Sample records for water mass formation

  1. Formation and spreading of Arabian Sea high-salinity water mass

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrasannaKumar, S.; Prasad, T.G.

    The formation and seasonal spreading of the Arabian Sea High-Salinity Water (ASHSW) mass were studied based on the monthly mean climatology of temperature and salinity in the Arabian Sea, north of the equator and west of 80 degrees E, on a 2 degrees...

  2. Air-sea fluxes and satellite-based estimation of water masses formation (United States)

    Sabia, Roberto; Klockmann, Marlene; Fernandez-Prieto, Diego; Donlon, Craig


    Recent work linking satellite-based measurements of sea surface salinity (SSS) and sea surface temperature (SST) with traditional physical oceanography has demonstrated the capability of generating routinely satellite-derived surface T-S diagrams [1] and analyze the distribution/dynamics of SSS and its relative surface density with respect to in-situ measurements. Even more recently [2,3], this framework has been extended by exploiting these T-S diagrams as a diagnostic tool to derive water masses formation rates and areas. A water mass describes a water body with physical properties distinct from the surrounding water, formed at the ocean surface under specific conditions which determine its temperature and salinity. The SST and SSS (and thus also density) at the ocean surface are largely determined by fluxes of heat and freshwater. The surface density flux is a function of the latter two and describes the change of the density of seawater at the surface. To obtain observations of water mass formation is of great interest, since they serve as indirect observations of the thermo-haline circulation. The SSS data which has become available through the SMOS [4] and Aquarius [5] satellite missions will provide the possibility of studying also the effect of temporally-varying SSS fields on water mass formation. In the present study, the formation of water masses as a function of SST and SSS is derived from the surface density flux by integrating the latter over a specific area and time period in bins of SST and SSS and then taking the derivative of the total density flux with respect to density. This study presents a test case using SMOS SSS, OSTIA SST, as well as Argo ISAS SST and SSS for comparison, heat fluxes from the NOCS Surface Flux Data Set v2.0, OAFlux evaporation and CMORPH precipitation. The study area, initially referred to the North Atlantic, is extended over two additional ocean basins and the study period covers the 2011-2012 timeframe. Yearly, seasonal

  3. Internal hydraulic control in the Little Belt, Denmark - observations of flow configurations and water mass formation (United States)

    Holtegaard Nielsen, Morten; Vang, Torben; Chresten Lund-Hansen, Lars


    Internal hydraulic control, which occurs when stratified water masses are forced through an abrupt constriction, plays an enormous role in nature on both large and regional scales with respect to dynamics, circulation, and water mass formation. Despite a growing literature on this subject surprisingly few direct observations have been made that conclusively show the existence of and the circumstances related to internal hydraulic control in nature. In this study we present observations from the Little Belt, Denmark, one of three narrow straits connecting the Baltic Sea and the North Sea. The observations (comprised primarily of along-strait, detailed transects of salinity and temperature; continuous observations of flow velocity, salinity, and temperature at a permanent station; and numerous vertical profiles of salinity, temperature, fluorescence, and flow velocity in various locations) show that internal hydraulic control is a frequently occurring phenomenon in the Little Belt. The observations, which are limited to south-going flows of approximately two-layered water masses, show that internal hydraulic control may take either of two configurations, i.e. the lower or the upper layer being the active, accelerating one. This is connected to the depth of the pycnocline on the upstream side and the topography, which is both deepening and contracting toward the narrow part of the Little Belt. The existence of two possible flow configurations is known from theoretical and laboratory studies, but we believe that this has never been observed in nature and reported before. The water masses formed by the intense mixing, which is tightly connected with the presence of control, may be found far downstream of the point of control. The observations show that these particular water masses are associated with chlorophyll concentrations that are considerably higher than in adjacent water masses, showing that control has a considerable influence on the primary production and

  4. Towards an estimation of water masses formation areas from SMOS-based TS diagrams (United States)

    Klockmann, Marlene; Sabia, Roberto; Fernandez-Prieto, Diego; Donlon, Craig; Font, Jordi


    Temperature-Salinity (TS) diagrams emphasize the mutual variability of ocean temperature and salinity values, relating them to the corresponding density. Canonically used in oceanography, they provide a means to characterize and trace ocean water masses. In [1], a first attempt to estimate surface-layer TS diagrams based on satellite measurements has been performed, profiting from the recent availability of spaceborne salinity data. In fact, the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS, [2]) and the Aquarius/SAC-D [3] satellite missions allow to study the dynamical patterns of Sea Surface Salinity (SSS) for the first time on a global scale. In [4], given SMOS and Aquarius salinity estimates, and by also using Sea Surface Temperature (SST) from the Operational Sea Surface Temperature and Sea Ice Analysis (OSTIA, [5]) effort, experimental satellite-based TS diagrams have been routinely derived for the year 2011. They have been compared with those computed from ARGO-buoys interpolated fields, referring to a customised partition of the global ocean into seven regions, according to the water masses classification of [6]. In [7], moreover, besides using TS diagrams as a diagnostic tool to evaluate the temporal variation of SST and SSS (and their corresponding density) as estimated by satellite measurements, the emphasis was on the interpretation of the geographical deviations with respect to the ARGO baseline (aiming at distinguishing between the SSS retrieval errors and the additional information contained in the satellite data with respect to ARGO). In order to relate these mismatches to identifiable oceanographic structures and processes, additional satellite datasets of ocean currents, evaporation/precipitation fluxes, and wind speed have been super-imposed. Currently, the main focus of the study deals with the exploitation of these TS diagrams as a prognostic tool to derive water masses formation areas. Firstly, following the approach described in [8], the surface

  5. Insights on Clusters Formation Mechanism by Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry. 1. The Case of Ethanol-Water Clusters (United States)

    Li, Xinling; Wang, Xuan; Passaro, Maria dell'Arco; Spinelli, Nicola; Apicella, Barbara


    In the present work, water clusters with the addition of an electrophilic molecule such as ethanol have been studied by time of flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS). Mass distributions of molecular clusters of ethanol, water, and ethanol-water mixed clusters were obtained by two different ionization methods: electron ionization (EI) and picosecond laser photo-ionization (PI) at a wavelength of 355 nm. It was shown that short pulse laser ionization increases the signal intensity and promotes the extension of the detected mass range of the clusters in comparison with EI. Much larger clusters were detected in our experiments with respect to the current literature. The autocorrelation function (AF) was introduced in the analysis of the composition of the water clusters in terms of fundamental periodicities for obtaining information on clusters formation mechanisms. Besides, it was found that ethanol molecules are capable of substitutional interaction with hydrogen-bonded water clusters in ethanol-water binary mixtures but the self-association of ethanol was the dominant process. Moreover, the increase of ethanol concentration promotes both the formation of hydrated ethanol clusters and the self-association of ethanol clusters in ethanol-water binary mixtures. The formation of water-rich clusters and subsequent metastable fragmentation were found to be the dominant processes determining the water-rich cluster distribution, irrespective of the ionization process, while the ionization process significantly affects the ethanol-rich cluster distribution.

  6. Glider Observations of the Properties, Circulation and Formation of Water Masses on the Rockall Plateau in the North Atlantic. (United States)

    Houpert, L.; Gary, S. F.; Inall, M. E.; Johns, W. E.; Porter, M.; Dumont, E.; Cunningham, S. A.


    The Overturning in Subpolar North Atlantic Program (OSNAP) is an international collaboration with the overarching goal of measuring the full-depth mass fluxes associated with the AMOC (Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation), as well as meridional heat and fresh-water fluxes. Through the deployment of moorings and gliders, UK-OSNAP is part of this international partnership to maintain a transoceanic observing system in the subpolar north Atlantic (the OSNAP array).We present here the first year and a half of UK-OSNAP glider missions on the Rockall Plateau in the North Atlantic, along the section located at 58°N, between 22°W and 15°W. Between July 2014 and September 2015, 10 gliders sections were realized on the Rockall Plateau. The depth-averaged current estimated from gliders shows very strong values (up to 45cm.s-1) associated with meso-scale variability due particularly to eddies and water mass formation. Glider data also reveal a deep mixed layer in February/March 2015 up to 600m associated with the formation of the 27.3σθ and 27.4σθ Subpolar Mode Waters. The variability of the meridional transport of heat, salt and mass on the Rockall Plateau are also discussed. Relative and absolute geostrophic transports are calculated from the glider data and from the combination of the glider data and the data from mooring M4 located in the Iceland Basin (58°N, 21°W).

  7. Water masses in Kangerlussuaq, a large fjord in West Greenland: the processes of formation and the associated foraminiferal fauna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Holtegaard; Erbs-Hansen, Dorthe Reng; Knudsen, Karen Luise


    –temperature–density measurements were carried out in connection with sediment surface sampling along a transect through the 180 km long fjord. The exchange between the inner part of Kangerlussuaq (275 m deep) and the ocean is restricted by an almost 100 km long outer, shallow part. Our study shows that the water mass...... in this inner part is almost decoupled from the open ocean, and that in winter the inner part of the fjord is ice covered and convection occurs as a result of brine release. These processes are reflected in the foraminiferal assemblage, which consists of a sparse agglutinated fauna, indicative of carbonate...

  8. Impact of the spatial distribution of the atmospheric forcing on water mass formation in the Mediterranean Sea (United States)

    BéRanger, Karine; Drillet, Yann; Houssais, Marie-NoëLle; Testor, Pierre; Bourdallé-Badie, Romain; Alhammoud, Bahjat; Bozec, Alexandra; Mortier, Laurent; Bouruet-Aubertot, Pascale; CréPon, Michel


    The impact of the atmospheric forcing on the winter ocean convection in the Mediterranean Sea was studied with a high-resolution ocean general circulation model. The major areas of focus are the Levantine basin, the Aegean-Cretan Sea, the Adriatic Sea, and the Gulf of Lion. Two companion simulations differing by the horizontal resolution of the atmospheric forcing were compared. The first simulation (MED16-ERA40) was forced by air-sea fields from ERA40, which is the ECMWF reanalysis. The second simulation (MED16-ECMWF) was forced by the ECMWF-analyzed surface fields that have a horizontal resolution twice as high as those of ERA40. The analysis of the standard deviations of the atmospheric fields shows that increasing the resolution of the atmospheric forcing leads in all regions to a better channeling of the winds by mountains and to the generation of atmospheric mesoscale patterns. Comparing the companion ocean simulation results with available observations in the Adriatic Sea and in the Gulf of Lion shows that MED16-ECMWF is more realistic than MED16-ERA40. In the eastern Mediterranean, although deep water formation occurs in the two experiments, the depth reached by the convection is deeper in MED16-ECMWF. In the Gulf of Lion, deep water formation occurs only in MED16-ECMWF. This larger sensitivity of the western Mediterranean convection to the forcing resolution is investigated by running a set of sensitivity experiments to analyze the impact of different time-space resolutions of the forcing on the intense winter convection event in winter 1998-1999. The sensitivity to the forcing appears to be mainly related to the effect of wind channeling by the land orography, which can only be reproduced in atmospheric models of sufficient resolution. Thus, well-positioned patterns of enhanced wind stress and ocean surface heat loss are able to maintain a vigorous gyre circulation favoring efficient preconditioning of the area at the beginning of winter and to drive

  9. Mass-independent fractionation of oxygen isotopes during H2O2 formation by gas-phase discharge from water vapour (United States)

    Velivetskaya, Tatiana A.; Ignatiev, Alexander V.; Budnitskiy, Sergey Y.; Yakovenko, Victoria V.; Vysotskiy, Sergey V.


    Hydrogen peroxide is an important atmospheric component involved in various gas-phase and aqueous-phase transformation processes in the Earth's atmosphere. A study of mass-independent 17O anomalies in H2O2 can provide additional insights into the chemistry of the modern atmosphere and, possibly, of the ancient atmosphere. Here, we report the results of laboratory experiments to study the fractionation of three oxygen isotopes (16O, 17O, and 18O) during H2O2 formation from products of water vapour dissociation. The experiments were carried out by passing an electrical discharge through a gaseous mixture of helium and water at atmospheric pressure. The effect of the presence of O2 in the gas mixture on the isotopic composition of H2O2 was also investigated. All of the experiments showed that H2O2 produced under two different conditions (with or without O2 added in the gas mixtures) was mass-independently fractionated (MIF). We found a positive MIF signal (∼1.4‰) in the no-O2 added experiments, and this signal increased to ∼2.5‰ once O2 was added (1.6% mixing ratio). We suggest that if O2 concentrations are very low, the hydroxyl radical recombination reaction is the dominant pathway for H2O2 formation and is the source of MIF in H2O2. Although H2O2 formation via a hydroxyl radical recombination process is limited in the modern atmosphere, it would be possible in the Archean atmosphere when O2 was a trace constituent, and H2O2 would be mass-independently fractionated. The anomalous 17O excess, which was observed in H2O2 produced by spark discharge experiments, may provide useful information about the radical chemistry of the ancient atmosphere and the role of H2O2 in maintaining and controlling the atmospheric composition.

  10. Mediterranean Sea large-scale low-frequency ocean variability and water mass formation rates from 1987 to 2007: A retrospective analysis (United States)

    Pinardi, Nadia; Zavatarelli, Marco; Adani, Mario; Coppini, Giovanni; Fratianni, Claudia; Oddo, Paolo; Simoncelli, Simona; Tonani, Marina; Lyubartsev, Vladislav; Dobricic, Srdjan; Bonaduce, Antonio


    We describe a synthesis of the Mediterranean Sea circulation structure and dynamics from a 23-year-long reanalysis of the ocean circulation carried out by Adani et al. (2011). This mesoscale permitting dynamical reconstruction of past ocean variability in the Mediterranean Sea allows the study of the time-mean circulation and its low frequency, decadal, components. It is found that the time-mean circulation is composed of boundary and open ocean intensified jets at the border of cyclonic and anticyclonic gyres. The large scale basin circulation is generally characterized in the northern regions by cyclonic gyres and in its southern parts by anticyclonic gyres and eddy-dominated flow fields, with the exception of the Tyrrhenian and the northern Ionian Sea. The time-mean Tyrrhenian Sea circulation is dominated by cyclonic gyres of different intensity and intermittency. The northern Ionian Sea circulation, however, reverses in sign in two ten-year periods, the first in 1987-1996 and the second in 1997-2006, which is here called the Northern Ionian reversal phenomenon. This reversal is provoked by the excursion of the Atlantic-Ionian Stream from the middle to the northern parts of the basin. The decadal variability of other parts of the basin is characterized by changes in strength of the basin scale structures. The water mass formation rates and variability are dominated by event-like periods where the intermediate and deep waters are formed for 2-3 years at higher rates. The largest deep water formation events of the past 23 years occurred separately in the western and eastern Mediterranean basin: the first coincided with the Eastern Mediterranean Transient (Roether et al., 1996) and the second with the western Mediterranean deep water formation event in 2005-2006 (Smith et al., 2008). A new schematic of the basin-scale circulation is formulated and commented.

  11. Shell formation and nuclear masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuker, A. P. [IPHC, IN2P3-CNRS, Universite Louis Pasteur, F-67037 Strasbourg (France)]. e-mail:


    We describe the basic mechanisms responsible for nuclear bulk properties and shell formation incorporated in the Duflo Zuker models. The emphasis is put on explaining why functionals of the occupancies can be so efficient in accounting for data with minimal computational effort. (Author)

  12. Star Formation in low mass galaxies (United States)

    Mehta, Vihang


    Our current hierarchical view of the universe asserts that the large galaxies we see today grew via mergers of numerous smaller galaxies. As evidenced by recent literature, the collective impact of these low mass galaxies on the universe is more substantial than previously thought. Studying the growth and evolution of these low mass galaxies is critical to our understanding of the universe as a whole. Star formation is one of the most important ongoing processes in galaxies. Forming stars is fundamental to the growth of a galaxy. One of the main goals of my thesis is to analyze the star formation in these low mass galaxies at different redshifts.Using the Hubble UltraViolet Ultra Deep Field (UVUDF), I investigate the star formation in galaxies at the peak of the cosmic star formation history using the ultraviolet (UV) light as a star formation indicator. Particularly, I measure the UV luminosity function (LF) to probe the volume-averaged star formation properties of galaxies at these redshifts. The depth of the UVUDF is ideal for a direct measurement of the faint end slope of the UV LF. This redshift range also provides a unique opportunity to directly compare UV to the "gold standard" of star formation indicators, namely the Hα nebular emission line. A joint analysis of the UV and Hα LFs suggests that, on average, the star formation histories in low mass galaxies (~109 M⊙) are more bursty compared to their higher mass counterparts at these redshifts.Complementary to the analysis of the average star formation properties of the bulk galaxy population, I investigate the details of star formation in some very bursty galaxies at lower redshifts selected from Spitzer Large Area Survey with Hyper-Suprime Cam (SPLASH). Using a broadband color-excess selection technique, I identify a sample of low redshift galaxies with bright nebular emission lines in the Subaru-XMM Deep Field (SXDF) from the SPLASH-SXDF catalog. These galaxies are highly star forming and have

  13. Numerical Simulations of Low Mass Star Formation (United States)

    Bhandare, Asmita; Kuiper, R.; Henning, T.; Fendt, C.; Koelligan, A.


    Stars are formed by gravitational collapse of dense cores in magnetized molecular clouds. Details of the earliest epochs of star formation process and protostellar evolution are only vaguely known and strongly depend on the accretion history. Thermodynamical modeling in terms of radiation transport and phase transitions is crucial to identify meaningful results. In this study, we use a gray treatment of radiative transfer coupled with hydrodynamics to simulate Larson's collapse. In spherically symmetric collapse simulations, we investigate properties of prestellar cores in the low mass regime.

  14. Features of Red Sea Water Masses

    KAUST Repository

    Kartadikaria, Aditya R.


    Features of Red Sea water mass can be divided into three types but best to be grouped into two different classes that are split at the potential density line σθ=27.4. The surface water (0-50 m) and the intermediate water (50-200 m) have nearly identical types of water mass. They appear as a maxima salinity layer for the water mass that has σθ > 26.0, and as a minimum salinity layer for water mass that has σθ < 26.0. These types of water masses are strongly affected by mixing that is controlled by seasonal variability, fresh water intrusion of the Gulf of Aden Intermediate Water (GAIW), and eddies variability. Two types of mixing; isopycnal and diapycnal mixing are part of important physical phenomena that explain the change of water mass in the Red Sea. The isopycnal mixing occurs at the neutral potential density line, connecting the Red Sea with its adjacent channel, the Gulf of Aden. Diapycnal mixing is found as a dominant mixing mode in the surface of the Red Sea Water and mainly due to energetic eddy activity. Density gradients, across which diapycnal mixing occurs, in the Red Sea are mainly due to large variations in salinity. The isolation of an extreme haline water mass below the thermocline contributes to the generation of the latitudinal shift and low diapycnal mixing. This finding further explains the difference of spatial kinetic mixing between the RSW and the Indian Ocean basin.

  15. Biofilm formation in a hot water system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagh, L.K.; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Arvin, Erik


    The biofilm formation rate was measured in situ in a hot water system in an apartment building by specially designed sampling equipment, and the net growth of the suspended bacteria was measured by incubation of water samples with the indigeneous bacteria. The biofilm formation rate reached......, in the sludge, or in the water from the distribution system was negligible. This indicated that bacterial growth took place on the inner surfaces in the hot water system and biofilm formation and detachment of bacteria could account for most of the suspended bacteria actually measured in hot water. Therefore...

  16. Water masses in the Gulf of Aden

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Al Saafani, M.A.; Shenoi, S.S.C.

    Hydrographic data collected from Gulf of Aden since 1920 have been compiled to identify and refine the definitions of water masses in the Gulf of Aden (GA) and to describe their spatio-temporal variability. Four water masses have been identified...

  17. Probing the early stages of low-mass star formation in LDN 1689N : Dust and water in IRAS 16293-2422A, B, and E

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stark, R; Sandell, G; Beck, SC; Hogerheijde, MR; van Dishoeck, EF; van der Wal, P; van der Tak, FFS; Schafer, F; Melnick, GJ; Ashby, MLN; de Lange, G


    We present deep images of dust continuum emission at 450, 800, and 850 mum of the dark cloud LDN 1689N, which harbors the low-mass young stellar objects (YSOs) IRAS 16293-2422 A and B (I16293A and I16293B) and the cold prestellar object I16293E. Toward the positions of I16293A and I16293E we also

  18. High Mass Star Formation Revealed by Herschel PACS Spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwon, Woojin; van der Tak, Floris; Karska, Agata; Herczeg, Gregory; Braine, Jonathan; Herpin, Fabrice; Wyrowski, Friedrich; van Dishoeck, Ewine

    In the past few decades a big picture of low mass star formation has successfully been drawn. However, high mass star formation is little known yet, mainly due to its complexity, distance, and rarity. The Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS) on-board the Herschel Space Observatory

  19. Hygroscopic growth of particles nebulized from water-soluble extracts of PM2.5 aerosols over the Bay of Bengal: Influence of heterogeneity in air masses and formation pathways. (United States)

    Boreddy, S K R; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Bikkina, Srinivas; Sarin, M M


    Hygroscopic properties of water-soluble matter (WSM) extracted from fine-mode aerosols (PM2.5) in the marine atmospheric boundary layer of the Bay of Bengal (BoB) have been investigated during a cruise from 27th December 2008 to 30th January 2009. Hygroscopic growth factors were measured on particles generated from the WSM using an H-TDMA system with an initial dry size of 100 nm in the range of 5-95% relative humidity (RH). The measured hygroscopic growth of WSM at 90% RH, g(90%)WSM, were ranged from 1.11 to 1.74 (mean: 1.43 ± 0.19) over the northern BoB and 1.12 to 1.38 (mean: 1.25 ± 0.09) over the southern BoB. A key finding is that distinct hygroscopic growth factors are associated with the air masses from the Indo-Gangetic plains (IGP), which are clearly distinguishable from those associated with air masses from Southeast Asia (SEA). We found higher (lower) g(90%)WSM over the northern (southern) BoB, which were associated with an IGP (SEA) air masses, probably due the formation of high hygroscopic salts such as (NH4)2SO4. On the other hand, biomass burning influenced SEA air masses confer the low hygroscopic salts such as K2SO4, MgSO4, and organic salts over the southern BoB. Interestingly, mass fractions of water-soluble organic matter (WSOM) showed negative and positive correlations with g(90%)WSM over the northern and southern BoB, respectively, suggesting that the mixing state of organic and inorganic fractions could play a major role on the g(90%)WSM over the BoB. Further, WSOM/SO4(2-) mass ratios suggest that SO4(2-) dominates the g(90%)WSM over the northern BoB whereas WSOM fractions were important over the southern BoB. The present study also suggests that aging process could significantly alter the hygroscopic growth of aerosol particles over the BoB, especially over the southern BoB. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. In situ study of mass transfer in aqueous solutions under high pressures via Raman spectroscopy: a new method for the determination of diffusion coefficients of methane in water near hydrate formation conditions. (United States)

    Lu, W J; Chou, I M; Burruss, R C; Yang, M Z


    A new method was developed for in situ study of the diffusive transfer of methane in aqueous solution under high pressures near hydrate formation conditions within an optical capillary cell. Time-dependent Raman spectra of the solution at several different spots along the one-dimensional diffusion path were collected and thus the varying composition profile of the solution was monitored. Diffusion coefficients were estimated by the least squares method based on the variations in methane concentration data in space and time in the cell. The measured diffusion coefficients of methane in water at the liquid (L)-vapor (V) stable region and L-V metastable region are close to previously reported values determined at lower pressure and similar temperature. This in situ monitoring method was demonstrated to be suitable for the study of mass transfer in aqueous solution under high pressure and at various temperature conditions and will be applied to the study of nucleation and dissolution kinetics of methane hydrate in a hydrate-water system where the interaction of methane and water would be more complicated than that presented here for the L-V metastable condition.

  1. Outflow forces in intermediate-mass star formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kempen, T. A.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Kristensen, L. E.; Belloche, A.; Klaassen, P. D.; Leurini, S.; San Jose-Garcia, I.; Aykutalp, A.; Choi, Y.; Endo, A.; Frieswijk, W.; Harsono, D.; Karska, A.; Koumpia, E.; van der Marel, N.; Nagy, Z.; Pérez-Beaupuits, J. -P; Risacher, C.; van Weeren, R. J.; Wyrowski, F.; Yıldız, U. A.; Güsten, R.; Boland, W.; Baryshev, A.


    Context. Protostars of intermediate-mass provide a bridge between theories of low- and high-mass star formation. Molecular outflows emerging from such sources can be used to determine the influence of fragmentation and multiplicity on protostellar evolution through the apparent correlation of

  2. Collisional Mass Loss and Change of Volatile Content in Planet Formation (United States)

    Maindl, Thomas I.; Haghighipour, Nader; Burger, Christoph; Bancelin, David; Schaefer, Christoph


    It is widely accepted that the majority of Earth’s water was delivered to it by water carrying planetesimals and planetary embryos from the outer part of the asteroid belt. Modern planet formation simulations show this process with high resolution, but typically still treat embryo growth and water delivery in a rudimentary way: perfect merging is assumed whenever a collision occurs. This neglects collisional loss of material - especially volatiles - and hence leads to planetary water contents that are far too high. Faced with the challenge of estimating planetary embryo growth and their water content with increased accuracy, we study typical collision scenarios from our previous n-body simulations. These scenarios differ in the masses of the involved planetary embryos, their water contents, the impact angles, and the collision speeds. We perform several suites of detailed simulations with our smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH) collision code covering part of the mentioned parameter space. We thrive for deriving a reasonable analytic estimate for collisional mass loss and volatile transfer that can (a) be included efficiently in planet formation simulations and (b) be used as a post-formation means to estimate realistic water budgets of terrestrial planets. While more extensive parameter studies are needed for deriving such a relation, we present first results valid for the simulated range of masses, velocities, and collision angles and discuss their implications for models of terrestrial planet formation.

  3. Mass spectrometer output file format mzML. (United States)

    Deutsch, Eric W


    Mass spectrometry is an important technique for analyzing proteins and other biomolecular compounds in biological samples. Each of the vendors of these mass spectrometers uses a different proprietary binary output file format, which has hindered data sharing and the development of open source software for downstream analysis. The solution has been to develop, with the full participation of academic researchers as well as software and hardware vendors, an open XML-based format for encoding mass spectrometer output files, and then to write software to use this format for archiving, sharing, and processing. This chapter presents the various components and information available for this format, mzML. In addition to the XML schema that defines the file structure, a controlled vocabulary provides clear terms and definitions for the spectral metadata, and a semantic validation rules mapping file allows the mzML semantic validator to insure that an mzML document complies with one of several levels of requirements. Complete documentation and example files insure that the format may be uniformly implemented. At the time of release, there already existed several implementations of the format and vendors have committed to supporting the format in their products.

  4. Star Formation Modes in Low-Mass Disk Galaxies


    Gallagher, J. S.; Matthews, L. D.


    Low-mass disk galaxies with well-organized structures are relatively common in low density regions of the nearby Universe. They display a wide range in levels of star formation activity, extending from sluggishly evolving `superthin' disk systems to nearby starbursts. Investigations of this class of galaxy therefore provides opportunities to test and define models of galactic star formation processes. In this paper we briefly explore characteristics of examples of quiescent and starbursting l...

  5. Radiolysis of confined water: molecular hydrogen formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rotureau, P.; Renault, J.P.; Mialocq, J.C. [CEA/Saclay, DSM/DRECAM/SCM/URA 331 CNRS, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Lebeau, B.; Patarin, J. [Laboratoire de Materiaux a Porosite Controlee, UMR CNRS 7016, ENSCMu-UHA, 3, Rue Alfred Werner, 68093 Mulhouse Cedex (France)


    The formation of molecular hydrogen in the radiolysis of water confined in nanoscale pores of well-characterised porous silica glasses and mesoporous molecular sieves (MCM-41) is examined. The comparison of dihydrogen formation by irradiation of both materials, dry and hydrated, shows that a large part of the H{sub 2} comes from the surface of the material. The radiolytic yields, G(H{sub 2})=(3{+-}0.5) x 10{sup -7} mol J{sup -1}, calculated using the total energy deposited in the material and the water, are only slightly affected by the degree of hydration of the material and by the pore size. These yields are also not modified by the presence of hydroxyl radical scavengers. This observation proves that the back reaction between H{sub 2} and HO{sup .} is inoperative in such confined environments. Furthermore, the large amount of H{sub 2} produced in the presence of different concentrated scavengers of the hydrated electron and its precursor suggests that these two species are far from being the only species responsible for the H{sub 2} formation. Our results show that the radiolytic phenomena that occur in water confined in nanoporous silica are dramatically different to those in bulk water, suggesting the need to investigate further the chemical reactivity in this type of environment. (Abstract Copyright [2005], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  6. Radiolysis of confined water: molecular hydrogen formation. (United States)

    Rotureau, P; Renault, J P; Lebeau, B; Patarin, J; Mialocq, J-C


    The formation of molecular hydrogen in the radiolysis of water confined in nanoscale pores of well-characterised porous silica glasses and mesoporous molecular sieves (MCM-41) is examined. The comparison of dihydrogen formation by irradiation of both materials, dry and hydrated, shows that a large part of the H2 comes from the surface of the material. The radiolytic yields, G(H2)=(3+/-0.5)x10(-7) mol J(-1), calculated using the total energy deposited in the material and the water, are only slightly affected by the degree of hydration of the material and by the pore size. These yields are also not modified by the presence of hydroxyl radical scavengers. This observation proves that the back reaction between H2 and HO(.) is inoperative in such confined environments. Furthermore, the large amount of H2 produced in the presence of different concentrated scavengers of the hydrated electron and its precursor suggests that these two species are far from being the only species responsible for the H2 formation. Our results show that the radiolytic phenomena that occur in water confined in nanoporous silica are dramatically different to those in bulk water, suggesting the need to investigate further the chemical reactivity in this type of environment.

  7. Terrestrial planet formation in a protoplanetary disk with a local mass depletion: A successful scenario for the formation of Mars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izidoro, A.; Winter, O. C. [UNESP, Univ. Estadual Paulista - Grupo de Dinâmica Orbital and Planetologia, Guaratinguetá, CEP 12.516-410, São Paulo (Brazil); Haghighipour, N. [Institute for Astronomy and NASA Astrobiology Institute, University of Hawaii-Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Tsuchida, M., E-mail:, E-mail: [UNESP, Univ. Estadual Paulista, DCCE-IBILCE, São José do Rio Preto, CEP 15.054-000, São Paulo (Brazil)


    Models of terrestrial planet formation for our solar system have been successful in producing planets with masses and orbits similar to those of Venus and Earth. However, these models have generally failed to produce Mars-sized objects around 1.5 AU. The body that is usually formed around Mars' semimajor axis is, in general, much more massive than Mars. Only when Jupiter and Saturn are assumed to have initially very eccentric orbits (e ∼ 0.1), which seems fairly unlikely for the solar system, or alternately, if the protoplanetary disk is truncated at 1.0 AU, simulations have been able to produce Mars-like bodies in the correct location. In this paper, we examine an alternative scenario for the formation of Mars in which a local depletion in the density of the protosolar nebula results in a non-uniform formation of planetary embryos and ultimately the formation of Mars-sized planets around 1.5 AU. We have carried out extensive numerical simulations of the formation of terrestrial planets in such a disk for different scales of the local density depletion, and for different orbital configurations of the giant planets. Our simulations point to the possibility of the formation of Mars-sized bodies around 1.5 AU, specifically when the scale of the disk local mass-depletion is moderately high (50%-75%) and Jupiter and Saturn are initially in their current orbits. In these systems, Mars-analogs are formed from the protoplanetary materials that originate in the regions of disk interior or exterior to the local mass-depletion. Results also indicate that Earth-sized planets can form around 1 AU with a substantial amount of water accreted via primitive water-rich planetesimals and planetary embryos. We present the results of our study and discuss their implications for the formation of terrestrial planets in our solar system.

  8. Modelling trihalomethanes formation in water supply systems. (United States)

    Di Cristo, Cristiana; Esposito, Giovanni; Leopardi, Angelo


    Chlorination is the most widely used method for disinfection of drinking water, but there are concerns about the formation of by-products, such as trihalomethanes (THMs), since the chronic exposure to them may pose risks to human health. For these reasons regulations fix maximum acceptable THMs levels throughout distribution networks, so it is very important to be able to correctly reproduce their formation. In the literature many models for predicting THMs formation have been developed, both based on empirical relationships and on kinetics involved during chlorine reactions. In this work the use of some of these models and their reliability in real situations is investigated through the application to the Aurunci-Valcanneto Water Supply System in Southern Lazio (Italy). The comparison of the performances of 18 selected literature empirical models furnishes interesting observations, indicating that the formula, developed using field data, results in being more suitable for reproducing THMs formation for the presented case study. Other considerations are also offered from the comparison with the results obtained using a simple first order kinetic model, calibrated using measured data.

  9. Mass transport during lead-acid battery plate formation (United States)

    Papazov, G.

    Mathematical equations for mass transport during the formation of the lead-acid battery positive and negative plates have been deduced. It has been shown that both the amount of material transferred between the reaction layer and the bulk of the electrolyte, and also the material flow direction depends on the paste composition and the formation current density. The zone within the plate, where the formation processes occur, is determined by the flow direction and by the maintenance of the electroneutrality of the solution. By measuring the potential of both the positive and the negative plates, with respect to a mercury reference electrode, it has been established that their polarization depends on the difficulties of mass transport through the porous structure of the plate.

  10. Water profiles of Intermediate Mass YSOs from HIFI (United States)

    McCoey, C.; Tisi, S.; Johnstone, D.; Fich, M.; van Kempen, T. A.; Fuente, A.; Caselli, P.; Cernicharo, J.; Kristensen, L. E.; van Dishoeck, E. F.


    We present H_2O and H_218O profiles observed toward Intermediate Mass YSOs with HIFI onboard Herschel. The data presented has unprecedented resolution at these wavelengths and constitute a part of the legacy of the Water in Star Forming Regions with Herschel (WISH) Key Program. Intermediate Mass YSOs exhibit properties common to both low- and high-mass stars and can, in some cases, act as a nearby, more easily observable proxy to high-mass star formation but can also elucidate the differences between low- and high-mass star formation, and under what conditions these differences occur. Our sources have been chosen to encompass a range of properties in order to investigate what water can tell us about these important objects and include; Class 0 and Class 1 objects; those forming in isolation and in clustered environments; and, sources with or without known outflow. In this presentation we compare and contrast water profiles among our sources. The observations were made toward the YSO but the H_2O profiles are dominated by the outflow rather than the central envelope and can be modelled as consisting of a broad component due to the outflow, a medium component due to the envelope and, in the case of the ground state lines a narrow component in absorption resulting from self-absorption by the cold outer envelope. Despite this commonality, the observed profiles are distinct from source to source, see the figure comparing the H_2O 110--101 among a sample of our sources.

  11. Relationships between HI Gas Mass, Stellar Mass and Star Formation Rate of HICAT+WISE Galaxies (United States)

    Parkash, Vaishali; Brown, Michael J. I.


    Galaxies grow via a combination of star formation and mergers. In this thesis, I have studied what drives star formation in nearby galaxies. Using archival WISE, Galex, 21-cm data and new IFU observations, I examine the HI content, Hα emission, stellar kinematics, and gas kinematics of three sub-classes of galaxies: spiral galaxies, shell galaxies and HI galaxies with unusually low star formation rates (SFR). In this dissertation talk, I will focus on the scaling relations between atomic (HI) gas, stellar mass and SFR of spiral galaxies. Star formation is fuelled by HI and molecular hydrogen, therefore we expect correlations between HI mass, stellar mass and SFR. However, the measured scaling relationships vary in the prior literature due to sample selection or low completeness. I will discuss new scaling relationships determined using HI Parkes All Sky-Survey Catalogue (HICAT) and the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). The combination of the local HICAT survey with sensitive WISE mid-infrared imaging improves the stellar masses, SFRs and completeness relative to previous literature. Of the 3,513 HICAT sources, we find 3.4 μm counterparts for 2,824 sources (80%), and provide new WISE matched aperture photometry for these galaxies. For a stellar mass selected sample of z ≤ 0.01 spiral galaxies, we find HI detections for 94% of the galaxies, enabling us to accurately measure HI mass as a function of stellar mass. In contrast to HI-selected galaxy samples, we find that star formation efficiency of spiral galaxies is constant at 10-9.5 yr‑1 with a scatter of 0.5 dex for stellar masses above 109.5 solar masses. We find HI mass increases with stellar mass for spiral galaxies, but the scatter is 1.7 dex for all spiral galaxies and 0.6 dex for galaxies with the T-type 5 to 7. We find an upper limit on HI mass that depends on stellar mass, which is consistent with this limit being dictated by the halo spin parameter.

  12. Clustered star formation and the origin of stellar masses. (United States)

    Pudritz, Ralph E


    Star clusters are ubiquitous in galaxies of all types and at all stages of their evolution. We also observe them to be forming in a wide variety of environments, ranging from nearby giant molecular clouds to the supergiant molecular clouds found in starburst and merging galaxies. The typical star in our galaxy and probably in others formed as a member of a star cluster, so star formation is an intrinsically clustered and not an isolated phenomenon. The greatest challenge regarding clustered star formation is to understand why stars have a mass spectrum that appears to be universal. This review examines the observations and models that have been proposed to explain these fundamental issues in stellar formation.

  13. Stellar Mass—Halo Mass Relation and Star Formation Efficiency in High-Mass Halos (United States)

    Kravtsov, A. V.; Vikhlinin, A. A.; Meshcheryakov, A. V.


    We study relation between stellar mass and halo mass for high-mass halos using a sample of galaxy clusters with accurate measurements of stellar masses from optical and ifrared data and total masses from X-ray observations. We find that stellar mass of the brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) scales as M *,BCG ∝ M 500 αBCG with the best fit slope of α BCG ≈ 0.4 ± 0.1. We measure scatter of M *,BCG at a fixed M 500 of ≈0.2 dex. We show that stellar mass-halo mass relations from abundance matching or halo modelling reported in recent studies underestimate masses of BCGs by a factor of ˜2-4. We argue that this is because these studies used stellar mass functions (SMF) based on photometry that severely underestimates the outer surface brightness profiles of massive galaxies. We show that M * -M relation derived using abundance matching with the recent SMF calibration by Bernardi et al. (2013) based on improved photometry is in a much better agreement with the relation we derive via direct calibration for observed clusters. The total stellar mass of galaxies correlates with total mass M 500 with the slope of ≈0.6 ± 0.1 and scatter of 0.1 dex. This indicates that efficiency with which baryons are converted into stars decreases with increasing cluster mass. The low scatter is due to large contribution of satellite galaxies: the stellar mass in satellite galaxies correlates with M 500 with scatter of ≈0.1 dex and best fit slope of αsat ≈ 0.8 ± 0.1. We show that for a fixed choice of the initial mass function (IMF) total stellar fraction in clusters is only a factor of 3-5 lower than the peak stellar fraction reached in M ≈ 1012 M ⊙ halos. The difference is only a factor of ˜1.5-3 if the IMF becomes progressively more bottom heavy with increasing mass in early type galaxies, as indicated by recent observational analyses. This means that the overall efficiency of star formation in massive halos is only moderately suppressed compared to L * galaxies and

  14. The Relationship between Stellar Mass and Star Formation Rate in Ultra Low-Mass Galaxies (United States)

    Shin, Kaitlyn; Ly, Chun


    Several extragalactic studies have demonstrated that there is a moderately tight (~0.3 dex) relationship between galaxy stellar mass and star formation rate (SFR) that holds for star-forming galaxies at M* ~ 3x108-1011 M⊙. This relationship has often been referred to as the “star formation main sequence.” However, it has yet to be determined whether such a relationship extends to even lower mass galaxies. Here, we present new results on the stellar mass—SFR relation using observations for 1,088 Hα-emitting galaxies from the Subaru Deep Field. These galaxies were selected using optical narrowband imaging that detects redshifted Hα at z ≈ 0.05-0.5. With sensitive measurements, our study is able to identify galaxies with stellar masses between 3x105 to 1010 M⊙ (average: 107.8 M⊙). We derive SFRs using the Hα luminosity, corrected for dust attenuation from spectroscopic Balmer decrement measurements, and we derive stellar masses from modeling the optical-to-infrared spectral energy distribution. Our preliminary results demonstrate that (1) the mass-SFR relation holds for galaxies down to ~107 M⊙ (~1.5 dex below previous studies), and (2) the dispersion in the mass-SFR relation increases toward lower stellar mass. Additionally, we also discuss comparisons between UV- and Hα-derived SFRs, which allow us to examine and test theoretical predictions on how bursty star formation is for low-mass galaxies at lookback times of up to 5 Gyr.

  15. The First Stars: A Low-Mass Formation Mode (United States)

    Stacy, Athena; Bromm, Volker


    We perform numerical simulations of the growth of a Population III stellar system under photodissociating feedback. We start from cosmological initial conditions at z = 100, self-consistently following the formation of a minihalo at z = 15 and the subsequent collapse of its central gas to high densities. The simulations resolve scales as small as approx. 1 AU, corresponding to gas densities of 10(exp 16)/cu cm. Using sink particles to represent the growing protostars, we evolve the stellar system for the next 5000 yr. We find that this emerging stellar group accretes at an unusually low rate compared with minihalos which form at earlier times (z = 20-30), or with lower baryonic angular momentum. The stars in this unusual system will likely reach masses ranging from <1Stellar Mass to approx. 5 Stellar Mass by the end of their main-sequence lifetimes, placing them in the mass range for which stars will undergo an asymptotic giant branch (AGB) phase. Based upon the simulation, we predict the rare existence of Population III stars that have survived to the present day and have been enriched by mass overflow from a previous AGB companion.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araya, E. D.; Brown, J. E. [Western Illinois University, Physics Department, 1 University Circle, Macomb, IL 61455 (United States); Olmi, L. [INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Ortiz, J. Morales [University of Puerto Rico, Río Piedras Campus, Physical Sciences Department, P.O. Box 23323, San Juan, PR 00931 (United States); Hofner, P.; Creech-Eakman, M. J. [New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Physics Department, 801 Leroy Place, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Kurtz, S. [Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apdo. Postal 3-72, 58089 Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico); Linz, H. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)


    The detection of four formaldehyde (H{sub 2}CO) maser regions toward young high-mass stellar objects in the last decade, in addition to the three previously known regions, calls for an investigation of whether H{sub 2}CO masers are an exclusive tracer of young high-mass stellar objects. We report the first survey specifically focused on the search for 6 cm H{sub 2}CO masers toward non high-mass star-forming regions (non HMSFRs). The observations were conducted with the 305 m Arecibo Telescope toward 25 low-mass star-forming regions, 15 planetary nebulae and post-AGB stars, and 31 late-type stars. We detected no H{sub 2}CO emission in our sample of non HMSFRs. To check for the association between high-mass star formation and H{sub 2}CO masers, we also conducted a survey toward 22 high-mass star-forming regions from a Hi-GAL (Herschel infrared Galactic Plane Survey) sample known to harbor 6.7 GHz CH{sub 3}OH masers. We detected a new 6 cm H{sub 2}CO emission line in G32.74−0.07. This work provides further evidence that supports an exclusive association between H{sub 2}CO masers and young regions of high-mass star formation. Furthermore, we detected H{sub 2}CO absorption toward all Hi-GAL sources, and toward 24 low-mass star-forming regions. We also conducted a simultaneous survey for OH (4660, 4750, 4765 MHz), H110α (4874 MHz), HCOOH (4916 MHz), CH{sub 3}OH (5005 MHz), and CH{sub 2}NH (5289 MHz) toward 68 of the sources in our sample of non HMSFRs. With the exception of the detection of a 4765 MHz OH line toward a pre-planetary nebula (IRAS 04395+3601), we detected no other spectral line to an upper limit of 15 mJy for most sources.

  17. Water masses and property distribution in the EEZ of Mauritius

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DeSousa, S.N.; Singbal, S.Y.S.; George, M.D.

    Water masses and their properties have been studied in the Mauritian during September-October, 1987. Surface water is characterizEd. by two water masses: 1) a warm (temp. 27 degrees C) and relatively saline water (salinity 35.3 x 10 sup(-3)) which...

  18. On the Minimum Core Mass for Giant Planet Formation (United States)

    Youdin, Andrew; Piso, A.


    In the core accretion hypothesis, giant planets form by accreting gas from the protoplanetary disk onto a solid core. Ten Earth masses (10 M_E) is often quoted as the minimum or critical core mass required to form a gas giant. However, the critical core mass can vary greatly depending on various quantities, including: the location in and conditions of the disk, the atmospheric composition and opacity (which may differ from the disk) and the accretion rate of planetesimals or smaller solids. To investigate these issues, we consider the growth of atmospheres in the limiting case of a fixed core mass with no ongoing accretion of solids. We thus obtain absolute lower limits on the critical core mass because additional heat sources limit the ability of the atmosphere to cool and undergo Kelvin-Helmholtz contraction. To study this contraction over a wide range of parameter space, we develop a simplified two-layer cooling model. The model's main approximation is that atmospheric luminosity is primarily generated in the convective interior, so that the luminosity generated in the radiative exterior can be neglected. We focus our attention on the outer region of protoplanetary disks, where our approximations are more valid, and where direct imaging searches are finding giant planets that constrain formation models. To form a gas giant, we require that runaway gas growth occurs within 3 Myr, a characteristic disk lifetime, though the time to grow the core (in situ or otherwise) is not included. Our main finding is that the critical core mass declines with distance in the disk. For our standard model, the critical core mass drops from 8.5 M_E at 5 AU to 3.5 M_E at 100 AU. This result arises primarily from lower disk temperatures. A lower disk density or pressure (at fixed temperature) only modestly increases critical core masses. Lowering the opacity also gives lower critical core masses. We also develop a simplified analytic cooling model, which explains the basic trends and

  19. Characterization of Formation Water Constituents and the Effect of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characterization of Formation Water Constituents and the Effect of Fresh Water Dilution from Land Rig Location of the Niger Delta, Nigeria. ... The oil & grease values for 90/10 ratio at both ambient and formation temperature were 0.32(mg/l) and 0.2(mg/l) respectively. While the 50/50 ratio at both ambient and formation ...

  20. Effects of water stress and seed mass on germination and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Mar 1, 2012 ... plant growth. X. sorbifolia seed varies greatly in mass. Thus, whether water and seed mass influence the germination of X. sorbifolia in this region must be determined. The primary objectives of this current study were as follows: (1) to analyze individually the effect of water stress and seed mass as well as ...

  1. Possible water cluster formation by dilution and succussions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anagnostatos, G.S. [National Centre for Scientific Research ``Demokritos``, Aghia Paraskevi (Greece). Inst. of Nuclear Physics; Pissis, P. [Physics Dept., National Technical Univ. of Athens, Athens (Greece); Viras, K. [Physical Chemistry Dept., Kapodistrian Univ. of Athens (Greece)


    While the formation of stable water clusters in no-water environment is well established, the present study, for the first time, proposes an approach of producing stable water clusters in water environment. The approach involves sequential dilutions and succussions of water extracts, where here chamomile extract is taken as an exmple. The approach uses solutions far beyond the Avogardo number in order to secure that such formations are not those formed around the impurity (chamomile) molecules. By using dielectric relaxation spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry techniques experimental evidence was obtained for the existence of such water clusters. (orig.)

  2. Water mass pathways to the North Atlantic oxygen minimum zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peña-Izquierdo, Jesús; van Sebille, Erik; Pelegrí, Josep L.; Sprintall, Janet; Mason, Evan; Llanillo, Pedro J.; Machín, Francisco


    The water mass pathways to the North Atlantic Oxygen Minimum Zone (naOMZ) are traditionally sketched within the cyclonic tropical circulation via the poleward branching from the eastward flowing jets that lie south of 10°N. However, our water mass analysis of historic hydrographic observations

  3. Role of excipients in hydrate formation kinetics of theophylline in wet masses studied by near-infrared spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anna C; Airaksinen, Sari; Karjalainen, Milja


    . Anhydrous theophylline was chosen as the hydrate-forming model drug compound and two excipients, silicified microcrystalline cellulose (SMCC) and alpha-lactose monohydrate, with different water absorbing properties, were used in formulation. An early stage of wet massing was studied with anhydrous...... theophylline and its 1:1 (w/w) mixtures with alpha-lactose monohydrate and SMCC with 0.1g/g of purified water. The changes in the state of water were monitored using near-infrared spectroscopy, and the conversion of the crystal structure was verified using X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD). SMCC decreased...... the hydrate formation rate by absorbing water, but did not inhibit it. The results suggest that alpha-lactose monohydrate slightly increased the hydrate formation rate in comparison with a mass comprising only anhydrous theophylline....

  4. Formation of telluric planets and the origin of terrestrial water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Sean


    Full Text Available Simulations of planet formation have failed to reproduce Mars’ small mass (compared with Earth for 20 years. Here I will present a solution to the Mars problem that invokes large-scale migration of Jupiter and Saturn while they were still embedded in the gaseous protoplanetary disk. Jupiter first migrated inward, then “tacked” and migrated back outward when Saturn caught up to it and became trapped in resonance. If this tack occurred when Jupiter was at 1.5 AU then the inner disk of rocky planetesimals and embryos is truncated and the masses and orbits of all four terrestrial planet are quantitatively reproduced. As the giant planets migrate back outward they re-populate the asteroid belt from two different source populations, matching the structure of the current belt. C-type material is also scattered inward to the terrestrial planet-forming zone, delivering about the right amount of water to Earth on 10-50 Myr timescales.

  5. Star Formation in Low Mass Magnetized Cores: The Formation of Disks and Outflows (United States)

    Duffin, Dennis F.


    Protostellar discs are generally thought to drive molecular outflows and jets observed in star forming regions, but there has been some debate as to how they form. The details of the driving and collimation of outflows help determine how much mass is cleared out and how much energy is fed back into the surroundings. Recently it has been argued that the magnetic brake is so strong that early protostellar disks cannot form. We have performed 3D ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of collapsing Bonnor-Ebert spheres, employing sink particles within an AMR grid and using a cooling function to model radiative cooling of the gas. This allows us to follow the formation and early evolution of the accretion disc (2-8)×10^4 years further into the Class 0 phase of its evolution. We form a rotationally dominated disc with a radius of 100 AU embedded inside a transient, unstable, flattened, rotating structure extending out to 2000 AU. The inner disc becomes unstable to a warping instability due to the magnetic structure of the outflow, warping 30 deg with respect to the rotation-axis by the end of the simulation. The disc is unstable to a Parker instability and sheds magnetic loops, degrading the orientation of the mean threading field. This reduces and locally reverses the magnetic braking torque of the large scale field back upon the disc. The reduction of magnetic braking allows a nearly Keplerian disc to form and may be the key way in which low mass stellar systems produce rotationally dominated discs. We discuss the relevance of our disc misalignment concerning the formation of mis-aligned hot Jupiters. Protostellar outflows are implicated in clearing mass from collapsing cores, and limiting the final mass of newly formed stars. The details of the driving and collimation of outflows help determine how much mass is cleared out and how much energy is fed back into the surroundings. The simulations generate outflows which are precessing, kinked, contain internal

  6. Separation of water through gas hydrate formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boch Andersen, Torben; Thomsen, Kaj


    Gas hydrate is normally recognized as a troublemaker in the oil and gas industry. However, gas hydrate has some interesting possibilities when used in connection with separation of water. Nordic Sugar has investigated the possibility of using gas hydrates for concentration of sugar juice. The goal...... of the project was to formulate an alternative separation concept, which can replace the traditional water evaporation process in the sugar production. Work with the separation concept showed that gas hydrates can be used for water separation. The process is not suitable for sugar production because of large...

  7. Halocline water formation in the Barents Sea (United States)

    Steele, Michael; Morison, James H.; Curtin, Thomas B.


    Hydrographic data from the first phase of the Coordinated Eastern Arctic Experiment (CEAREX) are analyzed. The data consist of temperature and salinity measurements made by a ship-based conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) instrument and by a drifting SALARGOS buoy. These data were collected in the autumn and early winter of 1988-1989 in the northern Barents Sea, mostly in ice-covered conditions and then across the marginal ice zone (MIZ). The data show that relatively warm, salty water of Atlantic origin is modified by air cooling and ice melting to produce lighter water that has properties identical to (lower) halocline water found in the Arctic Ocean. This occurs mostly at the MIZ and to a lesser degree within the ice pack itself. At the MIZ the halocline water subjects underneath the lighter meltwater that resides directly under the ice pack; geostrophic velocity calculations indicate that it then turns eastward and flows toward the Kara Sea, in keeping with previous chemical tracer analyses. A rough calculation reveals that the amount of halocline water formed in this way in the Barents Sea and Fram Strait is 30-50% of that formed by ice growth in eastern Arctic polynyas.

  8. Accounting for water formation from hydrocarbon fuel combustion in life cycle analyses (United States)

    Belmont, E. L.; Davidson, F. T.; Glazer, Y. R.; Beagle, E. A.; Webber, M. E.


    Hydrocarbon fuel production and utilization are considered water intensive processes due to the high volumes of water used in source development and fuel processing. At the same time, there is significant water formed during combustion. However, this water is not currently widely harvested at the site of production. Instead, it is added to the hydrologic cycle, often in a different location from the fuel production site. This study quantifies the water formed from combustion of these fuels and analyzes the magnitudes of formation in the context of other hydrologic sources and sinks in order to facilitate future assessments of water harvesting technology and/or atmospheric impacts of combustion. Annual water formation from stoichiometric combustion of hydrocarbon fuels, including natural gas, oil- and natural gas liquid-derived products, and coal, in the United States and worldwide are presented and compared with quantities of water sequestered, evaporated, and stored in the atmosphere. Water production factors in terms of mass and energy of fuel consumed, WPFm and WPFe, respectively, are defined for the comparison of fuels and incorporation into future life cycle analyses (LCAs). Results show that water formation from combustion has increased worldwide from 2005 to 2015, with the largest increase coming from growth in combustion of natural gas. Water formation from combustion of hydrocarbon fuels equals or exceeds water sequestered from the hydrologic cycle through deep well injection in the US annually. Overall, water formation is deemed significant enough to warrant consideration by LCAs of water intensity in fuel production and use, and should be included in future analyses.

  9. Reduction of Bromate Formation During Ozonation of Drinking Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antoniou, Maria; Sichel, C.; Andre, K.

    This study focused on the prevention of carcinogenic bromate formation during ozonation of tap water from the DTU university campus. To achieve this, different pre-treatments including pH-adjustment, ammonia addition and chlorine-ammonia addition, were tested. Formation of bromated was drastically...

  10. Recent Advances in Water Analysis with Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometers (United States)

    MacAskill, John A.; Tsikata, Edem


    We report on progress made in developing a water sampling system for detection and analysis of volatile organic compounds in water with a gas chromatograph mass spectrometer (GCMS). Two approaches are described herein. The first approach uses a custom water pre-concentrator for performing trap and purge of VOCs from water. The second approach uses a custom micro-volume, split-splitless injector that is compatible with air and water. These water sampling systems will enable a single GC-based instrument to analyze air and water samples for VOC content. As reduced mass, volume, and power is crucial for long-duration, manned space-exploration, these water sampling systems will demonstrate the ability of a GCMS to monitor both air and water quality of the astronaut environment, thereby reducing the amount of required instrumentation for long duration habitation. Laboratory prototypes of these water sampling systems have been constructed and tested with a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer as well as a thermal conductivity detector. Presented herein are details of these water sampling system with preliminary test results.

  11. The Environmental Impact of Oilfield Formation Water on a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The environmental impact resulting from the discharge of treated oilfield formation water into freshwater samples collected from this stream with no previous history of pollution from oil exploration activities was assessed in terms of changes in water quality parameters such as Dissolved oxygen (DO), Biochemical oxygen ...

  12. Characterization of Formation Water Constituents and the Effect of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    2, 3Pollution Control and Environmental Management Limited, Port Harcourt, Nigeria. ABSTRACT: The research work examined the constituents of formation water and fresh water dilution effects from a land location in the Niger Delta Area of Nigeria. Some selected physicochemical and microbiological analyses were.

  13. Formation water resistivity (R w )determination: The SP method ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    uncontaminated by drilling mud) that saturates the porous formation. It is also referred to as connate water or interstitial water. Its resistivity can be determined by a number of methods, one of which is by the SP curve discussed in this work. Analysis of ...

  14. Combined uses of water-table fluctuation (WTF), chloride mass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    unconfined aquifer of Thiaroye zone using both water table fluctuation (WTF), chloride mass balance. (CMB) methods and environmental ... applied computes both infiltration from rainwater and domestic waste water, while the CMB method estimates potential recharge .... Piezometric map (mars 2008). Department, UCAD.

  15. Effects of water stress and seed mass on germination and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of water stress and seed mass on germination, as well as antioxidative enzymes, in Xanthoceras sorbifolia seed were studied. The germination percentage decreased gradually in all seeds with decreasing water potential. The reduction was more significant under -0.6 MPa treatment than under the -0.2 MPa ...

  16. Formation of Haloforms during Chlorination of Natural Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Grünwald


    Full Text Available Recent drinking water regulations have lowered the standards for disinfection by-products and have added new disinfection by-products for regulation. Natural organic matter (NOM, mainly humic compounds, plays a major role in the formation of undesirable organic by-products following disinfection of drinking water. Many disinfection by-products have adverse carcinogenic or mutagenic effects on human health. This paper deals with the formation potencial of disinfection by-products in water samples taken from different places in the Flaje catchment.

  17. [Effects of Anions on Bromate Formation During Ozonation of Bromide-Containing Water]. (United States)

    Wu, Yue; Wu, Chun-de; Liu, Lü-gang; Yuan, Bo-jie


    To study the effects of common inorganic anions on bromate formation during ozonation of bromide-containing water, the effects of different mass concentrations of Cl-, HCO3-, and SO(4)2- on bromate formation were investigated in bench-scale test. The mechanisms of these three coexisting anions on bromate formation was analyzed based on the ozone decomposition, HOBr/OBr- formation, and transformation of total bromine species. Our results showed that adding of 3-150 mg.L-1 Cl- can reduce 8. 8%-25. 7% of bromate formation within 60 min. 63. 9% of bromate would be decreased by increasing SO(4)2- concentration from 0 mg.L-1 to 30 mg.L-1 within 20 min. However, more than 6. 4 times the mass concentrations of bromate were formed as HCO3- mass concentrations increased from 0 mg.L-1 to 30 mg.L-1 within 20 min. The production of bromate was slightly increased when HCO3- mass concentrations was above 30 mg.L-1. Under the condition of the same ozone dosage and reaction time, adding of Cl- and SO(4)2- will inhibit the formation of bromate during ozonation, while adding of HCOC3- significantly will increase the production of bromate.

  18. Geological introduction to lithium-rich formation water in Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eccles, Roy [Energy Resources Conservation Board (Canada)], email:


    In Alberta, the exploitation of oil and gas resources can result in high concentration levels of lithium, potassium, boron and bromine in Alberta formation waters. Therefore the idea of extracting minerals from waste well water to yield products in an eco-friendly manner is appealing and the implementation of a multi-commodity extraction plant is under consideration. The aim of this paper is to present the locations of lithium-rich formation waters in Alberta and deduce what the source of the lithium is. The geological features of west-central Alberta are reviewed herein, as is its geochemistry. In addition it is shown that contact between Devonian formation water and the crystalline basement, or the deposit above it, should be taken into consideration in modeling lithium sources for the sake of accuracy. This paper provided useful information on high lithium brines and showed that they could become an economically viable resource for Alberta.

  19. Intracellular water exchange for measuring the dry mass, water mass and changes in chemical composition of living cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Feijó Delgado

    Full Text Available We present a method for direct non-optical quantification of dry mass, dry density and water mass of single living cells in suspension. Dry mass and dry density are obtained simultaneously by measuring a cell's buoyant mass sequentially in an H2O-based fluid and a D2O-based fluid. Rapid exchange of intracellular H2O for D2O renders the cell's water content neutrally buoyant in both measurements, and thus the paired measurements yield the mass and density of the cell's dry material alone. Utilizing this same property of rapid water exchange, we also demonstrate the quantification of intracellular water mass. In a population of E. coli, we paired these measurements to estimate the percent dry weight by mass and volume. We then focused on cellular dry density - the average density of all cellular biomolecules, weighted by their relative abundances. Given that densities vary across biomolecule types (RNA, DNA, protein, we investigated whether we could detect changes in biomolecular composition in bacteria, fungi, and mammalian cells. In E. coli, and S. cerevisiae, dry density increases from stationary to exponential phase, consistent with previously known increases in the RNA/protein ratio from up-regulated ribosome production. For mammalian cells, changes in growth conditions cause substantial shifts in dry density, suggesting concurrent changes in the protein, nucleic acid and lipid content of the cell.

  20. Formation of organic chloramines during water disinfection: chlorination versus chloramination. (United States)

    Lee, Wontae; Westerhoff, Paul


    Many of the available studies on formation of organic chloramines during chlorination or chloramination have involved model organic nitrogen compounds (e.g., amino acids), but not naturally occurring organic nitrogen in water. This study assessed organic chloramine formation during chlorination and chloramination of 16 natural organic matter (NOM) solutions and 16 surface waters which contained dissolved organic nitrogen (DON). Chlorination rapidly formed organic chloramines within 10 min, whereas chloramination formed organic chloramination much more slowly, reaching the maximum concentration between 2 and 120 h after the addition of monochloramine into the solutions containing DON. The average organic chloramine formation upon addition of free chlorine and monochloramine into the NOM solutions were 0.78 mg-Cl(2)/mg-DON at 10 min and 0.16 mg-Cl(2)/mg-DON at 24h, respectively. Organic chloramine formation upon chlorination and chloramination increased as the dissolved organic carbon/dissolved organic nitrogen (DOC/DON) ratio decreased (i.e., DON contents increased). Chlorination of molecular weight (10,000 Da) fractionated water showed that molecular weight of DON would not impact the amount of organic chloramines produced. Comparison of three different disinfection schemes at water treatment plants (free chlorine, preformed monochloramine, and chlorine/ammonia additions) indicated organic chloramine formation could lead to a possible overestimation of disinfection capacity in many chloraminated water systems that add chlorine followed by an ammonia addition to form monochloramine.

  1. Galaxy formation in the Planck cosmology - I. Matching the observed evolution of star formation rates, colours and stellar masses (United States)

    Henriques, Bruno M. B.; White, Simon D. M.; Thomas, Peter A.; Angulo, Raul; Guo, Qi; Lemson, Gerard; Springel, Volker; Overzier, Roderik


    We have updated the Munich galaxy formation model to the Planck first-year cosmology, while modifying the treatment of baryonic processes to reproduce recent data on the abundance and passive fractions of galaxies from z = 3 down to z = 0. Matching these more extensive and more precise observational results requires us to delay the reincorporation of wind ejecta, to lower the surface density threshold for turning cold gas into stars, to eliminate ram-pressure stripping in haloes less massive than {˜ }10^{14}{ M_{⊙}}, and to modify our model for radio mode feedback. These changes cure the most obvious failings of our previous models, namely the overly early formation of low-mass galaxies and the overly large fraction of them that are passive at late times. The new model is calibrated to reproduce the observed evolution both of the stellar mass function and of the distribution of star formation rate at each stellar mass. Massive galaxies (log M⋆/M⊙ ≥ 11.0) assemble most of their mass before z = 1 and are predominantly old and passive at z = 0, while lower mass galaxies assemble later and, for log M⋆/M⊙ ≤ 9.5, are still predominantly blue and star forming at z = 0. This phenomenological but physically based model allows the observations to be interpreted in terms of the efficiency of the various processes that control the formation and evolution of galaxies as a function of their stellar mass, gas content, environment and time.

  2. Analysis of hydraulic fracturing flowback and produced waters using accurate mass: identification of ethoxylated surfactants. (United States)

    Thurman, E Michael; Ferrer, Imma; Blotevogel, Jens; Borch, Thomas


    Two series of ethylene oxide (EO) surfactants, polyethylene glycols (PEGs from EO3 to EO33) and linear alkyl ethoxylates (LAEs C-9 to C-15 with EO3-EO28), were identified in hydraulic fracturing flowback and produced water using a new application of the Kendrick mass defect and liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The Kendrick mass defect differentiates the proton, ammonium, and sodium adducts in both singly and doubly charged forms. A structural model of adduct formation is presented, and binding constants are calculated, which is based on a spherical cagelike conformation, where the central cation (NH4(+) or Na(+)) is coordinated with ether oxygens. A major purpose of the study was the identification of the ethylene oxide (EO) surfactants and the construction of a database with accurate masses and retention times in order to unravel the mass spectral complexity of surfactant mixtures used in hydraulic fracturing fluids. For example, over 500 accurate mass assignments are made in a few seconds of computer time, which then is used as a fingerprint chromatogram of the water samples. This technique is applied to a series of flowback and produced water samples to illustrate the usefulness of ethoxylate "fingerprinting", in a first application to monitor water quality that results from fluids used in hydraulic fracturing.

  3. A Keystone Methylobacterium Strain in Biofilm Formation in Drinking Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erifyli Tsagkari


    Full Text Available The structure of biofilms in drinking water systems is influenced by the interplay between biological and physical processes. Bacterial aggregates in bulk fluid are important in seeding biofilm formation on surfaces. In simple pure and co-cultures, certain bacteria, including Methylobacterium, are implicated in the formation of aggregates. However, it is unclear whether they help to form aggregates in complex mixed bacterial communities. Furthermore, different flow regimes could affect the formation and destination of aggregates. In this study, real drinking water mixed microbial communities were inoculated with the Methylobacterium strain DSM 18358. The propensity of Methylobacterium to promote aggregation was monitored under both stagnant and flow conditions. Under stagnant conditions, Methylobacterium enhanced bacterial aggregation even when it was inoculated in drinking water at 1% relative abundance. Laminar and turbulent flows were developed in a rotating annular reactor. Methylobacterium was found to promote a higher degree of aggregation in turbulent than laminar flow. Finally, fluorescence in situ hybridisation images revealed that Methylobacterium aggregates had distinct spatial structures under the different flow conditions. Overall, Methylobacterium was found to be a key strain in the formation of aggregates in bulk water and subsequently in the formation of biofilms on surfaces.

  4. Trihalomethanes formation in Iranian water supply systems: predicting and modeling. (United States)

    Babaei, Ali Akbar; Atari, Leila; Ahmadi, Mehdi; Ahmadiangali, Kambiz; Zamanzadeh, Mirzaman; Alavi, Nadali


    Trihalomethanes (THMs) were the first disinfection by-products discovered in drinking water and are classified as probable carcinogens. This study measures and models THMs formation at two drinking water distribution systems (WDS1 and WDS2) in Ahvaz City, Iran. The investigation was based on field-scale investigations and an intensive 36-week sampling program, from January to September 2011. The results showed total THM concentrations in the range 17.4-174.8 μg/L and 18.9-99.5 μg/L in WDS1 and WDS2, respectively. Except in a few cases, the THM concentrations in WDS1 and WDS2 were lower than the maximum contaminant level values. Using two-tailed Pearson correlation test, the water temperature, dissolved organic carbon, UV254, bromide ion (Br-), free residual chlorine, and chlorine dose were identified as the significant parameters for THMs formation in WDS2. Water temperature was the only significant parameter for THMs formation in WDS1. Based on the correlation results, a predictive model for THMs formation was developed using a multiple regression approach. A multiple linear regression model showed the best fit according to the coefficients of determination (R2) obtained for WDS1 (R2=0.47) and WDS2 (R2=0.54). Further correlation studies and analysis focusing on THMs formation are necessary to assess THMs concentration using the predictive models.

  5. A High-Resolution Model of Water Mass Transformation and Transport in the Weddell Sea (United States)

    Hazel, J.; Stewart, A.


