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Sample records for water loss measurements

  1. Water vapour loss measurements on human skin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valk, Petrus Gerardus Maria van der

    1984-01-01

    In this thesis, the results of a series of investigations into the barrier function of human skin are presented. In these investigations, the barrier function was assessed by water vapour loss measurements of the skin using a method based on gradient estimation.... Zie: Summary and conclusions

  2. Nutrient losses by wind and water, measurements and modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, S.M.; Stroosnijder, L.; Chardon, W.J.

    2005-01-01

    In the Sahelian zone of West-Africa, erosion by both wind and water causes a serious decline in fertility of the already low fertile soils. Despite the fact that the flow of nutrients has been intensively investigated by the use of nutrient balances, little attention has been paid to the contributio

  3. Measurement of transepidermal water loss in Tanzanian cot-nursed neonates and its relation to postnatal weight loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijs, HFH; Massawe, AW; Okken, A; Coenraads, PJ; Muskiet, FAJ; Huisman, M; Boersma, ER

    1996-01-01

    In healthy cot-nursed Tanzanian neonates (n = 92, gestation 26-42 weeks) measurements of transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and weight change were performed during the first 24 h after birth at an average ambient humidity of 70% and an environmental temperature of 32 degrees C. Urine production on day

  4. Irritancy of low concentrations of soap and synthetic detergents as measured by skin water loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassing, J H; Nater, J P; Bleumink, E

    1982-05-01

    The irritancy of low concentrations of commercially available soaps and detergents (surfactants) in bar form was determined by means of measurements of water loss of the skin. The percentage of increase of vapor (water) loss after application of the soap solutions was taken as a measure of skin irritancy. The tests were performed in 19 human volunteers with 1% solutions of Sporex, Devela, Lux, Lactacyd and Aveenoderm. Devela and Lactacyd were found to provoke marked effects, Lux was less harmful whereas Sporex and Aveenoderm did not lead to a considerable increase of skin vapor loss. Longitudinal studies showed that the irritant properties of soap solutions are additive. The results suggest that the influences of the pH of a soap solution on the skin-damaging effort is less important than assumed thus far.

  5. Transepidermal water loss in newborn infants. I. Relation to ambient humidity and site of measurement and estimation of total transepidermal water loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarl-nd, K; Nilsson, G E; Oberg, P A; Sedin, G

    1977-09-01

    Insensible water loss (IWL) is an important factor in the thermoregulation and water balance of the newborn infant. A method for direct measurement of the rate of evaporation from the skin surface has been developed. The method, which is based on determination of the vapour pressure gradient close to the skin surface, allows free evaporation. From measurements performed on 19 newborns placed in incubators, a linear relation was found between the evaporation rate (ER) and the humidity of the environment at a constant ambient temperature. A 40% lower ER was recorded at a high relative humidity (60%) than at a low one (20%) in the incubator. At measurements on different sites of the body, a high ER was observed on the face and peripheral parts of the extremities, while ER at other sites was relatively low. By determining ER from different parts of the body and calculating the areas of the corresponding surfaces, the total cutaneous insensible water loss for the infant in question could be obtained. The transepidermal water loss (TEWL) for the whole body surface area was calculated to be 8.1 g/m2h. On the basis of measurements performed it was found that the total cutaneous insensible water loss can be estimated with a reasonable degree of accuracy by recording ER from only three easily accessible measurement points.

  6. Easy Measurement of Different Forces of Water Retention by Hydrocolloids through Water Loss at Same Viscosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Schleißinger

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the water binding strength of different polysaccharides (agar-agar, alginate, sodium alginate, carrageenan, cellulose, sodium carboxymethylcellulose, cold swelling starch, guar gum, locust bean gum, pectin, pentosan and xanthan gum. Solutions with similar apparent viscosity were infrared dried with a moisture analyzer at 100°C. Drying times were investigated in order to examine the degree of water binding of hydrocolloids. Agar-agar and cellulose required the shortest drying time and differed significantly from the other tested substances indicating that they bind water in a less tight way.

  7. Measurement of elasticity and transepidermal water loss rate of burn scars with the Dermalab(®).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthonissen, Mieke; Daly, Daniel; Fieuws, Steffen; Massagé, Patrick; Van Brussel, Michel; Vranckx, Jan; Van den Kerckhove, Eric

    2013-05-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated the reproducibility of repeated elasticity and transepidermal water loss (TEWL) measurements with the DermaLab(®) on 32 active burn scars and healthy skin. Intra- and inter-observer reproducibility was examined by means of intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) and standard error of measurements (SEM). Results showed good ICC values and rather high SEM values for inter- and intra-observer reproducibility of elasticity measurements. For TEWL measurements, ICC values were good and SEM values were high for inter- and intra-observer reproducibility. There was a significant difference between the estimated mean elasticity values of normal skin and grafted scars and between normal skin and spontaneously healed scars (p≤0.003). For the estimated mean TEWL values, there was a significant difference between normal skin and spontaneously healed scars (p=0.036). A significant negative relation was reported between mean TEWL and time after burn (p=0.008). In clinical trials it is necessary to interpret patient-specific changes in elasticity and TEWL with caution, since the SEMs of both modes are rather high. We therefore recommend the use of a mean of repeated measurements of elasticity and TEWL to decrease the SEM.

  8. Artificial Neural Networks-Based Software for Measuring Heat Collection Rate and Heat Loss Coefficient of Water-in-Glass Evacuated Tube Solar Water Heaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhijian; Liu, Kejun; Li, Hao; Zhang, Xinyu; Jin, Guangya; Cheng, Kewei

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient are crucial for the evaluation of in service water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters. However, conventional measurement requires expensive detection devices and undergoes a series of complicated procedures. To simplify the measurement and reduce the cost, software based on artificial neural networks for measuring heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient of water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters was developed. Using multilayer feed-forward neural networks with back-propagation algorithm, we developed and tested our program on the basis of 915 measured samples of water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters. This artificial neural networks-based software program automatically obtained accurate heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient using simply "portable test instruments" acquired parameters, including tube length, number of tubes, tube center distance, heat water mass in tank, collector area, angle between tubes and ground and final temperature. Our results show that this software (on both personal computer and Android platforms) is efficient and convenient to predict the heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient due to it slow root mean square errors in prediction. The software now can be downloaded from http://t.cn/RLPKF08.

  9. Analysis of factors causing signal loss in the measurement of lung tissue water by nuclear magnetic resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuzaki, Minoru [Tokai Univ. Junior Coll., Tokyo (Japan); Shioya, Sumie; Haida, Munetaka

    1997-05-01

    The water content of lung, brain, and muscle tissue was measured by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and compared with gravimetric determinations. The NMR signal intensity of water was measured by a single 90 degree pulse and by a spin-echo sequence. The absolute water content was determined by the difference in the sample`s weight before and after desiccation. The NMR detectable water in each tissue was expressed as a percentage of the signal intensity for an equal weight of distilled water. Using the single pulse measurement, 67% of the gravimetrically-measured water was detected in collapsed lung samples (consisting of about 47% retained air), in contrast to 96% for brain and 98% for muscle. For degassed lung samples, the NMR detectability of water increased to 87% with the single pulse measurement and to 90% with the spin-echo measurement, but the values remained significantly less than those of brain or muscle. Factors that caused the NMR signal loss of 33% in collapsed lung samples were: air-tissue interfaces (20%), microscopic field inhomogeneity (3%), and a water component with an extremely short magnetization decay time constant (10%). (author)

  10. Blood Density Is Nearly Equal to Water Density: A Validation Study of the Gravimetric Method of Measuring Intraoperative Blood Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitello, Dominic J; Ripper, Richard M; Fettiplace, Michael R; Weinberg, Guy L; Vitello, Joseph M

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The gravimetric method of weighing surgical sponges is used to quantify intraoperative blood loss. The dry mass minus the wet mass of the gauze equals the volume of blood lost. This method assumes that the density of blood is equivalent to water (1 gm/mL). This study's purpose was to validate the assumption that the density of blood is equivalent to water and to correlate density with hematocrit. Methods. 50 µL of whole blood was weighed from eighteen rats. A distilled water control was weighed for each blood sample. The averages of the blood and water were compared utilizing a Student's unpaired, one-tailed t-test. The masses of the blood samples and the hematocrits were compared using a linear regression. Results. The average mass of the eighteen blood samples was 0.0489 g and that of the distilled water controls was 0.0492 g. The t-test showed P = 0.2269 and R (2) = 0.03154. The hematocrit values ranged from 24% to 48%. The linear regression R (2) value was 0.1767. Conclusions. The R (2) value comparing the blood and distilled water masses suggests high correlation between the two populations. Linear regression showed the hematocrit was not proportional to the mass of the blood. The study confirmed that the measured density of blood is similar to water.

  11. Measuring surface-water loss in Honouliuli Stream near the ‘Ewa Shaft, O‘ahu, Hawai‘i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Sarah N.

    2017-05-30

    The Honolulu Board of Water Supply is currently concerned with the possibility of bacteria in the pumped water of the ‘Ewa Shaft (State well 3-2202-21). Groundwater from the ‘Ewa Shaft could potentially be used to meet future potable water needs in the ‘Ewa area on the island of O‘ahu. The source of the bacteria in the pumped water is unknown, although previous studies indicate that surface water may be lost to the subsurface near the site. The ‘Ewa Shaft consists of a vertical shaft, started near the south bank of Honouliuli Stream at an altitude of about 161 feet, and two horizontal infiltration tunnels near sea level. The shaft extracts groundwater from near the top of the freshwater lens in the Waipahu-Waiawa aquifer system within the greater Pearl Harbor Aquifer Sector, a designated Water Management Area.The surface-water losses were evaluated with continuous groundwater-level data from the ‘Ewa Shaft and a nearby monitoring well, continuous stream-discharge data from U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging station 16212490 (Honouliuli Stream at H-1 Freeway near Waipahu), and seepage-run measurements in Honouliuli Stream and its tributary. During storms, discharge at the Honouliuli Stream gaging station increases and groundwater levels at ‘Ewa Shaft and a nearby monitoring well also increase. The concurrent increase in water levels at ‘Ewa Shaft and the nearby monitoring well during storms indicates that regional groundwater-level changes related to increased recharge, reduced withdrawals (due to a decrease in demand during periods of rainfall), or both may be occurring; although these data do not preclude the possibility of local recharge from Honouliuli Stream. Discharge measurements from two seepage runs indicate that surface water in the immediate area adjacent to ‘Ewa Shaft infiltrates into the streambed and may later reach the groundwater system developed by the ‘Ewa Shaft. The estimated seepage loss rates in the vicinity of

  12. A Study on Distribution Measurement and Mechanism of Deformation due to Water Loss of Overburden Layer in Vertical Shaft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunde Piao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on FBG fiber Bragg grating technology and BOTDA distributed optical fiber sensing technology, this study uses fine sand to simulate overburden layer in vertical shaft model equipment. It studies the placing technique and test method for optical fiber sensors in the overburden layer, combined with MODFLOW software to simulate the change of the water head value when the overburden layer is losing water, and obtains the deformation features of overburden layer. The results show, at the beginning of water loss, the vertical deformation increases due to larger hydraulic pressure drop, while the deformation decreases gradually and tends to be stable with the hydraulic pressure drop reducing. The circumferential deformation is closely related to such factors as the distance between each drainage outlet, the variations of water head value, and the method of drainage. The monitoring result based on optical fiber sensing technology is consistent with the characteristics of water loss in overburden layer simulated by MODFLOW software, which shows that the optical fiber sensing technology applied to monitor shaft overburden layer is feasible.

  13. Loss of Propiconazole and its Four Stereoisomers from the Water Phase of Two Soil-Water Slurries as Measured by Capillary Electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Propiconazole is a chiral fungicide used in agriculture for control of many fungal diseases on a variety of crops. This use provides opportunities for pollution of soil and, subsequently, groundwater. The rate of loss of propiconazole from the water phase of two different soil-wa...

  14. Assessment of the effectiveness of soil and water conservation measures in reducing runoff and soil loss: establishment of a European database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maetens, W.; Vanmaercke, M.; Poesen, J.

    2009-07-01

    Soil erosion by water is recognised as a major soil degradation process that requires a global approach. Large regions all over the world are in need of integrated conservation strategies that sustainable prevent and remediate soil erosion. therefore, quantitative and globally interpretable data are needed in support of models and decision making. the effects of various soil and water conservation techniques (SWCT) on runoff and soil loss in Europe have been extensively studied over the last 60 years. Runoff plots are the most widely used measurement technique to study the effects of SWCT on runoff and soil loss by water erosion. Hence, many data are available. However, the insights gained hereby remain mostly local and often qualitative whereas the full potential of the available data is not exploited yet. This is mainly due to the fragmentation of knowledge and extrapolation difficulties inherently linked with this type of data. (Author) 8 refs.

  15. Effectiveness Of Miraba an Indigenous Soil and Water Conservation Measures On Reducing Runoff And Soil Loss In Arable Land Of Western Usambara Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Msita, H. B.; Kimaro, D. N.; Mtakwa, P. W.; Msanya, B. M.; Dondyene, S.; Poesen, J.; Deckers, J.

    2012-04-01

    Soil erosion by water is rampant mainly in mountainous areas of Tanzania leading to environmental hazards, low land productivity, low income and increased poverty. Despite the severity of the soil erosion problem, there is not much quantitative data on the erosion effects and effectiveness of indigenous soil and water conservation (SWC) measures. The consequence is that indigenous knowledge in SWC planning is ignored. The on-farm field experiment was conducted for three years in Migambo village, Lushoto district in Tanzania, to determine the effectiveness of improved Miraba (IM) an indigenous soil erosion control measure on reducing runoff and soil loss. Management practices were tested viz: control that is without any soil conservation measure (C), Miraba alone (M), Miraba with farmyard manure and mulching (MFM) replicated three times in CRD setting. Maize (Zea mays) and beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) were used as test crops, due to their importance as food crops and the high erosion rates on fields with these crops. The crops were planted in rotation, maize and beans in short and long rains respectively. Gerlach troughs and runoff plots were used to evaluate the physical effectiveness. Results show significant effects of IM against control on crop yields, soil loss, surface runoff and moisture retention. MFM is the most effective measure in reducing soil and water losses followed by MF and M. The results further showed that these management practices can be implemented to reduce soil erosion and nutrient losses in the study area and areas with similar ecological setting. To facilitate adoption of these practices further research works is recommended for identifying economically feasible indigenous SWC measures under different biophysical and socio-economic conditions.

  16. Domestic hot water. Measurements of consumption and heat loss from circulation pipes; Varmt brugsvand. Maaling af forbrug og varmetab fra cirkulationsledninger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, B.; Schroeder, F.; Bergsoee, N.C.

    2009-07-01

    It is likely that the production and distribution of domestic hot water (DHW) in buildings will constitute a dominant share of both the present and in particular future energy design requirements. The goal of this project has been to propose more energy efficient and environmentally friendly solutions for DHW systems based on analyses of existing conditions. The possibilities include new types of circulation pipes, which have the potential of a 40 per cent reduction of heat losses. In addition to the reduction of heat losses inside the building, a low return temperature from the hot water system will have a large impact on the heat losses from the district heating network when the building is being heated by district heating. The results of this project could influence not only future buildings but also existing buildings in case of renovation of the installations. In this project measurements of water and energy consumptions have been carried out in a number of buildings, and heat losses from the production of domestic hot water and the distribution lines have been measured. In addition to the measurements, analyses and simulations have been carried out. Two models have been developed: One of an apartment room with vertical pipes passing through the room, and one of a room above a basement with horizontal heating pipes. The models make it possible to assess how much of the heat loss from the heating pipes is utilised for space heating. The following recommendations are pointed out: 1) In large buildings e.g. apartment buildings and office buildings the technical installations should be provided with meters so that it is possible to separate the energy consumption for DHW, space heating and ventilation, respectively. 2) In new buildings and in case of retrofitting existing buildings, careful planning of the placement and disposition of hot water taps compared with the location of the hot water tank or heat exchanger is recommended. Also, the necessity of a

  17. Loss of Propiconazole and Its Four Stereoisomers from the Water Phase of Two Soil-Water Slurries as Measured by Capillary Electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca D. Miller

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Propiconazole is a chiral fungicide used in agriculture for control of many fungal diseases on a variety of crops. This use provides opportunities for pollution of soil and, subsequently, groundwater. The rate of loss of propiconazole from the water phase of two different soil-water slurries spiked with the fungicide at 50 mg/L was followed under aerobic conditions over five months; the t1/2 was 45 and 51 days for the two soil slurries. To accurately assess environmental and human risk, it is necessary to analyze the separate stereoisomers of chiral pollutants, because it is known that for most such pollutants, both biotransformation and toxicity are likely to be stereoselective. Micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC, the mode of capillary electrophoresis used for analysis of neutral chemicals, was used for analysis of the four propiconazole stereoisomers with time in the water phase of the slurries. MEKC resulted in baseline separation of all stereoisomers, while GC-MS using a chiral column gave only partial separation. The four stereoisomers of propiconazole were lost from the aqueous phase of the slurries at experimentally equivalent rates, i.e., there was very little, if any, stereoselectivity. No loss of propiconazole was observed from the autoclaved controls of either soil, indicating that the loss from active samples was most likely caused by aerobic biotansformation, with a possible contribution by sorption to the non-autoclaved active soils. MEKC is a powerful tool for separation of stereoisomers and can be used to study the fate and transformation kinetics of chiral pesticides in water and soil.

  18. Water losses during technical snow production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünewald, Thomas; Wolfsperger, Fabian

    2017-04-01

    These days, the production of technical snow can be seen as a prerequisite for winter tourism. Huge amounts of water are used for technical snow production by ski resorts, especially in the beginning of the winter season. The aim is to guarantee an appropriate amount of snow to reliably provide optimal ski runs until the date of season opening in early December. Technical snow is generated by pumping pressurized water through the nozzles of a snow machine and dispersing the resulting spray of small water droplets which freeze during their travel to the ground. Cooling and freezing of the droplets can only happen if energy is emitted to the air mass surrounding the droplets. This heat transfer is happening through convective cooling and though evaporation and sublimation of water droplets and ice particles. This means that also mass is lost from the droplets and added in form of vapor to the air. It is important to note that not all water that is pumped through the snow machine is converted to snow distributed on the ground. Significant amounts of water are lost due to wind drift, sublimation and evaporation while droplets are traveling through the air or to draining of water which is not fully frozen when arriving at the ground. Studies addressing this question are sparse and the quantity of the water losses is still unclear. In order to assess this question in more detail, we obtained several systematic field observations at a test site near Davos, Switzerland. About a dozen of snow making tests had been performed during the last winter seasons. We compare the amount of water measured at the intake of the snow machine with the amount of snow accumulating at the ground during a night of snow production. The snow mass was calculated from highly detailed repeated terrestrial laser scanning measurements in combination with manually gathered snow densities. In addition a meteorological station had been set up in the vicinity observing all relevant meteorological

  19. Calorimetric measurements of losses in HTS cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Ole; Veje, Niels Erling Winsløv; Rasmussen, Carsten

    2001-01-01

    A calorimetric test rig is used to investigate various loss components in a 10 m long superconducting cable model. A calorimetric technique, based on thermocouple measurements, is used to measure the losses of the 10 m long superconducting cable model. The current dependent losses are also measured...

  20. Water erosion as a cause for agricultural soil loss: modeling of dynamic processes using high-resolution ground based LiDAR measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oz, Imri; Filin, Sagi; Assouline, Shmuel; Shtain, Zachi; Furman, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Soil erosion by rainfall and water flow is a frequent natural geomorphic process shaping the earth's surface at various scales. Conventional agrotechnical methods enhance soil erosion at the field scale and are at the origin of the reduction of the upper soil layer depth. This reduction is expressed in two aspects: decrease of soil depth, mainly due to erosion, and the diminution of soil quality, mainly due to the loss of fine material, nutrients and organic matter. Rain events, not even the most extremes, cause detachment and transport of fertile soil rich in organic matter and nutrients away from the fields, filling and plugging drainage channels, blocking infrastructure and contaminating water sources. Empirical, semi-empirical and mechanistic models are available to estimate soil erosion by water flow and sediment transport (e.g. WEPP, KINEROSS, EUROSEM). Calibration of these models requires data measured at high spatial and temporal resolutions. Development of high-resolution measurement tools (for both spatial and temporal aspects) should improve the calibration of functions related to particles detachment and transport from the soil surface. In addition, despite the great impact of different tillage systems on the soil erosion process, the vast majority of the models ignore this fundamental factor. The objective of this study is to apply high-resolution ground-based LiDAR measurements to different tillage schemes and scales to improve the ability of models to accurately describe the process of soil erosion induced by rainfall and overland flow. Ground-based laser scans provide high resolution accurate and subtle geomorphic changes, as well as larger-scale deformations. As such, it allows frequent monitoring, so that even the effect of a single storm can be measured, thus improving the calibration of the erosion models. Preliminary results for scans made in the field show the potential and limitations of ground-based LiDAR, and at this point qualitatively can

  1. Water losses dynamic modelling in water distribution networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puleo, Valeria; Milici, Barbara

    2015-12-01

    In the last decades, one of the main concerns of the water system managers have been the minimisation of water losses, that frequently reach values of 30% or even 70% of the volume supplying the water distribution network. The economic and social costs associated with water losses in modern water supply systems are rapidly rising to unacceptably high levels. Furthermore, the problem of the water losses assumes more and more importance mainly when periods of water scarcity occur or when not sufficient water supply takes part in areas with fast growth. In the present analysis, a dynamic model was used for estimating real and apparent losses of a real case study. A specific nodal demand model reflecting the user's tank installation and a specific apparent losses module were implemented. The results from the dynamic model were compared with the modelling estimation based on a steady-state approach.

  2. A phylogenetic approach to total evaporative water loss in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Sant, Matthew J; Oufiero, Christopher E; Muñoz-Garcia, Agustí; Hammond, Kimberly A; Williams, Joseph B

    2012-01-01

    Maintaining appropriate water balance is a constant challenge for terrestrial mammals, and this problem can be exacerbated in desiccating environments. It has been proposed that natural selection has provided desert-dwelling mammals physiological mechanisms to reduce rates of total evaporative water loss. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between total evaporative water loss and body mass in mammals by using a recent phylogenetic hypothesis. We compared total evaporative water loss in 80 species of arid-zone mammals to that in 56 species that inhabit mesic regions, ranging in size from 4 g to 3,500 kg, to test the hypothesis that mammals from arid environments have lower rates of total evaporative water loss than mammals from mesic environments once phylogeny is taken into account. We found that arid species had lower rates of total evaporative water loss than mesic species when using a dichotomous variable to describe habitat (arid or mesic). We also found that total evaporative water loss was negatively correlated with the average maximum and minimum environmental temperature as well as the maximum vapor pressure deficit of the environment. Annual precipitation and the variable Q (a measure of habitat aridity) were positively correlated with total evaporative water loss. These results support the hypothesis that desert-dwelling mammals have lower rates of total evaporative water loss than mesic species after controlling for body mass and evolutionary relatedness regardless of whether categorical or continuous variables are used to describe habitat.

  3. A regional assessment of the cost and effectiveness of mitigation measures for reducing nutrient losses to water and greenhouse gas emissions to air from pastoral farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vibart, Ronaldo; Vogeler, Iris; Dennis, Samuel; Kaye-Blake, William; Monaghan, Ross; Burggraaf, Vicki; Beautrais, Josef; Mackay, Alec

    2015-06-01

    Using a novel approach that links geospatial land resource information with individual farm-scale simulation, we conducted a regional assessment of nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) losses to water and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to air from the predominant mix of pastoral industries in Southland, New Zealand. An evaluation of the cost-effectiveness of several nutrient loss mitigation strategies applied at the farm-scale, set primarily for reducing N and P losses and grouped by capital cost and potential ease of adoption, followed an initial baseline assessment. Grouped nutrient loss mitigation strategies were applied on an additive basis on the assumption of full adoption, and were broadly identified as 'improved nutrient management' (M1), 'improved animal productivity' (M2), and 'restricted grazing' (M3). Estimated annual nitrate-N leaching losses occurring under representative baseline sheep and beef (cattle) farms, and representative baseline dairy farms for the region were 10 ± 2 and 32 ± 6 kg N/ha (mean ± standard deviation), respectively. Both sheep and beef and dairy farms were responsive to N leaching loss mitigation strategies in M1, at a low cost per kg N-loss mitigated. Only dairy farms were responsive to N leaching loss abatement from adopting M2, at no additional cost per kg N-loss mitigated. Dairy farms were also responsive to N leaching loss abatement from adopting M3, but this reduction came at a greater cost per kg N-loss mitigated. Only dairy farms were responsive to P-loss mitigation strategies, in particular by adopting M1. Only dairy farms were responsive to GHG abatement; greater abatement was achieved by the most intensified dairy farm system simulated. Overall, M1 provided for high levels of regional scale N- and P-loss abatement at a low cost per farm without affecting overall farm production, M2 provided additional N-loss abatement but only marginal P-loss abatement, whereas M3 provided the greatest N-loss abatement, but

  4. Overview of LHC Beam Loss Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Dehning, B; Effinger, E; Emery, J; Fadakis, E; Holzer, E B; Jackson, S; Kruk, G; Kurfuerst, C; Marsili, A; Misiowiec, M; Nebot Del Busto, E; Nordt, A; Priebe, A; Roderick, C; Sapinski, M; Zamantzas, C; Grishin, V; Griesmayer, E

    2011-01-01

    The LHC beam loss monitoring system provides measurements with an update rate of 1 Hz and high time resolution data by event triggering. These informations are used for the initiation of beam aborts, fixed displays and the off line analysis. The analysis of fast and localized loss events resulted in the determination of its rate, duration, peak amplitudes, its scaling with intensity, number of bunches and beam energy. The calibration of the secondary shower beam loss signal in respect to the needed beam energy deposition to quench the magnet coil is addressed at 450GeV and 3.5T eV . The adjustment of collimators is checked my measuring the loss pattern and its variation in the collimation regions of the LHC. Loss pattern changes during a fill allow the observation of non typical fill parameters.

  5. Pure mechanical wear loss measurement in corrosive wear

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yanliang Huang; Xiaoxia Jiang; Sizuo Li

    2000-12-01

    The method for the measurement of the pure mechanical wear loss for 321 stainless steel, 1045 steel and pure iron in the study of the synergy between corrosion and wear was studied. The methods studied included the measurement in distilled water, by cathodic protection and by adding inhibitor KI, and all were compared with the wear loss in air. The experiment showed that the pure mechanical wear losses and friction coefficients obtained by the three methods were close to each other and can be used to calculate the various wear components in the study of the interaction of corrosion and wear, but the measurements in distilled water for pure iron and 1045 steel are not recommended due to their corrosion.

  6. Novel Method for Measuring the Heat Collection Rate and Heat Loss Coefficient of Water-in-Glass Evacuated Tube Solar Water Heaters Based on Artificial Neural Networks and Support Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijian Liu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The determinations of heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient are crucial for the evaluation of in service water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters. However, the direct determination requires complex detection devices and a series of standard experiments, which also wastes too much time and manpower. To address this problem, we propose machine learning models including artificial neural networks (ANNs and support vector machines (SVM to predict the heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient without a direct determination. Parameters that can be easily obtained by “portable test instruments” were set as independent variables, including tube length, number of tubes, tube center distance, heat water mass in tank, collector area, final temperature and angle between tubes and ground, while the heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient determined by the detection device were set as dependent variables respectively. Nine hundred fifteen samples from in-service water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters were used for training and testing the models. Results show that the multilayer feed-forward neural network (MLFN with 3 nodes is the best model for the prediction of heat collection rate and the general regression neural network (GRNN is the best model for the prediction of heat loss coefficient due to their low root mean square (RMS errors, short training times, and high prediction accuracies (under the tolerances of 30%, 20%, and 10%, respectively.

  7. Monitoring water loss form fresh concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    2006-01-01

    . This paper concerns in particular a new method for site measurement of evaporation from concrete surfaces in the early hardening phase. Compared to the methods used today for determination of the desiccation process in the early hardening phase, the so-called Curing Meter permits a simple, safe and accurate...... determination of the evaporation loss from hardening concrete and thus better possibility for preventing curing problems, including detrimental crack damage due to plastic shrinkage....

  8. Beam Loss Diagnostics Based on Pressure Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Weinrich, U

    2003-01-01

    The GSI is operating a heavy ion synchrotron, which is currently undergoing an upgrade towards higher beam intensities. It was discovered that beam losses induce a significant pressure increase in the vacuum system. In order to detect the time constants of the pressure increase and decrease, fast total pressure measurements were put into operation. With the recently installed partial pressure diagnostics it is also possible to follow up which types of molecules are released. The presentation will focus on the different techniques applied as well as on some measurement results. The potential and difficulties of this diagnostic tool will also be discussed.

  9. Small Aircraft RF Interference Path Loss Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Truong X.; Koppen, Sandra V.; Ely, Jay J.; Szatkowski, George N.; Mielnik, John J.; Salud, Maria Theresa P.

    2007-01-01

    Interference to aircraft radio receivers is an increasing concern as more portable electronic devices are allowed onboard. Interference signals are attenuated as they propagate from inside the cabin to aircraft radio antennas mounted on the outside of the aircraft. The attenuation level is referred to as the interference path loss (IPL) value. Significant published IPL data exists for transport and regional category airplanes. This report fills a void by providing data for small business/corporate and general aviation aircraft. In this effort, IPL measurements are performed on ten small aircraft of different designs and manufacturers. Multiple radio systems are addressed. Along with the typical worst-case coupling values, statistical distributions are also reported that could lead to more meaningful interference risk assessment.

  10. Measurement of Radiated Power Loss on EAST

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段艳敏; 王亮; 胡立群; 毛松涛; 许平; 陈开云; 林士耀; 钟国强; 张继宗; 张凌

    2011-01-01

    A type of silicon detector known as AXUV (absolute extreme ultraviolet) photodiodes is successfully used to measure the radiated power in EAST. The detector is characterized by compact structure, fast temporal response (〈0.5 s) and flat spectral sensitivity in the range from ultra-violet to X-ray. Two 16-channel AXUV arrays are installed in EAST to view the whole poloidal cross-section of plasma. Based on the diagnostic system, typical radiation distributions for both limiter and divertor plasma are obtained and compared. As divertor detachment occurs, the radiation distribution in X-point region is observed to vary distinctly. The total radiation power losses in discharges with different plasma parameters are briefly analyzed.

  11. New approach to energy loss measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Trzaska, W H; Alanko, T; Mutterer, M; Raeisaenen, J; Tjurin, G; Wojdyr, M

    2002-01-01

    A new approach to energy loss measurements is proposed. In the same experiment electronic stopping force (power) in gold, nickel, carbon, polycarbonate and Havar for sup 4 sup 0 Ar, sup 2 sup 8 Si, sup 1 sup 6 O, sup 4 He and sup 1 H ions in the energy range 0.12-11 MeV/u has been measured. In this paper we give the full results for gold, nickel, and carbon and for sup 4 sup 0 Ar, sup 1 sup 6 O, sup 4 He and sup 1 H ions. Good agreement of the measured stopping force values for light ions with literature data is interpreted as the positive test of the experimental technique. The same technique used with heavy ions yields agreement with the published data only for energies above 1 MeV/u. At lower energies we observe progressively increasing discrepancy. This discrepancy is removed completely as soon as we neglect pulse height defect compensation. This observation makes us believe that the majority of the published results as well as semi-empirical calculations based on them (like the popular SRIM) may be in er...

  12. Cockroaches breathe discontinuously to reduce respiratory water loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimpf, Natalie G; Matthews, Philip G D; Wilson, Robbie S; White, Craig R

    2009-09-01

    The reasons why many insects breathe discontinuously at rest are poorly understood and hotly debated. Three adaptive hypotheses attempt to explain the significance of these discontinuous gas exchange cycles (DGCs), whether it be to save water, to facilitate gas exchange in underground environments or to limit oxidative damage. Comparative studies favour the water saving hypothesis and mechanistic studies are equivocal but no study has examined the acclimation responses of adult insects chronically exposed to a range of respiratory environments. The present research is the first manipulative study of such chronic exposure to take a strong-inference approach to evaluating the competing hypotheses according to the explicit predictions stemming from them. Adult cockroaches (Nauphoeta cinerea) were chronically exposed to various treatments of different respiratory gas compositions (O(2), CO(2) and humidity) and the DGC responses were interpreted in light of the a priori predictions stemming from the competing hypotheses. Rates of mass loss during respirometry were also measured for animals acclimated to a range of humidity conditions. The results refute the hypotheses of oxidative damage and underground gas exchange, and provide evidence supporting the hypothesis that DGCs serve to reduce respiratory water loss: cockroaches exposed to low humidity conditions exchange respiratory gases for shorter durations during each DGC and showed lower rates of body mass loss during respirometry than cockroaches exposed to high humidity conditions.

  13. Respiratory water loss in relation to gestational age in infants on their first day after birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riesenfeld, T; Hammarlund, K; Sedin, G

    1995-09-01

    Respiratory water loss, oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production were measured in 32 infants on their first day after birth. Gestational age was between 27 and 41 weeks. All infants were studied in incubators with 50% ambient relative humidity and an ambient temperature that allowed the infant to maintain a normal and stable body temperature. During the measurements the infants were usually asleep. Respiratory water loss was found to be highest in the most preterm infants and lower in more mature infants. Respiratory water loss per breath (mg/kg) was almost the same at all gestational ages and the higher respiratory water loss found in the most preterm as compared with the more mature infants is thus and increased with increasing gestational age. Thus, in full-term infants respiratory water loss and transepidermal water loss are of approximately equal magnitude at an ambient humidity of 50%, while respiratory water loss constitutes a smaller proportion than transepidermal water loss in very preterm infants. Respiratory water loss increases with the rate of breathing.

  14. Heat losses through pipe connections in hot water stores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Fan, Jianhua; Furbo, Simon

    2007-01-01

    loss from an ideally insulated pipe connected to the top of a hot water tank is mainly due to a natural convection flow in the pipe, that the heat loss coefficient of pipes connected to the top of a hot water tank is high, and that a heat trap can reduce the heat loss coefficient significantly. Further......The heat loss from pipe connections at the top of hot water storage tanks with and without a heat trap is investigated theoretically and compared to similar experimental investigations. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is used for the theoretical analysis. The investigations show that the heat...

  15. Heat losses through pipe connections in hot water stores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Fan, Jianhua; Furbo, Simon

    2007-01-01

    loss from an ideally insulated pipe connected to the top of a hot water tank is mainly due to a natural convection flow in the pipe, that the heat loss coefficient of pipes connected to the top of a hot water tank is high, and that a heat trap can reduce the heat loss coefficient significantly. Further......The heat loss from pipe connections at the top of hot water storage tanks with and without a heat trap is investigated theoretically and compared to similar experimental investigations. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is used for the theoretical analysis. The investigations show that the heat...

  16. Sequential exercise in triathletes: variations in GH and water loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Galy

    Full Text Available Growth hormone (GH may stimulate water loss during exercise by activating sweating. This study investigated GH secretion and water loss during sequential cycling and running, taking postural changes into account. The two exercise segments had similar durations and were performed at the same relative intensity to determine their respective contributions to water loss and the plasma volume variation noted in such trials. Eight elite triathletes first performed an incremental cycle test to assess maximal oxygen consumption. Then, the triathletes performed one of two trials in randomized order: constant submaximal cycling followed by treadmill running (C1-R2 or an inversed succession of running followed by cycling (R1-C2. Each segment of both trials was performed for 20 minutes at ∼75% of maximal oxygen consumption. The second trial, reversing the segment order of the first trial, took place two weeks later. During cycling, the triathletes used their own bicycles equipped with a profiled handlebar. Blood sampling (for GH concentrations, plasma viscosity and plasma volume variation was conducted at rest and after each segment while water loss was estimated from the post- and pre-measures. GH increases were significantly lower in R2 than C2 (72.2±50.1 vs. 164.0±157 ng x ml(-1 x min(-1, respectively; P<0.05. Water loss was significantly lower after C1-R2 than R1-C2 (1105±163 and 1235±153 ml, respectively; P<0.05. Plasma volume variation was significantly negative in C1 and R1 (-6.15±2.0 and -3.16±5.0%, respectively; P<0.05, not significant in C2, and significantly positive for seven subjects in R2 (4.05±3.1%. We concluded that the lower GH increases in R2 may have contributed to the smaller reduction in plasma volume by reducing sweating. Moreover, this lower GH response could be explained by the postural change during the transition from cycling to running. We recommend to pay particular attention to their hydration status during R1 which

  17. Water losses from irrigation canals evaluation: comparison among different methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente, Paolo; De Luca, Domenico Antonio; Antonella Dino, Giovanna; Lasagna, Manuela

    2013-04-01

    The research investigates the field methodologies to evaluate water losses from canals, in order to find a reliable method to identify and quantify them. This study was conducted in five canal lines in Piedmont, north-western Italy, different for hydraulic, morphological, geological and hydrogeological contexts (De Luca et alii, 2012). At a regional scale, Piedmont network consists of several tens of thousands km of irrigation canals. The loss of water due to seepage from irrigation canals constitutes a substantial part of the usable water. Irrigation canals placed in natural soil or fine and coarse sediments are characterized by water losses ranging from 20 % to more than 50 %. These losses cause economic, hydrogeological and environmental consequences: water losses evaluation from irrigation canals in the basis for the sustainable water resource use and management. First, hydrogeological and hydrological characterisation of the study area and of the bottom of the irrigation canals was carried out for every investigated canal, in order to evaluate the relationships between groundwater and stream water (eg. piezometric and hydrogeochemical survey campaigns, infiltrometry tests, penetrometric tests and electrical tomographies, soil characterizations from the bottom of investigated canals). The canals seepage rates were subsequently estimated using different methodologies: empirical formulas, inflow-outflow tests and double tracer tests. The empirical formulas applied for the study underestimated the real amount of the losses probably due to the scarce number of the considered variables. Then the canals seepage rates were evaluated employing inflow-outflow tests, considered the best tool by several authors. This method allows the determination of seepage quantities measuring inflow and outflow of a canal test reach either by instruments. The canal discharge was evaluated using a current meter. This method, even if easy to apply and practical, is not efficient

  18. Loss tangent measurements on unirradiated alumina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinkle, S.J.; Goulding, R.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Unirradiated room temperature loss tangent for sapphire and several commercial grades of polycrystalline alumina are complied for frequencies between 10{sup 5} and 4x10{sup 11} Hz. Sapphire exhibits significantly lower values for the loss tangent at frequencies up to 10{sup 11} Hz. The loss tangents of 3 different grades of Wesgo alumina (AL300, AL995, AL998) and 2 different grades of Coors alumina (AD94, AD995) have typical values near {approx}10{sup -4} at a frequency of 10{sup 8} Hz. On the other hand, the loss tangent of Vitox alumina exhibits a large loss peak tan d{approx} 5x10{sup -3} at this frequency.

  19. Water Loss Under Hot Ambient Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Basu

    1978-07-01

    Full Text Available Male 4 rates were ambient temperature (40 degree,42 degree, and 44 degree calcius for different durations of time upto a maximum of 3 hours. It was observed that there was a rapid loss in body weight accompanied by considerable increase in body temperature of the animals during the first hour of exposure. Thereafter the rate of body weight loss and increase in body temperature were slow till the end of observation period. Intolerance to heat appears to be more correlated with critical body temperature rather than the extent of dehydration.

  20. Effects of forced convection of heated air on insensible water loss and heat loss in preterm infants in incubators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okken, A; Blijham, C; Franz, W; Bohn, E

    1982-07-01

    To assess the effect of forced convection of heated air exchange in preterm infants in conventional incubators, we measured insensible water loss and total heat loss in preterm infants in a conventional forced convection incubator (air velocity 15 to 25 cm/second) and in a specially constructed still-air incubator (air velocity 0 to 2 cm/second) at equal operative temperature and humidity. Under the forced conditions, insensible water loss in the preterm infants increased by a mean 52% from 1.04 +/- 0.24 (mean +/- SD) to 1.58 +/- 0.51 ml/kg/hour (P less than 0.001). The ensuing increase in evaporative heat loss was partly reflected in the small but significant increase in total heat loss from 1.65 +/- 0.47 to 1.80 +/- 0.44 kcal/kg/hour (P less than 0.02). In the forced convection incubator, the increased evaporative heat loss in preterm infants was apparently partly compensated by a decreased nonevaporative heat loss. If reduction of insensible water loss is required, preterm infants should not be subjected to forced convection in incubators.

  1. A Numerical Study of Water Loss Rate Distributions in MDCT-Based Human Airway Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dan; Miyawaki, Shinjiro; Tawhai, Merryn H; Hoffman, Eric A; Lin, Ching-Long

    2015-11-01

    Both three-dimensional (3D) and one-dimensional (1D) computational fluid dynamics methods are applied to study regional water loss in three multi-detector row computed-tomography-based human airway models at the minute ventilations of 6, 15 and 30 L/min. The overall water losses predicted by both 3D and 1D models in the entire respiratory tract agree with available experimental measurements. However, 3D and 1D models reveal different regional water loss rate distributions due to the 3D secondary flows formed at bifurcations. The secondary flows cause local skewed temperature and humidity distributions on inspiration acting to elevate the local water loss rate; and the secondary flow at the carina tends to distribute more cold air to the lower lobes. As a result, the 3D model predicts that the water loss rate first increases with increasing airway generation, and then decreases as the air approaches saturation, while the 1D model predicts a monotonic decrease of water loss rate with increasing airway generation. Moreover, the 3D (or 1D) model predicts relatively higher water loss rates in lower (or upper) lobes. The regional water loss rate can be related to the non-dimensional wall shear stress (τ (*)) by the non-dimensional mass transfer coefficient (h 0 (*) ) as [Formula: see text].

  2. PARKA II-A Bottom Loss Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1970-06-29

    obvious %ngle dependance between 15 to 85 degraes and, appear to be only slightly dependent of frequency; showing an approximate 2 db difference in mean... dependance . between 15 to 85 degrees and indicates a slight frequency dependance of 2 db over the frequency rang3e. The major reflected energy is from the...the low CONFIDENTIAL 10 NUSL Tech Memo 2211-023-70 CONFIDENTIAL sound v Locity sediment, resulting in significant angular dependance of bottom Loss at

  3. Decision model to control water losses in distribution networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcele Elisa Fontana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The losses in the urban water supply networks have become a growing concern. There are several alternatives for the quantification, detection and monitoring of water losses. However, in general, water companies have budgetary and other constraints that hinder implementation. Therefore, this paper presents a model to aid the selection of a subset of preventive maintenance actions to control water losses while accounting for the water companies’ restrictions. The model combines an additive multi-attribute value analysis by applying the SMARTER method to evaluate alternatives with Integer Linear Programming (ILP. The model shows to be efficient in order to achieve a portfolio of preventive maintenance actions, particularly when the decision maker considers that, there is a compensation for attribute evaluations.

  4. Bipolar energy-loss measurements on cryostable, low-loss conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollan, J. J.

    1981-11-01

    Losses have been measured on a prototype conductor for the 20 MJ coil for conditions which simulate closely the actual coil field sweep. The data on the prototype II conductor indicates coil losses which exceed the coil specification. The application of certain correction factors reduces the projected losses within the specification for a 2 s reversal but not for a 1 s reversal. Verification of these corrections await measurements on the actual strand and completion of coil construction and testing.

  5. Bipolar energy-loss measurements on cryostable, low-loss conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wollan, J.J.

    1981-01-01

    Losses have been measured on a prototype conductor for the 20 MJ coil for conditions which simulate closely the actual coil field sweep. The data on the prototype II conductor indicates coil losses which exceed the coil specification. The application of certain correction factors reduces the projected losses within the specification for a 2 s reversal but not for a 1 s reversal. Verification of these corrections await measurements on the actual strand and completion of coil construction and testing.

  6. Reducing nitrate loss in tile drainage water with cover crops and water-table management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, C F; Tan, C S; Welacky, T W; Reynolds, W D; Zhang, T Q; Oloya, T O; McLaughlin, N B; Gaynor, J D

    2014-03-01

    Nitrate lost from agricultural soils is an economic cost to producers, an environmental concern when it enters rivers and lakes, and a health risk when it enters wells and aquifers used for drinking water. Planting a winter wheat cover crop (CC) and/or use of controlled tile drainage-subirrigation (CDS) may reduce losses of nitrate (NO) relative to no cover crop (NCC) and/or traditional unrestricted tile drainage (UTD). A 6-yr (1999-2005) corn-soybean study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of CC+CDS, CC+UTD, NCC+CDS, and NCC+UTD treatments for reducing NO loss. Flow volume and NO concentration in surface runoff and tile drainage were measured continuously, and CC reduced the 5-yr flow-weighted mean (FWM) NO concentration in tile drainage water by 21 to 38% and cumulative NO loss by 14 to 16% relative to NCC. Controlled tile drainage-subirrigation reduced FWM NO concentration by 15 to 33% and cumulative NO loss by 38 to 39% relative to UTD. When CC and CDS were combined, 5-yr cumulative FWM NO concentrations and loss in tile drainage were decreased by 47% (from 9.45 to 4.99 mg N L and from 102 to 53.6 kg N ha) relative to NCC+UTD. The reductions in runoff and concomitant increases in tile drainage under CC occurred primarily because of increases in near-surface soil hydraulic conductivity. Cover crops increased corn grain yields by 4 to 7% in 2004 increased 3-yr average soybean yields by 8 to 15%, whereas CDS did not affect corn or soybean yields over the 6 yr. The combined use of a cover crop and water-table management system was highly effective for reducing NO loss from cool, humid agricultural soils.

  7. Measurements of Beam Ion Loss from the Compact Helical System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. S. Darrow, M. Isobe, Takashi Kondo, M. Sasao, and the CHS Group National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu, Japan

    2010-02-03

    Beam ion loss from the Compact Helical System (CHS) has been measured with a scintillator-type probe. The total loss to the probe, and the pitch angle and gyroradius distributions of that loss, have been measured as various plasma parameters were scanned. Three classes of beam ion loss were observed at the probe position: passing ions with pitch angles within 10o of those of transition orbits, ions on transition orbits, and ions on trapped orbits, typically 15o or more from transition orbits. Some orbit calculations in this geometry have been performed in order to understand the characteristics of the loss. Simulation of the detector signal based upon the following of orbits from realistic beam deposition profiles is not able to reproduce the pitch angle distribution of the losses measured. Consequently it is inferred that internal plasma processes, whether magnetohydrodynamic modes, radial electric fields, or plasma turbulence, move previously confined beam ions to transition orbits, resulting in their loss.

  8. Economic evaluation of water loss saving due to the biological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Economic evaluation of water loss saving due to the biological control of water hyacinth at New ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... The benefit/cost ratio at the low evapotranspiration rate was less than one, implying that ...

  9. Characterization of Detectors for Beam Loss Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Panniello, M; Finocchiaro, P; Mallows, S; Welsch, C P

    2012-01-01

    Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs) are a good candidate for use as beam loss detectors in an accelerator due to their insensitivity to magnetic fields, compactness and relatively low voltage working regime. Furthermore, when used in large numbers, they are significantly cheaper to be mass-produced than more conventional detectors, such as Ionization Chambers. To be able to evaluate the application potential of SiPMs in an accelerator, it is necessary to quantify their fundamental parameters as light detectors, as well as in combination with an optical fiber used for signal generation. In this contribution an experimental and analytical study to determine the time resolution, light sensitivity and dynamic range of a Cherenkov light detector, based on SiPMs, is presented.

  10. Water Loss from Terrestrial Planets with CO2-rich Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wordsworth, R. D.; Pierrehumbert, R. T.

    2013-12-01

    Water photolysis and hydrogen loss from the upper atmospheres of terrestrial planets is of fundamental importance to climate evolution but remains poorly understood in general. Here we present a range of calculations we performed to study the dependence of water loss rates from terrestrial planets on a range of atmospheric and external parameters. We show that CO2 can only cause significant water loss by increasing surface temperatures over a narrow range of conditions, with cooling of the middle and upper atmosphere acting as a bottleneck on escape in other circumstances. Around G-stars, efficient loss only occurs on planets with intermediate CO2 atmospheric partial pressures (0.1-1 bar) that receive a net flux close to the critical runaway greenhouse limit. Because G-star total luminosity increases with time but X-ray and ultraviolet/ultravoilet luminosity decreases, this places strong limits on water loss for planets like Earth. In contrast, for a CO2-rich early Venus, diffusion limits on water loss are only important if clouds caused strong cooling, implying that scenarios where the planet never had surface liquid water are indeed plausible. Around M-stars, water loss is primarily a function of orbital distance, with planets that absorb less flux than ~270 W m-2 (global mean) unlikely to lose more than one Earth ocean of H2O over their lifetimes unless they lose all their atmospheric N2/CO2 early on. Because of the variability of H2O delivery during accretion, our results suggest that many "Earth-like" exoplanets in the habitable zone may have ocean-covered surfaces, stable CO2/H2O-rich atmospheres, and high mean surface temperatures.

  11. High-field bipolar loss measurement apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldon, D.; Thullen, P.; Wollan, J.

    1980-09-01

    An apparatus was constructed to measure dissipation in superconducting wire in high alternating fields. The circuit incorporates a pair of locomotive traction motors as the capacitive circuit element for the bipolar swing. The design, construction and operating characteristics of the field coil and the associated circuitry are described.

  12. Preservation of beam loss induced quenches, beam lifetime and beam loss measurements with the HERAp beam-loss-monitor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittenburg, Kay

    1994-06-01

    The beam-loss-monitors (BLMs) in the HERA-proton-ring (HERAp) must fulfill the following requirements: They have to measure losses sensitive and fast enough to prevent the superconducting magnets from beam loss induced quenching; the dynamic range of the monitors must exceed several decades in order to measure losses during beam lifetimes of hundreds of hours as well as the much stronger losses that may quench superconducting magnets; they have to be insensitive to the synchrotron radiation of the adjacent electron-ring (HERAe); and their radiation hardness must allow a monitor-lifetime of a few years of HERA operation. These requirements are well satisfied by the HERAp-BLM-System.

  13. High-field bipolar loss measurement apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thullen, P.; Weldon, D.; Wollan, J.

    1980-01-01

    An apparatus was constructed to measure dissipation in superconducting wire in high alternating fields. The apparatus will be used to make measurements on conductors which must operate in fields up to 7.0 T and rates of field change up to 15 T/s. The magnet for this facility is wound of uninsulated, 15 strand Rutherford cable in which the strand is a 0.812 mm diameter, fully mixed matrix, Cu plus CuNi, multifilament NbTi conductor. The coil is wound in a bath cooled configuration with an overall current density of 7.8 kA/cm/sup 2/. The circuit incorporates a pair of locomotive traction motors as the capacitive circuit element for the bipolar swing. The design, construction and operating characteristics of the field coil and the associated circuitry are described.

  14. Ultrasonic airborne insertion loss measurements at normal incidence (L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Jayrin; Anderson, Brian E

    2010-12-01

    Transmission loss and insertion loss measurements of building materials at audible frequencies are commonly made using plane wave tubes or as a panel between reverberant rooms. These measurements provide information for noise isolation control in architectural acoustics and in product development. Airborne ultrasonic sound transmission through common building materials has not been fully explored. Technologies and products that utilize ultrasonic frequencies are becoming increasingly more common, hence the need to conduct such measurements. This letter presents preliminary measurements of the ultrasonic insertion loss levels for common building materials over a frequency range of 28-90 kHz using continuous-wave excitation.

  15. Methods to Measure Water Permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solenov, Evgeniy I; Baturina, Galina S; Katkova, Liubov E; Zarogiannis, Sotirios G

    2017-01-01

    Water permeability is a key feature of the cell plasma membranes and it has seminal importance for a number of cell functions such as cell volume regulation, cell proliferation, cell migration, and angiogenesis to name a few. The transport of water occurs mainly through plasma membrane water channels , the aquaporins, who have very important function in physiological and pathophysiological states. Due to the above the experimental assessment of the water permeability of cells and tissues is necessary. The development of new methodologies of measuring water permeability is a vibrant scientific field that constantly develops during the past three decades along with the advances in imaging mainly. In this chapter we describe and critically assess several methods that have been developed for the measurement of water permeability both in living cells as well as in tissues with a focus in the first category.

  16. Measurement of AC loss of superconductors by vaporizing method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakabayashi, Hiroshi; Isono, Takaaki; Matsui, Kunihiro; Fujisaki, Reishi; Nunoya, Yoshihiko; Koizumi, Norikiyo; Takahashi, Yoshikazu; Tsuji, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment

    1995-07-01

    In Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, the development of superconducting pulse conductors for next period nuclear fusion reactors has been carried out. For these conductors, the rated current of 46 kA and the rated magnetic field of 13T are demanded. When the pulse excitation of superconductors is carried out, AC loss arises, and the temperature of the superconductors rises, and when it exceeds a certain value, the superconducting state cannot be maintained. Therefore, the AC loss of pulse conductors must be limited to a low value. It is difficult to evaluate the AC loss of superconductors by calculation, therefore, it is evaluated by actual measurement. There are magnetizing method and vaporizing method for measuring the AC loss. This time, the equipment for measuring the AC loss of 40 kA class superconductors by vaporizing method which measures the helium gas quantity vaporizing at the time of AC loss occurrence was designed and manufactured for the first time. The method of measuring the AC loss, the structure of the measuring equipment, the helium gas recovering part and the measuring part, the countermeasures for preventing helium gas leakage, the resistance heater for calibration, and the results of measurement are reported. (K.I.)

  17. Buoyancy driven flow in a hot water tank due to standby heat loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Jianhua; Furbo, Simon

    2012-01-01

    show that the CFD model predicts satisfactorily water temperatures at different levels of the tank during cooling by standby heat loss. It is elucidated how the downward buoyancy driven flow along the tank wall is established by the heat loss from the tank sides and how the natural convection flow......Results of experimental and numerical investigations of thermal behavior in a vertical cylindrical hot water tank due to standby heat loss of the tank are presented. The effect of standby heat loss on temperature distribution in the tank is investigated experimentally on a slim 150l tank...... parts of the tank is measured by experiments and used as input to the CFD model. Water temperatures at different levels of the tank are measured and compared to CFD calculated temperatures. The investigations focus on validation of the CFD model and on understanding of the CFD calculations.The results...

  18. Measurement of AC losses in different former materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Søren Krüger; Træholt, Chresten; Kühle, Anders Van Der Aa

    1998-01-01

    A high temperature superconducting cable may be based on a centrally located cylindrical support, a so-called former. If electrically conductive, the former can contribute to the AC losses through eddy current losses caused by unbalanced axial and tangential magnetic fields. With these measurements...... we aim at investigating the eddy current losses of commonly used former materials. A one layer cable conductor was wound on a glass fibre reinforced polymer (GRFP) former. By inserting a variety of materials into this, it was possible to measure the eddy current losses of each of the former...... candidates separately; for example copper tubes, stainless steel braid, copper braid, corrugated stainless steel tubes, etc. The measured data are compared with the predictions of a theoretical model. Our results show that in most cases, the losses induced by eddy currents in the former are negligible...

  19. Transepidermal water loss during halogen spotlight phototherapy in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünhagen, Dirk J; de Boer, Mark G J; de Beaufort, Arnout Jan; Walther, Frans J

    2002-03-01

    Among preterm infants there is a relationship between skin blood flow and transepidermal water loss (TEWL). The aim of this study was to assess whether halogen spotlight phototherapy without significant heat stress increases TEWL and affects maintenance fluid requirements in preterm infants. TEWL was measured noninvasively before the start and after 1 h of halogen spotlight phototherapy in a group of preterm infants, nursed in double-walled incubators with moderately high relative humidity. Relative humidity and ambient temperature in the incubator were tightly controlled. Mean +/- SD birth weight of the 18 infants was 1412 +/- 256 g, gestational age 30.6 +/- 1.6 wk, and age at measurement 5 +/- 3 d. Nine infants received ventilatory assistance. Relative humidity was 40-80% (mean 52%). Average TEWL increased from 13.6 to 16.5 g/m(2)/h during phototherapy. These data show that TEWL increases by approximately 20% during phototherapy despite constant skin temperature and relative humidity. Maintenance fluids of preterm infants should be increased by 0.35 mL/kg/h during exposure to halogen spotlight phototherapy.

  20. Measurement of small antenna reflector losses for radiometer calibration budget

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Niels

    1997-01-01

    Antenna reflector losses play an important role in the calibration budget for a microwave radiometer. If the losses are small, they are difficult to measure by traditional means. However, they can be assessed directly by radiometric means using the sky brightness temperature as incident radiation...

  1. Progressive forest canopy water loss during the 2012-2015 California drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asner, Gregory P; Brodrick, Philip G; Anderson, Christopher B; Vaughn, Nicholas; Knapp, David E; Martin, Roberta E

    2016-01-12

    The 2012-2015 drought has left California with severely reduced snowpack, soil moisture, ground water, and reservoir stocks, but the impact of this estimated millennial-scale event on forest health is unknown. We used airborne laser-guided spectroscopy and satellite-based models to assess losses in canopy water content of California's forests between 2011 and 2015. Approximately 10.6 million ha of forest containing up to 888 million large trees experienced measurable loss in canopy water content during this drought period. Severe canopy water losses of greater than 30% occurred over 1 million ha, affecting up to 58 million large trees. Our measurements exclude forests affected by fire between 2011 and 2015. If drought conditions continue or reoccur, even with temporary reprieves such as El Niño, we predict substantial future forest change.

  2. Bread Water Content Measurement Based on Hyperspectral Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhi; Møller, Flemming

    2011-01-01

    for bread quality based on near-infrared hyperspectral imaging against the conventional manual loss-in-weight method. For this purpose, the hyperspectral components unmixing technology is used for measuring the water content quantitatively. And the definition on bread water content index is presented......Water content is one of the most important properties of the bread for tasting assesment or store monitoring. Traditional bread water content measurement methods mostly are processed manually, which is destructive and time consuming. This paper proposes an automated water content measurement...... for this measurement. The proposed measurement scheme is relatively inexpensive to implement, easy to set up. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness....

  3. Water loss during incubation in red bishop (Euplectes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    verloor teen 'n tempo (16,6 mg dag -1) gelykstaande aan die wat voorspel kan word op grond van .... temperature and to have a water vapour pressure of satu- ration at that .... LOMHOLT, J.P. 1976. Relationship of weight loss to ambient humi-.

  4. Measurement of TeV muon energy loss in iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakumoto, W.K.; de Barbaro, P.; Bodek, A.; Budd, H.S.; Kim, B.J. (Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States)); Merritt, F.S.; Oreglia, M.J.; Schellman, H.; Schumm, B.A. (Enrico Fermi Institute and Department of Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)); Bachmann, K.T.; Blair, R.E.; Foudas, C.; King, B.J.; Lefmann, W.C.; Leung, W.C.; Mishra, S.R.; Oltman, E.; Quintas, P.Z.; Rabinowitz, S.A.; Sciulli, F.; Seligman, W.G.; Shaevitz, M.H. (Department of Physics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States)); Bernstein, R.H.; Borcherding, F.O.; Fisk, H.E.; Lamm, M.J.; Marsh, W.; Merritt, K.W.; Rapidis, P.A.; Yovanovitch, D. (Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States)); Sandler, P.H.; Smith, W.H. (University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States))

    1992-05-01

    We measure the energy loss of high-energy muons (up to 1 TeV) from cosmic-ray muons incident on the iron-scintillator calorimeter of the Chicago-Columbia-Fermilab-Rochester Collaboration (Lab E) neutrino detector at Fermilab. Measurements of the differential energy loss spectra in Fe and the average {ital dE}/{ital dx} energy loss in Fe are presented as functions of muon energy and are compared against calculations. There is reasonable agreement between the measurements and calculations except in the region of small energy losses (under a few GeV) for 1-TeV muons, where the measurement is about 30% lower than the calculation. This level of agreement with theory implies that reliable simulations of the performance of muon detectors for future TeV colliders can be done.

  5. Measurement of small antenna reflector losses for radiometer calibration budget

    OpenAIRE

    Skou, Niels

    1997-01-01

    Antenna reflector losses play an important role in the calibration budget for a microwave radiometer. If the losses are small, they are difficult to measure by traditional means. However, they can be assessed directly by radiometric means using the sky brightness temperature as incident radiation. This paper describes how such measurements are carried out as well as a suitable experimental setup. The main reflector of the European Space Agency's MIMR system is used to demonstrate the principle

  6. Accurate antenna reflector loss measurements for radiometer calibration budget

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Niels

    1996-01-01

    Antenna reflector losses may play an important role in the calibration budget for a microwave radiometer. If the losses are small they are difficult to measure by traditional means. However, they can be assessed directly by radiometric means using the sky brightness temperature as incident radiat...... radiation. The paper describes how such measurements are carried out as well as a suitable experimental set-up. The main reflector of the European Space Agency's MIMR system is used to demonstrate the principle...

  7. Household water demand and welfare loss for future Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhard, Jeroen; Reynaud, Arnaud; Lanzanova, Denis; de Roo, Ad

    2015-04-01

    Matching the availability of water to its demand in Europe is a major challenge for the future due to expected economic and demographic developments and climate change. This means there is a growing need to estimate future water demand and to optimize the water allocation to all end users to counteract welfare loss. At the European scale it is currently not possible to assess the impact of social and economic changes on future water demand or to prioritize water allocation amongst different sectors based on economic damage without extensive use of assumptions and generalizations. Indeed, our review of existing regional optimization models for Europe reveals that the social-economic component of the water use system needs to be improved by complementing them with detailed water use estimates and cost/benefit functions in order to determine the optimal situation. Our study contributes to closing this knowledge gap for the European household sector by quantifying future water demand and the effect of water pricing, as well as providing a method for the calculation of monetary damage due to unmet demand at the highest spatial resolution possible. We used a water demand function approach in which household water consumption depends upon some exogenous drivers including water price, household income, population and household characteristics and climate conditions. For each European country, the annual water consumption per capita was calculated at regional level (NUTS3) and subsequently disaggregated to five kilometer grid level based on a population density map. In order to produce estimates of water demand, the evolution of the explanatory variables of the water demand functions and population density map were simulated until 2050 based on related variables such as GDP and demographic projections. The results of this study will be integrated into the JRC hydro-economic modelling framework for an assessment of the Water-Agriculture-Energy-Ecosystems Nexus.

