WorldWideScience

Sample records for water loss form

  1. Monitoring water loss form fresh concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    2006-01-01

    Desiccation of concrete before or during setting may lead to detrimental plastic shrinkage cracking in the concrete surface zone. Cracking due to plastic shrinkage is a major technological problem for any concrete, however, modern high-performance concretes are especially susceptible to this. Thi...... determination of the evaporation loss from hardening concrete and thus better possibility for preventing curing problems, including detrimental crack damage due to plastic shrinkage....

  2. Diffuse nitrogen loss simulation and impact assessment of stereoscopic agriculture pattern by integrated water system model and consideration of multiple existence forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongyong; Gao, Yang; Yu, Qiang

    2017-09-01

    Agricultural nitrogen loss becomes an increasingly important source of water quality deterioration and eutrophication, even threatens water safety for humanity. Nitrogen dynamic mechanism is still too complicated to be well captured at watershed scale due to its multiple existence forms and instability, disturbance of agricultural management practices. Stereoscopic agriculture is a novel agricultural planting pattern to efficiently use local natural resources (e.g., water, land, sunshine, heat and fertilizer). It is widely promoted as a high yield system and can obtain considerable economic benefits, particularly in China. However, its environmental quality implication is not clear. In our study, Qianyanzhou station is famous for its stereoscopic agriculture pattern of Southern China, and an experimental watershed was selected as our study area. Regional characteristics of runoff and nitrogen losses were simulated by an integrated water system model (HEQM) with multi-objective calibration, and multiple agriculture practices were assessed to find the effective approach for the reduction of diffuse nitrogen losses. Results showed that daily variations of runoff and nitrogen forms were well reproduced throughout watershed, i.e., satisfactory performances for ammonium and nitrate nitrogen (NH4-N and NO3-N) loads, good performances for runoff and organic nitrogen (ON) load, and very good performance for total nitrogen (TN) load. The average loss coefficient was 62.74 kg/ha for NH4-N, 0.98 kg/ha for NO3-N, 0.0004 kg/ha for ON and 63.80 kg/ha for TN. The dominating form of nitrogen losses was NH4-N due to the applied fertilizers, and the most dramatic zones aggregated in the middle and downstream regions covered by paddy and orange orchard. In order to control diffuse nitrogen losses, the most effective practices for Qianyanzhou stereoscopic agriculture pattern were to reduce farmland planting scale in the valley by afforestation, particularly for orchard in the

  3. Loss of form vision impairs spatial imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occelli, Valeria; Lin, Jonathan B; Lacey, Simon; Sathian, K

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have reported inconsistent results when comparing spatial imagery performance in the blind and the sighted, with some, but not all, studies demonstrating deficits in the blind. Here, we investigated the effect of visual status and individual preferences ("cognitive style") on performance of a spatial imagery task. Participants with blindness resulting in the loss of form vision at or after age 6, and age- and gender-matched sighted participants, performed a spatial imagery task requiring memorization of a 4 × 4 lettered matrix and subsequent mental construction of shapes within the matrix from four-letter auditory cues. They also completed the Santa Barbara Sense of Direction Scale (SBSoDS) and a self-evaluation of cognitive style. The sighted participants also completed the Object-Spatial Imagery and Verbal Questionnaire (OSIVQ). Visual status affected performance on the spatial imagery task: the blind performed significantly worse than the sighted, independently of the age at which form vision was completely lost. Visual status did not affect the distribution of preferences based on self-reported cognitive style. Across all participants, self-reported verbalizer scores were significantly negatively correlated with accuracy on the spatial imagery task. There was a positive correlation between the SBSoDS score and accuracy on the spatial imagery task, across all participants, indicating that a better sense of direction is related to a more proficient spatial representation and that the imagery task indexes ecologically relevant spatial abilities. Moreover, the older the participants were, the worse their performance was, indicating a detrimental effect of age on spatial imagery performance. Thus, spatial skills represent an important target for rehabilitative approaches to visual impairment, and individual differences, which can modulate performance, should be taken into account in such approaches.

  4. Measuring the Welfare Losses from Urban Water Supply Disruptions

    OpenAIRE

    Steven Buck; Maximilian Auffhammer; Stephen Hamilton; David Sunding

    2015-01-01

    The paper evaluates welfare losses from urban water supply disruptions. The analysis incorporates important features of the water industry that may cause the initial allocation of water to be inefficient, namely that ther are a large number of retail-level water utilities, and that mosst water utilities engage in a form of average cost pricing where volumetric rates are used to finance fixed expenses. We consider a sample of 53 urban water utilities in California collectively providing servic...

  5. Water losses during technical snow production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünewald, Thomas; Wolfsperger, Fabian

    2017-04-01

    These days, the production of technical snow can be seen as a prerequisite for winter tourism. Huge amounts of water are used for technical snow production by ski resorts, especially in the beginning of the winter season. The aim is to guarantee an appropriate amount of snow to reliably provide optimal ski runs until the date of season opening in early December. Technical snow is generated by pumping pressurized water through the nozzles of a snow machine and dispersing the resulting spray of small water droplets which freeze during their travel to the ground. Cooling and freezing of the droplets can only happen if energy is emitted to the air mass surrounding the droplets. This heat transfer is happening through convective cooling and though evaporation and sublimation of water droplets and ice particles. This means that also mass is lost from the droplets and added in form of vapor to the air. It is important to note that not all water that is pumped through the snow machine is converted to snow distributed on the ground. Significant amounts of water are lost due to wind drift, sublimation and evaporation while droplets are traveling through the air or to draining of water which is not fully frozen when arriving at the ground. Studies addressing this question are sparse and the quantity of the water losses is still unclear. In order to assess this question in more detail, we obtained several systematic field observations at a test site near Davos, Switzerland. About a dozen of snow making tests had been performed during the last winter seasons. We compare the amount of water measured at the intake of the snow machine with the amount of snow accumulating at the ground during a night of snow production. The snow mass was calculated from highly detailed repeated terrestrial laser scanning measurements in combination with manually gathered snow densities. In addition a meteorological station had been set up in the vicinity observing all relevant meteorological

  6. Loss of water from Phobos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanale, Fraser P.; Salvail, James R.

    1989-01-01

    A quantitative model of the migrational history of any free water in the martian satellite Phobos is presented. Results include predicted depths of retained ice and current water fluxes as a function of latitude, regolith porosity and effective pore size. It is found that, despite Phobos' small size, low albedo and proximity to the sun, ice may be present within the sounding depth of the GRUNT experiment on the Soviet Phobos Mission - at least at mid to high latitudes. Implications for other experiments on the Phobos mission are also discussed.

  7. Escape of atmospheres and loss of water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunten, D. M.; Donahue, T. M.; Walker, J. C. G.; Kasting, J. F.

    1989-01-01

    The properties and limitations of several loss processes for atmospheric gases are presented and discussed. They include thermal loss (Jeans and hydrodynamic); nonthermal loss (all processes involve charged particles); and impact erosion, including thermal escape from a molten body heated by rapid accretion. Hydrodynamic escape, or 'blowoff', is of particular interest because it offers the prospect of processing large quantities of gas and enriching the remainder in heavy elements and isotopes. In a second part, the water budgets and likely evolutionary histories of Venus, Earth and Mars are assessed. Although it is tempting to associate the great D/H enrichment on Venus with loss of a large initial endowment, a steady state with juvenile water (perhaps from comets) is equally probable.

  8. Water-loss dehydration and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Lee; Bunn, Diane; Jimoh, Florence O; Fairweather-Tait, Susan J

    2014-01-01

    This review defines water-loss and salt-loss dehydration. For older people serum osmolality appears the most appropriate gold standard for diagnosis of water-loss dehydration, but clear signs of early dehydration have not been developed. In older adults, lower muscle mass, reduced kidney function, physical and cognitive disabilities, blunted thirst, and polypharmacy all increase dehydration risk. Cross-sectional studies suggest a water-loss dehydration prevalence of 20-30% in this population. Water-loss dehydration is associated with higher mortality, morbidity and disability in older people, but evidence is still needed that this relationship is causal. There are a variety of ways we may be able to help older people reduce their risk of dehydration by recognising that they are not drinking enough, and being helped to drink more. Strategies to increase fluid intake in residential care homes include identifying and overcoming individual and institutional barriers to drinking, such as being worried about not reaching the toilet in time, physical inability to make or to reach drinks, and reduced social drinking and drinking pleasure. Research needs are discussed, some of which will be addressed by the FP7-funded NU-AGE (New dietary strategies addressing the specific needs of elderly population for a healthy ageing in Europe) trial. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Monochloramine Loss Mechanisms in Tap Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qianyi; Davies, Evan G R; Bolton, James; Liu, Yang

    2017-11-01

      Chloramination has been widely applied for drinking water disinfection, with monochloramine (NH2Cl) the dominant chloramine species. However, under neutral pH, NH2Cl can autodecompose and react with chemical components in drinking water, thus decreasing disinfection efficiency. In tap water, the NH2Cl loss rate can be influenced by temperature, pH, Cl/N molar ratio, the initial NH2Cl concentration, and the natural organic matter (NOM) concentration. A good prediction of NH2Cl loss can assist in the operation of drinking water treatment plants. In this research, a kinetic rate constant )and a reactive site fraction (S = 0.43 ± 0.06) for the reaction between free chlorine released from NH2Cl autodecoposition and tap water NOM were derived from a kinetic model to predict the NH2Cl loss under various conditions. A temperature-dependent model was also developed. The model predictions match well with the experimental results, which demonstrates the validity of the model and provides a convenient and accurate method for NH2Cl loss calculations.

  10. Water vapour loss measurements on human skin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valk, Petrus Gerardus Maria van der

    1984-01-01

    In this thesis, the results of a series of investigations into the barrier function of human skin are presented. In these investigations, the barrier function was assessed by water vapour loss measurements of the skin using a method based on gradient estimation.... Zie: Summary and conclusions

  11. A research on determining the friction losses formed in the small ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-01-18

    Jan 18, 2010 ... In pressured irrigation systems, water flowing in pipes is stable from the point of view of the hydraulic and it gradually decrease through the pipe lines. In sprinkler irrigation systems, sprinkler head pressure through the pipe line is different due to friction and local losses formed in parts of the pipes between.

  12. The formed visual hallucinations associated with vision loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagan, S M; Williams, J A

    2000-08-01

    Patients with acquired visual impairment, but without mental illness, may experience repetitive episodes of vividly detailed, clearly focused, formed visual hallucinations. Yet these may not be shared voluntarily with clinicians. We wanted to learn: (1) the prevalence of formed visual hallucinations and (2) the nature of any changes in the hallucinations after more than two years. Part I--Eighty-eight visually impaired adult patients at the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary were surveyed during 1995. Age, gender, ocular diagnoses, visual acuities, and hallucination descriptions were recorded. Part II--Those subjects reporting hallucinations in 1995 were selected to participate in a second survey--more than two years later-to ascertain changes. Part I--Nine of 88 subjects (10.2% prevalence) reported formed visual hallucinations, frequently human faces or figures. Five additional subjects (5.6%) reported a history of formed hallucinations-beginning after their vision loss--that had either disappeared or changed to unformed hallucinations (lights and colors) before this survey. Part II--Seven of the eligible nine subjects were surveyed more than two years later. Hallucinations persisted for six. Five reported reduced frequency of hallucinations, despite failing acuity among four of these five. Formed visual hallucinations are not uncommon among patents with significant acquired losses in visual acuity and/or visual field (homonymous hemianopsia). Although formed hallucinations may persist for years, there appears to be a tendency toward reduced frequency of episodes over time. Silent isolated visual hallucinations, in the absence of psychopathology, imply an organic etiology. Eliciting these phenomena through an appropriate clinical history provides a valuable opportunity for referral, or patient education and reassurance.

  13. A method for the measurement of physiologic evaporative water loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1963-10-01

    The precise measurement of evaporative water loss is essential to an accurate evaluation of this avenue of heat loss in acute and chronic exposures to heat. In psychological studies, the quantitative measurement of palmar sweating plays an equally im...

  14. Table grapes suffer water loss, stem browning during cooling delays

    OpenAIRE

    Crisosto, Carlos H.; Smilanick, Joe L.; Dokoozlian, Nick

    2001-01-01

    The water loss in table grapes that occurs during postharvest handling can lead to stem browning, berry shatter, and wilting and shriveling of the fruit. Critical grape cluster water-loss threshold values for stem browning were determined for Perlette, Thompson Seedless, Flame Seedless, Fantasy Seedless and Redglobe table grape cultivars. Fantasy Seedless and Redglobe withstood higher levels of stem water loss than Perlette, Flame Seedless and Thompson Seedless before expressing moderate to s...

  15. Prediction of Water Requirements to Replace Sweat Losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    RTO-MP-HFM-202 P6 - 1 Prediction of Water Requirements to Replace Sweat Losses Samuel N. Cheuvront, Ph.D., Richard R. Gonzalez, Ph.D...3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Prediction of Water Requirements to Replace Sweat Losses 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...Prediction of Water Requirements to Replace Sweat Losses P6 - 2 RTO-MP-HFM-202 Conclusion OSEC and PW provide for more accurate sweat

  16. A phylogenetic approach to total evaporative water loss in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Sant, Matthew J; Oufiero, Christopher E; Muñoz-Garcia, Agustí; Hammond, Kimberly A; Williams, Joseph B

    2012-01-01

    Maintaining appropriate water balance is a constant challenge for terrestrial mammals, and this problem can be exacerbated in desiccating environments. It has been proposed that natural selection has provided desert-dwelling mammals physiological mechanisms to reduce rates of total evaporative water loss. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between total evaporative water loss and body mass in mammals by using a recent phylogenetic hypothesis. We compared total evaporative water loss in 80 species of arid-zone mammals to that in 56 species that inhabit mesic regions, ranging in size from 4 g to 3,500 kg, to test the hypothesis that mammals from arid environments have lower rates of total evaporative water loss than mammals from mesic environments once phylogeny is taken into account. We found that arid species had lower rates of total evaporative water loss than mesic species when using a dichotomous variable to describe habitat (arid or mesic). We also found that total evaporative water loss was negatively correlated with the average maximum and minimum environmental temperature as well as the maximum vapor pressure deficit of the environment. Annual precipitation and the variable Q (a measure of habitat aridity) were positively correlated with total evaporative water loss. These results support the hypothesis that desert-dwelling mammals have lower rates of total evaporative water loss than mesic species after controlling for body mass and evolutionary relatedness regardless of whether categorical or continuous variables are used to describe habitat.

  17. Heat losses through pipe connections in hot water stores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Fan, Jianhua; Furbo, Simon

    2007-01-01

    The heat loss from pipe connections at the top of hot water storage tanks with and without a heat trap is investigated theoretically and compared to similar experimental investigations. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is used for the theoretical analysis. The investigations show that the heat...... loss from an ideally insulated pipe connected to the top of a hot water tank is mainly due to a natural convection flow in the pipe, that the heat loss coefficient of pipes connected to the top of a hot water tank is high, and that a heat trap can reduce the heat loss coefficient significantly. Further...

  18. Genetic and environmental influences on water loss in ostrich eggs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    zanellb

    Results from studies by Deeming (1995), Ar (1996) and Blood et al. (1998) showed that the optimal water loss for artificially incubated ostrich eggs amounts to approximately 15% but, like other birds, ostriches show some latitude in the amount of water loss at which eggs will still hatch successfully. Eggs which lost less than ...

  19. Water loss during incubation in red bishop (Euplectes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Parry. Institute of Natural Resources, University of Natal, P.O. Box 37S,. Pietermaritzburg 3200, Republic of South Africa. ·To whom correspondence should be addressed. Received 10 August 1981; accepted 18 September 1981. Avian eggs lose weight during incubation and this weight loss, almost entirely due to water loss ...

  20. Fruit cuticle lipid composition and fruit post-harvest water loss in an advanced backcross generation of pepper (Capsicum sp.)

    KAUST Repository

    Parsons, Eugene P.

    2012-03-05

    To understand the role of fruit cuticle lipid composition in fruit water loss, an advanced backcross population, the BC2F2, was created between the Capsicum annuum (PI1154) and the Capsicum chinense (USDA162), which have high and low post-harvest water loss rates, respectively. Besides dramatic differences in fruit water loss, preliminary studies also revealed that these parents exhibited significant differences in both the amount and composition of their fruit cuticle. Cuticle analysis of the BC2F2 fruit revealed that although water loss rate was not strongly associated with the total surface wax amount, there were significant correlations between water loss rate and cuticle composition. We found a positive correlation between water loss rate and the amount of total triterpenoid plus sterol compounds, and negative correlations between water loss and the alkane to triterpenoid plus sterol ratio. We also report negative correlations between water loss rate and the proportion of both alkanes and aliphatics to total surface wax amount. For the first time, we report significant correlations between water loss and cutin monomer composition. We found positive associations of water loss rate with the total cutin, total C16 monomers and 16-dihydroxy hexadecanoic acid. Our results support the hypothesis that simple straight-chain aliphatic cuticle constituents form more impermeable cuticular barriers than more complex isoprenoid-based compounds. These results shed new light on the biochemical basis for cuticle involvement in fruit water loss. © 2012 Physiologia Plantarum.

  1. The role of plant cuticle in water loss protection

    OpenAIRE

    MACKOVÁ, Jana

    2010-01-01

    A central aim of this thesis was studying plant regulation of transpiration water loss. I focused first on changes in cuticular water permeability and second, on changes in cuticular chemical composition under simulated drought stress. Finally, the obtained findings were capitalized on in a case study of altitudinal distribution of congeneric treeline species.

  2. Comparison of corn transpiration, eddy covariance, and soil water loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stem flow gages are used to estimate plant transpiration, but only a few studies compare transpiration with other measures of soil water loss. The purpose of this study was to compare transpiration from stem flow measurements with soil water changes estimated by daily neutron probe readings. Monitor...

  3. water loss of koka reservoir, ethiopia: comments on

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mm3 / year are determined. The new determinations are recommended to be used for Awash River simulation model. Key words/phrases: Ethiopia, Koka Reservoir water loss, leakage rate, ..... Master plan for the development of surface water resources in the. Awash basin, Vol. 4, Climate and H drolo , unpublished report by.

  4. Multi-criteria decision analysis : A strategic planning tool for water loss management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mutikanga, H.E.; Sharma, S.K.; Vairavamoorthy, K.

    2011-01-01

    Water utilities particularly in the developing countries continue to operate with considerable inefficiencies in terms of water and revenue losses. With increasing water demand and scarcity, utilities require effective strategies for optimum use of available water resources. Diverse water loss

  5. Water Loss Reduction as the Basis of Good Water Supply Companies’ Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ociepa-Kubicka Agnieszka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Companies using water distribution systems to reduce the operating costs and increase the reliability of water supply systems, as well as to protect disposable water resources, must search for ways to reduce water losses. The article points out the economic and environmental aspects of water losses. The possibilities of using international water loss assessment standards have been analysed. The reflections presented in the paper refer to the current trends and world standards in the field of water distribution systems management. The article presents the results and analysis of water losses for the water supply network operated by the Water Supply and Sewerage Company in Gliwice (Przedsiębiorstwo Wodociągów i Kanalizacji w Gliwicach, PWiK. The losses were determined on the basis of numerous indicators and compared with other distribution systems. At present, most indicators of water loss are at a very good or good level. The Infrastructure Leakage Index (ILI, as one of the most reliable loss indicators for the surveyed distribution system, assumed values from 3.33 in 2012 to 2.06 in 2015. The recent drop in ILI values indicates the effectiveness of the Company's strategy for water leakage reduction. The success comprises a number of undertakings, such as ongoing monitoring, pressure reduction and stabilisation, repairs and replacement of the most emergency wires.

  6. Water Loss Reduction as the Basis of Good Water Supply Companies' Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ociepa-Kubicka, Agnieszka; Wilczak, Krzysztof

    2017-10-01

    Companies using water distribution systems to reduce the operating costs and increase the reliability of water supply systems, as well as to protect disposable water resources, must search for ways to reduce water losses. The article points out the economic and environmental aspects of water losses. The possibilities of using international water loss assessment standards have been analysed. The reflections presented in the paper refer to the current trends and world standards in the field of water distribution systems management. The article presents the results and analysis of water losses for the water supply network operated by the Water Supply and Sewerage Company in Gliwice (Przedsiębiorstwo Wodociągów i Kanalizacji w Gliwicach, PWiK). The losses were determined on the basis of numerous indicators and compared with other distribution systems. At present, most indicators of water loss are at a very good or good level. The Infrastructure Leakage Index (ILI), as one of the most reliable loss indicators for the surveyed distribution system, assumed values from 3.33 in 2012 to 2.06 in 2015. The recent drop in ILI values indicates the effectiveness of the Company's strategy for water leakage reduction. The success comprises a number of undertakings, such as ongoing monitoring, pressure reduction and stabilisation, repairs and replacement of the most emergency wires.

  7. U.S. Food Loss and Waste 2030 Champions Activity Form

    Science.gov (United States)

    To join the U.S. Food Loss and Waste 2030 Champions, organizations complete and submit the 2030 Champions form, in which they commit to reduce food loss and waste in their own operations and periodically report their progress on their website.

  8. Water transfer and loss in hit-and-run collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, C.; Maindl, T. I.; Schäfer, C.

    2017-09-01

    This work focuses on transfer and loss of volatiles, like water, in hit-and-run collisions, where especially the smaller one of the colliding pair is often stripped of considerable amounts of its initial volatile content, but still survives the encounter more or less intact. We find water losses up to 75 percent in a single collision, depending on various parameters, especially velocity, impact angle and mass ratio, but also on the total colliding mass. The physical state, especially vaporization of volatiles, is found to be particularly important in collisions of approximately Mars-sized bodies, with high impact energies, but still potentially easy volatile escape.

  9. Stability of water on the Galilean satellites. [water loss from Io

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilcher, C. B.

    1976-01-01

    The selective loss of water from Io under currently prevailing physical conditions was studied to determine whether a large quantity of water can be lost from the satellite over the lifetime of the solar system. Loss processes considered include: thermal escape, photolysis, sputtering, and gas-phase charged particle interactions.

  10. Water quality and bead loss in irrigation filters

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, TAP; Paterniani, JES; Airoldi, RPD; da Silva, MJM

    2004-01-01

    Among the irrigation systems used today, trickle irrigation is one of the most efficient methods. This research, conducted by means of field tests, had the objective of comparing head loss evolution on water filtration with a disc filter (130 mum) and a non-woven synthetic fabric filter used in a drip irrigation system. The test consisted of fertirrigation with organic fertilizer, and chemical treatment of the water with sodium hypochlorite. Physical, chemical, and biological parameters were ...

  11. Evaluation of seasonality on total water intake, water loss and water balance in the general population in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malisova, O; Bountziouka, V; Panagiotakos, D Β; Zampelas, A; Kapsokefalou, M

    2013-07-01

    Water balance is achieved when water intake from solid and fluid foods and drinking water meets water losses, mainly in sweat, urine and faeces. Seasonality, particularly in Mediterranean countries that have a hot summer, may affect water loss and consequently water balance. Water balance has not been estimated before on a population level and the effect of seasonality has not been evaluated. The present study aimed to compare water balance, intake and loss in summer and winter in a sample of the general population in Greece. The Water Balance Questionnaire (WBQ) was used to evaluate water balance, estimating water intake and loss in summer (n = 480) and in winter (n = 412) on a stratified sample of the general population in Athens, Greece. In winter, mean (SD) water balance was -63 (1478) mL/day(-1) , mean (SD)water intake was 2892 (987) mL/day(-1) and mean (quartile range) water loss was 2637 (1810-3922) mL/day(-1) . In summer, mean (SD) water balance was -58 (2150) mL/day(-1) , mean (SD) water intake was 3875 (1373) mL/day(-1) and mean (quartile range) water loss was 3635 (2365-5258) mL/day(-1) . Water balance did not differ between summer and winter (P = 0.96); however, the data distribution was different; in summer, approximately 8% more participants were falling in the low and high water balance categories. Differences in water intake from different sources were identified (P Water balance in summer and winter was not different. However, water intake and loss were approximately 40% higher in summer than in winter. More people were falling in the low and high water balance categories in summer when comparing the distribution on water balance in winter. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  12. Genetic and environmental influences on water loss in ostrich eggs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    zanellb

    Abstract. Data obtained from a pair-mated ostrich flock located at Oudtshoorn, South Africa, were used to estimate genetic parameters for egg weight (EWT), weight of day-old chicks (CWT), water loss to 21. (WL21) and 35 (WL35) days of incubation, and pipping time (PT) for between 13 806 and 19 913 artificially incubated ...

  13. Thermoregulation and evaporative water loss in growing African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kalahari Gemsbok National Park, Private Bag X5890, Upington, 8800 Republic of South AfricaWith an increase in mass, weaned giant rat pups Cricetomys gambianus, showed a corresponding decline in mass specific metabolism, conductance and evaporative water loss. The decline in metabolism correlates better with ...

  14. Analysis of evaporative water loss in the Skylab astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, J. I.

    1977-01-01

    Daily evaporative water losses (EWL) during the three Skylab missions were measured using the indirect mass and water balance techniques. A mean inflight EWL of 860 ml/day-m 2 was obtained for nine men who averaged one hour of daily exercise. Although it was expected the EWL would increase in the hypobaric environment of Skylab (1/3 atmosphere), an average decrease from preflight sea level conditions of 11 percent was measured. The results suggest that weightlessness may have been a factor in modifying EWL primarily by decreasing sweat losses during exercise and possibly by reducing insensible skin losses as well. The weightless environment apparently promotes the formation of a sweat film on the skin surface both directly, by reducing heat and mass convective flow and sweat drippage, and perhaps indirectly by inducing measurable biochemical changes resulting in high initial sweating rates. It is proposed that these high levels of skin wettedness favor sweat suppression by a previously described mechanism.

  15. Virtual water trade and time scales for loss of water sustainability: a comparative regional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Prashant; Nishad, Shiv Narayan

    2015-03-20

    Assessment and policy design for sustainability in primary resources like arable land and water need to adopt long-term perspective; even small but persistent effects like net export of water may influence sustainability through irreversible losses. With growing consumption, this virtual water trade has become an important element in the water sustainability of a nation. We estimate and contrast the virtual (embedded) water trades of two populous nations, India and China, to present certain quantitative measures and time scales. Estimates show that export of embedded water alone can lead to loss of water sustainability. With the current rate of net export of water (embedded) in the end products, India is poised to lose its entire available water in less than 1000 years; much shorter time scales are implied in terms of water for production. The two cases contrast and exemplify sustainable and non-sustainable virtual water trade in long term perspective.

  16. Household water demand and welfare loss for future Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhard, Jeroen; Reynaud, Arnaud; Lanzanova, Denis; de Roo, Ad

    2015-04-01

    Matching the availability of water to its demand in Europe is a major challenge for the future due to expected economic and demographic developments and climate change. This means there is a growing need to estimate future water demand and to optimize the water allocation to all end users to counteract welfare loss. At the European scale it is currently not possible to assess the impact of social and economic changes on future water demand or to prioritize water allocation amongst different sectors based on economic damage without extensive use of assumptions and generalizations. Indeed, our review of existing regional optimization models for Europe reveals that the social-economic component of the water use system needs to be improved by complementing them with detailed water use estimates and cost/benefit functions in order to determine the optimal situation. Our study contributes to closing this knowledge gap for the European household sector by quantifying future water demand and the effect of water pricing, as well as providing a method for the calculation of monetary damage due to unmet demand at the highest spatial resolution possible. We used a water demand function approach in which household water consumption depends upon some exogenous drivers including water price, household income, population and household characteristics and climate conditions. For each European country, the annual water consumption per capita was calculated at regional level (NUTS3) and subsequently disaggregated to five kilometer grid level based on a population density map. In order to produce estimates of water demand, the evolution of the explanatory variables of the water demand functions and population density map were simulated until 2050 based on related variables such as GDP and demographic projections. The results of this study will be integrated into the JRC hydro-economic modelling framework for an assessment of the Water-Agriculture-Energy-Ecosystems Nexus.

  17. Respiratory water loss in free-flying pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaeli, G; Pinshow, B

    2001-11-01

    We assessed respiratory and cutaneous water loss in trained tippler pigeons (Columba livia) both at rest and in free flight. In resting pigeons, exhaled air temperature T(ex) increased with ambient air temperature T(a) (T(ex)=16.3+0.705T(a)) between 15 degrees C and 30 degrees C, while tidal volume V(T) (V(T)=4.7+/-1.0 ml, mean +/- S.D. at standard temperature and pressure dry) and breathing frequency f(R) (f(R)=0.46+/-0.06 breaths s(-1)) were independent of T(a). Respiratory water loss, RWL, was constant over the range of T(a) (RWL=1.2+/-0.4 mg g(-1) h(-1)) used. In flying pigeons, T(ex) increased with T(a) (T(ex)=25.8+0.34T(a)), while f(R) was independent of T(a) (f(R)=5.6+/-1.4 breaths s(-1)) between 8.8 degrees C and 27 degrees C. Breathing frequency varied intermittently between 2 and 8 breaths s(-1) during flight and was not always synchronized with wing-beat frequency. RWL was independent of air temperature (RWL=9.2+/-2.9 mg g(-1) h(-1)), but decreased with increasing inspired air water vapor density (rho(in)) (RWL=12.5-0.362rho(in)), whereas cutaneous water loss, CWL, increased with air temperature (CWL=10.122+0.898T(a)), but was independent of rho(in). RWL was 25.7-32.2 %, while CWL was 67.8-74.3 % of the total evaporative water loss. The data indicate that pigeons have more efficient countercurrent heat exchange in their anterior respiratory passages when at rest than in flight, allowing them to recover more water at rest at lower air temperatures. When evaporative water loss increases in flight, especially at high T(a), the major component is cutaneous rather than respiratory, possibly brought about by reducing the skin water vapor diffusion resistance. Because of the tight restrictions imposed by gas exchange in flight, the amount of water potentially lost through respiration is limited.

  18. Water Vapor Effects on Silica-Forming Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opila, E. J.; Greenbauer-Seng, L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Silica-forming ceramics such as SiC and Si3N4 are proposed for applications in combustion environments. These environments contain water vapor as a product of combustion. Oxidation of silica-formers is more rapid in water vapor than in oxygen. Parabolic oxidation rates increase with the water vapor partial pressure with a power law exponent value close to one. Molecular water vapor is therefore the mobile species in silica. Rapid oxidation rates and large amounts of gases generated during the oxidation reaction in high water vapor pressures may result in bubble formation in the silica and nonprotective scale formation. It is also shown that silica reacts with water vapor to form Si(OH)4(g). Silica volatility has been modeled using a laminar flow boundary layer controlled reaction equation. Silica volatility depends on the partial pressure of water vapor, the total pressure, and the gas velocity. Simultaneous oxidation and volatilization reactions have been modeled with paralinear kinetics.

  19. Water loss on Venus - The role of carbon monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, S. M.; Pollack, J. B.; Reynolds, R. T.

    1984-01-01

    The four-to-fivefold difference in water abundance between the earth and Venus may reflect either initial differences in the bulk volatile content of the two planets, or massive water loss mechanisms on Venus. These two possibilities were investigated by performing thermodynamic calculations on the heterogeneous system C-O-H-N-S, varying C/H upward from its 0.033 terrestrial value. While atmospheric H2O decreases as bulk C/H increases, the latter would have to rise to an improbably high value in order to account for the low water abundance on Venus through initial deficiency alone. Calculations suggest that if the outgassed C/H on Venus was higher than on earth by even a factor of 5, it would have been sufficient for CO to become competitive with FeO as a sink for oxygen. Together with the lower initial water abundance value that follows from a higher C/H ratio, water loss due to CO may have been a major factor.

  20. Use of thermal dissipation probes to estimate water loss of containerized landscape trees

    OpenAIRE

    Montague, Thayne; Kjelgren, Roger

    2006-01-01

    Granier style thermal dissipation probes (TDPs) have been used to estimate whole plant water use on a variety of tree and vine species. However, studies using TDPs and load cells (gravimetric water loss) to estimate water use of landscape tree species are rare. This research compared gravimetric water loss (extimated with load cells) of four containerized landscape tree species with water loss estimated with TDPs. Over a 66 day period, an experiment compared water loss of three established...

  1. The Dehydration of Water Worlds via Atmospheric Losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chuanfei; Huang, Zhenguang; Lingam, Manasvi; Tóth, Gábor; Gombosi, Tamas; Bhattacharjee, Amitava

    2017-09-01

    We present a three-species multi-fluid magnetohydrodynamic model (H+, H2O+, and e -), endowed with the requisite atmospheric chemistry, that is capable of accurately quantifying the magnitude of water ion losses from exoplanets. We apply this model to a water world with Earth-like parameters orbiting a Sun-like star for three cases: (I) current normal solar wind conditions, (II) ancient normal solar wind conditions, and (III) one extreme “Carrington-type” space weather event. We demonstrate that the ion escape rate for (II), with a value of 6.0 × 1026 s-1, is about an order of magnitude higher than the corresponding value of 6.7 × 1025 s-1 for (I). Studies of ion losses induced by space weather events, where the ion escape rates can reach ˜1028 s-1, are crucial for understanding how an active, early solar-type star (e.g., with frequent coronal mass ejections) could have accelerated the depletion of the exoplanet’s atmosphere. We briefly explore the ramifications arising from the loss of water ions, especially for planets orbiting M-dwarfs where such effects are likely to be significant.

  2. The Dehydration of Water Worlds via Atmospheric Losses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Chuanfei; Bhattacharjee, Amitava [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Huang, Zhenguang; Tóth, Gábor; Gombosi, Tamas [Center for Space Environment Modeling, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Lingam, Manasvi, E-mail: dcfy@princeton.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2017-09-20

    We present a three-species multi-fluid magnetohydrodynamic model (H{sup +}, H{sub 2}O{sup +}, and e {sup −}), endowed with the requisite atmospheric chemistry, that is capable of accurately quantifying the magnitude of water ion losses from exoplanets. We apply this model to a water world with Earth-like parameters orbiting a Sun-like star for three cases: (i) current normal solar wind conditions, (ii) ancient normal solar wind conditions, and (iii) one extreme “Carrington-type” space weather event. We demonstrate that the ion escape rate for (ii), with a value of 6.0 × 10{sup 26} s{sup −1}, is about an order of magnitude higher than the corresponding value of 6.7 × 10{sup 25} s{sup −1} for (i). Studies of ion losses induced by space weather events, where the ion escape rates can reach ∼10{sup 28} s{sup −1}, are crucial for understanding how an active, early solar-type star (e.g., with frequent coronal mass ejections) could have accelerated the depletion of the exoplanet’s atmosphere. We briefly explore the ramifications arising from the loss of water ions, especially for planets orbiting M-dwarfs where such effects are likely to be significant.

  3. Semipermeable dressing and transepidermal water loss in premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, H J; Lane, A T; Wischerath, L J; Davis, J M; Menegus, M A

    1990-09-01

    Within the first days of life, 10 infants, of 32 weeks' gestational age or less, began 2 weeks of treatment with a semipermeable wound dressing over a small area of skin. The effects of the dressing on transepidermal water loss and cutaneous microflora were evaluated. Transepidermal water loss from the semipermeable dressing-treated skin was significantly less than that from the untreated skin immediately after placement of the dressing (8.1 +/- 1.8 g/m2.h-1 vs 17.7 +/- 3.5 g/m2.h-1, P less than .0001). The normal accelerated skin maturation process that occurs in these infants continued beneath the semipermeable dressing. The number of gram-negative bacilli or other bacteria did not increase beneath the semipermeable dressing beyond that seen on the untreated site. Malassezia furfur was found only on the control site, never beneath the semipermeable dressing. According to results of this preliminary study, a semipermeable dressing can be safely used in premature infants and the use of a semipermeable dressing may decrease the excessive transepidermal water loss associated with prematurity.

  4. Water losses from irrigation canals evaluation: comparison among different methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente, Paolo; De Luca, Domenico Antonio; Antonella Dino, Giovanna; Lasagna, Manuela

    2013-04-01

    The research investigates the field methodologies to evaluate water losses from canals, in order to find a reliable method to identify and quantify them. This study was conducted in five canal lines in Piedmont, north-western Italy, different for hydraulic, morphological, geological and hydrogeological contexts (De Luca et alii, 2012). At a regional scale, Piedmont network consists of several tens of thousands km of irrigation canals. The loss of water due to seepage from irrigation canals constitutes a substantial part of the usable water. Irrigation canals placed in natural soil or fine and coarse sediments are characterized by water losses ranging from 20 % to more than 50 %. These losses cause economic, hydrogeological and environmental consequences: water losses evaluation from irrigation canals in the basis for the sustainable water resource use and management. First, hydrogeological and hydrological characterisation of the study area and of the bottom of the irrigation canals was carried out for every investigated canal, in order to evaluate the relationships between groundwater and stream water (eg. piezometric and hydrogeochemical survey campaigns, infiltrometry tests, penetrometric tests and electrical tomographies, soil characterizations from the bottom of investigated canals). The canals seepage rates were subsequently estimated using different methodologies: empirical formulas, inflow-outflow tests and double tracer tests. The empirical formulas applied for the study underestimated the real amount of the losses probably due to the scarce number of the considered variables. Then the canals seepage rates were evaluated employing inflow-outflow tests, considered the best tool by several authors. This method allows the determination of seepage quantities measuring inflow and outflow of a canal test reach either by instruments. The canal discharge was evaluated using a current meter. This method, even if easy to apply and practical, is not efficient

  5. Water loss from Venus: Implications for the Earth's early atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, S. M.; Pollack, J. B.; Reynolds, R. T.

    1985-01-01

    The atmosphere of Venus outgassed rapidly as a result of planetary heating during accretion, resulting in massive water loss. The processes affecting atmospheric chemistry following accretion have consisted largely of hydrogen escape and internal re-equilibrium. The initial bulk composition of Venus and Earth are assumed to have been roughly similar. Chemical speciation on Venus was controlled by the temperature and oxygen buffering capacity of the surface magma. It is also assumed that the surfaces of planetary bodies of the inner solar system were partly or wholly molten during accretion with a temperature estimated at 1273 to 1573 K. To investigate the range of reasonable initial atmospheric compositions on Venus, limits have to be set for the proportion of total hydrogen and the buffered fugacity of oxygen. Using the C/H ratio of 0.033 set for Earth, virtually all of the water generated during outgassing must later have been lost in order to bring the current CO2/H2O ratio for Venus up to its observed value of 10 sup 4 to 10 sup 5. The proportion of H2O decreases in model atmospheres with successfully higher C/H values, ultimately approaching the depleted values currently observed on Venus. Increasing C/H also results in a rapid increase in CO/H2O and provides an efficient mechanism for water loss by the reaction CO+H2O = CO2 + H2. This reaction, plus water loss mechanisms involving crustal iron, could have removed a very large volume of water from the Venusian atmosphere, even at a low C/H value.

  6. A research on determining the friction losses formed in the small ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-01-18

    Jan 18, 2010 ... steel, asbestos cement, PVC and friction losses formed in strong polythene (PE) pipes were available. (Anonymous, 1988). On the other hand, nowadays floppy pipes with small diameter which can be bent according to the shape of the area have been used in some parts of fixed sprinkler irrigation systems ...

  7. Impact-induced water loss from serpentine, nontronite and kernite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boslough, M. B.; Weldon, R. J.; Ahrens, T. J.

    1980-01-01

    Preliminary experiments have been conducted to study shock-release of volatiles from minerals. Impact-induced loss of bound water from hydrous minerals has been observed, using infrared absorption and X-ray powder diffractometer techniques. Serpentine (Mg3Si2O5(OH)4) and nontronite (.5Ca(0.7)Fe4/(Si(7.3)Al(0.7))O20/(OH)4.nH2O) were shocked and recovered from pressures of up to 38 GPa, using one-dimensional shock reverberation techniques. Kernite (Na2B4O7.4H2O) was impacted by a spherical pyrex projectile traveling at 4.89 km/sec, which produced a peak pressure of approximately 33 GPa. The infrared absorption spectra indicate that some of the bound water from these three minerals was released as a result of shock compression and subsequent rarefaction. This evidence is supported by the recovery of small amounts of vapor from the serpentine shocked to 23.5 GPa and the nontronite shocked to 18 GPa. The recovered vapor is inferred to be water from the shocked minerals. X-ray diffraction spectra indicate no major changes in the unit cell dimensions of the two silicates, except for a decrease in the lattice constant in the c-direction of the nontronite, consistent with the loss of interlayer water.

  8. Formas de perdas de cobre e fósforo em água de escoamento superficial e percolação em solo sob aplicações sucessivas de dejeto líquido de suínos Forms of losses of copper and phosphorus in water of runoff and percolation in soil with successive pig slurry application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Girotto

    2010-09-01

    system. The experiment was installed in 2000, at Typic Hapludalf soil. The treatments consisted of successive applications of 0, 40 and 80m³ ha-1 of pig slurry applied on soil surface in no tillage system. Samples of surface runoff and percolated solutions were collected during the life cycle of oat (Avena strigosa in the 2006 winter, when the soil had a history of 16 pig slurry applications. The following parameters have been evaluated: Cu, P, cation, anion and pH, dissolved organic carbon and electric conductivity. The Visual MINTEQ program version 2.15 was utilized to estimate the copper and phosphorus ionic speciation. The surface runoff is the most important form of copper and phosphorus loss of the soil. In addition, copper was found in the organic form (CuCOD and phosphorus in the free forms (HPO4(2- e H2PO4- in the surface runoff solution. Thus, these elements could be an important source of water contamination in places where pig farming is widespread.

  9. Up to what point is loss reduction environmentally friendly?: The LCA of loss reduction scenarios in drinking water networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillot, Julie; Catel, Laureline; Renaud, Eddy; Augeard, Bénédicte; Roux, Philippe

    2016-11-01

    In a context of increasing water shortage all over the world, water utilities must minimise losses in their distribution networks and draw up water loss reduction action plans. While leak reduction is clearly an important part of sustainable water management, its impacts have to be reconsidered in a broader objective of environmental protection than strictly the avoided losses in cubic metres of water. Reducing the volume of water abstracted reduces also environmental impacts associated to water production (the operation and infrastructure needed for abstraction, treatment, supply). In the mean time, activities for reducing water losses generate their own environmental impacts, notably as a result of the work, equipment, and infrastructures used for this purpose. In this study, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) was used to assess and compare two sets of environmental impacts: those resulting from the production and supply of water which will never reach subscribers, and those caused by water loss reduction activities. This information can then be used to establish whether or not there is a point beyond which loss reduction is no longer effective in reducing the environmental impacts of drinking water supply. Results show that the improvement actions that start from a low water supply efficiency are clearly beneficial for ecosystems, human health and preservation of resources. When seeking to improve the efficiency beyond certain values (about 65%), the uncertainty makes it impossible to conclude for an environmental benefit on all impact categories. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Efeito da forma física da ração sobre a porosidade, espessura da casca, perda de água e eclodibilidade em ovos de perdiz (Rhynchotus rufescens Effect of the physical form of diet on the eggshell porosity and thickness, water loss and hatchability of partridge (Rhynchotus rufescens eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ES Nakage

    2002-12-01

    weighed, desinfected, and then incubated (T=35.5ºC and RH=70%. On the 16th day of incubation, these eggs were transferred to a hatchery maintained at temperature and RH similar to those used in the incubator, where they were kept until hatching. The results showed that the mean number of eggshell pores changed among the three regions of the eggshell and egg weight classes, and also between the physical form of diets. Ingestion of pelleted diet increased eggshell thickness; however, hatchability and water loss percentages remained unchanged.

  11. Water loss in insects: an environmental change perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chown, Steven L; Sørensen, Jesper G; Terblanche, John S

    2011-08-01

    In the context of global environmental change much of the focus has been on changing temperatures. However, patterns of rainfall and water availability have also been changing and are expected to continue doing so. In consequence, understanding the responses of insects to water availability is important, especially because it has a pronounced influence on insect activity, distribution patterns, and species richness. Here we therefore provide a critical review of key questions that either are being or need to be addressed in this field. First, an overview of insect behavioural responses to changing humidity conditions and the mechanisms underlying sensing of humidity variation is provided. The primary sensors in insects belong to the temperature receptor protein superfamily of cation channels. Temperature-activated transient receptor potential ion channels, or thermoTRPs, respond to a diverse range of stimuli and may be a primary integrator of sensory information, such as environmental temperature and moisture. Next we touch briefly on the components of water loss, drawing attention to a new, universal model of the water costs of gas exchange and its implications for responses to a warming, and in places drying, world. We also provide an overview of new understanding of the role of the sub-elytral chamber for water conservation, and developments in understanding of the role of cuticular hydrocarbons in preventing water loss. Because of an increasing focus on the molecular basis of responses to dehydration stress we touch briefly on this area, drawing attention to the role of sugars, heat shock proteins, aquaporins, and LEA proteins. Next we consider phenotypic plasticity or acclimation responses in insect water balance after initial exposures to altered humidity, temperature or nutrition. Although beneficial acclimation has been demonstrated in several instances, this is not always the case. Laboratory studies show that responses to selection for enhanced ability to

  12. Arbuscular mycorrhizae reducing water loss in maize plants under low temperature stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xian Can; Song, Feng Bin; Liu, Tie Dong; Liu, Sheng Qun

    2010-05-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi form mutualistic mycorrhizal symbiotic associations with the roots of approximately 80% of all terrestrial plant species while facilitate the uptake of soil mineral nutrients by plants and in exchange obtain carbohydrates, thus representing a large sink for photosynthetically fixed carbon. Also, AM symbiosis increase plants resistance to abiotic stress such as chilling. In a recent study we reported that AM fungi improve low temperature stress in maize plants via alterations in host water status and photosynthesis. Here, the influence of AM fungus, Glomus etunicatum, on water loss rate and growth of maize plants was studied in pot culture under low temperature stress. The results indicated that low temperature stress significantly decreases the total fresh weight of maize plants, and AM symbiosis alleviate the water loss in leaves of maize plants.

  13. Water vapour loss threshold and induction of cholinergic urticaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tupker, R A; Doeglas, H M

    1990-01-01

    A patient is described with cholinergic urticaria (CU) in whom the symptoms could be provoked by gustatory stimuli. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is a threshold of sweating (monitored by skin water vapour loss (SVL) measurements) at which CU can be provoked. Provocations with lemon and sal-ammoniac liquorice induced transient sweating differing both in degree and duration. Only 'doubly salted' liquorice, which caused the most intense sweat response, resulted in urticarial lesions. This findings suggest a threshold dependency for the induction of CU. SVL measurement may be a useful method for the evaluation of sweating tests in CU patients.

  14. Detection of the water reservoir in a forming planetary system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogerheijde, Michiel R; Bergin, Edwin A; Brinch, Christian; Cleeves, L Ilsedore; Fogel, Jeffrey K J; Blake, Geoffrey A; Dominik, Carsten; Lis, Dariusz C; Melnick, Gary; Neufeld, David; Panić, Olja; Pearson, John C; Kristensen, Lars; Yildiz, Umut A; van Dishoeck, Ewine F

    2011-10-21

    Icy bodies may have delivered the oceans to the early Earth, yet little is known about water in the ice-dominated regions of extrasolar planet-forming disks. The Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared on board the Herschel Space Observatory has detected emission lines from both spin isomers of cold water vapor from the disk around the young star TW Hydrae. This water vapor likely originates from ice-coated solids near the disk surface, hinting at a water ice reservoir equivalent to several thousand Earth oceans in mass. The water's ortho-to-para ratio falls well below that of solar system comets, suggesting that comets contain heterogeneous ice mixtures collected across the entire solar nebula during the early stages of planetary birth.

  15. Weight loss and survival of Biomphalaria Glabrata deprived of water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Vianey-Liaud

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available Immature and mature Biomphalaria glabrata are kept out of water at relative humidities varying from 0 to 100%. When snails are submitted to a saturated atmosphere, they show a slow weight loss and survival may be long. If relative humidity (RH decreases, weight loss becomes important and survival is short. A reduced RH (0 to 65% produces similar effects. During desiccation, fasting has no noticeable effect; survival depends essentially on weight loss.Biomphalaria glabrata maduros ou imaturos são mantidos fora da água, variando a umidade de 0 a 100%. Quando caramujos são submetidos a uma atmosfera saturada, sofrem uma lenta perda de peso e a sobrevivência pode ser longa. Se a umidade relativa decresce, a perda de peso será importante e a sobrevida será abreviada. Uma umidade relativa de 0 a 65% pode produzir efeitos similares. Durante a dessecação, a privação de alimento não tem efeito notável, a sobrevivência dependendo essencialmente da perda de peso.

  16. Detection of the water reservoir in a forming planetary system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogerheijde, M.R.; Bergin, E.A.; Brinch, C.; Cleeves, L.I.; Fogel, J. K.J.; Blake, G.A.; Dominik, C.; Lis, D.C.; Melnick, G.; Neufeld, D.; Panić, O.; Pearson, J.C.; Kristensen, L.; Yıldız, U.A.; van Dishoeck, E.F.

    2011-01-01

    Icy bodies may have delivered the oceans to the early Earth, yet little is known about water in the ice-dominated regions of extrasolar planet-forming disks. The Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared on board the Herschel Space Observatory has detected emission lines from both spin isomers of

  17. Loss of water from Venus. I - Hydrodynamic escape of hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasting, J. F.; Pollack, J. B.

    1983-01-01

    A one-dimensional photochemical-dynamic model is used to study hydrodynamic loss of hydrogen from a primitive, water-rich atmosphere on Venus. The escape flux is calculated as a function of the H2O mixing ratio at the atmospheric cold trap. The cold trap mixing ratio is then related in an approximate fashion to the H2O concentration in the lower atmosphere. Hydrodynamic escape should have been the dominant loss process for hydroogen when the H2O mass mixing ratio in the lower atmosphere exceeded approximately 0.1. The escape rate would have depended upon the magnitude of the solar ultraviolet flux and the atmospheric EUV heating efficiency and, to a lesser extent, on the O2 content of the atmosphere. The time required for Venus to have lost the bulk of a terrestrial ocean of water is on the order of a billion years. Deuterium would have been swept away along with hydrogen if the escape rate was high enough, but some D/H enrichment should have occurred as the escape rate slowed down.

  18. Soil water erosion under different cultivation systems and different fertilization rates and forms over 10 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildegardis Bertol

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The action of rain and surface runoff together are the active agents of water erosion, and further influences are the soil type, terrain, soil cover, soil management, and conservation practices. Soil water erosion is low in the no-tillage management system, being influenced by the amount and form of lime and fertilizer application to the soil, among other factors. The aim was to evaluate the effect of the form of liming, the quantity and management of fertilizer application on the soil and water losses by erosion under natural rainfall. The study was carried out between 2003 and 2013 on a Humic Dystrupept soil, with the following treatments: T1 - cultivation with liming and corrective fertilizer incorporated into the soil in the first year, and with 100 % annual maintenance fertilization of P and K; T2 - surface liming and corrective fertilization distributed over five years, and with 75 % annual maintenance fertilization of P and K; T3 - surface liming and corrective fertilization distributed over three years, and with 50 % annual maintenance fertilization of P and K; T4 - surface liming and corrective fertilization distributed over two years, and with 25 % annual maintenance fertilization of P and K; T5 - fallow soil, without liming or fertilization. In the rotation the crops black oat (Avena strigosa , soybean (Glycine max , common vetch (Vicia sativa , maize (Zea mays , fodder radish (Raphanus sativus , and black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris . The split application of lime and mineral fertilizer to the soil surface in a no-tillage system over three and five years, results in better control of soil losses than when split in two years. The increase in the amount of fertilizer applied to the soil surface under no-tillage cultivation increases phytomass production and reduces soil loss by water erosion. Water losses in treatments under no-tillage cultivation were low in all crop cycles, with a similar behavior as soil losses.