    The ocean circulation around the Antarctic margins has a pronounced impact on the global ocean and climate system. One of these impacts includes closing the global meridional overturning circulation (MOC) via formation of dense Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW), which ventilates a large fraction of the subsurface ocean. AABW is also partially composed of modified Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW), a warm, mid-depth water mass whose transport towards the continent has the potential to induce rapid retreat of marine-terminating glaciers. Previous studies suggest that these water mass exchanges may be strongly influenced by high-frequency processes such as downslope gravity currents, tidal flows, and mesoscale/submesoscale eddy transport. However, evaluating the relative contributions of these processes to near-Antarctic water mass transports is hindered by the region's relatively small scales of motion and the logistical difficulties in taking measurements beneath sea ice.In this study we develop a regional model of the Weddell Sea, the largest established source of AABW. The model is forced by an annually-repeating atmospheric state constructed from the Antarctic Mesoscale Prediction System data and by annually-repeating lateral boundary conditions constructed from the Southern Ocean State Estimate. The model incorporates the full Filchner-Ronne cavity and simulates the thermodynamics and dynamics of sea ice. To analyze the role of high-frequency processes in the transport and transformation of water masses, we compute the model's overturning circulation, water mass transformations, and ice sheet basal melt at model horizontal grid resolutions ranging from 1/2 degree to 1/24 degree. We temporally decompose the high-resolution (1/24 degree) model circulation into components due to mean, eddy and tidal flows and discuss the geographical dependence of these processes and their impact on water mass transformation and transport.

  6. Factorial analysis of trihalomethanes formation in drinking water. (United States)

    Chowdhury, Shakhawat; Champagne, Pascale; McLellan, P James


    Disinfection of drinking water reduces pathogenic infection, but may pose risks to human health through the formation of disinfection byproducts. The effects of different factors on the formation of trihalomethanes were investigated using a statistically designed experimental program, and a predictive model for trihalomethanes formation was developed. Synthetic water samples with different factor levels were produced, and trihalomethanes concentrations were measured. A replicated fractional factorial design with center points was performed, and significant factors were identified through statistical analysis. A second-order trihalomethanes formation model was developed from 92 experiments, and the statistical adequacy was assessed through appropriate diagnostics. This model was validated using additional data from the Drinking Water Surveillance Program database and was applied to the Smiths Falls water supply system in Ontario, Canada. The model predictions were correlated strongly to the measured trihalomethanes, with correlations of 0.95 and 0.91, respectively. The resulting model can assist in analyzing risk-cost tradeoffs in the design and operation of water supply systems.

  7. Water rent: essence, sources of formation and accounting reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.S. Osadcha


    Full Text Available There is the urgent necessity of the transition to a higher level of economic relations in the system of environmental management in the present conditions of economy of the country. As a result, the issues like formation of information support for water rent management, determining the ways of its calculation, distribution as well as usage of water rents require urgent solutions. The study focuses on the essence of water rent and forming organizational and methodological provisions of its accounting reflection to ensure sustainable ecological and economic development of the enterprise. As a result of research the classification of water rent, that affects reflection of such rent in accounting has been formed. It is established that the amount of water rent for accounting reflection can be defined as the difference between actual and normal profit of enterprise-water users. A number of analytical accounts of first and second order as well as the typical correspondence of accounts for accounting reflection of water rent have been suggested. The information from the Report on the formation of water rent that contains data on the sources of payback of expenses incurred for the maintenance of water bodies and the impact of ecological condition of water body on the size of water rent has been suggested to be used in order to manage the size of water rent and expenses incurred to obtain it. Thus, determining the amount of water rent will allow management personnel to adjust the activity of the company in accordance with the strategic objectives of the company’s development regarding the profitability and compliance with the concept of sustainable development.

  8. Water masses as a unifying framework for understanding the Southern Ocean Carbon Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Iudicone


    Full Text Available The scientific motivation for this study is to understand the processes in the ocean interior controlling carbon transfer across 30° S. To address this, we have developed a unified framework for understanding the interplay between physical drivers such as buoyancy fluxes and ocean mixing, and carbon-specific processes such as biology, gas exchange and carbon mixing. Given the importance of density in determining the ocean interior structure and circulation, the framework is one that is organized by density and water masses, and it makes combined use of Eulerian and Lagrangian diagnostics. This is achieved through application to a global ice-ocean circulation model and an ocean biogeochemistry model, with both components being part of the widely-used IPSL coupled ocean/atmosphere/carbon cycle model.

    Our main new result is the dominance of the overturning circulation (identified by water masses in setting the vertical distribution of carbon transport from the Southern Ocean towards the global ocean. A net contrast emerges between the role of Subantarctic Mode Water (SAMW, associated with large northward transport and ingassing, and Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW, associated with a much smaller export and outgassing. The differences in their export rate reflects differences in their water mass formation processes. For SAMW, two-thirds of the surface waters are provided as a result of the densification of thermocline water (TW, and upon densification this water carries with it a substantial diapycnal flux of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC. For AAIW, principal formatin processes include buoyancy forcing and mixing, with these serving to lighten CDW. An additional important formation pathway of AAIW is through the effect of interior processing (mixing, including cabelling that serve to densify SAMW.

    A quantitative evaluation of the contribution of mixing, biology and gas exchange to the DIC evolution per water mass reveals that

  9. Effective photon mass from black-hole formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slava Emelyanov


    Full Text Available We compute the value of effective photon mass mγ at one-loop level in QED in the background of small (1010 g≲M≪1016 g spherically symmetric black hole in asymptotically flat spacetime. This effect is associated with the modification of electron/positron propagator in presence of event horizon. Physical manifestations of black-hole environment are compared with those of hot neutral plasma. We estimate the distance to the nearest black hole from the upper bound on mγ obtained in the Coulomb-law test. We also find that corrections to electron mass me and fine structure constant α at one-loop level in QED are negligible in the weak gravity regime.

  10. The Formation of Pluto's Low-mass Satellites (United States)

    Kenyon, Scott J.; Bromley, Benjamin C.


    Motivated by the New Horizons mission, we consider how Pluto's small satellites—currently Styx, Nix, Kerberos, and Hydra—grow in debris from the giant impact that forms the Pluto-Charon binary. After the impact, Pluto and Charon accrete some of the debris and eject the rest from the binary orbit. During the ejection, high-velocity collisions among debris particles produce a collisional cascade, leading to the ejection of some debris from the system and enabling the remaining debris particles to find stable orbits around the binary. Our numerical simulations of coagulation and migration show that collisional evolution within a ring or a disk of debris leads to a few small satellites orbiting Pluto-Charon. These simulations are the first to demonstrate migration-induced mergers within a particle disk. The final satellite masses correlate with the initial disk mass. More massive disks tend to produce fewer satellites. For the current properties of the satellites, our results strongly favor initial debris masses of 3-10 × 1019 g and current satellite albedos A ≈ 0.4-1. We also predict an ensemble of smaller satellites, R <~ 1-3 km, and very small particles, R ≈ 1-100 cm and optical depth τ <~ 10-10. These objects should have semimajor axes outside the current orbit of Hydra.

  11. Deep Water Compositions From the Los Angeles Basin and the Origin of Formation Water Salinity (United States)

    Boles, J.; Giles, G.; Lockman, D.


    Deep basin formation waters represent original depositional waters that have been modified by diagenetic processes at elevated temperatures and pressures. In addition, they may be diluted by meteoric incursion from elevated structural blocks along basin flanks. It has long been thought that deep basin formation waters have salinities greater than sea water due to various processes like clay membrane filtration or other types of water-rock interaction. However, our work and similar studies in the San Joaquin basin show that formation waters in deep basins are more likely to become diluted rather than concentrated in the absence of soluble evaporite deposits that might underlie the basin. The idea of increased salinity with depth arose from studies in which the underpinning of the basin consisted of soluble evaporate deposits such as the Texas Gulf Coast, Illinois, Michigan, and some North Sea areas. There are very few deep formation water analyses from the Los Angeles Basin. Furthermore, very few of the current produced waters from any depth can be considered pristine because of the widespread formation water injection programs and commingling of fluids from different levels. Here, we describe the first analyses from a deep, previously untouched part of the basin that is currently being developed in the Inglewood Oil Field. We have analyzed a suite of formation waters from the mid-Miocene marine Sentous sandstone from sub-sea level depths of 2250 m to 2625 m at temperatures of about 110 to 126°C and pressures of about 27 MPa. The original depositional waters in the Sentous Formation were sea water whereas the sampled waters are diluted by about 20% from sea water and some show as much as 50% dilution. Based on comparison of oxygen and deuterium isotopes between the meteoric water trend and these waters, we conclude that the smectite to illite dehydration reaction is the major cause of dilution to the original formation water. Other notable differences include

  12. High-mass Star Formation in the Outer Scutum-Centaurus Arm (United States)

    Armentrout, W. P.; Anderson, L. D.; Balser, Dana S.; Bania, T. M.; Dame, T. M.; Wenger, Trey V.


    The Outer Scutum-Centaurus (OSC) spiral arm is the most distant molecular spiral arm in the Milky Way, but until recently little was known about this structure. Discovered by Dame and Thaddeus, the OSC lies ˜15 kpc from the Galactic Center. Due to the Galactic warp, it rises to nearly 4° above the Galactic Plane in the first Galactic quadrant, leaving it unsampled by most Galactic plane surveys. Here we observe H II region candidates spatially coincident with the OSC using the Very Large Array to image radio continuum emission from 65 targets and the Green Bank Telescope to search for ammonia and water maser emission from 75 targets. This sample, drawn from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer Catalog of Galactic H II Regions, represents every H II region candidate near the longitude-latitude ({\\ell },b) locus of the OSC. Coupled with their characteristic mid-infrared morphologies, detection of radio continuum emission strongly suggests that a target is a bona fide H II region. Detections of associated ammonia or water maser emission allow us to derive a kinematic distance and determine if the velocity of the region is consistent with that of the OSC. Nearly 60% of the observed sources were detected in radio continuum, and more than 20% have ammonia or water maser detections. The velocities of these sources mainly place them beyond the Solar orbit. These very distant high-mass stars have stellar spectral types as early as O4. We associate high-mass star formation at 2 new locations with the OSC, increasing the total number of detected H II regions in the OSC to 12.

  13. Transport and transformation of surface water masses across the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this article, we present the results of a survey conducted along the entire Mascarene Plateau during the Northeast Monsoon, in October–November 2008. In addition, data from Argo floats were used to determine the origin of water masses entering this region. The plateau contains three gaps through which branches of ...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McQuinn, Kristen B. W.; Skillman, Evan D.; Simones, Jacob E. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street, S.E., Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Cannon, John M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macalester College, 1600 Grand Avenue, Saint Paul, MN 55105 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew E. [Raytheon Company, 1151 E. Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States); Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo [Center for Radiophysics and Space Research, Space Sciences Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Salzer, John J. [Department of Astronomy, Indiana University, 727 East 3rd Street, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Adams, Elizabeth A. K. [Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON), Postbus 2, 7900 AA Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Elson, Ed C. [Astrophysics, Cosmology and Gravity Centre (ACGC), Department of Astronomy, University of Cape Town, Private Bag X3, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Ott, Jürgen, E-mail: [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box O, 1003 Lopezville Road, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States)


    The Survey of Hi in Extremely Low-mass Dwarfs is an on-going multi-wavelength program to characterize the gas, star formation, and evolution in gas-rich, very low-mass galaxies that populate the faint end of the galaxy luminosity function. The galaxies were selected from the first ∼10% of the Hi Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA survey based on their low Hi mass and low baryonic mass. Here, we measure the star formation properties from optically resolved stellar populations for 12 galaxies using a color–magnitude diagram fitting technique. We derive lifetime average star formation rates (SFRs), recent SFRs, stellar masses, and gas fractions. Overall, the recent SFRs are comparable to the lifetime SFRs with mean birthrate parameter of 1.4, with a surprisingly narrow standard deviation of 0.7. Two galaxies are classified as dwarf transition galaxies (dTrans). These dTrans systems have star formation and gas properties consistent with the rest of the sample, in agreement with previous results that some dTrans galaxies may simply be low-luminosity dwarf irregulars. We do not find a correlation between the recent star formation activity and the distance to the nearest neighboring galaxy, suggesting that the star formation process is not driven by gravitational interactions, but regulated internally. Further, we find a broadening in the star formation and gas properties (i.e., specific SFRs, stellar masses, and gas fractions) compared to the generally tight correlation found in more massive galaxies. Overall, the star formation and gas properties indicate these very low-mass galaxies host a fluctuating, non-deterministic, and inefficient star formation process.

  15. Annual and interannual variability of the Barents Sea water masses and polar front: 1980-2011 (United States)

    Oziel, Laurent; Sirven, Jerome; Gascard, Jean-Claude


    The Barents Sea (BS) is a transition area between the warm and saline Atlantic Waters (AW) and the cold and fresh Arctic Waters (ArW). The BS is characterized by a polar front structure separating AW from ArW. The mixing and cooling of these two water mass generates dense waters in winter. Dense waters are of prior importance because they cascade into the Arctic Ocean to form the Artic Intermediate Waters. This study will use a new hydrographic data set fulfilled by recent stations in the Russian area and a 3D model coupled with atmosphere and ice as a back up to investigate the link between fronts and water masses, as well as their variability over the last 30 years. This study suggests that the polar front structure is composed of two branches and that the dense waters are found in between. The BS, especially in the East, is experiencing an "Atlantification" accompanied with a drastic sea ice decline. These changes, amplified during the last decade, shift the southern branch of the polar front structure in the Norh-East direction and affect negatively the dense water formation. This could have major impacts on the Arctic Ocean ventilation and primary production.

  16. Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA): halo formation times and halo assembly bias on the cosmic web (United States)

    Tojeiro, Rita; Eardley, Elizabeth; Peacock, John A.; Norberg, Peder; Alpaslan, Mehmet; Driver, Simon P.; Henriques, Bruno; Hopkins, Andrew M.; Kafle, Prajwal R.; Robotham, Aaron S. G.; Thomas, Peter; Tonini, Chiara; Wild, Vivienne


    We present evidence for halo assembly bias as a function of geometric environment (GE). By classifying Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA) galaxy groups as residing in voids, sheets, filaments or knots using a tidal tensor method, we find that low-mass haloes that reside in knots are older than haloes of the same mass that reside in voids. This result provides direct support to theories that link strong halo tidal interactions with halo assembly times. The trend with GE is reversed at large halo mass, with haloes in knots being younger than haloes of the same mass in voids. We find a clear signal of halo downsizing - more massive haloes host galaxies that assembled their stars earlier. This overall trend holds independently of GE. We support our analysis with an in-depth exploration of the L-Galaxies semi-analytic model, used here to correlate several galaxy properties with three different definitions of halo formation time. We find a complex relationship between halo formation time and galaxy properties, with significant scatter. We confirm that stellar mass to halo mass ratio, specific star formation rate (SFR) and mass-weighed age are reasonable proxies of halo formation time, especially at low halo masses. Instantaneous SFR is a poor indicator at all halo masses. Using the same semi-analytic model, we create mock spectral observations using complex star formation and chemical enrichment histories, which approximately mimic GAMA's typical signal-to-noise ratio and wavelength range. We use these mocks to assert how well potential proxies of halo formation time may be recovered from GAMA-like spectroscopic data.

  17. Cluster formation and percolation in ethanol-water mixtures (United States)

    Gereben, Orsolya; Pusztai, László


    Results of systematic molecular dynamics studies of ethanol-water mixtures, over the entire concentration range, were reported previously that agree with experimental X-ray diffraction data. These simulated systems are analyzed in this work to examine cluster formation and percolation, using four different hydrogen bond definitions. Percolation analyses revealed that each mixture (even the one containing 80 mol% ethanol) is above the 3D percolation threshold, with fractal dimensions, df, between 2.6 and 2.9, depending on concentration. Monotype water cluster formation was also studied in the mixtures: 3D water percolation can be found in systems with less than 40 mol% ethanol, with fractal dimensions between 2.53 and 2.84. These observations can be put in parallel with experimental data on some thermodynamic quantities, such as the excess partial molar enthalpy and entropy.

  18. A metabolism perspective on alternative urban water servicing options using water mass balance. (United States)

    Farooqui, Tauheed A; Renouf, Marguerite A; Kenway, Steven J


    Urban areas will need to pursue new water servicing options to ensure local supply security. Decisions about how best to employ them are not straightforward due to multiple considerations and the potential for problem shifting among them. We hypothesise that urban water metabolism evaluation based a water mass balance can help address this, and explore the utility of this perspective and the new insights it provides about water servicing options. Using a water mass balance evaluation framework, which considers direct urban water flows (both 'natural' hydrological and 'anthropogenic' flows), as well as water-related energy, we evaluated how the use of alternative water sources (stormwater/rainwater harvesting, wastewater/greywater recycling) at different scales influences the 'local water metabolism' of a case study urban development. New indicators were devised to represent the water-related 'resource efficiency' and 'hydrological performance' of the urban area. The new insights gained were the extent to which alternative water supplies influence the water efficiency and hydrological performance of the urban area, and the potential energy trade-offs. The novel contribution is the development of new indicators of urban water resource performance that bring together considerations of both the 'anthropogenic' and 'natural' water cycles, and the interactions between them. These are used for the first time to test alternative water servicing scenarios, and to provide a new perspective to complement broader sustainability assessments of urban water. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Mass-balance model for predicting nitrate in ground water (United States)

    Frimpter, Michael H.; Donohue, John J.; Rapacz, Michael V.


    A mass-balance accounting model can be used to guide the management of septic systems and fertilizers to control the degradation of ground-water quality in zones of an aquifer that contribute water to public-supply wells. The nitrate concentration of the mixture in the well can be predicted for steady-state conditions by calculating the concentration that results from the total weight of nitrogen and total volume of water entering the zone of contribution to the well. These calculations will allow water-quality managers to predict the nitrate concentrations that would be produced by different types and levels of development, and to plan development accordingly. Computations for different development schemes provide a technical basis for planners and managers to compare water-quality effects and to select alternatives that limit nitrate concentration in wells.

  20. The sizes, masses and specific star formation rates of massive galaxies at 1.3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McLure, R. J.; Pearce, H. J.; Dunlop, J. S.; Cirasuolo, M.; Curtis-Lake, E.; Bruce, V. A.; Caputi, K. I.; Almaini, O.; Bonfield, D. G.; Bradshaw, E. J.; Buitrago, F.; Chuter, R.; Foucaud, S.; Hartley, W. G.; Jarvis, M. J.


    We report the results of a comprehensive study of the relationship between galaxy size, stellar mass and specific star formation rate (sSFR) at redshifts 1.3 mass-complete (M⋆ ≥ 6 × 1010 M⊙), spectroscopic sample from the UK Infrared Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS) Ultradeep Survey,

  1. Investigation of trihalomethanes formation potential in Karoon River water, Iran. (United States)

    Fooladvand, Moradali; Ramavandi, Bahman; Zandi, Keyvan; Ardestani, Mojtaba


    Organic matters in raw water have a potential to generate harmful disinfection by-products such as trihalomethanes (THMs) during the chlorination process. The objectives of this study were to investigate the trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP) in Karoon River water and to determine the effect of several factors including total organic carbon (TOC), pH, chlorine dosage, water temperature, and seasonal variation. The results showed that, among all factors, TOC and water temperature have a remarkable effect on THMFP. The experimental results from batch studies indicated that increasing of pH value yielded a greater THMFP concentration for Karoon River water. THMFP levels of Karoon River water in summer times, when water temperature exceeded 26°C, were 1.2-1.6 times higher than in the spring and fall seasons, when water temperature was below 15°C. It was found that the measured THMFP at Karoon River water in the spring and fall seasons were very rarely higher than 100 μg/L.

  2. Water in low-mass star-forming regions with Herschel: HIFI spectroscopy of NGC 1333


    Kristensen, L. E.; Dominik, C.; Whyborn, N.


    Water In Star-forming regions with Herschel” (WISH) is a key programme dedicated to studying the role of water and related species during the star-formation process and constraining the physical and chemical properties of young stellar objects. The Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared (HIFI) on the Herschel Space Observatory observed three deeply embedded protostars in the low-mass star-forming region NGC 1333 in several H_(2)^(16)O, H_(2)^(18)O, and CO transitions. Line profiles are r...

  3. Water mass evolution of the Greenland Sea since lateglacial times (United States)

    Telesiński, M. M.; Spielhagen, R. F.; Bauch, H. A.


    Four sediment cores from the central and northern Greenland Sea, a crucial area for the global ocean circulation system, were analyzed for planktic foraminiferal fauna, planktic and benthic stable oxygen and carbon isotopes as well as ice-rafted debris. During the Last Glacial Maximum, the Greenland Sea was dominated by cold and ice-bearing water masses. Meltwater discharges from the surrounding ice sheets affected the area during the deglaciation, influencing the water mass circulation. The Younger Dryas was the last major freshwater event in the area. The onset of the Holocene interglacial was marked by an improvement of the environmental conditions and rising sea surface temperatures (SST). Although the thermal maximum was not reached simultaneously across the basin, due to the reorganization of the specific water mass configuration, benthic isotope data indicate that the overturning circulation reached a maximum in the central Greenland Sea around 7 ka. After 6-5 ka the SST cooling and increasing sea-ice cover is noted alongside with decreasing insolation. Conditions during this Neoglacial cooling, however, changed after 3 ka due to further sea-ice expansion which limited the deep convection. As a result, a well stratified upper water column amplified the warming of the subsurface waters in the central Greenland Sea which were fed by increased inflow of Atlantic Water from the eastern Nordic Seas. Our data reconstruct a variety of time- and space-dependent oceanographic conditions. These were the result of a complex interplay between overruling factors such as changing insolation, the relative influence of Atlantic, Polar and meltwater, sea-ice processes and deep water convection.

  4. GEOTRACES Eastern South Pacific: Characterizing Water Mass Properties and Timescales (United States)

    Martin, M.; Fine, R. A.; Happell, J. D.


    In the fall 2013 an eastern South Pacific GEOTRACES transect was occupied along about 12°S from the coast to 150°W. The objective is to characterize the water mass properties as compared with historical data and considering climate modes of variability. Tracer ages (CFCs and SF6) are used to provide constraints on time scales of physical and biogeochemical processes. The GEOTRACES transect contains eutrophic and oligotrophic stations. In between, there is a large oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) created by a shadow zone in the subtropical gyre circulation. The major water masses in the upper 1500 m are the Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW) found below the 27 σθ, Subantarctic Mode Water located above the AAIW and below the 26.5 σθ, South Pacific Eastern Subtropical Mode Water found along 25.5 σθ near 100°W, South Pacific Subtropical Under Water follows 25 σθ, and South Pacific Subtropical Water is located at the surface west of 110°W. Water with SF6 ages of less than 30 years are found above 26.5 σθ. The highest apparent oxygen utilization rates (AOUR) found in the coastal region are likely due to the upwelling in this region. The central gyre region shows the lowest AOUR, corresponding with the oligotrophic conditions. In between, the OMZ, ranging from 80⁰W to about 120⁰W, has a median AOUR. An analysis of our data compared to WOCE data at 4 co-locations shows changes in the water properties and biogeochemical processes over a 20 year time period. This analysis suggests an expansion and a strengthening of the OMZ in the past 20 years. While there is a decrease in oxygen content within the OMZ, there is a slight increase in AOU in the western part of the OMZ.

  5. Quantifying the Role of Environment in Star Formation: ISM masses along the Cosmic Web (United States)

    Betti, Sarah; Pope, Alexandra; Scoville, Nick; Aussel, Herve; Sheth, Kartik; Yun, Min


    The rate of star formation in galaxies is observed to vary with environment across the cosmic web and this relationship evolves with redshift. Local galaxies in dense environments are in a state of passive evolution with little star formation. However, ongoing star formation is found in galaxies in dense environments at higher redshifts. Observations of the interstellar medium (ISM), including the molecular gas, which is the direct fuel for star formation, are key to determining how long star formation will persist. We present new ALMA observations of 101 galaxies that span a range of environments at z ~ 0.7, when star formation in dense environments was higher than it is today. Using these observations, we calculate the total ISM mass and look for depletion as a function of galaxy density in order to understand the quenching of star formation in galaxies as a function of environment.

  6. Microlayer formation characteristics in pool isolated bubble boiling of water (United States)

    Yabuki, Tomohide; Nakabeppu, Osamu


    Investigation of microlayer formation characteristics is important for developing a reliable nucleate boiling heat transfer model based on accurate physical mechanisms. Although formation mechanisms of the thin liquid film in two-phase flow of confined spaces, such as micro-tubes and closely positioned parallel plates, have been thoroughly studied, microlayer formation mechanisms of pool boiling have been sparsely studied. In a previous study (Yabuki and Nakabeppu in Int J Heat Mass Transf 76:286-297, 2014; Int J Heat Mass Transf 100:851-860, 2016), the spatial distribution of initial microlayer thickness under pool boiling bubbles was calculated by transient heat conduction analysis using the local wall temperature measured with a MEMS sensor. In this study, the hydrodynamic characteristics of microlayer formation in pool boiling were investigated using the relationship between derived initial microlayer thickness and microlayer formation velocity determined by transient local heat flux data. The trend of microlayer thickness was found to change depending on the thickness of the velocity boundary layer outside the bubble foot. When the boundary layer thickness was thin, the initial microlayer thickness was determined by the boundary layer thickness, and the initial microlayer thickness proportionally increased with increasing boundary layer thickness. On the other hand, when the boundary layer was thick, the initial microlayer thickness decreased with increasing boundary layer thickness. In this thick boundary layer region, the momentum balance in the dynamic meniscus region became important, in addition to the boundary layer thickness, and the microlayer thickness, made dimensionless using boundary layer thickness, correlated with the Bond number.

  7. Finescale Water-Mass Variability from ARGO Profiling Floats (United States)


    assessment of water-mass (aka thermohaline or spice) variability as a measure of stirring along isopycnals, as well as density ratio Rρ statistics, from the...Schmitt 1990) or double-diffusively-driven thermohaline interleaving. The coarse temporal and vertical sampling of the data are unlikely to to distinguish between these 2 mechanisms though persistent thermohaline intrusions spanning O(1000 km) have been reported in the equatorial

  8. High-mass Star Formation through Filamentary Collapse and Clump-fed Accretion in G22 (United States)

    Yuan, Jinghua; Li, Jin-Zeng; Wu, Yuefang; Ellingsen, Simon P.; Henkel, Christian; Wang, Ke; Liu, Tie; Liu, Hong-Li; Zavagno, Annie; Ren, Zhiyuan; Huang, Ya-Fang


    How mass is accumulated from cloud-scale down to individual stars is a key open question in understanding high-mass star formation. Here, we present the mass accumulation process in a hub-filament cloud G22 that is composed of four supercritical filaments. Velocity gradients detected along three filaments indicate that they are collapsing with a total mass infall rate of about 440 M ⊙ Myr‑1, suggesting the hub mass would be doubled in six free-fall times, adding up to ∼2 Myr. A fraction of the masses in the central clumps C1 and C2 can be accounted for through large-scale filamentary collapse. Ubiquitous blue profiles in HCO+ (3–2) and 13CO (3–2) spectra suggest a clump-scale collapse scenario in the most massive and densest clump C1. The estimated infall velocity and mass infall rate are 0.31 km s‑1 and 7.2 × 10‑4 M ⊙ yr‑1, respectively. In clump C1, a hot molecular core (SMA1) is revealed by the Submillimeter Array observations and an outflow-driving high-mass protostar is located at the center of SMA1. The mass of the protostar is estimated to be 11–15 M ⊙ and it is still growing with an accretion rate of 7 × 10‑5 M ⊙ yr‑1. The coexistent infall in filaments, clump C1, and the central hot core in G22 suggests that pre-assembled mass reservoirs (i.e., high-mass starless cores) may not be required to form high-mass stars. In the course of high-mass star formation, the central protostar, the core, and the clump can simultaneously grow in mass via core-fed/disk accretion, clump-fed accretion, and filamentary/cloud collapse.

  9. Water in embedded low-mass protostars: cold envelopes and warm outflows (United States)

    Kristensen, Lars E.; van Dishoeck, Ewine; Mottram, Joseph; Schmalzl, Markus; Visser, Ruud


    As stars form, gas from the parental cloud is transported through the molecular envelope to the protostellar disk from which planets eventually form. Water plays a crucial role in such systems: it forms the backbone of the oxygen chemistry, it is a unique probe of warm and hot gas, and it provides a unique link between the grain surface and gas-phase chemistries. The distribution of water, both as ice and gas, is a fundamental question to our understanding of how planetary systems, such as the Solar System, form.The Herschel Space Observatory observed many tens of embedded low-mass protostars in a suite of gas-phase water transitions in several programs (e.g. Water in Star-forming regions with Herschel, WISH, and the William Herschel Line Legacy Survey, WILL), and related species (e.g. CO in Protostars with HIFI, COPS-HIFI). I will summarize what Herschel has revealed about the water distribution in the cold outer molecular envelope of low-mass protostars, and the warm gas in outflows, the two components predominantly traced by Herschel observations. I will present our current understanding of where the water vapor is in protostellar systems and the underlying physical and chemical processes leading to this distribution. Through these dedicated observational surveys and complementary modeling efforts, we are now at a stage where we can quantify where the water is during the early stages of star formation.

  10. Unsteady Mass transfer Across the Sediment-Water Interface (United States)

    McCluskey, Alexander; Grant, Stanley; Stewardson, Michael


    Fluxes across the sediment-water interface (SWI) are of high ecological significance, as they promote biogeochemical processes that support benthic ecosystems within the hyporheic zone. The SWI marks a boundary between the turbulent water column (typically modelled by Navier Stokes equations) and the interstitial pore fluids in the sediment column, which are typically laminar (and modelled by Darcy's law). Although models of these two flow regimes are generally not coupled, flow in the turbulent boundary layer is affected by the sediment permeability and a slip velocity at the SWI, which decays exponentially into the streambed across a characteristic mixing length. Momentum is transferred across this region (known as the Brinkman layer) through the penetration of coherent structures and turbulent mixing, however, these turbulent structures also promote turbulent mass transfer. Mass transfer within the hyporheic zone can be conceptualised in terms of: (1) the downwelling of solutes from the stream; (2) retention of solutes in the sediment; and (3) the upwelling of solutes back into the stream. Recent work by the authors has shown that a mass transfer coefficient can be defined where a downwelling-upwelling unit cell exists across a concentration gradient. Such unit cells are generated at the SWI by pressure variation from: (1) steady-state influences, such as stream geometry and velocity variation; and (2) unsteady pressure waves produced by coherent turbulent structures. With this definition, mass transfer coefficients can be defined for: steady exchange, by adopting the Elliott and Brooks [1997] advective pumping model; and unsteady exchange, induced by streamwise propagation of upwelling-downwelling unit cells migrating downstream with a characteristic celerity associated with turbulent eddies. We hypothesize that beneath the Brinkman layer (where Laplace equation applies) these mass transfer coefficients can be summed to yield the total mass flux. Although, it

  11. The effects of analyte mass and collision gases on ion beam formation in an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (United States)

    Larsen, Jessica J.; Edmund, Alisa J.; Farnsworth, Paul B.


    Planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) was used to evaluate the effect of matrix components on the formation and focusing of a Ba ion beam in a commercial inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. Cross sections of the ion beams were taken in the second vacuum stage, in front of the entrance to the mass analyzer. Under normal operating conditions, the addition of Pb shifted the position of the Ba ion beam to the right. PLIF was also used to evaluate the effect of a collision reaction interface (CRI) on Ca and Ba ion beams. A wider velocity distribution of ions and a decrease in overall intensity were observed for the CRI images. The fluorescence and mass spectrometer signals decreased with increased CRI flow rates. These effects were most obvious for Ca ions with He gas.

  12. Accurate Treatment of Collisions and Water-Delivery in Models of Terrestrial Planet Formation (United States)

    Haghighipour, Nader; Maindl, Thomas; Schaefer, Christoph


    It is widely accepted that collisions among solid bodies, ignited by their interactions with planetary embryos is the key process in the formation of terrestrial planets and transport of volatiles and chemical compounds to their accretion zones. Unfortunately, due to computational complexities, these collisions are often treated in a rudimentary way. Impacts are considered to be perfectly inelastic and volatiles are considered to be fully transferred from one object to the other. This perfect-merging assumption has profound effects on the mass and composition of final planetary bodies as it grossly overestimates the masses of these objects and the amounts of volatiles and chemical elements transferred to them. It also entirely neglects collisional-loss of volatiles (e.g., water) and draws an unrealistic connection between these properties and the chemical structure of the protoplanetary disk (i.e., the location of their original carriers). We have developed a new and comprehensive methodology to simulate growth of embryos to planetary bodies where we use a combination of SPH and N-body codes to accurately model collisions as well as the transport/transfer of chemical compounds. Our methodology accounts for the loss of volatiles (e.g., ice sublimation) during the orbital evolution of their careers and accurately tracks their transfer from one body to another. Results of our simulations show that traditional N-body modeling of terrestrial planet formation overestimates the amount of the mass and water contents of the final planets by over 60% implying that not only the amount of water they suggest is far from being realistic, small planets such as Mars can also form in these simulations when collisions are treated properly. We will present details of our methodology and discuss its implications for terrestrial planet formation and water delivery to Earth.

  13. Energy-water nexus for mass cultivation of algae. (United States)

    Murphy, Cynthia Folsom; Allen, David T


    Microalgae are currently considered a potential feedstock for the production of biofuels. This work addresses the energy needed to manage the water used in the mass cultivation of saline, eukaryotic algae grown in open pond systems. Estimates of both direct and upstream energy requirements for obtaining, containing, and circulating water within algae cultivation systems are developed. Potential productivities are calculated for each of the 48 states within the continental U.S. based on theoretical photosynthetic efficiencies, growing season, and total available land area. Energy output in the form of algal biodiesel and the total energy content of algal biomass are compared to energy inputs required for water management. The analysis indicates that, for current technologies, energy required for water management alone is approximately seven times greater than energy output in the form of biodiesel and more than double that contained within the entire algal biomass. While this analysis addresses only currently identified species grown in an open-pond system, the water management requirements of any algae system will be substantial; therefore, it is critical that an energy assessment of water management requirements be performed for any cultivation technology and algal type in order to fully understand the energy balance of algae-derived biofuels.

  14. Fingerprinting Northeast Atlantic water masses using neodymium isotopes (United States)

    Dubois-Dauphin, Quentin; Colin, Christophe; Bonneau, Lucile; Montagna, Paolo; Wu, Qiong; Van Rooij, David; Reverdin, Gilles; Douville, Eric; Thil, François; Waldner, Astrid; Frank, Norbert


    Dissolved neodymium (Nd) isotopic composition (expressed as εNd) has been analysed for 82 seawater samples collected from 13 stations stretching from the Alboran Sea to the Iceland Basin. The distribution of the εNd values of water masses was thus investigated for the first time along the western European margin in order to explore whether the water masses flowing in the eastern subpolar and subtropical Atlantic reveal distinct isotopic patterns. The Modified Atlantic Water (MAW) in the Alboran Sea displays εNd values (between -9.2 ± 0.2 and -8.9 ± 0.2) that are significantly more radiogenic than those reported in previous studies (-10.8 ± 0.2 to -9.7 ± 0.2), suggesting temporal variations in the Nd isotopic composition of the water that enters the Mediterranean Sea from the Strait of Gibraltar. The εNd value of the underlying modified Winter Intermediate Water (WIW) has been established for the first time (-9.8 ± 0.3) and is compatible with a Nd signature acquired from the sinking of MAW in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea. Within the Gulf of Cádiz, southern Mediterranean Sea Water (MSW) (-10.6 ± 0.2) differs slightly from the northern MSW (-9.9 ± 0.4) owing to a significant contribution of modified East Antarctic Intermediate Water (EAAIW) (-10.9 ± 0.2). In the northeast Atlantic, the North Atlantic Current surface water located in the inter-gyre region (north of 46°N) displays εNd values of between -14.0 ± 0.3 and -15.1 ± 0.3, reflecting the subpolar gyre signature. Along the western European margin, εNd values of surface water decrease toward the north (from -10.4 ± 1.6 to -13.7 ± 1.0) in agreement with the gradual mixing between subtropical and subpolar water. At intermediate depth, εNd values decrease from -9.9 ± 0.4 within the Gulf of Cádiz to -12.1 ± 0.2 within the Porcupine Seabight, indicating a strong dilution of the MSW with subpolar water. Within the Rockall Trough and the Iceland Basin, the more negative εNd values at mid

  15. The Origin and Evolution of the Galaxy Star Formation Rate-Stellar Mass Correlation (United States)

    Gawiser, Eric; Iyer, Kartheik


    The existence of a tight correlation between galaxies’ star formation rates and stellar masses is far more surprising than usually noted. However, a simple analytical calculation illustrates that the evolution of the normalization of this correlation is driven primarily by the inverse age of the universe, and that the underlying correlation is one between galaxies’ instantaneous star formation rates and their average star formation rates since the Big Bang.Our new Dense Basis method of SED fitting (Iyer & Gawiser 2017, ApJ 838, 127) allows star formation histories (SFHs) to be reconstructed, along with uncertainties, for >10,000 galaxies in the CANDELS and 3D-HST catalogs at 0.5formation rates, providing new constraints on the level of stochasticity in galaxy formation.

  16. Low-mass black holes as the remnants of primordial black hole formation. (United States)

    Greene, Jenny E


    Bridging the gap between the approximately ten solar mass 'stellar mass' black holes and the 'supermassive' black holes of millions to billions of solar masses are the elusive 'intermediate-mass' black holes. Their discovery is key to understanding whether supermassive black holes can grow from stellar-mass black holes or whether a more exotic process accelerated their growth soon after the Big Bang. Currently, tentative evidence suggests that the progenitors of supermassive black holes were formed as ∼10(4)-10(5) M(⊙) black holes via the direct collapse of gas. Ongoing searches for intermediate-mass black holes at galaxy centres will help shed light on this formation mechanism.

  17. Extant or Absent: Formation Water in New York State Drinking Water Wells (United States)

    Christian, K.; Lautz, L. K.


    The current moratorium on hydraulic fracturing in New York State (NYS) provides an opportunity to collect baseline shallow groundwater quality data pre-hydraulic fracturing, which is essential for determining the natural variability of groundwater chemistry and to evaluate future claims of impaired groundwater quality if hydraulic fracturing occurs in the State. Concerns regarding the future environmental impact of shale gas extraction in NYS include potential shallow groundwater contamination due to migration of methane or formation water from shale gas extraction sites. Treatment, storage and disposal of saline flowback fluids after gas extraction could also be a source of water contamination. In this study, we combine southern NYS shallow groundwater chemistry data from Project Shale-Water Interaction Forensic Tools (SWIFT, n=60), the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program (NURE, n=684), and the USGS 305(b) Ambient Groundwater Quality Monitoring program (USGS, n=89) to examine evidence of formation water mixing with groundwater using the methodology of Warner et al. (2012). Groundwater characterized as low salinity (20 mg/L Cl-). A plot of bromide versus chloride shows high salinity groundwater samples with Br/Cl ratios >0.0001 fall on the mixing line between low salinity groundwater and Appalachian Basin formation water. Based on the observed linear relationship between bromide and chloride, it appears there is up to 1% formation water mixing with shallow groundwater in the region. The presence of formation water in shallow groundwater would indicate the existence of natural migratory pathways between deep formation wells and shallow groundwater aquifers. A plot of sodium versus chloride also illustrates a linear trend for Type D waters (R^2= 0.776), but the relationship is weaker than that for bromide versus chloride (R^2= 0.924). Similar linear relationships are not observed between other ions and chloride, including Mg, Ca, and Sr. If high salinity

  18. Mass-dependent and -independent fractionation of isotopes in Ni and Pb chelate complex formation reactions (United States)

    Nomura, Masao; Kudo, Takashi; Adachi, Atsuhiko; Aida, Masao; Fujii, Yasuhiko


    Mass independent fractionation (MIF) has been a very interesting topic in the field of inorganic isotope chemistry, in particular, geo- and cosmo- chemistry. In the present work, we studied the isotope fractionation of Ni(II) and Pb(II) ions in complex formation with chelating reagent EDTA. To obtain clear results on the mass dependence of the isotope fractionation, we have conducted long-distance ion exchange chromatography of Ni(II) and Pb(II), using chelate complex reagent EDTA. The results apparently show that the isotope fractionation in Ni complex formation system is governed by the mass dependent rule. On the other hand the isotope fractionation in the Pb complex system is governed by the mass independent rule or the nuclear volume effect.

  19. Modeling The GRB Host Galaxy Mass Distribution: Are GRBs Unbiased Tracers of Star Formation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocevski, Daniel; /KIPAC, Menlo Park; West, Andrew A.; /UC, Berkeley, Astron. Dept. /MIT, MKI; Modjaz, Maryam; /UC, Berkeley, Astron. Dept.


    We model the mass distribution of long gamma-ray burst (GRB) host galaxies given recent results suggesting that GRBs occur in low metallicity environments. By utilizing measurements of the redshift evolution of the mass-metallicity (M-Z) relationship for galaxies, along with a sharp host metallicity cut-off suggested by Modjaz and collaborators, we estimate an upper limit on the stellar mass of a galaxy that can efficiently produce a GRB as a function of redshift. By employing consistent abundance indicators, we find that sub-solar metallicity cut-offs effectively limit GRBs to low stellar mass spirals and dwarf galaxies at low redshift. At higher redshifts, as the average metallicity of galaxies in the Universe falls, the mass range of galaxies capable of hosting a GRB broadens, with an upper bound approaching the mass of even the largest spiral galaxies. We compare these predicted limits to the growing number of published GRB host masses and find that extremely low metallicity cut-offs of 0.1 to 0.5 Z{sub {circle_dot}} are effectively ruled out by a large number of intermediate mass galaxies at low redshift. A mass function that includes a smooth decrease in the efficiency of producing GRBs in galaxies of metallicity above 12+log(O/H){sub KK04} = 8.7 can, however, accommodate a majority of the measured host galaxy masses. We find that at z {approx} 1, the peak in the observed GRB host mass distribution is inconsistent with the expected peak in the mass of galaxies harboring most of the star formation. This suggests that GRBs are metallicity biased tracers of star formation at low and intermediate redshifts, although our model predicts that this bias should disappear at higher redshifts due to the evolving metallicity content of the universe.

  20. Lutein Enhances Bone Mass by Stimulating Bone Formation and Suppressing Bone Resorption in Growing Mice. (United States)

    Takeda, Hiroshi; Tominari, Tsukasa; Hirata, Michiko; Watanabe, Kenta; Matsumoto, Chiho; Grundler, Florian M W; Inada, Masaki; Miyaura, Chisato


    Lutein is a member of the xanthophyll family of carotenoids, which are known to prevent hypoxia-induced cell damage in the eye by removing free radicals. However, its role in other tissues is controversial, and the effects of lutein on bone tissues are unknown. To identify a possible role of lutein in bone tissues, we examined the effects of lutein on bone formation and bone resorption and on femoral bone mass in mice. Lutein enhanced the formation of mineralized bone nodules in cultures of osteoblasts. On the other hand, lutein clearly suppressed 1α, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 -induced bone resorption as measured by pit formation in organ culture of mouse calvaria. In co-cultures of bone marrow cells and osteoblasts, lutein suppressed 1α, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 -induced osteoclast formation. In cultures of bone marrow macrophages, lutein suppressed soluble RANKL, the receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) ligand, induced osteoclast formation. When five-week-old male mice were orally administered lutein for 4 weeks, the femoral bone mass was clearly enhanced in cortical bone, as measured by bone mineral density in dual X-ray absorptiometry and micro computed tomography (µCT) analyses. The present study indicates that lutein enhances bone mass in growing mice by suppressing bone resorption and stimulating bone formation. Lutein may be a natural agent that promotes bone turnover and may be beneficial for bone health in humans.

  1. Mechanisms of flow and water mass variability in Denmark Strait (United States)

    Moritz, Martin; Jochumsen, Kerstin; Quadfasel, Detlef; Mashayekh Poul, Hossein; Käse, Rolf H.


    The dense water export through Denmark Strait contributes significantly to the lower limb of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. Overflow water is transported southwestward not only in the deep channel of the Strait, but also within a thin bottom layer on the Greenland shelf. The flow on the shelf is mainly weak and barotropic, exhibiting many recirculations, but may eventually contribute to the overflow layer in the Irminger Basin by spilling events in the northern Irminger Basin. Especially the circulation around Dohrn Bank and the Kangerdlussuaq Trough contribute to the shelf-basin exchange. Moored observations show the overflow in Denmark Strait to be stable during the last 20 years (1996-2016). Nevertheless, flow variability was noticed on time scales of eddies and beyond, i.e. on weekly and interannual scales. Here, we use a combination of mooring data and shipboard hydrographic and current data to address the dominant modes of variability in the overflow, which are (i) eddies, (ii) barotropic pulsations of the plume, (iii) lateral shifts of the plume core position, and (iv) variations in vertical extension, i.e. varying overflow thickness. A principle component analysis is carried out and related to variations in sea surface height and wind stress, derived from satellite measurements. Furthermore, a test for topographic waves is performed. Shelf contributions to the overflow core in the Irminger Basin are identified from measurements of temperature and salinity, as well as velocity, which were obtained during recent cruises in the region. The flow and water mass pattern obtained from the observational data is compared to simulations in a high resolution regional model (ROMS), where tracer release experiments and float deployments were carried out. The modelling results allow a separation between different atmospheric forcing modes (NAO+ vs NAO- situations), which impact the water mass distribution and alter the dense water pathways on the

  2. The stellar masses and specific star-formation rates of submillimetre galaxies (United States)

    Michałowski, M. J.; Dunlop, J. S.; Cirasuolo, M.; Hjorth, J.; Hayward, C. C.; Watson, D.


    Establishing the stellar masses, and hence specific star-formation rates of submillimetre galaxies is crucial for determining the role of such objects in the cosmic history of galaxy/star formation. However, there is as yet no consensus over the typical stellar masses of submillimetre galaxies, as illustrated by the widely differing results reported from recent optical-infrared studies of submillimetre galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts z ≃ 2-3. Specifically, even for the same set of submillimetre galaxies, the reported average stellar masses have ranged over an order of magnitude, from ≃5 × 1010 M⊙ to ≃5 × 1011 M⊙. Here we study how different methods of analysis can lead to such widely varying results. We find that, contrary to recent claims in the literature, potential contamination of IRAC 3-8 μm photometry from hot dust associated with an active nucleus is not the origin of the published discrepancies in derived stellar masses. Instead, we expose in detail how inferred stellar mass depends on assumptions made in the photometric fitting, and quantify the individual and cumulative effects of different choices of initial mass function, different "brands" of evolutionary synthesis models, and different forms of assumed star-formation history. We review current observational evidence for and against these alternatives as well as clues from the hydrodynamical simulations, and conclude that, for the most justifiable choices of these model inputs, the average stellar mass of luminous (S850 ≳ 5 mJy) submillimetre galaxies is ≃2 × 1011 M⊙ to within a factor ≃2. We also check and confirm that this number is perfectly reasonable in the light of the latest measurements of the dynamical masses of these objects (≃2-6 × 1011 M⊙ from CO (1-0) observations), and the evolving stellar mass function of the overall galaxy population. Galaxy stellar masses of this order imply that the average specific star-formation rate of submillimetre galaxies is

  3. The Delivery of Water During Terrestrial Planet Formation (United States)

    O'Brien, David P.; Izidoro, Andre; Jacobson, Seth A.; Raymond, Sean N.; Rubie, David C.


    The planetary building blocks that formed in the terrestrial planet region were likely very dry, yet water is comparatively abundant on Earth. Here we review the various mechanisms proposed for the origin of water on the terrestrial planets. Various in-situ mechanisms have been suggested, which allow for the incorporation of water into the local planetesimals in the terrestrial planet region or into the planets themselves from local sources, although all of those mechanisms have difficulties. Comets have also been proposed as a source, although there may be problems fitting isotopic constraints, and the delivery efficiency is very low, such that it may be difficult to deliver even a single Earth ocean of water this way. The most promising route for water delivery is the accretion of material from beyond the snow line, similar to carbonaceous chondrites, that is scattered into the terrestrial planet region as the planets are growing. Two main scenarios are discussed in detail. First is the classical scenario in which the giant planets begin roughly in their final locations and the disk of planetesimals and embryos in the terrestrial planet region extends all the way into the outer asteroid belt region. Second is the Grand Tack scenario, where early inward and outward migration of the giant planets implants material from beyond the snow line into the asteroid belt and terrestrial planet region, where it can be accreted by the growing planets. Sufficient water is delivered to the terrestrial planets in both scenarios. While the Grand Tack scenario provides a better fit to most constraints, namely the small mass of Mars, planets may form too fast in the nominal case discussed here. This discrepancy may be reduced as a wider range of initial conditions is explored. Finally, we discuss several more recent models that may have important implications for water delivery to the terrestrial planets.

  4. Exciton formation and dissociation in mass-asymmetric electron-hole plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fehske, H [Institut fuer Physik, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universitaet Greifswald, Domstrasse 10a, D-17489 Greifswald (Germany); Filinov, V [Institute for High Energy Density, Russian Academy of Sciences, Izhorskay 13/19, Moscow 127412 (Russian Federation); Bonitz, M [Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet zu Kiel, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, Lehrstuhl Statistische Physik, Leibnizstrasse 15, 24098 Kiel (Germany); Fortov, V [Institute for High Energy Density, Russian Academy of Sciences, Izhorskay 13/19, Moscow 127412 (Russian Federation); Levashov, P [Institute for High Energy Density, Russian Academy of Sciences, Izhorskay 13/19, Moscow 127412 (Russian Federation)


    First-principle path integral Monte Carlo simulations were performed in order to analyze correlation effects in complex electron-hole plasmas, particularly with regard to the appearance of excitonic bound states. Results are discussed in relation to exciton formation in unconventional semiconductors with large electron hole mass asymmetry.

  5. Inorganic carbon and water masses in the Irminger Sea since 1991 (United States)

    Fröb, Friederike; Olsen, Are; Pérez, Fiz F.; García-Ibáñez, Maribel I.; Jeansson, Emil; Omar, Abdirahman; Lauvset, Siv K.


    The subpolar region in the North Atlantic is a major sink for anthropogenic carbon. While the storage rates show large interannual variability related to atmospheric forcing, less is known about variability in the natural dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and the combined impact of variations in the two components on the total DIC inventories. Here, data from 15 cruises in the Irminger Sea covering the 24-year period between 1991 and 2015 were used to determine changes in total DIC and its natural and anthropogenic components. Based on the results of an extended optimum multiparameter analysis (eOMP), the inventory changes are discussed in relation to the distribution and evolution of the main water masses. The inventory of DIC increased by 1.43 ± 0.17 mol m-2 yr-1 over the period, mainly driven by the increase in anthropogenic carbon (1.84 ± 0.16 mol m-2 yr-1) but partially offset by a loss of natural DIC (-0.57 ± 0.22 mol m-2 yr-1). Changes in the carbon storage rate can be driven by concentration changes in the water column, for example due to the ageing of water masses, or by changes in the distribution of water masses with different concentrations either by local formation or advection. A decomposition of the trends into their main drivers showed that variations in natural DIC inventories are mainly driven by changes in the layer thickness of the main water masses, while anthropogenic carbon is most affected by concentration changes. The storage rates of anthropogenic carbon are sensitive to data selection, while changes in DIC inventory show a robust signal on short timescales associated with the strength of convection.

  6. Linking low- to high-mass young stellar objects with Herschel-HIFI observations of water (United States)

    San José-García, I.; Mottram, J. C.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Kristensen, L. E.; van der Tak, F. F. S.; Braine, J.; Herpin, F.; Johnstone, D.; van Kempen, T. A.; Wyrowski, F.


    Context. Water probes the dynamics in young stellar objects (YSOs) effectively, especially shocks in molecular outflows. It is therefore a key molecule for exploring whether the physical properties of low-mass protostars can be extrapolated to massive YSOs, an important step in understanding the fundamental mechanisms regulating star formation. Aims: As part of the WISH key programme, we investigate excited water line properties as a function of source luminosity, in particular the dynamics and the excitation conditions of shocks along the outflow cavity wall. Methods: Velocity-resolved Herschel-HIFI spectra of the H2O 202-111 (988 GHz), 211-202 (752 GHz) and 312-303 (1097 GHz) lines were analysed, together with 12CO J = 10-9 and 16-15, for 52 YSOs with bolometric luminosities ranging from 105 L⊙. The H2O and 12CO line profiles were decomposed into multiple Gaussian components which are related to the different physical structures of the protostellar system. The non-LTE radiative transfer code radex was used to constrain the excitation conditions of the shocks along the outflow cavity. Results: The profiles of the three excited water lines are similar, indicating that they probe the same gas. Two main emission components are seen in all YSOs: a broad component associated with non-dissociative shocks in the outflow cavity wall ("cavity shocks") and a narrow component associated with the quiescent envelope material. More than 60% of the total integrated intensity in the excited water lines comes from the broad cavity shock component, while the remaining emission comes mostly from the envelope for low-mass Class I, intermediate- and high-mass objects, and dissociative "spot shocks" for low-mass Class 0 protostars. The widths of the water lines are surprisingly similar from low- to high-mass YSOs, whereas 12CO J = 10-9 line widths increase slightly with Lbol. The excitation analysis of the cavity shock component shows stronger 752 GHz emission for high-mass YSOs

  7. Modeling rapid mass movements using the shallow water equations (United States)

    Hergarten, S.; Robl, J.


    We propose a new method to model rapid mass movements on complex topography using the shallow water equations in Cartesian coordinates. These equations are the widely used standard approximation for the flow of water in rivers and shallow lakes, but the main prerequisite for their application - an almost horizontal fluid table - is in general not satisfied for avalanches and debris flows in steep terrain. Therefore, we have developed appropriate correction terms for large topographic gradients. In this study we present the mathematical formulation of these correction terms and their implementation in the open source flow solver GERRIS. This novel approach is evaluated by simulating avalanches on synthetic and finally natural topographies and the widely used Voellmy flow resistance law. The results are tested against analytical solutions and the commercial avalanche model RAMMS. The overall results are in excellent agreement with the reference system RAMMS, and the deviations between the different models are far below the uncertainties in the determination of the relevant fluid parameters and involved avalanche volumes in reality. As this code is freely available and open source, it can be easily extended by additional fluid models or source areas, making this model suitable for simulating several types of rapid mass movements. It therefore provides a valuable tool assisting regional scale natural hazard studies.

  8. Physical properties of the formation of water exchange between Atlantic and Arctic Ocean (United States)

    Moshonkin, S. N.; Bagno, A. V.; Gusev, A. V.; Filyushkin, B. N.; Zalesny, V. B.


    Physical regularities of water exchange between the North Atlantic (NA) and Arctic Ocean (AO) in 1958-2009 are analyzed on the basis of numerical experiments with an eddy-permitting model of ocean circulation. Variations in the heat and salt fluxes in the Greenland Sea near the Fram Strait caused by atmospheric forcing generate baroclinic modes of ocean currents in the 0-300 m layer, which stabilize the response of the ocean to atmospheric forcing. This facilitates the conservation of water exchange between the NA and AO at a specific climatic level. A quick response of dense water outflow into the deep layers of the NA through the Denmark Strait to the variations in the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index was revealed on the monthly scale. A response on a time scale of 39 months was also revealed. The quick response on the NAO index variation was interrupted in 1969-1978, which was related to the Great Salinity Anomaly. It was shown that transverse oscillations of the Norwegian Atlantic Current significantly influence the formation of intermediate dense waters in the Greenland and Norwegian seas (GNS). The dense water outflow by bottom current (BC) to the deep layers of the NA through the Faroe Channels with a time lag of 1 year correlates with the transversal oscillations of the Norwegian Current front. The mass transport of the BC outflow from the Faroe Channels to the NA can serve as an integral indicator of the formation and sink of new portions of dense waters formed as a result of mixing of warm saline Atlantic waters and cold freshened Arctic waters in the GNS.

  9. Differences between 1999 and 2010 across the Falkland Plateau: fronts and water masses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Pérez-Hernández


    Full Text Available Decadal differences in the Falkland Plateau are studied from the two full-depth hydrographic data collected during the ALBATROSS (April 1999 and MOC-Austral (February 2010 cruises. Differences in the upper 100 dbar are due to changes in the seasonal thermocline, as the ALBATROSS cruise took place in the austral fall and the MOC-Austral cruise in summer. The intermediate water masses seem to be very sensitive to the wind conditions existing in their formation area, showing cooling and freshening for the decade as a consequence of a higher Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW contribution and of a decrease in the Subantarctic Mode Water (SAMW stratum. The deeper layers do not exhibit any significant change in the water mass properties. The Subantarctic Front (SAF in 1999 is observed at 52.2–54.8° W with a relative mass transport of 32.6 Sv. In contrast, the SAF gets wider in 2010, stretching from 51.1 to 57.2° W (the Falkland Islands, and weakening to 17.9 Sv. Changes in the SAF can be linked with the westerly winds and mainly affect the northward flow of Subantarctic Surface Water (SASW, SAMW and AAIW/Antarctic Surface Water (AASW. The Polar Front (PF carries 24.9 Sv in 1999 (49.8–44.4° W, while in 2010 (49.9–49.2° W it narrows and strengthens to 37.3 Sv.

  10. Effects of excipients on hydrate formation in wet masses containing theophylline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Airaksinen, Sari; Luukkonen, Pirjo; Jørgensen, Anna


    Transformations between solid phases in dosage forms can lead to instability in drug release. Thus, it is important to understand mechanisms and kinetics of phase transformations and factors that may influence them. During wet granulation theophylline shows pseudopolymorphic changes that may alter...... is able to take large amounts of water into its internal structure, it was able to inhibit the formation of theophylline monohydrate only at low moisture contents, not at the amounts of water needed to form granules. Both the spectroscopic methods used could identify the hydrate formation even though...

  11. Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA): The mechanisms for quiescent galaxy formation at z < 1 (United States)

    Rowlands, K.; Wild, V.; Bourne, N.; Bremer, M.; Brough, S.; Driver, S. P.; Hopkins, A. M.; Owers, M. S.; Phillipps, S.; Pimbblet, K.; Sansom, A. E.; Wang, L.; Alpaslan, M.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Colless, M.; Holwerda, B. W.; Taylor, E. N.


    One key problem in astrophysics is understanding how and why galaxies switch off their star formation, building the quiescent population that we observe in the local Universe. From the Galaxy And Mass Assembly and VIsible MultiObject Spectrograph Public Extragalactic Redshift surveys, we use spectroscopic indices to select quiescent and candidate transition galaxies. We identify potentially rapidly transitioning post-starburst (PSB) galaxies and slower transitioning green-valley galaxies. Over the last 8 Gyr, the quiescent population has grown more slowly in number density at high masses ({M}_\\ast >10^{11}{M_{⊙}) than at intermediate masses ({M}_\\ast >10^{10.6}{M_{⊙}). There is evolution in both the PSB and green-valley stellar mass functions, consistent with higher mass galaxies quenching at earlier cosmic times. At intermediate masses ({M}_\\ast >10^{10.6}{M_{⊙}), we find a green-valley transition time-scale of 2.6 Gyr. Alternatively, at z ∼ 0.7, the entire growth rate could be explained by fast-quenching PSB galaxies, with a visibility time-scale of 0.5 Gyr. At lower redshift, the number density of PSBs is so low that an unphysically short visibility window would be required for them to contribute significantly to the quiescent population growth. The importance of the fast-quenching route may rapidly diminish at z 10^{11}{M_{⊙}), there is tension between the large number of candidate transition galaxies compared to the slow growth of the quiescent population. This could be resolved if not all high-mass PSB and green-valley galaxies are transitioning from star forming to quiescent, for example if they rejuvenate out of the quiescent population following the accretion of gas and triggering of star formation, or if they fail to completely quench their star formation.

  12. Formation of intermediate-mass black holes through runaway collisions in the first star clusters (United States)

    Sakurai, Yuya; Yoshida, Naoki; Fujii, Michiko S.; Hirano, Shingo


    We study the formation of massive black holes in the first star clusters. We first locate star-forming gas clouds in protogalactic haloes of ≳107 M⊙ in cosmological hydrodynamics simulations and use them to generate the initial conditions for star clusters with masses of ˜105 M⊙. We then perform a series of direct-tree hybrid N-body simulations to follow runaway stellar collisions in the dense star clusters. In all the cluster models except one, runaway collisions occur within a few million years, and the mass of the central, most massive star reaches ˜400-1900 M⊙. Such very massive stars collapse to leave intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs). The diversity of the final masses may be attributed to the differences in a few basic properties of the host haloes such as mass, central gas velocity dispersion and mean gas density of the central core. Finally, we derive the IMBH mass to cluster mass ratios, and compare them with the observed black hole to bulge mass ratios in the present-day Universe.

  13. Numerical simulation of water and sand blowouts when penetrating through shallow water flow formations in deep water drilling (United States)

    Ren, Shaoran; Liu, Yanmin; Gong, Zhiwu; Yuan, Yujie; Yu, Lu; Wang, Yanyong; Xu, Yan; Deng, Junyu


    In this study, we applied a two-phase flow model to simulate water and sand blowout processes when penetrating shallow water flow (SWF) formations during deepwater drilling. We define `sand' as a pseudo-component with high density and viscosity, which can begin to flow with water when a critical pressure difference is attained. We calculated the water and sand blowout rates and analyzed the influencing factors from them, including overpressure of the SWF formation, as well as its zone size, porosity and permeability, and drilling speed (penetration rate). The obtained data can be used for the quantitative assessment of the potential severity of SWF hazards. The results indicate that overpressure of the SWF formation and its zone size have significant effects on SWF blowout. A 10% increase in the SWF formation overpressure can result in a more than 90% increase in the cumulative water blowout and a 150% increase in the sand blowout when a typical SWF sediment is drilled. Along with the conventional methods of well flow and pressure control, chemical plugging, and the application of multi-layer casing, water and sand blowouts can be effectively reduced by increasing the penetration rate. As such, increasing the penetration rate can be a useful measure for controlling SWF hazards during deepwater drilling.

  14. Observational constraints on star cluster formation theory. I. The mass-radius relation (United States)

    Pfalzner, S.; Kirk, H.; Sills, A.; Urquhart, J. S.; Kauffmann, J.; Kuhn, M. A.; Bhandare, A.; Menten, K. M.


    Context. Stars form predominantly in groups usually denoted as clusters or associations. The observed stellar groups display a broad spectrum of masses, sizes, and other properties, so it is often assumed that there is no underlying structure in this diversity. Aims: Here we show that the assumption of an unstructured multitude of cluster or association types might be misleading. Current data compilations of clusters in the solar neighbourhood show correlations among cluster mass, size, age, maximum stellar mass, etc. In this first paper we take a closer look at the correlation of cluster mass and radius. Methods: We use literature data to explore relations in cluster and molecular core properties in the solar neighbourhood. Results: We show that for embedded clusters in the solar neighbourhood a clear correlation exists between cluster mass and half-mass radius of the form Mc = CRcγ with γ = 1.7 ± 0.2. This correlation holds for infrared K-band data, as well as for X-ray sources and clusters containing a hundred stars up to those consisting of a few tens of thousands of stars. The correlation is difficult to verify for clusters containing fewer than 30 stars owing to low-number statistics. Dense clumps of gas are the progenitors of the embedded clusters. We find almost the same slope for the mass-size relation of dense, massive clumps as for the embedded star clusters. This might point to a direct translation from gas to stellar mass: however, it is difficult to relate size measurements for clusters (stars) to those for gas profiles. Taking multiple paths for clump mass into cluster mass into account, we obtain an average star-formation efficiency of 18%+9.3-5.7 for the embedded clusters in the solar neighbourhood. Conclusions: The derived mass-radius relation gives constraints for the theory of clustered star formation. Analytical models and simulations of clustered star formation have to reproduce this relation in order to be realistic.

  15. A new methodology to test galaxy formation models using the dependence of clustering on stellar mass (United States)

    Campbell, David J. R.; Baugh, Carlton M.; Mitchell, Peter D.; Helly, John C.; Gonzalez-Perez, Violeta; Lacey, Cedric G.; Lagos, Claudia del P.; Simha, Vimal; Farrow, Daniel J.


    We present predictions for the two-point correlation function of galaxy clustering as a function of stellar mass, computed using two new versions of the GALFORM semi-analytic galaxy formation model. These models make use of a high resolution, large volume N-body simulation, set in the 7-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe cosmology. One model uses a universal stellar initial mass function (IMF), while the other assumes different IMFs for quiescent star formation and bursts. Particular consideration is given to how the assumptions required to estimate the stellar masses of observed galaxies (such as the choice of IMF, stellar population synthesis model, and dust extinction) influence the perceived dependence of galaxy clustering on stellar mass. Broad-band spectral energy distribution fitting is carried out to estimate stellar masses for the model galaxies in the same manner as in observational studies. We show clear differences between the clustering signals computed using the true and estimated model stellar masses. As such, we highlight the importance of applying our methodology to compare theoretical models to observations. We introduce an alternative scheme for the calculation of the merger time-scales for satellite galaxies in GALFORM, which takes into account the dark matter subhalo information from the simulation. This reduces the amplitude of small-scale clustering. The new merger scheme offers improved or similar agreement with observational clustering measurements, over the redshift range 0 < z < 0.7. We find reasonable agreement with clustering measurements from the Galaxy and Mass Assembly Survey, but find larger discrepancies for some stellar mass ranges and separation scales with respect to measurements from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey, depending on the GALFORM model used.

  16. New Particle Formation and Growth from Methanesulfonic Acid, Amines, Water, and Organics (United States)

    Arquero, K. D.; Ezell, M. J.; Finlayson-Pitts, B. J.


    Particles in the atmosphere can influence visibility, negatively impact human health, and affect climate. The largest uncertainty in determining global radiative forcing is attributed to atmospheric aerosols. While new particle formation in many locations is correlated with sulfuric acid in air, neither the gas-phase binary nucleation of H2SO4-H2O nor the gas-phase ternary nucleation of H2SO4-NH3-H2O alone can fully explain observations. An additional potential particle source, based on previous studies in this laboratory, is methanesulfonic acid (MSA) with amines and water vapor. However, organics are ubiquitous in the atmosphere, with secondary organic aerosol (SOA) being a major component of particles. Organics could be involved in the initial stages of particle formation by enhancing or inhibiting nucleation from sulfuric acid or MSA, in addition to contributing to their growth to form SOA. Experiments to measure the effects of a series of organics of varying structure on particle formation and growth from MSA, amines, and water were performed in a custom-built small volume aerosol flow tube reactor. Analytical instruments and techniques include a scanning mobility particle sizer to measure particle size distributions, sampling onto a weak cation exchange resin with analysis by ion chromatography to measure amine concentrations, and filter collection and analysis by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry to measure MSA concentrations. Organics were measured by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry. The impact of these organics on the initial particle formation as well as growth will be reported. The outcome is an improved understanding of fundamental chemistry of nucleation and growth to ultimately be incorporated into climate models to better predict how particles affect the global climate budget.

  17. Extrasolar planet population synthesis. I. Method, formation tracks, and mass-distance distribution (United States)

    Mordasini, C.; Alibert, Y.; Benz, W.


    Context: With the high number of extrasolar planets discovered by now, it has become possible to use the properties of this planetary population to constrain theoretical formation models in a statistical sense. This paper is the first in a series in which we carry out a large number of planet population synthesis calculations within the framework of the core accretion scenario. We begin the series with a paper mainly dedicated to the presentation of our approach, but also the discussion of a representative synthetic planetary population of solar like stars. In the second paper we statistically compare the subset of detectable planets to the actual extrasolar planets. In subsequent papers, we shall extend the range of stellar masses and the properties of protoplanetary disks. Aims: The last decade has seen a large observational progress in characterizing both protoplanetary disks, and extrasolar planets. Concurrently, progress was made in developing complex theoretical formation models. The combination of these three developments allows a new kind of study: the synthesis of a population of planets from a model, which is compared with the actual population. Our aim is to obtain a general overview of the population, to check if we quantitatively reproduce the most important observed properties and correlations, and to make predictions about the planets that are not yet observable. Methods: Based as tightly as possible on observational data, we have derived probability distributions for the most important initial conditions for the planetary formation process. We then draw sets of initial conditions from these distributions and obtain the corresponding synthetic planets with our formation model. By repeating this step many times, we synthesize the populations. Results: Although the main purpose of this paper is the description of our methods, we present some key results: we find that the variation of the initial conditions in the limits occurring in nature leads to the

  18. Water in star-forming regions with Herschel (WISH) : IV. A survey of low-J H2O line profiles toward high-mass protostars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Tak, F. F. S.; Chavarria, L.; Herpin, F.; Wyrowski, F.; Walmsley, C. M.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Benz, A. O.; Bergin, E. A.; Caselli, P.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Johnstone, D.; Kristensen, L. E.; Liseau, R.; Nisini, B.; Tafalla, M.