  8. Design of runoff water harvesting systems and its role in minimizing water losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berliner, P.; Carmi, G.; Leake, S.; Agam, N.

    2016-12-01

    Precipitation is one of the major water sources for agricultural production in arid and semi-arid areas. Rainfalls are limited, erratic and not always coincide with the crop growing season. Only a part of the rain is absorbed by the soil. Soil evaporation is most severe in these regions and the large part of the absorbed water is lost to evaporation. The technique of collecting and conveying the runoff is known as runoff harvesting. Microcatchments are one of the primary techniques used for collecting, storing and conserving local surface runoff for growing trees/shrubs. In this system, runoff water is collected close-by the area in which it was generated, and trees/shrubs may utilize the water. The main objective of the present research was to estimate the effect of the design of the micro-catchment collection area (shallow basin and deep trench) has on the efficiency of the water conservation in the soil profile. The study was carried out during two years using regular micro-catchments (three replicates) with a surface area of 9 m2 (3 x 3 m) and a depth of 0.1 m and trenches (three replicates) with a surface area of 12 m2 (12 x 1 m) and 1 m depth. One and three olive trees were planted inside the trenches and micro-catchments, respectively. Access tubes for neutron probe were installed in micro-catchments and trenches (four and seven, respectively) to depths of 3m. Soil water content in the soil profile was monitored. Sap flow in trees was measured by PS-TDP8 Granier sap flow system every 0.5 hour and fluxes computed for the time intervals that correspond to the soil water measurements. The first year study included flooding trenches and regular micro-catchments once with the same amount of water (1.5 m3) and the second year study included flooding four times with 0.25 m3 each time. Flooding was followed by monitoring the water balance components and estimation of evaporation losses and water use efficiency by olive trees. Evaporation from trenches and regular

  9. Wynkoop Building Performance Measurement: Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, Kimberly M.; Kora, Angela R.

    2012-08-26

    This report is a summary of the water analysis performance for the Denver, Colorado Wynkoop Building. The Wynkoop Building (Figure 1) was built in 2006 as the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 8 Headquarters intended to house over 900 occupants in the 301,292 gross square feet (248,849 rentable square feet). The building was built on a brownfield in the Lower Downtown Historic District as part of an urban redevelopment effort. The building was designed and constructed through a public-private partnership with the sustainable design elements developed jointly by General Services Administration (GSA) and EPA. That partnership is still active with all parties still engaged to optimize building operations and use the building as a Learning Laboratory. The building design achieved U.S. Green Building Council Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design for New Construction (LEED-NC) Gold Certification in 2008 (Figure 2) and a 2008 EPA Energy Star Rating of 96 with design highlights that include: (1) Water use was designed to use 40% less than a typical design baseline. The design included low flow fixtures, waterless urinals and dual flush toilets; (2) Native and adaptive vegetation were selected to minimize the need for irrigation water for landscaping; and (3) Energy use intensity was modeled at 66.1 kBtus/gross square foot, which is 39% better than ASHRAE 90.1 1999. The Wynkoop Building water use (10 gallons/square foot) was measured at lower than industry average (15 gallons/square foot) and GSA goals (13 gallons/square foot), however, it was higher than building management expected it would be. The type of occupants and number of occupants can have a significant impact on fixture water use. The occupancy per floor varied significantly over the study time period, which added uncertainty to the data analysis. Investigation of the fixture use on the 2nd, 5th, and 7th floors identified potential for water use reduction if the flush direction of the dual

  10. Respiratory water loss in free-flying pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaeli, G; Pinshow, B

    2001-11-01

    We assessed respiratory and cutaneous water loss in trained tippler pigeons (Columba livia) both at rest and in free flight. In resting pigeons, exhaled air temperature T(ex) increased with ambient air temperature T(a) (T(ex)=16.3+0.705T(a)) between 15 degrees C and 30 degrees C, while tidal volume V(T) (V(T)=4.7+/-1.0 ml, mean +/- S.D. at standard temperature and pressure dry) and breathing frequency f(R) (f(R)=0.46+/-0.06 breaths s(-1)) were independent of T(a). Respiratory water loss, RWL, was constant over the range of T(a) (RWL=1.2+/-0.4 mg g(-1) h(-1)) used. In flying pigeons, T(ex) increased with T(a) (T(ex)=25.8+0.34T(a)), while f(R) was independent of T(a) (f(R)=5.6+/-1.4 breaths s(-1)) between 8.8 degrees C and 27 degrees C. Breathing frequency varied intermittently between 2 and 8 breaths s(-1) during flight and was not always synchronized with wing-beat frequency. RWL was independent of air temperature (RWL=9.2+/-2.9 mg g(-1) h(-1)), but decreased with increasing inspired air water vapor density (rho(in)) (RWL=12.5-0.362rho(in)), whereas cutaneous water loss, CWL, increased with air temperature (CWL=10.122+0.898T(a)), but was independent of rho(in). RWL was 25.7-32.2 %, while CWL was 67.8-74.3 % of the total evaporative water loss. The data indicate that pigeons have more efficient countercurrent heat exchange in their anterior respiratory passages when at rest than in flight, allowing them to recover more water at rest at lower air temperatures. When evaporative water loss increases in flight, especially at high T(a), the major component is cutaneous rather than respiratory, possibly brought about by reducing the skin water vapor diffusion resistance. Because of the tight restrictions imposed by gas exchange in flight, the amount of water potentially lost through respiration is limited.

  11. Water loss from terrestrial planets with CO2-rich atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Wordsworth, Robin

    2013-01-01

    Water photolysis and hydrogen loss from the upper atmospheres of terrestrial planets is of fundamental importance to climate evolution but remains poorly understood in general. Here we present a range of calculations we performed to study the dependence of water loss rates from terrestrial planets on atmospheric composition (CO2 and N2 levels), planetary mass, and external parameters (stellar spectrum, orbital distance and impacts). From coupled 1D climate and escape modeling, we show that CO2 can only cause significant water loss by increasing surface temperatures over a narrow range of conditions, with cooling of the middle and upper atmosphere acting as a bottleneck on escape in other circumstances. Around G-stars, efficient loss only occurs on planets with intermediate CO2 atmospheric partial pressures (0.1 to 1 bar) that receive a net flux close to the critical runaway greenhouse limit. Because G-star total luminosity increases with time but XUV/UV luminosity decreases, this places strong limits on moist...

  12. Uncertainties in pipeline water percentage measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Bentley N.

    2005-07-01

    Measurement of the quantity, density, average temperature and water percentage in petroleum pipelines has been an issue of prime importance. The methods of measurement have been investigated and have seen continued improvement over the years. Questions are being asked as to the reliability of the measurement of water in the oil through sampling systems originally designed and tested for a narrow range of densities. Today most facilities sampling systems handle vastly increased ranges of density and types of crude oils. Issues of pipeline integrity, product loss and production balances are placing further demands on the issues of accurate measurement. Water percentage is one area that has not received the attention necessary to understand the many factors involved in making a reliable measurement. A previous paper1 discussed the issues of uncertainty of the measurement from a statistical perspective. This paper will outline many of the issues of where the errors lie in the manual and automatic methods in use today. A routine to use the data collected by the analyzers in the on line system for validation of the measurements will be described. (author) (tk)

  13. Uncertainties in pipeline water percentage measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Bentley N.

    2005-07-01

    Measurement of the quantity, density, average temperature and water percentage in petroleum pipelines has been an issue of prime importance. The methods of measurement have been investigated and have seen continued improvement over the years. Questions are being asked as to the reliability of the measurement of water in the oil through sampling systems originally designed and tested for a narrow range of densities. Today most facilities sampling systems handle vastly increased ranges of density and types of crude oils. Issues of pipeline integrity, product loss and production balances are placing further demands on the issues of accurate measurement. Water percentage is one area that has not received the attention necessary to understand the many factors involved in making a reliable measurement. A previous paper1 discussed the issues of uncertainty of the measurement from a statistical perspective. This paper will outline many of the issues of where the errors lie in the manual and automatic methods in use today. A routine to use the data collected by the analyzers in the on line system for validation of the measurements will be described. (author) (tk)

  14. Accurate Insertion Loss Measurements of the Juno Patch Array Antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Neil; Chen, Jacqueline; Hodges, Richard; Demas, John

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes two independent methods for estimating the insertion loss of patch array antennas that were developed for the Juno Microwave Radiometer instrument. One method is based principally on pattern measurements while the other method is based solely on network analyzer measurements. The methods are accurate to within 0.1 dB for the measured antennas and show good agreement (to within 0.1dB) of separate radiometric measurements.

  15. Response of water deficit regime and soil amelioration on evapotranspiration loss and water use efficiency of maize (Zea mays l.) in subtropical northeastern Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwein, M. A.; Choudhury, B. U.; Chakraborty, D.; Kumar, M.; Das, A.; Rajkhowa, D. J.

    2016-10-01

    Rainfed maize production in the hilly ecosystem of Northeastern Himalayas often suffers from moisture and soil acidity induced abiotic stresses. The present study measured evapotranspiration loss (ETc) of maize crop under controlled condition (pot experiment) of water deficit (W25-25 % and W50-50 % of field capacity soil moistures) and well watered (W100 = 100 % of field capacity (FC)) regimes in strong acid soils (pH = 4.3) of the Northeastern Himalayan Region of India. The response of soil ameliorants (lime) and phosphorus (P) nutrition under differential water regimes on ETc losses and water use efficiency was also studied. The measured seasonal ETc loss varied from 124.3 to 270.9 mm across treatment combinations. Imposition of water deficit stress resulted in significant (p < 0.05) reduction (by 33-50 %) of seasonal ETc losses but was at the cost of delay in tasseling to silking, 47-65 % reduction in dry matter accumulation (DMA), 12-22 days shortening of grain formation period, and complete kernel abortion. Liming @ 4 t ha-1 significantly (p < 0.05) increased ETc losses and DMA across water regimes but the magnitude of increase was higher in severely water deficit (W25) regime. Unlike lime, P nutrition improved DMA only in well-watered regimes (W100) while seasonal ETc loss was unaffected. Vegetative stage (tillering to tasseling) contributed the maximum ETc losses while weekly crop ETc loss was estimated highest during 11th-14th week after sowing (coincided with blistering stage) and then declined. Water use efficiency estimated from dry matter produced per unit ETc losses and irrigation water used varied from 4.33 to 9.43 g dry matter kg-1 water and 4.21 to 8.56 g dry matter kg-1, respectively. Among the input factors (water, P, and lime), water regime most strongly influenced the ETc loss, growth duration, grain formation, and water use efficiency of maize.

  16. Modified Fabry-Perot interferometric method for waveguide loss measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taebi, Sareh; Khorasaninejad, Mohammadreza; Saini, Simarjeet Singh

    2008-12-10

    An extension to the Fabry-Perot interferometric method is demonstrated to calculate the optical loss and the reflectivity for optical waveguides simultaneously. The method uses an excitation of the waveguide with a broadband amplified spontaneous emission source (a superluminescent diode in our case) and curve fitting to account for the change of input power, thereby simplifying the measurement procedure. The use of a broadband source as opposed to tunable lasers allows for simultaneous measurements over multiple wavelengths and decreased sensitivity to reflections in the cavity. Further, waveguides of different lengths are measured to calculate the optical loss and the reflectivity simultaneously. It is shown that, if the value for reflectivity is assumed, there could be a large error in the measurement of loss especially for short waveguides. Optical loss for ridge waveguides is measured and compared by using a tunable laser as the input source. The method can be used for a generic case where it is suspected that the input power changes during the measurement.

  17. A Temperature-Based Bioimpedance Correction for Water Loss Estimation During Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ring, Matthias; Lohmueller, Clemens; Rauh, Manfred; Mester, Joachim; Eskofier, Bjoern M

    2016-11-01

    The amount of total body water (TBW) can be estimated based on bioimpedance measurements of the human body. In sports, TBW estimations are of importance because mild water losses can impair muscular strength and aerobic endurance. Severe water losses can even be life threatening. TBW estimations based on bioimpedance, however, fail during sports because the increased body temperature corrupts bioimpedance measurements. Therefore, this paper proposes a machine learning method that eliminates the effects of increased temperature on bioimpedance and, consequently, reveals the changes in bioimpedance that are due to TBW loss. This is facilitated by utilizing changes in skin and core temperature. The method was evaluated in a study in which bioimpedance, temperature, and TBW loss were recorded every 15 min during a 2-h running workout. The evaluation demonstrated that the proposed method is able to reduce the error of TBW loss estimation by up to 71%, compared to the state of art. In the future, the proposed method in combination with portable bioimpedance devices might facilitate the development of wearable systems for continuous and noninvasive TBW loss monitoring during sports.

  18. Beam Loss Patterns at the LHC Collimators Measurements & Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Böhlen, Till Tobias

    2008-01-01

    The Beam Loss Monitoring (BLM) system of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) detects particle losses of circulating beams and initiates an emergency extraction of the beam in case that the BLM thresholds are exceeded. This protection is required as energy deposition in the accelerator equipment due to secondary shower particles can reach critical levels; causing damage to the beam-line components and quenches of superconducting magnets. Robust and movable beam line elements, so-called collimators, are the aperture limitations of the LHC. Consequently, they are exposed to the excess of lost beam particles and their showers. Proton loss patterns at LHC collimators have to be determined to interpret the signal of the BLM detectors and to set adequate BLM thresholds for the protection of collimators and other equipment in case of unacceptably increased loss rates. The first part of this work investigates the agreement of BLM detector measurements with simulations for an LHC-like collimation setup. The setup consists ...

  19. Physical calculations of resistance to water loss improve species range models: Reply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddell, Eric A; Sears, Michael W

    2017-09-13

    Christian et al. (2017) proposed several possible flaws in the methods and logic presented by Riddell et al. (2017) that included potential activity of salamanders during measurements, trimming of the agar model's legs, misinterpretations of the empirical data, limitations on agar models, and the relationship between body size and skin resistance to water loss (ri ). We argue that these criticisms are easily addressable, and here, we reinforce our original claim that the agar method for determination of resistance to water loss is flawed. Before responding to these individual critiques, we begin with a deeper criticism of the agar model method and general methodology for determining resistance to water loss that has resulted in the reification of the boundary layer's ecological and physiological importance. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Measuring breath acetone for monitoring fat loss: Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Joseph C

    2015-12-01

    Endogenous acetone production is a by-product of the fat metabolism process. Because of its small size, acetone appears in exhaled breath. Historically, endogenous acetone has been measured in exhaled breath to monitor ketosis in healthy and diabetic subjects. Recently, breath acetone concentration (BrAce) has been shown to correlate with the rate of fat loss in healthy individuals. In this review, the measurement of breath acetone in healthy subjects is evaluated for its utility in predicting fat loss and its sensitivity to changes in physiologic parameters. BrAce can range from 1 ppm in healthy non-dieting subjects to 1,250 ppm in diabetic ketoacidosis. A strong correlation exists between increased BrAce and the rate of fat loss. Multiple metabolic and respiratory factors affect the measurement of BrAce. BrAce is most affected by changes in the following factors (in descending order): dietary macronutrient composition, caloric restriction, exercise, pulmonary factors, and other assorted factors that increase fat metabolism or inhibit acetone metabolism. Pulmonary factors affecting acetone exchange in the lung should be controlled to optimize the breath sample for measurement. When biologic factors are controlled, BrAce measurement provides a non-invasive tool for monitoring the rate of fat loss in healthy subjects. © 2015 The Authors Obesity published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Obesity Society (TOS).

  1. Water economy in rodents: evaporative water loss and metabolic water production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Cortés

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies on water balance in desert-dwelling granivorous rodents use evaporative water loss (EWL and metabolic water production (MWP to evaluate the efficiency of water regulation, expressed by the model Ta @ MWP = EWL, defined by an ambient temperature (Ta value at (@ which MWP/EWL = 1. Here we evaluate and apply this model (1 - r² determining water regulation efficiency, based on the energetic cost (MR to maintain water balance (WB, that is MR-WB. To test the model, EWL was measured and MWP estimated in nine species of rodents from different localities of northern and north-central Chile (II and IV Regions: Octodon degus (Od and O. lunatus (Olu (Octodontidae, Abrothrix olivaceus (Ao, A. longipilis (Al, A. andinus (Ad, Phyllotis darwini (Pd, P. rupestris (Pr, P. magister (Pm, Oligoryzomys longicaudatus (Ol (Muridae and Chinchilla lanigera (Cl (Chinchillidae. Literature information on rodents from xeric and mesic habitats was also analyzed. Results indicate that: 1 Cl has the lowest EWL (0.58 mg H2O/g h, followed by Od Para evaluar la eficiencia en la regulación hídrica de roedores granívoros desertícolas se usa la pérdida de agua por evaporación (EWL y la producción de agua metabólica (MWP, estando esta expresada por el modelo Ta @ MWP = EWL, que representa el valor de una temperatura ambiente (Ta al cual (@ MWP/EWL = 1. En este trabajo se evalua este modelo (1- r² y se estima la eficiencia en la regulación de agua basados en el costo energético (MR de mantención del balance hídrico (WB, es decir MR-WB. Se midió EWL y se estimó MWP en las siguientes nueve especies de roedores de diferente localidades del norte y centro de Chile (Regiones II y IV: Octodon degus (Od y O. lunatus (Olu (Octodontidae, Abrothrix olivaceus (Ao, A. longipilis (Al, A. andinus (Ad, Phyllotis darwini (Pd, P. rupestris (Pr, P. magister (Pm, Oligoryzomys longicaudatus (Ol (Muridae and Chinchilla lanigera (Cl (Chinchillidae. Se analizó además información de

  2. Up to what point is loss reduction environmentally friendly?: The LCA of loss reduction scenarios in drinking water networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillot, Julie; Catel, Laureline; Renaud, Eddy; Augeard, Bénédicte; Roux, Philippe

    2016-11-01

    In a context of increasing water shortage all over the world, water utilities must minimise losses in their distribution networks and draw up water loss reduction action plans. While leak reduction is clearly an important part of sustainable water management, its impacts have to be reconsidered in a broader objective of environmental protection than strictly the avoided losses in cubic metres of water. Reducing the volume of water abstracted reduces also environmental impacts associated to water production (the operation and infrastructure needed for abstraction, treatment, supply). In the mean time, activities for reducing water losses generate their own environmental impacts, notably as a result of the work, equipment, and infrastructures used for this purpose. In this study, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) was used to assess and compare two sets of environmental impacts: those resulting from the production and supply of water which will never reach subscribers, and those caused by water loss reduction activities. This information can then be used to establish whether or not there is a point beyond which loss reduction is no longer effective in reducing the environmental impacts of drinking water supply. Results show that the improvement actions that start from a low water supply efficiency are clearly beneficial for ecosystems, human health and preservation of resources. When seeking to improve the efficiency beyond certain values (about 65%), the uncertainty makes it impossible to conclude for an environmental benefit on all impact categories.

  3. Applied photometry, radiometry, and measurements of optical losses

    CERN Document Server

    Bukshtab, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Applied Photometry, Radiometry, and Measurements of Optical Losses reviews and analyzes physical concepts of radiation transfer, providing quantitative foundation for the means of measurements of optical losses, which affect propagation and distribution of light waves in various media and in diverse optical systems and components. The comprehensive analysis of advanced methodologies for low-loss detection is outlined in comparison with the classic photometric and radiometric observations, having a broad range of techniques examined and summarized: from interferometric and calorimetric, resonator and polarization, phase-shift and ring-down decay, wavelength and frequency modulation to pulse separation and resonant, acousto-optic and emissive - subsequently compared to direct and balancing methods for studying free-space and polarization optics, fibers and waveguides. The material is focused on applying optical methods and procedures for evaluation of transparent, reflecting, scattering, absorbing, and aggregat...

  4. Human activity response and prevention strategies on soil and water loss in Sichuan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Yiping; CHEN Guojie

    2003-01-01

    Ten major factors have been selected to judge the degree of disturbance from human activity and the corresponding relationship of the impact on soil and water loss in Sichuan Province. Correlation analysis has demonstrated that stock-carrying capacity, percentage of land reclamation, population density, GDP per capita, mineral modulus and percentage of forest coverage are the 6 most relevant human activity factors. The analysis on the degree of disturbance has shown that population pressure, excessive or unreasonable activities in development of resources and destructive behavior of humans are the main causes of soil and water loss. Consequently, solving the various problems in the negative activity of humans and regulating human behavior are the first tasks that should be tackled in the conservation of water and soil. In the new era, the prevention and rectification of soil and water loss are measures based on the foundation of the ecosystem, which is a kind of management strategy for sustainable development. The foundation of this method is made up of the system innovations and breakthroughs in terms of aims, philosophy, measures, and aspects of the prevention and rectification of soil and water loss, simultaneous advance from the conceptual, policy, spatial, technical and mode levels and system integration on the treatment strategies.

  5. Evaporative water loss in man in a gravity-free environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, C. S.; Leonard, J. I.; Rambaut, P. C.; Johnson, P. C.

    1978-01-01

    Daily evaporative water losses (EWL) during the three Skylab missions were measured indirectly using mass and water-balance techniques. The mean daily values of EWL for the nine crew members who averaged 1 hr of daily exercise were: preflight 1,750 + or - 37 (SE) ml or 970 + or - 20 ml/sq m and inflight 1,560 + or - 26 ml or 860 + or - 14 ml/sq m. Although it was expected the EWL would increase in the hypobaric environment of Skylab, an average decrease from preflight sea-level conditions of 11% was measured. The results suggest that weightlessness decreased sweat losses during exercise and possibly reduced insensible skin losses. The weightlessness environment apparently promotes the formation of an observed sweat film on the skin surface during exercise by reducing convective flow and sweat drippage, resulting in high levels of skin wettedness that favor sweat suppression.

  6. Soil and water losses on citrus orchards under Mediterranean Type Ecosystems. Organic against chemical farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, A.; Bodí, M. B.; García-Orenes, F.

    2012-04-01

    Soil erosion in Mediterranean Type Ecosystems is highly dependent on the land use and land management (Cerdà et al., 2010). This is due mainly to the impact of agriculture (Cerdà et al., 2009) as a consequence of tillage and the use of herbicides. Both strategies contribute to a reduction in the vegetation cover and the soil biological activities (García-Orenes et al., 2009). The impact of soil erosion on agronomic productivity and environmental quality is widely known (Lal, 1998), although little has been researched in the Mediterranean. The impact of agriculture on soil erosion and water losses in the Mediterranean basin has been studied in olive orchards (Gómez, 2004); vineyards (Ramos and Martínez Casasnovas, 2004), citrus (Cerdà et al., 2009), cereals (De Santisteban et al., (2005), and the high erosion rates were found to be related to the land management and land use (García Ruiz, 2010). The current Mediterranean agriculture is based on tillage and herbicides, which contribute to high soil and water losses. The development of sustainable agriculture practices is a challenge for farmers, technicians and politicians. Organic farming use strategies to reduce the soil losses and develop new strategies of soil conservation. Moreover organic farming recover the soil fertility and biodiversity (Maeder et al., 2002). Organic farming is growing in the Mediterranean but little is know about his effect on soil conservation. There is a lack in the knowledge of how organic farming affect the soil properties and, there is no information on his effect on soil and water losses. This paper aims to measure the impact of organic farming on soil and water losses. 10 plots of 1 x 0,5 m were selected in a chemically managed farm in Montesa (Eastern Spain) and 10 plots in a nearby organic farming managed farm. Both of them were cultivated with citrus. The ten paired plots were monitored. After earch rainfall event the sediment and water collected were measured and analized

  7. Respiratory water loss and oxygen consumption in newborn infants during phototherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjartansson, S; Hammarlund, K; Riesenfeld, T; Sedin, G

    1992-10-01

    Respiratory water loss was measured together with oxygen consumption (VO2) and carbon dioxide production (VCO2) in 11 full-term and eight preterm infants (mean gestational age 34 weeks, range 31-36 weeks) before and during 1 h of phototherapy. The method for determination of respiratory water loss, VO2 and VCO2 was based on an open flow-through system with a mass spectrometer for measurement of gas concentrations. All infants were studied naked in an incubator with an ambient relative humidity of 50% and with a controlled environment with respect to temperature and air velocity. The infants were calm during the measurements. Before phototherapy, in term infants respiratory water loss was 4.4 (SD 0.7) mg/kg min and VO2 5.9 (0.9) ml/kg min and in preterm infants respiratory water loss was 4.7 (0.8) mg/kg min and VO2 6.1 (0.8) ml/kg min. No significant difference was found between values obtained during or after 1 h of phototherapy and those obtained before.

  8. Hearing Loss and Disability Exit: Measurement Issues and Coping Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    T. Christensen, Vibeke; V. Rasmussen, Martin; Datta Gupta, Nabanita

    Using unique representative data containing self-reported functional and clinically measured hearing ability for the Danish population aged 50-64, we estimate the effect of hearing loss on receipt of disability benefits accounting for potential endogeneity of functional hearing. Our identification...

  9. Response of water deficit regime and soil amelioration on evapotranspiration loss and water use efficiency of maize ( Zea mays l.) in subtropical northeastern Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwein, M. A.; Choudhury, B. U.; Chakraborty, D.; Kumar, M.; Das, A.; Rajkhowa, D. J.

    2017-05-01

    Rainfed maize production in the hilly ecosystem of Northeastern Himalayas often suffers from moisture and soil acidity induced abiotic stresses. The present study measured evapotranspiration loss (ETc) of maize crop under controlled condition (pot experiment) of water deficit (W25-25 % and W50-50 % of field capacity soil moistures) and well watered (W100 = 100 % of field capacity (FC)) regimes in strong acid soils (pH = 4.3) of the Northeastern Himalayan Region of India. The response of soil ameliorants (lime) and phosphorus (P) nutrition under differential water regimes on ETc losses and water use efficiency was also studied. The measured seasonal ETc loss varied from 124.3 to 270.9 mm across treatment combinations. Imposition of water deficit stress resulted in significant ( p crop ETc loss was estimated highest during 11th-14th week after sowing (coincided with blistering stage) and then declined. Water use efficiency estimated from dry matter produced per unit ETc losses and irrigation water used varied from 4.33 to 9.43 g dry matter kg-1 water and 4.21 to 8.56 g dry matter kg-1, respectively. Among the input factors (water, P, and lime), water regime most strongly influenced the ETc loss, growth duration, grain formation, and water use efficiency of maize.

  10. Measuring breath acetone for monitoring fat loss: Review

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Joseph C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Endogenous acetone production is a by‐product of the fat metabolism process. Because of its small size, acetone appears in exhaled breath. Historically, endogenous acetone has been measured in exhaled breath to monitor ketosis in healthy and diabetic subjects. Recently, breath acetone concentration (BrAce) has been shown to correlate with the rate of fat loss in healthy individuals. In this review, the measurement of breath acetone in healthy subjects is evaluated for its utility in...

  11. Collisional water transport and water-loss relevant to formation of habitable planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maindl, T. I.; Schäfer, C. M.; Haghighipour, N.; Burger, C.; Dvorak, R.

    2017-03-01

    It is widely accepted that the vast majority of Earth's water was delivered to its accretion zone by water-carrying planetesimals and planetary embryos from the outer regions of the asteroid belt while Earth was still forming. While modern simulations of terrestrial planet formation show this process with high resolution, their treatment of the actual delivery of water is still rudimentary assuming that a water-carrying object will maintain all its water content during its journey from its original orbit to the accretion zone of Earth. Models of the ice longevity have, however, shown that the water-ice may not stay intact, and asteroids and planetary embryos may lose some of their original water in form of ice sublimation during their dynamical evolution. Also, collisions among these bodies while on their journey to Earth's accretion zone will result in the loss of large amounts of their water. These effects could be especially important during the formation of terrestrial planets as this process takes tens to hundreds of millions of years. In this study, we present results on collisional water loss obtained from collision simulations involving differently sized planetary embryos. We find that in most cases of realistic collision velocities and impact angles water loss is not negligible and may change the water inventory of formed terrestrial planets considerably. Finally, we get indication that it is not sufficient to specify collisional water loss just by the collision velocity in terms of the mutual escape velocity and the impact angle. Rather, factors like mass ratio, absolute masses (Burger & Schäfer, 2017, this volume), and the objects' water distribution need to be considered.

  12. Racetrack resonator as a loss measurement platform for photonic components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Adam M; DeRose, Christopher T; Lentine, Anthony L; Starbuck, Andrew; Pomerene, Andrew T S; Norwood, Robert A

    2015-11-02

    This work represents the first complete analysis of the use of a racetrack resonator to measure the insertion loss of efficient, compact photonic components. Beginning with an in-depth analysis of potential error sources and a discussion of the calibration procedure, the technique is used to estimate the insertion loss of waveguide width tapers of varying geometry with a resulting 95% confidence interval of 0.007 dB. The work concludes with a performance comparison of the analyzed tapers with results presented for four taper profiles and three taper lengths.

  13. Black Holes, Information Loss and the Measurement Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Okon, Elias

    2016-01-01

    The information loss paradox is often presented as an unavoidable consequence of well-established physics. However, in order for a genuine paradox to ensue, not-trivial assumptions about, e.g., quantum effects on spacetime, are necessary. In this work we will be explicit about these additional, speculative assumptions required. We will also sketch a map of the available routes to tackle the issue, highlighting the, often overlooked, commitments demanded of each alternative. In particular, we will display the strong link between black holes, the issue of information loss and the measurement problem.

  14. Simulation of Irrigation Water Loss Based on VSMB Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongwen ZHOU; Luxin ZHAI; Wenxing LU; Dongxu LIU

    2016-01-01

    The low degree of development and utilization as well as the contradiction between supply and demand of water resources in Huangshui River basin are the main restricting factors of the local agricultural development. The study on the simulation of irrigation water loss based on the VSMB model has very important significance to strengthening regional water management and improving water resource utilization efficiency. Five groundwater wells were set up to carry out the farmland irrigation water infiltration and the experimental study on groundwater dynamic effect. Two soil moisture monitoring sites were set up in two typical plots of Daxia and Guanting irrigation area at the same time and TDR300 was used to monitor four kinds of deep soil moisture( 10 cm,30 cm,50 cm and 70 cm). On this basis,the VSMB model was used to study the irrigation water loss in the irrigation area of Yellow River valley of Qinghai Province,including soil moisture content,the actual evapotranspiration,infiltration,runoff,groundwater buried depth and so on. The results showed that the water consumption caused by soil evaporation and crop transpiration accounted for 46. 4% and 24. 1% of the total precipitation plus irrigation,respectively,and the leakage accounted for 30. 3% and 60. 6% of the total precipitation plus irrigation,respectively,from March 1,2013 to April 30,and from August 1 to September 30. The actual evaporation of the GT- TR1 and GT- TR2 sites in the whole year of 2013 was 632. 6 mm and 646. 9 mm,respectively,and the leakage accounted for 2. 6% and 1. 2% of the total precipitation plus irrigation,respectively. RMSE of the simulation results of the groundwater depth in Daxia irrigation area during the two periods was 92. 3 mm and 27. 7 mm,respectively. And RMSE of the simulation results of the water content of soil profile in the two monitoring sites of Guanting irrigation area was 2. 04% and 5. 81%,respectively,indicating that the simulation results were reliable.

  15. Assessment of bone loss with repeated bone mineral measurements: Application to measurements on the individual patient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahner, H.W.

    1987-02-01

    Longitudinal measurements on lumbar spine and mid-radius were made by bone absorptiometry techniques in 139 normal women. Bone mineral was measured every 6 months over an median interval of 2.1 years. The results revealed that bone loss at different skeletal sites is non-uniform with equal bone loss patterns in all patients and relatively small variations in bone loss rate between normal women. For achieving these results there is strong demand on high precision and properly spaced measuring intervals for long-term rate of loss measurements. For exclusion of progressive degenerative disease a radiographic evaluation of the spine in the beginning and at the end of the study is mandatory as compression fractures or trauma reveal bone mineral changes independent from the agerelated bone loss. These repeated bone mineral measurements are useful for monitoring and follow-up studies during different therapeutic regimens.

  16. Material loss angles from direct measurements of broadband thermal noise

    CERN Document Server

    Principe, Maria; Pierro, Vincenzo; DeSalvo, Riccardo; Taurasi, Ilaria; Villar, Akira E; Black, Eric D; Libbrecht, Kenneth G; Michel, Christophe; Morgado, Nazario; Pinard, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    We estimate the loss angles of the materials currently used in the highly reflective test-mass coatings of interferometric detectors of gravitational waves, namely Silica, Tantala, and Ti-dop ed Tantala, from direct measurement of coating thermal noise in an optical interferometer testbench, the Caltech TNI. We also present a simple predictive theory for the material properties of amorphous glassy oxide mixtures, which gives results in good agreement with our measurements on Ti-doped Tantala. Alternative measure ment methods and results are reviewed, and some critical issues are discussed.

  17. Weight loss and survival of Biomphalaria Glabrata deprived of water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Vianey-Liaud

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available Immature and mature Biomphalaria glabrata are kept out of water at relative humidities varying from 0 to 100%. When snails are submitted to a saturated atmosphere, they show a slow weight loss and survival may be long. If relative humidity (RH decreases, weight loss becomes important and survival is short. A reduced RH (0 to 65% produces similar effects. During desiccation, fasting has no noticeable effect; survival depends essentially on weight loss.Biomphalaria glabrata maduros ou imaturos são mantidos fora da água, variando a umidade de 0 a 100%. Quando caramujos são submetidos a uma atmosfera saturada, sofrem uma lenta perda de peso e a sobrevivência pode ser longa. Se a umidade relativa decresce, a perda de peso será importante e a sobrevida será abreviada. Uma umidade relativa de 0 a 65% pode produzir efeitos similares. Durante a dessecação, a privação de alimento não tem efeito notável, a sobrevivência dependendo essencialmente da perda de peso.

  18. Multi-criteria decision analysis: a strategic planning tool for water loss management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mutikanga, H.E.; Sharma, S.K.; Vairavamoorthy, K.

    2011-01-01

    Water utilities particularly in the developing countries continue to operate with considerable inefficiencies in terms of water and revenue losses. With increasing water demand and scarcity, utilities require effective strategies for optimum use of available water resources. Diverse water loss reduc

  19. Future agriculture with minimized phosphorus losses to waters: Research needs and direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpley, Andrew N; Bergström, Lars; Aronsson, Helena; Bechmann, Marianne; Bolster, Carl H; Börling, Katarina; Djodjic, Faruk; Jarvie, Helen P; Schoumans, Oscar F; Stamm, Christian; Tonderski, Karin S; Ulén, Barbro; Uusitalo, Risto; Withers, Paul J A

    2015-03-01

    The series of papers in this issue of AMBIO represent technical presentations made at the 7th International Phosphorus Workshop (IPW7), held in September, 2013 in Uppsala, Sweden. At that meeting, the 150 delegates were involved in round table discussions on major, predetermined themes facing the management of agricultural phosphorus (P) for optimum production goals with minimal water quality impairment. The six themes were (1) P management in a changing world; (2) transport pathways of P from soil to water; (3) monitoring, modeling, and communication; (4) importance of manure and agricultural production systems for P management; (5) identification of appropriate mitigation measures for reduction of P loss; and (6) implementation of mitigation strategies to reduce P loss. This paper details the major challenges and research needs that were identified for each theme and identifies a future roadmap for catchment management that cost-effectively minimizes P loss from agricultural activities.

  20. Scintillator-based fast ion loss measurements in the EAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, J. F.; Isobe, M.; Ogawa, K.; Huang, J.; Wu, C. R.; Xu, Z.; Jin, Z.; Lin, S. Y.; Hu, L. Q.

    2016-11-01

    A new scintillator-based fast ion loss detector (FILD) has been installed on Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) to investigate the fast ion loss behavior in high performance plasma with neutral beam injection (NBI) and ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH). A two dimensional 40 mm × 40 mm scintillator-coated (ZnS:Ag) stainless plate is mounted in the front of the detector, capturing the escaping fast ions. Photons from the scintillator plate are imaged with a Phantom V2010 CCD camera. The lost fast ions can be measured with the pitch angle from 60° to 120° and the gyroradius from 10 mm to 180 mm. This paper will describe the details of FILD diagnostic on EAST and describe preliminary measurements during NBI and ICRH heating.

  1. Determining Transmission Loss from Measured External and Internal Acoustic Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scogin, Tyler; Smith, A. M.

    2012-01-01

    An estimate of the internal acoustic environment in each internal cavity of a launch vehicle is needed to ensure survivability of Space Launch System (SLS) avionics. Currently, this is achieved by using the noise reduction database of heritage flight vehicles such as the Space Shuttle and Saturn V for liftoff and ascent flight conditions. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is conducting a series of transmission loss tests to verify and augment this method. For this test setup, an aluminum orthogrid curved panel representing 1/8th of the circumference of a section of the SLS main structure was mounted in between a reverberation chamber and an anechoic chamber. Transmission loss was measured across the panel using microphones. Data measured during this test will be used to estimate the internal acoustic environments for several of the SLS launch vehicle internal spaces.

  2. Diet change and food loss reduction: What is their combined impact on global water use and scarcity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalava, Mika; Guillaume, Joseph H. A.; Kummu, Matti; Porkka, Miina; Siebert, Stefan; Varis, Olli

    2016-03-01

    There is a pressing need to improve food security and reduce environmental impacts of agricultural production globally. Two of the proposed measures are diet change from animal-based to plant-based foodstuffs and reduction of food losses and waste. These two measures are linked, as diet change affects production and consumption of foodstuffs and consequently loss processes through their different water footprints and loss percentages. This paper takes this link into account for the first time and provides an assessment of the combined potential contribution of diet change and food loss reduction for reducing water footprints and water scarcity. We apply scenarios in which we change diets to follow basic dietary recommendations, limit animal-based protein intake to 25% of total protein intake, and halve food losses to study single and combined effects of diet change and loss reduction. Dietary recommendations alone would achieve 6% and 7% reductions of blue and green water consumption, respectively, while changing diets to contain less animal products would result in savings of 11% and 18%, respectively. Halving food loss would alone achieve 12% reductions for both blue and green water. Combining the measures would reduce water consumption by 23% and 28%, respectively, lowering water scarcity in areas with a population of over 600 million. At a global scale, effects of diet change and loss reduction were synergistic with loss reductions being more effective under changed diet. This demonstrates the importance of considering the link between diet change and loss reduction in assessments of food security and resource use.

  3. Analysis of a small break loss-of-coolant accident of pressurized water reactor by APROS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Falahi, A. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland); Haennine, M. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Porkholm, K. [IVO International, Ltd., Vantaa (Finland)

    1995-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the capability of APROS (Advanced PROcess Simulator) code to simulate the real plant thermal-hydraulic transient of a Small Break Loss-Of-Coolant Accident (SBLOCA) of Loss-Of-Fluid Test (LOFT) facility. The LOFT is a scaled model of a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). This work is a part of a larger validation of the APROS thermal-hydraulic models. The results of SBLOCA transient calculated by APROS showed a reasonable agreement with the measured data.

  4. Water balance and soil losses in an irrigated catchment under conservation tillage in Southern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cid, Patricio; Mateos, Luciano; Taguas, Encarnación V.; Gómez-Macpherson, Helena

    2013-04-01

    Conservation tillage based on permanent beds with crop-residue retention and controlled traffic has been recently introduced in irrigated annual crops in Southern Spain as one way to improve water infiltration, reduce soil losses, and save energy. The water balance and soil losses in water runoff have been monitored during 4 years in a 28-ha catchment within a production farm where this kind of soil conservation practice was established in 2004 for a maize-cotton-wheat rotation. The catchment average slope is 6 %. Soils are Typic Calcixerept and Typic Haploxerert. The water balance components that were measured include: applied irrigation water, rainfall, and runoff. Runoff was measured at the outlet of the catchment by means of a hydrological station that consisted of long-throated flume, ultrasonic water level sensor, automatic water sampler, data logger and transmission system, weather station, and ancillary equipment. We present here results from three hydrological seasons (October to September): 2009-10, 2010-11, and 2011-12. The first season the catchment was grown with wheat, thus the irrigation depth was small (25 mm); rainfall above average, 1103 mm; and the runoff coefficient was 26 %. In the season 2010-11, the catchment was grown with cotton, the irrigation depth was 503 mm, rainfall was 999 mm, and the seasonal runoff coefficient was 7 %. The last season, the crop was maize, rainfall was below average (368 mm), irrigation 590 mm, and the runoff coefficient as the previous year, 7 %. Soil losses were very small: 0.05, 1.26, and 1.33 t per ha and year, the first, second, and third monitored seasons, respectively. A simple water balance model allowed simulating evapotranspiration, deep percolation and runoff. The Curve Number for the catchment was calibrated using the balance model.

  5. The 2014 water release into the arid Colorado River delta and associated water losses by evaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daesslé, L.W., E-mail: walter@uabc.edu.mx [Instituto de Investigaciones Oceanológicas, Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, CarreteraTranspeninsular Tijuana-Ensenada No. 3917, Fraccionamiento Playitas, CP 22860 Ensenada, Baja California (Mexico); Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nuremberg (FAU), Department of Geography and Geosciences, GeoZentrum Nordbayern, Schlossgarten 5, 91054 Erlangen (Germany); Geldern, R. van [Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nuremberg (FAU), Department of Geography and Geosciences, GeoZentrum Nordbayern, Schlossgarten 5, 91054 Erlangen (Germany); Orozco-Durán, A. [Instituto de Investigaciones Oceanológicas, Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, CarreteraTranspeninsular Tijuana-Ensenada No. 3917, Fraccionamiento Playitas, CP 22860 Ensenada, Baja California (Mexico); Barth, J.A.C. [Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nuremberg (FAU), Department of Geography and Geosciences, GeoZentrum Nordbayern, Schlossgarten 5, 91054 Erlangen (Germany)

    2016-01-15

    For the first time in history, water was intentionally released for environmental purposes into the final, otherwise dry, 160-km stretch of the Colorado River basin, south of the Mexican border. Between March and May 2014 three pulses of water with a total volume of 132 × 10{sup 6} m{sup 3} were released to assess the restoration potential of endemic flora along its course and to reach its estuary. The latter had not received a sustained input of fresh water and nutrients from its main fluvial source for over 50 years because of numerous upstream dam constructions. During this pulse flow large amounts of water were lost and negligible amounts reached the ocean. While some of these water losses can be attributed to plant uptake and infiltration, we were able to quantify evaporation losses between 16.1 to 17.3% of the original water mass % within the first 80 km after the Morels Dam with water stable isotope data. Our results showed no evidence for freshwater reaching the upper Colorado River estuary and it is assumed that the pulse flow had only negligible influences on the coastal ecosystem. Future water releases that aim on ecological restoration need to become more frequent and should have larger volumes if more significant effects are to be established on the area. - Highlights: • Isotope ratios of oxygen and hydrogen quantify water lost through evaporation. • Evaporation losses between 16.1 and 17.3% during the 2014 Colorado River • Larger water volumes are required to influence the estuary ecosystem.

  6. Aserpiado - an ancient water conservation measure revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duifhuizen, Wolfgang; Baartman, Jantiene EM; Guzman, Gema; Gomez, Jose A.

    2017-04-01

    In Andalucía, southern Spain, farmers have been applying a water conservation measure in vineyards called 'Aserpiado' (plural: Aserpias) for centuries. This measure consists of creating multiple micro-depressions within a field in either all or in every second inter vines rows, using a tillage tool. The main objective of implementing aserpiado is to let water infiltrate on-site, thereby increasing soil moisture and plant available water, and decreasing runoff and associated losses of water and soil. Even though this system has traditionally been used in dryland areas, the functioning and efficiency of the system are still not well known. This study aimed at investigating the functioning of the aserpiado system at hillslope scale in a commercial vineyard belonging to the Appellation of Origin Montilla-Moriles in Córdoba. For this purpose, rainfall simulations at micro-plot scale and infiltration tests were performed in the field at different positions of the hillslope to determine the runoff coefficient of the untreated rows and the infiltration rate at the aserpias, respectively. These trials were complemented with a detailed description of the soil profile and aserpias and a sampling survey to describe and characterize some soil properties, relevant for this study. Preliminary results and field observations indicate that high-intensity rainstorms cause high runoff coefficients in the untreated rows. Further analysis of the data obtained from the different trials would quantify the degree in which aserpias, if well made, would be able to decrease hortonian runoff in vineyards. As this study is ongoing, more detailed results will be presented on the poster.

  7. The 2014 water release into the arid Colorado River delta and associated water losses by evaporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daesslé, L W; van Geldern, R; Orozco-Durán, A; Barth, J A C

    2016-01-15

    For the first time in history, water was intentionally released for environmental purposes into the final, otherwise dry, 160-km stretch of the Colorado River basin, south of the Mexican border. Between March and May 2014 three pulses of water with a total volume of 132×10(6) m(3) were released to assess the restoration potential of endemic flora along its course and to reach its estuary. The latter had not received a sustained input of fresh water and nutrients from its main fluvial source for over 50 years because of numerous upstream dam constructions. During this pulse flow large amounts of water were lost and negligible amounts reached the ocean. While some of these water losses can be attributed to plant uptake and infiltration, we were able to quantify evaporation losses between 16.1 to 17.3% of the original water mass % within the first 80 km after the Morels Dam with water stable isotope data. Our results showed no evidence for freshwater reaching the upper Colorado River estuary and it is assumed that the pulse flow had only negligible influences on the coastal ecosystem. Future water releases that aim on ecological restoration need to become more frequent and should have larger volumes if more significant effects are to be established on the area.

  8. Regulation of transpirational water loss in Quercus suber trees in a Mediterranean-type ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otieno, D O; Schmidt, M W T; Kurz-Besson, C; Lobo Do Vale, R; Pereira, J S; Tenhunen, J D

    2007-08-01

    Sap flux density in branches, leaf transpiration, stomatal conductance and leaf water potentials were measured in 16-year-old Quercus suber L. trees growing in a plantation in southern Portugal to understand how evergreen Mediterranean trees regulate water loss during summer drought. Leaf specific hydraulic conductance and leaf gas exchange were monitored during the progressive summer drought to establish how changes along the hydraulic pathway influence shoot responses. As soil water became limiting, leaf water potential, stomatal conductance and leaf transpiration declined significantly. Predawn leaf water potential reflected soil water potential measured at 1-m depth in the rhizospheres of most trees. The lowest predawn leaf water potential recorded during this period was -1.8 MPa. Mean maximum stomatal conductance declined from 300 to 50 mmol m(-2) s(-1), reducing transpiration from 6 to 2 mmol m(-2) s(-1). Changes in leaf gas exchange were attributed to reduced soil water availability, increased resistances along the hydraulic pathway and, hence, reduced leaf water supply. There was a strong coupling between changes in soil water content and stomatal conductance as well as between stomatal conductance and leaf specific hydraulic conductance. Despite significant seasonal differences among trees in predawn leaf water potential, stomatal conductance, leaf transpiration and leaf specific hydraulic conductance, there were no differences in midday leaf water potentials. The strong regulation of changes in leaf water potential in Q. suber both diurnally and seasonally is achieved through stomatal closure, which is sensitive to changes in both liquid and vapor phase conductance. This sensitivity allows for optimization of carbon and water resource use without compromising the root-shoot hydraulic link.

  9. Effectiveness of LANAP over time as measured by tooth loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilt, Lloyd V

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of the laser-assisted new attachment procedure (LANAP) as measured by tooth loss, comparing data to published studies using conventional surgical treatment modalities for the primary treatment of Types III and IV periodontitis. Retrospective data from 107 patients presenting with Types III and IV periodontitis were gathered and evaluated. All patients received LANAP periodontal therapy as their primary surgical treatment according to the FDA-cleared LANAP protocol. The patients averaged 6.2 years post-treatment. The data were compared to several published studies for outcome classification and tooth loss over time. The effectiveness of LANAP as a primary treatment method for Types III and IV periodontitis compares very favorably with conventional surgical treatment modalities concerning tooth loss and stability over time, need for surgical retreatment, and outcome classification. Dentistry continues to develop less invasive means of providing patient care without sacrificing results. Less invasive treatment of periodontitis, with reduced postoperative morbidity yet equal results in tooth retention over time is an important goal. LANAP treatment for moderate and advanced periodontitis provides a less invasive treatment alternative for the dentist and patient to consider as a part of informed consent.

  10. Hydrological responses in water loss due to thinning of forested watersheds in Japan using the short-term water balance method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, K.; Gomi, T.; Hiraoka, M.; Sato, T.; Onda, Y.

    2015-12-01

    We examined the changes in seasonal patterns of catchment-scale evapotranspiration (i.e., water loss) using Short-Term Water Balance Model (STWBM) developed. STWBM is applied to estimate the value of water loss based on precipitation minus discharge volume during short-periods(8 to 80 days). This method can be applicable for examining seasonal characteristics of water loss that relets to ET. We applied STWBM for investigating the effects of 50% thinning in nested headwater catchments draining Japanese cypress (Cryptomeria japonica) and cedar (Chamaecyparis obtusa) forests. Study areas is located to 70 km north of Tokyo with 1250 mm annual precipitation and 14℃ mean annual temperature. 50% of the stems (46% of timber volume) were removed by strip thinning in 17 ha treatment catchment, 9 ha catchment remained untreated as a control. We installed 4 nested gauging stations in treated and control catchments with 3 to 10 ha of drainage areas. Runoff in each nested gauging station was measured in the pre- (from April, 2010 to June 2011) and the post-thinning periods (from January 2012 to December 2012). Total runoff coefficient in treated and control catchment was 54% and 26%, respectively. , . Estimated annual water loss by STWBM was 585 mm in treated and 969 mm in control catchments. Because annual evapotranspiration of Japanese cypress and cedar was about ranging from 400 to 800 mm in this catchment, our estimated water loss mostly associated with ET and partially by water loss by deep bedrock percolation. Estimated water loss after thinning in growth season (May to October) decreased 45 to 60 (in 2012) % and 51 to 60 (in 2013) % for all nested gauging station, while estimated water loss in control catchment was consistent. This result suggested that 50% of thinning decreased water loss by ET but changes can be varied among nested gauging station.

  11. Hearing Loss and Disability Exit: Measurement Issues and Coping Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    T. Christensen, Vibeke; V. Rasmussen, Martin; Datta Gupta, Nabanita

    Using unique representative data containing self-reported functional and clinically measured hearing ability for the Danish population aged 50-64, we estimate the effect of hearing loss on receipt of disability benefits accounting for potential endogeneity of functional hearing. Our identification...... strategy involves simultaneous estimation of labor supply, functional hearing and coping strategies i.e. using assistive devices at work or informing one’s employer about the problem. We find that functional hearing disability significantly increases the likelihood of receiving disability benefits for both...

  12. Towards a smart non-invasive fluid loss measurement system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryadevara, N K; Mukhopadhyay, S C; Barrack, L

    2015-04-01

    In this article, a smart wireless sensing non-invasive system for estimating the amount of fluid loss, a person experiences while physical activity is presented. The system measures three external body parameters, Heart Rate, Galvanic Skin Response (GSR, or skin conductance), and Skin Temperature. These three parameters are entered into an empirically derived formula along with the user's body mass index, and estimation for the amount of fluid lost is determined. The core benefit of the developed system is the affluence usage in combining with smart home monitoring systems to care elderly people in ambient assisted living environments as well in automobiles to monitor the body parameters of a motorist.

  13. Energy-loss measurement with the ZEUS Central Tracking Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartsch, D.

    2007-05-15

    The measurement of the specific energy loss due to ionisation, dE/dx, in a drift chamber is a very important tool for particle identification in final states of reactions between high energetic particles. Such identification requires a well understood dE/dx measurement including a precise knowledge of its uncertainties. Exploiting for the first time the full set of ZEUS data from the HERA operation between 1996 and 2005 twelve detector-related influences affecting the dE/dx measurement of the ZEUS Central Tracking Detector have been identified, separately studied and parameterised. A sophisticated iterative procedure has been developed to correct for these twelve effects, which takes into account the correlations between them. A universal parameterisation of the detector-specific Bethe-Bloch curve valid for all particle species has been extracted. In addition, the various contributions to the measurement uncertainty have been disentangled and determined. This yields the best achievable prediction for the single-track dE/dx resolution. For both the analysis of the measured data and the simulation of detector performance, the detailed understanding of the measurement and resolution of dE/dx gained in this work provides a tool with optimum power for particle identification in a physics studies. (orig.)

  14. Error Analysis of High Frequency Core Loss Measurement for Low-Permeability Low-Loss Magnetic Cores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niroumand, Farideh Javidi; Nymand, Morten

    2016-01-01

    in magnetic cores is B-H loop measurement where two windings are placed on the core under test. However, this method is highly vulnerable to phase shift error, especially for low-permeability, low-loss cores. Due to soft saturation and very low core loss, low-permeability low-loss magnetic cores are favorable....... The analysis has been validated by experimental measurements for relatively low-loss magnetic cores with different permeability values.......Magnetic components significantly contribute to the dissipated loss in power electronic converters. Measuring the true value of dissipated power in these components is highly desirable, since it can be used to verify the optimum design of these components. The common approach for measuring the loss...

  15. Building penetration loss measurements for DAB signals at 211 MHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, J. A.

    Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB) is being considered as a future method of transmitting radio programs to the public. Some of the advantages of DAB over conventional Frequency Modulation (FM) include its resistance to multipath and its ruggedness in the presence of interference. Because of these qualities it is ideally suited for reception by mobile and portable receivers. It is proposed that a DAB service will be planned to be effective for use by fixed, portable, and mobile receivers. But many problems have to be overcome, to allow accurate planning of suitable transmitter sites and powers, if the desired coverage is to be obtained economically. This Report gives the results of one aspect of this work, namely the signal level received within a building compared to the level received outside. This is generally termed building penetration loss. Several different frequency bands are being considered for DAB transmission in the UK. The work reported concentrates on one of the proposed bands: Band III. The two broad aims of the work were: (1) by measuring the field strength both inside and outside buildings, determine a Building Penetration Loss figure; and (2) using first generation prototype Coded Orthogonal Frequency Division Modulation (COFDM) equipment, find the relationship between field strength and some particular values of Bit Error Ratio (BER). A mean building penetration loss of approximately 8 dB was measured for the whole of the ground floor of brick-built houses. Using first generation prototype DAB transmitting and receiving equipment, in the absence of interference, a field strength of the order of 39 dB (microV/m) will provide the receiver with an adequate signal. Further work is essential to quantify the lower limit of felt strength in which a trial specification receiver will work. There is a potential saving of up to 5 dB on transmitter powers, depending on the particular levels of ambient man-made noise.

  16. Thermal stratification in a hot water tank established by heat loss from the tank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Jianhua; Furbo, Simon

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents numerical investigations of thermal stratification in a vertical cylindrical hot water tank established by standby heat loss from the tank. The transient fluid flow and heat transfer in the tank during cooling caused by standby heat loss are calculated by means of validated...... computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models. The measured heat loss coefficient for the different parts of the tank is used as input to the CFD model. Parametric studies are carried out using the validated models to investigate the influence on thermal stratification of the tank by the downward flow...... and the corresponding upward flow in the central parts of the tank. Tank design parameters such as tank volume, height to diameter ratio and insulation and different initial conditions of the tank are investigated.It is elucidated how thermal stratification in the tank is influenced by the natural convection and how...

  17. PERBEDAAN SKIN CAPACITANCE DAN TRANSEPIDERMAL WATER LOSS PADA KULIT NON-LESI PASIEN PITIRIASIS VERSIKOLOR DENGAN NON-PITIRIASIS VERSIKOLOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satya Wydya Yenny

    2008-09-01

    . Pityriasis versicolor subjects and non-pityriasis versicolor subjects were matched in age and sex. The study was done in September until November 2004, at Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital. The measurement of the skin capacitance and transepidermal water loss were done on the back at the non-PV area, using Tewameter/Corneometer 350.During that periode there were 32 pityriasis versicolor and 32 healthy non-pityriasis versicolor subjects. No significant differences was observed for skin capacitance of pityriasis versicolor and healthy non-pityriasis versicolor skin (p = 0.730. The transepidermal water loss of PV skin is significantly lower than in the healthy non-pityriasis versicolor skin (p=0.000.There was no differences between skin capacitance of pityriasis versicolor and healthy non-pityriasis versicolor skin, but the transepidermal water loss of pityriasis versicolor skin was significantly. lower than non-pityriasis versicolor.Keywords: pityriasis versicolor, skin capacitance, transepidermal water loss

  18. Heat Transmission Coefficient Measurements in Buildings Utilizing a Heat Loss Measuring Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lars Schiøtt

    2013-01-01

    to optimize the energy performance. This paper presents a method for measuring the heat loss by utilizing a U-value meter. The U-value meter measures the heat transfer in the unit W/Km2 and has been used in several projects to upgrade the energy performance in temperate regions. The U-value meter was also...... and mechanical ventilation in the “warm countries” contribute to an enormous energy consumption and corresponding CO2 emission. In order to establish the best basis for upgrading the energy performance, it is important to make measurements of the heat losses at different places on a building facade, in order...

  19. Systems Measures of Water Distribution System Resilience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klise, Katherine A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Murray, Regan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Walker, La Tonya Nicole [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Resilience is a concept that is being used increasingly to refer to the capacity of infrastructure systems to be prepared for and able to respond effectively and rapidly to hazardous events. In Section 2 of this report, drinking water hazards, resilience literature, and available resilience tools are presented. Broader definitions, attributes and methods for measuring resilience are presented in Section 3. In Section 4, quantitative systems performance measures for water distribution systems are presented. Finally, in Section 5, the performance measures and their relevance to measuring the resilience of water systems to hazards is discussed along with needed improvements to water distribution system modeling tools.

  20. Simulation with Ideal Switch Models Combined with Measured Loss Data Provides a Good Estimate of Power Loss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    StigMunk-Nielsen; Lucian; N; Tutelea; Ulrik; Jager

    2007-01-01

    Ideally, converter losses should be determined without using an excessive amount of simulation time. State-of-the-art power semiconductor models provide good accuracy,unfortunately they often require a very long simulation time. This paper describes how to estimate power losses from simulation using ideal switches combined with measured power loss data. The semiconductor behavior is put into a look-up table,which replaces the advanced semiconductor models and shortens the simulation time.To extract switching and conduction losses, a converter is simulated and the semiconductor power losses are estimated. Measurement results on a laboratory converter are compared with the estimated losses and a good agreement is shown. Using the ideal switch simulation and the post processing power estimation program,a ten to twenty fold increase in simulation speed is obtained,compared to simulations using advanced models of semiconductors.

  1. Soil tillage, water erosion, and calcium, magnesium and organic carbon losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertol Ildegardis

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil tillage influences water erosion, and consequently, losses of calcium, magnesium and organic carbon in surface runoff. Nutrients and organic carbon are transported by surface runoff in particulate form, adsorbed to soil colloids or soluble in water, depending on the soil tillage system. This study was carried out on an Inceptisol, representative of the Santa Catarina highlands, southern Brazil, between November 1999 and October 2001, under natural rainfall. The soil tillage treatments (no replications were: no-tillage (NT, minimum soil tillage with chiseling + disking (MT, and conventional soil tillage with plowing + two diskings (CT. The crop cycles sequence was soybean (Glycine max, oats (Avena sativa, beans (Phaseolus vulgaris and vetch (Vicia sativa. Conventional soil tillage treatment with plowing + two disking in the absence of crops (BS was also studied. Calcium and magnesium concentrations were determined in both water and sediments of the surface runoff, while organic carbon was measured only in sediments. Calcium and magnesium concentrations were greater in sediments than in surface runoff, while total losses of these elements were greater in surface runoff than in sediments. The greatest calcium and magnesium concentrations in surface runoff were obtained under CT, while in sediments the greatest concentration occurred under MT. Organic carbon concentration in sediments did not differ under the different soil tillage systems, and the greatest total loss was under CT system.

  2. Radiometry of water turbidity measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccluney, W. R.

    1974-01-01

    An examination of a number of measurements of turbidity reported in the literature reveals considerable variability in the definitions, units, and measurement techniques used. Many of these measurements differ radically in the optical quantity measured. The radiometric basis of each of the most common definitions of turbidity is examined. Several commercially available turbidimeters are described and their principles of operation are evaluated radiometrically. It is recommended that the term turbidity be restricted to measurements based upon the light scattered by the sample with that scattered by standard suspensions of known turbidity. It is also recommended that the measurement procedure be standardized by requiring the use of Formazin as the turbidity standardizing material and that the Formazin Turbidity Unit (FTU) be adopted as the standard unit of turbidity.

  3. Reducing water loss in a water supply system using a district metering area (DMA: A case study of the Provincial Waterworks Authority (PWA, Lop Buri Branch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thee Jitong

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Water loss from broken or leaking pipe networks is still a major water management problem for the Provincial Waterworks Authority (PWA in Thailand. To reduce this loss and benefit from the savings, a district metering area (DMA was applied as a management measure to control leaking water losses at the PWA Lop Buri Branch. The DMA was divided into 8 zones, covering about 60.47 % of the total service area. A surveillance system was set up that compared the observed flow rates and the upper limit of warning values for each DMA. Comparison of results before and after implementation of the DMA showed that rate of water loss decreased from 34.55 to 30.87 %. To further reduce these losses, sensitive warning values based on seasonal and daily patterns of water consumption were defined and implemented with an increased number of DMAs covering the entire service area. Financial analysis confirmed that the DMA measures are worth the investment because they significantly reduce the operational costs for water production.

  4. Intercomparison on measurement of water vapour permeability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    Three different materials are tested - hard woodfibre board - damp proof course - underlay for roofing The water vapour permeability has been measured according to EN ISO 12572 (2001).......Three different materials are tested - hard woodfibre board - damp proof course - underlay for roofing The water vapour permeability has been measured according to EN ISO 12572 (2001)....