  19. Water balance and salt losses in competitive football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, Ronald J; Watson, Phillip; Evans, Gethin H; Broad, Nicholas; Shirreffs, Susan M

    2007-12-01

    Fluid balance and sweat electrolyte losses were measured in the players and substitutes engaged in an English Premier League Reserve competitive football match played at an ambient temperature of 6-8 degrees C (relative humidity 50-60%). Intake of water and/or sports drink and urine output were recorded, and sweat composition was estimated from absorbent swabs applied to 4 skin sites for the duration of the game. Body mass was recorded before and after the game. Data were obtained for 22 players (age 21 y, height 180 cm, mass 78 kg) and 9 substitutes (17 y, 181 cm, 72 kg). All were male. Two of the players were dismissed during the game, and none of the substitutes played any part in the game. Mean +/- SD sweat loss of players amounted to 1.68 +/- 0.40 L, and mean fluid intake was 0.84 +/- 0.47 L (n = 20), with no difference between teams. Corresponding values for substitutes, none of whom played in the match, were 0.40 +/- 0.24 L and 0.78 +/- 0.46 L (n = 9). Prematch urine osmolality was 678 +/- 344 mOsm/kg: 11 of the 31 players provided samples with an osmolality of more than 900 mOsm/kg. Sweat sodium concentration was 62 +/- 13 mmol/L, and total sweat sodium loss during the game was 2.4 +/- 0.8 g. These descriptive data show a large individual variability in hydration status, sweat losses, and drinking behaviors in a competitive football match played in a cool environment, highlighting the need for individualized assessment of hydration status to optimize fluid-replacement strategies.

  20. Detection of the Water Reservoir in a Forming Planetary System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogerheijde, Michiel R.; Bergin, Edwin A.; Brinch, Christian; Cleeves, L. Ilsedore; Fogel, Jeffrey K. J.; Blake, Geoffrey A.; Dominik, Carsten; Lis, Dariusz C.; Melnick, Gary; Neufeld, David; Panić, Olja; Pearson, John C.; Kristensen, Lars; Yıldız, Umut A.; van Dishoeck, Ewine F.

    2011-10-01

    Icy bodies may have delivered the oceans to the early Earth, yet little is known about water in the ice-dominated regions of extrasolar planet-forming disks. The Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared on board the Herschel Space Observatory has detected emission lines from both spin isomers of cold water vapor from the disk around the young star TW Hydrae. This water vapor likely originates from ice-coated solids near the disk surface, hinting at a water ice reservoir equivalent to several thousand Earth oceans in mass. The water’s ortho-to-para ratio falls well below that of solar system comets, suggesting that comets contain heterogeneous ice mixtures collected across the entire solar nebula during the early stages of planetary birth.

  1. Real-time dynamic hydraulic model for potable water loss reduction

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Abu-Mahfouz, Adnan M

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available South Africa is a water scarce country with limited water resources and steadily growing water demand. Unacceptably high water losses and non-revenue water threaten our water resource security as well as the financial viability of municipal water...

  2. Presbycusis phenotypes form a heterogeneous continuum when ordered by degree and configuration of hearing loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Paul D.; Eddins, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Many reports have documented age-by-frequency increases in average auditory thresholds in various human populations. Despite this, the prevalence of different patterns of hearing loss in presbycusis remains uncertain. We examined presbycusis phenotypes in a database of 960 subjects (552 female, 408 male, 18 to 92 yrs) that each had 30 measures of peripheral hearing sensitivity: pure tone audiograms for left and right ears from 0.25 kHz to 8 kHz and DPOAE for each ear with Fmean = 1 to 6.4 kHz. Surprisingly, the hearing phenotypes did not naturally separate into discrete classes of presbycusis. Principal component (PC) analysis revealed that two principal components account for 74 % of the variance among the 30 measures of hearing. The two components represent the overall degree (PC1) and configuration of loss (Flat vs. Sloping; PC2) and the phenotypes form a continuum when plotted against them. A heuristic partitioning of this continuum produced classes of presbycusis that vary in their degree of Sloping or Flat hearing loss, suggesting that the previously reported sub-types of presbycusis arise from the categorical segregation of a continuous and heterogeneous distribution. Further, most phenotypes lie intermediate to the extremes of either Flat or Sloping loss, indicating that if audiometric configuration does predict presbycusis etiology, then a mixed origin is the most prevalent. PMID:20144701

  3. Presbycusis phenotypes form a heterogeneous continuum when ordered by degree and configuration of hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Paul D; Eddins, David A

    2010-06-01

    Many reports have documented age-by-frequency increases in average auditory thresholds in various human populations. Despite this, the prevalence of different patterns of hearing loss in presbycusis remains uncertain. We examined 'presbycusis phenotypes' in a database of 960 subjects (552 female, 408 male, 18-92 years) that each had 30 measures of peripheral hearing sensitivity: pure tone audiograms for left and right ears from 0.25 to 8 kHz and DPOAE for each ear with F(mean)=1-6.4 kHz. Surprisingly, the hearing phenotypes did not naturally separate into discrete classes of presbycusis. Principal component (PC) analysis revealed that two principal components account for 74% of the variance among the 30 measures of hearing. The two components represent the overall degree (PC1) and configuration of loss (Flat vs. Sloping; PC2) and the phenotypes form a continuum when plotted against them. A heuristic partitioning of this continuum produced classes of presbycusis that vary in their degree of Sloping or Flat hearing loss, suggesting that the previously reported sub-types of presbycusis arise from the categorical segregation of a continuous and heterogeneous distribution. Further, most phenotypes lie intermediate to the extremes of either Flat or Sloping loss, indicating that if audiometric configuration does predict presbycusis etiology, then a mixed origin is the most prevalent. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The 2014 water release into the arid Colorado River delta and associated water losses by evaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daesslé, L.W., E-mail: walter@uabc.edu.mx [Instituto de Investigaciones Oceanológicas, Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, CarreteraTranspeninsular Tijuana-Ensenada No. 3917, Fraccionamiento Playitas, CP 22860 Ensenada, Baja California (Mexico); Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nuremberg (FAU), Department of Geography and Geosciences, GeoZentrum Nordbayern, Schlossgarten 5, 91054 Erlangen (Germany); Geldern, R. van [Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nuremberg (FAU), Department of Geography and Geosciences, GeoZentrum Nordbayern, Schlossgarten 5, 91054 Erlangen (Germany); Orozco-Durán, A. [Instituto de Investigaciones Oceanológicas, Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, CarreteraTranspeninsular Tijuana-Ensenada No. 3917, Fraccionamiento Playitas, CP 22860 Ensenada, Baja California (Mexico); Barth, J.A.C. [Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nuremberg (FAU), Department of Geography and Geosciences, GeoZentrum Nordbayern, Schlossgarten 5, 91054 Erlangen (Germany)

    2016-01-15

    For the first time in history, water was intentionally released for environmental purposes into the final, otherwise dry, 160-km stretch of the Colorado River basin, south of the Mexican border. Between March and May 2014 three pulses of water with a total volume of 132 × 10{sup 6} m{sup 3} were released to assess the restoration potential of endemic flora along its course and to reach its estuary. The latter had not received a sustained input of fresh water and nutrients from its main fluvial source for over 50 years because of numerous upstream dam constructions. During this pulse flow large amounts of water were lost and negligible amounts reached the ocean. While some of these water losses can be attributed to plant uptake and infiltration, we were able to quantify evaporation losses between 16.1 to 17.3% of the original water mass % within the first 80 km after the Morels Dam with water stable isotope data. Our results showed no evidence for freshwater reaching the upper Colorado River estuary and it is assumed that the pulse flow had only negligible influences on the coastal ecosystem. Future water releases that aim on ecological restoration need to become more frequent and should have larger volumes if more significant effects are to be established on the area. - Highlights: • Isotope ratios of oxygen and hydrogen quantify water lost through evaporation. • Evaporation losses between 16.1 and 17.3% during the 2014 Colorado River • Larger water volumes are required to influence the estuary ecosystem.

  5. Implications of biocrust removal on soil organic carbon losses by water erosion in a badlands area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamizo, Sonia; Raúl Román, José; Miralles, Isabel; Rodríguez-Caballero, Emilio; Cantón, Yolanda

    2015-04-01

    In arid and semiarid ecosystems, soils are characterized by having low organic carbon (OC) content and low fertility. In these systems, runoff, often generated in interplant soils, plays a crucial role in OC redistribution from source (interplant) areas to sink (vegetation) patches. Far from being bare, interplant soils in most arid and semiarid ecosystems are commonly covered by communities of cyanobacteria, algae, lichens and mosses, known as biocrusts, which may reach up to 80% of soil cover. Biocrusts fix atmospheric C and increase the soil OC pool by several folds respect bare soils. In addition, biocrusts form a film on the surface that strongly protects soils against water erosion and prevents from OC losses. However, the role of BSCs in reducing OC losses associated to runoff and erosion may depend on the type and development of biocrust. On the other hand, loss of BSCs provoked by frequent disturbances in arid and semiarid areas leads to an increase in runoff and erosion, which may have important effects on OC losses and nutrient impoverishment in interplant areas. Despite their recognized role, very few studies have explicitly evaluated OC losses from runoff and erosion in soils covered by different types of biocrusts and, more importantly, the effects of biocrust disturbance on OC losses. The aim of this study was to analyse the influence of two biocrust types (cyanobacteria and lichens) as well as of biocrust removal on dissolved and sediment OC losses, in a badlands site of southeastern Spain. Runoff and erosion after rain were measured in small field plots (1 m2) during one hydrological year and water samples collected for determination of dissolved OC and OC bonded to sediments. Our results showed that total OC losses decreased with biocrust development and that biocrust removal caused a dramatic increase in OC losses. The first rain after biocrust removal contributed the most to OC losses as runoff and, more noticeable, erosion greatly increased

  6. Reducing nitrate loss in tile drainage water with cover crops and water-table management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, C F; Tan, C S; Welacky, T W; Reynolds, W D; Zhang, T Q; Oloya, T O; McLaughlin, N B; Gaynor, J D

    2014-03-01

    Nitrate lost from agricultural soils is an economic cost to producers, an environmental concern when it enters rivers and lakes, and a health risk when it enters wells and aquifers used for drinking water. Planting a winter wheat cover crop (CC) and/or use of controlled tile drainage-subirrigation (CDS) may reduce losses of nitrate (NO) relative to no cover crop (NCC) and/or traditional unrestricted tile drainage (UTD). A 6-yr (1999-2005) corn-soybean study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of CC+CDS, CC+UTD, NCC+CDS, and NCC+UTD treatments for reducing NO loss. Flow volume and NO concentration in surface runoff and tile drainage were measured continuously, and CC reduced the 5-yr flow-weighted mean (FWM) NO concentration in tile drainage water by 21 to 38% and cumulative NO loss by 14 to 16% relative to NCC. Controlled tile drainage-subirrigation reduced FWM NO concentration by 15 to 33% and cumulative NO loss by 38 to 39% relative to UTD. When CC and CDS were combined, 5-yr cumulative FWM NO concentrations and loss in tile drainage were decreased by 47% (from 9.45 to 4.99 mg N L and from 102 to 53.6 kg N ha) relative to NCC+UTD. The reductions in runoff and concomitant increases in tile drainage under CC occurred primarily because of increases in near-surface soil hydraulic conductivity. Cover crops increased corn grain yields by 4 to 7% in 2004 increased 3-yr average soybean yields by 8 to 15%, whereas CDS did not affect corn or soybean yields over the 6 yr. The combined use of a cover crop and water-table management system was highly effective for reducing NO loss from cool, humid agricultural soils. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  7. 7 CFR 610.12 - Equations for predicting soil loss due to water erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equations for predicting soil loss due to water... ASSISTANCE Soil Erosion Prediction Equations § 610.12 Equations for predicting soil loss due to water erosion. (a) The equation for predicting soil loss due to erosion for both the USLE and the RUSLE is A = R × K...

  8. Soil tillage, water erosion, and calcium, magnesium and organic carbon losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertol Ildegardis

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil tillage influences water erosion, and consequently, losses of calcium, magnesium and organic carbon in surface runoff. Nutrients and organic carbon are transported by surface runoff in particulate form, adsorbed to soil colloids or soluble in water, depending on the soil tillage system. This study was carried out on an Inceptisol, representative of the Santa Catarina highlands, southern Brazil, between November 1999 and October 2001, under natural rainfall. The soil tillage treatments (no replications were: no-tillage (NT, minimum soil tillage with chiseling + disking (MT, and conventional soil tillage with plowing + two diskings (CT. The crop cycles sequence was soybean (Glycine max, oats (Avena sativa, beans (Phaseolus vulgaris and vetch (Vicia sativa. Conventional soil tillage treatment with plowing + two disking in the absence of crops (BS was also studied. Calcium and magnesium concentrations were determined in both water and sediments of the surface runoff, while organic carbon was measured only in sediments. Calcium and magnesium concentrations were greater in sediments than in surface runoff, while total losses of these elements were greater in surface runoff than in sediments. The greatest calcium and magnesium concentrations in surface runoff were obtained under CT, while in sediments the greatest concentration occurred under MT. Organic carbon concentration in sediments did not differ under the different soil tillage systems, and the greatest total loss was under CT system.

  9. Biomass decay rates and tissue nutrient loss in bloom and non-bloom-forming macroalgal species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conover, Jessie; Green, Lindsay A.; Thornber, Carol S.

    2016-09-01

    Macroalgal blooms occur in shallow, low-wave energy environments and are generally dominated by fast-growing ephemeral macroalgae. When macroalgal mats undergo senescence and decompose they can cause oxygen depletion and release nutrients into the surrounding water. There are relatively few studies that examine macroalgal decomposition rates in areas impacted by macroalgal blooms. Understanding the rate of macroalgal bloom decomposition is essential to understanding the impacts of macroalgal blooms following senescence. Here, we examined the biomass, organic content, nitrogen decay rates and δ15N values for five macroalgal species (the bloom-forming Agardhiella subulata, Gracilaria vermiculophylla, Ulva compressa, and Ulva rigida and the non-bloom-forming Fucus vesiculosus) in Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island, U.S.A. using a litterbag design. Bloom-forming macroalgae had similar biomass decay rates (0.34-0.51 k d-1) and decayed significantly faster than non-bloom-forming macroalgae (0.09 k d-1). Biomass decay rates also varied temporally, with a significant positive correlation between biomass decay rate and water temperature for U. rigida. Tissue organic content decreased over time in all species, although A. subulata and G. vermiculophylla displayed significantly higher rates of organic content decay than U. compressa, U. rigida, and F. vesiculosus. Agardhiella subulata had a significantly higher rate of tissue nitrogen decay (0.35 k d-1) than all other species. By contrast, only the δ15N of F. vesiculosus changed significantly over the decay period. Overall, our results indicate that bloom-forming macroalgal species decay more rapidly than non-bloom-forming species.

  10. Annuity as a form of compensation for future loss caused by torts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma Jožef

    2013-01-01

    annuity is an adequate form of compensation for disability or decreased ability to work, since in such case the future loss accrues successively, in monthly differences of wages before and after the injury. Contrarily, by the overall decrease of viability, causing mental suffering due to impossibility of accomplishing former capabilities (such as the sense of sight, disability of movement, annuity is not a proper form of compensation, since immaterial damage does not emerge periodically, but in a single moment and lasts uninterruptedly.

  11. Characterization of aluminum phosphate nanoparticles formed in a water well

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufhold, S.; Houben, G.; Dietel, J.; Bertmer, M.; Dohrmann, R.

    2016-09-01

    In a drinking water well in Nethen, Germany, a yellowish precipitate, dominated by aluminum and phosphorus, affected the operation of the submersible pump by mechanically blocking the impellers. So far, aluminum-dominated well incrustations have been documented in only two cases and their mineralogical characterization was insufficient. The aim of the present study is to (1) present a third finding of Al-incrustations in wells, (2) provide a mineralogical and geochemical in-depth characterization of the precipitate, and (3) try to explain the reason for the problems it causes for drinking water production from this well. The yellow precipitate consists of nanoparticle aggregates and is a short-range ordered phase that could be described as a modified form of evansite with phosphate being the major anion, accompanied by some sulfate and carbonate. Additionally, aggregation with hydrous silicates and organic material is present, which could be simply adsorbed or co-precipitated. The precipitate formed as shallow acidic groundwater containing dissolved aluminum entered the well through a leaky casing seal. In the well it mixed with deeper groundwater of higher pH, causing Al-phosphate precipitations. The aggregates tended to accumulate at the entrance slots of the pump which therefore became blocked and had to be replaced.

  12. Water in Star-Forming Regions with Herschel (WISH): overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Lars; van Dishoeck, Ewine

    Water is a key molecule for determining the physical and chemical structure of star-forming regions because of its large abundance variations, both in the gas and in the ice, between warm and cold regions. In this HIFI-led 429 hr Key Program, we are obtaining a comprehensive set of water observations toward a large sample of well-characterized protostars, covering a wide range of masses and luminosities -from the lowest to the highest mass protostars-, as well as evolutionary stages -from the first stages represented by pre-stellar cores to the later stages represented by the pre-main sequence stars surrounded only by their protoplanetary disks. Lines of H2O and its isotopologues, as well as chemically related hydrides, are observed. In addition, selected high-frequency lines of CO isotopes, [O I] and [C II] are obtained with HIFI and PACS, and are complemented by ground-based HDO, CO and dust continuum maps to ensure a self-consistent data set for analysis. Limited mapping information on a few arcmin scale provides information on local variations due to outflows and clustered star formation. Together, the data elucidate the physical processes responsible for the warm gas (passive heating, UV or X-ray-heating, shocks, disks), probe dynamical processes associated with forming stars and planets (outflow, infall, turbulence), reveal the chemical evolution of water and the oxygen-reservoir, and test basic gas-grain chemical interactions. By the time of the COSPAR meeting, about half of our program should have been observed. This talk will present an overview of the main highlights.

  13. Atmosphere and water loss from early Mars under extreme solar wind and extreme ultraviolet conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terada, Naoki; Kulikov, Yuri N; Lammer, Helmut; Lichtenegger, Herbert I M; Tanaka, Takashi; Shinagawa, Hiroyuki; Zhang, Tielong

    2009-01-01

    The upper limits of the ion pickup and cold ion outflow loss rates from the early martian atmosphere shortly after the Sun arrived at the Zero-Age-Main-Sequence (ZAMS) were investigated. We applied a comprehensive 3-D multi-species magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model to an early martian CO(2)-rich atmosphere, which was assumed to have been exposed to a solar XUV [X-ray and extreme ultraviolet (EUV)] flux that was 100 times higher than today and a solar wind that was about 300 times denser. We also assumed the late onset of a planetary magnetic dynamo, so that Mars had no strong intrinsic magnetic field at that early period. We found that, due to such extreme solar wind-atmosphere interaction, a strong magnetic field of about approximately 4000 nT was induced in the entire dayside ionosphere, which could efficiently protect the upper atmosphere from sputtering loss. A planetary obstacle ( approximately ionopause) was formed at an altitude of about 1000 km above the surface due to the drag force and the mass loading by newly created ions in the highly extended upper atmosphere. We obtained an O(+) loss rate by the ion pickup process, which takes place above the ionopause, of about 1.5 x 10(28) ions/s during the first water loss equivalent to a global martian ocean with a depth of approximately 8 m. Consequently, even if the magnetic protection due to the expected early martian magnetic dynamo is neglected, ion pickup and sputtering were most likely not the dominant loss processes for the planet's initial atmosphere and water inventory. However, it appears that the cold ion outflow into the martian tail, due to the transfer of momentum from the solar wind to the ionospheric plasma, could have removed a global ocean with a depth of 10-70 m during the first < or =150 million years after the Sun arrived at the ZAMS.

  14. Nutrient and Organic Carbon Losses, Enrichment Rate, and Cost of Water Erosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildegardis Bertol

    of nutrients in the form of triple superphosphate fertilizer, potassium chloride, and urea and limestone by water erosion was higher in CT than in NT. For triple superphosphate, the cost of erosion losses was 29 % higher in NT than in CT, while in urea and limestone, the effectiveness of NT in reducing costs was 65 and 50 %, respectively.

  15. Efeitos ambientais da produção de suínos ao ar livre: evolução e distribuição espacial das formas de P no solo e perdas de P na água de drenagem Environmental impact of outdoor pig production: soil P forms evolution spatial distribution and P losses in drainage waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmo Horta

    2012-06-01

    input may exceed soil retention capacity for phosphate and could lead to loss/transfer of P from soil to drainage or runoff waters, contributing to non point source pollution of superficial waters. The main objective of this work was to evaluate the impact of outdoor pig production on soil P levels, its spatial and temporal distribution and also P loss from this area to drainage waters. Experimental outdoor pig production area has 2.8 ha, slope between 5 and 30%, with an animal charge of 9 adults/ha. An increase in soil P, evaluated by the Olsen procedure (P-Ol, and in P inorganic (Pi and organic (Po can be observed. In winter there are important P losses by rainfall but it was observed also a global increase in soil P levels with time. P lost in drainage waters is correlated with soil P-Olsen or Pi. Levels of soil P-Olsen above 20 mg kg-1 exceed soil P adsorbing capacity causing a significant increase in P transfer to drainage waters. Better management practices and a better choice of an area with less erosion risk are important, in order to prevent eutrophication of water bodies.

  16. Water Loss Management: Tools and Methods for Developing Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mutikanga, H.E.

    2012-01-01

    Water utilities in developing countries are struggling to provide customers with a reliable level of service due to their peculiar water distribution characteristics including poorly zoned networks with irregular supply operating under restricted budgets. These unique conditions demand unique tools

  17. Water Loss Management : Tools and Methods for Developing Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mutikanga, H.E.

    2012-01-01

    Water utilities in developing countries are struggling to provide customers with a reliable level of service due to their peculiar water distribution characteristics including poorly zoned networks with irregular supply operating under restricted budgets. These unique conditions demand unique tools

  18. Soil loss and run-off measurements form natural veld with a rainfall ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Basal cover highly significantly related to soil loss (r2 = 0,69), but slope had no significant relationship to soil loss and run- off. Keywords: afrikaans; basal cover; erosion; grass cover; grasses; orange free state; rainfall; run-off; slope; soil erosion; soil loss; south africa. Journal of the Grassland Society of Southern Africa.

  19. Conidia of Penicillium rubens formed at low water activities can attract more water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Laarhoven, Karel A; Peeters, Loes H M; Bekker, Mirjam; Huinink, Hendrik P; Adan, Olaf C G

    2017-09-04

    To address the problem of indoor fungal growth, understanding the influence of moisture conditions on the fungal colonization process is crucial. This paper explores the influence of past moisture conditions on current processes. Specifically, it studies the growth and water sorption of conidia of Penicillium rubens formed at lower water activities (ranging from 0.86 to 0.99). For the first time, dynamic vapor sorption (DVS) is applied as a tool to quantify the water sorption of conidia as a function of the water activity at conidiation. Furthermore, growth experiments on agar and gypsum substrates are reported that relate hyphal growth rates of the mycelium from pretreated conidia to the water activity at conidiation. No effect of the conidiation water activity on mycelial growth rates is found on either gypsum or agar. It is found, however, that conidia formed at lower activities have a higher dry weight and attract more water from humid air. It is shown that both phenomena can be explained by conidia from lower activities carrying higher amounts of compatible solutes, glycerol in particular. The enhanced sorption observed in this study might constitute a mechanism through which solute reserves contribute to survival during the early steps of fungal colonization. © 2017 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Measurement of transepidermal water loss in Tanzanian cot-nursed neonates and its relation to postnatal weight loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijs, HFH; Massawe, AW; Okken, A; Coenraads, PJ; Muskiet, FAJ; Huisman, M; Boersma, ER

    In healthy cot-nursed Tanzanian neonates (n = 92, gestation 26-42 weeks) measurements of transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and weight change were performed during the first 24 h after birth at an average ambient humidity of 70% and an environmental temperature of 32 degrees C. Urine production on day

  1. Development and Validation of a Short-Form Adaptation of the Age-Related Vision Loss Scale: The AVL12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Amy; Reinhardt, Joann P.; Raykov, Tenko

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the development and evaluation of a short form of the 24-item Adaptation to Age-Related Vision Loss (AVL) scale. The evaluation provided evidence of the reliability and validity of the short form (the AVL12), for significant interindividual differences at the baseline and for individual-level change in AVL scores over time.…

  2. Design of runoff water harvesting systems and its role in minimizing water losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berliner, P.; Carmi, G.; Leake, S.; Agam, N.

    2016-12-01

    Precipitation is one of the major water sources for agricultural production in arid and semi-arid areas. Rainfalls are limited, erratic and not always coincide with the crop growing season. Only a part of the rain is absorbed by the soil. Soil evaporation is most severe in these regions and the large part of the absorbed water is lost to evaporation. The technique of collecting and conveying the runoff is known as runoff harvesting. Microcatchments are one of the primary techniques used for collecting, storing and conserving local surface runoff for growing trees/shrubs. In this system, runoff water is collected close-by the area in which it was generated, and trees/shrubs may utilize the water. The main objective of the present research was to estimate the effect of the design of the micro-catchment collection area (shallow basin and deep trench) has on the efficiency of the water conservation in the soil profile. The study was carried out during two years using regular micro-catchments (three replicates) with a surface area of 9 m2 (3 x 3 m) and a depth of 0.1 m and trenches (three replicates) with a surface area of 12 m2 (12 x 1 m) and 1 m depth. One and three olive trees were planted inside the trenches and micro-catchments, respectively. Access tubes for neutron probe were installed in micro-catchments and trenches (four and seven, respectively) to depths of 3m. Soil water content in the soil profile was monitored. Sap flow in trees was measured by PS-TDP8 Granier sap flow system every 0.5 hour and fluxes computed for the time intervals that correspond to the soil water measurements. The first year study included flooding trenches and regular micro-catchments once with the same amount of water (1.5 m3) and the second year study included flooding four times with 0.25 m3 each time. Flooding was followed by monitoring the water balance components and estimation of evaporation losses and water use efficiency by olive trees. Evaporation from trenches and regular

  3. A new gaseous and combustible form of water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santilli, Ruggero Maria [Institute for Basic Research, P.O. Box 1577, Palm Harbor, FL 34682 (United States)

    2006-08-15

    In this paper we present, apparently for the first time, various measurements on a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen called HHO gas produced via a new electrolyzer (international patents pending by Hydrogen Technologies Applications, Inc. of Clearwater, Florida), which mixture is distinctly different than the Brown and other known gases. The measurements herein reported suggest the existence in the HHO gas of stable clusters composed of H and O atoms, their dimers H-O, and their molecules H{sub 2}, O{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O whose bond cannot entirely be of valence type. Numerous anomalous experimental measurements on the HHO gas are reported in this paper for the first time. To reach their preliminary, yet plausible interpretation, we introduce the working hypothesis that the clusters constituting the HHO gas constitute another realization of a recently discovered new chemical species called for certain technical reasons magnecules as well as to distinguish them from the conventional 'molecules' [Santilli RM. Foundations of hadronic chemistry with applications to new clean energies and fuels. Boston, Dordrecht, London: Kluwer Academic Publisher; 2001]. It is indicated that the creation of the gaseous and combustible HHO from distilled water at atmospheric temperature and pressure occurs via a process structurally different than evaporation or separation, thus suggesting the existence of a new form of water, apparently introduced in this paper for the first time, with the structure (HxH)-O where 'x' represents the new magnecular bond and '-' the conventional molecular bond. The transition from the conventional H-O-H species to the new (HxH)-O species is predicted by a change of the electric polarization of water caused by the electrolyzer. When H-O-H is liquid, the new species (HxH)-O can only be gaseous, thus explaining the transition of state without evaporation or separation energy. Finally, the new species (HxH)-O is predicted to be

  4. Quantification of the types of water in Eudragit RLPO polymer and the kinetics of water loss using FTIR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pirayavaraporn, Chompak; Rades, Thomas; Gordon, Keith C

    2013-01-01

    . Using a curve fitting procedure, the water region (3100-3,700 cm(-1)) of the spectra was analyzed, and used to identify water present in differing environments in the polymer and to determine the water loss kinetics upon purging the sample with dry compressed air. It was found that four environments can...

  5. Heat Losses Evaluation for Domestic Hot Water Distribution Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodor Mateescu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In sanitary systems assembly, domestic hot water distribution supply networks represent an important weight for energetically balance.par This paper presents, in an analytical and graphical manner, the computational tools needed for domestic hot water piping system behavior characterization in different functional and structural assumptions.

  6. Stages in water loss in fruit and vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ita, A. Antonio; Flores, Georgina

    2017-01-01

    We analyzes the different stages in the dehydration of fruits and vegetables. It was found to vary from a lettuce: as a sharp drop at low temperature, (arround 150 °C) to five stages in total, with a loss almost continuous to about 300 ° C, such as grapefruit, papaya and fig. The first section in your paper.

  7. Economic Estimation of the Losses Caused by Surface Water Pollution Accidents in China From the Perspective of Water Bodies' Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hong; You, Zhen; Liu, Bo

    2016-01-22

    The number of surface water pollution accidents (abbreviated as SWPAs) has increased substantially in China in recent years. Estimation of economic losses due to SWPAs has been one of the focuses in China and is mentioned many times in the Environmental Protection Law of China promulgated in 2014. From the perspective of water bodies' functions, pollution accident damages can be divided into eight types: damage to human health, water supply suspension, fishery, recreational functions, biological diversity, environmental property loss, the accident's origin and other indirect losses. In the valuation of damage to people's life, the procedure for compensation of traffic accidents in China was used. The functional replacement cost method was used in economic estimation of the losses due to water supply suspension and loss of water's recreational functions. Damage to biological diversity was estimated by recovery cost analysis and damage to environmental property losses were calculated using pollutant removal costs. As a case study, using the proposed calculation procedure the economic losses caused by the major Songhuajiang River pollution accident that happened in China in 2005 have been estimated at 2263 billion CNY. The estimated economic losses for real accidents can sometimes be influenced by social and political factors, such as data authenticity and accuracy. Besides, one or more aspects in the method might be overestimated, underrated or even ignored. The proposed procedure may be used by decision makers for the economic estimation of losses in SWPAs. Estimates of the economic losses of pollution accidents could help quantify potential costs associated with increased risk sources along lakes/rivers but more importantly, highlight the value of clean water to society as a whole.

  8. The effects of water and non-nutritive sweetened beverages on weight loss during a 12-week weight loss treatment program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, John C; Wyatt, Holly R; Foster, Gary D; Pan, Zhaoxing; Wojtanowski, Alexis C; Vander Veur, Stephanie S; Herring, Sharon J; Brill, Carrie; Hill, James O

    2014-06-01

    To compare the efficacy of non-nutritive sweetened beverages (NNS) or water for weight loss during a 12-week behavioral weight loss treatment program. An equivalence trial design with water or NNS beverages as the main factor in a prospective randomized trial among 303 men and women was employed. All participants participated in a behavioral weight loss treatment program. The results of the weight loss phase (12 weeks) of an ongoing trial (1 year) that is also evaluating the effects of these two treatments on weight loss maintenance were reported. The two treatments were not equivalent with the NNS beverage treatment group losing significantly more weight compared to the water group (5.95 kg versus 4.09 kg; P water group during 12 weeks. These results show that water is not superior to NNS beverages for weight loss during a comprehensive behavioral weight loss program. Copyright © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  9. LOSS OF WATER IN PUBLIC BUILDINGS (ON THE EXAMPLE OF MGSU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov Evgeniy Vladimirovich

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Any public building is a consumer of water resources. A huge amount of clean drinking water is used for various needs especially in buildings where there are a large number of people, for example, institutions of higher education. It should be noted that today all buildings must meet requirements for water conservation. This is because a large amount of drinking water is wasted. The author considers the problems characteristic of public buildings, because of which losses of water in the inner water supply systems happen. The variants are offered how to reduce wasteful expenses by installing contactless water intake devices, wastewater intake as well as water-saving headers and waterless urinals. The use of polymer materials and copper pipelines during reconstruction of the system in order to reduce water losses is justified.

  10. Lipid composition and molecular interactions change with depth in the avian stratum corneum to regulate cutaneous water loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne, Alex M; Allen, Heather C; Williams, Joseph B

    2015-10-01

    The outermost 10-20 µm of the epidermis, the stratum corneum (SC), consists of flat, dead cells embedded in a matrix of intercellular lipids. These lipids regulate cutaneous water loss (CWL), which accounts for over half of total water loss in birds. However, the mechanisms by which lipids are able to regulate CWL and how these mechanisms change with depth in the SC are poorly understood. We used attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) to measure lipid-lipid and lipid-water interactions as a function of depth in the SC of house sparrows (Passer domesticus Linnaeus) in the winter and summer. We then compared these molecular interactions at each depth with lipid composition at the same depth. We found that in both groups, water content increased with depth in the SC, and likely contributed to greater numbers of gauche defects in lipids in deeper levels of the SC. In winter-caught birds, which had lower rates of CWL than summer-caught birds, water exhibited stronger hydrogen bonding in deeper layers of the SC, and these strong hydrogen bonds were associated with greater amounts of polar lipids such as ceramides and cerebrosides. Based on these data, we propose a model by which polar lipids in deep levels of the SC form strong hydrogen bonds with water molecules to increase the viscosity of water and slow the permeation of water through the SC. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  11. Economic Estimation of the Losses Caused by Surface Water Pollution Accidents in China From the Perspective of Water Bodies’ Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hong; You, Zhen; Liu, Bo

    2016-01-01

    The number of surface water pollution accidents (abbreviated as SWPAs) has increased substantially in China in recent years. Estimation of economic losses due to SWPAs has been one of the focuses in China and is mentioned many times in the Environmental Protection Law of China promulgated in 2014. From the perspective of water bodies’ functions, pollution accident damages can be divided into eight types: damage to human health, water supply suspension, fishery, recreational functions, biological diversity, environmental property loss, the accident’s origin and other indirect losses. In the valuation of damage to people’s life, the procedure for compensation of traffic accidents in China was used. The functional replacement cost method was used in economic estimation of the losses due to water supply suspension and loss of water’s recreational functions. Damage to biological diversity was estimated by recovery cost analysis and damage to environmental property losses were calculated using pollutant removal costs. As a case study, using the proposed calculation procedure the economic losses caused by the major Songhuajiang River pollution accident that happened in China in 2005 have been estimated at 2263 billion CNY. The estimated economic losses for real accidents can sometimes be influenced by social and political factors, such as data authenticity and accuracy. Besides, one or more aspects in the method might be overestimated, underrated or even ignored. The proposed procedure may be used by decision makers for the economic estimation of losses in SWPAs. Estimates of the economic losses of pollution accidents could help quantify potential costs associated with increased risk sources along lakes/rivers but more importantly, highlight the value of clean water to society as a whole. PMID:26805869

  12. Economic Estimation of the Losses Caused by Surface Water Pollution Accidents in China From the Perspective of Water Bodies’ Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Yao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of surface water pollution accidents (abbreviated as SWPAs has increased substantially in China in recent years. Estimation of economic losses due to SWPAs has been one of the focuses in China and is mentioned many times in the Environmental Protection Law of China promulgated in 2014. From the perspective of water bodies’ functions, pollution accident damages can be divided into eight types: damage to human health, water supply suspension, fishery, recreational functions, biological diversity, environmental property loss, the accident’s origin and other indirect losses. In the valuation of damage to people’s life, the procedure for compensation of traffic accidents in China was used. The functional replacement cost method was used in economic estimation of the losses due to water supply suspension and loss of water’s recreational functions. Damage to biological diversity was estimated by recovery cost analysis and damage to environmental property losses were calculated using pollutant removal costs. As a case study, using the proposed calculation procedure the economic losses caused by the major Songhuajiang River pollution accident that happened in China in 2005 have been estimated at 2263 billion CNY. The estimated economic losses for real accidents can sometimes be influenced by social and political factors, such as data authenticity and accuracy. Besides, one or more aspects in the method might be overestimated, underrated or even ignored. The proposed procedure may be used by decision makers for the economic estimation of losses in SWPAs. Estimates of the economic losses of pollution accidents could help quantify potential costs associated with increased risk sources along lakes/rivers but more importantly, highlight the value of clean water to society as a whole.

  13. Consumption and loss of potable water in the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallace Silva Carvalho

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Before the water problem that has taken place in Brazil and the need to reduce energy consumption in the country, it was thought the objective of this study was to evaluate the conditions of use and loss of potable water in the Baixada Fluminense, part of the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro (RMRJ, since it is the emergency waste reduction and the efficient and sustainable use of water. This exploratory study aims through a documentary approach, identify the number of water loss in the region. It proves that the loss in the region is more serious than in other states and that awareness campaigns should be implemented as local public policies. Also suggests that cleantech water use can be incorporated into the daily lives of homes and businesses enabling the reduction of water consumption.

  14. On the road to diploidization? Homoeolog loss in independently formed populations of the allopolyploid Tragopogon miscellus (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soltis Pamela S

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polyploidy (whole-genome duplication is an important speciation mechanism, particularly in plants. Gene loss, silencing, and the formation of novel gene complexes are some of the consequences that the new polyploid genome may experience. Despite the recurrent nature of polyploidy, little is known about the genomic outcome of independent polyploidization events. Here, we analyze the fate of genes duplicated by polyploidy (homoeologs in multiple individuals from ten natural populations of Tragopogon miscellus (Asteraceae, all of which formed independently from T. dubius and T. pratensis less than 80 years ago. Results Of the 13 loci analyzed in 84 T. miscellus individuals, 11 showed loss of at least one parental homoeolog in the young allopolyploids. Two loci were retained in duplicate for all polyploid individuals included in this study. Nearly half (48% of the individuals examined lost a homoeolog of at least one locus, with several individuals showing loss at more than one locus. Patterns of loss were stochastic among individuals from the independently formed populations, except that the T. dubius copy was lost twice as often as T. pratensis. Conclusion This study represents the most extensive survey of the fate of genes duplicated by allopolyploidy in individuals from natural populations. Our results indicate that the road to genome downsizing and ultimate genetic diploidization may occur quickly through homoeolog loss, but with some genes consistently maintained as duplicates. Other genes consistently show evidence of homoeolog loss, suggesting repetitive aspects to polyploid genome evolution.

  15. Relative specificities of water and ammonia losses from backbone fragments in collision-activated dissociation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savitski, Mikhail M; Kjeldsen, Frank; Nielsen, Michael L

    2007-01-01

    isotope of the water loss and the monoisotope of the ammonia loss to be distinguished. Contrary to a popular belief, water losses from y' ions are not specific enough to rely upon for detecting the presence of amino acids with oxygen in the side chains. At the same time, ammonia loss from b ions......Analysis of a database containing over 20,000 high-resolution collision-activation mass spectra of tryptic peptide dications was employed to study the relative specificity of neutral losses from backbone fragments. The high resolution of the FTMS instrument allowed for the first time the first...... is sufficiently specific (>95%) to detect the presence of amino acids Gln, Asn, His, Lys, and Arg. This feature will be useful for de novo algorithms for high-resolution MS data. Clear trends were observed when the effect of amino acids proximate to the cleavage site on the rate of loss formation was studied...

  16. Drainage water phosphorus losses in the great lakes basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    The great lakes are one of the most important fresh water resources on the planet. While forestry is a primary land use throughout much of the great lakes basin, there are portions of the basin, such as much of the land that drains directly to Lake Erie, that are primarily agricultural. The primary ...

  17. Metabolic rate and evaporative water loss of Mexican Spotted and Great Horned Owls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph L. Ganey; Russell P. Balda; Rudy M. King

    1993-01-01

    We measured rates of oxygen consumption and evaporative water loss (EWL) of Mexican Spotted (Strix occidentalis lucida) and Great Horned (Bubo virginianus) owls in Arizona. Basal metabolic rate averaged 0.84 ccO2. g-1. h-1...

  18. Drinking water is associated with weight loss in overweight dieting women independent of diet and activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stookey, Jodi D; Constant, Florence; Popkin, Barry M; Gardner, Christopher D

    2008-11-01

    Data from short-term experiments suggest that drinking water may promote weight loss by lowering total energy intake and/or altering metabolism. The long-term effects of drinking water on change in body weight and composition are unknown, however. This study tested for associations between absolute and relative increases in drinking water and weight loss over 12 months. Secondary analyses were conducted on data from the Stanford A TO Z weight loss intervention on 173 premenopausal overweight women (aged 25-50 years) who reported water at baseline. Diet, physical activity, body weight, percent body fat (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), and waist circumference were assessed at baseline, 2, 6, and 12 months. At each time point, mean daily intakes of drinking water, noncaloric, unsweetened caloric (e.g., 100% fruit juice, milk) and sweetened caloric beverages, and food energy and nutrients were estimated using three unannounced 24-h diet recalls. Beverage intake was expressed in absolute (g) and relative terms (% of beverages). Mixed models were used to test for effects of absolute and relative increases in drinking water on changes in weight and body composition, controlling for baseline status, diet group, and changes in other beverage intake, the amount and composition of foods consumed and physical activity. Absolute and relative increases in drinking water were associated with significant loss of body weight and fat over time, independent of covariates. The results suggest that drinking water may promote weight loss in overweight dieting women.

  19. The effect of method of handling and season on weight loss, water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to determine the influence of handling method and season on water holding capacity, weight loss, cooking loss and colour of retail beef. Four handling methods which corresponded to the commercial methods of handling retail meat were selected. They were beef sample kept uncovered on ...

  20. Is the evaporation water loss of Knot Calidris canutus higher in tropical than in temperate climates?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verboven, N.; Piersma, T.

    1995-01-01

    To test whether Knot Calidris canutus wintering in the tropics suffer higher rates of water loss through evaporation than do Knot wintering at temperate latitudes, we tried to develop a physically realistic model to predict evaporative heat loss from air temperature, wind and humidity. In separate

  1. Algae form brominated organic compounds in surface waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huetteroth, A.; Putschew, A.; Jekel, M. [Tech. Univ. Berlin (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    Monitoring of organic halogen compounds, measured as adsorbable organic bromine (AOBr) revealed seasonal high concentrations of organic bromine compounds in a surface water (Lake Tegel, Berlin, Germany). Usually, in late summer, concentrations are up to five times higher than during the rest of the year. The AOBr of the lake inflows (throughout the year less then 6 {mu}g/L) were always lower then those in the lake, which indicates a production of AOBr in the lake. A correlation of the AOBr and chlorophyll-a concentration (1) in the lake provides first evidence for the influence of phototrophic organisms. The knowledge of the natural production of organohalogens is relatively recent. Up to now there are more then 3800 identified natural organohalogen compounds that have been detected in marine plants, animals, and bacteria and also in terrestrial plants, fungi, lichen, bacteria, insects, some higher animals, and humans. Halogenated organic compounds are commonly considered to be of anthropogenic origin; derived from e.g. pharmaceuticals, herbicides, fungicides, insecticides, flame retardants, intermediates in organic synthesis and solvents. Additionally they are also produced as by-products during industrial processes and by waste water and drinking water disinfection. Organohalogen compounds may be toxic, persistent and/or carcinogenic. In order to understand the source and environmental relevance of naturally produced organobromine compounds in surface waters, the mechanism of the formation was investigated using batch tests with lake water and algae cultures.

  2. Buoyancy driven flow in a hot water tank due to standby heat loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Jianhua; Furbo, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Results of experimental and numerical investigations of thermal behavior in a vertical cylindrical hot water tank due to standby heat loss of the tank are presented. The effect of standby heat loss on temperature distribution in the tank is investigated experimentally on a slim 150l tank...... show that the CFD model predicts satisfactorily water temperatures at different levels of the tank during cooling by standby heat loss. It is elucidated how the downward buoyancy driven flow along the tank wall is established by the heat loss from the tank sides and how the natural convection flow...... with a height to diameter ratio of 5. A tank with uniform temperatures and with thermal stratification is studied. A detailed computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of the tank is developed to calculate the natural convection flow in the tank. The distribution of the heat loss coefficient for the different...

  3. Energy loss measurement of protons in liquid water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siiskonen, T; Peraejaervi, K; Turunen, J [STUK - Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, PO Box 14, FI-00881 Helsinki (Finland); Kettunen, H; Javanainen, A; Rossi, M; Trzaska, W H; Virtanen, A, E-mail: teemu.siiskonen@stuk.fi [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, PO Box 35, FI-40014, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    2011-04-21

    The proton stopping power of liquid water was, for the first time, measured in the energy range 4.7-15.2 MeV. The proton energies were determined by the time-of-flight transmission technique with the microchannel plate detectors, which were especially developed for timing applications. The results are compared to the literature values (from ICRU Report 49 (1993) and Janni's tabulation (1982 At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 27 147-339)) which are based on Bethe's formula and an agreement is found within the experimental uncertainty of 4.6%. Thus, earlier reported discrepancy between the experimental and literature stopping power values at lower energies was not observed at the energies considered in this experiment.

  4. Apparent losses due to domestic water meter under-registration in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    By combining these results with the average age of meters in South Africa, estimated from the National Water Demand Archive, it was possible to estimate the average meter under-registration due to meter aging. The study concluded that apparent losses due to water meter under-registration are around 5% of consumption ...

  5. Apparent losses due to domestic water meter under-registration in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-10-05

    Oct 5, 2015 ... By combining these results with the average age of meters in South Africa, estimated from the National Water Demand. Archive, it was possible to estimate the average meter under-registration due to meter aging. The study concluded that apparent losses due to water meter under-registration are around ...

  6. How Does Tree Density Affect Water Loss of Peatlands? A Mesocosm Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Limpens, J.; Holmgren, M.; Jacobs, C.M.J.; Zee, van der S.E.A.T.M.; Karofeld, E.; Berendse, F.

    2014-01-01

    Raised bogs have accumulated more atmospheric carbon than any other terrestrial ecosystem on Earth. Climate-induced expansion of trees and shrubs may turn these ecosystems from net carbon sinks into sources when associated with reduced water tables. Increasing water loss through tree

  7. Hyponatremia caused by excessive intake of water as a form of child abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min A Joo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte disorder that requires careful management. Water intoxication with hyponatremia is rare condition that originated from overhydration. Water intoxication, also known as dilutional hyponatremia, develops only because the intake of water exceeds the kidney's ability to eliminate water. Causes of this water intoxication include psychiatric disorder, forced water intake as a form of child abuse and iatrogenic infusion of excessive hypotonic fluid. We experienced and reported a case of symptomatic hyponatremia by forced water intake as a form of child abuse.

  8. Water in star-forming regions with Herschel (WISH) III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karska, A.; J. Herczeg, G.; F. van Dishoeck, E.

    2013-01-01

    . We also determine the spatial extent of the emission and investigate the underlying excitation conditions. Most of the protostars in our sample show strong atomic and molecular far-infrared emission. Water is detected in 17 objects, including 5 Class I sources. The high-excitation H2O line at 63...

  9. Water loss from terrestrial planets with CO{sub 2}-rich atmospheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wordsworth, R. D.; Pierrehumbert, R. T., E-mail: rwordsworth@uchicago.edu [Department of the Geophysical Sciences, University of Chicago, 60637 IL (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Water photolysis and hydrogen loss from the upper atmospheres of terrestrial planets is of fundamental importance to climate evolution but remains poorly understood in general. Here we present a range of calculations we performed to study the dependence of water loss rates from terrestrial planets on a range of atmospheric and external parameters. We show that CO{sub 2} can only cause significant water loss by increasing surface temperatures over a narrow range of conditions, with cooling of the middle and upper atmosphere acting as a bottleneck on escape in other circumstances. Around G-stars, efficient loss only occurs on planets with intermediate CO{sub 2} atmospheric partial pressures (0.1-1 bar) that receive a net flux close to the critical runaway greenhouse limit. Because G-star total luminosity increases with time but X-ray and ultraviolet/ultravoilet luminosity decreases, this places strong limits on water loss for planets like Earth. In contrast, for a CO{sub 2}-rich early Venus, diffusion limits on water loss are only important if clouds caused strong cooling, implying that scenarios where the planet never had surface liquid water are indeed plausible. Around M-stars, water loss is primarily a function of orbital distance, with planets that absorb less flux than ∼270 W m{sup –2} (global mean) unlikely to lose more than one Earth ocean of H{sub 2}O over their lifetimes unless they lose all their atmospheric N{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} early on. Because of the variability of H{sub 2}O delivery during accretion, our results suggest that many 'Earth-like' exoplanets in the habitable zone may have ocean-covered surfaces, stable CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O-rich atmospheres, and high mean surface temperatures.

  10. Thermal stratification in a hot water tank established by heat loss from the tank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Jianhua; Furbo, Simon

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents numerical investigations of thermal stratification in a vertical cylindrical hot water tank established by standby heat loss from the tank. The transient fluid flow and heat transfer in the tank during cooling caused by standby heat loss are calculated by means of validated...... computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models. The measured heat loss coefficient for the different parts of the tank is used as input to the CFD model. Parametric studies are carried out using the validated models to investigate the influence on thermal stratification of the tank by the downward flow...... the heat loss from the tank sides will be distributed at different levels of the tank at different thermal conditions. The results show that 20–55% of the side heat loss drops to layers below in the part of the tank without the presence of thermal stratification. A heat loss removal factor is introduced...

  11. Building America Case Study: Addressing Multifamily Piping Losses with Solar Hot Water, Davis, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-12-01

    Solar thermal water heating is most cost effective when applied to multifamily buildings and some states offer incentives or other inducements to install them. However, typical solar water heating designs do not allow the solar generated heat to be applied to recirculation losses, only to reduce the amount of gas or electric energy needed for hot water that is delivered to the fixtures. For good reasons, hot water that is recirculated through the building is returned to the water heater, not to the solar storage tank. The project described in this report investigated the effectiveness of using automatic valves to divert water that is normally returned through the recirculation piping to the gas or electric water heater instead to the solar storage tank. The valves can be controlled so that the flow is only diverted when the returning water is cooler than the water in the solar storage tank.

  12. Using Solar Hot Water to Address Piping Heat Losses in Multifamily Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springer, David [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States); Seitzler, Matt [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States); Backman, Christine [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States); Weitzel, Elizabeth [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Solar thermal water heating is most cost effective when applied to multifamily buildings and some states offer incentives or other inducements to install them. However, typical solar water heating designs do not allow the solar generated heat to be applied to recirculation losses, only to reduce the amount of gas or electric energy needed for hot water that is delivered to the fixtures. For good reasons, hot water that is recirculated through the building is returned to the water heater, not to the solar storage tank. The project described in this report investigated the effectiveness of using automatic valves to divert water that is normally returned through the recirculation piping to the gas or electric water heater instead to the solar storage tank. The valves can be controlled so that the flow is only diverted when the returning water is cooler than the water in the solar storage tank.

