords, inland seas, or bypassing by shelf canyons. The chemical state of the sediments depends on the rate of supply of material, the energy of the depositional or erosional environment and the organic and inorganic composition of the material. These features in concert with bottom water characteristics control the redox state. Although no basins hosting continuous depositional records for the Holocene on the open British Columbia shelf have been identified or studied in a manner described by BUCKLEY ( Continental Shelf Research, 11, 1099-1122), some coastal embayments and fiords provide valuable historical records of post-glacial sedimentation. Such environments will prove to be increasingly useful in future studies of changes in regional climate and in establishing the chronology of natural disasters and anthropogenic impacts. Recommendations are given for a variety of research projects that would help us to understand better both chemical interactions at the seabed and Late Quaternary depositional history.

  6. Sponge assemblages on the deep Mediterranean continental shelf and slope (Menorca Channel, Western Mediterranean Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santín, Andreu; Grinyó, Jordi; Ambroso, Stefano; Uriz, Maria J.; Gori, Andrea; Dominguez-Carrió, Carlos; Gili, Josep-Maria

    2018-01-01

    Sponge assemblages on continental shelves and slopes around the world have been known about for centuries. However, due to limitations of the traditional sampling systems, data about individual sponge species rather than assemblages have been reported. This study characterizes sponge assemblages over a wide bathymetric range ( 50-350 m depth) and covering the entire continental shelf and the upper slope of the Menorca Channel, an area soon to be declared a Marine Protected Area (MPA) as part of the Natura 2000 Network. Quantitative analysis of 85 video-transects (a total linear distance of 75 km), together with representative collections to confirm species identifications, allowed us to discriminate six major assemblages. Differences in the assemblages mainly corresponded to differences in substrate type and depth. On the inner continental shelf, a semi-sciaphilous Axinellid assemblage dominated the rocky outcrops. Maërl beds on the inner continental shelf were dominated by Haliclona (Reniera) mediterranea, whereas the horny sponge Aplysina cavernicola and several other haliclonids mostly dominated maërl beds and rocky substrates of the outer shelf. Soft sediments on the shelf break hosted a monospecific Thenea muricata assemblage, whereas rocky substrates of the shelf break were characterized by a mixture of encrusting, columnar and fan-shaped sponges. Finally, the upper slope was dominated by Hamacantha (Vomerula) falcula and the hexactinellid Tretodictyum reiswigi. Overall, sponge diversity showed its highest values above the shelf break, plummeting severely on the upper slope. Despite this diversity decrease, we found very high densities (> 70 ind./m2) of sponges over vast areas of both the shelf break and the upper slope.

  7. Contributions to knowledge of the continental margin of Uruguay. Description of background samples in the continental margin of Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preciozzi, F

    2015-01-01

    This study provide data concerning of the background sediments of the continental margin of Uruguay. There were carried out different works with witnesses in order to extract various sediment samples from the continental shelf

  8. Recurrent Neural Network for Computing Outer Inverse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Živković, Ivan S; Stanimirović, Predrag S; Wei, Yimin

    2016-05-01

    Two linear recurrent neural networks for generating outer inverses with prescribed range and null space are defined. Each of the proposed recurrent neural networks is based on the matrix-valued differential equation, a generalization of dynamic equations proposed earlier for the nonsingular matrix inversion, the Moore-Penrose inversion, as well as the Drazin inversion, under the condition of zero initial state. The application of the first approach is conditioned by the properties of the spectrum of a certain matrix; the second approach eliminates this drawback, though at the cost of increasing the number of matrix operations. The cases corresponding to the most common generalized inverses are defined. The conditions that ensure stability of the proposed neural network are presented. Illustrative examples present the results of numerical simulations.

  9. Ageing of the LHCb outer tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Blom, M R; Tuning, N

    2009-01-01

    The modules of the LHCb outer tracker have shown to suffer severe gain loss under moderate irradiation. This process is called ageing. Ageing of the modules results from contamination of the gas system by glue, araldite AY 103-1, used in their construction. In this thesis the ageing process will be shown. The schemes known to reduce, reverse, or prevent ageing have been investigated to determine their effect on the detector performance. The addition of O2 to the gas mixture lowers the detector response by an acceptable amount and does not affect the gas transport properties significantly. The ageing rate is decreased after extensive flushing and HV training could eventually repair the irradiation damage. The risks of HV training have been assessed. Furthermore, several gaseous and aquatic additions have been tested for their capability to prevent, or moderate ageing, but none showed significant improvement.