  5. Measurement of the permittivity and loss of high-loss materials using a Near-Field Scanning Microwave Microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory, A.P.; Blackburn, J.F.; Lees, K.; Clarke, R.N. [National Physical Laboratory (NPL) (United Kingdom); Hodgetts, T.E. [Consultant to NPL (United Kingdom); Hanham, S.M.; Klein, N. [Imperial College London (United Kingdom)

    2016-02-15

    In this paper improvements to a Near-Field Scanning Microwave Microscope (NSMM) are presented that allow the loss of high loss dielectric materials to be measured accurately at microwave frequencies. This is demonstrated by measuring polar liquids (loss tangent tanδ≈1) for which traceable data is available. The instrument described uses a wire probe that is electromagnetically coupled to a resonant cavity. An optical beam deflection system is incorporated within the instrument to allow contact mode between samples and the probe tip to be obtained. Liquids are contained in a measurement cell with a window of ultrathin glass. The calibration process for the microscope, which is based on image-charge electrostatic models, has been adapted to use the Laplacian ‘complex frequency’. Measurements of the loss tangent of polar liquids that are consistent with reference data were obtained following calibration against single-crystal specimens that have very low loss. - Highlights: • Design of a microwave microscope with resolution on the micron scale. • Improved theory for obtaining permittivity and loss tangent of high loss materials. • Polar reference liquids are used as test samples. • Traceable measurements with accuracy approximately ±10% in ε′ and ±20% in tan δ.

  6. Regional heat loss in resting man during immersion in 25.2 degrees C water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, C E; Dacanay, S; Smith, R M

    1979-06-01

    Five male subjects having a wide range of relative body fat, 9.2-20.2%, were studied during total body immersion in water at 25.2 degrees C. The regional surface area of each subject was calculated from anthropometric data utilizing a segmental geometric model. Skin temperatures (Tsk) and regional skin heat loss were measured prior to and during 30 min immersion at 13 sites. During immersion, mean Tsk was 25.9 degrees C and remained significantly higher than the water temperature. A measurable temperature gradient for heat flow was observed from all body segments. Segimental temperature in water ranged from 26.7-25.4 degrees C, being warmest at the neck and coolest at the foot. Heat the flow per regional area was highest in the neck, 187 W/m2, and least at the foot, 12 W/m2. Heat flow from each body region was dependent on regional Tsk. Skinfold thickness was a minor factor in altering regional heat flow in the foot, hand, lower arm, upper arm, thigh, and calf; in the torso, neck, and head regions it was of major importance in detering heat loss.

  7. Water Loss Management: Tools and Methods for Developing Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mutikanga, H.E.

    2012-01-01

    Water utilities in developing countries are struggling to provide customers with a reliable level of service due to their peculiar water distribution characteristics including poorly zoned networks with irregular supply operating under restricted budgets. These unique conditions demand unique tools

  8. Relative specificities of water and ammonia losses from backbone fragments in collision-activated dissociation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savitski, Mikhail M; Kjeldsen, Frank; Nielsen, Michael L

    2007-01-01

    Analysis of a database containing over 20,000 high-resolution collision-activation mass spectra of tryptic peptide dications was employed to study the relative specificity of neutral losses from backbone fragments. The high resolution of the FTMS instrument allowed for the first time the first...... isotope of the water loss and the monoisotope of the ammonia loss to be distinguished. Contrary to a popular belief, water losses from y' ions are not specific enough to rely upon for detecting the presence of amino acids with oxygen in the side chains. At the same time, ammonia loss from b ions...

  9. Loss-tolerant measurement-device-independent quantum private queries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liang-Yuan; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Chen, Wei; Qian, Yong-Jun; Zhang, Chun-Mei; Guo, Guang-Can; Han, Zheng-Fu

    2017-01-01

    Quantum private queries (QPQ) is an important cryptography protocol aiming to protect both the user’s and database’s privacy when the database is queried privately. Recently, a variety of practical QPQ protocols based on quantum key distribution (QKD) have been proposed. However, for QKD-based QPQ the user’s imperfect detectors can be subjected to some detector- side-channel attacks launched by the dishonest owner of the database. Here, we present a simple example that shows how the detector-blinding attack can damage the security of QKD-based QPQ completely. To remove all the known and unknown detector side channels, we propose a solution of measurement-device-independent QPQ (MDI-QPQ) with single- photon sources. The security of the proposed protocol has been analyzed under some typical attacks. Moreover, we prove that its security is completely loss independent. The results show that practical QPQ will remain the same degree of privacy as before even with seriously uncharacterized detectors.

  10. Cutaneous and respiratory water loss in larks from arid and mesic environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tieleman, BI; Williams, JB

    2002-01-01

    Birds from deserts generally have lower total evaporative water loss (TEWL), the sum of cutaneous (CWL) and respiratory water loss (RWL), than species from mesic areas. We investigated the role of CWL and RWL as a function of air temperature (T-a) in hoopoe larks (Alaemon alaudipes) and Dunn's larks

  11. Cutaneous and respiratory water loss in larks from arid and mesic environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tieleman, BI; Williams, JB

    2003-01-01

    Birds from deserts generally have lower total evaporative water loss (TEWL), the sum of cutaneous (CWL) and respiratory water loss (RWL), than species from mesic areas. We investigated the role of CWL and RWL as a function of air temperature (T-a) in hoopoe larks (Alaemon alaudipes) and Dunn's larks

  12. Loss aversion under prospect theory: A parameter-free measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Abdellaoui (Mohammed); H. Bleichrodt (Han); C. Paraschiv (Corina)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractA growing body of qualitative evidence shows that loss aversion, a phenomenon formalized in prospect theory, can explain a variety of field and experimental data. Quantifications of loss aversion are, however, hindered by the absence of a general preference-based method to elicit the uti

  13. Loss Aversion under Prospect Theory: a Parameter-Free Measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Bleichrodt (Han); M. Abdellaoui (Mohammed); C. Paraschiv (Corina)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractA growing body of qualitative evidence shows that loss aversion, a phenomenon formalized in prospect theory, can explain a variety of field and experimental data. Quantifications of loss aversion are, however, hindered by the absence of a general preference-based method to elicit the uti

  14. Loss Aversion under Prospect Theory: a Parameter-Free Measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Bleichrodt (Han); M. Abdellaoui (Mohammed); C. Paraschiv (Corina)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractA growing body of qualitative evidence shows that loss aversion, a phenomenon formalized in prospect theory, can explain a variety of field and experimental data. Quantifications of loss aversion are, however, hindered by the absence of a general preference-based method to elicit the

  15. Loss aversion under prospect theory: A parameter-free measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Abdellaoui (Mohammed); H. Bleichrodt (Han); C. Paraschiv (Corina)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractA growing body of qualitative evidence shows that loss aversion, a phenomenon formalized in prospect theory, can explain a variety of field and experimental data. Quantifications of loss aversion are, however, hindered by the absence of a general preference-based method to elicit the

  16. Effects of Material Choice on Biocide Loss in Orion Water Storage Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, William T.; Castro-Wallace, Sarah L.; Kuo, C. K. Mike; Loh, Leslie J.; Hudson, Edgar; Gazda, Daniel B.; Lewis, John F.

    2016-01-01

    When preparing for long-duration spaceflight missions, maintaining a safe supply of potable water is of the utmost importance. A major risk factor, potentially jeopardizing the safety of the water supply, is the presense of microorganisms. Historically, the challenge of controlling microbial proliferation has been addressed through the maintenance of residual biocide levels. While chemical biocides are effective, their use requires carefeul consideration towards materials selection for the water storage containers, as surface reactions can reduce biocide concentrations below their effective range. In the water storage system baselined for the Orion vehicle, the primary wetted materials are passivated stainless steel (316 L) and a titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V). Previous testing with these materials has shown that the biocide selected for use in the system, ionic silver, will plate out rapidly upon initial wetting. One potential approach for maintaining an adequate biocide concentration is to spike the water supply with high levels of biocide in an attempt to passivate the surface. To evaluate this hypothesis, samples of the wetted materials were tested individually and together to determine the relative loss of biocide under representative surface area-to-volume ratios after 24 hours. Additionally, we have analyzed the efficacy of disinfecting a system containing these materials by measuring reductions in bacterial counts in the same test conditions. Preliminary results indicate that the use of titanium alloy, either individually or in combination with stainless steel, can result in over 95% loss of biocide, while less than 5% is lost when using stainless steel. In bacterial testing, viable organisms were recovered from samples exposed to the titanium coupons after 24 hours. By comparison, no organisms were recovered from the test vessels containing only stainless steel. These results indicate that titanium alloys, while possessing some favorable attributes, may pose

  17. Measuring your water footprint: What's next in water strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2008-01-01

    By now, carbon neutrality is such a catchphrase in the world of responsible business, it’s impossible to ignore the carbon footprint of a new product or service. But with the exception of a few companies like Coca-Cola, Nestlé and Suez, the concept of water neutrality, or measuring your water footpr

  18. SUPERFUND GROUND WATER ISSUE - ACCURACY OF DEPTH TO WATER MEASUREMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accuracy of depth to water measurements is an issue identified by the Forum as a concern of Superfund decision-makers as they attempt to determine directions of ground-water flow, areas of recharge of discharge, the hydraulic characteristics of aquifers, or the effects of manmade...

  19. Components of evaporative water loss in the desert tenebrionid beetles, Eleodes armata and Cryptoglossa verrucosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, P.D.

    1981-01-01

    Water loss in Eleodes armata and Cryptoglossa verrucosa increased with increasing temperature and decreasing vapor activity (a/sub v/). Rates of evaporative water loss were always about 4 times greater in E. armata than in C. verrucosa at the different temperatures and 0.0 a/sub v/, while as a/sub v/ increased the ratio of E. armata loss to C. verrucosa decreased from 4 at 0.0 a/sub v/ to about 2 at 0.94 a/sub v/. A method for determining mesothoracic spiracular, sub-elytral abdominal, and cuticular water loss rates was described and validated for living E. armata. Sub-elytral abdominal water loss through the caudal opening was 8.0 mg H/sub 2/O (g.d)/sup -1/, meso-thoracic spiracular water loss was approximately 7.9 mg H/sub 2/O (g.d)/sup -1/, and cuticular loss was 26.2 mg H/sub 2/O (g.d)/sup -1/ at 30 C and 0.0 a/sub v/. Evaporative water loss was shown to have two unidirectional components, efflux and influx, for both beetles with the use of tritiated water (H/sup 3/HO). Efflux was independent of a/sub v/, while influx increased linearly with a/sub v/, with both components having lower rates in C. verrucosa compared to E. armata.

  20. 49 CFR 1005.7 - Weight as a measure of loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Weight as a measure of loss. 1005.7 Section 1005.7... VOLUNTARY DISPOSITION OF LOSS AND DAMAGE CLAIMS AND PROCESSING SALVAGE § 1005.7 Weight as a measure of loss. Where weight is used as a measure of loss in rail transit of scrap iron and steel and actual tare...

  1. Effects of water vapor density on cutaneous resistance to evaporative water loss and body temperature in green tree frogs (Hyla cinerea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wygoda, Mark L; Kersten, Constance A

    2013-01-01

    Increased cutaneous resistance to evaporative water loss (Rc) in tree frogs results in decreased water loss rate and increased body temperature. We examined sensitivity of Rc to water vapor density (WVD) in Hyla cinerea by exposing individual frogs and agar models to four different WVD environments and measuring cutaneous evaporative water loss rate and body temperature simultaneously using a gravimetric wind tunnel measuring system. We found that water loss rate varied inversely and body temperature directly with WVD but that models were affected to a greater extent than were animals. Mean Rc was significantly different between the highest WVD environment and each of the three drier environments but did not differ among the drier environments, indicating that Rc initially increases and then reaches a plateau in response to decreasing WVD. Rc was equivalent when calculated using either WVD difference or WVD deficit as the driving force for evaporation. We also directly observed secretions from cutaneous glands while measuring body temperature and tested secretions and skin samples for the presence of lipids. We found that irregular transient body temperature depressions observed during wind tunnel trials occur due to evaporative cooling from intermittent skin secretions containing lipids, although we were unable to identify lipid-secreting glands.

  2. Quantification of the types of water in Eudragit RLPO polymer and the kinetics of water loss using FTIR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pirayavaraporn, Chompak; Rades, Thomas; Gordon, Keith C

    2013-01-01

    . Using a curve fitting procedure, the water region (3100-3,700 cm(-1)) of the spectra was analyzed, and used to identify water present in differing environments in the polymer and to determine the water loss kinetics upon purging the sample with dry compressed air. It was found that four environments can...

  3. Measuring your water footprint: What's next in water strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2008-01-01

    By now, carbon neutrality is such a catchphrase in the world of responsible business, it’s impossible to ignore the carbon footprint of a new product or service. But with the exception of a few companies like Coca-Cola, Nestlé and Suez, the concept of water neutrality, or measuring your water footprint, is still under the radar. It’s time to take note: In a landscape where the demand for water is fast outstripping supply, focusing on water neutrality is a key corporate strategy in managing wa...

  4. Heat Losses Evaluation for Domestic Hot Water Distribution Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodor Mateescu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In sanitary systems assembly, domestic hot water distribution supply networks represent an important weight for energetically balance.par This paper presents, in an analytical and graphical manner, the computational tools needed for domestic hot water piping system behavior characterization in different functional and structural assumptions.

  5. Expanded Prediction Equations of Human Sweat Loss and Water Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    5) using facl 1 0.2 AD. (10) The algebraic sum of the total (dry) heat loss by radiant and convec- tive heat exchange (R C), in watts (1, 9...1982. 29. Tseng YT, Durbin P, Tzeng GH. Using fuzzy piecewise regression analysis to predict the non-linear time series of turbulent flows with

  6. Rotating electrical machines, pt.2: Methods for determining losses and efficiency of rotating electrical machinery form tests (excl. machines for traction vehicles), 1st suppl. Measurement of losses by the calorimetric method

    CERN Document Server

    International Electrotechnical Commission. Geneva

    1974-01-01

    Describes methods for measuring the efficiency of electrical rotating machines either by determining total losses on load or by determination of the segregated losses for air and water cooling mediums. Applies to large generators but may be used for other machines.

  7. Low-Velocity Measurement in Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Christopher; Stefan, Heinz G.

    1986-09-01

    Water velocities in the centimeter per second range or less are measurable by only a few instruments. Experimental laboratory studies frequently require such measurements. A review of low water velocity measurement methods is presented. An inexpensive optical hydrogen bubble-tracing technique is described for velocity measurements in the range 0.5 to 8 cm/s. Modification to a thymol blue (pH) tracer method extends its applicability to the range 0.1 to 1.0 cm/s. Design and operational characteristics of the hydrogen bubble/thymol blue current meter are described.

  8. Testing and comparison of four ionic tracers to measure stream flow loss by multiple tracer injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellweger, G.W.

    1994-01-01

    An injectate containing lithium, sodium, chloride and bromide was added continuously at five sites along a 507 m study reach of St Kevin Gulch, Lake County, Colorado to determine which sections of the stream were losing water to the stream bed and to ascertain how well the four tracers performed. The acidity of the stream (pH 3.6) made it possible for lithium and sodium, which are normally absorbed by ion exchange with stream bed sediment, to be used as conservative tracers. Net flow losses as low as 0.81 s-1, or 8% of flow, were calculated between measuring sites. By comparing the results of simultaneous injection it was determined whether subsections of the study reach were influent or effluent. Evaluation of tracer concentrations along 116 m of stream indicated that all four tracers behaved conservatively. Discharges measured by Parshall flumes were 4-18% greater than discharges measured by tracer dilution. -from Author

  9. Water loss from the skin of term and preterm infants nursed under a radiant heater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjartansson, S; Arsan, S; Hammarlund, K; Sjörs, G; Sedin, G

    1995-02-01

    The rate of evaporation from the skin (g/m2/h) was measured in 12 full-term and 16 preterm infants (gestational age 25-34 wk) both during incubator care and when nursed under a radiant heater. The method for evaporation rate measurement is noninvasive and based on determination of the water vapor pressure gradient close to the skin surface. Measurements were first made with the infant nursed in an incubator with a controlled environment with respect to humidity, temperature, and air velocity. The measurements in the term infants were performed at an ambient relative humidity (RH) of 50%, and in the preterm infants first at 50% and subsequently at 30-40%. Evaporation rate was then measured with the infant nursed under a radiant heater. In term infants, mean evaporation rate was 3.3 g/m2/h during incubator care (RH 50%) and 4.4 g/m2/h during care under the radiant heater. In preterm infants, the corresponding values were 15.5 g/m2/h in the incubator at RH 50%, 16.7 g/m2/h at RH 30-40%, and 17.9 g/m2/h under the radiant heater. It is concluded that the evaporative water loss from the skin depends on the ambient water vapor pressure, irrespective of whether the infant is nursed in an incubator or under a radiant heater. The higher rate of evaporation during care under a radiant heater is due to the lower ambient water vapor pressure and not to any direct effect of the nonionizing radiation on the skin.

  10. Measurement of Lead In Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-13

    GF-AA exist the PSA measurements always fall between. These results indicate that within experimental error field measurement using PSA will give...District which uses ground water as a source. In Figure 7 a single sample was measured nineteen times, the relative standard deviation of all... measured nineteen times. The relative standard deviation for this data set is 3.17%. Correlation PSA vs GFAA R2 = 0.9502 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20

  11. WATER LOSS OF KOKA RESERVOIR, ETHIOPIA: COMMENTS ON

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PREVIOUS STUDIES AND NEW DETERMINATIONS. Sileshi Mamo ... However, Meacham's (1972) report is not available to the author so as to ... FAO (1965) evaluated water balance on annual basis, and estimated leakage rates of 435 m3/ ...

  12. Modeling relationships between water table depth and peat soil carbon loss in Southeast Asian plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Kimberly M.; Goodman, Lael K.; May-Tobin, Calen C.

    2015-07-01

    Plantation-associated drainage of Southeast Asian peatlands has accelerated in recent years. Draining exposes the upper peat layer to oxygen, leading to elevated decomposition rates and net soil carbon losses. Empirical studies indicate positive relationships between long-term water table (WT) depth and soil carbon loss rate in peatlands. These correlations potentially enable using WT depth as a proxy for soil carbon losses from peatland plantations. Here, we compile data from published research assessing WT depth and carbon balance in tropical plantations on peat. We model net carbon loss from subsidence studies, as well as soil respiration (heterotrophic and total) from closed chamber studies, as a function of WT depth. WT depth across all 12 studies and 59 sites is 67 ± 20 cm (mean ± standard deviation). Mean WT depth is positively related to net carbon loss, as well as soil respiration rate. Our models explain 45% of net carbon loss variation and 45-63% of soil respiration variation. At a 70 cm WT depth, the subsidence model suggests net carbon loss of 20 tC ha-1 yr-1 (95% confidence interval (CI) 18-22 tC ha-1 yr-1) for plantations drained for >2 yr. Closed chamber-measured total soil respiration at this depth is 20 tC-CO2 ha-1 yr-1 (CI 17-24 tC-CO2 ha-1 yr-1) while heterotrophic respiration is 17 tC-CO2 ha-1 yr-1 (CI 14-20 tC-CO2 ha-1 yr-1), ˜82% of total respiration. While land use is not a significant predictor of soil respiration, WT depths are greater at acacia (75 ± 16 cm) than oil palm (59 ± 15 cm) sample sites. Improved spatio-temporal sampling of the full suite of peat soil carbon fluxes—including fluvial carbon export and organic fertilizer inputs—will clarify multiple mechanisms leading to carbon loss and gain, supporting refined assessments of the global warming potential of peatland drainage.

  13. Picoliter water contact angle measurement on polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Michael; Urquhart, Andrew J; Zelzer, Mischa; Davies, Martyn C; Alexander, Morgan R

    2007-06-19

    Water contact angle measurement is the most common method for determining a material's wettability, and the sessile drop approach is the most frequently used. However, the method is generally limited to macroscopic measurements because the base diameter of the droplet is usually greater than 1 mm. Here we report for the first time on a dosing system to dispense smaller individual droplets with control of the position and investigate whether water contact angles determined from picoliter volume water droplets are comparable with those obtained from the conventional microliter volume water droplets. This investigation was conducted on a group of commonly used polymers. To demonstrate the higher spatial resolution of wettability that can be achieved using picoliter volume water droplets, the wettability of a radial plasma polymer gradient was mapped using a 250 microm interval grid.

  14. Economic Estimation of the Losses Caused by Surface Water Pollution Accidents in China From the Perspective of Water Bodies' Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hong; You, Zhen; Liu, Bo

    2016-01-22

    The number of surface water pollution accidents (abbreviated as SWPAs) has increased substantially in China in recent years. Estimation of economic losses due to SWPAs has been one of the focuses in China and is mentioned many times in the Environmental Protection Law of China promulgated in 2014. From the perspective of water bodies' functions, pollution accident damages can be divided into eight types: damage to human health, water supply suspension, fishery, recreational functions, biological diversity, environmental property loss, the accident's origin and other indirect losses. In the valuation of damage to people's life, the procedure for compensation of traffic accidents in China was used. The functional replacement cost method was used in economic estimation of the losses due to water supply suspension and loss of water's recreational functions. Damage to biological diversity was estimated by recovery cost analysis and damage to environmental property losses were calculated using pollutant removal costs. As a case study, using the proposed calculation procedure the economic losses caused by the major Songhuajiang River pollution accident that happened in China in 2005 have been estimated at 2263 billion CNY. The estimated economic losses for real accidents can sometimes be influenced by social and political factors, such as data authenticity and accuracy. Besides, one or more aspects in the method might be overestimated, underrated or even ignored. The proposed procedure may be used by decision makers for the economic estimation of losses in SWPAs. Estimates of the economic losses of pollution accidents could help quantify potential costs associated with increased risk sources along lakes/rivers but more importantly, highlight the value of clean water to society as a whole.

  15. The efficiency of trenches as runoff water harvesting systems and the role of their design in minimizing water losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berliner, Pedro; Carmi, Gennady; Agam, Nurit; Leake, Solomon

    2016-04-01

    fluxes computed for the time intervals that correspond to the soil water measurements. The study included flooding trenches and regular micro-catchments with the same amount of water (1 m3), monitoring the water balance components and estimation of evaporation losses and water use efficiency by olive trees. Evaporation from trenches and regular micro-catchments was estimated as the difference between evapotranspiration obtained by soil water content monitoring and transpiration estimated by sap flow measurements. The results clearly show that the evaporation from the regular micro-catchments was significantly larger than that of trenches during the entire duration of the experiment. The fractional loss due to evaporation for the entire experimental period was 53 and 22% for micro-catchments and trenches, respectively.

  16. Measurement of the permittivity and loss of high-loss materials using a Near-Field Scanning Microwave Microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, A P; Blackburn, J F; Lees, K; Clarke, R N; Hodgetts, T E; Hanham, S M; Klein, N

    2016-02-01

    In this paper improvements to a Near-Field Scanning Microwave Microscope (NSMM) are presented that allow the loss of high loss dielectric materials to be measured accurately at microwave frequencies. This is demonstrated by measuring polar liquids (loss tangent tanδ≈1) for which traceable data is available. The instrument described uses a wire probe that is electromagnetically coupled to a resonant cavity. An optical beam deflection system is incorporated within the instrument to allow contact mode between samples and the probe tip to be obtained. Liquids are contained in a measurement cell with a window of ultrathin glass. The calibration process for the microscope, which is based on image-charge electrostatic models, has been adapted to use the Laplacian 'complex frequency'. Measurements of the loss tangent of polar liquids that are consistent with reference data were obtained following calibration against single-crystal specimens that have very low loss. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Method of Measurement of Capacitance and Dielectric Loss Factor Using Artificial Neural Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Roj Jerzy; Cichy Adam

    2015-01-01

    A novel method of dielectric loss factor measuring has been described. It is based on a quasi-balanced method for the capacitance measurement. These AC circuits allow to measure only one component of the impedance. However, after analyzing a quasi-balanced circuit's processing equation, it is possible to derive a novel method of dielectric loss factor measuring. Dielectric loss factor can be calculated after detuning the circuit from its quasi-equilibrium state. There are two possible ways of...

  18. Measurement of mean excitation energy by energy loss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiuChang-Shi

    1997-01-01

    The mean excitation energy(MEE) for Al,Ti,Fe,Cu and Ta has been determined experimentally by the Landan equation,which describes the most probable energy loss of electrons in the incidence direction,and the results are consistent with the values given in the literature,THese provide a quick,easy and accurate evaluation method for the experimental MEE.

  19. Measuring urban tree loss dynamics across residential landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The spatial arrangement of urban vegetation depends on urban morphology and socio-economic settings. Urban vegetation changes over time because of human management. Urban trees are removed due to hazard prevention or aesthetic preferences. Previous research attributed tree loss t...

  20. Dynamics of organic carbon losses by water erosion after biocrust removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cantón Yolanda

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In arid and semiarid ecosystems, plant interspaces are frequently covered by communities of cyanobacteria, algae, lichens and mosses, known as biocrusts. These crusts often act as runoff sources and are involved in soil stabilization and fertility, as they prevent erosion by water and wind, fix atmospheric C and N and contribute large amounts of C to soil. Their contribution to the C balance as photosynthetically active surfaces in arid and semiarid regions is receiving growing attention. However, very few studies have explicitly evaluated their contribution to organic carbon (OC lost from runoff and erosion, which is necessary to ascertain the role of biocrusts in the ecosystem C balance. Furthermore, biocrusts are not resilient to physical disturbances, which generally cause the loss of the biocrust and thus, an increase in runoff and erosion, dust emissions, and sediment and nutrient losses. The aim of this study was to find out the influence of biocrusts and their removal on dissolved and sediment organic carbon losses. One-hour extreme rainfall simulations (50 mm h-1 were performed on small plots set up on physical soil crusts and three types of biocrusts, representing a development gradient, and also on plots where these crusts were removed from. Runoff and erosion rates, dissolved organic carbon (DOC and organic carbon bonded to sediments (SdOC were measured during the simulated rain. Our results showed different SdOC and DOC for the different biocrusts and also that the presence of biocrusts substantially decreased total organic carbon (TOC (average 1.80±1.86 g m-2 compared to physical soil crusts (7.83±3.27 g m-2. Within biocrusts, TOC losses decreased as biocrusts developed, and erosion rates were lower. Thus, erosion drove TOC losses while no significant direct relationships were found between TOC losses and runoff. In both physical crusts and biocrusts, DOC and SdOC concentrations were higher during the first minutes after runoff

  1. Radium activity measurements in bottled mineral water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kappke, Jaqueline; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Correa, Janine N.; Denyak, Valeriy; Reque, Marilson, E-mail: sergei@utfpr.edu.br [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Rocha, Paschuk; Rocha, Zildete; Santos, Talita O., E-mail: rochaz@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    This work presents the preliminary results of {sup 226}Ra activity measurements of fifteen samples of bottled mineral water acquired at markets of Curitiba-PR, Brazil. The measurements were performed at the Laboratory of Applied Nuclear Physics of the Federal University of Technology - Parana (UTFPR) in collaboration with the Center of Nuclear Technology Development of Brazilian Nuclear Energy Committee (CNEN). The experimental setup was based on the electronic radon detector RAD7 (Durridge Company, Inc.). The measurements were carried out with a special kit of accessory vessels (vials) RAD7 H{sub 2}O, which allows one to identify the {sup 222}Rn activity concentration in small water samples of 40 mL and 250 mL in the range going from less than 30 pCi/L to greater than 10{sup 5} pCi/L. During each measurement a vial from RAD H{sub 2}O was poured with a sample of water. The air pump, included in the close loop aeration circuit and connected to the vial and RAD7 detector, operated for five minutes to snatch the sample of air maintained above the level of water sample and transporting it from the vial through the system. Evaluation of the concentration of soluble radium ({sup 226}Ra) salts in water and their activity was performed after 30 days when {sup 222}Rn in the water samples reached secular equilibrium. The background measurements were performed using the samples of the distilled water. Considering the importance of background measurements, it was found that the value suggested by user Manual protocol (RAD7) for the case of low activity radon measurements, has to be slightly modified. (author)

  2. Consumption and loss of potable water in the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallace Silva Carvalho

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Before the water problem that has taken place in Brazil and the need to reduce energy consumption in the country, it was thought the objective of this study was to evaluate the conditions of use and loss of potable water in the Baixada Fluminense, part of the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro (RMRJ, since it is the emergency waste reduction and the efficient and sustainable use of water. This exploratory study aims through a documentary approach, identify the number of water loss in the region. It proves that the loss in the region is more serious than in other states and that awareness campaigns should be implemented as local public policies. Also suggests that cleantech water use can be incorporated into the daily lives of homes and businesses enabling the reduction of water consumption.

  3. Economic Estimation of the Losses Caused by Surface Water Pollution Accidents in China From the Perspective of Water Bodies’ Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hong; You, Zhen; Liu, Bo

    2016-01-01

    The number of surface water pollution accidents (abbreviated as SWPAs) has increased substantially in China in recent years. Estimation of economic losses due to SWPAs has been one of the focuses in China and is mentioned many times in the Environmental Protection Law of China promulgated in 2014. From the perspective of water bodies’ functions, pollution accident damages can be divided into eight types: damage to human health, water supply suspension, fishery, recreational functions, biological diversity, environmental property loss, the accident’s origin and other indirect losses. In the valuation of damage to people’s life, the procedure for compensation of traffic accidents in China was used. The functional replacement cost method was used in economic estimation of the losses due to water supply suspension and loss of water’s recreational functions. Damage to biological diversity was estimated by recovery cost analysis and damage to environmental property losses were calculated using pollutant removal costs. As a case study, using the proposed calculation procedure the economic losses caused by the major Songhuajiang River pollution accident that happened in China in 2005 have been estimated at 2263 billion CNY. The estimated economic losses for real accidents can sometimes be influenced by social and political factors, such as data authenticity and accuracy. Besides, one or more aspects in the method might be overestimated, underrated or even ignored. The proposed procedure may be used by decision makers for the economic estimation of losses in SWPAs. Estimates of the economic losses of pollution accidents could help quantify potential costs associated with increased risk sources along lakes/rivers but more importantly, highlight the value of clean water to society as a whole. PMID:26805869

  4. Economic Estimation of the Losses Caused by Surface Water Pollution Accidents in China From the Perspective of Water Bodies’ Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Yao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of surface water pollution accidents (abbreviated as SWPAs has increased substantially in China in recent years. Estimation of economic losses due to SWPAs has been one of the focuses in China and is mentioned many times in the Environmental Protection Law of China promulgated in 2014. From the perspective of water bodies’ functions, pollution accident damages can be divided into eight types: damage to human health, water supply suspension, fishery, recreational functions, biological diversity, environmental property loss, the accident’s origin and other indirect losses. In the valuation of damage to people’s life, the procedure for compensation of traffic accidents in China was used. The functional replacement cost method was used in economic estimation of the losses due to water supply suspension and loss of water’s recreational functions. Damage to biological diversity was estimated by recovery cost analysis and damage to environmental property losses were calculated using pollutant removal costs. As a case study, using the proposed calculation procedure the economic losses caused by the major Songhuajiang River pollution accident that happened in China in 2005 have been estimated at 2263 billion CNY. The estimated economic losses for real accidents can sometimes be influenced by social and political factors, such as data authenticity and accuracy. Besides, one or more aspects in the method might be overestimated, underrated or even ignored. The proposed procedure may be used by decision makers for the economic estimation of losses in SWPAs. Estimates of the economic losses of pollution accidents could help quantify potential costs associated with increased risk sources along lakes/rivers but more importantly, highlight the value of clean water to society as a whole.

  5. Effects of Material Choice on Biocide Loss in Orion Water Storage Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, W. T.; Wallace, S. L.; Gazda, D. B.; Lewis, J. F.

    2016-01-01

    When preparing for long-duration spaceflight missions, maintaining a safe supply of potable water is of the utmost importance. One major aspect of that is ensuring that microbial growth is minimized. Historically, this challenge has been addressed through the use of biocides. When using biocides, the choice of materials for the storage containers is important, because surface reactions can reduce biocide concentrations below their effective range. In the water storage system baselined for the Orion vehicle, the primary wetted materials are stainless steel (316 L) and a titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V). Previous testing with these materials has shown that the biocide selected for use in the system (ionic silver) will plate out rapidly upon initial wetting of the system. One potential approach for maintaining an adequate biocide concentration is to spike the water supply with high levels of biocide in an attempt to passivate the surface. To evaluate this hypothesis, samples of the wetted materials were tested individually and together to determine the relative loss of biocide under representative surface area-to-volume ratios after 24 hours. Additionally, we have analyzed the efficacy of disinfecting a system containing these materials by measuring reductions in bacterial counts in the same test conditions. Preliminary results indicate that the use of titanium, either individually or in combination with stainless steel, can result in over 95% loss of biocide, while less than 5% is lost when using stainless steel. In bacterial testing, viable organisms were recovered from samples exposed to the titanium coupons after 24 hours. By comparison, no organisms were recovered from the test vessels containing only stainless steel. These results indicate that titanium, while possessing some favorable attributes, may pose additional challenges when used in water storage tanks with ionic silver biocide.

  6. Onboard Prediction of Propagation Loss in Shallow Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-16

    substrate roughn*p, (4) modal coupling, and (6) biologia scAtterers;,6. Grain asiz distribution Is not an adequate predctor of acoustical properties; heuce...INTRODUCTION ......................................... 1 GENERAL COMMENTS ................................... 2 SEDIMENT SOUND SPEED AND DENSITY...for an onboard perfor- mance prediction capability in shallow water. There is a general requirement for an onboard performance prediction capability

  7. Estimating business and residential water supply interruption losses from catastrophic events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brozović, Nicholas; Sunding, David L.; Zilberman, David

    2007-08-01

    Following man-made or natural catastrophes, widespread and long-lasting disruption of lifelines can lead to economic impacts for both business and residential lifeline users. As a result, the total economic losses caused by infrastructure damage may be much higher than the value of damage to infrastructure itself. In this paper, we consider the estimation of economic impacts on businesses and residential consumers resulting from water supply disruption. The methodology we present for estimating business interruption losses assumes that marginal losses are increasing in the severity of disruption and that there may be a critical water availability cutoff below which business activity ceases. To estimate residential losses from water supply interruption, we integrate consumers' demand curves, calibrated to water agency price and quantity data. Our methodologies are spatially disaggregated and explicitly account for the time profile of infrastructure repair and restoration. As an illustration, we estimate the economic losses to business and residential water users of one of the major water supply systems of the San Francisco Bay Area of California resulting from two potential earthquake scenarios, a magnitude 7.9 event on the San Andreas Fault and a magnitude 7.1 event on the Hayward Fault. For the business loss estimation, our modeling framework is general enough to calculate and compare losses using loss functions from several previous studies. Estimated business and residential losses for the San Andreas event are 14.4 billion and 279 million, respectively. For the Hayward event, estimated business and residential losses are 9.3 billion and 37 million, respectively.

  8. Real-time dynamic hydraulic model for potable water loss reduction

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Abu-Mahfouz, Adnan M

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available service provision. Traditional approaches of solving water loss problems are not enough to make a significant improvement; for this, new approaches involving increased automation and monitoring are needed. Furthermore, the sensory and automation ICT...

  9. Bone Loss During Spaceflight: Available Models and Counter-Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Jonathan; Bach, David; Geller, David

    2015-01-01

    There is ongoing concern for human health during spaceflights. Of particular interest is the uncoupling of bone remodeling and its resultant effect on calcium metabolism and bone loss. The calculated average loss of bone mineral density (BMD) is approximately 1-1.5% per month of spaceflight. The effect of decreased BMD on associated fractures in astronauts is not known. Currently on the International Space Station (ISS), bone loss is managed through dietary supplements and modifications and resistance exercise regimen. As the duration of space flights increases, a review of the current methods available for the prevention of bone loss is warranted. The goal of this project is to review and summarize recent studies that have focused on maintaining BMD during exposure to microgravity. Interventions were divided into physical (Table 1), nutritional (Table 2), or pharmacologic (Table 3) categories. Physical modalities included resistance exercise, low level vibration, and low intensity pulsed ultrasound. Nutritional interventions included altering protein, salt, and fat intake; and vitamin D supplementation. Pharmacologic interventions included the use of bisphosphonates and beta blockers. Studies reported outcomes based on bone density determined by DXA bone scan, micro-architecture of histology and microCT, and serum and urine markers of bone turnover. The ground analog models utilized to approximate osseous physiology in microgravity included human patients previously paralyzed or subjects confined to bedrest. Ground analog animal models include paralysis, immobilization and ovariectomies. As a result of the extensive research performed there is a multi-modality approach available for the management of BMD during spaceflight that includes resistance training, nutrition and dietary supplements. However, there is a paucity of literature describing a formalized tiered protocol to guide investigators through the progression from animal models to human patient ground

  10. Water jet/spray measurement analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lala, G. G.

    1986-01-01

    The objective of this study was to provide analysis of data obtained under a previous contract entitled Characterization of Drop Spectra from High Volume Flow Water Jets. Measurements of drop spectra were obtained in the spray resulting from the breakup of high volume flow water jets from a variety of nozzle types. The drop spectra measurements were obtained from two drop spectrometers covering a range from 10 microns to 12 millimeters diameter. The task addressed was to select representative spectra from the individual tests and provide analyses in both numerical and graphical formats as outlined in the proposal. The intended application of these results is an evaluation of the feasibility of fog clearing by high volume water sprays. During the tests, a fog event occurred making it possible to test the concept of fog clearing. Visual range data and fog drop spectra were analyzed, with particular emphasis placed on the modification of these parameters due to the water spray.

  11. Drinking water is associated with weight loss in overweight dieting women independent of diet and activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stookey, Jodi D; Constant, Florence; Popkin, Barry M; Gardner, Christopher D

    2008-11-01

    Data from short-term experiments suggest that drinking water may promote weight loss by lowering total energy intake and/or altering metabolism. The long-term effects of drinking water on change in body weight and composition are unknown, however. This study tested for associations between absolute and relative increases in drinking water and weight loss over 12 months. Secondary analyses were conducted on data from the Stanford A TO Z weight loss intervention on 173 premenopausal overweight women (aged 25-50 years) who reported water at baseline. Diet, physical activity, body weight, percent body fat (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), and waist circumference were assessed at baseline, 2, 6, and 12 months. At each time point, mean daily intakes of drinking water, noncaloric, unsweetened caloric (e.g., 100% fruit juice, milk) and sweetened caloric beverages, and food energy and nutrients were estimated using three unannounced 24-h diet recalls. Beverage intake was expressed in absolute (g) and relative terms (% of beverages). Mixed models were used to test for effects of absolute and relative increases in drinking water on changes in weight and body composition, controlling for baseline status, diet group, and changes in other beverage intake, the amount and composition of foods consumed and physical activity. Absolute and relative increases in drinking water were associated with significant loss of body weight and fat over time, independent of covariates. The results suggest that drinking water may promote weight loss in overweight dieting women.

  12. 7 CFR 610.12 - Equations for predicting soil loss due to water erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... erosion. 610.12 Section 610.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... ASSISTANCE Soil Erosion Prediction Equations § 610.12 Equations for predicting soil loss due to water erosion. (a) The equation for predicting soil loss due to erosion for both the USLE and the RUSLE is A = R ×...

  13. Is the evaporation water loss of Knot Calidris canutus higher in tropical than in temperate climates?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verboven, N.; Piersma, T.

    1995-01-01

    To test whether Knot Calidris canutus wintering in the tropics suffer higher rates of water loss through evaporation than do Knot wintering at temperate latitudes, we tried to develop a physically realistic model to predict evaporative heat loss from air temperature, wind and humidity. In separate e

  14. Measuring ac-loss in high temperature superconducting cable-conductors using four probe methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kühle (fratrådt), Anders Van Der Aa; Træholt, Chresten; Olsen, Søren Krüger;

    1999-01-01

    Measuring the ac-loss of superconducting cable conductors have many aspects in common with measuring the ac-loss of single superconducting tapes. In a cable conductor all tapes are connected to each other and to the test circuit through normal metal joints in each end. This makes such measurement...

  15. Streamflow gain and loss and water quality in the upper Nueces River Basin, south-central Texas, 2008-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banta, J. Ryan; Lambert, Rebecca B.; Slattery, Richard N.; Ockerman, Darwin J.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey-in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, The Nature Conservancy, the Real Edwards Conservation and Reclamation District, and the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department-investigated streamflow gain and loss and water quality in the upper Nueces River Basin, south-central Texas, specifically in the watersheds of the West Nueces, Nueces, Dry Frio, Frio, and Sabinal Rivers upstream from the Edwards aquifer outcrop. Streamflow in these rivers is sustained by groundwater contributions (for example, from springs) and storm runoff from rainfall events. To date (2012), there are few data available that describe streamflow and water-quality conditions of the rivers within the upper Nueces River Basin. This report describes streamflow gain-loss characteristics from three reconnaissance-level synoptic measurement surveys (hereinafter referred to as "surveys") during 2008-10 in the upper Nueces River Basin. To help characterize the hydrology, groundwater-level measurements were made, and water-quality samples were collected from both surface-water and groundwater sites in the study area from two surveys during 2009-10. The hydrologic (streamflow, springflow, and groundwater) measurements were made during three reconnaissance-level synoptic measurement surveys occurring in July 21-23, 2008; August 8-18, 2009; and March 22-24, 2010. These survey periods were selected to represent different hydrologic conditions. Streamflow gains and losses were based on streamflow and springflow measurements made at 74 sites in the study area, although not all sites were measured during each survey. Possible water chemistry relations among sample types (streamflow, springflow, or groundwater), between surveys, and among watersheds were examined using water-quality samples collected from as many as 20 sites in the study area.

  16. Not all water becomes wine: Sulfur inputs as an opportune tracer of hydrochemical losses from vineyards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinckley, E.-L.S.; Kendall, C.; Loague, K.

    2009-01-01

    California's widespread and economically important vineyards offer substantial opportunities to understand the interface between hydrology and biogeochemistry in agricultural soils. The common use of native sulfur (S) as a fumigant or soil additive provides a novel way to isotopically differentiate among sulfate (SO2-4) pools, allowing the estimation of water and SO2-4 budgets. The objectives of this study were (1) to characterize the near-surface hydrological flow paths in a vineyard during irrigation and storm events and (2) to determine how those flow paths affect the fate and transport of SO2-4 across seasons. Integrating hydrological theory with measurements of SO2-4concentration and sulfate-S isotopic ratios (expressed as [SO 2-4] and ??34S, respectively) in inputs, soil water, and leachate provided a means of determining flow paths. Low [S04-] and ??34S in leachate during 4-h irrigation events reflect minimal engagement of the soil matrix, indicating that preferential flow was the dominant path for water in the near surface. In contrast, high [SO 2-4] and ??34S values during 8-h irrigation and storm events reflect near-complete engagement of the soil matrix, indicating that lateral flow was the dominant pathway. Because hydrologic response and SO2-4 mobility are tightly coupled in these soils, the magnitude of water fluxes through the near surface controls S cycling both on and off site. These results indicate that preferential flow is an important loss pathway to consider in managing both water resources and water quality (reactive elements) in vineyard land use systems. ?? 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  17. The Rate of Water Loss in Relation to Internodes Position and Wood Maturity in Vine Chords

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin SALA

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of study was to assess the rate of water loss from the strings of vines in relation to internodes position on vine chords and degree of wood maturity. The biological material was represented by Burgund vine cultivar, to which were analyzed individually all internodes distributed on the chord length (internodes number IN2-19. The rate of water loss and associated parameters (maximum rate of water loss - RWLMax, total drying time - T, time to achieve RWLMax - tRWLMax were determined from the Burgund vine cultivar, in controlled condition. Parameters studied were associated with dry matter content (refractometric method, degree of maturity of the wood, and internodes positions on chord. RWL Max had higher values in the basal internodes (IN2; RWL Max = 0.252±0.005 g/min and lower in the apical internodes (IN17-19; RWLMax = 0.202±0.011 g/min. RWLMax distributions values, according to the position of internodes on chord was described by a third degree polynomial function, statistical safety (R2 = 0.949, p<0.01. Dry substance content in internodes (sugar was correlated with the total time of water loss (T; R2 = 0.945, the time to reach the maximum rate of water loss (tRWLMax; R2 = 0.855, and maximum rate of water loss (RWLMax; R2 = 0.984.

  18. Measuring environmental sustainability of water in watersheds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, Erich T; Little, John C

    2013-08-06

    Environmental sustainability assessment is a rapidly growing field where measures of sustainability are used within an assessment framework to evaluate and compare alternative actions. Here we argue for the importance of evaluating environmental sustainability of water at the watershed scale. We review existing frameworks in brief before reviewing watershed-relevant measures in more detail. While existing measures are diverse, overlapping, and interdependent, certain attributes that are important for watersheds are poorly represented, including spatial explicitness and the effect of natural watershed components, such as rivers. Most studies focus on one or a few measures, but a complete assessment will require use of many existing measures, as well as, perhaps, new ones. Increased awareness of the broad dimensions of environmental sustainability as applied to water management should encourage integration of existing approaches into a unified assessment framework appropriate for watersheds.

  19. Insensible water loss from the skin during phototherapy in term and preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjartansson, S; Hammarlund, K; Sedin, G

    1992-10-01

    The rate of evaporation from the skin was measured before and during phototherapy in 10 full-term and seven preterm infants (gestational age 29-33 weeks). The method for measurement of rate of evaporation was non-invasive and was based on determination of the water vapour pressure gradient close to the skin surface. All infants were studied naked in an incubator with an ambient relative humidity of 50% and with a controlled environment with respect to temperature and air velocity. In the term infants the mean rate of evaporation, measured from an interscapular skin area, was 3.1 g/m2h both before and after 30 min of phototherapy. In the preterm infants the corresponding value was 9.8 g/m2h before and 9.7 g/m2h after 120 min of phototherapy. Thus, in thermally stable infants, non-ionizing radiation from phototherapy equipment does not increase water loss from the skin.

  20. Measurements of DT alpha particle loss near the outer midplane of TFTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zweben, S.J.; Darrow, D.S.; Herrmann, H.W.; Redi, M.H.; Schivell, J.; White, R.B.

    1995-07-01

    Measurements of DT alpha particle loss to the outer midplane region of TFTR have been made using a radially movable scintillator detector. The conclusion from this data is that mechanisms determining the DT alpha loss to the outer midplane are not substantially different from those for DD fusion products. Some of these results are compared with a simplified theoretical model for TF ripple-induced alpha loss, which is expected to be the dominant classical alpha loss mechanism near the outer midplane. An example of plasma-driven MHD-induced alpha particle loss is shown, but no signs of any ``collective`` alpha instability-induced alpha loss have yet been observed.

  1. Water Pollution Detection by Reflectance Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goolsby, A. D.

    1971-01-01

    Measurement of the intensity of light reflected from various planar liquid surfaces has been performed. The results of this brief study show that the presence of a film of foreign material floating on a reference substrate is easily detected by reflectance measurement if the two liquids possess significantly different refractive indices, for example, oil (n = 1.40) and water (n = 1.33). Additional study of various optical configurations, and the building and testing of a prototype monitoring device revealed that the method is sufficiently practical for application to continuous water quality monitoring.

  2. Consequences of nocturnal water loss: a synthesis of regulating factors and implications for capacitance, embolism and use in models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeppel, M J B; Lewis, J D; Phillips, N G; Tissue, D T

    2014-10-01

    Total daily water use is a key factor influencing the growth of many terrestrial plants, and reflects both day-time and nocturnal water fluxes. However, while nocturnal sap flow (En) and stomatal conductance (gs,n) have been reported across a range of species, ecosystems and microclimatic conditions, the regulation of these fluxes remains poorly understood. Here, we present a framework describing the role of abiotic and biotic factors in regulating En and gs,n highlighting recent developments in this field. Across ecosystems, En and gs,n generally increased with increasing soil water content and vapor pressure deficit, but the interactive effects of these factors and the potential roles of wind speed and other abiotic factors remain unclear. On average, gs,n and En are higher in broad-leaved compared with needle-leaved plants, in C3 compared with C4 plants, and in tropical compared with temperate species. We discuss the impacts of leaf age, elevated [CO2] and refilling of capacitance on night-time water loss, and how nocturnal gs,n may be included in vegetation models. Younger leaves may have higher gs,n than older leaves. Embolism refilling and recharge of capacitance may affect sap flow such that total plant water loss at night may be less than estimated solely from En measurements. Our estimates of gs,n for typical plant functional types, based on the published literature, suggest that nocturnal water loss may be a significant fraction (10-25%) of total daily water loss. Counter-intuitively, elevated [CO2] may increase nocturnal water loss. Assumptions in process-based ecophysiological models and dynamic global vegetation models that gs is zero when solar radiation is zero are likely to be incorrect. Consequently, failure to adequately consider nocturnal water loss may lead to substantial under-estimation of total plant water use and inaccurate estimation of ecosystem level water balance. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights

  3. Theoretical Basis and Application for Measuring Pork Loin Drip Loss Using Microwave Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Alex; Abdullah, Badr; Muradov, Magomed; Korostynska, Olga; Al-Shamma’a, Ahmed; Bjarnadottir, Stefania Gudrun; Lunde, Kathrine; Alvseike, Ole

    2016-01-01

    During cutting and processing of meat, the loss of water is critical in determining both product quality and value. From the point of slaughter until packaging, water is lost due to the hanging, movement, handling, and cutting of the carcass, with every 1% of lost water having the potential to cost a large meat processing plant somewhere in the region of €50,000 per day. Currently the options for monitoring the loss of water from meat, or determining its drip loss, are limited to destructive tests which take 24–72 h to complete. This paper presents results from work which has led to the development of a novel microwave cavity sensor capable of providing an indication of drip loss within 6 min, while demonstrating good correlation with the well-known EZ-Driploss method (R2 = 0.896). PMID:26848661

  4. Theoretical Basis and Application for Measuring Pork Loin Drip Loss Using Microwave Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Mason

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available During cutting and processing of meat, the loss of water is critical in determining both product quality and value. From the point of slaughter until packaging, water is lost due to the hanging, movement, handling, and cutting of the carcass, with every 1% of lost water having the potential to cost a large meat processing plant somewhere in the region of €50,000 per day. Currently the options for monitoring the loss of water from meat, or determining its drip loss, are limited to destructive tests which take 24–72 h to complete. This paper presents results from work which has led to the development of a novel microwave cavity sensor capable of providing an indication of drip loss within 6 min, while demonstrating good correlation with the well-known EZ-Driploss method (R2 = 0.896.

  5. Method of Measurement of Capacitance and Dielectric Loss Factor Using Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roj Jerzy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel method of dielectric loss factor measuring has been described. It is based on a quasi-balanced method for the capacitance measurement. These AC circuits allow to measure only one component of the impedance. However, after analyzing a quasi-balanced circuit's processing equation, it is possible to derive a novel method of dielectric loss factor measuring. Dielectric loss factor can be calculated after detuning the circuit from its quasi-equilibrium state. There are two possible ways of measuring the dielectric loss factor. In the first, the quasi-balancing of the circuit is necessary. However, it is possible to measure capacitance of an object under test. In the second method, the capacitance cannot be measured. Use of an artificial neural network minimizes errors of the loss factor determining. Simulations showed that the appropriate choice of the range of the detuning can minimize errors as well.

  6. A functional cutin matrix is required for plant protection against water loss

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Guoxiong; Komatsuda, Takao; Ma, Jian Feng; Li, Chao; Yamaji, Naoki; Nevo, Eviatar

    2011-01-01

    The plant cuticle, a cutin matrix embedded with and covered by wax, seals the aerial organ's surface to protect the plant against uncontrolled water loss. The cutin matrix is essential for the cuticle to function as a barrier to water loss. Recently, we identified from wild barley a drought supersensitive mutant, eibi1, which is caused by a defective cutin matrix as the result of the loss of function of HvABCG31, an ABCG full transporter. Here, we report that eibi1 epidermal cells contain lip...

  7. Nanoscale Electromechanics To Measure Thermal Conductivity, Expansion, and Interfacial Losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, John P; Patel, Raj; Borah, Abhinandan; Maliakkal, Carina B; Abhilash, T S; Deshmukh, Mandar M

    2015-11-11

    We study the effect of localized Joule heating on the mechanical properties of doubly clamped nanowires under tensile stress. Local heating results in systematic variation of the resonant frequency; these frequency changes result from thermal stresses that depend on temperature dependent thermal conductivity and expansion coefficient. The change in sign of the linear expansion coefficient of InAs is reflected in the resonant response of the system near a bath temperature of 20 K. Using finite element simulations to model the experimentally observed frequency shifts, we show that the thermal conductivity of a nanowire can be approximated in the 10-60 K temperature range by the empirical form κ = bT W/mK, where the value of b for a nanowire was found to be b = 0.035 W/mK(2), significantly lower than bulk values. Also, local heating allows us to independently vary the temperature of the nanowire relative to the clamping points pinned to the bath temperature. We suggest a loss mechanism (dissipation ~10(-4)-10(-5)) originating from the interfacial clamping losses between the metal and the semiconductor nanostructure.

  8. Calorimetric method of ac loss measurement in a rotating magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoshal, P K; Coombs, T A; Campbell, A M

    2010-07-01

    A method is described for calorimetric ac-loss measurements of high-T(c) superconductors (HTS) at 80 K. It is based on a technique used at 4.2 K for conventional superconducting wires that allows an easy loss measurement in parallel or perpendicular external field orientation. This paper focuses on ac loss measurement setup and calibration in a rotating magnetic field. This experimental setup is to demonstrate measuring loss using a temperature rise method under the influence of a rotating magnetic field. The slight temperature increase of the sample in an ac-field is used as a measure of losses. The aim is to simulate the loss in rotating machines using HTS. This is a unique technique to measure total ac loss in HTS at power frequencies. The sample is mounted on to a cold finger extended from a liquid nitrogen heat exchanger (HEX). The thermal insulation between the HEX and sample is provided by a material of low thermal conductivity, and low eddy current heating sample holder in vacuum vessel. A temperature sensor and noninductive heater have been incorporated in the sample holder allowing a rapid sample change. The main part of the data is obtained in the calorimetric measurement is used for calibration. The focus is on the accuracy and calibrations required to predict the actual ac losses in HTS. This setup has the advantage of being able to measure the total ac loss under the influence of a continuous moving field as experienced by any rotating machines.

  9. Phosphorus losses from agricultural areas in river basins; effects and uncertainties of targeted mitigation measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kronvang, B.; Bechmann, M.; Lundekvam, H.; Behrendt, H.; Rubaek, G.H.; Schoumans, O.F.; Syversen, N.; Andersen, H.E.; Hoffmann, C.C.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we show the quantitative and relative importance of phosphorus (P) losses from agricultural areas within European river basins and demonstrate the importance of P pathways, linking agricultural source areas to surface water at different scales. Agricultural P losses are increasingly im

  10. Effects of clear topical ointment on transepidermal water loss in jaundiced pretermm infants receiving phototherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wananukul, S; Praisuwanna, P; Kesorncam, K

    2001-06-01

    Thirty jaundiced preterm infants, gestational age incubators were included. 1.5 ml of clear topical ointment was applied on the right side of the trunk and extremities while the left side was used as control. Data collection included transepidermal water loss (TEWL), ambient temperature and ambient humidity, before and at 30 minutes, 4-6 hours after application of the ointment during phototherapy. The measurements were executed both the right and left side in 3 positions; upper arm, back, lower leg. TEWL was reduced by 29 per cent (P value humidity were not significantly different (P value > 0.18). We concluded that application of clear topical ointment on the skin of jaundiced preterm infants receiving conventional phototherapy in incubators reduced TEWL significantly.

  11. Agarwood Waste as A New Fluid Loss Control Agent in Water-based Drilling Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azlinda Azizi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Agarwood has been used widely in various ways, including traditional medicine and art. The usage of agarwood has grown broader in modern times include in therapeutic medicines and perfumery. In this paper the agarwood waste has been explored to be used as a fluid loss control agent to control fluid loss without affecting the drilling fluid rheological properties which are density, pH, viscosity, yield point and gel strength. Agarwood waste was used as an additive in the drilling fluid system due to its unique characteristic. Rheological and filtration measurements were performed on the formulated water-based drilling fluid. Formulations of a base solution of fresh water, sodium hydroxide, bentonite, barite, and xanthan gum were presented. The performance of the agarwood waste as the fluid loss control agent was compared with based fluid formulation and water-based drilling fluid with treating with conventional fluid loss control agent (starch. The filtrate volume of drilling fluid with agarwood waste was about 13 ml while for drilling fluid with conventional fluid loss control agent, starch gave 12 ml of filtrate volume after undergoing filtration test by using LPLT filter press. The performance of drilling fluid with agarwood was efficient as drilling fluid with starch. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso

  12. Analysis of the juice and water losses in salted and unsalted pork samples heated in water bath. Consequences for the prediction of weight loss by transfer models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombrun, Laure; Gatellier, Philippe; Portanguen, Stéphane; Kondjoyan, Alain

    2015-01-01

    This study has analyzed the effect of different factors on variation of meat weight due to juice loss, and variation of water content of pork samples heated in a water bath. The weight loss (WL) was influenced by initial water content of raw meat which can be connected to meat pH, muscle type, and by pre-salting. WL was also influenced by sample thickness and by nature of the surrounding fluid. These effects were significant at 50°C and in thinner samples but decreased as meat temperature and sample thickness increased. WL showed no significant difference in response to prior freezing, applying a surface constraint during heating or varying meat salt content from 0.8 to 2.0%. The results were interpreted from literature knowledge on protein denaturation, contraction and, transport phenomena. Reliably predicting WL from water content variation during heating hinges on taking into account the loss of dry matter and the possible effects of meat pH, sample size or surrounding fluid. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Near infrared reflectance measurement of nitrogen faecal losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benini, L; Caliari, S; Bonfante, F; Guidi, G C; Brentegani, M T; Castellani, G; Sembenini, C; Bardelli, E; Vantini, I

    1992-06-01

    Chemical methods of measuring nitrogen in stools are complex, unpleasant, and therefore rarely performed. Recently, near infrared reflectance (NIRA) has been suggested for stool analysis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible application of this method in routine faecal nitrogen measurement. Nitrogen concentration and daily output were measured in the stools of 83 patients using NIRA and, for comparison, the Kjeldahl method. Nitrogen concentration and output ranged between 0.4-2.72 g% and 0.45-8.96 g/day respectively. Correlation coefficients (r), of 0.89 and 0.97 were found between the two methods for concentration and output respectively, and similar values were found in patients on enteral nutrition. Repeated measurements from the same stool collection, requiring only a few minutes, allowed homogenisation to be avoided. NIRA seems to be an easy, fast, and reliable alternative to chemical assays of nitrogen measurement in the management of patients with digestive disorders.

  14. Lipid composition and molecular interactions change with depth in the avian stratum corneum to regulate cutaneous water loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne, Alex M; Allen, Heather C; Williams, Joseph B

    2015-10-01

    The outermost 10-20 µm of the epidermis, the stratum corneum (SC), consists of flat, dead cells embedded in a matrix of intercellular lipids. These lipids regulate cutaneous water loss (CWL), which accounts for over half of total water loss in birds. However, the mechanisms by which lipids are able to regulate CWL and how these mechanisms change with depth in the SC are poorly understood. We used attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) to measure lipid-lipid and lipid-water interactions as a function of depth in the SC of house sparrows (Passer domesticus Linnaeus) in the winter and summer. We then compared these molecular interactions at each depth with lipid composition at the same depth. We found that in both groups, water content increased with depth in the SC, and likely contributed to greater numbers of gauche defects in lipids in deeper levels of the SC. In winter-caught birds, which had lower rates of CWL than summer-caught birds, water exhibited stronger hydrogen bonding in deeper layers of the SC, and these strong hydrogen bonds were associated with greater amounts of polar lipids such as ceramides and cerebrosides. Based on these data, we propose a model by which polar lipids in deep levels of the SC form strong hydrogen bonds with water molecules to increase the viscosity of water and slow the permeation of water through the SC. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  15. Apparent losses due to domestic water meter under-registration in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-10-05

    Oct 5, 2015 ... registration. The eThekwini meter replacement database was used to estimate the effect of meter age on meter accuracy. ... According to the American Water Works ... water in terms of volume, but 69% in terms of financial loss.

  16. How Does Tree Density Affect Water Loss of Peatlands? A Mesocosm Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Limpens, J.; Holmgren, M.; Jacobs, C.M.J.; Zee, van der S.E.A.T.M.; Karofeld, E.; Berendse, F.

    2014-01-01

    Raised bogs have accumulated more atmospheric carbon than any other terrestrial ecosystem on Earth. Climate-induced expansion of trees and shrubs may turn these ecosystems from net carbon sinks into sources when associated with reduced water tables. Increasing water loss through tree

  17. Lung water measurements with iodo-antipyrine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, R.Y.L.; Carlile, P.V. Jr.; Gray, B.A.; Allen, E.W.; Basmadjian, G.; Myers, J.

    1988-11-01

    /sup 131/I labeled iodo-antipyrine and /sup 99m/Tc labeled erythrocytes were used to measure water content in lungs. These radioactive tracers were injected into 10 rabbits with normal lungs and 11 rabbits with injured lungs. Blood samples were drawn and the subjects were killed. The lungs were removed, weighed and homogenized. Samples of blood and lung homogenate were assayed for /sup 131/I and /sup 99m/Tc. Samples were also weighed before and after drying to a constant weight at 70-75/sup 0/C. Extravascular lung water was determined by the dual isotope technique and again by gravimetric analysis. The average ratio of the results from the 2 different methods is 1.03+-0.15. The 2 methods were compared by regression analysis and the correlation coefficient was 0.92+-0.09. Our investigation suggests the possibility of measurement of lung water with equilibrium distribution of iodo-antipyrine.

  18. Water loss from terrestrial planets with CO{sub 2}-rich atmospheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wordsworth, R. D.; Pierrehumbert, R. T., E-mail: rwordsworth@uchicago.edu [Department of the Geophysical Sciences, University of Chicago, 60637 IL (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Water photolysis and hydrogen loss from the upper atmospheres of terrestrial planets is of fundamental importance to climate evolution but remains poorly understood in general. Here we present a range of calculations we performed to study the dependence of water loss rates from terrestrial planets on a range of atmospheric and external parameters. We show that CO{sub 2} can only cause significant water loss by increasing surface temperatures over a narrow range of conditions, with cooling of the middle and upper atmosphere acting as a bottleneck on escape in other circumstances. Around G-stars, efficient loss only occurs on planets with intermediate CO{sub 2} atmospheric partial pressures (0.1-1 bar) that receive a net flux close to the critical runaway greenhouse limit. Because G-star total luminosity increases with time but X-ray and ultraviolet/ultravoilet luminosity decreases, this places strong limits on water loss for planets like Earth. In contrast, for a CO{sub 2}-rich early Venus, diffusion limits on water loss are only important if clouds caused strong cooling, implying that scenarios where the planet never had surface liquid water are indeed plausible. Around M-stars, water loss is primarily a function of orbital distance, with planets that absorb less flux than ∼270 W m{sup –2} (global mean) unlikely to lose more than one Earth ocean of H{sub 2}O over their lifetimes unless they lose all their atmospheric N{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} early on. Because of the variability of H{sub 2}O delivery during accretion, our results suggest that many 'Earth-like' exoplanets in the habitable zone may have ocean-covered surfaces, stable CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O-rich atmospheres, and high mean surface temperatures.