  13. Quantitative nanoscale water mapping in frozen-hydrated skin by low-loss electron energy-loss spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yakovlev, Sergey [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, NJ 07030 (United States); Misra, Manoj; Shi, Shanling [Unilever Research and Development, Trumbull, CT 06611 (United States); Firlar, Emre [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, NJ 07030 (United States); Libera, Matthew, E-mail: mlibera@stevens.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, NJ 07030 (United States)

    2010-06-15

    Spatially resolved low-loss electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) is a powerful method to quantitatively determine the water distribution in frozen-hydrated biological materials at high spatial resolution. However, hydrated tissue, particularly its hydrophilic protein-rich component, is very sensitive to electron radiation. This sensitivity has traditionally limited the achievable spatial resolution because of the relatively high noise associated with low-dose data acquisition. We show that the damage caused by high-dose data acquisition affects the accuracy of a multiple-least-squares (MLS) compositional analysis because of inaccuracies in the reference spectrum used to represent the protein. Higher spatial resolution combined with more accurate compositional analysis can be achieved if a reference spectrum is used that better represents the electron-beam-damaged protein component under frozen-hydrated conditions rather than one separately collected from dry protein under low-dose conditions. We thus introduce a method to extract the best-fitting protein reference spectrum from an experimental spectrum dataset. This method can be used when the MLS-fitting problem is sufficiently constrained so that the only unknown is the reference spectrum for the protein component. We apply this approach to map the distribution of water in cryo-sections obtained from frozen-hydrated tissue of porcine skin. The raw spectral data were collected at doses up to 10{sup 5} e/nm{sup 2} despite the fact that observable damage begins at doses as low as 10{sup 3} e/nm{sup 2}. The resulting spatial resolution of 10 nm is 5-10 times better than that in previous studies of frozen-hydrated tissue and is sufficient to resolve sub-cellular water fluctuations as well as the inter-cellular lipid-rich regions of skin where water-mediated processes are believed to play a significant role in the phenotype of keratinocytes in the stratum corneum.

  14. Spontaneous pregnancy loss in humans and exposure to arsenic in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Michael S; Fitzgerald, Edward F; Kim, Keewan; Neamtiu, Iulia; Gurzau, Eugen S

    2010-11-01

    Maternal exposure to high concentrations of inorganic arsenic (iAs) in naturally contaminated drinking groundwater sources has been associated with an increased risk for the spontaneous loss of clinically recognized pregnancies in several epidemiologic studies. Whereas a large worldwide population depends on drinking groundwater sources with high levels of iAs contamination, in quantities exceeding 10 parts per billion (ppb), an even larger population is likely to be exposed to mild-moderate drinking groundwater iAs contamination, in quantities loss in association with consumption of drinking water with mild-moderate iAs contamination; the vast majority of published studies of spontaneous loss addressed populations with substantial exposure. The aim of this review is to evaluate the published literature to assess the plausibility for a causal association between exposure to iAs-contaminated drinking water and the spontaneous loss of clinically recognized pregnancy. In spite of numerous methodologic limitations resulting from circumstance or design, a consistent pattern of increased risk for loss is suggested by the epidemiologic literature. Moreover, these study results are corroborated by a large number of experimental studies, albeit usually conducted at concentrations exceeding that to which humans are exposed via contaminated drinking water. In this review, we discuss sources of human iAs exposure, highlight several experimental studies pertinent to a possible causal link between iAs and spontaneous pregnancy loss in humans, and provide a critical review of published epidemiologic studies of pregnancy loss and drinking water iAs exposures, and their limitations. Based on a review of the published literature, we recommend the future conduct of a two-stage comprehensive prospective study of low-moderate iAs drinking water exposure and spontaneous pregnancy loss. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Water in star-forming regions with Herschel (WISH)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    E. Kristensen, L.; F. van Dishoeck, E.; A. Bergin, E.

    2012-01-01

    to inferred envelope and outflow properties and CO 3-2 emission. H2O emission is detected in all objects except one. The line profiles are complex and consist of several kinematic components. The profiles are typically dominated by a broad Gaussian emission feature, indicating that the bulk of the water...... emission arises in outflows, not the quiescent envelope. Several sources show multiple shock components in either emission or absorption, thus constraining the internal geometry of the system. Furthermore, the components include inverse P-Cygni profiles in 7 sources (6 Class 0, 1 Class I) indicative...

  16. Teachers and Peers as Communication Models to Teach Grammatical Forms to Preschoolers with Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richels, Corrin G.; Bobzien, Jonna L.; Schwartz, Kathryn S.; Raver, Sharon A.; Browning, Ellen L.; Hester, Peggy P.

    2016-01-01

    Structured input from both teachers and peers maximizes the opportunities for preschoolers to learn grammatical forms. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the effectiveness of using a teacher and a peer with typical hearing and language skills to model grammatically correct verbal responses to action "wh-" questions…

  17. Formation and survival of water vapor in the terrestrial planet-forming region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethell, Thomas; Bergin, Edwin

    2009-12-18

    Recent astronomical observations have revealed what may prove to be the ubiquity of water vapor during the early stages of planet formation. We present here a simple mechanism showing how water vapor forms in situ and is capable of shielding itself from molecule-destroying stellar radiation. The absorption of this radiation by water can control the thermodynamics of the terrestrial planet-forming zone. Similar to Earth's ozone layer, which shelters the chemistry of life, the water layer protects other water molecules and allows for a rich organic chemistry. The total abundance of water vapor in the natal habitable zone is equal to that of several thousand oceans.

  18. Giant subtidal stromatolites forming in normal salinity waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dill, R.F.; Shinn, E.A.; Jones, A.T.; Kelly, K.; Steinen, R.P.

    1986-01-01

    We report here the discovery of giant lithified subtidal columnar stromatolites (>2 m high) growing in 7-8 m of clear oceanic water in current-swept channels between the Exuma Islands on the eastern Bahama Bank. They grow by trapping ooid and pelletal carbonate sand and synsedimentary precipitation of carbonate cement within a field of giant megaripples. The discovery is important to geologists and biologists because similar organo-sedimentary structures built by a combination of cementation and the trapping of sediment by microbes were the dominant fossil types during the Precambrian. Stromatolites are thought to have been responsible for the production of free oxygen and thus the evolution of animal life1,2. Until the discovery of small lithified subtidal columnar stromatolites in the Bahamas3, the only subtidal marine examples known to be living while undergoing lithification were in the hypersaline waters of Hamelin Pool at Shark Bay, Western Australia4-7. Shark Bay stromatolites range from intertidal to the shallow subtidal with the larger columns reaching 1 m in height. The Shark Bay stromatolites have strongly influenced geological interpretation; by analogy, many ancient stromatolites have been considered to have grown in intertidal and/or hypersaline conditions8, although hypersalinity was not a necessity for growth during the Precambrian because grazing metazoan life had not then evolved. ?? 1986 Nature Publishing Group.

  19. Exposure to drinking water disinfection by-products and pregnancy loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savitz, David A; Singer, Philip C; Herring, Amy H; Hartmann, Katherine E; Weinberg, Howard S; Makarushka, Christina

    2006-12-01

    Previous research has suggested that exposure to elevated levels of drinking water disinfection by-products (DBPs) may cause pregnancy loss. In 2000-2004, the authors conducted a study in three US locations of varying DBP levels and evaluated 2,409 women in early pregnancy to assess their tap water DBP concentrations, water use, other risk factors, and pregnancy outcome. Tap water concentrations were measured in the distribution system weekly or biweekly. The authors considered DBP concentration and ingested amount and, for trihalomethanes only, bathing/showering and integrated exposure that included ingestion. On the basis of 258 pregnancy losses, they did not find an increased risk of pregnancy loss in relation to trihalomethane, haloacetic acid, or total organic halide concentrations; ingested amounts; or total exposure. In contrast to a previous study, pregnancy loss was not associated with high personal trihalomethane exposure (> or =75 micro g/liter and > or =5 glasses of water/day) (odds ratio = 1.1, 95% confidence interval: 0.7, 1.7). Sporadic elevations in risk were found across DBPs, most notably for ingested total organic halide (odds ratio = 1.5, 95% confidence interval: 1.0, 2.2 for the highest exposure quintile). These results provide some assurance that drinking water DBPs in the range commonly encountered in the United States do not affect fetal survival.

  20. Nutrient and Organic Carbon Losses, Enrichment Rate, and Cost of Water Erosion

    OpenAIRE

    Ildegardis Bertol; Rodrigo Vieira Luciano; Camilo Bertol; Bárbara Bagio

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Soil erosion from water causes loss of nutrients and organic carbon, enriches the environment outside the erosion site, and results in costs. The no-tillage system generates increased nutrient and C content in the topsoil and, although it controls erosion, it can produce a more enriched runoff than in the conventional tillage system. This study was conducted in a Humic Cambisol in natural rainfall from 1997 to 2012 to quantify the contents and total losses of nutrients and organic C ...

  1. Mycorrhizal fungi enhance plant nutrient acquisition and modulate nitrogen loss with variable water regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Timothy M; Jackson, Louise E; Cavagnaro, Timothy R

    2018-01-01

    Climate change will alter both the amount and pattern of precipitation and soil water availability, which will directly affect plant growth and nutrient acquisition, and potentially, ecosystem functions like nutrient cycling and losses as well. Given their role in facilitating plant nutrient acquisition and water stress resistance, arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi may modulate the effects of changing water availability on plants and ecosystem functions. The well-characterized mycorrhizal tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) genotype 76R (referred to as MYC+) and the mutant mycorrhiza-defective tomato genotype rmc were grown in microcosms in a glasshouse experiment manipulating both the pattern and amount of water supply in unsterilized field soil. Following 4 weeks of differing water regimes, we tested how AM fungi affected plant productivity and nutrient acquisition, short-term interception of a 15NH4+ pulse, and inorganic nitrogen (N) leaching from microcosms. AM fungi enhanced plant nutrient acquisition with both lower and more variable water availability, for instance increasing plant P uptake more with a pulsed water supply compared to a regular supply and increasing shoot N concentration more when lower water amounts were applied. Although uptake of the short-term 15NH4+ pulse was higher in rmc plants, possibly due to higher N demand, AM fungi subtly modulated NO3- leaching, decreasing losses by 54% at low and high water levels in the regular water regime, with small absolute amounts of NO3- leached (systems that are more resilient to these changes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Time course of cortisol loss in hair segments under immersion in hot water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jifeng; Xie, Qiaozhen; Gao, Wei; Xu, Youyun; Wang, Shuang; Deng, Huihua; Lu, Zuhong

    2012-02-18

    Hair cortisol is supposed to be a good biomarker of chronic stress. Major loss of hair cortisol in long-term exposure to environmental factors affected strongly its proper assessment of chronic stress in human. However, there was no research on time course of hair cortisol loss during the long-term exposure. Hair samples with longer than 1cm in the posterior vertex region were cut as close as possible to the scalp. The 1-cm hair samples were treated by ultraviolet irradiation or immersion in shampoo solution or water immersion at 40, 65 and 80°C. Hair cortisol content was determined with high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Ultraviolet irradiation and immersion in shampoo solution and hot water gave rise to the significant cortisol loss in hair. Hair cortisol content was sharply decreased with water immersion duration during initial stage and slowly decreased in the following stage. The 2-stage loss process with water immersion duration modeled to some extent time course of hair cortisol loss in long-term exposure to external environments. Cortisol from hair samples closest to the scalp in the posterior vertex could represent more accurately central hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal activity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Exposure to Tetrachloroethylene-Contaminated Drinking Water and the Risk of Pregnancy Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschengrau, Ann; Weinberg, Janice M; Gallagher, Lisa G; Winter, Michael R; Vieira, Veronica M; Webster, Thomas F; Ozonoff, David M

    2009-02-01

    There is little information on the impact of solvent-contaminated drinking water on pregnancy outcomes. This retrospective cohort study examined whether maternal exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE) - contaminated drinking water in the Cape Cod region of Massachusetts influenced the risk of clinically recognized pregnancy loss. The study identified exposed (n=959) and unexposed (1,087) women who completed a questionnaire on their residential and pregnancy histories, and confounding variables. Exposure was estimated using water distribution system modeling software. No meaningful associations were seen between PCE exposure level and the risk of clinically recognized pregnancy loss at the exposure levels experienced by the study population. Because PCE remains a common water contaminant, it is important to continue monitoring its impact on women and their pregnancies.

  4. Influences of coal mining water irrigation on the maize losses in the Xingdong Mine area, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuzhuang; Ling, Pei; Li, Yanheng; Li, Qingxue; Sun, Quande; Wang, Jinxi

    2014-02-01

    In 2008, a maize underproduction disaster occurred in the Xianyu village after irrigation using the coal mining water from the Xingdong Mine, China. This disaster resulted in about 40 hectare maize underproduction and 20 hectare total loss of the maize yields. In order to study the reason, a total of 25 soil, water and plant samples were taken from the study area. These samples were analysed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and ion chromatography. The results indicate that the contents of both water-soluble fluorine and total fluorine are very high and resulting of maize underproduction and total loss of production. The possible pollution sources of fluorine in the study area could be from the coal mine water used for irrigation and glass chemical factory near the study area.

  5. Water balance evaluation, leakage rate and total water loss of Koka ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water balance evaluation of Koka Reservoir was attempted by different authors, and different leakage rates were estimated. However, the water balance equation that the previous authors used does not take into account ground water inflow into the reservoir. Koka Reservoir is known to receive groundwater inflow from the ...

  6. A comparison of different methods for in-situ determination of heat losses form district heating pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, Benny [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Dept. of Energy Engineering (Denmark)

    1996-11-01

    A comparison of different methods for in-situ determination of heat losses has been carried out on a 273 mm transmission line in Copenhagen. Instrumentation includes temperature sensors, heat flux meters and an infrared camera. The methods differ with regard to time consumption and costs of applying the specific method, demand on accuracy of temperature measurements, sensitivity to computational parameters, e.g. the thermal conductivity of the soil, response to transients in water temperature and the ground, and steady state assumptions in the model used in the interpretation of the measurements. Several of the applied methods work well. (au)

  7. 77 FR 19740 - Water Sources for Long-Term Recirculation Cooling Following a Loss-of-Coolant Accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... COMMISSION Water Sources for Long-Term Recirculation Cooling Following a Loss-of-Coolant Accident AGENCY... Guide (RG) 1.82, ``Water Sources for Long- Term Recirculation Cooling Following a Loss-of-Coolant... Commission (NRC or the Commission) is issuing a revision to Regulatory Guide (RG) 1.82, ``Water Sources for...

  8. The effect of fibers on the loss of water by evaporation and shrinkage of concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. P. Pillar

    Full Text Available Shrinkage is one of the least desirable attributes in concrete. Large areas of exposed concrete surfaces , such as in shotcrete tunnel linings, where it is practically impossible to make a moist cure, are highly susceptible to plastic shrinkage at early ages. The autogenous and drying shrinkage can lead to states of greater than threshold strength, causing fracture, mechanical damage and lack of durability of concrete structures. The addition of fibers can greatly reduce plastic shrinkage, but has limited effect in mitigating autogenous and drying shrinkage. To evaluate the performance of polypropylene and steel fibers to understand their effect on shrinkage of concrete, a study was carried out to relate the loss of water from the paste and the shrinkage during the first 28 days of age, and compare it with a control mix without fiber. The loss of water was obtained by the weight loss of the specimens at different ages, since the only component that could contribute for the loss of weight was the water lost by the paste of the concrete. And the paste itself is the only source of shrinkage. Uniaxial compressive tests from very early ages enabled the determination of time when plastic shrinkage ended. It was observed that the control concrete mix lost three times more water and developed plastic and drying shrinkage 60 % higher than the fiber reinforced concrete mixes. It was possible to demonstrate that the reduced loss of water caused by the incorporation of fibers is related to the mitigation of plastic shrinkage. It was observed that the fibers are effective to restrain the movement of water through the cement paste in the plastic state, however such effect is limited after concrete starts the hardening state.

  9. Zinc corrosion after loss-of-coolant accidents in pressurized water reactors – Physicochemical effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kryk, Holger, E-mail: h.kryk@hzdr.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Fluid Dynamics, P.O. Box 510119, D-01314 Dresden (Germany); Hoffmann, Wolfgang [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Fluid Dynamics, P.O. Box 510119, D-01314 Dresden (Germany); Kästner, Wolfgang; Alt, Sören; Seeliger, André; Renger, Stefan [Hochschule Zittau/Görlitz, Institute of Process Technology, Process Automation and Measuring Technology, Theodor-Körner-Allee 16, D-02763 Zittau (Germany)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Physicochemical effects due to post-LOCA zinc corrosion in PWR were elucidated. • Decreasing solubility of corrosion products with increasing temperature was found. • Solid corrosion products may be deposited on hot surfaces and/or within hot-spots. • Corrosion products precipitating from coolant were identified as zinc borates. • Depending on coolant temperature, different types of zinc borate are formed. - Abstract: Within the framework of the reactor safety research, generic experimental investigations were carried out aiming at the physicochemical background of possible zinc corrosion product formation, which may occur inside the reactor pressure vessel during the sump circulation operation after loss-of-coolant accidents in pressurized water reactors. The contact of the boric acid containing coolant with hot-dip galvanized steel containment internals causes corrosion of the corresponding materials resulting in dissolution of the zinc coat. A retrograde solubility of zinc corrosion products with increasing temperature was observed during batch experiments of zinc corrosion in boric acid containing coolants. Thus, the formation and deposition of solid corrosion products cannot be ruled out if the coolant containing dissolved zinc is heated up during its recirculation into hot regions within the emergency cooling circuit (e.g. hot-spots in the core). Corrosion experiments at a lab-scale test facility, which included formation of corrosion products at a single heated cladding tube, proved that dissolved zinc, formed at low temperatures in boric acid solution by zinc corrosion, turns into solid deposits of zinc borates when contacting heated zircaloy surfaces during the heating of the coolant. Moreover, the temperature of formation influences the chemical composition of the zinc borates and thus the deposition and mobilization behavior of the products.

  10. Intensified water storage loss by biomass burning in Kalimantan: Detection by GRACE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jiancheng; Tangdamrongsub, Natthachet; Hwang, Cheinway; Abidin, Hasanuddin Z.

    2017-03-01

    Biomass burning is the principal tool for land clearing and a primary driver of land use change in Kalimantan (the Indonesian part of Borneo island). Biomass burning here has consumed millions of hectares of peatland and swamp forests. It also degrades air quality in Southeast Asia, perturbs the global carbon cycle, threatens ecosystem health and biodiversity, and potentially affects the global water cycle. Here we present the optimal estimate of water storage changes over Kalimantan from NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE). Over August 2002 to December 2014, our result shows a north-south dipole pattern in the long-term changes in terrestrial water storage (TWS) and groundwater storage (GWS). Both TWS and GWS increase in the northern part of Kalimantan, while they decrease in the southern part where fire events are the most severe. The loss rates in TWS and GWS in the southern part are 0.56 ± 0.11 cm yr-1 and 0.55 ± 0.10 cm yr-1, respectively. We use GRACE estimates, burned area, carbon emissions, and hydroclimatic data to study the relationship between biomass burning and water storage losses. The analysis shows that extensive biomass burning results in excessive evapotranspiration, which then increases long-term water storage losses in the fire-prone region of Kalimantan. Our results show the potentials of GRACE and its follow-on missions in assisting water storage and fire managements in a region with extensive biomass burning such as Kalimantan.

  11. Evaluation of Heat Loss and Water Temperature in a Spent Fuel Pit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagi, Chihiro; Murase, Michio; Yoshida, Yoshitaka; Iwaki, Takanori; Nagae, Takashi

    Three-dimensional calculations of ventilation air flow and thermal-hydraulic behavior in a spent fuel pit (SFP) were made using the CFD software, FLUENT6.3.26 to evaluate the heat loss and water temperature in the SFP after shutdown of its cooling systems. The air and water velocities near the water surface were evaluated from the calculated results and referred to conditions of evaporation heat transfer tests, which were carried out at Shinshu University. From the test data, a correlation for evaporation heat fluxes was introduced and incorporated into the calculation of thermal-hydraulic behavior in the SFP. Then, a three-dimensional calculation of thermal-hydraulic behavior in the SFP was done. It was confirmed that the higher the water temperature was, the larger the heat loss from water was, and that the major heat loss was the evaporation heat transfer from the water surface to ventilation air, which was about ten times larger than the heat transfer to concrete walls.

  12. Loss of catecholaminergic neuromodulation of persistent forms of hippocampal synaptic plasticity with increasing age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Twarkowski

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Neuromodulation by means of the catecholaminergic system is a key component of motivation-driven learning and behaviorally modulated hippocampal synaptic plasticity. In particular, dopamine acting on D1/D5 receptors and noradrenaline acting on beta-adrenergic receptors exert a very potent regulation of forms of hippocampal synaptic plasticity that last for very long-periods of time (>24h, and occur in conjunction with novel spatial learning. Antagonism of these receptors not only prevents long-term potentiation (LTP and long-term depression (LTD, but prevents the memory of the spatial event that, under normal circumstances, leads to the perpetuation of these plasticity forms. Spatial learning behavior that normally comes easily to rats, such as object-place learning and spatial reference learning, becomes increasingly impaired with aging. Middle-aged animals display aging-related deficits of specific, but not all, components of spatial learning, and one possibility is that this initial manifestation of decrements in learning ability that become manifest in middle-age relate to changes in motivation, attention and/or the regulation by neuromodulatory systems of these behavioral states.Here, we compared the regulation by dopaminergic D1/D5 and beta-adrenergic receptors of persistent LTP in young (2-4 month old and middle-aged (8-14 month old rats. We observed in young rats, that weak potentiation that typically lasts for ca. 2h could be strengthened into persistent (>24h LTP by pharmacological activation of either D1/D5 or beta-adrenergic receptors. By contrast, no such facilitation occurred in middle-aged rats. This difference was not related to an ostensible learning deficit: a facilitation of weak potentiation into LTP by spatial learning was possible both in young and middle-aged rats. It was also not directly linked to deficits in LTP: strong afferent stimulation resulted in equivalent LTP in both age groups. We postulate that this change in

  13. Fruit cuticle lipid composition and water loss in a diverse collection of pepper (capsicum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper (Capsicum spp.) fruits are covered by a relatively thick coating of cuticle that limits fruit water loss, a trait previously associated with maintenance of post-harvest fruit quality during commercial marketing. We’ve examined the fruit cuticles from 50 diverse pepper genotypes from a world c...

  14. Respiratory water loss during rest and flight in European Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engel, Sophia; Suthers, Roderick A.; Biebach, Herbert; Visser, G. Henk

    2006-01-01

    Respiratory water loss in Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) at rest and during flight at ambient temperatures (T-amb) between 6 and 25 degrees C was calculated from respiratory airflow and exhaled air temperature. At rest, breathing frequency f(1.4 +/- 0.3 Hz) and tidal volume V-t (1.9 +/- 0.4 ml) were

  15. Water loss in horticultural products. Modelling, data analysis and theoretical considerations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijskens, L.M.M.; Jacob, S.; Schouten, R.E.; Fernandez-Trujillo, J.P.; Dos-Santos, N.; Vangdal, E.; Pagan, E.; Perez Pastor, A.

    2010-01-01

    The water loss of individual fruit (melon, plum and mandarin) was analysed using the traditional diffusion based approach and a kinetic approach. Applying simple non linear regression, both approaches are the same, resulting in a quite acceptable analysis. However, by applying mixed effects non

  16. Lipid composition of the stratum corneum and cutaneous water loss in birds along an aridity gradient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Champagne, Alex M.; Munoz-Garcia, Agusti; Shtayyeh, Tamer; Tieleman, B. Irene; Hegemann, Arne; Clement, Michelle E.; Williams, Joseph B.

    2012-01-01

    Intercellular and covalently bound lipids within the stratum corneum (SC), the outermost layer of the epidermis, are the primary barrier to cutaneous water loss (CWL) in birds. We compared CWL and intercellular SC lipid composition in 20 species of birds from desert and mesic environments.

  17. Prediction of polymer tube life for solar hot water systems: A model of antioxidant loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mittelman, Gur; Davidson, Jane H.; Mantell, Susan C.; Su, Yan [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Minnesota, 111 Church St., S.E. Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2008-05-15

    The successful use of polymer components in solar hot water systems requires an understanding and method of predicting material degradation in water. The relevant degradation mechanism is oxidation. Degradation from oxidation can be delayed through the use of antioxidant additives. However, once the antioxidants have been depleted, oxidation of the polymer and subsequent loss of mechanical integrity occur rapidly. In this study, antioxidant loss from polymer tubes is modeled. Dimensional analysis and results of the model show the rate of antioxidant loss is controlled by diffusion through the polymer. The diffusion time scale is dictated by the tube wall thickness. Antioxidant concentration profiles and depletion rates are presented for three representative tube geometries and temperatures of 293 and 333 K. The time to deplete 90% of the antioxidant is on the order of 1000-10,000 h. (author)

  18. Thermal stratification in a hot water tank established by heat loss from the tank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Results of experimental and numerical investigations of thermal stratification and natural convection in a vertical cylindrical hot water tank during standby periods are presented. The transient fluid flow and heat transfer in the tank during cooling caused by heat loss are investigated...... on the natural buoyancy resulting in downward flow along the tank side walls due to heat loss of the tank and the influence on thermal stratification of the tank by the downward flow and the corresponding upward flow in the central parts of the tank. Water temperatures at different levels of the tank...... by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations and by thermal measurements. A tank with uniform temperatures and thermal stratification is studied. The distribution of the heat loss coefficient for the different parts of the tank is measured by tests and used as input to the CFD model. The investigations focus...

  19. Evaporative water loss in man in a gravity-free environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, C. S.; Leonard, J. I.; Rambaut, P. C.; Johnson, P. C.

    1978-01-01

    Daily evaporative water losses (EWL) during the three Skylab missions were measured indirectly using mass and water-balance techniques. The mean daily values of EWL for the nine crew members who averaged 1 hr of daily exercise were: preflight 1,750 + or - 37 (SE) ml or 970 + or - 20 ml/sq m and inflight 1,560 + or - 26 ml or 860 + or - 14 ml/sq m. Although it was expected the EWL would increase in the hypobaric environment of Skylab, an average decrease from preflight sea-level conditions of 11% was measured. The results suggest that weightlessness decreased sweat losses during exercise and possibly reduced insensible skin losses. The weightlessness environment apparently promotes the formation of an observed sweat film on the skin surface during exercise by reducing convective flow and sweat drippage, resulting in high levels of skin wettedness that favor sweat suppression.

  20. Thermal stratification in a hot water tank established by heat loss from the tank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Jianhua; Furbo, Simon

    2009-01-01

    Results of experimental and numerical investigations of thermal stratification and natural convection in a vertical cylindrical hot water tank during standby periods are presented. The transient fluid flow and heat transfer in the tank during cooling caused by heat loss are investigated...... on the natural buoyancy resulting in downward flow along the tank side walls due to heat loss of the tank and the influence on thermal stratification of the tank by the downward flow and the corresponding upward flow in the central parts of the tank. Water temperatures at different levels of the tank...... by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations and by thermal measurements. A tank with uniform temperatures and thermal stratification is studied. The distribution of the heat loss coefficient for the different parts of the tank is measured by tests and used as input to the CFD model. The investigations focus...

  1. The scaling of carbon dioxide release and respiratory water loss in flying fruit flies (Drosophila spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, F O; Dickinson, M H; Staunton, J

    2000-05-01

    By simultaneously measuring carbon dioxide release, water loss and flight force in several species of fruit flies in the genus Drosophila, we have investigated respiration and respiratory transpiration during elevated locomotor activity. We presented tethered flying flies with moving visual stimuli in a virtual flight arena, which induced them to vary both flight force and energetic output. In response to the visual motion, the flies altered their energetic output as measured by changes in carbon dioxide release and concomitant changes in respiratory water loss. We examined the effect of absolute body size on respiration and transpiration by studying four different-sized species of fruit flies. In resting flies, body-mass-specific CO(2) release and water loss tend to decrease more rapidly with size than predicted according to simple allometric relationships. During flight, the mass-specific metabolic rate decreases with increasing body size with an allometric exponent of -0.22, which is slightly lower than the scaling exponents found in other flying insects. In contrast, the mass-specific rate of water loss appears to be proportionately greater in small animals than can be explained by a simple allometric model for spiracular transpiration. Because fractional water content does not change significantly with increasing body size, the smallest species face not only larger mass-specific energetic expenditures during flight but also a higher risk of desiccation than their larger relatives. Fruit flies lower their desiccation risk by replenishing up to 75 % of the lost bulk water by metabolic water production, which significantly lowers the risk of desiccation for animals flying under xeric environmental conditions.

  2. Runoff and drainage losses of atrazine, metribuzin, and metolachlor in three water management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaynor, J D; Tan, C S; Drury, C F; Welacky, T W; Ng, H Y F; Reynolds, W D

    2002-01-01

    Rainfall can transport herbicides from agricultural land to surface waters, where they become an environmental concern. Tile drainage can benefit crop production by removing excess soil water but tile drainage may also aggravate herbicide and nutrient movement into surface waters. Water management of tile drains after planting may reduce tile drainage and thereby reduce herbicide losses to surface water. To test this hypothesis we calculated the loss of three herbicides from a field with three water management systems: free drainage (D), controlled drainage (CD), and controlled drainage with subsurface irrigation (CDS). The effect of water management systems on the dissipation of atrazine (6-chloro-N2-ethyl-N4-isopropyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine), metribuzin [4-amino-6-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-3-(methylthio)-1,2,4-triazine-5(4H)-one), and metolachlor [2-chloro-N-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)-N-(2-methoxy-1-methylethyl)acetamide] in soil was also monitored. Less herbicide was lost by surface runoff from the D and CD treatments than from CDS. The CDS treatment increased surface runoff, which transported more herbicide than that from D or CD treatments. In one year, the time for metribuzin residue to dissipate to half its initial value was shorter for CDS (33 d) than for D (43 d) and CD (46 d). The half-life of atrazine and metolachlor were not affected by water management. Controlled drainage with subsurface irrigation may increase herbicide loss through increased surface runoff when excessive rain is received soon after herbicide application. However, increasing soil water content in CDS may decrease herbicide persistence, resulting in less residual herbicide available for aqueous transport.

  3. Monitoring of water supply connections as an element to reduce apparent losses of water?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwoździej-Mazur, Joanna

    2017-11-01

    Measuring instruments are designed to measure a given physical value, to process the obtained information and forward it to the observer. They are designed to perform specific tasks in specific working conditions and meeting the envisaged requirements. The most important requirement to be met by measuring instruments, is to preserve the established metrological characteristics. The basic and most common instrument for measuring the volume of flowing water is the water meter. Selecting the right water meter in the operating conditions is not an easy issue. The problem has been further intensified by decrease of water consumption which began in the 90s of the twentieth century and continuing to the present day. As a result, there has changed the structure of water consumption in both the residential and industrial applications. In this situation, a right selection of the optimal water meter it is an important case. The article presents the results of research in the field of characteristic flows in the water supply connections in multi-family housing using modern monitoring systems. It has been presented the calculated inequality ratio of water consumption, which can be helpful when designing a plumbing systems. In addition, the structure of water consumption due to the typical flow ranges was determined.

  4. Soil nitrogen limitation does not impact nighttime water loss in Populus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Ava R; Donovan, Lisa A

    2010-01-01

    Nighttime transpirational water loss from C(3) trees occurs without carbon gain and is both common and substantial. However, the magnitude of this water loss varies and a better understanding of the environmental factors driving this variation is needed. We investigated the response of nighttime conductance (g(night)) and transpiration (E(night)) to soil nitrogen limitation. We used instantaneous gas exchange measurements in greenhouse studies of Populus angustifolia James (narrowleaf cottonwood) and Populus balsamifera L. spp. trichocarpa (Torr. & A. Gray ex Hook.) Brayshaw (black cottonwood). g(night) for sufficiently watered plants ranged from 0.045 to 0.308 mol m(-2) s(-1) for P. balsamifera and 0.037 to 0.188 mol m(-2) s(-1) for P. angustifolia, which was much larger than minimum leaf conductance (g(min); up to 0.005 mol m(-2) s(-1) in the dark). Long-term nitrogen limitation sufficient to substantially reduce biomass did not affect g(night) or E(night) when potentially confounding water stress effects were eliminated. We conclude that nighttime water loss from two Populus species is large and although it is under stomatal control is not regulated at night in response to soil nitrogen availability.

  5. Respiratory evaporative water loss during hovering and forward flight in hummingbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Donald R; Getsinger, Philip W; Tobalske, Bret W; Wethington, Susan M; Powers, Sean D; Warrick, Douglas R

    2012-02-01

    Hummingbirds represent an end point for small body size and water flux in vertebrates. We explored the role evaporative water loss (EWL) plays in management of their large water pool and its use in dissipating metabolic heat. We measured respiratory evaporative water loss (REWL) in hovering hummingbirds in the field (6 species) and over a range of speeds in a wind tunnel (1 species) using an open-circuit mask respirometry system. Hovering REWL during the active period was positively correlated with operative temperature (T(e)) likely due to some combination of an increase in the vapor-pressure deficit, increase in lung ventilation rate, and reduced importance of dry heat transfer at higher T(e). In rufous hummingbirds (Selasphorus rufus; 3.3g) REWL during forward flight at 6 and 10 m/s was less than half the value for hovering. The proportion of total dissipated heat (TDH) accounted for by REWL during hovering at T(e)> 40°C was bird species (<20%) so cutaneous evaporative water loss and dry heat transfer must contribute significantly to thermal balance in hummingbirds. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Influence of ionic strength on the viscosities and water loss of bentonite suspensions containing polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Viana Amorim

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A study was made of the influence of ionic strength (S on the apparent (AV and plastic (PV viscosities and water loss (WL of sodium bentonite suspension with polymers. Na-bentonite was dispersed in water (4.86% w/w of different ionic strengths (S = 0.0, 0.015, 0.030 and 0.045 M followed by the addition of polymer. Three polymer samples were studied, i.e., low viscosity carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC BV, polyanionic cellulose (PAC, and partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM. The results indicated that the presence of salts and increased salinity greatly influence the apparent and plastic viscosities and water loss of bentonite suspensions with polymer.

  7. Water balance and soil losses in an irrigated catchment under conservation tillage in Southern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cid, Patricio; Mateos, Luciano; Taguas, Encarnación V.; Gómez-Macpherson, Helena

    2013-04-01

    Conservation tillage based on permanent beds with crop-residue retention and controlled traffic has been recently introduced in irrigated annual crops in Southern Spain as one way to improve water infiltration, reduce soil losses, and save energy. The water balance and soil losses in water runoff have been monitored during 4 years in a 28-ha catchment within a production farm where this kind of soil conservation practice was established in 2004 for a maize-cotton-wheat rotation. The catchment average slope is 6 %. Soils are Typic Calcixerept and Typic Haploxerert. The water balance components that were measured include: applied irrigation water, rainfall, and runoff. Runoff was measured at the outlet of the catchment by means of a hydrological station that consisted of long-throated flume, ultrasonic water level sensor, automatic water sampler, data logger and transmission system, weather station, and ancillary equipment. We present here results from three hydrological seasons (October to September): 2009-10, 2010-11, and 2011-12. The first season the catchment was grown with wheat, thus the irrigation depth was small (25 mm); rainfall above average, 1103 mm; and the runoff coefficient was 26 %. In the season 2010-11, the catchment was grown with cotton, the irrigation depth was 503 mm, rainfall was 999 mm, and the seasonal runoff coefficient was 7 %. The last season, the crop was maize, rainfall was below average (368 mm), irrigation 590 mm, and the runoff coefficient as the previous year, 7 %. Soil losses were very small: 0.05, 1.26, and 1.33 t per ha and year, the first, second, and third monitored seasons, respectively. A simple water balance model allowed simulating evapotranspiration, deep percolation and runoff. The Curve Number for the catchment was calibrated using the balance model.

  8. RF Path and Absorption Loss Estimation for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks in Different Water Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Umair Mujtaba; Shaikh, Faisal Karim; Aziz, Zuneera; Shah, Syed M Zafi S; Sheikh, Adil A; Felemban, Emad; Qaisar, Saad Bin

    2016-06-16

    Underwater Wireless Sensor Network (UWSN) communication at high frequencies is extremely challenging. The intricacies presented by the underwater environment are far more compared to the terrestrial environment. The prime reason for such intricacies are the physical characteristics of the underwater environment that have a big impact on electromagnetic (EM) signals. Acoustics signals are by far the most preferred choice for underwater wireless communication. Because high frequency signals have the luxury of large bandwidth (BW) at shorter distances, high frequency EM signals cannot penetrate and propagate deep in underwater environments. The EM properties of water tend to resist their propagation and cause severe attenuation. Accordingly, there are two questions that need to be addressed for underwater environment, first what happens when high frequency EM signals operating at 2.4 GHz are used for communication, and second which factors affect the most to high frequency EM signals. To answer these questions, we present real-time experiments conducted at 2.4 GHz in terrestrial and underwater (fresh water) environments. The obtained results helped in studying the physical characteristics (i.e., EM properties, propagation and absorption loss) of underwater environments. It is observed that high frequency EM signals can propagate in fresh water at a shallow depth only and can be considered for a specific class of applications such as water sports. Furthermore, path loss, velocity of propagation, absorption loss and the rate of signal loss in different underwater environments are also calculated and presented in order to understand why EM signals cannot propagate in sea water and oceanic water environments. An optimal solk6ution for underwater communication in terms of coverage distance, bandwidth and nature of communication is presented, along with possible underwater applications of UWSNs at 2.4 GHz.

  9. Gas exchange patterns and water loss rates in the Table Mountain cockroach, Aptera fusca (Blattodea: Blaberidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenewald, Berlizé; Bazelet, Corinna S; Potter, C Paige; Terblanche, John S

    2013-10-15

    The importance of metabolic rate and/or spiracle modulation for saving respiratory water is contentious. One major explanation for gas exchange pattern variation in terrestrial insects is to effect a respiratory water loss (RWL) saving. To test this, we measured the rates of CO2 and H2O release ( and , respectively) in a previously unstudied, mesic cockroach, Aptera fusca, and compared gas exchange and water loss parameters among the major gas exchange patterns (continuous, cyclic, discontinuous gas exchange) at a range of temperatures. Mean , and per unit did not differ among the gas exchange patterns at all temperatures (P>0.09). There was no significant association between temperature and gas exchange pattern type (P=0.63). Percentage of RWL (relative to total water loss) was typically low (9.79±1.84%) and did not differ significantly among gas exchange patterns at 15°C (P=0.26). The method of estimation had a large impact on the percentage of RWL, and of the three techniques investigated (traditional, regression and hyperoxic switch), the traditional method generally performed best. In many respects, A. fusca has typical gas exchange for what might be expected from other insects studied to date (e.g. , , RWL and cuticular water loss). However, we found for A. fusca that expressed as a function of metabolic rate was significantly higher than the expected consensus relationship for insects, suggesting it is under considerable pressure to save water. Despite this, we found no consistent evidence supporting the conclusion that transitions in pattern type yield reductions in RWL in this mesic cockroach.

  10. RF Path and Absorption Loss Estimation for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks in Different Water Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umair Mujtaba Qureshi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Underwater Wireless Sensor Network (UWSN communication at high frequencies is extremely challenging. The intricacies presented by the underwater environment are far more compared to the terrestrial environment. The prime reason for such intricacies are the physical characteristics of the underwater environment that have a big impact on electromagnetic (EM signals. Acoustics signals are by far the most preferred choice for underwater wireless communication. Because high frequency signals have the luxury of large bandwidth (BW at shorter distances, high frequency EM signals cannot penetrate and propagate deep in underwater environments. The EM properties of water tend to resist their propagation and cause severe attenuation. Accordingly, there are two questions that need to be addressed for underwater environment, first what happens when high frequency EM signals operating at 2.4 GHz are used for communication, and second which factors affect the most to high frequency EM signals. To answer these questions, we present real-time experiments conducted at 2.4 GHz in terrestrial and underwater (fresh water environments. The obtained results helped in studying the physical characteristics (i.e., EM properties, propagation and absorption loss of underwater environments. It is observed that high frequency EM signals can propagate in fresh water at a shallow depth only and can be considered for a specific class of applications such as water sports. Furthermore, path loss, velocity of propagation, absorption loss and the rate of signal loss in different underwater environments are also calculated and presented in order to understand why EM signals cannot propagate in sea water and oceanic water environments. An optimal solk6ution for underwater communication in terms of coverage distance, bandwidth and nature of communication is presented, along with possible underwater applications of UWSNs at 2.4 GHz.

  11. Loss of deuterium in faecal solids and by sequestration in reindeer: effect on doubly labelled water studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geir Gotaas

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available An underlying assumption when estimating total energy expenditure (TEE using doubly labelled water (DLW is that the injected isotopes (lsO and 2H leave the body only in the form of CO, and H20. However, both isotopes have additional routes of loss. We quantified the loss of 2H (i attached to faecal solids and (ii by sequestration into newly synthesised fat in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus. Estimates of the errors caused by these processes were applied to data from DLW studies with reindeer in summer and in winter. Given the net rate of faecal dry matter output and lipid synthesis in the present study, ignoring both sources of error caused the TEE of reindeer to be underestimated by approximately 5% in winter and approximately 9% in summer. The separate effect of each source of error was evaluated in summer. If ignored, loss of 2H through sequestration alone caused TEE to be underestimated by approximately 3.7%. Similarly, if ignored, loss of 2H attached to faecal solids alone caused TEE to be underestimated by approximately 5.9%.

  12. Extreme water loss and abiotic O2 buildup on planets throughout the habitable zones of M dwarfs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luger, R; Barnes, R

    2015-02-01

    We show that terrestrial planets in the habitable zones of M dwarfs older than ∼1 Gyr could have been in runaway greenhouses for several hundred million years following their formation due to the star's extended pre-main sequence phase, provided they form with abundant surface water. Such prolonged runaway greenhouses can lead to planetary evolution divergent from that of Earth. During this early runaway phase, photolysis of water vapor and hydrogen/oxygen escape to space can lead to the loss of several Earth oceans of water from planets throughout the habitable zone, regardless of whether the escape is energy-limited or diffusion-limited. We find that the amount of water lost scales with the planet mass, since the diffusion-limited hydrogen escape flux is proportional to the planet surface gravity. In addition to undergoing potential desiccation, planets with inefficient oxygen sinks at the surface may build up hundreds to thousands of bar of abiotically produced O2, resulting in potential false positives for life. The amount of O2 that builds up also scales with the planet mass; we find that O2 builds up at a constant rate that is controlled by diffusion: ∼5 bar/Myr on Earth-mass planets and up to ∼25 bar/Myr on super-Earths. As a result, some recently discovered super-Earths in the habitable zone such as GJ 667Cc could have built up as many as 2000 bar of O2 due to the loss of up to 10 Earth oceans of water. The fate of a given planet strongly depends on the extreme ultraviolet flux, the duration of the runaway regime, the initial water content, and the rate at which oxygen is absorbed by the surface. In general, we find that the initial phase of high luminosity may compromise the habitability of many terrestrial planets orbiting low-mass stars.

  13. Response of water deficit regime and soil amelioration on evapotranspiration loss and water use efficiency of maize ( Zea mays l.) in subtropical northeastern Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwein, M. A.; Choudhury, B. U.; Chakraborty, D.; Kumar, M.; Das, A.; Rajkhowa, D. J.

    2017-05-01

    Rainfed maize production in the hilly ecosystem of Northeastern Himalayas often suffers from moisture and soil acidity induced abiotic stresses. The present study measured evapotranspiration loss (ETc) of maize crop under controlled condition (pot experiment) of water deficit (W25-25 % and W50-50 % of field capacity soil moistures) and well watered (W100 = 100 % of field capacity (FC)) regimes in strong acid soils (pH = 4.3) of the Northeastern Himalayan Region of India. The response of soil ameliorants (lime) and phosphorus (P) nutrition under differential water regimes on ETc losses and water use efficiency was also studied. The measured seasonal ETc loss varied from 124.3 to 270.9 mm across treatment combinations. Imposition of water deficit stress resulted in significant ( p < 0.05) reduction (by 33-50 %) of seasonal ETc losses but was at the cost of delay in tasseling to silking, 47-65 % reduction in dry matter accumulation (DMA), 12-22 days shortening of grain formation period, and complete kernel abortion. Liming @ 4 t ha-1 significantly ( p < 0.05) increased ETc losses and DMA across water regimes but the magnitude of increase was higher in severely water deficit (W25) regime. Unlike lime, P nutrition improved DMA only in well-watered regimes (W100) while seasonal ETc loss was unaffected. Vegetative stage (tillering to tasseling) contributed the maximum ETc losses while weekly crop ETc loss was estimated highest during 11th-14th week after sowing (coincided with blistering stage) and then declined. Water use efficiency estimated from dry matter produced per unit ETc losses and irrigation water used varied from 4.33 to 9.43 g dry matter kg-1 water and 4.21 to 8.56 g dry matter kg-1, respectively. Among the input factors (water, P, and lime), water regime most strongly influenced the ETc loss, growth duration, grain formation, and water use efficiency of maize.

  14. A new emission-based approach for regulation of N losses from agricultural areas to surface waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenstand Poulsen, Jane; Kronvang, Brian; Bering Ovesen, Niels; Piil, Kristoffer; Kolind Hvid, Søren

    2015-04-01

    measurements conducted. The selected catchments are subdivided into sub-catchments where weekly grab samples of stream water are taken and biweekly discharge measurements conducted for calculation of daily flows. The water samples are analysed for different N forms, allowing quantification of the total emission of N from the catchment or sub-catchment. Knowledge of point source discharges, background N losses and N retention in surface waters makes it possible to conduct a load apportionment for calculation of N emissions from agricultural fields. It is expected that the first results from the stream monitoring can give an overall picture of the spatial and temporal variability of the N loads within each catchment and between catchments and constitute a platform for evaluating the measurement setup.

  15. Cycle water chemistry based on film forming amines at power plants: evaluation of technical guidance documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyachenko, F. V.; Petrova, T. I.

    2017-11-01

    Efficiency and reliability of the equipment in fossil power plants as well as in combined cycle power plants depend on the corrosion processes and deposit formation in steam/water circuit. In order to decrease these processes different water chemistries are used. Today the great attention is being attracted to the application of film forming amines and film forming amine products. The International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam (IAPWS) consolidated the information from all over the World, and based on the research studies and operating experience of researchers and engineers from 21 countries, developed and authorized the Technical Guidance Document: “Application of Film Forming Amines in Fossil, Combined Cycle, and Biomass Power Plants” in 2016. This article describe Russian and International technical guidance documents for the cycle water chemistries based on film forming amines at fossil and combined cycle power plants.

  16. Leakage Detection and Estimation Algorithm for Loss Reduction in Water Piping Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazeem B. Adedeji

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Water loss through leaking pipes constitutes a major challenge to the operational service of water utilities. In recent years, increasing concern about the financial loss and environmental pollution caused by leaking pipes has been driving the development of efficient algorithms for detecting leakage in water piping networks. Water distribution networks (WDNs are disperse in nature with numerous number of nodes and branches. Consequently, identifying the segment(s of the network and the exact leaking pipelines connected to this segment(s where higher background leakage outflow occurs is a challenging task. Background leakage concerns the outflow from small cracks or deteriorated joints. In addition, because they are diffuse flow, they are not characterised by quick pressure drop and are not detectable by measuring instruments. Consequently, they go unreported for a long period of time posing a threat to water loss volume. Most of the existing research focuses on the detection and localisation of burst type leakages which are characterised by a sudden pressure drop. In this work, an algorithm for detecting and estimating background leakage in water distribution networks is presented. The algorithm integrates a leakage model into a classical WDN hydraulic model for solving the network leakage flows. The applicability of the developed algorithm is demonstrated on two different water networks. The results of the tested networks are discussed and the solutions obtained show the benefits of the proposed algorithm. A noteworthy evidence is that the algorithm permits the detection of critical segments or pipes of the network experiencing higher leakage outflow and indicates the probable pipes of the network where pressure control can be performed. However, the possible position of pressure control elements along such critical pipes will be addressed in future work.

  17. Surface water seal application to minimize volatilization loss of methyl isothiocyanate from soil columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Catherine R; Nelson, Shad D; Stratmann, Jerry E; Ajwa, Husein A

    2010-06-01

    Metam-sodium (MS, sodium methyldithiocarbamate) has been identified as a promising alternative chemical to replace methyl bromide (MeBr) in soil preplant fumigation. One degradation product of MS in soil is the volatile gas methyl isothiocyanate (MITC) which controls soilborne pests. Inconsistent results associated with MS usage indicate that there is a need to determine cultural practices that increase pest control efficacy. Sealing the soil surface with water after MS application may be a sound method to reduce volatilization loss of MITC from soils and increase the contact time necessary for MITC to control pests. The objective of this research was to develop a preliminary soil surface water application amount that would potentially inhibit the off-gassing rate of MITC. Off-gassing rate was consistently reduced with increasing water seal application. The application of a 2.5-3.8 cm water seal provided significantly lower (71-74% reduction in MITC volatilization) total fumigant loss compared with no water seal. The most favorable reduction in MITC off-gassing was observed in the 2.5 cm water seal. This suggests that volatilization of MITC-generating compounds can be highly suppressed using adequate surface irrigation following chemical application in this soil type (sandy clay loam), based on preliminary bench-scale soil column studies. .

  18. RAPID WATER LOSS CAN EXTEND THE LIFETIME OF PLANETARY HABITABILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kodama, Takanori; Abe, Yutaka [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Genda, Hidenori [Earth-Life Science Institute, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Zahnle, Kevin J., E-mail: koda@eps.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Space Science and Astrobiology Division, NASA Ames Research Center, California 94035 (United States)

    2015-10-20

    Two habitable planetary states are proposed: an aqua planet like the Earth and a land planet that has a small amount of water. Land planets keep liquid water under larger solar radiation compared to aqua planets. Water loss may change an aqua planet into a land planet, and the planet can remain habitable for a longer time than if it had remained an aqua planet. We calculate planetary evolution with hydrogen escape for different initial water inventories and different distances from the central star. We find that there are two conditions necessary to evolve an aqua planet into a land planet: the critical amount of water on the surface (M{sub ml}) consistent with a planet being a land planet, and the critical amount of water vapor in the atmosphere (M{sub cv}) that defines the onset of the runaway greenhouse state. We find that Earth-sized aqua planets with initial oceans <10% of the Earth's can evolve into land planets if M{sub cv} = 3 m in precipitable water and M{sub ml} = 5% of the Earth's ocean mass. Such planets can keep liquid water on their surface for another 2 Gyr. The initial amount of water and M{sub cv} are shown to be important dividing parameters of the planetary evolution path. Our results indicate that massive hydrogen escape could give a fresh start as another kind of habitable planet rather than the end of its habitability.

  19. The effects of water potential on some active forms of phosphorus in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Immobilization and mobilization reactions of soil phosphorus depend on biological properties of soil and these soil properties strongly depend on the soil water potential. The objective of this study was to test the effects of water potential on some active forms of soil P. A semiarid soil classified as Calcic Haploxerept was ...

  20. Water in low-mass star-forming regions with Herschel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, L. E.; Visser, R.; Van Dishoeck, E. F.

    2010-01-01

    "Water In Star-forming regions with Herschel" (WISH) is a key programme dedicated to studying the role of water and related species during the star-formation process and constraining the physical and chemical properties of young stellar objects. The Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared (HIF...

  1. Electron-induced hydrogen loss in uracil in a water cluster environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smyth, M.; Kohanoff, J. [Atomistic Simulation Centre, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Fabrikant, I. I., E-mail: ifabrikant1@unl.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588, USA and Department of Physical Sciences, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom)

    2014-05-14

    Low-energy electron-impact hydrogen loss due to dissociative electron attachment (DEA) to the uracil and thymine molecules in a water cluster environment is investigated theoretically. Only the A{sup ′}-resonance contribution, describing the near-threshold behavior of DEA, is incorporated. Calculations are based on the nonlocal complex potential theory and the multiple scattering theory, and are performed for a model target with basic properties of uracil and thymine, surrounded by five water molecules. The DEA cross section is strongly enhanced when the attaching molecule is embedded in a water cluster. This growth is due to two effects: the increase of the resonance lifetime and the negative shift in the resonance position due to interaction of the intermediate negative ion with the surrounding water molecules. A similar effect was earlier found in DEA to chlorofluorocarbons.