    Context. Water is a key constituent of star-forming matter, but the origin of its line emission and absorption during high-mass star formation is not well understood. Aims. We study the velocity profiles of low-excitation H2O lines toward 19 high-mass star-forming regions and search for trends with

  19. Exploring the Role of Galaxy Morphology in the Mass-Metallicity-Star Formation Rate Relation (United States)

    Pahl, Anthony; Rafelski, Marc; Scarlata, Claudia; Pacifici, Camilla; Henry, Alaina L.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Elmegreen, Debra M.


    The Mass-Metallicity-Star Formation Rate (M-Z-SFR) fundamental relation reveals the underlying physics behind galaxy evolution: the mechanics of gas inflow, outflow, and the formation of stars are intimately connected. At higher redshift, we observe galaxies which are believed to be more actively accreting from the cosmic web, and as a result bright star-forming clumps are expected to form due to the increased gravitational instability of the galactic medium. We investigate these “clumpy” galaxies in context of their location on the M-Z-SFR plane to search for evidence of metal-poor gas inflows as predicted by theoretical models, and to help us understand how galaxies form and change at a higher redshift (1.3 imaging. We create stamps in their rest-frame UV light to investigate recent star formation and visually classify the morphology of the galaxies. We also utilize stellar population fits of the photometric data to determine properties such as mass and star formation rate. From the grism data of the 3D-HST survey, we select 1861 galaxies based on the strong detection of the [OIII_5007] line, and determine metallicity through the line-diagnostic R_23 using [OIII_5007], [OII_3727] and H_beta. We improve these results through the stacking of spectra to remove a sample bias of requiring strong detections on weak emission lines. Using mass, star formation rate, and metallicity we compare the location of clumpy galaxies on the fundamental plane to investigate possible diminished metallicity and heightened star formation rate compared to the remainder of the sample. This will enable us to better understand the theoretical underpinnings of gas accretion and galaxy evolution at high redshift.

  20. Effect of water quality and operational parameters on trihalomethanes formation potential in Dez River water, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahman Ramavandi


    Full Text Available This study assesses the influence of the total organic carbon (TOC content, chlorine quantity, water temperature, bromide ion concentration, and seasonal variations on trihalomethanes (THMs formation potential (THMFP in Dez River water in Iran. The water temperature and TOC content had a significant effect on THMFP. Further, the experimental results showed that increasing the concentration of bromide ions enhances the formation of dibromochloromethane and bromoform. It was found that the THMFP in Dez River water during summer times was relatively higher than 100 µg/L, maximum contaminant level for THMs in drinking water. By increasing the reaction time until 80 h, the THMFP was gradually increased and reached to 177.4 µg/L. The most abundant fraction of natural organic matter in the river was hydrophobic acid fraction (49.4 μg/L. Overall, our study demonstrated that however the THMFP of Dez River water was relatively high but a usual waterworks could effectively reduce THMFP.

  1. Ordered structure formation in 2D mass asymmetric electron-hole plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filinov, V.S. [Institute for High Energy Density, Russian Academy of Sciences, Izhorskaya 13/19, Moscow 127412 (Russian Federation)], E-mail:; Fehske, H. [Institut fuer Physik, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universitaet Greifswald, Felix-Hausdorff-Str. 6, D-17489 Greifswald (Germany); Bonitz, M. [Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet zu Kiel, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, Leibnizstrasse 15, 24098 Kiel (Germany); Fortov, V.E.; Levashov, P. [Institute for High Energy Density, Russian Academy of Sciences, Izhorskaya 13/19, Moscow 127412 (Russian Federation)


    We study strong Coulomb correlations in dense two-dimensional electron-hole plasmas by means of direct path integral Monte Carlo simulations. In particular, the formation and dissociation of bound states, such as excitons, bi-excitons and many particle clusters, is analyzed and the density-temperature regions of their occurrence are identified. At high density, the Mott transition to the fully ionized state (electron-hole hexatic liquid) is detected. Particular attention is paid to the influence of the hole to electron mass ratio M on the properties of the plasma. For high enough values of M we observed the formation of Coulomb hole crystal-like structures.

  2. The unique chemistry of Eastern Mediterranean water masses selects for distinct microbial communities by depth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M Techtmann

    Full Text Available The waters of the Eastern Mediterranean are characterized by unique physical and chemical properties within separate water masses occupying different depths. Distinct water masses are present throughout the oceans, which drive thermohaline circulation. These water masses may contain specific microbial assemblages. The goal of this study was to examine the effect of physical and geological phenomena on the microbial community of the Eastern Mediterranean water column. Chemical measurements were combined with phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA analysis and high-throughput 16S rRNA sequencing to characterize the microbial community in the water column at five sites. We demonstrate that the chemistry and microbial community of the water column were stratified into three distinct water masses. The salinity and nutrient concentrations vary between these water masses. Nutrient concentrations increased with depth, and salinity was highest in the intermediate water mass. Our PLFA analysis indicated different lipid classes were abundant in each water mass, suggesting that distinct groups of microbes inhabit these water masses. 16S rRNA gene sequencing confirmed the presence of distinct microbial communities in each water mass. Taxa involved in autotrophic nitrogen cycling were enriched in the intermediate water mass suggesting that microbes in this water mass may be important to the nitrogen cycle of the Eastern Mediterranean. The Eastern Mediterranean also contains numerous active hydrocarbon seeps. We sampled above the North Alex Mud Volcano, in order to test the effect of these geological features on the microbial community in the adjacent water column. The community in the waters overlaying the mud volcano was distinct from other communities collected at similar depths and was enriched in known hydrocarbon degrading taxa. Our results demonstrate that physical phenomena such stratification as well as geological phenomena such as mud volcanoes strongly

  3. The unique chemistry of Eastern Mediterranean water masses selects for distinct microbial communities by depth. (United States)

    Techtmann, Stephen M; Fortney, Julian L; Ayers, Kati A; Joyner, Dominique C; Linley, Thomas D; Pfiffner, Susan M; Hazen, Terry C


    The waters of the Eastern Mediterranean are characterized by unique physical and chemical properties within separate water masses occupying different depths. Distinct water masses are present throughout the oceans, which drive thermohaline circulation. These water masses may contain specific microbial assemblages. The goal of this study was to examine the effect of physical and geological phenomena on the microbial community of the Eastern Mediterranean water column. Chemical measurements were combined with phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis and high-throughput 16S rRNA sequencing to characterize the microbial community in the water column at five sites. We demonstrate that the chemistry and microbial community of the water column were stratified into three distinct water masses. The salinity and nutrient concentrations vary between these water masses. Nutrient concentrations increased with depth, and salinity was highest in the intermediate water mass. Our PLFA analysis indicated different lipid classes were abundant in each water mass, suggesting that distinct groups of microbes inhabit these water masses. 16S rRNA gene sequencing confirmed the presence of distinct microbial communities in each water mass. Taxa involved in autotrophic nitrogen cycling were enriched in the intermediate water mass suggesting that microbes in this water mass may be important to the nitrogen cycle of the Eastern Mediterranean. The Eastern Mediterranean also contains numerous active hydrocarbon seeps. We sampled above the North Alex Mud Volcano, in order to test the effect of these geological features on the microbial community in the adjacent water column. The community in the waters overlaying the mud volcano was distinct from other communities collected at similar depths and was enriched in known hydrocarbon degrading taxa. Our results demonstrate that physical phenomena such stratification as well as geological phenomena such as mud volcanoes strongly affect microbial

  4. New particle formation in air mass transported between two measurement sites in Northern Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Komppula


    Full Text Available This study covers four years of aerosol number size distribution data from Pallas and Värriö sites 250 km apart from each other in Northern Finland and compares new particle formation events between these sites. In air masses of eastern origin almost all events were observed to start earlier at the eastern station Värriö, whereas in air masses of western origin most of the events were observed to start earlier at the western station Pallas. This demonstrates that particle formation in a certain air mass type depends not only on the diurnal variation of the parameters causing the phenomenon (such as photochemistry but also on some properties carried by the air mass itself. The correlation in growth rates between the two sites was relatively good, which suggests that the amount of condensable vapour causing the growth must have been at about the same level in both sites. The condensation sink was frequently much higher at the downwind station. It seems that secondary particle formation related to biogenic sources dominate in many cases over the particle sinks during the air mass transport between the sites. Two cases of transport from Pallas to Värriö were further analysed with an aerosol dynamics model. The model was able to reproduce the observed nucleation events 250 km down-wind at Värriö but revealed some differences between the two cases. The simulated nucleation rates were in both cases similar but the organic concentration profiles that best reproduced the observations were different in the two cases indicating that divergent formation reactions may dominate under different conditions. The simulations also suggested that organic compounds were the main contributor to new particle growth, which offers a tentative hypothesis to the distinct features of new particles at the two sites: Air masses arriving from the Atlantic Ocean typically spent approximately only ten hours over land before arriving at Pallas, and thus the time for the

  5. Green River Formation water flood demonstration project. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennington, B.I.; Dyer, J.E.; Lomax, J.D. [Inland Resources, Inc. (United States)]|[Lomax Exploration Co., Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Deo, M.D. [Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Fuels Engineering


    The objectives of the project were to understand the oil production mechanisms in the Monument Butte unit via reservoir characterization and reservoir simulations and to transfer the water flooding technology to similar units in the vicinity, particularly the Travis and the Boundary units. The reservoir characterization activity in the project basically consisted of extraction and analysis of a full diameter core, Formation Micro Imaging (FMI) logs from several wells and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) logs from two wells. In addition, several side-wall cores were drilled and analyzed, oil samples from a number of wells were physically and chemically characterized (using high-temperature gas chromatography), oil-water relative permeabilities were measured and pour points and cloud points of a few oil samples were determined. The reservoir modeling activity comprised of reservoir simulation of all the three units at different scales and near well-bore modeling of the wax precipitation effects. The reservoir simulation activities established the extent of pressurization of the sections of the reservoirs in the immediate vicinity of the Monument Butte unit. This resulted in a major expansion of the unit and the production from this expanded unit increased from about 300 barrels per day to about 2,000 barrels per day.

  6. Bubble formation in water with addition of a hydrophobic solute. (United States)

    Okamoto, Ryuichi; Onuki, Akira


    We show that phase separation can occur in a one-component liquid outside its coexistence curve (CX) with addition of a small amount of a solute. The solute concentration at the transition decreases with increasing the difference of the solvation chemical potential between liquid and gas. As a typical bubble-forming solute, we consider O2 in ambient liquid water, which exhibits mild hydrophobicity and its critical temperature is lower than that of water. Such a solute can be expelled from the liquid to form gaseous domains while the surrounding liquid pressure is higher than the saturated vapor pressure p cx. This solute-induced bubble formation is a first-order transition in bulk and on a partially dried wall, while a gas film grows continuously on a completely dried wall. We set up a bubble free energy ΔG for bulk and surface bubbles with a small volume fraction ϕ. It becomes a function of the bubble radius R under the Laplace pressure balance. Then, for sufficiently large solute densities above a threshold, ΔG exhibits a local maximum at a critical radius and a minimum at an equilibrium radius. We also examine solute-induced nucleation taking place outside CX, where bubbles larger than the critical radius grow until attainment of equilibrium.

  7. Anthropogenic CO2 in a dense water formation area of the Mediterranean Sea (United States)

    Ingrosso, Gianmarco; Bensi, Manuel; Cardin, Vanessa; Giani, Michele


    There is growing evidence that the on-going ocean acidification of the Mediterranean Sea could be favoured by its active overturning circulation. The areas of dense water formation are, indeed, preferential sites for atmospheric carbon dioxide absorption and through them the ocean acidification process can quickly propagate into the deep layers. In this study we estimated the concentration of anthropogenic CO2 (Cant) in the dense water formation areas of the middle and southern Adriatic Sea. Using the composite tracer TrOCA (Tracer combining Oxygen, inorganic Carbon, and total Alkalinity) and carbonate chemistry data collected throughout March 2013, our results revealed that a massive amount of Cant has invaded all the identified water masses. High Cant concentration was detected at the bottom layer of the Pomo Pit (middle Adriatic, 96.8±9.7 μmol kg-1) and Southern Adriatic Pit (SAP, 85.2±9.4 μmol kg-1), associated respectively with the presence of North Adriatic Dense Water (NAdDW) and Adriatic Dense Water (AdDW). This anthropogenic contamination was clearly linked to the dense water formation events, which govern strong CO2 flux from the atmosphere to the sea and the sinking of dense, CO2-rich surface waters to the deep sea. However, a very high Cant level (94.5±12.5 μmol kg-1) was also estimated at the intermediate layer, as a consequence of a recent vertical mixing that determined the physical and biogeochemical modification of the water of Levantine origin (i.e. Modified Levantine Intermediate Water, MLIW) and favoured the atmospheric CO2 intrusion. The penetration of Cant in the Adriatic Sea determined a significant pH reduction since the pre-industrial era (- 0.139±0.019 pH units on average). This estimation was very similar to the global Mediterranean Sea acidification, but it was again more pronounced at the bottom of the Pomo Pit, within the layer occupied by NAdDW (- 0.157±0.018 pH units), and at the intermediate layer of the recently formed MLIW

  8. Technical Tools for Studying Structure and Dynamics of Water Masses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Z. Dykman


    Full Text Available The article gives a review of the technical tools designed to study structure and dynamics of water masses in the surface, bottom and deep-water sea layers, where the acting processes are not connected with wind waves. The process of adapting the measuring equipment to the requirements resulting from the expanding notions on physics of the marine environment phenomena is shown. Almost all the major designs are patented in the USSR, Ukraine and Russia. The experience in the development of different instruments enable adequately respond to the need for new methods and technical means intended for the organization of operational observations of the marine environment and land and sea interface zone. CTD-system experimental samples having a high degree of miniaturization and extremely low power consumption have already been created. They possess the necessary metrological characteristics and are intended for use in the drifters and lost (disposable probes. According to its metrological and operating characteristics, the autonomous electromagnetic current meter is able to provide reliable data in a variety of conditions (including collapse area of wind waves both being installed on a fixed base and hung on buoy stations. For wide manufacture of the new measurement tools it is necessary to create a complete set of design documentation on the basis of existing sketches, as well as to find the production base, equipped with machine tools of the corresponding class.

  9. Update on water mass composition in the Filchner Trough, Antarctica (United States)

    Schröder, Michael; Hellmer, Hartmut


    Some coupled ice-ocean models predict that the Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf will face dramatic changes in the second half of our century. These are related to a redirection of the slope current into the Filchner Trough (FT), causing an increase of basal mass loss by more than an order of magnitude. If the model results are to believed, it is important to monitor the variety of physical parameters of the present system in the 'pre-disturbed' case. The most recent 'Polarstern' expedition ANT XXIX/9 (19/12/2103 - 05/03/2014) is the first combined biological-oceanographic cruise into the southeastern Weddell Sea since 1998, designed to provide a marine census of the FT within the next 5 to 10 years. We will present the first oceanographic results from the FT, showing that the eastern branch of the southward propagating Modified Warm Deep Water (MWDW) was observed only north of 76°S more than 120 nm away from the ice shelf edge. Three moorings were deployed at that latitude for a period of two years to measure the time dependence and the characteristics of this warm water tongue with temperatures between -1.6°C to -1.4°C. The recovery of the moorings is planned for austral summer 2015/16.

  10. Impact of water mass mixing on the biogeochemistry and microbiology of the Northeast Atlantic Deep Water (United States)

    Reinthaler, Thomas; Álvarez Salgado, Xosé Antón; Álvarez, Marta; van Aken, Hendrik M.; Herndl, Gerhard J.


    The extent to which water mass mixing contributes to the biological activity of the dark ocean is essentially unknown. Using a multiparameter water mass analysis, we examined the impact of water mass mixing on the nutrient distribution and microbial activity of the Northeast Atlantic Deep Water (NEADW) along an 8000 km long transect extending from 62°N to 5°S. Mixing of four water types (WT) and basin scale mineralization from the site where the WT where defined to the study area explained up to 95% of the variability in the distribution of inorganic nutrients and apparent oxygen utilization. Mixing-corrected average O2:N:P mineralization ratios of 127(±11):13.0(±0.7):1 in the core of the NEADW suggested preferential utilization of phosphorus compounds while dissolved organic carbon mineralization contributed a maximum of 20% to the oxygen demand of the NEADW. In conjunction with the calculated average mineralization ratios, our results indicate a major contribution of particulate organic matter to the biological activity in the NEADW. The variability in prokaryotic abundance, high nucleic acid containing cells, and prokaryotic heterotrophic production in the NEADW was explained by large scale (64-79%) and local mineralization processes (21-36%), consistent with the idea that deep-water prokaryotic communities are controlled by substrate supply. Overall, our results suggest a major impact of mixing on the distribution of inorganic nutrients and a weaker influence on the dissolved organic matter pool supporting prokaryotic activity in the NEADW.

  11. Disinfection byproduct formation in reverse-osmosis concentrated and lyophilized natural organic matter from a drinking water source. (United States)

    Pressman, Jonathan G; McCurry, Daniel L; Parvez, Shahid; Rice, Glenn E; Teuschler, Linda K; Miltner, Richard J; Speth, Thomas F


    Drinking water treatment and disinfection byproduct (DBP) research can be complicated by natural organic matter (NOM) temporal variability. NOM preservation by lyophilization (freeze-drying) has been long practiced to address this issue; however, its applicability for drinking water research has been limited because the selected NOM sources are atypical of most drinking water sources. The purpose of this research was to demonstrate that reconstituted NOM from a lyophilized reverse-osmosis (RO) concentrate of a typical drinking water source closely represents DBP formation in the original NOM. A preliminary experiment assessed DBP formation kinetics and yields in concentrated NOM, which demonstrated that chlorine decays faster in concentrate, in some cases leading to altered DBP speciation. Potential changes in NOM reactivity caused by lyophilization were evaluated by chlorination of lyophilized and reconstituted NOM, its parent RO concentrate, and the source water. Bromide lost during RO concentration was replaced by adding potassium bromide prior to chlorination. Although total measured DBP formation tended to decrease slightly and unidentified halogenated organic formation tended to increase slightly as a result of RO concentration, the changes associated with lyophilization were minor. In lyophilized NOM reconstituted back to source water TOC levels and then chlorinated, the concentrations of 19 of 21 measured DBPs, constituting 96% of the total identified DBP mass, were statistically indistinguishable from those in the chlorinated source water. Furthermore, the concentrations of 16 of 21 DBPs in lyophilized NOM reconstituted back to the RO concentrate TOC levels, constituting 86% DBP mass, were statistically indistinguishable from those in the RO concentrate. This study suggests that lyophilization can be used to preserve concentrated NOM without substantially altering the precursors to DBP formation. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Circulation and water mass transports on the East Antarctic shelf in the Mertz Glacier region (United States)

    Martin, Antoine; Houssais, Marie-Noëlle; Le Goff, Hervé; Marec, Claudie; Dausse, Denis


    The East Antarctic shelf off Adélie-George V Land is known to be an important region for Dense Shelf Water (DSW) formation as a result of intense sea ice production in the Mertz Glacier Polynya during the winter season. It is also a region where the warm modified Circumpolar Deep Water (mCDW) penetrates onto the shelf during the summer. Using hydrographic observations from a summer survey in 2008 we implement a box inverse model to propose a comprehensive view of the steady state circulation on this shelf in summer. Additional information from mooring observations collected on the depression slope is used to provide context to the retrieved circulation scheme. Over the depression slope, the summer baroclinic structure of the currents is found to contrast with the almost barotropic structure in winter. The summer circulation is strongly constrained by the DSW distribution and forms a clockwise circulation primarily transporting the fresh surface waters and the warm mCDW around the dome of DSW. Over the upper flank of the Mertz Bank, the inflow branch transports the mCDW towards the Mertz Glacier, while, over the lower part of the slope, the outflow branch returns to the sill a diluted mode of the same water mass. A total of 0.19 Sv of mCDW inflows at the sill and two-third reach the Mertz Glacier and recirculate in front of it, allowing the mCDW to penetrate into the deeper part of the depression. Possible scenarios of interaction between the mCDW and the DSW with the glacier are examined. It is shown that, despite the water mass pathways and transports suggest possible ice-ocean interaction, both lateral and basal melting were likely small in summer 2008. Finally, our results suggest that, in addition to bathymetric features, the distribution of the residual DSW which is left from the preceding winter sets up regional pressure gradients which provide a seasonal control on the shelf circulation. In particular, the spring collapse of the convective patch would

  13. Trihalomethane formation during water disinfection in four water supplies in the Somes river basin in Romania. (United States)

    Ristoiu, Dumitru; von Gunten, Urs; Mocan, Aurel; Chira, Romeo; Siegfried, Barbara; Haydee Kovacs, Melinda; Vancea, Sidonia


    After the discovery of chloroform in drinking water, an extensive amount of work has been dedicated to the factors influencing the formation of halogenated disinfections by-products (DBPs). The disinfection practice can vary significantly from one country to another. Whereas no disinfectant is added to many water supplies in Switzerland or no disinfectant residual is maintained in the distribution system, high disinfectant doses are applied together with high residual concentrations in the distribution system in other countries such as the USA or some southern European countries and Romania. In the present study, several treatment plants in the Somes river basin in Romania were investigated with regard to chlorine practice and DBP formation (trihalomethanes (THMs)). Laboratory kinetic studies were also performed to investigate whether there is a relationship between raw water dissolved organic matter, residual chlorine, water temperature and THM formation. Drinking water samples were collected from different sampling points in the water treatment plant (WTP) from Gilau and the corresponding distribution system in Cluj-Napoca and also from Beclean, Dej and Jibou WTPs. The water samples were collected once a month from July 2006 to November 2007 and stored in 40-mL vials closed with Teflon lined screw caps. Water samples were preserved at 4 degrees C until analysis after sodium thiosulfate (Na(2)S(2)O(3)) had been added to quench residual chlorine. All samples were analysed for THMs using headspace GC-ECD between 1 and 7 days after sampling. The sample (10 mL) was filled into 20-mL headspace vials and closed with a Teflon-lined screw cap. Thereafter, the samples were equilibrated in an oven at 60 degrees C for 45 min. The headspace (1 mL) was then injected into the GC (Cyanopropylphenyl Polysiloxane column, 30 m x 53 mm, 3 microm film thickness, Thermo Finnigan, USA). The MDLs for THMs were determined from the standard deviation of eight standards at 1 microg/L. The

  14. Growth hormone mitigates loss of periosteal bone formation and muscle mass in disuse osteopenic rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grubbe, M-C; Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus; Nyengaard, J R


    limb. Sixty female Wistar rats, 14 weeks old, were divided into the following groups: baseline, controls, BTX, BTX+GH, and GH. GH was given at a dosage of 5 mg/kg/d for 4 weeks. Compared with controls, BTX resulted in lower periosteal bone formation rate (BFR/BS,-79%, P...Growth hormone (GH) is a potent anabolic agent capable of increasing both bone and muscle mass. The aim was to investigate whether GH could counteract disuse-induced loss of bone and muscle mass in a rat model. Paralysis was induced by injecting 4 IU Botox (BTX) into the muscles of the right hind......BMD, -13%, Pmuscle mass (-69%, Pmuscle cell cross sectional area (CSA) (-73%, P

  15. An evolutionary model for collapsing molecular clouds and their star formation activity. II. Mass dependence of the star formation rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamora-Avilés, Manuel; Vázquez-Semadeni, Enrique [Centro de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apdo. Postal 3-72, Morelia, Michoacán 58089 (Mexico)


    We discuss the evolution and dependence on cloud mass of the star formation rate (SFR) and efficiency (SFE) of star-forming molecular clouds (MCs) within the scenario that clouds are undergoing global collapse and that the SFR is controlled by ionization feedback. We find that low-mass clouds (M {sub max} ≲ 10{sup 4} M {sub ☉}) spend most of their evolution at low SFRs, but end their lives with a mini-burst, reaching a peak SFR ∼10{sup 4} M {sub ☉} Myr{sup –1}, although their time-averaged SFR is only (SFR) ∼ 10{sup 2} M {sub ☉} Myr{sup –1}. The corresponding efficiencies are SFE{sub final} ≲ 60% and (SFE) ≲ 1%. For more massive clouds (M {sub max} ≳ 10{sup 5} M {sub ☉}), the SFR first increases and then reaches a plateau because the clouds are influenced by stellar feedback since earlier in their evolution. As a function of cloud mass, (SFR) and (SFE) are well represented by the fits (SFR) ≈ 100(1 + M {sub max}/1.4 × 10{sup 5} M {sub ☉}){sup 1.68} M {sub ☉} Myr{sup –1} and (SFE) ≈ 0.03(M {sub max}/2.5 × 10{sup 5} M {sub ☉}){sup 0.33}, respectively. Moreover, the SFR of our model clouds follows closely the SFR-dense gas mass relation recently found by Lada et al. during the epoch when their instantaneous SFEs are comparable to those of the clouds considered by those authors. Collectively, a Monte Carlo integration of the model-predicted SFR(M) over a Galactic giant molecular cloud mass spectrum yields values for the total Galactic SFR that are within half an order of magnitude of the relation obtained by Gao and Solomon. Our results support the scenario that star-forming MCs may be in global gravitational collapse and that the low observed values of the SFR and SFE are a result of the interruption of each SF episode, caused primarily by the ionizing feedback from massive stars.

  16. Determining the stellar masses of submillimetre galaxies: the critical importance of star formation histories (United States)

    Michałowski, Michał J.; Hayward, Christopher C.; Dunlop, James S.; Bruce, Victoria A.; Cirasuolo, Michele; Cullen, Fergus; Hernquist, Lars


    Submillimetre (submm) galaxies are among the most rapidly star-forming and most massive high-redshift galaxies; thus, their properties provide important constraints on galaxy evolution models. However, there is still a debate about their stellar masses and their nature in the context of the general galaxy population. To test the reliability of their stellar mass determinations, we used a sample of simulated submm galaxies for which we created synthetic photometry. The photometry were used to derived their stellar masses via spectral energy distribution (SED) modelling, as is generally done with real observations. We used various SED codes (Grasil, Magphys, Hyperz, and LePhare) and various alternative assumed star formation histories (SFHs). We found that the assumption of SFHs with two independent components enables the SED modelling codes to most accurately recover the true stellar masses of the simulated submm galaxies. Exponentially declining SFHs (tau models) lead to lower masses (albeit still formally consistent with the true stellar masses), while the assumption of single-burst SFHs results in a significant underestimation of the stellar masses. Thus, we conclude that studies based on the higher masses inferred from fitting the SEDs of real submm galaxies with double SFHs are most likely to be correct, implying that submm galaxies lie on the high-mass end of the main sequence of star-forming galaxies. This conclusion appears robust to assumptions of whether submm galaxies are driven by major mergers, since the suite of simulated galaxies modelled here contains examples of both merging and isolated galaxies. We identified discrepancies between the true and inferred stellar ages (rather than the dust attenuation) as the primary determinant of the success or failure of the mass recovery. Regardless of the choice of SFH, the SED-derived stellar masses exhibit a factor of ~2 scatter around the true value, and this scatter is an inherent limitation of the SED

  17. Myths and methodologies: Making sense of exercise mass and water balance. (United States)

    Cheuvront, Samuel N; Montain, Scott J


    What is the topic of this review? There is a need to revisit the basic principles of exercise mass and water balance, the use of common equations and the practice of interpreting outcomes. What advances does it highlight? We propose use of the following equation as a way of simplifying exercise mass and water balance calculations in conditions where food is not consumed and waste is not excreted: ∆body mass - 0.20 g/kcal-1  = ∆body water. The relative efficacy of exercise drinking behaviours can be judged using the following equation: percentage dehydration = [(∆body mass - 0.20 g kcal-1 )/starting body mass] × 100. Changes in body mass occur because of flux in liquids, solids and gases. This knowledge is crucial for understanding metabolism, health and human water needs. In exercise science, corrections to observed changes in body mass to estimate water balance are inconsistently applied and often misinterpreted, particularly after prolonged exercise. Although acute body mass losses in response to exercise can represent a close surrogate for body water losses, the discordance between mass and water balance equivalence becomes increasingly inaccurate as more and more energy is expended. The purpose of this paper is briefly to clarify the roles that respiratory water loss, gas exchange and metabolic water production play in the correction of body mass changes for fluid balance determinations during prolonged exercise. Computations do not include waters of association with glycogen because any movement of water among body water compartments contributes nothing to water or mass flux from the body. Estimates of sweat loss from changes in body mass should adjust for non-sweat losses when possible. We propose use of the following equation as a way of simplifying the study of exercise mass and water balance: ∆body mass - 0.20 g kcal-1  = ∆body water. This equation directly controls for the influence of energy expenditure on body mass balance


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyodo, Ryuki; Ohtsuki, Keiji [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Kobe University, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Takeda, Takaaki, E-mail:, E-mail: [VASA Entertainment Co. Ltd. (Japan)


    Circumplanetary particle disks would be created in the late stage of planetary formation either by impacts of planetary bodies or disruption of satellites or passing bodies, and satellites can be formed by accretion of disk particles spreading across the Roche limit. Previous N-body simulation of lunar accretion focused on the formation of single-satellite systems from disks with large disk-to-planet mass ratios, while recent models of the formation of multiple-satellite systems from disks with smaller mass ratios do not take account of gravitational interaction between formed satellites. In the present work, we investigate satellite accretion from particle disks with various masses, using N-body simulation. In the case of accretion from somewhat less massive disks than the case of lunar accretion, formed satellites are not massive enough to clear out the disk, but can become massive enough to gravitationally shepherd the disk outer edge and start outward migration due to gravitational interaction with the disk. When the radial location of the 2:1 mean motion resonance of the satellite reaches outside the Roche limit, the second satellite can be formed near the disk outer edge, and then the two satellites continue outward migration while being locked in the resonance. Co-orbital satellites are found to be occasionally formed on the orbit of the first satellite. Our simulations also show that stochastic nature involved in gravitational interaction and collision between aggregates in the tidal environment can lead to diversity in the final mass and orbital architecture, which would be expected in satellite systems of exoplanets.

  19. Is main-sequence galaxy star formation controlled by halo mass accretion? (United States)

    Rodríguez-Puebla, Aldo; Primack, Joel R.; Behroozi, Peter; Faber, S. M.


    The galaxy stellar-to-halo mass relation (SHMR) is nearly time-independent for z dependent constraints on the relation between SFR and MAR. Despite its simplicity and the simplified treatment of mass growth from mergers, the SHARC model is likely to be a good approximation for central galaxies with M* = 109-1010.5 M⊙ that are on the MS, representing most of the star formation in the Universe. SHARC predictions agree with observed SFRs for galaxies on the MS at low redshifts, agree fairly well at z ˜ 4, but exceed observations at z ≳ 4. Assuming that the interstellar gas mass is constant for each galaxy (the `equilibrium condition' in bathtub models), the SHARC model allows calculation of net mass loading factors for inflowing and outflowing gas. With assumptions about preventive feedback based on simulations, SHARC allows calculation of galaxy metallicity evolution. If galaxy SFRs indeed track halo MARs, especially at low redshifts, that may help explain the success of models linking galaxy properties to haloes (including age-matching) and the similarities between two-halo galaxy conformity and halo mass accretion conformity.

  20. Sequential star formation in IRAS 06084-0611 (GGD 12-15): from intermediate-mass to high-mass stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maaskant, K.M.; Bik, A.; Waters, L.B.F.M.; Kaper, L.; Henning, T.; Puga, E.; Horrobin, M.; Kainulainen, J.


    Context. The formation and early evolution of high- and intermediate-mass stars towards the main sequence involves the interplay of stars in a clustered and highly complex environment. To obtain a full census of this interaction, the Formation and Early evolution of Massive Stars (FEMS)

  1. Dynamical Collapse of Nonrotating Magnetic Molecular Cloud Cores: Evolution through Point-Mass Formation (United States)

    Ciolek, Glenn E.; Königl, Arieh


    We present a numerical simulation of the dynamical collapse of a nonrotating, magnetic molecular cloud core and follow the core's evolution through the formation of a central point mass and its subsequent growth into a 1 M⊙ protostar. The epoch of point-mass formation (PMF) is investigated by a self-consistent extension of previously presented models of core formation and contraction in axisymmetric, self-gravitating, isothermal, magnetically supported interstellar molecular clouds. Prior to PMF, the core is dynamically contracting and is not well approximated by a quasi-static equilibrium model. Ambipolar diffusion, which plays a key role in the early evolution of the core, is unimportant during the dynamical pre-PMF collapse phase. However, the appearance of a central mass, through its effect on the gravitational field in the inner core regions, leads to a ``revitalization'' of ambipolar diffusion in the weakly ionized gas surrounding the central protostar. This process is so efficient that it leads to a decoupling of the field from the matter and results in an outward-propagating hydromagnetic C-type shock. The existence of an ambipolar diffusion-mediated shock of this type was predicted by Li & McKee, and we find that the basic shock structure given by their analytic model is well reproduced by our more accurate numerical results. Our calculation also demonstrates that ambipolar diffusion, rather than Ohmic diffusivity operating in the innermost core region, is the main field-decoupling mechanism responsible for driving the shock after PMF. The passage of the shock leads to a substantial redistribution, by ambipolar diffusion but possibly also by magnetic interchange, of the mass contained within the magnetic flux tubes in the inner core. In particular, ambipolar diffusion reduces the flux initially threading a collapsing ~1 M⊙ core by a factor >~103 by the time this mass accumulates within the inner radius (~=7.3 AU) of our computational grid. This

  2. Quantification of volume, mass, and density of thrombus formation using brightfield and differential interference contrast microscopy (United States)

    Baker-Groberg, Sandra M.; Phillips, Kevin G.; McCarty, Owen J. T.


    Flow chamber assays, in which blood is perfused over surfaces of immobilized extracellular matrix proteins, are used to investigate the formation of platelet thrombi and aggregates under shear flow conditions. Elucidating the dynamic response of thrombi/aggregate formation to different coagulation pathway perturbations in vitro has been used to develop an understanding of normal and pathological cardiovascular states. Current microscopy techniques, such as differential interference contrast (DIC) or fluorescent confocal imaging, respectively, do not provide a simple, quantitative understanding of the basic physical features (volume, mass, and density) of platelet thrombi/aggregate structures. The use of two label-free imaging techniques applied, for the first time, to platelet aggregate and thrombus formation are introduced: noninterferometric quantitative phase microscopy, to determine mass, and Hilbert transform DIC microscopy, to perform volume measurements. Together these techniques enable a quantitative biophysical characterization of platelet aggregates and thrombi formed on three surfaces: fibrillar collagen, fibrillar collagen +0.1 nM tissue factor (TF), and fibrillar collagen +1 nM TF. It is demonstrated that label-free imaging techniques provide quantitative insight into the mechanisms by which thrombi and aggregates are formed in response to exposure to different combinations of procoagulant agonists under shear flow.

  3. Influence of dissolved humic substances on the mass transfer of organic compounds across the air-water interface. (United States)

    Ramus, Ksenia; Kopinke, Frank-Dieter; Georgi, Anett


    The effect of dissolved humic substances (DHS) on the rate of water-gas exchange of two volatile organic compounds was studied under various conditions of agitation intensity, solution pH and ionic strength. Mass-transfer coefficients were determined from the rate of depletion of model compounds from an apparatus containing a stirred aqueous solution with continuous purging of the headspace above the solution (dynamic system). Under these conditions, the overall transfer rate is controlled by the mass-transfer resistance on the water side of the water-gas interface. The experimental results show that the presence of DHS hinders the transport of the organic molecules from the water into the gas phase under all investigated conditions. Mass-transfer coefficients were significantly reduced even by low, environmentally relevant concentrations of DHS. The retardation effect increased with increasing DHS concentration. The magnitude of the retardation effect on water-gas exchange was compared for Suwannee River fulvic and humic acids, a commercially available leonardite humic acid and two synthetic surfactants. The observed results are in accordance with the concept of hydrodynamic effects. Surface pressure forces due to surface film formation change the hydrodynamic characteristics of water motion at the water-air interface and thus impede surface renewal. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The hydromedusae and water masses of the Indian Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Navas-Pereira


    Full Text Available This analysis of distribution and abundance of species of Hydromedusae completes a report (Vannucci & Navas, 1973b on the ecology of Indian Ocean Hydromedusae based on the zooplankton collected during the International Indian Ocean Expedition (IIOE. Distribution and abundance are taken here to be the ecological expression of variability of species in space and time. The aim was to identify the biological signature of below surface water masses that cannot be identified by remote sensing techniques. Selected species were taken as biological units, the oceanic water masses as defined by their T-S and T-O2 diagrammes were taken as the non biological units. Taken together they define different ecosystems of the Indian Ocean. About 45,000 specimens of hydromedusae taken at 480 stations were sorted from 900 plankton samples and all specimens were determined and counted. Several hauls, mostly stratified, were taken with closing nets, but not all contained hydromedusae. The distribution of each species was studied in relation to water salinity, temperature and dissolved oxygen; the limits of ecological tolerance and preference were defined by the environmental characteristics of the layers sampled by the nets and are given for each species. These can be grouped as follows: 1. Deep water species, cold tolerant, often eurytopic; 2. Antarctic species, cold loving, usually stenothermal with preference for low salinity; 3. Indian Ocean Central Water species, with preference for temperature lower than 19ºC and salinity not much higher than 35%o, usually found at sub-surface or intermediate depths, they may spread into the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal in surface layers; 4. Indian Ocean Equatorial System species, warm tolerant, usually prefer comparatively low salinity, high temperature and high oxygen content; 5. Bay of Bengal Surface Water species, found in surface layers of the Bay, with preference for low salinity, high temperature and high oxygen content

  5. The distribution of local star formation activity as a function of galaxy stellar mass, environment and morphology (United States)

    Lofthouse, E. K.; Kaviraj, S.; Smith, D. J. B.; Hardcastle, M. J.


    We present a detailed inventory of star formation in the local Universe, dissecting the cosmic star formation budget as a function of key variables that influence the star formation rate (SFR) of galaxies: stellar mass, local environment and morphology. We use a large homogeneous data set from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to first study how the star formation budget in galaxies with stellar masses greater than log(M*/M⊙) = 10 splits as a function of each parameter separately. We then explore how the budget behaves as a simultaneous function of these three parameters. We show that the bulk of the star formation at z place in spiral galaxies that reside in the field, and have stellar masses between 10 work at high redshift, will enable us to understand the changes in SFR that have occurred over cosmic time and offers a strong constraint on models of galaxy formation.

  6. Occurrence and simulation of trihalomethanes in swimming pool water: A simple prediction method based on DOC and mass balance. (United States)

    Peng, Di; Saravia, Florencia; Abbt-Braun, Gudrun; Horn, Harald


    Trihalomethanes (THM) are the most typical disinfection by-products (DBPs) found in public swimming pool water. DBPs are produced when organic and inorganic matter in water reacts with chemical disinfectants. The irregular contribution of substances from pool visitors and long contact time with disinfectant make the forecast of THM in pool water a challenge. In this work occurrence of THM in a public indoor swimming pool was investigated and correlated with the dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Daily sampling of pool water for 26 days showed a positive correlation between DOC and THM with a time delay of about two days, while THM and DOC didn't directly correlate with the number of visitors. Based on the results and mass-balance in the pool water, a simple simulation model for estimating THM concentration in indoor swimming pool water was proposed. Formation of THM from DOC, volatilization into air and elimination by pool water treatment were included in the simulation. Formation ratio of THM gained from laboratory analysis using native pool water and information from field study in an indoor swimming pool reduced the uncertainty of the simulation. The simulation was validated by measurements in the swimming pool for 50 days. The simulated results were in good compliance with measured results. This work provides a useful and simple method for predicting THM concentration and its accumulation trend for long term in indoor swimming pool water. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Water entry without surface seal: Extended cavity formation

    KAUST Repository

    Mansoor, Mohammad M.


    We report results from an experimental study of cavity formation during the impact of superhydrophobic spheres onto water. Using a simple splash-guard mechanism, we block the spray emerging during initial contact from closing thus eliminating the phenomenon known as \\'surface seal\\', which typically occurs at Froude numbers Fr= V0 2/(gR0) = O(100). As such, we are able to observe the evolution of a smooth cavity in a more extended parameter space than has been achieved in previous studies. Furthermore, by systematically varying the tank size and sphere diameter, we examine the influence of increasing wall effects on these guarded impact cavities and note the formation of surface undulations with wavelength λ =O(10)cm and acoustic waves λa=O(D0) along the cavity interface, which produce multiple pinch-off points. Acoustic waves are initiated by pressure perturbations, which themselves are generated by the primary cavity pinch-off. Using high-speed particle image velocimetry (PIV) techniques we study the bulk fluid flow for the most constrained geometry and show the larger undulations ( λ =O (10cm)) have a fixed nature with respect to the lab frame. We show that previously deduced scalings for the normalized (primary) pinch-off location (ratio of pinch-off depth to sphere depth at pinch-off time), Hp/H = 1/2, and pinch-off time, τ α (R0/g) 1/2, do not hold for these extended cavities in the presence of strong wall effects (sphere-to-tank diameter ratio), ε = D 0/Dtank 1/16. Instead, we find multiple distinct regimes for values of Hp/H as the observed undulations are induced above the first pinch-off point as the impact speed increases. We also report observations of \\'kinked\\' pinch-off points and the suppression of downward facing jets in the presence of wall effects. Surprisingly, upward facing jets emanating from first cavity pinch-off points evolve into a \\'flat\\' structure at high impact speeds, both in the presence and absence of wall effects.

  8. The Effects of Magnetic Fields and Protostellar Feedback on Low-mass Cluster Formation (United States)

    Cunningham, Andrew J.; Krumholz, Mark R.; McKee, Christopher F.; Klein, Richard I.


    We present a large suite of simulations of the formation of low-mass star clusters. Our simulations include an extensive set of physical processes - magnetohydrodynamics, radiative transfer, and protostellar outflows - and span a wide range of virial parameters and magnetic field strengths. Comparing the outcomes of our simulations to observations, we find that simulations remaining close to virial balance throughout their history produce star formation efficiencies and initial mass function (IMF) peaks that are stable in time and in reasonable agreement with observations. Our results indicate that small-scale dissipation effects near the protostellar surface provide a feedback loop for stabilizing the star formation efficiency. This is true regardless of whether the balance is maintained by input of energy from large scale forcing or by strong magnetic fields that inhibit collapse. In contrast, simulations that leave virial balance and undergo runaway collapse form stars too efficiently and produce an IMF that becomes increasingly top-heavy with time. In all cases we find that the competition between magnetic flux advection toward the protostar and outward advection due to magnetic interchange instabilities, and the competition between turbulent amplification and reconnection close to newly-formed protostars renders the local magnetic field structure insensitive to the strength of the large-scale field, ensuring that radiation is always more important than magnetic support in setting the fragmentation scale and thus the IMF peak mass. The statistics of multiple stellar systems are similarly insensitive to variations in the initial conditions and generally agree with observations within the range of statistical uncertainty.

  9. Water Transfer Characteristics during Methane Hydrate Formation Processes in Layered Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousheng Deng


    Full Text Available Gas hydrate formation processes in porous media are always accompanied by water transfer. To study the transfer characteristics comprehensively, two kinds of layered media consisting of coarse sand and loess were used to form methane hydrate in them. An apparatus with three PF-meter sensors detecting water content and temperature changes in media during the formation processes was applied to study the water transfer characteristics. It was experimentally observed that the hydrate formation configurations in different layered media were similar; however, the water transfer characteristics and water conversion ratios were different.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimmy; Tran, Kim-Vy [George P. and Cynthia W. Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Saintonge, Amélie; Accurso, Gioacchino [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Place, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Brough, Sarah; Oliva-Altamirano, Paola [Australian Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 915, North Ryde, NSW 1670 (Australia)


    Using a sample of dwarf galaxies observed using the VIMOS IFU on the Very Large Telescope, we investigate the mass–metallicity relation (MZR) as a function of star formation rate (FMR{sub SFR}) as well as HI-gas mass (FMR{sub HI}). We combine our IFU data with a subsample of galaxies from the ALFALFA HI survey crossmatched to the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) to study the FMR{sub SFR} and FMR{sub HI} across the stellar mass range 10{sup 6.6}–10{sup 8.8} M{sub ⊙}, with metallicities as low as 12 + log(O/H) = 7.67. We find the 1σ mean scatter in the MZR to be 0.05 dex. The 1σ mean scatter in the FMR{sub SFR} (0.02 dex) is significantly lower than that of the MZR. The FMR{sub SFR} is not consistent between the IFU observed galaxies and the ALFALFA/SDSS galaxies for SFRs lower than 10{sup −2.4} M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}, however, this could be the result of limitations of our measurements in that regime. The lowest mean scatter (0.01 dex) is found in the FMR{sub HI}. We also find that the FMR{sub HI} is consistent between the IFU observed dwarf galaxies and the ALFALFA/SDSS crossmatched sample. We introduce the fundamental metallicity luminosity counterpart to the FMR, again characterized in terms of SFR (FML{sub SFR}) and HI-gas mass (FML{sub HI}). We find that the FML{sub HI} relation is consistent between the IFU observed dwarf galaxy sample and the larger ALFALFA/SDSS sample. However, the 1σ scatter for the FML{sub HI} relation is not improved over the FMR{sub HI} scenario. This leads us to conclude that the FMR{sub HI} is the best candidate for a physically motivated fundamental metallicity relation.

  11. Modeling DBPs formation in drinking water in residential plumbing pipes and hot water tanks. (United States)

    Chowdhury, Shakhawat; Rodriguez, Manuel J; Sadiq, Rehan; Serodes, Jean


    Disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in municipal supply water are a concern because of their possible risks to human health. Risk assessment studies often use DBP data in water distribution systems (WDS). However, DBPs in tap water may be different because of stagnation of the water in plumbing pipes (PP) and heating in hot water tanks (HWT). This study investigated occurrences and developed predictive models for DBPs in the PP and the HWT of six houses from three municipal water systems in Quebec (Canada) in a year-round study. Trihalomethanes (THMs) in PP and HWT were observed to be 1.4-1.8 and 1.9-2.7 times the THMs in the WDS, respectively. Haloacetic acid (HAAs) in PP and HWT were observed to be variable (PP/WDS = 0.23-2.24; HWT/WDS = 0.53-2.61). Using DBPs occurrence data from these systems, three types of linear models (main factors; main factors, interactions and higher orders; logarithmic) and two types of nonlinear models (three parameters Logistic and four parameters Weibull) were investigated to predict DBPs in the PP and HWT. Significant factors affecting DBPs formation in the PP and HWT were identified through numerical and graphical techniques. The R(2) values of the models varied between 0.77 and 0.96, indicating excellent predictive ability for THMs and HAAs in the PP and the HWT. The models were found to be statistically significant. The models were validated using additional data. These models can be used to predict DBPs increase from WDS (water entry point of house) to the PP and HWT, and could thereby help gain a better understanding of human exposure to DBPs and their associated risks. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Formation of Millisecond Pulsars with Heavy White Dwarf Companions: Extreme Mass Transfer on Subthermal Timescales. (United States)

    Tauris; van Den Heuvel EP; Savonije


    We have performed detailed numerical calculations of the nonconservative evolution of close X-ray binary systems with intermediate-mass (2.0-6.0 M middle dot in circle) donor stars and a 1.3 M middle dot in circle accreting neutron star. We calculated the thermal response of the donor star to mass loss in order to determine its stability and follow the evolution of the mass transfer. Under the assumption of the "isotropic reemission model," we demonstrate that in many cases it is possible for the binary to prevent a spiral-in and survive a highly super-Eddington mass transfer phase (1millisecond pulsars with heavy CO white dwarfs and relatively short orbital periods (3-50 days). However, we conclude that to produce a binary pulsar with a O-Ne-Mg white dwarf or Porb approximately 1 day (e.g., PSR B0655+64) the above scenario does not work, and a spiral-in phase is still considered the most plausible scenario for the formation of such a system.

  13. Formation and fates of nitrosamines and their formation potentials from a surface water source to drinking water treatment plants in Southern Taiwan. (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Hsiang; Wang, Chung-Ya; Huang, Tsung-Hsien


    Nitrosamines are toxic and emerging disinfection byproducts. In this study, three drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) in southern Taiwan treating the same source water in Gaoping River with comparable technologies were selected. The objective was to evaluate the formation and fates of six nitrosamines and their formation potentials (FPs) from a surface water source to drinking water. Albeit decreased further downstream in the river, four nitrosamine-FPs were observed in the source water due to anthropogenic pollution in the upstream areas. In the DWTPs, nitrosamines were formed and NDMA was the main species. While high organic carbon concentrations indicated elevated nitrosamine-FPs in the source water, NDMA formation in the DWTPs was more positively associated with reductions of water parameters that quantify organic matters with double bonded ring structures. Although precursor removal via pre-oxidation is a viable approach to limit nitrosamine formation during post-disinfection, this study clearly indicates that a great portion of NDMA in treated water has been formed in the 1st oxidation step of drinking water treatment. The pre-oxidation simulations in the lab demonstrated the impact of pre-chlorination on nitrosamine formation. Given the limited removal in conventional treatment processes, avoiding nitrosamine-FPs in sources and/or nitrosamine formation during pre-oxidation become important issues to control the threats of nitrosamines in drinking water. Under current circumstance in which pre-oxidation is widely used to optimize the treatment effectiveness in many DWTPs, its adverse effect by forming nitrosamines needs to be carefully minimized and using technologies other than pre-chlorination (e.g., pre-ozonation) may be considered. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Formation of polyelectrolyte complexes with diethylaminoethyl dextran: charge ratio and molar mass effect. (United States)

    Le Cerf, Didier; Pepin, Anne Sophie; Niang, Pape Momar; Cristea, Mariana; Karakasyan-Dia, Carole; Picton, Luc


    The formation of polyelectrolyte complexes (PECs) between carboxymethyl pullulan and DEAE Dextran, was investigated, in dilute solution, with emphasis on the effect of charge density (molar ratio or pH) and molar masses. Electrophoretic mobility measurements have evidenced that insoluble PECs (neutral electrophoretic mobility) occurs for charge ratio between 0.6 (excess of polycation) and 1 (stoichiometry usual value) according to the pH. This atypical result is explained by the inaccessibility of some permanent cationic charge when screened by pH dependant cationic ones (due to the Hoffman alkylation). Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) indicates an endothermic formation of PEC with a binding constant around 10(5) L mol(-1). Finally asymmetrical flow field flow fractionation coupled on line with static multi angle light scattering (AF4/MALS) evidences soluble PECs with very large average molar masses and size around 100 nm, in agreement with scrambled eggs multi-association between various polyelectrolyte chains. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Theoretical models of planetary system formation: mass vs. semi-major axis (United States)

    Alibert, Y.; Carron, F.; Fortier, A.; Pfyffer, S.; Benz, W.; Mordasini, C.; Swoboda, D.


    Context. Planet formation models have been developed during the past years to try to reproduce what has been observed of both the solar system and the extrasolar planets. Some of these models have partially succeeded, but they focus on massive planets and, for the sake of simplicity, exclude planets belonging to planetary systems. However, more and more planets are now found in planetary systems. This tendency, which is a result of radial velocity, transit, and direct imaging surveys, seems to be even more pronounced for low-mass planets. These new observations require improving planet formation models, including new physics, and considering the formation of systems. Aims: In a recent series of papers, we have presented some improvements in the physics of our models, focussing in particular on the internal structure of forming planets, and on the computation of the excitation state of planetesimals and their resulting accretion rate. In this paper, we focus on the concurrent effect of the formation of more than one planet in the same protoplanetary disc and show the effect, in terms of architecture and composition of this multiplicity. Methods: We used an N-body calculation including collision detection to compute the orbital evolution of a planetary system. Moreover, we describe the effect of competition for accretion of gas and solids, as well as the effect of gravitational interactions between planets. Results: We show that the masses and semi-major axes of planets are modified by both the effect of competition and gravitational interactions. We also present the effect of the assumed number of forming planets in the same system (a free parameter of the model), as well as the effect of the inclination and eccentricity damping. We find that the fraction of ejected planets increases from nearly 0 to 8% as we change the number of embryos we seed the system with from 2 to 20 planetary embryos. Moreover, our calculations show that, when considering planets more

  16. Black sea annual and inter-annual water mass variations from space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yildiz, H.; Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Simav, M.


    This study evaluates the performance of two widely used GRACE solutions (CNES/GRGS RL02 and CSR RL04) in deriving annual and inter-annual water mass variations in the Black Sea for the period 2003–2007. It is demonstrated that the GRACE derived water mass variations in the Black Sea are heavily i...

  17. Observing the real time formation of phosphine-ligated gold clusters by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ligare, Marshall R.; Johnson, Grant E.; Laskin, Julia


    Early stages of the reduction and nucleation of solution-phase gold clusters are largely unknown. This is due, in part, to the high reaction rates and the complexity of the cluster synthesis process. Through the addition of a diphosphine ligand, 1-4,Bis(diphenylphosphino)butane (L4) to the gold precursor, chloro(triphenylphosphine) gold(I) (Au(PPh3)Cl), in methanol organometallic complexes of the type, [Au(L4)x(L4O)y(PPh3)z]+, are formed. These complexes lower the rate of reduction so that the reaction can be directly monitored from 1 min to over an hour using on-line electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Our results indicate that the formation of Au8(L4)42+, Au9(L4)4H2+ and Au10(L4)52+ cationic clusters occurs through different reaction pathways that may be kinetically controlled either through the reducing agent concentration or the extent of oxidation of L4. Through comparison of selected ion chronograms our results indicate that Au2(L4)2H+ may be an intermediate in the formation of Au8(L4)42+and Au10(L4)52+ while a variety of chlorinated clusters are involved in the formation of Au9(L4)4H2+. Additionally, high-resolution mass spectrometry was employed to identify 53 gold containing species produced under highly oxidative conditions. New intermediate species are identified which help understand how different gold cluster nuclearities can be stabilized during the growth process.

  18. Hydrography and water masses in the southeastern Arabian Sea ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The surface hydrography during March –April was dominated by the intrusion of low-salinity waters from the south;during May –June,the low-salinity waters were beginning to be replaced by the high- salinity waters from the north.There was considerable mixing at the bottom of the surface mixed layer,leading to interleaving ...

  19. Salicylaldehyde azine cluster formation observed by cold-spray ionization mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Xu, Xiangyu; Qiao, Jinping; Deng, Xuebin; Na, Na; Ouyang, Jin


    We installed a cold-spray ionization (CSI) source on a mass spectrometer to investigate the self-assembly behavior of an aggregation-induced emission enhancement system. Using a CSI source and the three-dimensional platform, a self-assembly system of a salicylaldehyde azine (SAA) was studied in mixture solution. This method permitted the determination of the structural information of the solution state, which cannot be detected by conventional mass spectrometry. In addition to the [M+H](+) ion (M is the SAA molecule), many major ion clusters such as [2M+Na](+) at m/z 503, [3M+Na](+) at m/z 743, [4M+Na](+) at m/z 983 and higher order aggregates were observed in the CSI mass spectra. However, many fragment ions, with the exception of cluster ions, appeared with high abundance when the ESI ion source was used due to the desolvation chamber temperature, suggesting that some aggregation can be detected at low temperatures. To investigate the effect of solvent on the aggregation, the CSI-mass spectrometry (MS) experiments of SAA in absolute ethanol solution and ethanol/water (good/poor solvent) mixture solution were conducted. The most abundant ion peak was protonated SAA (m/z 241) in absolute ethanol, but many cluster ions and some multiple charged ion peaks were observed after adding a small amount of water into the ethanol solution. The results showed good agreement with that inferred by the combinational analysis of scanning electron microscope and fluorescence microscopy, indicating that CSI-MS is capable of providing self-assembly information of labile molecules in the solution state. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Self-consistent atmosphere modeling with cloud formation for low-mass stars and exoplanets (United States)

    Juncher, Diana; Jørgensen, Uffe G.; Helling, Christiane


    Context. Low-mass stars and extrasolar planets have ultra-cool atmospheres where a rich chemistry occurs and clouds form. The increasing amount of spectroscopic observations for extrasolar planets requires self-consistent model atmosphere simulations to consistently include the formation processes that determine cloud formation and their feedback onto the atmosphere. Aims: Our aim is to complement the MARCS model atmosphere suit with simulations applicable to low-mass stars and exoplanets in preparation of E-ELT, JWST, PLATO and other upcoming facilities. Methods: The MARCS code calculates stellar atmosphere models, providing self-consistent solutions of the radiative transfer and the atmospheric structure and chemistry. We combine MARCS with a kinetic model that describes cloud formation in ultra-cool atmospheres (seed formation, growth/evaporation, gravitational settling, convective mixing, element depletion). Results: We present a small grid of self-consistently calculated atmosphere models for Teff = 2000-3000 K with solar initial abundances and log (g) = 4.5. Cloud formation in stellar and sub-stellar atmospheres appears for Teff < 2700 K and has a significant effect on the structure and the spectrum of the atmosphere for Teff < 2400 K. We have compared the synthetic spectra of our models with observed spectra and found that they fit the spectra of mid- to late-type M-dwarfs and early-type L-dwarfs well. The geometrical extension of the atmospheres (at τ = 1) changes with wavelength resulting in a flux variation of 10%. This translates into a change in geometrical extension of the atmosphere of about 50 km, which is the quantitative basis for exoplanetary transit spectroscopy. We also test DRIFT-MARCS for an example exoplanet and demonstrate that our simulations reproduce the Spitzer observations for WASP-19b rather well for Teff = 2600 K, log (g) = 3.2 and solar abundances. Our model points at an exoplanet with a deep cloud-free atmosphere with a substantial

  1. Determinant in the formation of network communications mass consciousness of youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Kucheruk


    Full Text Available One of the main attributes of the modern globalized world is the Internet with a mass audience of young users of digital technology. The total number of Internet users in Ukraine more than 12 million, in the Russian Federation ­ more than 60 million people, and a worldwide audience of the Global Network of over 2 billion people. Youth social group is the most active and communicative integrated into cyberspace . The number of young Internet users is growing steadily , which are updated philosophical understanding of this issue. The spread of this phenomenon contributes to technological progress and the transition to an information society development stage . Cyberspace is essentially a Self system in which there is no possibility of sustainable development options forecasting the virtual field . Network space , creating cybergroups of interests, has the function of the transformational impact on the public consciousness . Determinant of network communications is a priority in the formation of the mass consciousness of youth. Creates favourable conditions for the manipulative influence on the broad masses of youth , as in the cultural , commercial and political parts. Internet network does not have a static basis, and updated than philosophical reflection of this problem.

  2. Studying of adhesive properties of candy masses for justification of ways of formation of candies with the combined cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. M. Smolihina


    Full Text Available Influence of prescription components and formation modes on adhesive interaction of candy masses when receiving candies with the combined cases is studied. Recommendations about use of vegetable powders for increase of adhesive durability of contacts between layers of zheleyny and sbivny masses are made.

  3. Theoretical assessment of bonaccordite formation in pressurized water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rak, Zs, E-mail: [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); O' Brien, C.J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Shin, D. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6063 (United States); Andersson, A.D.; Stanek, C.R. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Brenner, D.W. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States)


    The free energy of formation of bonaccordite (Ni{sub 2}FeBO{sub 5}) as a function of temperature has been calculated using a technique that combines first principles calculations with experimental free energies of formation of aqueous species. The results suggest that bonaccordite formation from aqueous metal ions (Ni{sup 2+} andFe{sup 3+}) and boric acid is thermodynamically favorable at elevated temperature and pH that have been predicted to exist at the CRUD-clad interface in deposits thicker than 60 μm.

  4. Application of the Regional Water Mass Variations from GRACE Satellite Gravimetry to Large-Scale Water Management in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Ramillien


    Full Text Available Time series of regional 2° × 2° Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE solutions of surface water mass change have been computed over Africa from 2003 to 2012 with a 10-day resolution by using a new regional approach. These regional maps are used to describe and quantify water mass change. The contribution of African hydrology to actual sea level rise is negative and small in magnitude (i.e., −0.1 mm/y of equivalent sea level (ESL mainly explained by the water retained in the Zambezi River basin. Analysis of the regional water mass maps is used to distinguish different zones of important water mass variations, with the exception of the dominant seasonal cycle of the African monsoon in the Sahel and Central Africa. The analysis of the regional solutions reveals the accumulation in the Okavango swamp and South Niger. It confirms the continuous depletion of water in the North Sahara aquifer at the rate of −2.3 km3/y, with a decrease in early 2008. Synergistic use of altimetry-based lake water volume with total water storage (TWS from GRACE permits a continuous monitoring of sub-surface water storage for large lake drainage areas. These different applications demonstrate the potential of the GRACE mission for the management of water resources at the regional scale.

  5. Characterization and disinfection by-product formation potential of natural organic matter in surface and ground waters from Northern Florida (United States)

    Rostad, C.E.; Leenheer, J.A.; Katz, B.; Martin, B.S.; Noyes, T.I.


    Streamwaters in northern Florida have large concentrations of natural organic matter (NOM), and commonly flow directly into the ground water system through karst features, such as sinkholes. In this study NOM from northern Florida stream and ground waters was fractionated, the fractions characterized by infrared (IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and then chlorinated to investigate their disinfection by-product (DBP) formation potential (FP). As the NOM character changed (as quantified by changes in NOM distribution in various fractions, such as hydrophilic acids or hydrophobic neutrals) due to migration through the aquifer, the total organic halide (TOX)-FP and trihalomethane (THM)-FP yield of each of these fractions varied also. In surface waters, the greatest DBP yields were produced by the colloid fraction. In ground waters, DBP yield of the hydrophobic acid fraction (the greatest in terms of mass) decreased during infiltration.

  6. Possible planet formation in the young, low-mass, multiple stellar system GG Tau A. (United States)

    Dutrey, Anne; Di Folco, Emmanuel; Guilloteau, Stéphane; Boehler, Yann; Bary, Jeff; Beck, Tracy; Beust, Hervé; Chapillon, Edwige; Gueth, Fredéric; Huré, Jean-Marc; Pierens, Arnaud; Piétu, Vincent; Simon, Michal; Tang, Ya-Wen


    The formation of planets around binary stars may be more difficult than around single stars. In a close binary star (with a separation of less than a hundred astronomical units), theory predicts the presence of circumstellar disks around each star, and an outer circumbinary disk surrounding a gravitationally cleared inner cavity around the stars. Given that the inner disks are depleted by accretion onto the stars on timescales of a few thousand years, any replenishing material must be transferred from the outer reservoir to fuel planet formation (which occurs on timescales of about one million years). Gas flowing through disk cavities has been detected in single star systems. A circumbinary disk was discovered around the young low-mass binary system GG Tau A (ref. 7), which has recently been shown to be a hierarchical triple system. It has one large inner disk around the single star, GG Tau Aa, and shows small amounts of shocked hydrogen gas residing within the central cavity, but other than a single weak detection, the distribution of cold gas in this cavity or in any other binary or multiple star system has not hitherto been determined. Here we report imaging of gas fragments emitting radiation characteristic of carbon monoxide within the GG Tau A cavity. From the kinematics we conclude that the flow appears capable of sustaining the inner disk (around GG Tau Aa) beyond the accretion lifetime, leaving time for planet formation to occur there. These results show the complexity of planet formation around multiple stars and confirm the general picture predicted by numerical simulations.

  7. Assessment of scale formation and corrosion of drinking water supplies in Ilam city (Iran)


    Zabihollah Yousefi; Farzad Kazemi; Reza Ali Mohammadpour5


    Background: Scaling and corrosion are the two most important indexes in water quality evaluation. Pollutants are released in water due to corrosion of pipelines. The aim of this study is to assess the scale formation and corrosion of drinking water supplies in Ilam city (Iran). Methods: This research is a descriptive and cross-sectional study which is based on the 20 drinking water sources in Ilam city. Experiments were carried out in accordance with the Water and Wastewater Co. ...

  8. Origin and evolution of formation water at the Jujo-Tecominoacan oil reservoir, Gulf of Mexico. Part 1: Chemical evolution and water-rock interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkle, Peter, E-mail: [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), Gerencia de Geotermia, Av. Reforma 113, Cuernavaca, Morelos 62490 (Mexico); Garcia, Bernardo Martinez; Milland Padron, Carlos M. [PEMEX Exploracion y Produccion, Region Sur, Activo Integral Bellota-Jujo, Diseno de Explotacion, Cardenas, Tabasco (Mexico)


    The origin and evolution of formation water from Upper Jurassic to Upper Cretaceous mudstone-packstone-dolomite host rocks at the Jujo-Tecominoacan oil reservoir, located onshore in SE-Mexico at a depth from 5200 to 6200 m.b.s.l., have been investigated, using detailed water geochemistry from 12 producer wells and six closed wells, and related host rock mineralogy. Saline waters of Cl-Na type with total dissolved solids from 10 to 23 g/L are chemically distinct from hypersaline Cl-Ca-Na and Cl-Na-Ca type waters with TDS between 181 and 385 g/L. Bromine/Cl and Br/Na ratios suggest the subaerial evaporation of seawater beyond halite precipitation to explain the extreme hypersaline components, while less saline samples were formed by mixing of high salinity end members with surface-derived, low salinity water components. The dissolution of evaporites from adjacent salt domes has little impact on present formation water composition. Geochemical simulations with Harvie-M{phi}ller-Weare and PHRQPITZ thermodynamic data sets suggest secondary fluid enrichment in Ca, HCO{sub 3} and Sr by water-rock interaction. The volumetric mass balance between Ca enrichment and Mg depletion confirms dolomitization as the major alteration process. Potassium/Cl ratios below evaporation trajectory are attributed to minor precipitation of K feldspar and illitization without evidence for albitization at the Jujo-Tecominoacan reservoir. The abundance of secondary dolomite, illite and pyrite in drilling cores from reservoir host rock reconfirms the observed water-rock exchange processes. Sulfate concentrations are controlled by anhydrite solubility as indicated by positive SI-values, although anhydrite deposition is limited throughout the lithological reservoir column. The chemical variety of produced water at the Jujo-Tecominoacan oil field is related to a sequence of primary and secondary processes, including infiltration of evaporated seawater and original meteoric fluids, the subsequent

  9. Evaluation of a mass-balance approach to determine consumptive water use in northeastern Illinois (United States)

    Mills, Patrick C.; Duncker, James J.; Over, Thomas M.; Marian Domanski,; ,; Engel, Frank


    A principal component of evaluating and managing water use is consumptive use. This is the portion of water withdrawn for a particular use, such as residential, which is evaporated, transpired, incorporated into products or crops, consumed by humans or livestock, or otherwise removed from the immediate water environment. The amount of consumptive use may be estimated by a water (mass)-balance approach; however, because of the difficulty of obtaining necessary data, its application typically is restricted to the facility scale. The general governing mass-balance equation is: Consumptive use = Water supplied - Return flows.

  10. Circulation and water masses of the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shetye, S.R.; Gouveia, A.D.; Shenoi, S.S.C.

    -forcing or due to the arrival of Kelvin waves from the Bay of Bengal. The present speculation about flow of bottom water (deeper than about 3500 m) in the Arabian Sea is that it moves northward and upwells into the layer of North Indian Deep Water (approximately...

  11. Laboratory studies on the effect of ozonation on THM formation in swimming pool water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kamilla Marie Speht; Spiliotopoulou, Aikaterini; Cheema, Waqas Akram


    Water samples from indoor swimming pool were ozonated at different pH values to evaluate the effect of pH on decomposition of ozone in swimming pool water. Furthermore, drinking and pool water were repeatedly ozonated followed by chlorination to evaluate THM formation. Decomposition of ozone was ...

  12. Exceptional dense water formation on the Adriatic shelf in the winter of 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Mihanović


    Full Text Available In this paper we document dense water formation throughout the Adriatic shelf and coastal area in January/February 2012, resulting in record-breaking densities observed during and after the event. The unprecedented dense water generation was preconditioned by a dry and warm year which resulted in a significant reduction of coastal freshwaters, superimposed on a long-term basin-wide salinity increase. The final event that triggered the dense water formation was an extended period of cold weather with strong and severe winds. Record-breaking potential density anomalies (above 30 kg m−3 were measured at several formation sites. Accumulated surface net heat and water losses in some coastal regions exceeded 1.5 GJ m−2 and 250 kg m−2 over 21 days, respectively. Excessiveness, importance of shelf-type dense water formation and effects on the thermohaline circulation and deep aquatic systems are discussed.