  19. Measurements of water potential and water content in unsaturated crystalline rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneebeli, Martin; Flühler, Hannes; Gimmi, Thomas; Wydler, Hannes; LäSer, Hans-Peter; Baer, Toni

    1995-08-01

    A water desaturation zone develops around a tunnel in water-saturated rock when the evaporative water loss at the rock surface is larger than the water flow from the surrounding saturated region of restricted permeability. We describe the methods with which such water desaturation processes in rock materials can be quantified. The water retention characteristic θ (ψ) of crystalline rock samples was determined with a pressure membrane apparatus. The negative water potential, identical to the capillary pressure, ψ, below the tensiometric range (ψ drilled into the granodiorite as a measuring chamber. The water potentials observed in a cylindrical granodiorite monolith ranged between -0.1 and -3.0 MPa; those near the wall in a ventilated tunnel between -0.1 and -2.2 MPa. Two types of three-rod TDR probes were used, one as a depth probe inserted into the rock, the other as a surface probe using three copper stripes attached to the surface for detecting water content changes in the rock-to-air boundary. The TDR signal was smoothed with a low-pass filter, and the signal length determined based on the first derivative of the trace. Despite the low porosity of crystalline rock these standard methods are applicable to describe the unsaturated zone in solid rock and may also be used in other consolidated materials such as concrete.

  20. Quantitative nanoscale water mapping in frozen-hydrated skin by low-loss electron energy-loss spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yakovlev, Sergey [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, NJ 07030 (United States); Misra, Manoj; Shi, Shanling [Unilever Research and Development, Trumbull, CT 06611 (United States); Firlar, Emre [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, NJ 07030 (United States); Libera, Matthew, E-mail: mlibera@stevens.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, NJ 07030 (United States)

    2010-06-15

    Spatially resolved low-loss electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) is a powerful method to quantitatively determine the water distribution in frozen-hydrated biological materials at high spatial resolution. However, hydrated tissue, particularly its hydrophilic protein-rich component, is very sensitive to electron radiation. This sensitivity has traditionally limited the achievable spatial resolution because of the relatively high noise associated with low-dose data acquisition. We show that the damage caused by high-dose data acquisition affects the accuracy of a multiple-least-squares (MLS) compositional analysis because of inaccuracies in the reference spectrum used to represent the protein. Higher spatial resolution combined with more accurate compositional analysis can be achieved if a reference spectrum is used that better represents the electron-beam-damaged protein component under frozen-hydrated conditions rather than one separately collected from dry protein under low-dose conditions. We thus introduce a method to extract the best-fitting protein reference spectrum from an experimental spectrum dataset. This method can be used when the MLS-fitting problem is sufficiently constrained so that the only unknown is the reference spectrum for the protein component. We apply this approach to map the distribution of water in cryo-sections obtained from frozen-hydrated tissue of porcine skin. The raw spectral data were collected at doses up to 10{sup 5} e/nm{sup 2} despite the fact that observable damage begins at doses as low as 10{sup 3} e/nm{sup 2}. The resulting spatial resolution of 10 nm is 5-10 times better than that in previous studies of frozen-hydrated tissue and is sufficient to resolve sub-cellular water fluctuations as well as the inter-cellular lipid-rich regions of skin where water-mediated processes are believed to play a significant role in the phenotype of keratinocytes in the stratum corneum.

  1. High precision planar waveguide propagation loss measurement technique using a Fabry-Perot cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feuchter, Thomas; Thirstrup, Carsten

    1994-01-01

    A high precision measurement technique for characterizing the propagation loss in silica low-loss optical waveguides, based on measuring the contrast of a Fabry-Perot cavity, is demonstrated. The cavity consists of the waveguide coupled to two polarization-maintaining fibers, each end facet coated...

  2. Ac loss measurements on a superconducting transformer for a 25 kA superconducting rectifier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Kate, Herman H.J.; Mulders, J.M.; de Reuver, J.L.; van de Klundert, L.J.M.

    1984-01-01

    Ac loss measurements have been performed on a superconducting transformer. The transformer is a part of a 25 kA thermally switched superconducting rectifier operating at a frequency of 0.1 Hz. The loss measurements have been automatized by means of a microcomputer sampling four relevant signals and

  3. Measurement of AC losses in a racetrack superconducting coil made from YBCO coated conductor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seiler, Eugen; Abrahamsen, Asger Bech; Kovac, Jan

    2012-01-01

    to reinforce it. The AC loss is measured versus the transport current Ia with the coil immersed in liquid nitrogen. Measurements at frequencies 21 Hz, 36 Hz and 72 Hz are compared. The AC losses follow I2 a dependence at low current amplitudes and I3 a at high amplitudes. After cutting the inner steel frame...

  4. Using Solar Hot Water to Address Piping Heat Losses in Multifamily Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springer, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Seitzler, Matt [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Backman, Christine [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Weitzel, Elizabeth [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Solar thermal water heating is most cost effective when applied to multifamily buildings and some states offer incentives or other inducements to install them. However, typical solar water heating designs do not allow the solar generated heat to be applied to recirculation losses, only to reduce the amount of gas or electric energy needed for hot water that is delivered to the fixtures. For good reasons, hot water that is recirculated through the building is returned to the water heater, not to the solar storage tank. The project described in this report investigated the effectiveness of using automatic valves to divert water that is normally returned through the recirculation piping to the gas or electric water heater instead to the solar storage tank. The valves can be controlled so that the flow is only diverted when the returning water is cooler than the water in the solar storage tank.

  5. Using Solar Hot Water to Address Piping Heat Losses in Multifamily Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springer, David [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States); Seitzler, Matt [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States); Backman, Christine [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States); Weitzel, Elizabeth [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Solar thermal water heating is most cost effective when applied to multifamily buildings and some states offer incentives or other inducements to install them. However, typical solar water heating designs do not allow the solar generated heat to be applied to recirculation losses, only to reduce the amount of gas or electric energy needed for hot water that is delivered to the fixtures. For good reasons, hot water that is recirculated through the building is returned to the water heater, not to the solar storage tank. The project described in this report investigated the effectiveness of using automatic valves to divert water that is normally returned through the recirculation piping to the gas or electric water heater instead to the solar storage tank. The valves can be controlled so that the flow is only diverted when the returning water is cooler than the water in the solar storage tank.

  6. Building America Case Study: Addressing Multifamily Piping Losses with Solar Hot Water, Davis, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-12-01

    Solar thermal water heating is most cost effective when applied to multifamily buildings and some states offer incentives or other inducements to install them. However, typical solar water heating designs do not allow the solar generated heat to be applied to recirculation losses, only to reduce the amount of gas or electric energy needed for hot water that is delivered to the fixtures. For good reasons, hot water that is recirculated through the building is returned to the water heater, not to the solar storage tank. The project described in this report investigated the effectiveness of using automatic valves to divert water that is normally returned through the recirculation piping to the gas or electric water heater instead to the solar storage tank. The valves can be controlled so that the flow is only diverted when the returning water is cooler than the water in the solar storage tank.

  7. Measurement of Beam Loss at the Australian Synchrotron

    CERN Document Server

    Holzer, EB; Kastriotou, M; Boland, MJ; Jackson, PD; Rasool, RP; Schmidt, J; Welsch, CP

    2014-01-01

    The unprecedented requirements that new machines are setting on their diagnostic systems is leading to the development of new generation of devices with large dynamic range, sensitivity and time resolution. Beam loss detection is particularly challenging due to the large extension of new facilities that need to be covered with localized detector. Candidates to mitigate this problem consist of systems in which the sensitive part of the radiation detectors can be extended over long distance of beam lines. In this document we study the feasibility of a BLM system based on optical fiber as an active detector for an electron storage ring. The Australian Synchrotron (AS) comprises a 216m ring that stores electrons up to 3GeV. The Accelerator has recently claimed the world record ultra low transverse emittance (below pm rad) and its surroundings are rich in synchrotron radiation. Therefore, the AS provides beam conditions very similar to those expected in the CLIC/ILC damping rings. A qualitative benchmark of beam l...

  8. Estimation of soil loss by water erosion in the Chinese Loess Plateau using Universal Soil Loss Equation and GRACE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitzer, S.; Seitz, F.; Eicker, A.; Güntner, A.; Wattenbach, M.; Menzel, A.

    2013-06-01

    For the estimation of soil loss by erosion in the strongly affected Chinese Loess Plateau we applied the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) using a number of input data sets (monthly precipitation, soil types, digital elevation model, land cover and soil conservation measures). Calculations were performed in ArcGIS and SAGA. The large-scale soil erosion in the Loess Plateau results in a strong non-hydrological mass change. In order to investigate whether the resulting mass change from USLE may be validated by the gravity field satellite mission GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment), we processed different GRACE level-2 products (ITG, GFZ and CSR). The mass variations estimated in the GRACE trend were relatively close to the observed sediment yield data of the Yellow River. However, the soil losses resulting from two USLE parameterizations were comparatively high since USLE does not consider the sediment delivery ratio. Most eroded soil stays in the study area and only a fraction is exported by the Yellow River. Thus, the resultant mass loss appears to be too small to be resolved by GRACE.

  9. Metabolic rate, evaporative water loss and thermoregulatory state in four species of bats in the Negev desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Garcia, Agustí; Larraín, Paloma; Ben-Hamo, Miriam; Cruz-Neto, Ariovaldo; Williams, Joseph B; Pinshow, Berry; Korine, Carmi

    2016-01-01

    Life in deserts is challenging for bats because of their relatively high energy and water requirements; nevertheless bats thrive in desert environments. We postulated that bats from desert environments have lower metabolic rates (MR) and total evaporative water loss (TEWL) than their mesic counterparts. To test this idea, we measured MR and TEWL of four species of bats, which inhabit the Negev desert in Israel, one species mainly restricted to hyper-arid deserts (Otonycteris hemprichii), two species from semi-desert areas (Eptesicus bottae and Plecotus christii), and one widespread species (Pipistrellus kuhlii). We also measured separately, in the same individuals, the two components of TEWL, respiratory water loss (RWL) and cutaneous evaporative water loss (CEWL), using a mask. In all the species, MR and TEWL were significantly reduced during torpor, the latter being a consequence of reductions in both RWL and CEWL. Then, we evaluated whether MR and TEWL in bats differ according to their geographic distributions, and whether those rates change with Ta and the use of torpor. We did not find significant differences in MR among species, but we found that TEWL was lowest in the species restricted to desert habitats, intermediate in the semi-desert dwelling species, and highest in the widespread species, perhaps a consequence of adaptation to life in deserts. Our results were supported by a subsequent analysis of data collected from the literature on rates of TEWL for 35 bat species from desert and mesic habitats.

  10. Fruit cuticle lipid composition and fruit post-harvest water loss in an advanced backcross generation of pepper (Capsicum sp.)

    KAUST Repository

    Parsons, Eugene P.

    2012-03-05

    To understand the role of fruit cuticle lipid composition in fruit water loss, an advanced backcross population, the BC2F2, was created between the Capsicum annuum (PI1154) and the Capsicum chinense (USDA162), which have high and low post-harvest water loss rates, respectively. Besides dramatic differences in fruit water loss, preliminary studies also revealed that these parents exhibited significant differences in both the amount and composition of their fruit cuticle. Cuticle analysis of the BC2F2 fruit revealed that although water loss rate was not strongly associated with the total surface wax amount, there were significant correlations between water loss rate and cuticle composition. We found a positive correlation between water loss rate and the amount of total triterpenoid plus sterol compounds, and negative correlations between water loss and the alkane to triterpenoid plus sterol ratio. We also report negative correlations between water loss rate and the proportion of both alkanes and aliphatics to total surface wax amount. For the first time, we report significant correlations between water loss and cutin monomer composition. We found positive associations of water loss rate with the total cutin, total C16 monomers and 16-dihydroxy hexadecanoic acid. Our results support the hypothesis that simple straight-chain aliphatic cuticle constituents form more impermeable cuticular barriers than more complex isoprenoid-based compounds. These results shed new light on the biochemical basis for cuticle involvement in fruit water loss. © 2012 Physiologia Plantarum.

  11. Drought tolerance as predicted by leaf water potential at turgor loss point varies strongly across species within an Amazonian forest

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    1. Amazonian droughts are predicted to become increasingly frequent and intense, and the vulnerability of Amazonian trees has become increasingly documented. However, little is known about the physiological mechanisms and the diversity of drought tolerance of tropical trees due to the lack of quantitative measurements. 2. Leaf water potential at wilting or turgor loss point (pi(tlp)) is a determinant of the tolerance of leaves to drought stress and contributes to plant-level physiological...

  12. How does tree density affect water loss of peatlands? A mesocosm experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limpens, Juul; Holmgren, Milena; Jacobs, Cor M J; Van der Zee, Sjoerd E A T M; Karofeld, Edgar; Berendse, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Raised bogs have accumulated more atmospheric carbon than any other terrestrial ecosystem on Earth. Climate-induced expansion of trees and shrubs may turn these ecosystems from net carbon sinks into sources when associated with reduced water tables. Increasing water loss through tree evapotranspiration could potentially deepen water tables, thus stimulating peat decomposition and carbon release. Bridging the gap between modelling and field studies, we conducted a three-year mesocosm experiment subjecting natural bog vegetation to three birch tree densities, and studied the changes in subsurface temperature, water balance components, leaf area index and vegetation composition. We found the deepest water table in mesocosms with low tree density. Mesocosms with high tree density remained wettest (i.e. highest water tables) whereas the control treatment without trees had intermediate water tables. These differences are attributed mostly to differences in evapotranspiration. Although our mesocosm results cannot be directly scaled up to ecosystem level, the systematic effect of tree density suggests that as bogs become colonized by trees, the effect of trees on ecosystem water loss changes with time, with tree transpiration effects of drying becoming increasingly offset by shading effects during the later phases of tree encroachment. These density-dependent effects of trees on water loss have important implications for the structure and functioning of peatbogs.

  13. [Temperature measurements during abrasive water jet osteotomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmolke, S; Pude, F; Kirsch, L; Honl, M; Schwieger, K; Krömer, S

    2004-01-01

    Working on bone is a major aspect of orthopaedic surgery. Despite its well-known appreciable thermal effects on the edges of the bone cut, the oscillating bone saw blade the oscillating saw remains the standard instrument both for cutting long bones and creating a bed for an endoprosthesis. The application of abrasive water jets offers the possibility of achieving an extremely precise curved cut in bone with no accompanying thermal effect. The thermographically measured absolute temperature increase at the cut edges seen with the water jet was 13 K maximum. The small process forces permit the application in automated handling systems.

  14. A New Technique for Measuring the Heat Loss Coefficient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Sv Aa Højgaard; Rose, Jørgen

    1996-01-01

    To measure the effect of linear cold bridges in building envelope constructions the guarded hot box technique is used. A new method based on a guarded hot plate technique has been proposed and investigated with respect to errors. The results are promising and further development of the method is ...

  15. Examining water quality effects of riparian wetland loss and restoration scenarios in a southern ontario watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wanhong; Liu, Yongbo; Ou, Chunping; Gabor, Shane

    2016-06-01

    Wetland conservation has two important tasks: The first is to halt wetland loss and the second is to conduct wetland restoration. In order to facilitate these tasks, it is important to understand the environmental degradation from wetland loss and the environmental benefits from wetland restoration. The purpose of the study is to develop SWAT based wetland modelling to examine water quality effects of riparian wetland loss and restoration scenarios in the 323-km(2) Black River watershed in southern Ontario, Canada. The SWAT based wetland modelling was set up, calibrated and validated to fit into watershed conditions. The modelling was then applied to evaluate various scenarios of wetland loss from existing 7590 ha of riparian wetlands (baseline scenario) to 100% loss, and wetland restoration up to the year 1800 condition with 11,237 ha of riparian wetlands (100% restoration). The modelling was further applied to examine 100% riparian wetland loss and restoration in three subareas of the watershed to understand spatial pattern of water quality effects. Modelling results show that in comparing to baseline condition, the sediment, total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) loadings increase by 251.0%, 260.5%, and 890.9% respectively for 100% riparian wetland loss, and decrease by 34.5%, 28.3%, and 37.0% respectively for 100% riparian wetland restoration. Modelling results also show that as riparian wetland loss increases, the corresponding environmental degradation worsens at accelerated rates. In contrast, as riparian wetland restoration increases, the environmental benefits improve but at decelerated rates. Particularly, the water quality effects of riparian wetland loss or restoration show considerable spatial variations. The watershed wetland modelling contributes to inform decisions on riparian wetland conservation or restoration at different rates. The results further demonstrate the importance of targeting priority areas for stopping riparian wetland loss

  16. Modelling measurement microphones using BEM with visco-thermal losses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cutanda Henriquez, Vicente; Juhl, Peter Møller

    2012-01-01

    For many decades, models that can explain the behaviour of measurement condenser microphones have been proposed in the literature. These devices have an apparently simple working principle, a charged capacitor whose charge varies when one of its electrodes, the diaphragm, moves as a result of sound...... waves. However, measurement microphones must be manufactured very carefully due to their sensitivity to small changes of their physical parameters. There are different elements in a microphone, the diaphragm, the gap behind it, a back cavity, a vent for pressure equalization and an external medium. All...... these subsystems form a strongly coupled device that cannot be modelled properly as a superposition of submodels, but rather as a whole. For this reason, the challenge of microphone modelling is still an ongoing area of research. In this work, a newly developed Boundary Element Method implementation that includes...

  17. Measurement and characterization of the path loss for ear-to-ear wireless communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nour, Baqer; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2011-01-01

    loss increases as the frequency increases. We measured the path loss ∣PL∣ at 1 GHz to approximately 33 dB for the tangential magnetic dipole and 45 dB for the normal magnetic dipole. These measurements show the importance of the orientation with respect to the surface of the head. We were able to gain...... 12 dB for the same antenna just by choosing different orientation. The significance of the feeding cables was demonstrated in the measurements with bow-tie dipoles (ant. 4 and 5), where the measurements show smaller path loss than for the low frequency cases. By using numerical simulations we were...

  18. Loss measurement and analysis for the prototype generator with HTS stator and permanent magnet rotor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Peng, E-mail: songp10@mails.tsinghua.edu.cn [Applied Superconductivity Research Center, Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Qu, Timing, E-mail: tmqu@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Applied Superconductivity Research Center, Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials Processing Technology, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100084 (China); Yu, Xiaoyu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials Processing Technology, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100084 (China); Li, Longnian; Gu, Chen [Applied Superconductivity Research Center, Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Li, Xiaohang [Innova Superconductor Technology Co., Ltd., Beijing 100084 (China); Wang, Dewen; Hu, Boping [Beijing Zhong Ke San Huan Hi-Tech Co., Ltd., Beijing 100084 (China); Chen, Duxing [Department Fis, University Autonoma Barcelona, Barcelona 08193 (Spain); Han, Zhenghe [Applied Superconductivity Research Center, Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •A novel prototype HTS generator with HTS armature windings was developed. •No-load loss and the iron loss at low temperature were measured. •The total loss at low temperature is much larger than the room temperature case. •The reason for no-load loss increment at low temperature is discussed. -- Abstract: A prototype HTS synchronous generator with a permanent magnet rotor and HTS armature windings was developed. The rated armature frequency is 10 Hz. The cryogenic Dewar is tightly surrounded outside the iron core. Both HTS coils and the iron core were cooled by using conduction cooling method. During the process of no-load running, the no-load loss power data were obtained through the torque measurement. The temperature evolution characteristics of the stator was measured by PT-100 temperature sensors. These results show that the no-load loss power at around 77 K are much larger than that at room temperature. The possible reason for the no-load loss increment is discussed. The ac loss power of one individual HTS coil used in this generator was also tested. Compared with the iron loss power, the ac loss power is rather small and could be neglected.

  19. Loss of water transport capacity due to xylem cavitation in roots of two CAM succulents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linton, M J; Nobel, P S

    1999-11-01

    Loss of axial hydraulic conductance as a result of xylem cavitation was examined for roots of the Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) succulents Agave deserti and Opuntia ficus-indica. Vulnerability to cavitation was not correlated with either root size or vessel diameter. Agave deserti had a mean cavitation pressure of -0.93 ± 0.08 MPa by both an air-injection and a centrifugal method compared to -0.70 ± 0.02 MPa by the centrifugal method for O. ficus-indica, reflecting the greater tolerance of the former species to low water potentials in its native habitat. Substantial xylem cavitation would occur at a soil water potential of -0.25 MPa, resulting in a predicted 22% loss of conductance for A. deserti and 32% for O. ficus-indica. For an extended drought of 3 mo, further cavitation could cause a 69% loss of conductance for A. deserti and 62% for O. ficus-indica. A model of axial hydraulic flow based upon the cavitation response of these species predicted that water uptake rates are far below the maximum possible, owing to the high root water potentials of these desert succulents. Despite various shoot adaptations to aridity, roots of A. deserti and O. ficus-indica are highly vulnerable to cavitation, which partially limits water uptake in a wet soil but helps reduce water loss to a drying soil.

  20. Experimental measurement and calculation of losses in planar radial magnetic bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasarda, M. E. F.; Allaire, P. E.; Hope, R. W.; Humphris, R. R.

    1994-05-01

    The loss mechanisms associated with magnetic bearings have yet to be adequately characterized or modeled analytically and thus pose a problem for the designer of magnetic bearings. This problem is particularly important for aerospace applications where low power consumption of components is critical. Also, losses are expected to be large for high speed operation. The iron losses in magnetic bearings can be divided into eddy current losses and hysteresis losses. While theoretical models for these losses exist for transformer and electric motor applications, they have not been verified for magnetic bearings. This paper presents the results from a low speed experimental test rig and compares them to calculated values from existing theory. Experimental data was taken over a range of 90 to 2,800 rpm for several bias currents and two different pole configurations. With certain assumptions agreement between measured and calculated power losses was within 16 percent for a number of test configurations.

  1. High temperature measurement of water vapor absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefer, Dennis; Lewis, J. W. L.; Eskridge, Richard

    1985-01-01

    An investigation was undertaken to measure the absorption coefficient, at a wavelength of 10.6 microns, for mixtures of water vapor and a diluent gas at high temperature and pressure. The experimental concept was to create the desired conditions of temperature and pressure in a laser absorption wave, similar to that which would be created in a laser propulsion system. A simplified numerical model was developed to predict the characteristics of the absorption wave and to estimate the laser intensity threshold for initiation. A non-intrusive method for temperature measurement utilizing optical laser-beam deflection (OLD) and optical spark breakdown produced by an excimer laser, was thoroughly investigated and found suitable for the non-equilibrium conditions expected in the wave. Experiments were performed to verify the temperature measurement technique, to screen possible materials for surface initiation of the laser absorption wave and to attempt to initiate an absorption wave using the 1.5 kW carbon dioxide laser. The OLD technique was proven for air and for argon, but spark breakdown could not be produced in helium. It was not possible to initiate a laser absorption wave in mixtures of water and helium or water and argon using the 1.5 kW laser, a result which was consistent with the model prediction.

  2. Influence of soil water repellency on runoff and solute loss from New Zealand pasture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyakumar, P.; Müller, K.; Deurer, M.; van den Dijssel, C.; Mason, K.; Green, S.; Clothier, B. E.

    2012-04-01

    Soil water repellency (SWR) has been reported in New Zealand, but knowledge on its importance for the country's economy and environment is limited. Our recent survey on the occurrence of SWR under pasture across the North Island of New Zealand showed that most soils exhibited SWR when dry independent of climate but influenced by the soil order. SWR is discussed as an important soil surface condition enhancing run-off and the transfer of fertilizers and pesticides from agricultural land into waterways. So far, the impact of SWR on run-off has rarely been measured. We developed a laboratory-scale run-off measurement apparatus (ROMA) to quantify directly the impact of SWR on run-off from undisturbed soil slabs. We compared the run-off resulting from the run-on of water with that resulting from an ethanol (30% v/v) solution, which is a fully-wetting liquid even in severely hydrophobic soils. Thus, the experiments with the ethanol solution can be understood as a proxy measure of the wetting-up behaviour of hydrophilic soils. We conducted ROMA run-off experiments with air-dried soil slabs (460 mm long x 190 mm wide x 50 mm deep) collected from pastoral sites, representing three major soil orders in the North Island: Recent Soil (Fluvisol), Gley Soil (Gleysol), and Organic Soil (Histosol), with water followed by the ethanol solution at a run-on rate of 60 mm/h. Bromide was applied at 80 kg KBr/ha prior to the water experiments to assess potential solute losses via run-off. The air-dried soils had a high degree and persistence of SWR (contact angles, 97, 98 and 104° , and potential water drop penetration times, 42, 54 and 231 min for the Fluvisol, Gleysol and Histosol, respectively). Under identical soil and experimental conditions, water generated run-off from all soils, but in the experiments with the ethanol solution, the entire ethanol solution infiltrated into the soils. The ranking of the run-off coefficients of the soils directly reflected their ranking in

  3. Validation of the doubly-labeled water (H/sup 3/H/sup 18/O) method for measuring water flux and energy metabolism in tenebrionid beetles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, P.D.

    1981-01-01

    Doubly-labeled water (H/sup 3/H/sup 18/O) has been used to determine water flux and energy metabolism in a variety of vertebrates. This study examines the applicability of this technique to arthropods. The theory of the technique depends upon the assumption that doubly-labeled water introduced into the animal's body water equilibrates with water and carbon dioxide by the action of carbonic anhydrase. Tritium (/sup 3/H) is lost from the animal only with water while oxygen-18 is lost with both water and carbon dioxide. The difference bwtween the rates of loss of the two isotopes is proportional to CO/sub 2/ loss rate. Validation of the use of tritiated water for measuring water flux was accomplished by comparing gravimetric measurements of water gain with flux rates determined by loss of tritiated water. At room humidity, an overestimate for influx calculated from labeled water calculations was found, averaging 12 mg H/sub 2/O (g.d)/sup -1/. Comparison of CO/sub 2/ loss rate determined isotopically with rates of CO/sub 2/ loss determined by standard metabolic rates also yielded overestimates for the isotopic technique, overestimates ranging between 20 and 30%. The relevance of this for studies using labeled water for studying water fluxes and free metabolism of free-ranging arthropods is discussed.

  4. Thermal stratification in a hot water tank established by heat loss from the tank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    on the natural buoyancy resulting in downward flow along the tank side walls due to heat loss of the tank and the influence on thermal stratification of the tank by the downward flow and the corresponding upward flow in the central parts of the tank. Water temperatures at different levels of the tank......Results of experimental and numerical investigations of thermal stratification and natural convection in a vertical cylindrical hot water tank during standby periods are presented. The transient fluid flow and heat transfer in the tank during cooling caused by heat loss are investigated...

  5. Thermal stratification in a hot water tank established by heat loss from the tank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Jianhua; Furbo, Simon

    2009-01-01

    on the natural buoyancy resulting in downward flow along the tank side walls due to heat loss of the tank and the influence on thermal stratification of the tank by the downward flow and the corresponding upward flow in the central parts of the tank. Water temperatures at different levels of the tank......Results of experimental and numerical investigations of thermal stratification and natural convection in a vertical cylindrical hot water tank during standby periods are presented. The transient fluid flow and heat transfer in the tank during cooling caused by heat loss are investigated...

  6. Study on Soil and Water Loss Characteristic of the Railway Construction in Mountain Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    The factor of human project activity is often the immediate cause resulting in soil and water loss. The Baoji-Lanzhou second railway in construction is an example. The soil and water loss law caused by earth and stone mountain railway engineering construction in the northwestern China is studied systematically and that caused possibly by the road bed project, the road moat project, the field project, the tunnel project and the service road project in construction is probed. At the same time, the type, t...

  7. Effects of essential fatty acid deficiency on epidermal O-acylsphingolipids and transepidermal water loss in young pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melton, J L; Wertz, P W; Swartzendruber, D C; Downing, D T

    1987-09-25

    Linoleate-rich O-acylglucosylceramides and acylceramides are thought to be of major significance for the physical structure and function of the epidermal permeability barrier. In the present investigation, the effects of a linoleate-free diet on O-acylsphingolipids and their associated functions were investigated. Starting at 5 days of age, male pigs were fed diets containing 12% of either lard or hydrogenated coconut oil. Transepidermal water loss was measured with an electrolytic water analyzer at weekly intervals. Pigs were killed at intervals, and epidermal lipids were isolated and analyzed. Fatty acid compositions were determined by gas-liquid chromatography (GLC). Within 2-3 weeks, pigs on the diet containing coconut oil began to display biochemical and physiological symptoms of essential fatty acid deficiency. Within 2 months, this group had extremely scaly skin and transepidermal water loss was elevated to five times that of controls. The progressive increase in transepidermal water loss correlated with replacement of linoleate by oleate in both acylceramide and acylglucosylceramide. The formation of lamellar granules and intercellular lipid sheets in the stratum corneum was not impaired in essential fatty acid deficiency as judged by electron microscopy. These results suggest that the linoleic acid normally found in the O-acylsphingolipids is not essential for formation of the epidermal membrane system. Rather, it appears that the nature of the ester-linked fatty acid in the O-acylsphingolipids regulates the permeability of this membrane system.

  8. Measuring the utility of losses by means of the tradeoff method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fennema, H; Van Assen, M

    1998-01-01

    This paper investigates the shape of the utility function for losses. From a rational point of view it can be argued that utility should be concave. Empirically measurements of the utility for losses show mixed results but most evidence supports convex rather than concave utilities. However, these m

  9. Soil Water Balance Measurement in Field Scale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENZHI-XIONG

    1992-01-01

    A 5-year experiment on water balance has been conducted in a flat rainfed wheat field with an area of 66×100m2 in Fengqiu,Henan Province in China.Based on the analysis of semi-variance functions conducted with soil moisture samples taken from 77 nodes of a 10×10m2 grid,the soil moisture distribution in the field was structural with a temporal stability.According to the autocorrelation range of the semi-variance function,6 sites were selected for the determination of soil water conditions.The characteristic of probability density function of the differences of water storage in two sets of measurements showed that the distribution of these variables in the field was a normal one.The error in the estimation of the average of 5 random samples was 14% (α=0.10),and the errors of water consumption by wheat during the experiments were estimated to be 6-13%.Sime the experimental field was large enough to avoid any edge effect,the results obtained should tally with the actual situation.Yet the soil system was heterogeneous,so we must follow the principles of statistics and geostatistics when describing the system's status with the average of the samples.

  10. The Discuss of the Formula of Flow Loss and Water Using Coefficient on Seepage Proofed Channel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    On the basis of the analysis about present water resource situation in China ,the disadvantage of the for mula of flow loss and water using coefficient on anti-seep channel which have been applying in channel de sign and water saving irrigation administration will be indicated in the paper. The characteristics of that the loss of conveying water is changeable with the flow changing have been take into account in the new formula. The formula is validated by the example of middle permeable channel (A = 1.90,m = 0.40). The calculate re sult is more precision. Also some formula has been given,they can be referred to the worker of the irrigation administration.

  11. The Econometric Assessment of Losses Caused by Water Pollution in Chongqing, Southwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨钢; 陈刚才; 常永官

    2004-01-01

    As an important industrial city, Chongqing has experienced rapid economic growth in recent years, but at the same time the growth has been accompanied by serious pollution problems. Water quality monitoring shows that the waters of Chongqing are widely polluted. In this paper, the human capital approach is applied to assessing the economic losses and damages caused by water pollution in Chongqing. Based on previous studies and empirical investigations,water pollution-induced damage can be categorized into two general types: damage to ecosystems, including agriculture; and damage to non-ecosystems, including industry. The economic loss estimation of each type of the damage is conducted by taking into account a group of relevant parameters and methods.

  12. Effects of different soil and water loss control measures on the dung beetle assemblages in Huangfuchuan watershed, Inner Mongolia of North China%内蒙古皇甫川流域不同水土治理措施对粪金龟子群落的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟; 王润润; 刘新民

    2013-01-01

    By using pitfall trap method, and taking the croplands and natural grasslands under different soil and water loss control measures as sampling plots, an investigation was conducted on the dung beetle assemblages in the Huangfuchuan watershed of Inner Mongolia from September 2007 to September 2008, aimed to understand the effects of different soil and water loss control measures on the dung beetle assemblages in the watershed.A total of 6169 dung beetles were captured, belonging to 15 species, 5 genus, and 2 families.The dominant species were Aphodius rectus and Onthophagus gibbulus, accounting for 66.54% and 13.26% of the total captured beetles, respectively.A lack of the species suitable for living in woodland habitats was the basic feature of the dung beetle assemblages.As compared with the control, all test soil and water loss control measures did not cause an obvious increase of species richness, biomass, and abundance of the dung beetle assemblages.The biomass and species richness of the assemblages as well as the abundance of the functional groups Ⅱ and Ⅲ had a significant negative correlation with the average tree (grass) height.Under the effects of long-term agricultural cultivation and the lack of large herbivores, the species richness and abundance of the functional group Ⅰ (larger paracoprids and telocoprids) were lower than those of the functional groups Ⅱ ( relatively smaller paracoprids) and Ⅲ ( en- docoprids) , the main components of the dung beetle assemblages in the watershed.The faeces of the residents and livestock in the study region provided abundant foods for the dung beetle assemblages , inducing the relatively high abundance and spices richness of the assemblages occurred in the croplands nearby the villages.Our results suggested that natural grasslands were the suitable habitats for the dung beetles in Huangfuchuan watershed.At regional scale, to popularize the successful experiences of comprehensive soil and water loss control

  13. Dual-isotope measurement of lung water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, R.Y.L.; Carlile, P.V. Jr.; Basmadjian, G. (Oklahoma Univ., Oklahoma City, OK (USA). Health Sciences Center Oklahoma Univ., Oklahoma City, OK (USA). Veterans Administration Medical Center)

    1989-01-01

    Iodine-131-labeled iodo-antipyrine and {sup 99m}Tc-labeled erythrocytes were used to measure water content in lungs. These radioactive tracers were injected into 11 dogs with injured lungs. Blood samples were drawn and the animals sacrificed. The lungs were removed, weighed and homogenized. Samples of blood and lung homogenate were assayed for {sup 131}I and {sup 99m}Tc. Samples were also weighed before and after drying to a constant weight at 70-76{sup 0}C. Extravascular lung water was determined by the dual-isotope technique and again by gravimetric analysis. The average ratio of the results from the two different methods was 1.14{plus minus}0.20. The two methods were also compared by regression analysis and the correlation coefficient was 0.97{plus minus}0.09. (author).

  14. The effect of fibers on the loss of water by evaporation and shrinkage of concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. P. Pillar

    Full Text Available Shrinkage is one of the least desirable attributes in concrete. Large areas of exposed concrete surfaces , such as in shotcrete tunnel linings, where it is practically impossible to make a moist cure, are highly susceptible to plastic shrinkage at early ages. The autogenous and drying shrinkage can lead to states of greater than threshold strength, causing fracture, mechanical damage and lack of durability of concrete structures. The addition of fibers can greatly reduce plastic shrinkage, but has limited effect in mitigating autogenous and drying shrinkage. To evaluate the performance of polypropylene and steel fibers to understand their effect on shrinkage of concrete, a study was carried out to relate the loss of water from the paste and the shrinkage during the first 28 days of age, and compare it with a control mix without fiber. The loss of water was obtained by the weight loss of the specimens at different ages, since the only component that could contribute for the loss of weight was the water lost by the paste of the concrete. And the paste itself is the only source of shrinkage. Uniaxial compressive tests from very early ages enabled the determination of time when plastic shrinkage ended. It was observed that the control concrete mix lost three times more water and developed plastic and drying shrinkage 60 % higher than the fiber reinforced concrete mixes. It was possible to demonstrate that the reduced loss of water caused by the incorporation of fibers is related to the mitigation of plastic shrinkage. It was observed that the fibers are effective to restrain the movement of water through the cement paste in the plastic state, however such effect is limited after concrete starts the hardening state.

  15. Climate change and wetland loss impacts on a western river's water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Records, R. M.; Arabi, M.; Fassnacht, S. R.; Duffy, W. G.; Ahmadi, M.; Hegewisch, K. C.

    2014-11-01

    An understanding of potential stream water quality conditions under future climate is critical for the sustainability of ecosystems and the protection of human health. Changes in wetland water balance under projected climate could alter wetland extent or cause wetland loss (e.g., via increased evapotranspiration and lower growing season flows leading to reduced riparian wetland inundation) or altered land use patterns. This study assessed the potential climate-induced changes to in-stream sediment and nutrient loads in the snowmelt-dominated Sprague River, Oregon, western US. Additionally, potential water quality impacts of combined changes in wetland water balance and wetland area under future climatic conditions were evaluated. The study utilized the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) forced with statistical downscaling of general circulation model (GCM) data from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5) using the Multivariate Adaptive Constructed Analogs (MACA) method. Our findings suggest that, in the Sprague River, (1) mid-21st century nutrient and sediment loads could increase significantly during the high-flow season under warmer, wetter climate projections or could change only nominally in a warmer and somewhat drier future; (2) although water quality conditions under some future climate scenarios and no wetland loss may be similar to the past, the combined impact of climate change and wetland losses on nutrient loads could be large; (3) increases in stream total phosphorus (TP) concentration with wetland loss under future climate scenarios would be greatest at high-magnitude, low-probability flows; and (4) loss of riparian wetlands in both headwaters and lowlands could increase outlet TP loads to a similar degree, but this could be due to distinctly different mechanisms in different parts of the watershed.

  16. Climate change and wetland loss impacts on a Western river's water quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Records

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available An understanding of potential stream water quality conditions under future climate is critical for the sustainability of ecosystems and protection of human health. Changes in wetland water balance under projected climate could alter wetland extent or cause wetland loss. This study assessed the potential climate-induced changes to in-stream sediment and nutrients loads in the historically snow melt-dominated Sprague River, Oregon, Western United States. Additionally, potential water quality impacts of combined changes in wetland water balance and wetland area under future climatic conditions were evaluated. The study utilized the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT forced with statistical downscaling of general circulation model (GCM data from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5 using the Multivariate Adaptive Constructed Analogs (MACA method. Our findings suggest that in the Sprague River (1 mid-21st century nutrient and sediment loads could increase significantly during the high flow season under warmer-wetter climate projections, or could change only nominally in a warmer and somewhat drier future; (2 although water quality conditions under some future climate scenarios and no wetland loss may be similar to the past, the combined impact of climate change and wetland losses on nutrient loads could be large; (3 increases in stream total phosphorus (TP concentration with wetland loss under future climate scenarios would be greatest at high-magnitude, low-probability flows; and (4 loss of riparian wetlands in both headwaters and lowlands could increase outlet TP loads to a similar degree, but this could be due to distinctly different mechanisms in different parts of the watershed.

  17. Evaluation of Heat Loss and Water Temperature in a Spent Fuel Pit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagi, Chihiro; Murase, Michio; Yoshida, Yoshitaka; Iwaki, Takanori; Nagae, Takashi

    Three-dimensional calculations of ventilation air flow and thermal-hydraulic behavior in a spent fuel pit (SFP) were made using the CFD software, FLUENT6.3.26 to evaluate the heat loss and water temperature in the SFP after shutdown of its cooling systems. The air and water velocities near the water surface were evaluated from the calculated results and referred to conditions of evaporation heat transfer tests, which were carried out at Shinshu University. From the test data, a correlation for evaporation heat fluxes was introduced and incorporated into the calculation of thermal-hydraulic behavior in the SFP. Then, a three-dimensional calculation of thermal-hydraulic behavior in the SFP was done. It was confirmed that the higher the water temperature was, the larger the heat loss from water was, and that the major heat loss was the evaporation heat transfer from the water surface to ventilation air, which was about ten times larger than the heat transfer to concrete walls.

  18. Penetration Loss Measurement and Modeling for HAP Mobile Systems in Urban Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holis Jaroslav

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this paper is to present the results of a measurement campaign focused on the evaluation of penetration loss into buildings in an urban area as a function of the elevation angle. An empirical model to predict penetration loss into buildings is developed based on measured data obtained using a remote-controlled airship. The impact on penetration loss of different buildings and user positions within the buildings is presented. The measured data are evaluated as a function of the elevation angle. The measurement campaign was carried out at 2.0 GHz and 3.5 GHz carrier frequencies, representing the frequency band for high altitude platform third-generation mobile systems and, potentially, next generation mobile systems, mobile WiMAX, for example, the new penetration loss model can be used for system performance simulations and coverage planning.

  19. Penetration Loss Measurement and Modeling for HAP Mobile Systems in Urban Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Pechac

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the results of a measurement campaign focused on the evaluation of penetration loss into buildings in an urban area as a function of the elevation angle. An empirical model to predict penetration loss into buildings is developed based on measured data obtained using a remote-controlled airship. The impact on penetration loss of different buildings and user positions within the buildings is presented. The measured data are evaluated as a function of the elevation angle. The measurement campaign was carried out at 2.0 GHz and 3.5 GHz carrier frequencies, representing the frequency band for high altitude platform third-generation mobile systems and, potentially, next generation mobile systems, mobile WiMAX, for example, the new penetration loss model can be used for system performance simulations and coverage planning.

  20. Study of a Modified AC Bridge Technique for Loss Angle Measurement of a Dielectric Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. BERA

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A Wheatstone’s bridge network like Schering Bridge, DeSauty Bridge etc measures the loss angle or tangent of loss angle (tanδ of a dielectric material. In high voltage application this loss angle is generally measured by high voltage Schering Bridge. But continuous measurement of tan δ is not possible by these techniques. In the present paper a modified operational amplifiers based Schering Bridge network has been proposed for continuous measurement of tanδ in the form of a bridge network output voltage. Mathematical analysis of the proposed bridge network has been discussed in the paper and experimental work has been performed assuming the lossy dielectric material as a series combination of loss less capacitor and a resistor. Experimental results are reported in the paper. From the mathematical analysis and experimental results it is found that the output of the proposed bridge network is almost linearly related with tanδ.

  1. Lipid composition of the stratum corneum and cutaneous water loss in birds along an aridity gradient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Champagne, Alex M.; Munoz-Garcia, Agusti; Shtayyeh, Tamer; Tieleman, B. Irene; Hegemann, Arne; Clement, Michelle E.; Williams, Joseph B.

    2012-01-01

    Intercellular and covalently bound lipids within the stratum corneum (SC), the outermost layer of the epidermis, are the primary barrier to cutaneous water loss (CWL) in birds. We compared CWL and intercellular SC lipid composition in 20 species of birds from desert and mesic environments.

  2. Analysis of the Pipe Heat Loss of the Water Flow Calorimetry System in EAST Neutral Beam Injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chundong; Chen, Yu; Xu, Yongjian; Yu, Ling; Li, Xiang; Zhang, Weitang

    2016-11-01

    Neutral beam injection heating is one of the main auxiliary heating methods in controllable nuclear fusion research. In the EAST neutral beam injector, a water flow calorimetry (WFC) system is applied to measure the heat load on the electrode system of the ion source and the heat loading components of the beamline. Due to the heat loss in the return water pipe, there are some measuring errors for the current WFC system. In this paper, the errors were measured experimentally and analyzed theoretically, which lay a basis for the exact calculation of beam power deposition distribution and neutralization efficiency. supported by the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China (No. 2013GB101001) and the International Science & Technology Cooperation Program of China (No. 2014DFG61950)

  3. Loss Current Analysis of Water Tree Degradation in Polyethylene using Equivalent Circuit Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Masafumi; Itoh, Atsushi; Yoshimura, Noboru

    It is well known that the degradation of XLPE cable by water tree gives rise to harmonics in the loss current. Many researches by simulation and experiment have been carried out for the purpose of the elucidation of the mechanism of the harmonics in the loss current generation. In the present study, the loss current was calculated from the equivalent circuit model composed of voltage-dependent resistance and condenser. These elements are being connected with the matrix state. As a result, we were able to obtain the good agreement between the experimental value and the calculated value by appropriately choosing the characteristics of the voltage-dependent resistance. The equivalent circuit model determined in this study can consider not only the electrical characteristic of water tree but also its shape.

  4. Particle Shower Simulations and Loss Measurements in the LHC Magnet Interconnection Regions

    CERN Document Server

    Dehning, B; Kurfuerst, C; Nordt, A; Sapinski, M

    2010-01-01

    Particle losses in the LHC arcs are mainly expected in the interconnection region between a dipole and quadrupole magnet. The maximal beam size, the maximal orbit excursion and aperture changes cause the enhancement of losses at this location. Extensive Geant4 simulations have been performed to characterise this particular region to establish beam abort settings for the beam loss monitors in these areas. Data from first LHC beam loss measurements have been used to check and determine the most likely proton impact locations. This input has been used to optimise the simulations used for the definition of thresholds settings. The accuracy of these settings is investigated by comparing the simulations with actual loss measurements.

  5. Measurement of the mechanical loss of a dielectric multilayer reflective coating at low temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Yamamoto, K; Ishitsuka, H; Ito, K; Kuroda, K; Miyoki, S; Numata, K; Ohashi, M; Sato, N; Shintomi, T; Suzuki, T; Tomaru, T; Uchiyama, T; Waseda, K; Watanabe, K; Yamamoto, A; Haruyama, Tomiyoshi; Ishitsuka, Hideki; Ito, Kazuhiko; Kuroda, Kazuaki; Miyoki, Shinji; Numata, Kenji; Ohashi, Masatake; Sato, Nobuaki; Shintomi, Takakazu; Suzuki, Toshikazu; Tomaru, Takayuki; Uchiyama, Takashi; Waseda, Koichi; Watanabe, Koji; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro

    2006-01-01

    We have measured the mechanical loss of a dielectric multilayer reflective coating (ion-beam sputtered SiO$_2$ and Ta$_2$O$_5$) in cooled mirrors. The loss was nearly independent of the temperature (4 K $\\sim$ 300 K), frequency, optical loss, and stress caused by the coating, and the details of the manufacturing processes. The loss angle was $(4 \\sim 6) \\times 10^{-4}$. The temperature independence of this loss implies that the amplitude of the coating thermal noise, which is a severe limit in any precise measurement, is proportional to the square root of the temperature. Sapphire mirrors at 20 K satisfy the requirement concerning the thermal noise of even future interferometric gravitational wave detector projects on the ground, for example, LCGT.

  6. Correlation of AC Loss Data from Magnetic Susceptibility Measurements with YBCO Film Quality (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    AFRL-RZ-WP-TP-2012-0100 CORRELATION OF AC LOSS DATA FROM MAGNETIC SUSCEPTIBILITY MEASUREMENTS WITH YBCO FILM QUALITY (POSTPRINT) Paul N...CORRELATION OF AC LOSS DATA FROM MAGNETIC SUSCEPTIBILITY MEASUREMENTS WITH YBCO FILM QUALITY (POSTPRINT) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In-house 5b. GRANT...spreading of the temperature-dependent ac susceptibility curves with increasing applied magnetic field, the quality of the YBCO film generally

  7. Nondestructive relative permittivity and loss tangent measurements using a split-cylinder resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janezic, Michael Daniel

    To keep pace with the expanding wireless and electronics industries, manufacturers are developing innovative materials for improving system performance, and there is a critical need to accurately characterize the electrical properties of these new materials at microwave frequencies. To address this need, this thesis develops a nondestructive method for measuring the relative permittivity and loss tangent of dielectric substrates using a split-cylinder resonator. Three theoretical models for the split-cylinder resonator are derived using mode-matching, least-squares boundary residual, and Hankel-transform methods, from which one can calculate the relative permittivity and loss tangent of a dielectric substrate from measurements of the split-cylinder resonator's TE0np resonant frequency and quality factor. Each of these models has several advantages over previously published models. First, the accuracy of the relative permittivity measurement is increased because each model accurately models the fringing fields that extend beyond the cylindrical-cavity sections. Second, to increase the accuracy of the loss tangent measurement, each model accurately separates the conductive metal losses of the split-cylinder resonator from the dielectric losses of the substrate. Finally, in contrast to previous models for the split-cylinder resonator that use only the TE011 resonant mode, each of the new models include the higher-order TE0np resonant modes, thereby broadening the frequency range over which one can make relative permittivity and loss tangent measurements. In a comparison of the three models, the mode-matching method was found to be superior on the basis of measurement accuracy and computational speed. Relative permittivity and loss tangent measurements for several dielectric materials are performed using a split-cylinder resonator and are in good agreement with measurements made using a circular-cylindrical cavity, split-post resonator, and dielectric post resonator

  8. Water vapour measurements during POLINAT 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovarlez, J.; Ovarlez, H. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 91 - Palaiseau (France). Lab. de Meteorologie Dynamique

    1997-12-31

    The POLINAT (POLlution from aircraft emissions In the North ATlantic flight corridor)1 experiment has been performed within the framework of the Environment Programme of the Commission of the European Community. It was devoted to the study of the pollution from aircraft in the North Atlantic flight corridor, in order to investigate the impact of pollutants emitted by aircraft on the concentrations of ozone and other trace gases in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. For that experiment the water vapour content was measured with a frost-point hygrometer on board of the DLR Falcon research aircraft. This instrument is described, and some selected results are given. (author) 19 refs.

  9. New Isotopic Water Analyzer for Hydrological Measurements of Both Liquid Water and Water Vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owano, T.; Gupta, M.; Berman, E.; Baer, D.

    2012-04-01

    Measurements of the stable isotope ratios of liquid water allow determination of water flowpaths, residence times in catchments, and groundwater migration. Previously, discrete water samples have been collected and transported to an IRMS lab for isotope characterization. Due to the expense and labor associated with such sampling, isotope studies have thus been generally limited in scope and in temporal resolution. We report on the recent development of the first Isotopic Water Analyzer that simultaneously quantifies δ2H, δ17O and δ18O in liquid water or in water vapor from different natural water sources (e.g., rain, snow, streams and groundwater). In High-Throughput mode, the IWA can report measurements at the unprecedented rate of over 800 injections per day, which yields more than 140 total unknown and reference samples per day (still with 6 injections per measurement). This fast time response provides isotope hydrologists with the capability to study dynamic changes in δ values quickly (minutes) and over long time scales (weeks, months), thus enabling studies of mixing dynamics in snowmelt, canopy throughfall, stream mixing, and allows for individual precipitation events to be independently studied. In addition, the same IWA can also record fast measurements of isotopic water vapor (δ2H, δ17O, δ18O) in real time (2 Hz data rate or faster) over a range of mole fractions greater than 60000 ppm H2O in air. Changing between operational modes requires a software command, to enable the user to switch from measuring liquid water to measuring water vapor, or vice versa. The new IWA, which uses LGR's patented Off-axis ICOS technology, incorporates proprietary internal thermal control for stable measurements with essentially zero drift despite changes in ambient temperature (over the entire range from 0-45 degrees C). Measurements from recent field studies using the IWA will be presented.

  10. Calorimetric Measuring Systems for Characterizing High Frequency Power Losses in Power Electronic Components and Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Pedersen, John Kim; Ritchie, Andrew Ewen

    2002-01-01

    two different calorimetric measuring systems, one for power losses up to 50 W and one for power losses up to 1500 W. These differ in size and also the systems which can be analysed. The basic concept of calorimetry is discussed and the overall performance of the two systems is specified. Methods...... to calibrate such systems are proposed and different applications of the system are given. Two practical examples end the description of the research. It is concluded that such systems have a relative long time-constant but they are accurate and useful for precise power loss measurement....

  11. Detecting loss mechanisms of c-Si PV modules in-situ I-V measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Siyu; Schneller, Eric; Walters, Joe; Davis, Kristopher O.; Schoenfeld, Winston V.

    2016-09-01

    PV module reliability is alsways an important issue for PV industry. In an outdoor PV system, PV modules suffer from degradation due to different factors. It is then very important to determine the loss mechanisms of a PV module and making improvement based on this. It is found in this work that due to mismatch effect, using fitting method to extract I-V characteristics might not be well applied on a PV module, especially when it has non-uniform degradation problem. This work proposes a method to accurately quantify the power loss of PV modules due to different degradation mechanisms, including series resistance (Rs) loss, non-uniform shunting loss and number of shunted cells, uniform shunting loss, uniform current loss, non-uniform current (mismatch) loss, recombination current (J01 and J02) losses of a PV module. All required input information are the measured current-voltage (I-V) curves and short circuit current- open circuit voltage (Isc-Voc) of PV module initial state and final state. The method is first applied to a simulated PV module with various degradation problems. Power loss due to each loss mechanism for the simulated PV module is then extracted using the proposed method and a pie chart can be generated. Comparing with the actual power loss on each loss mechanism, the method proposed in this work is proved to be very accurate. The method is then further applied to a degradated PV module istalled in an outdoor PV system. The power loss on series resistance, shunting and current mismatch are effectively identified and the number of shunted cells is accurately calculated. In the real application, this method can be used in both indoor and outdoor characterization, which can be very beneficial for PV degradation analysis of PV modules and systems.

  12. Study on water loss of the surface stream affected by longwall mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Wen-bing; Syd S.Peng

    2007-01-01

    In order to study the effect of longwalI mining on suface stream water,monitoring stations of water flow rate was established.A lot of water flowing data were collected before,during and after longwall mining.Based on monitoring data,the effects of longwall mining on surface stream water were analyzed.The results demonstrate that longwall mining has effects on the surface stream water:and the stream water would be lost and decrease due to longwall mining but never go into underground through fractured zone.Also.the mechanism of water loss due to longwall mining was presented.The stream water can go into the surface cracks in the intersection of stream and surface cracks.longwall mining subsidence can change the surface stream slope and the downstream water flowing status.The results also show the effects of longwall mining on stream water are temporary and about one or two years later,surface stream water can be recovered.

  13. Hormonal control of integumentary water-loss: evidence for a novel neuroendocrine system in an insect (Periplaneta americana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treherne, J E; Willmer, P G

    1975-08-01

    An accelerated water-loss was observed in decapitated individuals, no equivalent increase being obtained following severance of the nervous connectives in the neck. Injection of brain and, to a lesser extent, corpus cardiacum extract resulted in a significant reduction in the rate of loss of water from decapitated individuals. The accelerated water-loss observed following decapitation appeared not to result from significant increase in excretory output or loss of water through the spiracles. It is suggested that integumentary transpiration may be affected by a blood-borne factor, or factors, which originate in the brain and corpus cardiacum.

  14. Study on AC loss measurements of HTS power cable for standardizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukoyama, Shinichi; Amemiya, Naoyuki; Watanabe, Kazuo; Iijima, Yasuhiro; Mido, Nobuhiro; Masuda, Takao; Morimura, Toshiya; Oya, Masayoshi; Nakano, Tetsutaro; Yamamoto, Kiyoshi

    2017-09-01

    High-temperature superconducting power cables (HTS cables) have been developed for more than 20 years. In addition of the cable developments, the test methods of the HTS cables have been discussed and proposed in many laboratories and companies. Recently the test methods of the HTS cables is required to standardize and to common in the world. CIGRE made the working group (B1-31) for the discussion of the test methods of the HTS cables as a power cable, and published the recommendation of the test method. Additionally, IEC TC20 submitted the New Work Item Proposal (NP) based on the recommendation of CIGRE this year, IEC TC20 and IEC TC90 started the standardization work on Testing of HTS AC cables. However, the individual test method that used to measure a performance of HTS cables hasn’t been established as world’s common methods. The AC loss is one of the most important properties to disseminate low loss and economical efficient HTS cables in the world. We regard to establish the method of the AC loss measurements in rational and in high accuracy. Japan is at a leading position in the AC loss study, because Japanese researchers have studied on the AC loss technically and scientifically, and also developed the effective technologies for the AC loss reduction. The JP domestic commission of TC90 made a working team to discussion the methods of the AC loss measurements for aiming an international standard finally. This paper reports about the AC loss measurement of two type of the HTS conductors, such as a HTS conductor without a HTS shield and a HTS conductor with a HTS shield. The AC loss measurement method is suggested by the electrical method..

  15. Influence of ionic strength on the viscosities and water loss of bentonite suspensions containing polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Viana Amorim

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A study was made of the influence of ionic strength (S on the apparent (AV and plastic (PV viscosities and water loss (WL of sodium bentonite suspension with polymers. Na-bentonite was dispersed in water (4.86% w/w of different ionic strengths (S = 0.0, 0.015, 0.030 and 0.045 M followed by the addition of polymer. Three polymer samples were studied, i.e., low viscosity carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC BV, polyanionic cellulose (PAC, and partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM. The results indicated that the presence of salts and increased salinity greatly influence the apparent and plastic viscosities and water loss of bentonite suspensions with polymer.

  16. Arbuscular mycorrhizae reducing water loss in maize plants under low temperature stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xian Can; Song, Feng Bin; Liu, Tie Dong; Liu, Sheng Qun

    2010-05-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi form mutualistic mycorrhizal symbiotic associations with the roots of approximately 80% of all terrestrial plant species while facilitate the uptake of soil mineral nutrients by plants and in exchange obtain carbohydrates, thus representing a large sink for photosynthetically fixed carbon. Also, AM symbiosis increase plants resistance to abiotic stress such as chilling. In a recent study we reported that AM fungi improve low temperature stress in maize plants via alterations in host water status and photosynthesis. Here, the influence of AM fungus, Glomus etunicatum, on water loss rate and growth of maize plants was studied in pot culture under low temperature stress. The results indicated that low temperature stress significantly decreases the total fresh weight of maize plants, and AM symbiosis alleviate the water loss in leaves of maize plants.

  17. PD-Detection vs. Loss Measurements at High Voltages with variable frequencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbøll, Joachim T.; Edin, Hans

    1999-01-01

    Partial discharge-activity (PD) in internal voids in epoxy plastic was measured at AC voltages from below inception to 3 times inception with variable frequencies in the range 0.1 to 100Hz.The results from phase/height analyses were compared to dielec-tric loss measurements and related to the app......Partial discharge-activity (PD) in internal voids in epoxy plastic was measured at AC voltages from below inception to 3 times inception with variable frequencies in the range 0.1 to 100Hz.The results from phase/height analyses were compared to dielec-tric loss measurements and related...

  18. RF Path and Absorption Loss Estimation for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks in Different Water Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Umair Mujtaba; Shaikh, Faisal Karim; Aziz, Zuneera; Shah, Syed M Zafi S; Sheikh, Adil A; Felemban, Emad; Qaisar, Saad Bin

    2016-01-01

    Underwater Wireless Sensor Network (UWSN) communication at high frequencies is extremely challenging. The intricacies presented by the underwater environment are far more compared to the terrestrial environment. The prime reason for such intricacies are the physical characteristics of the underwater environment that have a big impact on electromagnetic (EM) signals. Acoustics signals are by far the most preferred choice for underwater wireless communication. Because high frequency signals have the luxury of large bandwidth (BW) at shorter distances, high frequency EM signals cannot penetrate and propagate deep in underwater environments. The EM properties of water tend to resist their propagation and cause severe attenuation. Accordingly, there are two questions that need to be addressed for underwater environment, first what happens when high frequency EM signals operating at 2.4 GHz are used for communication, and second which factors affect the most to high frequency EM signals. To answer these questions, we present real-time experiments conducted at 2.4 GHz in terrestrial and underwater (fresh water) environments. The obtained results helped in studying the physical characteristics (i.e., EM properties, propagation and absorption loss) of underwater environments. It is observed that high frequency EM signals can propagate in fresh water at a shallow depth only and can be considered for a specific class of applications such as water sports. Furthermore, path loss, velocity of propagation, absorption loss and the rate of signal loss in different underwater environments are also calculated and presented in order to understand why EM signals cannot propagate in sea water and oceanic water environments. An optimal solk6ution for underwater communication in terms of coverage distance, bandwidth and nature of communication is presented, along with possible underwater applications of UWSNs at 2.4 GHz.

  19. The stoichiometric approach in determining total evaporative water loss and the relationship between evaporative and non-evaporative heat loss in two resting bird species: passerine and non-passerine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Valery M.Gavrilov

    2015-01-01

    Background: Evaporation is of significant ecological interest.Evaporation from an animal always results in a decrease in the temperature of the surface from which the evaporation occurs.Therefore,evaporation is a one-way transfer which causes heat loss from the organism.Biological evaporation always involves the loss of water which is a vital resource for nearly all biochemical processes.Evaporation is loss of heat via loss of body mass.Methods: The simultaneous determination of energy expenditure and loss of body mass in resting birds allows us to estimate evaporative heat loss.This method includes direct measurements of the energetic equivalent of the loss of body mass as the ratio between heat production,determined by the rate of oxygen consumption and the loss of body mass at various ambient temperatures.Results: The data indicate that evaporation was minimal at lower critical temperature and that the rate of evaporation increased at lower or higher temperatures.Obtained results indicate that passerine and non-passerine species have the ability to change their non-evaporative heat conductance the same number of times(approximately fourfold),and that their abilities in this respect are similar.Conclusions: The novelty of the study resides in the stoichiometric approach to determination of total evaporative water loss.The analysis shows that determinations by stoichiometric approach of total evaporative water loss yielded the values,which fit into the confidence intervals of all equations from literatures.The basal metabolic rate and nonevaporative thermal conductance are fundamental parameters of energetics and determine the level of physiological organization of an endothermic animal.