  2. STRATOSPHERIC TEMPERATURES AND WATER LOSS FROM MOIST GREENHOUSE ATMOSPHERES OF EARTH-LIKE PLANETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasting, James F.; Kopparapu, Ravi K. [Department of Geosciences, The Pennsylvania State University, State College, PA 16801 (United States); Chen, Howard, E-mail: jfk4@psu.edu, E-mail: hwchen@bu.edu [Department of Astronomy, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Ave., Boston, MA 02215 (United States)

    2015-11-01

    A radiative-convective climate model is used to calculate stratospheric temperatures and water vapor concentrations for ozone-free atmospheres warmer than that of modern Earth. Cold, dry stratospheres are predicted at low surface temperatures, in agreement with recent 3D calculations. However, at surface temperatures above 350 K, the stratosphere warms and water vapor becomes a major upper atmospheric constituent, allowing water to be lost by photodissociation and hydrogen escape. Hence, a moist greenhouse explanation for loss of water from Venus, or some exoplanet receiving a comparable amount of stellar radiation, remains a viable hypothesis. Temperatures in the upper parts of such atmospheres are well below those estimated for a gray atmosphere, and this factor should be taken into account when performing inverse climate calculations to determine habitable zone boundaries using 1D models.

  3. Electron-induced hydrogen loss in uracil in a water cluster environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, M; Kohanoff, J; Fabrikant, I I

    2014-05-14

    Low-energy electron-impact hydrogen loss due to dissociative electron attachment (DEA) to the uracil and thymine molecules in a water cluster environment is investigated theoretically. Only the A(')-resonance contribution, describing the near-threshold behavior of DEA, is incorporated. Calculations are based on the nonlocal complex potential theory and the multiple scattering theory, and are performed for a model target with basic properties of uracil and thymine, surrounded by five water molecules. The DEA cross section is strongly enhanced when the attaching molecule is embedded in a water cluster. This growth is due to two effects: the increase of the resonance lifetime and the negative shift in the resonance position due to interaction of the intermediate negative ion with the surrounding water molecules. A similar effect was earlier found in DEA to chlorofluorocarbons.

  4. Soil, water and nutrient losses by interrill erosion from green cane cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilka Rocha Vasconcelos da Silva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Interrill erosion occurs by the particle breakdown caused by raindrop impact, by particle transport in surface runoff, by dragging and suspension of particles disaggregated from the soil surface, thus removing organic matter and nutrients that are essential for agricultural production. Crop residues on the soil surface modify the characteristics of the runoff generated by rainfall and the consequent particle breakdown and sediment transport resulting from erosion. The objective of this study was to determine the minimum amount of mulch that must be maintained on the soil surface of a sugarcane plantation to reduce the soil, water and nutrient losses by decreasing interrill erosion. The study was conducted in Pradópolis, São Paulo State, in 0.5 x 1.0 m plots of an Oxisol, testing five treatments in four replications. The application rates were based on the crop residue production of the area of 1.4 kg m-2 (T1- no cane trash; T2-25 % of the cane trash; T3- 50 % trash; T4-75 % trash; T5-100 % sugarcane residues on the surface, and simulated rainfall was applied at an intensity of 65 mm h-1 for 60 min. Runoff samples were collected in plastic containers and soon after taken to the laboratory to quantify the losses of soil, water and nutrients. To minimize soil loss by interrill erosion, 75 % of the cane mulch must be maintained on the soil, to control water loss 50 % must be maintained and 25 % trash controls organic matter and nutrient losses. This information can contribute to optimize the use of this resource for soil conservation on the one hand and the production of clean energy in sugar and alcohol industries on the other.

  5. The scaling of carbon dioxide release and respiratory water loss in flying fruit flies (Drosophila spp.)

    OpenAIRE

    Lehmann, Fritz-Olaf; Dickinson, Michael H.; Staunton, Jocelyn

    2000-01-01

    By simultaneously measuring carbon dioxide release, water loss and flight force in several species of fruit flies in the genus Drosophila, we have investigated respiration and respiratory transpiration during elevated locomotor activity. We presented tethered flying flies with moving visual stimuli in a virtual flight arena, which induced them to vary both flight force and energetic output. In response to the visual motion, the flies altered their energetic output as measured by changes in ca...

  6. Transepidermal water loss in cats: comparison of three differently clipped sites to assess the influence of hair coat on transepidermal water loss values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momota, Yutaka; Shimada, Kenichiroh; Takami, Akina; Akaogi, Harumi; Takasaki, Mariko; Mimura, Kana; Azakami, Daigo; Ishioka, Katsumi; Nakamura, Yuka; Sako, Toshinori

    2013-08-01

    The measurement of transepidermal water loss (TEWL) is one of the parameters that can be used to assess skin barrier function. The variability and reliability of TEWL measurements in dogs have been controversial, and the hair coat has been considered as one of the factors that may cause variation of TEWL values. The aims of the study were to establish a suitable procedure for measuring feline TEWL, to evaluate the influence of hair coat on TEWL measurements and to assess variations of TEWL at different anatomical sites. Transepidermal water loss was measured using a closed-chamber evaporimeter, the VapoMeter(®). We compared three adjacent sites in the groin area of 10 clinically normal, domestic short hair cats. One site was unclipped, the second was trimmed with scissors and the third was shaved using electric clippers. Values of TEWL were obtained for 48 h after trimming with scissors and clippers. Five sites were clipped (upper back, lumbar back, lateral thigh, axillae and groin), and the TEWL was measured. The mean and SD of TEWL values of the clipper-trimmed site were the smallest, followed in order by the site trimmed with scissors and the unclipped site. The TEWL values were statistically constant in the clipper-trimmed site, while the values in the unclipped sites were not. There was no statistically significant difference in TEWL values between all of the anatomical sites except for the axillae. Hair clipping of sites with electric clippers is recommended for TEWL measurement in cats. © 2013 ESVD and ACVD.

  7. Nitrogen loss and oxygen paradox in full-scale biofiltration for drinking water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xin; Qi, Zhihua; Zhang, Xiaojian; Yu, Ping; Liu, Bo; Zhang, Limin; Fu, Liang

    2007-04-01

    The nitrogen loss and DO paradox in full-scale biofiltration for drinking water treatment and the possible pathway responsible for them were investigated. A highly contaminated source water was treated at Pinghu Surface Water Plant using four biofilters, which resulted in a steady removal of NH(4)(+)-N (2.67mg/L), a great DO consumption (8.86 mg/L) and an increase in the concentration of NO(3)(-)-N (1.77mg/L). The nitrogen and DO balances indicated that about 13 NH(4)(+)-N was lost and the actual DO consumption was about 30% lower than the theoretical DO demand if nitrification was regarded as the only pathway to remove NH(4)(+)-N. The analysis of correlation coefficients analysis between several factors and the nitrogen loss suggested that "Aerobic deammonification", the coupling of shortcut nitrification and the anaerobic ammonia oxidation (Anammox) in an aerobic environment, might be the most probable pathways to explain the occurrence of these phenomena. According to this mechanism, about 57% NH(4)(+)-N was removed through complete nitrification and about 21.5% NH(4)(+)-N was incompletely nitrified into NO(2)(-)-N. The latter then involved in Anammox as the electron acceptor with the remaining NH(4)(+)-N as the electron donor. Since the Anammox reaction is anaerobic, the nitrogen loss and DO paradox can be justified.

  8. Controlled Design of Functional Nano-Coatings: Reduction of Loss Mechanisms in Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsmann, Steve; Surace, Yuri; Trottmann, Matthias; Dilger, Stefan; Weidenkaff, Anke; Pokrant, Simone

    2016-05-18

    Efficient water splitting with photoelectrodes requires highly performing and stable photoactive materials. Since there is no material known which fulfills all these requirements because of various loss mechanisms, we present a strategy for efficiency enhancement of photoanodes via deposition of functional coatings in the nanometer range. Origins of performance losses in particle-based oxynitride photoanodes were identified and specifically designed coatings were deposited to address each loss mechanism individually. Amorphous TiO2 located at interparticle boundaries enables high electron conductivity. A thin layer of amorphous Ta2O5 can be used as protection layer for photoanodes because of its hole conductivity and thermal and chemical stability. An amorphous layer of NiOx and Co(OH)2 reduces photocorrosion or increases water oxidation kinetics because they act as a hole-capture material or water oxidation catalyst, respectively. Crystalline CoOx nanoparticles increase photocurrent and reduce the onset potential due to enhanced charge separation. The combination of all coatings deposited by a scalable, mild, and reproducible step-by-step approach leads to high-performance oxynitride-based photoanodes providing a maximum photocurrent of 2.52 mA/cm(2) at 1.23 VRHE under AM1.5G illumination.

  9. The effects of water and non‐nutritive sweetened beverages on weight loss and weight maintenance: A randomized clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Jimikaye; Cardel, Michelle; Wyatt, Holly R.; Foster, Gary D.; Pan, Zhaoxing; Wojtanowski, Alexis C.; Vander Veur, Stephanie S.; Herring, Sharon J.; Brill, Carrie; Hill, James O.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of water versus beverages sweetened with non‐nutritive sweeteners (NNS) on body weight in subjects enrolled in a year‐long behavioral weight loss treatment program. Methods The study used a randomized equivalence design with NNS or water beverages as the main factor in a trial among 303 weight‐stable people with overweight and obesity. All participants participated in a weight loss program plus assignment to consume 24 ounces (710 ml) of water or NNS beverages daily for 1 year. Results NNS and water treatments were non‐equivalent, with NNS treatment showing greater weight loss at the end of 1 year. At 1 year subjects receiving water had maintained a 2.45 ± 5.59 kg weight loss while those receiving NNS beverages maintained a loss of 6.21 ± 7.65 kg (P weight loss and maintenance during a 1‐year behavioral treatment program. NNS beverages were superior for weight loss and weight maintenance in a population consisting of regular users of NNS beverages who either maintained or discontinued consumption of these beverages and consumed water during a structured weight loss program. These results suggest that NNS beverages can be an effective tool for weight loss and maintenance within the context of a weight management program. PMID:26708700

  10. WISHes coming true: water in low-mass star-forming regions with Herschel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, L. E.; Visser, R.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Yıldız, U. A.; Herczeg, G. J.; Doty, S.; Jørgensen, J. K.; van Kempen, T. A.; Brinch, C.; Wampfler, S.; Bruderer, S.; Benz, A. O.

    2011-11-01

    Water is a key molecule for tracing physical and chemical processes in star-forming regions. The key program "Water in star-forming regions with Herschel" is observing several water transitions towards low-mass protostars with HIFI. Results regarding the 557 GHz transition of water are reported here showing that the line is surprisingly broad, and consists of several different velocity components. The bulk of the emission comes from shocks, where the abundance is increased by several orders of magnitude to ~10-4. The abundance of water in the outer envelope is determined to ~10-8, whereas only an upper limit of 10-5 is derived for the inner, warm envelope.

  11. Effect of Ventilated Caging on Water Intake and Loss in 4 Strains of Laboratory Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaus, Mackenzie L; Bergdall, Valerie K; Davis, Ian C; Hickman-Davis, Judy M

    2016-01-01

    Food availability, temperature, humidity, strain, and caging type all affect water consumption by mice. Measurement of transepidermal water loss (TEWL) is a new technique for the quantification of water turnover in mice. To understand water turnover in common strains of adult mice, male and female SCID, SKH, C57BL/6, and FVB mice were housed in same-sex groups of 5 animals in static cages or IVC. Body weight, TEWL, urine osmolality, and water consumption of mice and intracage temperature and humidity were measured every 48 h for comparison. Static cages were monitored for 7 d and IVC for 14 d before cage change. Female SCID, FVB, and C57 mice drank less water than did their male counterparts. Male and female SCID, SKH, and FVB mice in IVC drank less water and had higher urine osmolality than did those in static cages. In SCID and SKH mice, TEWL paralleled water consumption. C57 mice in static cages drank less water, had lower urine osmolality, and had less TEWL than did those in IVC. Temperature and humidity within the cage was higher than the macroenvironmental levels for all housing conditions, mouse strains, and sexes. Temperatures within IVC ranged from 76.6 to 81.4 °F compared with 69±0.4 °F in the room. Humidity within IVC ranged from 68% to 79% compared with 27.o%±2.7% within the room. These data demonstrate that mouse strain and housing conditions significantly influence water balance and indicate that macroenvironmental measurements do not always reflect the intracage environment.

  12. Transfer, loss and physical processing of water in hit-and-run collisions of planetary embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, C.; Maindl, T. I.; Schäfer, C. M.

    2018-01-01

    Collisions between large, similar-sized bodies are believed to shape the final characteristics and composition of terrestrial planets. Their inventories of volatiles such as water are either delivered or at least significantly modified by such events. Besides the transition from accretion to erosion with increasing impact velocity, similar-sized collisions can also result in hit-and-run outcomes for sufficiently oblique impact angles and large enough projectile-to-target mass ratios. We study volatile transfer and loss focusing on hit-and-run encounters by means of smooth particle hydrodynamics simulations, including all main parameters: impact velocity, impact angle, mass ratio and also the total colliding mass. We find a broad range of overall water losses, up to 75% in the most energetic hit-and-run events, and confirm the much more severe consequences for the smaller body also for stripping of volatile layers. Transfer of water between projectile and target inventories is found to be mostly rather inefficient, and final water contents are dominated by pre-collision inventories reduced by impact losses, for similar pre-collision water mass fractions. Comparison with our numerical results shows that current collision outcome models are not accurate enough to reliably predict these composition changes in hit-and-run events. To also account for non-mechanical losses, we estimate the amount of collisionally vaporized water over a broad range of masses and find that these contributions are particularly important in collisions of ˜ Mars-sized bodies, with sufficiently high impact energies, but still relatively low gravity. Our results clearly indicate that the cumulative effect of several (hit-and-run) collisions can efficiently strip protoplanets of their volatile layers, especially the smaller body, as it might be common, e.g., for Earth-mass planets in systems with Super-Earths. An accurate model for stripping of volatiles that can be included in future planet

  13. Balancing Water Uptake and Loss through the Coordinated Regulation of Stomatal and Root Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepworth, Christopher; Turner, Carla; Landim, Marcela Guimaraes; Cameron, Duncan; Gray, Julie E.

    2016-01-01

    Root development is influenced by nutrient and water availabilities. Plants are able to adjust many attributes of their root in response to environmental signals including the size and shape of the primary root, lateral roots and root hairs. Here we investigated the response of roots to changes in the levels of leaf transpiration associated with altered stomatal frequency. We found that plants with high stomatal density and conductance produce a larger rooting area and as a result have enhanced phosphate uptake capacity whereas plants with low stomatal conductance produce a smaller root. Manipulating the growth environment of plants indicated that enhanced root growth is most likely a result of an increased demand for water rather than phosphate. Plants manipulated to have an increase or reduction in root hair growth show a reduction or increase respectively, in stomatal conductance and density. Our results demonstrate that plants can balance their water uptake and loss through coordinated regulation of both stomatal and root development. PMID:27275842

  14. Rheological properties of methane hydrate slurries formed from AOT + water + oil microemulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Eric B; Koh, Carolyn A; Liberatore, Matthew W

    2013-09-03

    The in situ formation and flow properties of methane hydrates formed from water-in-oil microemulsions composed of water, dodecane, and aerosol OT surfactant (AOT) were studied using a unique high pressure rheometer. AOT microemulsions have high stability (order of months), well-characterized composition, and yield reproducible results compared to hydrate studies in water-in-crude oil emulsions. Viscosity increases on the order of minutes upon hydrate formation, and then decreases on the order of hours. If significant unconverted water remained after the initial formation event, then viscosity increases for a time as methane slowly dissolves and converts additional water to hydrate. In addition to transient formation measurements, yield stresses and flow curves are measured for a set of experimental conditions. Hydrate slurry viscosity and yield stress increase with increasing water volume fraction, increasing initial pressure, decreasing temperature, and decreasing formation shear rate.

  15. A functional cutin matrix is required for plant protection against water loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guoxiong; Komatsuda, Takao; Ma, Jian Feng; Li, Chao; Yamaji, Naoki; Nevo, Eviatar

    2011-09-01

    The plant cuticle, a cutin matrix embedded with and covered by wax, seals the aerial organ's surface to protect the plant against uncontrolled water loss. The cutin matrix is essential for the cuticle to function as a barrier to water loss. Recently, we identified from wild barley a drought supersensitive mutant, eibi1, which is caused by a defective cutin matrix as the result of the loss of function of HvABCG31, an ABCG full transporter. Here, we report that eibi1 epidermal cells contain lipid-like droplets, which are supposed to consist of cutin monomers that have not been transported out of the cells. The eibi1 cuticle is fragile due to a defective cutin matrix. The rice ortholog of the EIBI1 gene has a similar pattern of expression, young shoot but not flag leaf blade, as the barley gene. The model of the function of Eibi1 is discussed. The HvABCG31 full transporter functions in the export of cutin components and contributed to land plant colonization, hence also to terrestrial life evolution.

  16. Soy Protein Isolate As Fluid Loss Additive in Bentonite-Water-Based Drilling Fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mei-Chun; Wu, Qinglin; Song, Kunlin; Lee, Sunyoung; Jin, Chunde; Ren, Suxia; Lei, Tingzhou

    2015-11-11

    Wellbore instability and formation collapse caused by lost circulation are vital issues during well excavation in the oil industry. This study reports the novel utilization of soy protein isolate (SPI) as fluid loss additive in bentonite-water based drilling fluids (BT-WDFs) and describes how its particle size and concentration influence on the filtration property of SPI/BT-WDFs. It was found that high pressure homogenization (HPH)-treated SPI had superior filtration property over that of native SPI due to the improved ability for the plugging pore throat. HPH treatment also caused a significant change in the surface characteristic of SPI, leading to a considerable surface interaction with BT in aqueous solution. The concentration of SPI had a significant impact on the dispersion state of SPI/BT mixtures in aquesous solution. At low SPI concentrations, strong aggregations were created, resulting in the formation of thick, loose, high-porosity and high-permeability filter cakes and high fluid loss. At high SPI concentrations, intercatlated/exfoliated structures were generated, resulting in the formation of thin, compact, low-porosity and low-permeability filter cakes and low fluid loss. The SPI/BT-WDFs exhibited superior filtration property than pure BT-WDFs at the same solid concentraion, demonstrating the potential utilization of SPI as an effective, renewable, and biodegradable fluid loss reducer in well excavation applications.

  17. Modeling of Possible Conditions for Origin of First Organic Forms in hot Mineral Water

    OpenAIRE

    Ignat Ignatov; Oleg Mosin

    2014-01-01

    The composition of water, its temperature and pH value was analyzed in experiments with modelling of primary hydrosphere and possible conditions for origin of first organic forms in hot mineral water. For this aim the authors performed experiments with hot mineral and seawater from Bulgaria by IR-spectrometry (DNES-method). As model systems were used cactus juice of Echinopsis pachanoi and Mediterranean jellyfish Cotylorhiza tuberculata. It was considered the reactions of condensation and deh...

  18. PREFACE: Dynamic crossover phenomena in water and other glass-forming liquids Dynamic crossover phenomena in water and other glass-forming liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sow-Hsin; Baglioni, Piero

    2012-02-01

    This special section has been inspired by the workshop on Dynamic Crossover Phenomena in Water and Other Glass-Forming Liquids, held during November 11-13, 2010 at Pensione Bencistà, Fiesole, Italy, a well-preserved 14th century Italian villa tucked high in the hills overlooking Florence. The meeting, an assembly of world renowned scientists, was organized as a special occasion to celebrate the 75th birthday of Professor Sow-Hsin Chen of MIT, a pioneer in several aspects of complex fluids and soft matter physics. The workshop covered a large variety of experimental and theoretical research topics of current interest related to dynamic crossover phenomena in water and, more generally, in other glass-forming liquids. The 30 invited speakers/lecturers and approximately 60 participants were a select group of prominent physicists and chemists from the USA, Europe, Asia and Mexico, who are actively working in the field. Some highlights of this special issue include the following works. Professor Yamaguchi's group and their collaborators present a neutron spin echo study of the coherent intermediate scattering function of heavy water confined in cylindrical pores of MCM-41-C10 silica material in the temperature range 190-298 K. They clearly show that a fragile-to-strong (FTS) dynamic crossover occurs at about 225 K. They attribute the FTS dynamic crossover to the formation of a tetrahedral-like structure, which is preserved in the bulk-like water confined to the central part of the cylindrical pores. Mamontov and Kolesnikov et al study the collective excitations in an aqueous solution of lithium chloride over a temperature range of 205-270 K using neutron and x-ray Rayleigh-Brillouin (coherent) scattering. They detect both the low-frequency and the high-frequency sounds known to exist in pure bulk water above the melting temperature. They also perform neutron (incoherent) and x-ray (coherent) elastic intensity scan measurements. Clear evidence of the crossover in the

  19. Water in low-mass star-forming regions with Herschel: HIFI spectroscopy of NGC 1333

    OpenAIRE

    Kristensen, L. E.; Dominik, C.; Whyborn, N.

    2010-01-01

    Water In Star-forming regions with Herschel” (WISH) is a key programme dedicated to studying the role of water and related species during the star-formation process and constraining the physical and chemical properties of young stellar objects. The Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared (HIFI) on the Herschel Space Observatory observed three deeply embedded protostars in the low-mass star-forming region NGC 1333 in several H_(2)^(16)O, H_(2)^(18)O, and CO transitions. Line profiles are r...

  20. Seasonal ammonia losses from spray-irrigation with secondary-treated recycled water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saez, Jose A; Harmon, Thomas C; Doshi, Sarika; Guerrero, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    This work examines ammonia volatilization associated with agricultural irrigation employing recycled water. Effluent from a secondary wastewater treatment plant was applied using a center pivot irrigation system on a 12 ha agricultural site in Palmdale, California. Irrigation water was captured in shallow pans and ammonia concentrations were quantified in four seasonal events. The average ammonia loss ranged from 15 to 35% (averaging 22%) over 2-h periods. Temporal mass losses were well-fit using a first-order model. The resulting rate constants correlated primarily with temperature and secondarily with wind speed. The observed application rates and timing were projected over an entire irrigation season using meteorological time series data from the site, which yielded volatilization estimates of 0.03 to 0.09 metric tons NH(3)-N/ha per year. These rates are consistent with average rates (0.04 to 0.08 MT NH(3)-N/ha per year) based on 10 to 20 mg NH(3)-N/L effluent concentrations and a 22% average removal. As less than 10% of the treated effluent in California is currently reused, there is potential for this source to increase, but the increase may be offset by a corresponding reduction in synthetic fertilizers usage. This point is a factor for consideration with respect to nutrient management using recycled water.

  1. Dynamics of organic carbon losses by water erosion after biocrust removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cantón Yolanda

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In arid and semiarid ecosystems, plant interspaces are frequently covered by communities of cyanobacteria, algae, lichens and mosses, known as biocrusts. These crusts often act as runoff sources and are involved in soil stabilization and fertility, as they prevent erosion by water and wind, fix atmospheric C and N and contribute large amounts of C to soil. Their contribution to the C balance as photosynthetically active surfaces in arid and semiarid regions is receiving growing attention. However, very few studies have explicitly evaluated their contribution to organic carbon (OC lost from runoff and erosion, which is necessary to ascertain the role of biocrusts in the ecosystem C balance. Furthermore, biocrusts are not resilient to physical disturbances, which generally cause the loss of the biocrust and thus, an increase in runoff and erosion, dust emissions, and sediment and nutrient losses. The aim of this study was to find out the influence of biocrusts and their removal on dissolved and sediment organic carbon losses. One-hour extreme rainfall simulations (50 mm h-1 were performed on small plots set up on physical soil crusts and three types of biocrusts, representing a development gradient, and also on plots where these crusts were removed from. Runoff and erosion rates, dissolved organic carbon (DOC and organic carbon bonded to sediments (SdOC were measured during the simulated rain. Our results showed different SdOC and DOC for the different biocrusts and also that the presence of biocrusts substantially decreased total organic carbon (TOC (average 1.80±1.86 g m-2 compared to physical soil crusts (7.83±3.27 g m-2. Within biocrusts, TOC losses decreased as biocrusts developed, and erosion rates were lower. Thus, erosion drove TOC losses while no significant direct relationships were found between TOC losses and runoff. In both physical crusts and biocrusts, DOC and SdOC concentrations were higher during the first minutes after runoff

  2. Diet change and food loss reduction: What is their combined impact on global water use and scarcity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalava, Mika; Guillaume, Joseph H. A.; Kummu, Matti; Porkka, Miina; Siebert, Stefan; Varis, Olli

    2016-03-01

    There is a pressing need to improve food security and reduce environmental impacts of agricultural production globally. Two of the proposed measures are diet change from animal-based to plant-based foodstuffs and reduction of food losses and waste. These two measures are linked, as diet change affects production and consumption of foodstuffs and consequently loss processes through their different water footprints and loss percentages. This paper takes this link into account for the first time and provides an assessment of the combined potential contribution of diet change and food loss reduction for reducing water footprints and water scarcity. We apply scenarios in which we change diets to follow basic dietary recommendations, limit animal-based protein intake to 25% of total protein intake, and halve food losses to study single and combined effects of diet change and loss reduction. Dietary recommendations alone would achieve 6% and 7% reductions of blue and green water consumption, respectively, while changing diets to contain less animal products would result in savings of 11% and 18%, respectively. Halving food loss would alone achieve 12% reductions for both blue and green water. Combining the measures would reduce water consumption by 23% and 28%, respectively, lowering water scarcity in areas with a population of over 600 million. At a global scale, effects of diet change and loss reduction were synergistic with loss reductions being more effective under changed diet. This demonstrates the importance of considering the link between diet change and loss reduction in assessments of food security and resource use.

  3. Does metabolic rate and evaporative water loss reflect differences in migratory strategy in sexually dimorphic hoverflies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Sean; Menz, Myles H M

    2015-12-01

    A typical explanation for ecologically stable strategies that apply to only a proportion of a population, is bet hedging, where increased reproductive success offsets reduced reproductive rate. One such is partial migration, where only a proportion of a population moves seasonally to avoid inclement climatic conditions. Bet hedging may overlook unseen costs to maintain broad physiological resilience, implied by encountering a breadth of environmental conditions. We investigated the physiological correlates of partial migration by measuring standard metabolic rates, and rates of evaporative water loss, and then estimating upper and lower thermal tolerance in males and females of two hoverfly species, Episyrphus balteatus and Eristalis tenax. In central Europe, females of these species may either migrate or overwinter, whereas males may migrate south to the Mediterranean, but have not been found overwintering. Both species were sexually dimorphic; female Ep. balteatus were lighter than males, but female Er. tenax were heavier than males. While allometrically- corrected metabolic rate in both species increased with temperature, the most parsimonious models included no sex-specific differences in metabolic rate for either species. Evaporative water loss of both species also increased with temperature, but was higher for females of both species than males. Assuming that resting metabolism is congruent with the activity requirements of migration, highly consistent thermal tolerance and metabolic rate suggests that any given fly could migrate, although water loss patterns suggest that females may be less well-adapted to Mediterranean climates. We infer that partial migration probably results from the imperatives of their reproductive strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Temperatures in a runaway greenhouse on the evolving Venus Implications for water loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, A. J.; Donahue, T. M.; Kuhn, W. R.

    1984-01-01

    Some aspects of the temperature structure of a runaway greenhouse on Venus are examined using one-dimensional radiative transfer techniques. It is found that there generally is a region high in the atmosphere where condensation and cloud formation can occur, while deep in the atmosphere the gas is strongly unsaturated with respect to water vapor. The necessity of including clouds introduces considerably uncertainty into the calculation of surface temperatures. Under reasonable assumptions concerning the clouds, temperatures deep in the atmosphere are high enough to produce a plastic or even molten surface, which may significantly ease the problem of explaining the loss of oxygen.

  5. The efficiency of trenches as runoff water harvesting systems and the role of their design in minimizing water losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berliner, Pedro; Carmi, Gennady; Agam, Nurit; Leake, Solomon

    2016-04-01

    fluxes computed for the time intervals that correspond to the soil water measurements. The study included flooding trenches and regular micro-catchments with the same amount of water (1 m3), monitoring the water balance components and estimation of evaporation losses and water use efficiency by olive trees. Evaporation from trenches and regular micro-catchments was estimated as the difference between evapotranspiration obtained by soil water content monitoring and transpiration estimated by sap flow measurements. The results clearly show that the evaporation from the regular micro-catchments was significantly larger than that of trenches during the entire duration of the experiment. The fractional loss due to evaporation for the entire experimental period was 53 and 22% for micro-catchments and trenches, respectively.

  6. Developmental plasticity of cutaneous water loss and lipid composition in stratum corneum of desert and mesic nestling house sparrows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Garcia, Agustí; Williams, Joseph B

    2008-10-07

    Intercellular lipids of the stratum corneum (SC), the outer layer of the epidermis, form a barrier to water vapor diffusion through the skin. Previously, we measured cutaneous water loss (CWL) and lipid composition of the SC of adult house sparrows from two populations, one living in the deserts of Saudi Arabia and another living in mesic Ohio. Adult desert house sparrows had a lower CWL, a lower proportion of free fatty acids, and a higher proportion of ceramides and cerebrosides in the SC compared with mesic sparrows. In this study, we investigated developmental plasticity of CWL and lipid composition of the SC in desert and mesic nestling house sparrows reared in low and high humidity and compared our results with previous work on adults. We measured CWL of nestlings and analyzed the lipid composition of the SC using thin-layer chromatography. We showed that nestling house sparrows from both localities had higher CWL than adults in their natural environment, a result of major modifications of the lipid composition of the SC. The expression of plasticity in CWL seems to be a response to opposed selection pressures, thermoregulation and water conservation, at different life stages, on which regulation of CWL plays a crucial role. Desert nestlings showed a greater degree of plasticity in CWL and lipid composition of the SC than did mesic nestlings, a finding consistent with the idea that organisms exposed to more environmental stress ought to be more plastic than individuals living in more benign environments.

  7. Equilibrium thermodynamics of the ternary membrane-forming system nylon, formic acid and water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulte, A.M.W.; Bulte, A.M.W.; Naafs, E.M.; van Eeten, F.; Mulder, M.H.V.; Smolders, C.A.; Smolders, C.A.; Strathmann, H.

    1996-01-01

    The binary Flory-Huggins interaction parameters for the ternary membrane-forming system nylon, formic acid and water have been obtained from literature data, swelling values and melting point depression. Nylon 4,6 nylon 6 and a copolymer of nylon 4,6 and 6 were examined. The isothermal

  8. Lewis-acid catalysis of carbon carbon bond forming reactions in water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engberts, JBFN; Feringa, BL; Keller, E; Otto, S

    1996-01-01

    In this article, we review the recent progress that has been made in the field of Lewis-acid catalysis of carbon carbon-bond-forming reactions in aqueous solution. Since water hampers the hard hard interactions between the catalyst and the reactant, it often complicates catalysis. However, once

  9. Ditch blocking, water chemistry and organic carbon flux: evidence that blanket bog restoration reduces erosion and fluvial carbon loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Lorraine; Wilson, Jared; Holden, Joseph; Johnstone, Ian; Armstrong, Alona; Morris, Michael

    2011-05-01

    The potential for restoration of peatlands to deliver benefits beyond habitat restoration is poorly understood. There may be impacts on discharge water quality, peat erosion, flow rates and flood risk, and nutrient fluxes. This study aimed to assess the impact of drain blocking, as a form of peatland restoration, on an upland blanket bog, by measuring water chemistry and colour, and loss of both dissolved (DOC) and particulate organic carbon (POC). The restoration work was designed to permit the collection of a robust experimental dataset over a landscape scale, with data covering up to 3 years pre-restoration and up to 3 years post-restoration. An information theoretic approach to data analyses provided evidence of a recovery of water chemistry towards more 'natural' conditions, and showed strong declines in the production of water colour. Drain blocking led to increases in the E4:E6 ratio, and declines in specific absorbance, suggesting that DOC released from blocked drains consisted of lighter, less humic and less decomposed carbon. Whilst concentrations of DOC showed slight increases in drains and streams after blocking, instantaneous yields of both DOC and POC declined markedly in streams over the first year post-restoration. Attempts were made to estimate total annual fluvial organic carbon fluxes for the study site, and although errors around these estimates remain considerable, there is strong evidence of a large reduction in aquatic organic carbon flux from the peatland following drain-blocking. Potential mechanisms for the observed changes in water chemistry and organic carbon release are discussed, and we highlight the need for more detailed information, from more sites, to better understand the full impacts of peatland restoration on carbon storage and release. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of Material Choice on Biocide Loss in Orion Water Storage Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, W. T.; Wallace, S. L.; Gazda, D. B.; Lewis, J. F.

    2016-01-01

    When preparing for long-duration spaceflight missions, maintaining a safe supply of potable water is of the utmost importance. One major aspect of that is ensuring that microbial growth is minimized. Historically, this challenge has been addressed through the use of biocides. When using biocides, the choice of materials for the storage containers is important, because surface reactions can reduce biocide concentrations below their effective range. In the water storage system baselined for the Orion vehicle, the primary wetted materials are stainless steel (316 L) and a titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V). Previous testing with these materials has shown that the biocide selected for use in the system (ionic silver) will plate out rapidly upon initial wetting of the system. One potential approach for maintaining an adequate biocide concentration is to spike the water supply with high levels of biocide in an attempt to passivate the surface. To evaluate this hypothesis, samples of the wetted materials were tested individually and together to determine the relative loss of biocide under representative surface area-to-volume ratios after 24 hours. Additionally, we have analyzed the efficacy of disinfecting a system containing these materials by measuring reductions in bacterial counts in the same test conditions. Preliminary results indicate that the use of titanium, either individually or in combination with stainless steel, can result in over 95% loss of biocide, while less than 5% is lost when using stainless steel. In bacterial testing, viable organisms were recovered from samples exposed to the titanium coupons after 24 hours. By comparison, no organisms were recovered from the test vessels containing only stainless steel. These results indicate that titanium, while possessing some favorable attributes, may pose additional challenges when used in water storage tanks with ionic silver biocide.

  11. Reference waste form, basalts, and ground water systems for waste interaction studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deju, R.A.; Ledgerwood, R.K.; Long, P.E.

    1978-09-01

    This report summarizes the type of waste form, basalt, and ground water compositions to be used in theoretical and experimental models of the geochemical environment to be simulated in studying a typical basalt repository. Waste forms to be used in the experiments include, and are limited to, glass, supercalcine, and spent unreprocessed fuel. Reference basalts selected for study include the Pomona member and the Umtanum Unit, Shwana Member, of the Columbia River Basalt Group. In addition, a sample of the Basalt International Geochemical Standard (BCR-1) will be used for cross-comparison purposes. The representative water to be used is of a sodium bicarbonate composition as determined from results of analyses of deep ground waters underlying the Hanford Site. 12 figures, 13 tables.

  12. IS THE EVAPORATIVE WATER-LOSS OF KNOT CALIDRIS-CANUTUS HIGHER IN TROPICAL THAN IN TEMPERATE CLIMATES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VERBOVEN, N; PIERSMA, T

    To test whether Knot Calidris canutus wintering in the tropics suffer higher rates of water loss through evaporation than do Knot wintering at temperate latitudes, we tried to develop a physically realistic model to predict evaporative heat loss from air temperature, wind and humidity. In separate

  13. Influence of Surface and Bulk Water Ice on the Reactivity of a Water-forming Reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberts, Thanja; Kästner, Johannes

    2017-09-01

    On the surface of icy dust grains in the dense regions of the interstellar medium, a rich chemistry can take place. Due to the low temperature, reactions that proceed via a barrier can only take place through tunneling. The reaction {{H}}+{{{H}}}2{{{O}}}2\\longrightarrow {{{H}}}2{{O}}+{OH} is such a case with a gas-phase barrier of ˜26.5 kJ mol-1. Still, the reaction is known to be involved in water formation on interstellar grains. Here, we investigate the influence of a water ice surface and of bulk ice on the reaction rate constant. Rate constants are calculated using instanton theory down to 74 K. The ice is taken into account via multiscale modeling, describing the reactants and the direct surrounding at the quantum mechanical level with density functional theory (DFT), while the rest of the ice is modeled on the molecular mechanical level with a force field. We find that H2O2 binding energies cannot be captured by a single value, but rather they depend on the number of hydrogen bonds with surface molecules. In highly amorphous surroundings, the binding site can block the routes of attack and impede the reaction. Furthermore, the activation energies do not correlate with the binding energies of the same sites. The unimolecular rate constants related to the Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism increase as the activation energy decreases. Thus, we provide a lower limit for the rate constant and argue that rate constants can have values up to two order of magnitude larger than this limit.

  14. The litter cover of citrus leaves control soil and water losses in chemically managed orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, A.; Jurgensen, M. F.; González-Peñaloza, F. A.

    2012-04-01

    Soil erosion in chemically managed orchards results in bare soil due to the removal of the weeds and the lack of catch crops. Those conditions results in extremely high erosion rates in citrus orchards (Cerdà et al., 2011) such it has been found in other orchards in the Mediterranean where the soil degradation trigger a change in the soil water properties (Gómez et al., 1999). The Mediterranean climatic and human conditions contribute to very active soil water erosion (Ruiz Sinoga et al., 2010) where rilling and piping are found (Romero-Diaz, 2007). It is widely known that high erosion rates can trigger the soil degradation such it has been found in vineyards (Ramos and Martínez Casasnovas, 2006), Olive (García Orenes et al., 2010) and other crops, which is related to the land management and land use (García Ruiz, 2010). Within the chemically managed citrus orchards, the surface cover is usually bare due to the removal of the pruned branches (usually burned) and the use of herbicides every season. A thin and non-continuous litter layer of leaves from the citrus trees covers the soil surface, which sometimes are removed by the farmers to keep the soil clean. There is no information about the effect of the citrus leaves effects on soil and water losses. The objective of this paper is to quantify the effect of the leaves cover on the surface runoff and soil losses. Experiments were conducted by means of simulated rainfall at 55 mm h-1 during one hour in a small circular plot (0.25 m2) to quantify in the field the effect of different litter cover on soil erosion and water losses. An orchard of orange trees (Navel-lane-late, 10 year old, and planted at 6 x 5m with a 45 % cover) was selected in the Municipality of Montesa. Witin the 2 ha field 35 plots were selected with litter covers from 0 to 100 % cover. The runoff discharge was measured every minute and each 5 minutes a sample for runoff sediment concentration was collected. The sediment concentration was

  15. Agarwood Waste as A New Fluid Loss Control Agent in Water-based Drilling Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azlinda Azizi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Agarwood has been used widely in various ways, including traditional medicine and art. The usage of agarwood has grown broader in modern times include in therapeutic medicines and perfumery. In this paper the agarwood waste has been explored to be used as a fluid loss control agent to control fluid loss without affecting the drilling fluid rheological properties which are density, pH, viscosity, yield point and gel strength. Agarwood waste was used as an additive in the drilling fluid system due to its unique characteristic. Rheological and filtration measurements were performed on the formulated water-based drilling fluid. Formulations of a base solution of fresh water, sodium hydroxide, bentonite, barite, and xanthan gum were presented. The performance of the agarwood waste as the fluid loss control agent was compared with based fluid formulation and water-based drilling fluid with treating with conventional fluid loss control agent (starch. The filtrate volume of drilling fluid with agarwood waste was about 13 ml while for drilling fluid with conventional fluid loss control agent, starch gave 12 ml of filtrate volume after undergoing filtration test by using LPLT filter press. The performance of drilling fluid with agarwood was efficient as drilling fluid with starch. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso

  16. Not all water becomes wine: Sulfur inputs as an opportune tracer of hydrochemical losses from vineyards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinckley, E.-L.S.; Kendall, C.; Loague, K.

    2009-01-01

    California's widespread and economically important vineyards offer substantial opportunities to understand the interface between hydrology and biogeochemistry in agricultural soils. The common use of native sulfur (S) as a fumigant or soil additive provides a novel way to isotopically differentiate among sulfate (SO2-4) pools, allowing the estimation of water and SO2-4 budgets. The objectives of this study were (1) to characterize the near-surface hydrological flow paths in a vineyard during irrigation and storm events and (2) to determine how those flow paths affect the fate and transport of SO2-4 across seasons. Integrating hydrological theory with measurements of SO2-4concentration and sulfate-S isotopic ratios (expressed as [SO 2-4] and ??34S, respectively) in inputs, soil water, and leachate provided a means of determining flow paths. Low [S04-] and ??34S in leachate during 4-h irrigation events reflect minimal engagement of the soil matrix, indicating that preferential flow was the dominant path for water in the near surface. In contrast, high [SO 2-4] and ??34S values during 8-h irrigation and storm events reflect near-complete engagement of the soil matrix, indicating that lateral flow was the dominant pathway. Because hydrologic response and SO2-4 mobility are tightly coupled in these soils, the magnitude of water fluxes through the near surface controls S cycling both on and off site. These results indicate that preferential flow is an important loss pathway to consider in managing both water resources and water quality (reactive elements) in vineyard land use systems. ?? 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  17. A Study on the Rate of Events and Water Loss in Water Distribution Network of Azna, Lorstan, Iran during 2008-2014 and Its Associated Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Adeli

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and purpose: One of the problems of water distribution systems is loss of large volumes of water due to the occurrence of various events, which incurs a huge financial loss. Regarding this, the aim of the present study was to investigate the rate of events and water loss in the water distribution system and its related factors in Azna, Lorestan province, Iran, during 2008-2014. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted using census method, surveys, and field data collection. The amount of water production and consumption, the volumes of water loss, the number of accidents, type of pipe, pressure zone, as well as the age and length of the pipes recorded during 2008- 2014 were studied and analyzed. Results: According to the results, the highest (34.48% and lowest (20.57% amount of water losses happened in 2008 and 2014, respectively. High pressures in water systems had significant relationship with the number of events as well as the amount of water loss and water consumption. In addition, higher length and age of the pipes had a direct correlation with increased number of events and water loss. Furthermore, the maximum number of events were found to occur in the pipe embranchment and galvanized pipes. Conclusion: This study showed that of events was directly related to the length and age of the pipes, the water pressure, and number of branches. Also water loss quantity can be reduced by applying suitable management techniques in different sections. Furthermore, the water loss can be significantly controlled by taking such measures as reducing the pressure in the high-pressure zones, timely replacement of old and inappropriate pipes, appropriate fixing of the pipes, replacement of the galvanized pipe, and standard implementation of pipes and fittings.

  18. Water in Star-forming Regions with the Herschel Space Observatory (WISH) : I. Overview of Key Program and First Results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dishoeck, E. F.; Kristensen, L. E.; Benz, A. O.; Bergin, E. A.; Caselli, P.; Cernicharo, J.; Herpin, F.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Johnstone, D.; Liseau, R.; Nisini, B.; Shipman, R.; Tafalla, M.; van der Tak, F.; Wyrowski, F.; Aikawa, Y.; Bachiller, R.; Baudry, A.; Benedettini, M.; Bjerkeli, P.; Blake, G. A.; Bontemps, S.; Braine, J.; Brinch, C.; Bruderer, S.; Chavarria, L.; Codella, C.; Daniel, F.; de Graauw, Th.; Deul, E.; di Giorgio, A. M.; Dominik, C.; Doty, S. D.; Dubernet, M. L.; Encrenaz, P.; Feuchtgruber, H.; Fich, M.; Frieswijk, W.; Fuente, A.; Giannini, T.; Goicoechea, J. R.; Helmich, F. P.; Herczeg, G. J.; Jacq, T.; Jorgensen, J. K.; Karska, A.; Kaufman, M. J.; Keto, E.; Larsson, B.; Lefloch, B.; Lis, D.; Marseille, M.; McCoey, C.; Melnick, G.; Neufeld, D.; Olberg, M.; Pagani, L.; Panic, O.; Parise, B.; Pearson, J. C.; Plume, R.; Risacher, C.; Salter, D.; Santiago-Garcia, J.; Saraceno, P.; Staeuber, P.; van Kempen, T. A.; Visser, R.; Viti, S.; Walmsley, M.; Wampfler, S. F.; Yildiz, U. A.

    Water In Star-forming regions with Herschel (WISH) is a key program on the Herschel Space Observatory designed to probe the physical and chemical structures of young stellar objects using water and related molecules and to follow the water abundance from collapsing clouds to planet-forming disks.

  19. Weak interactions between water and clathrate-forming gases at low pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thurmer, Konrad; Yuan, Chunqing; Kimmel, Gregory A.; Kay, Bruce D.; Smith, R. Scott

    2015-11-01

    Using scanning probe microscopy and temperature programed desorption we examined the interaction between water and two common clathrate-forming gases, methane and isobutane, at low temperature and low pressure. Water co-deposited with up to 10-1 mbar methane or 10-5 mbar isobutane at 140 K onto a Pt(111) substrate yielded pure crystalline ice, i.e., the exposure to up to ~107 gas molecules for each deposited water molecule did not have any detectable effect on the growing films. Exposing metastable, less than 2 molecular layers thick, water films to 10-5 mbar methane does not alter their morphology, suggesting that the presence of the Pt(111) surface is not a strong driver for hydrate formation. This weak water-gas interaction at low pressures is supported by our thermal desorption measurements from amorphous solid water and crystalline ice where 1 ML of methane desorbs near ~43 K and isobutane desorbs near ~100 K. Similar desorption temperatures were observed for desorption from amorphous solid water.

  20. A Preliminary Study on Rainfall Interception Loss and Water Yield Analysis on Arabica Coffee Plants in Central Aceh Regency, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Benara

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Rainfall interception loss from plants or trees can reduce a net rainfall as source of water yield. The amount of rainfall interception loss depends on kinds of plants and hydro-meteorological characteristics. Therefore, it is important to study rainfall interception loss such as from Arabica Coffee plantation which is as main agricultural commodity for Central Aceh Regency. In this study, rainfall interception loss from Arabica Coffee plants was studied in Kebet Village of Central Aceh Regency, Indonesia from January 20 to March 9, 2011. Arabica coffee plants used in this study was 15 years old, height of 1.5 m and canopy of 4.567 m2. Rainfall interception loss was determined based on water balance approach of daily rainfall, throughfall, and stemflow data. Empirical regression equation between rainfall interception loss and rainfall were adopted as a model to estimate rainfall interception loss from Arabica Coffee plantation, which the coefficient of correlation, r is 0.98. In water yield analysis, this formula was applied and founded that Arabica Coffee plants intercept 76% of annual rainfall or it leaved over annual net rainfall 24% of annual rainfall. Using this net rainfall, water yield produced from Paya Bener River which is the catchment area covered by Arabica Coffee plantation was analyzed in a planning of water supply project for water needs domestic of 3 sub-districts in Central Aceh Regency. Based on increasing population until year of 2025, the results showed that the water yield will be not enough from year of 2015. However, if the catchment area is covered by forest, the water yield is still enough until year of 2025

  1. Sensitivity Analysis of Core Damage by Loss of Auxiliary Feed Water during the Extended Loss of All AC Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Woo Jae; Chung, Soon Il; Hwang, Su Hyun; Lee, Kyung Jin; Lee, Byung Chul [FNC Tech., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Duk Joo; Lee, Seung Chan [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co. Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In this study, the reactor core damage time for OPR1000 type Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) was analyzed to develop a strategy to handle ELAP and to apply to the EOP. The reactor core damage time in the ELAP condition was calculated according to the time of Auxiliary Feedwater (AFW) loss. Fukushima accident was caused by long hours of Station Black Out (SBO) caused by natural disaster beyond Design Based Accident (DBA) criteria. It led to the reactor core damage. After the accident, the regulatory authorities of each country (Japan, US, EU, IAEA, and etc.) recommended developing the necessary systems and strategies in order to cover up the Extended Loss of All AC Power (ELAP) such as one occurred in the Fukushima accident. And the need of procedure or guideline to cope with ELAP has been raised through the stress test for Wolsong Nuclear Power Plant unit 1. Current Emergency Operating Procedures (EOP) used in domestic nuclear power plant are seemed to be insufficient to cope with ELAP. Therefore, it has been required to be improved. As the result, the time of AFW loss in the ELAP condition influences greatly on core damage time.

  2. Effect of sodium hypochlorite on typical biofilms formed in drinking water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Huirong; Zhu, Xuan; Wang, Yuxin; Yu, Xin

    2017-04-01

    Human health and biological safety problems resulting from urban drinking water pipe network biofilms pollution have attracted wide concern. Despite the inclusion of residual chlorine in drinking water distribution systems supplies, the bacterium is a recalcitrant human pathogen capable of forming biofilms on pipe walls and causing health risks. Typical drinking water bacterial biofilms and their response to different concentrations of chlorination was monitored. The results showed that the four bacteria all formed single biofilms susceptible to sodium hypochlorite. After 30 min disinfection, biomass and cultivability decreased with increasing concentration of disinfectant but then increased in high disinfectant doses. PMA-qPCR results indicated that it resulted in little cellular damage. Flow cytometry analysis showed that with increasing doses of disinfectant, the numbers of clusters increased and the sizes of clusters decreased. Under high disinfectant treatment, EPS was depleted by disinfectant and about 0.5-1 mg/L of residual chlorine seemed to be appropriate for drinking water treatment. This research provides an insight into the EPS protection to biofilms. Resistance of biofilms against high levels of chlorine has implications for the delivery of drinking water.

  3. Exposure to low-dose barium by drinking water causes hearing loss in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohgami, Nobutaka; Hori, Sohjiro; Ohgami, Kyoko; Tamura, Haruka; Tsuzuki, Toyonori; Ohnuma, Shoko; Kato, Masashi

    2012-10-01

    We continuously ingest barium as a general element by drinking water and foods in our daily life. Exposure to high-dose barium (>100mg/kg/day) has been shown to cause physiological impairments. Direct administration of barium to inner ears by vascular perfusion has been shown to cause physiological impairments in inner ears. However, the toxic influence of oral exposure to low-dose barium on hearing levels has not been clarified in vivo. We analyzed the toxic influence of oral exposure to low-dose barium on hearing levels and inner ears in mice. We orally administered barium at low doses of 0.14 and 1.4 mg/kg/day to wild-type ICR mice by drinking water. The doses are equivalent to and 10-fold higher than the limit level (0.7 mg/l) of WHO health-based guidelines for drinking water, respectively. After 2-week exposure, hearing levels were measured by auditory brain stem responses and inner ears were morphologically analyzed. After 2-month exposure, tissue distribution of barium was measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Low-dose barium in drinking water caused severe hearing loss in mice. Inner ears including inner and outer hair cells, stria vascularis and spiral ganglion neurons showed severe degeneration. The Barium-administered group showed significantly higher levels of barium in inner ears than those in the control group, while barium levels in bone did not show a significant difference between the two groups. Barium levels in other tissues including the cerebrum, cerebellum, heart, liver and kidney were undetectably low in both groups. Our results demonstrate for the first time that low-dose barium administered by drinking water specifically distributes to inner ears resulting in severe ototoxicity with degeneration of inner ears in mice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Water Loss Due to Increasing Planted Vegetation over the Badain Jaran Desert, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xunhe Zhang

    2018-01-01

    2003. This suggested that the increased trend in vegetation and apparent increase in RUEmo can be attributed to the extraction of ground water for human-planted irrigated vegetation. In the hinterland of the BJD, we identified human-planted vegetation around the lakes using MODIS observations and field investigations. Four lake basins were chosen to validate the relationship between lake levels and planted vegetation. Our results indicated that increasing human-planted vegetation significantly increased the water loss over the BJD region. This study highlights the value of combining observational data from space-borne sensors and ground instruments to monitor the ecohydrological dynamics and the impact of human activities on water resources and ecosystems over the drylands.