  13. Identification of dissolved organic matter in raw water supply from reservoirs and canals as precursors to trihalomethanes formation. (United States)

    Musikavong, Charongpun; Wattanachira, Suraphong


    The characteristic and quantity of dissolved organic matter (DOM) as trihalomethanes precursors in water from the U-Tapao Basin, Songkhla, Thailand was investigated. The sources of water in the basin consisted of two reservoirs and the U-Tapao canal. The canal receives water discharge from reservoirs, treated and untreated wastewater from agricultural processes, communities and industries. Water downstream of the canal is utilized as a raw water supply. Water samples were collected from two reservoirs, upstream and midstream of the canal, and the raw water supply in the rainy season and summer. The DOM level in the canal water was higher than that of the reservoir water. The highest trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP) was formed in the raw water supply. Fourier-transform infrared peaks of the humic acid were detected in the reservoir and canal waters. Aliphatic hydrocarbon and organic nitrogen were the major chemical classes in the reservoir and canal water characterized by a pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometer. The optimal condition of the poly aluminum chloride (PACl) coagulation was obtained at a dosage of 40 mg/L at pH 7. This condition could reduce the average UV-254 to 57%, DOC to 64%, and THMFP to 42%. In the coagulated water, peaks of O-H groups or H-bonded NH, C˭O of cyclic and acyclic compounds, ketones and quinines, aromatic C˭C, C-O of alcohols, ethers, and carbohydrates, deformation of COOH, and carboxylic acid salts were detected. The aliphatic hydrocarbon, organic nitrogen and aldehydes and ketones were the major chemical classes. These DOM could be considered as the prominent DOM for the water supply plant that utilized PACl as a coagulant.

  14. Hydrate Formation/Dissociation in (Natural Gas + Water + Diesel Oil Emulsion Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Yu Sun


    Full Text Available Hydrate formation/dissociation of natural gas in (diesel oil + water emulsion systems containing 3 wt% anti-agglomerant were performed for five water cuts: 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 vol%. The natural gas solubilities in the emulsion systems were also examined. The experimental results showed that the solubility of natural gas in emulsion systems increases almost linearly with the increase of pressure, and decreases with the increase of water cut. There exists an initial slow hydrate formation stage for systems with lower water cut, while rapid hydrate formation takes place and the process of the gas-liquid dissolution equilibrium at higher water cut does not appear in the pressure curve. The gas consumption amount due to hydrate formation at high water cut is significantly higher than that at low water cut. Fractional distillation for natural gas components also exists during the hydrate formation process. The experiments on hydrate dissociation showed that the dissociation rate and the amount of dissociated gas increase with the increase of water cut. The variations of temperature in the process of natural gas hydrate formation and dissociation in emulsion systems were also examined.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrasco-González, Carlos; Rodríguez, Luis F.; Galván-Madrid, Roberto [Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica UNAM, Apartado Postal 3-72 (Xangari), 58089 Morelia, Michoacán, México (Mexico); Henning, Thomas; Linz, Hendrik; Birnstiel, Til; Boekel, Roy van; Klahr, Hubert [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie Heidelberg, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Chandler, Claire J.; Pérez, Laura [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box O, 1003 Lopezville Road, Socorro, NM 87801-0387 (United States); Anglada, Guillem; Macias, Enrique; Osorio, Mayra [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC), Apartado 3004, E-18080 Granada (Spain); Flock, Mario [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Menten, Karl [Jansky Fellow of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (United States); Testi, Leonardo [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Torrelles, José M. [Institut de Ciències de l’Espai (CSIC-IEEC) and Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (UB-IEEC), Martí i Franquès 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Zhu, Zhaohuan, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)


    The first long-baseline ALMA campaign resolved the disk around the young star HL Tau into a number of axisymmetric bright and dark rings. Despite the very young age of HL Tau, these structures have been interpreted as signatures for the presence of (proto)planets. The ALMA images triggered numerous theoretical studies based on disk–planet interactions, magnetically driven disk structures, and grain evolution. Of special interest are the inner parts of disks, where terrestrial planets are expected to form. However, the emission from these regions in HL Tau turned out to be optically thick at all ALMA wavelengths, preventing the derivation of surface density profiles and grain-size distributions. Here, we present the most sensitive images of HL Tau obtained to date with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array at 7.0 mm wavelength with a spatial resolution comparable to the ALMA images. At this long wavelength, the dust emission from HL Tau is optically thin, allowing a comprehensive study of the inner disk. We obtain a total disk dust mass of (1–3) × 10{sup −3} M {sub ⊙}, depending on the assumed opacity and disk temperature. Our optically thin data also indicate fast grain growth, fragmentation, and formation of dense clumps in the inner densest parts of the disk. Our results suggest that the HL Tau disk may be actually in a very early stage of planetary formation, with planets not already formed in the gaps but in the process of future formation in the bright rings.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piso, Ana-Maria A.; Murray-Clay, Ruth A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Youdin, Andrew N., E-mail: [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)


    Giant planet formation by core accretion requires a core that is sufficiently massive to trigger runaway gas accretion in less than the typical lifetime of protoplanetary disks. We explore how the minimum required core mass, M {sub crit}, depends on a non-ideal equation of state (EOS) and on opacity changes due to grain growth across a range of stellocentric distances from 5-100 AU. This minimum M {sub crit} applies when planetesimal accretion does not substantially heat the atmosphere. Compared to an ideal gas polytrope, the inclusion of molecular hydrogen (H{sub 2}) dissociation and variable occupation of H{sub 2} rotational states increases M {sub crit}. Specifically, M {sub crit} increases by a factor of ∼2 if the H{sub 2} spin isomers, ortho- and parahydrogen, are in thermal equilibrium, and by a factor of ∼2-4 if the ortho-to-para ratio is fixed at 3:1. Lower opacities due to grain growth reduce M {sub crit}. For a standard disk model around a Solar mass star, we calculate M {sub crit} ∼ 8 M {sub ⊕} at 5 AU, decreasing to ∼5 M {sub ⊕} at 100 AU, for a realistic EOS with an equilibrium ortho-to-para ratio and for grain growth to centimeter-sizes. If grain coagulation is taken into account, M {sub crit} may further reduce by up to one order of magnitude. These results for the minimum critical core mass are useful for the interpretation of surveys that find exoplanets at a range of orbital distances.

  17. Radium-226 and barium as tracers of water masses in the North Atlantic (GA01-GEOTRACES) (United States)

    Le Roy, Emilie; Sanial, Virginie; Charette, Matthew; Henderson, Paul; Jacquet, Stéphanie; García-Ibáñez, Maribel; Pérez, Fiz; Lherminer, Pascale; Souhaut, Marc; Jeandel, Catherine; Lacan, François; van Beek, Pieter


    In this study, we report concentrations of radium-226 (226Ra, t1/2=1602 y) and barium determined along the GEOVIDE section conducted in the North Atlantic (May-July 2014; Portugal-Greenland-Canda) in the framework of the international GEOTRACES program. A high vertical resolution (up to 22 depths per station) was achieved by analyzing small volumes (˜10 L) of seawater for 226Ra using a radon emanation technique. We will present the distribution of 226Ra activities and barium concentrations in contrasting biogeochemical regions of the North Atlantic (Iberian margin, West European Basin, Reykjanes Ridge, Irminger Sea, Greenland margin and Labrador Sea). These regions strongly differ in terms of boundary inputs, biogeochemistry and deep water formation. We observe a linear correlation between 226Ra and barium along the GEOVIDE section, which results from the dominantly conservative behavior of the two tracers. However, deviations from the linear correlation between 226Ra and Ba are found in several places. The potential causes for such deviations are investigated. Optimum multi-parameter (OMP) analysis was thus used to distinguish the relative importance of physical transport (i.e., water mass mixing) from non-conservative processes (sedimentary, river or hydrothermal inputs; uptake by particles) on the 226Ra and Ba distribution in the North Atlantic.

  18. A Wide Dispersion in Star Formation Rate and Dynamical Mass of 108 Solar Mass Black Hole Host Galaxies at Redshift 6 (United States)

    Willott, Chris J.; Bergeron, Jacqueline; Omont, Alain


    Atacama Large Millimeter Array [C II] line and continuum observations of five redshift z> 6 quasars are presented. This sample was selected to probe quasars with lower black hole mass than most previous studies. We find a wide dispersion in properties with CFHQS J0216-0455, a low-luminosity quasar with absolute magnitude {M}1450=-22.2, remaining undetected implying a limit on the star formation rate in the host galaxy of ≲ 10 {M}⊙ {{yr}}-1, whereas other host galaxies have star formation rates up to hundreds of solar masses per year. Two other quasars have particularly interesting properties. VIMOS2911 is one of the least luminous z> 6 quasars known with {M}1450=-23.1, yet its host galaxy is experiencing a very powerful starburst. PSO J167-13 has a broad and luminous [C II] line and a neighboring galaxy a projected distance of 5 kpc away that is also detected in the [C II] line and continuum. Combining with similar observations from the literature, we study the ratio of the [C II] line to the far-infrared luminosity, finding that this ratio increases at high redshift at a fixed far-infrared luminosity, likely due to lower dust content, lower metallicity and/or higher gas masses. We compile a sample of 21 high-redshift quasars with dynamical masses and investigate the relationship between black hole mass and dynamical mass. The new observations presented here reveal dynamical masses consistent with the relationship defined by local galaxies. However, the full sample shows a very wide scatter across the black hole mass-dynamical mass plane, whereas both the local relationship and simulations of high-redshift quasars show a much lower dispersion in dynamical mass.

  19. The Influence of topography on formation characteristics of hygroscopic and condensate water in Shapotou (United States)

    Pan, Yanxia; Li, Xinrong; Hui, Rong; Zhao, Yang


    The formation characteristics of hygroscopic and condensate water for different topographic positions were observed using the PVC pipes manual weighing and CPM method in the typical mobile dunes fixed by straw checkerboard barriers in Shapotou. The results indicated that the formation amounts and duration of hygroscopic and condensate water show moderate spatial heterogeneity at the influence of topography. The formation amounts of hygroscopic and condensate water at different aspects conform to the classical convection model, in which the hygroscopic and condensate water amounts are highest at hollow, and windward aspect gets more water than leeward aspect, the hygroscopic and condensate water amounts at different aspects are expressed as: hollow>Western-faced aspect>Northern-faced aspect>hilltop>Southern-faced aspect>Eastern-faced aspect. The hygroscopic and condensate water amounts at different slope positions for every aspect are as follows: the foot of slope>middle slope>hilltop. A negatively linear correlation is got between slope angles and hygroscopic and condensate water amounts, hygroscopic and condensate water amounts decrease gradually along with the increase of slope angles, the amounts of hygroscopic and condensate water at the vertical aspect are only half of horizontal aspect, which indicated topography were important influence factors for the formation of the hygroscopic and condensate water in arid area.

  20. Star formation in the lagoon nebula & low-mass stars and brown dwarfs (United States)

    Castro, Philip J.

    Topic I of this thesis reports on star formation in the Lagoon Nebula. We report on deep Chandra X-Ray Observatory observations of the Lagoon Nebula (NGC 6530 and the Hourglass Nebula) totaling 233 ks. We find 1482 X-ray sources, 1130 associated with catalogued near-infrared or optical stars. These X-ray sources are mainly concentrated in the young Hourglass Nebula Cluster (HNC), the older NGC 6530 cluster, and the young M8E cluster in the southern rim. The clustering of X-ray sources near 850mum emission along the central ridge of NGC 6530, M8E, the southern ridge, and coincident with the Hourglass Nebula, provides evidence of triggered star formation. Chandra point-source density contours show a ridge of increased density between NGC 6530 and the HNC, 9 Sgr and the HNC, and class III/II contours stretching from 9 Sgr to the HNC, respectively, provide support for a proposed sequence of star formation in the Lagoon Nebula. Topic II of this thesis reports on low-mass stars and brown dwarfs (BDs). We report on Chandra X-Ray Observatory observations of the TW Hydrae BD 2MASSW J1139511-315921 (2M1139). In the combined 31 ks ACIS-S exposure, 2M1139 is detected at the 3sigma confidence level. This object is similar to another TW Hydrae BD member, CD-33 7795B (TWA 5B), previously detected in X-rays an order of magnitude more luminous than 2M1139. We find the discrepancy between their X-ray luminosities is consistent with BDs of similar spectral type in the Orion Nebula Cluster. Though rotation may play a role in the X-ray activity of ultracool dwarfs like 2M1139 and TWA 5B, the discrepancy cannot be explained by rotation alone. We discover five high proper motion spectroscopically confirmed L dwarfs by comparing WISE to 2MASS. Two of these are L dwarfs at the L/T transition within 10 pc, and three are early L dwarfs within 25 pc. Of the early L dwarfs, one is a member of the class of unusually red L dwarfs whose red spectra can not be easily attributed to youth.

  1. Combined uses of water-table fluctuation (WTF), chloride mass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    unconfined aquifer of Thiaroye zone using both water table fluctuation (WTF), chloride ... Therefore, in the urban area, the CMB method cannot be .... contribution from other sources such as human activities ..... in India: What has been learned?

  2. Heavy water stratification in a low-mass protostar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coutens, A.; Vastel, C.; Cazaux, S.; Bottinelli, S.; Caux, E.; Ceccarelli, C.; Demyk, K.; Taquet, V.; Wakelam, V.

    Context. Despite the low elemental deuterium abundance in the Galaxy, enhanced molecular deuterium fractionation has been found in the environments of low-mass star-forming regions and, in particular, the Class 0 protostar IRAS 16293-2422. Aims. The key program Chemical HErschel Surveys of Star

  3. Water mass dynamics shape Ross Sea protist communities in mesopelagic and bathypelagic layers (United States)

    Zoccarato, Luca; Pallavicini, Alberto; Cerino, Federica; Fonda Umani, Serena; Celussi, Mauro


    Deep-sea environments host the largest pool of microbes and represent the last largely unexplored and poorly known ecosystems on Earth. The Ross Sea is characterized by unique oceanographic dynamics and harbors several water masses deeply involved in cooling and ventilation of deep oceans. In this study the V9 region of the 18S rDNA was targeted and sequenced with the Ion Torrent high-throughput sequencing technology to unveil differences in protist communities (>2 μm) correlated with biogeochemical properties of the water masses. The analyzed samples were significantly different in terms of environmental parameters and community composition outlining significant structuring effects of temperature and salinity. Overall, Alveolata (especially Dinophyta), Stramenopiles and Excavata groups dominated mesopelagic and bathypelagic layers, and protist communities were shaped according to the biogeochemistry of the water masses (advection effect and mixing events). Newly-formed High Salinity Shelf Water (HSSW) was characterized by high relative abundance of phototrophic organisms that bloom at the surface during the austral summer. Oxygen-depleted Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW) showed higher abundance of Excavata, common bacterivores in deep water masses. At the shelf-break, Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW), formed by the entrainment of shelf waters in CDW, maintained the eukaryotic genetic signature typical of both parental water masses.

  4. Modeling the improvement of ultrafiltration membrane mass transfer when using biofiltration pretreatment in surface water applications. (United States)

    Netcher, Andrea C; Duranceau, Steven J


    In surface water treatment, ultrafiltration (UF) membranes are widely used because of their ability to supply safe drinking water. Although UF membranes produce high-quality water, their efficiency is limited by fouling. Improving UF filtrate productivity is economically desirable and has been attempted by incorporating sustainable biofiltration processes as pretreatment to UF with varying success. The availability of models that can be applied to describe the effectiveness of biofiltration on membrane mass transfer are lacking. In this work, UF water productivity was empirically modeled as a function of biofilter feed water quality using either a quadratic or Gaussian relationship. UF membrane mass transfer variability was found to be governed by the dimensionless mass ratio between the alkalinity (ALK) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). UF membrane productivity was optimized when the biofilter feed water ALK to DOC ratio fell between 10 and 14. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Mass accuracy improvement of reversed-phase liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry based urinary metabolomic analysis by post-run calibration using sodium formate cluster ions. (United States)

    Juo, Chiun-Gung; Chen, Chien-Lun; Lin, Shiang-Ting; Fu, Shu-Hsuan; Chen, Yi-Ting; Chang, Yu-Sun; Yu, Jau-Song


    Typically, a batch metabolomics analysis using liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-TOF MS) takes 2 to 3 days. However, the mass accuracy - which has an important influence on metabolite identification - can drift by as much as about 17 ppm in such a time period. In an untargeted urinary metabolomics analysis by reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC)/ESI-MS, the signals of sodium formate cluster ions were detected at the column-washing step. The cluster ions were used to calibrate the mass spectrometer for more accurate detection. The spectra were calibrated post-run by the sodium formate cluster ions, which were used as the internal standard, in order to improve the mass accuracy. In the analysis of urine samples, we calibrated the spectra acquired by the micrOTOF with the sodium cluster ions. In positive mode ESI, the average errors of these cluster ions were improved to ±0.48 ppm and in negative mode ESI, to ±0.94 ppm after calibration. The mass accuracy remained within ±0.01 ppm over the duration of 6.25 days. An error window of 4 ppm appears to be suitable for metabolite identification when using post-calibration. The results showed that sodium formate cluster ions could be utilized for the calibration of LC/ESI-TOF MS and the average instrumental errors could be maintained at low levels for long-term analyses. This method could be applied not only to urine sample, but also to low sodium samples, such as saliva, by dissolving the sample in 1 μM sodium formate solution. This method provides a good solution for accurate mass detection of metabolomic analysis. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Rational designing of the internal water supply system in reconstructed residential buildings of mass standard series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov Evgeny


    Full Text Available The issues of water supply system reconstruction in mass series buildings are reviewed with consideration of water- and resource saving. Principal points for location of plumbing cells in apartments, arrangement of water devices and wastewater receivers, selection of pipelines for reconstructed water line are described. Comparative analysis of design variants of inner water line before and following reconstruction are given. It was found that applying the developed system design approaches the head losses in the inner water supply line will be significantly decreased as well as the water mains length will be decreased with material and installation saving. Based on the data the conclusions on necessity to review standard arrangement solutions of water supply systems in the reconstructed buildings were made. Recommendations on water loss reduction in the system by installation of special water saving fittings on water devices and touchless faucets.

  7. Water deuterium fractionation in the high-mass star-forming region G34.26+0.15 based on Herschel/HIFI data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coutens, Audrey; Vastel, C.; Hincelin, U.


    Understanding water deuterium fractionation is important for constraining the mechanisms of water formation in interstellar clouds. Observations of HDO and H_2^{18}O transitions were carried out towards the high-mass star-forming region G34.26+0.15 with the Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infra...... to an age of ˜105 yr after the infrared dark cloud stage....

  8. The stellar mass, star formation rate and dark matter halo properties of LAEs at z ˜ 2 (United States)

    Kusakabe, Haruka; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Ouchi, Masami; Nakajima, Kimihiko; Goto, Ryosuke; Hashimoto, Takuya; Konno, Akira; Harikane, Yuichi; Silverman, John D.; Capak, Peter L.


    We present average stellar population properties and dark matter halo masses of z ˜ 2 Lyα emitters (LAEs) from spectral energy distribution fitting and clustering analysis, respectively, using ≃ 1250 objects (\\mathit {NB387}\\le 25.5) in four separate fields of ≃ 1 deg2 in total. With an average stellar mass of 10.2 ± 1.8 × 108 M⊙ and star formation rate of 3.4 ± 0.4 M⊙ yr-1, the LAEs lie on an extrapolation of the star-formation main sequence (MS) to low stellar mass. Their effective dark matter halo mass is estimated to be 4.0_{-2.9}^{+5.1} × 10^{10}{ }M_{\\odot } with an effective bias of 1.22^{+0.16}_{-0.18}, which is lower than that of z ˜ 2 LAEs (1.8 ± 0.3) obtained by a previous study based on a three times smaller survey area, with a probability of 96%. However, the difference in the bias values can be explained if cosmic variance is taken into account. If such a low halo mass implies a low H I gas mass, this result appears to be consistent with the observations of a high Lyα escape fraction. With the low halo masses and ongoing star formation, our LAEs have a relatively high stellar-to-halo mass ratio (SHMR) and a high efficiency of converting baryons into stars. The extended Press-Schechter formalism predicts that at z = 0 our LAEs are typically embedded in halos with masses similar to that of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC); they will also have similar SHMRs to the LMC, if their star formation rates are largely suppressed after z ˜ 2 as some previous studies have reported for the LMC itself.

  9. Scale formation at various locations in a geothermal operation due to injection of imported waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vetter, O.J.; Kandarpa, V.


    The injection of waters that are not native to a geothermal formation generates various physical and chemical problems. The major chemical problem resulting from such injections is the formation of sulfate scales (particularly CaSO4, BaSO4 and SrSO4) at various locations starting from the injection well through the production well to the surface facilities of any geothermal operation. One of the ways to prevent this type of scale formation is by reducing the sulfate concentration of the injection waters. The effect of sulfate deionization on scale formation at various locations of the geothermal operations is studied. Some experimental results on the CaSO4 scale formation in porous media upon heating an injection water with and without addition of scale inhibitors are also given.

  10. Determination of seven pyrethroids and six pyrethrins in water by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (United States)

    ccanccapa, alexander; Masia, Ana; Pico, Yolanda


    Pyrethroids are the synthetic analogues of pyrethrins which were developed as pesticides from the extracts of dried and powdered flower heads of Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium. They are increasingly used in agriculture due to their broad biological activity and slow development of pest resistance. Contamination of fresh-water ecosystems appears either because of the direct discharge of industrial and agricultural effluents or as a result of effluents from sewage treatment works; residues can thus accumulate in the surrounding biosphere [1, 2]. These substances, mostly determined by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) can be difficult to analyse due to their volatility and degradability. The purpose of this study is, as an alternative, to develop a fast and sensitive multi-residue method for the target analysis of 7 pyrethroids and the 6 natural pyrethrins currently used in water samples by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The compounds included in the study were acrinathrin, etofenprox, cyfluthrin, esfenvalerate, cyhalothrin, cypermethrin and flumethrin as pyrethroids and a commercial mix of pyrethrins containing Cinerin I, Jasmolin I, pyrethrin I, cinerin II, jasmolin II, pyrethrins II in different percentages. As a preliminary step, the ionization and fragmentation of the compounds were optimized injecting individual solutions of each analyte at 10 ppm in the system, using a gradient elution profile of water-methanol both with 10 mM ammonium formate. The ESI conditions were: capillary voltage 4000 V, nebulizer15 psi, source temperature 300◦C and gas flow 10 L min-1. [M+H]+, [M+Na]+ ,[M+NH3]+ ,[M+NH4+]+ were tested as precursor ions. The most intense signal was for ammonium adduct for all compounds. The optimal fragmentor range for product ions were between 20 to 80 ev and the collision energy ranged between 5 to 86 ev. The efficiency of the method was tested in water samples from Turia River without any known exposure to

  11. Biomarker Pigment Divinyl Chlorophyll a as a Tracer of Water Masses? (United States)

    Mejdandzic, Maja; Mihanovic, Hrvoje; Silovic, Tina; Henderiks, Jorijntje; Supraha, Luka; Polovic, Dorotea; Bosak, Suncica; Bosnjak, Ivana; Cetinic, Ivona; Olujic, Goran; hide


    The ecological preferences of different Phytoplankton types drive their temporal and spatial distributions, reflecting their dependence on certain temperature ranges, light levels, nutrient availability and other environmental gradients. Hence, some phytoplankton taxa can be used as water mass tracers (biotracers).

  12. On the implications of aerosol liquid water and phase separation for organic aerosol mass (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset contains data presented in the figures of the paper "On the implications of aerosol liquid water and phase separation for organic aerosol mass"...

  13. Mechanism of [m+h]+ formation in atmospheric pressure photoionization mass spectrometry: identification of propionitrile in acetonitrile with high mass accuracy measurement and tandem mass spectrometry and evidence for its involvement in the protonation phenomenon. (United States)

    Kamel, Amin; Jeanville, Patrick; Colizza, Kevin; J-Rivera, Lauren Elizabeth


    The role of propionitrile in the production of [M+H]+ under atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) was investigated. In dopant-assisted APPI using acetone and anisole, protonated acetone and anisole radical cations were the most prominent ions observed. In dopant-free or direct APPI in acetonitrile, however, a major ion in acetonitrile was detected and identified as propionitrile, using high accuracy mass measurement and collision induced dissociation studies. Vaporizing ca. 10(-5) M althiazide and bendroflumethazide under direct APPI in acetonitrile produced their corresponding protonated species [M+H]+. In addition to protonated acetonitrile, its dimers, and acetonitrile/water clusters, protonated propionitrile, propionitrile dimer, and propionitrile/water clusters were also observed. The role of propionitrile, an impurity in acetonitrile and/or a possible product of ion-molecule reaction, in the production of [M+H]+ of althiazide and bendroflumethazide was further investigated in the absence of dopant using propionitrile-d5. The formation of [M+D]+ species was observed, suggesting a possible role of propionitrile in the protonation process. Additionally, an increase in the [M+H]+ signal of althiazide and bendroflumethazide was observed as a function of propionitrile concentration in acetonitrile. Theoretical data from the literature supported the assumption that one possible mechanism, among others, for the formation of [M+H]+ could be attributed to photo-initiated isomerization of propionitrile. The most stable isomers of propionitrile, based on their calculated ionization energy (IE) and relative energy (DeltaE), were assumed to undergo proton transfer to the analytes, and mechanisms were proposed.

  14. Evaluation of thirteen haloacetic acids and ten trihalomethanes formation by peracetic acid and chlorine drinking water disinfection. (United States)

    Xue, Runmiao; Shi, Honglan; Ma, Yinfa; Yang, John; Hua, Bin; Inniss, Enos C; Adams, Craig D; Eichholz, Todd


    Free chlorine is a commonly used disinfectant in drinking water treatment. However, disinfection by-products (DBPs) are formed during water disinfection. Haloacetic acids (HAAs) and trihalomethanes (THMs) are two major groups of DBPs. Iodo-HAAs and iodo-THMs (I-HAAs and I-THMs) are formed during the disinfection of the water containing high levels of iodide and are much more toxic than their chlorinated and brominated analogs. Peracetic acid (PAA) is a strong antimicrobial disinfectant that is expected to reduce the formation of HAAs and THMs during disinfection. In this study, the formations of thirteen HAAs and ten THMs, including the iodinated forms, have been investigated during PAA disinfection and chlorination as the comparison. The DBP formations under different iodide concentrations, pHs, and contact times were systematically investigated. Two types of commercial PAAs containing different concentrations of PAA and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) were studied. A solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method was upgraded for THM analysis including I-THMs. HAAs were analyzed by following a recently developed high performance ion chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. Results show that the ratio of PAA and H 2 O 2 concentration significantly affect the formation of I-THMs and I-HAAs. During PAA disinfection with lower PAA than H 2 O 2 , no detectable levels of THMs and HAAs were observed. During PAA disinfection with higher PAA than H 2 O 2 , low levels of monoiodoacetic acid, diiodoacetic acid, and iodoform were formed, and these levels were enhanced with the increase of iodide concentration. No significant quantities of chloro- or bromo-THMs and HAAs were formed during PAA disinfection treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Formation and survival of water vapor in the terrestrial planet-forming region. (United States)

    Bethell, Thomas; Bergin, Edwin


    Recent astronomical observations have revealed what may prove to be the ubiquity of water vapor during the early stages of planet formation. We present here a simple mechanism showing how water vapor forms in situ and is capable of shielding itself from molecule-destroying stellar radiation. The absorption of this radiation by water can control the thermodynamics of the terrestrial planet-forming zone. Similar to Earth's ozone layer, which shelters the chemistry of life, the water layer protects other water molecules and allows for a rich organic chemistry. The total abundance of water vapor in the natal habitable zone is equal to that of several thousand oceans.

  16. Formation and control of disinfection byproducts and toxicity during reclaimed water chlorination: A review. (United States)

    Du, Ye; Lv, Xiao-Tong; Wu, Qian-Yuan; Zhang, Da-Yin; Zhou, Yu-Ting; Peng, Lu; Hu, Hong-Ying


    Chlorination is essential to the safety of reclaimed water; however, this process leads to concern regarding the formation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) and toxicity. This study reviewed the formation and control strategies for DBPs and toxicity in reclaimed water during chlorination. Both regulated and emerging DBPs have been frequently detected in reclaimed water during chlorination at a higher level than those in drinking water, indicating they pose a greater risk to humans. Luminescent bacteria and Daphnia magna acute toxicity, anti-estrogenic activity and cytotoxicity generally increased after chlorination because of the formation of DBPs. Genotoxicity by umu-test and estrogenic activity were decreased after chlorination because of destruction of toxic chemicals. During chlorination, water quality significantly impacted changes in toxicity. Ammonium tended to attenuate toxicity changes by reacting with chlorine to form chloramine, while bromide tended to aggravate toxicity changes by forming hypobromous acid. During pretreatment by ozonation and coagulation, disinfection byproduct formation potential (DBPFP) and toxicity formation potential (TFP) occasionally increase, which is accompanied by DOC removal; thus, the decrease of DOC was limited to indicate the decrease of DBPFP and TFP. It is more important to eliminate the key fraction of precursors such as hydrophobic acid and hydrophilic neutrals. During chlorination, toxicities can increase with the increasing chlorine dose and contact time. To control the excessive toxicity formation, a relatively low chlorine dose and short contact time were required. Quenching chlorine residual with reductive reagents also effectively abated the formation of toxic compounds. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Analysis of combined heat and mass transfer of water-vapor in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jn this paper, the combined heat and mass transfer of water-vapor into a cylindrical zeolite adsorber has been numerically simulated The twodimensional heat and mass transfer equations are numerically solved using gPROMS program - a general Process Modeling System [J] program, inserting the proper initial and ...

  18. Analysis of combined heat and mass transfer of water- Vapor in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, the combined heat and mass transfer of water-vapor into a cylindrical zeolite adsorber has been numerically simulated The twodimensional heat and mass transfer equations are numerically solved using gPROMS program - a general Process Modeling System {lJ program, inserting the proper initial and ...

  19. Water vapor mass balance method for determining air infiltration rates in houses (United States)

    David R. DeWalle; Gordon M. Heisler


    A water vapor mass balance technique that includes the use of common humidity-control equipment can be used to determine average air infiltration rates in buildings. Only measurements of the humidity inside and outside the home, the mass of vapor exchanged by a humidifier/dehumidifier, and the volume of interior air space are needed. This method gives results that...

  20. Research on Efficiency of Ozonation and Bromate Formation in Low Temperature and Low Turbidity Water (United States)

    Zhu, Qi; Liu, Dongmei; Cui, Fuyi; Fang, Lei; Zhao, Zhiwei; Liu, Tongmian


    The efficiency of ozonation and the influence factor of bromate formation were studied in filtered water at low temperature and low turbidity in Harbin Shaohe water treatment plant, of which source water was from Songhua river. The results showed that when adding 3 mg/L O3 to the filtered water, the average removal rate of UV254 were 22.31%, the removal rate of TOC in filtered water were 6.33%. When adding 2 mg/L O3 and 4 mg/L O3 to the filtered water, the CODMn decreased by 21.53% and 24.68%, respectively. Ozonation had no obvious effect on reducing turbidity and the content of ammonia nitrogen of filtered water in Shaohe water treatment plant. It could be found that the formation amount of BrO3- would increase with the concentration of Br- increasing in low temperature and low turbidity water. When Ct value of filtered water in Shaohe water treatment plant was less than 30 mgṡL-1ṡmin, the formation amount of BrO3- could be controlled under 10 μg/L.

  1. Securing HST's UV Legacy in the Local Volume: Probing Star Formation and the Interstellar Medium in Low Mass Galaxies (United States)

    Gilbert, Karoline


    We propose WFC3 ultraviolet imaging of the stellar populations of a volume limited sample of 22 low-mass, nearby (physics of galaxy formation, producing quantitative constraints on the energies and timescales of interactions between gas, dust, and stars in the low-mass, low-metallicity regime. When combined with existing data from HST, Spitzer, VLA, GALEX, and CARMA, the proposed UV data will make these galaxies a benchmark for ISM studies in low metallicity environments.

  2. Methane hydrate formation in partially water-saturated Ottawa sand (United States)

    Waite, W.F.; Winters, W.J.; Mason, D.H.


    Bulk properties of gas hydrate-bearing sediment strongly depend on whether hydrate forms primarily in the pore fluid, becomes a load-bearing member of the sediment matrix, or cements sediment grains. Our compressional wave speed measurements through partially water-saturated, methane hydrate-bearing Ottawa sands suggest hydrate surrounds and cements sediment grains. The three Ottawa sand packs tested in the Gas Hydrate And Sediment Test Laboratory Instrument (GHASTLI) contain 38(1)% porosity, initially with distilled water saturating 58, 31, and 16% of that pore space, respectively. From the volume of methane gas produced during hydrate dissociation, we calculated the hydrate concentration in the pore space to be 70, 37, and 20% respectively. Based on these hydrate concentrations and our measured compressional wave speeds, we used a rock physics model to differentiate between potential pore-space hydrate distributions. Model results suggest methane hydrate cements unconsolidated sediment when forming in systems containing an abundant gas phase.

  3. Contributions to flow techniques and mass spectrometry in water analysis


    Santos, Inês Carvalho dos


    In this thesis, the use of different flow systems was exploited along with the use of different detection techniques for the development of simple, robust, and automated analytical procedures. With the purpose to perform in-line sample handling and pretreatment operations, different separation units were used. The main target for these methods was waters samples. The first procedure was based on a sequential injection analysis (SIA) system for carbon speciation (alkalinity, dis...

  4. Modeling Reservoir Formation Damage due to Water Injection for Oil Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Hao


    The elliptic equation for non-Fickian transport of suspension in porous media is applied to simulate the reservoir formation damage due to water injection for oil recovery. The deposition release (erosion of reservoir formation) and the suspension deposition (pore plugging) are both taken...... into account. 1-D numerical simulations are carried out to reveal the erosion of reservoir formation due to water injection. 2-D numerical simulations are carried out to obtain the suspension and deposition profiles around the injection wells. These preliminary results indicate the non-Fickian behaviors...

  5. Kinetics of rouleau formation. I. A mass action approach with geometric features. (United States)

    Samsel, R W; Perelson, A S


    In the presence of certain macromolecules, such as fibrinogen, immunoglobulin, dextran, and polylysine, erythrocytes tend to aggregate and form cylindrical clusters called "rouleaux" in which cells resemble coins in a stack. The aggregates may remain cylindrical or they may branch, forming tree, and networklike structures. Using the law of mass action and notions from polymer chemistry, we derive expressions describing the kinetics of the early phase of aggregation. Our models generalize work initiated by Ponder in 1927 who used the Smoluchowski equation to predict the concentration of rouleaux of different sizes. There are two novel features to our generalization. First, we allow erythrocytes that collide near the end of a stack of cells to move to the end of the cylinder and elongate it. Second, we incorporate geometric information into our models and describe the kinetics of branched rouleau formation. From our models we can predict the concentration of rouleaux with n cells and b branches, the mean number of cells per rouleau, the mean number of branches per rouleau, and the average length of a branch. Comparisons are made with the available experimental data. Images FIGURE 4 FIGURE 1 FIGURE 9 PMID:7059652

  6. Conversion of organic micropollutants with limited bromate formation during the Peroxone process in drinking water treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knol, A.H.; Lekkerkerker-Teunissen, K.; Houtman, C.J.; Scheideler, J.; Ried, A.; Van Dijk, J.C.


    Advanced oxidation with O3 / H2O2 (peroxone) was conducted on pilot plant scale on pre-treated Meuse river water to investigate the conversion of organic micropollutants (OMPs) and the formation of bromate. Fourteen selected model compounds were dosed to the pre-treated river water on a regular

  7. 78 FR 42692 - Food Additives Permitted in Feed and Drinking Water of Animals; Ammonium Formate (United States)


    ... additives permitted in feed and drinking water of animals to correct the description of ammonium formate... regulations for food additives permitted in feed and drinking water of animals do not correctly describe... Part 573 Animal feeds, Food additives. Therefore, under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act and...

  8. 75 FR 41725 - Food Additives Permitted in Feed and Drinking Water of Animals; Ammonium Formate (United States)


    ... Additives Permitted in Feed and Drinking Water of Animals; Ammonium Formate AGENCY: Food and Drug... regulations for food additives permitted in feed and drinking water of animals to provide for the safe use of... Part 573 Animal feeds, Food additives. 0 Therefore, under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act and...

  9. Maintaining Atmospheric Mass and Water Balance Within Reanalysis (United States)

    Takacs, Lawrence L.; Suarez, Max; Todling, Ricardo


    This report describes the modifications implemented into the Goddard Earth Observing System Version-5 (GEOS-5) Atmospheric Data Assimilation System (ADAS) to maintain global conservation of dry atmospheric mass as well as to preserve the model balance of globally integrated precipitation and surface evaporation during reanalysis. Section 1 begins with a review of these global quantities from four current reanalysis efforts. Section 2 introduces the modifications necessary to preserve these constraints within the atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM), the Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) analysis procedure, and the Incremental Analysis Update (IAU) algorithm. Section 3 presents experiments quantifying the impact of the new procedure. Section 4 shows preliminary results from its use within the GMAO MERRA-2 Reanalysis project. Section 5 concludes with a summary.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlichting, Hilke E., E-mail: [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307 (United States)


    Recent observations by the Kepler space telescope have led to the discovery of more than 4000 exoplanet candidates consisting of many systems with Earth- to Neptune-sized objects that reside well inside the orbit of Mercury around their respective host stars. How and where these close-in planets formed is one of the major unanswered questions in planet formation. Here, we calculate the required disk masses for in situ formation of the Kepler planets. We find that if close-in planets formed as isolation masses, then standard gas-to-dust ratios yield corresponding gas disks that are gravitationally unstable for a significant fraction of systems, ruling out such a scenario. We show that the maximum width of a planet's accretion region in the absence of any migration is 2v {sub esc}/Ω, where v {sub esc} is the escape velocity of the planet and Ω is the Keplerian frequency, and we use it to calculate the required disk masses for in situ formation with giant impacts. Even with giant impacts, formation without migration requires disk surface densities in solids at semi-major axes of less than 0.1 AU of 10{sup 3}-10{sup 5} g cm{sup –2}, implying typical enhancements above the minimum-mass solar nebular (MMSN) by at least a factor of 20. Corresponding gas disks are below but not far from the gravitational stability limit. In contrast, formation beyond a few AU is consistent with MMSN disk masses. This suggests that the migration of either solids or fully assembled planets is likely to have played a major role in the formation of close-in super-Earths and mini-Neptunes.

  11. Modeling and optimization of trihalomethanes formation potential of surface water (a drinking water source) using Box-Behnken design. (United States)

    Singh, Kunwar P; Rai, Premanjali; Pandey, Priyanka; Sinha, Sarita


    The present research aims to investigate the individual and interactive effects of chlorine dose/dissolved organic carbon ratio, pH, temperature, bromide concentration, and reaction time on trihalomethanes (THMs) formation in surface water (a drinking water source) during disinfection by chlorination in a prototype laboratory-scale simulation and to develop a model for the prediction and optimization of THMs levels in chlorinated water for their effective control. A five-factor Box-Behnken experimental design combined with response surface and optimization modeling was used for predicting the THMs levels in chlorinated water. The adequacy of the selected model and statistical significance of the regression coefficients, independent variables, and their interactions were tested by the analysis of variance and t test statistics. The THMs levels predicted by the model were very close to the experimental values (R(2) = 0.95). Optimization modeling predicted maximum (192 μg/l) TMHs formation (highest risk) level in water during chlorination was very close to the experimental value (186.8 ± 1.72 μg/l) determined in laboratory experiments. The pH of water followed by reaction time and temperature were the most significant factors that affect the THMs formation during chlorination. The developed model can be used to determine the optimum characteristics of raw water and chlorination conditions for maintaining the THMs levels within the safe limit.

  12. Water emission from the high-mass star-forming region IRAS 17233-3606

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leurini, S.; Gusdorf, A.; Wyrowski, F.; Codella, C.; Csengeri, T.; van der Tak, F.; Beuther, H.; Flower, D. R.; Comito, C.; Schilke, P.

    We investigate the physical and chemical processes at work during the formation of a massive protostar based on the observation of water in an outflow from a very young object previously detected in H2 and SiO in the IRAS 17233-3606 region. We estimated the abundance of water to understand its

  13. Water in low-mass star-forming regions with Herschel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, L. E.; Visser, R.; Van Dishoeck, E. F.


    "Water In Star-forming regions with Herschel" (WISH) is a key programme dedicated to studying the role of water and related species during the star-formation process and constraining the physical and chemical properties of young stellar objects. The Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared (HIF...

  14. Spin-induced mass loss from rubble piles and the formation of asteroid satellites and pairs (United States)

    Tanga, P.; Campo Bagatin, A.; Thirouin, A.; Cellino, A.; Comito, C.; Ortiz, J.; Richardson, D.; Hestroffer, D.


    friction is low, which can result either in single-particle ejection from the ellipsoid ''tips'' or in splitting, with the formation of satellites of different size ratios. As we use random particle packing, the global internal strength of our objects is generally smaller than the one used in the simulations by [7,8]. This permits the study of a greater range of low-strength cases than was achieved in [8]. Our main conclusions: (1) The formation and size of a secondary are not strongly related to the initial shape of the parent body. However, a well-defined sequence of intermediate re-shaping processes --- eventually producing binary systems --- is identified. (2) The pattern of shapes that is found reproduces rather well the transition from prolate objects to binaries, passing through intermediate phases described in the literature [1,11]. (3) We show that the creation of binary systems with mass ratios >10 %, corresponding to minor component sizes of the order of one half of the primary, is possible. (4) We find that the outcome of the process (mass shedding/fission) is essentially chaotic, therefore unpredictable. We argue that this may be driven by the amount of crystal packing occurring inside the evolving body as it randomly re-adjusts itself when responding to spin up. Finally, we stress that we do not follow the long-term evolution of the resulting binary systems, a task that is beyond the aim of this work. A fraction of the secondary objects that form are not dynamically bound to their primaries. Further investigations should elucidate these behaviors and link them to the observed sample of binaries and decoupled pairs.

  15. Water mass mixing shapes bacterial biogeography in a highly hydrodynamic region of the Southern Ocean. (United States)

    Hernando-Morales, Víctor; Ameneiro, Julia; Teira, Eva


    Even though compelling evidences indicate that marine microbes show biogeographic patterns, very little is known on the mechanisms driving those patterns in aquatic ecosystems. In the present study, bacterial community structure was examined in epipelagic waters of a highly hydrodynamic area of the Southern Ocean to gain insight into the role that biogeochemical factors and water mass mixing (a proxy of dispersal) have on microbial biogeography. Four water masses that converge and mix around the South Shetland Islands (northern tip of the Antarctic Peninsula) were investigated. Bacterioplankton communities were water-mass specific, and were best explained by dispersal rather than by biogeochemical factors, which is attributed to the relatively reduced environmental gradients found in these cold and nutrient rich waters. These results support the notion that currents and water mixing may have a considerable effect in connecting and transforming different water bodies, and consequently, in shaping communities of microorganisms. Considering the multidimensional and dynamic nature of the ocean, analysis of water mass mixing is a more suitable approach to investigate the role of dispersal on the biogeography of planktonic microorganisms rather than geographical distance. © 2016 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Water Masses in the Monterey Bay during the Summer of 2000 (United States)


    rights reserved. 1. Introduction There are very energetic shallow water features in the coastal transition zone ( CTZ ) around the The physical...2000; Flament, 2002), and variable shelf circulation and the wind-driven thus describe the various water masses in the CTZ upwelling processes. The

  17. Water masses and general hydrography along the west coast of India during early March

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RameshBabu, V.; Varkey, M.J.; Das, V.K.; Gouveia, A.D.

    Structure of water masses along the west coast of India from Bombay to Trivandrum has been studied through vertical sections of temperature, salinity and density during 3-17 March 1977. The Arabian Sea high salinity water spreads south as a core...

  18. Fast crystalline ice formation at extremely low temperature through water/neon matrix sublimation. (United States)

    Hama, Tetsuya; Ishizuka, Shinnosuke; Yamazaki, Tomoya; Kimura, Yuki; Kouchi, Akira; Watanabe, Naoki; Sugimoto, Toshiki; Pirronello, Valerio


    Crystalline ice formation requires water molecules to be sufficiently mobile to find and settle on the thermodynamically most stable site. Upon cooling, however, diffusion and rearrangement become increasingly kinetically difficult. Water ice grown by the condensation of water vapor in laboratory is thus generally assumed to be in a metastable amorphous form below 100 K. Here, we demonstrate the possibility of crystalline ice formation at extremely low temperature using a water/neon matrix (1/1000, 30 000 monolayers) prepared at 6 K, which is subsequently warmed to 11-12 K. In situ infrared spectroscopy revealed the assembly of the dispersed water molecules, forming crystalline ice I during the sublimation of the neon matrix for 40-250 seconds. This finding indicates that the high mobility of the water molecules during matrix sublimation can overcome the kinetic barrier to form crystals even at extremely low temperature.

  19. Experimental and Numerical Studies of Controlling Thermal Cracks in Mass Concrete Foundation by Circulating Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenchao Liu


    Full Text Available This paper summarizes an engineering experience of solving the problem of thermal cracking in mass concrete by using a large project, Zhongguancun No.1 (Beijing, China, as an example. A new method is presented for controlling temperature cracks in the mass concrete of a foundation. The method involves controlled cycles of water circulating between the surface of mass concrete foundation and the atmospheric environment. The temperature gradient between the surface and the core of the mass concrete is controlled at a relatively stable state. Water collected from the well-points used for dewatering and from rainfall is used as the source for circulating water. Mass concrete of a foundation slab is experimentally investigated through field temperature monitoring. Numerical analyses are performed by developing a finite element model of the foundation with and without water circulation. The calculation parameters are proposed based on the experiment, and finite element analysis software MIDAS/CIVIL is used to calculate the 3D temperature field of the mass concrete during the entire process of heat of hydration. The numerical results are in good agreement with the measured results. The proposed method provides an alternative practical basis for preventing thermal cracks in mass concrete.

  20. Secondary formation of disinfection by-products by UV treatment of swimming pool water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spiliotopoulou, Aikaterini; Hansen, Kamilla Marie Speht; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus


    be replicated by performing the DBP formation assay with higher chlorine concentrations to simulate extended chlorination. Post-UV chlorination of water from a swimming pool that continuously uses UV treatment to control combined chlorine could not induce secondary formation for most DBPs. Concurrence...... trihalomethane formation by UV may be a result of kinetic increase in formation by UV. However, this does not imply that higher trihalomethane concentrations would occur in pools that apply continuous UV treatment. The bromine fraction of halogens in formed trihalomethanes increased with UV dose. This indicates......Formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs) during experimental UV treatment of pool water has previously been reported with little concurrence between laboratory studies, field studies and research groups. In the current study, changes in concentration of seven out of eleven investigated volatile...

  1. Effect of water storage on ultimate tensile strength and mass changes of universal adhesives. (United States)

    Bahrololumi, Nazanin; Beglou, Amirreza; Najafi-Abrandabadi, Ahmad; Sadr, Alireza; Sheikh-Al-Eslamian, Seyedeh-Mahsa; Ghasemi, Amir


    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of water storage on micro tensile strength (µTS) and mass changes (MC) of two universal adhesives. 10 disk-shaped specimens were prepared for each adhesive; Scotchbond Universal (SCU) All-Bond Universal (ABU) and Adper Single Bond 2 (SB2). At the baseline and after 1 day and 28 days of water storage, their mass were measured and compared to estimate water sorption and solubility. For µTS test, 20 dumbbell shaped specimens were also prepared for each adhesive in two subgroups of 1 day and 28 days water storage. MC was significantly lower for SCU and ABU than SB2 (P water; both universal adhesives showed less water sorption and higher values of µTS than the control group. Key words:Absorption, dental adhesives, dentin-bonding agents, solubility, tensile strength.

  2. Global view of sea-ice production in polynyas and its linkage to dense/bottom water formation (United States)

    Ohshima, Kay I.; Nihashi, Sohey; Iwamoto, Katsushi


    Global overturning circulation is driven by density differences. Saline water rejected during sea-ice formation in polynyas is the main source of dense water, and thus sea-ice production is a key factor in the overturning circulation. Due to difficulties associated with in situ observation, sea-ice production and its interannual variability have not been well understood until recently. Methods to estimate sea-ice production on large scales have been developed using heat flux calculations based on satellite microwave radiometer data. Using these methods, we present the mapping of sea-ice production with the same definition and scale globally, and review the polynya ice production and its relationship with dense/bottom water. The mapping demonstrates that ice production rate is high in Antarctic coastal polynyas, in contrast to Arctic coastal polynyas. This is consistent with the formation of Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW), the densest water mass which occupies the abyssal layer of the global ocean. The Ross Ice Shelf polynya has by far the highest ice production in the Southern Hemisphere. The Cape Darnley polynya (65°E-69°E) is found to be the second highest production area and recent observations revealed that this is the missing (fourth) source of AABW. In the region off the Mertz Glacier Tongue (MGT), the third source of AABW, sea-ice production decreased by as much as 40 %, due to the MGT calving in early 2010, resulting in a significant decrease in AABW production. The Okhotsk Northwestern polynya exhibits the highest ice production in the Northern Hemisphere, and the resultant dense water formation leads to overturning in the North Pacific, extending to the intermediate layer. Estimates of its ice production show a significant decrease over the past 30-50 years, likely causing the weakening of the North Pacific overturning. These regions demonstrate the strong linkage between variabilities of sea-ice production and bottom/intermediate water formation. The

  3. Effect of water storage on ultimate tensile strength and mass changes of universal adhesives


    Bahrololumi, Nazanin; Beglou, Amirreza; Najafi-Abrandabadi, Ahmad; Sadr, Alireza; Sheikh-Al-Eslamian, Seyedeh-Mahsa; Ghasemi, Amir


    Background The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of water storage on micro tensile strength (?TS) and mass changes (MC) of two universal adhesives. Material and Methods 10 disk-shaped specimens were prepared for each adhesive; Scotchbond Universal (SCU) All-Bond Universal (ABU) and Adper Single Bond 2 (SB2). At the baseline and after 1 day and 28 days of water storage, their mass were measured and compared to estimate water sorption and solubility. For ?TS test, 20 dumbbe...

  4. Turbulent heat and mass transfers across a thermally stratified air-water interface (United States)

    Papadimitrakis, Y. A.; Hsu, Y.-H. L.; Wu, J.


    Rates of heat and mass transfer across an air-water interface were measured in a wind-wave research facility, under various wind and thermal stability conditions (unless otherwise noted, mass refers to water vapor). Heat fluxes were obtained from both the eddy correlation and the profile method, under unstable, neutral, and stable conditions. Mass fluxes were obtained only under unstable stratification from the profile and global method. Under unstable conditions the turbulent Prandtl and Schmidt numbers remain fairly constant and equal to 0.74, whereas the rate of mass transfer varies linearly with bulk Richardson number. Under stable conditions the turbulent Prandtl number rises steadily to a value of 1.4 for a bulk Richardson number of about 0.016. Results of heat and mass transfer, expressed in the form of bulk aerodynamic coefficients with friction velocity as a parameter, are also compared with field data.

  5. Measuring Air-water Interfacial Area for Soils Using the Mass Balance Surfactant-tracer Method (United States)

    Araujo, Juliana B.; Mainhagu, Jon; Brusseau, Mark L.


    There are several methods for conducting interfacial partitioning tracer tests to measure air-water interfacial area in porous media. One such approach is the mass balance surfactant tracer method. An advantage of the mass-balance method compared to other tracer-based methods is that a single test can produce multiple interfacial area measurements over a wide range of water saturations. The mass-balance method has been used to date only for glass beads or treated quartz sand. The purpose of this research is to investigate the effectiveness and implementability of the mass-balance method for application to more complex porous media. The results indicate that interfacial areas measured with the mass-balance method are consistent with values obtained with the miscible-displacement method. This includes results for a soil, for which solid-phase adsorption was a significant component of total tracer retention. PMID:25950136

  6. Measuring air-water interfacial area for soils using the mass balance surfactant-tracer method. (United States)

    Araujo, Juliana B; Mainhagu, Jon; Brusseau, Mark L


    There are several methods for conducting interfacial partitioning tracer tests to measure air-water interfacial area in porous media. One such approach is the mass balance surfactant tracer method. An advantage of the mass-balance method compared to other tracer-based methods is that a single test can produce multiple interfacial area measurements over a wide range of water saturations. The mass-balance method has been used to date only for glass beads or treated quartz sand. The purpose of this research is to investigate the effectiveness and implementability of the mass-balance method for application to more complex porous media. The results indicate that interfacial areas measured with the mass-balance method are consistent with values obtained with the miscible-displacement method. This includes results for a soil, for which solid-phase adsorption was a significant component of total tracer retention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Sea Level Changes Due to Water Mass Variations in the Gulf of Mexico (United States)

    Karpytchev, M.


    Previous studies have demonstrated that interannual sea level variations on the shelfof the Gulf of Mexico are weakly correlated with the sea level over the Gulf deep waters.This has been shown to be due to a complex interplay between the Loop Currentdriving sea level changes in the deeper part of the Gulf with the shelf waves propagatingfrom the North Atlantic. In this study, we, first, examine the relationship between the low-frequency sea levelfluctuations deduced from satellite altimetry observations and from tide gauge recordsand, then, focus on evaluating water mass changes in the Gulf of Mexico.We compare the estimates obtained from satellite altimetry corrected forthermosteric effects with the changes in water mass observed by GRACEand discuss the importance of water mass changes for the low-frequency sea level fluctuationsin the Gulf.

  8. Kinetics of acrylamide formation/elimination reactions as affected by water activity. (United States)

    De Vleeschouwer, Kristel; Van der Plancken, Iesel; Van Loey, Ann; Hendrickx, Marc E


    The influence of water activity on the kinetics of acrylamide formation and elimination reaction was investigated using low-moisture equimolar asparagine-glucose model systems, which were heated at temperatures between 120 and 200 degrees C for variable heating times. To determine the water content corresponding to the water activities tested, a sorption moisture isotherm was constructed experimentally. The acrylamide concentrations measured at different water activities could be modeled on the basis of a reaction scheme including not only acrylamide formation and elimination reactions but also an alternative Maillard reaction between both reactants. The corresponding rate constants and activation energies were estimated using nonlinear regression analysis. Whereas the rate constant for acrylamide formation varied only slightly with the initial water activity of the model system, the elimination rate constant showed a clear minimum around a water activity of 0.82. The opposite trend, namely, a maximum at a water activity of 0.82, was found for the Maillard reaction rate constant as a function of water activity, which confirms data from literature. The activation energies for the different reactions changed in a comparable way as the corresponding rate constant with water activity.

  9. Kinematic and Thermal Structure at the onset of high-mass star formation (United States)

    Bihr, Simon; Beuther, Henrik


    Even though high-mass stars are crucial for understanding a diversity of processes within our galaxy and beyond, their formation and initial conditions are still poorly constrained. We want to understand the kinematic and thermal properties of young massive gas clumps prior to and at the earliest evolutionary stages. Do we find signatures of gravitational collapse? Do we find temperature gradients in the vicinity or absence of infrared emission sources? Do we find coherent velocity structures toward the centre of the dense and cold gas clumps?To determine kinematics and gas temperatures, we used ammonia, because it is known to be a good tracer and thermometer of dense gas. We observed the NH3 (1,1) and (2,2) lines within seven very young high-mass star-forming regions comprised of infrared dark clouds (IRDCs), along with ISO-selected far-infrared emission sources (ISOSS) with the VLA and the Effelsberg 100m telescope. The molecular line data allows us to study velocity structures, linewidths, and gas temperatures at high spatial resolution of 3-5'', corresponding to ~0.05pc at a typical source distance of 2.5kpc. We find on average cold gas clumps with temperatures in the range between 10K and 30K. The observations do not reveal a clear correlation between infrared emission peaks and ammonia temperature peaks. Several infrared emission sources show ammonia temperature peaks up to 30K, whereas other infrared emission sources show no enhanced kinetic gas temperature in their surrounding. We report an upper limit for the linewidth of ~1.3km/s, at the spectral resolution limit of our VLA observation. This indicates a relatively low level of turbulence on the scale of the observations. Velocity gradients are present in almost all regions with typical velocity differences of 1 to 2km/s and gradients of 5 to 10km/s/pc. These velocity gradients are smooth in most cases, but there is one exceptional source (ISOSS23053), for which we find several velocity components with a

  10. Heat and Mass Diffusions in the Absorption of Water Vapor by Aqueous Solution of Lithium Bromide (United States)

    Kashiwagi, Takao; Kurosaki, Yasuo; Nikai, Isao

    The recent development of absorption-type heat pump is highly essential from the viewpoint of extracting the effective energy from waste heat or solar energy. To increase the efficiency of energy conversion, it is important to improve the performance of absorbers. The objective of this paper is to obtain an increased understanding of the fine mechanisms of vapor absorption. A system combining holographic interferometry wity thermometry is adopted to observe the progress of one-dimensional water vapor absorption by aqueous solution of lithium bromide (LiBr) and also to measure the unsteady temperature and concentration distributions in the absorption process. The experiments are carried out under the condition that the solution surface is exposed to the saturated water vapor at reduced pressure, and the effects of LiBr mass concentration on absorption mechanism are examined in the concentration range 20-60 mass%. The interference fringes are analyzed to distinguish between the layers of heat conduction and mass diffusion. The temperature and concentration distributions thus determined experimentally are compared with numerical solutions obtained by the equations for unsteady heat conduction and mass diffusion taking into consideration the effect of heat by dilution, to give reasonable values of mass diffusivity hitherto remaining unknown. Especially in the range of 40-60 mass%, the mass diffusivity decreases extremely with the increase of mass concentration of LiBr and it falls down to 0.7-0.8×10-9 m2/s in case of 60 mass% solution.

  11. HOBYS and W43-HERO: Two more steps toward a Galaxy-wide understanding of high-mass star formation (United States)

    Motte, Frédérique; Bontemps, Sylvain; Tigé, Jérémy

    The Herschel/HOBYS key program allows to statistically study the formation of 10-20 M ⊙ stars. The IRAM/W43-HERO large program is itself dedicated to the much more extreme W43 molecular complex, which forms stars up to 50 M ⊙. Both reveal high-density cloud filaments of several pc3, which are forming clusters of OB-type stars. Given their activity, these so-called mini-starburst cloud ridges could be seen as ``miniature and instant models'' of starburst galaxies. Both surveys also strongly suggest that high-mass prestellar cores do not exist, in agreement with the dynamical formation of cloud ridges. The HOBYS and W43 surveys are necessary steps towards Galaxy-wide studies of high-mass star formation.

  12. Formation process of a strong water-repellent alumina surface by the sol-gel method (United States)

    Feng, Libang; Li, Hui; Song, Yongfeng; Wang, Yulong


    A novel strong water-repellent alumina thin film is fabricated by chemically adsorbing stearic acid (STA) layer onto the porous and roughened aluminum film coated with polyethyleneimine (PEI). The formation process and the structure of the strong water-repellent alumina film are investigated by means of contact angle measurement and atomic force microscope (AFM). Results show that the water contact angles for the alumina films increase with the increase of the immersion time in the boiling water, and meanwhile, the roughness of the alumina films increases with the dissolution of the boehmite in the boiling water. Finally, the strong water-repellent film with a high water contact angle of 139.1° is obtained when the alumina films have distinct roughened morphology with some papillary peaks and porous structure. Moreover, both the roughened structure and the hydrophobic materials of the STA endow the alumina films with the strong water-repellence.

  13. Southern Ocean ventilation and bottom water formation driven by Weddell Sea polynyas (United States)

    Rheinlaender, Jonathan; Nisancioglu, Kerim; Smedsrud, Lars Henrik


    A distinct feature of the last glacial period, are the abrupt temperature fluctuations in Greenland associated with Dansgaard-Oeschger events and a similar but opposite response in Antarctica. The prevailing hypothesis behind this inter-hemispheric coupling, points to changes in deep water formation as the main driver, thus highlighting the pivotal role of the high latitude oceans in global climate. Bottom water formation through open-ocean deep convection in an Antarctic polynya, a large open water area inside the winter sea ice cover, provide a potential mechanism to trigger such changes in ocean circulation. In this study, an ocean-sea ice only version of the Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM) is explored and shows strong open-ocean deep convection associated with large polynyas in the Weddell Sea. This provides us with an opportunity to test (1) how internal ocean dynamics can trigger abrupt changes in sea-ice cover and (2) how these polynyas affect the overturning circulation through changes in bottom water formation. During the 1,000 year long free-running simulation two polynyas are observed. We show, that the polynya is caused by subsurface warming leading to a gradual weakening of the surface stratification which destabilizes the whole water column and eventually triggers deep convective overturning. This mixes up relatively warm deep water causing extensive melt of sea ice in the Weddell Sea, while cold and fresh surface water sinks to the bottom. Consequently, the polynya leads to extensive bottom water formation and increase in the northward flow of Antarctic Bottom Water, while the southward flow of North Atlantic Deep Water is reduced. Finally, our results suggest that a decrease in the temperature of warm deep water in the Weddell Sea leads to cessation of open-ocean deep convection. This raises the question if open-ocean deep convection associated with polynyas in the Southern Ocean could be a realistic feature in a cold, glacial climate.

  14. Thermohaline structure and water masses in the north of Antarctic Peninsula from data collected in situ by southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilana E. K. C. Wainer


    Full Text Available The Western Antarctic Peninsula is rapidly warming and exhibits high indices of biodiversity concentrated mostly along its continental shelf. This region has great importance due to the the mixing caused by the interaction of waters from Weddell Sea (MW, Bransfield Strait (EB and the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (CCA transmits thermohaline characteristics and nutrients of different sites and finally connects with all the world’s oceans. However, studies focusing on the temporal variability of the region’s oceanographic conditions that finally determine the water mass formation are sparse due to the logistical difficulties of conducting oceanographic surveys and traditional monitoring during the winter. For this study, variations of the thermohaline structure and water masses in the vicinity and below the sea ice in the North of the Antarctic Peninsula (AP and Scotia Sea (SS were recorded between February and November 2008 by two female southern elephant seals (SES, Mirounga leonina tagged with Conductivity–Temperature–Depth/Satellite-Relay Data Logger (CTD–SRDL. One thousand three hundred and thirty vertical profiles of temperature and salinity were collected by seals which were tagged by the MEOP-BR Project team at the Elephant Island, South Shetlands. These profiles, together with spread state diagrams allowed the identification of water masses and their variances in the ocean’s vertical structure. Among the set of identified water masses we cite: Antarctic Surface Water (AASW, Winter Water (WW, Warm Deep Water (WDW, Modified Warm Deep Water (MWDW, Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW, Upper Circumpolar Deep Water (UCDW, Lower Circumpolar Deep Water (LCDW and Ice Shelf Water (ISW. Our results show that the oceanic vertical structure undergoes changes that cannot be traditionally monitored, particularly during the Austral winter and that SES are important and modern oceanographic data collection platforms allowing for the improvement of our

  15. The Novaya Zemlya Bora and its Impact on Barents Sea Dense Water Formation (United States)

    Moore, Kent


    Novaya Zemlya is a large and mountainous island in the Eastern Arctic that separates the Barents and Kara Seas. Weather station data indicates that surface wind speeds in excess of 15m/s occur approximately 50% of the time during the winter months. The air-sea interaction that occurs within a polynya that forms along the eastern shore of the island is thought to play an important role in Arctic thermohaline circulation and the water mass transformation of the incoming Atlantic water that passes by the island enroute to the central Arctic Ocean. Although it has been proposed that a bora is responsible for these high winds, there have been no quantitative analysis of these winds and their impact on the environment. Here we use the recently completed Arctic System Reanalysis (ASR) with its 30km spatial resolution to provide the first detailed high-resolution climatology of the surface wind field in the Novaya Zemlya region. The highest surface wind speeds are found on the western side of the island during easterly flow that is associated with a low-pressure system centered over the western Barents Sea. The high wind events are associated with a reversal in the zonal wind direction with height. We show that the vertical structure of these high wind events shares many characteristics with idealized models of downslope windstorms associated with environmental critical layers as well as observations of the Yugoslavian Bora. In this regard, the high static stability of the upwind flow over the ice covered Kara Sea acts to increase the effective height of the topographic barrier thereby contributing to the acceleration of the flow that on the lee side of the island. The highest wind speeds are most commonly found in the region where dense water is observed to form and we show that during high wind events, there is an approximate doubling, as compared to winter mean values, in the magnitude of the turbulent heat transfer from the ocean to the atmosphere. It is therefore

  16. Urban water metabolism indicators derived from a water mass balance - Bridging the gap between visions and performance assessment of urban water resource management. (United States)

    Renouf, M A; Serrao-Neumann, S; Kenway, S J; Morgan, E A; Low Choy, D


    Improving resource management in urban areas has been enshrined in visions for achieving sustainable urban areas, but to date it has been difficult to quantify performance indicators to help identify more sustainable outcomes, especially for water resources. In this work, we advance quantitative indicators for what we refer to as the 'metabolic' features of urban water management: those related to resource efficiency (for water and also water-related energy and nutrients), supply internalisation, urban hydrological performance, sustainable extraction, and recognition of the diverse functions of water. We derived indicators in consultation with stakeholders to bridge this gap between visions and performance indicators. This was done by first reviewing and categorising water-related resource management objectives for city-regions, and then deriving indicators that can gauge performance against them. The ability for these indicators to be quantified using data from an urban water mass balance was also examined. Indicators of water efficiency, supply internalisation, and hydrological performance (relative to a reference case) can be generated using existing urban water mass balance methods. In the future, indicators for water-related energy and nutrient efficiencies could be generated by overlaying the urban water balance with energy and nutrient data. Indicators of sustainable extraction and recognising diverse functions of water will require methods for defining sustainable extraction rates and a water functionality index. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Periodic fluctuations in deep water formation due to sea ice (United States)

    Saha, R.


    During the last ice age, several abrupt warming events took place, known as Dansgaard-Oeschger (D-O) events. Their effects were felt globally, although the North Atlantic experienced the largest temperature increase. The leading hypothesis to explain their occurrence postulates that the warming was caused by abrupt disruptions of the North Atlantic Current due to meltwater discharge from destabilized ice sheets (Heinrich events). However, the number of warming events outnumber the those of ice-sheet collapse. Thus, the majority of D-O events are not attributed to surface freshwater anomalies, and the underlying mechanism behind their occurrence remain unexplained. Using a simple dynamical model of sea ice and an overturning circulation, I show the existence of self-sustained relaxation oscillations in the overturning circulation. The insulating effect of sea ice is shown to paradoxically lead to a net loss of heat from the top layer of the polar ocean when sea ice retreats. Repeated heat loss results in a denser top layer and a destabilized water column, which triggers convection. The convective state pulls the system out of its preferred mode of circulation, setting up relaxation oscillations. The period of oscillations in this case is linked to the geometry of the ocean basin, if solar forcing is assumed to remain constant. If appropriate glacial freshwater forcing is applied to the model, a pattern of oscillation is produced that bears remarkable similarity to the observed fluctuations in North Atlantic climate between 50,000 and 30,000 years before present.; Comparison of NGRIP δ 18-O (proxy for near surface air temperature) between 50,000 and 30,000 years before present, showing Bond cycles (left) with the model output when forced with appropriate glacial freshwater forcing (right).