  20. Using the soil water balance to analyze the deep percolation losses and the irrigation adequacy of irrigated citrus crops (Haouz plain, Morocco)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassah, Houda; Fakir, Younes; Er-raki, Salah; Khabba, Said; Merlin, Olivier; Mougenot, Bernard

    2016-04-01

    In the semi-arid Haouz plain, located in central Morocco, agriculture consumes about 85% of the available water resources. Therefore, the management of irrigation water is important to avoid the water loss by soil evaporation and by deep percolation (DP) below the plant root zone. Estimating the irrigation water demand has been investigated by many studies in the Haouz plain, but DP losses beneath the irrigated areas have not been quantified yet. In this context, the objectives of the persent work are threefold :1) to evaluate DP over irrigated citrus orchard under drip and flood irrigation systems using the soil water balance equation; 2) to compare the obtained results to direct measurements of DP by a "flux-meter"; and 3) to optimize the irrigation rates that avoid excessive DP losses and water stress. The results showed that the weekly DP losses vary in average from 15 mm/week to more than 40 mm/week depending to the amount of water supply. The irrigation systems have also an important impact on DP losses evaluated to 38 % in drip irrigation and 12% in flood irrigation. Additionally the density of canopy influences the DP percentage inducing a difference of 10% between the denser citrus site and the sparse one. The comparison of DP losses calculated by soil water balance with those measured by a flux-meter installed beneath the root zone show that the first method gives higher values than the second does. Finally we evaluated the adequacy of the water supply for the crop needs based on two performance indices: depleted fraction (DF) and relative evapotranspiration (RET), showing that the drip irrigation has respond to the culture demands with an excessive quantity of irrigation, unlike to the flood one.

  1. Heat production and heat loss responses to cold water immersion after 35 days horizontal bed rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekjavic, Igor B; Kounalakis, Stylianos N; Keramidas, Michail E; Biolo, Gianni; Narici, Marco; Eiken, Ola

    2012-05-01

    Bed rest is a terrestrial experimental analogue of unloading experienced during exposure to microgravity. Such unloading causes atrophy predominantly of the postural muscles, especially those of the lower limbs. We tested the hypothesis that 35 d horizontal bed rest alters thermoregulatory responses of subjects (N = 10) immersed in 15 degrees C water, particularly the heat produced by the shivering tremor of the skeletal muscles. Before and after bed rest we measured the thickness of the gastrocnemius medialis (GM), vastus lateralis (VL), tibialis anterior (TA), and biceps brachii (BB) muscles by ultrasonography. During the immersions, we monitored rectal and skin temperatures, heat flux, heart rate, and oxygen uptake. After bed rest, muscle thickness decreased significantly by 12.2 +/- 8.8% and 8.0 +/- 9.1% in the GM and VL, respectively. No changes were observed in the TA and BB muscles. The 35-d bed rest caused a significant reduction in aerobic power, as reflected in maximal oxygen uptake. There were no significant differences in any of the observed thermoregulatory responses between the pre- and post-bed rest immersions. Cardiovascular and muscular deconditioning had no effect on the heat production and heat loss responses. Due to the significant reduction in the mass of the muscles in the lower limbs, concomitant with no change in heat production, we conclude that leg muscles do not play a significant role in shivering thermogenesis.

  2. Use of New Water Soluble Surface Film—Forming Material to Reduce Ammonia Loss from Water Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YINBIN; SHENRENFANG; 等

    1996-01-01

    A new water soluble surface film-forming material was developed and its effect on reducing ammonia volatilization from an alkaline solution was investigated in laboratory,Results showed that the new film formed by the material was not only more effective in reducing ammonia loss than any other films tested but also much cheaper.The optimum amount of addition of the new film-forming material was about 10times the theoretical amount to form a monomolecular film.Under the experimental conditions,the new film could effectively depress the ammonia volatilization for at least 6 days.The cumulative ammonia loss rates for different films were fitted to a simple logistic equation ,and some important parameters such as the cumulative loss,and the maximum and average volatilization rates were calculated.The effect of different films could be,therefore,compared quantitatively,indicating the new film was most effective in depressing ammonia volatilization.

  3. Surface water seal application to minimize volatilization loss of methyl isothiocyanate from soil columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Catherine R; Nelson, Shad D; Stratmann, Jerry E; Ajwa, Husein A

    2010-06-01

    Metam-sodium (MS, sodium methyldithiocarbamate) has been identified as a promising alternative chemical to replace methyl bromide (MeBr) in soil preplant fumigation. One degradation product of MS in soil is the volatile gas methyl isothiocyanate (MITC) which controls soilborne pests. Inconsistent results associated with MS usage indicate that there is a need to determine cultural practices that increase pest control efficacy. Sealing the soil surface with water after MS application may be a sound method to reduce volatilization loss of MITC from soils and increase the contact time necessary for MITC to control pests. The objective of this research was to develop a preliminary soil surface water application amount that would potentially inhibit the off-gassing rate of MITC. Off-gassing rate was consistently reduced with increasing water seal application. The application of a 2.5-3.8 cm water seal provided significantly lower (71-74% reduction in MITC volatilization) total fumigant loss compared with no water seal. The most favorable reduction in MITC off-gassing was observed in the 2.5 cm water seal. This suggests that volatilization of MITC-generating compounds can be highly suppressed using adequate surface irrigation following chemical application in this soil type (sandy clay loam), based on preliminary bench-scale soil column studies. .

  4. Relations between soil surface roughness, tortuosity, tillage treatments, rainfall intensity and soil and water losses from a red yellow latosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta Bramorski

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The soil surface roughness increases water retention and infiltration, reduces the runoff volume and speed and influences soil losses by water erosion. Similarly to other parameters, soil roughness is affected by the tillage system and rainfall volume. Based on these assumptions, the main purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of tillage treatments on soil surface roughness (RR and tortuosity (T and to investigate the relationship with soil and water losses in a series of simulated rainfall events. The field study was carried out at the experimental station of EMBRAPA Southeastern Cattle Research Center in São Carlos (Fazenda Canchim, in São Paulo State, Brazil. Experimental plots of 33 m² were treated with two tillage practices in three replications, consisting of: untilled (no-tillage soil (NTS and conventionally tilled (plowing plus double disking soil (CTS. Three successive simulated rain tests were applied in 24 h intervals. The three tests consisted of a first rain of 30 mm/h, a second of 30 mm/h and a third rain of 70 mm/h. Immediately after tilling and each rain simulation test, the surface roughness was measured, using a laser profile meter. The tillage treatments induced significant changes in soil surface roughness and tortuosity, demonstrating the importance of the tillage system for the physical surface conditions, favoring water retention and infiltration in the soil. The increase in surface roughness by the tillage treatments was considerably greater than its reduction by rain action. The surface roughness and tortuosity had more influence on the soil volume lost by surface runoff than in the conventional treatment. Possibly, other variables influenced soil and water losses from the no-tillage treatments, e.g., soil type, declivity, slope length, among others not analyzed in this study.

  5. Water suppression without signal loss in HR-MAS 1H NMR of cells and tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jin-Hong; Sambol, Elliot B.; Kennealey, Peter T.; O'Connor, Rachael B.; DeCarolis, Penelope L.; Cory, David G.; Singer, Samuel

    2004-11-01

    In cell and tissue samples, water is normally three orders of magnitude more abundant than other metabolites. Thus, water suppression is required in the acquisition of NMR spectra to overcome the dynamic range problem and to recover metabolites that overlap with the broad baseline of the strong water resonance. However, the heterogeneous cellular environment often complicates water suppression and the strong coupling of water to membrane lipids interferes with the NMR detection of membrane associated lipid components. The widely used water suppression techniques including presaturation and double pulsed field gradient selective echo result in more than a 70% reduction in membrane associated lipid components in proton spectra of cells and tissues compared to proton spectra acquired in the absence of water suppression. A water suppression technique based on the combination of selective excitation pulses and pulsed field gradients is proposed to use in the acquisition of high resolution MAS NMR spectra of tissue specimens and cell samples. This pulse sequence methodology enables efficient water suppression for intact cells and tissue samples and eliminates signal loss from cellular metabolites.

  6. RAPID WATER LOSS CAN EXTEND THE LIFETIME OF PLANETARY HABITABILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kodama, Takanori; Abe, Yutaka [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Genda, Hidenori [Earth-Life Science Institute, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Zahnle, Kevin J., E-mail: koda@eps.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Space Science and Astrobiology Division, NASA Ames Research Center, California 94035 (United States)

    2015-10-20

    Two habitable planetary states are proposed: an aqua planet like the Earth and a land planet that has a small amount of water. Land planets keep liquid water under larger solar radiation compared to aqua planets. Water loss may change an aqua planet into a land planet, and the planet can remain habitable for a longer time than if it had remained an aqua planet. We calculate planetary evolution with hydrogen escape for different initial water inventories and different distances from the central star. We find that there are two conditions necessary to evolve an aqua planet into a land planet: the critical amount of water on the surface (M{sub ml}) consistent with a planet being a land planet, and the critical amount of water vapor in the atmosphere (M{sub cv}) that defines the onset of the runaway greenhouse state. We find that Earth-sized aqua planets with initial oceans <10% of the Earth's can evolve into land planets if M{sub cv} = 3 m in precipitable water and M{sub ml} = 5% of the Earth's ocean mass. Such planets can keep liquid water on their surface for another 2 Gyr. The initial amount of water and M{sub cv} are shown to be important dividing parameters of the planetary evolution path. Our results indicate that massive hydrogen escape could give a fresh start as another kind of habitable planet rather than the end of its habitability.

  7. Comparison between measured and simulated beam loss patterns in the CERN SPS

    CERN Document Server

    Redaelli, S; Assmann, R W; Robert-Démolaize, G

    2006-01-01

    A prototype of an LHC collimator has been tested with proton beams at the CERN SPS. The interaction of the circulating proton beam with the carbon collimator jaws generated secondary proton beams that were lost in the downstream SPS aperture. The measured beam loss patterns are compared with the results of dedicated loss simulations. The simulation package includes (1) a 6D particle tracking through the SPS lattice; (2) the scattering interaction of protons with the collimator jaw material; (3) the timedependent displacement of the collimator jaws with respect to the beam orbit; (4) a detailed aperture model of the full SPS ring. It is shown that the simulation tools can reliably predict the measured location of losses. This provides an important assessment of the simulation tools in view of the beam loss studies for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC).

  8. Use and abuse of the medical loss ratio to measure health plan performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, J C

    1997-01-01

    This paper examines the use and abuse of the medical loss ratio in the contemporary health care system and health policy debate. It begins with a survey of the ways in which the medical loss ratio has been interpreted to be something it is not, such as a measure of quality or efficiency. It then analyzes key organizational features of the emerging health care system that complicate measures of financial performance, including integration between payers and providers, diversification of payers across multiple products and distribution channels, and geographic expansion across metropolitan and state lines. These issues are illustrated using medical loss ratios from a range of nonprofit and for-profit health plans. The paper then sketches a strategy for improving the public's understanding of health plan performance as an alternative to continued reliance on the flawed medical loss ratio. This strategy incorporates data on structure and process, service quality, and financial performance.

  9. Correction for the diffraction loss in the ultrasonic attenuation measurement in VHF range

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Tingcun

    2002-01-01

    Two silicate glasses which have different acoustic properties and different thickness,were taken as the specimens, their frequency dependences of the longitudinal attenuation coef-ficients were measured in the frequency range of 50 to 300 MHz by the pulse reflection method,and the diffraction loss included in the measurement was corrected by theoretical calculationusing A. O. Williams' expression. It has been shown that the measurement error of attenuationcoefficient due to diffraction loss could be corrected very well by this method, regardless of thethickness of specimens.

  10. Dielectric spectroscopy measurements on very low loss cross-linked polyethylene power cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tong; Fothergill, John; Dodd, Steve; Nilsson, Ulf

    2009-08-01

    The principles of dielectric spectroscopy are reviewed and the techniques in both time and frequency domains are explored in search of appropriate methods for measurement on low loss XLPE cables. By combining the techniques of frequency response analyzer, transformer ratio bridge and discharging current measurements, some preliminary tests results on homopolymer XLPE model cables have been presented and analyzed, in a wide frequency range of 10-4Hz~2×104Hz. Dielectric loss mechanisms of XLPE cables are discussed based on the measurement results.

  11. Dielectric spectroscopy measurements on very low loss cross-linked polyethylene power cables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Tong; Fothergill, John; Dodd, Steve [University of Leicester, LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Nilsson, Ulf, E-mail: tl57@leicester.ac.u [Borealis AB, SE-444 86 Stenungsund (Sweden)

    2009-08-01

    The principles of dielectric spectroscopy are reviewed and the techniques in both time and frequency domains are explored in search of appropriate methods for measurement on low loss XLPE cables. By combining the techniques of frequency response analyzer, transformer ratio bridge and discharging current measurements, some preliminary tests results on homopolymer XLPE model cables have been presented and analyzed, in a wide frequency range of 10{sup -4}Hz{approx}2x10{sup 4}Hz. Dielectric loss mechanisms of XLPE cables are discussed based on the measurement results.

  12. Precise Measurement of Losses in Piezoelectric Transducer and Its Application to Evaluation of Piezoelectric Transformer Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endow, Tsutomu; Hirose, Seiji; Kanno, Tomoyuki

    2004-05-01

    Mechanical and dielectric losses were measured by the measurement method proposed in this paper in a piezoelectric transducer with input and output terminals. These losses must be considered in designing piezoelectric transformers used as power sources. In the method proposed here, the losses can be obtained using the experimental results of resonance angular frequency, quality factor and the resistive component of input impedance when the output terminals are short-circuited and opened, and using the measured phase angle difference between current and voltage when the output terminals are opened. In the method, a resonance frequency tracking circuit is utilized. Hence, there is an advantage that the measurement can be performed easily and in a short time. The results obtained by this method have also been used in the evaluation of the efficiency of piezoelectric transformers.

  13. Measurement of Quark Energy Loss in Cold Nuclear Matter at Fermilab E906/SeaQuest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Po-Ju [Colorado U.

    2017-01-01

    Parton energy loss is a process within QCD that draws considerable interest. The measurement of parton energy loss can provide valuable information for other hard-scattering processes in nuclei, and also serves as an important tool for exploring the properties of the quark-gluon plasma (QGP). Quantifying the energy loss in cold nuclear matter will help to set a baseline relative to energy loss in the QGP. With the Drell-Yan process, the energy loss of incoming quarks in cold nuclear matter can be ideally investigated since the final state interaction is expected to be minimal. E906/SeaQuest is a fixed-target experiment using the 120 GeV proton beam from the Fermilab Main Injector and has been collecting data from p+p, p+d, p+C, p+Fe, and p+W collisions. Within the E906 kinematic coverage of Drell-Yan production via the dimuon channel, the quark energy loss can be measured in a regime where other nuclear effects are expected to be small. In this thesis, the study of quark ener gy loss from different cold nuclear targets is presented.

  14. The Inner Boundary of the Habitable Zone: Loss Processes of Liquid Water from Terrestrial Planet Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stracke, B.; Godolt, M.; Grenfell, J. L.; von Paris, P.; Patzer, B.; Rauer, H.

    2012-04-01

    The question of habitability is very important in the context of terrestrial extrasolar planets. Generally, the Habitable Zone (HZ) is defined as the orbital region around a star, in which life-supporting (habitable) planets can exist. Taking into account that liquid water is a commonly accepted, fundamental requirement for the development of life - as we know it - the habitable region around a star is mainly determined by the stellar insolation of radiation, which is sufficient to maintain liquid water at the planetary surface. This study focuses on different processes that can lead to the complete loss of a liquid water reservoir from the surface of a terrestrial planet to determine the inner boundary of the HZ. The investigated criteria are, for example, reaching the temperature of the critical point of water at the planetary surface, the runaway greenhouse effect and the diffusion-limited escape of water from the atmosphere, which could lead to the loss of the complete water reservoir within the lifetime of a planet. We investigate these criteria, which determine the inner boundary of the HZ, with a one-dimensional radiative-convective model of a planetary atmosphere, which extends from the surface to the mid-mesosphere. Our modelling approach involves the step-by-step increase of the incoming stellar flux and the subsequent iterative calculation of resulting changes in the temperature profiles, the atmospheric water vapour content and the radiative properties. Therefore, this climate model had to be adapted to account for high temperatures and water mixing ratios. For example, the infrared radiative transfer scheme was improved to be suitable for such high temperature and pressure conditions. Modelling results are presented determining the inner boundary of the HZ affected by these processes, which can result in no liquid water on the planetary surface. In this context, especially the role of the runaway greenhouse effect is discussed in detail.

  15. Measurement of gain and losses of a midinfrared quantum cascade laser by wavelength chirping spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benveniste, E.; Laurent, S.; Vasanelli, A.; Manquest, C.; Sirtori, C.; Teulon, F.; Carras, M.; Marcadet, X.

    2009-02-01

    We present an optimized technique for the measurement of gain and losses of semiconductor lasers. We optically inject the beam of a distributed feedback laser (DFB) inside the cavity of the lasers under study. The DFB laser operates in a pulsed mode and shifts its emission wavelength as a function of time. This frequency chirp creates the Fabry-Pérot fringes of the transmitted intensity that contains all the information on the cavity losses. The setup has been validated by a quantitative study of the losses as a function of the injected current, for a quantum cascade laser emitting at 7.6 μm.

  16. Heat Loss Measurements in Buildings Utilizing a U-value Meter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lars Schiøtt

    the best basis for upgrading the energy performance, it is important to measure the heat losses at different locations on a building facade, in order to optimize the energy performance. The author has invented a U-value meter, enabling measurements of heat transfer coefficients. The meter has been used...

  17. The bony Bankart lesion : how to measure the glenoid bone loss

    OpenAIRE

    2017-01-01

    Summary An osseous Bankart lesion is commonly seen in patients with an anterior shoulder dislocation. It is defined as a detachment of the anteroinferior labrum associated with a glenoid rim fracture. Radiological studies are crucial not only for detecting glenoid bone defects but also for measuring the amount of bone loss. The precise quantification of the bony defect is crucial for the therapeutic desicion-making and clinical outcomes. Although we know that major glenoid bone loss requires ...

  18. Comparative Analysis of Seepage Losses From Nighttime Water Level Changes and Water Balance Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, A.; Shukla, S.; Wu, C.

    2013-12-01

    Several techniques including Darcy's theory of one and two dimensional groundwater flow, seepage meters, and water balance have been used in the past to estimate seepage from impoundments such as reservoirs, ponds, and constructed wetlands. These methods result in varying level of errors in seepage estimates depending on method and biogeophysical setting to which they are applied. In this study, we explore a simple yet effective method of estimating groundwater fluxes for two stormwater impoundments (SIs) and a partially drained wetland located in agricultural areas using diurnal changes in surface water levels inside these systems. Days with no inflow, outflow, and rainfall were selected to minimize the effect of the error associated water balance components on seepage estimation. Difference in water levels between 20:00 hrs and 5:00 hrs was calculated for the selected days. Only nighttime change was considered keeping in mind the fact that evapotranspiration is negligible during night and hence, the change in water levels can be attributed to seepage alone. Seepage from the analysis of night-time change in the water levels was compared to the estimates from the water balance method with seepage being the residual component of the balance. Results show that seepage constitutes a large part of total outflow from the impoundments (29% and 17% for SI1 during 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 respectively, 30% for SI2 during 2009-2010 and seepage was greater than the total surface water outflow from SI2 during 2010-2011). Accuracy of this method varied from 5% to 41% for first and 4% to 29% for the second SI. Considering that errors as high as 100% have been reported with the use of Darcy's approach, the errors from our method are lower. The lower errors combined with ease of application without using the hydraulic conductivity values makes our approach feasible for other similar systems. Improved seepage estimate from the proposed method will result in quantification of

  19. Measuring Outcomes in Adult Weight Loss Studies That Include Diet and Physical Activity: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel A. Millstein

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Measuring success of obesity interventions is critical. Several methods measure weight loss outcomes but there is no consensus on best practices. This systematic review evaluates relevant outcomes (weight loss, BMI, % body fat, and fat mass to determine which might be the best indicator(s of success. Methods. Eligible articles described adult weight loss interventions that included diet and physical activity and a measure of weight or BMI change and body composition change. Results. 28 full-text articles met inclusion criteria. Subjects, settings, intervention lengths, and intensities varied. All studies measured body weight (−2.9 to −17.3 kg, 9 studies measured BMI (−1.1 to −5.1 kg/m2, 20 studies measured % body fat (−0.7 to −10.2%, and 22 studies measured fat mass (−0.9 to −14.9 kg. All studies found agreement between weight or BMI and body fat mass or body fat % decreases, though there were discrepancies in degree of significance between measures. Conclusions. Nearly all weight or BMI and body composition measures agreed. Since body fat is the most metabolically harmful tissue type, it may be a more meaningful measure of health change. Future studies should consider primarily measuring % body fat, rather than or in addition to weight or BMI.

  20. Soil, water and nutrient losses by interrill erosion from green cane cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilka Rocha Vasconcelos da Silva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Interrill erosion occurs by the particle breakdown caused by raindrop impact, by particle transport in surface runoff, by dragging and suspension of particles disaggregated from the soil surface, thus removing organic matter and nutrients that are essential for agricultural production. Crop residues on the soil surface modify the characteristics of the runoff generated by rainfall and the consequent particle breakdown and sediment transport resulting from erosion. The objective of this study was to determine the minimum amount of mulch that must be maintained on the soil surface of a sugarcane plantation to reduce the soil, water and nutrient losses by decreasing interrill erosion. The study was conducted in Pradópolis, São Paulo State, in 0.5 x 1.0 m plots of an Oxisol, testing five treatments in four replications. The application rates were based on the crop residue production of the area of 1.4 kg m-2 (T1- no cane trash; T2-25 % of the cane trash; T3- 50 % trash; T4-75 % trash; T5-100 % sugarcane residues on the surface, and simulated rainfall was applied at an intensity of 65 mm h-1 for 60 min. Runoff samples were collected in plastic containers and soon after taken to the laboratory to quantify the losses of soil, water and nutrients. To minimize soil loss by interrill erosion, 75 % of the cane mulch must be maintained on the soil, to control water loss 50 % must be maintained and 25 % trash controls organic matter and nutrient losses. This information can contribute to optimize the use of this resource for soil conservation on the one hand and the production of clean energy in sugar and alcohol industries on the other.

  1. STRATOSPHERIC TEMPERATURES AND WATER LOSS FROM MOIST GREENHOUSE ATMOSPHERES OF EARTH-LIKE PLANETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasting, James F.; Kopparapu, Ravi K. [Department of Geosciences, The Pennsylvania State University, State College, PA 16801 (United States); Chen, Howard, E-mail: jfk4@psu.edu, E-mail: hwchen@bu.edu [Department of Astronomy, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Ave., Boston, MA 02215 (United States)

    2015-11-01

    A radiative-convective climate model is used to calculate stratospheric temperatures and water vapor concentrations for ozone-free atmospheres warmer than that of modern Earth. Cold, dry stratospheres are predicted at low surface temperatures, in agreement with recent 3D calculations. However, at surface temperatures above 350 K, the stratosphere warms and water vapor becomes a major upper atmospheric constituent, allowing water to be lost by photodissociation and hydrogen escape. Hence, a moist greenhouse explanation for loss of water from Venus, or some exoplanet receiving a comparable amount of stellar radiation, remains a viable hypothesis. Temperatures in the upper parts of such atmospheres are well below those estimated for a gray atmosphere, and this factor should be taken into account when performing inverse climate calculations to determine habitable zone boundaries using 1D models.

  2. Stratospheric Temperatures and Water Loss from Moist Greenhouse Atmospheres of Earth-like Planets

    CERN Document Server

    Kasting, James F; Kopparapu, Ravi Kumar

    2015-01-01

    A radiative-convective climate model is used to calculate stratospheric temperatures and water vapor concentrations for ozone-free atmospheres warmer than that of modern Earth. Cold, dry stratospheres are predicted at low surface temperatures, in agreement with recent 3-D calculations. However, at surface temperatures above 350 K, the stratosphere warms and water vapor becomes a major upper atmospheric constituent, allowing water to be lost by photodissociation and hydrogen escape. Hence, a 'moist greenhouse' explanation for loss of water from Venus, or some exoplanet receiving a comparable amount of stellar radiation, remains a viable hypothesis. Temperatures in the upper parts of such atmospheres are well below those estimated for a gray atmosphere, and this factor should be taken into account when performing 'inverse' climate calculations to determine habitable zone boundaries using 1-D models.

  3. Electron-induced hydrogen loss in uracil in a water cluster environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smyth, M.; Kohanoff, J. [Atomistic Simulation Centre, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Fabrikant, I. I., E-mail: ifabrikant1@unl.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588, USA and Department of Physical Sciences, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom)

    2014-05-14

    Low-energy electron-impact hydrogen loss due to dissociative electron attachment (DEA) to the uracil and thymine molecules in a water cluster environment is investigated theoretically. Only the A{sup ′}-resonance contribution, describing the near-threshold behavior of DEA, is incorporated. Calculations are based on the nonlocal complex potential theory and the multiple scattering theory, and are performed for a model target with basic properties of uracil and thymine, surrounded by five water molecules. The DEA cross section is strongly enhanced when the attaching molecule is embedded in a water cluster. This growth is due to two effects: the increase of the resonance lifetime and the negative shift in the resonance position due to interaction of the intermediate negative ion with the surrounding water molecules. A similar effect was earlier found in DEA to chlorofluorocarbons.

  4. Contrasting recovery of shallow and deep water seagrass communities following climate associated losses in tropical north Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasheed, Michael A; McKenna, Skye A; Carter, Alexandra B; Coles, Robert G

    2014-06-30

    Tropical seagrass decline and recovery from severe storm impacts was assessed via quarterly measurements of seagrass biomass, species composition and experimental investigations of recovery in north Queensland. Shallow and deep seagrass meadows suffered major declines. Significant recovery in the two years following loss only occurred at deeper sites. Halophila spp. in deep water areas had a high capacity for recovery through the availability of seed banks. In contrast, the shallow species did not recover quickly from experimental disturbance, had poor seed reserves and relied on asexual propagation. The potential for shallow species to recover rapidly from widespread losses was limited as seed banks were limited or non-existent. Understanding inter- and intra-specific differences in seagrass recovery and how this interacts with location is critical to predict the consequences of climate events to tropical seagrasses. This is especially important as more frequent severe storms are predicted as a consequence of climate change.

  5. Impact of slash disposal on soil and water loss and the growth of planted seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The three methods of slash disposal in this experiment were no treatment, strip piling and burning. The results obtained from this study showed that the soil erosion, water and nutrient loss were higher in the logged areas by burning than in the logged areas by no treatment and strip piling. The soil and water loss was not serious when the slope degree of the logged area was less than 16°. The survival rate of planted seedlings was higher and the growth was better in the logged areas followed by burning than in the logged areas by no treatment and strip piling. Burning should not be used when the slope was more than 23°

  6. Rapid Water Loss can Extend the Lifetime of the Planetary Habitability

    CERN Document Server

    Kodama, T; Abe, Y; Zahnle, K J

    2015-01-01

    Two habitable planetary states are proposed: an aqua planet like the Earth and a land planet that has a small amount of water. Land planets keep liquid water under larger solar radiation compared to aqua planets. Water loss may change an aqua planet into a land planet, and the planet can remain habitable for a longer time than had it stayed an aqua planet. We calculate planetary evolution with hydrogen escape for different initial water inventories and different distances from the central star. We find that there are two conditions to evolve an aqua planet into a land planet: the critical amount of water on the surface M_ml consistent with a planet being a land planet, and the critical amount of water vapor in the atmosphere M_cv that defines the onset of the runaway greenhouse state. We find that Earth-size aqua planets with initial oceans < 10 % of the Earth's can evolve into land planets if M_cv = 3 m in precipitable water and M_ml = 5 % of the Earth's ocean mass. Such planets can keep liquid water on t...

  7. Where does all the water go? Partitioning water transmission losses in a data-sparse, multi-channel and low-gradient dryland river system using modelling and remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarihani, Abdollah A.; Larsen, Joshua R.; Callow, John N.; McVicar, Tim R.; Johansen, Kasper

    2015-10-01

    Drylands cover approximately one-third of the Earth's surface, are home to nearly 40% of the Earth's population and are characterised by limited water resources and ephemeral river systems with an extremely variable flow regime and high transmission losses. These losses include actual evaporation, infiltration to the soil and groundwater and residual (terminal) water remaining after flood events. These critical components of the water balance of dryland river systems remain largely unknown due to the scarcity of observational data and the difficulty in accurately accounting for the flow distribution in such large multi-channel floodplain systems. While hydrodynamic models can test hypotheses concerning the water balance of infrequent flood events, the scarcity of flow measurement data inhibits model calibration, constrains model accuracy and therefore utility. This paper provides a novel approach to this problem by combining modelling, remotely-sensed data, and limited field measurements, to investigate the partitioning of flood transmissions losses based on seven flood events between February 2006 and April 2012 along a 180 km reach of the Diamantina River in the Lake Eyre Basin, Australia. Transmission losses were found to be high, on average 46% of total inflow within 180 km reach segment or 7 GL/km (range: 4-10 GL/km). However, in 180 km reach, transmission losses vary non-linearly with flood discharge, with smaller flows resulting in higher losses (up to 68%), which diminish in higher flows (down to 24%) and in general there is a minor increase in losses with distance downstream. Partitioning these total losses into the major components shows that actual evaporation was the most significant component (21.6% of total inflow), followed by infiltration (13.2%) and terminal water storage (11.2%). Lateral inflow can be up to 200% of upstream inflow (mean = 86%) and is therefore a critical parameter in the water balance and transmission loss calculations. This study

  8. Improved Correction of IR Loss in Diffuse Shortwave Measurements: An ARM Value-Added Product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younkin, K; Long, CN

    2003-11-01

    Simple single black detector pyranometers, such as the Eppley Precision Spectral Pyranometer (PSP) used by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program, are known to lose energy via infrared (IR) emission to the sky. This is especially a problem when making clear-sky diffuse shortwave (SW) measurements, which are inherently of low magnitude and suffer the greatest IR loss. Dutton et al. (2001) proposed a technique using information from collocated pyrgeometers to help compensate for this IR loss. The technique uses an empirically derived relationship between the pyrgeometer detector data (and alternatively the detector data plus the difference between the pyrgeometer case and dome temperatures) and the nighttime pyranometer IR loss data. This relationship is then used to apply a correction to the diffuse SW data during daylight hours. We developed an ARM value-added product (VAP) called the SW DIFF CORR 1DUTT VAP to apply the Dutton et al. correction technique to ARM PSP diffuse SW measurements.

  9. Epicuticular waxes from caatinga and cerrado species and their efficiency against water loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Antonio F. M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the contents and chemical composition of the foliar epicuticular waxes of species from the caatinga (Aspidosperma pyrifolium, Capparis yco, Maytenus rigida and Ziziphus joazeiro and cerrado (Aristolochia esperanzae, Didymopanax vinosum, Strychnos pseudoquina and Tocoyena formosa were evaluated as to the resistance to water loss by means of an experimental device constructed for this purpose. In general, the waxes of the caatinga species investigated were more efficient against water loss than cerrado species. Increase of the thickness of the waxy deposits from 40 to 90m g.cm-2 had no significant effect on the resistance to water loss. The chemistry of the wax constituents was shown to be an important factor to determine the degree of resistance to evaporation. n-Alkanes and alcoholic triterpenes were the most efficient barriers, while hentriacontan-16-one (a ketone and ursolic acid (an acid triterpene revealed lowefficiency. The higher efficiency of the waxes of the leaves from caatinga species (mainly those of C. yco and Z. joazeiro is probably accounted for the predominance of n-alkanes in their composition. The lower efficiency of the waxes of A. pyrifolium (caatinga, T. formosa and A. esperanzae (both species from the cerrado is probably a consequence of the predominance of triterpenoids in the waxes of the two former species and hentriacontan-16-one in the latter.

  10. Epicuticular waxes from caatinga and cerrado species and their efficiency against water loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Antonio F M; Meirelles, Sérgio T; Salatino, Antonio

    2003-12-01

    The effects of the contents and chemical composition of the foliar epicuticular waxes of species from the caatinga (Aspidosperma pyrifolium, Capparis yco, Maytenus rigida and Ziziphus joazeiro) and cerrado (Aristolochia esperanzae, Didymopanax vinosum, Strychnos pseudoquina and Tocoyena formosa) were evaluated as to the resistance to water loss by means of an experimental device constructed for this purpose. In general, the waxes of the caatinga species investigated were more efficient against water loss than cerrado species. Increase of the thickness of the waxy deposits from 40 to 90 microg.cm-2 had no significant effect on the resistance to water loss. The chemistry of the wax constituents was shown to be an important factor to determine the degree of resistance to evaporation. n-Alkanes and alcoholic triterpenes were the most efficient barriers, while hentriacontan-16-one (a ketone) and ursolic acid (an acid triterpene) revealed low efficiency. The higher efficiency of the waxes of the leaves from caatinga species (mainly those of C. yco and Z. joazeiro) is probably accounted for the predominance of n-alkanes in their composition. The lower efficiency of the waxes of A. pyrifolium (caatinga), T. formosa and A. esperanzae (both species from the cerrado) is probably a consequence of the predominance of triterpenoids in the waxes of the two former species and hentriacontan-16-one in the latter.

  11. Methodology of risk assessment of loss of water resources due to climate changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israfilov, Yusif; Israfilov, Rauf; Guliyev, Hatam; Afandiyev, Galib

    2016-04-01

    For sustainable development and management of rational use of water resources of Azerbaijan Republic it is actual to forecast their changes taking into account different scenarios of climate changes and assessment of possible risks of loss of sections of water resources. The major part of the Azerbaijani territory is located in the arid climate and the vast majority of water is used in the national economic production. An optimal use of conditional groundwater and surface water is of great strategic importance for economy of the country in terms of lack of common water resources. Low annual rate of sediments, high evaporation and complex natural and hydrogeological conditions prevent sustainable formation of conditioned resources of ground and surface water. In addition, reserves of fresh water resources are not equally distributed throughout the Azerbaijani territory. The lack of the common water balance creates tension in the rational use of fresh water resources in various sectors of the national economy, especially in agriculture, and as a result, in food security of the republic. However, the fresh water resources of the republic have direct proportional dependence on climatic factors. 75-85% of the resources of ground stratum-pore water of piedmont plains and fracture-vein water of mountain regions are formed by the infiltration of rainfall and condensate water. Changes of climate parameters involve changes in the hydrological cycle of the hydrosphere and as a rule, are reflected on their resources. Forecasting changes of water resources of the hydrosphere with different scenarios of climate change in regional mathematical models allowed estimating the extent of their relationship and improving the quality of decisions. At the same time, it is extremely necessary to obtain additional data for risk assessment and management to reduce water resources for a detailed analysis, forecasting the quantitative and qualitative parameters of resources, and also for

  12. AC loss measurements in HTS coil assemblies with hybrid coil structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhenan; Long, Nicholas J.; Staines, Mike; Badcock, Rodney A.; Bumby, Chris W.; Buckley, Robert G.; Amemiya, Naoyuki

    2016-09-01

    Both AC loss and wire cost in coil windings are critical factors for high temperature superconductor (HTS) AC machinery applications. We present AC loss measurement results in three HTS coil assemblies at 77 K and 65 K which have a hybrid coil structure comprising one central winding (CW) and two end windings (EWs) wound with ReBCO and BSCCO wires with different self-field I c values at 77 K. All AC loss results in the coil assemblies are hysteretic and the normalized AC losses in the coil assemblies at different temperatures can be scaled with the I c value of the coil assemblies. The normalised results show that AC loss in a coil assembly with BSCCO CW can be reduced by using EWs wound with high I c ReBCO wires, whilst further AC loss reduction can be achieved by replacing the BSCCO CW with ReBCO CW. The results imply that a flexible hybrid coil structure is possible which considers both AC loss and wire cost in coil assemblies.

  13. Calorimetric apparatus for alternating current loss measurements on high-temperature superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, N.; Hörnfeldt, S.

    1998-09-01

    The use of high-temperature superconductors in electric power components requires the knowledge of their alternating current (ac) losses. Methods are therefore needed to characterize the conductors with respect to their ac losses under applicationlike conditions. In this article we describe a calorimetric setup for ac loss measurements on long length high-temperature superconductors carrying ac transport currents in ac external magnetic fields at variable temperatures. The variable temperature is achieved by a thermal connection between the sample and a cooling machine. Current in copper coils generates the magnetic field parallel to the plane of the tape and perpendicular to the transport current. This current can be induced in the coil-formed sample. Two slightly different methods are used to determine the ac losses, one in which the temperature rise of the sample, caused by the ac losses, is compared to the temperature rise caused by a reference heater and another in which the increase in power dissipation of the sample is compensated for by a reduction of the power dissipation in the heater. Typical results of the ac loss measurements are presented.

  14. Measurement of loss of DT fusion products using scintillator detectors in TFTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darrow, D.S.; Herrmann, H.W.; Johnson, D.W.; Marsala, R.J.; Palladino, R.W.; Zweben, S.J. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.; Tuszewski, M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1995-03-01

    A poloidal array of MeV ion loss probes previously used to measure DD fusion product loss has been upgraded to measure the loss of alpha particles from DT plasmas in TFTR. The following improvements to the system have been made in preparation for the use of tritium in TFTR: (1) relocation of detectors to a neutronshielded enclosure in the basement to reduce neutron-induced background signals; (2) replacement of ZnS:Cu (P31) scintillators in the probes with the Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}0{sub 12}:Ce(P46) variety to minimize damage and assure linearity at the fluxes anticipated from DT plasmas; and (3) shielding of the fiber optic bundles which carry the fight from the probes to the detectors to reduce neutron- and gamma-induced light within them. In addition to the above preparations, the probes have been absolutely calibrated for alpha particles by using the Van de Graaf accelerator at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Alpha particle losses from DT plasmas have been observed, and losses at the detector 901 below the midplane are consistent with first orbit loss.

  15. Density measurement of thin layers by electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jürgen; Ramm, Jürgen; Gemming, Thomas

    2013-07-01

    A method to measure the density of thin layers is presented which utilizes electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) techniques within a transmission electron microscope. The method is based on the acquisition of energy filtered images in the low loss region as well as of an element distribution map using core loss edges. After correction of multiple inelastic scattering effects, the intensity of the element distribution map is proportional to density and thickness. The dependence of the intensities of images with low energy loss electrons on the density is different from that. This difference allows the calculation of the relative density pixel by pixel and to determine lateral density gradients or fluctuations in thin films without relying on a constant specimen thickness. The method is demonstrated at thin carbon layers produced with density gradients.

  16. Measurement and Calculation of Frictional Loss in Large Two-Stroke Engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vølund, Anders

    2003-01-01

    The total frictional loss in a large two-stroke marine diesel engine is rather well determined. However, the contribution (size and distribution) from the different machine elements are not well known. The aim of this study is to establish methods to measure and calculate friction in the piston...... assembly and guide shoe system for a large two-stroke marine diesel engine. These components are the two major contributors to the total friction in a two-stroke marine diesel engine. The piston pack represents approximately 60% of the total mechanical loss at full load and the guide shoe system 23......%. The rest of the mechanical loss is situated in the piston rod 2%, piston skirt 3% and main bearings and connecting rod bearing 12%. Information about the friction distribution can be used in future design of these machine elements. Theoretical models for determination of frictional losses for both...

  17. A phylogenetic analysis of basal metabolism, total evaporative water loss, and life-history among foxes from desert and mesic regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, JB; Munoz-Garcia, A; Ostrowski, S; Tieleman, BI

    We measured basal metabolic rate (BMR) and total evaporative water loss (TEWL) of species of foxes that exist on the Arabian Peninsula, Blanford's fox (Vulpes cana) and two subspecies of Red fox (Vulpes vulpes). Combining these data with that on other canids from the literature, we searched for

  18. A phylogenetic analysis of basal metabolism, total evaporative water loss, and life-history among foxes from desert and mesic regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, JB; Munoz-Garcia, A; Ostrowski, S; Tieleman, BI

    2004-01-01

    We measured basal metabolic rate (BMR) and total evaporative water loss (TEWL) of species of foxes that exist on the Arabian Peninsula, Blanford's fox (Vulpes cana) and two subspecies of Red fox (Vulpes vulpes). Combining these data with that on other canids from the literature, we searched for spec

  19. Ozone loss derived from balloon-borne tracer measurements in the 1999/2000 Arctic winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Robinson

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Balloon-borne measurements of CFC11 (from the DIRAC in situ gas chromatograph and the DESCARTES grab sampler, ClO and O3 were made during the 1999/2000 Arctic winter as part of the SOLVE-THESEO 2000 campaign, based in Kiruna (Sweden. Here we present the CFC11 data from nine flights and compare them first with data from other instruments which flew during the campaign and then with the vertical distributions calculated by the SLIMCAT 3D CTM. We calculate ozone loss inside the Arctic vortex between late January and early March using the relation between CFC11 and O3 measured on the flights. The peak ozone loss (~1200ppbv occurs in the 440-470K region in early March in reasonable agreement with other published empirical estimates. There is also a good agreement between ozone losses derived from three balloon tracer data sets used here. The magnitude and vertical distribution of the loss derived from the measurements is in good agreement with the loss calculated from SLIMCAT over Kiruna for the same days.

  20. Ozone loss derived from balloon-borne tracer measurements and the SLIMCAT CTM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Robinson

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Balloon-borne measurements of CFC-11 (on flights of the DIRAC in situ gas chromatograph and the DESCARTES grab sampler, ClO and O3 were made during the 1999/2000 winter as part of the SOLVE-THESEO 2000 campaign. Here we present the CFC-11 data from nine flights and compare them first with data from other instruments which flew during the campaign and then with the vertical distributions calculated by the SLIMCAT 3-D CTM. We calculate ozone loss inside the Arctic vortex between late January and early March using the relation between CFC-11 and O3 measured on the flights, the peak ozone loss (1200 ppbv occurs in the 440–470 K region in early March in reasonable agreement with other published empirical estimates. There is also a good agreement between ozone losses derived from three independent balloon tracer data sets used here. The magnitude and vertical distribution of the loss derived from the measurements is in good agreement with the loss calculated from SLIMCAT over Kiruna for the same days.

  1. Leaf cuticular wax amount and crystal morphology regulate post-harvest water loss in mulberry (Morus species).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamrutha, H M; Mogili, T; Jhansi Lakshmi, K; Rama, N; Kosma, Dylan; Udaya Kumar, M; Jenks, Matthew A; Nataraja, Karaba N

    2010-08-01

    Mulberry leaves are the sole source of food for silkworms (Bombyx mori), and moisture content of the detached leaves fed to silkworms determines silkworm growth and cocoon yield. Since leaf dehydration in commercial sericulture is a serious problem, development of new methods that minimize post-harvest water loss are greatly needed. In the present study, variability in moisture retention capacity (MRC, measured as leaf relative water content after one to 5 h of air-drying) was examined by screening 290 diverse mulberry accessions and the relationship between MRC and leaf surface (cuticular) wax amount was determined. Leaf MRC varied significantly among accessions, and was found to correlate strongly with leaf wax amount. Scanning electron microscopic analysis indicated that leaves having crystalline surface waxes of increased facet size and density were associated with high MRC accessions. Leaf MRC at 5 h after harvest was not related to other parameters such as specific leaf weight, and stomatal frequency and index. This study suggests that mulberry accessions having elevated leaf surface wax amount and crystal size and density exhibit reduced leaf post-harvest water loss, and could provide the foundation for selective breeding of improved cultivars. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Path loss modelling and comparison based on the radio propagation measurement at 3.5GHz

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ping; Li Yingzhe; Chang Ruoting; Sun Kun; Xu Hui

    2009-01-01

    Wideband IMT-Advanced mobile communication systems tend to operate in the high frequency bands due to a relatively large capacity available. Thus, Measurement and modelling methods of radio propagation characteristics are proposed for the field test of Chinese 4th generation (4G) trial system. The measurement system is established for 3.5GHz based on the sophisticated measurement instruments and the virtual instrument technology. The characteristic parameters of radio propagation such as path loss (PL) exponent and shadow fading standard deviation are extracted from measurement data, which result in the path loss model finally. The comparisons with other existing international models results validate our measurement in terms of path loss model. Based on the analysis of the existing extension model assumed for the microwave frequency at 3.5GHz, we find that the Stanford University Interim (SUI) model fits very well with the measurement result in the hotspot scenario, while the COST 231 model is closer to the measurement result in the suburban scenario. This result provides a measurement-based channel reference for the development of the future IMT-Advanced systems in China.

  3. Technical and Economic Assessment of the Implementation of Measures for Reducing Energy Losses in Distribution Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguila, Alexander; Wilson, Jorge

    2017-07-01

    This paper develops a methodology to assess a group of measures of electrical improvements in distribution systems, starting from the complementation of technical and economic criteria. In order to solve the problem of energy losses in distribution systems, technical and economic analysis was performed based on a mathematical model to establish a direct relationship between the energy saved by way of minimized losses and the costs of implementing the proposed measures. This paper aims at analysing the feasibility of reducing energy losses in distribution systems, by changing existing network conductors by larger crosssection conductors and distribution voltage change at higher levels. The impact of this methodology provides a highly efficient mathematical tool for analysing the feasibility of implementing improvement projects based on their costs which is a very useful tool for the distribution companies that will serve as a starting point to the analysis for this type of projects in distribution systems.

  4. Measured and calculated transmission losses of sound waves through a helium layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norum, T. D.

    1973-01-01

    An experiment was performed to measure the transmission losses of sound waves traversing an impedance layer. The sound emanated from a point source and the impedance layer was created by a low-speed helium jet. The transmission losses measured were of the order of 12 db for frequencies of the source between 4 and 12 kHz. These losses are greater than those predicted from analysis when the observer angle is less than about 35 deg, but less than those predicted for larger observer angles. The experimental results indicate that appreciable noise reductions can be realized for an observer shielded by an impedance layer, irrespective of his position relative to the source of sound.

  5. Remote measurements of water pollution with a lidar polarimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheives, T. C.; Rouse, J. W., Jr.; Mayo, W. T., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    This paper examines a dual polarization laser backscatter system as a method for remote measurements of certain water quality parameters. Analytical models for describing the backscatter from turbid water and oil on turbid water are presented and compared with experimental data. Laser backscatter field measurements from natural waterways are presented and compared with simultaneous ground observations of the water quality parameters: turbidity, suspended solids, and transmittance. The results of this study show that the analytical models appear valid and that the sensor investigated is applicable to remote measurements of these water quality parameters and oil spills on water.-

  6. Experimental Measurements of the Water Evaporation Rate of a Physical Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turza Róbert

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available As the number of indoor swimming pools and wellness centers are currently growing, it is necessary to concentrate on the parameters of indoor environments. These parameters are necessary for the design of the HVAC systems that operate these premises. In indoor swimming-pool facilities, the energy demand is large due to ventilation losses from exhaust air. Since water evaporates from a pool’s surface, exhaust air has a high water content and specific enthalpy. In this paper the results of the water evaporation rate measured from swimming pool surfaces at higher thermal water temperatures are described.

  7. A functional cutin matrix is required for plant protection against water loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guoxiong; Komatsuda, Takao; Ma, Jian Feng; Li, Chao; Yamaji, Naoki; Nevo, Eviatar

    2011-09-01

    The plant cuticle, a cutin matrix embedded with and covered by wax, seals the aerial organ's surface to protect the plant against uncontrolled water loss. The cutin matrix is essential for the cuticle to function as a barrier to water loss. Recently, we identified from wild barley a drought supersensitive mutant, eibi1, which is caused by a defective cutin matrix as the result of the loss of function of HvABCG31, an ABCG full transporter. Here, we report that eibi1 epidermal cells contain lipid-like droplets, which are supposed to consist of cutin monomers that have not been transported out of the cells. The eibi1 cuticle is fragile due to a defective cutin matrix. The rice ortholog of the EIBI1 gene has a similar pattern of expression, young shoot but not flag leaf blade, as the barley gene. The model of the function of Eibi1 is discussed. The HvABCG31 full transporter functions in the export of cutin components and contributed to land plant colonization, hence also to terrestrial life evolution.

  8. Measuring Migratory Grief and Loss Associated with the Experience of Immigration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casado, Banghwa Lee; Hong, Michin; Harrington, Donna

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The Migratory Grief and Loss Questionnaire (MGLQ) was designed to measure the grief experience associated with immigration. This article reports the development and psychometric properties of a Chinese-version of MGLQ. Methods: An exploratory factor analysis (EFA) using maximum likelihood extraction with varimax rotation was conducted…

  9. Validation of a dental image analyzer tool to measure alveolar bone loss in periodontitis patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teeuw, W.J.; Coelho, L.; de Silva, A.; van der Palen, C.J.N.M.; Lessmann, F.G.J.M.; van der Velden, U.; Loos, B.G.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Objective:  Radiographs are an essential adjunct to the clinical examination for periodontal diagnoses. Over the past few years, digital radiographs have become available for use in clinical practice. Therefore, the present study investigated whether measuring alveolar bone loss, usin

  10. Validation of a dental image analyzer tool to measure alveolar bone loss in periodontitis patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teeuw, W.J.; Coelho, L.; de Silva, A.; van der Palen, C.J.N.M.; Lessmann, F.G.J.M.; van der Velden, U.; Loos, B.G.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Objective:  Radiographs are an essential adjunct to the clinical examination for periodontal diagnoses. Over the past few years, digital radiographs have become available for use in clinical practice. Therefore, the present study investigated whether measuring alveolar bone loss, usin

  11. A Bench Measurement of the Energy Loss of a Stored Beam to a Cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sands, M; Rees, J.; /SLAC

    2016-12-19

    A rather simple electronic bench experiment is proposed for obtaining a measure of the impulse energy loss of a stored particle bunch to an rf cavity or other vacuum-chamber structure--the so-called "cavity radiation". The proposed method is analyzed in some detail.

  12. A Bench Measurement of the Energy Loss of a Stored Beam to a Cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sands, M.; Rees, John R.; /SLAC

    2005-08-08

    A rather simple electronic bench experiment is proposed for obtaining a measure of the impulse energy loss of a stored particle bunch to an rf cavity or other vacuum-chamber structure--the so-called ''cavity radiation''. The proposed method is analyzed in some detail.

  13. Adjusting Measured Weight Loss of Aged Graphite Fabric/PMR-15 Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Kenneth J.

    1998-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to evaluate the growth of the surface damage layer in polymer matrix composites (PMC's) fabricated with graphite fabric reinforcement and to determine the effects of the cut-surface degradation on the overall thermo-oxidative (TOS) stability of these materials. Four important conclusions were made about the TOS behavior of T650-35/PNIR- 15 fabric-reinforced composites: (1) Three stages of composite weight loss were seen on the plot of weight loss versus aging time; (2) the depth of the cut-edge damage is related to the composite thickness; (3) the actual weight loss realized by a mechanical test specimen that has had all the aging-induced cut-edge damage removed during the preparation process is significantly less than the weight loss measured using specimens with a high percentage of cut edges exposed to the damaging environment; and (4) an extrapolation of a section of the weight loss curve can be used to obtain a more correct estimate of the actual weight loss after extended periods of aging at elevated temperatures.

  14. Soy Protein Isolate As Fluid Loss Additive in Bentonite-Water-Based Drilling Fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mei-Chun; Wu, Qinglin; Song, Kunlin; Lee, Sunyoung; Jin, Chunde; Ren, Suxia; Lei, Tingzhou

    2015-11-11

    Wellbore instability and formation collapse caused by lost circulation are vital issues during well excavation in the oil industry. This study reports the novel utilization of soy protein isolate (SPI) as fluid loss additive in bentonite-water based drilling fluids (BT-WDFs) and describes how its particle size and concentration influence on the filtration property of SPI/BT-WDFs. It was found that high pressure homogenization (HPH)-treated SPI had superior filtration property over that of native SPI due to the improved ability for the plugging pore throat. HPH treatment also caused a significant change in the surface characteristic of SPI, leading to a considerable surface interaction with BT in aqueous solution. The concentration of SPI had a significant impact on the dispersion state of SPI/BT mixtures in aquesous solution. At low SPI concentrations, strong aggregations were created, resulting in the formation of thick, loose, high-porosity and high-permeability filter cakes and high fluid loss. At high SPI concentrations, intercatlated/exfoliated structures were generated, resulting in the formation of thin, compact, low-porosity and low-permeability filter cakes and low fluid loss. The SPI/BT-WDFs exhibited superior filtration property than pure BT-WDFs at the same solid concentraion, demonstrating the potential utilization of SPI as an effective, renewable, and biodegradable fluid loss reducer in well excavation applications.

  15. Measured Mass Loss Rates of Solar-like Stars as a Function of Age and Activity

    CERN Document Server

    Wood, B E; Zank, G P; Linsky, J L; Wood, Brian E.; Mueller, Hans-Reinhard; Zank, Gary P.; Linsky, Jeffrey L.

    2002-01-01

    Collisions between the winds of solar-like stars and the local ISM result in a population of hot hydrogen gas surrounding these stars. Absorption from this hot H I can be detected in high resolution Lyman-alpha spectra of these stars from the Hubble Space Telescope. The amount of absorption can be used as a diagnostic for the stellar mass loss rate. We present new mass loss rate measurements derived in this fashion for four stars (Epsilon Eri, 61 Cyg A, 36 Oph AB, and 40 Eri A). Combining these measurements with others, we study how mass loss varies with stellar activity. We find that for the solar-like GK dwarfs, the mass loss per unit surface area is correlated with X-ray surface flux. Fitting a power law to this relation yields Mdot ~ Fx^(1.15+/-0.20). The active M dwarf Proxima Cen and the very active RS CVn system Lambda And appear to be inconsistent with this relation. Since activity is known to decrease with age, the above power law relation for solar-like stars suggests that mass loss decreases with t...

  16. Measurements of the transverse resistance and eddy current losses in a cable-in-conduit conductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keilin, V. E.; Kovalev, I. A.; Kruglov, S. L.; Lelekhov, S. A.; Il'in, A. A.; Naumov, A. V.; Shcherbakov, V. I.; Shutov, K. A.

    2015-11-01

    In the case of plasma current interruption in tokamaks, the conductor of toroidial field (TF) coils experiences the action of a pulsed decreasing magnetic field (PDMF) parallel to the conductor's axis. To estimate the stability of a cable-in-conduit conductor against the PDMF, a new experimental method to study different types of losses is applied. This method exploits a high sensitivity of temperature and gas pressure to input energy in a closed volume. It allows one to measure hysteresis losses with a rather high accuracy (provided that the rate of change of the PDMF is low) and a sum of hysteresis losses and eddy current losses (when the rate of change of the PDMF is high). An experimental setup to measure the transverse (circumferential) resistance and losses has been developed at the National Research Centre Kurchatov Institute. A Russianmade Nb3Sn conductor intended for the TF coils of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor is subjected to a PDMF with different amplitudes and characteristic times. The electromagnetic time constant and the transverse resistivity of the conductor are experimentally determined. The maximum temperature of strands under the action of the PDMF is calculated.

  17. Measurements of Building Transmission Loss and Delay Spread at 2.5 GHz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. H. Gonsioroski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of measurements of signal transmission loss at 2.5 GHz through 10 urban buildings. This allows the characterization of different types of buildings by effective attenuation constants and consideration of the contribution of the transmitted signal in microcell coverage predictions. Power delay profiles (PDPs of the received signal were also measured and used to determine the time dispersion parameters of the channel, including the mean excess delay and the rms delay spread.

  18. Streamflow gains and losses along San Francisquito Creek and characterization of surface-water and ground-water quality, southern San Mateo and northern Santa Clara counties, California, 1996-97

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Loren F.

    2002-01-01

    San Francisquito Creek is an important source of recharge to the 22-square-mile San Francisquito Creek alluvial fan ground-water subbasin in the southern San Mateo and northern Santa Clara Counties of California. Ground water supplies as much as 20 percent of the water to some area communities. Local residents are concerned that infiltration and consequently ground-water recharge would be reduced if additional flood-control measures are implemented along San Francisquito Creek. To improve the understanding of the surface-water/ground-water interaction between San Francisquito Creek and the San Francisquito Creek alluvial fan, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) estimated streamflow gains and losses along San Francisquito Creek and determined the chemical quality and isotopic composition of surface and ground water in the study area.Streamflow was measured at 13 temporary streamflow-measurement stations to determine streamflow gains and losses along a 8.4-mile section of San Francisquito Creek. A series of five seepage runs between April 1996 and May 1997 indicate that losses in San Francisquito Creek were negligible until it crossed the Pulgas Fault at Sand Hill Road. Streamflow losses increased between Sand Hill Road and Middlefield Road where the alluvial deposits are predominantly coarse-grained and the water table is below the bottom of the channel. The greatest streamflow losses were measured along a 1.8-mile section of the creek between the San Mateo Drive bike bridge and Middlefield Road; average losses between San Mateo Drive and Alma Street and from there to Middlefield Road were 3.1 and 2.5 acre-feet per day, respectively.Downstream from Middlefield Road, streamflow gains and losses owing to seepage may be masked by urban runoff, changes in bank storage, and tidal effects from San Francisco Bay. Streamflow gains measured between Middlefield Road and the 1200 block of Woodland Avenue may be attributable to urban runoff and (or) ground-water inflow. Water

  19. Estimation of Antarctic ozone loss from Ground-based total column measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kuttippurath

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The passive ozone method is used to estimate ozone loss from ground-based measurements in the Antarctic. A sensitivity study shows that the O3 loss can be estimated within an accuracy of ~4%. The method is then applied to the observations from Amundsen-Scott/South Pole, Arrival Heights, Belgrano, Concordia, Dumont d'Urville, Faraday, Halley, Marambio, Neumayer, Rothera, Syowa and Zhongshan for the diagnosis of ozone loss in the Antarctic. On average, the five-day running mean of the vortex averaged ozone column loss deduced from the ground-based stations shows about 53% in 2009, 59% in 2008, 55% in 2007, 56% in 2006 and 61% in 2005. The observed O3 loss and loss rates are in very good agreement with the satellite observations (Ozone Monitoring Instrument and Sciamachy and are well reproduced by the model (Reprobus and SLIMCAT calculations.

    The historical ground-based total ozone measurements show that the depletion started in the late 1970s, reached a maximum in the early 1990s, stabilising afterwards at this level until present, with the exception of 2002, the year of an early vortex break-up. There is no indication of significant recovery yet.

    At southern mid-latitudes, a total ozone reduction of 40–50% is observed at the newly installed station Rio Gallegos and 25–35% at Kerguelen in October–November of 2008–2009 and 2005–2009 (except 2008 respectively, and of 10–20% at Macquarie Island in July–August of 2006–2009. This illustrates the significance of measurements at the edges of Antarctica.

  20. Measure Guideline. Transitioning to a Tankless Water Heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brozyna, K. [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Rapport, A. [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2012-09-01

    This measure guideline provides information to help residential builders and retrofitters with the design, specification, selection, implementation, installation, and maintenance issues of transitioning from tank-type water heaters to tankless water heaters.

  1. Electromagnetic losses in a three-phase high temperature superconducting cable determined by calorimetric measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traeholt, C.; Veje, E.; Tønnesen, Ole

    2002-01-01

    A 10 m long high temperature superconducting (HTS) cable conductor was placed in a plane three-phase arrangement. The test-bed enabled us to study the conductor losses for different separations between the phases. The superconductor was fixed symmetrically in the centre, whilst the two outer conv...... a calorimetric technique where the temperature increase in the flowing LN2 was measured with a set of thermo-couples. Results indicate that the total AC loss increases significantly when the separation between the conductors is reduced....

  2. Electromagnetic losses in a three-phase high temperature superconducting cable determined by calorimetric measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traeholt, C.; Veje, E.; Tønnesen, Ole

    2002-01-01

    A 10 m long high temperature superconducting (HTS) cable conductor was placed in a plane three-phase arrangement. The test-bed enabled us to study the conductor losses for different separations between the phases. The superconductor was fixed symmetrically in the centre, whilst the two outer conv...... a calorimetric technique where the temperature increase in the flowing LN2 was measured with a set of thermo-couples. Results indicate that the total AC loss increases significantly when the separation between the conductors is reduced....

  3. Simulation and Measurements of Beam Losses on LHC Collimators During Beam Abort Failures

    CERN Document Server

    Lari, L; Bruce, R; Goddard, B; Redaelli, S; Salvachua, B; Valentino, G; Faus-Golfe, A

    2013-01-01

    One of the main purposes of tracking simulations for collimation studies is to produce loss maps along the LHC ring, in order to identify the level of local beam losses during nominal and abnormal operation scenarios. The SixTrack program is the standard tracking tool used at CERN to perform these studies. Recently, it was expanded in order to evaluate the proton load on different collimators in case of fast beam failures. Simulations are compared with beam measurements at 4 TeV. Combined failures are assumed which provide worst-case scenarios of the load on tungsten tertiary collimators.

  4. Measuring domestic water use: a systematic review of methodologies that measure unmetered water use in low-income settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamason, Charlotte C; Bessias, Sophia; Villada, Adriana; Tulsiani, Suhella M; Ensink, Jeroen H J; Gurley, Emily S; Mackie Jensen, Peter Kjaer

    2016-11-01

    To present a systematic review of methods for measuring domestic water use in settings where water meters cannot be used. We systematically searched EMBASE, PubMed, Water Intelligence Online, Water Engineering and Development Center, IEEExplore, Scielo, and Science Direct databases for articles that reported methodologies for measuring water use at the household level where water metering infrastructure was absent or incomplete. A narrative review explored similarities and differences between the included studies and provide recommendations for future research in water use. A total of 21 studies were included in the review. Methods ranged from single-day to 14-consecutive-day visits, and water use recall ranged from 12 h to 7 days. Data were collected using questionnaires, observations or both. Many studies only collected information on water that was carried into the household, and some failed to mention whether water was used outside the home. Water use in the selected studies was found to range from two to 113 l per capita per day. No standardised methods for measuring unmetered water use were found, which brings into question the validity and comparability of studies that have measured unmetered water use. In future studies, it will be essential to define all components that make up water use and determine how they will be measured. A pre-study that involves observations and direct measurements during water collection periods (these will have to be determined through questioning) should be used to determine optimal methods for obtaining water use information in a survey. Day-to-day and seasonal variation should be included. A study that investigates water use recall is warranted to further develop standardised methods to measure water use; in the meantime, water use recall should be limited to 24 h or fewer. © 2016 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Determination of Vertical Interproximal Bone Loss Topography: Correlation Between Indirect Digital Radiographic Measurement and Clinical Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Esmaeli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diagnosis and accuracy in determining the exact location, extent and configurationof bony defects of the jaw are of utmost importance to determine prognosis,treatment planning and long-term preservation of teeth. If relatively accurate diagnosiscan be established by radiography, proper treatment planning prior to treatment procedureswill be possible.Objectives: The aim of the present study was to assess the correlation between indirectdigital radiographic measurements and clinical measurements in determining the topographyof interproximal bony defects.Patients and Methods: Twenty interproximal bony defects, preferably in the mandibularand maxillary 5↔5 area were selected and radiographed using the parallel periapical technique.The radiographs were corrected and digitized on a computer using “Linear Measurement”software; then the three parameters of the base of defect (BD, alveolar crest(AC and cementoenamel junction (CEJ were determined using a software. Subsequentto radiographic measurements, clinical measurements were carried out meticulouslyduring flap procedures. Then linear measurements were carried out using a periodontalprobe to determine the defect depth and its mesiodistal width. Then the amount of correlationbetween these two measurements was assessed by Pearson's correlation coefficient.Results: The correlation between clinical and radiographic measurements in defect depthdetermination, in the evaluation of defect angle and in determination of defect widthwere 88%, 98% and 90%, respectively.Conclusions: Indirect digital radiographic technique can be used to diagnose intra-osseousdefects, providing a better opportunity to treat bony defects.