  10. The fate of the outer plasmasphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elphic, R.C.; Thomsen, M.F.; Borovsky, J.E.

    1997-01-01

    Both the solar wind and the ionosphere contribute to Earth close-quote s magnetospheric plasma environment. However, it is not widely appreciated that the plasmasphere is a large reservoir of ionospheric ions that can be tapped to populate the plasma sheet. We employ empirical models of high-latitude ionospheric convection and the geomagnetic field to describe the transport of outer plasmasphere flux tubes from the dayside, over the polar cap and into the magnetotail during the early phases of a geomagnetic storm. We calculate that this process can give rise to high densities of cold plasma in the magnetotail lobes and in the near-Earth plasma sheet during times of enhanced geomagnetic activity, and especially during storms. This model can help explain both polar cap ionization patches and the presence of cold flowing ions downtail.copyright 1997 American Geophysical Union

  11. Impulsive ion acceleration in earth's outer magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, D.N.; Belian, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    Considerable observational evidence is found that ions are accelerated to high energies in the outer magnetosphere during geomagnetic disturbances. The acceleration often appears to be quite impulsive causing temporally brief (10's of seconds), very intense bursts of ions in the distant plasma sheet as well as in the near-tail region. These ion bursts extend in energy from 10's of keV to over 1 MeV and are closely associated with substorm expansive phase onsets. Although the very energetic ions are not of dominant importance for magnetotail plasma dynamics, they serve as an important tracer population. Their absolute intensity and brief temporal appearance bespeaks a strong and rapid acceleration process in the near-tail, very probably involving large induced electric fields substantially greater than those associated with cross-tail potential drops. Subsequent to their impulsive acceleration, these ions are injected into the outer trapping regions forming ion ''drift echo'' events, as well as streaming tailward away from their acceleration site in the near-earth plasma sheet. Most auroral ion acceleration processes occur (or are greatly enhanced) during the time that these global magnetospheric events are occurring in the magnetotail. A qualitative model relating energetic ion populations to near-tail magnetic reconnection at substorm onset followed by global redistribution is quite successful in explaining the primary observational features. Recent measurements of the elemental composition and charge-states have proven valuable for showing the source (solar wind or ionosphere) of the original plasma population from which the ions were accelerated

  12. Habitat specialization in tropical continental shelf demersal fish assemblages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben M Fitzpatrick

    Full Text Available The implications of shallow water impacts such as fishing and climate change on fish assemblages are generally considered in isolation from the distribution and abundance of these fish assemblages in adjacent deeper waters. We investigate the abundance and length of demersal fish assemblages across a section of tropical continental shelf at Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia, to identify fish and fish habitat relationships across steep gradients in depth and in different benthic habitat types. The assemblage composition of demersal fish were assessed from baited remote underwater stereo-video samples (n = 304 collected from 16 depth and habitat combinations. Samples were collected across a depth range poorly represented in the literature from the fringing reef lagoon (1-10 m depth, down the fore reef slope to the reef base (10-30 m depth then across the adjacent continental shelf (30-110 m depth. Multivariate analyses showed that there were distinctive fish assemblages and different sized fish were associated with each habitat/depth category. Species richness, MaxN and diversity declined with depth, while average length and trophic level increased. The assemblage structure, diversity, size and trophic structure of demersal fishes changes from shallow inshore habitats to deeper water habitats. More habitat specialists (unique species per habitat/depth category were associated with the reef slope and reef base than other habitats, but offshore sponge-dominated habitats and inshore coral-dominated reef also supported unique species. This suggests that marine protected areas in shallow coral-dominated reef habitats may not adequately protect those species whose depth distribution extends beyond shallow habitats, or other significant elements of demersal fish biodiversity. The ontogenetic habitat partitioning which is characteristic of many species, suggests that to maintain entire species life histories it is necessary to protect corridors of

  13. Seabed geology of the Canadian eastern continental shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, David J. W.