  18. Osmotic-driven mass transport of water: impact on the adhesiveness of hydrophilic polymers. (United States)

    Borde, Annika; Bergstrand, Anna; Gunnarsson, Cecilia; Larsson, Anette


    Adhesion is an important property for the functionality of many medical devices. One reason for the development of adhesive forces is dehydration caused by mass transport of water. Osmotic pressure is one main driving force for mass transport and the correlation between osmotic pressure and adhesive force has not been studied yet, which was the aim of the present study. A model system was used where a Carbopol tablet was lowered onto a 1% (w/w) agarose gel. The force required to detach the tablet (adhesive force) and the weight gain of the tablet (as a measure of transported water) were determined. Sodium chloride and mannitol were added to the agarose gel to decrease the osmotic pressure difference between the agarose gel and the partially hydrated Carbopol tablet. This resulted in a decrease of both mass transport and adhesive force. In addition, experiments with restricted water transport within the agarose gel were performed by preparing gels with different agarose concentrations. An increase of the agarose concentration resulted in decreased water transport and higher adhesive forces. Hence, the results confirmed our hypothesis that osmotic-driven mass transport and restricted mass transport of water correlate very well with the adhesive force.

  19. Organic substances in produced and formation water from unconventional natural gas extraction in coal and shale (United States)

    Orem, William H.; Tatu, Calin A.; Varonka, Matthew S.; Lerch, Harry E.; Bates, Anne L.; Engle, Mark A.; Crosby, Lynn M.; McIntosh, Jennifer


    Organic substances in produced and formation water from coalbed methane (CBM) and gas shale plays from across the USA were examined in this study. Disposal of produced waters from gas extraction in coal and shale is an important environmental issue because of the large volumes of water involved and the variable quality of this water. Organic substances in produced water may be environmentally relevant as pollutants, but have been little studied. Results from five CBM plays and two gas shale plays (including the Marcellus Shale) show a myriad of organic chemicals present in the produced and formation water. Organic compound classes present in produced and formation water in CBM plays include: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), heterocyclic compounds, alkyl phenols, aromatic amines, alkyl aromatics (alkyl benzenes, alkyl biphenyls), long-chain fatty acids, and aliphatic hydrocarbons. Concentrations of individual compounds range from exercised in the disposal and release of produced waters containing these organic substances into the environment because of the potential toxicity of many of these substances.

  20. Water-mass evolution in the Cretaceous Western Interior Seaway of North America and equatorial Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Eldrett


    Full Text Available The Late Cretaceous Epoch was characterized by major global perturbations in the carbon cycle, the most prominent occurring near the Cenomanian–Turonian (CT transition marked by Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 (OAE-2 at 94.9–93.7 Ma. The Cretaceous Western Interior Seaway (KWIS was one of several epicontinental seas in which a complex water-mass evolution was recorded in widespread sedimentary successions. This contribution integrates new data on the main components of organic matter, geochemistry, and stable isotopes along a north–south transect from the KWIS to the equatorial western Atlantic and Southern Ocean. In particular, cored sedimentary rocks from the Eagle Ford Group of west Texas (∼ 90–98 Ma demonstrate subtle temporal and spatial variations in palaeoenvironmental conditions and provide an important geographic constraint for interpreting water-mass evolution. High-latitude (boreal–austral, equatorial Atlantic Tethyan and locally sourced Western Interior Seaway water masses are distinguished by distinct palynological assemblages and geochemical signatures. The northward migration of an equatorial Atlantic Tethyan water mass into the KWIS occurred during the early–middle Cenomanian (98–95 Ma followed by a major re-organization during the latest Cenomanian–Turonian (95–94 Ma as a full connection with a northerly boreal water mass was established during peak transgression. This oceanographic change promoted de-stratification of the water column and improved oxygenation throughout the KWIS and as far south as the Demerara Rise off Suriname. In addition, the recorded decline in redox-sensitive trace metals during the onset of OAE-2 likely reflects a genuine oxygenation event related to open water-mass exchange and may have been complicated by variable contribution of organic matter from different sources (e.g. refractory/terrigenous material, requiring further investigation.

  1. Water-mass evolution in the Cretaceous Western Interior Seaway of North America and equatorial Atlantic (United States)

    Eldrett, James S.; Dodsworth, Paul; Bergman, Steven C.; Wright, Milly; Minisini, Daniel


    The Late Cretaceous Epoch was characterized by major global perturbations in the carbon cycle, the most prominent occurring near the Cenomanian-Turonian (CT) transition marked by Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 (OAE-2) at 94.9-93.7 Ma. The Cretaceous Western Interior Seaway (KWIS) was one of several epicontinental seas in which a complex water-mass evolution was recorded in widespread sedimentary successions. This contribution integrates new data on the main components of organic matter, geochemistry, and stable isotopes along a north-south transect from the KWIS to the equatorial western Atlantic and Southern Ocean. In particular, cored sedimentary rocks from the Eagle Ford Group of west Texas (˜ 90-98 Ma) demonstrate subtle temporal and spatial variations in palaeoenvironmental conditions and provide an important geographic constraint for interpreting water-mass evolution. High-latitude (boreal-austral), equatorial Atlantic Tethyan and locally sourced Western Interior Seaway water masses are distinguished by distinct palynological assemblages and geochemical signatures. The northward migration of an equatorial Atlantic Tethyan water mass into the KWIS occurred during the early-middle Cenomanian (98-95 Ma) followed by a major re-organization during the latest Cenomanian-Turonian (95-94 Ma) as a full connection with a northerly boreal water mass was established during peak transgression. This oceanographic change promoted de-stratification of the water column and improved oxygenation throughout the KWIS and as far south as the Demerara Rise off Suriname. In addition, the recorded decline in redox-sensitive trace metals during the onset of OAE-2 likely reflects a genuine oxygenation event related to open water-mass exchange and may have been complicated by variable contribution of organic matter from different sources (e.g. refractory/terrigenous material), requiring further investigation.

  2. Effect of ozonation of swimming pool water on formation of volatile disinfection by-products - A laboratory study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kamilla Marie Speht; Spiliotopoulou, Aikaterini; Cheema, Waqas Akram


    Ozonation experiments were performed using unchlorinated tap water used for filling municipal swimming pools, actual pool water and pool water polluted by addition of fresh tap water and artificial body fluid to evaluate ozone kinetics and water quality effects on formation of volatile disinfection...... was approximated 17-19 min in all samples. Subsequent chlorination revealed ozone removed reactivity of dissolved organic carbon toward chlorine for tap and polluted pool water, decreasing formation rate of trihalomethanes (TTHM). In pool water higher rates of TTHM formation was observed after the initial ozone...

  3. Evaluation of simulated cross-formational travel times using water age measurements in layered aquifer systems (United States)

    Papafotiou, Alexandros; Ewing, John; Deeds, Neil; Kreitler, Charlie


    The recent hydrologic droughts in the southwestern USA have brought forward the necessity for sustainable management of groundwater that was recharged several thousands of years ago, also known as fossil water, as this resource is not directly rechargeable even through heavy rain events. Groundwater age studies can enable water authorities to map the origins of groundwater, quantify water ages in aquifers and plan sustainable water resource policies on local and regional scales. In this study, numerical groundwater availability models (GAMs) are combined with water age measurements to perform a water age analysis of the Wilcox, Carrizo, Queen City, Sparta, Jackson and Yegua aquifers that span central Texas dipping toward the coast of the Gulf of Mexico. The 3D GAMs have initially been calibrated using well data. The water age analysis is carried out using 2D simulations to characterize down dip flow, cross-formational flow in the aquifers and the impact on associated water ages in representative transects extracted from the 3D models, including a discussion on bridging the gap between the 3D hydrogeological system and its simplified 2D representations. A systematic quantification of water age sensitivity to formation hydraulic conductivities and recharge at the aquifer outcrops is performed, whereby travel times in the simulated aquifers are compared to water age measurements obtained from C-14 and Tritium age dating techniques. The analysis therefore delivers the spectrum of water age isolines under consideration of model parameter uncertainty, evaluating the predictive ability of cross-formational water age studies when using 2D transect models.

  4. Water temperature, body mass and fasting heat production of pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Knowledge on fasting heat production (HEf of fish is key to develop bioenergetics models thus improving feeding management of farmed species. The core of knowledge on HEf of farmed, neotropical fish is scarce. This study assessed the effect of body mass and water temperature on standard metabolism and fasting heat production of pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus, an omnivore, Neotropical fresh water characin important for farming and fisheries industries all through South American continent. An automated, intermittent flow respirometry system was used to measure standard metabolic rate (SMR of pacu (17 - 1,050 g at five water temperatures: 19, 23, 26, 29 and 33 °C. Mass specific SMR increased with increasing water temperature but decreased as function of body mass. The allometric exponent for scaling HEf was 0.788, and lied in the range recorded for all studied warm-water fish. The recorded van't Hoff factor (Q10 for pacu (2.06 shows the species low response to temperature increases. The model HEf = 0.04643×W0.7882×T1.837 allows to predict HEf (kJ d-1 from body mass (W, kg and water temperature (T, °C, and can be used in bioenergetical models for the species.

  5. Unusual Deep Water sponge assemblage in South China-Witness of the end-Ordovician mass extinction. (United States)

    Li, Lixia; Feng, Hongzhen; Janussen, Dorte; Reitner, Joachim


    There are few sponges known from the end-Ordovician to early-Silurian strata all over the world, and no records of sponge fossils have been found yet in China during this interval. Here we report a unique sponge assemblage spanning the interval of the end-Ordovician mass extinction from the Kaochiapien Formation (Upper Ordovician-Lower Silurian) in South China. This assemblage contains a variety of well-preserved siliceous sponges, including both Burgess Shale-type and modern type taxa. It is clear that this assemblage developed in deep water, low energy ecosystem with less competitors and more vacant niches. Its explosion may be related to the euxinic and anoxic condition as well as the noticeable transgression during the end-Ordovician mass extinction. The excellent preservation of this assemblage is probably due to the rapid burial by mud turbidites. This unusual sponge assemblage provides a link between the Burgess Shale-type deep water sponges and the modern forms. It gives an excellent insight into the deep sea palaeoecology and the macroevolution of Phanerozoic sponges, and opens a new window to investigate the marine ecosystem before and after the end-Ordovician mass extinction. It also offers potential to search for exceptional fossil biota across the Ordovician-Silurian boundary interval in China.

  6. Unusual Deep Water sponge assemblage in South China—Witness of the end-Ordovician mass extinction (United States)

    Li, Lixia; Feng, Hongzhen; Janussen, Dorte; Reitner, Joachim


    There are few sponges known from the end-Ordovician to early-Silurian strata all over the world, and no records of sponge fossils have been found yet in China during this interval. Here we report a unique sponge assemblage spanning the interval of the end-Ordovician mass extinction from the Kaochiapien Formation (Upper Ordovician-Lower Silurian) in South China. This assemblage contains a variety of well-preserved siliceous sponges, including both Burgess Shale-type and modern type taxa. It is clear that this assemblage developed in deep water, low energy ecosystem with less competitors and more vacant niches. Its explosion may be related to the euxinic and anoxic condition as well as the noticeable transgression during the end-Ordovician mass extinction. The excellent preservation of this assemblage is probably due to the rapid burial by mud turbidites. This unusual sponge assemblage provides a link between the Burgess Shale-type deep water sponges and the modern forms. It gives an excellent insight into the deep sea palaeoecology and the macroevolution of Phanerozoic sponges, and opens a new window to investigate the marine ecosystem before and after the end-Ordovician mass extinction. It also offers potential to search for exceptional fossil biota across the Ordovician-Silurian boundary interval in China.

  7. Comparison of formation mechanism of fresh-water and salt-water lacustrine organic-rich shale (United States)

    Lin, Senhu


    Based on the core and thin section observation, major, trace and rare earth elements test, carbon and oxygen isotopes content analysis and other geochemical methods, a detailed study was performed on formation mechanism of lacustrine organic-rich shale by taking the middle Permian salt-water shale in Zhungaer Basin and upper Triassic fresh-water shale in Ordos Basin as the research target. The results show that, the middle Permian salt-water shale was overall deposited in hot and dry climate. Long-term reductive environment and high biological abundance due to elevated temperature provides favorable conditions for formation and preservation of organic-rich shale. Within certain limits, the hotter climate, the organic-richer shale formed. These organic-rich shale was typically distributed in the area where palaeosalinity is relatively high. However, during the upper Triassic at Ordos Basin, organic-rich shale was formed in warm and moist environment. What's more, if the temperature, salinity or water depth rises, the TOC in shale decreases. In other words, relatively low temperature and salinity, stable lake level and strong reducing conditions benefits organic-rich shale deposits in fresh water. In this sense, looking for high-TOC shale in lacustrine basin needs to follow different rules depends on the palaeoclimate and palaeoenvironment during sedimentary period. There is reason to believe that the some other factors can also have significant impact on formation mechanism of organic-rich shale, which increases the complexity of shale oil and gas prediction.

  8. The earliest phases of high-mass star formation, as seen in NGC 6334 by Herschel-HOBYS (United States)

    Tigé, J.; Motte, F.; Russeil, D.; Zavagno, A.; Hennemann, M.; Schneider, N.; Hill, T.; Nguyen Luong, Q.; Di Francesco, J.; Bontemps, S.; Louvet, F.; Didelon, P.; Könyves, V.; André, Ph.; Leuleu, G.; Bardagi, J.; Anderson, L. D.; Arzoumanian, D.; Benedettini, M.; Bernard, J.-P.; Elia, D.; Figueira, M.; Kirk, J.; Martin, P. G.; Minier, V.; Molinari, S.; Nony, T.; Persi, P.; Pezzuto, S.; Polychroni, D.; Rayner, T.; Rivera-Ingraham, A.; Roussel, H.; Rygl, K.; Spinoglio, L.; White, G. J.


    Aims: To constrain models of high-mass star formation, the Herschel-HOBYS key program aims at discovering massive dense cores (MDCs) able to host the high-mass analogs of low-mass prestellar cores, which have been searched for over the past decade. We here focus on NGC 6334, one of the best-studied HOBYS molecular cloud complexes. Methods: We used Herschel/PACS and SPIRE 70-500 μm images of the NGC 6334 complex complemented with (sub)millimeter and mid-infrared data. We built a complete procedure to extract 0.1 pc dense cores with the getsources software, which simultaneously measures their far-infrared to millimeter fluxes. We carefully estimated the temperatures and masses of these dense cores from their spectral energy distributions (SEDs). We also identified the densest pc-scale cloud structures of NGC 6334, one 2 pc × 1 pc ridge and two 0.8 pc × 0.8 pc hubs, with volume-averaged densities of 105 cm-3. Results: A cross-correlation with high-mass star formation signposts suggests a mass threshold of 75 M⊙ for MDCs in NGC 6334. MDCs have temperatures of 9.5-40 K, masses of 75-1000 M⊙, and densities of 1 × 105-7 × 107 cm-3. Their mid-infrared emission is used to separate 6 IR-bright and 10 IR-quiet protostellar MDCs while their 70 μm emission strength, with respect to fitted SEDs, helps identify 16 starless MDC candidates. The ability of the latter to host high-mass prestellar cores is investigated here and remains questionable. An increase in mass and density from the starless to the IR-quiet and IR-bright phases suggests that the protostars and MDCs simultaneously grow in mass. The statistical lifetimes of the high-mass prestellar and protostellar core phases, estimated to be 1-7 × 104 yr and at most 3 × 105 yr respectively, suggest a dynamical scenario of high-mass star formation. Conclusions: The present study provides good mass estimates for a statistically significant sample, covering the earliest phases of high-mass star formation. High-mass

  9. Modelling of Disinfection by-products formation via UV irradiation of the water from Tajan River (source water for Sari drinking water, Iran)


    Allahbakhsh Javid; Aliakbar Roudbari; Ahmad Reza Yari


    Background & Aims of the Study Irradiation with ultraviolet light (UV) is used for the disinfection of bacterial contaminants in the production of potable water. The main objective of the study was to investigate and model Disinfection By-Products (DBPs) formation due to the UV Irradiation of the Tajan River water under different Irradiation conditions. Materials & Methods:  Water samples were collected throughout September 2011 to August 2013. Transportation of the sampl...

  10. Water-mass transformation in the Atlantic Ocean in a Lagrangian frame work (United States)

    Berglund, Sara; Döös, Kristofer; Nycander, Jonas


    The world ocean is constantly moving, mostly due to density differences and atmospheric winds. This circulation is commonly refereed to as the Conveyor Belt circulation. In the Southern parts of the Atlantic, around the tip of South Africa, warm and saline water is entering. The water travels northward towards the equator where it increases in salinity. After passing the equator and reaching the North Atlantic, the water becomes cold and fresh, due to heat release to the atmosphere. Previous studies has introduced and computed the thermohaline stream function to connect water-mass transformations to the Conveyor Belt circulation in a temperature and salinity space. It has been suggested that the northward flowing water mass in the Atlantic Ocean can be shown in the stream function as water that converts from warm and saline to cold and fresh, and that the conversion is due to air-sea interactions. In the present study, Lagrangian trajectories are used to quantify the northward flowing water masses in the Atlantic Oceans contribution to the Conveyor Belt circulation in TS-space by introducing the Lagrangian thermohaline stream function. The stream function shows the Atlantic water-mass transformation, where warm and saline water is converted to cold and fresh, as the water flows from 17°S to 58°N. This conversion is found to be both isopycnal and diapycnal. To connect the water-mass transformation to a geographical position in the Atlantic Ocean, the Lagrangian divergence of heat and salt flux is introduced. Conversions of temperature and salinity shown by the Lagrangian thermohaline stream function are found to occur in the same region of the domain, however, with a different spread. The conversion of temperature is found to take place in the Gulf Stream, the upper flank of the North Atlantic subtropical gyre, and in the North Atlantic Drift, whereas the conversion of salinity occurs over a narrower band in the same regions. To be able to study the processes

  11. Bipolar Molecular Outflows within 1pc of Sgr A*:Evidence for Low-mass Star Formation Activity (United States)

    Yusef-Zadeh, Farhad; Wardle, Mark; Kunneriath, Devaky; Royster, Marc; Wootten, Al; Roberts, Douglas


    The 4 million solar mass black hole, Sgr A*, is expected to suppress star formation because the measured density of the cloud is insufficient for self-gravity to overcome tidal disruption by the black hole's gravitational field. Nevertheless, objects resembling dust-enshrouded young stars and photo-evaporative flows from their disks have been identified within 2pc of Sgr A*. Clear identification of the nature of these objects has been hampered by the Galactic center's distance, 30 magnitudes of foreground extinction, and stellar crowding. Here, we report the discovery of 11 bipolar molecular outflows using ALMA within a projected distance of one pc from Sgr A*. These unambiguous signatures of young protostars manifest as approaching and receding lobes of dense gas swept up by the jets created during the formation and early evolution of low-mass stars. The mean dynamical age of the outflow sources and the rate of star formation are estimated to be ~6500 years and ~5x10^{-4} solar mass per year, respectively. These measurements suggest that star formation could take place in the immediate vicinity of supermassive black holes in the nuclei of external galaxies.

  12. Modeling and experimental validation of water mass balance in a PEM fuel cell stack

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liso, Vincenzo; Araya, Samuel Simon; Olesen, Anders Christian


    management in PEM fuel cell is crucial in order to avoid an imbalance between water production and water removal from the fuel cell. In the present study, a novel mathematical zero-dimensional model has been formulated for the water mass balance and hydration of a polymer electrolyte membrane. This model...... is validated against experimental data. In the results it is shown that the fuel cell water balance calculated by this model shows better fit with experimental data-points compared with model where only steady state operation were considered. We conclude that this discrepancy is due a different rate of water......Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells require good hydration in order to deliver high performance and ensure long life operation. Water is essential for proton conductivity in the membrane which increases by nearly six orders of magnitude from dry to fully hydrated. Adequate water...

  13. Grain-size segregation and levee formation in geophysical mass flows (United States)

    Johnson, C.G.; Kokelaar, B.P.; Iverson, Richard M.; Logan, M.; LaHusen, R.G.; Gray, J.M.N.T.


    Data from large-scale debris-flow experiments are combined with modeling of particle-size segregation to explain the formation of lateral levees enriched in coarse grains. The experimental flows consisted of 10 m3 of water-saturated sand and gravel, which traveled ∼80 m down a steeply inclined flume before forming an elongated leveed deposit 10 m long on a nearly horizontal runout surface. We measured the surface velocity field and observed the sequence of deposition by seeding tracers onto the flow surface and tracking them in video footage. Levees formed by progressive downslope accretion approximately 3.5 m behind the flow front, which advanced steadily at ∼2 m s−1during most of the runout. Segregation was measured by placing ∼600 coarse tracer pebbles on the bed, which, when entrained into the flow, segregated upwards at ∼6–7.5 cm s−1. When excavated from the deposit these were distributed in a horseshoe-shaped pattern that became increasingly elevated closer to the deposit termination. Although there was clear evidence for inverse grading during the flow, transect sampling revealed that the resulting leveed deposit was strongly graded laterally, with only weak vertical grading. We construct an empirical, three-dimensional velocity field resembling the experimental observations, and use this with a particle-size segregation model to predict the segregation and transport of material through the flow. We infer that coarse material segregates to the flow surface and is transported to the flow front by shear. Within the flow head, coarse material is overridden, then recirculates in spiral trajectories due to size-segregation, before being advected to the flow edges and deposited to form coarse-particle-enriched levees.

  14. ALMA Detection of Bipolar Outflows: Evidence for Low-mass Star Formation within 1 pc of Sgr A* (United States)

    Yusef-Zadeh, F.; Wardle, M.; Kunneriath, D.; Royster, M.; Wootten, A.; Roberts, D. A.


    We report the discovery of 11 bipolar outflows within a projected distance of 1 pc from Sgr A* based on deep ALMA observations of 13CO, H30α, and SiO (5-4) lines with subarcsecond and ˜1.3 km s-1 resolutions. These unambiguous signatures of young protostars manifest as approaching and receding lobes of dense gas swept up by the jets created during the formation and early evolution of stars. The lobe masses and momentum transfer rates are consistent with young protostellar outflows found throughout the disk of the Galaxy. The mean dynamical age of the outflow population is estimated to be {6.5}-3.6+8.1× {10}3 years. The rate of star formation is ˜5 × 10-4 {M}⊙ yr-1 assuming a mean stellar mass of ˜0.3 {M}⊙ . This discovery provides evidence that star formation is taking place within clouds surprisingly close to Sgr A*, perhaps due to events that compress the host cloud, creating condensations with sufficient self-gravity to resist tidal disruption by Sgr A*. Low-mass star formation over the past few billion years at this level would contribute significantly to the stellar mass budget in the central few parsecs of the Galaxy. The presence of many dense clumps of molecular material within 1 pc of Sgr A* suggests that star formation could take place in the immediate vicinity of supermassive black holes in the nuclei of external galaxies.

  15. Secondary formation of disinfection by-products by UV treatment of swimming pool water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiliotopoulou, Aikaterini [Water ApS, Farum Gydevej 64, 3520 Farum (Denmark); Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljøvej, Building 113, 2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Hansen, Kamilla M.S., E-mail: [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljøvej, Building 113, 2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Andersen, Henrik R. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljøvej, Building 113, 2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark)


    Formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs) during experimental UV treatment of pool water has previously been reported with little concurrence between laboratory studies, field studies and research groups. In the current study, changes in concentration of seven out of eleven investigated volatile DBPs were observed in experiments using medium pressure UV treatment, with and without chlorine and after post-UV chlorination. Results showed that post-UV chlorine consumption increased, dose-dependently, with UV treatment dose. A clear absence of trihalomethane formation by UV and UV with chlorine was observed, while small yet statistically significant increases in dichloroacetonitrile and dichloropropanone concentrations were detected. Results indicate that post-UV chlorination clearly induced secondary formation of several DBPs. However, the formation of total trihalomethanes was no greater than what could be replicated by performing the DBP formation assay with higher chlorine concentrations to simulate extended chlorination. Post-UV chlorination of water from a swimming pool that continuously uses UV treatment to control combined chlorine could not induce secondary formation for most DBPs. Concurrence for induction of trihalomethanes was identified between post-UV chlorination treatments and simulated extended chlorination time treatment. Trihalomethanes could not be induced by UV treatment of water from a continuously UV treated pool. This indicates that literature reports of experimentally induced trihalomethane formation by UV may be a result of kinetic increase in formation by UV. However, this does not imply that higher trihalomethane concentrations would occur in pools that apply continuous UV treatment. The bromine fraction of halogens in formed trihalomethanes increased with UV dose. This indicates that UV removes bromine atoms from larger molecules that participate in trihalomethane production during post-UV chlorination. Additionally, no significant

  16. Formation Conditions and Sedimentary Characteristics of a Triassic Shallow Water Braided Delta in the Yanchang Formation, Southwest Ordos Basin, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziliang Liu

    Full Text Available A large, shallow braided river delta sedimentary system developed in the Yanchang Formation during the Triassic in the southwest of the Ordos basin. In this braided delta system, abundant oil and gas resources have been observed, and the area is a hotspot for oil and gas resource exploration. Through extensive field work on outcrops and cores and analyses of geophysical data, it was determined that developments in the Late Triassic produced favorable geological conditions for the development of shallow water braided river deltas. Such conditions included a large basin, flat terrain, and wide and shallow water areas; wet and dry cyclical climate changes; ancient water turbulence; dramatic depth cycle changes; ancient uplift development; strong weathering of parent rock; and abundant supply. The shallow water braided river delta showed grain sediment granularity, plastic debris, and sediment with mature composition and structure that reflected the strong hydrodynamic environment of large tabular cross-bedding, wedge cross-bedding, and multiple positive rhythms superimposed to form a thick sand body layer. The branch river bifurcation developed underwater, and the thickness of the sand body increased further, indicating that the slope was slow and located in shallow water. The seismic responses of the braided river delta reflected strong shallow water performance, indicated by a progradation seismic reflection phase axis that was relatively flat; in addition, the seismic reflection amplitude was strong and continuous with a low angle and extended over considerable distances (up to 50 km. The sedimentary center was close to the provenance, the width of the river was large, and a shallow sedimentary structure and a sedimentary rhythm were developed. The development of the delta was primarily controlled by tectonic activity and changes in the lake level; as a result, the river delta sedimentary system eventually presented a "small plain, big front

  17. Formation Conditions and Sedimentary Characteristics of a Triassic Shallow Water Braided Delta in the Yanchang Formation, Southwest Ordos Basin, China. (United States)

    Liu, Ziliang; Shen, Fang; Zhu, Xiaomin; Li, Fengjie; Tan, Mengqi


    A large, shallow braided river delta sedimentary system developed in the Yanchang Formation during the Triassic in the southwest of the Ordos basin. In this braided delta system, abundant oil and gas resources have been observed, and the area is a hotspot for oil and gas resource exploration. Through extensive field work on outcrops and cores and analyses of geophysical data, it was determined that developments in the Late Triassic produced favorable geological conditions for the development of shallow water braided river deltas. Such conditions included a large basin, flat terrain, and wide and shallow water areas; wet and dry cyclical climate changes; ancient water turbulence; dramatic depth cycle changes; ancient uplift development; strong weathering of parent rock; and abundant supply. The shallow water braided river delta showed grain sediment granularity, plastic debris, and sediment with mature composition and structure that reflected the strong hydrodynamic environment of large tabular cross-bedding, wedge cross-bedding, and multiple positive rhythms superimposed to form a thick sand body layer. The branch river bifurcation developed underwater, and the thickness of the sand body increased further, indicating that the slope was slow and located in shallow water. The seismic responses of the braided river delta reflected strong shallow water performance, indicated by a progradation seismic reflection phase axis that was relatively flat; in addition, the seismic reflection amplitude was strong and continuous with a low angle and extended over considerable distances (up to 50 km). The sedimentary center was close to the provenance, the width of the river was large, and a shallow sedimentary structure and a sedimentary rhythm were developed. The development of the delta was primarily controlled by tectonic activity and changes in the lake level; as a result, the river delta sedimentary system eventually presented a "small plain, big front" character.

  18. Two innovative pore pressure calculation methods for shallow deep-water formations (United States)

    Deng, Song; Fan, Honghai; Liu, Yuhan; He, Yanfeng; Zhang, Shifeng; Yang, Jing; Fu, Lipei


    There are many geological hazards in shallow formations associated with oil and gas exploration and development in deep-water settings. Abnormal pore pressure can lead to water flow and gas and gas hydrate accumulations, which may affect drilling safety. Therefore, it is of great importance to accurately predict pore pressure in shallow deep-water formations. Experience over previous decades has shown, however, that there are not appropriate pressure calculation methods for these shallow formations. Pore pressure change is reflected closely in log data, particularly for mudstone formations. In this paper, pore pressure calculations for shallow formations are highlighted, and two concrete methods using log data are presented. The first method is modified from an E. Philips test in which a linear-exponential overburden pressure model is used. The second method is a new pore pressure method based on P-wave velocity that accounts for the effect of shallow gas and shallow water flow. Afterwards, the two methods are validated using case studies from two wells in the Yingqiong basin. Calculated results are compared with those obtained by the Eaton method, which demonstrates that the multi-regression method is more suitable for quick prediction of geological hazards in shallow layers.

  19. The Niobrara Formation as a challenge to water quality in the Arkansas River, Colorado, USA (United States)

    Bern, Carleton R.; Stogner, Sr., Robert W.


    Study regionArkansas River, east of the Rocky Mountains.Study focusCretaceous sedimentary rocks in the western United States generally pose challenges to water quality, often through mobilization of salts and trace metals by irrigation. However, in the Arkansas River Basin of Colorado, patchy exposure of multiple Cretaceous formations has made it difficult to identify which formations are most problematic. This paper examines water quality in surface-water inflows along a 26-km reach of the Arkansas River relative to the presence or absence of the Cretaceous Niobrara Formation within the watershed.New hydrological insights for the regionPrincipal component analysis (PCA) shows Niobrara-influenced inflows have distinctive geochemistry, particularly with respect to Na, Mg, SO42−, and Se. Uranium concentrations are also greater in Niobrara-influenced inflows. During the irrigation season, median dissolved solids, Se, and U concentrations in Niobrara-influenced inflows were 83%, 646%, and 55%, respectively, greater than medians where Niobrara Formation surface exposures were absent. During the non-irrigation season, which better reflects geologic influence, the differences were more striking. Median dissolved solids, Se, and U concentrations in Niobrara-influenced inflows were 288%, 863%, and 155%, respectively, greater than median concentrations where the Niobrara Formation was absent. Identification of the Niobrara Formation as a disproportionate source for dissolved solids, Se, and U will allow for more targeted studies and management, particularly where exposures underlie irrigated agriculture.

  20. The Formation of the First Stars. II. Radiative Feedback Processes and Implications for the Initial Mass Function (United States)

    McKee, Christopher F.; Tan, Jonathan C.


    We consider the radiative feedback processes that operate during the formation of the first stars. (1) Photodissociation of H2 in the local dark matter minihalo occurs early in the growth of the protostar but does not affect subsequent accretion. (2) Lyα radiation pressure acting at the boundary of the H II region that the protostar creates in the accreting envelope reverses infall in the polar directions when the star reaches ~20-30 M⊙ but cannot prevent infall from other directions. (3) Expansion of the H II region beyond the gravitational escape radius for ionized gas occurs at masses ~50-100 M⊙. However, accretion from the equatorial regions can continue since the neutral accretion disk shields a substantial fraction of the accretion envelope from direct ionizing flux. (4) At higher stellar masses, ~140 M⊙ in the fiducial case, photoevaporation-driven mass loss from the disk, together with declining accretion rates, halts the increase in the protostellar mass. We identify this process as the mechanism that determines the mass of Population III.1 stars (i.e., stars with primordial composition that have not been affected by prior star formation). The initial mass function of these stars is set by the distribution of entropy and angular momentum. The Appendix gives approximate solutions to a number of problems relevant to the formation of the first stars: the effect of Rayleigh scattering on line profiles in media of very large optical depth, the intensity of Lyα radiation in very opaque media, radiative acceleration in terms of the gradient of a modified radiation pressure, the flux of radiation in a shell with an arbitrary distribution of opacity, and the vertical structure of an accretion disk supported by gas pressure with constant opacity.

  1. Mass Estimation of Santacrucian Sloths from the Early Miocene Santa Cruz Formation of Patagonia, Argentina

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Néstor Toledo; Guillermo Hernán Cassini; Sergio Fabián Vizcaíno; M. Susana Bargo

    Miocene deposits of the Santa Cruz Formation, Patagonia, comprise a diverse and excellently preserved vertebrate fauna, allowing detailed paleobiological and paleoecological studies based on three ecological parameters...

  2. Nutrient characteristics of the water masses and their seasonal variability in the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sardessai, S.; Shetye, S.; Maya, M.V.; Mangala, K.R.; PrasannaKumar, S.

    zones in the north and gradually deepens towards the equator. Jensen (2003) also confirms southern Indian ocean sources in the mixed layer of the Arabian sea which includes ITF. The throughflow transport appears to vary seasonally with maximum values... changes. The water mass to the north of the equator with a salinity range of 35-35.1 is seen at 200 m to the south and spreads down to 1000 m to the north of the equator in all the three seasons. The low salinity water mass to the south of the equator...

  3. Dynamics of biofilm formation in a model drinking water distribution system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boe-Hansen, Rasmus; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Arvin, Erik


    The dynamics of biofilm formation in non-chlorinated groundwater-based drinking water was studied in a model distribution system. The formation of biofilm was closely monitored for a period of 522 days by total bacterial counts (AODC), heterotrophic plate counts (R2A media), and ATP content...... determinations. The biofilm grew at a rate of 0.030±0.002 day−1 reaching quasi-stationary state at 2.6×106 cells/cm2 after approximately 200 days. The low substrate level in the bulk phase (AOC at approximately 6 g ac-C/l) most likely caused the relatively slow biofilm formation rate observed. During...

  4. Effect of Pre-ozonation on Haloacetic Acids Formation in Ganga River Water at Kanpur, India (United States)

    Naladala, Nagasrinivasa Rao; Singh, Rambabu; Katiyar, Kumud Lata Devi; Bose, Purnendu; Dutta, Venkatesh


    Almost all natural water bodies which are considered to be sustainable sources of drinking water contain organic matter in dissolved form and pathogens. This dissolved organic matter and pathogens cannot be removed effectively through traditional filtering processes in drinking water treatment plants. Chlorination of such water for disinfection results in large amounts of disinfection by-products (DBPs), mainly trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids (HAAs), which showed many health effects like cancer and reproductive problems in lab animals and in human beings as well. Complete removal of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), which is a precursor compound for HAAs formation, is impossible from a practical point of view; hence, it will be better if DOC activity towards DBPs formation can be reduced via some process. The present article describes the process of pre-ozonating post-coagulated Ganga River water at Kanpur in a continuous flow mode and its effect on HAAs formation. Nearly 58% reduction in HAAs formation was observed during this study at higher doses of ozone.

  5. Formation of Structured Water and Gas Hydrate by the Use of Xenon Gas in Vegetable Tissue (United States)

    Ando, Hiroko; Suzuki, Toru; Kawagoe, Yoshinori; Makino, Yoshio; Oshita, Seiichi

    Freezing is a valuable technique for food preservation. However, vegetables are known to be softening remarkably after freezing and thawing process. It is expected to find alternative technique instead of freezing. Recently, the application of structured water and/or gas hydrate had been attempted to prolong the preservation of vegetable. In this study, the formation process of structure water and/or gas hydrate in pure water and carrot tissue was investigated by using NMR relaxation times, T1 and T2, of which applying condition was up to 0.4MPa and 0.8MPa at 5oC. Under the pressure of 0.4MPa, no gas hydrate was appeared, however, at 0.8MPa, formation of gas hydrate was recognized in both water and carrot tissue. Once the gas hydrate formation process in carrot tissue started, T1 and T2 increased remarkably. After that, as the gas hydrate developed, then T1 and T2 turned to decrease. Since this phenomenon was not observed in pure water, it is suggested that behavior of NMR relaxation time just after the formation of gas hydrate in carrot tissue may be peculiar to compartment system such as inter and intracellular spaces.

  6. Fiber Optic Sensor for Real-Time Sensing of Silica Scale Formation in Geothermal Water. (United States)

    Okazaki, Takuya; Orii, Tatsuya; Ueda, Akira; Ozawa, Akiko; Kuramitz, Hideki


    We present a novel fiber optic sensor for real-time sensing of silica scale formation in geothermal water. The sensor is fabricated by removing the cladding of a multimode fiber to expose the core to detect the scale-formation-induced refractive index change. A simple experimental setup was constructed to measure the transmittance response using white light as a source and a spectroscopy detector. A field test was performed on geothermal water containing 980 mg/L dissolved silica at 93 °C in Sumikawa Geothermal Power Plant, Japan. The transmittance response of the fiber sensor decreased due to the formation of silica scale on the fiber core from geothermal water. An application of this sensor in the evaluation of scale inhibitors was demonstrated. In geothermal water containing a pH modifier, the change of transmittance response decreased with pH decrease. The effectiveness of a polyelectrolyte inhibitor in prevention of silica scale formation was easily detectable using the fiber sensor in geothermal water.

  7. Water in low-mass star-forming regions with Herschel . HIFI spectroscopy of NGC 1333 (United States)

    Kristensen, L. E.; Visser, R.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Yıldız, U. A.; Doty, S. D.; Herczeg, G. J.; Liu, F.-C.; Parise, B.; Jørgensen, J. K.; van Kempen, T. A.; Brinch, C.; Wampfler, S. F.; Bruderer, S.; Benz, A. O.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Deul, E.; Bachiller, R.; Baudry, A.; Benedettini, M.; Bergin, E. A.; Bjerkeli, P.; Blake, G. A.; Bontemps, S.; Braine, J.; Caselli, P.; Cernicharo, J.; Codella, C.; Daniel, F.; de Graauw, Th.; di Giorgio, A. M.; Dominik, C.; Encrenaz, P.; Fich, M.; Fuente, A.; Giannini, T.; Goicoechea, J. R.; Helmich, F.; Herpin, F.; Jacq, T.; Johnstone, D.; Kaufman, M. J.; Larsson, B.; Lis, D.; Liseau, R.; Marseille, M.; McCoey, C.; Melnick, G.; Neufeld, D.; Nisini, B.; Olberg, M.; Pearson, J. C.; Plume, R.; Risacher, C.; Santiago-García, J.; Saraceno, P.; Shipman, R.; Tafalla, M.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; van der Tak, F.; Wyrowski, F.; Beintema, D.; de Jonge, A.; Dieleman, P.; Ossenkopf, V.; Roelfsema, P.; Stutzki, J.; Whyborn, N.


    Water In Star-forming regions with Herschel” (WISH) is a key programme dedicated to studying the role of water and related species during the star-formation process and constraining the physical and chemical properties of young stellar objects. The Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared (HIFI) on the Herschel Space Observatory observed three deeply embedded protostars in the low-mass star-forming region NGC 1333 in several H_216O, H_218O, and CO transitions. Line profiles are resolved for five H_216O transitions in each source, revealing them to be surprisingly complex. The line profiles are decomposed into broad (>20 km s-1), medium-broad (~5-10 km s-1), and narrow (20 km s-1), indicating that its physical origin is the same as for the broad H_216O component. In one of the sources, IRAS4A, an inverse P Cygni profile is observed, a clear sign of infall in the envelope. From the line profiles alone, it is clear that the bulk of emission arises from shocks, both on small (⪉1000 AU) and large scales along the outflow cavity walls (~10 000 AU). The H2O line profiles are compared to CO line profiles to constrain the H2O abundance as a function of velocity within these shocked regions. The H2O/CO abundance ratios are measured to be in the range of ~0.1-1, corresponding to H2O abundances of ~10-5-10-4 with respect to H2. Approximately 5-10% of the gas is hot enough for all oxygen to be driven into water in warm post-shock gas, mostly at high velocities. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.Tables 2 and 3 (page 6) are only available in electronic form at

  8. Search strategy selection in the Morris water maze indicates allocentric map formation during learning that underpins spatial memory formation. (United States)

    Rogers, Jake; Churilov, Leonid; Hannan, Anthony J; Renoir, Thibault


    Using a Matlab classification algorithm, we demonstrate that a highly salient distal cue array is required for significantly increased likelihoods of spatial search strategy selection during Morris water maze spatial learning. We hypothesized that increased spatial search strategy selection during spatial learning would be the key measure demonstrating the formation of an allocentric map to the escape location. Spatial memory, as indicated by quadrant preference for the area of the pool formally containing the hidden platform, was assessed as the main measure that this allocentric map had formed during spatial learning. Our C57BL/6J wild-type (WT) mice exhibit quadrant preference in the highly salient cue paradigm but not the low, corresponding with a 120% increase in the odds of a spatial search strategy selection during learning. In contrast, quadrant preference remains absent in serotonin 1A receptor (5-HT 1A R) knockout (KO) mice, who exhibit impaired search strategy selection during spatial learning. Additionally, we also aimed to assess the impact of the quality of the distal cue array on the spatial learning curves of both latency to platform and path length using mixed-effect regression models and found no significant associations or interactions. In contrast, we demonstrated that the spatial learning curve for search strategy selection was absent during training in the low saliency paradigm. Therefore, we propose that allocentric search strategy selection during spatial learning is the learning parameter in mice that robustly indicates the formation of a cognitive map for the escape goal location. These results also suggest that both latency to platform and path length spatial learning curves do not discriminate between allocentric and egocentric spatial learning and do not reliably predict spatial memory formation. We also show that spatial memory, as indicated by the absolute time in the quadrant formerly containing the hidden platform alone (without

  9. Formation of Martian Gullies by the Flow of Simultaneously Freezing and Boiling Liquid Water (United States)

    Heldmann, Jennifer L.; Mellon, Michael T.; Toon, Owen B.; Pollard, Wayne H.; Mellon, Michael T.; Pitlick, John; McKay, Christopher P.; Andersen, Dale T.


    Geomorphic evidence suggests that recent gullies on Mars were formed by fluvial activity. The Martian gully features are significant because their existence implies the presence of liquid water near the surface on Mars in geologically recent times. Irrespective of the ultimate source of the fluid carving the gullies, we seek to understand the behavior of this fluid after it reaches the Martian surface. We find that, contrary to popular belief, the fluvially-carved Martian gullies require formation conditions such as now occur on Mars, outside of the temperature-pressure stability regime of liquid water. Mars Global Surveyor observations of gully length and our modeling of water stability are consistent with gully formation from the action of pure liquid water that is simultaneously boiling and freezing.

  10. Quaternary North Atlantic Surface Paleoceanography in Regions of Potential Deep-water Formation (United States)

    Ruddiman, W. F.


    At the time scale of the Quaternary climate cycles, the sites of formation of North Atlantic Deep Water are not known. The interglacial extreme is presumably exemplified by the modern regions; the Norwegian, Greenland and Labrador Seas. During the major glacial-age coolings in the North Atlantic, the sites may have shifted well to the south, perhaps as far as the limit of the polar front at 40 to 50 N. Still other sites may have been important during intermediate climatic conditions. Because of the close coupling of high-latitude surface waters to North Atlantic Deep Water in the modern ocean, the history of sea-surface temperature (SST) oscillations across the high-latitude North Atlantic is relevant to an understanding of deep-water formation on the longer time scales.

  11. Formation of trihalomethanes of dissolved organic matter fractions in reservoir and canal waters. (United States)

    Musikavong, Charongpun; Srimuang, Kanjanee; Tachapattaworakul Suksaroj, Thunwadee; Suksaroj, Chaisri


    The formation of trihalomethanes (THMs) of hydrophobic organic fraction (HPO), transphilic organic fraction (TPI), and hydrophilic organic fraction (HPI) of reservoir and canal waters from the U-Tapao River Basin, Songkhla, Thailand was investigated. Water samples were collected three times from two reservoirs, upstream, midstream, and downstream of the U-Tapao canal. The HPO was the major dissolved organic matter (DOM) fraction in reservoir and canal waters. On average, the HPO accounted for 53 and 45% of the DOM in reservoir and canal waters, respectively. The TPI of 19 and 23% in reservoir and canal waters were determined, respectively. The HPI of 29% of the reservoir water and HPI of 32% of the canal water were detected. For the reservoir water, the highest trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP)/dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was determined for the HPI, followed by the TPI and HPO, respectively. The average values of the THMFP/DOC of the HPI, TPI, and HPO of the reservoir water were 78, 52, and 49 µg THMs/mg C, respectively. The highest THMFP/DOC of the canal water was detected for the HPI, followed by HPO and TPI, respectively. Average values of the THMFP/DOC of HPI of water at upstream and midstream locations of 58 µg THMs/mg C and downstream location of 113 µg THMs/mg C were determined. Average values of THMFP/DOC of HPO of water at upstream and midstream and downstream locations were 48 and 93 µg THMs/mg C, respectively. For the lowest THMFP/DOC fraction, the average values of THMFP/DOC of TPI of water at upstream and midstream and downstream locations were 35 and 73 µg THMs/mg C, respectively.

  12. Potential of Aerosol Liquid Water to Facilitate Organic Aerosol Formation: Assessing Knowledge Gaps about Precursors and Partitioning. (United States)

    Sareen, Neha; Waxman, Eleanor M; Turpin, Barbara J; Volkamer, Rainer; Carlton, Annmarie G


    Isoprene epoxydiol (IEPOX), glyoxal, and methylglyoxal are ubiquitous water-soluble organic gases (WSOGs) that partition to aerosol liquid water (ALW) and clouds to form aqueous secondary organic aerosol (aqSOA). Recent laboratory-derived Setschenow (or salting) coefficients suggest glyoxal's potential to form aqSOA is enhanced by high aerosol salt molality, or "salting-in". In the southeastern U.S., aqSOA is responsible for a significant fraction of ambient organic aerosol, and correlates with sulfate mass. However, the mechanistic explanation for this correlation remains elusive, and an assessment of the importance of different WSOGs to aqSOA is currently missing. We employ EPA's CMAQ model to the continental U.S. during the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS) to compare the potential of glyoxal, methylglyoxal, and IEPOX to partition to ALW, as the initial step toward aqSOA formation. Among these three studied compounds, IEPOX is a dominant contributor, ∼72% on average in the continental U.S., to potential aqSOA mass due to Henry's Law constants and molecular weights. Glyoxal contributes significantly, and application of the Setschenow coefficient leads to a greater than 3-fold model domain average increase in glyoxal's aqSOA mass potential. Methylglyoxal is predicted to be a minor contributor. Acid or ammonium - catalyzed ring-opening IEPOX chemistry as well as sulfate-driven ALW and the associated molality may explain positive correlations between SOA and sulfate during SOAS and illustrate ways in which anthropogenic sulfate could regulate biogenic aqSOA formation, ways not presently included in atmospheric models but relevant to development of effective control strategies.

  13. The KELT-11b Opportunity: Measuring the Atmospheric Water Abundance for a Sub-Saturn-Mass Planet around a Metal-Rich Star (United States)

    Colon, Knicole


    Measurements of exoplanet atmosphere composition provide an unparalleled window into planetary nature and origins. Water in particular is an important tracer of the planet formation process because it is a dominant component by mass of icy planetesimals. Exoplanets provide the opportunity to measure water abundance over a wide range of planet masses and thereby test predictions of planet population synthesis models. So far, however, precise constraints on water abundance have been limited to Jupiter-mass objects. Here we propose to measure the transmission spectrum of the recently discovered low density sub-Saturn KELT-11b with HST/WFC3. We will use this measurement to determine the planet's atmospheric water abundance. KELT-11b is one of the few Saturn-mass planets for which we can obtain constraints on the water abundance with a modest amount of telescope time. Our results will enable meaningful comparison with both objects in the Solar System and with the other few planets in the sub-Saturn population. This program will also be the first investigation of the metal enhancement of a planet with a metal-rich host star. Even if the atmosphere is cloudy, our data will be sufficiently precise to detect water above a 1 mbar cloud-deck, and will constrain cloud physics in a new regime of surface gravity. These measurements will set the stage for comparative planetology that will be possible with JWST.

  14. Numerical analysis of wellbore instability in gas hydrate formation during deep-water drilling (United States)

    Zhang, Huaiwen; Cheng, Yuanfang; Li, Qingchao; Yan, Chuanliang; Han, Xiuting


    Gas hydrate formation may be encountered during deep-water drilling because of the large amount and wide distribution of gas hydrates under the shallow seabed of the South China Sea. Hydrates are extremely sensitive to temperature and pressure changes, and drilling through gas hydrate formation may cause dissociation of hydrates, accompanied by changes in wellbore temperatures, pore pressures, and stress states, thereby leading to wellbore plastic yield and wellbore instability. Considering the coupling effect of seepage of drilling fluid into gas hydrate formation, heat conduction between drilling fluid and formation, hydrate dissociation, and transformation of the formation framework, this study established a multi-field coupling mathematical model of the wellbore in the hydrate formation. Furthermore, the influences of drilling fluid temperatures, densities, and soaking time on the instability of hydrate formation were calculated and analyzed. Results show that the greater the temperature difference between the drilling fluid and hydrate formation is, the faster the hydrate dissociates, the wider the plastic dissociation range is, and the greater the failure width becomes. When the temperature difference is greater than 7°C, the maximum rate of plastic deformation around the wellbore is more than 10%, which is along the direction of the minimum horizontal in-situ stress and associated with instability and damage on the surrounding rock. The hydrate dissociation is insensitive to the variation of drilling fluid density, thereby implying that the change of the density of drilling fluids has a minimal effect on the hydrate dissociation. Drilling fluids that are absorbed into the hydrate formation result in fast dissociation at the initial stage. As time elapses, the hydrate dissociation slows down, but the risk of wellbore instability is aggravated due to the prolonged submersion in drilling fluids. For the sake of the stability of the wellbore in deep-water

  15. Water deuterium fractionation in the low-mass protostar NGC1333-IRAS2A (United States)

    Liu, F.-C.; Parise, B.; Kristensen, L.; Visser, R.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Güsten, R.


    Context. Although deuterium enrichment of water may provide an essential piece of information in the understanding of the formation of comets and protoplanetary systems, only a few studies up to now have aimed at deriving the HDO/H2O ratio in low-mass star forming regions. Previous studies of the molecular deuteration toward the solar-type class 0 protostar, IRAS 16293-2422, have shown that the D/H ratio of water is significantly lower than other grain-surface-formed molecules. It is not clear if this property is general or particular to this source. Aims: In order to see if the results toward IRAS 16293-2422 are particular, we aimed at studying water deuterium fractionation in a second low-mass solar-type protostar, NGC1333-IRAS2A. Methods: Using the 1-D radiative transfer code RATRAN, we analyzed five HDO transitions observed with the IRAM 30 m, JCMT, and APEX telescopes. We assumed that the abundance profile of HDO in the envelope is a step function, with two different values in the inner warm (T > 100 K) and outer cold (T < 100 K) regions of the protostellar envelope. Results: The inner and outer abundance of HDO is found to be well constrained at the 3σ level. The obtained HDO inner and outer fractional abundances are xHDO_in = 6.6 × 10-8-1.0 × 10-7(3σ) and x^{HDO}out=9×10-11= 9 × 10-11-1.0-1.8 × 10-9(3σ). These values are close to those in IRAS 16293-2422, which suggests that HDO may be formed by the same mechanisms in these two solar-type protostars. Taking into account the (rather poorly onstrained) H2O abundance profile deduced from Herschel observations, the derived HDO/H2O in the inner envelope is ≥1% and in the outer envelope it is 0.9%-18%. These values are more than one order of magnitude higher than what is measured in comets. If the same ratios apply to the protosolar nebula, this would imply that there is some efficient reprocessing of the material between the protostellar and cometary phases. Conclusions: The H2O inner fractional


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilly, Simon J.; Carollo, C. Marcella; Pipino, Antonio; Peng Yingjie [Institute for Astronomy, Department of Physics, ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Renzini, Alvio [Department of Physics and Astronomy Galileo Galilei, Universita degli Studi di Padova, via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy)


    A very simple physical model of galaxies is one in which the formation of stars is instantaneously regulated by the mass of gas in a reservoir with mass loss scaling with the star-formation rate (SFR). This model links together three different aspects of the evolving galaxy population: (1) the cosmic time evolution of the specific star-formation rate (sSFR) relative to the growth of halos, (2) the gas-phase metallicities across the galaxy population and over cosmic time, and (3) the ratio of the stellar to dark matter mass of halos. The gas regulator is defined by the gas consumption timescale ({epsilon}{sup -1}) and the mass loading {lambda} of the wind outflow {lambda}{center_dot}SFR. The simplest regulator, in which {epsilon} and {lambda} are constant, sets the sSFR equal to exactly the specific accretion rate of the galaxy; more realistic situations lead to an sSFR that is perturbed from this precise relation. Because the gas consumption timescale is shorter than the timescale on which the system evolves, the metallicity Z is set primarily by the instantaneous operation of the regulator system rather than by the past history of the system. The metallicity of the gas reservoir depends on {epsilon}, {lambda}, and sSFR, and the regulator system therefore naturally produces a Z(m{sub star}, SFR) relation if {epsilon} and {lambda} depend on the stellar mass m{sub star}. Furthermore, this relation will be the same at all epochs unless the parameters {epsilon} and {lambda} themselves change with time. A so-called fundamental metallicity relation is naturally produced by these conditions. The overall mass-metallicity relation Z(m{sub star}) directly provides the fraction f{sub star}(m{sub star}) of incoming baryons that are being transformed into stars. The observed Z(m{sub star}) relation of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) galaxies implies a strong dependence of stellar mass on halo mass that reconciles the different faint-end slopes of the stellar and halo mass

  17. Nano-silver in drinking water and drinking water sources: stability and influences on disinfection by-product formation. (United States)

    Tugulea, A-M; Bérubé, D; Giddings, M; Lemieux, F; Hnatiw, J; Priem, J; Avramescu, M-L


    untreated Ottawa River water, with a dissolved organic carbon concentration of 6 mg/L, was significantly higher than the stability of the nano-silver dispersions in distilled, organic-free water. Nano-silver particles suspended in the groundwater agglomerated and were quickly and quantitatively removed from the solution. Our data confirm previous observations that natural dissolved organic matter stabilizes nano-silver particles, while the high-ionic strength of groundwater appears to favor their agglomeration and precipitation. As expected, nano-silver was not stable in Ottawa River water through the chlorination process, but survived for many days when added to the Ottawa River water after treatment with chlorine or chloramines. Stirring appeared to have minimal effect on nano-silver stability in untreated and treated Ottawa River water. The profile of DBPs formed in the presence of nAg differed significantly from the profile of DBPs formed in the absence of nAg only at the 1 mg/L nAg concentration. The differences observed consisted mainly in reduced formation of some brominated DBPs and a small increase in the formation of cyanogen chloride. The reduced formation of brominated congeners may be explained by the decrease in available bromide due to the presence of Ag(+) ions. It should be noted that a concentration of 1 mg/L is significantly higher than nAg concentrations that would be expected to be present in surface waters, but these results could be significant for the disinfection of some wastewaters with comparably high nano-silver concentrations.

  18. Enhanced formation of disinfection byproducts in shale gas wastewater-impacted drinking water supplies. (United States)

    Parker, Kimberly M; Zeng, Teng; Harkness, Jennifer; Vengosh, Avner; Mitch, William A


    The disposal and leaks of hydraulic fracturing wastewater (HFW) to the environment pose human health risks. Since HFW is typically characterized by elevated salinity, concerns have been raised whether the high bromide and iodide in HFW may promote the formation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) and alter their speciation to more toxic brominated and iodinated analogues. This study evaluated the minimum volume percentage of two Marcellus Shale and one Fayetteville Shale HFWs diluted by fresh water collected from the Ohio and Allegheny Rivers that would generate and/or alter the formation and speciation of DBPs following chlorination, chloramination, and ozonation treatments of the blended solutions. During chlorination, dilutions as low as 0.01% HFW altered the speciation toward formation of brominated and iodinated trihalomethanes (THMs) and brominated haloacetonitriles (HANs), and dilutions as low as 0.03% increased the overall formation of both compound classes. The increase in bromide concentration associated with 0.01-0.03% contribution of Marcellus HFW (a range of 70-200 μg/L for HFW with bromide = 600 mg/L) mimics the increased bromide levels observed in western Pennsylvanian surface waters following the Marcellus Shale gas production boom. Chloramination reduced HAN and regulated THM formation; however, iodinated trihalomethane formation was observed at lower pH. For municipal wastewater-impacted river water, the presence of 0.1% HFW increased the formation of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) during chloramination, particularly for the high iodide (54 ppm) Fayetteville Shale HFW. Finally, ozonation of 0.01-0.03% HFW-impacted river water resulted in significant increases in bromate formation. The results suggest that total elimination of HFW discharge and/or installation of halide-specific removal techniques in centralized brine treatment facilities may be a better strategy to mitigate impacts on downstream drinking water treatment plants than altering

  19. The Barents Sea polar front and water masses variability (1980-2011) (United States)

    Oziel, L.; Sirven, J.; Gascard, J.-C.


    The polar front separates the warm and saline Atlantic Waters encountered in the western part of the Barents Sea from the cold and fresh Arctic Waters situated in the northern part. These water masses can mix together, mainly in the eastern part of the Barents Sea, generating dense waters in winter which can cascade into the Arctic Ocean to form the Artic Intermediate Waters. To study the interannual variability and evolution of these water masses and the fronts, we have merged data from the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea and the Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute and have built a new database which covers the period 1980-2011. The summer data is interpolated on a regular grid and a "Probability Density Function" method is used to show that the polar front splits into two branches east of 32° E where the topographic constraint weakens. Two fronts can then be defined: the "Northern Polar Front" is associated with strong salinity gradients and the "Southern Polar Front" with temperature gradients. They enclose the dense Barents Sea Water. The interannual variability of the water masses is apparent in the observed data and is linked to that of the ice cover. In contrast, the link with the Arctic Oscillation is not clear. However, results from a general circulation model suggest that such a link could be found if winter data were taken into account. A strong trend, which amplifies during the last decade, is also found: the Atlantic Water occupies a larger volume of the Barents Sea. This "Atlantification" could be accompanied by a northwards displacement of the southern polar front in the eastern part of the Barents Sea (which is suggested by a model based study) and a decrease of the volume occupied by the Arctic Waters.

  20. Large-Scale Ichthyoplankton and Water Mass Distribution along the South Brazil Shelf (United States)

    de Macedo-Soares, Luis Carlos Pinto; Garcia, Carlos Alberto Eiras; Freire, Andrea Santarosa; Muelbert, José Henrique


    Ichthyoplankton is an essential component of pelagic ecosystems, and environmental factors play an important role in determining its distribution. We have investigated simultaneous latitudinal and cross-shelf gradients in ichthyoplankton abundance to test the hypothesis that the large-scale distribution of fish larvae in the South Brazil Shelf is associated with water mass composition. Vertical plankton tows were collected between 21°27′ and 34°51′S at 107 stations, in austral late spring and early summer seasons. Samples were taken with a conical-cylindrical plankton net from the depth of chlorophyll maxima to the surface in deep stations, or from 10 m from the bottom to the surface in shallow waters. Salinity and temperature were obtained with a CTD/rosette system, which provided seawater for chlorophyll-a and nutrient concentrations. The influence of water mass on larval fish species was studied using Indicator Species Analysis, whereas environmental effects on the distribution of larval fish species were analyzed by Distance-based Redundancy Analysis. Larval fish species were associated with specific water masses: in the north, Sardinella brasiliensis was found in Shelf Water; whereas in the south, Engraulis anchoita inhabited the Plata Plume Water. At the slope, Tropical Water was characterized by the bristlemouth Cyclothone acclinidens. The concurrent analysis showed the importance of both cross-shelf and latitudinal gradients on the large-scale distribution of larval fish species. Our findings reveal that ichthyoplankton composition and large-scale spatial distribution are determined by water mass composition in both latitudinal and cross-shelf gradients. PMID:24614798

  1. Large-scale ichthyoplankton and water mass distribution along the South Brazil Shelf.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Carlos Pinto de Macedo-Soares

    Full Text Available Ichthyoplankton is an essential component of pelagic ecosystems, and environmental factors play an important role in determining its distribution. We have investigated simultaneous latitudinal and cross-shelf gradients in ichthyoplankton abundance to test the hypothesis that the large-scale distribution of fish larvae in the South Brazil Shelf is associated with water mass composition. Vertical plankton tows were collected between 21°27' and 34°51'S at 107 stations, in austral late spring and early summer seasons. Samples were taken with a conical-cylindrical plankton net from the depth of chlorophyll maxima to the surface in deep stations, or from 10 m from the bottom to the surface in shallow waters. Salinity and temperature were obtained with a CTD/rosette system, which provided seawater for chlorophyll-a and nutrient concentrations. The influence of water mass on larval fish species was studied using Indicator Species Analysis, whereas environmental effects on the distribution of larval fish species were analyzed by Distance-based Redundancy Analysis. Larval fish species were associated with specific water masses: in the north, Sardinella brasiliensis was found in Shelf Water; whereas in the south, Engraulis anchoita inhabited the Plata Plume Water. At the slope, Tropical Water was characterized by the bristlemouth Cyclothone acclinidens. The concurrent analysis showed the importance of both cross-shelf and latitudinal gradients on the large-scale distribution of larval fish species. Our findings reveal that ichthyoplankton composition and large-scale spatial distribution are determined by water mass composition in both latitudinal and cross-shelf gradients.

  2. Large-scale ichthyoplankton and water mass distribution along the South Brazil Shelf. (United States)

    de Macedo-Soares, Luis Carlos Pinto; Garcia, Carlos Alberto Eiras; Freire, Andrea Santarosa; Muelbert, José Henrique


    Ichthyoplankton is an essential component of pelagic ecosystems, and environmental factors play an important role in determining its distribution. We have investigated simultaneous latitudinal and cross-shelf gradients in ichthyoplankton abundance to test the hypothesis that the large-scale distribution of fish larvae in the South Brazil Shelf is associated with water mass composition. Vertical plankton tows were collected between 21°27' and 34°51'S at 107 stations, in austral late spring and early summer seasons. Samples were taken with a conical-cylindrical plankton net from the depth of chlorophyll maxima to the surface in deep stations, or from 10 m from the bottom to the surface in shallow waters. Salinity and temperature were obtained with a CTD/rosette system, which provided seawater for chlorophyll-a and nutrient concentrations. The influence of water mass on larval fish species was studied using Indicator Species Analysis, whereas environmental effects on the distribution of larval fish species were analyzed by Distance-based Redundancy Analysis. Larval fish species were associated with specific water masses: in the north, Sardinella brasiliensis was found in Shelf Water; whereas in the south, Engraulis anchoita inhabited the Plata Plume Water. At the slope, Tropical Water was characterized by the bristlemouth Cyclothone acclinidens. The concurrent analysis showed the importance of both cross-shelf and latitudinal gradients on the large-scale distribution of larval fish species. Our findings reveal that ichthyoplankton composition and large-scale spatial distribution are determined by water mass composition in both latitudinal and cross-shelf gradients.

  3. The inhibition of methane hydrate formation by water alignment underneath surface adsorption of surfactants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Ngoc N.; Nguyen, Anh V.; Dang, Liem X.


    Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) has been widely shown to strongly promote the formation of methane hydrate. Here we show that SDS displays an extraordinary inhibition effect on methane hydrate formation when the surfactant is used in sub-millimolar concentration (around 0.3 mM). We have also employed Sum Frequency Generation vibrational spectroscopy (SFG) and molecular dynamics simulation (MDS) to elucidate the molecular mechanism of this inhibition. The SFG and MDS results revealed a strong alignment of water molecules underneath surface adsorption of SDS in its sub-millimolar solution. Interestingly, both the alignment of water and the inhibition effect (in 0.3 mM SDS solution) went vanishing when an oppositely-charged surfactant (tetra-n-butylammonium bromide, TBAB) was suitably added to produce a mixed solution of 0.3 mM SDS and 3.6 mM TBAB. Combining structural and kinetic results, we pointed out that the alignment of water underneath surface adsorption of dodecyl sulfate (DS-) anions gave rise to the unexpected inhibition of methane hydration formation in sub-millimolar solution of SDS. The adoption of TBAB mitigated the SDS-induced electrostatic field at the solution’s surface and, therefore, weakened the alignment of interfacial water which, in turn, erased the inhibition effect. We discussed this finding using the concept of activation energy of the interfacial formation of gas hydrate. The main finding of this work is to reveal the interplay of interfacial water in governing gas hydrate formation which sheds light on a universal molecular-scale understanding of the influence of surfactants on gas hydrate formation. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences. The calculations were carried out using computer resources provided by the Office of Basic Energy Sciences.

  4. The Role of Mass Media Elites in Attitude Formation in Mexico. (United States)

    Johnson, J. David; Tims, Albert R.

    The dependency model of mass media effects predicts that dependency on media information increases as the level of societal structural conflict and change increase, resulting in greater mass media influence. However, this model appears to ignore the structural constraints that a nation's political system can have on media even before they deliver…

  5. Radiation-hydrodynamical simulations of massive star formation using Monte Carlo radiative transfer - II. The formation of a 25 solar-mass star (United States)

    Harries, Tim J.; Douglas, Tom A.; Ali, Ahmad


    We present a numerical simulation of the formation of a massive star using Monte Carlo-based radiation hydrodynamics (RHD). The star forms via stochastic disc accretion and produces fast, radiation-driven bipolar cavities. We find that the evolution of the infall rate (considered to be the mass flux across a 1500 au spherical boundary) and the accretion rate on to the protostar, are broadly consistent with observational constraints. After 35 kyr the star has a mass of 25 M⊙ and is surrounded by a disc of mass 7 M⊙ and 1500 au radius, and we find that the velocity field of the disc is close to Keplerian. Once again these results are consistent with those from recent high-resolution studies of discs around forming massive stars. Synthetic imaging of the RHD model shows good agreement with observations in the near- and far-IR, but may be in conflict with observations that suggest that massive young stellar objects are typically circularly symmetric in the sky at 24.5 μm. Molecular line simulations of a CH3CN transition compare well with observations in terms of surface brightness and line width, and indicate that it should be possible to reliably extract the protostellar mass from such observations.

  6. The formation of low-mass helium white dwarfs orbiting pulsars . Evolution of low-mass X-ray binaries below the bifurcation period (United States)

    Istrate, A. G.; Tauris, T. M.; Langer, N.