  6. Determination of Vertical Interproximal Bone Loss Topography: Correlation Between Indirect Digital Radiographic Measurement and Clinical Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeli, Farzad; Shirmohammadi, Adileh; Faramarzie, Masoumeh; Abolfazli, Nader; Rasouli, Hossein; Fallahi, Saied

    2012-01-01

    Background Diagnosis and accuracy in determining the exact location, extent and configuration of bony defects of the jaw are of utmost importance to determine prognosis, treatment planning and long-term preservation of teeth. If relatively accurate diagnosis can be established by radiography, proper treatment planning prior to treatment procedures will be possible. Objectives The aim of the present study was to assess the correlation between indirect digital radiographic measurements and clinical measurements in determining the topography of interproximal bony defects. Patients and Methods Twenty interproximal bony defects, preferably in the mandibular and maxillary 5↔5 area were selected and radiographed using the parallel periapical technique. The radiographs were corrected and digitized on a computer using “Linear Measurement” software; then the three parameters of the base of defect (BD), alveolar crest (AC) and cementoenamel junction (CEJ) were determined using a software. Subsequent to radiographic measurements, clinical measurements were carried out meticulously during flap procedures. Then linear measurements were carried out using a periodontal probe to determine the defect depth and its mesiodistal width. Then the amount of correlation between these two measurements was assessed by Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results The correlation between clinical and radiographic measurements in defect depth determination, in the evaluation of defect angle and in determination of defect width were 88%, 98% and 90%, respectively. Conclusions Indirect digital radiographic technique can be used to diagnose intra-osseous defects, providing a better opportunity to treat bony defects. PMID:23329969

  7. Measuring domestic water use: A systematic review of methodologies that measure unmetered water use in low-income settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamason, Charlotte C.; Bessias, Sophia; Villada, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To present a systematic review of methods for measuring domestic water use in settings where water meters cannot be used. Methods: We systematically searched EMBASE, PubMed, Water Intelligence Online, Water Engineering and Development Center, IEEExplore, Scielo, and Science Direct data...

  8. Measurements of water repellency and infiltration of the soil

    OpenAIRE

    Žnidaršič, Petra

    2013-01-01

    Soil water repellency is a reduction in the rate of wetting caused by the presence of hydrophobic coatings on soil particles. The occurrence of the absorption of water from the surface of the ground in its interior is called infiltration. Water resistance and infiltration are dependent on a number of influences. All measurements were done on three different soil types at each at the ground level and in the trench. Water repellency measurements were performed by two methods, namely with wat...

  9. Foraging Activity Pattern Is Shaped by Water Loss Rates in a Diurnal Desert Rodent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Ofir; Dayan, Tamar; Porter, Warren P; Kronfeld-Schor, Noga

    2016-08-01

    Although animals fine-tune their activity to avoid excess heat, we still lack a mechanistic understanding of such behaviors. As the global climate changes, such understanding is particularly important for projecting shifts in the activity patterns of populations and communities. We studied how foraging decisions vary with biotic and abiotic pressures. By tracking the foraging behavior of diurnal desert spiny mice in their natural habitat and estimating the energy and water costs and benefits of foraging, we asked how risk management and thermoregulatory requirements affect foraging decisions. We found that water requirements had the strongest effect on the observed foraging decisions. In their arid environment, mice often lose water while foraging for seeds and cease foraging even at high energetic returns when water loss is high. Mice also foraged more often when energy expenditure was high and for longer times under high seed densities and low predation risks. Gaining insight into both energy and water balance will be crucial to understanding the forces exerted by changing climatic conditions on animal energetics, behavior, and ecology.

  10. Treatment of losses of ultrafine aerosol particles in long sampling tubes during ambient measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Prashant; Fennell, Paul; Symonds, Jonathan; Britter, Rex

    Long sampling tubes are often required for particle measurements in street canyons. This may lead to significant losses of the number of ultrafine (those below 100 nm) particles within the sampling tubes. Inappropriate treatment of these losses may significantly change the measured particle number distributions (PND), because most of the ambient particles, by number, exist in the ultrafine size range. Based on the Reynolds number (Re) in the sampling tubes, most studies treat the particle losses using the Gormley and Kennedy laminar flow model (Gormley, P.G., Kennedy, M., 1949. Diffusion from a stream following through a cylinderical tube. Proceedings of Royal Irish Academy 52, 163-169.) or the Wells and Chamberlain turbulent flow model (Wells, A.C., Chamberlain, A.C., 1967. Transport of small particles to vertical surfaces. British Journal of Applied Physics 18, 1793-1799.). Our experiments used a particle spectrometer with various lengths (1.00, 5.47, 5.55, 8.90 and 13.40 m) of sampling tube to measure the PNDs in the 5-2738 nm range. Experiments were performed under different operating conditions to measure the particle losses through silicone rubber tubes of circular cross-section (7.85 mm internal diameter). Sources of particles included emissions from an idling diesel engine car in a street canyon, emissions from a burning candle and those from the generation of salt aerosols using a nebuliser in the laboratory. Results showed that losses for particles below ≈20 nm were important and were largest for the smallest size range (5-10 nm), but were modest for particles above ≈20 nm. In our experiments the laminar flow model did not reflect the observations for small Re. This may be due to the sampling tubes not being kept straight or other complications. In situ calibration or comparison appears to be required.

  11. AC loss characterization of single pancake BSCCO coils by measured different methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safran, Serap; Souc, Jano; Gömöry, Fedor

    2017-10-01

    Electromagnetic measurements for AC losses of single pancake BSCCO coils and tapes have been performed experimentally as a function of reinforcement material, number of turns and AC current. Two coils have been prepared with using isolated Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3O10/Ag (BSCCO) tape produced by Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. For the experimental tests, the pancake coil is immersed in liquid nitrogen bath. The critical current Icp is determined. The transport AC loss has been measured by electromagnetic and calorimetric method using a lock-in amplifier. In electromagnetic method, the signal from 1) whole coil voltage, 2) the pair of taps placed in the 1/3 outer turn and 3) 3 cm long contactless loop placed in the 1/3 outer turn making a C shaped loop, are measured. Increasing the number of turns in the pancake increases the dissipation per unit length of the tape.

  12. A distributed optical fiber sensing system for synchronous vibration and loss measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu-ping; Qiao, Wei-yan; Sun, Zhen-hong; Shan, Yuan-yuan; Zeng, Jie; Zhang, Yi-xin

    2016-09-01

    We propose a fully distributed fusion system combining phase-sensitive optical time-domain reflectometry (Φ-OTDR) and OTDR for synchronous vibration and loss measurement by setting an ingenious frequency sweep rate ( FSR) of the optical source. The relationships between FSR, probe pulse width and repeat period are given to balance the amplitude fluctuation of OTDR traces, the dead zone probability and the measurable frequency range of vibration events. In the experiment, we achieve synchronous vibration and loss measurement with FSR of 40 MHz/s, the proble pulse width of 100 ns and repeat rate of 0.4 ms. The fluctuation of OTDR trace is less than 0.45 dB when the signal-to-noise ratio ( SNR) is over 12 dB for a captured vibration event located at 9.1 km. The proposed method can be used for not only detection but also early warning of damage events in optical communication networks.

  13. Energy reduction in buildings in temperate and tropic regions utilizing a heat loss measuring device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lars Schiøtt

    2012-01-01

    to ACMV in the "warm countries" contribute to an enormous energy consumption and corresponding CO2 emission. In order to establish the best basis for energy renovation, it is important to have measures of the heat losses on a building façade, for optimizing the energy renovation. This paper will present...... penetration through facades with the aim to reduce the costs to AC. The paper will introduce a common project between NUS (National University of Singapore), AAU (Aalborg University) and HT-Meter, the latter as the U-value Meter developer company. In the project we will measure the heat transfer in the unit W...... of the project. Furthermore this paper present results from already conducted heat loss measurements in the temperate regions....

  14. Impacts of Soil and Water Conservation Practices on Crop Yield, Run-off, Soil Loss and Nutrient Loss in Ethiopia: Review and Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adimassu, Zenebe; Langan, Simon; Johnston, Robyn; Mekuria, Wolde; Amede, Tilahun

    2017-01-01

    Research results published regarding the impact of soil and water conservation practices in the highland areas of Ethiopia have been inconsistent and scattered. In this paper, a detailed review and synthesis is reported that was conducted to identify the impacts of soil and water conservation practices on crop yield, surface run-off, soil loss, nutrient loss, and the economic viability, as well as to discuss the implications for an integrated approach and ecosystem services. The review and synthesis showed that most physical soil and water conservation practices such as soil bunds and stone bunds were very effective in reducing run-off, soil erosion and nutrient depletion. Despite these positive impacts on these services, the impact of physical soil and water conservation practices on crop yield was negative mainly due to the reduction of effective cultivable area by soil/stone bunds. In contrast, most agronomic soil and water conservation practices increase crop yield and reduce run-off and soil losses. This implies that integrating physical soil and water conservation practices with agronomic soil and water conservation practices are essential to increase both provisioning and regulating ecosystem services. Additionally, effective use of unutilized land (the area occupied by bunds) by planting multipurpose grasses and trees on the bunds may offset the yield lost due to a reduction in planting area. If high value grasses and trees can be grown on this land, farmers can harvest fodder for animals or fuel wood, both in scarce supply in Ethiopia. Growing of these grasses and trees can also help the stability of the bunds and reduce maintenance cost. Economic feasibility analysis also showed that, soil and water conservation practices became economically more viable if physical and agronomic soil and water conservation practices are integrated.

  15. Chapter 12: Uncertainty in measured water quality data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water quality assessment, management, and regulation continue to rely on measured water quality data, in spite of advanced modeling capabilities. However, very little information is available on one very important component of the measured data - the inherent measurement uncertainty. Although all ...

  16. Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galdenzi Sandro

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of the weight loss in limestone tablets placed in the Grotta del Fiume (Frasassi, Italy provided data on the rate of limestone dissolution due to the sulfidic water and on the influence of local environmental conditions.A linear average corrosion rate of 24 mm ka-1 was measured in stagnant water, while the values were higher (68-119 mm ka-1 where the hydrologic conditions facilitate water movement and gas exchanges. In these zones the increase in water aggressivity is due to mixing with descending, O2-rich, seepage water and is also favored by easier gas exchange between ground-water and the cave atmosphere. Very intense corrosion was due to weakly turbulent flow, which caused evident changes in the tablets shape in few months. A comparison between the measured corrosion rates and the cave features showed that the values measured in the pools with stagnant water are too low to account for the largest solutional cave development, while the average values measured in the zones with moving water are compatible with the dimension of the cave rooms in the main cave levels, that must have developed when the base level was stable and hydrologic conditions favored the increase of water aggressivity.

  17. Practical aspects of tritium measurement in ground and surface waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitzsche, O. [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Angewandte Physik; Hebert, D. [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Angewandte Physik

    1997-03-01

    Tritium measurements are a powerful tool in hydrological and hydrogeological investigations for detecting mean residence times of several water reservoirs. Due to the low tritium activities in precipitation, ground and surface waters a low level measurement is necessary. Therefore often the liquid scintillation counting after an electrolytic enrichment of water is used. In this paper some practical aspects and problems of measurement are discussed and the problem of contamination in low level laboratories is shown. (orig.)

  18. Lunar absorption spectrophotometer for measuring atmospheric water vapor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querel, Richard R; Naylor, David A

    2011-02-01

    A novel instrument has been designed to measure the nighttime atmospheric water vapor column abundance by near-infrared absorption spectrophotometry of the Moon. The instrument provides a simple, effective, portable, and inexpensive means of rapidly measuring the water vapor content along the lunar line of sight. Moreover, the instrument is relatively insensitive to the atmospheric model used and, thus, serves to provide an independent calibration for other measures of precipitable water vapor from both ground- and space-based platforms.

  19. An empirical study to measure the effects of various factors on operating loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeeid Khodaei Valahzaghard

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to measure the effects of various factors on operating loss in one of major Iranian banks called Bank Mellat. The proposed study of this paper uses a standard questionnaire and distributes it among 57 people who are mainly in top management levels. The questions are categorized into five groups including events related to the processes and methods, events outside the organization, related events within the organization and business disruptions and system failure. The results of our survey confirm that the loss associated with events related to the processes and methods increases operating risk meaningfully, the loss associated with business disruptions and system failure increases operating risk meaningfully and the loss associated with related events within the organization increases operating risk meaningfully. However, our survey do not confirm that the loss associated with events outside the organization increase operating, risk meaningfully. Finally, the preliminary survey of our analysis shows that there is not enough evidence to believe that the effects of business disruption and internal affairs are significantly different from the other event.

  20. CALCULATION OF THE UNSTEADY WATER LINE IN THE KRASNODAR SUBURBAN CHANNEL FOR WATER MEASUREMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanenko Y. G.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Low level of water accounting and poor control in water distribution in the irrigation system are the main negative factors of industrial influence on irrigated natural complexes. Complex ecosystem way to control water resources involves qualitative improvement and optimization of all parts and elements of irrigation system, from the headwater pool, main channels to local water distribution channels. In this regard, when engineering, constructing, using some new and reconstructed old irrigated systems, the most important problems are the optimization of water use from natural water resources, development and use of highly efficient water-saving and energy-saving technologies of water distribution and water use in the irrigation system. The problem of economical and efficient consumption of water resources on the studied water complex cannot be solved successfully without any related consideration of water accounting and water consumption questions based on system principles. System principles are supposed to collect, analyze and use the information, with the help of complex technical means, which are used for water measurement in conditions of water charges, and for the purpose to control the technological processes of water supply and water drainage, when the needs of water users are satisfied and the environment get less damage. In the work, we study the mathematical calculation of the unsteady water line in the Krasnodar suburban channel for water measurement. The imitated research of hydraulic processes were carried out on the mathematical model of water measurement, based on the characteristic methods, with the use of analytical solution of ordinary differential equations of the initial characteristics. The use of the considered method of water measurement in irrigation channels with the use of analytical solution of ordinary differential equations of initial characteristics will allow to optimize the processes of water measurement and to

  1. History of water loss and atmospheric O2 buildup on rocky exoplanets near M dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Feng

    2015-12-01

    It is recently proposed that early stellar luminosity evolution of M dwarfs leads to severe water loss and the buildup of massive O2 atmospheres on rocky exoplanets in the habitable zone of these stars if interactions of such O2 atmospheres with planetary surfaces are inefficient. Here we show that even without considering atmosphere-surface interactions, the existence of a massive O2 atmosphere on such exoplanets is not an unavoidable consequence around M0-M3 stars and depends on stellar XUV properties, the mass of the exoplanets, and most importantly the initial planetary water inventories. In the case of inefficient atmosphere-surface interactions, the distribution of atmospheric O2 contents on these exoplanets should be bi-modal and such a distribution could be verified by future surveys of rocky exoplanets.

  2. Thermographic Imaging of Material Loss in Boiler Water-Wall Tubing by Application of Scanning Line Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, K. Elliott; Winfree, William P.

    2000-01-01

    Localized wall thinning due to corrosion in utility boiler water-wall tubing is a significant inspection concern for boiler operators. Historically, conventional ultrasonics has been used for inspection of these tubes. This technique has proven to be very manpower and time intensive. This has resulted in a spot check approach to inspections, documenting thickness measurements over a relatively small percentage of the total boiler wall area. NASA Langley Research Center has developed a thermal NDE technique designed to image and quantitatively characterize the amount of material thinning present in steel tubing. The technique involves the movement of a thermal line source across the outer surface of the tubing followed by an infrared imager at a fixed distance behind the line source. Quantitative images of the material loss due to corrosion are reconstructed from measurements of the induced surface temperature variations. This paper will present a discussion of the development of the thermal imaging system as well as the techniques used to reconstruct images of flaws. The application of the thermal line source coupled with the analysis technique represents a significant improvement in the inspection speed for large structures such as boiler water-walls. A theoretical basis for the technique will be presented which explains the quantitative nature of the technique. Further, a dynamic calibration system will be presented for the technique that allows the extraction of thickness information from the temperature data. Additionally, the results of applying this technology to actual water-wall tubing samples and in situ inspections will be presented.

  3. Daily self-monitoring of body weight, step count, fruit/vegetable intake, and water consumption: a feasible and effective long-term weight loss maintenance approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akers, Jeremy D; Cornett, Rachel A; Savla, Jyoti S; Davy, Kevin P; Davy, Brenda M

    2012-05-01

    Maintenance of weight loss remains a challenge for most individuals. Thus, practical and effective weight-loss maintenance (WTLM) strategies are needed. A two-group 12-month WTLM intervention trial was conducted from June 2007 to February 2010 to determine the feasibility and effectiveness of a WTLM intervention for older adults using daily self-monitoring of body weight, step count, fruit/vegetable (F/V) intake, and water consumption. Forty weight-reduced individuals (mean weight lost=6.7±0.6 kg; body mass index [calculated as kg/m²] 29.2±1.1), age 63±1 years, who had previously participated in a 12-week randomized controlled weight-loss intervention trial, were instructed to record daily body weight, step count, and F/V intake (WEV [defined as weight, exercise, and F/V]). Experimental group (WEV+) participants were also instructed to consume 16 fl oz of water before each main meal (ie, three times daily), and to record daily water intake. Outcome measures included weight change, diet/physical activity behaviors, theoretical constructs related to health behaviors, and other clinical measures. Statistical analyses included growth curve analyses and repeated measures analysis of variance. Over 12 months, there was a linear decrease in weight (β=-0.32, Pweight for each participant determined that weight loss was greater over the study period in the WEV+ group than in the WEV group, corresponding to weight changes of -0.67 kg and 1.00 kg, respectively, and an 87% greater weight loss (β=-0.01, Pweight, physical activity, and F/V consumption is a feasible and effective approach for maintaining weight loss for 12 months, and daily self-monitoring of increased water consumption may provide additional WTLM benefits.

  4. Phenotypic flexibility in cutaneous water loss and lipids of the stratum corneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugen, Michael J; Tieleman, B Irene; Williams, Joseph B

    2003-10-01

    When vertebrates invaded land during the Carboniferous period, they were exposed not only to new ecological opportunities but also to a desiccating environment. To maintain cellular water homeostasis, natural selection modified the integument of pioneering terrestrial animals, enabling them to reduce water loss through the skin. In desert environments, where ambient temperatures (T(a)) can reach 50 degrees C, relative humidities are low and drinking water is scarce, integumentary modifications that reduce cutaneous water loss (CWL) could be fundamental to survival. Previous research has shown that hoopoe larks (Alaemon alaudipes) from the Arabian desert reduced CWL when acclimated to 35 degrees C compared with individuals at 15 degrees C, but skylarks (Alauda arvensis) and woodlarks (Lullula arborea), from The Netherlands, and Dunn's larks (Eremalauda dunni), also from the Arabian desert, did not. Here, we test the idea that hoopoe larks acclimated to 35 degrees C would alter the lipid composition of their stratum corneum (SC), resulting in a decrease in CWL, but that skylarks, woodlarks and Dunn's larks would not. Specifically, we hypothesized that hoopoe larks, acclimated to 35 degrees C, would increase the proportions of polar ceramide content and decrease the proportions of free fatty acids in their SC compared with individuals acclimated to 15 degrees C. Results showed that hoopoe larks at 35 degrees C had lower CWL and higher proportions of total ceramides but lower proportions of free fatty acids and sterols in their SC. We demonstrate that adjustments in ratios of lipid classes in the SC are associated with changes in CWL in hoopoe larks.

  5. Loss of Water From Mars: What Can We Expect From Mars Express and Nozomi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammer, H.; Lichtenegger, H.; Kolb, C.

    In 1969 UV spectrometers on board of NASA`s Mariner 6 and 7 spacecraft observed the Lyman-alpha dayglow of atomic hydrogen atoms in an altitude range between 200 and 24000 kilometers. It is suggested that these hydrogen atoms originate from the planetary water inventory hidden in subsurface ice and permafrost. When water evap- orates from the Martian surface and subsurface ice reservoirs, its vapour reaches the upper atmosphere where solar UV radiation can break up the molecules into hydro- gen and oxygen. The hydrogen atoms and molecules can escape by Jeans escape but they can also be transformed into ions via charge exchange reactions resulting in ion loss not studied by the Mariner 10 observations. On the other hand solar wind pro- tons can be transformed into energetic hydrogen atoms and thus also contribute to the observed neutral H flux and are therefore interpreted as planetary atoms. For getting a better idea of how much water is really lost to space we re-evaluated all known es- cape rates and processes of hydrogen and oxygen ions and atoms by using a Monte Carlo model where we can study particles in the upper Martian atmosphere. Further a test particle model which involves the motion in the external electric and magnetic fields allowing the separation between the planetary and solar wind atoms. We discuss also relevant atmosphere-surface interaction processes which may result in a perma- nent loss of oxygen into the Martian soil and surface layers. We show that correlated observations of various atmospheric parameters by ESA`s Mars Express and Japan`s Nozomi spacecraft should give us the possibility to adjust our models resulting in a better understanding of the Martian atmospheric evolution with respect to its water inventory.

  6. The characteristics of soil and water loss in Pinus Massoniana forest in Quaternary red soil area of south China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yuejun; Huang, Yanhe; Jie, Yang

    2017-08-01

    The soil and water loss in Pinus massoniana forests is an urgent environmental problem in the red soil region of southern China.Using the method of field monitoring, by analogy and statistical analysis, The characteristics of soil and water loss of Pinus massoniana forests in Quaternary red soil region under 30 rainfall were analyzed,the results show that the relationship models of rainfall,runoff and sediment of pure Pinus massoniana plot were slightly different from the naked control plot,were all the univariate quadratic linear regression models.the contribution of runoff and sediment in different rain types were different, and the water and soil loss in Pinus massoniana forest was most prominent under moderate rain.The merging effect of sparse Pinus massoniana forest on raindrop, aggravated the degree of soil and water loss to some extent.

  7. Measurement of Water Quality Parameters for Before and After Maintenance Service in Water Filter System

    OpenAIRE

    Shaharudin Nuraida; Suradi Nurfarhana; Mohd Kamil Nor Amani Filzah

    2017-01-01

    An adequate supply of safe drinking water is one of major ways to obtain healthy life. Water filter system is one way to improve the water quality. However, to maintain the performance of the system, it need to undergo the maintenance service. This study evaluate the requirement of maintenance service in water filter system. Water quality was measured before and after maintenance service. Parameters measured were pH, turbidity, residual chlorine, nitrate and heavy metals and these parameters ...

  8. Innovative procedure for measurement of losses of transformers supplying nonsinusoidal loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchs, E.F. [University of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Yildirim, D. [Kupluce Yolu, Istanbul (Turkey); Batan, T. [Tercuman Yanus Sok, Istanbul (Turkey)

    1999-11-01

    The measurement of iron-core and copper losses of single-phase transformers is important in particular for transformers feeding nonlinear loads. A new digital data-acquisition method is devised for the separate measurement of iron-core and copper losses of transformers under any full or partial-load condition. The accuracy requirements of the instruments (voltage, current sensors, volt and current meters) employed are addressed. A 25 kVA, 7200/240 V single-phase transformer has been loaded with either three diode-bridge rectifiers and/or a thyristor-bridge rectifier at varying total harmonic voltage and current distortions, such that at the maximum permissible apparent power, losses are identical to the rated losses. The maximum errors of losses are acceptably low if voltage (dividers) and current (shunts) sensors with 2% and digital instruments with 0.1% errors are used. The derating under nonlinear loads is measured as a function of dominant 3rd and 5th current harmonics. The influence of voltage distortion is studied. The total harmonic distortion of the current (THD{sub i}) was varied greatly from 0 to 90%, and the resulting voltage THD{sub v} values were below 6% for the given power system impedance. At large THD{sub i} values (e.g. 90%), the reduction in apparent power rating (RAPR) is not very large ({approx} 100%). However, the real power capability (RPC) of the transformer is severely restricted: for example, at THD{sub i} = 90% the RPC is about 0.5pu. For this reason it might be advisable to define derating in terms of the reduction in real power capability and not in terms of RAPR. (author)

  9. Measuring The Mass Loss Evolution at The Tip of The Asymptotic Giant Branch

    CERN Document Server

    Sandin, C; Schönberner, D

    2009-01-01

    In the final stages of stellar evolution low- to intermediate-mass stars lose their envelope in increasingly massive stellar winds. Such winds affect the interstellar medium as well as the circumstellar envelope where planetary nebulae form subsequently. Characteristics of this mass loss depends on both stellar properties and properties of gas and dust in the wind formation region. In a recent study we measure the mass loss evolution, and other properties, using four planetary nebulae in the galactic disk. Specifically we use the method of integral field spectroscopy on faint halos, which are found outside the much brighter central parts of the planetary nebula. Here we present the outcome of our approach. We also make a brief comparison with other existing methods, which, so far, are used to measure previous stages of mass loss on the asymptotic giant branch. We then discuss the occurrence and observables of halos of planetary nebulae. We finish with a discussion on how our observations of the mass loss evol...

  10. The Bony Bankart Lesion: How to Measure the Glenoid Bone Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skupiński, Jarosław; Piechota, Małgorzata Zofia; Wawrzynek, Wojciech; Maczuch, Jarosław; Babińska, Anna

    2017-01-01

    An osseous Bankart lesion is commonly seen in patients with an anterior shoulder dislocation. It is defined as a detachment of the anteroinferior labrum associated with a glenoid rim fracture. Radiological studies are crucial not only for detecting glenoid bone defects but also for measuring the amount of bone loss. The precise quantification of the bony defect is crucial for the therapeutic desicion-making and clinical outcomes. Although we know that major glenoid bone loss requires surgical intervention, none of the studies performed so far answered the question what size of the defect should be an indication for open surgery procedures. Moreover, there is still no consensus on the exact percentage of glenoid loss that results in a higher risk of re-dislocations. In our opinion, there is a strong need for a consensus on universally accepted measuring techniques of the glenoid defect as well as on algorithms with validated glenoid bone loss threshold values for therapeutic decision-making. In this study, we review the techniques described so far in the literature and try to assess if any of these techniques should be treated as a leading method of detecting and quantifying osseous glenoid lesions.

  11. IS THE EVAPORATIVE WATER-LOSS OF KNOT CALIDRIS-CANUTUS HIGHER IN TROPICAL THAN IN TEMPERATE CLIMATES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VERBOVEN, N; PIERSMA, T

    1995-01-01

    To test whether Knot Calidris canutus wintering in the tropics suffer higher rates of water loss through evaporation than do Knot wintering at temperate latitudes, we tried to develop a physically realistic model to predict evaporative heat loss from air temperature, wind and humidity. In separate e

  12. Effects of cropping systems on water runoff, soil erosion and nutrient loss in the Moldavian Plateau, Romania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ailincai, C.; Jitareanu, G.; Bucur, D.; Ailincai, D.; Raus, L.; Filipov, F.

    2009-07-01

    The experiments carried out at the Podu-lloaiei Agricultural Research Sation, during 1986-2008, had the following objectives: the study of water runoff and soil losses, by erosion, in different crops; the annual rate of erosion process under the influence of anti-erosion protection of different crops; the influence of water runoff and soil erosion on losses of organic matter and mineral elements from soil. (Author) 7 refs.

  13. Microcoulometric measurement of water in minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremer, M.; Elsheimer, H.N.; Escher, E.E.

    1972-01-01

    A DuPont Moisture Analyzer is used in a microcoulometric method for determining water in minerals. Certain modifications, which include the heating of the sample outside the instrument, protect the system from acid gases and insure the conversion of all hydrogen to water vapor. Moisture analyzer data are compared to concurrent data obtained by a modified Penfield method. In general, there is a positive bias of from 0.1 to 0.2% in the moisture analyzer results and a similarity of bias in minerals of the same kind. Inhomogeneity, sample size, and moisture pick-up are invoked to explain deviations. The method is particularly applicable to small samples. ?? 1972.

  14. Validity of arthroscopic measurement of glenoid bone loss using the bare spot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyatake K

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Katsutoshi Miyatake, Yoshitsugu Takeda, Koji Fujii, Tomoya Takasago, Toshiyuki Iwame Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Tokushima Red Cross Hospital, Komatsushima, Tokushima, Japan Purpose: Our aim was to test the validity of using the bare spot method to quantify glenoid bone loss arthroscopically in patients with shoulder instability. Methods: Twenty-seven patients with no evidence of instability (18 males, nine females; mean age 59.1 years were evaluated arthroscopically to assess whether the bare spot is consistently located at the center of the inferior glenoid. Another 40 patients with glenohumeral anterior instability who underwent shoulder arthroscopy (30 males, ten females; mean age 25.9 years were evaluated for glenoid bone loss with preoperative three-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT and arthroscopic examination. In patients without instability, the distances from the bare spot of the inferior glenoid to the anterior (Da and posterior (Dp glenoid rim were measured arthroscopically. In patients with instability, we compared the percentage glenoid bone loss calculated using CT versus arthroscopic measurements. Results: Among patients without instability, the bare spot could not be identified in three of 27 patients. Da (9.5±1.2 mm was smaller than Dp (10.1±1.5 mm, but it was not significantly different. However, only 55% of glenoids showed less than 1 mm of difference between Da and Dp, and 18% showed more than 2 mm difference in length. The bare spot could not be identified in five of 40 patients with instability. Pearson's correlation coefficient showed significant (P<0.001 and strong (R2=0.63 correlation in percentage glenoid bone loss between the 3D-CT and arthroscopy method measurements. However, in ten shoulders (29%, the difference in percentage glenoid bone loss between 3D-CT and arthroscopic measurements was greater than 5%. Conclusion: The bare spot was not consistently located at the center of the inferior glenoid

  15. End loss analyzer system for measurements of plasma flux at the C-2U divertor electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griswold, M. E.; Korepanov, S.; Thompson, M. C.

    2016-11-01

    An end loss analyzer system consisting of electrostatic, gridded retarding-potential analyzers and pyroelectric crystal bolometers was developed to characterize the plasma loss along open field lines to the divertors of C-2U. The system measures the current and energy distribution of escaping ions as well as the total power flux to enable calculation of the energy lost per escaping electron/ion pair. Special care was taken in the construction of the analyzer elements so that they can be directly mounted to the divertor electrode. An attenuation plate at the entrance to the gridded retarding-potential analyzer reduces plasma density by a factor of 60 to prevent space charge limitations inside the device, without sacrificing its angular acceptance of ions. In addition, all of the electronics for the measurement are isolated from ground so that they can float to the bias potential of the electrode, 2 kV below ground.

  16. A Gigabit Ethernet link for an FPGA based Beam Loss Measurement System

    CERN Document Server

    Kwiatkowski, M; Dehning, B; Vigano, W; Zamantzas, C

    2013-01-01

    A new Beam Loss Monitoring (BLM) system is under development at the European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN) within the LHC Injector Upgrade (LIU) project. The multi-channel system will have the ability to measure beam losses from various types of detectors with high precision and wide dynamic range. Several modes of data acquisition are supported. The data rate in the singlechannel mode is 16 Mbps and in the multi-channel mode 128 Mbps. The Gigabit Ethernet link is implemented in an FPGA, which allows both a high throughput and a quick validation of the digital data processing algorithms using standard PCs in the initial stages of the development. Both TCP and UDP protocols were explored. The implementation of the Ethernet link is flexible and proved to be highly reliable, leading to its planned use in other measurement systems developed at CERN. The implementation details of the Ethernet link and the results achieved will be described in this paper.

  17. Alternative risk measure for decision-making under uncertainty in water management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yueping Xu; YeouKoung Tung; Jia Li; Shaofeng Niu

    2009-01-01

    Taking into account uncertainties in water management remains a challenge due to social,economic and environmental changes.Often,uncertainty creates difficulty in ranking or comparing multiple water management options,possibly leading to a wrong decision.In this paper,an alternative risk measure is proposed to facilitate the ranking or comparison of water management options under uncertainty by using the concepts of conditional expected loss and partial mean.This measure has the advantages of being more intuitive,general and could relate to many other measures of risk in the literature.The application of the risk measure is demonstrated through a case study for the evaluation of flood mitigation projects.The results show that the new measure is applicable to a general decisionmaking process under uncertainty.

  18. Loss-tolerant Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering for arbitrary-dimensional states:Joint measurability and unbounded violations under losses

    OpenAIRE

    Skrzypczyk, Paul; Cavalcanti, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    We show how to construct loss-tolerant linear steering inequalities using a generic set of von Neumann measurements that are violated by $d$-dimensional states, and that rely only upon a simple property of the set of measurements used (the maximal overlap between measurement directions). Using these inequalities we show that the critical detection efficiency above which $n$ von Neumann measurements can demonstrate steering is $1/n$. We show furthermore that using our construction and high dim...

  19. Assessment of water pollution by airborne measurement of chlorophyll

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvesen, J. C.; Weaver, E. C.; Millard, J. P.

    1972-01-01

    Remote measurement of chlorophyll concentrations to determine extent of water pollution is discussed. Construction and operation of radiometer to provide measurement capability are explained. Diagram of equipment is provided.

  20. Measuring Soil Water Potential for Water Management in Agriculture: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Bittelli

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Soil water potential is a soil property affecting a large variety of bio-physical processes, such as seed germination, plant growth and plant nutrition. Gradients in soil water potential are the driving forces of water movement, affecting water infiltration, redistribution, percolation, evaporation and plants’ transpiration. The total soil water potential is given by the sum of gravity, matric, osmotic and hydrostatic potential. The quantification of the soil water potential is necessary for a variety of applications both in agricultural and horticultural systems such as optimization of irrigation volumes and fertilization. In recent decades, a large number of experimental methods have been developed to measure the soil water potential, and a large body of knowledge is now available on theory and applications. In this review, the main techniques used to measure the soil water potential are discussed. Subsequently, some examples are provided where the measurement of soil water potential is utilized for a sustainable use of water resources in agriculture.

  1. Towards Fast In-line Measurement of Water Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, J.; Andreasen, M. B.; Pedersen, M.; Rasmussen, M. K.

    2015-03-01

    Water activity is widely used as a key parameter in controlling the quality of food and feed products, among others. For determining the water activity, the material is sampled from the manufacturing process and measured in the laboratory with water activity analyzers. The sampling procedure can lead to non-representative measurements, the measurement process is time consuming, and much of the produced material may be wasted before the measurement results are available. To reduce waste and to be able to optimize production processes, industry requires in-line measurement of relevant quality determining parameters, hereunder the water activity. In cooperation with a manufacturer of systems for automatic in-line sampling and measurement of moisture, density, and the size of items, a project was defined to also enable the manufacturer's existing products to perform automatic measurement of the water activity in a sample. The aim was to develop a measurement system with the ability to operate in an industrial environment, which in the end would increase the measurement speed significantly and minimize the problems related to the handling of samples. In the paper the selection and characterization of the sensors, the design of a measurement chamber, and various issues of modeling and methods to reduce measurement time are discussed. The paper also presents water activity measurements obtained from food and feed products with the system, and shows that reliable results can be obtained in a few minutes with a proper design of the measurement chamber and selection of a model.

  2. A measurement of the energy loss spectrum of 150 GeV muons in iron

    CERN Document Server

    Berger, E; Dawson, J; Fuess, T A; Guarino, V; Hill, N; Magill, S; May, E; Nodulman, L; Price, L E; Proudfoot, J; Stanek, R; Underwood, D G; Wagner, R; Wicklund, B; Blanchot, G; Bosman, M; Casado, M P; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Efthymiopoulos, I; Ivanyushenkov, Yu M; Juste, A; Miralles, L; Orteu, S; Padilla, C; Perlas, J A; Riu, I; Ronceux, B; Teubert, F; Anderson, K J; Blucher, E; Evans, H; Merritt, F S; Pilcher, J E; Sanders, H; Shochet, M J; Tang, F; Turcot, A S; Wagner, D; Arsenescu, R; Constantinescu, S; Blaj, C; Boldea, V; Dita, S; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Badaud, F; Bouhemaid, N; Brette, P; Brossard, M; Chadelas, R; Chevaleyre, J C; Crouau, M; Daudon, F; Dugne, J J; Michel, B; Montarou, G; Muanza, G S; Pallin, D; Plothow-Besch, Hartmute; Poirot, S; Reinmuth, G; Says, L P; Vazeille, F; Cobal, M; Gildemeister, O; Nessi, Marzio; Henriques, A; Poggioli, Luc; Sonderegger, P; Karapetian, G V; Astvatsaturov, A R; Borisov, O N; Budagov, Yu A; Chirikov-Zorin, I E; Chlachidze, G; Glagolev, V V; Kakurin, S; Kolomoets, V; Kovtun, V E; Kukhtin, V V; Lebedev, A; Liba, I; Lomakina, O V; Lomakin, Yu F; Malyukov, S N; Minashvili, I A; Pantea, D; Pukhov, O; Romanov, V; Rusakovitch, N A; Senchyshyn, V G; Semenov, V; Sissakian, A N; Shchelchkov, V; Shevtsov, A; Studenov, S; Tokár, S; Topilin, N D; Vinogradov, V; Vorozhtsov, S B; Yarygin, G; Cogswell, F; Downing, R; Errede, D; Errede, S; Haney, M; Simaitis, V J; Thaler, J J; Amaral, P; Amorim, A; Carvalho, J; David, M; Gómez, A; Maio, A; Martins, J P; Onofre, A; Wolters, H; Bromberg, C; Huston, J; Miller, R; Richards, R; Yosef, C; Alifanov, A; Bogush, A A; Golubev, V B; Rumyantsev, V; Kulchitskii, Yu A; Angelini, C; Autiero, D; Cavasinni, V; Costanzo, D; De Santo, A; Del Prete, T; Di Girolamo, B; Flaminio, Vincenzo; Lami, S; Lazzeroni, C; Mazzoni, E; Renzoni, G; Davidek, T; Dolejsi, J; Dolezal, Z; Leitner, R; Soustruznik, K; Suk, M; Tas, P; Trka, Z; Valkár, S; Zdrazil, M; Lokajícek, M; Némécek, S; Karyukhin, A N; Klioukhine, V I; Khokhlov, Yu A; Kopikov, S V; Kostrikov, M E; Kulagin, M; Lapin, V; Protopopov, Yu; Sidorov, V; Solodkov, A A; Starchenko, E A; Surkov, A; Zaitsev, A; Calôba, L P; Gaspar, M; Marroquin, F; Pereira, A; Seixas, J M; Berglund, S R; Bohm, C; Johansson, E K; Hellman, S; Holmgren, S O; Jon-And, K; Selldén, B; Tardell, S; Yamdagni, N; Ferrer, A; Honoré, P F; Albiol, F; De, K; Gallas, E J; Li, J; Sawyer, L; Stephens, R; Turcotte, M; White, A; Hakopian, H H; Grabskii, V; Mnatzakanian, E A; Vartapetian, A H

    1997-01-01

    The energy loss spectrum of 150 GeV muons has been measured with a prototype of the ATLAS hadron calorimeter in the H8 beam of the CERN SPS.\\\\ The differential probability $dP/dv$ per radiation length of a fractional energy loss $v = \\Delta E_{\\mu} / E_{\\mu}$ has been measured in the range $v = 0.01 \\div 0.95 $; it is then compared with the theoretical predictions for energy losses due to bremsstrahlung and production of electron-positron pairs or of energetic knock-on electrons.\\\\ The integrated probability $\\int_{0.01}^{0.95} (dP/dv) dv$ is $(1.610\\pm0.015_{stat.}\\pm0.105_{syst.})\\cdot10^{-3}$ in agreement with the theoretical predictions of $1.556\\cdot10^{-3}$ and $1.619\\cdot10^{-3}$. %7.8.96 - start Agreement with theory is also found in two intervals of $v$ where production of electron-positron pairs and knock-on electrons dominates. In the region of bremsstrahlung dominance ($v = 0.12\\div0.95$) the measured integrated probability $(1.160\\pm0.040_{stat}\\pm0.075_{syst})\\cdot 10^{-4}$ is in agreement with ...

  3. A precise measurement of 180 GeV muon energy losses in iron

    CERN Document Server

    Amaral, P; Anderson, K; Artikov, A; Benetta, R; Berglund, S R; Biscarat, C; Blanch, O; Blanchot, G; Bogush, A A; Bohm, C; Boldea, V; Borisov, O N; Bosman, M; Bromberg, C; Bravo, S; Budagov, Yu A; Burdin, S V; Calôba, L P; Camarena, F; Carvalho, J; Castillo, M V; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cavasinni, V; Cerqueira, A S; Chadelas, R; Chirikov-Zorin, I E; Chlachidze, G; Cobal, M; Cogswell, F; Cologna, S; Constantinescu, S; Costanzo, D; Cowan, Brian; Crouau, M; Daudon, F; David, M; Davidek, T; Dawson, J; De, K; Delfino, M C; Del Prete, T; De Santo, A; Di Girolamo, B; Dita, S; Downing, R; Engström, M; Errede, D; Errede, S; Fassi, F; Fenyuk, A; Ferrer, A; Flaminio, Vincenzo; Flix, J; Garabik, R; Gil, I; Gildemeister, O; Glagoley, V; Gómez, A; González de la Hoz, S; Grabskii, V; Grenier, P; Hakopian, H H; Haney, M; Hellman, S; Henriques, A; Hébrard, C; Higón, E; Holik, P; Holmgren, S O; Hruska, I; Huston, J; Jon-And, K; Kakurin, S; Karyukhin, A N; Khubua, J I; Kopikov, S V; Krivkova, P; Kukhtin, V V; Kulchitskii, Yu A; Kuzmin, M V; Lami, S; Lapin, V; Lazzeroni, C; Lebedev, A; Leitner, R; Li, J; Lomakin, Yu F; Lomakina, O V; Lokajícek, M; López-Amengual, J M; Maio, A; Malyukov, S N; Marroquin, F; Mataix, L; Mazzoni, E; Merritt, F S; Miller, R; Minashvili, I A; Miralles, L; Montarou, G; Némécek, S; Nessi, Marzio; Onofre, A; Ostankov, A P; Pacheco, A; Pallin, D; Pantea, D; Paoletti, R; Park, I C; Pilcher, J E; Pinhão, J; Price, L; Proudfoot, J; Pukhov, O; Reinmuth, G; Renzoni, G; Richards, R; Roda, C; Roldán, J; Romance, J B; Romanov, V; Rosnet, P; Ruiz, H; Rusakovitch, N A; Sanchis, E; Sanders, H; Santoni, C; Santo, J; Says, L P; Seixas, J M; Selldén, B; Semenov, A A; Shcelchkov, A; Shochet, M J; Silva, J; Simaitis, V J; Sissakian, A N; Solodkov, A A; Solovyanov, O; Sosebee, M; Soustruznik, K; Spanó, F; Stanek, R; Starchenko, E A; Stavina, O P; Suk, M; Sykora, I; Tang, F; Tas, P; Thaler, J J; Thome-Filho, Z D; Tokar, S; Topilin, N D; Valklar, S; Varanda, M J; Vartapetian, A H; Vazeille, F; Vichou, I; Vinogradov, V; Vorozhtsov, S B; White, A; Wolters, H; Yamdagni, N; Yarygin, G; Yosef, C; Zaitsev, A

    2001-01-01

    The energy loss spectrum of 180 GeV muons has been measured with the 5.6 m long finely segmented Module 0 of the ATLAS hadron tile calorimeter at the CERN SPS. The differential probability dP/d nu per radiation length of a fractional energy loss nu = Delta E/sub mu //E /sub mu / has been measured in the range 0.025losses due to bremsstrahlung, production of electron-positron pairs, and energetic knock-on electrons. The iron elastic form factor correction Delta /sub Fe//sup el/=1.63+or-0.17/sub stat/+or-023/sub syst$/ -/sub 0.14 //sup +0.20//sub theor/ to muon bremsstrahlung in the region of no screening of the nucleus by atomic electrons has been measured for the first time, and is compared with different theoretical predictions. (31 refs).

  4. Water Availability as a Measure of Cellulose Hydrolysis Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hsieh, Chia-Wen

    of sugars, salts, and surfactants impact the water relaxation time. Systems with high concentrations of sugars and salts tend to have low water availability, as these form strong interactions with water to keep their solubility, leaving less water available for hydrolysis. Thus, cellulase performance...... to measure properties of the liquid phase, where water protons are characterized based on their mobility in the system as measured by their relaxation time. Studies of cellulose hydrolysis at low dry matter show that the contents of the liquid phase influence the final hydrolysis yield, as the presence...

  5. Real-ear measurements in conductive hearing loss: discrepancies between probe-tube microphone measurements and sound field test results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleaver, V C

    1998-06-01

    This study was designed to investigate earlier observations that probe-tube microphone measurements of insertion gain overestimates the functional gain received from hearing aids by users with significant conductive hearing losses. This was originally thought to be due to artefacts in the probe-tube measurement caused by middle ear pathology, but is now believed to be the result of the bone conduction stimulation of the ear exposed to high intensities of airborne sound during sound field threshold measurements. Since the functional gain must relate to the true aided benefit in such cases, these findings suggest that probe-tube microphone measurements in ears with significant air-bone gaps should be interpreted with caution.

  6. Measuring household consumption and waste in unmetered, intermittent piped water systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumpel, Emily; Woelfle-Erskine, Cleo; Ray, Isha; Nelson, Kara L.

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of household water consumption are extremely difficult in intermittent water supply (IWS) regimes in low- and middle-income countries, where water is delivered for short durations, taps are shared, metering is limited, and household storage infrastructure varies widely. Nonetheless, consumption estimates are necessary for utilities to improve water delivery. We estimated household water use in Hubli-Dharwad, India, with a mixed-methods approach combining (limited) metered data, storage container inventories, and structured observations. We developed a typology of household water access according to infrastructure conditions based on the presence of an overhead storage tank and a shared tap. For households with overhead tanks, container measurements and metered data produced statistically similar consumption volumes; for households without overhead tanks, stored volumes underestimated consumption because of significant water use directly from the tap during delivery periods. Households that shared taps consumed much less water than those that did not. We used our water use calculations to estimate waste at the household level and in the distribution system. Very few households used 135 L/person/d, the Government of India design standard for urban systems. Most wasted little water even when unmetered, however, unaccounted-for water in the neighborhood distribution systems was around 50%. Thus, conservation efforts should target loss reduction in the network rather than at households.

  7. 超低损耗角磁心高频损耗测量方法%High Frequency Core Loss Measurement of Low Loss Angle Magnetic Component

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪晶慧; 陈为

    2012-01-01

    针对传统交流功率计法测量阻抗角接近90。的磁件磁心损耗时有很大的测量误差,提出了一种新型的直流测量法,基本思想是通过一个DC.AC逆变电路将直流电压转变为矩形波电压,施加到被测磁件上,测量直流输入的有功功率得到磁心损耗。其中,为了有效扣除磁心损耗外的其他损耗,提出了用空心电感定标的方法。实验结果表明:直流测量法可用来测量小损耗角磁件磁心损耗,且不受阻抗角的影响,具有很高的精度。%The measurement error of core loss by AC meter will be very large especially when the impedance angle of magnetic component is closed to 90°. So a new DC meter method is proposed in this paper. The basic idea is to transform the input DC voltage into a square waveform on the magnetic component by a DC-AC inverter, and obtained the core loss by measuring the input active power. The method could avoid the influence of impedance angle to the measurement accuracy. However, with this method, the losses excepting for core loss should be excluded someway. A method of calibration with air core inductor is proposed to effectively calculate and take out the losses except core loss. The experimental results verify that the DC meter method is accurate to measure the core loss of low loss angle magnetic component.

  8. Effect of chemical amendments to dairy soiled water and time between application and rainfall on phosphorus and sediment losses in runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrenho, A; Fenton, O; Murphy, P N C; Grant, J; Healy, M G

    2012-07-15

    Dairy soiled water (DSW) is a dilute, low nutrient effluent produced on Irish dairy farms through the regular washing down of milking parlours and holding areas. In Ireland, there is no closed period for the land application of DSW except where heavy rain is forecast within 48 h. Chemical amendments have the potential to decrease phosphorus (P) and suspended sediment (SS) loss from DSW applied to land. This study examined the impact of three time intervals (12, 24 and 48 h) between DSW application and rainfall and five treatments (control, unamended DSW, and DSW amended with lime, alum or ferric chloride (FeCl(2))) on P and sediment losses from an intact grassland soil in runoff boxes. Rainfall was simulated at 10.5 ± 1 mm h(-1). Phosphorus concentrations (1-1.6 mg L(-1)) in runoff from DSW application, while not quantitative measures of P loss to surface waters in the field, indicated the importance of incidental P losses and that the current 48 h restriction in Ireland is prudent. Unamended DSW application increased P loss by, on average, 71%, largely due to an increase in particulate phosphorus (PP) loss. All three amendments were effective in decreasing P and SS losses in runoff and, apart from the SS results for lime, were significantly different (p<0.05) to the control at at least one time point. Lime (a 64% reduction in total phosphorus (TP) in comparison with DSW only) was less effective than alum or FeCl(2), likely due to the lower solubility of CaCO(3) in water. Chemical amendment showed potential to decrease P losses from land application of DSW, but the efficacy of such amendments would need to be assessed in field trials and a cost-benefit analysis conducted to further examine whether they could be practically implemented on farms.

  9. Sensitivity Analysis of Core Damage by Loss of Auxiliary Feed Water during the Extended Loss of All AC Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Woo Jae; Chung, Soon Il; Hwang, Su Hyun; Lee, Kyung Jin; Lee, Byung Chul [FNC Tech., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Duk Joo; Lee, Seung Chan [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co. Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In this study, the reactor core damage time for OPR1000 type Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) was analyzed to develop a strategy to handle ELAP and to apply to the EOP. The reactor core damage time in the ELAP condition was calculated according to the time of Auxiliary Feedwater (AFW) loss. Fukushima accident was caused by long hours of Station Black Out (SBO) caused by natural disaster beyond Design Based Accident (DBA) criteria. It led to the reactor core damage. After the accident, the regulatory authorities of each country (Japan, US, EU, IAEA, and etc.) recommended developing the necessary systems and strategies in order to cover up the Extended Loss of All AC Power (ELAP) such as one occurred in the Fukushima accident. And the need of procedure or guideline to cope with ELAP has been raised through the stress test for Wolsong Nuclear Power Plant unit 1. Current Emergency Operating Procedures (EOP) used in domestic nuclear power plant are seemed to be insufficient to cope with ELAP. Therefore, it has been required to be improved. As the result, the time of AFW loss in the ELAP condition influences greatly on core damage time.

  10. Determining the quality of water in environmental measuring technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonfig, K.W.; Kramp, E.

    1983-11-01

    The present high degree of pollution of our water resources due to environmental effects endangers the natural cleaning processes. With the growing demand for water from domestic, industrial and other users, certain minimum requirements must be postulated for the quality of water returned to the natural circuit. This requires continuous control and monitoring of the quality of water in many industrial and community areas, such as water treatment plants, for example. Measuring processes and equipment are used to an increasing degree here. This article reports on processes for determining important parameters for the quality of water. Processes with and without treatment of samples are mentioned.

  11. Techniques and Apparatus for Measuring Rotational Core Losses of Soft Magnetic Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In many situations such as the cores of a rotating electrical machine and the T joints of a multiphase transformer, the local flux density varies with time in terms of both magnitude and direction, i.e. the flux density vector is rotating. Therefore, the magnetic properties of the core materials under the rotating flux density vector excitation should be properly measured, modeled and applied in the design and analysis of these electromagnetic devices. This paper presents an extensive review on the development of techniques and apparatus for measuring the rotational core losses of soft magnetic materials based on the experiences of various researchers in the last hundred years.

  12. Real time wave measurements and wave hindcasting in deep waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Anand, N.M.; Mandal, S.; SanilKumar, V.; Nayak, B.U.

    Deep water waves off Karwar (lat. 14~'45.1'N, long. 73~'34.8'E) at 75 m water depth pertaining to peak monsoon period have been measured using a Datawell waverider buoy. Measured wave data show that the significant wave height (Hs) predominantly...

  13. MEASUREMENT OF RF LOSSES DUE TO TRAPPED FLUX IN A LARGE-GRAIN NIOBIUM CAVITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gianluigi Ciovati; Alex Gurevich

    2008-01-23

    Trapped magnetic field in superconducting niobium is a well known cause of radio-frequency (RF) residual losses. In this contribution, we present the results of RF tests on a single-cell cavity made of high-purity large grain niobium before and after allowing a fraction of the Earth magnetic field to be trapped in the cavity during the cooldown below the critical temperature Tc. This experiment has been done on the cavity before and after a low temperature baking. Temperature mapping allowed us to determine the location of hot-spots with high losses and to measure their field dependence. The results show not only an increase of the low-field residual resistance, but also a larger increase of the surface resistance for intermediate RF field (higher “medium field Q-slope”), which depends on the amount of the trapped flux. These additional field-dependent losses can be described as losses of pinned vortices oscillating under the applied RF magnetic field.

  14. Measurements of infiltration and water repellency on different soils

    OpenAIRE

    Lavrač, Rožle

    2012-01-01

    Infiltration is a process of water entering soil from its surface. Field measurements of infiltration are performed with infiltrometers. Calculation of hydraulic conductivity can be done by different equations. Infiltration exhibits large spatial and temporal variability due to many affecting factors. One of those effects is soil water repellency (hydrophobicity). Water-repellent soils do not wet up spontaneously. The intensity and persistence of water repellency vary widely due to variabilit...

  15. A Preliminary Study on Rainfall Interception Loss and Water Yield Analysis on Arabica Coffee Plants in Central Aceh Regency, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Benara

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Rainfall interception loss from plants or trees can reduce a net rainfall as source of water yield. The amount of rainfall interception loss depends on kinds of plants and hydro-meteorological characteristics. Therefore, it is important to study rainfall interception loss such as from Arabica Coffee plantation which is as main agricultural commodity for Central Aceh Regency. In this study, rainfall interception loss from Arabica Coffee plants was studied in Kebet Village of Central Aceh Regency, Indonesia from January 20 to March 9, 2011. Arabica coffee plants used in this study was 15 years old, height of 1.5 m and canopy of 4.567 m2. Rainfall interception loss was determined based on water balance approach of daily rainfall, throughfall, and stemflow data. Empirical regression equation between rainfall interception loss and rainfall were adopted as a model to estimate rainfall interception loss from Arabica Coffee plantation, which the coefficient of correlation, r is 0.98. In water yield analysis, this formula was applied and founded that Arabica Coffee plants intercept 76% of annual rainfall or it leaved over annual net rainfall 24% of annual rainfall. Using this net rainfall, water yield produced from Paya Bener River which is the catchment area covered by Arabica Coffee plantation was analyzed in a planning of water supply project for water needs domestic of 3 sub-districts in Central Aceh Regency. Based on increasing population until year of 2025, the results showed that the water yield will be not enough from year of 2015. However, if the catchment area is covered by forest, the water yield is still enough until year of 2025

  16. Power loss measurement of implantable wireless power transfer components using a Peltier device balance calorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Ho Yan; Budgett, David M.; Taberner, Andrew; Hu, Patrick

    2014-09-01

    Determining heat losses in power transfer components operating at high frequencies for implantable inductive power transfer systems is important for assessing whether the heat dissipated by the component is acceptable for implantation and medical use. However, this is a challenge at high frequencies and voltages due to limitations in electronic instrumentation. Calorimetric methods of power measurement are immune to the effects of high frequencies and voltages; hence, the measurement is independent of the electrical characteristics of the system. Calorimeters have been widely used to measure the losses of high power electrical components (>50 W), however it is more difficult to perform on low power components. This paper presents a novel power measurement method for components dissipating anywhere between 0.2 W and 1 W of power based on a heat balance calorimeter that uses a Peltier device as a balance sensor. The proposed balance calorimeter has a single test accuracy of ±0.042 W. The experimental results revealed that there was up to 35% difference between the power measurements obtained with electrical methods and the proposed calorimeter.

  17. ROSA-III base test series for a large break loss-of-coolant accident in a boiling water reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tasaka, K.; Abe, N.; Anoda, Y.; Koizumi, Y.; Shiba, M.

    1982-05-01

    The rig of safety assessment (ROSA)-III facility is a volumetrically scaled (1/424) boiling water reactor (BWR) system with an electrically heated core designed for integral loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) and emergency core cooling system (ECCS) tests. It is confirmed from the experimental results obtained so far that the ROSA-III test facility can simulate major aspects of a BWR LOCA, such as boiling transition by lowering of the mixture level in the core, rewetting by the lower plenum flashing, and final quenching by the ECCS. The overall agreement between the calculated results by the RELAP5/ MOD0 code and the experimental results is good; however, the calculated lower plenum flashing rewetted the whole core and the calculated cladding temperature considerably underpredicts the measured value at the upper part of the core.

  18. Loss of ecosystem services due to chronic pollution of forests and surface waters in the Adirondack region (USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beier, Colin M; Caputo, Jesse; Lawrence, Gregory B; Sullivan, Timothy J

    2017-04-15

    Sustaining recent progress in mitigating acid pollution could require lower emissions caps that will give rise to real or perceived tradeoffs between healthy ecosystems and inexpensive energy. Because most impacts of acid rain affect ecosystem functions that are poorly understood by policy-makers and the public, an ecosystem services (ES) framework can help to measure how pollution affects human well-being. Focused on the Adirondack region (USA), a global 'hot-spot' of acid pollution, we measured how the chronic acidification of the region's forests, lakes, and streams has affected the potential economic and cultural benefits they provide to society. We estimated that acid-impaired hardwood forests provide roughly half of the potential benefits of forests on moderate to well-buffered soils - an estimated loss of ∼ $10,000 ha(-1) in net present value of wood products, maple syrup, carbon sequestration, and visual quality. Acidic deposition has had only nominal impact - relative to the effects of surficial geology and till depth - on the capacity of Adirondack lakes and streams to provide water suitable for drinking. However, as pH declines in lakes, the estimated value of recreational fishing decreases significantly due to loss of desirable fish such as trout. Hatchery stocking programs have partially offset the pollution-mediated losses of fishery value, most effectively in the pH range 4.8-5.5, but are costly and limited in scope. Although any estimates of the monetary 'damages' of acid rain have significant uncertainties, our findings highlight some of the more tangible economic and cultural benefits of pollution mitigation efforts, which continue to face litigation and political opposition. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of centrifugation on transmembrane water loss from normal and pathologic erythrocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaperonis, A.A.; Chien, S.

    1989-02-01

    Plasma /sup 125/I-albumin was used as a marker of extracellular dilution in order to study the effect of high-speed centrifugation on transmembrane water distribution in several types of human red cells, including normal (AA), hemoglobin variants (beta A, AS, SC, beta S, and SS), and those from patients with hereditary spherocytosis. SS and AA erythrocytes were also examined for changes in intracellular hemoglobin concentration of three different density fractions and with increasing duration of spin. The minimum force and duration of centrifugation required to impair water permeability were found to vary with the red cell type, the anticoagulant used (heparin or EDTA), the initial hematocrit of the sample centrifuged, as well as among the individual erythrocyte fractions within the same sample. When subjecting pathologic erythrocytes to high-speed centrifugation, the /sup 125/I-albumin dilution technique can be used to determine whether the centrifugation procedure has led to an artifactual red cell water loss and to correct for this when it does occur. An abnormal membrane susceptibility to mechanical stress was demonstrated in erythrocytes from patients with hereditary spherocytosis and several hemoglobinopathies.

  20. Balancing Water Uptake and Loss through the Coordinated Regulation of Stomatal and Root Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Hepworth

    Full Text Available Root development is influenced by nutrient and water availabilities. Plants are able to adjust many attributes of their root in response to environmental signals including the size and shape of the primary root, lateral roots and root hairs. Here we investigated the response of roots to changes in the levels of leaf transpiration associated with altered stomatal frequency. We found that plants with high stomatal density and conductance produce a larger rooting area and as a result have enhanced phosphate uptake capacity whereas plants with low stomatal conductance produce a smaller root. Manipulating the growth environment of plants indicated that enhanced root growth is most likely a result of an increased demand for water rather than phosphate. Plants manipulated to have an increase or reduction in root hair growth show a reduction or increase respectively, in stomatal conductance and density. Our results demonstrate that plants can balance their water uptake and loss through coordinated regulation of both stomatal and root development.

  1. Lipids of the stratum corneum vary with cutaneous water loss among larks along a temperature-moisture gradient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haugen, M; Williams, JB; Wertz, P; Tieleman, BI

    2003-01-01

    We explored the relationship between lipids of the stratum corneum (SC), the barrier to water-vapor diffusion of the skin, and cutaneous water loss (CWL) of species of free-living larks along a temperature-moisture gradient. Our results showed that free fatty acids, cholesterol, and ceramides were t

  2. Lipids of the stratum corneum vary with cutaneous water loss among larks along a temperature-moisture gradient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haugen, M; Williams, JB; Wertz, P; Tieleman, BI

    2003-01-01

    We explored the relationship between lipids of the stratum corneum (SC), the barrier to water-vapor diffusion of the skin, and cutaneous water loss (CWL) of species of free-living larks along a temperature-moisture gradient. Our results showed that free fatty acids, cholesterol, and ceramides were

  3. Measurements of energy loss in the scrape-off layer of C-2U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griswold, M. E.; Korepanov, S.; Thompson, M. C.; the TAE Team Team

    2016-10-01

    We report on measurements of energy transport in the scrape-off layer (SOL) plasma that surrounds the advanced beam-driven field reversed configuration (FRC) of the C-2U experiment at Tri Alpha Energy. The SOL plasma is trapped on mirror-like open field lines outside of the FRC separatrix that connect to material surfaces at both ends of the vacuum vessel. Heat transport in this region is expected to be convective, like in mirror machines, and can be characterized by the amount of energy lost per electron-ion pair. We measured this value with an end loss analyzer system that consists of gridded ion energy analyzers that measure ion current density and pyroelectric crystal bolometers that measure total particle power flux.