    1991-08-01

    The physiography of the continental shelf off eastern Canada is irregular, developed by glacial erosion of a previously fluvially-dominated landscape. Northern shelves are deeper than southern shelves. Most surficial sediments on the shelf are relict or palimpsest. The principal modern source of sediment to the northern shelves is ice rafting and iceberg scour reworking of Quaternary sediments. Southern shelves receive sediment through erosion of Quaternary sediments; only small amounts of fine-grained sediment derived from coastal erosion and rivers escape from the coastal zone. Regional maps of sediment texture, carbonate content and heavy mineralogy consequently show differences between the northern and southern shelves. Large areas of the shelf show little net deposition. On the northern shelves, there is a surface veneer up to 0.5 m thick derived from ice rafting and iceberg turbation of underlying Quaternary sediment, modified by south-flowing currents [ WOODWORTH-LYNASet al. (this issue) Continental Shelf Research, 11, 939-961]. The overall effects of former iceberg turbation may extend to a depth of 10 m sub-bottom. On the southern shelves, bioturbation and perhaps storm-related currents rework exposed Quaternary sediments more slowly. Muds accumulate in deep basins on the shelves at rates of about 0.5 m per 1000 years; this accumulation is probably episodic and related to major storms reworking sediment from the surface sediment veneer in shallower areas of little net deposition. In water depths less than 110 m sand and gravel have formed as a result of reworking in the coastal zone during the post-glacial transgression. Over large areas of Georges Bank, the eastern Scotian Shelf and the Grand Banks of Newfoundland, such sands are mobilized during storms to form a wide suite of bedforms [ AMOS and JUDGE (this issue) Continental Shelf Research, 11, 1037-1068]. Elsewhere, particularly in deeper water, sandy surfaces appear moribund or inactive and large

  14. Spatial analysis of toxic emissions in LCA: a sub-continental nested USEtox model with freshwater archetypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kounina, Anna; Margni, Manuele; Shaked, Shanna; Bulle, Cécile; Jolliet, Olivier

    2014-08-01

    This paper develops continent-specific factors for the USEtox model and analyses the accuracy of different model architectures, spatial scales and archetypes in evaluating toxic impacts, with a focus on freshwater pathways. Inter-continental variation is analysed by comparing chemical fate and intake fractions between sub-continental zones of two life cycle impact assessment models: (1) the nested USEtox model parameterized with sub-continental zones and (2) the spatially differentiated IMPACTWorld model with 17 interconnected sub-continental regions. Substance residence time in water varies by up to two orders of magnitude among the 17 zones assessed with IMPACTWorld and USEtox, and intake fraction varies by up to three orders of magnitude. Despite this variation, the nested USEtox model succeeds in mimicking the results of the spatially differentiated model, with the exception of very persistent volatile pollutants that can be transported to polar regions. Intra-continental variation is analysed by comparing fate and intake fractions modelled with the a-spatial (one box) IMPACT Europe continental model vs. the spatially differentiated version of the same model. Results show that the one box model might overestimate chemical fate and characterisation factors for freshwater eco-toxicity of persistent pollutants by up to three orders of magnitude for point source emissions. Subdividing Europe into three archetypes, based on freshwater residence time (how long it takes water to reach the sea), improves the prediction of fate and intake fractions for point source emissions, bringing them within a factor five compared to the spatial model. We demonstrated that a sub-continental nested model such as USEtox, with continent-specific parameterization complemented with freshwater archetypes, can thus represent inter- and intra-continental spatial variations, whilst minimizing model complexity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Regional magnetic anomaly constraints on continental rifting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonfrese, R. R. B.; Hinze, W. J.; Olivier, R.; Bentley, C. R.

    1985-01-01

    Radially polarized MAGSAT anomalies of North and South America, Europe, Africa, India, Australia and Antarctica demonstrate remarkably detailed correlation of regional magnetic lithospheric sources across rifted margins when plotted on a reconstruction of Pangea. These major magnetic features apparently preserve their integrity until a superimposed metamorphoric event alters the magnitude and pattern of the anomalies. The longevity of continental scale magnetic anomalies contrasts markedly with that of regional gravity anomalies which tend to reflect predominantly isostatic adjustments associated with neo-tectonism. First observed as a result of NASA's magnetic satellite programs, these anomalies provide new and fundamental constraints on the geologic evolution and dynamics of the continents and oceans. Accordingly, satellite magnetic observations provide a further tool for investigating continental drift to compliment other lines of evidence in paleoclimatology, paleontology, paleomagnetism, and studies of the radiometric ages and geometric fit of the continents.