    Context. Millisecond pulsars (MSPs) are generally believed to be old neutron stars (NSs) that have been spun up to high rotation rates via accretion of matter from a companion star in a low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB). This scenario has been strongly supported by various pieces of observational evidence. However, many details of this recycling scenario remain to be understood. Aims: Here we investigate binary evolution in close LMXBs to study the formation of radio MSPs with low-mass helium white dwarf companions (He WDs) in tight binaries with orbital periods Porb ≃ 2-9h. In particular, we examine i) if the observed systems can be reproduced by theoretical modelling using standard prescriptions of orbital angular momentum losses (i.e. with respect to the nature and the strength of magnetic braking), ii) if our computations of the Roche-lobe detachments can match the observed orbital periods, and iii) if the correlation between WD mass and orbital period (MWD, Porb) is valid for systems with Porb< 2 days. Methods: Numerical calculations with a detailed stellar evolution code were used to trace the mass-transfer phase in ~400 close LMXB systems with different initial values of donor star mass, NS mass, orbital period, and the so-called γ-index of magnetic braking. Subsequently, we followed the orbital and the interior evolution of the detached low-mass (proto) He WDs, including stages with residual shell hydrogen burning. Results: We find that severe fine-tuning is necessary to reproduce the observed MSPs in tight binaries with He WD companions of mass <0.20 M⊙, which suggests that something needs to be modified or is missing in the standard input physics of LMXB modelling. Results from previous independent studies support this conclusion. We demonstrate that the theoretically calculated (MWD, Porb)-relation is in general also valid for systems with Porb< 2 days, although with a large scatter in He WD masses between 0.15-0.20 M⊙. The results of the thermal

  7. Adsorption of water and carbon dioxide on hematite and consequences for possible hydrate formation. (United States)

    Kvamme, Bjørn; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Kivelae, Pilvi-Helina


    The interest in carbon dioxide for enhanced oil recovery is increasing proportional to the decline in naturally driven oil production and also due to the increasing demand for reduced emission of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Transport of carbon dioxide in offshore pipelines involves high pressure and low temperatures, conditions which may lead to formation of hydrates from residual water dissolved in carbon dioxide and carbon dioxide. The critical question is whether the water at certain temperatures and pressures will drop out as liquid droplets first, and then form hydrates, or alternatively, adsorb on the pipeline surfaces, and subsequently form hydrates heterogeneously. In this work, we used several different basis sets of density functional theory in ab initio calculations to estimate the charge distribution of hematite (the dominating component of rust) crystals. These rust particles were embedded in water and chemical potential for adsorbed water molecules was estimated through thermodynamic integration and compared to similar estimates for water clusters of the same size. While the generated charges were not unique, the use of high order approximations and different basis sets provides a range of likely charge distributions. Values obtained for the chemical potential of water in different surroundings indicated that it would be thermodynamically favorable for water to adsorb on hematite, and that evaluation of potential carbon dioxide hydrate formation conditions and kinetics should be based on this formation mechanism. Depending on the basis set and approximations, the estimated gain for water to adsorb on the hematite surface rather than condense as droplets varied between -1.7 kJ mole(-1) and -3.4 kJ mole(-1). The partial charge distribution on the hematite surface is incompatible with the hydrate structure, and thus hydrates will be unable to attach to the surface. The behavior of water outside the immediate vicinity of hematite (beyond 3

  8. HIghMass-high H I mass, H I-rich galaxies at z ∼ 0 sample definition, optical and Hα imaging, and star formation properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Shan; Matsushita, Satoki [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, 11F of Astronomy-Mathematics Building, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Hallenbeck, Gregory; Jones, Michael G.; Adams, Elizabeth A. K. [Center for Radiophysics and Space Research, Space Sciences Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Brinchmann, Jarle [Sterrewacht Leiden, Leiden University, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Chengalur, Jayaram N. [National Centre for Radio Astrophysics, Tata Institute for Fundamental Research, Pune 411007 (India); Hunt, Leslie K. [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo East Fermi 5, I-50125, Firenze (Italy); Masters, Karen L. [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, Dennis Sciama Building, Burnaby Road, Portsmouth POI 3FX (United Kingdom); Saintonge, Amelie [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Place, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Spekkens, Kristine, E-mail: [Royal Military College of Canada, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 17000, Station Forces, Kingston, ON K7K 7B4 (Canada)


    We present first results of the study of a set of exceptional H I sources identified in the 40% ALFALFA extragalactic H I survey catalog α.40 as both being H I massive (M{sub HI}>10{sup 10} M{sub ⊙}) and having high gas fractions for their stellar masses: the HIghMass galaxy sample. We analyze UV- and optical-broadband and Hα images to understand the nature of their relatively underluminous disks in optical and to test whether their high gas fractions can be tracked to higher dark matter halo spin parameters or late gas accretion. Estimates of their star formation rates (SFRs) based on spectral energy distribution fitting agree within uncertainties with the Hα luminosity inferred current massive SFRs. The H II region luminosity functions, parameterized as dN/dlog L∝L {sup α}, have standard slopes at the luminous end (α ∼ –1). The global SFRs demonstrate that the HIghMass galaxies exhibit active ongoing star formation (SF) with moderate SF efficiency but, relative to normal spirals, a lower integrated SFR in the past. Because the SF activity in these systems is spread throughout their extended disks, they have overall lower SFR surface densities and lower surface brightness in the optical bands. Relative to normal disk galaxies, the majority of HIghMass galaxies have higher Hα equivalent widths and are bluer in their outer disks, implying an inside-out disk growth scenario. Downbending double exponential disks are more frequent than upbending disks among the gas-rich galaxies, suggesting that SF thresholds exist in the downbending disks, probably as a result of concentrated gas distribution.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Chen [School of Space Science and Physics, Shandong University, Weihai, Weihai, Shandong 264209 (China); Xu, Cong Kevin; Lu, Nanyao; Mazzarella, Joe [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology 100-22, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Domingue, Donovan; Ronca, Joseph; Jacques, Allison [Georgia College and State University, CBX 82, Milledgeville, GA 31061 (United States); Buat, Veronique [Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Marseille—LAM, Université d’Aix-Marseille and CNRS, UMR7326, 38 rue F. Joliot-Curie, F-13388 Marseille Cedex 13 (France); Cheng, Yi-Wen [Institute of Astronomy, National Central University, Chung-Li 32054, Taiwan (China); Gao, Yu [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 2 West Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008 (China); Huang, Jiasheng [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Jarrett, Thomas H. [Astronomy Department, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Lisenfeld, Ute [Departamento de Fisica Teórica y del Cosmos, Universidad de Granada (Spain); Sun, Wei-Hsin [Institute of Astrophysics, National Taiwan University and The National Museum of Natural Science, Taiwan (China); Wu, Hong [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Yun, Min S., E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)


    We present Herschel PACS and SPIRE far-infrared (FIR) and submillimeter imaging observations for a large K-band selected sample of 88 close major-merger pairs of galaxies (H-KPAIRs) in 6 photometric bands (70, 100, 160, 250, 350, and 500 μm). Among 132 spiral galaxies in the 44 spiral–spiral (S+S) pairs and 44 spiral–elliptical (S+E) pairs, 113 are detected in at least 1 Herschel band. The star formation rate (SFR) and dust mass (M{sub dust}) are derived from the IR SED fitting. The mass of total gas (M{sub gas}) is estimated by assuming a constant dust-to-gas mass ratio of 0.01. Star-forming spiral galaxies (SFGs) in S+S pairs show significant enhancements in both specific star formation rate (sSFR) and star formation efficiency (SFE), while having nearly the same gas mass compared to control galaxies. On the other hand, for SFGs in S+E pairs, there is no significant sSFR enhancement and the mean SFE enhancement is significantly lower than that of SFGs in S+S pairs. This suggests an important role for the disk–disk collision in the interaction-induced star formation. The M{sub gas} of SFGs in S+E pairs is marginally lower than that of their counterparts in both S+S pairs and the control sample. Paired galaxies with and without interaction signs do not differ significantly in their mean sSFR and SFE. As found in previous works, this much larger sample confirms that the primary and secondary spirals in S+S pairs follow a Holmberg effect correlation on sSFR.

  10. Bacterial flora analysis of coliforms in sewage, river water, and ground water using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Suzuki, Yoshihiro; Niina, Kouki; Matsuwaki, Tomonori; Nukazawa, Kei; Iguchi, Atsushi


    The aim of this study was to rapidly and effectively analyze coliforms, which are the most fundamental indicators of water quality for fecal pollution, using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Coliform bacteria were isolated from municipal sewage, river water, and groundwater. For each sample, 100 isolates were determined by MALDI-TOF MS. In addition, these same 100 isolates were also identified via 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Obtained MALDI-TOF MS data were compared with the 16S rRNA sequencing analysis, and the validity of MALDI-TOF MS for classification of coliform bacteria was examined. The concordance rate of bacterial identification for the 100 isolates obtained by MALDI-TOF MS analysis and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis for sewage, river water, and ground water were 96%, 74%, and 62% at the genus level, respectively. Among the sewage, river water, and ground water samples, the coliform bacterial flora were distinct. The dominant genus of coliforms in sewage, river water, and groundwater were Klebsiella spp., Enterobacter spp., and Serratia spp., respectively. We determined that MALDI-TOF MS is a rapid and accurate tool that can be used to identify coliforms. Therefore, without using conventional 16S rRNA sequencing, it is possible to rapidly and effectively classify coliforms in water using MALDI-TOF MS.

  11. SDSS-IV MaNGA: The Spatial Distribution of Star Formation and its Dependence on Mass, Structure and Environment (United States)

    Spindler, Ashley; Wake, David; Belfiore, Francesco; Bershady, Matthew; Bundy, Kevin; Drory, Niv; Masters, Karen; Thomas, Daniel; Westfall, Kyle; Wild, Vivienne


    We study the spatially resolved star formation of 1494 galaxies in the SDSSIV-MaNGA Survey. SFRs are calculated using a two-step process, using Hα in star forming regions and Dn4000 in regions identified as AGN/LI(N)ER or lineless. The roles of secular and environmental quenching processes are investigated by studying the dependence of the radial profiles of specific star formation rate on stellar mass, galaxy structure and environment. We report on the existence of `Centrally Suppressed' galaxies, which have suppressed SSFR in their cores compared to their disks. The profiles of centrally suppressed and unsuppressed galaxies are distibuted in a bimodal way. Galaxies with high stellar mass and core velocity dispersion are found to be much more likely to be centrally suppressed than low mass galaxies, and we show that this is related to morphology and the presence of AGN/LI(N)ER like emission. Centrally suppressed galaxies also display lower star formation at all radii compared to unsuppressed galaxies. The profiles of central and satellite galaxies are also compared, and we find that satellite galaxies experience lower specific star formation rates at all radii than central galaxies. This uniform suppression could be a signal of the stripping of hot halo gas in the process known as strangulation. We find that satellites are not more likely to be suppressed in their cores than centrals, indicating that the core suppression is an entirely internal process. We find no correlation between the local environment density and the profiles of star formation rate surface density.

  12. Water Mass Variability at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and in the Eastern North Atlantic (United States)

    Köllner, Manuela; Klein, Birgit; Kieke, Dagmar; Klein, Holger; Roessler, Achim; Rhein, Monika


    The strong warming and salinification of the Eastern North Atlantic starting in the mid 1990s has been attributed to a westward contraction of the sub-polar gyre and stronger inflow of waters from the sub-tropical gyre. Temporal changes in the shape and strength of the two gyres have been related to the major mode of atmospheric variability in the Atlantic sector, the NAO. Hydrographic conditions along the Northwest European shelf are thus the result of different processes such as variations in transports, varying relative contributions of water masses from the two gyres and property trends in the source water masses. The North Atlantic Current (NAC) can be regarded as the southern border of the sub-polar gyre transporting water from the tropical regions northward. On its way towards the Mid Atlantic Ridge (MAR) the NAC has partly mixed with waters from the sub-polar gyre and crosses the MAR split into several branches. For the study we analyzed data of water mass variability and transport fluctuations from the RACE (Regional circulation and Global change) project (2012-2015) which provided time series of transports and hydrographic anomalies from moored instruments at the western flank of the MAR. The time depending positions of the NAC branches over the MAR were obtained from mooring time series and compared to sea surface velocities from altimeter data. The results show a high variability of NAC pathways over the MAR. Transition regimes with strong meandering and eddies could be observed as well as periods of strong NAC branches over the Fracture Zones affecting water mass exchange at all depth levels. A positive temperature trend at depths between 1000-2000 m was found at the Faraday Fracture Zone (FFZ). This warming trend was also detected by Argo floats crossing the MAR close to the FFZ region. During the second phase of RACE (RACE-II, 2016-2018) a mooring array across the eastern shelf break at Goban Spur was deployed to monitor the poleward Eastern Boundary

  13. An evaluation of water quality in private drinking water wells near natural gas extraction sites in the Barnett Shale formation. (United States)

    Fontenot, Brian E; Hunt, Laura R; Hildenbrand, Zacariah L; Carlton, Doug D; Oka, Hyppolite; Walton, Jayme L; Hopkins, Dan; Osorio, Alexandra; Bjorndal, Bryan; Hu, Qinhong H; Schug, Kevin A


    Natural gas has become a leading source of alternative energy with the advent of techniques to economically extract gas reserves from deep shale formations. Here, we present an assessment of private well water quality in aquifers overlying the Barnett Shale formation of North Texas. We evaluated samples from 100 private drinking water wells using analytical chemistry techniques. Analyses revealed that arsenic, selenium, strontium and total dissolved solids (TDS) exceeded the Environmental Protection Agency's Drinking Water Maximum Contaminant Limit (MCL) in some samples from private water wells located within 3 km of active natural gas wells. Lower levels of arsenic, selenium, strontium, and barium were detected at reference sites outside the Barnett Shale region as well as sites within the Barnett Shale region located more than 3 km from active natural gas wells. Methanol and ethanol were also detected in 29% of samples. Samples exceeding MCL levels were randomly distributed within areas of active natural gas extraction, and the spatial patterns in our data suggest that elevated constituent levels could be due to a variety of factors including mobilization of natural constituents, hydrogeochemical changes from lowering of the water table, or industrial accidents such as faulty gas well casings.

  14. On the influence of water subcooling and melt jet parameters on debris formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manickam, Louis, E-mail:; Kudinov, Pavel; Ma, Weimin; Bechta, Sevostian; Grishchenko, Dmitry


    Highlights: • Melt and water configuration effects on debris formation is studied experimentally. • Melt superheat and water subcooling are most influential compared to jet size. • Melt-water configuration and material properties influence particle fracture rate. • Results are compared with large scale experiments to study effect of spatial scales. - Abstract: Breakup of melt jet and formation of a porous debris bed at the base-mat of a flooded reactor cavity is expected during the late stages of a severe accident in light water reactors. Debris bed coolability is determined by the bed properties including particle size, morphology, bed height and shape as well as decay heat. Therefore understanding of the debris formation phenomena is important for assessment of debris bed coolability. A series of experiments was conducted in MISTEE-Jet facility by discharging binary-oxide mixtures of WO{sub 3}–Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} and WO{sub 3}–ZrO{sub 2} into water in order to investigate properties of resulting debris. The effect of water subcooling, nozzle diameter and melt superheat was addressed in the tests. Experimental results reveal significant influence of water subcooling and melt superheat on debris size and morphology. Significant differences in size and morphology of the debris at different melt release conditions is attributed to the competition between hydrodynamic fragmentation of liquid melt and thermal fracture of the solidifying melt droplets. The particle fracture rate increases with increased subcooling. Further the results are compared with the data from larger scale experiments to discern the effects of spatial scales. The present work provides data that can be useful for validation of the codes used for the prediction of debris formation phenomena.

  15. Effects of hydraulic frac fluids and formation waters on groundwater microbial communities (United States)

    Krueger, Martin; Jimenez, Nuria


    Shale gas is being considered as a complementary energy resource to other fossil fuels. Its exploitation requires using advanced drilling techniques and hydraulic stimulation (fracking). During fracking operations, large amounts of fluids (fresh water, proppants and chemicals) are injected at high pressures into the formations, to create fractures and fissures, and thus to release gas from the source rock into the wellbore. The injected fluid partly remains in the formation, while up to 40% flows back to the surface, together with reservoir waters, sometimes containing dissolved hydrocarbons, high salt concentrations, etc. The aim of our study was to investigate the potential impacts of frac or geogenic chemicals, frac fluid, formation water or flowback on groudnwater microbial communities. Laboratory experiments under in situ conditions (i.e. at in situ temperature, high pressure) were conducted using groundwater samples from three different locations. Series of microcosms containing R2 broth medium or groundwater spiked with either single frac chemicals (including biocides), frac fluids, artificial reservoir water, NaCl, or different mixtures of reservoir water and frac fluid (to simulate flowback) were incubated in the dark. Controls included non-amended and non-inoculated microcosms. Classical microbiological methods and molecular analyses were used to assess changes in the microbial abundance, community structure and function in response to the different treatments. Microbial communities were quite halotolerant and their growth benefited from low concentrations of reservoir waters or salt, but they were negatively affected by higher concentrations of formation waters, salt, biocides or frac fluids. Changes on the microbial community structure could be detected by T-RFLP. Single frac components like guar gum or choline chloride were used as substrates, while others like triethanolamine or light oil distillate hydrogenated prevented microbial growth in

  16. Formation of genotoxic compounds by medium pressure ultra violet treatment of nitrate rich water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martijn, A.J.; Boersma, M.G.; Vervoort, Jacques; Rietjens, I.; Kruithof, J.C.


    Genotoxic compounds were produced by full-scale medium pressure (MP) ultraviolet hydrogen peroxide (UV/H2O2) treatment of nitrate-rich pretreated surface water. It was hypothesized that this formation was caused by the reaction of nitrate photolysis intermediates with natural organic matter (NOM).

  17. Arsenic analysis in produced formation water (PFW) from Chinguetti FPSO in Mauritania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korytar, P.; Galiën, van der W.


    Woodside Mauritania has commissioned IMARES to organize testing of produced formation water (PFW) from Chinguetti FPSO in Mauritania for arsenic (As (III) and As (V)). This report provides the results of the testing, observations made during the sampling and discussion of the results.

  18. Effect of water unextractable solids on gluten formation and properties: Mechanistic considerations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, M.; Hamer, R.J.; Vliet, T. van; Gruppen, H.; Marseille, H.; Weegels, P.L.


    A miniaturised set-up for gluten-starch separation was used to systematically study the effect of water unextractable solids (WUS) on the formation and properties of gluten. The results showed that WUS not only have a negative effect on gluten yield, but also affect gluten and glutenin macropolymer

  19. Effect of water unextractable solids on gluten formation and properties: mechanistic consideration.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, M.; Hamer, R.J.; Vliet, van T.; Gruppen, H.; Marseille, H.; Weegels, P.L.


    A miniaturised set-up for gluten-starch separation was used to systematically study the effect of water unextractable solids (WUS) on the formation and properties of gluten. The results showed that WUS not only have a negative effect on gluten yield, but also affect gluten and glutenin macropolymer

  20. Biomarker induction in tropical fish species on the Northwest Shelf of Australia by produced formation water


    Zhu, Shiqian; King, Susan Codi; Haasch, Mary L.


    Biomarker induction in tropical fish species on the Northwest Shelf of Australia by produced formation water correspondence: Corresponding author. (Haasch, Mary L.) (Haasch, Mary L.) Environmental Toxicology Research Program, National Center for Natural Products Research, Pharmacology Department, School of Pharmacy, The University of Mississippi, University - MS. 38677--> - (Zhu, Shiqian) Australian Institute ...

  1. The Environmental Impact of Oilfield Formation Water on a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    bases industries. In Nigeria were oil exploration activities are being carried out, Formation water is one of the major pollutants of the aquatic environment ... Pollution incidents are generally monitored in a questionable manner involving measurements taken only after the occurrence of the incident (Snowden and likweozor,.

  2. Chloride waters of Great Britain revisited: from subsea formation waters to onshore geothermal fluids


    Younger, Paul L.; Boyce, Adrian J.; Waring, Andrew J.


    It has long been known that chloride-dominated saline ground waters occur at depth in the UK, not only beneath the sea but also onshore at depths of a few hundred metres. In a few places in northern England, these saline waters discharge naturally at surface in the form of springs. In recent years, however, these saline ground waters have come to be regarded as resources: as potential geothermal fluids intercepted in deep boreholes. Comparisons of the major ions and stable isotopes (δ2H, δ18O...

  3. Subarcsecond resolution observations of warm water towards three deeply embedded low-mass protostars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Magnus Vilhelm; Jørgensen, Jes Kristian; van Dishoeck, Ewine F.


    Water is present during all stages of star formation: as ice in the cold outer parts of protostellar envelopes and dense inner regions of circumstellar disks, and as gas in the envelopes close to the protostars, in the upper layers of circumstellar disks and in regions of powerful outflows and sh...

  4. 2-D and 3-D Radiation Transfer Models of High-Mass Star Formation


    Whitney, Barbara A.; Robitaille, Thomas P.; Indebetouw, Remy; Wood, Kenneth; Bjorkman, J. E.; Denzmore, Pia


    2-D and 3-D radiation transfer models of forming stars generally produce bluer 1-10 micron colors than 1-D models of the same evolutionary state and envelope mass. Therefore, 1-D models of the shortwave radiation will generally estimate a lower envelope mass and later evolutionary state than multidimensional models. 1-D models are probably reasonable for very young sources, or longwave analysis (wavelengths > 100 microns). In our 3-D models of high-mass stars in clumpy molecular clouds, we fi...

  5. Hierarchical formation of Westerlund 1: a collapsing cluster with no primordial mass segregation? (United States)

    Gennaro, Mario; Goodwin, Simon P.; Parker, Richard J.; Allison, Richard J.; Brandner, Wolfgang


    We examine the level of substructure and mass segregation in the massive, young cluster Westerlund 1. We find that it is relatively smooth, with little or no mass segregation, but with the massive stars in regions of significantly higher than average surface density. While an expanding or bouncing-back scenario for the evolution of Westerlund 1 cannot be ruled out, we argue that the most natural model to explain these observations is one in which Westerlund 1 formed with no primordial mass segregation and at a similar or larger size than we now observe.

  6. The formation of high-mass stars and stellar clusters in the extreme environment of the Central Molecular Zone (United States)

    Walker, Daniel Lewis


    The process of converting gas into stars underpins much of astrophysics, yet many fundamental questions surrounding this process remain unanswered. For example - how sensitive is star formation to the local environmental conditions? How do massive and dense stellar clusters form, and how does this crowded environment influence the stars that form within it? How do the most massive stars form and is there an upper limit to the stellar initial mass function (IMF)? Answering questions such as these is crucial if we are to construct an end-to-end model of how stars form across the full range of conditions found throughout the Universe. The research described in this thesis presents a study that utilises a multi-scale approach to identifying and characterising the early precursors to young massive clusters and high-mass proto-stars, with a specific focus on the extreme environment in the inner few hundred parsecs of the Milky Way - the Central Molecular Zone (CMZ). The primary sources of interest that are studied in detail belong to the Galactic centre dust ridge - a group of six high-mass (M 10^(4-5) Msun), dense (R 1-3 pc, n > 10^(4) cm^(-3)), and quiescent molecular clouds. These properties make these clouds ideal candidates for representing the earliest stages of high-mass star and cluster formation. The research presented makes use of single-dish and interferometric far-infrared and (sub-)millimetre observations to study their global and small-scale properties. A comparison of the known young massive clusters (YMCs) and their likely progenitors (the dust ridge clouds) in the CMZ shows that the stellar content of YMCs is much more dense and centrally concentrated than the gas in the clouds. If these clouds are truly precursors to massive clusters, the resultant stellar population would have to undergo significant dynamical evolution to reach central densities that are typical of YMCs. This suggests that YMCs in the CMZ are unlikely to form monolithically. Extending

  7. Deep-Water Shipwreck Initial Site Formation: The Equation of Site Distribution (United States)

    Church, Robert A.


    Deep-water shipwrecks and associated debris often sit on the bottom with relatively little disturbance, except for the natural bio-chemical deterioration. The distribution of shipwreck material can often be calculated mathematically as a function of heading, speed, time, and water depth. The Equation of Site Distribution is a method aimed to better understand deep-water site formation and the wrecking events themselves. With the use of a few relatively simple formulas, key elements of a site can be discovered, as well as greater insight of the overall wrecking event achieved.

  8. Impact of sea-ice formation on the properties of Antarctic bottom water


    Goosse, H.; Campin, J. M.; T. Fichefet; Deleersnijder, E.


    It is generally accepted that fresh-water fluxes due to ice accretion or melting profoundly influence the formation of Antarctic bottom water (AABW). This is investigated by means of a global, three-dimensional ice-ocean model. Two model runs were conducted. At the high southern latitudes, the control experiment exhibits positive (i.e. towards the ocean) fresh-water fluxes over the deep ocean, and large negative fluxes over the Antarctic continental shelf, because of the intense ice-productio...

  9. The Effect Of Anisotropy In Formation Permeability On The Efficiency Of Cyclic Water Flooding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Obaidi SH


    Full Text Available In oil industry one of the most worldwide used methods a among the hydrodynamic enhanced oil recovery methods is the water flooding including the cyclic water flooding. The efficiency of cyclic water flooding is affected by a number of geophysical and field technological factors. In this work and based on three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulation it is shown that anisotropy of formation permeability has significant effect on justification of the half-cycle time and the technological effectiveness of the method.

  10. Temperature Coefficient for Modeling Denitrification in Surface Water Sediments Using the Mass Transfer Coefficient (United States)

    T. W. Appelboom; G. M. Chescheir; R. W. Skaggs; J. W. Gilliam; Devendra M. Amatya


    Watershed modeling has become an important tool for researchers with the high costs of water quality monitoring. When modeling nitrate transport within drainage networks, denitrification within the sediments needs to be accounted for. Birgand et. al. developed an equation using a term called a mass transfer coefficient to mathematically describe sediment...

  11. Northeast Atlantic Late Quaternary planktic Foraminifera as primary productivity and water mass indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreveld, van S.A.


    Primary productivity and water mass reconstructions based on planktic Foraminifera reveal distinct interglacial/glacial variations for the past 208 ka in a mid-latitude Northeast Atlantic piston core. Average total planktic foraminiferal absolute frequencies and accumulation rates, which are

  12. Determination of vibration frequency depending on abrasive mass flow rate during abrasive water jet cutting

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hreha, P.; Radvanská, A.; Hloch, Sergej; Peržel, V.; Krolczyk, G.; Monková, K.


    Roč. 77, 1-4 (2014), s. 763-774 ISSN 0268-3768 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : Abrasive water jet * Abrasive mass flow rate * Vibration Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools Impact factor: 1.458, year: 2014

  13. Formation and dispersion of dense water in the western Mediterranean Sea : a focus on small scale processes (United States)

    Estournel, Claude; Marsaleix, Patrick; Ulses, Caroline


    Convection and dense shelf water formation in the western Mediterranean basin feeds thermohaline circulation through the transformation of Atlantic water into deep water masses. During the summer 2012 - summer 2013 period, a huge data set documenting the different phases of convection have been collected in the frame of the HyMeX and MerMex programs. Numerous processes have been documented from the scale of the mixed patch to the mesoscale and submesoscale. This data set is invaluable to test the ability of numerical models to reproduce these processes. This study uses the SYMPHONIE model at one-kilometer resolution at the scale of the whole western basin. The initial state of the model has been carefully prepared thanks to assimilation of temperature and salinity profiles available in the basin. In a first part, the simulation is validated during the preconditioning, convective and restratification phases. Then the dense water dispersion toward the southern part of the basin is described with an emphasis on the spatial scales of this dispersion. Submesoscale processes are highlighted through the documentation of submesoscale coherent vortices, the existence of which has been proven by observations.

  14. Determination of decamethylcyclopentasiloxane in river water and final effluent by headspace gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Sparham, Chris; Van Egmond, Roger; O'Connor, Sean; Hastie, Colin; Whelan, Mick; Kanda, Rakesh; Franklin, Oliver


    A method is described for the analysis of decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D(5)) in river water and treated waste water using headspace gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Internal standard addition to samples and field blanks was carried out in the field to provide both a measure of recovery and to prevent any exposure of samples to laboratory air, which contained background levels of D(5). Measured levels of D(5) were typically in the range River Great Ouse (UK) with slightly higher levels in the River Nene (UK). The measured concentration of D(5) in treated waste water varied between 31 and 400ngL(-1), depending on the type of treatment process employed.

  15. Water and methanol in low-mass protostellar outflows: gas-phase synthesis, ice sputtering and destruction (United States)

    Suutarinen, A. N.; Kristensen, L. E.; Mottram, J. C.; Fraser, H. J.; van Dishoeck, E. F.


    Water in outflows from protostars originates either as a result of gas-phase synthesis from atomic oxygen at T ≳ 200 K, or from sputtered ice mantles containing water ice. We aim to quantify the contribution of the two mechanisms that lead to water in outflows, by comparing observations of gas-phase water to methanol (a grain surface product) towards three low-mass protostars in NGC 1333. In doing so, we also quantify the amount of methanol destroyed in outflows. To do this, we make use of James Clerk Maxwell Telescope and Herschel-Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared data of H2O, CH3OH and CO emission lines and compare them to RADEX non-local thermodynamic equilibrium excitation simulations. We find up to one order of magnitude decrease in the column density ratio of CH3OH over H2O as the velocity increases in the line wings up to ˜15 km s-1. An independent decrease in X(CH3OH) with respect to CO of up to one order of magnitude is also found in these objects. We conclude that gas-phase formation of H2O must be active at high velocities (above 10 km s-1 relative to the source velocity) to re-form the water destroyed during sputtering. In addition, the transition from sputtered water at low velocities to form water at high velocities must be gradual. We place an upper limit of two orders of magnitude on the destruction of methanol by sputtering effects.

  16. Analysis of haloacetic acids, bromate, and dalapon in natural waters by ion chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Wu, Shimin; Anumol, Tarun; Gandhi, Jay; Snyder, Shane A


    The addition of oxidants for disinfecting water can lead to the formation of potentially carcinogenic compounds referred to as disinfection byproducts (DBPs). Haloacetic acids (HAAs) are one of the most widely detected DBPs in US water utilities and some of them are regulated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). The present study developed a method to analyze all the compounds in the USEPA method 557 (nine HAAs, bromate and dalapon) plus four potentially more toxic iodinated HAAs in water by coupling ion chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (IC-MS/MS). This aqueous direct injection method has significant advantages over traditional GC methods, which require a derivatization and sample extraction that are laborious, time-consuming, and can negatively impact reproducibility. The method developed in this study requires half the time of the current USEPA method 557 on IC-MS/MS while including more compounds and achieving sub-μg/L level method detection limits (MDLs) for all 15 target analytes. The single laboratory lowest concentration minimum reporting level (LCMRL) has also been determined in reagent water, which ranged from 0.011 to 0.62μg/L for the analytes. The mean recoveries of the analytes during matrix spike recovery tests were 77-125% in finished drinking water and 81-112% in surface water. This method was then applied to untreated, chlorinated, and chloraminated groundwater and surface water samples. Bromate and 9 HAAs were detected at different levels in some of these samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Formats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gehmann, Ulrich


    Full Text Available In the following, a new conceptual framework for investigating nowadays’ “technical” phenomena shall be introduced, that of formats. The thesis is that processes of formatting account for our recent conditions of life, and will do so in the very next future. It are processes whose foundations have been laid in modernity and which will further unfold for the time being. These processes are embedded in the format of the value chain, a circumstance making them resilient to change. In addition, they are resilient in themselves since forming interconnected systems of reciprocal causal circuits.Which leads to an overall situation that our entire “Lebenswelt” became formatted to an extent we don’t fully realize, even influencing our very percep-tion of it.

  18. Thermocline circulation and ventilation of the Japan/East Sea, part II: A source water-mass mixing (SWAM) model (United States)

    You, Yuzhu


    .10±0.34 Sv, very close to the Tsushima Current transport at 2.3-2.4 Sv observed in the KTS with a possible error of ±0.5 Sv. Additional study was carried out on a year-to-year basis to examine the temporal variability of the water-mass property and mixing for the last three quarters of the last century from 1925 to 2000. It is found that NPSW has undergone no substantial variation in most of its properties except for silicate which decreases significantly and therefore retains its open ocean characteristics. PGBW has experienced strong increase in potential temperature, salinity and oxygen and decrease in silicate. The same situation occurred to TSW except for its less significant increase in oxygen. The increase in thermocline oxygen contrasts to the oxygen decrease in deep water found in previous studies and is most likely the consequence of shallow overturning circulation under a general warming trend since weakening of potential vorticity fN2 is also detected. The temporal variability of the water-mass mixing fractions reveals a remarkable discovery—TSW was once the major contributor of the water-mass formation, mixing and transformation in the northern and western Japan Basin prior to the warming episode started in the 1950s with a high fraction of 70-80%. TSW contributed also significantly to the Ulleung and Yamato Basins at that time with a fraction of 30% and 40%, respectively, compared to 20% and 30% in 2000. It was only after the 1950 s that PGBW started to take over TSW becoming the major player in the JES thermocline circulation and ventilation till today consistent with the annual mean situation discussed above.

  19. Relaxing the formation of hypoxic bottom water with sediment microbial fuel cells. (United States)

    Touch, Narong; Hibino, Tadashi; Morimoto, Yuki; Kinjo, Nobutaka


    The method of improving bottom water environment using industrial wastes to suppress diffusion substances from bottom sediment has recently captured the attention of many researchers. In this study, wastewater discharge-derived sediment was used to examine an alternative approach involving the use of sediment microbial fuel cells (SMFCs) in relaxing the formation of hypoxic bottom water, and removing reduced substances from sediment. Concentrations of dissolved oxygen (DO) and other ions were measured in overlying water and sediment pore water with and without the application of SMFCs. The results suggest that SMFCs can markedly reduce hydrogen sulfide and manganese ion concentrations in overlying water, and decrease the depletions of redox potential and DO concentration. In addition, SMFCs can dissolve ferric compounds in the sediment and thereby release the ferric ion available to fix phosphate in the sediment. Our results indicate that SMFCs can be used as an alternative method to relax the formation of hypoxic bottom water and to remove reduced substances from the sediment, thus improving the quality of both water and sediment environments.

  20. Characterization of cumulus cloud fields using trajectories in the center of gravity versus water mass phase space: 1. Cloud tracking and phase space description: CENTER OF GRAVITY VERSUS WATER MASS 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiblum, Reuven H. [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot Israel; Altaratz, Orit [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot Israel; Koren, Ilan [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot Israel; Feingold, Graham [Chemical Sciences Division, NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory, Boulder Colorado USA; Kostinski, Alexander B. [Department of Physics, Michigan Technological University, Houghton Michigan USA; Khain, Alexander P. [The Institute of Earth Sciences, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem Israel; Ovchinnikov, Mikhail [Atmosphere Science and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Fredj, Erick [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot Israel; Dagan, Guy [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot Israel; Pinto, Lital [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot Israel; Yaish, Ricki [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot Israel; Chen, Qian [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot Israel


    We study the evolution of warm convective cloud fields using large eddy simulations of continental and trade cumulus. Individual clouds are tracked a posteriori from formation to dissipation using a 3D cloud tracking algorithm and results are presented in the phase- space of center of gravity altitude versus cloud liquid water mass (CvM space). The CvM space is shown to contain rich information on cloud field characteristics, cloud morphology, and common cloud development pathways, together facilitating a comprehensive understanding of the cloud field. In this part we show how the meteorological (thermodynamic) conditions that determine the cloud properties are projected on the CvM phase space and how changes in the initial conditions affect the clouds' trajectories in this space. This part sets the stage for a detailed microphysical analysis that will be shown in part II.

  1. Determination of bromate in drinking water by ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Alsohaimi, Ibrahim Hotan; Alothman, Zeid Abdullah; Khan, Mohammad Rizwan; Abdalla, Mohammad Abulhassan; Busquets, Rosa; Alomary, Ahmad Khodran


    Bromate is a byproduct formed as a result of disinfection of bromide-containing source water with ozone or hypochlorite. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has recognized bromate as a possible human carcinogen, thus it is essential to determine in drinking water. Present work highlights a development of sensitive and fast analytical method for bromate determination in drinking water by using ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The quality parameters of the developed method were established, obtaining very low limit of detection (0.01 ng/mL), repeatability and reproducibility have been found to be less than 3% in terms of relative standard deviation when analyzing a bromate standard at 0.05 μg/mL with 0.4 min analysis time. Developed method was applied for the analysis of metropolitan and bottled water from Saudi Arabia; 22 samples have been analyzed. Bromate was detected in the metropolitan water samples (from desalinization source) at concentrations ranging between 3.43 and 75.04 ng/mL and in the bottled water samples at concentrations ranging between 2.07 and 21.90 ng/mL. Moreover, in comparison to established analytical methods such as liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, the proposed method was found to be very sensitive, selective and rapid for the routine analysis of bromate at low level in drinking water. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Formation of millisecond pulsars with low-mass helium white dwarf companions in very compact binaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Kun; Li, X.-D., E-mail: [Department of Astronomy, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)


    Binary millisecond pulsars (BMSPs) are thought to have evolved from low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs). If the mass transfer in LMXBs is driven by nuclear evolution of the donor star, the final orbital period is predicted to be well correlated with the mass of the white dwarf (WD), which is the degenerate He core of the donor. Here we show that this relation can be extended to very small WD mass (∼0.14-0.17 M {sub ☉}) and narrow orbital period (about a few hours), depending mainly on the metallicities of the donor stars. There is also discontinuity in the relation, which is due to the temporary contraction of the donor when the H-burning shell crosses the hydrogen discontinuity. BMSPs with low-mass He WD companions in very compact binaries can be accounted for if the progenitor binary experienced very late Case A mass transfer. The WD companion of PSR J1738+0333 is likely to evolve from a Pop II star. For PSR J0348+0432, to explain its extreme compact orbit in the Roche-lobe-decoupling phase, even lower metallicity (Z = 0.0001) is required.

  3. Sensitive determination of bromate in ozonated and chlorinated water, and sea water by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after derivatization. (United States)

    Shin, Ho-Sang


    A sensitive gas chromatographic method has been established for the determination of bromate in ozonated and chlorinated water, and in sea water. With acidic conditions, bromate reacts with chloride to form bromine, which reacts with 2,6-dialkylphenol to form 4-bromo-2,6-dialkylphenol. The organic derivative was extracted with ethyl acetate after quenching remaining oxidants with ascorbic acid, and then measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The lowest detection limit and limit of quantification of bromate in drinking water were 0.02 and 0.07 μg/L, respectively, and the calibration curve showed good linearity with r²=0.998. The 32 common ions did not interfere even when present in 100-fold excess over the bromated ion. The accuracy was in a range of 102-106% and the precision of the assay was less than 6% in chlorinated and ozonated tap water, ozonated mineral water, and sea water. The method was sensitive, reproducible and simple enough to permit reliable analysis of bromate to the ng/L level in water. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The Constant Average Relationship between Dust-obscured Star Formation and Stellar Mass from z = 0 to z = 2.5 (United States)

    Whitaker, Katherine E.; Pope, Alexandra; Cybulski, Ryan; Casey, Caitlin M.; Popping, Gergö; Yun, Min S.


    The total star formation budget of galaxies consists of the sum of the unobscured star formation, as observed in the rest-frame ultraviolet (UV), together with the obscured component that is absorbed and re-radiated by dust grains in the infrared. We explore how the fraction of obscured star formation depends on stellar mass for mass-complete samples of galaxies at 0Legacy Survey (CANDELS) fields. We find a strong dependence of the fraction of obscured star formation (f obscured = SFRIR/SFRUV+IR) on stellar mass, with remarkably little evolution in this fraction with redshift out to z = 2.5. 50% of star formation is obscured for galaxies with log(M/M ⊙) = 9.4 although unobscured star formation dominates the budget at lower masses, there exists a tail of low-mass, extremely obscured star-forming galaxies at z> 1. For log(M/M ⊙) > 10.5, >90% of star formation is obscured at all redshifts. We also show that at fixed total SFR, {f}{obscured} is lower at higher redshift. At fixed mass, high-redshift galaxies are observed to have more compact sizes and much higher star formation rates, gas fractions, and hence surface densities (implying higher dust obscuration), yet we observe no redshift evolution in {f}{obscured} with stellar mass. This poses a challenge to theoretical models, where the observed compact sizes at high redshift seem in tension with lower dust obscuration.

  5. Biofilm formation and control in a simulated spacecraft water system - Interim results (United States)

    Schultz, John R.; Taylor, Robert D.; Flanagan, David T.; Gibbons, Randall E.; Brown, Harlan D.; Sauer, Richard L.


    The ability of iodine to control microbial contamination and biofilm formation in spacecraft water distribution systems is studied using two stainless steel water subsystems. One subsystem has an iodine level of 2.5 mg/L maintained by an iodinated ion-exchange resin. The other subsystem has no iodine added. Stainless steel coupons are removed from each system to monitor biofilm formation. Results from the first six months of operation indicate that 2.5 mg/L of iodine has limited the number of viable bacteria that can be recovered from the iodinated subsystem. Epifluorescence microscopy of the coupons taken from this subsystem, however, indicates some evidence of microbial colonization after 15 weeks of operation. Numerous bacteria have been continually removed from both the water samples and the coupons taken from the noniodinated subsystem after only 3 weeks of operation.

  6. How to Detect Inclined Water Maser Disks (and Possibly Measure Black Hole Masses)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darling, Jeremy, E-mail: [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, 389 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309-0389 (United States)


    We describe a method for identifying inclined water maser disks orbiting massive black holes and for potentially using them to measure black hole masses. Owing to the geometry of maser amplification pathways, the minority of water maser disks are observable: only those viewed nearly edge-on have been identified, suggesting that an order of magnitude additional maser disks exist. We suggest that inward-propagating masers are gravitationally deflected by the central black hole, thereby scattering water maser emission out of the disk plane and enabling detection. The signature of an inclined water maser disk would be narrow masers near the systemic velocity that appear to emit from the black hole position, as identified by the radio continuum core. To explore this possibility, we present high-resolution (0.″07–0.″17) Very Large Array line and continuum observations of 13 galaxies with narrow water maser emission and show that three are good inclined-disk candidates (five remain ambiguous). For the best case, CGCG 120−039, we show that the maser and continuum emission are coincident to within 3.5 ± 1.4 pc (6.7 ± 2.7 mas). Subsequent very long baseline interferometric maps can confirm candidate inclined disks and have the potential to show maser rings or arcs that provide a direct measurement of black hole mass, although the mass precision will rely on knowledge of the size of the maser disk.

  7. Hydrogeochemical signatures of thermal springs compared to deep formation water of North Germany (United States)

    Bozau, Elke; van Berk, Wolfgang


    Thermal springs and hot deep formation waters can be used for geothermal energy production. Depending on the chemical composition of the used waters, geothermal power plants have to deal with scaling and corrosion effects. Therefore, the understanding of the hydrogeochemical behaviour of such waters can be helpful to enhance the efficiency of the energy production. This study is comparing hydrogeochemical characteristics of thermal springs in the Harz Mountains (North Germany) and deep formation water of the North German Basin. The Harz Mountains consist of uplifted Palaeozoic rocks, whereas the North German Basin consists of sedimentary layers of Permian, Mesozoic and Cenozoic age. Volcanic rocks are included in the Permian layers. The thickness of the sedimentary basin varies between 2 km and more than 8 km. The deep aquifers of the North German Basin are mostly not involved in the recent meteoric water cycle. Their waters have contents of Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) up to about 400 g/L. Thermal springs of the Harz Mountains are situated close to the main fracture system of the region. These springs are connected to the meteoric water cycle and display lower contents of TDS (Harz Mountains and the North German Basin. The concentrations of calcium, sodium, and chloride differ due to salt dissolution and feldspar transformation (albitisation) in the thermal springs as well as in the deep formation waters. Based on today's knowledge hydrochemical and stratigraphical data from the North German Basin can be used to elucidate the geological origin of the thermal springs in the Harz Mountains. Acknowledgements. The presented data are results of the collaborative research program "gebo" (Geothermal energy and high performance drilling), financed by the Ministry of Science and Culture of the State of Lower Saxony and the company Baker Hughes.

  8. Total Land Water Storage Change over 2003 - 2013 Estimated from a Global Mass Budget Approach (United States)

    Dieng, H. B.; Champollion, N.; Cazenave, A.; Wada, Y.; Schrama, E.; Meyssignac, B.


    We estimate the total land water storage (LWS) change between 2003 and 2013 using a global water mass budget approach. Hereby we compare the ocean mass change (estimated from GRACE space gravimetry on the one hand, and from the satellite altimetry-based global mean sea level corrected for steric effects on the other hand) to the sum of the main water mass components of the climate system: glaciers, Greenland and Antarctica ice sheets, atmospheric water and LWS (the latter being the unknown quantity to be estimated). For glaciers and ice sheets, we use published estimates of ice mass trends based on various types of observations covering different time spans between 2003 and 2013. From the mass budget equation, we derive a net LWS trend over the study period. The mean trend amounts to +0.30 +/- 0.18 mm/yr in sea level equivalent. This corresponds to a net decrease of -108 +/- 64 cu km/yr in LWS over the 2003-2013 decade. We also estimate the rate of change in LWS and find no significant acceleration over the study period. The computed mean global LWS trend over the study period is shown to be explained mainly by direct anthropogenic effects on land hydrology, i.e. the net effect of groundwater depletion and impoundment of water in man-made reservoirs, and to a lesser extent the effect of naturally-forced land hydrology variability. Our results compare well with independent estimates of human-induced changes in global land hydrology.

  9. Formation and modeling of disinfection by-products in drinking water of six cities in China. (United States)

    Ye, Bixiong; Wang, Wuyi; Yang, Linsheng; Wei, Jianrong; E, Xueli


    Water quality parameters including TOC, UV(254), pH, chlorine dosage, bromide concentration and disinfection by-products were measured in water samples from 41 water treatment plants of six selected cities in China. Chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, dichloroacetic acid and trichloroacetic acid were the major disinfection by-products in the drinking water of China. Bromoform and dibromoacetic acid were also detected in many water samples. Higher concentrations of trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids were measured in summer compared to winter. The geographical variations in DBPs showed that TTHM levels were higher in Zhengzhou and Tianjin than other selected cities. And the HAA5 levels were highest in Changsha and Tianjin. The modeling procedure that predicts disinfection by-products formation was studied and developed using artificial neural networks. The performance of the artificial neural networks model was excellent (r > 0.84).

  10. Spray formation of biodiesel-water in air-assisted atomizer using Schlieren photography (United States)

    Amirnordin, S. H.; Khalid, A.; Sapit, A.; Salleh, H.; Razali, A.; Fawzi, M.


    Biodiesels are attractive renewable energy sources, particularly for industrial boiler and burner operators. However, biodiesels produce higher nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions compared with diesel. Although water-emulsified fuels can lower NOx emissions by reducing flame temperature, its influence on atomization needs to be investigated further. This study investigates the effects of water on spray formation in air-assisted atomizers. The Schlieren method was used to capture the spray images in terms of tip penetration, spray angle, and spray area. The experiment used palm oil biodiesel at different blending ratios (B5, B10, and B15) and water contents (0vol%-15vol%). Results show that water content in the fuel increases the spray penetration and area but reduces the spray angle because of the changes in fuel properties. Therefore, biodiesel-water application is applicable to burner systems.

  11. Diffusive-dispersive mass transfer in the capillary fringe: Impact of water table fluctuations and heterogeneities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grathwohl, Peter; Haberer, Cristina; Ye, Yu

    and the dispersion coefficients are the same as below the water table. Water table fluctuations cause temporarily increased fluxes of oxygen into groundwater during draining conditions and entrapped air after water table rise. High-permeability inclusions in the capillary fringe enhance mass transfer of oxygen......Diffusive–dispersive mass transfer in the capillary fringe is important for many groundwater quality issues such as transfer of volatile compounds into (and out of) the groundwater, the supply of oxygen for aerobic degradation of hydrocarbons as well as for precipitation of minerals (e.g. iron...... to the underlying anoxic groundwater by increased dispersion due to flow focusing and by significant air trapping in the coarse material inclusions....

  12. Observation of water molecules bound to a protein using cold-spray ionization mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Sei, Yoshihisa; Shimotakahara, Sakurako; Ishii, Juri; Shindo, Heisaburo; Seki, Hiroko; Yamaguchi, Kentaro; Tashiro, Mitsuru


    The characterization of water molecules bound to ribonuclease T1 (RNase T1) was carried out using cold-spray ionization mass spectrometry (CSI-MS). CSI-MS is a variant of electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) operating at low temperature, and is particularly suitable for investigating the weaker molecular associations, since the temperature at the spray interface is much lower than that in the conventional ESI-MS. In this approach, ion peaks due to the addition of nine water molecules were identified at a spray temperature of 48 degrees C. This result showed good agreement with that inferred by the combinational analysis of NMR and X-ray crystallography, indicating that CSI-MS is capable of rapidly providing reliable information to characterize the number of water molecules bound to a macromolecule.

  13. Relating Ctenophore Population to Water Mass Indices in the Northeast U.S. Continental Shelf Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Sparks


    Full Text Available Ctenophores exist throughout the Northeast U.S. Continental Shelf Ecosystem, but the underlying mechanisms that control ctenophore populations at this scale are not clear. Ctenophore population data over the last 30 years coincides with changes in several water masses on the shelf, but discovering which water mass was most influential was problematic without mechanistic clarity. This paper strives to identify the relationship between oceanography and ctenophore populations over the last 30 years. Using a numerical modeling approach, we found a strong relationship between the North Atlantic Oscillation index, percent Labrador Subarctic Slope Water, and ctenophore population. We suggest these results might inform future efforts to develop a predictive capability for major changes in ctenophore population.

  14. Upper Arctic Ocean water masses harbor distinct communities of heterotrophic flagellates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Monier


    Full Text Available The ubiquity of heterotrophic flagellates (HFL in marine waters has been recognized for several decades, but the phylogenetic diversity of these small (ca. 0.8–20 μm cell diameter, mostly phagotrophic protists in the upper pelagic zone of the ocean is underappreciated. Community composition of microbes, including HFL, is the result of past and current environmental selection, and different taxa may be indicative of food webs that cycle carbon and energy very differently. While all oceanic water columns can be density stratified due to the temperature and salinity characteristics of different water masses, the Arctic Ocean is particularly well stratified, with nutrients often limiting in surface waters and most photosynthetic biomass confined to a subsurface chlorophyll maximum layer, where light and nutrients are both available. This physically well-characterized system provided an opportunity to explore the community diversity of HFL from different water masses within the water column. We used high-throughput DNA sequencing techniques as a rapid means of surveying the diversity of HFL communities in the southern Beaufort Sea (Canada, targeting the surface, the subsurface chlorophyll maximum layer (SCM and just below the SCM. In addition to identifying major clades and their distribution, we explored the micro-diversity within the globally significant but uncultivated clade of marine stramenopiles (MAST-1 to examine the possibility of niche differentiation within the stratified water column. Our results strongly suggested that HFL community composition was determined by water mass rather than geographical location across the Beaufort Sea. Future work should focus on the biogeochemical and ecological repercussions of different HFL communities in the face of climate-driven changes to the physical structure of the Arctic Ocean.

  15. WISHes coming true: water in low-mass star-forming regions with Herschel (United States)

    Kristensen, L. E.; Visser, R.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Yıldız, U. A.; Herczeg, G. J.; Doty, S.; Jørgensen, J. K.; van Kempen, T. A.; Brinch, C.; Wampfler, S.; Bruderer, S.; Benz, A. O.


    Water is a key molecule for tracing physical and chemical processes in star-forming regions. The key program "Water in star-forming regions with Herschel" is observing several water transitions towards low-mass protostars with HIFI. Results regarding the 557 GHz transition of water are reported here showing that the line is surprisingly broad, and consists of several different velocity components. The bulk of the emission comes from shocks, where the abundance is increased by several orders of magnitude to ~10-4. The abundance of water in the outer envelope is determined to ~10-8, whereas only an upper limit of 10-5 is derived for the inner, warm envelope.

  16. Effect of bromide in a surface water intake on the formation of brominated trihalomethanes at a public water system treatment plant (United States)

    This project is a collaborative drinking water research study. EPA is evaluating water samples collected by PWS operators in order to investigate relationships between bromide in source water and the formation of brominated DBPs in finished drinking water. This study will includ...

  17. Coupling of North Pacific Productivity, Beringian Precipitation, and Antarctic Bottom Water Formation: an Atmospheric Link? (United States)

    Caissie, B.; Wilkie, K. M. K.


    Changes in primary productivity in the North Pacific occur on a variety of timescales from seasonal to orbital. A prime indicator of this productivity is expressed as laminated intervals deposited simultaneously in intermediate-depth waters across the North Pacific and its marginal seas at Glacial Terminations. Debate continues regarding the mechanism that triggered this anoxia in the North Pacific. Some argue for a change in intermediate water ventilation, and others for simply an increase in primary productivity. While little evidence has been found for a change in ventilation of intermediate waters, primary productivity increased dramatically at Terminations. However, the cause of this primary productivity is currently unknown. Some have suggested increasing aeolian iron deposition, increasing nutrient input due to rising sea level, or changes in stratification. Here we show that although there is no change in intermediate water ventilation during laminated intervals, there is a significant change in the rate of Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) Formation. We use new diatom records from the Bering Sea and previously published sediment records from the South Pacific and Lake El'gygytgyn, Russia to show that AABW formation is coupled with primary productivity in the North Pacific and terrestrial precipitation in Beringia. During three interglacials (MIS 1, MIS 5, and MIS 11), primary productivity, driven by increased upwelling, is high when AABW formation is high. This increased upwelling in turn increases the open water area of the Bering Sea, pushes sea ice farther north and increases moisture supply to the Beringian continent. At peak interglacials, productivity in the North Pacific and Beringian temperatures decrease simultaneously with a decrease in AABW formation. We attribute these changes to large-scale atmospheric climate modes linking changes in the strength and position of the Aleutian Low to upwelling of nutrient-rich waters in the North Pacific and Bering

  18. Basal melt, seasonal water mass transformation, ocean current variability, and deep convection processes along the Amery Ice Shelf calving front, East Antarctica} (United States)

    Herraiz Borreguero, Laura; Church, John A.; Alison, Ian; Peña Molino, Beatriz; Coleman, Richard; Tomczak, Mathias; Craven, Mike


    Despite the Amery Ice Shelf (AIS) being the third largest ice shelf in Antarctica, the seasonal variability of the physical processes involved in the AIS-ocean interaction remains undocumented and a robust observational, oceanographic-based basal melt rate estimate has been lacking. Here we use year-long time series of water column temperature, salinity, and horizontal velocities measured along the ice shelf front from 2001 to 2002. Our results show strong zonal variations in the distribution of water masses along the ice shelf front: modified Circumpolar Deep Water (mCDW) arrives in the east, while in the west, Ice Shelf Water (ISW) and Dense Shelf Water (DSW) formed in the Mackenzie polynya dominate the water column. Baroclinic eddies, formed during winter deep convection (down to 1100 m), drive the inflow of DSW into the ice shelf cavity. Our net basal melt rate estimate is 57.4±25.3 Gt yr?1 (1±0.4 m yr?1), larger than previous modeling-based and glaciological-based estimates, and results from the inflow of DSW (0.52±0.38 Sv; 1 Sv=106 m3 s?1) and mCDW (0.22±0.06 Sv) into the cavity. Our results highlight the role of the Mackenzie polynya in the seasonal exchange of water masses across the ice shelf front, and the role of the ISW in controlling the formation rate and thermohaline properties of DSW. These two processes directly impact on the ice shelf mass balance, and on the contribution of DSW/ISW to the formation of Antarctic Bottom Water.

  19. Trihalomethane formation potential in treated water supplies in urban metro city. (United States)

    Hasan, Aziz; Thacker, Neeta Pradip; Bassin, Jagdish


    Trihalomethane (THM) formation potential (TFP) is very useful test to assess the level of the formation of trihalomethanes in worst case scenario. Organics in water have the potential to generate harmful disinfection by-products (DBPs) such as THMs, as a result of their reaction with disinfectant chlorine used in drinking water. DBPs are increasingly recognized as cancerous agents. TFP of postchlorinated treated water were investigated at six water treatment plants (WTPs) in Delhi City (India). The present paper presents the current trends of TFP so that prevention and control measures can be initiated by the regulating agencies responsible for drinking water supply. Liquid-liquid extraction method, followed by qualitative and quantitative estimation by gas chromatograph equipped with electron capture detector, had been used for the determination of THMs in water samples collected at the outlet just before supplying to the consumers during 2000-2007. The TFP values from 2004 onward of all WTPs did not exceed the WHO guideline value of

  20. Transient turbid water mass reduces temperature-induced coral bleaching and mortality in Barbados. (United States)

    Oxenford, Hazel A; Vallès, Henri


    Global warming is seen as one of the greatest threats to the world's coral reefs and, with the continued rise in sea surface temperature predicted into the future, there is a great need for further understanding of how to prevent and address the damaging impacts. This is particularly so for countries whose economies depend heavily on healthy reefs, such as those of the eastern Caribbean. Here, we compare the severity of bleaching and mortality for five dominant coral species at six representative reef sites in Barbados during the two most significant warm-water events ever recorded in the eastern Caribbean, i.e., 2005 and 2010, and describe prevailing island-scale sea water conditions during both events. In so doing, we demonstrate that coral bleaching and subsequent mortality were considerably lower in 2010 than in 2005 for all species, irrespective of site, even though the anomalously warm water temperature profiles were very similar between years. We also show that during the 2010 event, Barbados was engulfed by a transient dark green turbid water mass of riverine origin coming from South America. We suggest that reduced exposure to high solar radiation associated with this transient water mass was the primary contributing factor to the lower bleaching and mortality observed in all corals. We conclude that monitoring these episodic mesoscale oceanographic features might improve risk assessments of southeastern Caribbean reefs to warm-water events in the future.

  1. Direct Analysis and Quantification of Metaldehyde in Water using Reactive Paper Spray Mass Spectrometry (United States)

    Maher, Simon; Jjunju, Fred P. M.; Damon, Deidre E.; Gorton, Hannah; Maher, Yosef S.; Syed, Safaraz U.; Heeren, Ron M. A.; Young, Iain S.; Taylor, Stephen; Badu-Tawiah, Abraham K.


    Metaldehyde is extensively used worldwide as a contact and systemic molluscicide for controlling slugs and snails in a wide range of agricultural and horticultural crops. Contamination of surface waters due to run-off, coupled with its moderate solubility in water, has led to increased concentration of the pesticide in the environment. In this study, for the first time, rapid analysis (residues in water is demonstrated using paper spray mass spectrometry (PS-MS). The observed precursor molecular ions of metaldehyde were confirmed from tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) experiments by studying the fragmentation patterns produced via collision-induced dissociation. The signal intensity ratios of the most abundant MS/MS transitions for metaldehyde (177 → 149 for protonated ion) and atrazine (221 → 179) were found to be linear in the range 0.01 to 5 ng/mL. Metaldehyde residues were detectable in environmental water samples at low concentration (LOD 0.99, without any pre-concentration/separation steps. This result is of particular importance for environmental monitoring and water quality analysis providing a potential means of rapid screening to ensure safe drinking water.

  2. Observing water in low-mass proto-stellar outflows: the case of L1448 (United States)

    Santangelo, G.; Nisini, B.; Antoniucci, S.; Giannini, T.; Benedettini, M.; Codella, C.; Liseau, R.; Lorenzani, A.; Tafalla, M.; Vasta, M.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Kristensen, L.


    We will present Herschel observations of water emission towards the outflow driven by the L1448 low-mass proto-stellar system, located in the Perseus cloud (d=300 pc). This outflow has been mapped with the PACS and HIFI instruments, in the 557 GHz and 1670 GHz water lines, as part of the WISH (Water In Star-forming regions with Herschel) key project. Two bright shock spots along the outflow have been also observed in an additional set of ortho and para water lines having different excitation conditions. We present here the obtained maps, in comparison with the maps of other shock tracers, such as CO and SiO, discussing how water appears unique in tracing gas components at intermediate radial velocities (10-40 km/s). We will also discuss the analysis performed on the HIFI observations in the two shock spots, showing strong variations in the excitation as a function of velocity and strong chemical differences among the two investigated positions. These observations thus proved how water is a unique and crucial molecule for our understanding of the physical and chemical conditions in outflows driven by low-mass proto-stars.

  3. Mass and energy deposition effects of implanted ions on solid sodium formate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Xiangqin E-mail:; Shao Chunlin; Yao Jianming; Yu Zengliang


    Solid sodium formate was implanted by low energy N{sup +}, H{sup +}, and Ar{sup +} ions. Measured with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR), it was observed that new -CH{sub 2}-, -CH{sub 3}- groups and COO{sup -} radical ion were produced in the implanted sodium formate. Analyzing with the highly sensitive ninhydrin reaction, it was found that a new -NH{sub 2} functional group was formed upon N{sup +} ion implantation, and its yield increased along with implantation dose but decreased with the ion's energy.

  4. Investigating the role of biofilms in trihalomethane formation in water distribution systems with a multicomponent model. (United States)

    Abokifa, Ahmed A; Yang, Y Jeffrey; Lo, Cynthia S; Biswas, Pratim


    Biofilms are ubiquitous in the pipes of drinking water distribution systems (DWDSs), and recent experimental studies revealed that the chlorination of the microbial carbon associated with the biofilm contributes to the total disinfection by-products (DBPs) formation with distinct mechanisms from those formed from precursors derived from natural organic matter (NOM). A multiple species reactive-transport model was developed to explain the role of biofilms in DBPs formation by accounting for the simultaneous transport and interactions of disinfectants, organic compounds, and biomass. Using parameter values from experimental studies in the literature, the model equations were solved to predict chlorine decay and microbial regrowth dynamics in an actual DWDS, and trihalomethanes (THMs) formation in a pilot-scale distribution system simulator. The model's capability of reproducing the measured concentrations of free chlorine, suspended biomass, and THMs under different hydrodynamic and temperature conditions was demonstrated. The contribution of bacteria-derived precursors to the total THMs production was found to have a significant dependence on the system's hydraulics, seasonal variables, and the quality of the treated drinking water. Under system conditions that promoted fast bacterial re-growth, the transformation of non-microbial into microbial carbon DBP precursors by the biofilms showed a noticeable effect on the kinetics of THMs formation, especially when a high initial chlorine dose was applied. These conditions included elevated water temperature and high concentrations of nutrients in the influent water. The fraction of THMs formed from microbial sources was found to reach a peak of 12% of the total produced THMs under the investigated scenarios. The results demonstrated the importance of integrating bacterial regrowth dynamics in predictive DBPs formation models. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Isotopic mass-dependence of metal cation diffusion coefficients in liquid water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourg, I.C.; Richter, F.M.; Christensen, J.N.; Sposito, G.


    Isotope distributions in natural systems can be highly sensitive to the mass (m) dependence of solute diffusion coefficients (D) in liquid water. Isotope geochemistry studies routinely have assumed that this mass dependence either is negligible (as predicted by hydrodynamic theories) or follows a kinetic-theory-like inverse square root relationship (D {proportional_to} m{sup -0.5}). However, our recent experimental results and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations showed that the mass dependence of D is intermediate between hydrodynamic and kinetic theory predictions (D {proportional_to} m{sup -{beta}} with 0 {<=} {beta} < 0.2 for Li{sup +}, Cl{sup -}, Mg{sup 2+}, and the noble gases). In this paper, we present new MD simulations and experimental results for Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Cs{sup +}, and Ca{sup 2+} that confirm the generality of the inverse power-law relation D {proportional_to} m{sup -{beta}}. Our new findings allow us to develop a general description of the influence of solute valence and radius on the mass dependence of D for monatomic solutes in liquid water. This mass dependence decreases with solute radius and with the magnitude of solute valence. Molecular-scale analysis of our MD simulation results reveals that these trends derive from the exponent {beta} being smallest for those solutes whose motions are most strongly coupled to solvent hydrodynamic modes.

  6. Influence of relative air/water flow velocity on oxygen mass transfer in gravity sewers. (United States)

    Carrera, Lucie; Springer, Fanny; Lipeme-Kouyi, Gislain; Buffiere, Pierre


    Problems related to hydrogen sulfide may be serious for both network stakeholders and the public in terms of health, sustainability of the sewer structure and urban comfort. H2S emission models are generally theoretical and simplified in terms of environmental conditions. Although air transport characteristics in sewers must play a role in the fate of hydrogen sulfide, only a limited number of studies have investigated this issue. The aim of this study was to better understand H2S liquid to gas transfer by highlighting the link between the mass transfer coefficient and the turbulence in the air flow and the water flow. For experimental safety reasons, O2 was taken as a model compound. The oxygen mass transfer coefficients were obtained using a mass balance in plug flow. The mass transfer coefficient was not impacted by the range of the interface air-flow velocity values tested (0.55-2.28 m·s-1) or the water velocity values (0.06-0.55 m·s-1). Using the ratio between kL,O2 to kL,H2S, the H2S mass transfer behavior in a gravity pipe in the same hydraulic conditions can be predicted.

  7. Modulation of ZnO film thickness and formation of water-hyacinth nanostructure (United States)

    Gunasekaran, Ezhilarasan; Shankar, Prabakaran; Mani, Ganesh Kumar; Bosco Balaguru Rayappan, John


    The influence of precursor medium was investigated on the structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties of spray pyrolysis deposited nanostructured ZnO thin films. Three batches of ZnO thin films were deposited on glass substrates using three different solvents (water, water-ethanol [ratio of 1:1] and ethanol) based precursor solution of zinc nitrate hexahydrate. The substrate temperature was fixed at 523 K. The variation in film thickness from 150 to 875 nm was observed as the effect of changing solvent medium. X-ray diffraction (XRD) data confirmed the formation of polycrystalline ZnO thin films with hexagonal wurtzite crystallite structure and the estimated crystallite size was found to be ranging from 31 to 55 nm. Scanning electron micrographs revealed the formation of water-hyacinth shaped nanostructures when water-ethanol mixture was used as the solvent medium. Interestingly, UV-vis spectrophotometer revealed the formation of ZnO film with twin optical band gap of 3.15 eV and 3.56 eV when ethanol was used as the solvent medium. The modulation of film thickness and grain size by solvent medium has strongly influenced the electrical conductivity of ZnO thin films. The homogenous nano-spherical grains with uniform grain boundaries showed a good response towards 100 ppm of ammonia at room temperature.

  8. Multiple linear regression modeling of disinfection by-products formation in Istanbul drinking water reservoirs. (United States)

    Uyak, Vedat; Ozdemir, Kadir; Toroz, Ismail


    Oxidation of raw water with chlorine results in formation of trihalomethanes (THM) and haloacetic acids (HAA). Factors affecting their concentrations have been found to be organic matter type and concentration, pH, temperature, chlorine dose, contact time and bromide concentration, but the mechanisms of their formation are still under investigation. Within this scope, chlorination experiments have been conducted with water reservoirs from Terkos, Buyukcekmece and Omerli lakes, Istanbul, with different water quality regarding bromide concentration and organic matter content. The factors studied were pH, contact time, chlorine dose, and specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA). The determination of disinfection by-products (DBP) was carried out by gas chromatography techniques. Statistical analysis of the results was focused on the development of multiple regression models for predicting the concentrations of total THM and total HAA based on the use of pH, contact time, chlorine dose, and SUVA. The developed models provided satisfactory estimations of the concentrations of the DBP and the model regression coefficients of THM and HAA are 0.88 and 0.61, respectively. Further, the Durbin-Watson values confirm the reliability of the two models. The results indicate that under these experimental conditions which indicate the variations of pH, chlorine dosages, contact time, and SUVA values, the formation of THM and HAA in water can be described by the multiple linear regression technique.

  9. Assessment of scale formation and corrosion of drinking water supplies in Ilam city (Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zabihollah Yousefi


    Full Text Available Background: Scaling and corrosion are the two most important indexes in water quality evaluation. Pollutants are released in water due to corrosion of pipelines. The aim of this study is to assess the scale formation and corrosion of drinking water supplies in Ilam city (Iran. Methods: This research is a descriptive and cross-sectional study which is based on the 20 drinking water sources in Ilam city. Experiments were carried out in accordance with the Water and Wastewater Co. standard methods for water and wastewater experiment. The data were analyzed by using Microsoft Excel and GraphPad Prism 5. The results were compared with national and international standards. Results: The mean and standard deviation (SD values of Ryznar, Langelier, Aggressive, Puckorius and Larson-Skold indices in year 2009 were equal to 7.833 (±0.28, -0.102 (±0.35, 11.88 (±0.34, 7.481 (±0.22 and 0.801 (±0.44, respectively, and were 7.861 (±0.28, -0.175 (±0.34, 11.84 (±0.37, 7.298(±0.32 and 0.633 (±0.47, for year 2013 respectively. The average of Langelier, Ryznar, Aggression, and Puckorius indices indicate that potable water resources in Ilam city have the tendency to be corrosive. Statistical analysis and figures carried out by GraphPad Prism version 5.04. Conclusion: The results of different indices for water resources of Ilam city revealed that water supplies of Ilam city were corrosive. Water quality control and replacement of distribution pipes in development of water network should be carried out. Moreover, water pipelines should be preserved with several modes of corrosion inhibition.

  10. Water mass stability reconstructions from greenhouse (Eocene) to icehouse (Oligocene) for the northern Gulf Coast continental shelf (USA) (United States)

    Kobashi, Takuro; Grossman, Ethan L.; Dockery, David T.; Ivany, Linda C.


    Shallow water mass characteristics such as temperature and density profile play a critical role in the climate system. We have developed a new method by which to reconstruct the ancient shallow water mass stability on the continental shelf using oxygen isotope variation within mollusc shells and fish otoliths and applied the method to an important interval in Earth history, the most recent transition from Greenhouse (Eocene) to Icehouse (Oligocene) climate modes. We define the slope of summer temperature (density) versus the seasonal range in temperature (density) as an indicator of water mass stability. In addition, extrapolation of the regression to zero seasonality is a proxy for temperature at the bottom of the seasonal thermocline (TBST). During the greenhouse world (the early Eocene and middle Eocene) the water mass plot shows an unstable water mass, agreeing with previous planktonic foraminiferal studies showing that temperature gradients at this time were much smaller than at present. During the middle to late Eocene transition, a substantial increase in water mass stability occurred. Significant cooling (˜5°C) of the TBST at this transition indicates that the greater cooling of deeper water relative to surface water caused the increase in water mass stability. The changes in water column structure at this transition were the most likely cause of a major extinction of planktonic foraminifera from warm to cold water taxa. The late Eocene T-ΔT profile is very similar to modern profiles, suggesting that shallow water mass structure became similar to that of the modern Gulf Coastal shelf by the late Eocene. At the Eocene/Oligocene (E/O) boundary, no major change in water mass structure is identified. This agrees with the observation that no major extinction of planktonic foraminifera is found at the E/O boundary.