  4. Measurements of normal inner ear on computed tomography in children with congenital sensorineural hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Ming-Ying; Shiao, Jiun-Yih; Ho, Ching-Yin; Hung, Hao-Chun

    2009-09-01

    The objective of this study is to use standardized measurements of the inner ear to see whether there are subtle bony malformations in children with congenital sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) whose temporal bone computed tomography (CT) are grossly normal. The study includes 45 ears with congenital SNHL and grossly normal temporal bone CT scans and 45 ears with normal inner ear structures and normal hearing. Standardized measurements of the inner ear structures were made on axial temporal bone CT scans. Student's t test was performed to compare the measurements of the two groups. There were significant differences in the measurements of the bony island width of the superior semicircular canal, bony island width of the lateral semicircular canal and maximal height of cochlea between two groups (P inner ear on temporal bone CT can identify subtle abnormalities of inner ear in patients with congenital SNHL having grossly normal radiological images.

  5. LHC Beam Instrumentation: Beam Loss and Tune Measurements (3/3)

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    The LHC is equipped with a full suite of sophisticated beam instrumentation which has been essential for rapid commissioning, the safe increase in total stored beam power and the understanding of machine optics and accelerator physics phenomena. These lectures will introduce these systems and comment on their contributions to the various stages of beam operation. They will include details on: the beam position system and its use for real-time global orbit feedback; the beam loss system and its role in machine protection; total and bunch by bunch intensity measurements; tune measurement and feedback; diagnostics for transverse beam size measurements, abort gap monitoring and longitudinal density measurements. Issues and problems encountered along the way will also be discussed together with the prospect for future upgrades.

  6. Ditch blocking, water chemistry and organic carbon flux: evidence that blanket bog restoration reduces erosion and fluvial carbon loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Lorraine; Wilson, Jared; Holden, Joseph; Johnstone, Ian; Armstrong, Alona; Morris, Michael

    2011-05-01

    The potential for restoration of peatlands to deliver benefits beyond habitat restoration is poorly understood. There may be impacts on discharge water quality, peat erosion, flow rates and flood risk, and nutrient fluxes. This study aimed to assess the impact of drain blocking, as a form of peatland restoration, on an upland blanket bog, by measuring water chemistry and colour, and loss of both dissolved (DOC) and particulate organic carbon (POC). The restoration work was designed to permit the collection of a robust experimental dataset over a landscape scale, with data covering up to 3 years pre-restoration and up to 3 years post-restoration. An information theoretic approach to data analyses provided evidence of a recovery of water chemistry towards more 'natural' conditions, and showed strong declines in the production of water colour. Drain blocking led to increases in the E4:E6 ratio, and declines in specific absorbance, suggesting that DOC released from blocked drains consisted of lighter, less humic and less decomposed carbon. Whilst concentrations of DOC showed slight increases in drains and streams after blocking, instantaneous yields of both DOC and POC declined markedly in streams over the first year post-restoration. Attempts were made to estimate total annual fluvial organic carbon fluxes for the study site, and although errors around these estimates remain considerable, there is strong evidence of a large reduction in aquatic organic carbon flux from the peatland following drain-blocking. Potential mechanisms for the observed changes in water chemistry and organic carbon release are discussed, and we highlight the need for more detailed information, from more sites, to better understand the full impacts of peatland restoration on carbon storage and release.

  7. Modeling and Measurement of 39Ar Recoil Loss From Biotite as a Function of Grain Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paine, J. H.; Nomade, S.; Renne, P. R.

    2004-12-01

    The call for age measurements with less than 1 per mil error puts a demand upon geochronologists to be aware of and quantify a number of problems which were previously negligible. One such factor is 39Ar recoil loss during sample irradiation, a phenomenon which is widely assumed to affect only unusually small crystals having exceptionally high surface/volume ratios. This phenomenon has important implications for thermochronologic studies seeking to exploit a range of closure temperatures arising from variable diffusion radii. Our study focuses on biotite, in which spatial isotope distributions cannot be reliably recovered by stepwise heating and which therefore lack recoil-diagnostic age spectrum behavior. Previous work by Renne et al. [Application of a deuteron-deuteron (D-D) neutron generator to 40Ar/39Ar geochronology, Applied Radiation and Isotopes, in press] used the SRIM code to calculate a ˜20% 39Ar recoil loss from the outermost 0.25 μ m of an infinite slab of phyllosillicate. This result is applied to measured grains of the biotite standard GA1550, a hypabyssal granite from the Mount Dromedary Complex, Australia. We measure the thickness and surface area of 166 grains and approximate the shape of each grain as a cylinder. Grain thickness ranges from 3 to 210 μ m, with an average grain radius of 350 μ m. We predict the amount of 39Ar recoil loss from each grain, finding an expected age error >0.1 % for grains thinner than 150 μ m, a >1% error for grain less than 10 μ m thick, and up to a 3% error for grains less than 3 μ m thick. These modeling results will be tested by analysis of the measured grains after irradiation in the Oregon State University TRIGA reactor. It is important to either account for 39Ar loss in thin biotite grains, or use sufficiently thick ones so that recoil loss is negligible. Our results indicate that only biotite grains thicker than 150 μ m should be used for neutron fluence monitoring in order to avoid bias greater than the

  8. Simulations and measurements of beam loss patterns at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, R.; Assmann, R. W.; Boccone, V.; Bracco, C.; Brugger, M.; Cauchi, M.; Cerutti, F.; Deboy, D.; Ferrari, A.; Lari, L.; Marsili, A.; Mereghetti, A.; Mirarchi, D.; Quaranta, E.; Redaelli, S.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Rossi, A.; Salvachua, B.; Skordis, E.; Tambasco, C.; Valentino, G.; Weiler, T.; Vlachoudis, V.; Wollmann, D.

    2014-08-01

    The CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is designed to collide proton beams of unprecedented energy, in order to extend the frontiers of high-energy particle physics. During the first very successful running period in 2010-2013, the LHC was routinely storing protons at 3.5-4 TeV with a total beam energy of up to 146 MJ, and even higher stored energies are foreseen in the future. This puts extraordinary demands on the control of beam losses. An uncontrolled loss of even a tiny fraction of the beam could cause a superconducting magnet to undergo a transition into a normal-conducting state, or in the worst case cause material damage. Hence a multistage collimation system has been installed in order to safely intercept high-amplitude beam protons before they are lost elsewhere. To guarantee adequate protection from the collimators, a detailed theoretical understanding is needed. This article presents results of numerical simulations of the distribution of beam losses around the LHC that have leaked out of the collimation system. The studies include tracking of protons through the fields of more than 5000 magnets in the 27 km LHC ring over hundreds of revolutions, and Monte Carlo simulations of particle-matter interactions both in collimators and machine elements being hit by escaping particles. The simulation results agree typically within a factor 2 with measurements of beam loss distributions from the previous LHC run. Considering the complex simulation, which must account for a very large number of unknown imperfections, and in view of the total losses around the ring spanning over 7 orders of magnitude, we consider this an excellent agreement. Our results give confidence in the simulation tools, which are used also for the design of future accelerators.

  9. IT Operational Risk Measurement Model Based on Internal Loss Data of Banks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Xiaoling

    Business operation of banks relies increasingly on information technology (IT) and the most important role of IT is to guarantee the operational continuity of business process. Therefore, IT Risk management efforts need to be seen from the perspective of operational continuity. Traditional IT risk studies focused on IT asset-based risk analysis and risk-matrix based qualitative risk evaluation. In practice, IT risk management practices of banking industry are still limited to the IT department and aren't integrated into business risk management, which causes the two departments to work in isolation. This paper presents an improved methodology for dealing with IT operational risk. It adopts quantitative measurement method, based on the internal business loss data about IT events, and uses Monte Carlo simulation to predict the potential losses. We establish the correlation between the IT resources and business processes to make sure risk management of IT and business can work synergistically.

  10. Measuring ac losses in superconducting cables using a resonant circuit:Resonant current experiment (RESCUE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Däumling, Manfred; Olsen, Søren Krüger; Rasmussen, Carsten;

    1998-01-01

    be recorded using, for example, a digital oscilloscope. The amplitude decay of the periodic voltage or current accurately reflects the power loss in the system. It consists of two components-an ohmic purely exponential one (from leads, contacts, etc.), and a nonexponential component originating from......A simple way to obtain true ac losses with a resonant circuit containing a superconductor, using the decay of the circuit current, is described. For the measurement a capacitor is short circuited with a superconducting cable. Energy in the circuit is provided by either charging up the capacitors...... with a certain voltage, or letting a de flow in the superconductor. When the oscillations are started-either by opening a switch in case a de is flowing or by closing a switch to connect the charged capacitors with the superconductor-the current (via a Rogowski coil) or the voltage on the capacitor can...

  11. Design and Development of a Diagnostics Client for a Beam Loss Measurement System at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Angelogiannopoulos, Emmanouil; Jackson, Stephen

    The European Organization for Nuclear Research, known as CERN, is one of the biggest research centers in the field of particle physics. Its main function is to provide particle accelerators and other infrastructure needed for high energy physics research. Particles are accelerated through a complex of accelerators and are brought into collision, in order to study the fundamental elements of matter and the forces acting between them. Of course, such complex and expensive machines need control and protection. For that purpose, a variety of different systems -hardware and/or software- is needed. One such system is the Beam Loss Monitoring (BLM) system of an accelerator. This kind of system is designed for measuring beam losses around an accelerator. An appropriate design of the BLM system and an appropriate location of the monitors enable a wide field of very useful beam diagnostics and machine protection possibilities. This thesis focuses on the design and development of a client application, which is realized ...

  12. Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes Case Study: Addressing Multifamily Piping Losses with Solar Hot Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Springer, M. Seitzler, and C. Backman

    2016-12-01

    Sun Light & Power, a San Francisco Bay Area solar design-build contractor, teamed with the U.S. Department of Energy’s Building America partner the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI) to study this heat-loss issue. The team added three-way valves to the solar water heating systems for two 40-unit multifamily buildings. In these systems, when the stored solar hot water is warmer than the recirculated hot water returning from the buildings, the valves divert the returning water to the solar storage tank instead of the water heater. This strategy allows solar-generated heat to be applied to recirculation heat loss in addition to heating water that is consumed by fixtures and appliances.

  13. Measurement and modeling of low-wavelength losses in silica fibers and their impact at communication Wavelengths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Tegtmeier; Grüner-Nielsen, Lars; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2009-01-01

    Using the cutback technique, the attenuation of four different silica step-index fibers is measured in the very wide wavelength range of 190-1700 nm. The measured spectra are deconvolved into components describing Rayleigh scattering, infrared losses, Urbach edge, anomalous loss, and different...... wavelengths for two of the four fibers investigated....

  14. Background radiation measurement with water Cherenkov detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertou, X., E-mail: bertou@cab.cnea.gov.a [CONICET/CNEA, Centro Atomico Bariloche (Argentina); Observatorio Pierre Auger, Av. San Martin Norte 304, 5613 Malarguee (Argentina)

    2011-05-21

    Water Cherenkov Detectors have the nice property of being mostly calorimeters for cosmic ray induced electrons and photons, while providing a clear signal for muons. At large energy deposited in the detector, they observe small extended air showers. This makes them interesting detectors to study the background of cosmic ray secondaries. Using low threshold scaler counters, one can follow the flux of cosmic rays on top of the atmosphere, and/or study atmospheric effects on the cosmic ray shower development. In this paper, background data from the Pierre Auger Observatory are presented. These data are searched for short time-scale variation (one second scale, as expected from Gamma Ray Bursts), and larger time-scale variations, showing modulation effects due to Solar activity (Forbush decreases). Rapid changes in the background flux are also observed during the crossing of storms over the 3000 km{sup 2} of the ground array.

  15. An ABA-mimicking ligand that reduces water loss and promotes drought resistance in plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Minjie Cao; Xue Liu; Yan Zhang; Xiaoqian Xue; X Edward Zhou; Karsten Melcher; Pan Gao

    2013-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is the most important hormone for plants to resist drought and other abiotic stresses.ABA binds directly to the PYR/PYL family of ABA receptors,resulting in inhibition of type 2C phosphatases (PP2C) and activation of downstream ABA signaling.It is envisioned that intervention of ABA signaling by small molecules could help plants to overcome abiotic stresses such as drought,cold and soil salinity.However,chemical instability and rapid catabolism by plant enzymes limit the practical application ofABA itseif.Here we report the identification of a small molecule ABA mimic (AM1) that acts as a potent activator of multiple members of the family of ABA receptors.In Arabidopsis,AM1 activates a gene network that is highly similar to that induced by ABA.Treatments with AM1 inhibit seed germination,prevent leaf water loss,and promote drought resistance.We solved the crystal structure of AM1 in complex with the PYL2 ABA receptor and the HAB1 PP2C,which revealed that AM1 mediates a gate-latchlock interacting network,a structural feature that is conserved in the ABA-bound receptor/PP2C complex.Together,these results demonstrate that a single small molecule ABA mimic can activate multiple ABA receptors and protect plants from water loss and drought stress.Moreover,the AM1 complex crystal structure provides a structural basis for designing the next generation of ABA-mimicking small molecules.

  16. Cutaneous and respiratory water loss in larks from arid and mesic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tieleman, B Irene; Williams, Joseph B

    2002-01-01

    Birds from deserts generally have lower total evaporative water loss (TEWL), the sum of cutaneous (CWL) and respiratory water loss (RWL), than species from mesic areas. We investigated the role of CWL and RWL as a function of air temperature (T(a)) in hoopoe larks (Alaemon alaudipes) and Dunn's larks (Eremalauda dunni) from the Arabian Desert and skylarks (Alauda arvensis) and woodlarks (Lullula arborea) from temperate mesic grasslands. The proportional contribution of CWL to TEWL in all larks at moderate T(a) ranged from 50% to 70%. At high T(a) (40 degrees -45 degrees C), larks enhanced CWL by only 45%-78% and relied on an increase in RWL by 676%-2,733% for evaporative cooling. Surface-specific CWL at 25 degrees C was 29% lower in the arid-zone species than in the mesic larks. When acclimated to constant T(a), 15 degrees C-acclimated hoopoe larks increased CWL by 22% compared with 35 degrees C-acclimated birds, but the other species did not change CWL. This study is consistent with the hypothesis that larks from deserts have a reduced CWL at moderate and low T(a) but provided no support for the hypothesis that at high T(a) larks from arid regions rely more on CWL than larks from mesic environments. Interspecific differences in CWL cannot be attributed to acclimation to environmental temperature and are possibly the result of genetic differences due to natural selection or of phenotypically plastic responses to divergent environments during ontogeny.

  17. Measurement of the energy loss of heavy ions in laser-produced plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knobloch-Maas, Renate

    2009-11-25

    The interaction of ions with plasma is not yet fully understood today, although it is important for inertial fusion technology. During recent years, the energy loss of heavy ions in plasma has therefore been a subject of research in the Laser and Plasma Physics group of Darmstadt University of Technology. Several experiments were carried out at the Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI) in Darmstadt using laser-created plasma, thereby taking advantage of the unique combination of GSI's accelerator facility and the laser system nhelix, which is also described in this work. The experiments focus on the measurement of the energy loss of medium heavy ions in a plasma created by directly heating a thin carbon foil with the nhelix laser, at an energy of about 50 J. In order to measure the energy loss using a time-of-flight method, a stop detector is used to register the arrival of the ion pulses after passing the plasma and a 12 m drift space. At the beginning of the work on this thesis, the ion detector types formerly used were found to be inadequately suited to the difficult task; this was changed during this thesis. The ion detector has to be able to temporarily resolve ion pulses with a frequency of 108 MHz and a width (FWHM) of 3 ns at a very low current. It also has to withstand the X-ray burst from the plasma with a dead time shorter than the difference between the X-ray and the ion time of flight between the plasma and the detector. In order to satisfy these and other demands, a new diamond detector was designed and has now been used for several measurements. In addition to the new detector, other improvements were made concerning the diagnostics and the laser. The laser-created plasma now reaches a maximum temperature exceeding 200 eV and a free electron density of up to 10{sup 22} cm{sup -3}. With this greatly improved setup, energy loss data could be obtained with a temporal resolution several times better than before, using an ion beam with a

  18. Rotordynamic and Friction Loss Measurements on a High Speed Laval Rotor Supported by Floating Ring Bearings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Eling

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Floating ring bearings are the commonly used type of bearing for automotive turbochargers. The automotive industry continuously investigates how to reduce the bearing friction losses and how to create silent turbochargers. Many of these studies involve creating a numerical model of the rotor-bearing system and performing validation on a test bench on which a turbocharger is driven by hot gases. This approach, however, involves many uncertainties which diminish the validity of the measurement results. In this study, we present a test setup in which these uncertainties are minimized. The measurement results show the behavior of the floating ring bearing as a function of oil feed pressure, oil feed temperature, rotor unbalance and bearing clearances. Next to an increased validity, the test setup provides measurement data with good repeatability and can therefore represent a case study which can be used for validation of rotor-bearing models.

  19. 10 Orders of Magnitude Current Measurement Digitisers for the CERN Beam Loss Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Vigano, W; Dehning, B; Kwiatkowski, M; Venturini, G G; Zamantzas, C

    2014-01-01

    A wide range current digitizer card is needed for the acquisition module of the beam loss monitoring systems in the CERN Injector Complex. The fully differential frequency converter allows measuring positive and negative input currents with a resolution of 31nA in an integration window of 2μs. Increasing the integration window, the dynamic range covers 2•1010 were the upper part of the range is converted by measuring directly the voltage drop on a resistor. The key elements of this design are the fully differential integrator and the switches operated by an FPGA. The circuit is designed to avoid any dead time in the acquisition and reliability and failsafe operational considerations are main design goals. The circuit will be discussed in detail and lab and field measurements will be shown.

  20. 10 orders of magnitude current measurement digitisers for the CERN beam loss systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viganò, W.; Alsdorf, M.; Dehning, B.; Kwiatkowski, M.; Venturini, G. G.; Zamantzas, C.

    2014-02-01

    A wide range current digitizer card is needed for the acquisition module of the beam loss monitoring systems in the CERN Injector Complex. The fully differential frequency converter allows measuring positive and negative input currents with a resolution of 31 nA in an integration window of 2 μs. Increasing the integration window, the dynamic range covers 21010 were the upper part of the range is converted by measuring directly the voltage drop on a resistor. The key elements of this design are the fully differential integrator and the switches operated by an FPGA. The circuit is designed to avoid any dead time in the acquisition and reliability and failsafe operational considerations are main design goals. The circuit will be discussed in detail and lab and field measurements will be shown.

  1. Loss-tolerant measurement-device-independent quantum random number generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhu; Zhou, Hongyi; Ma, Xiongfeng

    2015-12-01

    Quantum random number generators (QRNGs) output genuine random numbers based upon the uncertainty principle. A QRNG contains two parts in general—a randomness source and a readout detector. How to remove detector imperfections has been one of the most important questions in practical randomness generation. We propose a simple solution, measurement-device-independent QRNG, which not only removes all detector side channels but is robust against losses. In contrast to previous fully device-independent QRNGs, our scheme does not require high detector efficiency or nonlocality tests. Simulations show that our protocol can be implemented efficiently with a practical coherent state laser and other standard optical components. The security analysis of our QRNG consists mainly of two parts: measurement tomography and randomness quantification, where several new techniques are developed to characterize the randomness associated with a positive-operator valued measure.

  2. Controlled Transverse Blow-up of Highenergy Proton Beams for Aperture Measurements and Loss Maps

    CERN Document Server

    Hӧfle, W; Redaelli, S; Schmidt, R; Valuch, D; Wollmann, D; Zerlauth, M

    2012-01-01

    A technique was developed to blow-up transversely in a controlled way high energy proton beams in the LHC. The technique is based on band limited white noise excitation that is injected into the transverse damper feedback loop. The injected signal can be gated to selectively blow-up individual trains of bunches. The speed of transverse blow-up can be precisely controlled. This opens the possibility to perform safely and efficiently aperture measurements and loss maps with high intensity bunch trains well above stored beam energies that are considered to be safe. In particular, lengthy procedures for measurements at top energy, otherwise requiring multiple fills of individual bunches, can be avoided. In this paper, the method is presented and results from beam measurements are discussed and compared with alternative blowup methods.

  3. Using tracers to evaluate streamflow gain-loss characteristics of Terror Creek, in the vicinity of a mine-permit area, Delta County, Colorado, water year 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Cory A.; Leib, Kenneth J.

    2005-01-01

    parametric paired t-test indicates that there is a 2.36-percent probability of observing a sample mean difference of 0.34 cubic foot per second if the population mean is zero. The p-value of 0.125 for the nonparametric exact Wilcoxon signed rank test indicates that there is a 12.5-percent probability of observing a sample mean difference this large if the population mean is zero. The similarity in streamflow gain-loss between measurement sets indicates that the process controlling streamflow may be the same between the two hydrologic conditions evaluated. Gains between measurement locations 4 and 5 may be related to hyporheic flow from tributaries that were dry during the study. No other obvious sources of surface water were identified during the investigation. The cause for the observed streamflow loss between measurement locations 5 and 6 is unknown but may be related to mapped local faulting, 100 years of coal mining in the area, and aquifer recharge.

  4. Soil Water Availability Modulation Over Estimated Relative Yield Losses in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Due to Ozone Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel De la Torre

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The approach developed by Fuhrer in 1995 to estimate wheat yield losses induced by ozone and modulated by the soil water content (SWC was applied to the data on Catalonian wheat yields. The aim of our work was to apply this approach and adjust it to Mediterranean environmental conditions by means of the necessary corrections. The main objective pursued was to prove the importance of soil water availability in the estimation of relative wheat yield losses as a factor that modifies the effects of tropospheric ozone on wheat, and to develop the algorithms required for the estimation of relative yield losses, adapted to the Mediterranean environmental conditions. The results show that this is an easy way to estimate relative yield losses just using meteorological data, without using ozone fluxes, which are much more difficult to calculate. Soil water availability is very important as a modulating factor of the effects of ozone on wheat; when soil water availability decreases, almost twice the amount of accumulated exposure to ozone is required to induce the same percentage of yield loss as in years when soil water availability is high.

  5. Evaluation of crop yield loss of floods based on water turbidity index with multi-temporal HJ-CCD images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiaohe; Xu, Peng; Wang, Lei; Wang, Xiuhui

    2015-12-01

    Paddy is one of the most important food crops in China. Due to the intensive planting in the surrounding of rivers and lakes, paddy is vulnerable to flooding stress. The research on predicting crop yield loss derived from flooding stress will help the adjustment of crop planting structure and the claims of agricultural insurance. The paper aimed to develop a method of estimating yield loss of paddy derived from flooding by multi-temporal HJ CCD images. At first, the water pixels after flooding were extracted, from which the water line (WL) of turbid water pixels was generated. Secondly, the water turbidity index (WTI) and perpendicular vegetation index (PVI) was defined and calculated. By analyzing the relation among WTI, PVI and paddy yield, the model of evaluating yield loss of flooding was developed. Based on this model, the spatial distribution of paddy yield loss derived from flooding was mapped in the study area. Results showed that the water turbidity index (WTI) could be used to monitor the sediment content of flood, which was closely related to the plant physiology and per unit area yield of paddy. The PVI was the good indicator of paddy yield with significant correlation (0.965). So the PVI could be used to estimate the per unit area yield before harvesting. The PVI and WTI had good linear relation, which could provide an effective, practical and feasible method for monitoring yield loss of waterlogged paddy.

  6. Measure Guideline: Transitioning to a Tankless Water Heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brozyna, K.; Rapport, A.

    2012-09-01

    This Measure Guideline provides information to help residential builders and retrofitters with the design, specification, selection, implementation, installation, and maintenance issues of transitioning from tank-type water heaters to tankless water heaters. The report compares the differences between tankless and tank-type water heaters, highlighting the energy savings that can be realized by adopting tankless water heaters over tank-type water heaters. Selection criteria and risks discussed include unit sizing and location, water distribution system, plumbing line length and diameter, water quality, electrical backup, and code issues. Cost and performance data are provided for various types of tankless and tank-type water heaters, both natural gas fired and electric. Also considered are interactions between the tankless water heater and other functional elements of a house, such as cold water supply and low-flow devices. Operating costs and energy use of water distribution systems for single- and two-story houses are provided, along with discussion of the various types of distribution systems that can be used with tankless water heaters. Finally, details to prepare for proper installation of a tankless water heater are described.

  7. Soil volumetric water content measurements using TDR technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vincenzi

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available A physical model to measure some hydrological and thermal parameters in soils will to be set up. The vertical profiles of: volumetric water content, matric potential and temperature will be monitored in different soils. The volumetric soil water content is measured by means of the Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR technique. The result of a test to determine experimentally the reproducibility of the volumetric water content measurements is reported together with the methodology and the results of the analysis of the TDR wave forms. The analysis is based on the calculation of the travel time of the TDR signal in the wave guide embedded in the soil.

  8. Application of transverse microradiography for measurement of mineral loss by acid erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, A F; Sadler, J P; Strang, R; de Josselin de Jong, E; Foye, R H; Creanor, S L

    1997-11-01

    This paper describes a novel application of transverse microradiography for the detection and quantification of mineral loss due to acid erosion in thin tooth sections. Sixty-four specimens were randomly divided into eight equal-sized groups and exposed to an orthophosphoric-acid-based erosive fluid (pH = 3) for 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 5, 12, or 24 hrs. We made microdensitometric scans separately across both enamel and dentin to derive data for the total mineral loss and the minimum mineral content within the eroded area. We then analyzed specimens using a profilometer to determine (1) the area above a plot of penetration depth against distance and (2) the maximum depth of penetration. Correlation coefficients for comparisons between microradiographic and profilometric data for both enamel and dentin specimens varied between 0.87 and 0.96. Two-sample t tests demonstrated that the microradiographic technique could detect early erosion, i.e., discriminate between erosion times of less than 1 hr. It was concluded that this application of transverse microradiography was a useful and acceptable method for the measurement of early mineral loss in vitro, occurring as a result of acid erosion.

  9. A method for measuring losses of soil carbon by heterotrophic respiration from peat soils under oil palms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Jenny; Manning, Frances; Smith, Jo; Arn Teh, Yit

    2017-04-01

    The effects of drainage and deforestation of South East Asian peat swamp forests for the development of oil palm plantations has received considerable attention in both mainstream media and academia, and is the source of significant discussion and debate. However, data on the long-term carbon losses from these peat soils as a result of this land use change is still limited and the methods with which to collect this data are still developing. Here we present the ongoing evolution and implementation of a method for separating autotrophic and heterotrophic respiration by sampling carbon dioxide emissions at increasing distance from palm trees. We present the limitations of the method, modelling approaches and results from our studies. In 2011 we trialled this method in Sumatra, Indonesia and collected rate measurements over a six day period in three ages of oil palm. In the four year oil palm site there were thirteen collars that had no roots present and from these the peat based carbon losses were recorded to be 0.44 g CO2 m2 hr-1 [0.34; 0.57] (equivalent to 39 t CO2 ha-1 yr-1 [30; 50]) with a mean water table depth of 0.40 m, or 63% of the measured total respiration across the plot. In the two older palm sites of six and seven years, only one collar out of 100 had no roots present, and thus a linear random effects model was developed to calculate heterotrophic emissions for different distances from the palm tree. This model suggested that heterotrophic respiration was between 37 - 59% of total respiration in the six year old plantation and 39 - 56% in the seven year old plantation. We applied this method in 2014 to a seven year old plantation, in Sarawak, Malaysia, modifying the method to include the heterotrophic contribution from beneath frond piles and weed covered areas. These results indicated peat based carbon losses to be 0.42 g CO2 m2 hr-1 [0.27;0.59] (equivalent to 37 t CO2 ha-1 yr-1 [24; 52]) at an average water table depth of 0.35 m, 47% of the measured

  10. System Architecture for measuring and monitoring Beam Losses in the Injector Complex at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Zamantzas, C; Dehning, B; Jackson, S; Kwiatkowski, M; Vigano, W

    2012-01-01

    The strategy for beam setup and machine protection of the accelerators at the European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN) is mainly based on its Beam Loss Monitoring (BLM) systems. For their upgrade to higher beam energies and intensities, a new BLM system is under development with the aim of providing faster measurement updates with higher dynamic range and the ability to accept more types of detectors as input compared to its predecessors. In this paper, the architecture of the complete system is explored giving an insight to the design choices made to provide a highly reconfigurable system that is able to fulfil the different requirements of each accelerator using reprogrammable devices.

  11. Evolutionary shifts in habitat aridity predict evaporative water loss across squamate reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Christian L; Cox, Robert M

    2015-09-01

    Aridity is an important determinant of species distributions, shaping both ecological and evolutionary diversity. Lizards and snakes are often abundant in deserts, suggesting a high potential for adaptation or acclimation to arid habitats. However, phylogenetic evidence indicates that squamate diversity in deserts may be more strongly tied to speciation within arid habitats than to convergent evolution following repeated colonization from mesic habitats. To assess the frequency of evolutionary transitions in habitat aridity while simultaneously testing for associated changes in water-balance physiology, we analyzed estimates of total evaporative water loss (EWL) for 120 squamate species inhabiting arid, semiarid, or mesic habitats. Phylogenetic reconstructions revealed that evolutionary transitions to and from semiarid habitats were much more common than those between arid and mesic extremes. Species from mesic habitats exhibited significantly higher EWL than those from arid habitats, while species from semiarid habitats had intermediate EWL. Phylogenetic comparative methods confirmed this association between habitat aridity and EWL despite phylogenetic signal in each. Thus, the historical colonization of arid habitats by squamates is repeatedly associated with adaptive changes in EWL. This physiological convergence, which may reflect both phenotypic plasticity and genetic adaptation, has likely contributed to the success of squamates in arid environments.

  12. Design and implementation of spatio-temporal database of water and soil loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, XinHai; Bian, Fulin; Tan, Xiaojun

    2008-12-01

    This paper analyzed the features and limitations of several typical spatio-temporal data models. "spatio-temporal cube": the main disadvantage is that the target change will produce great data redundancy when under non-consecutive circumstances. "Snapshots": it repeatedly saves graphics and attribute of no changes which resulted in waste of storage spaces, and it is impossible to reflect space objects under the same domain and the relationship between the attributes. "Base State with Amendments": merely modify changing object, but it's not suitable for continuous variation space object. "space-frame composite": currently, the model is lacking of sound framework structure and application model. "Object-oriented spatio-temporal model": The modeling concept, theoretical foundation and technical realization has not yet reached a consensus, it's not mature enough. In allusion to the features of the spatial database of water and soil loss, this essay expounded the characteristics of spatiotemporal databases. Spatial features in many practical circumstances ( such as thematic maps in soil and water conservation projects and space elements of soil erosion distribution map) have spatial data features, and also change with time, consequently, required us to establish spatio-temporal database, STDB, which can capture time data and space data at the same time. This analysis based on "ArcSDE versioning mechanisms" temporal and spatial database implement technologies, discussed the construction methods, process and data features of the database, and introduced the implementation of historical data rebuilding and version merging.

  13. Lake and wetland ecosystem services measuring water storage and local climate regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Christina P.; Jiang, Bo; Bohn, Theodore J.; Lee, Kai N.; Lettenmaier, Dennis P.; Ma, Dongchun; Ouyang, Zhiyun

    2017-04-01

    Developing interdisciplinary methods to measure ecosystem services is a scientific priority, however, progress remains slow in part because we lack ecological production functions (EPFs) to quantitatively link ecohydrological processes to human benefits. In this study, we tested a new approach, combining a process-based model with regression models, to create EPFs to evaluate water storage and local climate regulation from a green infrastructure project on the Yongding River in Beijing, China. Seven artificial lakes and wetlands were established to improve local water storage and human comfort; evapotranspiration (ET) regulates both services. Managers want to minimize the trade-off between water losses and cooling to sustain water supplies while lowering the heat index (HI) to improve human comfort. We selected human benefit indicators using water storage targets and Beijing's HI, and the Variable Infiltration Capacity model to determine the change in ET from the new ecosystems. We created EPFs to quantify the ecosystem services as marginal values [Δfinal ecosystem service/Δecohydrological process]: (1) Δwater loss (lake evaporation/volume)/Δdepth and (2) Δsummer HI/ΔET. We estimate the new ecosystems increased local ET by 0.7 mm/d (20.3 W/m2) on the Yongding River. However, ET rates are causing water storage shortfalls while producing no improvements in human comfort. The shallow lakes/wetlands are vulnerable to drying when inflow rates fluctuate, low depths lead to higher evaporative losses, causing water storage shortfalls with minimal cooling effects. We recommend managers make the lakes deeper to increase water storage, and plant shade trees to improve human comfort in the parks.

  14. Reflective measurement of water concentration using millimeter wave illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Shijun; Bennett, David; Taylor, Zachary; Bajwa, Neha; Tewari, Priyamvada; Maccabi, Ashkan; Culjat, Martin; Singh, Rahul; Grundfest, Warren

    2011-04-01

    THz and millimeter wave technology have shown the potential to become a valuable medical imaging tool because of its sensitivity to water and safe, non-ionizing photon energy. Using the high dielectric constant of water in these frequency bands, reflectionmode THz sensing systems can be employed to measure water content in a target with high sensitivity. This phenomenology may lead to the development of clinical systems to measure the hydration state of biological targets. Such measurements may be useful in fast and convenient diagnosis of conditions whose symptoms can be characterized by changes in water concentration such as skin burns, dehydration, or chemical exposure. To explore millimeter wave sensitivity to hydration, a reflectometry system is constructed to make water concentration measurements at 100 GHz, and the minimum detectable water concentration difference is measured. This system employs a 100 GHz Gunn diode source and Golay cell detector to perform point reflectivity measurements of a wetted polypropylene towel as it dries on a mass balance. A noise limited, minimum detectable concentration difference of less than 0.5% by mass can be detected in water concentrations ranging from 70% to 80%. This sensitivity is sufficient to detect hydration changes caused by many diseases and pathologies and may be useful in the future as a diagnostic tool for the assessment of burns and other surface pathologies.

  15. The measurement of water scarcity: Defining a meaningful indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damkjaer, Simon; Taylor, Richard

    2017-09-01

    Metrics of water scarcity and stress have evolved over the last three decades from simple threshold indicators to holistic measures characterising human environments and freshwater sustainability. Metrics commonly estimate renewable freshwater resources using mean annual river runoff, which masks hydrological variability, and quantify subjectively socio-economic conditions characterising adaptive capacity. There is a marked absence of research evaluating whether these metrics of water scarcity are meaningful. We argue that measurement of water scarcity (1) be redefined physically in terms of the freshwater storage required to address imbalances in intra- and inter-annual fluxes of freshwater supply and demand; (2) abandons subjective quantifications of human environments and (3) be used to inform participatory decision-making processes that explore a wide range of options for addressing freshwater storage requirements beyond dams that include use of renewable groundwater, soil water and trading in virtual water. Further, we outline a conceptual framework redefining water scarcity in terms of freshwater storage.

  16. Efficiency of a Grass Buffer Strip for Limiting Diuron Losses from an Uphill Vineyard Towards Surface and Subsurface Waters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.-G. LACAS; N. CARLUER; M. VOLTZ

    2012-01-01

    Grass buffer strips limit the transfer of pesticides from cultivated fields to rivers.These solutions are generally efficient at reducing polluted surface flows,mainly by infiltration of the soil,raising the question of the fate of the infiltrated pollutants.An environmental evaluation was conducted on the efficiency of a grass strip receiving diuron-contaminated water from an uphill vineyard in France.During two runoff events,the following measurements were taken:surface inflow and outflow with Venturi flumes,vertical percolated flow below the root layer (0-50 cm),and variations in water and solute content of the root layer.One runoff event occurred under natural rainfall conditions,while the other runoff event was artificially provoked with water doped by diuron and bromide.For the natural runoff event,representative of medium intensity events,94% of the diuron was retained in the root layer,whereas 2% left the grass strip by surface runoff and 4% left the grass strip in the water percolating under the root zone.For the artificial event,representative of intense runoff events,more than half of the incoming diuron was retained by the grass strip,whereas 24% and 18%of it were transferred by surface runoff and percolation,respectively.These results showed that the capacity of the root layer to retain diuron was highly significant despite a large percolation flux.However,for large runoff events,surface and subsurface losses can still be considerable,up to 40% of the pesticide load entering the strip.

  17. Rapid and fully automated Measurement of Water Vapor Sorption Isotherms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, Emmanuel; Tuller, Markus; Møldrup, Per

    2014-01-01

    Eminent environmental challenges such as remediation of contaminated sites, the establishment and maintenance of nuclear waste repositories, or the design of surface landfill covers all require accurate quantification of the soil water characteristic at low water contents. Furthermore, several...... essential but difficult-to-measure soil properties such as clay content and specific surface area are intimately related to water vapor sorption. Until recently, it was a major challenge to accurately measure detailed water vapor sorption isotherms within an acceptable time frame. This priority...... and pesticide volatilization, toxic organic vapor sorption kinetics, and soil water repellency are illustrated. Several methods to quantify hysteresis effects and to derive soil clay content and specific surface area from VSA-measured isotherms are presented. Besides above mentioned applications, potential...

  18. The evolution of the tape measure protein: units, duplications and losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poisson Guylaine

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A large family of viruses that infect bacteria, called phages, is characterized by long tails used to inject DNA into their victims' cells. The tape measure protein got its name because the length of the corresponding gene is proportional to the length of the phage's tail: a fact shown by actually copying or splicing out parts of DNA in exemplar species. A natural question is whether there exist units for these tape measures, and if different tape measures have different units and lengths. Such units would allow us to retrace the evolution of tape measure proteins using their duplication/loss history. The vast number of sequenced phages genomes allows us to attack this problem with a comparative genomics approach. Results Here we describe a subset of phages whose tape measure proteins contain variable numbers of an 11 amino acids sequence repeat, aligned with sequence similarity, structural properties, and simple arithmetics. This subset provides a unique opportunity for the combinatorial study of phage evolution, without the added uncertainties of multiple alignments, which are trivial in this case, or of protein functions, that are well established. We give a heuristic that reconstructs the duplication history of these sequences, using divergent strains to discriminate between mutations that occurred before and after speciation, or lineage divergence. The heuristic is based on an efficient algorithm that gives an exhaustive enumeration of all possible parsimonious reconstructions of the duplication/speciation history of a single nucleotide. Finally, we present a method that allows, when possible, to discriminate between duplication and loss events. Conclusions Establishing the evolutionary history of viruses is difficult, in part due to extensive recombinations and gene transfers, and high mutation rates that often erase detectable similarity between homologous genes. In this paper, we introduce new tools to address this

  19. The evolution of the tape measure protein: units, duplications and losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcaid, Mahdi; Bergeron, Anne; Poisson, Guylaine

    2011-10-05

    A large family of viruses that infect bacteria, called phages, is characterized by long tails used to inject DNA into their victims' cells. The tape measure protein got its name because the length of the corresponding gene is proportional to the length of the phage's tail: a fact shown by actually copying or splicing out parts of DNA in exemplar species. A natural question is whether there exist units for these tape measures, and if different tape measures have different units and lengths. Such units would allow us to retrace the evolution of tape measure proteins using their duplication/loss history. The vast number of sequenced phages genomes allows us to attack this problem with a comparative genomics approach. Here we describe a subset of phages whose tape measure proteins contain variable numbers of an 11 amino acids sequence repeat, aligned with sequence similarity, structural properties, and simple arithmetics. This subset provides a unique opportunity for the combinatorial study of phage evolution, without the added uncertainties of multiple alignments, which are trivial in this case, or of protein functions, that are well established. We give a heuristic that reconstructs the duplication history of these sequences, using divergent strains to discriminate between mutations that occurred before and after speciation, or lineage divergence. The heuristic is based on an efficient algorithm that gives an exhaustive enumeration of all possible parsimonious reconstructions of the duplication/speciation history of a single nucleotide. Finally, we present a method that allows, when possible, to discriminate between duplication and loss events. Establishing the evolutionary history of viruses is difficult, in part due to extensive recombinations and gene transfers, and high mutation rates that often erase detectable similarity between homologous genes. In this paper, we introduce new tools to address this problem.

  20. Tradeoffs of modifications of storm water managements systems for nitrogen loss pathways in semi-arid ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohse, K. A.; Gallo, E. L.; Brooks, P. D.; Meixner, T.; McIntosh, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    Urbanization is altering hydrologic and nitrogen (N) inputs to streams that may substantially increase nitrogen-containing trace gas emissions to the atmosphere with regional and global consequences. In the semi-arid southwestern US, human modifications of ephemerally dry stream channels interact with hydrologic and nitrogen alterations to lead to extremely high fluxes of nitrous oxide (N2O). Cumulative N2O losses ranged from 0.04 to 0.97 mg N m-2 in 6 hr for rainfall compared to 22.5-59.3 mg N m-2 for flood pulse events. Impervious channels eliminated N trace gas losses but increased delivery of water and N to downstream ecosystems and areas of focused recharge by 6 fold compared to watersheds with greater pervious channel lengths. In contrast, importation of clay into channels increased total N trace gas losses by 8-32 fold relative to more natural sand dominated channels but this result depended on the degree of wetting. Our integrated findings suggest human modification of storm water management systems to impervious channels increases delivery of water and N to downstream navigable waters and areas of focused recharge whereas importation of clay materials leads to higher N trace gas losses and reduced delivery of nitrate. Management will need to address long-term challenges of balancing tradeoffs of greenhouse N gases and N in water supplies, intermediate scale issues of enhancing recharge, and short-term issues of removing water and preventing flooding.

  1. A novel continuous colour mapping approach for visualization of facial skin hydration and transepidermal water loss for four ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voegeli, R; Rawlings, A V; Seroul, P; Summers, B

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this exploratory study was to develop a novel colour mapping approach to visualize and interpret the complexity of facial skin hydration and barrier properties of four ethnic groups (Caucasians, Indians, Chinese and Black Africans) living in Pretoria, South Africa. We measured transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and skin capacitance on 30 pre-defined sites on the forehead, cheek, jaw and eye areas of sixteen women (four per ethnic group) and took digital images of their faces. Continuous colour maps were generated by interpolating between each measured value and superimposing the values on the digital images. The complexity of facial skin hydration and skin barrier properties is revealed by these measurements and visualized by the continuous colour maps of the digital images. Overall, the Caucasian subjects had the better barrier properties followed by the Black African subjects, Chinese subjects and Indian subjects. Nevertheless, the two more darkly pigmented ethnic groups had superior skin hydration properties. Subtle differences were seen when examining the different facial sites. There exists remarkable skin capacitance and TEWL gradients within short distances on selected areas of the face. These gradients are distinctive in the different ethnic groups. In contrast to other reports, we found that darkly pigmented skin does not always have a superior barrier function and differences in skin hydration values are complex on the different parts of the face among the different ethnic groups. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  2. A Novel Method for Measuring the Coarse Water Droplets in Wet Steam Flow in Steam Turbines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoshu Cai; Lili Wang; Yongzhi Pan; Xin Ouyan; Jianqi Shen

    2001-01-01

    Some optical probes based on light extinction have been developed to measure wemess dominated with fine droplets in steam turbine. However, coarse water droplets (hereafter referred to as CWD) that are the main cause of erosion of blade and of wetness loss of steam turbine can't be detected by the extinction probes because of its large size. In this paper, a new method - the light fluctuation method is presented that is capable of measuring the size of CWD. A new probe based on this method was developed for measuring the size of CWD as well as its velocity and concentration.

  3. Non-residential water demand model validated with extensive measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. J. Pieterse-Quirijns

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Existing guidelines related to the water demand of non-residential buildings are outdated and do not cover hot water demand for the appropriate selection of hot water devices. Moreover, they generally overestimate peak demand values required for the design of an efficient and reliable water system. Recently, a procedure was developed based on the end-use model SIMDEUM® to derive design rules for peak demand values of both cold and hot water during various time steps for several types and sizes of non-residential buildings, i.e. offices, hotels and nursing homes. In this paper, the design rules are validated with measurements of cold and hot water patterns on a per second base. The good correlation between the simulated patterns and the measured patterns indicates that the basis of the design rules, the SIMDEUM simulated standardised buildings, is solid. Moreover, the SIMDEUM based rules give a better prediction of the measured peak values for cold water flow than the existing guidelines. Furthermore, the new design rules can predict hot water use well. In this paper it is illustrated that the new design rules lead to reliable and improved designs of building installations and water heater capacity, resulting in more hygienic and economical installations.

  4. Experimental infrared measurements for hydrocarbon pollutant determination in subterranean waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lay-Ekuakille, A.; Palamara, I.; Caratelli, D.; Morabito, F.C.

    2013-01-01

    Subterranean waters are often polluted by industrial and anthropic effluents that are drained in subsoil. To prevent and control pollution, legislations of different developed countries require an online monitoring measurement, especially for detecting organic solvents (chlorinated and unchlorinated

  5. Leaf water oxygen isotope measurement by direct equilibration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Song, Xin; Barbour, Margaret M

    2016-01-01

    The oxygen isotope composition of leaf water imparts a signal to a range of molecules in the atmosphere and biosphere, but has been notoriously difficult to measure in studies requiring a large number...

  6. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis mediates loss of intrinsic activity measured by functional MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brier, Matthew R; Day, Gregory S; Snyder, Abraham Z; Tanenbaum, Aaron B; Ances, Beau M

    2016-06-01

    Spontaneous brain activity is required for the development and maintenance of normal brain function. Many disease processes disrupt the organization of intrinsic brain activity, but few pervasively reduce the amplitude of resting state blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) fMRI fluctuations. We report the case of a female with anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis, longitudinally studied during the course of her illness to determine the contribution of NMDAR signaling to spontaneous brain activity. Resting state BOLD fMRI was measured at the height of her illness and 18 weeks following discharge from hospital. Conventional resting state networks were defined using established methods. Correlation and covariance matrices were calculated by extracting the BOLD time series from regions of interest and calculating either the correlation or covariance quantity. The intrinsic activity was compared between visits, and to expected activity from 45 similarly aged healthy individuals. Near the height of the illness, the patient exhibited profound loss of consciousness, high-amplitude slowing of the electroencephalogram, and a severe reduction in the amplitude of spontaneous BOLD fMRI fluctuations. The patient's neurological status and measures of intrinsic activity improved following treatment. We conclude that NMDAR-mediated signaling plays a critical role in the mechanisms that give rise to organized spontaneous brain activity. Loss of intrinsic activity is associated with profound disruptions of consciousness and cognition.

  7. Development of Harmonic-Noise Reduction Technology in Diagnostic Method using AC Loss Current for Water Treed XLPE Cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimoto, Tomiyuki; Nakade, Masahiko; Yagi, Yukihiro; Ishii, Noboru

    Water tree is one of the degradation aspects of XLPE cables used for under-ground distribution or transmission lines. We have developed the loss current method using 3rd harmonic in AC loss current for cable diagnosis. Harmonic components in loss current arise as a result of the non-linear voltage-current characteristics of water trees. We confirmed that the 3rd harmonic in AC loss current had good correlation with water tree growth and break down strength. After that, we have applied this method to the actual 66kV XLPE cable lines. Up to now, the number of the application results is more than 120 lines. In this method, it is sometimes said that the degradation signal (3rd harmonic in loss current) is affected by the 3rd harmonic in the test voltage. To indicate and solve this problem, we investigated the extent of influence by 3rd harmonic in the test voltage, and found the rule of the influence. As a result, we developed a new technique of harmonic-noise reduction in loss current method that enabled a more highly accurate diagnosis and confirmed the effectiveness of this new technique by simulations and experiments with actual cables.

  8. Development of a Beam Loss Measurement System with Gigabit Ethernet Readout at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Kwiatkowski, M; Angelogiannopoulos, E; Dehning, B; Jackson, S; Vigano, W; Zamantzas, C

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the BLM Dual Polarity module under development at the European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN) is to measure and digitise with high precision the current produced by several types of beam loss detectors. In its default configuration, it is expected to provide data to the processing electronics through two point-to-point connections with bidirectional multi-gigabit optical links. For the development phases as well as later serving as a standalone measurement system, its reconfigurable FPGA device is exploited to provide a soft-core CPU with a custom made server. This server, running on the CPU, will expose through the Gigabit Ethernet connection and the TCP/IP protocol different types of data in the network. In this paper the development of the system and of the communication protocol is explored as well as the accompanying client ap- plication that is realised with the purpose of commanding, collecting storing and viewing the different types of data.

  9. Subjective vs. objective measures in the valuation of water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artell, Janne; Ahtiainen, Heini; Pouta, Eija

    2013-11-30

    Environmental valuation studies rely on accurate descriptions of the current environmental state and its change. Valuation scenario can be based on objective quality measures described to respondents, on individual subjective perceptions or their combination. If subjective perceptions differ systematically from objective measures, valuation results may be biased. We examine the factors underlying the divergence between perceptions of water quality among summer house owners and the objective water quality classification. We use bivariate probit and multinomial logit models to identify factors that explain both the divergence between perceived and objectively measured water quality and its direction, paying special attention to variables essential in valuation, including those describing the respondent, the summer house and the water body. Some 50% of the respondents perceive water quality differently from the objective quality measures. Several factors are identified behind systematic differences between the perceived and objectively measured quality, in particular the water body type, the level of the objective quality classification and the travel distance to the site. The results emphasize the need to take individual perceptions into account in addition to objective measures in valuation studies, especially if the environmental quality of the study area differs considerably from the average quality in general.

  10. Measurement of body composition changes during weight loss in obese men using multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis and multi-compartment models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Alexandra M; Faber, Peter; Gibney, Eileen R; Lobley, Gerald E; Stubbs, R James; Siervo, Mario

    2014-01-01

    The accurate measurement of changes in body composition is important to assess the contribution of fat and fat free mass to total body mass change as a measure of the effectiveness of weight loss programmes. Bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy (BIS) is a rapid and non-invasive technique which could be applied to assess body composition changes. The aim of the study was to evaluate the accuracy of the BIS for the measurement of fat mass (FM), total body water (TBW) and extracellular water (ECW) changes induced by different degrees of caloric deficit in obese men. Three groups of six, obese men participated in either (i) a total fast (for 6 days); (ii) a VLCD (2.5 MJ/day for 3 weeks); or (iii) LCD (5.2 MJ/day for 6 weeks). FM was measured using a 4-compartment (4-C) model. TBW and ECW were determined by dilution methods, respectively. TBW, ECW and FM were also assessed with BIS. Body weight loss in the fasting group was 6.0 ± 1.3 kg over 6 days; the VLCD group lost 9.2 ± 1.2 kg over 21 days and the LCD group lost 12.6 ± 2.4 kg over 42 days. BIS underestimated FM changes (bias = -3.3 ± 3.8 kg) and overestimated changes in TBW and ECW by +1.8 ± 4.8 kg and +2.3 ± 6.4 kg, respectively. The measurement error was consistently larger in the fasting group and the magnitude of the bias interacted significantly with the rate of weight loss. Rapid weight loss affects the accuracy of the BIS in detecting changes in body composition. A careful interpretation of the results is needed when sizable changes in body water compartments occurs. © 2014 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity . Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. FLOW PATTERN AND PRESSURE LOSS OF OIL-WATER TWO-PHASE FLOW IN HORIZONTAL STEEL PIPE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jie; YAN Da-fan; ZHAO Jing-mei; AN Wei-jie; YAN Da-chun

    2005-01-01

    Experimental Study on oil-water two-phase flow patterns and pressure loss was conducted on a horizontal steel pipe loop with 26.1mm inner diameter and 30m total length.The working fluids are white oil, diesel oil and tap water.Several instruments, including a new type of liquid-probe are successfully integrated to identify 7 different flow patterns.The characteristics of the flow patterns and the transition process were observed and depicted in this paper.Investigation revealed that the pressure loss was mainly depended on the flow patterns.

  12. Spontaneous crystallinity loss of drugs in the disordered regions of poly(ethylene oxide) in the presence of water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsac, Patrick J; Romary, Daniel P; Shamblin, Sheri L; Baird, Jared A; Taylor, Lynne S

    2008-08-01

    The physical stability of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) formulated in the crystalline state may be compromised in the presence of excipients. In the present study, it is shown that at high relative humidity, several model crystalline drugs compacted into a matrix of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) may dissolve into the disordered regions of the polymer. The purpose of this project is to identify both the physicochemical properties of the API and the polymer which may lead to such a transformation and the mechanism of transformation. Crystalline drugs and PEO were physically mixed, compressed into tablets, and stored in a dessicator at 94% RH. The physical state of the drug and the polymer were determined using Raman spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffraction. The solubility of each drug in PEG 400 was measured by ultraviolet spectroscopy, the thermal properties of each compound were measured using differential scanning calorimetry, and the amount of water sorbed into these systems from the vapor phase was determined by gravimetric analysis. A spontaneous loss of crystallinity was observed for many of the model drugs when stored at high relative humidity and in the presence of PEO. In the absence of PEO, no changes in the crystalline material were observed. However, the structure of PEO was dramatically altered when exposed to high relative humidity. Specifically, it was found that PEO undergoes a very slow deliquescence increasing the disordered fraction of the polymer which facilitates the "dissolution" of the crystalline drug into these disordered regions. The degree of transformation, estimated from Raman spectroscopy, was found to qualitatively correlate with the aqueous solubility of the compounds. It can be concluded that for the systems studied here, the phase stability of the polymer was compromised at high relative humidity and the polymer underwent deliquescence. The equilibrium phase of several of the crystalline drugs studied here was then altered

  13. In-Situ Measurement of Power Loss for Crystalline Silicon Modules Undergoing Thermal Cycling and Mechanical Loading Stress Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spataru, Sergiu; Hacke, Peter; Sera, Dezso

    We analyze the degradation of multi-crystalline silicon photovoltaic modules undergoing simultaneous thermal, mechanical, and humidity-freeze stress testing to develop a dark environmental chamber in-situ measurement procedure for determining module power loss. We analyze dark I-V curves measured...... due to cell fractures, and the additional series resistance losses observed under illumination. Based on the analysis, we propose an in-situ module power loss monitoring procedure that relies on dark current-voltage measurements taken during the stress test and initial and final module flash testing...

  14. Raman lidar measurements of tropospheric water vapor over Hefei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yonghua Wu(吴永华); Huanling Hu(胡欢陵); Shunxing Hu(胡顺星); Jun Zhou(周军)

    2003-01-01

    L625 Raman lidar has been developed for water vapor measurements over Hefei, China since September2000. By transmitting laser beam of frequency-tripled Nd:YAG laser, Raman scattering signals of watervapor and nitrogen molecules are simultaneously detected by the cooled photomultipliers with photoncounting mode. Water vapor mixing ratios measured by Raman lidar show the good agreements withradiosonde observations, which indicates this Raman lidar is reliable. Many observation cases show thataerosol optical parameters have the good correlation with water vapor distribution in the lower troposphere.

  15. New mobile Raman lidar for measurement of tropospheric water vapor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Chenbo; ZHOU Jun; YUE Guming; QI Fudi; FAN Aiyuan

    2007-01-01

    The content of water vapor in atmosphere is very little and the ratio of volume of moisture to air is about 0.1%-3%,but water vapor is the most active molecule in atmosphere.There are many absorption bands in infrared(IR)wavelength for water vapor,and water vapor is also an important factor in cloud formation and precipitation,therefore it takes a significant position in the global radiation budget and climatic changes.Because of the advantages of the high resolution,wide range,and highly automatic operation,the Raman lidar has become a new-style and useful tool to measure water vapor.In this paper,first,the new mobile Raman lidar's structure and specifications were introduced.Second,the process method of lidar data was described.Finally,the practical and comparative experiments were made over Hefei City in China.The results of measurement show that this lidar has the ability to gain profiles of ratio of water vapor mixing ratio from surface to a height of about 8 km at night.Mean-while,the measurement of water vapor in daytime has been taken,and the profiles of water vapor mixing ratio at ground level have been detected.

  16. 10 kV distribution network line loss analysis and loss reduction measures%10kV配电网线损分析及降损措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴珂

    2015-01-01

    线损率是供电企业的一项重要指标,水电公司的10kV及以下配网线损率偏高,影响电网经济运行。本文通过各方面分析,针对性地提出了相应的降损措施。%Line loss.suggestions is an important index for power supply enterprises. Distribution network line loss.suggestions hydropower company of 10 kv and below is on the high side. Affect the economic operation of power grid. By analyzing various aspects, this paper puts forward the corresponding loss reduction measures.

  17. Water sources and controls on water-loss rates of epigeous ectomycorrhizal fungal sporocarps during summer drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erik A. Lilleskov; Thomas D. Bruns; Todd E. Dawson; Francisco J. Camacho

    2009-01-01

    Access to deeper soil water and water-conserving traits should reduce water stress for ectomycorrhizal fungi, permitting function during drought. Here, we explored whether epigeous fruiting of ectomycorrhizal fungi during drought was facilitated by access to deep soil water, how much water was lost from sporocarps, and how sporocarp surface to volume ratios affected...

  18. Simultaneous optical losses and current measurements in photovoltaic devices at variable angle of the incident light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maddalena, P.; Tortora, P. [Universita di Napoli ' Frederico II' , Napoli (Italy). INFM, Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche; Parretta, A. [Centro Ricerche ENEA, Portici (Italy); Altermatt, P.; Zhao, J. [University of New South Wales, Sydney (Australia). Photovoltaic Special Research Centre

    2003-02-01

    In this work, the apparatus and the method for a simultaneous measurement of the optical losses and short-circuit current in a solar cell, at variable incidence angle of the light, is presented. The method has been applied to an n{sup +}/p c-Si cell with a polished surface. The investigation has been performed over an angular range from 8{sup o} to 80{sup o}, using a linearly polarized laser beam, either normally or parallelly polarized with respect to the incidence plane. The experimental curves of reflectance seem to be in a good agreement with the theoretical ones derived from the Fresnel equations. Since the measurements are performed inside an integrating sphere, a procedure has been developed to derive, from the total current I{sup tot}, the calculated direct one, I{sub dirCal} excluding contributions from the incoming light back-diffused to the cell under investigation; the results are compared with real direct-current measurement. Since with the proposed method both reflectance and current are measured for the same surface region and under identical illumination conditions, the results have been combined to get the internal spectral response of the n{sup +}/p c-Si polished surface solar cell. (author)

  19. Relation between 183 GHz Water Vapor Line and Water Continuum Absorption Measured with FTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, S.; Matsuo, H.

    ve carried out Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) measurements of the millimeter and submillimeter-wave (100-1500 GHz or 3 mm - 200 micron) atmospheric opacity at Pampa la Bola, 4800 m above sea level in northern Chile on September 1997 and June 1998. Correlations between 220 GHz opacities and those of the center of submillimeter-wave windows were obtained using the entire data set, and good correlations were obtained except for the periods affected by the liquid water opacity component. We succeeded to separate the total opacity to water vapor and liquid water opacity components. The separated water vapor opacity component shows good correlation with the 183 GHz pure water vapor line opacity, which is also covered in the measured spectra, but the liquid water opacity component shows no correlation. Since the submillimeter-wave opacity is merely affected by the liquid water component, it may be better to use the submillimeter-wave opacity for the phase correction.

  20. Interfacing systems LOCAs (Loss of Coolant Accidents) at boiling water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Tsong-Lun; Fitzpatrick, R.; Stoyanov, S.

    1987-01-01

    The work presented in this paper was performed by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) in support of Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) effort towards the resolution of Generic Issue 105 ''Interfacing System Loss of Coolant Accidents (LOCAs) at Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs).'' For BWRs, intersystem LOCA have typically either not been considered in probabilistic risk analyses, or if considered, were judged to contribute little to the risk estimates because of their perceived low frequency of occurrence. However, recent operating experience indicates that the pressure isolation valves (PIVs) in BWRs may not adequately protect against overpressurization of low pressure systems. The objective of this paper is to present the results of a study which analyzed interfacing system LOCA at several BWRs. The BWRs were selected to best represent a spectrum of BWRs in service using industry operating event experience and plant-specific information/configurations. The results presented here include some possible changes in test requirements/practices as well as an evaluation of their reduction potential in terms of core damage frequency (CDF).

  1. Solar XUV and ENA-driven water loss from early Venus' steam atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenegger, H. I. M.; Kislyakova, K. G.; Odert, P.; Erkaev, N. V.; Lammer, H.; Gröller, H.; Johnstone, C. P.; Elkins-Tanton, L.; Tu, L.; Güdel, M.; Holmström, M.

    2016-05-01

    We present a study on the influence of the upper atmosphere hydrodynamic escape of hydrogen, driven by the solar soft X-ray and extreme ultraviolet radiation (XUV), on an expected outgassed steam atmosphere of early Venus. By assuming that the young Sun was either a weak or moderately active young G star, we estimated the water loss from a hydrogen dominated thermosphere due to the absorption of the solar XUV flux and the precipitation of solar wind produced energetic hydrogen atoms (ENAs). The production of ENAs and their interaction with the hydrodynamic extended upper atmosphere, including collision-related feedback processes, have been calculated by means of Monte Carlo models. ENAs that collide in the upper atmosphere deposit their energy and heat the surrounding atmosphere mainly above the main XUV energy deposition layer. It is shown that precipitating ENAs modify the thermal structure of the upper atmosphere, but the enhancement of the thermal escape rates caused by these energetic hydrogen atoms is negligible. Our results also indicate that the majority of oxygen arising from dissociated H2O molecules is left behind during the first 100 Myr. It is thus suggested that the main part of the remaining oxygen has been absorbed by crustal oxidation.