  5. Cutaneous water loss and sphingolipids covalently bound to corneocytes in the stratum corneum of house sparrows Passer domesticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yu; Muñoz-Garcia, Agustí; Brown, Johnie C; Ro, Jennifer; Williams, Joseph B

    2008-05-01

    The barrier to water loss from the skin of birds and mammals is localized in the stratum corneum (SC), the outer layer of the epidermis. The SC consists of corneocytes, each surrounded by a protein envelope, and a lipid compartment, formed by an extracellular matrix of lipids and by lipids covalently bound to the protein envelope. In mammals, covalently bound lipids in the SC consist of omega-hydroxyceramides attached to the outer surface of corneocytes. Evidence suggests that covalently bound lipids in the SC might be crucial for the establishment of a competent permeability barrier. In this study we assessed the composition of covalently bound lipids of the avian SC and their relationship to cutaneous water loss (CWL) in two populations of house sparrows, one living in the deserts of Saudi Arabia and the other in mesic Ohio. Previously, we showed that CWL of adult desert sparrows was 25% lower than that of mesic birds. In the present study we characterize covalently bound lipids of the SC using thin layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography coupled with atmospheric pressure Photospray ionization mass spectrometry. Our study is the first to demonstrate the existence of sphingolipids covalently bound to corneocytes in the SC of birds. Although omega-hydroxyceramides occurred in the lipid envelope surrounding corneocytes, the major constituent of the covalently bound lipid envelope in house sparrows was omega-hydroxycerebrosides, ceramides with a hexose molecule attached. Sparrows from Saudi Arabia had more covalently bound cerebrosides, fewer covalently bound ceramides and a lower ceramide to cerebroside ratio than sparrows living in Ohio; these differences were associated with CWL.

  6. Using metal nanostructures to form hydrocarbons from carbon dioxide, water and sunlight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Wang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on experimental results, we propose a mechanism that allows the use of metal nanostructures to synthesize hydrocarbons and carbohydrates from carbon dioxide, water and sunlight. When sunlight impinges on cobalt nanostructures in a glass chamber, its intensity is greatly enhanced around the tips of the nanostructures through surface plasmon excitations focusing effect, and it then photodissociates the water and carbon dioxide molecules through enhanced photon absorptions of ions around the tips of the nanostructures. The photodissociated molecules in excited states remain on the cobalt nanostructure surfaces and various hydrocarbons and carbohydrates then will be formed around the surfaces at temperatures much lower than 100 oC.

  7. Loss of Water from Saturn's E-Ring Through Ion Pick-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisner, J. S.; Russell, C. T.; Dougherty, M. K.; Blanco-Cano, X.; Smith, E. J.; Tsurutani, B. T.

    2005-01-01

    One of the possible loss processes for Saturn s E-ring is ionization followed by acceleration by the electric field associated with the corotating magnetized plasma. It is possible to determine if this process is occurring by detecting electromagnetic waves at the gyrofrequency of water group ions. If the energy the particle gains in this pick-up process is sufficiently great, the picked up ions will generate ion cyclotron waves. Pioneer 11 and Voyager 1 both observed intervals of such waves associated with water group ions during their passes through Saturn s E-ring. Presently the magnetometer onboard the Cassini spacecraft is also seeing water group ion cyclotron oscillations. The Cassini data allow the spatial and temporal behavior of the waves to be mapped in ways not possible during the previous flybys. Analyses of these waves allow us to study the rate of mass loading and its latitudinal and local time variation. In conjunction with previous data, we can then determine the variation as the inclination of the ring to the Sun changes, in accordance with Saturn's seasons. These waves may be the clue to how Saturn powers its magnetosphere as the newly born ions could be the driver for the radial motion of the plasma and to how the E-ring may play the equivalent role to that of Io in the jovian magnetosphere.

  8. Hydrogen in drinking water attenuates noise-induced hearing loss in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ying; Kashio, Akinori; Sakamoto, Takashi; Suzukawa, Keigo; Kakigi, Akinobu; Yamasoba, Tatsuya

    2011-01-03

    It has been shown that molecular hydrogen acts as a therapeutic and preventive antioxidant by selectively reducing the hydroxyl radical, the most cytotoxic of the reactive oxygen species. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that acoustic damage in guinea pigs can be attenuated by the consumption of molecular hydrogen. Guinea pigs received normal water or hydrogen-rich water for 14 days before they were exposed to 115 dB SPL 4-kHz octave band noise for 3h. Animals in each group underwent measurements for auditory brainstem response (ABR) or distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) before the treatment (baseline) and immediately, 1, 3, 7, and 14 days after noise exposure. The ABR thresholds at 2 and 4 kHz were significantly better on post-noise days 1, 3, and 14 in hydrogen-treated animals when compared to the normal water-treated controls. Compared to the controls, the hydrogen-treated animals showed greater amplitude of DPOAE input/output growth functions during the recovery process, with statistical significance detected on post-noise days 3 and 7. These findings suggest that hydrogen can facilitate the recovery of hair cell function and attenuate noise-induced temporary hearing loss. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of centrifugation on transmembrane water loss from normal and pathologic erythrocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaperonis, A.A.; Chien, S.

    1989-02-01

    Plasma /sup 125/I-albumin was used as a marker of extracellular dilution in order to study the effect of high-speed centrifugation on transmembrane water distribution in several types of human red cells, including normal (AA), hemoglobin variants (beta A, AS, SC, beta S, and SS), and those from patients with hereditary spherocytosis. SS and AA erythrocytes were also examined for changes in intracellular hemoglobin concentration of three different density fractions and with increasing duration of spin. The minimum force and duration of centrifugation required to impair water permeability were found to vary with the red cell type, the anticoagulant used (heparin or EDTA), the initial hematocrit of the sample centrifuged, as well as among the individual erythrocyte fractions within the same sample. When subjecting pathologic erythrocytes to high-speed centrifugation, the /sup 125/I-albumin dilution technique can be used to determine whether the centrifugation procedure has led to an artifactual red cell water loss and to correct for this when it does occur. An abnormal membrane susceptibility to mechanical stress was demonstrated in erythrocytes from patients with hereditary spherocytosis and several hemoglobinopathies.

  10. Physiological differences in preferred temperatures and evaporative water loss rates in two sympatric lacertid species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sannolo, Marco; Barroso, Frederico M; Carretero, Miguel A

    2017-12-24

    Sister species living in sympatry offer the opportunity to study the degree of divergence in their ecological, physiological and life-history traits. It has been hypothesized that closely related species with overlapping distribution should differ in their niche to reduce competition for resources. Furthermore, the investigation of sympatric species may shed light on how they may coexist without outcompeting each other. In the present study, we assess the degree of physiological divergence in two sympatric lacertid lizards, Podarcis bocagei and Podarcis guadarramae lusitanicus. These species share a Pliocenic ancestry and overlap at a both geographical and ecological scale. We assessed their thermal preferences and water loss rates, two physiological traits considered stable across congeneric species. We found that the two species differ in both traits, with P. bocagei selecting higher temperature than P. g. lusitanicus and losing more water than the latter at and above its preferred temperature. The results also showed that for both species body size has a relevant impact on thermal and hydric traits, with bigger individuals losing proportionally less water and selecting higher temperatures. These results, combined with previous evidence, suggest that physiological mechanisms, ecological preferences and morphology probably allow these two species to overlap in their distribution while selecting different microhabitats and thus decreasing possible competition between them. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Balancing Water Uptake and Loss through the Coordinated Regulation of Stomatal and Root Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Hepworth

    Full Text Available Root development is influenced by nutrient and water availabilities. Plants are able to adjust many attributes of their root in response to environmental signals including the size and shape of the primary root, lateral roots and root hairs. Here we investigated the response of roots to changes in the levels of leaf transpiration associated with altered stomatal frequency. We found that plants with high stomatal density and conductance produce a larger rooting area and as a result have enhanced phosphate uptake capacity whereas plants with low stomatal conductance produce a smaller root. Manipulating the growth environment of plants indicated that enhanced root growth is most likely a result of an increased demand for water rather than phosphate. Plants manipulated to have an increase or reduction in root hair growth show a reduction or increase respectively, in stomatal conductance and density. Our results demonstrate that plants can balance their water uptake and loss through coordinated regulation of both stomatal and root development.

  12. Fruit cuticle lipid composition and fruit post-harvest water loss in an advanced backcross generation of pepper (Capsicum sp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    During postharvest storage, pepper (Capsicum sp.) fruit commonly wilts (or shrivels) early because of rapid water loss combined with the hollow fruit’s limited water storage capacity, a condition that greatly reduces its shelf-life and market value. To understand the role of fruit cuticle lipid comp...

  13. Enhanced precipitation-variability effects on water losses and ecosystem functioning: Differential response of arid and mesic regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate change will result in increased precipitation variability with more extreme events across a range of temporal scales. We used a process-based ecosystem model to simulate water losses and soil water availability to plants at 35 grassland locations in the central U.S. under four level of prec...

  14. Effects of permethrin and amitraz on gas exchange and water loss in unfed adult females of Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effects of permethrin and amitraz on metabolism of the lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum, were examined using a flow-through carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor analyzer. Untreated adult female ticks exhibited a distinct discontinuous gas exchange pattern (DGEP) with no measurable water loss. Si...

  15. Identifying the interacting roles of stressors in driving the global loss of canopy-forming to mat-forming algae in marine ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strain, Elisabeth M A; Thomson, Russell J; Micheli, Fiorenza; Mancuso, Francesco P; Airoldi, Laura

    2014-11-01

    Identifying the type and strength of interactions between local anthropogenic and other stressors can help to set achievable management targets for degraded marine ecosystems and support their resilience by identifying local actions. We undertook a meta-analysis, using data from 118 studies to test the hypothesis that ongoing global declines in the dominant habitat along temperate rocky coastlines, forests of canopy-forming algae and/or their replacement by mat-forming algae are driven by the nonadditive interactions between local anthropogenic stressors that can be addressed through management actions (fishing, heavy metal pollution, nutrient enrichment and high sediment loads) and other stressors (presence of competitors or grazers, removal of canopy algae, limiting or excessive light, low or high salinity, increasing temperature, high wave exposure and high UV or CO2 ), not as easily amenable to management actions. In general, the cumulative effects of local anthropogenic and other stressors had negative effects on the growth and survival of canopy-forming algae. Conversely, the growth or survival of mat-forming algae was either unaffected or significantly enhanced by the same pairs of stressors. Contrary to our predictions, the majority of interactions between stressors were additive. There were however synergistic interactions between nutrient enrichment and heavy metals, the presence of competitors, low light and increasing temperature, leading to amplified negative effects on canopy-forming algae. There were also synergistic interactions between nutrient enrichment and increasing CO2 and temperature leading to amplified positive effects on mat-forming algae. Our review of the current literature shows that management of nutrient levels, rather than fishing, heavy metal pollution or high sediment loads, would provide the greatest opportunity for preventing the shift from canopy to mat-forming algae, particularly in enclosed bays or estuaries because of the

  16. Characterization of corrosion scale formed on stainless steel delivery pipe for reclaimed water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yong; Liu, Shuming; Smith, Kate; Yu, Kanghua; Hu, Hongying; Jiang, Wei; Li, Yuhong

    2016-01-01

    To reveal corrosion behavior of stainless steel delivery pipe used in reclaimed water treatment, this research focused on the morphological, mineralogical and chemical characteristics of stainless steel corrosion scale and corroded passive film. Corrosion scale and coupon samples were taken from a type 304 pipe delivering reclaimed water to a clear well in service for more than 12 years. Stainless steel corrosion scales and four representative pipe coupons were investigated using mineralogy and material science research methods. The results showed corrosion scale was predominantly composed of goethite, lepidocrocite, hematite, magnetite, ferrous oxide, siderite, chrome green and chromite, the same as that of corroded pipe coupons. Hence, corrosion scale can be identified as podiform chromite deposit. The loss of chromium in passive film is a critical phenomenon when stainless steel passive film is damaged by localized corrosion. This may provide key insights toward improving a better comprehension of the formation of stainless steel corrosion scale and the process of localized corrosion. The localized corrosion behavior of stainless steel is directly connected with reclaimed water quality parameters such as residual chlorine, DO, Cl(-) and SO4(2-). In particular, when a certain amount of residual chlorine in reclaimed water is present as an oxidant, ferric iron is the main chemical state of iron minerals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes Case Study: Addressing Multifamily Piping Losses with Solar Hot Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Springer, M. Seitzler, and C. Backman

    2016-12-01

    Sun Light & Power, a San Francisco Bay Area solar design-build contractor, teamed with the U.S. Department of Energy’s Building America partner the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI) to study this heat-loss issue. The team added three-way valves to the solar water heating systems for two 40-unit multifamily buildings. In these systems, when the stored solar hot water is warmer than the recirculated hot water returning from the buildings, the valves divert the returning water to the solar storage tank instead of the water heater. This strategy allows solar-generated heat to be applied to recirculation heat loss in addition to heating water that is consumed by fixtures and appliances.

  18. Root suberin forms an extracellular barrier that affects water relations and mineral nutrition in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Baxter

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Though central to our understanding of how roots perform their vital function of scavenging water and solutes from the soil, no direct genetic evidence currently exists to support the foundational model that suberin acts to form a chemical barrier limiting the extracellular, or apoplastic, transport of water and solutes in plant roots. Using the newly characterized enhanced suberin1 (esb1 mutant, we established a connection in Arabidopsis thaliana between suberin in the root and both water movement through the plant and solute accumulation in the shoot. Esb1 mutants, characterized by increased root suberin, were found to have reduced day time transpiration rates and increased water-use efficiency during their vegetative growth period. Furthermore, these changes in suberin and water transport were associated with decreases in the accumulation of Ca, Mn, and Zn and increases in the accumulation of Na, S, K, As, Se, and Mo in the shoot. Here, we present direct genetic evidence establishing that suberin in the roots plays a critical role in controlling both water and mineral ion uptake and transport to the leaves. The changes observed in the elemental accumulation in leaves are also interpreted as evidence that a significant component of the radial root transport of Ca, Mn, and Zn occurs in the apoplast.

  19. Quantitative Evaluation of Maceration in Venous Leg Ulcers by Transepidermal Water Loss (TEWL) Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dini, Valentina; Barbanera, Sabrina; Romanelli, Marco

    2014-06-01

    Skin maceration is a clinical manifestation in venous leg ulcers that leads to severe consequences for patients' quality of life and wound management. The aim of this study was to explore the use of transepidermal water loss (TEWL) measurement technique to quantify different level of surrounding skin maceration in patients with venous leg ulcers. A total of 50 patients were recruited and TEWL measurements were taken with a portable device on different locations surrounding the leg ulcer and on control skin. A clinical score for maceration was used and correlated to the involvement of surrounding skin. Statistically significant differences of TEWL values were noted between affected skin and control site (P maceration clinical score increased (r = 0.954). Objective monitoring of skin maceration in venous leg ulcer with TEWL measurement represents an useful tool to analyze morphologic changes at different time points during treatment. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Retention and loss of water extractable carbon in soils: effect of clay properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trung-Ta; Marschner, Petra

    2014-02-01

    Clay sorption is important for organic carbon (C) sequestration in soils, but little is known about the effect of different clay properties on organic C sorption and release. To investigate the effect of clay content and properties on sorption, desorption and loss of water extractable organic C (WEOC), two experiments were conducted. In experiment 1, a loamy sand alone (native) or mixed with clay isolated from a surface or subsoil (78 and 96% clay) resulting in 90, 158 and 175 g clay kg(-1) soil. These soil treatments were leached with different WEOC concentrations, and then CO2 release was measured for 28 days followed by leaching with reverse osmosis water at the end of experiment. The second experiment was conducted to determine WEOC sorption and desorption of clays isolated from the loamy sand (native), surface soil and subsoil. Addition of clays isolated from surface and subsoil to sandy loam increased WEOC sorption and reduced C leaching and cumulative respiration in percentage of total organic C and WEOC added when expressed per g soil and per g clay. Compared to clays isolated from the surface and subsoil, the native clay had higher concentrations of illite and exchangeable Ca(2+), total organic C and a higher CEC but a lower extractable Fe/Al concentration. This indicates that compared to the clay isolated from the surface and the subsoil, the native clay had fewer potential WEOC binding sites because it had lower Fe/Al content thus lower number of binding sites and the existing binding sites are already occupied native organic matter. The results of this study suggest that in the soils used here, the impact of clay on WEOC sorption and loss is dependent on its indigenous organic carbon and Fe and/or Al concentrations whereas clay mineralogy, CEC, exchangeable Ca(2+) and surface area are less important. © 2013.

  1. Nano-exploration of organic conditioning film formed on polymeric surfaces exposed to drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francius, Grégory; El Zein, Racha; Mathieu, Laurence; Gosselin, Florence; Maul, Armand; Block, Jean-Claude

    2017-02-01

    Adsorption of organic macromolecules onto surfaces in contact with waters forms a so-called conditioning film and induces modifications of the surface properties. Here, we characterized conditioning films formed onto two hydrophobic materials (used as pipe liner) and immersed for 24 h in tap water. Using combination of atomic force microscopy (AFM), and chemical force microscopy (CFM), we detected some changes in roughness and hydrophilic/hydrophobic balance of the surface of the tested coupons, and also the deposition of numerous organic polymers (few millions/cm(2)) randomly distributed on the surface. The maximum molecular extension of these organic polymers was in the range of 250-1250 nm according to the tested materials. Systematic analysis of the force curves with the theoretical models (WLC and FJC) allowed determining the proportion of rupture events related to the unfolding of both polysaccharide and polypeptide segments, which represented 75-80% and 20-25% of the analyzed curves, respectively. The number of autochthonous drinking water bacteria, which attached to the material within the same period of time was 10000-folds lower than the detected number of polymers attached to the surface. Even in drinking water systems with relatively low organic matter (dissolved organic carbon < 1.1 mg/L), the potential of formation of a conditioning biofilm is important. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Water loss and gas exchange by eggs of Manduca sexta: trading off costs and benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, H Arthur

    2010-05-01

    Like all terrestrial organisms, insect eggs face a tradeoff between exchanging metabolic gases (O(2) and CO(2)) and conserving water. Here I summarize the physiology underlying this tradeoff and the ecological contexts in which it may be important. The ideas are illustrated primarily by work from my laboratory on eggs of the sphingid moth Manduca sexta. In particular, I discuss: (1) dynamic changes in metabolic demand and water loss during development; and (2) how the eggshell layers and embryonic tracheal system control the traffic of gases between the embryo and its environment. Subsequently, I identify three areas with interesting but unresolved issues: (1) what eggs actually experience in their microclimates, focusing particularly on the leaf microclimates relevant to eggs of M. sexta; (2) how egg experience influences whether or not hatchling larvae succeed in establishing feeding sites on host plants; and (3) whether Hetz and Bradley's [Hetz, S.K., Bradley, T.J., 2005. Insects breathe discontinuously to avoid oxygen toxicity. Nature 433, 516-519] oxygen toxicity hypothesis for discontinuous gas-exchange cycles applies to insect eggs. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Evolutionary shifts in habitat aridity predict evaporative water loss across squamate reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Christian L; Cox, Robert M

    2015-09-01

    Aridity is an important determinant of species distributions, shaping both ecological and evolutionary diversity. Lizards and snakes are often abundant in deserts, suggesting a high potential for adaptation or acclimation to arid habitats. However, phylogenetic evidence indicates that squamate diversity in deserts may be more strongly tied to speciation within arid habitats than to convergent evolution following repeated colonization from mesic habitats. To assess the frequency of evolutionary transitions in habitat aridity while simultaneously testing for associated changes in water-balance physiology, we analyzed estimates of total evaporative water loss (EWL) for 120 squamate species inhabiting arid, semiarid, or mesic habitats. Phylogenetic reconstructions revealed that evolutionary transitions to and from semiarid habitats were much more common than those between arid and mesic extremes. Species from mesic habitats exhibited significantly higher EWL than those from arid habitats, while species from semiarid habitats had intermediate EWL. Phylogenetic comparative methods confirmed this association between habitat aridity and EWL despite phylogenetic signal in each. Thus, the historical colonization of arid habitats by squamates is repeatedly associated with adaptive changes in EWL. This physiological convergence, which may reflect both phenotypic plasticity and genetic adaptation, has likely contributed to the success of squamates in arid environments. © 2015 The Author(s). Evolution © 2015 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  4. Artificial Neural Networks-Based Software for Measuring Heat Collection Rate and Heat Loss Coefficient of Water-in-Glass Evacuated Tube Solar Water Heaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhijian; Liu, Kejun; Li, Hao; Zhang, Xinyu; Jin, Guangya; Cheng, Kewei

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient are crucial for the evaluation of in service water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters. However, conventional measurement requires expensive detection devices and undergoes a series of complicated procedures. To simplify the measurement and reduce the cost, software based on artificial neural networks for measuring heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient of water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters was developed. Using multilayer feed-forward neural networks with back-propagation algorithm, we developed and tested our program on the basis of 915 measured samples of water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters. This artificial neural networks-based software program automatically obtained accurate heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient using simply "portable test instruments" acquired parameters, including tube length, number of tubes, tube center distance, heat water mass in tank, collector area, angle between tubes and ground and final temperature. Our results show that this software (on both personal computer and Android platforms) is efficient and convenient to predict the heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient due to it slow root mean square errors in prediction. The software now can be downloaded from http://t.cn/RLPKF08.

  5. Mapping evaporative water loss in desert passerines reveals an expanding threat of lethal dehydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, Thomas P; Mutiibwa, Denis; Gerson, Alexander R; Smith, Eric Krabbe; Talbot, William A; O'Neill, Jacqueline J; McKechnie, Andrew E; Wolf, Blair O

    2017-02-28

    Extreme high environmental temperatures produce a variety of consequences for wildlife, including mass die-offs. Heat waves are increasing in frequency, intensity, and extent, and are projected to increase further under climate change. However, the spatial and temporal dynamics of die-off risk are poorly understood. Here, we examine the effects of heat waves on evaporative water loss (EWL) and survival in five desert passerine birds across the southwestern United States using a combination of physiological data, mechanistically informed models, and hourly geospatial temperature data. We ask how rates of EWL vary with temperature across species; how frequently, over what areas, and how rapidly lethal dehydration occurs; how EWL and die-off risk vary with body mass; and how die-off risk is affected by climate warming. We find that smaller-bodied passerines are subject to higher rates of mass-specific EWL than larger-bodied counterparts and thus encounter potentially lethal conditions much more frequently, over shorter daily intervals, and over larger geographic areas. Warming by 4 °C greatly expands the extent, frequency, and intensity of dehydration risk, and introduces new threats for larger passerine birds, particularly those with limited geographic ranges. Our models reveal that increasing air temperatures and heat wave occurrence will potentially have important impacts on the water balance, daily activity, and geographic distribution of arid-zone birds. Impacts may be exacerbated by chronic effects and interactions with other environmental changes. This work underscores the importance of acute risks of high temperatures, particularly for small-bodied species, and suggests conservation of thermal refugia and water sources.

  6. Effect of water losses by evaporation and chemical reaction in an industrial slaker reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Andreola

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A dynamic model of the slaker reactor was developed and validated for Klabin Paraná Papéis causticizing system, responsable for white liquor generation used by the plant. The model considered water losses by evaporation and chemical reaction. The model showed a good agreement with the industrial plant measures of active alkali, total titratable alkali and temperature, without the need of adjustment of any parameter. The simulated results showed that the water consumption by the slaking reaction and evaporation exerted significant influence on the volumetric flow rate of limed liquor, which imposed a decrease of 4.6% in the amount of water in reactor outlet.Foi desenvolvido e testado um modelo dinâmico do reator de apagamento do sistema de caustificação da Klabin Paraná Papéis, responsável pela geração do licor branco utilizado na planta. O modelo contempla perdas de água por evaporação e por reação química e apresentou boa concordância com dados industriais de álcali ativo, álcali total titulável e temperatura, sem a necessidade de ajuste de nenhum parâmetro. Os resultados obtidos a partir de simulações revelam que o consumo de água pela reação de apagamento, bem como pela evaporação, exercem uma influência significativa sobre a vazão volumétrica na saída do reator, impondo uma diminuição de 4,6% sobre o teor de água na corrente de saída do reator em relação à alimentação.

  7. Structural and Vibrational Study on Monomer and Dimer Forms and Water Clusters of Acetazolamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysen E. Ozel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental IR and Raman spectra of solid acetazolamide have been analysed by computing the molecular structures and vibrational spectra of monomer and dimer forms and water clusters of acetazolamide. The possible stable conformers of free acetazolamide molecule in the ground state were obtained by scanning the potential energy surface through the dihedral angles, D1 (1S-2C-6S-9N, D2 (4N-5C-12N-14C, and D3 (5C-12N-14C-16C. The final geometry parameters for the obtained stable conformers were determined by means of geometry optimization, carried out at DFT/B3LYP/6-31G++(d,p theory level. Afterwards the possible dimer forms of the molecule and acetazolamide-H2O clusters were formed and their energetically preferred conformations were investigated using the same method and the same level of theory. The effect of BSSE on the structure and energy of acetazolamide dimer has been investigated. The assignment of the vibrational modes was performed based on the potential energy distribution of the vibrational modes, calculated by using GAR2PED program. The experimental vibrational wavenumbers of solid acetazolamide are found to be in better agreement with the calculated wavenumbers of dimer form of acetazolamide than those of its monomeric form. NBO analysis has been performed on both monomer and dimer geometries.

  8. Born dry in the photoevaporation desert: Kepler's ultra-short-period planets formed water-poor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Eric D.

    2017-11-01

    Recent surveys have uncovered an exciting new population of ultra-short-period (USP) planets with orbital periods less than a day. These planets typically have radii ≲1.5 R⊕, indicating that they likely have rocky compositions. This stands in contrast to the overall distribution of planets out to ˜100 d, which is dominated by low-density sub-Neptunes above 2 R⊕, which must have gaseous envelopes to explain their size. However, on the USP orbits, planets are bombarded by intense levels of photoionizing radiation and consequently gaseous sub-Neptunes are extremely vulnerable to losing their envelopes to atmospheric photoevaporation. Using models of planet evolution, I show that the rocky USP planets can easily be produced as the evaporated remnants of sub-Neptunes with H/He envelopes and that we can therefore understand the observed dearth of USP sub-Neptunes as a natural consequence of photoevaporation. Critically however, planets on USP orbits could often retain their envelopes if they are formed with very high-metallicity water-dominated envelopes. Such water-rich planets would commonly be ≳2 R⊕ today, which is inconsistent with the observed evaporation desert, indicating that most USP planets likely formed from water-poor material within the snow-line. Finally, I examine the special case of 55 Cancri e and its possible composition in the light of recent observations, and discuss the prospects for further characterizing this population with future observations.

  9. Effects of water availability on free amino acids, sugars, and acrylamide-forming potential in potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muttucumaru, Nira; Powers, Stephen J; Elmore, J Stephen; Mottram, Donald S; Halford, Nigel G

    2015-03-11

    Irrigation is used frequently in potato cultivation to maximize yield, but water availability may also affect the composition of the crop, with implications for processing properties and food safety. Five varieties of potatoes, including drought-tolerant and -sensitive types, which had been grown with and without irrigation, were analyzed to show the effect of water supply on concentrations of free asparagine, other free amino acids, and sugars and on the acrylamide-forming potential of the tubers. Two varieties were also analyzed under more severe drought stress in a glasshouse. Water availability had profound effects on tuber free amino acid and sugar concentrations, and it was concluded that potato farmers should irrigate only if necessary to maintain the health and yield of the crop, because irrigation may increase the acrylamide-forming potential of potatoes. Even mild drought stress caused significant changes in composition, but these differed from those caused by more extreme drought stress. Free proline concentration, for example, increased in the field-grown potatoes of one variety from 7.02 mmol/kg with irrigation to 104.58 mmol/kg without irrigation, whereas free asparagine concentration was not affected significantly in the field but almost doubled from 132.03 to 242.26 mmol/kg in response to more severe drought stress in the glasshouse. Furthermore, the different genotypes were affected in dissimilar fashion by the same treatment, indicating that there is no single, unifying potato tuber drought stress response.

  10. Water vapour and hydrogen in the terrestrial-planet-forming region of a protoplanetary disk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisner, J A

    2007-05-31

    Planetary systems (ours included) formed in disks of dust and gas around young stars. Disks are an integral part of the star and planet formation process, and knowledge of the distribution and temperature of inner-disk material is crucial for understanding terrestrial planet formation, giant planet migration, and accretion onto the central star. Although the inner regions of protoplanetary disks in nearby star-forming regions subtend only a few nano-radians, near-infrared interferometry has recently enabled the spatial resolution of these terrestrial zones. Most observations have probed only dust, which typically dominates the near-infrared emission. Here I report spectrally dispersed near-infrared interferometric observations that probe the gas (which dominates the mass and dynamics of the inner disk), in addition to the dust, within one astronomical unit (1 au, the Sun-Earth distance) of the young star MWC 480. I resolve gas, including water vapour and atomic hydrogen, interior to the edge of the dust disk; this contrasts with results of previous spectrally dispersed interferometry observations. Interactions of this accreting gas with migrating planets may lead to short-period exoplanets like those detected around main-sequence stars. The observed water vapour is probably produced by the sublimation of migrating icy bodies, and provides a potential reservoir of water for terrestrial planets.

  11. Water in massive star-forming regions: HIFI observations of W3 IRS5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavarría, L.; Herpin, F.; Jacq, T.; Braine, J.; Bontemps, S.; Baudry, A.; Marseille, M.; van der Tak, F.; Pietropaoli, B.; Wyrowski, F.; Shipman, R.; Frieswijk, W.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Cernicharo, J.; Bachiller, R.; Benedettini, M.; Benz, A. O.; Bergin, E.; Bjerkeli, P.; Blake, G. A.; Bruderer, S.; Caselli, P.; Codella, C.; Daniel, F.; di Giorgio, A. M.; Dominik, C.; Doty, S. D.; Encrenaz, P.; Fich, M.; Fuente, A.; Giannini, T.; Goicoechea, J. R.; de Graauw, Th.; Hartogh, P.; Helmich, F.; Herczeg, G. J.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Johnstone, D.; Jørgensen, J. K.; Kristensen, L. E.; Larsson, B.; Lis, D.; Liseau, R.; McCoey, C.; Melnick, G.; Nisini, B.; Olberg, M.; Parise, B.; Pearson, J. C.; Plume, R.; Risacher, C.; Santiago-García, J.; Saraceno, P.; Stutzki, J.; Szczerba, R.; Tafalla, M.; Tielens, A.; van Kempen, T. A.; Visser, R.; Wampfler, S. F.; Willem, J.; Yıldız, U. A.

    2010-10-01

    We present Herschel observations of the water molecule in the massive star-forming region W3 IRS5. The o-H_217O 110-101, p-H_218O 111-000, p-H2O 202-111, p-H2O 111-000, o-H2O 221-212, and o-H2O 212-101 lines, covering a frequency range from 552 up to 1669 GHz, have been detected at high spectral resolution with HIFI. The water lines in W3 IRS5 show well-defined high-velocity wings that indicate a clear contribution by outflows. Moreover, the systematically blue-shifted absorption in the H2O lines suggests expansion, presumably driven by the outflow. No infall signatures are detected. The p-H2O 111-000 and o-H2O 212-101 lines show absorption from the cold material (T ~ 10 K) in which the high-mass protostellar envelope is embedded. One-dimensional radiative transfer models are used to estimate water abundances and to further study the kinematics of the region. We show that the emission in the rare isotopologues comes directly from the inner parts of the envelope (T ≳ 100 K) where water ices in the dust mantles evaporate and the gas-phase abundance increases. The resulting jump in the water abundance (with a constant inner abundance of 10-4) is needed to reproduce the o-H_217O 110-101 and p-H_218O 111-000 spectra in our models. We estimate water abundances of 10-8 to 10-9 in the outer parts of the envelope (T ≲ 100 K). The possibility of two protostellar objects contributing to the emission is discussed. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  12. Efficacy of Various Chemical Disinfectants on Biofilms Formed in Spacecraft Potable Water System Component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Willy; Garcia, Veronica; Castro, Victoria; Ott, Mark; Duane

    2009-01-01

    As the provision of potable water is critical for successful habitation of the International Space Station (ISS), life support systems were installed in December 2008 to recycle both humidity from the atmosphere and urine to conserve available water in the vehicle. Pre-consumption testing from the dispensing needle at the Potable Water Dispenser (PWD) indicated that bacterial concentrations exceeded the current ISS specifications of 50 colony forming units (CFU) per ml. Subsequent investigations revealed that a corrugated stainless steel flex hose upstream of the dispensing needle in the PWD was filled with non-sterile water and left at room temperature for over one month before launch. To simulate biofilm formation that was suspected in the flight system, sterile flex hoses were seeded with a consortium of bacterial isolates previously recovered from other ISS water systems, which included Ralstonia pickettii, Burkholderia multivorans, Caulobacter vibrioides., and Cupriavidus pauculus. After 5 days of incubation, these hoses were challenged with various chemical disinfectants including hydrogen peroxide, colloidal silver, and buffered pH solutions to determine the ability of the disinfectants to decrease and maintain bacterial concentrations below ISS specifications. Disinfection efficacy over time was measured by collecting daily heterotrophic plate counts following exposure to the disinfectants. A single flush with either 6% hydrogen peroxide solution or a mixture of 3% hydrogen peroxide and 400 ppb colloidal silver effectively reduced the bacterial concentrations to less than 1 CFU/ml for a period of up to 2 months. Testing results indicated that hydrogen peroxide and mixtures of hydrogen peroxide and colloidal silver have tremendous potential as alternative disinfectants for ISS water systems.

  13. Epicuticular waxes from caatinga and cerrado species and their efficiency against water loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio F. M. Oliveira

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the contents and chemical composition of the foliar epicuticular waxes of species from the caatinga (Aspidosperma pyrifolium, Capparis yco, Maytenus rigida and Ziziphus joazeiro and cerrado (Aristolochia esperanzae, Didymopanax vinosum, Strychnos pseudoquina and Tocoyena formosa were evaluated as to the resistance to water loss by means of an experimental device constructed for this purpose. In general, the waxes of the caatinga species investigated were more efficient against water loss than cerrado species. Increase of the thickness of the waxy deposits from 40 to 90m g.cm-2 had no significant effect on the resistance to water loss. The chemistry of the wax constituents was shown to be an important factor to determine the degree of resistance to evaporation. n-Alkanes and alcoholic triterpenes were the most efficient barriers, while hentriacontan-16-one (a ketone and ursolic acid (an acid triterpene revealed lowefficiency. The higher efficiency of the waxes of the leaves from caatinga species (mainly those of C. yco and Z. joazeiro is probably accounted for the predominance of n-alkanes in their composition. The lower efficiency of the waxes of A. pyrifolium (caatinga, T. formosa and A. esperanzae (both species from the cerrado is probably a consequence of the predominance of triterpenoids in the waxes of the two former species and hentriacontan-16-one in the latter.A influência do teor e da composição química das ceras epicuticulares foliares de espécies da caatinga (Aspidosperma pyrifolium, Capparis yco, Maytenus rigida e Ziziphus joazeiro e do cerrado (Aristolochia esperanzae, Didymopanax vinosum, Strychnos pseudoquina e Tocoyena formosa foram avaliadas em relação à resistência à perda de água, através de um dispositivo experimental construído para essa finalidade. Em geral, as ceras das espécies da caatinga foram mais eficientes contra a perda de água que as das espécies do cerrado. O aumento da espessura dos

  14. Rates of Water Loss and Uptake in Recalcitrant Fruits of Quercus Species Are Determined by Pericarp Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ke; Daws, Matthew I.; Stuppy, Wolfgang; Zhou, Zhe-Kun; Pritchard, Hugh W.

    2012-01-01

    Desiccation-sensitive recalcitrant seeds and fruits are killed by the loss of even moderate quantities of water. Consequently, minimizing the rate of water loss may be an important ecological factor and evolutionary driver by reducing the risk of mortality during post-dispersal dry-spells. For recalcitrant fruits of a range of Quercus species, prolonged drying times have been observed previously. However, the underlying mechanism(s) for this variation is unknown. Using nine Quercus species we investigated the major route(s) of water flow into and out of the fruits and analysed the relative importance of the different pericarp components and their anatomy on water uptake/loss. During imbibition (rehydration), the surface area of the cupule scar and the frequency and area of the vascular bundles contained therein were significantly correlated with the rates of water uptake across the scar. The vascular bundles serving the apex of the fruit were a minor contributor to overall water. Further, the rate of water uptake across the remainder of the pericarp surface was significantly correlated with the thickness of the vascularised inner layer in the pericarp. Fruits of Q. franchetii and Q. schottkyana dried most slowly and had a comparatively small scar surface area with few vascular bundles per unit area. These species inhabit drier regions than the other species studied, suggesting these anatomical features may have ecological value by reducing the risk of desiccation stress. However, this remains to be tested in the field. PMID:23071795

  15. Consequences of nocturnal water loss: a synthesis of regulating factors and implications for capacitance, embolism and use in models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeppel, M J B; Lewis, J D; Phillips, N G; Tissue, D T

    2014-10-01

    Total daily water use is a key factor influencing the growth of many terrestrial plants, and reflects both day-time and nocturnal water fluxes. However, while nocturnal sap flow (En) and stomatal conductance (gs,n) have been reported across a range of species, ecosystems and microclimatic conditions, the regulation of these fluxes remains poorly understood. Here, we present a framework describing the role of abiotic and biotic factors in regulating En and gs,n highlighting recent developments in this field. Across ecosystems, En and gs,n generally increased with increasing soil water content and vapor pressure deficit, but the interactive effects of these factors and the potential roles of wind speed and other abiotic factors remain unclear. On average, gs,n and En are higher in broad-leaved compared with needle-leaved plants, in C3 compared with C4 plants, and in tropical compared with temperate species. We discuss the impacts of leaf age, elevated [CO2] and refilling of capacitance on night-time water loss, and how nocturnal gs,n may be included in vegetation models. Younger leaves may have higher gs,n than older leaves. Embolism refilling and recharge of capacitance may affect sap flow such that total plant water loss at night may be less than estimated solely from En measurements. Our estimates of gs,n for typical plant functional types, based on the published literature, suggest that nocturnal water loss may be a significant fraction (10-25%) of total daily water loss. Counter-intuitively, elevated [CO2] may increase nocturnal water loss. Assumptions in process-based ecophysiological models and dynamic global vegetation models that gs is zero when solar radiation is zero are likely to be incorrect. Consequently, failure to adequately consider nocturnal water loss may lead to substantial under-estimation of total plant water use and inaccurate estimation of ecosystem level water balance. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights

  16. Water in massive star-forming regions : HIFI observations of W3 IRS5

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chavarria, L.; Herpin, F.; Jacq, T.; Braine, J.; Bontemps, S.; Baudry, A.; Marseille, M.; van der Tak, F.; Pietropaoli, B.; Wyrowski, F.; Shipman, R.; Frieswijk, W.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Cernicharo, J.; Bachiller, R.; Benedettini, M.; Benz, A. O.; Bergin, E.; Bjerkeli, P.; Blake, G.A.; Bruderer, S.; Caselli, P.; Codella, C.; Daniel, F.; di Giorgio, A. M.; Dominik, C.; Doty, S. D.; Encrenaz, P.; Fich, M.; Fuente, A.; Giannini, T.; Goicoechea, J. R.; de Graauw, Th.; Hartogh, P.; Helmich, F.; Herczeg, G. J.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Johnstone, D.; Jorgensen, J. K.; Kristensen, L. E.; Larsson, B.; Lis, D.; Liseau, R.; McCoey, C.; Melnick, G.; Nisini, B.; Olberg, M.; Parise, B.; Pearson, J. C.; Plume, R.; Risacher, C.; Santiago-Garcia, J.; Saraceno, P.; Stutzki, J.; Szczerba, R.; Tafalla, M.; Tielens, A.; van Kempen, T. A.; Visser, R.; Wampfler, S. F.; Willem, J.; Yildiz, U. A.

    2010-01-01

    We present Herschel observations of the water molecule in the massive star-forming region W3 IRS5. The o-(H2O)-O-17 1(10)-1(01), p-(H2O)-O-18 1(11)-0(00), p-H2O 2(02)-1(11), p-H2O 1(11)-0(00), o-H2O 2(21)-2(12), and o-H2O 2(12)-1(01) lines, covering a frequency range from 552 up to 1669 GHz, have

  17. Indefinitely stable iron(IV) cage complexes formed in water by air oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomyn, Stefania; Shylin, Sergii I.; Bykov, Dmytro; Ksenofontov, Vadim; Gumienna-Kontecka, Elzbieta; Bon, Volodymyr; Fritsky, Igor O.

    2017-01-01

    In nature, iron, the fourth most abundant element of the Earth's crust, occurs in its stable forms either as the native metal or in its compounds in the +2 or +3 (low-valent) oxidation states. High-valent iron (+4, +5, +6) compounds are not formed spontaneously at ambient conditions, and the ones obtained synthetically appear to be unstable in polar organic solvents, especially aqueous solutions, and this is what limits their studies and use. Here we describe unprecedented iron(IV) hexahydrazide clathrochelate complexes that are assembled in alkaline aqueous media from iron(III) salts, oxalodihydrazide and formaldehyde in the course of a metal-templated reaction accompanied by air oxidation. The complexes can exist indefinitely at ambient conditions without any sign of decomposition in water, nonaqueous solutions and in the solid state. We anticipate that our findings may open a way to aqueous solution and polynuclear high-valent iron chemistry that remains underexplored and presents an important challenge.

  18. Water sources and controls on water-loss rates of epigeous ectomycorrhizal fungal sporocarps during summer drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erik A. Lilleskov; Thomas D. Bruns; Todd E. Dawson; Francisco J. Camacho

    2009-01-01

    Access to deeper soil water and water-conserving traits should reduce water stress for ectomycorrhizal fungi, permitting function during drought. Here, we explored whether epigeous fruiting of ectomycorrhizal fungi during drought was facilitated by access to deep soil water, how much water was lost from sporocarps, and how sporocarp surface to volume ratios affected...

  19. Effects of grapefruit, grapefruit juice and water preloads on energy balance, weight loss, body composition, and cardiometabolic risk in free-living obese adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niswender Kevin D

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reducing dietary energy density has proven to be an effective strategy to reduce energy intakes and promote weight control. This effect appears most robust when a low energy dense preload is consumed before meals. Yet, much discussion continues regarding the optimal form of a preload. The purpose of the present study was to compare effects of a solid (grapefruit, liquid (grapefruit juice and water preload consumed prior to breakfast, lunch and dinner in the context of caloric restriction. Methods Eighty-five obese adults (BMI 30-39.9 were randomly assigned to (127 g grapefruit (GF, grapefruit juice (GFJ or water preload for 12 weeks after completing a 2-week caloric restriction phase. Preloads were matched for weight, calories, water content, and energy density. Weekly measures included blood pressure, weight, anthropometry and 24-hour dietary intakes. Resting energy expenditure, body composition, physical performance and cardiometabolic risk biomarkers were assessed. Results The total amount (grams of food consumed did not change over time. Yet, after preloads were combined with caloric restriction, average dietary energy density and total energy intakes decreased by 20-29% from baseline values. Subjects experienced 7.1% weight loss overall, with significant decreases in percentage body, trunk, android and gynoid fat, as well as waist circumferences (-4.5 cm. However, differences were not statistically significant among groups. Nevertheless, the amount and direction of change in serum HDL-cholesterol levels in GF (+6.2% and GFJ (+8.2% preload groups was significantly greater than water preload group (-3.7%. Conclusions These data indicate that incorporating consumption of a low energy dense dietary preload in a caloric restricted diet is a highly effective weight loss strategy. But, the form of the preload did not have differential effects on energy balance, weight loss or body composition. It is notable that subjects in GF

  20. Circulation in the northwest Laptev Sea in the eastern Arctic Ocean: Crossroads between Siberian River water, Atlantic water and polynya-formed dense water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janout, Markus A.; Hölemann, Jens; Timokhov, Leonid; Gutjahr, Oliver; Heinemann, Günther

    2017-08-01

    This paper investigates new observations from the poorly understood region between the Kara and Laptev Seas in the Eastern Arctic Ocean. We discuss relevant circulation features including riverine freshwater, Atlantic-derived water, and polynya-formed dense water, emphasize Vilkitsky Strait (VS) as an important Kara Sea gateway, and analyze the role of the adjacent ˜250 km-long submarine Vilkitsky Trough (VT) for the Arctic boundary current. Expeditions in 2013 and 2014 operated closely spaced hydrographic transects and 1 year-long oceanographic mooring near VT's southern slope, and found persistent annually averaged flow of 0.2 m s-1 toward the Nansen Basin. The flow is nearly barotropic from winter through early summer and becomes surface intensified with maximum velocities of 0.35 m s-1 from August to October. Thermal wind shear is maximal above the southern flank at ˜30 m depth, in agreement with basinward flow above VT's southern slope. The subsurface features a steep front separating warm (-0.5°C) Atlantic-derived waters in central VT from cold (salinities of 34-35. These dense waters are vigorously advected toward the Eurasian Basin and characterize VT as a conduit for near-freezing waters that could potentially supply the Arctic Ocean's lower halocline, cool Atlantic water, and ventilate the deeper Arctic Ocean. Our observations from the northwest Laptev Sea highlight a topographically complex region with swift currents, several water masses, narrow fronts, polynyas, and topographically channeled storms.

  1. Losses of methane forming potential of pulpified sugar beets stored in open ground basins; Verluste an Methanbildungspotenzial von Zuckerruebenmus in offenen Erdbecken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parr, Klaus [Gut Dummerstorf GmbH, Dummerstorf (Germany); Reinsdorf, Uwe; Warnke-Gurgel, Christina [NAWARO BioEnergie Park Guestrow GmbH, Guestrow (Germany); Losand, Bernd [Landesanstalt fuer Landwirtschaft und Fischerei Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Dummerstorf (Germany); Weissbach, Friedrich

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the losses of methane forming potential during storage of pulpified sugar beets in open lagoons. A method was developed enabling the quantification of the losses without the need of a mass balance. For the use as substrate for biogas production, it has been proposed to pulpify sugar beets and to store this material in open ground basins (lagoons) which are lined with plastic film. The organic matter (OM) in the inner regions of the lagoon is preserved by anaerobic conditions and lactic acid fermentation. In the surface layer, which is exposed to the atmosphere, additional losses are generated by aerobic substrate degradation and evaporation of volatile compounds. (orig.)

  2. Effects of water vapor density on cutaneous resistance to evaporative water loss and body temperature in green tree frogs (Hyla cinerea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wygoda, Mark L; Kersten, Constance A

    2013-01-01

    Increased cutaneous resistance to evaporative water loss (Rc) in tree frogs results in decreased water loss rate and increased body temperature. We examined sensitivity of Rc to water vapor density (WVD) in Hyla cinerea by exposing individual frogs and agar models to four different WVD environments and measuring cutaneous evaporative water loss rate and body temperature simultaneously using a gravimetric wind tunnel measuring system. We found that water loss rate varied inversely and body temperature directly with WVD but that models were affected to a greater extent than were animals. Mean Rc was significantly different between the highest WVD environment and each of the three drier environments but did not differ among the drier environments, indicating that Rc initially increases and then reaches a plateau in response to decreasing WVD. Rc was equivalent when calculated using either WVD difference or WVD deficit as the driving force for evaporation. We also directly observed secretions from cutaneous glands while measuring body temperature and tested secretions and skin samples for the presence of lipids. We found that irregular transient body temperature depressions observed during wind tunnel trials occur due to evaporative cooling from intermittent skin secretions containing lipids, although we were unable to identify lipid-secreting glands.

  3. Water Table Management Reduces Tile Nitrate Loss in Continuous Corn and in a Soybean-Corn Rotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig F. Drury

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Water table management systems can be designed to alleviate soil water excesses and deficits, as well as reduce nitrate leaching losses in tile discharge. With this in mind, a standard tile drainage (DR system was compared over 8 years (1991 to 1999 to a controlled tile drainage/subirrigation (CDS system on a low-slope (0.05 to 0.1% Brookston clay loam soil (Typic Argiaquoll in southwestern Ontario, Canada. In the CDS system, tile discharge was controlled to prevent excessive drainage, and water was pumped back up the tile lines (subirrigation to replenish the crop root zone during water deficit periods. In the first phase of the study (1991 to 1994, continuous corn (Zea mays, L. was grown with annual nitrogen (N fertilizer inputs as per local soil test recommendations. In the second phase (1995 to 1999, a soybean (Glycine max L., Merr.-corn rotation was used with N fertilizer added only during the two corn years. In Phase 1 when continuous corn was grown, CDS reduced total tile discharge by 26% and total nitrate loss in tile discharge by 55%, compared to DR. In addition, the 4-year flow weighted mean (FWM nitrate concentration in tile discharge exceeded the Canadian drinking water guideline (10 mg N l–1 under DR (11.4 mg N l–1, but not under CDS (7.0 mg N l–1. In Phase 2 during the soybean-corn rotation, CDS reduced total tile discharge by 38% and total nitrate loss in tile discharge by 66%, relative to DR. The 4-year FWM nitrate concentration during Phase 2 in tile discharge was below the drinking water guideline for both DR (7.3 mg N l–1 and CDS (4.0 mg N l–1. During both phases of the experiment, the CDS treatment caused only minor increases in nitrate loss in surface runoff relative to DR. Hence CDS decreased FWM nitrate concentrations, total drainage water loss, and total nitrate loss in tile discharge relative to DR. In addition, soybean-corn rotation reduced FWM nitrate concentrations and total nitrate loss in tile discharge

  4. Effect of hot water and heat treatment on the apatite-forming ability of titania films formed on titanium metal via anodic oxidation in acetic acid solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xinyu; Kim, Hyun-Min; Kawashita, Masakazu; Wang, Longbao; Xiong, Tianying; Kokubo, Tadashi; Nakamura, Takashi

    2008-04-01

    Titanium and its alloys have been widely used for orthopedic implants because of their good biocompatibility. We have previously shown that the crystalline titania layers formed on the surface of titanium metal via anodic oxidation can induce apatite formation in simulated body fluid, whereas amorphous titania layers do not possess apatite-forming ability. In this study, hot water and heat treatments were applied to transform the titania layers from an amorphous structure into a crystalline structure after titanium metal had been anodized in acetic acid solution. The apatite-forming ability of titania layers subjected to the above treatments in simulated body fluid was investigated. The XRD and SEM results indicated hot water and/or heat treatment could greatly transform the crystal structure of titania layers from an amorphous structure into anatase, or a mixture of anatase and rutile. The abundance of Ti-OH groups formed by hot water treatment could contribute to apatite formation on the surface of titanium metals, and subsequent heat treatment would enhance the bond strength between the apatite layers and the titanium substrates. Thus, bioactive titanium metals could be prepared via anodic oxidation and subsequent hot water and heat treatment that would be suitable for applications under load-bearing conditions.