  11. Ambipolar diffusion in low-mass star formation. I. General comparison with the ideal MHD case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masson, Jacques; Chabrier, Gilles; Hennebelle, Patrick


    braking processes, allowing the formation of disk structures. Magnetically supported outflows launched in ideal MHD models are weakened when using non-ideal MHD. Contrary to ideal MHD misalignment between the initial rotation axis and the magnetic field direction does not significantly affect the results...

  12. Mathematical Modeling of Non-Fickian Diffusional Mass Exchange of Radioactive Contaminants in Geological Disposal Formations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Suzuki


    Full Text Available Deep geological repositories for nuclear wastes consist of both engineered and natural geologic barriers to isolate the radioactive material from the human environment. Inappropriate repositories of nuclear waste would cause severe contamination to nearby aquifers. In this complex environment, mass transport of radioactive contaminants displays anomalous behaviors and often produces power-law tails in breakthrough curves due to spatial heterogeneities in fractured rocks, velocity dispersion, adsorption, and decay of contaminants, which requires more sophisticated models beyond the typical advection-dispersion equation. In this paper, accounting for the mass exchange between a fracture and a porous matrix of complex geometry, the universal equation of mass transport within a fracture is derived. This equation represents the generalization of the previously used models and accounts for anomalous mass exchange between a fracture and porous blocks through the introduction of the integral term of convolution type and fractional derivatives. This equation can be applied for the variety of processes taking place in the complex fractured porous medium, including the transport of radioactive elements. The Laplace transform method was used to obtain the solution of the fractional diffusion equation with a time-dependent source of radioactive contaminant.

  13. Formation of truncated proteins and high-molecular-mass aggregates upon soft illumination of photosynthetic proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rinalducci, Sara; Campostrini, Natascia; Antonioli, Paolo


    Different spot profiles were observed in 2D gel electrophoresis of thylakoid membranes performed either under complete darkness or by leaving the sample for a short time to low visible light. In the latter case, a large number of new spots with lower molecular masses, ranging between 15,000 and 2...

  14. Electrochemical oxidation and protein adduct formation of aniline: a liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry study. (United States)

    Melles, Daniel; Vielhaber, Torsten; Baumann, Anne; Zazzeroni, Raniero; Karst, Uwe


    Historically, skin sensitization tests are typically based on in vivo animal tests. However, for substances used in cosmetic products, these tests have to be replaced according to the European Commission regulation no. 1223/2009. Modification of skin proteins by electrophilic chemicals is a key process associated with the induction of skin sensitization. The present study investigates the capabilities of a purely instrumental setup to determine the potential of commonly used non-electrophilic chemicals to cause skin sensitization by the generation of electrophilic species from the parent compound. In this work, the electrophiles were generated by the electrochemical oxidation of aniline, a basic industrial chemical which may also be released from azo dyes in cosmetics. The compound is a known sensitizer and was oxidized in an electrochemical thin-layer cell which was coupled online to electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. The electrochemical oxidation was performed on a boron-doped diamond working electrode, which is able to generate hydroxyl radicals in aqueous solutions at high potentials. Without any pretreatment, the oxidation products were identified by electrospray ionization/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-ToF-MS) using their exact masses. A mass voltammogram was generated by plotting the obtained mass spectra against the applied potential. Oligomerization states with up to six monomeric units in different redox states of aniline were observed using this setup. This approach was extended to generate adducts between the oxidation products of aniline and the tripeptide glutathione. Two adducts were identified with this trapping experiment. Protein modification was carried out subsequently: Aniline was oxidized at a constant potential and was allowed to react with β-lactoglobulin A (β-LGA) or human serum albumin (HSA), respectively. The generated adducts were analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled to ESI-ToF-MS. For both β-LGA and HSA, aniline

  15. Formation of nitrogenous disinfection by-products in 10 chlorinated and chloraminated drinking water supply systems. (United States)

    Liew, Deborah; Linge, Kathryn L; Joll, Cynthia A


    The presence of nitrogenous disinfection by-products (N-DBPs) in drinking water supplies is a public health concern, particularly since some N-DBPs have been reported to be more toxic than the regulated trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids. In this paper, a comprehensive evaluation of the presence of N-DBPs in 10 drinking water supply systems in Western Australia is presented. A suite of 28 N-DBPs, including N-nitrosamines, haloacetonitriles (HANs), haloacetamides (HAAms) and halonitromethanes (HNMs), were measured and evaluated for relationships with bulk parameters in the waters before disinfection. A number of N-DBPs were frequently detected in disinfected waters, although at generally low concentrations (water, N-DBP concentrations were significantly correlated with dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and ammonia, and these, in addition to high bromide in one of the waters, led to elevated concentrations of brominated HANs (26.6 μg/L of dibromoacetonitrile). There were significant differences in the occurrence of all classes of N-DBPs between chlorinated and chloraminated waters, except for HNMs, which were detected at relatively low concentrations in both water types. Trends observed in one large distribution system suggest that N-DBPs can continue to form or degrade within distribution systems, and redosing of disinfectant may cause further by-product formation.

  16. Evidence for sites of methylmercury formation in a flowing water system: impact of anthropogenic barriers and water management. (United States)

    Pizarro-Barraza, Claudia; Gustin, Mae Sexauer; Peacock, Mary; Miller, Matthieu


    The Truckee River, California-Nevada, USA is impacted by mercury (Hg) contamination associated with legacy gold mining. In this work, we investigated the potential for hot-spots of methylmercury (MeHg) formation in the river. Mercury concentrations in multiple media were also used to assess the impacts of anthropogenic barriers, restoration, and water management in this flowing water ecosystem. Water samples were collected on a seasonal time step over 3 years, and analyzed for total Hg (THg) and MeHg concentrations, along with a variety of other water quality parameters. In addition, we measured THg and MeHg in sediments, THg in macroinvertebrates, and THg and δ(15)N and δ(13)C concentrations in fish. Differences in stable isotopes and Hg concentrations in fish were applied to understand the mobility of fish in the river. Mercury concentrations of specific macroinvertebrate species were used to identify sites of MeHg production. In general, loads of Hg and nutrients in the river reach above the Reno-Sparks metropolitan area were similar to that reported for pristine systems, while within and below the city, water quality impacts were observed. Fish isotope data showed that in the city reach food resources were different than those upriver and downriver. Based on Hg and isotope data, mobility of the fish in the river is impacted by anthropogenic obstructions and water manipulation. Below the city, particle bound Hg, derived from the legacy mining, continues to be input to the Truckee River. This Hg is deposited in riparian habitats and areas of river restoration, where it is methylated and becomes available to biota. During spring, when flows were highest, MeHg produced and stored in the sediments is mobilized and transported downriver. Fish and macroinvertebrate concentrations increased downriver indicating passive uptake from water. The information presented here could be useful for those doing river restoration and water manipulation in mercury contaminated

  17. Isotopic Studies of O-O Bond Formation During Water Oxidation (SISGR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, Justine P. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States)


    Isotopic Studies of O-O Bond Formation During Water Oxidation (SISGR) Research during the project period focused primarily on mechanisms of water oxidation by structurally defined transition metal complexes. Competitive oxygen isotope fractionation of water, mediated by oxidized precursors or reduced catalysts together with ceric, Ce(IV), ammonium nitrate in aqueous media, afforded oxygen-18 kinetic isotope effects (O-18 KIEs). Measurement, calculation, and interpretation of O-18 KIEs, described in the accompanying report has important ramifications for the production of electricity and solar hydrogen (as fuel). The catalysis division of BES has acknowledged that understanding mechanisms of transition metal catalyzed water oxidation has major ramifications, potentially leading to transformation of the global economy and natural environment in years to come. Yet, because of program restructuring and decreased availability of funds, it was recommended that the Solar Photochemistry sub-division of BES would be a more appropriate parent program for support of continued research.

  18. Distribution and ventilation of water masses in the western Ross Sea inferred from CFC measurements (United States)

    Rivaro, Paola; Ianni, Carmela; Magi, Emanuele; Massolo, Serena; Budillon, Giorgio; Smethie, William M.


    During the CLIMA Project (R.V. Italica cruise PNRA XVI, January-February 2001), hydrographic and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) observations were obtained, particularly in the western Ross Sea. Their distribution demonstrated water mass structure and ventilation processes in the investigated areas. In the surface waters (AASW) the CFC saturation levels varied spatially: CFCs were undersaturated in all the areas (range from 80 to 90%), with the exception of few stations sampled near Ross Island. In particular, the Terra Nova Bay polynya, where high salinity shelf water (HSSW) is produced, was a low-saturated surface area (74%) with respect to CFCs. Throughout most of the shelf area, the presence of modified circumpolar deep water (MCDW) was reflected in a mid-depth CFC concentration minima. Beneath the MCDW, CFC concentrations generally increased in the shelf waters towards the seafloor. We estimated that the corresponding CFCs saturation level in the source water region for HSSW was about 68-70%. Waters with high CFC concentrations were detected in the western Ross Sea on the down slope side of the Drygalski Trough, indicating that AABW was being supplied to the deep Antarctic Basin. Estimates of ventilation ages depend strongly on the saturation levels. We calculated ventilation ages using the saturation level calibrated tracer ratio, CFC11/CFC12. We deduced a mean residence time of the shelf waters of about 6-7 years between the western Ross Sea source and the shelf break.

  19. Disinfection byproduct formation during biofiltration cycle: Implications for drinking water production. (United States)

    Delatolla, R; Séguin, C; Springthorpe, S; Gorman, E; Campbell, A; Douglas, I


    The goal of this study was to investigate the potential of biofiltration to reduce the formation potential of disinfection byproducts (DBPs). Particularly, the work investigates the effect of the duration of the filter cycle on the formation potential of total trihalomethanes (TTHM) and five species of haloacetic acids (HAA5), dissolved oxygen (DO), organic carbon, nitrogen and total phosphorous concentrations along with biofilm coverage of the filter media and biomass viability of the attached cells. The study was conducted on a full-scale biologically active filter, with anthracite and sand media, at the Britannia water treatment plant (WTP), located in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. The formation potential of both TTHMs and HAA5s decreased due to biofiltration. However the lowest formation potentials for both groups of DBPs and or their precursors were observed immediately following a backwash event. Hence, the highest percent removal of DBPs was observed during the early stages of the biofiltration cycle, which suggests that a higher frequency of backwashing will reduce the formation of DBPs. Variable pressure scanning electron microscopy (VPSEM) analysis shows that biofilm coverage of anthracite and sand media increases as the filtration cycle progressed, while biomass viability analysis demonstrates that the percentage of cells attached to the anthracite and sand media also increases as the filtration cycle progresses. These results suggest that the development and growth of biofilm on the filters increases the DPB formation potential. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Analysis of bromate in drinking water using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry without sample pretreatment. (United States)

    Kosaka, Koji; Asami, Mari; Takei, Kanako; Akiba, Michihiro


    An analytical method for determining bromate in drinking water was developed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The (18)O-enriched bromate was used as an internal standard. The limit of quantification (LOQ) of bromate was 0.2 µg/L. The peak of bromate was separated from those of coexisting ions (i.e., chloride, nitrate and sulfate). The relative and absolute recoveries of bromate in two drinking water samples and in a synthesized ion solution (100 mg/L chloride, 10 mg N/L nitrate, and 100 mg/L sulfate) were 99-105 and 94-105%, respectively. Bromate concentrations in 11 drinking water samples determined by LC-MS/MS were water without sample pretreatment.

  1. Experimental investigation of gas hydrate formation, plugging and transportability in partially dispersed and water continuous systems (United States)

    Vijayamohan, Prithvi

    As oil/gas subsea fields mature, the amount of water produced increases significantly due to the production methods employed to enhance the recovery of oil. This is true especially in the case of oil reservoirs. This increase in the water hold up increases the risk of hydrate plug formation in the pipelines, thereby resulting in higher inhibition cost strategies. A major industry concern is to reduce the severe safety risks associated with hydrate plug formation, and significantly extending subsea tieback distances by providing a cost effective flow assurance management/safety tool for mature fields. Developing fundamental understanding of the key mechanistic steps towards hydrate plug formation for different multiphase flow conditions is a key challenge to the flow assurance community. Such understanding can ultimately provide new insight and hydrate management guidelines to diminish the safety risks due to hydrate formation and accumulation in deepwater flowlines and facilities. The transportability of hydrates in pipelines is a function of the operating parameters, such as temperature, pressure, fluid mixture velocity, liquid loading, and fluid system characteristics. Specifically, the hydrate formation rate and plugging onset characteristics can be significantly different for water continuous, oil continuous, and partially dispersed systems. The latter is defined as a system containing oil/gas/water, where the water is present both as a free phase and partially dispersed in the oil phase (i.e., entrained water in the oil). Since hydrate formation from oil dispersed in water systems and partially dispersed water systems is an area which is poorly understood, this thesis aims to address some key questions in these systems. Selected experiments have been performed at the University of Tulsa flowloop to study the hydrate formation and plugging characteristics for the partially dispersed water/oil/gas systems as well as systems where the oil is completely dispersed

  2. Analysis of the effect of water activity on ice formation using a new thermodynamic framework (United States)

    Barahona, D.


    In this work a new thermodynamic framework is developed and used to investigate the effect of water activity on the formation of ice within supercooled droplets. The new framework is based on a novel concept where the interface is assumed to be made of liquid molecules "trapped" by the solid matrix. It also accounts for the change in the composition of the liquid phase upon nucleation. Using this framework, new expressions are developed for the critical ice germ size and the nucleation work with explicit dependencies on temperature and water activity. However unlike previous approaches, the new model does not depend on the interfacial tension between liquid and ice. The thermodynamic framework is introduced within classical nucleation theory to study the effect of water activity on the ice nucleation rate. Comparison against experimental results shows that the new approach is able to reproduce the observed effect of water activity on the nucleation rate and the freezing temperature. It allows for the first time a phenomenological derivation of the constant shift in water activity between melting and nucleation. The new framework offers a consistent thermodynamic view of ice nucleation, simple enough to be applied in atmospheric models of cloud formation.

  3. Effects of Water in Synthetic Lubricant Systems and Clathrate Formation: A Literature Search and Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohatgi, Ngoc Dung T.


    An extensive literature search and a confidential survey were critically analyzed to determine the effects of water on the stability of hydrofluorocarbon/synthetic lubricant systems and to identify key areas requiring further investigation. Following are highlights from the analysis: Clathrate hydrates are solid solutions formed when water molecules are linked through hydrogen bonding creating cavities that can enclose various guest molecules from hydrate formers, such as hydrofluorocarbons R-32, R-125, R-134a, R-407C and R-410A. The four methods for preventing clathrate formation were drying the gas, heating it, reducing its pressure, or using inhibitors. The hydrolysis of polyolester lubricants was mostly acid-catalyzed and its reaction rate constant typically followed the Arrhenius equation of an activated process. Hydrolytic stability improved with hindered molecular structures, and with the presence of acid catcher additives and desiccants. Water vapor can effect the adsorption of long-chain fatty acids and the chemistry of formation of protective oxide film. However, these effects on lubrication can be either positive or negative. Fifty to sixty percent of the moisture injected into an air-conditioning system remained in the refrigerant and the rest mixed with the compressor oil. In an automotive air-conditioning system using R-134a, ice would form at 0 C evaporating temperature when the water content in the vapor refrigerant on the low-pressure side was more than 350 ppm. Moisture would cause the embrittlement of polyethylene terephthalate and the hydrolysis of polyesters, but would reduce the effect of amine additives on fluoroelastomer rubbers. The reactions of water with refrigerants and lubricants would cause formicary and large-pit corrosion in copper tubes, as well as copper plating and sludge formation. Moreover, blockage of capillary tubes increased rapidly in the presence of water. Twenty-four companies responded to the survey. From the responses

  4. Reduction of DOM fractions and their trihalomethane formation potential in surface river water by in-line coagulation with ceramic membrane filtration. (United States)

    Rakruam, Pharkphum; Wattanachira, Suraphong


    This research was aimed at investigating the reduction of DOM fractions and their trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP) by in-line coagulation with 0.1 μm ceramic membrane filtration. The combination of ceramic membrane filtration with a coagulation process is an alternative technology which can be applied to enhance conventional coagulation processes in the field of water treatment and drinking water production. The Ping River water (high turbidity water) was selected as the raw surface water because it is currently the main raw water source for water supply production in the urban and rural areas of Chiang Mai Province. From the investigation, the results showed that the highest percent reductions of DOC, UV-254, and THMFP (47.6%, 71.0%, and 67.4%, respectively) were achieved from in-line coagulation with ceramic membrane filtration at polyaluminum chloride dosage 40 mg/L. Resin adsorption techniques were employed to characterize the DOM in raw surface water and filtered water. The results showed that the use of a ceramic membrane with in-line coagulation was able to most efficiently reduce the hydrophobic fraction (HPOA) (68.5%), which was then followed by the hydrophilic fraction (HPIA) (49.3%). The greater mass DOC reduction of these two fractions provided the highest THMFP reductions (55.1% and 37.2%, respectively). Furthermore, the in-line coagulation with ceramic membrane filtration was able to reduce the hydrophobic (HPOB) fraction which is characterized by high reactivity toward THM formation. The percent reduction of mass DOC and THMFP of HPOB by in-line coagulation with ceramic membrane filtration was 45.9% and 48.0%, respectively. Copyright © 2014 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Identifying and Remediating High Water Production Problems in Basin-Centered Formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.L. Billingsley


    Through geochemical analyses of produced waters, petrophysics, and reservoir simulation we developed concepts and approaches for mitigating unwanted water production in tight gas reservoirs and for increasing recovery of gas resources presently considered noncommercial. Only new completion research (outside the scope of this study) will validate our hypothesis. The first task was assembling and interpreting a robust regional database of historical produced-water analyses to address the production of excessive water in basin-centered tight gas fields in the Greater Green (GGRB ) and Wind River basins (WRB), Wyoming. The database is supplemented with a sampling program in currently active areas. Interpretation of the regional water chemistry data indicates most produced waters reflect their original depositional environments and helps identify local anomalies related to basement faulting. After the assembly and evaluation phases of this project, we generated a working model of tight formation reservoir development, based on the regional nature and occurrence of the formation waters. Through an integrative approach to numerous existing reservoir concepts, we synthesized a generalized development scheme organized around reservoir confining stress cycles. This single overarching scheme accommodates a spectrum of outcomes from the GGRB and Wind River basins. Burial and tectonic processes destroy much of the depositional intergranular fabric of the reservoir, generate gas, and create a rock volume marked by extremely low permeabilities to gas and fluids. Stress release associated with uplift regenerates reservoir permeability through the development of a penetrative grain bounding natural fracture fabric. Reservoir mineral composition, magnitude of the stress cycle and local tectonics govern the degree, scale and exact mechanism of permeability development. We applied the reservoir working model to an area of perceived anomalous water production. Detailed water analyses

  6. Nutrient characteristics of the water masses and their seasonal variability in the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean. (United States)

    Sardessai, S; Shetye, Suhas; Maya, M V; Mangala, K R; Prasanna Kumar, S


    Nutrient characteristics of four water masses in the light of their thermohaline properties are examined in the eastern Equatorial Indian Ocean during winter, spring and summer monsoon. The presence of low salinity water mass with "Surface enrichments" of inorganic nutrients was observed relative to 20 m in the mixed layer. Lowest oxygen levels of 19 microM at 3 degrees N in the euphotic zone indicate mixing of low oxygen high salinity Arabian Sea waters with the equatorial Indian Ocean. The seasonal variability of nutrients was regulated by seasonally varying physical processes like thermocline elevation, meridional and zonal transport, the equatorial undercurrent and biological processes of uptake and remineralization. Circulation of Arabian Sea high salinity waters with nitrate deficit could also be seen from low N/P ratio with a minimum of 8.9 in spring and a maximum of 13.6 in winter. This large deviation from Redfield N/P ratio indicates the presence of denitrified high salinity waters with a seasonal nitrate deficit ranging from -4.85 to 1.52 in the Eastern Equatorial Indian Ocean. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Water mass distribution in Fram Strait and over the Yermak Plateau in summer 1997

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Rudels


    Full Text Available The water mass distribution in northern Fram Strait and over the Yermak Plateau in summer 1997 is described using CTD data from two cruises in the area. The West Spitsbergen Current was found to split, one part recirculated towards the west, while the other part, on entering the Arctic Ocean separated into two branches. The main inflow of Atlantic Water followed the Svalbard continental slope eastward, while a second, narrower, branch stayed west and north of the Yermak Plateau. The water column above the southeastern flank of the Yermak Plateau was distinctly colder and less saline than the two inflow branches. Immediately west of the outer inflow branch comparatively high temperatures in the Atlantic Layer suggested that a part of the extraordinarily warm Atlantic Water, observed in the boundary current in the Eurasian Basin in the early 1990s, was now returning, within the Eurasian Basin, toward Fram Strait. The upper layer west of the Yermak Plateau was cold, deep and comparably saline, similar to what has recently been observed in the interior Eurasian Basin. Closer to the Greenland continental slope the salinity of the upper layer became much lower, and the temperature maximum of the Atlantic Layer was occasionally below  0.5 °C, indicating water masses mainly derived from the Canadian Basin. This implies that the warm pulse of Atlantic Water had not yet made a complete circuit around the Arctic Ocean. The Atlantic Water of the West Spitsbergen Current recirculating within the strait did not extend as far towards Greenland as in the 1980s, leaving a broader passage for waters from the Atlantic and intermediate layers, exiting the Arctic Ocean. A possible interpretation is that the circulation pattern alternates between a strong recirculation of the West Spitsbergen Current in the strait, and a larger exchange of Atlantic Water between the Nordic Seas and the inner parts of the Arctic Ocean.Key words: Oceanography: general (Arctic and

  8. Water mass distribution in Fram Strait and over the Yermak Plateau in summer 1997

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Rudels

    Full Text Available The water mass distribution in northern Fram Strait and over the Yermak Plateau in summer 1997 is described using CTD data from two cruises in the area. The West Spitsbergen Current was found to split, one part recirculated towards the west, while the other part, on entering the Arctic Ocean separated into two branches. The main inflow of Atlantic Water followed the Svalbard continental slope eastward, while a second, narrower, branch stayed west and north of the Yermak Plateau. The water column above the southeastern flank of the Yermak Plateau was distinctly colder and less saline than the two inflow branches. Immediately west of the outer inflow branch comparatively high temperatures in the Atlantic Layer suggested that a part of the extraordinarily warm Atlantic Water, observed in the boundary current in the Eurasian Basin in the early 1990s, was now returning, within the Eurasian Basin, toward Fram Strait. The upper layer west of the Yermak Plateau was cold, deep and comparably saline, similar to what has recently been observed in the interior Eurasian Basin. Closer to the Greenland continental slope the salinity of the upper layer became much lower, and the temperature maximum of the Atlantic Layer was occasionally below 
    0.5 °C, indicating water masses mainly derived from the Canadian Basin. This implies that the warm pulse of Atlantic Water had not yet made a complete circuit around the Arctic Ocean. The Atlantic Water of the West Spitsbergen Current recirculating within the strait did not extend as far towards Greenland as in the 1980s, leaving a broader passage for waters from the Atlantic and intermediate layers, exiting the Arctic Ocean. A possible interpretation is that the circulation pattern alternates between a strong recirculation of the West Spitsbergen Current in the strait, and a larger exchange of Atlantic Water between the Nordic Seas and the inner parts of the Arctic Ocean.

    Key words: Oceanography: general

  9. Revealing the Formation of Stellar-mass Black Hole Binaries: The Need for Deci-Hertz Gravitational-wave Observatories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xian [Astronomy Department, School of Physics, Peking University, 100871 Beijing (China); Amaro-Seoane, Pau, E-mail:, E-mail: [Institut de Ciències de l’Espai (CSIC-IEEC) at Campus UAB, Carrer de Can Magrans s/n, E-08193 Barcelona (Spain)


    The formation of compact stellar-mass binaries is a difficult, but interesting problem in astrophysics. There are two main formation channels: in the field via binary star evolution, or in dense stellar systems via dynamical interactions. The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) has detected black hole binaries (BHBs) via their gravitational radiation. These detections provide us with information about the physical parameters of the system. It has been claimed that when the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) is operating, the joint observation of these binaries with LIGO will allow us to derive the channels that lead to their formation. However, we show that for BHBs in dense stellar systems dynamical interactions could lead to high eccentricities such that a fraction of the relativistic mergers are not audible to LISA. A non-detection by LISA puts a lower limit of about 0.005 on the eccentricity of a BHB entering the LIGO band. On the other hand, a deci-Hertz observatory, like DECIGO or Tian Qin, would significantly enhance the chances of a joint detection and shed light on the formation channels of these binaries.

  10. Formation of dehydroalanine from mimosine and cysteine: artifacts in gas chromatography/mass spectrometry based metabolomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young-Mo; Metz, Thomas O.; Hu, Zeping; Wiedner, Susan D.; Kim, Jong Seo; Smith, Richard D.; Morgan, William F.; Zhang, Qibin


    Trimethylsilyation is a chemical derivatization procedure routinely applied in gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based metabolomics. In this report, through de novo structural elucidation and comparison with authentic standards, we demonstrate that mimosine can be completely converted into dehydroalanine and 3,4-dihydroxypyridine during the trimethylsilyating process. Similarly, dehydroalanine can be formed from derivatization of cysteine. This conversion is a potential interference in GC-MS-based global metabolomics, as well as in analysis of amino acids.

  11. Evidence for sites of methylmercury formation in a flowing water system: Impact of anthropogenic barriers and water management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pizarro-Barraza, Claudia [Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Sciences, University of Nevada-Reno, Reno, NV 89557 (United States); Gustin, Mae Sexauer, E-mail: [Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Sciences, University of Nevada-Reno, Reno, NV 89557 (United States); Peacock, Mary [Department of Biology, University of Nevada-Reno, Reno, NV 89557 (United States); Miller, Matthieu [Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Sciences, University of Nevada-Reno, Reno, NV 89557 (United States)


    The Truckee River, California-Nevada, USA is impacted by mercury (Hg) contamination associated with legacy gold mining. In this work, we investigated the potential for hot-spots of methylmercury (MeHg) formation in the river. Mercury concentrations in multiple media were also used to assess the impacts of anthropogenic barriers, restoration, and water management in this flowing water ecosystem. Water samples were collected on a seasonal time step over 3 years, and analyzed for total Hg (THg) and MeHg concentrations, along with a variety of other water quality parameters. In addition, we measured THg and MeHg in sediments, THg in macroinvertebrates, and THg and δ{sup 15}N and δ{sup 13}C concentrations in fish. Differences in stable isotopes and Hg concentrations in fish were applied to understand the mobility of fish in the river. Mercury concentrations of specific macroinvertebrate species were used to identify sites of MeHg production. In general, loads of Hg and nutrients in the river reach above the Reno–Sparks metropolitan area were similar to that reported for pristine systems, while within and below the city, water quality impacts were observed. Fish isotope data showed that in the city reach food resources were different than those upriver and downriver. Based on Hg and isotope data, mobility of the fish in the river is impacted by anthropogenic obstructions and water manipulation. Below the city, particle bound Hg, derived from the legacy mining, continues to be input to the Truckee River. This Hg is deposited in riparian habitats and areas of river restoration, where it is methylated and becomes available to biota. During spring, when flows were highest, MeHg produced and stored in the sediments is mobilized and transported downriver. Fish and macroinvertebrate concentrations increased downriver indicating passive uptake from water. The information presented here could be useful for those doing river restoration and water manipulation in mercury

  12. Fluorescence spectroscopy for field surveillance of THM formation precursors to increase sustainable drinking water treatment for the water industry (United States)

    Stutter, Marc; Cooper, Pat; Wyness, Adam; Allan, Richard; Weir, Paul; Frogbrook, Zoe; Haffey, Mark


    . This is supported by laboratory batch work on potential synergistic interactions for THM formation in mixtures of DOM types from isolated humic substances and amino-acid compounds; where the latter can provide markers for anthropogenic pollution sources such as wastewater and farm effluents. Finally, we conclude on some of the potential for these techniques for catchment raw source water management. We present a circular-sustainability argument whereby the broad range of DOM combinations detectable by fluorescence techniques allows consideration of catchment C-source markers of potential THM formation resulting from disinfection and of the microbial contaminants necessitating the disinfection treatment.

  13. Formation of soil organic matter via biochemical and physical pathways of litter mass loss (United States)

    Cotrufo, M. Francesca; Soong, Jennifer L.; Horton, Andrew J.; Campbell, Eleanor E.; Haddix, Michelle L.; Wall, Diana H.; Parton, William J.


    Soil organic matter is the largest terrestrial carbon pool. The pool size depends on the balance between formation of soil organic matter from decomposition of plant litter and its mineralization to inorganic carbon. Knowledge of soil organic matter formation remains limited and current C numerical models assume that stable soil organic matter is formed primarily from recalcitrant plant litter. However, labile components of plant litter could also form mineral-stabilized soil organic matter. Here we followed the decomposition of isotopically labelled above-ground litter and its incorporation into soil organic matter over three years in a grassland in Kansas, USA, and used laboratory incubations to determine the decay rates and pool structure of litter-derived organic matter. Early in decomposition, soil organic matter formed when non-structural compounds were lost from litter. Soil organic matter also formed at the end of decomposition, when both non-structural and structural compounds were lost at similar rates. We conclude that two pathways yield soil organic matter efficiently. A dissolved organic matter-microbial path occurs early in decomposition when litter loses mostly non-structural compounds, which are incorporated into microbial biomass at high rates, resulting in efficient soil organic matter formation. An equally efficient physical-transfer path occurs when litter fragments move into soil.

  14. New insights into the earliest phases of low-mass star formation with the Herschel Space Observatory (United States)

    Di Francesco, J.

    The Herschel Space Observatory has been revolutionizing our understanding of the the earliest phases of star formation. In this contribution, we describe early results from the Gould Belt Survey, a Herschel Key Project to map 15 nearby molecular clouds in continuum emission from 70 μm to 500 μm. In particular, I describe how the sensitive and wide maps of the Aquila Rift have strongly confirmed the similarity between the shapes of the stellar Initial Mass Function and the prestellar core mass function (CMF). Also, the Herschel map sensitivity to larger scale emission has revealed that prestellar cores form almost exclusively within dense filaments that exceed a critical mass per unit length defined by temperature (and gravity). Finally, filaments in three clouds, IC 5146, Polaris and Aquila, are found to have similar widths of ˜0.1 pc, approximately the scale where the turbulent velocity equals the sound speed of 10 K gas. This common width suggests filaments themselves are formed through collisional shocks of turbulent flows and evolve in quasi-virial balance through mass accretion.

  15. Effect of bubble formation on the dissociation of methane hydrate in water: a molecular dynamics study. (United States)

    Yagasaki, Takuma; Matsumoto, Masakazu; Andoh, Yoshimichi; Okazaki, Susumu; Tanaka, Hideki


    We investigate the dissociation of methane hydrate in liquid water using molecular dynamics simulations. As dissociation of the hydrate proceeds, methane molecules are released into the aqueous phase and eventually they form bubbles. It is shown that this bubble formation, which causes change in the methane concentration in the aqueous phase, significantly affects the dissociation kinetics of methane hydrate. A large system size employed in this study makes it possible to analyze the effects of the change in the methane concentration and the formation of bubbles on the dissociation kinetics in detail. It is found that the dissociation rate decreases with time until the bubble formation and then it turns to increase. It is also demonstrated that methane hydrate can exist as a metastable superheated solid if there exists no bubble.

  16. Effect of particle water on ozone and secondary organic aerosol formation from benzene-NO2-NaCl irradiations (United States)

    Wang, Yujie; Luo, Hao; Jia, Long; Ge, Shuangshuang


    Ozone (O3) and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) are important pollutants in the urban atmosphere. Benzene is one of the most important aromatic species in urban air, which could produce O3 and SOA in the presence of NOx (x = 1, 2) and UV light. A series of experiments was carried out to study the effect of particle water on O3 and SOA formation from benzene under various humid conditions in an indoor smog chamber. The results show that the peak O3 concentrations decreased with the increase of RH or the mass concentration of liquid NaCl particles. The peak O3 concentration reduced by 30% as RH increased from 9% to 87% with the similar initial concentrations of NaCl (about 46 μg m-3), and decreased by 10% as the initial NaCl concentrations increased from 36.0 μg m-3 to 152.1 μg m-3 at about 73% RH. The relationships between liquid water content (LWC) and O3 or SOA were investigated. The results show that LWC is the key factor that leads to an opposite effect on O3 and SOA formation from benzene. The peak O3 concentration exponentially decreased 37% as LWC0 increased from zero to 349.8 μg m-3. Heterogeneous reaction of dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5) with particle water is the major reason for the decrease of O3. The yields of SOA increased from 5.2 to 10.5% as LWC0 increased from zero to 349.8 μg m-3. The relative intensities of bands Osbnd H, Cdbnd O, Csbnd OH and NO3- increased by 22.9, 6.8, 6.7 and 13.1 times respectively as compared with dry condition. Alcohols or hydrates are confirmed to be the major contributors to SOA with increasing LWC.

  17. Multivariate Analysis Of Ground Water Characteristics Of Geological Formations Of Enugu State Of Nigeria

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    Full Text Available Abstract The chemometric data mining techniques using principal factor analysis PFA and hierarchical cluster analysis CA was employed to evaluate and to examine the borehole characteristics of geological formations of Enugu State of Nigeria to determine the latent structure of the borehole characteristics and to classify 9 borehole parameters from 49 locations into borehole groups of similar characteristics. PFA extracted three factors which accounted for a large proportion of the variation in the data 77.305 of the variance. Out of nine parameters examined the first PFA had the highest number of variables loading on a single factor where four borehole parameters borehole depth borehole casing static water level and dynamic water level loaded on it with positive coefficient as the most significant parameters responsible for variation in borehole characteristics in the study. The CA employed in this study to identified three clusters. The first cluster delineated stations that characterise Awgu sandstone geological formation while the second cluster delineated Agbani sandstone geological formation. The third cluster delineated Ajali sandstone formation. The CA grouping of the borehole parameters showed similar trend with PFA hence validating the efficiency of chemometric data mining techniques in grouping of variations in the borehole characteristics in the geological zone of the study area.

  18. Analysis on the formation condition of the algae-induced odorous black water agglomerate (United States)

    Wang, Guofang; Li, Xianning; Fang, Yang; Huang, Rui


    The algae-induced odorous black water agglomerate (OBWA) is a phenomenon in which water turns black and emits odorous gas. It is an ecological and environmental problem that has occurred several times in Taihu, a large eutrophic shallow lake in China. In this study, the collected eutrophic water with different algae densities was used to simulate OBWA. The results revealed that the massive accumulation and death of algae was the substrate source for OBWA. When the algae density reached 1.0 × 108 cells/L in the static and dark condition, at a constant high temperature (30 ± 2 °C), OBWA happened. There was a time difference between the water stinking and blackening with the stinking first. When the oxidation–reduction potential (ORP) value was between −250 and −50 mV, Dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS), the main contributor to the water stinking at the initial stage, and other odorous organics were produced. Water blackening was closely related to the increases of sulfide and dissolved Fe2+ concentration. When the ORP value was between −350 and −300 mV, heavy metal containing sulfides such as FeS formed. Therefore, the condition when the water ORP value decreased to about −300 mV was considered the precursor for OBWA formation. PMID:25473369

  19. A mass conservative and water storage consistent variable parameter Muskingum-Cunge approach

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    E. Todini


    Full Text Available The variable parameter Muskingum-Cunge (MC flood routing approach, together with several variants proposed in the literature, does not fully preserve the mass balance, particularly when dealing with very mild slopes (<10−3. This paper revisits the derivation of the MC and demonstrates (i that the loss of mass balance in MC is caused by the use of time variant parameters which violate the implicit assumption embedded in the original derivation of the Muskingum scheme, which implies constant parameters and at the same time (ii that the parameters estimated by means of the Cunge approach violate the two basic equations of the Muskingum formulation. The paper also derives the modifications needed to allow the MC to fully preserve the mass balance and, at the same time, to comply with the original Muskingum formulation in terms of water storage. The properties of the proposed algorithm have been assessed by varying the cross section, the slope, the roughness, the space and the time integration steps. The results of all the tests also show that the new algorithm is always mass conservative. Finally, it is also shown that the proposed approach closely approaches the full de Saint Venant equation solution, both in terms of water levels and discharge, when the parabolic approximation holds.

  20. Floral Mass per Area and Water Maintenance Traits Are Correlated with Floral Longevity in Paphiopedilum (Orchidaceae). (United States)

    Zhang, Feng-Ping; Yang, Ying-Jie; Yang, Qiu-Yun; Zhang, Wei; Brodribb, Tim J; Hao, Guang-You; Hu, Hong; Zhang, Shi-Bao


    Floral longevity (FL) determines the balance between pollination success and flower maintenance. While a longer floral duration enhances the ability of plants to attract pollinators, it can be detrimental if it negatively affects overall plant fitness. Longer-lived leaves display a positive correlation with their dry mass per unit area, which influences leaf construction costs and physiological functions. However, little is known about the association among FL and floral dry mass per unit area (FMA) and water maintenance traits. We investigated whether increased FL might incur similar costs. Our assessment of 11 species of Paphiopedilum (slipper orchids) considered the impact of FMA and flower water-maintenance characteristics on FL. We found a positive relationship between FL and FMA. Floral longevity showed significant correlations with osmotic potential at the turgor loss and bulk modulus of elasticity but not with FA. Neither the size nor the mass per area was correlated between leaves and flowers, indicating that flower and leaf economic traits evolved independently. Therefore, our findings demonstrate a clear relationship between FL and the capacity to maintain water status in the flower. These economic constraints also indicate that extending the flower life span can have a high physiological cost in Paphiopedilum.

  1. Bromate formation in bromide-containing water through the cobalt-mediated activation of peroxymonosulfate. (United States)

    Li, Zhaobing; Chen, Zhi; Xiang, Yingying; Ling, Li; Fang, Jingyun; Shang, Chii; Dionysiou, Dionysios D


    Bromate formation in bromide-containing water through the cobalt (Co)-mediated activation of peroxymonosulfate (PMS) was investigated. Increasing the PMS dosage and the cobalt dosage increased the formation of bromate and bromate yields of up to 100% were recorded under the test conditions. The bromate yield increased to a maximum as the pH rose from 2.7 to 6 before decreasing by over 90% as the pH rose further from 6 to above 9. The bromate formation is a two-step process involving free bromine as a key intermediate and bromate as the final product. In the first step, apart from the known oxidation of bromide to free bromine and of free bromine to bromate by sulfate radicals (SO4(-)), Co(III) produced from the oxidation of Co(II) by PMS and SO4(-) also oxidizes bromide to free bromine. The contribution of Co(III) to the bromate formation was verified with the addition of methanol and EDTA, a radical scavenger and a Co(III) ligand, respectively. In the presence of methanol, free bromine formation increased with increasing Co(II) dosage but no bromate was detected, indicating that Co(III) oxidized bromide to form free bromine but not bromate. In the presence of both EDTA and methanol, no free bromine or bromate was detected, as Co(III) was stabilized by EDTA to form the Co(III)EDTA(-) complex, which could not oxidize bromide. Mathematical simulation further suggested that Co(III) outweighed SO4(-) to oxidize bromide to free bromine. On the other hand, SO4(-) is essential for the oxidation of free bromine to bromate in the second step. In real water, the presence of NOM significantly decreased the bromate formation but caused the brominated organic DBP formation with high quantity. This is the first study to demonstrate the significant bromate formation in the Co/PMS system and the substantial contribution of Co(III) to the formation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Formation of Barents Sea Branch Water in the north-eastern Barents Sea

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    Vidar S. Lien


    Full Text Available The Barents Sea throughflow accounts for approximately half of the Atlantic Water advection to the Arctic Ocean, while the other half flows through Fram Strait. Within the Barents Sea, the Atlantic Water undergoes considerable modifications before entering the Arctic Ocean through the St. Anna Trough. While the inflow area in the south-western Barents Sea is regularly monitored, oceanographic data from the outflow area to the north-east are very scarce. Here, we use conductivity, temperature and depth data from August/September 2008 to describe in detail the water masses present in the downstream area of the Barents Sea, their spatial distribution and transformations. Both Cold Deep Water, formed locally through winter convection and ice-freezing processes, and Atlantic Water, modified mainly through atmospheric cooling, contribute directly to the Barents Sea Branch Water. As a consequence, it consists of a dense core characterized by a temperature and salinity maximum associated with the Atlantic Water, in addition to the colder, less saline and less dense core commonly referred to as the Barents Sea Branch Water core. The denser core likely constitutes a substantial part of the total flow, and it is more saline and considerably denser than the Fram Strait branch as observed within the St. Anna Trough. Despite the recent warming of the Barents Sea, the Barents Sea Branch Water is denser than observed in the 1990s, and the bottom water observed in the St. Anna Trough matches the potential density at 2000 m depth in the Arctic Ocean.

  3. Competence formation and post-graduate education in the public water sector in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Kaspersma


    Full Text Available The water sector is dependent on effective institutions and organisations, and, therefore, on strong competences at the individual level. In this paper we describe competence formation and competence needs in a case study of the Directorate General of Water Resources (DGWR in the Ministry of Public Works in Indonesia. A framework is introduced for the water sector comprising three aggregate competences for technical issues, management, and governance, and a meta-competence for continuous learning and innovation. The four competences are further organised in a T-shaped competence profile. Though DGWR professionals have a firmly "technical" orientation, both surveys and interviews reveal a strong perceived requirement for other competences: in particular the learning meta-competence, as well as the aggregate competence for management. The aggregate competence for governance systematically scores lower. Further, a discrepancy appears to exist between the competences that staff perceive as needed in daily work, and those that can be acquired during post-graduate water education.

    In both locally-based and international post-graduate water education, the aggregate competences for management as well as governance are reportedly addressed modestly, if at all. With low competence in these fields, it is difficult for professionals to communicate and collaborate effectively in a multidisciplinary way. As a result, the horizontal bar of the T-shaped profile remains weakly developed. In international post-graduate education, this is partially compensated by the attention to continuous learning and innovation. The exposure to a different culture and learning format is experienced as fundamentally formative.

  4. Competence formation and post-graduate education in the public water sector in Indonesia (United States)

    Kaspersma, J. M.; Alaerts, G. J.; Slinger, J. H.


    The water sector is dependent on effective institutions and organisations, and, therefore, on strong competences at the individual level. In this paper we describe competence formation and competence needs in a case study of the Directorate General of Water Resources (DGWR) in the Ministry of Public Works in Indonesia. A framework is introduced for the water sector comprising three aggregate competences for technical issues, management, and governance, and a meta-competence for continuous learning and innovation. The four competences are further organised in a T-shaped competence profile. Though DGWR professionals have a firmly "technical" orientation, both surveys and interviews reveal a strong perceived requirement for other competences: in particular the learning meta-competence, as well as the aggregate competence for management. The aggregate competence for governance systematically scores lower. Further, a discrepancy appears to exist between the competences that staff perceive as needed in daily work, and those that can be acquired during post-graduate water education. In both locally-based and international post-graduate water education, the aggregate competences for management as well as governance are reportedly addressed modestly, if at all. With low competence in these fields, it is difficult for professionals to communicate and collaborate effectively in a multidisciplinary way. As a result, the horizontal bar of the T-shaped profile remains weakly developed. In international post-graduate education, this is partially compensated by the attention to continuous learning and innovation. The exposure to a different culture and learning format is experienced as fundamentally formative.

  5. Anti-estrogenic activity formation potential assessment and precursor analysis in reclaimed water during chlorination. (United States)

    Tang, Xin; Wu, Qian Yuan; Du, Ye; Yang, Yang; Hu, Hong Ying


    Chlorination was reported to increase the anti-estrogenic activity in reclaimed water from domestic wastewater treatment plants, which may add to the risk of reclaimed water reuse. In order to assess the anti-estrogenic disinfection by-product (DBP) precursors, the anti-estrogenic activity formation potential (AEAFP) during chlorination was studied. Firstly, the conditions for the experimental measurement of AEAFP were determined. A 24-h chlorination experiment was applied for AEAFP measurement. After chlorination, dechlorination using reductive reagents led to significant loss of anti-estrogenic activity formation. In addition, as the presence of ammonia nitrogen and other major chlorine consumers would result in lower anti-estrogenic activity formation, a basic chlorine dose of 3× DOC (mg-Cl2 L(-1)) was adequate for completely transforming the anti-estrogenic DBP precursors while an extra chlorine dose of 8× ammonia-nitrogen + 5× nitrite-nitrogen (mg-Cl2 L(-1)) should be added when there was a high level of ammonia nitrogen and nitrite nitrogen in the reclaimed water. Therefore, 24-h chlorination without dechlorination or using only non-reductive quenching reagents (e.g. ammonium) for dechlorination and a total chlorine dose of 3× DOC + 8× ammonia nitrogen + 5× nitrite nitrogen (mg-Cl2 L(-1)) should be fulfilled for the AEAFP measurement. Moreover, the AEAFP (0.2-2.1 mg-TAM L(-1)) of the reclaimed water samples (n = 20) were further analyzed. The AEAFP was highly correlated to UV254 and the fluorescence volume in excitation emission matrix fluorescence spectrum which can be used as surrogates to indicate the level of the AEAFP and assess the precursors in reclaimed water. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Distribution and activity of Bacteria and Archaea in the different water masses of the Tyrrhenian Sea (United States)

    Tamburini, Christian; Garel, Marc; Al Ali, Badr; Mérigot, Bastien; Kriwy, Pascal; Charrière, Bruno; Budillon, Giorgio


    This study examines the abundance of the Bacteria, Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota and bulk activities (phosphatase and aminopeptidase activities, heterotrophic prokaryotic production and dark CO 2 fixation) in the major water masses of the Tyrrhenian Sea (from surface to bottom: Modified Atlantic Water (MAW); Levantine Intermediate Water (LIW) and Tyrrhenian Deep Water (TDW)) in July and December 2005. Data from the catalyzed reporter deposition coupled with fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH) analyses indicate that the percentage of Bacteria was always higher than the percentage of Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota throughout the water column. While the percentage of Euryarchaeota was relatively homogeneous (˜10%) through the water column, the percentage of Crenarchaeota increased with depth (from 5% to 14% in July and from 7% to 17% in December in MAW and TDW, respectively). Regarding differences between July and December 2005, the percentage of Bacteria in the MAW was lower in July than in December (25% versus 43%, respectively) while quite constant (˜40%) in the TDW. The pattern of phosphatase and aminopeptidase activity varied according to the stations considered, but both ectoenzyme activities showed higher maximum velocity rates in July than in December in the deep-sea waters. Particularly, specific activity of phosphatase in the deep-sea waters (TDW) was 7 times higher (median value) than in surface waters (MAW). Prokaryotic production, aminopeptidase and phosphatase activity measurements were always higher under in situ pressure conditions than after decompression. For the first time, the measurement of the dark CO 2 fixation was investigated under in situ pressure conditions and its decompressed counterparts. These data give new information to understanding the role of prokaryotes (Bacteria and Archaea) in biogeochemical cycles of the meso- and batypelagic waters of the oceans.

  7. Studying the oxidation of water to molecular oxygen in photosynthetic and artificial systems by time-resolved membrane-inlet mass spectrometry

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    Dmitriy eShevela


    Full Text Available Monitoring isotopic compositions of gaseous products (e.g., H2, O2 and CO2 by time-resolved isotope-ratio membrane-inlet mass spectrometry (TR-IR-MIMS is widely used for kinetic and functional analyses in photosynthesis research. In particular, in combination with isotopic labelling, TR-MIMS became an essential and powerful research tool for the study of the mechanism of photosynthetic water-oxidation to molecular oxygen catalyzed by the water-oxidizing complex of photosystem II. Moreover, recently, the TR-MIMS and 18O-labeling approach was successfully applied for testing newly developed catalysts for artificial water-splitting and provided important insight about the mechanism and pathways of O2 formation. In this mini-review we summarize these results and provide a brief introduction into key aspects of the TR-MIMS technique and its perspectives for future studies of the enigmatic water-splitting chemistry.

  8. Direct sampling of chemical weapons in water by photoionization mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Syage, Jack A; Cai, Sheng-Suan; Li, Jianwei; Evans, Matthew D


    The vulnerability of water supplies to toxic contamination calls for fast and effective means for screening water samples for multiple threats. We describe the use of photoionization (PI) mass spectrometry (MS) for high-speed, high-throughput screening and molecular identification of chemical weapons (CW) threats and other hazardous compounds. The screening technology can detect a wide range of compounds at subacute concentrations with no sample preparation and a sampling cycle time of approximately 45 s. The technology was tested with CW agents VX, GA, GB, GD, GF, HD, HN1, and HN3, in addition to riot agents and precursors. All are sensitively detected and give simple PI mass spectra dominated by the parent ion. The target application of the PI MS method is as a routine, real-time early warning system for CW agents and other hazardous compounds in air and in water. In this work, we also present comprehensive measurements for water analysis and report on the system detection limits, linearity, quantitation accuracy, and false positive (FP) and false negative rates for concentrations at subacute levels. The latter data are presented in the form of receiver operating characteristic curves of the form of detection probability P(D) versus FP probability P(FP). These measurements were made using the CW surrogate compounds, DMMP, DEMP, DEEP, and DIMP. Method detection limits (3sigma) obtained using a capillary injection method yielded 1, 6, 3, and 2 ng/mL, respectively. These results were obtained using 1-microL injections of water samples without any preparation, corresponding to mass detection limits of 1, 6, 3, and 2 pg, respectively. The linear range was about 3-4 decades and the dynamic range about 4-5 decades. The relative standard deviations were generally <10% at CW subacute concentrations levels.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willott, Chris J. [Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council, 5071 West Saanich Rd, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Omont, Alain; Bergeron, Jacqueline, E-mail: [UPMC Univ Paris 06 and CNRS, UMR7095, Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, F-75014 Paris (France)


    We present Atacama Large Millimeter Array observations of rest-frame far-infrared continuum and [C II] line emission in two z = 6.4 quasars with black hole masses of Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 8} M{sub Sun }. CFHQS J0210-0456 is detected in the continuum with a 1.2 mm flux of 120 {+-} 35 {mu}Jy, whereas CFHQS J2329-0301 is undetected at a similar noise level. J2329-0301 has a star formation rate limit of <40 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}, considerably below the typical value at all redshifts for this bolometric luminosity. Through comparison with hydro simulations, we speculate that this quasar is observed at a relatively rare phase where quasar feedback has effectively shut down star formation in the host galaxy. [C II] emission is also detected only in J0210-0456. The ratio of [C II] to far-infrared luminosity is similar to that of low-redshift galaxies of comparable luminosity, suggesting that the previous finding of an offset in the relationships between this ratio and far-infrared luminosity at low and high redshifts may be partially due to a selection effect due to the limited sensitivity of previous continuum data. The [C II] line of J0210-0456 is relatively narrow (FWHM = 189 {+-} 18 km s{sup -1}), indicating a dynamical mass substantially lower than expected from the local black hole-velocity dispersion correlation. The [C II] line is marginally resolved at 0.''7 resolution with the blue and red wings spatially offset by 0.''5 (3 kpc) and a smooth velocity gradient of 100 km s{sup -1} across a scale of 6 kpc, possibly due to the rotation of a galaxy-wide disk. These observations are consistent with the idea that stellar mass growth lags black hole accretion for quasars at this epoch with respect to more recent times.

  10. The effect of temperature and water on secondary organic aerosol formation from ozonolysis of limonene, Δ3-carene and α-pinene

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    E. Ljungström


    Full Text Available The effect of reaction temperature and how water vapour influences the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA in ozonolysis of limonene, Δ3-carene and α-pinene, both regarding number and mass of particles, has been investigated by using a laminar flow reactor (G-FROST. Experiments with cyclohexane and 2-butanol as OH scavengers were compared to experiments without any scavenger. The reactions were conducted in the temperature range between 298 and 243 K, and at relative humidities between <10 and 80%. Results showed that there is still a scavenger effect on number and mass concentrations at low temperatures between experiments with and without an addition of an OH scavenger. This shows that the OH chemistry is influencing the SOA formation also at these temperatures. The overall temperature dependence on SOA formation is not as strong as expected from partitioning theory. In some cases there is even a positive temperature dependence that must be related to changes in the chemical mechanism and/or reduced rates of secondary chemistry at low temperatures. The precursor's α-pinene and Δ3-carene exhibit a similar temperature dependence regarding both number and mass of particles formed, whereas limonene shows a different dependence. The water effect at low temperature could be explained by physical uptake and cluster stabilisation. At higher temperatures, only a physical explanation is not sufficient and the observations are in line with water changing the chemical mechanism or reaction rates. The data presented adds to the understanding of SOA contribution to new particle formation and atmospheric degradation mechanisms.

  11. Morphology-Induced Collective Behaviors: Dynamic Pattern Formation in Water-Floating Elements (United States)

    Nakajima, Kohei; Ngouabeu, Aubery Marchel Tientcheu; Miyashita, Shuhei; Göldi, Maurice; Füchslin, Rudolf Marcel; Pfeifer, Rolf


    Complex systems involving many interacting elements often organize into patterns. Two types of pattern formation can be distinguished, static and dynamic. Static pattern formation means that the resulting structure constitutes a thermodynamic equilibrium whose pattern formation can be understood in terms of the minimization of free energy, while dynamic pattern formation indicates that the system is permanently dissipating energy and not in equilibrium. In this paper, we report experimental results showing that the morphology of elements plays a significant role in dynamic pattern formation. We prepared three different shapes of elements (circles, squares, and triangles) floating in a water-filled container, in which each of the shapes has two types: active elements that were capable of self-agitation with vibration motors, and passive elements that were mere floating tiles. The system was purely decentralized: that is, elements interacted locally, and subsequently elicited global patterns in a process called self-organized segregation. We showed that, according to the morphology of the selected elements, a different type of segregation occurs. Also, we quantitatively characterized both the local interaction regime and the resulting global behavior for each type of segregation by means of information theoretic quantities, and showed the difference for each case in detail, while offering speculation on the mechanism causing this phenomenon. PMID:22715370

  12. [Characteristics of mass size distributions of water-soluble, inorganic ions during summer and winter haze days of Beijing]. (United States)

    Huang, Yi-Min; Liu, Zi-Rui; Chen, Hong; Wang, Yue-Si


    To investigate the size distribution characteristics of water soluble inorganic ions in haze days, the particle samples were collected by two Andersen cascade impactors in Beijing during summer and winter time and each sampling period lasted two weeks. Online measurement of PM10 and PM2.5 using TEOM were also conducted at the same time. Sources and formation mechanism of water soluble inorganic ions were analyzed based on their size distributions. The results showed that average concentrations of PM10 and PM 2.5 were (245.5 +/- 8.4) microg x m(-3) and (120.2 +/- 2.0) microg x m(-3) during summer haze days (SHD), and were (384.2 +/- 30.2) microg x m(-3) and (252.7 +/- 47.1) microg x m(-3) during winter haze days (WHD), which suggested fine particles predominated haze pollution episode in both seasons. Total water-soluble inorganic ions concentrations were higher in haze days than those in non-haze days, especially in fine particles. Furthermore, concentrations of secondary inorganic ions (SO4(2-), NO3(-) and NH4(+)) increased quicker than other inorganic ions in fine particles during haze days, indicating secondary inorganic ions played an important role in the formation of haze pollution. Similar size distributions were found for all Sinorganic water soluble ions except for NO3(-), during SHD and WHD. SO4(2-) and NH4(+) dominated in the fine mode (PM1.0) while Mg2+ and Ca2+ accumulated in coarse fraction, Na+, Cl- and K+ showed a bimodal distribution. For NO3(-), however, it showed a bimodal distribution during SHD and a unimodal distribution dominated in the fine fraction was found during WHD. The average mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) of SO4(2-) was 0.64 microm in SHD, which suggested the formation of SO4(2-) was mainly attributed to in-cloud processes. Furthermore, a higher apparent conversion rate of sulfur dioxide (SOR) was found in SHD, indicating more fine particles were produced by photochemical reaction in haze days than that in non-haze days. The

  13. Analysis of the Effect of Water Activity on Ice Formation Using a New Theory of Nucleation (United States)

    Barahona, Donifan


    In this work a new theory of nucleation is developed and used to investigate the effect of water activity on the formation of ice within super-cooled droplets. The new theory is based on a novel concept where the interface is assumed to be made of liquid molecules trapped by the solid matrix. Using this concept new expressions are developed for the critical ice germ size and the nucleation work, with explicit dependencies on temperature and water activity. However unlike previous approaches, the new theory does not depend on the interfacial tension between liquid and ice. Comparison against experimental results shows that the new theory is able to reproduce the observed effect of water activity on nucleation rate and freezing temperature. It allows for the first time a theoretical derivation of the constant shift in water activity between melting and nucleation. The new theory offers a consistent thermodynamic view of ice nucleation, simple enough to be applied in atmospheric models of cloud formation.

  14. Measurements of Water Permeability in Unconsolidated Porous Media with Methane Hydrate Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Sen Li


    Full Text Available Permeability is one of the key factors that determine the fluids flow capacity and production potential of hydrate deposits. In this study, an experimental setup is developed to investigate the flow properties of the porous media, and the permeabilities to water are measured in the unconsolidated porous media with or without hydrate deposition in the pores. A specialized method of precisely controlling the amount of injected methane gas is employed to form methane hydrate in the core sample, and the hydrate formation process is described by the change characteristics of the gas and hydrate saturations. It is found that the residual gas plays an obstructive role in the water flow and it tends to slightly reduce the water permeability in the porous media, especially under high pressure conditions. After hydrate formation in the core sample, relatively steady flow state can be obtained under suitable water injection rate Q at which hydrate dissociation rate is very slow. The absolute permeability of the porous sample is reduced from 49.2 to 1.2 Darcies when the hydrate saturation increases from 0 to 9.3% in this study, indicating a strong dependence of k on the hydrate saturation.

  15. Experimental evidence for the formation of liquid saline water on Mars. (United States)

    Fischer, Erik; Martínez, Germán M; Elliott, Harvey M; Rennó, Nilton O


    Evidence for deliquescence of perchlorate salts has been discovered in the Martian polar region while possible brine flows have been observed in the equatorial region. This appears to contradict the idea that bulk deliquescence is too slow to occur during the short periods of the Martian diurnal cycle during which conditions are favorable for it. We conduct laboratory experiments to study the formation of liquid brines at Mars environmental conditions. We find that when water vapor is the only source of water, bulk deliquescence of perchlorates is not rapid enough to occur during the short periods of the day during which the temperature is above the salts' eutectic value, and the humidity is above the salts' deliquescence value. However, when the salts are in contact with water ice, liquid brine forms in minutes, indicating that aqueous solutions could form temporarily where salts and ice coexist on the Martian surface and in the shallow subsurface. The formation of brines at Martian conditions was studied experimentallyBulk deliquescence from water vapor is too slow to occur diurnally on MarsBrines form in minutes when salts are placed in direct contact with ice.

  16. On the Origin of Microheterogeneity : Mass Spectrometric Studies of Acetonitrile-Water and Dimethyl Sulfoxide-Water Binary Mixtures (Part 2)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shin, Dong Nam; Wijnen, Jan W.; Engberts, Jan B.F.N.; Wakisaka, Akihiro


    The microscopic structures of acetonitrile-water and DMSO-water binary mixed solvents and their influence on the solvation for solutes (some alcohols and phenol) have been studied on the basis of the cluster structures observed through a specially designed mass spectrometer. In acetonitrile-water

  17. The Formation of Rapidly Rotating Black Holes in High-mass X-Ray Binaries (United States)

    Batta, Aldo; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Fryer, Chris


    High-mass X-ray binaries (HMXRBs), such as Cygnus X-1, host some of the most rapidly spinning black holes (BHs) known to date, reaching spin parameters a≳ 0.84. However, there are several effects that can severely limit the maximum BH spin parameter that could be obtained from direct collapse, such as tidal synchronization, magnetic core-envelope coupling, and mass loss. Here, we propose an alternative scenario where the BH is produced by a failed supernova (SN) explosion that is unable to unbind the stellar progenitor. A large amount of fallback material ensues, whose interaction with the secondary naturally increases its overall angular momentum content, and therefore the spin of the BH when accreted. Through SPH hydrodynamic simulations, we studied the unsuccessful explosion of an 8 {M}⊙ pre-SN star in a close binary with a 12 {M}⊙ companion with an orbital period of ≈1.2 days, finding that it is possible to obtain a BH with a high spin parameter a≳ 0.8 even when the expected spin parameter from direct collapse is a≲ 0.3. This scenario also naturally explains the atmospheric metal pollution observed in HMXRB stellar companions.

  18. Sclerostin antibody treatment increases bone formation, bone mass, and bone strength in a rat model of postmenopausal osteoporosis. (United States)

    Li, Xiaodong; Ominsky, Michael S; Warmington, Kelly S; Morony, Sean; Gong, Jianhua; Cao, Jin; Gao, Yongming; Shalhoub, Victoria; Tipton, Barbara; Haldankar, Raj; Chen, Qing; Winters, Aaron; Boone, Tom; Geng, Zhaopo; Niu, Qing-Tian; Ke, Hua Zhu; Kostenuik, Paul J; Simonet, W Scott; Lacey, David L; Paszty, Chris


    The development of bone-rebuilding anabolic agents for potential use in the treatment of bone loss conditions, such as osteoporosis, has been a long-standing goal. Genetic studies in humans and mice have shown that the secreted protein sclerostin is a key negative regulator of bone formation, although the magnitude and extent of sclerostin's role in the control of bone formation in the aging skeleton is still unclear. To study this unexplored area of sclerostin biology and to assess the pharmacologic effects of sclerostin inhibition, we used a cell culture model of bone formation to identify a sclerostin neutralizing monoclonal antibody (Scl-AbII) for testing in an aged ovariectomized rat model of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Six-month-old female rats were ovariectomized and left untreated for 1 yr to allow for significant estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss, at which point Scl-AbII was administered for 5 wk. Scl-AbII treatment in these animals had robust anabolic effects, with marked increases in bone formation on trabecular, periosteal, endocortical, and intracortical surfaces. This not only resulted in complete reversal, at several skeletal sites, of the 1 yr of estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss, but also further increased bone mass and bone strength to levels greater than those found in non-ovariectomized control rats. Taken together, these preclinical results establish sclerostin's role as a pivotal negative regulator of bone formation in the aging skeleton and, furthermore, suggest that antibody-mediated inhibition of sclerostin represents a promising new therapeutic approach for the anabolic treatment of bone-related disorders, such as postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  19. Asynchronous warming and δ18O evolution of deep Atlantic water masses during the last deglaciation. (United States)

    Zhang, Jiaxu; Liu, Zhengyu; Brady, Esther C; Oppo, Delia W; Clark, Peter U; Jahn, Alexandra; Marcott, Shaun A; Lindsay, Keith


    The large-scale reorganization of deep ocean circulation in the Atlantic involving changes in North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) and Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) played a critical role in regulating hemispheric and global climate during the last deglaciation. However, changes in the relative contributions of NADW and AABW and their properties are poorly constrained by marine records, including δ18O of benthic foraminiferal calcite (δ18Oc). Here, we use an isotope-enabled ocean general circulation model with realistic geometry and forcing conditions to simulate the deglacial water mass and δ18O evolution. Model results suggest that, in response to North Atlantic freshwater forcing during the early phase of the last deglaciation, NADW nearly collapses, while AABW mildly weakens. Rather than reflecting changes in NADW or AABW properties caused by freshwater input as suggested previously, the observed phasing difference of deep δ18Oc likely reflects early warming of the deep northern North Atlantic by ∼1.4 °C, while deep Southern Ocean temperature remains largely unchanged. We propose a thermodynamic mechanism to explain the early warming in the North Atlantic, featuring a strong middepth warming and enhanced downward heat flux via vertical mixing. Our results emphasize that the way that ocean circulation affects heat, a dynamic tracer, is considerably different from how it affects passive tracers, like δ18O, and call for caution when inferring water mass changes from δ18Oc records while assuming uniform changes in deep temperatures.

  20. The Bremen mass spectrometric facility for the measurement of helium isotopes, neon, and tritium in water. (United States)

    Sültenfuss, Jürgen; Roether, Wolfgang; Rhein, Monika


    We describe the mass spectrometric facility for measuring helium isotopes, neon, and tritium that has been operative at this institute since 1989, and also the sampling and sample preparation steps that precede the mass spectrometric analysis. For water samples in a near-equilibrium with atmospheric air, the facility achieves precision for (3)He/(4)He ratios of+/-0.4% or better, and+/-0.8 % or better for helium and neon concentrations. Tritium precision is typically+/-3 % and the detection limit 10 mTU ( approximately 1.2.10(-3) Bq/kg of pure water). Sample throughputs can reach some thousands per year. These achievements are enabled, among other features, by automation of the measurement procedure and by elaborate calibration, assisted by continual development in detail. To date, we have measured more than 15,000 samples for tritium and 23,000 for helium isotopes and neon, mostly in the context of oceanographic and hydrologic work. Some results of such work are outlined. Even when atmospheric tritium concentrations have become rather uniform, tritium provides water ages if (3)He data are taken concurrently. The technique can resolve tritium concentrations in waters of the pre-nuclear era.

  1. Fingerprinting North Atlantic water masses near Iceland using Nd-isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, Norbert [Institut fuer Umweltphysik, INF229, Heidelberg (Germany); Waldner, Astrid [Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland); Montagna, Paolo [CNR - ISMAR, Bologna (Italy); Colin, Christophe [IDES, Universite de Paris-Sud, Orsay (France); Wu, Qiong [State Key Laboratory, Tongji University, Shanghai (China)


    The radiogenic {sup 143}Nd/{sup 144}Nd ratio of seawater is a valuable tracer of north Atlantic circulation pathways, driven by continental runoff (freshwater and Aeolian dust), boundary exchange and advection and thus mixing patterns. A region of particular interest in the North Atlantic is the overflow across the Iceland-Scotland Ridge injecting water from the Arctic Ocean into the Iceland basin (Iceland Scotland Overflow Water). However, Iceland itself constitutes a local source for Nd due to possible leaching of young volcanic basalts adding radiogenic {sup 143}Nd/{sup 144}Nd to seawater. We have conducted an intense survey of physical properties and Nd-isotope composition between Iceland and the Azores that allows to fingerprint different water masses of the North Atlantic through the {sup 143}Nd/{sup 144}Nd ratio and that demonstrates the very local influence of volcanic material to the seawater Nd cycle. A first local transect is achieved from the open ocean to the outflow of the Vatnajoekull glacier. Runoff influences seawater Nd in close vicinity (< 40 km near the outflow). A along shelf transect provide a similar observation. From Iceland to the Azores, however, water masses of the sub-tropical and sub-polar gyre are clearly distinguishable.

  2. Asynchronous warming and δ18O evolution of deep Atlantic water masses during the last deglaciation (United States)

    Zhang, Jiaxu; Liu, Zhengyu; Brady, Esther C.; Oppo, Delia W.; Clark, Peter U.; Jahn, Alexandra; Marcott, Shaun A.; Lindsay, Keith


    The large-scale reorganization of deep ocean circulation in the Atlantic involving changes in North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) and Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) played a critical role in regulating hemispheric and global climate during the last deglaciation. However, changes in the relative contributions of NADW and AABW and their properties are poorly constrained by marine records, including δ18O of benthic foraminiferal calcite (δ18Oc). Here, we use an isotope-enabled ocean general circulation model with realistic geometry and forcing conditions to simulate the deglacial water mass and δ18O evolution. Model results suggest that, in response to North Atlantic freshwater forcing during the early phase of the last deglaciation, NADW nearly collapses, while AABW mildly weakens. Rather than reflecting changes in NADW or AABW properties caused by freshwater input as suggested previously, the observed phasing difference of deep δ18Oc likely reflects early warming of the deep northern North Atlantic by ˜1.4 °C, while deep Southern Ocean temperature remains largely unchanged. We propose a thermodynamic mechanism to explain the early warming in the North Atlantic, featuring a strong middepth warming and enhanced downward heat flux via vertical mixing. Our results emphasize that the way that ocean circulation affects heat, a dynamic tracer, is considerably different from how it affects passive tracers, like δ18O, and call for caution when inferring water mass changes from δ18Oc records while assuming uniform changes in deep temperatures.