  2. Water Table Management Reduces Tile Nitrate Loss in Continuous Corn and in a Soybean-Corn Rotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig F. Drury

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Water table management systems can be designed to alleviate soil water excesses and deficits, as well as reduce nitrate leaching losses in tile discharge. With this in mind, a standard tile drainage (DR system was compared over 8 years (1991 to 1999 to a controlled tile drainage/subirrigation (CDS system on a low-slope (0.05 to 0.1% Brookston clay loam soil (Typic Argiaquoll in southwestern Ontario, Canada. In the CDS system, tile discharge was controlled to prevent excessive drainage, and water was pumped back up the tile lines (subirrigation to replenish the crop root zone during water deficit periods. In the first phase of the study (1991 to 1994, continuous corn (Zea mays, L. was grown with annual nitrogen (N fertilizer inputs as per local soil test recommendations. In the second phase (1995 to 1999, a soybean (Glycine max L., Merr.-corn rotation was used with N fertilizer added only during the two corn years. In Phase 1 when continuous corn was grown, CDS reduced total tile discharge by 26% and total nitrate loss in tile discharge by 55%, compared to DR. In addition, the 4-year flow weighted mean (FWM nitrate concentration in tile discharge exceeded the Canadian drinking water guideline (10 mg N l–1 under DR (11.4 mg N l–1, but not under CDS (7.0 mg N l–1. In Phase 2 during the soybean-corn rotation, CDS reduced total tile discharge by 38% and total nitrate loss in tile discharge by 66%, relative to DR. The 4-year FWM nitrate concentration during Phase 2 in tile discharge was below the drinking water guideline for both DR (7.3 mg N l–1 and CDS (4.0 mg N l–1. During both phases of the experiment, the CDS treatment caused only minor increases in nitrate loss in surface runoff relative to DR. Hence CDS decreased FWM nitrate concentrations, total drainage water loss, and total nitrate loss in tile discharge relative to DR. In addition, soybean-corn rotation reduced FWM nitrate concentrations and total nitrate loss in tile discharge

  3. Whole body [O-15]water pharmacokinetics measured in blood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maguire, RP; Spyrou, NM; Leenders, KL

    2003-01-01

    A simple pharmacokinetic model to explain the time course of [0-15]water in human whole blood after bolus injection is described. The model has been derived from measurements in twelve healthy volunteers who were measured repeatedly, resulting in 67 datasets, made in the context of PET blood flow st

  4. Measurement of soil water content with dielectric dispersion frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frequency domain reflectometry (FDR) is an inexpensive and attractive methodology for repeated measurements of soil water content (SWC). Although there are some known measurement limitations for dry soil and sand, a fixed-frequency method is commonly employed using commercially available FDR probes....

  5. Evaluation of ATP measurements to detect microbial ingress by wastewater and surface water in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vang, Óluva K; Corfitzen, Charlotte B; Smith, Christian; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2014-11-01

    Fast and reliable methods are required for monitoring of microbial drinking water quality in order to protect public health. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) was investigated as a potential real-time parameter for detecting microbial ingress in drinking water contaminated with wastewater or surface water. To investigate the ability of the ATP assay in detecting different contamination types, the contaminant was diluted with non-chlorinated drinking water. Wastewater, diluted at 10(4) in drinking water, was detected with the ATP assay, as well as 10(2) to 10(3) times diluted surface water. To improve the performance of the ATP assay in detecting microbial ingress in drinking water, different approaches were investigated, i.e. quantifying microbial ATP or applying reagents of different sensitivities to reduce measurement variations; however, none of these approaches contributed significantly in this respect. Compared to traditional microbiological methods, the ATP assay could detect wastewater and surface water in drinking water to a higher degree than total direct counts (TDCs), while both heterotrophic plate counts (HPC 22 °C and HPC 37 °C) and Colilert-18 (Escherichia coli and coliforms) were more sensitive than the ATP measurements, though with much longer response times. Continuous sampling combined with ATP measurements displays definite monitoring potential for microbial drinking water quality, since microbial ingress in drinking water can be detected in real-time with ATP measurements. The ability of the ATP assay to detect microbial ingress is influenced by both the ATP load from the contaminant itself and the ATP concentration in the specific drinking water. Consequently, a low ATP concentration of the specific drinking water facilitates a better detection of a potential contamination of the water supply with the ATP assay.

  6. Design and analysis of a toroidal tester for the measurement of core losses under axial compressive stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alatawneh, Natheer; Rahman, Tanvir; Lowther, David A.; Chromik, Richard

    2017-06-01

    Electric machine cores are subjected to mechanical stresses due to manufacturing processes. These stresses include radial, circumferential and axial components that may have significant influences on the magnetic properties of the electrical steel and hence, on the output and efficiencies of electrical machines. Previously, most studies of iron losses due to mechanical stress have considered only radial and circumferential components. In this work, an improved toroidal tester has been designed and developed to measure the core losses and the magnetic properties of electrical steel under a compressive axial stress. The shape of the toroidal ring has been verified using 3D stress analysis. Also, 3D electromagnetic simulations show a uniform flux density distribution in the specimen with a variation of 0.03 T and a maximum average induction level of 1.5 T. The developed design has been prototyped, and measurements were carried out using a steel sample of grade 35WW300. Measurements show that applying small mechanical stresses normal to the sample thickness rises the delivered core losses, then the losses decrease continuously as the stress increases. However, the drop in core losses at high stresses does not go lower than the free-stress condition. Physical explanations for the observed trend of core losses as a function of stress are provided based on core loss separation to the hysteresis and eddy current loss components. The experimental results show that the effect of axial compressive stress on magnetic properties of electrical steel at high level of inductions becomes less pronounced.

  7. In-Situ Measurement of Power Loss for Crystalline Silicon Modules Undergoing Thermal Cycling and Mechanical Loading Stress Testing: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spataru, Sergiu; Hacke, Pater; Sera, Dezso

    2015-09-15

    We analyze the degradation of multi-crystalline silicon photovoltaic modules undergoing simultaneous thermal, mechanical, and humidity stress testing to develop a dark environmental chamber in-situ measurement procedure for determining module power loss. From the analysis we determine three main categories of failure modes associated with the module degradation consisting of: shunting, recombination losses, increased series resistance losses, and current mismatch losses associated with a decrease in photo-current generation by removal of some cell areas due to cell fractures. Based on the analysis, we propose an in-situ module power loss monitoring procedure that relies on dark current-voltage measurements taken during the stress test, and initial and final module flash testing, to determine the power degradation characteristic of the module.

  8. In-Situ Measurement of Power Loss for Crystalline Silicon Modules Undergoing Thermal Cycling and Mechanical Loading Stress Testing: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spataru, Sergiu; Hacke, Pater; Sera, Dezso

    2015-09-15

    We analyze the degradation of multi-crystalline silicon photovoltaic modules undergoing simultaneous thermal, mechanical, and humidity stress testing to develop a dark environmental chamber in-situ measurement procedure for determining module power loss. From the analysis we determine three main categories of failure modes associated with the module degradation consisting of: shunting, recombination losses, increased series resistance losses, and current mismatch losses associated with a decrease in photo-current generation by removal of some cell areas due to cell fractures. Based on the analysis, we propose an in-situ module power loss monitoring procedure that relies on dark current-voltage measurements taken during the stress test, and initial and final module flash testing, to determine the power degradation characteristic of the module.

  9. System for water level measurement based on pressure transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paczesny, Daniel; Marzecki, Michał; Woyke, Michał; Tarapata, Grzegorz

    2016-09-01

    The paper reports system for water level measurement, which is designed to be used for measuring liquid levels in the tanks of an autonomous industrial cleaning robot. The selected method of measurement utilized by the designed system is based on pressure measurement. Such system is insensitive on vibrations, foams presence and liquid impurities. The influences of variable pressure on the measurements were eliminated by utilizing the differential method and as well as the system design. The system is capable of measuring water level in tanks up to 400 mm of height with accuracy of about 2,5%. The system was tested in a container during filling and emptying with various liquids. Performed tests exhibited the linearity of the sensor characteristic and the lack of hysteresis. Obtained sensitivity of the sensor prototype was approximately 6,2 mV/mm H2O.

  10. Weight loss after therapy of hypothyroidism is mainly caused by excretion of excess body water associated with myxoedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmisholt, Jesper; Andersen, Stig; Laurberg, Peter

    2011-01-01

    In hypothyroidism, resting energy expenditure (REE) is reduced and weight gain is common. Physical activity contributes to the total daily energy expenditure, and changes in physical activity might contribute to hypothyroid-associated weight changes. The objective of the present study was to evaluate mechanisms involved in body weight changes associated with hypothyroidism. We conducted a 1-yr controlled follow-up study on outpatients newly diagnosed with hypothyroidism (n = 12) and a euthyroid measurement control group (n = 10). MAIN OUTCOME AND INTERVENTIONS: Changes in body mass and composition (dual-energy x-ray analysis scan), REE (indirect calorimetry), and spontaneous physical activity (pedometers and two different questionnaires) were studied before and after 12 months of L-T(4) therapy or observation (control group). TSH changed from 102 (85) to 2.2 (2.1) mU/liter mean (SD) and free T(4) from 4.5 (2.1) to 18 (3.3) pmol/liter after 1 yr of treatment. Body weight decreased from 83.7 (16.4) to 79.4 (16.0) kg (P = 0.002) due to change in the lean mass subcompartment only (P = 0.001) because fat and bone mass was virtually unchanged. Significant increase was observed in REE and in physical activity measured with questionnaires but not measured as daily steps. No significant changes were observed in the control group. L-T(4) therapy of hypothyroidism associated with significant decrease in body weight and increase in REE. Physical activity measured with questionnaires increased significantly, but not number of daily steps. Despite changes in REE and body weight, fat mass was unchanged during the study. We propose that total body energy equilibrium is maintained during treatment of hypothyroidism and that weight loss observed during such treatment is caused by excretion of excess body water associated with untreated myxoedema.

  11. Route Planning and Estimate of Heat Loss of Hot Water Transportation Piping for Fuel Cell Local Energy Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obara, Shinya; Kudo, Kazuhiko

    The method of supplying the electric power and heat energy for the energy demand of buildings by Centralized system type and distributed system type of fuel cell network is studied. The hot-water piping route planning program of fuel cell network was developed by using genetic algorithm based on the view of TSP ( Traveling salesman problem) . In this program, the piping route planning which minimizes the quantity of heat loss in hot-water piping can be performed. The residential section model of Sapporo city of 74 buildings was analyzed, and the quantity of heat loss from the hot-water piping of both systems was estimated. Consequently, the ratio of the quantity of heat loss of a distributed system to a centralized system was about 50% in the full year average. This program is introduced into the route planning of hot- Water piping system of the fuel cell network, and plan to reduce the quantity of heat loss in a distributed system will be made.

  12. Clinical symptoms, signs and tests for identification of impending and current water-loss dehydration in older people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooper, L.; Abdelhamid, A.; Attreed, N.J.; Campbell, W.W.; Channell, A.M.; Chassagne, P.; Culp, K.R.; Fletcher, S.J.; Fortes, M.B.; Fuller, N.; Gaspar, P.M.; Gilbert, D.J.; Heathcote, A.C.; Kafri, M.W.; Kajii, F.; Lindner, G.; Mack, G.W.; Mentes, J.C.; Merlani, P.; Needham, R.A.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.; Perren, A.; Powers, J.; Ranson, S.C.; Ritz, P.; Rowat, A.M.; Sjostrand, F.; Smith, A.C.; Stookey, J.J.D.; Stotts, N.A.; Thomas, D.R.; Vivanti, A.; Wakefield, B.J.; Waldreus, N.; Walsh, N.P.; Ward, S.; Potter, J.F.; Hunter, P.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is evidence that water-loss dehydration is common in older people and associated with many causes of morbidity and mortality. However, it is unclear what clinical symptoms, signs and tests may be used to identify early dehydration in older people, so that support can be mobilised t

  13. Spatial and energy-loss measurements of a PANDA STT prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohannessian, Haroutioun; Wintz, Peter; Ritman, James [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany); Collaboration: PANDA-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The PANDA experiment will study charmonium and open charm physics, gluonic excitations and the nucleon structure by means of interaction of antiprotons with protons and nuclei. The PANDA central tracker consists of 4636 straw tube drift detectors, which are arranged in a hexagonal layout. The straws have a diameter of 10 mm and a wall thickness of 27 μm and are filled with a mixture of Ar/CO{sub 2} (9:1) gas operating at a high voltage of about 1800 V at a pressure of 2 bar absolute. The readout system provides drift time information for trajectory reconstruction and momentum determination. Moreover, specific energy-loss information is provided for particle identification (p,K,π separation <0.8 GeV/c). The STT prototype consists of 96 straws, which are being tested by cosmic and beam measurements in the Forschungszentrum Juelich. Measurements are being performed using the COSY accelerator to provide beams of protons and deuterons at momenta in the range of 0.6-3 GeV/c. This information will be used for particle identification (p/d separation). This presentation shows the results of the different measurements that have been taken recently at COSY. In addition, further improvements on the next STT prototype are discussed.

  14. Identification of Synchronous Machine Magnetization Characteristics From Calorimetric Core-Loss and No-Load Curve Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Rasilo, Paavo; Abdallh, Ahmed Abou-Elyazied; Belahcen, Anouar; Arkkio, Antero; Dupre, Luc

    2015-01-01

    The magnetic material characteristics of a wound-field synchronous machine are identified based on global calorimetric core-loss and no-load curve measurements. This is accomplished by solving a coupled experimental-numerical electromagnetic inverse problem, formulated to minimize the difference between a finite-element (FE) simulation-based Kriging surrogate model and the measurement results. The core-loss estimation in the FE model is based on combining a dynamic iron-loss model and a static v...

  15. Measure Guideline: Combined Space and Water Heating Installation and Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenbauer, B. [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States). NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership; Bohac, D. [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States). NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership; Huelman, P. [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States). NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership

    2017-03-03

    Combined space and water heater (combi or combo) systems are defined by their dual functionality. Combi systems provide both space heating and water heating capabilities with a single heat source. This guideline will focus on the installation and operation of residential systems with forced air heating and domestic hot water (DHW) functionality. Past NorthernSTAR research has used a combi system to replace a natural gas forced air distribution system furnace and tank type water heater (Schoenbauer et al. 2012; Schoenbauer, Bohac, and McAlpine 2014). The combi systems consisted of a water heater or boiler heating plant teamed with a hydronic air handler that included an air handler, water coil, and water pump to circulate water between the heating plant and coil. The combi water heater or boiler had a separate circuit for DHW. Past projects focused on laboratory testing, field characterization, and control optimization of combi systems. Laboratory testing was done to fully characterize and test combi system components; field testing was completed to characterize the installed performance of combi systems; and control methodologies were analyzed to understand the potential of controls to simplify installation and design and to improve system efficiency and occupant comfort. This past work was relied upon on to create this measure guideline.

  16. Measure Guideline: Combined Space and Water Heating Installation and Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenbauer, B. [NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership, St. Paul, MN (United States); Bohac, D. [NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership, St. Paul, MN (United States); Huelman, P. [NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership, St. Paul, MN (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Combined space and water heater (combi or combo) systems are defined by their dual functionality. Combi systems provide both space heating and water heating capabilities with a single heat source. This guideline will focus on the installation and operation of residential systems with forced air heating and domestic hot water (DHW) functionality. Past NorthernSTAR research has used a combi system to replace a natural gas forced air distribution system furnace and tank type water heater (Schoenbauer et al. 2012; Schoenbauer, Bohac, and McAlpine 2014). The combi systems consisted of a water heater or boiler heating plant teamed with a hydronic air handler that included an air handler, water coil, and water pump to circulate water between the heating plant and coil. The combi water heater or boiler had a separate circuit for DHW. Past projects focused on laboratory testing, field characterization, and control optimization of combi systems. Laboratory testing was done to fully characterize and test combi system components; field testing was completed to characterize the installed performance of combi systems; and control methodologies were analyzed to understand the potential of controls to simplify installation and design and to improve system efficiency and occupant comfort. This past work was relied upon on to create this measure guideline.

  17. Developing Test Apparatus and Measurements of AC Loss of High Temperature Superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    superconducting wires can be very effectively reduced in proportion of the number of filaments. The oxygen annealing eliminates the residual coupling losses by...made out of YBCO superconducting wires were studied, confirming the simulation method used to calculate and predict AC loss and hysteretic effects of... oxygen annealing were tested in order to determine their effect on AC loss reduction. Results showed that the AC loss in multifilament

  18. POPEYE: A river-load oriented model to evaluate the efficiency of environmental policy measures for reducing phosphorus losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisan, Dominique; Quétin, Philippe; Barbet, Denis; Dorioz, Jean Marcel

    2012-07-01

    SummaryWatershed losses of phosphorus (P) have been a topic of concern for water resource managers over recent decades. To evaluate environmental policies or before implementing mitigation options at the watershed (catchment area) scale, stakeholders often need to analyze the patterns of point and diffuse sources of phosphorus. This information is often not easy to obtain in field conditions. Several statistical modeling approaches have been developed in recent years to respond to this basic operational demand. Point and diffuse sources are often evaluated from power functions established between phosphorus concentration and water discharge. Such models do not explicitly account for in-stream processes which control P concentrations in the hydrographic network and differentiate the P export dynamics of the various forms and inputs of P. To identify the phosphorus sources and evaluate their change in response to environmental policies, we developed a simple and loaded-oriented model (POPEYE - PhOsPhorus, Evaluation of the efficiencY of Environmental policy measures) that computes retention, settling and re-suspension rates of fine and coarse P fractions and their relation to P concentration of bed sediments. The model is calibrated to a long-term database (25 years), and describes the weekly water and chemical fluxes of a tributary of Lac Léman (Lake Geneva, Venoge river watershed, 240 km2). It adequately predicts observed values of fine and particulate phosphorus and reflects the gradual decrease of point and diffuse inputs over the studied period due to agricultural and sewage treatment policies implemented for the control of lake pollution.

  19. QNS measurements on water in biological and model systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trantham, E. C.; Rorschach, H. E.; Clegg, J. C.; Hazlewood, C. F.; Nicklow, R. M.

    1982-09-01

    Results are presented on the quasi-elastic spectra of 0.95 THz neutrons scattered from pure water, a 20% agarose gel and cysts of the brine shrimp (Artemia) of hydration 1.2 gms H2O per gm of dry solids. The lines are interpreted with a two-component model in which the hydration water scatters elastically and the ``free'' water is described by a jump-diffusion correlation function. The results for the line widths Γ(Q2) are in good agreement with previous measurements for the water sample but show deviations from pure water at large Q for agarose and the Artemia cysts that suggest an increased value of the residence time in the jump-diffusion model.

  20. QNS measurements on water in biological and model systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trantham, E.C.; Rorschach, H.E.; Clegg, J.C.; Hazlewood, C.F.; Nicklow, R.M.

    1981-01-01

    Results are presented on the quasi-elastic spectra of 0.95 THz neutrons scattered from pure water, a 20% agarose gel and cysts of the brine shrimp (Artemia) of hydration 1.2 gms H/sub 2/O per gm of dry solids. The lines are interpreted with a two-component model in which the hydration water scatters elastically and the free water is described by a jump-diffusion correlation function. The results for the line widths GAMMA(Q/sup 2/) are in good agreement with previous measurements for the water sample but show deviations from pure water at large Q for agarose and the Artemia cysts that suggest an increased value of the residence time in the jump-diffusion model.

  1. QNS measurements of water in biological and model systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trantham, E.C.; Rorschach, H.E.; Clegg, J.C.; Hazlewood, C.F.; Nicklow, R.M.

    1982-01-01

    Results are presented on the quasi-elastic spectra of 0.95 THz neutrons scattered from pure water, a 20% agarose gel and cysts of the brine shrimp (Artemia) of hydration 1.2 gms H/sub 2/O per gm of dry solids. The lines are interpreted with a two-component model in which the hydration water scatters elastically and the free water is described by a jump-diffusion correlation function. The results for the line widths GAMMA(Q/sup 2/) are in good agreement with previous measurements for the water sample but show deviations from pure water at large Q for agarose and the Artemia cysts that suggest an increased value of the residence time in the jump-diffusion model.

  2. Measurements of radon and radium activity in bottled mineral water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kappke, Jaqueline; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Correa, Janine N.; Reque, Marilson; Tabuchi, Camila Garcia; Del Claro, Flavia; Perna, Allan Felipe, E-mail: jaquelinekappke@gmail.com [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Deniak, Valeriy [Instituto de Pesquisa Pele Pequeno Principe, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Current work presents the results of further development of optimized experimental protocol for RAD7 instant radon detector (Durridge Company Inc.) usage in low level radon in water measurements and the results concerning Ra-226 activity evaluation in bottled mineral water samples purchased at Brazilian market. With the purpose to achieve the statistically consistent results for the activity levels of 0.1Bq/L for radon (radium) activity in water, present study used modified experimental protocol which consists of: 1) water samples were stored in hermetically sealed glass vials of 250mL during 30 days to guarantee that Rn-222 will reach the secular equilibrium; 2) the measurements were performed using WAT250 protocol of RAD7 detector; 3) with an aim to decrease the background, the cleaning (activated carbon filter) and drying (DRIERITE desiccant) vessels, which have a function to retain the radioactive decay product of Rn-222 and humidity, were connected to a closed air loop of RAD7 permanently by means of valves and taps, which gave a possibility to repeat all sequence of measurements (including background evaluation) three or four times without to open the air loop and disconnect the sample vial with water. Each water sample was submitted to such measurements two or three times. Obtained results presented the level of Ra-226 activity in studied samples of bottled mineral water that varied from 0.007 ± 0.061 Bq/L to 0.145 ± 0.049 Bq/L, which is below the limit of 0,5 Bq/L established by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2011 for drinking water. (author)

  3. Quantifying blue and green virtual water contents in global crop production as well as potential production losses without irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebert, Stefan; Döll, Petra

    2010-04-01

    SummaryCrop production requires large amounts of green and blue water. We developed the new global crop water model GCWM to compute consumptive water use (evapotranspiration) and virtual water content (evapotranspiration per harvested biomass) of crops at a spatial resolution of 5' by 5', distinguishing 26 crop classes, and blue versus green water. GCWM is based on the global land use data set MIRCA2000 that provides monthly growing areas for 26 crop classes under rainfed and irrigated conditions for the period 1998-2002 and represents multi-cropping. By computing daily soil water balances, GCWM determines evapotranspiration of blue and green water for each crop and grid cell. Cell-specific crop production under both rainfed and irrigated conditions is computed by downscaling average crop yields reported for 402 national and sub-national statistical units, relating rainfed and irrigated crop yields reported in census statistics to simulated ratios of actual to potential crop evapotranspiration for rainfed crops. By restricting water use of irrigated crops to green water only, the potential production loss without any irrigation was computed. For the period 1998-2002, the global value of total crop water use was 6685 km 3 yr -1, of which blue water use was 1180 km 3 yr -1, green water use of irrigated crops was 919 km 3 yr -1 and green water use of rainfed crops was 4586 km 3 yr -1. Total crop water use was largest for rice (941 km 3 yr -1), wheat (858 km 3 yr -1) and maize (722 km 3 yr -1). The largest amounts of blue water were used for rice (307 km 3 yr -1) and wheat (208 km 3 yr -1). Blue water use as percentage of total crop water use was highest for date palms (85%), cotton (39%), citrus fruits (33%), rice (33%) and sugar beets (32%), while for cassava, oil palm and cocoa, almost no blue water was used. Average crop yield of irrigated cereals was 442 Mg km -2 while average yield of rainfed cereals was only 266 Mg km -2. Average virtual water content of cereal

  4. Continuous in situ measurements of stable isotopes in liquid water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbstritt, Barbara; Gralher, Benjamin; Weiler, Markus

    2012-03-01

    We developed a method to measure in situ the isotopic composition of liquid water with minimal supervision and, most important, with a temporal resolution of less than a minute. For this purpose a microporous hydrophobic membrane contactor (Membrana) was combined with an isotope laser spectrometer (Picarro). The contactor, originally designed for degassing liquids, was used with N2 as a carrier gas in order to transform a small fraction of liquid water to water vapor. The generated water vapor was then analyzed continuously by the Picarro analyzer. To prove the membrane's applicability, we determined the specific isotope fractionation factor for the phase change through the contactor's membrane across an extended temperature range (8°C-21°C) and with different waters of known isotopic compositions. This fractionation factor is needed to subsequently derive the liquid water isotope ratio from the measured water vapor isotope ratios. The system was tested with a soil column experiment, where the isotope values derived with the new method corresponded well (R2 = 0.998 for δ18O and R2 = 0.997 for δ2H) with those of liquid water samples taken simultaneously and analyzed with a conventional method (cavity ring-down spectroscopy). The new method supersedes taking liquid samples and employs only relatively cheap and readily available components. This makes it a relatively inexpensive, fast, user-friendly, and easily reproducible method. It can be applied in both the field and laboratory wherever a water vapor isotope analyzer can be run and whenever real-time isotope data of liquid water are required at high temporal resolution.

  5. Measuring orthometric water heights from lightweight Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandini, Filippo; Olesen, Daniel; Jakobsen, Jakob; Reyna-Gutierrez, Jose Antonio; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter

    2016-04-01

    A better quantitative understanding of hydrologic processes requires better observations of hydrological variables, such as surface water area, water surface level, its slope and its temporal change. However, ground-based measurements of water heights are restricted to the in-situ measuring stations. Hence, the objective of remote sensing hydrology is to retrieve these hydraulic variables from spaceborne and airborne platforms. The forthcoming Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite mission will be able to acquire water heights with an expected accuracy of 10 centimeters for rivers that are at least 100 m wide. Nevertheless, spaceborne missions will always face the limitations of: i) a low spatial resolution which makes it difficult to separate water from interfering surrounding areas and a tracking of the terrestrial water bodies not able to detect water heights in small rivers or lakes; ii) a limited temporal resolution which limits the ability to determine rapid temporal changes, especially during extremes. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are one technology able to fill the gap between spaceborne and ground-based observations, ensuring 1) high spatial resolution; 2) tracking of the water bodies better than any satellite technology; 3) timing of the sampling which only depends on the operator 4) flexibility of the payload. Hence, this study focused on categorizing and testing sensors capable of measuring the range between the UAV and the water surface. The orthometric height of the water surface is then retrieved by subtracting the height above water measured by the sensors from the altitude above sea level retrieved by the onboard GPS. The following sensors were tested: a) a radar, b) a sonar c) a laser digital-camera based prototype developed at Technical University of Denmark. The tested sensors comply with the weight constraint of small UAVs (around 1.5 kg). The sensors were evaluated in terms of accuracy, maximum ranging distance and beam

  6. A novel method for measuring polymer-water partition coefficients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tengyi; Jafvert, Chad T; Fu, Dafang; Hu, Yue

    2015-11-01

    Low density polyethylene (LDPE) often is used as the sorbent material in passive sampling devices to estimate the average temporal chemical concentration in water bodies or sediment pore water. To calculate water phase chemical concentrations from LDPE concentrations accurately, it is necessary to know the LDPE-water partition coefficients (KPE-w) of the chemicals of interest. However, even moderately hydrophobic chemicals have large KPE-w values, making direct measurement experimentally difficult. In this study we evaluated a simple three phase system from which KPE-w can be determined easily and accurately. In the method, chemical equilibrium distribution between LDPE and a surfactant micelle pseudo-phase is measured, with the ratio of these concentrations equal to the LDPE-micelle partition coefficient (KPE-mic). By employing sufficient mass of polymer and surfactant (Brij 30), the mass of chemical in the water phase remains negligible, albeit in equilibrium. In parallel, the micelle-water partition coefficient (Kmic-w) is determined experimentally. KPE-w is the product of KPE-mic and Kmic-w. The method was applied to measure values of KPE-w for 17 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, 37 polychlorinated biphenyls, and 9 polybrominated diphenylethers. These values were compared to literature values. Mass fraction-based chemical activity coefficients (γ) were determined in each phase and showed that for each chemical, the micelles and LDPE had nearly identical affinity.

  7. Energy and Water Conservation Measures for Hanford (2013)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, Douglas J.; Butner, Ryan S.

    2013-04-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) performed an energy and water evaluation of selected buildings on the Hanford Site during the months of May and June 2012. The audit was performed under the direction of the U.S. Department of Energy, Sustainability Performance Office to identify key energy conservation measures (ECMs) and water conservation measures (WCMs). The evaluations consisted of on-site facility walk-throughs conducted by PNNL staff, interviews with building-operating personnel, and an examination of building designs and layouts. Information on 38 buildings was collected to develop a list of energy and water conservation measures. Table ES.1 is a summary of the ECMs, while table ES.2 is a summary of the WCMs.

  8. Water balance measurements and simulations of maize plants on lysimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinlein, Florian; Biernath, Christian; Klein, Christian; Thieme, Christoph; Priesack, Eckart

    2016-04-01

    In Central Europe expected major aspects of climate change are a shift of precipitation events and amounts towards winter months, and the general increase of extreme weather events like heat waves or summer droughts. This will lead to strongly changing regional water availability and will have an impact on future crop growth, water use efficiency and yields. Therefore, to estimate future crop yields by growth models accurate descriptions of transpiration as part of the water balance is important. In this study, maize was grown on weighing lysimeters (sowdate: 24 April 2013). Transpiration was determined by sap flow measurement devices (ICT International Pty Ltd, Australia) using the Heat-Ratio-Method: two temperature probes, 0.5 cm above and below a heater, detect a heat pulse and its speed which allows the calculation of sap flow. Water balance simulations were executed with different applications of the model framework Expert-N. The same pedotransfer and hydraulic functions and the same modules to simulate soil water flow, soil heat and nitrogen transport, nitrification, denitrification and mineralization were used. Differences occur in the chosen potential evapotranspiration ETpot (Penman-Monteith ASCE, Penman-Monteith FAO, Haude) and plant modules (SPASS, CERES). In all simulations ETpot is separated into a soil and a plant part using the leaf are index (LAI). In a next step, these parts are reduced by soil water availability. The sum of these parts is the actual evapotranspiration ETact which is compared to the lysimeter measurements. The results were analyzed from Mid-August to Mid-September 2013. The measured sap flow rates show clear diurnal cycles except on rainy days. The SPASS model is able to simulate these diurnal cycles, overestimates the measurements on rainy days and at the beginning of the analyzed period, and underestimates transpiration on the other days. The main reason is an overestimation of potential transpiration Tpot due to too high

  9. Measuring Your Water Footprint : What’s Next in Water Strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Arjen Y.

    2008-01-01

    By now, carbon neutrality is such a catchphrase in the world of responsible business, it’s impossible to ignore the carbon footprint of a new product or service. But with the exception of a few companies like Coca-Cola, Nestlé and Suez, the concept of water neutrality, or measuring your water footpr

  10. Interstrand and AC-loss measurements on Rutherford-type cables for accelerator magnet applications

    CERN Document Server

    Otmani, R; Tixador, P

    2001-01-01

    One of the main issues for particle accelerator magnets is the control of interstrand resistances. Too low resistances result in large coupling currents during ramping, which distort field quality, while too large resistances may prevent current redistribution among cable strands, resulting in degraded quench performance. In this paper, we review a series of interstrand resistance and AC-loss measurements performed on four Rutherford-type cables. The four cables have the same number of strands and similar outer dimensions, corresponding to LHC quadrupole cable specifications. The first cable is made from NbTi strands, coated with silver-tin alloy, the second one is made from bare Nb/sub 3/Sn strands, the third one is made also from bare Nb/sub 3/Sn strands but includes a 25- mu m-thick stainless steel core between the strand layers, and the last one is made from Nb/sub 3/Sn strands plated with chromium. To cross-check the two measurement types and assess their consistency, we compare the coupling-current time...

  11. Radiative Heat Loss Measurements During Microgravity Droplet Combustion in a Slow Convective Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Michael C.; Kaib, Nathan; Easton, John; Nayagam, Vedha; Williams, Forman A.

    2003-01-01

    Radiative heat loss from burning droplets in a slow convective flow under microgravity conditions is measured using a broad-band (0.6 to 40 microns) radiometer. In addition, backlit images of the droplet as well as color images of the flame were obtained using CCD cameras to estimate the burning rates and the flame dimensions, respectively. Tests were carried out in air at atmospheric pressure using n-heptane and methanol fuels with imposed forced flow velocities varied from 0 to 10 centimeters per second and initial droplet diameters varied from 1 to 3 millimeters. Slow convective flows were generated using three different experimental configurations in three different facilities in preparation for the proposed International Space Station droplet experiments. In the 2.2 Second Drop-Tower Facility a droplet supported on the leading edge of a quartz fiber is placed within a flow tunnel supplied by compressed air. In the Zero-Gravity Facility (five-second drop tower) a tethered droplet is translated in a quiescent ambient atmosphere to establish a uniform flow field around the droplet. In the KC 135 aircraft an electric fan was used to draw a uniform flow past a tethered droplet. Experimental results show that the burn rate increases and the overall flame size decreases with increases in forced-flow velocities over the range of flow velocities and droplet sizes tested. The total radiative heat loss rate, Q(sub r), decreases as the imposed flow velocity increases with the spherically symmetric combustion having the highest values. These observations are in contrast to the trends observed for gas-jet flames in microgravity, but consistent with the observations during flame spread over solid fuels where the burning rate is coupled to the forced flow as here.

  12. Measurements of water surface snow lines in classical protoplanetary disks

    CERN Document Server

    Blevins, Sandra M; Banzatti, Andrea; Zhang, Ke; Najita, Joan R; Carr, John S; Salyk, Colette; Blake, Geoffrey A

    2015-01-01

    We present deep Herschel-PACS spectroscopy of far-infrared water lines from a sample of four protoplanetary disks around solar-mass stars, selected to have strong water emission at mid-infrared wavelengths. By combining the new Herschel spectra with archival Spitzer-IRS spectroscopy, we retrieve a parameterized radial surface water vapor distribution from 0.1-100 AU using two-dimensional dust and line radiative transfer modeling. The surface water distribution is modeled with a step model comprising of a constant inner and outer relative water abundance and a critical radius at which the surface water abundance is allowed to change. We find that the four disks have critical radii of $\\sim 3-11$ AU, at which the surface water abundance decreases by at least 5 orders of magnitude. The measured values for the critical radius are consistently smaller than the location of the surface snow line, as predicted by the observed spectral energy distribution. This suggests that the sharp drop-off of the surface water abu...

  13. A brief overview on radon measurements in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobbágy, Viktor; Altzitzoglou, Timotheos; Malo, Petya; Tanner, Vesa; Hult, Mikael

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to present information about currently used standard and routine methods for radon analysis in drinking waters. An overview is given about the current situation and the performance of different measurement methods based on literature data. The following parameters are compared and discussed: initial sample volume and sample preparation, detection systems, minimum detectable activity, counting efficiency, interferences, measurement uncertainty, sample capacity and overall turnaround time. Moreover, the parametric levels for radon in drinking water from the different legislations and directives/guidelines on radon are presented. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Water Availability as a Measure of Cellulose Hydrolysis Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hsieh, Chia-Wen

    Enzymatic hydrolysis involves the use of cellulases to break down cellulose in the presence of water. Therefore, not only are enzyme and substrate properties important for efficient hydrolysis, but also the hydrolysis medium, i.e. the liquid phase. The LF-NMR technique is used in this work...... to measure properties of the liquid phase, where water protons are characterized based on their mobility in the system as measured by their relaxation time. Studies of cellulose hydrolysis at low dry matter show that the contents of the liquid phase influence the final hydrolysis yield, as the presence...

  15. Increased transepidermal water loss and decreased ceramide content in lesional and non-lesional skin of dogs with atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Kenichiro; Yoon, Ji-Seon; Yoshihara, Toru; Iwasaki, Toshiroh; Nishifuji, Koji

    2009-10-01

    This study evaluated changes in transepidermal water loss (TEWL), skin hydration and intercorneal lipid content in dogs with atopic dermatitis (AD). TEWL and skin hydration were measured in the inguinal skin of 10 dogs with AD and 30 normal dogs. TEWL was significantly higher in both lesional skin (94.3 +/- 38.8 g/m(2)/h) and non-lesional skin (28.8 +/- 9.5) of dogs with AD than healthy controls (12.3 +/- 2.3) (P skin of dogs with AD (15.8 +/- 7.0 AU) was significantly lower than that of controls (24.2 +/- 8.8) (P skin of dogs with AD and controls. To compare the lipid content between lesional and non-lesional skin of dogs with AD and controls, intercorneal lipids, extracted from the stratum corneum, were quantified by thin-layer chromatography. The relative amounts of ceramides in the lesional skin (24.4 +/- 5.6%) and non-lesional skin (25.6 +/- 3.8%) of dogs with AD were significantly lower than those in controls (31.4 +/- 6.9%) (P ceramides, but not those of cholesterols and FFA, in both lesional and non-lesional skin of dogs with AD. These results strongly suggest that decreased ceramide content accelerates TEWL in dogs with AD, similar to the situation seen in the corresponding human disease.

  16. Estimating Snow Water Equivalent with Backscattering at X and Ku Band Based on Absorption Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurong Cui

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Snow water equivalent (SWE is a key parameter in the Earth’s energy budget and water cycle. It has been demonstrated that SWE can be retrieved using active microwave remote sensing from space. This necessitates the development of forward models that are capable of simulating the interactions of microwaves and the snow medium. Several proposed models have described snow as a collection of sphere- or ellipsoid-shaped ice particles embedded in air, while the microstructure of snow is, in reality, more complex. Natural snow usually forms a sintered structure following mechanical and thermal metamorphism processes. In this research, the bi-continuous vector radiative transfer (bi-continuous-VRT model, which firstly constructs snow microstructure more similar to real snow and then simulates the snow backscattering signal, is used as the forward model for SWE estimation. Based on this forward model, a parameterization scheme of snow volume backscattering is proposed. A relationship between snow optical thickness and single scattering albedo at X and Ku bands is established by analyzing the database generated from the bi-continuous-VRT model. A cost function with constraints is used to solve effective albedo and optical thickness, while the absorption part of optical thickness is obtained from these two parameters. SWE is estimated after a correction for physical temperature. The estimated SWE is correlated with the measured SWE with an acceptable accuracy. Validation against two-year measurements, using the SnowScat instrument from the Nordic Snow Radar Experiment (NoSREx, shows that the estimated SWE using the presented algorithm has a root mean square error (RMSE of 16.59 mm for the winter of 2009–2010 and 19.70 mm for the winter of 2010–2011.

  17. Research on measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution based on an air-water channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuan-yuan; Zhou, Xue-jun; Xu, Hua-bin; Cheng, Kang

    2016-11-01

    A measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD) method with an air-water channel is researched. In this method, the underwater vehicle and satellite are the legitimate parties, and the third party is at the airwater interface in order to simplify the unilateral quantum channel to water or air. Considering the condition that both unilateral transmission distance and transmission loss coefficient are unequal, a perfect model of the asymmetric channel is built. The influence of asymmetric channel on system loss tolerance and secure transmission distance is analyzed. The simulation results show that with the increase of the channel's asymmetric degree, the system loss tolerance will descend, one transmission distance will be reduced while the other will be increased. When the asymmetric coefficient of channel is between 0.068 and 0.171, MDI-QKD can satisfy the demand of QKD with an air-water channel, namely the underwater transmission distance and atmospheric transmission distance are not less than 60 m and 12 km, respectively.

  18. Sewage water quality measuring technology. Josuido suishitsu keisoku gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urushibara, S.; Sato, S.; Fukuoka, M. (Meidensha Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1993-07-01

    This paper describes a new bubble-cleaning dissolved oxygen analyzer with improved maintainability as a sewage water quality measuring instrument, and a sludge activity measuring instrument to measure new water quality control items for managing and controlling microorganisms. The bubble-cleaning dissolved oxygen analyzer uses a tip-detecting polarographic electrode, and has excellent maintainability because of its bubble cleaning mechanism. Since output rise resulted from the bubble cleaning is as very small as about 0.2 mg/l, continuous cleaning is possible while a measurement is continued. The continuous cleaning provides high cleaning effect because microorganism film deposition can be prevented constantly. The sludge activity measuring instrument measures automatically adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to evaluate activities in microorganisms quickly and accurately. The ATP measurement utilizes organismic luminous reaction, and performs the measurement automatically from the sample extraction to the luminous measurement by simply fractioning the test samples into test tubes. The instrument can also estimate using ATP such biomasses as MLVSS and BOD, of which measurement consumes a large amount of time. 2 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Improvement of Water Use Efficiency in Winter Wheat by Breeding Lines with Low Rate of Water Loss of Excised-Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Rui-kun; JIA Xiu-ling; ZHANG Quan-guo

    2002-01-01

    A study was conducted with the objective of improvement of water use efficiency (WUE) andyield of winter wheat for Lowland Dryland Farming systems through a breeding approach. Various genotypeswere screened in 1988 for rate of water loss of excised leaves (RWL), followed by inter-crossing of diverseparents in 1993. Analysis of the relationship between RWL and yield components and plant traits demon-strated significant differences in RWL among genotypes. Under most circumstances, RWL was correlatednegatively with yield and grain weight, and positively with plant height. The results demonstrated a basis forsimultaneous selection for high yield and low RWL. It was found that genotypic rank varied with the dura-tion of water loss. Correlation between RWL and yield was reduced by extended water loss duration. Analy-sis of the genetic variation and segregation of RWL of progenies and the effect of simultaneous screening forRWL and agronomic traits showed that good lines with improved yield and water use performance could beobtained.

  20. A framework for assessing technology and management options to reduce water losses.

    OpenAIRE

    Hess, Tim M.; Knox, Jerry W.

    2013-01-01

    Water saving in agriculture often refers to reducing the amount of water abstracted or diverted and used for different purposes. However, this is not the only option: reductions in water use can also be achieved by using appropriate techniques for irrigation, applying relevant management practices, using water from alternative sources or influencing behaviour – for example, via awareness-raising, dissemination of best practices, regulation, water pricing and/or the use of financial incentives...

  1. Variability of herbicide losses from 13 fields to surface water within a small catchment after a controlled herbicide application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leu, Christian; Singer, Heinz; Stamm, Christian; Müller, Stephan R; Schwarzenbach, René P

    2004-07-15

    Diffuse losses from agricultural fields are a major input source for herbicides in surface waters. In this and in a companion paper, we present the results of a comprehensive field study aimed at assessing the overall loss dynamics of three model herbicides (i.e., atrazine, dimethenamid, and metolachlor) from a small agricultural catchment (2.1 km2) and evaluating the relative contributions of various fields having different soil and topographical characteristics. An identical mixture of the three model herbicides as well as an additional pesticide for identification of a given field were applied within 12 h on 13 cornfields (total area approximately 12 ha), thus ensuring that the herbicides were exposed to identical meteorological conditions. After the simultaneous application, the concentrations of the compounds were monitored in the soils and at the outlets of three subcatchments containing between 4 and 5 cornfields each. Particular emphasis was placed on the two rain events that led to the major losses of the herbicides. The rank orders of herbicide dissipation in the soils and of the compound-specific mobilization into runoff were the same in all three subcatchments and were independent of the field characteristics. In contrast, the field properties caused the relative losses from two subcatchments to differ by up to a factor of 56 during the most important event, whereas compound-specific differences of the three neutral herbicides caused the losses to vary only by a factor of 2 during the same event. The enormous spatial variability was mainly caused by factors influencing the fraction of rain that was lost to surface water by fast transport mechanisms. Thus, the key factors determining the spatially variable herbicide losses were the permeability of the soils, the topography, and the location of subsurface drainage systems. These results illustrate the large potential to reduce herbicide losses by avoiding application on risk areas.

  2. Measuring the Attenuation Length of Water in the CHIPS-M Water Cherenkov Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Amat, F; Bryant, J; Carroll, T J; Germani, S; Joyce, T; Kreisten, B; Marshak, M; Meier, J; Nelson, J; Perch, A; Pfuzner, M; De Rijck, S; Salazar, R; Thomas, J; Trokan-Tenorio, J; Vahle, P; Wade, R; Whitehead, L; Whitney, M

    2016-01-01

    The water at the proposed site of the CHIPS water Cherenkov detector has been studied to measure its attenuation length for Cherenkov light as a function of filtering time. A scaled model of the CHIPS detector filled with water from the Wentworth 2W pit, proposed site of the CHIPS deployment, in conjunction with a 3.2\\unit{m} vertical column filled with this water, was used to study the transmission of 405nm laser light. Results consistent with attenuation lengths of up to 100m were observed for this wavelength with filtration and UV sterilization alone.

  3. Measuring the attenuation length of water in the CHIPS-M water Cherenkov detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amat, F.; Bizouard, P.; Bryant, J.; Carroll, T. J.; Rijck, S. De; Germani, S.; Joyce, T.; Kriesten, B.; Marshak, M.; Meier, J.; Nelson, J. K.; Perch, A. J.; Pfützner, M. M.; Salazar, R.; Thomas, J.; Trokan-Tenorio, J.; Vahle, P.; Wade, R.; Wendt, C.; Whitehead, L. H.; Whitney, M.

    2017-02-01

    The water at the proposed site of the CHIPS water Cherenkov detector has been studied to measure its attenuation length for Cherenkov light as a function of filtering time. A scaled model of the CHIPS detector filled with water from the Wentworth 2W pit, proposed site of the CHIPS deployment, in conjunction with a 3.2 m vertical column filled with this water, was used to study the transmission of 405 nm laser light. Results consistent with attenuation lengths of up to 100 m were observed for this wavelength with filtration and UV sterilization alone.

  4. Multidimensional Measurement of Household Water Poverty in a Mumbai Slum: Looking Beyond Water Quality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramnath Subbaraman

    Full Text Available A focus on bacterial contamination has limited many studies of water service delivery in slums, with diarrheal illness being the presumed outcome of interest. We conducted a mixed methods study in a slum of 12,000 people in Mumbai, India to measure deficiencies in a broader array of water service delivery indicators and their adverse life impacts on the slum's residents.Six focus group discussions and 40 individual qualitative interviews were conducted using purposeful sampling. Quantitative data on water indicators-quantity, access, price, reliability, and equity-were collected via a structured survey of 521 households selected using population-based random sampling.In addition to negatively affecting health, the qualitative findings reveal that water service delivery failures have a constellation of other adverse life impacts-on household economy, employment, education, quality of life, social cohesion, and people's sense of political inclusion. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, price of water is the factor most strongly associated with use of inadequate water quantity (≤20 liters per capita per day. Water service delivery failures and their adverse impacts vary based on whether households fetch water or have informal water vendors deliver it to their homes.Deficiencies in water service delivery are associated with many non-health-related adverse impacts on slum households. Failure to evaluate non-health outcomes may underestimate the deprivation resulting from inadequate water service delivery. Based on these findings, we outline a multidimensional definition of household "water poverty" that encourages policymakers and researchers to look beyond evaluation of water quality and health. Use of multidimensional water metrics by governments, slum communities, and researchers may help to ensure that water supplies are designed to advance a broad array of health, economic, and social outcomes for the urban poor.

  5. Multidimensional Measurement of Household Water Poverty in a Mumbai Slum: Looking Beyond Water Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbaraman, Ramnath; Nolan, Laura; Sawant, Kiran; Shitole, Shrutika; Shitole, Tejal; Nanarkar, Mahesh; Patil-Deshmukh, Anita; Bloom, David E

    2015-01-01

    A focus on bacterial contamination has limited many studies of water service delivery in slums, with diarrheal illness being the presumed outcome of interest. We conducted a mixed methods study in a slum of 12,000 people in Mumbai, India to measure deficiencies in a broader array of water service delivery indicators and their adverse life impacts on the slum's residents. Six focus group discussions and 40 individual qualitative interviews were conducted using purposeful sampling. Quantitative data on water indicators-quantity, access, price, reliability, and equity-were collected via a structured survey of 521 households selected using population-based random sampling. In addition to negatively affecting health, the qualitative findings reveal that water service delivery failures have a constellation of other adverse life impacts-on household economy, employment, education, quality of life, social cohesion, and people's sense of political inclusion. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, price of water is the factor most strongly associated with use of inadequate water quantity (≤20 liters per capita per day). Water service delivery failures and their adverse impacts vary based on whether households fetch water or have informal water vendors deliver it to their homes. Deficiencies in water service delivery are associated with many non-health-related adverse impacts on slum households. Failure to evaluate non-health outcomes may underestimate the deprivation resulting from inadequate water service delivery. Based on these findings, we outline a multidimensional definition of household "water poverty" that encourages policymakers and researchers to look beyond evaluation of water quality and health. Use of multidimensional water metrics by governments, slum communities, and researchers may help to ensure that water supplies are designed to advance a broad array of health, economic, and social outcomes for the urban poor.

  6. Error analysis of integrated water vapor measured by CIMEL photometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezin, I. A.; Timofeyev, Yu. M.; Virolainen, Ya. A.; Frantsuzova, I. S.; Volkova, K. A.; Poberovsky, A. V.; Holben, B. N.; Smirnov, A.; Slutsker, I.

    2017-01-01

    Water vapor plays a key role in weather and climate forming, which leads to the need for continuous monitoring of its content in different parts of the Earth. Intercomparison and validation of different methods for integrated water vapor (IWV) measurements are essential for determining the real accuracies of these methods. CIMEL photometers measure IWV at hundreds of ground-based stations of the AERONET network. We analyze simultaneous IWV measurements performed by a CIMEL photometer, an RPG-HATPRO MW radiometer, and a FTIR Bruker 125-HR spectrometer at the Peterhof station of St. Petersburg State University. We show that the CIMEL photometer calibrated by the manufacturer significantly underestimates the IWV obtained by other devices. We may conclude from this intercomparison that it is necessary to perform an additional calibration of the CIMEL photometer, as well as a possible correction of the interpretation technique for CIMEL measurements at the Peterhof site.

  7. Measuring urban water conservation policies: Toward a comprehensive index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, David; Wold, Christopher; Worland, Scott C.; Hornberger, George M.

    2017-01-01

    This article (1) discusses existing efforts to measure water conservation policies (WCPs) in the United States (U.S.); (2) suggests general methodological guidelines for creating robust water conservation indices (WCIs); (3) presents a comprehensive template for coding WCPs; (4) introduces a summary index, the Vanderbilt Water Conservation Index (VWCI), which is derived from 79 WCP observations for 197 cities for the year 2015; and (5) compares the VWCI to WCP data extracted from the 2010 American Water Works Association (AWWA) Water and Wastewater Rates survey. Existing approaches to measuring urban WCPs in U.S. cities are limited because they consider only a portion of WCPs or they are restricted geographically. The VWCI consists of a more comprehensive set of 79 observations classified as residential, commercial/industrial, billing structure, drought plan, or general. Our comparison of the VWCI and AWWA survey responses indicate reasonable agreement (ρ = 0.76) between the two WCIs for 98 cities where the data overlap. The correlation suggests the AWWA survey responses can provide fairly robust longitudinal WCP information, but we argue the measurement of WCPs is still in its infancy, and our approach suggests strategies for improving existing methods.

  8. Performance of water and hybrid stabilized electric arcs: the impact of dependence of radiation losses and plasma density on pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeništa, J.; Bartlová, M.; Aubrecht, V.

    2006-10-01

    Processes in the worldwide unique type of thermal plasma generator with water vortex stabilization and combined stabilization of arc by argon flow and water vortex have been numerically studied. Two-dimensional axisymmetric numerical model assumes laminar and compressible plasma flow in the state of local thermodynamic equilibrium. The calculation domain includes the arc discharge area between the near-cathode region and the outlet nozzle of the plasma torch. Radiation losses from the arc are calculated by the partial characteristics method for atmospheric pressure water and argon-water discharges. Thermal, electrical and fluid-dynamic characteristics of such arcs have been studied for the range of currents 150÷600 A under the assumption that radiation losses and plasma density depend linearly on pressure. It was proved that, taking this dependence into account, plasma velocity decrease while power losses from the arc by radiation and radial conduction increase with current. Outlet plasma temperature as well as electric potential drop remain practically unchanged.

  9. Correcting for response lag in unsteady pressure measurements in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conger, R.N. [John Graham Associates, Seattle, WA (United States); Ramaprian, B.R. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Materials Engineering

    1993-12-01

    There is not much information available on the use of diaphragm-type pressure transducers for the measurements of unsteady pressures in liquids. A procedure for measuring the dynamic response of a pressure transducer in such applications and correcting for its inadequate response is discussed in this report. An example of the successful use of this method to determine unsteady surface pressures on a pitching airfoil in a water channel is presented.

  10. Water transparency measurements in the deep Ionian Sea

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Abstract A long optical base line spectrophotometer designed to measure light transmission in deep sea waters is described. The variable optical path length allows measurements without the need for absolute or external calibration. The spectrophotometer uses eight groups of uncollimated light sources emitting in the range 370 nm-530 nm and was deployed at various depths at two locations in the Ionian Sea that are candidate sites for a future underwater neutrino telescope. Light tra...

  11. Water transparency measurements in the deep Ionian Sea

    CERN Document Server

    Anassontzis, E G; Belias, A; Fotiou, A; Grammatikakis, G; Kontogiannis, H; Koske, P; Koutsoukos, S; Lykoussis, V; Markopoulos, E; Psallidas, A; Resvanis, L K; Siotis, I; Stavrakakis, S; Stavropoulos, G; Zhukov, V A

    2010-01-01

    A long optical base line spectrophotometer designed to measure light transmission in deep sea waters is described. The variable optical path length allows measurements without the need for absolute or external calibration. The spectrophotometer uses eight groups of uncollimated light sources emitting in the range 370–530 nm and was deployed at various depths at two locations in the Ionian Sea that are candidate sites for a future underwater neutrino telescope. Light transmission spectra at the two locations are presented and compared.

  12. Constraining ice mass loss from Jakobshavn Isbræ (Greenland) using InSAR-measured crustal uplift

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Lin; Wahr, John; Howat, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Jakobshavn Isbræ in west Greenland has been undergoing dramatic thinning since 1997. Applying the interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) technique to Radarsat-1 SAR data, we measure crustal uplift near Jakobshavn Isbræ caused by recent ice mass loss. The crustal uplift is predominantly....... Overall, our results suggest that despite the inherent difficulties of working with a signal that has significant large-scale components, InSAR-measured crustal deformation can be used to study the ice mass loss of a rapidly thinning glacier and its surrounding catchment, providing both a constraint...... on any existing model of ice mass loss and a data source that can be used to invert for ice mass loss. These new applications of InSAR can help to better understand a glacier’s rapid response to a warming climate....

  13. Snow water content estimation from measured snow temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The vertical temperature profiles of snow and sea ice have been measured in the Arctic during the 2nd Chinese National Arctic Research Expedition in 2003 (CHINARE2003). The high-resolution temperature profile in snow is solved by one-dimensional heat transfer equation. The effective heat diffusivity, internal heat sources are identified. The internal heat source refers to the penetrated solar radiation which usually warms the lower part of the snow layer in summer. By temperature gradient analysis, the zero level can be clarified quantitatively as the boundary of the dry and wet snow. According to the in situ time series of vertical temperature profile, the time series of water content in snow is obtained based on an evaluation method of snow water content associated with the snow and ice physical parameters. The relationship of snow water content and snow temperature and temporal-spatial distribution of snow water content are presented

  14. An X-Band Waveguide Measurement Technique for the Accurate Characterization of Materials with Low Dielectric Loss Permittivity

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Kenneth W; Reid, David R; Bean, Jeffrey A; Ellis, Jeremy D; Morris, Andrew P; Marsh, Jeramy M

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we present a new X-band waveguide (WR90) measurement method that permits the broadband characterization of the complex permittivity for low dielectric loss tangent material specimens with improved accuracy. An electrically-long polypropylene specimen that partially fills the cross-section is inserted into the waveguide and the transmitted scattering parameter (S21) is measured. The extraction method relies on computational electromagnetic simulations, coupled with a genetic algorithm, to match the experimental S21 measurement. The sensitivity of the technique to sample length was explored by simulating specimen lengths from 2.54 to 15.24 cm, in 2.54 cm increments. Analysis of our simulated data predicts the technique will have the sensitivity to measure loss tangent values on the order of 10e-3 for materials such as polymers with relatively low real permittivity values. The ability to accurately characterize low-loss dielectric material specimens of polypropylene is demonstrated experimentally. ...

  15. Use of an optical comparator for radiographic measurement of bone loss around endosseous implants: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, A A; Caudill, R; Beatty, K

    1995-01-01

    A technique for the measurement of bone loss around endosseous implants using an optical comparator was investigated. Five operators were asked to measure the mesial and distal alveolar bone levels around a screw type dental implant on a periapical radiograph mounted on an optical comparator. The known size of a threaded implant was used as a reference. The bone loss around the implant was calculated by taking the average of the mesial and distal measurements. Statistical analysis at the 95 percent confidence level demonstrated that there was no significant difference among the measurements. Although the initial results are encouraging, additional research is necessary with a larger sample size to validate the accuracy of optical comparator readings and compare the efficacy of this technique with other currently used methods for determining bone loss around root form implants.

  16. Development of the automatic measurement system for ac losses in superconductors; Jido koryu sonshitsu sokutei sochi no kaihatsu (4)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsumura, K.; Kajikawa, K.; Iwakuma, M.; Funaki, K. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)

    1999-11-10

    The rapid extension of the application field of the superconductive technology is expected by the discovery of the oxide superconductor. Though research and development for the sake is carried out in many research institute, it is quick in order to attempt the efficiency improvement of that research, and it is necessary to develop the equipment which can be evaluated simply and high-precise in respect of characteristics of the superconductive conductor. In this study, by putting the marketing in the future in visual field, it aims even in the characteristic inside of the superconductive conductor at the development of automatic alternating current measuring device of the important ac loss. And, it is possible that this equipment also carries out not only wire rod but also loss measurement of coil winding. Ac loss measurement of superconductive pulse coil of refrigerating machine direct cooling system was carried out using this measuring device this time. (NEDO)

  17. AUTOMATED WATER LEVEL MEASUREMENTS IN SMALL-DIAMETER AQUIFER TUBES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PETERSEN SW; EDRINGTON RS; MAHOOD RO; VANMIDDLESWORTH PE

    2011-01-14

    Groundwater contaminated with hexavalent chromium, strontium-90, and uranium discharges into the Columbia River along approximately 16 km (10 mi) of the shoreline. Various treatment systems have and will continue to be implemented to eliminate the impact of Hanford Site contamination to the river. To optimize the various remediation strategies, it is important to understand interactions between groundwater and the surface water of the Columbia River. An automated system to record water levels in aquifer sampling tubes installed in the hyporheic zone was designed and tested to (1) gain a more complete understanding of groundwater/river water interactions based on gaining and losing conditions ofthe Columbia River, (2) record and interpret data for consistent and defensible groundwater/surface water conceptual models that may be used to better predict subsurface contaminant fate and transport, and (3) evaluate the hydrodynamic influence of extraction wells in an expanded pump-and-treat system to optimize the treatment system. A system to measure water levels in small-diameter aquifer tubes was designed and tested in the laboratory and field. The system was configured to allow manual measurements to periodically calibrate the instrument and to permit aquifer tube sampling without removing the transducer tube. Manual measurements were collected with an e-tape designed and fabricated especially for this test. Results indicate that the transducer system accurately records groundwater levels in aquifer tubes. These data are being used to refine the conceptual and numeric models to better understand interactions in the hyporheic zone of the Columbia River and the adjacent river water and groundwater, and changes in hydrochemistry relative to groundwater flux as river water recharges the aquifer and then drains back out in response to changes in the river level.

  18. Measurement by SPR of very low dissociation rates: oxidation-mediated loss of biotin-streptavidin affinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebhan, Mario A E; Brunschweiger, Andreas; Hall, Jonathan

    2013-11-04

    Long-term relationship: biotin labels on RNAs, and possibly other biomacromolecules, are easily oxidized causing a dramatic loss of affinity for streptavidin and adversely affecting the measurement of high-affinity interactions. A new SPR method has been developed for measuring the very low rate-dissociation constants of biotin- and biotin oxide-conjugated RNAs with streptavidin.

  19. In-Situ Measurement of Power Loss for Crystalline Silicon Modules Undergoing Thermal Cycling and Mechanical Loading Stress Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spataru, Sergiu; Hacke, Peter; Sera, Dezso

    We analyze the degradation of multi-crystalline silicon photovoltaic modules undergoing simultaneous thermal, mechanical, and humidity-freeze stress testing to develop a dark environmental chamber in-situ measurement procedure for determining module power loss. We analyze dark I-V curves measured...

  20. Characteristics of Soil and Organic Carbon Loss Induced by Water Erosion on the Loess Plateau in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhongwu; Nie, Xiaodong; Chang, Xiaofeng; Liu, Lin; Sun, Liying

    2016-01-01

    Soil erosion has been a common environmental problem in the Loess Plateau in China. This study aims to better understand the losses of soil organic carbon (SOC) induced by water erosion. Laboratory-simulated rainfall experiments were conducted to investigate the characteristics of SOC loss induced by water erosion. The applied treatments included two rainfall intensities (90 and 120 mm h-1), four slope gradients (10°, 15°, 20°, and 25°), and two typical soil types- silty clay loam and silty loam. Results showed that the sediment OC enrichment ratios (ERoc) in all the events were relative stable with values ranged from 0.85 to1.21 and 0.64 to 1.52 and mean values of 0.98 and 1.01 for silty clay loam and silty loam, respectively. Similar to the ERoc, the proportions of different sized particles in sediment showed tiny variations during erosion processes. No significant correlation was observed between ERoc values and the proportions of sediment particles. Slope, rainfall intensity and soil type almost had no impact on ERoc. These results indicate that the transportation of SOC during erosion processes was nonselective. While the mean SOC loss rates for the events of silty clay loam and silty loam were 0.30 and 0.08 g m-2 min-1, respectively. Greater differences in SOC loss rates were found in events among different soil types. Meanwhile, significant correlations between SOC loss and soil loss for all the events were observed. These results indicated that the amount of SOC loss was influenced primarily by soil loss and the SOC content of the original soil. Erosion pattern and original SOC content are two main factors by which different soils can influence SOC loss. It seems that soil type has a greater impact on SOC loss than rainfall characteristics on the Loess Plateau of China. However, more kinds of soils should be further studied due to the special formation processes in the Loess Plateau.