  5. Effect of mustard gas hydrolysis products on the development of water-bloom forming cyanobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaytseva Tatyana

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Mustard gas and its hydrolysis products (MGHP belong to stable organochlorine compounds with high toxicity and broad spectrum of activity. Since the Second World War many aquatic ecosystems including the Baltic and the Adriatic Sea as well as the coastal waters of Japan, the USA, the UK, Australia have been contaminated with mustard gas due to the dumping of chemical weapon. Mustard gas and its hydrolysis products have a negative impact on aquatic life including microbiota. The aim of this work was to define the effect of MGHP on the growth, photosynthetic activity and synthesis of secondary metabolites by water-bloom forming cyanobacteria Trichormus variabilis, Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, Microcystis aeruginosa, Nodularia spumigena. Microbiological, chromatographic, spectrophotometric methods were used. The growth inhibition test with MGHP on cyanobacteria showed influence on the concentration EC50 within the range of 5.5 – 11.2 mg of organochlorine compounds (ОCC per liter. The synthesis of chlorophyll a was also decreased. It was shown that the chlorophyll synthesis was more sensitive to MGHP than the growth of cyanobacteria. NGHP induced enhanced excretion of exopolysaccharides. Low concentration of MGHP – 0.3 mg OCC/l - promoted the growth of toxigenic cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa and increased microcystin-LR concentration in the environment. enhanced excretion of such metabolites as polysaccharides and cyanotoxins has a serious negative impact on water pollution due to MGHP.

  6. Hydrological Components of a Young Loblolly Pine Plantation on a Sandy Soil with Estimates of Water Use and Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah A. Abrahamson; Phillip M. Dougherty; Stanley J. Zarnoch

    1998-01-01

    Fertilizer and irrigation treatments were applied in a 7- to l0-year-old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantation on a sandy soil near Laurinburg, North Carolina. Rainfall, throughfall, stemflow, and soil water content were measured throughout the study period. Monthly interception losses ranged from 4 to 15% of rainfall. Stemflow ranged from 0.2...

  7. Rate of water loss and sugar uptake during the osmotic dehydration of pineapple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura A. Ramallo

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Water loss, sucrose gain and the variation in concentration of other natural fruit sugars (glucose and fructose were studied during osmotic dehydration of pineapple slices (0.6 mm thick in sucrose solution (60 % w/w at three temperatures (30, 40 and 50ºC. As temperature increased from 30 to 50ºC, the apparent moisture and sucrose diffusivities (Dw and Ds increased 3.8 and 2.8 times, respectively; therefore, the dehydration efficiency index (Dw/Ds increased with temperature. The loss of glucose and fructose increased with temperature too. It was found that the solute content was a linear function of the moisture content and this relation was independent of the temperature during the first 600 minutes of dehydration.A perda da água, o ganho do sacarose e a variação na concentração de outros açúcares naturais de fruta (glucose e fructose foram estudados durante a desidratação osmótica de fatias de abacaxi, com 0.6 milímetro espessura, em solução de sacarose (60 % w/w em três temperaturas (30, 40 e 50ºC. Como a temperatura foi elevada de 30 a 50ºC, as difusividades aparentes da água e da sacarose (Dw e Ds aumentaram 3.8 e 2.8 vezes, respectivamente; conseqüentemente, o índice da eficiência da desidratação (Dw/Ds aumentou com a temperatura. A perda de glucose e de fructose aumentou com temperatura. O índice do soluto é uma função linear do índice de umidade e esta relação nao é funcão da temperatura durante os primeiros 600 minutos da desidratação. As experiências da desidratação osmótica foram realizadas em 40°C com fatias de 10 milímetros de espessura para determinar os perfis da concentração da água e da sacarose em função da posição para valores diferentes de tempos da imersão.

  8. Water extract of Rumex crispus prevents bone loss by inhibiting osteoclastogenesis and inducing osteoblast mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Ki-Shuk; Lee, Bohyoung; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2017-10-26

    Rumex crispus root has traditionally been used in Asian medicine for the treatment of hemorrhage and dermatolosis. The aim of this study was to explore the pharmaceutical effects of water extract of Rumex crispus (WERC) on osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation. We also studied the effect of WERC on the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL)-induced trabecular bone destruction mice model. High performance liquid chromatography analysis was used to identify three compounds (emodin, chrysophanol, and physcion) of WERC. The in vivo effect of WERC was examined using an administration of WERC or vehicle on the ICR mice with bone loss induced by intraperitoneal RANKL injection on day 0 and 1. All mice were sacrificed by cervical dislocation at day 7 and the femurs of mice were isolated for soft X-ray and Micro-CT analysis. The in vitro effect of WERC on osteoblast mineralization or osteoclast differentiation was examined by alizarin red S staining or by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining and assay. To determine the transcription level of osteoblast or osteoclast-specific genes, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used. Western blot analysis was performed to study the effect of WERC on mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) or nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling molecules. The presence of three compounds in WERC was determined. WERC significantly suppressed RANKL-induced trabecular bone loss by preventing microstructural deterioration. In vitro, WERC increased osteoblast mineralization by enhancing the transcription of runt-related transcription factor 2 and its transcriptional coactivators, and by stimulating extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation. Furthermore, WERC significantly inhibited osteoclast differentiation by suppressing the activation of the RANKL signalings (MAPK and NF-κB) and the increasing inhibitory factors of nuclear factor of activated T cells cytoplasmic 1. This study showed that

  9. Extreme learning machine: a new alternative for measuring heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient of water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhijian; Li, Hao; Tang, Xindong; Zhang, Xinyu; Lin, Fan; Cheng, Kewei

    2016-01-01

    Heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient are crucial indicators for the evaluation of in service water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters. However, the direct determination requires complex detection devices and a series of standard experiments, wasting too much time and manpower. To address this problem, we previously used artificial neural networks and support vector machine to develop precise knowledge-based models for predicting the heat collection rates and heat loss coefficients of water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters, setting the properties measured by "portable test instruments" as the independent variables. A robust software for determination was also developed. However, in previous results, the prediction accuracy of heat loss coefficients can still be improved compared to those of heat collection rates. Also, in practical applications, even a small reduction in root mean square errors (RMSEs) can sometimes significantly improve the evaluation and business processes. As a further study, in this short report, we show that using a novel and fast machine learning algorithm-extreme learning machine can generate better predicted results for heat loss coefficient, which reduces the average RMSEs to 0.67 in testing.

  10. Water in low-mass star-forming regions with Herschel . HIFI spectroscopy of NGC 1333

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, L. E.; Visser, R.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Yıldız, U. A.; Doty, S. D.; Herczeg, G. J.; Liu, F.-C.; Parise, B.; Jørgensen, J. K.; van Kempen, T. A.; Brinch, C.; Wampfler, S. F.; Bruderer, S.; Benz, A. O.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Deul, E.; Bachiller, R.; Baudry, A.; Benedettini, M.; Bergin, E. A.; Bjerkeli, P.; Blake, G. A.; Bontemps, S.; Braine, J.; Caselli, P.; Cernicharo, J.; Codella, C.; Daniel, F.; de Graauw, Th.; di Giorgio, A. M.; Dominik, C.; Encrenaz, P.; Fich, M.; Fuente, A.; Giannini, T.; Goicoechea, J. R.; Helmich, F.; Herpin, F.; Jacq, T.; Johnstone, D.; Kaufman, M. J.; Larsson, B.; Lis, D.; Liseau, R.; Marseille, M.; McCoey, C.; Melnick, G.; Neufeld, D.; Nisini, B.; Olberg, M.; Pearson, J. C.; Plume, R.; Risacher, C.; Santiago-García, J.; Saraceno, P.; Shipman, R.; Tafalla, M.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; van der Tak, F.; Wyrowski, F.; Beintema, D.; de Jonge, A.; Dieleman, P.; Ossenkopf, V.; Roelfsema, P.; Stutzki, J.; Whyborn, N.

    2010-10-01

    Water In Star-forming regions with Herschel” (WISH) is a key programme dedicated to studying the role of water and related species during the star-formation process and constraining the physical and chemical properties of young stellar objects. The Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared (HIFI) on the Herschel Space Observatory observed three deeply embedded protostars in the low-mass star-forming region NGC 1333 in several H_216O, H_218O, and CO transitions. Line profiles are resolved for five H_216O transitions in each source, revealing them to be surprisingly complex. The line profiles are decomposed into broad (>20 km s-1), medium-broad (~5-10 km s-1), and narrow (20 km s-1), indicating that its physical origin is the same as for the broad H_216O component. In one of the sources, IRAS4A, an inverse P Cygni profile is observed, a clear sign of infall in the envelope. From the line profiles alone, it is clear that the bulk of emission arises from shocks, both on small (⪉1000 AU) and large scales along the outflow cavity walls (~10 000 AU). The H2O line profiles are compared to CO line profiles to constrain the H2O abundance as a function of velocity within these shocked regions. The H2O/CO abundance ratios are measured to be in the range of ~0.1-1, corresponding to H2O abundances of ~10-5-10-4 with respect to H2. Approximately 5-10% of the gas is hot enough for all oxygen to be driven into water in warm post-shock gas, mostly at high velocities. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.Tables 2 and 3 (page 6) are only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  11. Flooded area characterization and losses estimation for water balance and hydrological functioning over the Niger inland delta, Mali

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussa, Ibrahim; Dominik, Wisser; Abdou, Ali; Ousmane, Seidou; Adama, Mariko; Abel, Afouda

    2015-04-01

    Water availability is an ongoing challenge for West African countries in general and Niger River basin in particular. Niger Inland Delta undergone an annual flood events from the Niger and Bani Rivers. During such events the flooded area can overs a surface of about 40,000 km2 and extends around 350 km in length and 100 km width in Mali. The processes that occur in NID are not fully incorporated in the conceptual development of many hydrological models under Niger Basin runoff. While these processes in NID can have considerable influence on downstream flow regimes due water losses impacting significantly the water availability. Although several studies in this region developed conceptual models to represent hydrological processes in that system. But the models have been criticized for their limitation and simplicity in conception for representing explicitly all the hydrological processes. This paper presents an attempt to assess the hydrological processes by taking into account more physical knowledge of the NID system. This is in view of incorporating wetland processes into an existing hydrological model to improve model simulations on the basin. The approach is mainly water balance based on large units that account for the system over the NID. Digital elevation model (DEM), satellite data, observed climate and hydrological parameters allowed the assessment of spatiotemporal variations of the flooded area, and then the quantification of evaporative and infiltration fluxes. Characterization of the extent of the flooded area is obtained from monthly-scale inflow data and remote sensing derived flood maps within a non-linear regression Model based. The modelization of the spatiotemporal extension of the flooding of the NID show that the flooded areas vary between 25 000 km2 in wet period and 2 000 km2 in dry period. Time series of input water volumes in the Niger Inland delta and of the water losses through the NID show that the percentage of volume of annual water

  12. Evaluation of precipitates used in strainer head loss testing: Part III. Long-term aluminum hydroxide precipitation tests in borated water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahn, Chi Bum, E-mail: bahn@anl.go [Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States); Kasza, Ken E.; Shack, William J.; Natesan, Ken [Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States); Klein, Paul [United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Rockville, MD 20852 (United States)

    2011-05-15

    Research highlights: Aluminum hydroxide precipitation boundary is similar to that for amorphous phase. Various precipitation tests are combined into one map in temperature-'pH + p[Al]{sub T}'. Flocculation tendency of precipitates depend on pH and total Al concentration. DLVO theory explains qualitatively the dependency of flocculation tendency on pH. - Abstract: Long-term aluminum (Al) hydroxide precipitation tests were conducted in slightly alkaline solutions containing 2500 ppm boron. The solution temperature was cycled to obtain a temperature history more representative of emergency core cooling system temperatures after a loss-of-coolant accident. The observed Al precipitation boundary was close to predicted results for amorphous precipitates, which are higher than the solubility expected for crystalline forms. Bench-scale and loop head loss test results under various conditions were successfully combined into single map in a temperature - 'pH + p[Al]{sub T}' domain, which yielded two bounding lines for Al hydroxide solubility in borated alkaline water that depend on whether or not loop head loss tests with Al alloy coupons are included. Precipitates were observed to form either as fine, cloudy suspensions, which showed very little tendency to settle, or as flocculated precipitates. The flocculation tendency of the precipitates can be qualitatively explained by a colloid stability theory or a phase diagram for protein solutions.

  13. Evaluation of precipitates used in strainer head loss testing : Part III. Long-term aluminum hydroxide precipitation tests in borated water.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahn, C. B.; Kasza, K. E.; Shack, W. J.; Natesan, K.; Klein, P. (Nuclear Engineering Division); (USNRC)

    2011-05-01

    Long-term aluminum (Al) hydroxide precipitation tests were conducted in slightly alkaline solutions containing 2500 ppm boron. The solution temperature was cycled to obtain a temperature history more representative of emergency core cooling system temperatures after a loss-of-coolant accident. The observed Al precipitation boundary was close to predicted results for amorphous precipitates, which are higher than the solubility expected for crystalline forms. Bench-scale and loop head loss test results under various conditions were successfully combined into single map in a temperature - 'pH + p[Al]{sub T}' domain, which yielded two bounding lines for Al hydroxide solubility in borated alkaline water that depend on whether or not loop head loss tests with Al alloy coupons are included. Precipitates were observed to form either as fine, cloudy suspensions, which showed very little tendency to settle, or as flocculated precipitates. The flocculation tendency of the precipitates can be qualitatively explained by a colloid stability theory or a phase diagram for protein solutions.

  14. Estimating Snow Water Equivalent with Backscattering at X and Ku Band Based on Absorption Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurong Cui

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Snow water equivalent (SWE is a key parameter in the Earth’s energy budget and water cycle. It has been demonstrated that SWE can be retrieved using active microwave remote sensing from space. This necessitates the development of forward models that are capable of simulating the interactions of microwaves and the snow medium. Several proposed models have described snow as a collection of sphere- or ellipsoid-shaped ice particles embedded in air, while the microstructure of snow is, in reality, more complex. Natural snow usually forms a sintered structure following mechanical and thermal metamorphism processes. In this research, the bi-continuous vector radiative transfer (bi-continuous-VRT model, which firstly constructs snow microstructure more similar to real snow and then simulates the snow backscattering signal, is used as the forward model for SWE estimation. Based on this forward model, a parameterization scheme of snow volume backscattering is proposed. A relationship between snow optical thickness and single scattering albedo at X and Ku bands is established by analyzing the database generated from the bi-continuous-VRT model. A cost function with constraints is used to solve effective albedo and optical thickness, while the absorption part of optical thickness is obtained from these two parameters. SWE is estimated after a correction for physical temperature. The estimated SWE is correlated with the measured SWE with an acceptable accuracy. Validation against two-year measurements, using the SnowScat instrument from the Nordic Snow Radar Experiment (NoSREx, shows that the estimated SWE using the presented algorithm has a root mean square error (RMSE of 16.59 mm for the winter of 2009–2010 and 19.70 mm for the winter of 2010–2011.

  15. A pulse-forming network for particle path visualization. [at Ames Aeromechanics Water Tunnel Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcalister, K. W.

    1981-01-01

    A procedure is described for visualizing nonsteady fluid flow patterns over a wide velocity range using discrete nonluminous particles. The paramount element responsible for this capability is a pulse-forming network with variable inductance that is used to modulate the discharge of a fixed amount of electrical energy through a xenon flashtube. The selectable duration of the resultant light emission functions as a variable shutter so that particle path images of constant length can be recorded. The particles employed as flow markers are hydrogen bubbles that are generated by electrolysis in a water tunnel. Data are presented which document the characteristics of the electrical circuit and establish the relation of particle velocity to both section inductance and film exposure.

  16. Genetic Basis for Geosmin Production by the Water Bloom-Forming Cyanobacterium, Anabaena ucrainica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongjie Wang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Geosmin is a common, musty-smelling sesquiterpene, principally produced by cyanobacteria. Anabaena ucrainica (Schhorb. Watanabe, a water bloom-forming cyanobacterium, is the geosmin producer responsible for odor problems in Dianchi and Erhai lakes in China. In this study, the geosmin synthase gene (geo of A. ucrainica and its flanking regions were identified and cloned by polymerase chain reaction (PCR and genome walking. The geo gene was found to be located in a transcription unit with two cyclic nucleotide-binding protein genes (cnb. The two cnb genes were highly similar and were predicted members of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP receptor protein/fumarate nitrate reductase regulator (Crp–Fnr family. Phylogenetic and evolutionary analyses implied that the evolution of the geosmin genes involved a horizontal gene transfer process in cyanobacteria. These genes showed a close relationship to 2-methylisoborneol genes in origin and evolution.

  17. Characterization of water-forming NADH oxidases for co-factor regeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehn, Gustav; Pedersen, Asbjørn Toftgaard; J. Charnock, Simon

    an environmentaland economic perspective [1]. Alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH) offer one such alternative. However, the reaction requires the oxidized nicotinamide co-factor (NAD+) that must be recycled due to its high cost contribution. One regeneration method that offers certain advantages is the oxidation of NADH......Traditional chemical methods for alcohol oxidation are often associated with issues such as high consumption of expensive oxidizing agents, generation of metal waste and the use of environmentally undesirable organic solvents. Developing green, selective catalysts is therefore important from...... using water forming NADH oxidases (NOX-2). The implementation of the ADH/NOX system for alcohol oxidation, however, requires consideration of several different issues. Enzyme activity and stability at relevant pH and temperature conditions, but also the tolerance to the substrates and products present...

  18. Loss of the proprioception and touch sensation channel PIEZO2 in siblings with a progressive form of contractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, A A; Nahid, N A; Nassif, C; Sayeed, M S B; Ahmed, M U; Parveen, M; Khalil, M I; Islam, M M; Nahar, Z; Rypens, F; Hamdan, F F; Rouleau, G A; Hasnat, A; Michaud, J L

    2017-03-01

    Dominant mutations in PIEZO2, which codes for the principal mechanotransduction channel for proprioception and touch sensation, have been found to cause different forms of distal arthrogryposis. Some observations suggest that these dominant mutations induce a gain-of-function effect on the channel. Here, we report a consanguineous family with three siblings who showed short stature, scoliosis, gross motor impairment, and a progressive form of contractures involving the distal joints that is distinct from that found in patients with dominant mutations in PIEZO2. These siblings also displayed deficits in proprioception and touch sensation. Whole-exome sequencing performed in the three affected siblings revealed the presence of a rare homozygous variant (c.2708C>G; p.S903*) in PIEZO2. This variant is predicted to disrupt PIEZO2 function by abolishing the pore domain. Sanger sequencing confirmed that all three siblings are homozygous whereas their parents and an unaffected sibling are heterozygous for this variant. Recessive mutations in PIEZO2 thus appear to cause a progressive phenotype that overlaps with, while being mostly distinct from that associated with dominant mutations in the same gene. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Concerted O atom—proton transfer in the O—O bond forming step in water oxidation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zuofeng Chen; Javier J. Concepcion; Xiangqian Hu; Weitao Yang; Paul G. Hoertz; Thomas J. Meyer

    2010-01-01

    ...⁻/4H⁺ loss and O—O bond formation. Significant progress in water oxidation catalysis has been achieved recently by use of single-site Ru metal complex catalysts such as [Ru(Mebimpy)(bpy)(OH₂)]²⁺ [Mebimpy = 2,6-bis...

  20. Consumption of low-moderate level arsenic contaminated water does not increase spontaneous pregnancy loss: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Michael S; Neamtiu, Iulia A; Surdu, Simona; Pop, Cristian; Lupsa, Ioana Rodica; Anastasiu, Doru; Fitzgerald, Edward F; Gurzau, Eugen S

    2014-10-13

    Previous work suggests an increased risk for spontaneous pregnancy loss linked to high levels of inorganic arsenic (iAs) in drinking water sources (>10 μg/L). However, there has been little focus to date on the impact of low-moderate levels of iAs in drinking water (loss of 5-20 weeks completed gestation as cases (n = 150), and women with ongoing pregnancies matched by gestational age (±1 week) as controls (n = 150). Participants completed a physician-administered questionnaire and we collected water samples from residential drinking sources. We reconstructed residential drinking water exposure histories using questionnaire data weighted by iAs determined using hydride generation-atomic absorption spectrometry (HG-AAS). Logistic regression models were used to generate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for associations between iAs exposure and loss, conditioned on gestational age and adjusted for maternal age, cigarette smoking, education and prenatal vitamin use. We explored potential interactions in a second set of models. Drinking water arsenic concentrations ranged from 0.0 to 175.1 μg/L, with median 0.4 μg/L and 90th%tile 9.4 μg/L. There were no statistically significant associations between loss and average or peak drinking water iAs concentrations (OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.96-1.01), or for daily iAs intake (OR 1.00, 95% CI 0.98-1.02). We detected modest evidence for an interaction between average iAs concentration and cigarette smoking during pregnancy (P = 0.057) and for daily iAs exposure and prenatal vitamin use (P = 0.085). These results suggest no increased risk for spontaneous pregnancy loss in association with low to moderate level drinking water iAs exposure. Though imprecise, our data also raise the possibility for increased risk among cigarette smokers. Given the low exposures overall, these data should reassure pregnant women and policy makers with regard to the potential effect of drinking water iAs on early

  1. Rheology of biofilms formed at the surface of NF membranes in a drinking water production unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houari, A; Picard, J; Habarou, H; Galas, L; Vaudry, H; Heim, V; Di Martino, P

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the mechanical properties of biofilms formed at the surface of nano-filtration (NF) membranes from a drinking water plant were analysed. Confocal laser scanning microscopy observations revealed that the NF biofilms formed a dense and heterogeneous structure at the membrane surface, with a mean thickness of 32.5 +/- 17.7 mum. The biofilms were scraped from the membrane surface and analysed in rotation and oscillation experiments with a RheoStress 150 rotating disk rheometer. During rotation analyses, a viscosity decrease with speed of shearing characteristic of rheofluidification was observed (eta = 300 Pa s for ý = 0.3 s(-1)). In the oscillation analyses with a sweeping of frequency (1-100 Hz), elasticity (G') ranged from 3000 to 3500 Pa and viscosity (G'') from 800 to 1200 Pa. Creep curves obtained with an application of a shear stress of 30 Pa were viscoelastic in nature. The G(0) and eta values were, respectively, 1.4 +/- 0.3 x 10(3) Pa and 3.3 +/- 0.65 x 10(6) Pa s. The relationship between the characteristics of NF biofilms and the flow conditions encountered during NF is discussed.

  2. Bulk water suppliers in the City of Harare – An endogenous form of privatisation of urban domestic water supply in Zimbabwe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Manzungu,

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the phenomenon of bulk water suppliers in the city of Harare, Zimbabwe’s largest urban metropolis and capital. Bulk water suppliers began in 2005 to sell domestic water to middle- and high-income suburbs because of shortcomings in the city’s water delivery system without state regulation, and have since become a permanent feature of the Zimbabwean urban waterscape. The study was conducted between 2012 and 2013 in three up-market suburbs of Harare, which were known to depend on bulk water suppliers. State regulation of bulk water suppliers was introduced in 2013, close to a decade after the start of operations, indicating a reactive and reluctant acknowledgement that bulk water suppliers were now significant players in water service provision. The regulation was, however, poorly conceptualised, based on potable water standards, which proved to be cumbersome and placed onerous demands on the suppliers. The paper concludes that bulk water suppliers are playing a critical role in water service provision in Zimbabwe’s largest metropolis and represent a spontaneous injection of local private capital in the urban domestic water supply sector. They can therefore be seen as a viable endogenous form of privatisation of urban domestic water service (as contrasted to multinational companies but should be viewed as complementing rather than replacing functional urban water supply systems. The operations of bulk water suppliers can be enhanced if a regulatory regime, informed by realities on the ground is crafted.

  3. Distribution of water in the G327.3-0.6 massive star-forming region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leurini, S.; Herpin, F.; van der Tak, F.; Wyrowski, F.; Herczeg, G. J.; van Dishoeck, E. F.

    2017-06-01

    Aims: Following our past study of the distribution of warm gas in the G327.3-0.6 massive star-forming region, we aim here at characterizing the large-scale distribution of water in this active region of massive star formation made of individual objects in different evolutionary phases. We investigate possible variations of the water abundance as a function of evolution. Methods: We present Herschel/PACS (4'× 4') continuum maps at 89 and179 μm encompassing the whole region (Hii region and the infrared dark cloud, IRDC) and an APEX/SABOCA (2'× 2') map at 350 μm of the IRDC. New spectral Herschel/HIFI maps toward the IRDC region covering the low-energy water lines at 987 and 1113 GHz (and their H218O counterparts) are also presented and combined with HIFI pointed observations toward the G327 hot core region. We infer the physical properties of the gas through optical depth analysis and radiative transfer modeling of the HIFI lines. Results: The distribution of the continuum emission at 89 and 179 μm follows the thermal continuum emission observed at longer wavelengths, with a peak at the position of the hot core and a secondary peak in the Hii region, and an arch-like layer of hot gas west of this Hii region. The same morphology is observed in the p-H2O 111-000 line, in absorption toward all submillimeter dust condensations. Optical depths of approximately 80 and 15 are estimated and correspond to column densities of 1015 and 2 × 1014 cm-2, respectively, for the hot core and IRDC position. These values indicate an abundance of water relative to H2 of 3 × 10-8 toward the hot core, while the abundance of water does not change along the IRDC with values close to some 10-8. Infall (over at least 20″) is detected toward the hot core position with a rate of 1-1.3 × 10-2M⊙ /yr, high enough to overcome the radiation pressure that is due to the stellar luminosity. The source structure of the hot core region appears complex, with a cold outer gas envelope in

  4. Characteristics of Soil and Organic Carbon Loss Induced by Water Erosion on the Loess Plateau in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhongwu; Nie, Xiaodong; Chang, Xiaofeng; Liu, Lin; Sun, Liying

    2016-01-01

    Soil erosion has been a common environmental problem in the Loess Plateau in China. This study aims to better understand the losses of soil organic carbon (SOC) induced by water erosion. Laboratory-simulated rainfall experiments were conducted to investigate the characteristics of SOC loss induced by water erosion. The applied treatments included two rainfall intensities (90 and 120 mm h-1), four slope gradients (10°, 15°, 20°, and 25°), and two typical soil types- silty clay loam and silty loam. Results showed that the sediment OC enrichment ratios (ERoc) in all the events were relative stable with values ranged from 0.85 to1.21 and 0.64 to 1.52 and mean values of 0.98 and 1.01 for silty clay loam and silty loam, respectively. Similar to the ERoc, the proportions of different sized particles in sediment showed tiny variations during erosion processes. No significant correlation was observed between ERoc values and the proportions of sediment particles. Slope, rainfall intensity and soil type almost had no impact on ERoc. These results indicate that the transportation of SOC during erosion processes was nonselective. While the mean SOC loss rates for the events of silty clay loam and silty loam were 0.30 and 0.08 g m-2 min-1, respectively. Greater differences in SOC loss rates were found in events among different soil types. Meanwhile, significant correlations between SOC loss and soil loss for all the events were observed. These results indicated that the amount of SOC loss was influenced primarily by soil loss and the SOC content of the original soil. Erosion pattern and original SOC content are two main factors by which different soils can influence SOC loss. It seems that soil type has a greater impact on SOC loss than rainfall characteristics on the Loess Plateau of China. However, more kinds of soils should be further studied due to the special formation processes in the Loess Plateau.

  5. Transcriptome Analysis of Taxillusi chinensis (DC.) Danser Seeds in Response to Water Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shugen; Ma, Xiaojun; Pan, Limei; Miao, Jianhua; Fu, Jine; Bai, Longhua; Zhang, Zhonglian; Guan, Yanhong; Mo, Changming; Huang, Hao; Chen, Maoshan

    2017-01-01

    Taxillus chinensis (DC.) Danser, the official species of parasitic loranthus that grows by parasitizing other plants, is used in various traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions. ABA-dependent and ABA-independent pathways are two major pathways in response to drought stress for plants and some genes have been reported to play a key role during the dehydration including dehydration-responsive protein RD22, late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins, and various transcription factors (TFs) like MYB and WRKY. However, genes responding to dehydration are still unknown in loranthus. Initially, loranthus seeds were characterized as recalcitrant seeds. Then, biological replicates of fresh loranthus seeds (CK), and seeds after being dehydrated for 16 hours (Tac-16) and 36 hours (Tac-36) were sequenced by RNA-Seq, generating 386,542,846 high quality reads. A total of 164,546 transcripts corresponding to 114,971 genes were assembled by Trinity and annotated by mapping them to NCBI non-redundant (NR), UniProt, GO, KEGG pathway and COG databases. Transcriptome profiling identified 60,695, 56,027 and 66,389 transcripts (>1 FPKM) in CK, Tac-16 and Tac-36, respectively. Compared to CK, we obtained 2,102 up-regulated and 1,344 down-regulated transcripts in Tac-16 and 1,649 up-regulated and 2,135 down-regulated transcripts in Tac-36 by using edgeR. Among them some have been reported to function in dehydration process, such as RD22, heat shock proteins (HSP) and various TFs (MYB, WRKY and ethylene-responsive transcription factors). Interestingly, transcripts encoding ribosomal proteins peaked in Tac-16. It is indicated that HSPs and ribosomal proteins may function in early response to drought stress. Raw sequencing data can be accessed in NCBI SRA platform under the accession number SRA309567. This is the first time to profile transcriptome globally in loranthus seeds. Our findings provide insights into the gene regulations of loranthus seeds in response to water loss and expand

  6. Transcriptome Analysis of Taxillusi chinensis (DC. Danser Seeds in Response to Water Loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shugen Wei

    Full Text Available Taxillus chinensis (DC. Danser, the official species of parasitic loranthus that grows by parasitizing other plants, is used in various traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions. ABA-dependent and ABA-independent pathways are two major pathways in response to drought stress for plants and some genes have been reported to play a key role during the dehydration including dehydration-responsive protein RD22, late embryogenesis abundant (LEA proteins, and various transcription factors (TFs like MYB and WRKY. However, genes responding to dehydration are still unknown in loranthus.Initially, loranthus seeds were characterized as recalcitrant seeds. Then, biological replicates of fresh loranthus seeds (CK, and seeds after being dehydrated for 16 hours (Tac-16 and 36 hours (Tac-36 were sequenced by RNA-Seq, generating 386,542,846 high quality reads. A total of 164,546 transcripts corresponding to 114,971 genes were assembled by Trinity and annotated by mapping them to NCBI non-redundant (NR, UniProt, GO, KEGG pathway and COG databases. Transcriptome profiling identified 60,695, 56,027 and 66,389 transcripts (>1 FPKM in CK, Tac-16 and Tac-36, respectively. Compared to CK, we obtained 2,102 up-regulated and 1,344 down-regulated transcripts in Tac-16 and 1,649 up-regulated and 2,135 down-regulated transcripts in Tac-36 by using edgeR. Among them some have been reported to function in dehydration process, such as RD22, heat shock proteins (HSP and various TFs (MYB, WRKY and ethylene-responsive transcription factors. Interestingly, transcripts encoding ribosomal proteins peaked in Tac-16. It is indicated that HSPs and ribosomal proteins may function in early response to drought stress. Raw sequencing data can be accessed in NCBI SRA platform under the accession number SRA309567.This is the first time to profile transcriptome globally in loranthus seeds. Our findings provide insights into the gene regulations of loranthus seeds in response to water loss and

  7. Streamflow gain and loss and water quality in the upper Nueces River Basin, south-central Texas, 2008-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banta, J. Ryan; Lambert, Rebecca B.; Slattery, Richard N.; Ockerman, Darwin J.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey-in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, The Nature Conservancy, the Real Edwards Conservation and Reclamation District, and the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department-investigated streamflow gain and loss and water quality in the upper Nueces River Basin, south-central Texas, specifically in the watersheds of the West Nueces, Nueces, Dry Frio, Frio, and Sabinal Rivers upstream from the Edwards aquifer outcrop. Streamflow in these rivers is sustained by groundwater contributions (for example, from springs) and storm runoff from rainfall events. To date (2012), there are few data available that describe streamflow and water-quality conditions of the rivers within the upper Nueces River Basin. This report describes streamflow gain-loss characteristics from three reconnaissance-level synoptic measurement surveys (hereinafter referred to as "surveys") during 2008-10 in the upper Nueces River Basin. To help characterize the hydrology, groundwater-level measurements were made, and water-quality samples were collected from both surface-water and groundwater sites in the study area from two surveys during 2009-10. The hydrologic (streamflow, springflow, and groundwater) measurements were made during three reconnaissance-level synoptic measurement surveys occurring in July 21-23, 2008; August 8-18, 2009; and March 22-24, 2010. These survey periods were selected to represent different hydrologic conditions. Streamflow gains and losses were based on streamflow and springflow measurements made at 74 sites in the study area, although not all sites were measured during each survey. Possible water chemistry relations among sample types (streamflow, springflow, or groundwater), between surveys, and among watersheds were examined using water-quality samples collected from as many as 20 sites in the study area.

  8. Estimating water losses as a result of food waste in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oelofse, Suzanna HH

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Globally there are sufficient land and water resources to produce food over the next 50 years, but only if water for agriculture is better managed (Molden, 2007). Water is a critical and strategic natural resource in South Africa. It is essential...

  9. Using ecotechnology to address water quality and wetland habitat loss problems in the Mississippi basin: a hierarchical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, John W; Yañéz Arancibia, Alejandro; Mitsch, William J; Lara-Dominguez, Ana Laura; Day, Jason N; Ko, Jae-Young; Lane, Robert; Lindsey, Joel; Lomeli, David Zarate

    2003-12-01

    Human activities are affecting the environment at continental and global scales. An example of this is the Mississippi basin where there has been a large scale loss of wetlands and water quality deterioration over the past century. Wetland and riparian ecosystems have been isolated from rivers and streams. Wetland loss is due both to drainage and reclamation, mainly for agriculture, and to isolation from the river by levees, as in the Mississippi delta. There has been a decline in water quality due to increasing use of fertilizers, enhanced drainage and the loss of wetlands for cleaning water. Water quality has deteriorated throughout the basin and high nitrogen in the Mississippi river is causing a large area of hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico adjacent to the Mississippi delta. Since the causes of these problems are distributed over the basin, the solution also needs to be distributed over the basin. Ecotechnology and ecological engineering offer the only ecologically sound and cost-effective method of solving these problems. Wetlands to promote nitrogen removal, mainly through denitrification but also through burial and plant uptake, offer a sound ecotechnological solution. At the level of the Mississippi basin, changes in farming practices and use of wetlands for nitrogen assimilation can reduce nitrogen levels in the River. There are additional benefits of restoration of wetland and riverine ecosystems, flood control, reduction in public health threats, and enhanced wildlife and fisheries. At the local drainage basin level, the use of river diversions in the Mississippi delta can address both problems of coastal land loss and water quality deterioration. Nitrate levels in diverted river water are rapidly reduced as water flows through coastal watersheds. At the local level, wetlands are being used to treat municipal wastewater. This is a cost-effective method, which results in improved water quality, enhanced wetland productivity and increased accretion. The

  10. A Study on Distribution Measurement and Mechanism of Deformation due to Water Loss of Overburden Layer in Vertical Shaft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunde Piao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on FBG fiber Bragg grating technology and BOTDA distributed optical fiber sensing technology, this study uses fine sand to simulate overburden layer in vertical shaft model equipment. It studies the placing technique and test method for optical fiber sensors in the overburden layer, combined with MODFLOW software to simulate the change of the water head value when the overburden layer is losing water, and obtains the deformation features of overburden layer. The results show, at the beginning of water loss, the vertical deformation increases due to larger hydraulic pressure drop, while the deformation decreases gradually and tends to be stable with the hydraulic pressure drop reducing. The circumferential deformation is closely related to such factors as the distance between each drainage outlet, the variations of water head value, and the method of drainage. The monitoring result based on optical fiber sensing technology is consistent with the characteristics of water loss in overburden layer simulated by MODFLOW software, which shows that the optical fiber sensing technology applied to monitor shaft overburden layer is feasible.

  11. Exogenous abscisic acid inhibits the water-loss of postharvest romaine lettuce during storage by inducing stomatal closure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuchun LIU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Postharvest lettuce often lose water, thus affecting both its market value and consumer acceptance. However, the mechanism of the water-loss is still waiting well exploration. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of a foliar application of ABA on the fresh weight-loss and the chlorophyll content of postharvest lettuce as well as its association with the regulation of stomata. The present data demonstrated that exogenously application of ABA, in a concentration range of 0 to 100 µM, significantly lowered the fresh weight-loss of postharvest lettuce. ABA also delayed chlorophyll reduction during ambient storage, but this protective effect was ABA concentration-dependent. Among the tested ABA concentrations, 50 µM or lower ABA produced an inhibition effect on chlorophyll degradation in postharvest lettuce leaves. The results demonstrated that the exogenous ABA treatment can obviously reduce the transpiration rate of lettuce leaves by promoting the stomatal closure of postharvest lettuce, therefore eventually delay fresh weight-loss. The present study primarily showed that the application of exogenous ABA, which originated from a naturally-produced phytohormone, has a great potential in retaining the freshness of postharvest lettuce that is stored in an ambient condition, although possible practical application still need to be further evaluated.

  12. An effect of heat insulation parameters on thermal losses of water-cooled roofs for secondary steelmaking electric arc furnaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Mihailov

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is research in the insulation parameters effect on the thermal losses of watercooled roofs for secondary steelmaking electric arc furnaces. An analytical method has been used for the investigation in heat transfer conditions in the working area. The results of the research can be used to choose optimal cooling parameters and select a suitable kind of insulation for water-cooled surfaces.

  13. Effect of sampling regime on estimation of basal metabolic rate and standard evaporative water loss using flow-through respirometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, C E; Withers, P C

    2010-01-01

    Strict criteria have been established for measurement of basal metabolic rate and standard evaporative water loss to ensure that data can be compared intra- and interspecifically. However, data-sampling regimes vary, from essentially continuous sampling to interrupted (switching) systems with data recorded periodically at more widely spaced intervals. Here we compare one continuous and three interrupted sampling regimes to determine whether sampling regime has a significant effect on estimation of basal metabolic rate or standard evaporative water loss. Compared to continuous 20-s sampling averaged over 20 min, sampling every 6 min and averaging over 60 min overestimated basal metabolic rate and evaporative water loss, sampling every 3 min and averaging over 21 min underestimated basal metabolic rate, and sampling every 12 min and averaging over 36 min showed no difference in estimates. Increasing the period over which the minimum mean was calculated significantly increased estimates of physiological variables. Reducing the frequency of sampling from 20 s to a longer interval of 3, 6, or 12 min underestimated basal metabolic rate but not evaporative water loss. This indicates that sampling frequency per se influences estimates of basal metabolic rate and that differences are not just an artifact of differences in the period over which the mean is calculated. Sampling regime can have a highly significant influence on estimation of standard physiological variables, although the actual differences between sampling regimes were generally small (usually <5%). Although continuous sampling is the preferred sampling regime for open-flow respirometry studies, if time and cost are prohibitive, then use of an appropriate switching system will result in smaller errors than measuring individuals continuously for shorter periods.

  14. Importance of water source in controlling leaf leaching losses in a dwarf red mangrove ( Rhizophora mangle L.) wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Stephen E., III; Childers, Daniel L.

    2007-01-01

    The southern Everglades mangrove ecotone is characterized by extensive dwarf Rhizophora mangle L. shrub forests with a seasonally variable water source (Everglades - NE Florida Bay) and residence times ranging from short to long. We conducted a leaf leaching experiment to understand the influence that water source and its corresponding water quality have on (1) the early decay of R. mangle leaves and (2) the early exchange of total organic carbon (TOC) and total phosphorus (TP) between leaves and the water column. Newly senesced leaves collected from lower Taylor River (FL) were incubated in bottles containing water from one of three sources (Everglades, ambient mangrove, and Florida Bay) that spanned a range of salinity from 0 to 32‰, [TOC] from 710 to 1400 μM, and [TP] from 0.17 to 0.33 μM. We poisoned half the bottles in order to quantify abiotic processes (i.e., leaching) and assumed that non-poisoned bottles represented both biotic (i.e., microbial) and abiotic processes. We sacrificed bottles after 1,2, 5, 10, and 21 days of incubation and quantified changes in leaf mass and changes in water column [TOC] and [TP]. We saw 10-20% loss of leaf mass after 24 h—independent of water treatment—that leveled off by Day 21. After 3 weeks, non-poisoned leaves lost more mass than poisoned leaves, and there was only an effect of salinity on mass loss in poisoned incubations—with greatest leaching-associated losses in Everglades freshwater. Normalized concentrations of TOC in the water column increased by more than two orders of magnitude after 21 days with no effect of salinity and no difference between poisoned and non-poisoned treatments. However, normalized [TP] was lower in non-poisoned incubations as a result of immobilization by epiphytic microbes. This immobilization was greatest in Everglades freshwater and reflects the high P demand in this ecosystem. Immobilization of leached P in mangrove water and Florida Bay water was delayed by several days and may

  15. Transient analysis for total loss of feed water scenario due to postulated feed line breaks in both steam generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seyun; Kim, Minhee [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The total loss of feed water (TLOFW) scenario is a beyond design basis accident (DBA) for nuclear steam supply system (NSSS) but is considered in the safety analysis report (SAR) for the stress analysis of structures of KEPIC class 1 and the hydrogen generation analysis. The postulated single feed line break (FLB) scenario is DBA and is described in chapter 15.2 of SAR. To evaluate the safety impact, the integrity of plant and the coping measures, a transient of total loss of feed water due to the postulated breaks of both feed line is analyzed for OPR1000 with RELAP5 code. To evaluate the safety impact, the integrity of plant and the coping measures, a transient of total loss of feed water due to the postulated breaks of both feed line is analyzed for OPR1000 with RELAP5 code. The calculations show that the operation of safety depressurization system at 1800 seconds is an effective measure to mitigate the core damage due to the uncovery of the core according to the pressurization of primary loop. Through the sensitivity studies, it is presented that the peak cladding temperature is proportional to the break size.

  16. SU-F-T-144: Analytical Closed Form Approximation for Carbon Ion Bragg Curves in Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuomanen, S; Moskvin, V; Farr, J [St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Semi-empirical modeling is a powerful computational method in radiation dosimetry. A set of approximations exist for proton ion depth dose distribution (DDD) in water. However, the modeling is more complicated for carbon ions due to fragmentation. This study addresses this by providing and evaluating a new methodology for DDD modeling of carbon ions in water. Methods: The FLUKA, Monte Carlo (MC) general-purpose transport code was used for simulation of carbon DDDs for energies of 100–400 MeV in water as reference data model benchmarking. Based on Thomas Bortfeld’s closed form equation approximating proton Bragg Curves as a basis, we derived the critical constants for a beam of Carbon ions by applying models of radiation transport by Lee et. al. and Geiger to our simulated Carbon curves. We hypothesized that including a new exponential (κ) residual distance parameter to Bortfeld’s fluence reduction relation would improve DDD modeling for carbon ions. We are introducing an additional term to be added to Bortfeld’s equation to describe fragmentation tail. This term accounts for the pre-peak dose from nuclear fragments (NF). In the post peak region, the NF transport will be treated as new beams utilizing the Glauber model for interaction cross sections and the Abrasion- Ablation fragmentation model. Results: The carbon beam specific constants in the developed model were determined to be : p= 1.75, β=0.008 cm-1, γ=0.6, α=0.0007 cm MeV, σmono=0.08, and the new exponential parameter κ=0.55. This produced a close match for the plateau part of the curve (max deviation 6.37%). Conclusion: The derived semi-empirical model provides an accurate approximation of the MC simulated clinical carbon DDDs. This is the first direct semi-empirical simulation for the dosimetry of therapeutic carbon ions. The accurate modeling of the NF tail in the carbon DDD will provide key insight into distal edge dose deposition formation.

  17. Monitoring and physical-chemical modeling of conditions of natural surface and underground waters forming in the Kola North.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazukhina, Svetlana I; Masloboev, Vladimir A; Chudnenko, Konstantin V; Bychinsky, Valeriy A; Svetlov, Anton V; Muraviev, Sergey V

    2012-01-01

    Processes of surface and underground water forming in the Khibiny massif have been studied using a physical-chemical model of the "water-rock-atmosphere-organic substance" system. The obtained model solutions are indicative of the fact that formation of surface and underground water of the Khibiny massif takes place on the whole in the framework of the considered system without attracting a hypothetical outside source of pollutants. The results are of practical and methodological importance for assessment of prediction of the man-induced impact on water systems in conditions of Subarctic.

  18. A focused liquid jet formed by a water hammer in a test tube

    CERN Document Server

    Kiyama, Akihito; Ando, Keita; Kameda, Masaharu

    2015-01-01

    We investigate motion of a gas-liquid interface in a test tube induced by a large acceleration via impulsive force. We conduct simple experiments in which the tube partially filled with a liquid falls under gravity and impacts a rigid floor. A curved gas-liquid interface inside the tube reverses and eventually forms an elongated jet (i.e. the so-called a focused jet). In our experiments, there arises either vibration of the interface or increment in the velocity of a liquid jet accompanied by the onset of cavitation in the liquid column. These phenomena cannot be explained by considering pressure impulse in a classical potential flow analysis, which does not account for finite speeds of sound as well as phase change. Here we model such water-hammer events as a result of one-dimensional pressure wave propagation and its interaction with boundaries through acoustic impedance mismatching. The method of characteristics is applied to describe pressure wave interactions and the subsequent cavitation. The proposed m...

  19. Photoelectrochemical water splitting and hydrogen generation by a spontaneously formed InGaN nanowall network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvi, N. H., E-mail: nhalvi@isom.upm.es, E-mail: r.noetzel@isom.upm.es; Soto Rodriguez, P. E. D.; Kumar, Praveen; Gómez, V. J.; Aseev, P.; Nötzel, R., E-mail: nhalvi@isom.upm.es, E-mail: r.noetzel@isom.upm.es [ISOM Institute for Systems Based on Optoelectronics and Microtechnology, ETSI Telecomunicación, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Alvi, A. H. [Department of Physics, Government College University, Faisalabad (Pakistan); Alvi, M. A. [Department of Chemistry, Government College University, Faisalabad (Pakistan); Willander, M. [Department of Science and Technology (ITN), Campus Norrköping, Linköping University, 60174 Norrköping (Sweden)

    2014-06-02

    We investigate photoelectrochemical water splitting by a spontaneously formed In-rich InGaN nanowall network, combining the material of choice with the advantages of surface texturing for light harvesting by light scattering. The current density for the InGaN-nanowalls-photoelectrode at zero voltage versus the Ag/AgCl reference electrode is 3.4 mA cm{sup −2} with an incident-photon-to-current-conversion efficiency (IPCE) of 16% under 350 nm laser illumination with 0.075 W·cm{sup −2} power density. In comparison, the current density for a planar InGaN-layer-photoelectrode is 2 mA cm{sup −2} with IPCE of 9% at zero voltage versus the Ag/AgCl reference electrode. The H{sub 2} generation rates at zero externally applied voltage versus the Pt counter electrode per illuminated area are 2.8 and 1.61 μmol·h{sup −1}·cm{sup −2} for the InGaN nanowalls and InGaN layer, respectively, revealing ∼57% enhancement for the nanowalls.

  20. The influence of Group I metal chlorides on water loss and chloride release from magnesium oxychloride cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie Cannesson

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The water loss and chloride release from four different formulations of magnesium oxychloride cement have been studied. The formulations were all based on 25% m/m aqueous MgCl2 and the solutions employed to prepare cements consisted of either MgCl2:water or MgCl2:aqueous MCl (M = Li, Na or K, all MCl salts at 1 mol dm-3. Solutions were mixed with solid MgO at a ratio of 1:1 (m/v and allowed to harden at room temperature for 1 hour. Five disc-shaped specimens (6 mm diameter × 2 mm thickness of each were prepared, stored in a desiccating atmosphere and weighed at regular intervals. All were found to lose water rapidly, equilibrating within three hours. Water loss was Fickian to values of Mt/M∞ of around 0.7 in all cases. Diffusion coefficients were slightly smaller than for the additive-free cement (1.52 × 10-6 cm2/s and fell in the range 1.27-1.39 × 10-6 cm2/s. Equilibrium water losses varied from 23.1% (with NaCl to 20.0% (with KCl, but only with NaCl did the value differ significantly from that for the additive-free cement (20.7%. Chloride release was increased by the presence of the additives. It followed a consistent pattern, with a maximum generally at about 5 hours, followed by a reduction up to 2 weeks (336 hours. This shows that a proportion of the released chloride was taken back up as the cement matured.

  1. Relations between soil surface roughness, tortuosity, tillage treatments, rainfall intensity and soil and water losses from a red yellow latosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta Bramorski

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The soil surface roughness increases water retention and infiltration, reduces the runoff volume and speed and influences soil losses by water erosion. Similarly to other parameters, soil roughness is affected by the tillage system and rainfall volume. Based on these assumptions, the main purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of tillage treatments on soil surface roughness (RR and tortuosity (T and to investigate the relationship with soil and water losses in a series of simulated rainfall events. The field study was carried out at the experimental station of EMBRAPA Southeastern Cattle Research Center in São Carlos (Fazenda Canchim, in São Paulo State, Brazil. Experimental plots of 33 m² were treated with two tillage practices in three replications, consisting of: untilled (no-tillage soil (NTS and conventionally tilled (plowing plus double disking soil (CTS. Three successive simulated rain tests were applied in 24 h intervals. The three tests consisted of a first rain of 30 mm/h, a second of 30 mm/h and a third rain of 70 mm/h. Immediately after tilling and each rain simulation test, the surface roughness was measured, using a laser profile meter. The tillage treatments induced significant changes in soil surface roughness and tortuosity, demonstrating the importance of the tillage system for the physical surface conditions, favoring water retention and infiltration in the soil. The increase in surface roughness by the tillage treatments was considerably greater than its reduction by rain action. The surface roughness and tortuosity had more influence on the soil volume lost by surface runoff than in the conventional treatment. Possibly, other variables influenced soil and water losses from the no-tillage treatments, e.g., soil type, declivity, slope length, among others not analyzed in this study.

  2. Blood Density Is Nearly Equal to Water Density: A Validation Study of the Gravimetric Method of Measuring Intraoperative Blood Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitello, Dominic J; Ripper, Richard M; Fettiplace, Michael R; Weinberg, Guy L; Vitello, Joseph M

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The gravimetric method of weighing surgical sponges is used to quantify intraoperative blood loss. The dry mass minus the wet mass of the gauze equals the volume of blood lost. This method assumes that the density of blood is equivalent to water (1 gm/mL). This study's purpose was to validate the assumption that the density of blood is equivalent to water and to correlate density with hematocrit. Methods. 50 µL of whole blood was weighed from eighteen rats. A distilled water control was weighed for each blood sample. The averages of the blood and water were compared utilizing a Student's unpaired, one-tailed t-test. The masses of the blood samples and the hematocrits were compared using a linear regression. Results. The average mass of the eighteen blood samples was 0.0489 g and that of the distilled water controls was 0.0492 g. The t-test showed P = 0.2269 and R (2) = 0.03154. The hematocrit values ranged from 24% to 48%. The linear regression R (2) value was 0.1767. Conclusions. The R (2) value comparing the blood and distilled water masses suggests high correlation between the two populations. Linear regression showed the hematocrit was not proportional to the mass of the blood. The study confirmed that the measured density of blood is similar to water.