  3. Water Mass Analysis In The Canadian Basin: Results from the ODEN-2005 Transect (United States)

    Newton, R.; Schlosser, P.; Mortlock, R.; Mauldin, A.; Wong, A.


    Freshwater (and therefore buoyancy) fluxes from the Arctic to the Nordic seas is a critical climate parameter on interannual to millennial time scales. The mechanisms of its variability remain an actively studied, but unsettled question. In the summer of 2005a trans-Arctic hydrography/tracer section was conducted aboard the Swedish icebreaker ODEN. The cruise occupied 53 stations at which full-depth CTD and bottle sampling was conducted. Coverage in the Canadian Basin and along the Lomonosov Ridge in the vicinity of the North Pole was unprecedented, yielding a detailed quasi-synoptic picture of the water column in the Canadian Basin. We report tracer data that are used, in combination with hydrographic and nutrient data, to elucidate sources of freshwater and its anomalies as observed along the cruise track. The ODEN 05 data significantly improve our understanding of the detailed structure of freshwater sources to the main Arctic Ocean reservoir. We present the 2005 water mass analysis in the context of several analytic methods, discussing their most important differences. We then compare the new data to water mass analyses from the 1990s. The sources of change in freshwater and buoyancy content of the upper 500 meters between 1994 and 2005 are quantified, resulting in new insights into the impact of the ongoing reorganization of the Arctic climate system below the water's surface.

  4. A Lagrangian Model Analysis of Arctic Water Mass Transformations and Exports. (United States)

    Lique, C.; Treguier, A.; Blanke, B.; Grima, N.


    Many recent studies indicate that a change in the volume, heat or freshwater export from the Arctic Ocean to the North Atlantic could strongly affect the deep convection regions and thus the global thermohaline circulation. However, the origins of the exported water, mostly along both sides of Greenland through Davis Strait and Fram Strait, are still largely unknown, as strong incertitude remains about the dynamics in the Arctic Ocean and the water mass transformations that occur in this basin. An original approach is presented here to investigate these issues. A quantitative Lagrangian method is applied to Eulerian fields of a global high resolution model (around 12~km grid size in the Arctic). First, the simulated Arctic is validated against available observations. Then, the Lagrangian method allows to establish a quantitative circulation scheme. We quantify the relative contributions of the different branches of circulation to the export to the North Atlantic, as well as the related timescales and water mass transformations. The role of the Barents Sea in the modification of the different branches of Atlantic Water entering the Arctic is specially emphasized.

  5. Reconstructing the history of water ice formation from HDO/H2O and D2O/HDO ratios in protostellar cores (United States)

    Furuya, K.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Aikawa, Y.


    Recent interferometer observations have found that the D2O/HDO abundance ratio is higher than that of HDO/H2O by about one order of magnitude in the vicinity of low-mass protostar NGC 1333-IRAS 2A, where water ice has sublimated. Previous laboratory and theoretical studies show that the D2O/HDO ice ratio should be lower than the HDO/H2O ice ratio, if HDO and D2O ices are formed simultaneously with H2O ice. In this work, we propose that the observed feature, D2O/HDO > HDO/H2O, is a natural consequence of chemical evolution in the early cold stages of low-mass star formation as follows: 1) majority of oxygen is locked up in water ice and other molecules in molecular clouds, where water deuteration is not efficient; and 2) water ice formation continues with much reduced efficiency in cold prestellar/protostellar cores, where deuteration processes are highly enhanced as a result of the drop of the ortho-para ratio of H2, the weaker UV radiation field, etc. Using a simple analytical model and gas-ice astrochemical simulations, which traces the evolution from the formation of molecular clouds to protostellar cores, we show that the proposed scenario can quantitatively explain the observed HDO/H2O and D2O/HDO ratios. We also find that the majority of HDO and D2O ices are likely formed in cold prestellar/protostellar cores rather than in molecular clouds, where the majority of H2O ice is formed. This work demonstrates the power of the combination of the HDO/H2O and D2O/HDO ratios as a tool to reveal the past history of water ice formation in the early cold stages of star formation, and when the enrichment of deuterium in the bulk of water occurred. Further observations are needed to explore if the relation, D2O/HDO > HDO/H2O, is common in low-mass protostellar sources.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Jingzhe; Gonzalez, Anthony H. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Spilker, J. S.; Marrone, D. P. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Strandet, M. [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69 D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Ashby, M. L. N. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Aravena, M. [Núcleo de Astronomía, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejército 441, Santiago (Chile); Béthermin, M.; Breuck, C. de; Gullberg, B. [European Southern Observatory, Karl Schwarzschild Straße 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Bothwell, M. S. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, JJ Thompson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Brodwin, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, 5110 Rockhill Road, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Chapman, S. C. [Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Fassnacht, C. D. [Department of Physics, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Greve, T. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Hezaveh, Y. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Malkan, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Saliwanchik, B. R., E-mail: [Department of Physics, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); and others


    To understand cosmic mass assembly in the universe at early epochs, we primarily rely on measurements of the stellar masses and star formation rates (SFRs) of distant galaxies. In this paper, we present stellar masses and SFRs of six high-redshift (2.8 ≤ z ≤ 5.7) dusty, star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) that are strongly gravitationally lensed by foreground galaxies. These sources were first discovered by the South Pole Telescope (SPT) at millimeter wavelengths and all have spectroscopic redshifts and robust lens models derived from Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array observations. We have conducted follow-up observations to obtain multi-wavelength imaging data using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), Spitzer, Herschel, and the Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment. We use the high-resolution HST/Wide Field Camera 3 images to disentangle the background source from the foreground lens in Spitzer/IRAC data. The detections and upper limits provide important constraints on the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for these DSFGs, yielding stellar masses, IR luminosities, and SFRs. The SED fits of six SPT sources show that the intrinsic stellar masses span a range more than one order of magnitude with a median value ∼5 ×10{sup 10} M{sub ⊙}. The intrinsic IR luminosities range from 4 × 10{sup 12} L{sub ⊙} to 4 × 10{sup 13} L{sub ⊙}. They all have prodigious intrinsic SFRs of 510–4800 M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}. Compared to the star-forming main sequence (MS), these six DSFGs have specific SFRs that all lie above the MS, including two galaxies that are a factor of 10 higher than the MS. Our results suggest that we are witnessing ongoing strong starburst events that may be driven by major mergers.

  7. Modelling of Disinfection by-products formation via UV irradiation of the water from Tajan River (source water for Sari drinking water, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allahbakhsh Javid


    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study Irradiation with ultraviolet light (UV is used for the disinfection of bacterial contaminants in the production of potable water. The main objective of the study was to investigate and model Disinfection By-Products (DBPs formation due to the UV Irradiation of the Tajan River water under different Irradiation conditions. Materials & Methods:  Water samples were collected throughout September 2011 to August 2013. Transportation of the sample to the laboratory was done on ice in a cooler, and physiochemical analysis was conducted immediately within one day. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC was determined by a TOC analyzer. Irradiation experiments were conducted in a series of 25 mL glass serum bottles with Teflon septa. The present study adopts an orthogonal design. The design involved irradiation with UV at a UV/DOC ratio of 0.5–3.0 and incubating (headspace-free storage for 5–25 sec. A 1 mM phosphate buffer maintained the pH at 6, 7, or 8 respectively, and an incubator maintained the temperature (Temp at 15, 20, or 25 °C respectively. The development of empirical models for DBPs formation used a multivariate regression procedure (stepwise which applied the SPSS System for Windows (Version 16.0. Results:  The results showed that the total DBPs formation ranged between 12.3 and 67.4 mg/l and that control of the levels was primarily due to the reaction time and the dissolved organic carbon level (DOC in the water. Conclusions:  Reaction time and level of DOC concentrations in water exerted a dominant influence on the formation of DBPs during the UV irradiation of water from the Tajan River. The relationships between the measured and predicted values were satisfactory with R 2 values ranging from 0.89 (for Octanal–0.92 (for Formaldehydes. The DOC level in water is the key factor in controlling DBPs formation.

  8. Chlorine decay and trihalomethane formation following ferrate(VI) preoxidation and chlorination of drinking water. (United States)

    Li, Cong; Luo, Feng; Dong, Feilong; Zhao, Jingguo; Zhang, Tuqiao; He, Guilin; Cizmas, Leslie; Sharma, Virender K


    This paper presents the effect of preoxidation with ferrate(VI) (FeVIO42-, Fe(VI)) prior to chlorination on chlorine decay and formation of disinfection by-products in filtered raw water from a full-scale drinking water treatment plant. The rate of chlorine decay became significantly faster as the concentration of ferrate(VI) increased. Chlorine degradation followed two first-order decay reactions with rate constants k1 and k2 for fast and slow decay, respectively. Kinetic modeling established the relationships between k1 and k2 and varying dosages of chlorine and ferrate(VI). When ferrate(VI) was used as a pre-oxidant, the levels of trihalomethanes (trichloromethane (TCM), dichlorobromomethane (DCBM), dibromochloromethane (DBCM), and tribromomethane (TBM)) in water samples decreased as the ferrate(VI) concentration increased. The concentrations of these trihalomethanes followed the order TCM > DCBM ≈ DBCM > TBM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Dense shelf water formation along the south-west Australian inner shelf (United States)

    Pattiaratchi, Charitha; Hollings, Ben; Woo, Mun; Welhena, Thisara


    Hydrological data from a repeated cross-shore transect obtained using Teledyne Webb Research Slocum Electric gliders offshore Two Rocks in south-western Australia over 13 months are presented. The data revealed that formation of dense water inshore and its transport across the shelf as a near bed gravity current (defined as Dense Shelf Water Cascade, DSWC) was a regular occurrence, particularly during autumn and winter months. In autumn, the dense water is mainly formed through changes in salinity resulting from evaporation, whilst in winter; temperature change through surface cooling was the dominant factor. The mean wind speeds also decrease during the transition during autumn. The speed of the DSWC was estimated to be 0.01-0.02 m s-1, and similar to that measured in other selected regions globally. The offshore transport from the shelf is a significant component of the alongshore wind-driven transport.

  10. Subsurface water and clay mineral formation during the early history of Mars. (United States)

    Ehlmann, Bethany L; Mustard, John F; Murchie, Scott L; Bibring, Jean-Pierre; Meunier, Alain; Fraeman, Abigail A; Langevin, Yves


    Clay minerals, recently discovered to be widespread in Mars's Noachian terrains, indicate long-duration interaction between water and rock over 3.7 billion years ago. Analysis of how they formed should indicate what environmental conditions prevailed on early Mars. If clays formed near the surface by weathering, as is common on Earth, their presence would indicate past surface conditions warmer and wetter than at present. However, available data instead indicate substantial Martian clay formation by hydrothermal groundwater circulation and a Noachian rock record dominated by evidence of subsurface waters. Cold, arid conditions with only transient surface water may have characterized Mars's surface for over 4 billion years, since the early-Noachian period, and the longest-duration aqueous, potentially habitable environments may have been in the subsurface.

  11. Mass density fluctuations in quantum and classical descriptions of liquid water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galib, Mirza [Physical Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354, USA; Duignan, Timothy T. [Physical Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354, USA; Misteli, Yannick [Physical Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354, USA; Baer, Marcel D. [Physical Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354, USA; Schenter, Gregory K. [Physical Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354, USA; Hutter, Jürg [Physical Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354, USA; Mundy, Christopher J. [Physical Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354, USA


    First principles molecular dynamics simulation protocol is established using revised functional of Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (revPBE) in conjunction with Grimme's third generation of dispersion (D3) correction to describe properties of water at ambient conditions. This study also demonstrates the consistency of the structure of water across both isobaric (NpT) and isothermal (NVT) ensembles. Going beyond the standard structural benchmarks for liquid water, we compute properties that are connected to both local structure and mass density fluctuations that are related to concepts of solvation and hydrophobicity. We directly compare our revPBE results to the Becke-Lee-Yang-Parr (BLYP) plus Grimme dispersion corrections (D2) and both the empirical fixed charged model (SPC/E) and many body interaction potential model (MB-pol) to further our understanding of how the computed properties herein depend on the form of the interaction potential.

  12. Total body water and lean body mass estimated by ethanol dilution (United States)

    Loeppky, J. A.; Myhre, L. G.; Venters, M. D.; Luft, U. C.


    A method for estimating total body water (TBW) using breath analyses of blood ethanol content is described. Regression analysis of ethanol concentration curves permits determination of a theoretical concentration that would have existed if complete equilibration had taken place immediately upon ingestion of the ethanol; the water fraction of normal blood may then be used to calculate TBW. The ethanol dilution method is applied to 35 subjects, and comparison with a tritium dilution method of determining TBW indicates that the correlation between the two procedures is highly significant. Lean body mass and fat fraction were determined by hydrostatic weighing, and these data also prove compatible with results obtained from the ethanol dilution method. In contrast to the radioactive tritium dilution method, the ethanol dilution method can be repeated daily with its applicability ranging from diseased individuals to individuals subjected to thermal stress, strenuous exercise, water immersion, or the weightless conditions of space flights.

  13. Mass density fluctuations in quantum and classical descriptions of liquid water (United States)

    Galib, Mirza; Duignan, Timothy T.; Misteli, Yannick; Baer, Marcel D.; Schenter, Gregory K.; Hutter, Jürg; Mundy, Christopher J.


    First principles molecular dynamics simulation protocol is established using revised functional of Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (revPBE) in conjunction with Grimme's third generation of dispersion (D3) correction to describe the properties of water at ambient conditions. This study also demonstrates the consistency of the structure of water across both isobaric (NpT) and isothermal (NVT) ensembles. Going beyond the standard structural benchmarks for liquid water, we compute properties that are connected to both local structure and mass density fluctuations that are related to concepts of solvation and hydrophobicity. We directly compare our revPBE results to the Becke-Lee-Yang-Parr (BLYP) plus Grimme dispersion corrections (D2) and both the empirical fixed charged model (SPC/E) and many body interaction potential model (MB-pol) to further our understanding of how the computed properties herein depend on the form of the interaction potential.

  14. The formation of molecular hydrogen from water ice in the lunar regolith by energetic charged particles (United States)

    Jordan, A. P.; Stubbs, T. J.; Joyce, C. J.; Schwadron, N. A.; Spence, H. E.; Wilson, J. K.


    On 9 October 2009, the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) mission impacted a spent Centaur rocket into the permanently shadowed region (PSR) within Cabeus crater and detected water vapor and ice, as well as other volatiles, in the ejecta plume. The Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP), a far ultraviolet (FUV) imaging spectrograph on board the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), observed this plume as FUV emissions from the fluorescence of sunlight by molecular hydrogen (H2) and other constituents. Energetic charged particles, such as galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) and solar energetic particles (SEPs), can dissociate the molecules in water ice to form H2. We examine how much H2can be formed by these types of particle radiation interacting with water ice sequestered in the regolith within PSRs, and we assess whether it can account for the H2 observed by LAMP. To estimate H2formation, we use the GCR and SEP radiation dose rates measured by the LRO Cosmic Ray Telescope for the Effects of Radiation (CRaTER). The exposure time of the ice is calculated by considering meteoritic gardening and the penetration depth of the energetic particles. We find that GCRs and SEPs could convert at least 1-7% of the original water molecules into H2. Therefore, given the amount of water detected by LCROSS, such particle radiation‒induced dissociation of water ice could likely account for a significant percentage (10-100%) of the H2measured by LAMP.

  15. Occurrence and formation of haloacetamides from chlorination at water purification plants across Japan. (United States)

    Kosaka, Koji; Ohkubo, Keiko; Akiba, Michihiro


    The occurrence of six haloacetamides (HAcAms), which are a group of emerging nitrogenous disinfection byproducts, was investigated in drinking water across Japan in September 2015 and February 2016. At least one of the six HAcAms were found in all of the drinking water samples and their total concentrations ranged from 0.3 to 3.8 μg/L. The detection frequencies and concentrations of 2,2-dichloroacetamide (DCAcAm) and 2-bromo-2-chloroacetamide (BCAcAm) were the largest among the targeted HAcAm species. The total HAcAm concentrations in the raw water after chlorination ranged from 0.8 to 11 μg/L. The bromine incorporation factors (BIFs) of the targeted dihalogenated HAcAms (di-HAcAms) (DCAcAm, BCAcAm, and 2,2-dibromoacetamide) in the drinking water samples correlated well with those in the raw water after chlorination. The total HAcAm concentrations and the BIF of the di-HAcAms in the raw water after chlorination correlated with trihalomethane concentrations. HAcAm concentrations after chlorination increased with chlorination time. While the formation of di-HAcAms after chlorination was higher at higher pH, that of 2,2,2-trichloroacetamide remained unaffected by pH. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Formation of coronene:water complexes: FTIR study in argon matrices and theoretical characterisation. (United States)

    Simon, A; Noble, J A; Rouaut, G; Moudens, A; Aupetit, C; Iftner, C; Mascetti, J


    In this paper, we report a combined theoretical and experimental study of coronene:water interactions in low temperature argon matrices. The theoretical calculations were performed using the mixed density functional-based tight binding/force field approach. The results are discussed in the light of experimental matrix isolation FTIR spectroscopic data. We show that, in the solid phase, (C24H12)(H2O)n (n ≤ 6) σ-type complexes, i.e. with water molecules coordinated on the edge of coronene, are formed, whereas in the gas phase, π-interaction is preferred. These σ-complexes are characterised by small shifts in water absorption bands and a larger blue shift of the out-of-plane γ(CH) deformation of coronene, with the shift increasing with the number of complexed water molecules. Such σ interaction is expected to favour photochemical reaction between water and coronene at the edges of the coronene molecule, leading to the formation of oxidation products at low temperature, even in the presence of only a few water molecules and at radiation energies below the ionisation potential of coronene.

  17. Characterization of haloacetaldehyde and trihalomethane formation potentials during drinking water treatment. (United States)

    Mao, Yu-Qin; Wang, Xiao-Mao; Guo, Xian-Fen; Yang, Hong-Wei; Xie, Yuefeng F


    Haloacetaldehydes (HAs) are the third prevalent group of disinfection by-products (DBPs) of great health concern. In this study, their formation and speciation during chlorination were investigated for raw and process waters collected at three O3-biological activated carbon (BAC) advanced drinking water treatment plants. The results showed that all HA formation potentials (HAFPs) were highly enhanced whenever ozone was applied before or after conventional treatment. Sand filtration and BAC filtration could substantially reduce HAFPs. Trihalomethanes (THMs) were also measured to better understand the role of HAs in DBPs. Very different from HAFPs, THMFPs kept decreasing with the progress of treatment steps, which was mainly attributed to the different precursors for HAs and THMs. Brominated HAs were detected in bromide-containing waters. Chloral hydrate (CH) contributed from 25% to 48% to the total HAs formed in waters containing 100-150 μg L(-1) bromide, indicating the wide existence of other HAs after chlorination besides CH production. In addition, bromide incorporation factor (BIF) in HAs and THMs increased with the progress of treatment steps and the BIF values of THMs were generally higher than those of HAs. The BAC filtration following ozonation could significantly reduce HA precursors produced from ozonation but without complete removal. The brominated HAFPs in the outflow of BAC were still higher than their levels in the raw water. As a result, O3-BAC combined treatment was effective at controlling the total HAs, whereas it should be cautious for waters with high bromide levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The selenium isotopic variations in chondrites are mass-dependent; Implications for sulfide formation in the early solar system (United States)

    Labidi, J.; König, S.; Kurzawa, T.; Yierpan, A.; Schoenberg, R.


    Element transfer from the solar nebular gas to solids occurred either through direct condensation or via heterogeneous reactions between gaseous molecules and previously condensed solid matter. The precursors of altered sulfides observed in chondrites are for example attributed to reactions between gaseous hydrogen sulfide and metallic iron grains. The transfer of selenium to solids likely occurred through a similar pathway, allowing the formation of iron selenides concomitantly with sulfides. The formation rate of sulfide however remains difficult to assess. Here we investigate whether the Se isotopic composition of meteorites contributes to constrain sulfide formation during condensation stages of our solar system. We present high precision Se concentration and δ 82 / 78 Se data for 23 chondrites as well as the first δ 74 / 78 Se , δ 76 / 78 Se and δ 77 / 78 Se data for a sub-set of seven chondrites. We combine our dataset with previously published sulfur isotopic data and discuss aspects of sulfide formation for various types of chondrites. Our Se concentration data are within uncertainty to literature values and are consistent with sulfides being the dominant selenium host in chondrites. Our overall average δ 82 / 78 Se value for chondrites is - 0.21 ± 0.43 ‰ (n = 23, 2 s.d.), or - 0.14 ± 0.21 ‰ after exclusion of three weathered chondrites (n = 20, 2 s.d.). These average values are within uncertainty indistinguishable from a previously published estimate. For the first time however, we resolve distinct δ 82 / 78 Se between ordinary (- 0.14 ± 0.07 ‰, n = 9, 2 s.d.), enstatite (- 0.27 ± 0.05 ‰, n = 3, 2 s.d.) and CI carbonaceous chondrites (- 0.01 ± 0.06 ‰, n = 2, 2 s.d.). We also resolve a Se isotopic variability among CM carbonaceous chondrites. In addition, we report on δ 74 / 78 Se , δ 76 / 78 Se and δ 77 / 78 Se values determined for 7 chondrites. Our data allow evaluating the mass dependency of the δ 82 / 78 Se variations. Mass

  19. Spatial Distributions of DDTs in the Water Masses of the Arctic Ocean. (United States)

    Carrizo, Daniel; Sobek, Anna; Salvadó, Joan A; Gustafsson, Örjan


    There is a scarcity of data on the amount and distribution of the organochlorine pesticide dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites in intermediate and deep ocean water masses. Here, the distribution and inventories of DDTs in water of the Arctic shelf seas and the interior basin are presented. The occurrence of ∑6DDT (0.10-66 pg L-1) in the surface water was dominated by 4,4'-DDE. In the Central Arctic Ocean increasing concentrations of DDE with depth were observed in the Makarov and Amundsen basins. The increasing concentrations down to 2500 m depth is in accordance with previous findings for PCBs and PBDEs. Similar concentrations of DDT and DDEs were found in the surface water, while the relative contribution of DDEs increased with depth, demonstrating a transformation over time and depth. Higher concentrations of DDTs were found in the European part of the Arctic Ocean; these distributions likely reflect a combination of different usage patterns, transport, and fate of these compounds. For instance, the elevated concentrations of DDTs in the Barents and Atlantic sectors of the Arctic Ocean indicate the northbound Atlantic current as a significant conveyor of DDTs. This study contributes to the very rare data on OCPs in the vast deep-water compartments and combined with surface water distribution across the Arctic Ocean helps to improve our understanding of the large-scale fate of DDTs in the Arctic.

  20. N-body simulations of secondary infall. I. Formation of mass profile galactic halos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dekel, A.; Kowitt, M.; Shaham, J.


    The cosmological evolution of a flat bound density perturbation around a central ''galaxy'' is studied by means of N-body simulations with 250--500 particles. The results confirm previous theoretical studies (Gott) showing that under certain initial conditions the maximum expansion radii could be almost proportional to the mass contained within these radii. Furthermore, as suggested by Gunn, the shape is roughly preserved during the subsequent infall, in which self-similar relaxation occurs and violent relaxation is found to be ineffective. Hence, the relaxed systems can indeed show almost flat rotation curves (M/RproportionalR/sup -0.25/ ). Failures to obtain similar results using spherical shell models are discussed.

  1. Monitoring water masses properties by Glider in Sardinia Channel during summer 2014 (United States)

    Gana, Slim; Iudicone, Daniele; Ghenim, Leila; Mortier, Laurent; Testor, Pierre; Tintoré, Joaquin; Olita, Antonio


    1. Summary In the framework of the EC funded project, PERSEUS (WP3, Subtask 3.3.1: Repeated glider sections in key channels and sub-basin) and with the support of JERICO TNA (EU-FP7), a deep water glider (up to 1000m) was deployed from the R/V Tethys in the Sardinia Channel and has carried out 3 return trips during the period spanning from the 16th of August 2014 to the 19th of September 2014. The Gilder was equipped with CTD, O2 sensors, Fluorometers (ChlA), back scattering from 470 to 880 nm and was programmed to follow a path close to SARAL satellite track #887. During this experiment, a significant dataset, as never obtained before for this area, has been collected. The innovation stands in the high spatial resolution, in the temporal repetitivity and in the number of parameters sampled simultaneously. The first step of the work will focuses on the analysis of the hydrological properties of the existing water masses in the area. 2. Frame and aim of the experiment The Sardinia Channel is a zonally oriented passage connecting the Algerian and the Tyrrhenian basins, with a sill depth of about 1900 m. In spite of the considerable amount of work achieved and accurate results obtained about the circulation in the Western Mediterranean Sea, during the last 20 years, the Sardinia Channel is still one of the region where the dynamical processes and water exchanges are not clearly identified. Previous studies (Garzoli S. and C. Maillard, 1979, and Ozturgut Erdogan, 1975) pointed out the complexity of the processes in the region and the role of the bottom topography in sustaining them, and provided a first estimation of the involved fluxes. The main knowledge about the water masses crossing this region mostly concerns the AW (Atlantic Water) and the LIW (Levantine Intermediate Water). Along the Algerian coast, the AW is transported mainly by the Algerian current (AC Millot, 1985) from which the anticyclonic Algerian eddies (AEs, Puillat et al., 2002; Taupier-Letage et al

  2. The Effect of Molar Mass and Charge Density on the Formation of Complexes between Oppositely Charged Polyelectrolytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feriel Meriem Lounis


    Full Text Available The interactions between model polyanions and polycations have been studied using frontal continuous capillary electrophoresis (FACCE which allows the determination of binding stoichiometry and binding constant of the formed polyelectrolyte complex (PEC. In this work, the effect of the poly(l-lysine (PLL molar mass on the interaction with statistical copolymers of acrylamide and 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonate (PAMAMPS has been systematically investigated for different PAMAMPS chemical charge densities (15% and 100% and different ionic strengths. The study of the ionic strength dependence of the binding constant allowed the determination of the total number of released counter-ions during the formation of the PEC, which can be compared to the total number of counter-ions initially condensed on the individual polyelectrolyte partners before the association. Interestingly, this fraction of released counter-ions, which was strongly dependent on the PLL molar mass, was almost independent of the PAMAMPS charge density. These findings are useful to predict the binding constant according to the molar mass and charge density of the polyelectrolyte partners.

  3. Low Bone Mineral Mass Is Associated with Decreased Bone Formation and Diet in Females with Rett Syndrome (United States)

    Motil, Kathleen J.; Barrish, Judy O.; Neul, Jeffrey L.; Glaze, Daniel G.


    Objective To characterize biomarkers of bone turnover and their relation with bone mineral mass in a cross-sectional cohort of females with Rett syndrome (RTT) and to examine the role of dietary, biochemical, hormonal, and inflammatory factors on bone mineral mass and bone biomarkers in this disorder. Methods Total body bone mineral content (BMC) and density (BMD) were determined by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Dietary nutrient intakes were determined from 3-day food records. Biomarkers of bone turnover, bone metabolites, vitamin D metabolites, hormones, and inflammatory markers were measured by standard clinical laboratory methods. Results Serum osteocalcin, bone alkaline phosphatase, and C-telopeptide showed significant inverse relations with age in the RTT cohort. Mean osteocalcin concentrations were significantly lower and mean bone alkaline phosphatase concentrations were significantly higher for individual age groups in the RTT cohort than mean values for their respective age ranges in the reference population. Significant inverse associations were identified between urinary calcium losses, expressed as calcium:creatinine ratios, and total body BMC and BMD z-scores. Dietary protein, calcium, and phosphorus intakes, expressed as a proportion of Dietary Reference Intakes for age and gender, showed significant positive associations with total body BMD z-scores. Conclusion This study suggests decreased bone formation rather than increased bone resorption may explain in part the deficits in bone mineral mass in RTT and that attention to the adequacy of dietary protein, calcium and phosphorus intakes may offer an opportunity to improve bone health in RTT. PMID:25144778

  4. Formation of iodo-trihalomethanes, iodo-haloacetic acids, and haloacetaldehydes during chlorination and chloramination of iodine containing waters in laboratory controlled reactions. (United States)

    Postigo, Cristina; Richardson, Susan D; Barceló, Damia


    Iodine containing disinfection by-products (I-DBPs) and haloacetaldehydes (HALs) are emerging disinfection by-product (DBP) classes of concern. The former due to its increased potential toxicity and the latter because it was found to be the third most relevant DBP class in mass in a U.S. nationwide drinking water study. These DBP classes have been scarcely investigated, and this work was performed to further explore their formation in drinking water under chlorination and chloramination scenarios. In order to do this, iodo-trihalomethanes (I-THMs), iodo-haloacetic acids (I-HAAs) and selected HALs (mono-HALs and di-HALs species, including iodoacetaldehyde) were investigated in DBP mixtures generated after chlorination and chloramination of different water matrices containing different levels of bromide and iodide in laboratory controlled reactions. Results confirmed the enhancement of I-DBP formation in the presence of monochloramine. While I-THMs and I-HAAs contributed almost equally to total I-DBP concentrations in chlorinated water, I-THMs contributed the most to total I-DBP levels in the case of chloraminated water. The most abundant and common I-THM species generated were bromochloroiodomethane, dichloroiodomethane, and chlorodiiodomethane. Iodoacetic acid and chloroiodoacetic acid contributed the most to the total I-HAA concentrations measured in the investigated disinfected water. As for the studied HALs, dihalogenated species were the compounds that predominantly formed under both investigated treatments. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Analysis of heterogeneous water vapor uptake by metal iodide cluster ions via differential mobility analysis-mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberreit, Derek [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States); Fluid Measurement Technologies, Inc., Saint Paul, Minnesota 55110 (United States); Rawat, Vivek K.; Larriba-Andaluz, Carlos; Ouyang, Hui; McMurry, Peter H.; Hogan, Christopher J., E-mail: [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States)


    The sorption of vapor molecules onto pre-existing nanometer sized clusters is of importance in understanding particle formation and growth in gas phase environments and devising gas phase separation schemes. Here, we apply a differential mobility analyzer-mass spectrometer based approach to observe directly the sorption of vapor molecules onto iodide cluster ions of the form (MI){sub x}M{sup +} (x = 1-13, M = Na, K, Rb, or Cs) in air at 300 K and with water saturation ratios in the 0.01-0.64 range. The extent of vapor sorption is quantified in measurements by the shift in collision cross section (CCS) for each ion. We find that CCS measurements are sensitive enough to detect the transient binding of several vapor molecules to clusters, which shift CCSs by only several percent. At the same time, for the highest saturation ratios examined, we observed CCS shifts of up to 45%. For x < 4, cesium, rubidium, and potassium iodide cluster ions are found to uptake water to a similar extent, while sodium iodide clusters uptake less water. For x ≥ 4, sodium iodide cluster ions uptake proportionally more water vapor than rubidium and potassium iodide cluster ions, while cesium iodide ions exhibit less uptake. Measured CCS shifts are compared to predictions based upon a Kelvin-Thomson-Raoult (KTR) model as well as a Langmuir adsorption model. We find that the Langmuir adsorption model can be fit well to measurements. Meanwhile, KTR predictions deviate from measurements, which suggests that the earliest stages of vapor uptake by nanometer scale species are not well described by the KTR model.

  6. Determination of several pesticides in water by solid-phase extraction, liquid chromatography and electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Rodrigues, Alexandre Mourão; Ferreira, Vera; Cardoso, Vitor Vale; Ferreira, Elisabete; Benoliel, Maria João


    The analysis of pesticides in water samples is a problem of primary concern for quality control laboratories due to the toxicity level of these compounds and their public health risk. In order to evaluate the impact of pesticides in the Lisbon drinking water supply system, following the requirements of the European Union Directive 98/83/EC, we developed and validated an analytical method based on the combination of solid-phase extraction with liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. In this work, several pesticides were studied: imidacloprid, dimethoate, cymoxanil, carbendazime, phosmet, carbofuran, isoproturon, diuron, methidathion, linuron, pyrimethanil, methiocarbe, tebuconazole and chlorpyrifos. Several parameters of the electrospray source were optimized in order to get the best formation conditions of the precursor ion for each pesticide, namely capillary and extractor voltage, cone voltage, cone gas flow rate and desolvation gas flow rate. After optimization of the collision cell energy of the triple quadrupole, two different precursor ion-product ion transitions were selected for each pesticide, one for quantification and one for qualification, and these ions were monitored under time-scheduled multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) conditions. The selection of specific fragment ions for each pesticide guarantees a high degree of selectivity as well as additional sensitivity to quantify trace levels of these pesticides in water samples. This method showed excellent linearity ranges for all pesticides, with correlation coefficients greater than 0.9989. Determination limits (between 0.0041 and 0.0480 microg/L), precision (RSD <9.18%), accuracy and recovery studies in several water samples using solid-phase extraction were also performed.

  7. Mass spectral characterisation of a polar, esterified fraction of an organic extract of an oil sands process water. (United States)

    Rowland, S J; Pereira, A S; Martin, J W; Scarlett, A G; West, C E; Lengger, S K; Wilde, M J; Pureveen, J; Tegelaar, E W; Frank, R A; Hewitt, L M


    Characterising complex mixtures of organic compounds in polar fractions of heavy petroleum is challenging, but is important for pollution studies and for exploration and production geochemistry. Oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) stored in large tailings ponds by Canadian oil sands industries contains such mixtures. A polar OSPW fraction was obtained by silver ion solid-phase extraction with methanol elution. This was examined by numerous methods, including electrospray ionisation (ESI) Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICRMS) and ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography (uHPLC)/Orbitrap MS, in multiple ionisation and MS/MS modes. Compounds were also synthesised for comparison. The major ESI ionisable compounds detected (+ion mode) were C15-28 SO3 species with 3-7 double bond equivalents (DBE) and C27-28 SO5 species with 5 DBE. ESI-MS/MS collision-induced losses were due to water, methanol, water plus methanol and water plus methyl formate, typical of methyl esters of hydroxy acids. Once the fraction was re-saponified, species originally detected by positive ion MS, could be detected only by negative ion MS, consistent with their assignment as sulphur-containing hydroxy carboxylic acids. The free acid of a keto dibenzothiophene alkanoic acid was added to an unesterified acid extract of OSPW in known concentrations as a putative internal standard, but attempted quantification in this way proved unreliable. The results suggest the more polar acidic organic SO3 constituents of OSPW include C15-28  S-containing, alicyclic and aromatic hydroxy carboxylic acids. SO5 species are possibly sulphone analogues of these. The origin of such compounds is probably via further biotransformation (hydroxylation) of the related S-containing carboxylic acids identified previously in a less polar OSPW fraction. The environmental risks, corrosivity and oil flow assurance effects should be easier to assess, given that partial structures are now known

  8. Ion Formation of N-Methyl Carbamate Pesticides in Thermospray Mass Spectrometry: The Effects of Additives to the Liquid Chromatographic Eluent and of the Vaporizer Temperature.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honing, M.; Barceló, D.; van Baar, B.L.M.; Ghijsen, R.T.; Brinkman, U.A.T.


    The effects of three additives-ammonium acetate, ammonium formate, and nicotinic acid-to the liquid chromatographic (LC) eluent and of the vaporizer temperature on the ion formation of N-methyl carbamate pesticides in thermospray (TSP) mass spectrometry was investigated by using filament- or

  9. Impact of Mass Bathing and Religious Activities on Water Quality Index of Prominent Water Bodies: A Multilocation Study in Haryana, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Bhatnagar


    Full Text Available The present study was designed to assess the impact of mass bathing and religious activities on water quality index (WQI of prominent water bodies (eight in Haryana, India. Water quality characteristics revealed significant increase in the values of nitrate, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD, turbidity, total dissolved solids (TDS, conductivity, total hardness, total alkalinity, and MPN count after the religious activities. The computed WQI at all the eight selected sites varied from 47.55 to 211.42. The results revealed that there was a significant increase in the value of WQI after mass bathing or any other ritual performed. Out of eight water bodies studied three (sites 3, 4, and 5 were found under good water quality status; four sites (1, 2, 6, and 7 depicted medium water quality but site 8 was found under poor water quality after the religious activities. The good water quality status of water bodies was correlated with larger size of the water bodies and less number of pilgrims; however, the poor WQI values may be attributed to smaller size of the water body and heavy load of pilgrims on such sites. Therefore, water of these religious water bodies needed to be regularly changed after mass bathing to protect the aquatic component from different contaminations.

  10. High bone mass in adult mice with diet-induced obesity results from a combination of initial increase in bone mass followed by attenuation in bone formation; implications for high bone mass and decreased bone quality in obesity. (United States)

    Lecka-Czernik, B; Stechschulte, L A; Czernik, P J; Dowling, A R


    Obesity is generally recognized as a condition which positively influences bone mass and bone mineral density (BMD). Positive effect of high body mass index (BMI) on bone has been recognized as a result of increased mechanical loading exerted on the skeleton. However, epidemiologic studies indicate that obesity is associated with increased incidence of fractures. The results presented here offer a new perspective regarding the mechanisms which may be responsible for the increase of bone mass and concurrent decrease in bone quality. Two groups of 12 week old C57BL/6 males were fed either high fat diet (HFD) or regular diet (RD) for 11 weeks. Metabolic profile, bone parameters and gene expression were assessed in these groups at the end of the experiment. Additionally, bone status was evaluated in a third group of 12 week old animals corresponding to animals at the start of the feeding period. Administration of HFD resulted in development of a diet-induced obesity (DIO), glucose intolerance, alteration in energy metabolism, and impairment in WAT function, as compared to the age-matched control animals fed RD. The expression of adiponectin, FABP4/aP2, DIO2 and FoxC2 were decreased in WAT of DIO animals, as well as transcript levels for IGFBP2, the cytokine regulating both energy metabolism and bone mass. At the end of experiment, DIO mice had higher bone mass than both control groups on RD, however they had decreased bone formation, as assessed by calcein labeling, and increased marrow adipocyte content. This study suggests that the bone mass acquired in obesity is a result of a two-phase process. First phase would consist of either beneficial effect of fat expansion to increase bone mass by increased mechanical loading and/or increased production of bone anabolic adipokines and/or nutritional effect of fatty acids. This is followed by a second phase characterized by decreased bone formation and bone turnover resulting from development of metabolic impairment

  11. [Determination of aniline in water and fish by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry]. (United States)

    He, Dechun; Zhao, Bo; Tang, Caiming; Xu, Zhencheng; Zhang, Sukun; Han, Jinglei


    A fast analytical method for the determination of aniline in water and fish meat by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has been developed. The water sample was mixed with acetonitrile by 4:1 (v/v) and the fish sample was extracted by 2.00 mL acetonitrile for each gram of sample, and then the extracts of water and fish samples were centrifuged at 5,000 r/min for 5 min. The separation was performed on a reversed-phase C18 column using mobile phases of acetonitrile-0.5% (v/v) formic acid aqueous solution (85:15, v/v). Aniline was separated within 3 min. The calibration curve was linear in the range of 0.5-500 pg/L with R2 > 0.999. The limits of detection (LODs) were 0.50 μg/L and 1.00 μg/kg and the limits of quantification (LOQs) were 1.00 μg/L and 2.00 μg/kg for aniline in water and fish meat, respectively. The average recoveries of aniline in water were 93.7% at the spiked level of 40 ng and 86.7% at the spiked level of 400 ng (n = 5). The average recoveries of aniline in fish were 96.8%, 92.6% and 81.8% at the spiked levels of 5, 50 and 500 ng respectively (n = 5). The relative standard deviations were 1.5%-9.2%. Thirteen water samples and twelve fish samples were collected from a reservoir polluted by aniline and the maximum contents found were 1,943. 6 μg/L in water and 60.8 μg/kg in fish. The method is suitable for the determination of aniline residues in water and fish with the characteristics of easy operation, high accuracy and precision.

  12. Fragmentation and disk formation in high-mass star formation: The ALMA view of G351.77-0.54 at 0.06'' resolution (United States)

    Beuther, H.; Walsh, A. J.; Johnston, K. G.; Henning, Th.; Kuiper, R.; Longmore, S. N.; Walmsley, C. M.


    Context. The fragmentation of high-mass gas clumps and the formation of the accompanying accretion disks lie at the heart of high-mass star formation research. Aims: We resolve the small-scale structure around the high-mass hot core G351.77-0.54 to investigate its disk and fragmentation properties. Methods: Using the Atacama Large Millimeter Array at 690 GHz with baselines exceeding 1.5 km, we study the dense gas, dust, and outflow emission at an unprecedented spatial resolution of 0.06'' (130 AU at 2.2 kpc). Results: Within the inner few 1000 AU, G351.77 is fragmenting into at least four cores (brightness temperatures between 58 and 201 K). The central structure around the main submm source #1 with a diameter of 0.5'' does not show additional fragmentation. While the CO(6-5) line wing emission shows an outflow lobe in the northwestern direction emanating from source #1, the dense gas tracer CH3CN shows a velocity gradient perpendicular to the outflow that is indicative of rotational motions. Absorption profile measurements against the submm source #2 indicate infall rates on the order of 10-4 to 10-3 M⊙ yr-1, which can be considered as an upper limit of the mean accretion rates. The position-velocity diagrams are consistent with a central rotating disk-like structure embedded in an infalling envelope, but they may also be influenced by the outflow. Using the CH3CN(37k-36k) k-ladder with excitation temperatures up to 1300 K, we derive a gas temperature map for source #1 exhibiting temperatures often in excess of 1000 K. Brightness temperatures of the submm continuum barely exceed 200 K. This discrepancy between gas temperatures and submm dust brightness temperatures (in the optically thick limit) indicates that the dust may trace the disk mid-plane, whereas the gas could trace a hotter gaseous disk surface layer. We conduct a pixel-by-pixel Toomre gravitational stability analysis of the central rotating structure. The derived high Q values throughout the

  13. The ACS Virgo Cluster Survey XV. The Formation Efficiencies of Globular Clusters in Early-Type Galaxies: The Effects of Mass and Environment


    Peng, Eric W.; Jordan, Andres; Cote, Patrick; Takamiya, Marianne; West, Michael J.; Blakeslee, John P.; Chen, Chin-Wei; Ferrarese, Laura; Mei, Simona; Tonry, John L.; West, Andrew A.


    The fraction of stellar mass contained in globular clusters (GCs), also measured by number as the specific frequency, is a fundamental quantity that reflects both a galaxy's early star formation and its entire merging history. We present specific frequencies, luminosities, and mass fractions for the globular cluster systems of 100 early-type galaxies in the ACS Virgo Cluster Survey, the largest homogeneous catalog of its kind. We find that 1) GC mass fractions can be high in both giants and d...

  14. Mechanisms of hydrogen bond formation between ionic liquids and cellulose and the influence of water content. (United States)

    Rabideau, Brooks D; Ismail, Ahmed E


    We study the dynamics of the formation of multiple hydrogen bonds between ionic liquid anions and cellulose using molecular dynamics simulations. We examine fifteen different ionic liquids composed of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium cations ([Cnmim], n = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5) paired with either chloride, acetate or dimethylphosphate. We map the transitions of anions hydrogen bonded to cellulose into different bonding states. We find that increased tail length in the ionic liquids has only a very minor effect on these transitions, tending to slow the dynamics of the transitions and increasing the hydrogen bond lifetimes. Each anion can form up to four hydrogen bonds with cellulose. We find that this hydrogen bond "redundancy" leads to multiply bonded anions having lifetimes three to four times that of singly bound anions. Such redundant hydrogen bonds account for roughly half of all anion-cellulose hydrogen bonds. Additional simulations for [C2mim]Cl, [C2mim]Ac and [C2mim]DMP were performed at different water concentrations between 70 mol% and 90 mol%. It was found that water crowds the hydrogen bond-accepting sites of the anions, preventing interactions with cellulose. The more water that is present in the system, the more crowded these sites become. Thus, if a hydrogen bond between an anion and cellulose breaks, the likelihood that it will be replaced by a nearby water molecule increases as well. We show that the formation of these "redundant" hydrogen bonding states is greatly affected by the presence of water, leading to steep drops in hydrogen bonding between the anions and cellulose.

  15. Formation of ‘Crioula’ guava rootstock under saline water irrigation and nitrogen doses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro de P. Souza

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this research was to evaluate the growth and formation of fresh and dry weight of ‘Crioula’ guava rootstock irrigated with waters of different saline levels and nitrogen (N doses, in an experiment conducted in plastic tubes under greenhouse conditions. The experimental design was randomized blocks, in a 5 x 4 factorial scheme with four replicates, and the treatments consisted of five levels of water electrical conductivity - ECw (0.3, 1.1, 1.9, 2.7 and 3.5 dS m-1 and four N doses (70, 100, 130 and 160% of the N dose recommended for the cultivation of guava seedlings, cv. ‘Paluma’. The dose referring to 100% corresponds to 773 mg of N dm-3. The highest growth of ‘Crioula’ guava rootstock was obtained with ECw of 0.3 dS m-1 and fertilization of 541.1 mg N dm-3 of soil; increasing N doses did not reduce the deleterious effect of the salt stress on the growth and phytomass formation of ‘Crioula’ guava rootstock; irrigation with water of up to 1.75 dS m-1, in the production of guava rootstocks, promotes acceptable reduction of 10% in growth and quality of the seedlings.

  16. Disinfection byproduct formation in drinking water sources: A case study of Yuqiao reservoir. (United States)

    Zhai, Hongyan; He, Xizhen; Zhang, Yan; Du, Tingting; Adeleye, Adeyemi S; Li, Yao


    This study investigated the potential formation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) during chlorination and chloramination of 20 water samples collected from different points of Yuqiao reservoir in Tianjin, China. The concentrations of dissolved organic matter and ammonia decreased downstream the reservoir, while the specific UV absorbance (SUVA: the ratio of UV254 to dissolved organic carbon) increased [from 0.67 L/(mg*m) upstream to 3.58 L/(mg*m) downstream]. The raw water quality played an important role in the formation of DBPs. During chlorination, haloacetic acids (HAAs) were the major DBPs formed in most of the water samples, followed by trihalomethanes (THMs). CHCl3 and CHCl2Br were the major THM species, while trichloroacetic acid (TCAA) and dichloroacetic acid (DCAA) were the major HAA species. Chloramination, on the other hand, generally resulted in lower concentrations of THMs (CHCl3), HAAs (TCAA and DCAA), and haloacetonitriles (HANs). All the species of DBPs formed had positive correlations with the SUVA values, and HANs had the highest one (R(2) = 0.8). The correlation coefficients between the analogous DBP yields and the SUVA values in chlorinated samples were close to those in chloraminated samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Complex Formations between Surfactants and Polyelectrolytes of the Same Charge on a Water Surface. (United States)

    Mafi, Amirhossein; Hu, Dan; Chou, Keng C


    The mechanism of complex formation between surfactants and polyelectrolytes with the same charge on the water surface was investigated using molecular dynamics simulations and phase-sensitive sum-frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy. Although complex formation between highly charged surfactants and polyelectrolytes of the same charge is generally expected to be prohibited by the electrostatic repulsive force, our study shows that it is possible to form thermodynamically stable complexes when excess ions are present in the solution. We found that anionic partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) could interact with anionic sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on a water surface in the presence of salts. With excess Na+ ions in the solution, the charge screening effect allows HPAM to weakly interact with SDS via hydrogen bonds. In the presence of divalent Ca2+ ions, the surfactant and the polymer are strongly coupled by forming Ca2+ ion bridges and hydrogen bonds. Our calculation shows that the presence of Ca2+ ions creates a steep binding energy of ∼30 kJ/mol near the water surface. These results were qualitatively verified using phase-sensitive sum-frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy.

  18. Kinetics and mechanisms of formation of earthy and musty odor compounds: Chloroanisoles during water chlorination. (United States)

    Zhang, Kejia; Zhou, Xinyan; Zhang, Tuqiao; Mao, Minmin; Li, Lei; Liao, Wenchao


    Chloroanisoles are often reported as off-flavor compounds which produce an earthy and musty flavors and odors in drinking water. To improve understanding and ultimately minimize the formation of 2,4-dichloroanisole (2,4-DCA), 2,6-dichloroanisole (2,6-DCA) and 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (2,4,6-TCA), which have low odor threshold concentrations (OTC: 0.03-4 ng L(-1)), a kinetic database for the chlorination of anisole was established by kinetic measurements. The results showed that HOCl reacted with anisole in acidic solution, with the hydrogen ion as an important catalyst. Quantification of product distribution of the produced chloroanisoles demonstrated that a chlorine attack in the para-position was favored over the ortho-position. A kinetic model was formulated, which permitted investigation of the relative importance of the chlorine dose and other water quality parameters including the concentrations of anisole and several metal ions, as well as temperature, on the product distribution of chloroanisoles. In general, high chlorine doses led to low concentrations of intermediates. The presence of ions such as Fe(3+) and Al(3+) facilitated the formation of chloroanisoles, but Zn(2+) and Mn(2+) did not. The kinetic model can be applied to optimize water chlorination and minimize earthy and musty odors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [The Main Gate Syndrome: a new format in mass-casualty victim "surge" management?]. (United States)

    Sockeel, P; De Saint Roman, C; Massoure, M-P; Nadaud, J; Cinquetti, G; Chatelain, E


    Recent suicide bombings pose the novel problem for Trauma Centers of the massive simultaneous arrival of many gravely wounded patients. We report the experience of the French-German Military Trauma Group, a Level 2 Trauma Center, in Afghanistan during the wave of suicide bombings in February 2007. Fourteen casualties were received. A first triage was carried out by the U S Army Level I group prior to evacuation. A second surgical triage was carried out with systematic ultrasound exam. Four cases (ISS>25) were re-categorized and underwent emergency surgical procedures. Suicide bombing in crowded locations near an evacuation hospital may overwhelm the medical resources of the receiving center. It has been referred to as "The Main Gate Syndrome." We introduced the novel concept of a semi-evacuation hospital or receiving center where a second surgical triage was carried out. These exceptional circumstances require open-minded flexibility, a tailored approach, and close cooperation between surgeons and anesthetists to share experience, opinions, and ideas. In the setting of mass casualties, emergency ultrasound exam was shown to be a valuable and effective tool by virtue of its mobility, reproducibility, and immediate results.

  20. Insight into the in-cloud formation of oxalate based on in situ measurement by single particle mass spectrometry (United States)

    Zhang, Guohua; Lin, Qinhao; Peng, Long; Yang, Yuxiang; Fu, Yuzhen; Bi, Xinhui; Li, Mei; Chen, Duohong; Chen, Jianxin; Cai, Zhang; Wang, Xinming; Peng, Ping'an; Sheng, Guoying; Zhou, Zhen


    While ground-based works suggest the significance of in-cloud production (or aqueous formation) to oxalate, direct evidence is rare. With the in situ measurements performed at a remote mountain site (1690 m above sea level) in southern China, we first reported the size-resolved mixing state of oxalate in the cloud droplet residual (cloud RES), the cloud interstitial (cloud INT), and ambient (cloud-free) particles by single particle mass spectrometry. The results support the growing evidence that in-cloud aqueous reactions promote the formation of oxalate, with ˜ 15 % of the cloud RES and cloud INT particles containing oxalate in contrast to only ˜ 5 % of the cloud-free particles. Furthermore, individual particle analysis provides unique insight into the formation of oxalate during in-cloud processing. Oxalate was predominantly (> 70 % in number) internally mixed with the aged biomass-burning particles, highlighting the impact of biomass burning on the formation of oxalate. In contrast, oxalate was underrepresented in aged elemental carbon particles, although they represented the largest fraction of the detected particles. It can be interpreted by the individual particle mixing state that the aged biomass-burning particles contained an abundance of organic components serving as precursors for oxalate. Through the analysis of the relationship between oxalate and organic acids (-45[HCO2]-, -59[CH3CO2]-, -71[C2H3CO2]-, -73[C2HO3]-), the results show that in-cloud aqueous reactions dramatically improved the conversion of organic acids to oxalate. The abundance of glyoxylate associated with the aged biomass-burning particles is a controlling factor for the in-cloud production of oxalate. Since only limited information on oxalate is available in the free troposphere, the results also provide an important reference for future understanding of the abundance, evolution, and climate impacts of oxalate.

  1. Disinfection byproduct formation resulting from settled, filtered, and finished water treated by titanium dioxide photocatalysis. (United States)

    Mayer, Brooke K; Daugherty, Erin; Abbaszadegan, Morteza


    This study evaluated strategies targeting disinfection byproduct (DBP) mitigation using TiO2 photocatalysis with varying influent water quality. A Purifics Photo-CAT Lab reactor was used to assess total trihalomethane (TTHM) and haloacetic acid (HAA) formation as a function of photocatalytic treatment using water from a conventional coagulation/flocculation/sedimentation process, granular activated carbon filtration, and a DBP hot spot in the water distribution system. Regardless of influent water quality, photocatalysis reduced DBP precursors; however, low-energy limited photocatalysis (photocatalysis is not a suitable option when TTHMs and HAA5s are a concern, regardless of the level of pretreatment. Limited photocatalysis yields incomplete oxidation, wherein larger, more aromatic, humic organic compounds are broken into smaller molecular weight, less aromatic, and less humic moieties, which have considerable potential to produce DBPs. More complete mineralization of DBP precursors is obtained using extended photocatalysis (80-160 kW h m(-3)), which substantially decreases DBP precursors as well as TTHM and HAA5 concentrations. In order to balance DBP mitigation, energy, and chemical usage, targeted use of TiO2 photocatalysis is necessary in a water treatment train (e.g., extended photocatalysis at a distribution system hot spot, where the volumetrically high energy requirements may be justifiable). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Assessment of Trihalomethane Formation in Chlorinated Raw Waters with Differential UV Spectroscopy Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir Özdemir


    Full Text Available In this study, the changes in UV absorbance of water samples were characterized using defined differential UV spectroscopy (DUV, a novel spectroscopic technique. Chlorination experiments were conducted with water samples from Terkos Lake (TL and Büyükçekmece Lake (BL (Istanbul, Turkey. The maximum loss of UV absorbance for chlorinated TL and BL raw water samples was observed at a wavelength of 272 nm. Interestingly, differential absorbance at 272 nm (ΔUV272 was shown to be a good indicator of UV absorbing chromophores and the formation of trihalomethanes (THMs resulting from chlorination. Furthermore, differential spectra of chlorinated TL waters were similar for given chlorination conditions, peaking at 272 nm. The correlations between THMs and ΔUV272 were quantified by linear equations with R2 values >0.96. The concentration of THMs formed when natural organic matter is chlorinated increases with increasing time and pH levels. Among all THMs, CHCl3 was the dominant species forming as a result of the chlorination of TL and BL raw water samples. The highest chloroform (CHCl3, dichlorobromomethane (CHCl2Br, and dibromochloromethane (CHBr2Cl concentration were released per unit loss of absorbance at 272 nm at pH 9 with a maximum reaction time of 168 hours and Cl2/dissolved organic carbon ratio of 3.2.

  3. Assessment of Trihalomethane Formation in Chlorinated Raw Waters with Differential UV Spectroscopy Approach (United States)

    Özdemir, Kadir; Toröz, İsmail; Uyak, Vedat


    In this study, the changes in UV absorbance of water samples were characterized using defined differential UV spectroscopy (DUV), a novel spectroscopic technique. Chlorination experiments were conducted with water samples from Terkos Lake (TL) and Büyükçekmece Lake (BL) (Istanbul, Turkey). The maximum loss of UV absorbance for chlorinated TL and BL raw water samples was observed at a wavelength of 272 nm. Interestingly, differential absorbance at 272 nm (ΔUV272) was shown to be a good indicator of UV absorbing chromophores and the formation of trihalomethanes (THMs) resulting from chlorination. Furthermore, differential spectra of chlorinated TL waters were similar for given chlorination conditions, peaking at 272 nm. The correlations between THMs and ΔUV272 were quantified by linear equations with R 2 values >0.96. The concentration of THMs formed when natural organic matter is chlorinated increases with increasing time and pH levels. Among all THMs, CHCl3 was the dominant species forming as a result of the chlorination of TL and BL raw water samples. The highest chloroform (CHCl3), dichlorobromomethane (CHCl2Br), and dibromochloromethane (CHBr2Cl) concentration were released per unit loss of absorbance at 272 nm at pH 9 with a maximum reaction time of 168 hours and Cl2/dissolved organic carbon ratio of 3.2. PMID:24363624

  4. North Atlantic deep water formation and AMOC in CMIP5 models (United States)

    Heuzé, Céline


    Deep water formation in climate models is indicative of their ability to simulate future ocean circulation, carbon and heat uptake, and sea level rise. Present-day temperature, salinity, sea ice concentration and ocean transport in the North Atlantic subpolar gyre and Nordic Seas from 23 CMIP5 (Climate Model Intercomparison Project, phase 5) models are compared with observations to assess the biases, causes and consequences of North Atlantic deep convection in models. The majority of models convect too deep, over too large an area, too often and too far south. Deep convection occurs at the sea ice edge and is most realistic in models with accurate sea ice extent, mostly those using the CICE model. Half of the models convect in response to local cooling or salinification of the surface waters; only a third have a dynamic relationship between freshwater coming from the Arctic and deep convection. The models with the most intense deep convection have the warmest deep waters, due to a redistribution of heat through the water column. For the majority of models, the variability of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) is explained by the volumes of deep water produced in the subpolar gyre and Nordic Seas up to 2 years before. In turn, models with the strongest AMOC have the largest heat export to the Arctic. Understanding the dynamical drivers of deep convection and AMOC in models is hence key to realistically forecasting Arctic oceanic warming and its consequences for the global ocean circulation, cryosphere and marine life.

  5. Formation of useful waters on the Stara Planina mountain, in the area Visok Kraj

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikić Zoran


    Full Text Available Formation and discharge of useful waters was studied on southwestern slopes of the Stara Planina Mountain, in the area Visok Kraj that is the typical hilly-mountainous region in East Serbia. The catchment’s area of Dojkinacka River was chosen due to numerous and specific edaphic properties. Pump forests (association: Fagetum moesiacea serbicum Rud. dominate here and were mostly developed on slightly acidic, humus-silicate or on acidic brownish soil. Soils are of a range of depths and development of pedogenetic processes. The aim of this work is to highlight elements that have pronounced influence on supply of useful and small water bodies in the catchment area of Dojkinacka River. Complex relations between geological setting, climate conditions, pedological characteristics, hydrological and hydrogeological conditions, forest vegetation etc. were analyzed. Elements that are significant for proper evaluation of useful water or small domains supply were in this case detected through water balance methods, geological mapping and tracking. It was deduced that the disagreement of topographic and hydrological catchment’s area of Dojkinacka River represents the significant element which should be taken into consideration in order to determine the real reserves of useful, i.e. small water domains.

  6. Microbe biogeography tracks water masses in a dynamic oceanic frontal system. (United States)

    Djurhuus, Anni; Boersch-Supan, Philipp H; Mikalsen, Svein-Ole; Rogers, Alex D


    Dispersal limitation, not just environmental selection, plays an important role in microbial biogeography. The distance-decay relationship is thought to be weak in habitats where dispersal is high, such as in the pelagic environment, where ocean currents facilitate microbial dispersal. Most studies of microbial community composition to date have observed little geographical heterogeneity on a regional scale (100 km). We present a study of microbial communities across a dynamic frontal zone in the southwest Indian Ocean and investigate the spatial structure of the microbes with respect to the different water masses separated by these fronts. We collected 153 samples of free-living microorganisms from five seamounts located along a gradient from subtropical to subantarctic waters and across three depth layers: (i) the sub-surface chlorophyll maximum (approx. 40 m), (ii) the bottom of the euphotic zone (approx. 200 m), and (iii) the benthic boundary layer (300-2000 m). Diversity and abundance of microbial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were assessed by amplification and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene on an Illumina MiSeq platform. Multivariate analyses showed that microbial communities were structured more strongly by depth than by latitude, with similar phyla occurring within each depth stratum across seamounts. The deep layer was homogeneous across the entire survey area, corresponding to the spread of Antarctic intermediate water. However, within both the sub-surface layer and the intermediate depth stratum there was evidence for OTU turnover across fronts. The microbiome of these layers appears to be divided into three distinct biological regimes corresponding to the subantarctic surface water, the convergence zone and subtropical. We show that microbial biogeography across depth and latitudinal gradients is linked to the water masses the microbes persist in, resulting in regional patterns of microbial biogeography that correspond to the regional

  7. Water masses transform at mid-depths over the Antarctic Continental Slope (United States)

    Mead Silvester, Jess; Lenn, Yueng-Djern; Polton, Jeffrey; Phillips, Helen E.; Morales Maqueda, Miguel


    The Meridional Overturning Circulation (MOC) controls the oceans' latitudinal heat distribution, helping to regulate the Earth's climate. The Southern Ocean is the primary place where cool, deep waters return to the surface to complete this global circulation. While water mass transformations intrinsic to this process predominantly take place at the surface following upwelling, recent studies implicate vertical mixing in allowing transformation at mid-depths over the Antarctic continental slope. We deployed an EM-Apex float near Elephant Island, north of the Antarctic Peninsula's tip, to profile along the slope and use potential vorticity to diagnose observed instabilities. The float captures direct heat exchange between a lens of Upper Circumpolar Deep Water (UCDW) and surrounding Lower Circumpolar Deep Waters (LCDW) at mid-depths and over the course of several days. Heat fluxes peak across the top and bottom boundaries of the UCDW lens and peak diffusivities across the bottom boundary are associated with shear instability. Estimates of diffusivity from shear-strain finestructure parameterisation and heat fluxes are found to be in reasonable agreement. The two-dimensional Ertel potential vorticity is elevated both inside the UCDW lens and along its bottom boundary, with a strong contribution from the shear term in these regions and instabilities are associated with gravitational and symmetric forcing. Thus, shear instabilities are driving turbulent mixing across the lower boundary between these two water masses, leading to the observed heat exchange and transformation at mid-depths over the Antarctic continental slope. This has implications for our understanding of the rates of upwelling and ocean-atmosphere exchanges of heat and carbon at this critical location.

  8. Body mass, energy intake, and water consumption of rats and humans during space flight (United States)

    Wade, C. E.; Miller, M. M.; Baer, L. A.; Moran, M. M.; Steele, M. K.; Stein, T. P.


    Alteration of metabolism has been suggested as a major limiting factor to long-term space flight. In humans and primates, a negative energy balance has been reported. The metabolic response of rats to space flight has been suggested to result in a negative energy balance. We hypothesized that rats flown in space would maintain energy balance as indicated by maintenance of caloric intake and body mass gain. Further, the metabolism of the rat would be similar to that of laboratory-reared animals. We studied the results from 15 space flights lasting 4 to 19 d. There was no difference in average body weight (206 +/- 13.9 versus 206 +/- 14.8 g), body weight gain (5.8 +/- 0.48 versus 5.9 +/- 0.56 g/d), caloric intake (309 +/- 21.0 versus 309 +/- 20.1 kcal/kg of body mass per day), or water intake (200 +/- 8.6 versus 199 +/- 9.3 mL/kg of body mass per day) between flight and ground control animals. Compared with standard laboratory animals of similar body mass, no differences were noted. The observations suggested that the negative balance observed in humans and non-human primates may be due to other factors in the space-flight environment.

  9. Pulse versus continuous peracetic acid applications: Effects on rainbow trout performance, biofilm formation and water quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Dibo; Straus, David L.; Pedersen, Lars-Flemming


    . Meanwhile, no mortality and no impact on growth or innate cellular immunity were observed. The pulse applications restricted biofilm formation, and partially inhibited nitrification. Additionally, the highest oxygen concentration and stable pH were observed. In contrast, the continuous application promoted...... biofilm formation, and caused a pH increase and intermediate oxygen concentration. The contrast was probably due to different susceptibility of microbes to PAA-induced oxidative stress. To summarize, pulse PAA applications cause minor stress in fish, but have advantages over continuous application......Peracetic acid (PAA) products are being introduced to aquaculture as sustainable disinfectants. Two strategies are used to apply PAA: high dose pulse applications, or low dose continuous application. In the present study, their impacts on fish health and water quality were investigated...

  10. On the nature and origin of water masses in Herald Canyon, Chukchi Sea: Synoptic surveys in summer 2004, 2008, and 2009 (United States)

    Linders, Johanna; Pickart, Robert. S.; Björk, Göran; Moore, G. W. K.


    Hydrographic and velocity data from three high-resolution shipboard surveys of Herald Canyon in the northwest Chukchi Sea, in 2004, 2008, and 2009, are used to investigate the water masses in the canyon and their possible source regions. Both summer and winter Pacific waters were observed in varying amounts in the different years, although in general the summer waters resided on the eastern side of the canyon while the winter waters were located on the western flank. The predominant summer water was Bering summer water, although some Alaskan coastal water resided in the canyon in the two later years likely due to wind forcing. Both newly ventilated and remnant winter waters were found in the canyon, but the amount lessened in each successive survey. Using mooring data from Bering Strait it is shown that a large amount of Bering summer water in the western channel of the strait follows a relatively direct route into Herald Canyon during the summer months, with an estimated advective speed of 10-20 cm/s. However, while the winter water observed in 2004 was consistent with a Bering Strait source (with a slower advective speed of 5-8 cm/s), the dense water in the canyon during 2008 and 2009 was more in line with a northern source. This is consistent with sections to the west of the canyon and with previously reported measurements implying winter water formation on the East Siberian shelf. Large-scale wind patterns and polynya activity on the shelf are also investigated. It was found that the former appears to impact more strongly the presence of dense water in Herald Canyon.

  11. THM and HAA formation from NOM in raw and treated surface waters. (United States)

    Golea, D M; Upton, A; Jarvis, P; Moore, G; Sutherland, S; Parsons, S A; Judd, S J


    The disinfection by-product (DBP) formation potential (FP) of natural organic matter (NOM) in surface water sources has been studied with reference to the key water quality determinants (WQDs) of UV absorption (UV 254 ), colour, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration. The data set used encompassed raw and treated water sampled over a 30-month period from 30 water treatment works (WTWs) across Scotland, all employing conventional clarification. Both trihalomethane (THM) and haloacetic acid (HAA) FPs were considered. In addition to the standard bulk WQDs, the DOC content was fractionated and analysed for the hydrophobic (HPO) and hydrophilic (HPI) fractions. Results were quantified in terms of the yield (dDBPFP/dWQD) and the linear regression coefficient R 2 of the yield trend. The NOM in the raw waters was found to comprise 30-84% (average 66%) of the more reactive HPO material, with this proportion falling to 18-63% (average 50%) in the treated water. Results suggested UV 254 to be as good an indicator of DBPFP as DOC or HPO for the raw waters, with R 2 values ranging from 0.79 to 0.82 for THMs and from 0.71 to 0.73 for HAAs for these three determinants. For treated waters the corresponding values were significantly lower at 0.52-0.67 and 0.46-0.47 respectively, reflecting the lower HPO concentration and thus UV 254 absorption and commensurately reduced precision due to the limit of detection of the analytical instrument. It is concluded that fractionation offers little benefit in attempting to discern or predict chlorinated carbonaceous DBP yield for the waters across the geographical region studied. UV 254 offered an adequate estimate of DBPFP based on a mean yield of ∼2600 and ∼2800 μg per cm -1 absorbance for THMFP for the raw and treated waters respectively and ∼3800 and2900 μg cm -1 for HAAFP, albeit with reduced precision for the treated waters. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Influence of drinking water treatments on chlorine dioxide consumption and chlorite/chlorate formation. (United States)

    Sorlini, Sabrina; Gialdini, Francesca; Biasibetti, Michela; Collivignarelli, Carlo


    Disinfection is the last treatment stage of a Drinking Water Treatment Plant (DWTP) and is carried out to maintain a residual concentration of disinfectant in the water distribution system. Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) is a widely used chemical employed for this purpose. The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of several treatments on chlorine dioxide consumption and on chlorite and chlorate