  16. Root zone of a continental rift

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirsch, Moritz; Svenningsen, Olaf

    2016-01-01

    melt are considered to account for the compositional range exhibited by the KIC igneous rocks. U/Pb SIMS geochronological data from zircon rims yield an emplacement age of 578 ± 9 Ma. The KIC is thus younger and more depleted than coeval mafic rocks found in the Seve Nappe, and is interpreted...... to represent a high-level magma plumbing system in a late-stage continental rift. The composition and volume of rift-related igneous rocks in the Seve Nappes are inconsistent with a mantle plume origin, but are thought to record progressive lithospheric thinning and increasing involvement of an asthenospheric......Mafic magmatic rocks formed between ca. 615 and 560 Ma along the Neoproterozoic margins of Baltica and Laurentia are classically attributed to continental rifting heralding the opening of the Iapetus Ocean. We report new data for the Kebnekaise Intrusive Complex (KIC) exposed in the Seve Nappes...

  17. Chlorine-36 dating of continental evaporites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Qi

    1990-01-01

    Teh chloring-36 production, principle and experimental method of 36 Cl dating are briefly described. The ages calculated from the 36 Cl/Cl ratios are generally concordant with those obtained by using 14 C, 230 Th and magnetostratigraphic techniques. It confirms the constancy of the chlorine input ratio over the last million years and implys that 36 Cl can provide accurate dates on continental saline sediments

  18. Swell propagation across a wide continental shelf

    OpenAIRE

    Hendrickson, Eric J.

    1996-01-01

    The effects of wave refraction and damping on swell propagation across a wide continental shelf were examined with data from a transect of bottom pressure recorders extending from the beach to the shelf break near Duck, North Carolina. The observations generally show weak variations in swell energy across the shelf during benign conditions, in qualitative agreement with predictions of a spectral refraction model. Although the predicted ray trajectories are quite sensitive to the irregular she...

  19. Continental crust formation: Numerical modelling of chemical evolution and geological implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walzer, U.; Hendel, R.

    2017-05-01

    Oceanic plateaus develop by decompression melting of mantle plumes and have contributed to the growth of the continental crust throughout Earth's evolution. Occasional large-scale partial melting events of parts of the asthenosphere during the Archean produced large domains of precursor crustal material. The fractionation of arc-related crust during the Proterozoic and Phanerozoic contributed to the growth of continental crust. However, it remains unclear whether the continents or their precursors formed during episodic events or whether the gaps in zircon age records are a function of varying preservation potential. This study demonstrates that the formation of the continental crust was intrinsically tied to the thermoconvective evolution of the Earth's mantle. Our numerical solutions for the full set of physical balance equations of convection in a spherical shell mantle, combined with simplified equations of chemical continent-mantle differentiation, demonstrate that the actual rate of continental growth is not uniform through time. The kinetic energy of solid-state mantle creep (Ekin) slowly decreases with superposed episodic but not periodic maxima. In addition, laterally averaged surface heat flow (qob) behaves similarly but shows peaks that lag by 15-30 Ma compared with the Ekin peaks. Peak values of continental growth are delayed by 75-100 Ma relative to the qob maxima. The calculated present-day qob and total continental mass values agree well with observed values. Each episode of continental growth is separated from the next by an interval of quiescence that is not the result of variations in mantle creep velocity but instead reflects the fact that the peridotite solidus is not only a function of pressure but also of local water abundance. A period of differentiation results in a reduction in regional water concentrations, thereby increasing the temperature of the peridotite solidus and the regional viscosity of the mantle. By plausibly varying the

  20. Formation of continental crust by intrusive magmatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozel, A. B.; Golabek, G. J.; Jain, C.; Tackley, P. J.; Gerya, T.

    2017-09-01

    How were the continents formed in the Earth? No global numerical simulation of our planet ever managed to generate continental material self-consistently. In the present study, we show that the latest developments of the convection code StagYY enable to estimate how to produce the early continents, more than 3 billion years ago. In our models, melting of pyrolitic rocks generates a basaltic melt and leaves behind a depleted solid residue (a harzburgite). The melt generated in the mantle is transported to the surface. Only basaltic rocks melting again can generate continental crust. Should the basaltic melt always reach the open air and cool down? Should the melt be intruded warm in the pre-existing crust? The present study shows that both processes have to be considered to produce continents. Indeed, granitoids can only be created in a tight window of pressure-temperature. If all basalt is quickly cooled by surface volcanism, the lithosphere will be too cold. If all basalt is intruded warm below the crust then the lithosphere will be too warm. The key is to have both volcanism and plutonism (intrusive magmatism) to reach the optimal temperature and form massive volumes of continental material.