  3. Nitrate treatment effects on bacterial community biofilm formed on carbon steel in produced water stirred tank bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Joana Montezano; de Almeida, Fernando Pereira; Lins, Ulysses; Seldin, Lucy; Korenblum, Elisa

    2012-06-01

    To better understand the impact of nitrate in Brazilian oil reservoirs under souring processes and corrosion, the goal of this study was to analyse the effect of nitrate on bacterial biofilms formed on carbon steel coupons using reactors containing produced water from a Brazilian oil platform. Three independent experiments were carried out (E1, E2 and E3) using the same experimental conditions and different incubation times (5, 45 and 80 days, respectively). In every experiment, two biofilm-reactors were operated: one was treated with continuous nitrate flow (N reactor), and the other was a control reactor without nitrate (C reactor). A Polymerase Chain Reaction-Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis approach using the 16S rRNA gene was performed to compare the bacterial groups involved in biofilm formation in the N and C reactors. DGGE profiles showed remarkable changes in community structure only in experiments E2 and E3. Five bands extracted from the gel that represented the predominant bacterial groups were identified as Bacillus aquimaris, B. licheniformis, Marinobacter sp., Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Thioclava sp. A reduction in the sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) most probable number counts was observed only during the longer nitrate treatment (E3). Carbon steel coupons used for biofilm formation had a slightly higher weight loss in N reactors in all experiments. When the coupon surfaces were analysed by scanning electron microscopy, an increase in corrosion was observed in the N reactors compared with the C reactors. In conclusion, nitrate reduced the viable SRB counts. Nevertheless, the nitrate dosing increased the pitting of coupons.

  4. Clinical symptoms, signs and tests for identification of impending and current water-loss dehydration in older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Lee; Abdelhamid, Asmaa; Attreed, Natalie J; Campbell, Wayne W; Channell, Adam M; Chassagne, Philippe; Culp, Kennith R; Fletcher, Stephen J; Fortes, Matthew B; Fuller, Nigel; Gaspar, Phyllis M; Gilbert, Daniel J; Heathcote, Adam C; Kafri, Mohannad W; Kajii, Fumiko; Lindner, Gregor; Mack, Gary W; Mentes, Janet C; Merlani, Paolo; Needham, Rowan A; Olde Rikkert, Marcel G M; Perren, Andreas; Powers, James; Ranson, Sheila C; Ritz, Patrick; Rowat, Anne M; Sjöstrand, Fredrik; Smith, Alexandra C; Stookey, Jodi J D; Stotts, Nancy A; Thomas, David R; Vivanti, Angela; Wakefield, Bonnie J; Waldréus, Nana; Walsh, Neil P; Ward, Sean; Potter, John F; Hunter, Paul

    2015-04-30

    There is evidence that water-loss dehydration is common in older people and associated with many causes of morbidity and mortality. However, it is unclear what clinical symptoms, signs and tests may be used to identify early dehydration in older people, so that support can be mobilised to improve hydration before health and well-being are compromised. To determine the diagnostic accuracy of state (one time), minimally invasive clinical symptoms, signs and tests to be used as screening tests for detecting water-loss dehydration in older people by systematically reviewing studies that have measured a reference standard and at least one index test in people aged 65 years and over. Water-loss dehydration was defined primarily as including everyone with either impending or current water-loss dehydration (including all those with serum osmolality ≥ 295 mOsm/kg as being dehydrated). Structured search strategies were developed for MEDLINE (OvidSP), EMBASE (OvidSP), CINAHL, LILACS, DARE and HTA databases (The Cochrane Library), and the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP). Reference lists of included studies and identified relevant reviews were checked. Authors of included studies were contacted for details of further studies. Titles and abstracts were scanned and all potentially relevant studies obtained in full text. Inclusion of full text studies was assessed independently in duplicate, and disagreements resolved by a third author. We wrote to authors of all studies that appeared to have collected data on at least one reference standard and at least one index test, and in at least 10 people aged ≥ 65 years, even where no comparative analysis has been published, requesting original dataset so we could create 2 x 2 tables. Diagnostic accuracy of each test was assessed against the best available reference standard for water-loss dehydration (serum or plasma osmolality cut-off ≥ 295 mOsm/kg, serum osmolarity or weight change) within each study. For

  5. Partialization losses of ON/OFF operation of waterto- water refrigeration/heat-pump units

    OpenAIRE

    Corberán, José M.; D.Donadello; Martínez Galván, Israel Octavio; Montagud, C

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental campaign for the characterization of the dynamic behavior of a water-to-water refrigeration/heat-pump unit under ON/OFF operation. The unit was previously tested at different water inlet temperatures under steady state conditions, and a very good agreement was found between the instantaneous dynamic performance of the heat pump and the corresponding quasi-steady state operation. In parallel, a series of tests were carried out to quan...

  6. Membrane permeability and the loss of germination factor from Neurospora crassa at low water activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlang, G.; Horowitz, N. H.

    1974-01-01

    Neurospora crassa conidia incubating in buffer at low water activities release a germination-essential component as well as 260-nm absorbing and ninhydrin-positive materials, regardless of whether an electrolyte or nonelectrolyte is used to reduce water activity. Chloroform and antibiotics known to increase cell-membrane permeability have a similar effect. This suggests that membrane damage occurs in media of low water activity and that an increase in permeability is responsible for the release of cellular components. The damage caused in media of low water activity is nonlethal in most cases, and the conidia recover when transferred to nutrient medium.

  7. Forming chemical composition of surface waters in the Arctic. Case study of Lake Inari and the River Paz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazukhina S. I.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Questions of studying the formation of surface and ground waters, their interaction with rocks, development of the basics of their rational use and protection are of great fundamental and practical importance. The influence of the northern Fennoscandian (Baltic Shield rock composition on forming surface waters' chemical composition in the border area of Finland – Russia – Norway (Lake Inari, the River Paz using physical-chemical modeling (Selector software package has been evaluated. For the physical-chemical modeling there have been made two samples of chemical analyses of the most widespread rocks forming the catchment area, with their percentage ratio taken into consideration. Since the catchment area of the prevailing majority of streams feeding Lake Inari is composed of rocks of the Lapland granulite belt (LGB and its framing, it will be the main sample (conditional influence of their composition on the chemical composition of waters is about 80 %. The second sample includes gneisses, migmatites, granite-gneisses, granites and quartz diorites typical for Inari terrane (conventional influence of their composition on the chemical composition of waters is about 20 %. It has been found that the chemical composition of the surface waters is formed by interaction of precipitation with intrusive, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks of northern Fennoskandia containing Clarke concentrations of S, C, F, Zn, Ni, Pb, Cu. It has been shown that due to interactions in the water – rock system the chemical composition of Lake Inari waters as well as upper and middle flow of the River Paz is formed by weathering of granulites of the Lapland granulite belt and Inari terrane granitoids of the northern Fennoscandia. The chemical composition of waters in the River Paz downstream is formed by weathering of metamorphosed volcanic and sedimentary rocks of the Pechenga structure and the impact of industrial pollution

  8. Efficacy of water preloading before main meals as a strategy for weight loss in primary care patients with obesity: RCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parretti, Helen M; Aveyard, Paul; Blannin, Andrew; Clifford, Susan J; Coleman, Sarah J; Roalfe, Andrea; Daley, Amanda J

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the efficacy of water preloading before meals as a weight loss strategy for adults with obesity. A two-group randomized controlled trial was conducted in Birmingham, England. Eighty-four adults with obesity were recruited from general practices. All participants were given a face-to-face weight management consultation at baseline (30 min) and a follow-up telephone consultation at 2 weeks (10 min). At baseline, participants were randomized to either drinking 500 ml of water 30 min before their main meals or an attention control group where participants were asked to imagine their stomach was full before meals. The primary outcome was weight change at 12-week follow-up. Several measures of adherence were also used, including 24 h total urine collections. 41 participants were randomized to the intervention group and 43 to the comparator group. The water preloading group lost -1.3 kg (95% CI -2.4 to -0.1, P = 0.028) more than comparators at follow up. Adjusting for ethnicity, deprivation, age, and gender resulted in the intervention group losing -1.2 kg (95% CI -2.4 to 0.07, P = 0.063) more than the comparator. There is preliminary evidence that water preloading before main meals leads to a moderate weight loss at follow up. ISRCTN33238158. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  9. Effects of a hypothetical loss-of-coolant accident on a Mark I Boiling Water Reactor pressure-suppression system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitts, J.H.; McCauley, E.W.

    1977-12-22

    A loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) in a boiling-water-reactor (BWR) power plant has never occurred. However, because this type of accident could be particularly severe, it is used as a principal theoretical basis for design. A series of consistent, versatile, and accurate air-water tests that simulate LOCA conditions has been completed on a /sup 1///sub 5/-scale Mark I BWR pressure-suppression system. Results from these tests are used to quantify the vertical-loading function and to study the associated fluid dynamics phenomena. Detailed histories of vertical loads on the wetwell are shown. In particular, variation of hydrodynamic-generated vertical loads with changes in drywell-pressurization rate, downcomer submergence, and the vent-line loss coefficient are established. Initial drywell overpressure, which partially preclears the downcomers of water, substantially reduces the peak vertical loads. Scaling relationships, developed from dimensional analysis and verified by bench-top experiments, allow the /sup 1///sub 5/-scale results to be applied to a full-scale BWR power plant. This analysis leads to dimensionless groupings that are invariant. These groupings show that, if water is used as the working fluid, the magnitude of the forces in a scaled facility is reduced by the cube of the scale factor and occurs in a time reduced by the square root of the scale factor.

  10. Water sorption and dimensional changes of denture base polymer reinforced with glass fibers in continuous unidirectional and woven form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cal, N E; Hersek, N; Sahin, E

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the dimensional accuracy and water sorption of a denture base polymer that was reinforced with glass fibers in continuous unidirectional and woven form in different weight fractions. Ten rhombic brass plates were prepared with reference points, and 70 heat-cured denture base polymer specimens were produced using these brass models. Ten of 70 were used for controls, and 60 were reinforced with glass fibers in continuous parallel and woven form. The dimensional changes of polymer and fiber-reinforced composite specimens after processing, drying for 4 days at 37 degrees C, and storage in 37 degrees C water for 90 days were calculated by the change of the distance vector. The measurements were made between the reference points on the specimens and were compared with those on the brass model at 4 different stages. The water sorption calculations were made at 10 different time intervals on 70 specimens, which were immersed in a 37 degrees C distilled water bath and weighed. The polymerization shrinkage and water sorption of denture base polymers is lower when the specimens are reinforced with glass fibers in continuous unidirectional and woven form. The highest fiber content showed the smallest dimensional change (0.069 mm, or 0.25%), and the unreinforced group showed the largest change (0.139 mm, or 0.54%). Water sorption occurred mainly during the first 14 days. As the fiber content increases, the dimensional change and water sorption decrease.

  11. No runoff, no soil loss : soil and water conservation in hedgerow barrier systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiepe, P.

    1995-01-01

    Land degradation by water erosion represents a serious, and fast increasing, environmental threat. Hedgerow barriers control water erosion through the presence of the tree stem and through an increase in infiltration beneath the hedgerow. The infiltration rate beneath hedgerows is 3-8 times

  12. GRACE, GLDAS and measured groundwater data products show water storage loss in Western Jilin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moiwo, Juana Paul; Lu, Wenxi; Tao, Fulu

    2012-01-01

    Water storage depletion is a worsening hydrological problem that limits agricultural production in especially arid/semi-arid regions across the globe. Quantifying water storage dynamics is critical for developing water resources management strategies that are sustainable and protective of the environment. This study uses GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment), GLDAS (Global Land Data Assimilation System) and measured groundwater data products to quantify water storage in Western Jilin (a proxy for semi-arid wetland ecosystems) for the period from January 2002 to December 2009. Uncertainty/bias analysis shows that the data products have an average error wetland ecosystems and people's livelihoods. For sustainable restoration and preservation of wetland ecosystems in the region, it is critical to develop water resources management strategies that limit groundwater extraction rate to that of recharge rate.

  13. Managing the water-energy-food nexus: Gains and losses from new water development in Amu Darya River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalilov, Shokhrukh-Mirzo; Keskinen, Marko; Varis, Olli; Amer, Saud; Ward, Frank A.

    2016-08-01

    According to the UN, the population of Central Asia will increase from its current approximately 65 million people to a well over 90 million by the end of this century. Taking this increasing population into consideration, it is impossible to project development strategies without considering three key factors in meeting the demands of a growing population: water, food and energy. Societies will have to choose, for instance, between using land and fertilizer for food production or for bio-based or renewable energy production, and between using fresh water for energy production or for irrigating crops. Thus water, food and energy are inextricably linked and must be considered together as a system. Recently, tensions among the Central Asian countries over the use of water for energy and energy production have increased with the building of Rogun Dam on the Vakhsh River, a tributary of the Amu Darya River. The dam will provide upstream Tajikistan with hydropower, while downstream countries fear it could negatively impact their irrigated agriculture. Despite recent peer reviewed literature on water resources management in Amu Darya Basin, none to date have addressed the interconnection and mutual impacts within water-energy-food systems in face of constructing the Rogun Dam. We examine two potential operation modes of the dam: Energy Mode (ensuring Tajikistan's hydropower needs) and Irrigation Mode (ensuring water for agriculture downstream). Results show that the Energy Mode could ensure more than double Tajikistan's energy capacity, but would reduce water availability during the growing season, resulting in an average 37% decline in agricultural benefits in downstream countries. The Irrigation Mode could bring a surplus in agricultural benefits to Tajikistan and Uzbekistan in addition an increasing energy benefits in Tajikistan by two fold. However, energy production in the Irrigation Mode would be non-optimally distributed over the seasons resulting in the most of

  14. Quantification of soil and water losses in an extensive olive orchard catchment in Southern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo-Comino, Jesús; Taguas, Encarnación; Seeger, Manuel; Ries, Johannes B.

    2018-01-01

    A sound understanding of erosive processes at different scales can contribute substantially to the design of suitable management strategies. The main aim of this work was to evaluate key factors at the pedon scale that cause soil erosion to occur. To achieve this goal, we quantified infiltration, permeability, soil losses and runoff volumes in a small Southern Spanish catchment cultivated with olive orchards. To assess which factor contributed most to speeding up soil erosion, a Spearman rank coefficient and principal components analysis were carried out. The results confirmed low infiltration values (11.8 mm h-1) in the surface soil layers and high permeability values (24.6 mm h-1) in the sub-surface soil layers, and produced an average soil loss of 19.7 g m-2 and average runoff coefficients of 26.1%. Statistical analyses showed that: i) the generation of runoff was closely correlated with soil loss; and, ii) an increase in the vegetation cover helped reduce soil erosion. In comparison to larger areas such as a catchment, the pedon scale produced lower or similar soil losses and runoff coefficients in rainfall simulation conditions, although the influence of vegetation cover as a control factor was also detected.

  15. Magnitude of Annual Soil Loss from a Hilly Cultivated Slope in Northern Vietnam and Evaluation of Factors Controlling Water Erosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyoshi Kurosawa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A soil erosion experiment was conducted in northern Vietnam over three rainy seasons to clarify the magnitude of soil loss and factors controlling water erosion. The plot had a low (8% or medium (14.5% slope with land-cover of cassava or morning glory or being bare. Annual soil loss (177 to 2,361 g/m2 was a tolerable level in all low-slope plots but was not in some medium-slope plots. The effects of slope gradient and seasonal rainfall on the mean daily soil loss of the season were confirmed, but the effect of land-cover was not, owing to the small canopy cover ratio or leaf area index during the season. The very high annual soil loss (>2,200 g/m2 observed in the first year of some medium-slope plots was the site-specific effect from initial land preparation. Since the site-specific effect was large, the preparation must be done carefully on the slope.

  16. Validation of the doubly labeled water method in growing precocial birds : The importance of assumptions concerning evaporative water loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, GH; Schekkerman, H

    1999-01-01

    The doubly labeled water (DLW) method was validated against respiration gas analysis in growing precocial chicks of the black-tailed godwit (Limosa limosa) and the northern lapwing (Vanellus vanellus). To calculate the rate of CO2 production from DLW measurements, Lifson and McClintock's equations

  17. The Effects of Five Forms of Capital on Thought Processes Underlying Water Consumption Behavior in Suburban Vientiane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuya Makino

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A community’s water supply is one of its most important infrastructures, as sufficient quality and quantity of water are as much prerequisites for human life as economic development. The rapid urbanization predicted for developing countries will cause serious water shortages in densely populated areas. The Lao People’s Democratic Republic (PDR is taking precautions by planning and developing their water supply infrastructure to ensure reliable supply of water. We used the five capitals model of sustainable livelihoods to capture how a household makes a living and analyzed the effects of five forms of capital (natural, physical, human, financial, and social on water consumption behaviors from the perspective of the residents’ livelihood. We conducted a survey to gain an understanding of the thought processes behind water consumption behavior in two villages in suburban Vientiane. The results indicated that natural and physical capital delayed connections to the water supply. Financial capital stimulated the purchase of high-quality water in preference to a connection to the water supply. This lack of connection is not necessarily sustainable in the near future, considering ongoing urbanization. Furthermore, this possibility presents a difficult problem, as residents do not usually acknowledge it. To accomplish sustainable development goals, this gap should be overcome.

  18. Progressive forest canopy water loss during the 2012–2015 California drought

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gregory P. Asner; Philip G. Brodrick; Christopher B. Anderson; Nicholas Vaughn; David E. Knapp; Roberta E. Martin

    2016-01-01

    The 2012-2015 drought has left California with severely reduced snowpack, soil moisture, ground water, and reservoir stocks, but the impact of this estimated millennial-scale event on forest health is unknown...

  19. Virus Effect on Marine Synechococcus Spp. Loss in Subtropical Western Pacific Coastal Waters During Winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An-Yi Tsai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about microbial processes and the effect that viruses have on Synechococcus spp. in aquatic environments. This study investigated diel variations in the Synechococcus spp. abundance in three size-fractionated water samples (200, 10, and 2 μmμm fractions. Experiments diluting Synechococcus spp. with virus-free water (30 kDa filtrate in winter months were performed. We found Synechococcus spp. to be more abundant in virus-diluted water than in the other fractions during night time. These results suggest that protozoan grazing did not contribute importantly to a reduction in Synechococcus spp. abundance but that viral lysis more likely caused Synechococcus spp. mortality in these marine coastal waters during winter.

  20. Forming chemical composition of surface waters in the Arctic as "water - rock" interaction. Case study of lake Inari and river Paz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazukhina, Svetlana; Sandimirov, Sergey; Pozhilenko, Vladimir; Ivanov, Stanislav; Maksimova, Viktoriia

    2017-04-01

    Due to the depletion of fresh water supplies and the deterioration of their quality as a result of anthropogenic impact on the Arctic ecosystems, the research questions of forming surface and ground waters, their interactions with the rocks, development of the foundations for their rational use and protection are of great fundamental and practical importance. The aim of the work is to evaluate the influence of the chemical composition of rocks of the northern part of the Fennoscandian (Baltic) shield on forming surface waters chemical composition (Lake Inari, river Paz) using physical-chemical modeling (Chudnenko, 2010, Selector software package). River Paz (Paatsjoki) is the largest river in North Fennoscandia and flows through the territory of three countries - Finland, Russia and Norway. It originates from Lake Inari, which a large number of streams and rivers flow into, coming from the mountain range of the northern Finland (Maanselkä hill). Within the catchment of inflows feeding the lake Inari and river Paz in its upper flow there are mainly diverse early Precambrian metamorphic and intrusive rocks of the Lapland granulite belt and its framing, and to a lesser extent - various gneisses and migmatites with relicts of amphibolites, granitic gneisses, plagioclase and plagio- and plagiomicrocline granites, and quartz diorites of Inari terrane (Meriläinen, 1976, fig 1; Hörmann et al, 1980, fig 1; Geologicalmap, 2001). Basing on the techniques developed earlier (Mazukhina, 2012), and the data of monitoring of the chemical composition of surface waters and investigation of the chemical composition of the rocks, physical-chemical modeling (FCM) (Selector software package) was carried out. FCM includes 34 independent components (Al-B-Br-Ar-He-Ne-C-Ca-Cl-F-Fe-K-Mg-Mn-N-Na-P-S-Si-Sr-Cu-Zn-Ni-Pb-V-Ba-Co-Cr-Hg-As-Cd-H-O-e), 996 dependent components, of them 369 in aqueous solution, 76 in the gas phase, 111 liquid hydrocarbons, and 440 solid phases, organic and mineral

  1. Zinc corrosion after loss-of-coolant accidents in pressurized water reactors – Thermo- and fluid-dynamic effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeliger, André, E-mail: a.seeliger@hszg.de [Hochschule Zittau/Görlitz, Institute of Process Technology, Process Automation and Measuring Technology, Theodor-Körner-Allee 16, D-02763 Zittau (Germany); Alt, Sören; Kästner, Wolfgang; Renger, Stefan [Hochschule Zittau/Görlitz, Institute of Process Technology, Process Automation and Measuring Technology, Theodor-Körner-Allee 16, D-02763 Zittau (Germany); Kryk, Holger; Harm, Ulrich [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Fluid Dynamics, P.O. Box 510119, D-01314 Dresden (Germany)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Borated coolant supports corrosion at zinc-coated installations in PWR after LOCA. • Dissolved zinc is injected into core by ECCS during sump recirculation phase. • Corrosion products can reach and settle at further downstream components. • Corrosion products can cause head losses at spacers and influence decay heat removal. • Preventive procedures were tested at semi-technical scale facilities. - Abstract: Within the framework of the German reactor safety research, generic experimental investigations were carried out aiming at thermal-hydraulic consequences of physicochemical mechanisms, caused by dissolution of zinc in boric acid during corrosion processes at hot-dip galvanized surfaces of containment internals at lower coolant temperatures and the subsequent precipitation of solid zinc borates in PWR core regions of higher temperature. This constellation can occur during sump recirculation operation of ECCS after LOCA. Hot-dip galvanized compounds, which are installed inside a PWR containment, may act as zinc sources. Getting in contact with boric acid coolant, zinc at their surfaces is released into coolant in form of ions due to corrosion processes. As a long-term behavior resp. over a time period of several days, metal layers of zinc and zinc alloys can dissolve extensively. First fundamental studies at laboratory scale were done at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR). Their experimental results were picked up for the definition of boundary conditions for experiments at semi-technical scale at the Hochschule Zittau/Görlitz (HSZG). Electrical heating rods with zircaloy cladding tubes have been used as fuel rod simulators. As near-plant core components, a 3 × 3 configuration of heating rods (HRC) and a shortened, partially heatable PWR fuel assembly dummy were applied into cooling circuits. The HRC module includes segments of spacers for a suitable representation of a heating channel geometry. Formations of different solid

  2. Loss of Propiconazole and Its Four Stereoisomers from the Water Phase of Two Soil-Water Slurries as Measured by Capillary Electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca D. Miller

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Propiconazole is a chiral fungicide used in agriculture for control of many fungal diseases on a variety of crops. This use provides opportunities for pollution of soil and, subsequently, groundwater. The rate of loss of propiconazole from the water phase of two different soil-water slurries spiked with the fungicide at 50 mg/L was followed under aerobic conditions over five months; the t1/2 was 45 and 51 days for the two soil slurries. To accurately assess environmental and human risk, it is necessary to analyze the separate stereoisomers of chiral pollutants, because it is known that for most such pollutants, both biotransformation and toxicity are likely to be stereoselective. Micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC, the mode of capillary electrophoresis used for analysis of neutral chemicals, was used for analysis of the four propiconazole stereoisomers with time in the water phase of the slurries. MEKC resulted in baseline separation of all stereoisomers, while GC-MS using a chiral column gave only partial separation. The four stereoisomers of propiconazole were lost from the aqueous phase of the slurries at experimentally equivalent rates, i.e., there was very little, if any, stereoselectivity. No loss of propiconazole was observed from the autoclaved controls of either soil, indicating that the loss from active samples was most likely caused by aerobic biotansformation, with a possible contribution by sorption to the non-autoclaved active soils. MEKC is a powerful tool for separation of stereoisomers and can be used to study the fate and transformation kinetics of chiral pesticides in water and soil.

  3. Measuring surface-water loss in Honouliuli Stream near the ‘Ewa Shaft, O‘ahu, Hawai‘i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Sarah N.

    2017-05-30

    The Honolulu Board of Water Supply is currently concerned with the possibility of bacteria in the pumped water of the ‘Ewa Shaft (State well 3-2202-21). Groundwater from the ‘Ewa Shaft could potentially be used to meet future potable water needs in the ‘Ewa area on the island of O‘ahu. The source of the bacteria in the pumped water is unknown, although previous studies indicate that surface water may be lost to the subsurface near the site. The ‘Ewa Shaft consists of a vertical shaft, started near the south bank of Honouliuli Stream at an altitude of about 161 feet, and two horizontal infiltration tunnels near sea level. The shaft extracts groundwater from near the top of the freshwater lens in the Waipahu-Waiawa aquifer system within the greater Pearl Harbor Aquifer Sector, a designated Water Management Area.The surface-water losses were evaluated with continuous groundwater-level data from the ‘Ewa Shaft and a nearby monitoring well, continuous stream-discharge data from U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging station 16212490 (Honouliuli Stream at H-1 Freeway near Waipahu), and seepage-run measurements in Honouliuli Stream and its tributary. During storms, discharge at the Honouliuli Stream gaging station increases and groundwater levels at ‘Ewa Shaft and a nearby monitoring well also increase. The concurrent increase in water levels at ‘Ewa Shaft and the nearby monitoring well during storms indicates that regional groundwater-level changes related to increased recharge, reduced withdrawals (due to a decrease in demand during periods of rainfall), or both may be occurring; although these data do not preclude the possibility of local recharge from Honouliuli Stream. Discharge measurements from two seepage runs indicate that surface water in the immediate area adjacent to ‘Ewa Shaft infiltrates into the streambed and may later reach the groundwater system developed by the ‘Ewa Shaft. The estimated seepage loss rates in the vicinity of

  4. Effects of Plant Growth Form and Water Substrates on the Decomposition of Submerged Litter: Evidence of Constructed Wetland Plants in a Greenhouse Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunmei Ping

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Wetland plants are important components in constructed wetlands (CWs, and one of their most important functions in CWs is to purify the water. However, wetland plant litter can also increase eutrophication of water via decomposition and nutrient release, and few studies have focused on the interspecific variation in the decomposition rate and nutrient release of multiple plant species in CWs. Here a greenhouse litter-bag experiment was conducted to quantify the decomposition rates and nutrient release of 7 dominant macrophytes (2 floating plants and 5 emergent plants in three types of water substrate. The results showed that plant litter species and growth forms significantly affected the litter mass losses. The nutrient release was significantly different among plant litter species, but not between floating and emergent plants. Litter traits, such as litter lignin, total nitrogen (TN and total phosphorus (TP can well predict the decomposition rates of submerged litter. These results indicated that submerging litter in water did not change the relationships between litter traits and litter decomposition rates, and leaching might play a more important role in the decomposition of submerged litter in CWs than that in other terrestrial ecosystems. These findings can provide suggestions for managers about the maintenance of constructed wetlands.

  5. Acute weight loss followed by an aggressive nutritional recovery strategy has little impact on on-water rowing performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, G; Rice, A J; Tanner, R; Sharpe, K; Gore, C J; Jenkins, D G; Hahn, A G

    2006-01-01

    To assess the influence of moderate, acute weight loss on on-water rowing performance when aggressive nutritional recovery strategies were used in the two hours between weigh in and racing. Competitive rowers (n = 17) undertook three on-water 1800 m time trials under cool conditions (mean (SD) temperature 8.4 (2.0) degrees C), each separated by 48 hours. No weight limit was imposed for the first time trial--that is, unrestricted body mass (UNR1). However, one of the remaining two trials followed a 4% loss in body mass in the previous 24 hours (WT(-4%)). No weight limit was imposed for the other trial (UNR2). Aggressive nutritional recovery strategies (WT(-4%), 2.3 g/kg carbohydrate, 34 mg/kg Na+, and 28.4 ml/kg fluid; UNR, ad libitum) were used in the first 90 minutes of the two hours between weigh in and performance trials. WT(-4%) had only a small and statistically non-significant effect on the on-water time trial performance (mean 1.0 second, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.9 to 2.8; p = 0.29) compared with UNR. This was despite a significant decrease in plasma volume at the time of weigh in for WT(-4%) compared with UNR (-9.2%, 95% CI -12.8% to -5.6%; prowing performance, at least in cool conditions.

  6. Suitability of ponds formed by strip mining in eastern Oklahoma for public water supply, aquatic life, waterfowl habitat, livestock watering, irrigation, and recreation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkhurst, Renee S.

    1994-01-01

    A study of coal ponds formed by strip mining in eastern Oklahoma included 25 ponds formed by strip mining from the Croweburg, McAlester, and Iron Post coal seams and 6 noncoal-mine ponds in the coal-mining area. Water-quality samples were collected in the spring and summer of 1985 to determine the suitability of the ponds for public water supply, aquatic life, waterfowl habitat, livestock watering, irrigation, and recreation. The rationale for water-quality criteria and the criteria used for each proposed use are discussed. The ponds were grouped by the coal seam mined or as noncoal-mine ponds, and the number of ponds from each group containing water that exceeded a given criterion is noted. Water in many of the ponds can be used for public water supplies if other sources are not available. Water in most of these ponds exceeds one or more secondary standards, but meets all primary standards. Water samples from the epilimnion (shallow strata as determined by temperature) of six ponds exceeded one or more primary standards, which are criteria protective of human health. Water samples from five of eight Iron Post ponds exceeded the selenium criterion. Water samples from all 31 ponds exceeded one or more secondary standards, which are for the protection of human welfare. The criteria most often exceeded were iron, manganese, dissolved solids, and sulfate, which are secondary standards. The criteria for iron and manganese were exceeded more frequently in the noncoal-mine ponds, whereas ponds formed by strip mining were more likely to exceed the criteria for dissolved solids and sulfate. The ponds are marginally suited for aquatic life. Water samples from the epilimnion of 18 ponds exceeded criteria protective of aquatic life. The criteria for mercury and iron were exceeded most often. Little difference was detected between mine ponds and noncoal-mine ponds. Dissolved oxygen concentrations in the hypolimnion (deepest strata) of all the ponds were less than the minimum

  7. Modifications to the steady-state 41-node thermoregulatory model including validation of the respiratory and diffusional water loss equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    After the simplified version of the 41-Node Stolwijk Metabolic Man Model was implemented on the Sigma 3 and UNIVAC 1110 computers in batch mode, it became desirable to make certain revisions. First, the availability of time-sharing terminals makes it possible to provide the capability and flexibility of conversational interaction between user and model. Secondly, recent physiological studies show the need to revise certain parameter values contained in the model. Thirdly, it was desired to make quantitative and accurate predictions of evaporative water loss for humans in an orbiting space station. The result of the first phase of this effort are reported.

  8. Heat Losses from a Breathing System with a Heated-water Humidifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunn, J. N.; Mapleson, W. W.; Hillard, E. K.

    1971-01-01

    Air was “breathed” in the laboratory through a heated-water humidifier and a breathing tube. Several different humidifiers and tubes were used. The temperature rise of the air on passing through the humidifier and the temperature drop on passing through the tube were measured. Both were dependent on ventilation. Insulating the tube and humidifier together with the insertion of baffles in the latter reduced the rise and fall and their dependence on ventilation. With suitable design the dependence on ventilation and the need to use high water temperatures could be greatly reduced. In addition, a thermostat with a reduced dead zone is needed. PMID:5289685

  9. Modeling the water line emission from the high-mass star-forming region AFGL 2591

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelman, D. R.; van der Tak, F. F. S.

    2007-01-01

    Context. Observations of water lines are a sensitive probe of the geometry, dynamics and chemical structure of dense molecular gas. The launch of Herschel with on board HIFI and PACS allows to probe the behaviour of multiple water lines with unprecedented sensitivity and resolution. Aims. We

  10. Sensor to Detect Aqueous Film Forming Foam (AFFF) in Ship Bilge Water: Construction and Installation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kirts, Richard

    2001-01-01

    .... The primary use of the sensor is the detection of AFFF in the bilge water of Navy ships. If AFFF is present in bilge water off-loaded to a shore-side wastewater treatment plant, it may cause serious upsets in treatment plant operation...

  11. Water emission from the high-mass star-forming region IRAS 17233-3606

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leurini, S.; Gusdorf, A.; Wyrowski, F.; Codella, C.; Csengeri, T.; van der Tak, F.; Beuther, H.; Flower, D. R.; Comito, C.; Schilke, P.

    We investigate the physical and chemical processes at work during the formation of a massive protostar based on the observation of water in an outflow from a very young object previously detected in H2 and SiO in the IRAS 17233-3606 region. We estimated the abundance of water to understand its

  12. Characteristics of the cold-water belt formed off Soya Warm Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizu, Miho; Kitade, Yujiro; Matsuyama, Masaji

    2008-12-01

    We examined the data obtained by acoustic Doppler current profiler, conductivity-temperature-depth profiler, and expendable bathythermograph observations, which were collected in the summers of 2000, 2001, and 2002, to clarify the characteristics of the cold-water belt (CWB), i.e., lower-temperature water than the surrounding water extending from the southwest coast of Sakhalin along the offshore side of Soya Warm Current (SWC) and to confirm one of the formation mechanisms of the CWB as suggested by our previous study, i.e., the upwelling due to the convergence of bottom Ekman transport off the SWC region. The CWB was observed at about 30 km off the coast, having a thickness of 14 m and a minimum temperature of 12°C at the sea surface. The CWB does not have the specific water mass, but is constituted of three representative water types off the northeast coast of Hokkaido in summer, i.e., SWC water, Fresh Surface Okhotsk Sea Water, and Okhotsk Sea Intermediate Water. In a comparison of the horizontal distributions of current and temperature, the CWB region is found to be advected to the southeast at an average of 40 ± 29% of the maximum current velocity of the SWC. The pumping speed due to the convergence of the bottom Ekman transport is estimated as (1.5-3.0) × 10-4 m s-1. We examined the mixing ratio of the CWB, and the results implied that the water mass of the CWB is advected southeastward and mixes with a water mass upwelling in a different region off SWC.

  13. Self-Capacitance and Resistive Losses of Saline-Water-Filled Inductors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, J.; Bruning, H.; Yntema, D.; Bakker, S.; Rijnaarts, H.H.M.

    2014-01-01

    Properties of water-filled inductors are relevant for underwater wireless energy transfer. The influence of the relative permittivity and resistivity of the core material on the impedance of an inductor can be modeled with a lumped parameter circuit. The relative permittivity of the core material

  14. Quantification of excess water loss in plant canopies warmed with infrared heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Here we investigate the extent to which infrared heating used to warm plant canopies in climate manipulation experiments increases transpiration. Concerns regarding the impact of the infrared heater technique on the water balance have been raised before, but a quantification is lacking. We calculate...

  15. Town Stems Major Water Losses With New Lines and Storage Tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the help of EPA funding, the Town of Chapmanville in Logan County, WV, has a new drinking water storage tank and distribution lines to replace a system built in the late 1940s that was “leaking like a sieve” and posed a risk to public health.

  16. Apparent losses due to domestic water meter under-registration in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-10-05

    Oct 5, 2015 ... with the exception of one multi-jet meter. These meters were distributed in 15 and 6 different suburbs in Cape Town and. Mangaung, respectively. The reading taken from water meters in these tests included meter errors, and thus had to be corrected to determine the actual volumes. These corrections were ...

  17. Impact of particles in ultra pure water on random yield loss in IC production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wali, F.; Knotter, D. Martin; Mud, Auke; Kuper, F.G.

    2009-01-01

    The influence of environmental particle contamination on offline measured defects and manufacturing yield in integrated circuits is discussed. One of the sources of particle contamination is ultra pure water used in different production tools at different stages of processing. Particle count data

  18. Subirrigation reduces water use, nitrogen loss, and moss growth in a container nursery

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Kasten Dumroese; Jeremy R. Pinto; Douglass F. Jacobs; Anthony S. Davis; Baron Horiuchi

    2006-01-01

    With about half the amount of water, subirrigated Metrosideros polymorpha Gaud. (Myrtaceae) grown 9 mo in a greenhouse were similar to those irrigated with an existing fixed overhead irrigation system; moss growth was about 3X greater in the fixed overhead system after 3 mo. Moss growth was affected by the rate of preplant controlled release fertilizer added (more...

  19. Water in low-mass star-forming regions with Herschel. The link between water gas and ice in protostellar envelopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalzl, M.; Visser, R.; Walsh, C.; Albertsson, T.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Kristensen, L. E.; Mottram, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    Aims: Our aim is to determine the critical parameters in water chemistry and the contribution of water to the oxygen budget by observing and modelling water gas and ice for a sample of eleven low-mass protostars, for which both forms of water have been observed. Methods: A simplified chemistry network, which is benchmarked against more sophisticated chemical networks, is developed that includes the necessary ingredients to determine the water vapour and ice abundance profiles in the cold, outer envelope in which the temperature increases towards the protostar. Comparing the results from this chemical network to observations of water emission lines and previously published water ice column densities, allows us to probe the influence of various agents (e.g., far-ultraviolet (FUV) field, initial abundances, timescales, and kinematics). Results: The observed water ice abundances with respect to hydrogen nuclei in our sample are 30-80 ppm, and therefore contain only 10-30% of the volatile oxygen budget of 320 ppm. The keys to reproduce this result are a low initial water ice abundance after the pre-collapse phase together with the fact that atomic oxygen cannot freeze-out and form water ice in regions with Tdust ≳ 15 K. This requires short prestellar core lifetimes ≲0.1 Myr. The water vapour profile is shaped through the interplay of FUV photodesorption, photodissociation, and freeze-out. The water vapour line profiles are an invaluable tracer for the FUV photon flux and envelope kinematics. Conclusions: The finding that only a fraction of the oxygen budget is locked in water ice can be explained either by a short pre-collapse time of ≲0.1 Myr at densities of nH ~ 104 cm-3, or by some other process that resets the initial water ice abundance for the post-collapse phase. A key for the understanding of the water ice abundance is the binding energy of atomic oxygen on ice. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European

  20. A study of transformation water - soluble forms of hevy metals at waste incenerator for detoxicationof ash.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilets'ka V. А.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The complex research processes of transformation of soluble forms of heavy metals in sediment interaction with ash. Proved that the adsorption processes of immobilization lead to a significant decrease of soluble forms of heavy metals in the waste.

  1. The distribution of water in the high-mass star-forming region NGC 6334 I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emprechtinger, M.; Lis, D. C.; Bell, T.; Phillips, T. G.; Schilke, P.; Comito, C.; Rolffs, R.; van der Tak, F.; Ceccarelli, C.; Aarts, H.; Bacmann, A.; Baudry, A.; Benedettini, M.; Bergin, E. A.; Blake, G.; Boogert, A.; Bottinelli, S.; Cabrit, S.; Caselli, P.; Castets, A.; Caux, E.; Cernicharo, J.; Codella, C.; Coutens, A.; Crimier, N.; Demyk, K.; Dominik, C.; Encrenaz, P.; Falgarone, E.; Fuente, A.; Gerin, M.; Goldsmith, P.; Helmich, F.; Hennebelle, P.; Henning, T.; Herbst, E.; Hily-Blant, P.; Jacq, T.; Kahane, C.; Kama, M.; Klotz, A.; Kooi, J.; Langer, W.; Lefloch, B.; Loose, A.; Lord, S.; Lorenzani, A.; Maret, S.; Melnick, G.; Neufeld, D.; Nisini, B.; Ossenkopf, V.; Pacheco, S.; Pagani, L.; Parise, B.; Pearson, J.; Risacher, C.; Salez, M.; Saraceno, P.; Schuster, K.; Stutzki, J.; Tielens, X.; van der Wiel, M.; Vastel, C.; Viti, S.; Wakelam, V.; Walters, A.; Wyrowski, F.; Yorke, H.

    2010-01-01

    Aims. We present observations of twelve rotational transitions of (H2O)-O-16, (H2O)-O-18, and (H2O)-O-17 toward the massive star-forming region NGC 6334 I, carried out with Herschel/HIFI as part of the guaranteed time key program Chemical HErschel Surveys of Star forming regions (CHESS). We analyze

  2. Graphene oxide as a high-performance fluid-loss-control additive in water-based drilling fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosynkin, Dmitry V; Ceriotti, Gabriel; Wilson, Kurt C; Lomeda, Jay R; Scorsone, Jason T; Patel, Arvind D; Friedheim, James E; Tour, James M

    2012-01-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) performs well as a filtration additive in water-based drilling fluids at concentrations as low as 0.2 % (w/w) by carbon content. Standard American Petroleum Institute (API) filtration tests were conducted on pH-adjusted, aqueous dispersions of GO and xanthan gum. It was found that a combination of large-flake GO and powdered GO in a 3:1 ratio performed best in the API tests, allowing an average fluid loss of 6.1 mL over 30 min and leaving a filter cake ~20 μm thick. In comparison, a standard suspension (~12 g/L) of clays and polymers used in the oil industry gave an average fluid loss of 7.2 mL and a filter cake ~280 μm thick. Scanning electron microscopy imaging revealed the extreme pliability of well-exfoliated GO, as the pressure due to filtration crumpled single GO sheets, forcing them to slide through pores with diameters much smaller than the flake's flattened size. GO solutions also exhibited greater shear thinning and higher temperature stability compared to clay-based fluid-loss additives, demonstrating potential for high-temperature well applications. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  3. Interfacing systems LOCA (loss-of-coolant accidents): Pressurized water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bozoki, G.; Kohut, P.; Fitzpatrick, R.

    1989-02-01

    This report summarizes a study performed by Brookhaven National Laboratory for the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, Reactor and Plant Safety Issues Branch, Division of Reactor and Plant Systems, US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This study was requested by the NRC in order to provide a technical basis for the resolution of Generic Issue 105 ''Interfacing LOCA at LWRs.'' This report deals with pressurized water reactors (PWRs). A parallel report was also accomplished for boiling water reactors. This study focuses on three representative PWRs and extrapolates the plant-specific findings for their generic applicability. In addition, a generic analysis was performed to investigate the cost-benefit aspects of imposing a testing program that would require some minimum level of leak testing of the pressure isolation valves on plants that presently have no such requirements. 28 refs., 31 figs., 64 tabs.

  4. Down-regulation of POLYGALACTURONASE1 alters firmness, tensile strength and water loss in apple (Malus x domestica) fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Ross G; Sutherland, Paul W; Johnston, Sarah L; Gunaseelan, Kularajathevan; Hallett, Ian C; Mitra, Deepali; Brummell, David A; Schröder, Roswitha; Johnston, Jason W; Schaffer, Robert J

    2012-08-02

    While there is now a significant body of research correlating apple (Malus x domestica) fruit softening with the cell wall hydrolase ENDO-POLYGALACTURONASE1 (PG1), there is currently little knowledge of its physiological effects in planta. This study examined the effect of down regulation of PG1 expression in 'Royal Gala' apples, a cultivar that typically has high levels of PG1, and softens during fruit ripening. PG1-suppressed 'Royal Gala' apples harvested from multiple seasons were firmer than controls after ripening, and intercellular adhesion was higher. Cell wall analyses indicated changes in yield and composition of pectin, and a higher molecular weight distribution of CDTA-soluble pectin. Structural analyses revealed more ruptured cells and free juice in pulled apart sections, suggesting improved integrity of intercellular connections and consequent cell rupture due to failure of the primary cell walls under stress. PG1-suppressed lines also had reduced expansion of cells in the hypodermis of ripe apples, resulting in more densely packed cells in this layer. This change in morphology appears to be linked with reduced transpirational water loss in the fruit. These findings confirm PG1's role in apple fruit softening and suggests that this is achieved in part by reducing cellular adhesion. This is consistent with previous studies carried out in strawberry but not with those performed in tomato. In apple PG1 also appears to influence other fruit texture characters such as juiciness and water loss.

  5. Down-regulation of POLYGALACTURONASE1 alters firmness, tensile strength and water loss in apple (Malus x domestica) fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background While there is now a significant body of research correlating apple (Malus x domestica) fruit softening with the cell wall hydrolase ENDO-POLYGALACTURONASE1 (PG1), there is currently little knowledge of its physiological effects in planta. This study examined the effect of down regulation of PG1 expression in ‘Royal Gala’ apples, a cultivar that typically has high levels of PG1, and softens during fruit ripening. Results PG1-suppressed ‘Royal Gala’ apples harvested from multiple seasons were firmer than controls after ripening, and intercellular adhesion was higher. Cell wall analyses indicated changes in yield and composition of pectin, and a higher molecular weight distribution of CDTA-soluble pectin. Structural analyses revealed more ruptured cells and free juice in pulled apart sections, suggesting improved integrity of intercellular connections and consequent cell rupture due to failure of the primary cell walls under stress. PG1-suppressed lines also had reduced expansion of cells in the hypodermis of ripe apples, resulting in more densely packed cells in this layer. This change in morphology appears to be linked with reduced transpirational water loss in the fruit. Conclusions These findings confirm PG1’s role in apple fruit softening and suggests that this is achieved in part by reducing cellular adhesion. This is consistent with previous studies carried out in strawberry but not with those performed in tomato. In apple PG1 also appears to influence other fruit texture characters such as juiciness and water loss. PMID:22856470

  6. Effect of temperature on incubation period, embryonic mortality, hatch rate, egg water loss and partridge chick weight (Rhynchotus rufescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakage ES

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effects of incubation temperature (34.5; 35.5; 36.5; 37.5 and 38.5ºC, on incubation period, embryonic mortality, hatching rate, water loss and chick weight at hatch, using daily incubation of partridge (Rhynchotus rufescens eggs. The highest hatching percentage was obtained between 35.5 and 36.5ºC. Incubation length and temperature were inversely proportional. Water loss was lower in eggs incubated at low temperatures as compared to high temperatures. There was no difference among incubation temperatures in absolute and relative hatchling weights. Early embryonic mortality increased at low temperatures (36.5ºC. Our results show that, under conditions of daily incubation of eggs in the same incubator, higher hatching rate can be obtained using temperatures between 35.5ºC and 36.5ºC; incubation temperature is inversely proportional to incubation length, and absolute and relative weights of partridge chicks are not affected by incubation temperature.

  7. Simulation of total loss of feed water in ATLAS test facility using SPACE code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Minhee; Kim, Seyun [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of). Central Research Inst.

    2017-08-15

    A total loss of feedwater (TLOFW) with additional failures in ATLAS test facility was analyzed using SPACE code, which is an advanced thermal-hydraulic system analysis code developed by the Korea nuclear industry. Partial failure of the safety injection pumps (SIPs) and the pilot-operated safety relief valves (POSRVs) of pressurizer were selected as additional failures. In order to assess the capability of SPACE code, partial failure was modeled, and compared with results of OECD-ATLAS A3.1 results. Reasonably good agreement with major thermal-hydraulic parameters was obtained by analyzing the transient behavior. From the results, this indicated that SPACE code has capabilities to design extension conditions, and feed and bleed operation using POSRVs and SIPs were effective for RCS cooling capability during TLOFW.

  8. Frontier between medium and large break loss of coolant accidents of pressurized water reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taewan

    2017-10-01

    In order to provide the probabilistic safety assessment with more realistic condition to calculate the frequency of the initiating event, a study on the frontier between medium-break and large-break loss-of-coolant-accidents has been performed by using best-estimate thermal hydraulic code, TRACE. A methodology based on the combination of the essential safety features and system parameter has been applied to the Zion nuclear power plant to evaluate the validity of the frontier utilized for the probabilistic safety assessment. The peak cladding temperature has been chosen as a relevant system parameter that represents the system behavior during the transient. The results showed that the frontier should be extended from 6 in. to 10 in. based on the required safety functions and system response.

  9. 4R Water Quality Impacts: An Assessment and Synthesis of Forty Years of Drainage Nitrogen Losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christianson, L E; Harmel, R D

    2015-11-01

    The intersection of agricultural drainage and nutrient mobility in the environment has led to multiscale water quality concerns. This work reviewed and quantitatively analyzed nearly 1,000 site-years of subsurface tile drainage nitrogen (N) load data to develop a more comprehensive understanding of the impacts of 4R practices (application of the right source of nutrients, at the right rate and time, and in the right place) within drained landscapes across North America. Using drainage data newly compiled in the "Measured Annual Nutrient loads from AGricultural Environments" (MANAGE) database, relationships were developed across N application rates for nitrate N drainage loads and corn ( L.) yields. The lack of significant differences between N application timing or application method was inconsistent with the current emphasis placed on application timing, in particular, as a water quality improvement strategy ( = 0.934 and 0.916, respectively). Broad-scale analyses such as this can help identify major trends for water quality, but accurate implementation of the 4R approach will require site-specific knowledge to balance agronomic and environmental goals. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  10. Long-term succession of structure and diversity of a biofilm formed in a model drinking water distribution system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martiny, A.C.; Jørgensen, T.M.; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2003-01-01

    In this study, we examined the long-term development of the overall structural morphology and community composition of a biofilm formed in a model drinking water distribution system with biofilms from 1 day to 3 years old. Visualization and subsequent quantification showed how the biofilm developed...... of 16S rRNA fragments illustrated how a wide variety of cells recruited from the bulk water initially attached and resulted in a species richness comparable to that in the water phase. This step was followed by the growth of a bacterium which was related to Nitrospira, which constituted 78...... techniques illustrated the successional formation of a biofilm during a 3-year period in this model drinking water distribution system....

  11. Sinking of less dense water in the bottom Ekman layer formed by a coastal downwelling current over a sloping bottom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkin, D. N.; Zatsepin, A. G.; Podymov, O. I.; Ostrovskii, A. G.

    2017-07-01

    Laboratory experiments on the dynamics of a downwelling coastal current over a sloping bottom were conducted in a tank on a rotating platform. The current was generated by a source of stable water flow of the same density (barotropic case) or of lesser density (baroclinic case) compared with the surrounding water in the tank. It was found that even in the case of the baroclinic current, a less dense water downflow in the bottom Ekman layer was formed under certain conditions. At some moment, this downflow undergoes convective instability. Taking into account the results of the experiment, the parameters of the bottom Ekman layer on the continental shelf/slope of the Black Sea were preliminarily estimated and the possible sinking depth of less dense water was calculated.

  12. Testing of the KRIA Ionizing Water Treatment System for Waters Contaminated with Diesel, PCBs, and Nutrients (Nitrogen Forms)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    with hydrofracturing ( fracking ), although these fluids contain a much broader range of potential contaminants that may require some additional...for establishing sanitation in third world countries. • The KRIA should be tested on solutions associated with fracking and on water bodies...affected by fracking operations to assess its utility for these solutions. ERDC/EL TR-16-3 22 References Agarwal, A., W. J. Ng, and Y. Liu. 2011

  13. Cytology and organization of reactive astroglia in human cerebellar cortex with severe loss of granule cells: a study on the ataxic form of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafarga, M; Berciano, M T; Suarez, I; Viadero, C F; Andres, M A; Berciano, J

    1991-01-01

    In order to investigate the cellular basis of human astrogliosis, we have selected the cerebellar cortex because it provides a relatively simple and geometrical organization of both neuronal and glial populations. A pathological system with severe and progressive loss of granule cells was studied: the ataxic form of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, where the tissue geometry is minimally disturbed. The quantitative study revealed a drastic reduction in the numerical density of granule cells in the Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease cerebellum, and a significant increase in the numerical density of astrocytes. Karyometric analysis showed that the nuclear area was significantly greater in reactive astroglial cells than in normal astroglia. Glial fibrillary acidic protein immunocytochemistry revealed astroglial hypertrophy, but the geometry and spatial domains of astroglial subtypes were strictly preserved. Vimentin expression was detected in Bergmann glia and in certain astrocytes of the granular layer. Ultrastructural analysis showed that reactive astroglia had large nuclei, with expanded interchromatinic regions which contained clusters of interchromatin granules and nuclear bodies, and prominent reticulate nucleoli. In the cytoplasm, hypertrophied bundles of intermediate filaments were observed, some of them associated with the nuclear envelope. Numerous adhering and gap junctions were also found among reactive astroglial cells. Perivascular glial processes showed a terminal web of intermediate filaments and a conspicuous plasmalemmal undercoat. Interendothelial tight junctions were preserved. Our results suggest that the severe loss of granule cells induces a highly ordered astroglial response which tends to preserve the geometry of the astroglial scaffold, the domains of each astroglial subtype, the neuronal microenvironmental conditions and the efficiency of the blood brain barrier, in order to promote neuron survival.

  14. Association of Gel-Forming Mucins and Aquaporin Gene Expression With Hearing Loss, Effusion Viscosity, and Inflammation in Otitis Media With Effusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Tina L; Yan, Justin C; Khampang, Pawjai; Dettmar, Peter W; MacKinnon, Alexander; Hong, Wenzhou; Johnston, Nikki; Papsin, Blake C; Chun, Robert H; McCormick, Michael E; Kerschner, Joseph E

    2017-08-01

    Persistent, viscous middle ear effusion in pediatric otitis media (OM) contributes to increased likelihood of anesthesia and surgery, conductive hearing loss, and subsequent developmental delays. Biomarkers of effusion viscosity and hearing loss have not yet been identified despite the potential that such markers hold for targeted therapy and screening. To investigate the association of gel-forming mucins and aquaporin 5 (AQP5) gene expression with inflammation, effusion viscosity, and hearing loss in pediatric OM with effusion (OME). Case-control study of 31 pediatric patients (aged 6 months to 12 years) with OME undergoing tympanostomy tube placement and control individuals (aged 1 to 10 years) undergoing surgery for cochlear implantation from February 1, 2013, through November 30, 2014. Those with 1 or more episodes of OM in the previous 12 months, immunologic abnormality, anatomical or physiologic ear defect, OM-associated syndrome (ie, Down syndrome, cleft palate), chronic mastoiditis, or history of cholesteatoma were excluded from the study. All patients with OME and 1 control were recruited from Children's Hospital of Wisconsin, Milwaukee. The remainder of the controls were recruited from Sick Kids Hospital in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Two to 3 middle ear biopsy specimens, effusions, and preoperative audiometric data (obtained viscosity of effusions was assayed using rheometry. Of the 31 study participants, 24 patients had OME (mean [SD] age, 50.4 [31.9] months; 15 [62.5%] male; 16 [66.7%] white) and 7 acted as controls (mean [SD] age, 32.6 [24.4] months; 2 [26.6%] male; 6 [85.7%] white). Mucins and AQP5 gene expression were significantly higher in patients with OME relative to controls (MUC2: ratio, 127.6 [95% CI, 33.7-482.7]; MUC5AC: ratio, 3748.8 [95% CI, 558.1-25 178.4]; MUC5B: ratio, 471.1 [95% CI, 130.7-1697.4]; AQP5: ratio, 2.4 [95% CI, 1.1-5.6]). A 2-fold increase in MUC5B correlated with increased hearing loss (air-bone gap: 7.45 dB [95% CI, 2

  15. Bioavailability of micronized griseofulvin from corn oil-in-water emulsion, aqueous suspension, and commercial tablet dosage forms in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, T R; Sequeria, J A

    1975-05-01

    The purposes of this investigation were to determine and to compare the oral absorption characteristics of micronized griseofulvin (500 mg) after its administration to humans in the form of a corn oil-in-water emulsion containing dispersed drug, an aqueous suspension, and two different commercial tablets (A and B). The four dosage forms were administered in a random crossover fashion to five fasting subjects, and drug absorption was assessed from urinary excretion data for the major metabolite of the antibiotic (6-desmethylgriseofulvin). The drug was most rapidly, uniformly, and completely absorbed from the corn oil-in-water emulsion. As compared to either the aqueous suspension, Tablet A, or Tablet B, three- to fourfold increases in the maximum body levels and a twofold enhancement in the bioavailability of the antibiotic were observed after administration of the emulsion dosage form. A mechanism based on the ability of the linoleic and oleic acids liberated during the digestion of corn oil to inhibit GI motility and stimulate gallbladder evacuation may explain the marked enhancing effect of emulsified corn oil on griseofulvin absorption in humans. This new lipid-in-water emulsion dosage form of micronized griseofulvin appears to offer several clinical advantages in the treatment of fungal infections.

  16. [Analysis of meteorological factors of forming feculent and anaerobic water aggregation induced by algal bloom in Taihu Lake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng-Lin; Zhang, Yong; Zhang, Ning-Hong; Qian, Xin; Kong, Fan-Xiang

    2011-02-01

    The water quality pollution problem about feculent and anaerobic water aggregation (FAWA) induced by algal bloom in Taihu Lake, which is often called 'hufan' in Chinese, was studied. Its forming process is divided into 3 phases, i. e., material elements forming of FAWA, anaerobic products to be brought to the water surface and the maintaining of FAWA in the water surface. The conventional observational data from Wuxi meteorological station was analyzed. The result shows that there are similar meteorological characteristics of two FAWA phenomena in Taihu Lake in May, 2007 and May, 2008. A numerical simulation was performed to prove the analysis results. It indicates that propitious meteorological condition is one of the necessary forming factors of FAWA, which provides thermal and dynamical environment for FAWA. During the first phase, the weather conditions, such as high air temperature, gentle breeze and nearly invariable wind direction, maintain for more than 3 days and cause algal bloom to aggregate, then die, sink and anaerobic decay near lake bank. All these provide the precondition for FAWA. During the second phase, when the cold air mass passes across the Taihu basin, almost counter-direction wind, which maintains for more than 1 day with higher speed and lower air temperature, makes anaerobic products to be brought to the water surface by uplifted current. This is the trigger mechanism of FAWA. During the last phase, continual high air temperature and gentle breeze is favorable for FAWA in the water surface. Because meteorological factors are predictable, this research provides a way and basis for the further study of warning and controlling approaches of FAWA.

  17. The Identification and Synthesis of Lead Apatite Minerals Formed in Lead Water Pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy D. Hopwood

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Phosphate is added to drinking water in the UK to minimise the release of lead from lead water pipes. The phosphate encourages the formation of insoluble lead apatites on the walls of the pipe. Hydroxylpyromorphite Pb5(PO43OH is the lead apatite that is most often used to model lead levels in tap water; however, its presence has not been confirmed. Our aims were to identify the lead pipe apatite and synthesise it. The synthetic mineral would then be used in future solubility studies to produce better predictions of lead levels in tap water. XRD and FTIR were used to characterise the minerals on a range of lead pipes. Pyromorphite and hydroxylpyromorphite were absent and instead a range of mixed calcium lead apatites were present. For every five lead ions in the general formula Pb5(PO43X between one and two ions were replaced with calcium and there was evidence of substitution of PO43- by either CO32- or HPO42-. Calcium lead apatites with similar unit cell dimensions to those found on lead water pipes were then synthesised. The calcium : lead ratio in these reaction mixtures was in excess of 500 : 1 and the resulting crystals were shown by TEM to be nanosized rods and flakes. The synthetic apatites that most closely resembled the unit cell dimensions of the apatites on lead water pipes were shown to be Pb3.4Ca1.3(PO43Cl0.03OH0.97, Pb3.6Ca1.2(PO43Cl0.07OH0.93, and Pb3.6Ca1.2(PO43Cl0.27OH0.73.

  18. The impact of land use on water loss and soil desiccation in the soil profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Wang, Li

    2018-02-01

    Farmlands have gradually been replaced by apple orchards in Shaanxi province, China, and there will be a risk of severe soil-water-storage deficit with the increasing age of the apple trees. To provide a theoretical basis for the sustainable development of agriculture and forestry in the Loess Plateau, soil water content in a 19-year-old apple orchard, a 9-year-old apple orchard, a cornfield and a wheat field in the Changwu Tableland was investigated at different depths from January to October 2014. The results showed that: (1) the soil moisture content is different across the soil profile—for the four plots, the soil moisture of the cornfield is the highest, followed by the 9-year-old apple orchard and the wheat field, and the 19-year-old apple orchard has the lowest soil moisture. (2) There are varying degrees of soil desiccation in the four plots: the most serious degree of desiccation is in the 19-year-old apple orchard, followed by the wheat field and the cornfield, with the least severe desiccation occurring in the 9-year-old apple orchard. Farmland should replace apple orchards for an indefinite period while there is an extremely desiccated soil layer in the apple orchard so as to achieve the purpose of sustainable development. It will be necessary to reduce tree densities, and to carry out other research, if development of the economy and ecology of Changwu is to be sustainable.

  19. The impact of land use on water loss and soil desiccation in the soil profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Wang, Li

    2017-08-01

    Farmlands have gradually been replaced by apple orchards in Shaanxi province, China, and there will be a risk of severe soil-water-storage deficit with the increasing age of the apple trees. To provide a theoretical basis for the sustainable development of agriculture and forestry in the Loess Plateau, soil water content in a 19-year-old apple orchard, a 9-year-old apple orchard, a cornfield and a wheat field in the Changwu Tableland was investigated at different depths from January to October 2014. The results showed that: (1) the soil moisture content is different across the soil profile—for the four plots, the soil moisture of the cornfield is the highest, followed by the 9-year-old apple orchard and the wheat field, and the 19-year-old apple orchard has the lowest soil moisture. (2) There are varying degrees of soil desiccation in the four plots: the most serious degree of desiccation is in the 19-year-old apple orchard, followed by the wheat field and the cornfield, with the least severe desiccation occurring in the 9-year-old apple orchard. Farmland should replace apple orchards for an indefinite period while there is an extremely desiccated soil layer in the apple orchard so as to achieve the purpose of sustainable development. It will be necessary to reduce tree densities, and to carry out other research, if development of the economy and ecology of Changwu is to be sustainable.

  20. Water in massive star-forming regions with the Herschel Space Observatory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herpin, F.; Chavarria, L.; van der Tak, F.; Wyrowski, F.; Bontemps, S.; van Dishoeck, E.; Röllig, M.; Simon, R.; Ossenkopf, V.; Stutzki, J.

    2011-01-01

    The understanding of the star formation is still on progress. Especially, the formation of high-mass stars is much less understood than the low-mass case. Water, one of the most important molecules in the Universe, might elucidate key episodes in the process of stellar birth, and especially could be

  1. Cryomilling-induced solid dispersion of poor glass forming/poorly water-soluble mefenamic acid with polyvinylpyrrolidone K12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Naewon; Lee, Jangmi; Choi, Ji Na; Mao, Chen; Lee, Eun Hee

    2015-06-01

    The effect of mechanical impact on the polymorphic transformation of mefenamic acid (MFA) and the formation of a solid dispersion of mefenamic acid, a poor glass forming/poorly-water soluble compound, with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) K12 was investigated. The implication of solid dispersion formation on solubility enhancement of MFA, prepared by cryomilling, was investigated. Solid state characterization was conducted using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy combined with crystal structure analysis. Apparent solubility of the mixtures in pH 7.4 buffer was measured. A calculation to compare the powder patterns and FTIR spectra of solid dispersions with the corresponding physical mixtures was conducted. Solid state characterization showed that (1) MFA I transformed to MFA II when pure MFA I was cryogenically milled (CM); and (2) MFA forms a solid dispersion when MFA was cryogenically milled with PVP K12. FTIR spectral analysis showed that hydrogen bonding facilitated by mechanical impact played a major role in forming solid dispersions. The apparent solubility of MFA was significantly improved by making a solid dispersion with PVP K12 via cryomilling. This study highlights the importance of cryomilling with a good hydrogen bond forming excipient as a technique to prepare solid dispersion, especially when a compound shows a poor glass forming ability and therefore, is not easy to form amorphous forms by conventional method.

  2. Mass fractionation during transonic escape and implications for loss of water from Mars and Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahnle, Kevin J.; Kasting, James F.

    1986-01-01

    Hydrodynamic escape of hydrogen from a planetary atmosphere can remove heavier gases as well as hydrogen, provided that the escape rate is sufficiently large. Analytic approximations for the degree of mass fractionation of a trace species during hydrodynamic escape are compared with accurate numerical solutions for the case of transonic outflow. The analytic approximations are most accurate when the ratio of molecular weights of the heavier and lighter constituents is large so that nonlinear terms in the momentum equation for the heavy constituent become small. The simplest analytic formula is readily generalized to the case where a heavy constituent is also a major species. Application of the generalized formula to hypothetical episodes of hydrodynamic escape from Venus and Mars suggests that both hydrogen and oxygen could have escaped; thus, substantial quantities of water may have been lost without the need to oxidize large amounts of the crust.

  3. Nonthermal escape of hydrogen and deuterium from Venus and implications for loss of water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S.; Hunten, D. M.; Pollack, J. B.

    1983-01-01

    As the dominant nonthermal mechanism for the escape of hydrogen in past Venus atmospheres, the charge exchange of H(+) with H would have provided an escape flux close to the diffusion-limiting value for H-mixing ratios up to 0.002 at the homopause, which also marks the onset of hydrodynamic flow. Charge exchange therefore represents a viable mechanism through which Venus could have lost up to an earth-equivalent ocean of water from its atmosphere over geologic time. Present Venus atmosphere estimates are based on in situ Pioneer Venus mission measurements, and assumptions in the course of extrapolation to past atmospheres have been with respect to the nature of the bulge, circulation pattern, and ion temperature.

  4. A novel frameshift mutation of SMPX causes a rare form of X-linked nonsyndromic hearing loss in a Chinese family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Zhijie; Feng, Yong; Mei, Lingyun; Sun, Jie; Wang, Xueping; Wang, Juncheng; Hu, Zhengmao; Dong, Yunpeng; Chen, Hongsheng; He, Chufeng; Liu, Yalan; Cai, Xinzhang; Liu, Xuezhong; Jiang, Lu

    2017-01-01

    X-linked hearing impairment is the rarest form of genetic hearing loss (HL) and represents only a minor fraction of all cases. The aim of this study was to investigate the cause of X-linked inherited sensorineural HL in a four-generation Chinese family. A novel duplication variant (c.217dupA, p.Ile73Asnfs*5) in SMPX was identified by whole-exome sequencing. The frameshift mutation predicted to result in the premature truncation of the SMPX protein was co-segregated with the HL phenotype and was absent in 295 normal controls. Subpopulation screening of the coding exons and flanking introns of SMPX was further performed for 338 Chinese patients with nonsydromic HL by Sanger sequencing, and another two potential causative substitutions (c.238C>A and c.55A>G) in SMPX were identified in additional sporadic cases of congenital deafness. Collectively, this study is the first to report the role of SMPX in Chinese population and identify a novel frameshift mutation in SMPX that causes not only nonsyndromic late-onset progressive HL, but also congenital hearing impairment. Our findings extend the mutation and phenotypic spectrum of the SMPX gene.

  5. A novel frameshift mutation of SMPX causes a rare form of X-linked nonsyndromic hearing loss in a Chinese family.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijie Niu

    Full Text Available X-linked hearing impairment is the rarest form of genetic hearing loss (HL and represents only a minor fraction of all cases. The aim of this study was to investigate the cause of X-linked inherited sensorineural HL in a four-generation Chinese family. A novel duplication variant (c.217dupA, p.Ile73Asnfs*5 in SMPX was identified by whole-exome sequencing. The frameshift mutation predicted to result in the premature truncation of the SMPX protein was co-segregated with the HL phenotype and was absent in 295 normal controls. Subpopulation screening of the coding exons and flanking introns of SMPX was further performed for 338 Chinese patients with nonsydromic HL by Sanger sequencing, and another two potential causative substitutions (c.238C>A and c.55A>G in SMPX were identified in additional sporadic cases of congenital deafness. Collectively, this study is the first to report the role of SMPX in Chinese population and identify a novel frameshift mutation in SMPX that causes not only nonsyndromic late-onset progressive HL, but also congenital hearing impairment. Our findings extend the mutation and phenotypic spectrum of the SMPX gene.

  6. New metastable form of ice and its role in the homogeneous crystallization of water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, John; Romano, Flavio; Tanaka, Hajime

    2014-07-01

    The homogeneous crystallization of water at low temperature is believed to occur through the direct nucleation of cubic (Ic) and hexagonal (Ih) ices. Here, we provide evidence from molecular simulations that the nucleation of ice proceeds through the formation of a new metastable phase, which we name Ice 0. We find that Ice 0 is structurally similar to the supercooled liquid, and that on growth it gradually converts into a stacking of Ice Ic and Ih. We suggest that this mechanism provides a thermodynamic explanation for the location and pressure dependence of the homogeneous nucleation temperature, and that Ice 0 controls the homogeneous nucleation of low-pressure ices, acting as a precursor to crystallization in accordance with Ostwald's step rule of phases. Our findings show that metastable crystalline phases of water may play roles that have been largely overlooked.

  7. RECOGNITION OF MAIN PROCESSES FORMING CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SUPRAŚL RIVER WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosław Skorbiłowicz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to identify and define the processes that affect the variability of the chemical composition of Supraśl river water at selected measuring points. One of the recognized multivariate statistical methods was used for identification. The research area covered the Suprasl river. Four measuring points were selected on the river – Michałowo, Gródek, Nowodworce, Dzikie. The measuring points were selected in such a way to take into account the impact of the most intense interaction located along the river. Changes in concentration were determined on the basis of monthly analyzes of water samples collected from the Supraśl river in 2003–2012 by the Regional Inspectorate for Environmental Protection (RIEP in Białystok. The analyses were performed in the RIEP laboratory in Bialystok, which has implemented and maintained a management system that meets the requirements of the norm PN-EN ISO/IEC 17025 + Ap.1:2007 approved by the certificate AB 165. The water samples were subject to determinations of dissolved oxygen concentration, BOD5, CODMn, CODCr, NH3, N-NH4+, NKieldahl, NO3-, N-NO3-, NO2-, N-NO2-, Ntot., PO43-, Ptot and electrical conductivity value. The monthly sum of precipitation was read based on data from the Weather Service “IMGW-PIB Monitor”. The research and analysis results allowed to identify the self-cleaning, nitrification, and de-nitrification processes, as well as enrichment affecting the variability of the chemical composition of the Supraśl river water. The results from the factor analysis showed some prevailing of enrichment processes over internal changes in the aquatic environment of the Supraśl river.

  8. The trophic state of lake water regulates spatial-temporal variations of bloom-forming Microcystis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yinxia; Liu, Bibo; Liu, Shuaixia; Li, Dunhai

    2017-03-01

    Although biomass variations in Microcystis and microcystin have been widely reported, few studies have addressed whether different trophic states of natural lake water affect the spatial-temporal variations in abundances of microcystin-producing Microcystis in a given bloom. In this study, we used a harmful algal bloom in Chaohu Lake, eastern China, as an example to investigate the mutual relationship between different nutrient states and environmental factors, and the impact on Microcystis. Overall, cyanobacteria and Microcystis were more abundant in the middle and western parts of the lake under high nutrients levels, while in the eastern part, nutrient concentrations were low enough to limit biomass, and their fluctuations affected the contents of toxic Microcystis. Moreover, microcystin concentration was correlated positively to nutrient levels and Microcystis biomass during bloom developing in 2013 from June to August. Temporally, the cellular content of total microcystin was lowest when the bloom peaked in intensity. Our results suggest that lake eutrophication not only results in cyanobacterial blooms, but may also increase the proportion of toxic Microcystis species and their cell-bound MCs contents (i.e. microcystin cell quotas) under mild eutrophication. The present investigation provided molecular evidence for the selection of MC-producing and non-MC-producing genotypes. The current study provides new evidence advocating the monitoring of partitions of large lakes when studying cyanobacteria and toxin-contaminated freshwaters, which will be beneficial for both water agencies and water researchers.

  9. Occurrence and Forms of Water and Ice on the Earth and Beyond, and the Origin(s) of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, David F.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The natural history of the biogenic elements (H,C,O,N) from their first association within cold molecular clouds to their delivery to the Earth during the late bombardment of the inner solar system, is intimately linked to water ice. The earliest organic compounds are formed in cold interstellar molecular clouds as a result of UV and thermal processing of sub-micrometer ice grains which contain trapped carbon and nitrogen molecules. Structural changes in the water ice host underlie and fundamentally control important macroscopic phenomena such as the outgassing of volatiles, the rates of chemical reactions, and processing and retention of organic compounds. Prebiotic organic material was in all likelihood delivered the early Earth in a pristine state as a consequence of its sequestration within a protective water ice host.

  10. Integrating Phosphorus Movement with Soil and Water Loss in the Daily Erosion Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklenar, Tim; Perez-Bidegain, Mario; Cruse, Richard; Gelder, Brian; Herzmann, Daryl

    2016-04-01

    The Daily Erosion Project (DEP) is an ongoing modelling effort which is now in its second generation. DEP provides comprehensive and dynamic estimates of sediment delivery, soil erosion, and hill slope runoff for agricultural land areas across the Midwestern United States every day for Hydrologic Unit Code 12 (HUC 12) size watersheds. Results are posted every morning on the Internet at dailyerosion.org. Currently DEP covers all of Iowa and portions of Kansas and Minnesota, but expansion of coverage is ongoing. The integration of highly resolute spatial and temporal climate data, soil properties, crop rotation and residue management data affords the opportunity to test the effects of using multiple conservation practices on the transport and fate of water borne nutrients, especially phosphorus, on the Midwestern United States agricultural landscapes. Understanding the interaction of different environmental and land management practices on phosphorus movement will allow data from the DEP to guide conservation efforts as expansion continues into surrounding Midwestern states. The presentation will provide an overview of the DEP technology, including how input data are derived and used to make daily erosion estimates on over 200,000 flowpaths in the modelling area, as well as a discussion of the ongoing phosphorus transport modelling efforts and plans for future expansion (both land area and model functionality).

  11. Remote sensing as a tool for watershed-wide estimation of net solar radiation and water loss to the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorram, S.; Thomas, R. W.

    1976-01-01

    Results are presented for a study intended to develop a general remote sensing-aided cost-effective procedure to estimate watershed-wide water loss to the atmosphere via evapotranspiration and to estimate net solar radiation over the watershed. Evapotranspiration estimation employs a basic two-stage two-phase sample of three information resolution levels. Net solar radiation is taken as one of the variables at each level of evapotranspiration modeling. The input information for models requiring spatial information will be provided by Landsat digital data, environmental satellite data, ground meteorological data, ground sample unit information, and topographic data. The outputs of the sampling-estimation/data bank system will be in-place maps of evapotranspiration on a data resolution element basis, watershed-wide evapotranspiration isopleths, and estimates of watershed and subbasin total evapotranspiration with associated statistical confidence bounds. The methodology developed is being tested primarily on the Spanish Creek Watershed Plumas County, California.

  12. An information system design for watershed-wide modeling of water loss to the atmosphere using remote sensing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorram, S.

    1977-01-01

    Results are presented of a study intended to develop a general location-specific remote-sensing procedure for watershed-wide estimation of water loss to the atmosphere by evaporation and transpiration. The general approach involves a stepwise sequence of required information definition (input data), appropriate sample design, mathematical modeling, and evaluation of results. More specifically, the remote sensing-aided system developed to evaluate evapotranspiration employs a basic two-stage two-phase sample of three information resolution levels. Based on the discussed design, documentation, and feasibility analysis to yield timely, relatively accurate, and cost-effective evapotranspiration estimates on a watershed or subwatershed basis, work is now proceeding to implement this remote sensing-aided system.

  13. Influence of Protoplasmic Water Loss on the Control of Protein Synthesis in the Desiccation-Tolerant Moss Tortula ruralis 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Melvin J.

    1991-01-01

    Desiccation tolerance of the moss Tortula ruralis is characterized by a desiccation-induced change in gene expression that becomes evident upon rehydration. As reported earlier, this change in gene expression is apparently brought about by a change in the control of translation and does not include a major shift in mRNA abundance. A full qualitative and quantitative analysis of the alteration in gene expression, which is characterized by the loss of (or greater than fivefold decrease in) the synthesis of 25 hydration (h) proteins and initiation (or greater than fivefold increase) of the synthesis of 74 rehydration (r) proteins, is given in this report. Exposure to a desiccating atmosphere, for times that result in varying levels of water loss, enabled the determination that the control of synthesis of r proteins is different from the control of synthesis of h proteins. The r and h protein synthesis responses are internally coordinate, however. Similarly, the return to normal levels of h protein synthesis differs from that of the r proteins. The return to normal synthetic levels for all h proteins is synchronous, but the rate of loss of r protein synthesis varies with each individual r protein. Run-off translation of polysomes isolated from gametophytes during the drying phase demonstrates that there are no novel mRNAs recruited and no particular mRNA is favored for translation during desiccation. These findings add credence to the argument that translational control is the major component of the desiccation-induced alteration in gene expression in this plant, as discussed. Aspects of the response of protein synthesis to desiccation are consistent with the hypothesis that T. ruralis exhibits a repair-based mechanism of desiccation tolerance. ImagesFigure 2Figure 3Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7 PMID:16668577

  14. Loss of ecosystem services due to chronic pollution of forests and surface waters in the Adirondack region (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beier, Colin M.; Caputo, Jesse; Lawrence, Gregory B.; Sullivan, Timothy J.

    2017-01-01

    Sustaining recent progress in mitigating acid pollution could require lower emissions caps that will give rise to real or perceived tradeoffs between healthy ecosystems and inexpensive energy. Because most impacts of acid rain affect ecosystem functions that are poorly understood by policy-makers and the public, an ecosystem services (ES) framework can help to measure how pollution affects human well-being. Focused on the Adirondack region (USA), a global ‘hot-spot’ of acid pollution, we measured how the chronic acidification of the region's forests, lakes, and streams has affected the potential economic and cultural benefits they provide to society. We estimated that acid-impaired hardwood forests provide roughly half of the potential benefits of forests on moderate to well-buffered soils – an estimated loss of ∼ $10,000 ha−1 in net present value of wood products, maple syrup, carbon sequestration, and visual quality. Acidic deposition has had only nominal impact – relative to the effects of surficial geology and till depth – on the capacity of Adirondack lakes and streams to provide water suitable for drinking. However, as pH declines in lakes, the estimated value of recreational fishing decreases significantly due to loss of desirable fish such as trout. Hatchery stocking programs have partially offset the pollution-mediated losses of fishery value, most effectively in the pH range 4.8–5.5, but are costly and limited in scope. Although any estimates of the monetary ‘damages’ of acid rain have significant uncertainties, our findings highlight some of the more tangible economic and cultural benefits of pollution mitigation efforts, which continue to face litigation and political opposition.

  15. Loss of ecosystem services due to chronic pollution of forests and surface waters in the Adirondack region (USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beier, Colin M; Caputo, Jesse; Lawrence, Gregory B; Sullivan, Timothy J

    2017-04-15

    Sustaining recent progress in mitigating acid pollution could require lower emissions caps that will give rise to real or perceived tradeoffs between healthy ecosystems and inexpensive energy. Because most impacts of acid rain affect ecosystem functions that are poorly understood by policy-makers and the public, an ecosystem services (ES) framework can help to measure how pollution affects human well-being. Focused on the Adirondack region (USA), a global 'hot-spot' of acid pollution, we measured how the chronic acidification of the region's forests, lakes, and streams has affected the potential economic and cultural benefits they provide to society. We estimated that acid-impaired hardwood forests provide roughly half of the potential benefits of forests on moderate to well-buffered soils - an estimated loss of ∼ $10,000 ha-1 in net present value of wood products, maple syrup, carbon sequestration, and visual quality. Acidic deposition has had only nominal impact - relative to the effects of surficial geology and till depth - on the capacity of Adirondack lakes and streams to provide water suitable for drinking. However, as pH declines in lakes, the estimated value of recreational fishing decreases significantly due to loss of desirable fish such as trout. Hatchery stocking programs have partially offset the pollution-mediated losses of fishery value, most effectively in the pH range 4.8-5.5, but are costly and limited in scope. Although any estimates of the monetary 'damages' of acid rain have significant uncertainties, our findings highlight some of the more tangible economic and cultural benefits of pollution mitigation efforts, which continue to face litigation and political opposition. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Water in Star-forming Regions with the Herschel Space Observatory (WISH). I. Overview of Key Program and First Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dishoeck, E. F.; Kristensen, L. E.; Benz, A. O.; Bergin, E. A.; Caselli, P.; Cernicharo, J.; Herpin, F.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Johnstone, D.; Liseau, R.; Nisini, B.; Shipman, R.; Tafalla, M.; van der Tak, F.; Wyrowski, F.; Aikawa, Y.; Bachiller, R.; Baudry, A.; Benedettini, M.; Bjerkeli, P.; Blake, G. A.; Bontemps, S.; Braine, J.; Brinch, C.; Bruderer, S.; Chavarría, L.; Codella, C.; Daniel, F.; de Graauw, Th.; Deul, E.; di Giorgio, A. M.; Dominik, C.; Doty, S. D.; Dubernet, M. L.; Encrenaz, P.; Feuchtgruber, H.; Fich, M.; Frieswijk, W.; Fuente, A.; Giannini, T.; Goicoechea, J. R.; Helmich, F. P.; Herczeg, G. J.; Jacq, T.; Jørgensen, J. K.; Karska, A.; Kaufman, M. J.; Keto, E.; Larsson, B.; Lefloch, B.; Lis, D.; Marseille, M.; McCoey, C.; Melnick, G.; Neufeld, D.; Olberg, M.; Pagani, L.; Panić, O.; Parise, B.; Pearson, J. C.; Plume, R.; Risacher, C.; Salter, D.; Santiago-García, J.; Saraceno, P.; Stäuber, P.; van Kempen, T. A.; Visser, R.; Viti, S.; Walmsley, M.; Wampfler, S. F.; Yıldız, U. A.

    2011-02-01

    Water In Star-forming regions with Herschel (WISH) is a key program on the Herschel Space Observatory designed to probe the physical and chemical structures of young stellar objects using water and related molecules and to follow the water abundance from collapsing clouds to planet-forming disks. About 80 sources are targeted, covering a wide range of luminosities—from low (105 L⊙)—and a wide range of evolutionary stages—from cold prestellar cores to warm protostellar envelopes and outflows to disks around young stars. Both the HIFI and PACS instruments are used to observe a variety of lines of H2O, H218O and chemically related species at the source position and in small maps around the protostars and selected outflow positions. In addition, high-frequency lines of CO, 13CO, and C18O are obtained with Herschel and are complemented by ground-based observations of dust continuum, HDO, CO and its isotopologs, and other molecules to ensure a self-consistent data set for analysis. An overview of the scientific motivation and observational strategy of the program is given, together with the modeling approach and analysis tools that have been developed. Initial science results are presented. These include a lack of water in cold gas at abundances that are lower than most predictions, strong water emission from shocks in protostellar environments, the importance of UV radiation in heating the gas along outflow walls across the full range of luminosities, and surprisingly widespread detection of the chemically related hydrides OH+ and H2O+ in outflows and foreground gas. Quantitative estimates of the energy budget indicate that H2O is generally not the dominant coolant in the warm dense gas associated with protostars. Very deep limits on the cold gaseous water reservoir in the outer regions of protoplanetary disks are obtained that have profound implications for our understanding of grain growth and mixing in disks.

  17. Down-regulation of POLYGALACTURONASE1 alters firmness, tensile strength and water loss in apple (Malus x domestica fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atkinson Ross G

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While there is now a significant body of research correlating apple (Malus x domestica fruit softening with the cell wall hydrolase ENDO-POLYGALACTURONASE1 (PG1, there is currently little knowledge of its physiological effects in planta. This study examined the effect of down regulation of PG1 expression in ‘Royal Gala’ apples, a cultivar that typically has high levels of PG1, and softens during fruit ripening. Results PG1-suppressed ‘Royal Gala’ apples harvested from multiple seasons were firmer than controls after ripening, and intercellular adhesion was higher. Cell wall analyses indicated changes in yield and composition of pectin, and a higher molecular weight distribution of CDTA-soluble pectin. Structural analyses revealed more ruptured cells and free juice in pulled apart sections, suggesting improved integrity of intercellular connections and consequent cell rupture due to failure of the primary cell walls under stress. PG1-suppressed lines also had reduced expansion of cells in the hypodermis of ripe apples, resulting in more densely packed cells in this layer. This change in morphology appears to be linked with reduced transpirational water loss in the fruit. Conclusions These findings confirm PG1’s role in apple fruit softening and suggests that this is achieved in part by reducing cellular adhesion. This is consistent with previous studies carried out in strawberry but not with those performed in tomato. In apple PG1 also appears to influence other fruit texture characters such as juiciness and water loss.

  18. A Simple Method for Forming Hybrid Core-Shell Nanoparticles Suspended in Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Christophe Daigle

    2008-01-01

    addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT polymerization as dispersant. Then, the resulting dispersion is engaged in a radical emulsion polymerization process whereby a hydrophobic organic monomer (styrene and butyl acrylate is polymerized to form the shell of the hybrid nanoparticle. This method is extremely versatile, allowing the preparation of a variety of nanocomposites with metal oxides (alumina, rutile, anatase, barium titanate, zirconia, copper oxide, metals (Mo, Zn, and even inorganic nitrides (Si3N4.

  19. Effect of water storage on resin-dentin bond strengths formed by different bonding approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martins G

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of water storage on resin-dentin bond strengths [µTBS] using different adhesive bonding approaches. Materials and Methods: Flat superficial dentin surfaces of 24 extracted human third molars were exposed and polished to create a standardized smear layer. The teeth were randomly distributed into four different groups: Three-step etch-and-rinse (Adper Scotchbond Multi-Purpose, 3M ESPE - SBMP, two-step etch-and-rinse (Adper Single Bond 2, 3 M ESPE - SB; two-step self-etch (AdheSE, Ivoclar/Vivadent - AD; and self-etch 1 step (Adper Prompt L-Pop, 3M ESPE - LP. Following the adhesive application (n = 6, resin composite was incrementally applied (Filtek™ Supreme XT - 3 M ESPE in order to obtain bonded sticks, with a cross-sectioned area of 0.81 mm 2 . The bonded sticks were randomly divided and assigned to be tested after one day [OD] (n 30 or six months [6 M] of water storage [6 M] (n = 30. Results: Two-way ANOVA and Tukey′s test showed that none of the adhesives showed degradation after 6 M. SB achieved the highest µTBS both in the [OD] (49.13 MPa and [6M] (40.27 MPa. Despite the highest values in both time evaluations, the µTBS of SB significantly reduced after 6M. LP showed the lowest µTBS in both periods of evaluation (18.35 and 18.34 MPa. Conclusions: Although a significant degradation was only observed for SB, this was the adhesive that showed the highest µTBS after 6 M of water storage.

  20. Nitrogen losses and greenhouse gas emissions under different N and water management in a subtropical double-season rice cropping system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Kaiming; Zhong, Xuhua; Huang, Nongrong; Lampayan, Rubenito M; Liu, Yanzhuo; Pan, Junfeng; Peng, Bilin; Hu, Xiangyu; Fu, Youqiang

    2017-12-31

    Nitrogen non-point pollution and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission are major challenges in rice production. This study examined options for both economic and environmental sustainability through optimizing water and N management. Field experiments were conducted to examine the crop yields, N use efficiency (NUE), greenhouse gas emissions, N losses under different N and water management. There were four treatments: zero N input with farmer's water management (N0), farmer's N and water management (FP), optimized N management with farmer's water management (OPTN) and optimized N management with alternate wetting and drying irrigation (OPTN+AWD). Grain yields in OPTN and OPTN+AWD treatments increased by 13.0-17.3% compared with FP. Ammonia volatilization (AV) was the primary pathway for N loss for all treatments and accounted for over 50% of the total losses. N losses mainly occurred before mid-tillering. N losses through AV, leaching and surface runoff in OPTN were reduced by 18.9-51.6% compared with FP. OPTN+AWD further reduced N losses from surface runoff and leaching by 39.1% and 6.2% in early rice season, and by 46.7% and 23.5% in late rice season, respectively, compared with OPTN. The CH4 emissions in OPTN+AWD were 20.4-45.4% lower than in OPTN and FP. Total global warming potential of CH4 and N2O was the lowest in OPTN+AWD. On-farm comparison confirmed that N loss through runoff in OPTN+AWD was reduced by over 40% as compared with FP. OPTN and OPTN+AWD significantly increased grain yield by 6.7-13.9%. These results indicated that optimizing water and N management can be a simple and effective approach for enhancing yield with reduced environmental footprints. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Suppression of Sclerostin Alleviates Radiation-Induced Bone Loss by Protecting Bone-Forming Cells and Their Progenitors Through Distinct Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Abhishek; Lin, Tiao; Young, Tiffany; Tong, Wei; Ma, Xiaoyuan; Tseng, Wei-Ju; Kramer, Ina; Kneissel, Michaela; Levine, Michael A; Zhang, Yejia; Cengel, Keith; Liu, X. Sherry; Qin, Ling

    2017-01-01

    Focal radiotherapy is frequently associated with skeletal damage within the radiation field. Our previous in vitro study showed that activation of Wnt/β-catenin pathway can overcome radiation-induced DNA damage and apoptosis of osteoblastic cells. Neutralization of circulating sclerostin with a monoclonal antibody (Scl-Ab) is an innovative approach for treating osteoporosis by enhancing Wnt/β-catenin signaling in bone. Together with the fact that focal radiation increases sclerostin amount in bone, we sought to determine whether weekly treatment with Scl-Ab would prevent focal radiotherapy-induced osteoporosis in mice. Micro-CT and histomorphometric analyses demonstrated that Scl-Ab blocked trabecular bone structural deterioration after radiation by partially preserving osteoblast number and activity. Consistently, trabecular bone in sclerostin null mice was resistant to radiation via the same mechanism. Scl-Ab accelerated DNA repair in osteoblasts after radiation by reducing the number of γ-H2AX foci, a DNA double-strand break marker, and increasing the amount of Ku70, a DNA repair protein, thus protecting osteoblasts from radiation-induced apoptosis. In osteocytes, apart from using similar DNA repair mechanism to rescue osteocyte apoptosis, Scl-Ab restored the osteocyte canaliculi structure that was otherwise damaged by radiation. Using a lineage tracing approach that labels all mesenchymal lineage cells in the endosteal bone marrow, we demonstrated that radiation damage to mesenchymal progenitors mainly involves shifting their fate to adipocytes and arresting their proliferation ability but not inducing apoptosis, which are different mechanisms from radiation damage to mature bone forming cells. Scl-Ab treatment partially blocked the lineage shift but had no effect on the loss of proliferation potential. Taken together, our studies provide proof-of-principle evidence for a novel use of Scl-Ab as a therapeutic treatment for radiation-induced osteoporosis and

  2. Stainless steel corrosion scale formed in reclaimed water: Characteristics, model for scale growth and metal element release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yong; Liu, Shuming; Smith, Kate; Hu, Hongying; Tang, Fusheng; Li, Yuhong; Yu, Kanghua

    2016-10-01

    Stainless steels generally have extremely good corrosion resistance, but are still susceptible to pitting corrosion. As a result, corrosion scales can form on the surface of stainless steel after extended exposure to aggressive aqueous environments. Corrosion scales play an important role in affecting water quality. These research results showed that interior regions of stainless steel corrosion scales have a high percentage of chromium phases. We reveal the morphology, micro-structure and physicochemical characteristics of stainless steel corrosion scales. Stainless steel corrosion scale is identified as a podiform chromite deposit according to these characteristics, which is unlike deposit formed during iron corrosion. A conceptual model to explain the formation and growth of stainless steel corrosion scale is proposed based on its composition and structure. The scale growth process involves pitting corrosion on the stainless steel surface and the consecutive generation and homogeneous deposition of corrosion products, which is governed by a series of chemical and electrochemical reactions. This model shows the role of corrosion scales in the mechanism of iron and chromium release from pitting corroded stainless steel materials. The formation of corrosion scale is strongly related to water quality parameters. The presence of HClO results in higher ferric content inside the scales. Cl- and SO42- ions in reclaimed water play an important role in corrosion pitting of stainless steel and promote the formation of scales. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Water oxidation by manganese oxides formed from tetranuclear precursor complexes: the influence of phosphate on structure and activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, Denys; Anderlund, Magnus F; Styring, Stenbjörn; Dau, Holger; Zaharieva, Ivelina; Thapper, Anders

    2014-06-28

    Two types of manganese oxides have been prepared by hydrolysis of tetranuclear Mn(iii) complexes in the presence or absence of phosphate ions. The oxides have been characterized structurally using X-ray absorption spectroscopy and functionally by O2 evolution measurements. The structures of the oxides prepared in the absence of phosphate are dominated by di-μ-oxo bridged manganese ions that form layers with limited long-range order, consisting of edge-sharing MnO6 octahedra. The average manganese oxidation state is +3.5. The structure of these oxides is closely related to other manganese oxides reported as water oxidation catalysts. They show high oxygen evolution activity in a light-driven system containing [Ru(bpy)3](2+) and S2O8(2-) at pH 7. In contrast, the oxides formed by hydrolysis in the presence of phosphate ions contain almost no di-μ-oxo bridged manganese ions. Instead the phosphate groups are acting as bridges between the manganese ions. The average oxidation state of manganese ions is +3. This type of oxide has much lower water oxidation activity in the light-driven system. Correlations between different structural motifs and the function as a water oxidation catalyst are discussed and the lower activity in the phosphate containing oxide is linked to the absence of protonable di-μ-oxo bridges.

  4. Stabilization of model beverage cloud emulsions using protein-polysaccharide electrostatic complexes formed at the oil-water interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnsilawat, Thepkunya; Pongsawatmanit, Rungnaphar; McClements, David J

    2006-07-26

    The potential of utilizing interfacial complexes, formed through the electrostatic interactions of proteins and polysaccharides at oil-water interfaces, to stabilize model beverage cloud emulsions has been examined. These interfacial complexes were formed by mixing charged polysaccharides with oil-in-water emulsions containing oppositely charged protein-coated oil droplets. Model beverage emulsions were prepared that consisted of 0.1 wt % corn oil droplets coated by beta-lactoglobulin (beta-Lg), beta-Lg/alginate, beta-Lg/iota-carrageenan, or beta-Lg/gum arabic interfacial layers (pH 3 or 4). Stable emulsions were formed when the polysaccharide concentration was sufficient to saturate the protein-coated droplets. The emulsions were subjected to variations in pH (from 3 to 7), ionic strength (from 0 to 250 mM NaCl), and thermal processing (from 30 or 90 degrees C), and the influence on their stability was determined. The emulsions containing alginate and carrageenan had the best stability to ionic strength and thermal processing. This study shows that the controlled formation of protein-polysaccharide complexes at droplet surfaces may be used to produce stable beverage emulsions, which may have important implications for industrial applications.

  5. Simulation study of pressure trends in the case of loss of coolant accident in Water Cooled Lithium Lead blanket module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eboli, Marica, E-mail: marica.eboli@for.unipi.it [DICI-University of Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Del Nevo, Alessandro [ENEA UTIS-TCI, CR Brasimone, Camugnano (Italy); Pesetti, Alessio; Forgione, Nicola [DICI-University of Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Sardain, Pierre [CEA/IRFM Cadarache, St. Paul lez Durance Cedex (France)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Review of the activities performed in the past on lithium-lead water interaction. • SIMMER-III code assessment of pressure trends based on BLAST experiments. • Identifying capabilities and deficiencies of SIMMER in modeling safety phenomena. • Proposal of experimental campaign in support of code validation. - Abstract: The water–lithium lead interaction implies a direct energy release, which leads to temperature and pressure increase, due to a combined thermal and chemical reaction, and an indirect form of energy release, the hydrogen production, due to secondary chemical reaction involving the initial reaction products. Review and understanding of the knowledge acquired in past studies, experimental works and numerical activities are needed in view of the renewed interest in the Water Cooled Lithium Lead blanket concept and safety issues connected with the fusion reactor design. This paper presents a review of the studies carried out in the past to characterize the potential safety concerns associated with the use of water and lithium-lead eutectic alloy, the main experimental campaigns, and numerical simulations of BLAST Test No. 5 performed by SIMMER-III code. As results, no code was found able to perform a satisfactory post-test analysis of separate effect experiments, without engineering assumptions. Therefore, a code model for the exothermic reaction and hydrogen production, and experimental data are needed for solving the WCLL blanket safety issues associated with the water–PbLi interaction.

  6. Effects on weight loss in adults of replacing diet beverages with water during a hypoenergetic diet: a randomized, 24-wk clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madjd, Ameneh; Taylor, Moira A; Delavari, Alireza; Malekzadeh, Reza; Macdonald, Ian A; Farshchi, Hamid R

    2015-12-01

    Obese people believe that drinking diet beverages (DBs) may be a simple strategy to achieve weight loss. However, nutritionists advise drinking water when attempting to lose weight. It is unclear how important drinking water instead of DBs is during a weight-loss program. In this study, we compared the effect on weight loss of either replacing DBs with water or continuing to consume DBs in adults during a 24-wk weight-loss program. Overweight and obese women [n = 89; body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)): 27-40; age: 18-50 y] who usually consumed DBs in their diet were asked to either substitute water for DBs (water group) or continue drinking DBs 5 times/wk after their lunch for 24 wk (DB group) while on a weight-loss program. Sixty-two participants (71%) completed the trial (32 in the DB group, 30 in the water group). Baseline variables were not statistically significantly different between groups. A statistically significant reduction in anthropometric measurements and statistically significant improvements in cardiometabolic risk characteristics were observed over 24 wk in both groups. Compared with the DB group, the water group had a greater decrease in weight (mean ± SD: water: -8.8 ± 1.9 kg; DBs: -7.6 ± 2.1 kg; P = 0.015, time × group), fasting insulin (mean ± SD: water: -2.84 ± 0.77 mU/L; DBs: -1.78 ± 1.25 mU/L, P water: -0.097 ± 0.049; DBs: -0.057 ± 0.042, P water: -1.02 ± 0.25 mmol/L; DBs: -0.72 ± 0.27 mmol/L; P water after the main meal may lead to greater weight reduction during a weight-loss program. It may also offer clinical benefits to improve insulin resistance. This trial was registered at www.irct.ir/ as IRCT201402177754N5. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  7. Forming nanoparticles of water-soluble ionic molecules and embedding them into polymer and glass substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Kiel

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This work describes a general method for the preparation of salt nanoparticles (NPs made from an aqueous solution of ionic compounds (NaCl, CuSO4 and KI. These nanoparticles were created by the application of ultrasonic waves to the aqueous solutions of these salts. When the sonication was carried out in the presence of a glass microscope slide, a parylene-coated glass slide, or a silicon wafer the ionic NPs were embedded in these substrates by a one-step, ultrasound-assisted procedure. Optimization of the coating process resulted in homogeneous distributions of nanocrystals, 30 nm in size, on the surfaces of the substrates. The morphology and structure of each of the coatings were characterized by physical and chemical methods, such as X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, atomic force microscopy (AFM, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. After 24 h of leaching into water the nanoparticles of the inorganic salts were still present on the slides, and complete leaching of nanoparticles occurred only after 96 h. A mechanism of the ultrasound-assisted coating is proposed.

  8. Dichloroacetonitrile and dichloroacetamide can form independently during chlorination and chloramination of drinking waters, model organic matters, and wastewater effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huang; Wu, Qian-Yuan; Hu, Hong-Ying; Mitch, William A

    2012-10-02

    The increasing usage of organic nitrogen-rich wastewater- or algal-impacted waters, and chloramines for secondary disinfection, raises concerns regarding the formation of haloacetonitriles, haloacetamides and other nitrogenous disinfection byproducts (N-DBPs). Previous research obtained contradictory results regarding the relative importance of chlorination or chloramination for promoting these byproducts, but applied chlorine and chloramines at different doses and exposure periods. Additionally, mechanistic work, mostly using model precursors, suggested that haloacetonitrile and haloacetamide formation should be correlated because hydrolysis of haloacetonitriles forms haloacetamides. In this work, the formation of dichloroacetonitrile (DCAN) and dichloroacetamide (DCAcAm) were compared across a range of chlorine and chloramine exposures for drinking waters, wastewater effluents, algal extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), NOM isolates and model precursors. While chlorination favored formation of DCAN over DCAcAm, chloramination nearly always formed more DCAcAm than DCAN, suggesting the existence of haloacetamide formation pathways that are independent of the hydrolysis of haloacetonitriles. Experiments with asparagine as a model precursor also suggested DCAcAm formation without a DCAN intermediate. Application of (15)N-labeled monochloramine indicated initial rapid formation of both DCAN and DCAcAm by pathways where the nitrogen originated from organic nitrogen precursors. However, slower formation occurred by pathways involving chloramine incorporation into organic precursors. While wastewater effluents and algal EPS tended to be more potent precursors for DCAN during chlorination, humic materials were more potent precursors for DCAcAm during chlorination and for both DCAN and DCAcAm during chloramination. These results suggest that, rather than considering haloacetamides as haloacetonitrile hydrolysis products, they should be treated as a separate N

  9. The corrosion and stress corrosion cracking behavior of a novel alumina-forming austenitic stainless steel in supercritical water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hongying; Yang, Haijie; Wang, Man; Giron-Palomares, Benjamin; Zhou, Zhangjian; Zhang, Lefu; Zhang, Guangming

    2017-02-01

    The general corrosion and stress corrosion behavior of Fe-27Ni-15Cr-5Al-2Mo-0.4Nb alumina-forming austenitic (AFA) steel were investigated in supercritical water under different conditions. A double layer oxide structure was formed: a Fe-rich outer layer (Fe2O3 and Fe3O4) and an Al-Cr-rich inner layer. And the inner layer has a low growth rate with exposing time, which is good for improvement of corrosion resistance. Additionally, some internal nodular Al-Cr-rich oxides were also observed, which resulted in a local absence of inner layer. Stress corrosion specimens exhibited a combination of high strength, good ductility and low susceptibility. The stress strength and elongation was reduced by increasing temperature and amount of dissolved oxygen. In addition, the corresponding susceptibility was increased with decreased temperatures and increased oxygen contents.

  10. Chlorination of bromide-containing waters: enhanced bromate formation in the presence of synthetic metal oxides and deposits formed in drinking water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao; von Gunten, Urs; Croué, Jean-Philippe

    2013-09-15

    Bromate formation from the reaction between chlorine and bromide in homogeneous solution is a slow process. The present study investigated metal oxides enhanced bromate formation during chlorination of bromide-containing waters. Selected metal oxides enhanced the decay of hypobromous acid (HOBr), a requisite intermediate during the oxidation of bromide to bromate, via (i) disproportionation to bromate in the presence of nickel oxide (NiO) and cupric oxide (CuO), (ii) oxidation of a metal to a higher valence state in the presence of cuprous oxide (Cu2O) and (iii) oxygen formation by NiO and CuO. Goethite (α-FeOOH) did not enhance either of these pathways. Non-charged species of metal oxides seem to be responsible for the catalytic disproportionation which shows its highest rate in the pH range near the pKa of HOBr. Due to the ability to catalyze HOBr disproportionation, bromate was formed during chlorination of bromide-containing waters in the presence of CuO and NiO, whereas no bromate was detected in the presence of Cu2O and α-FeOOH for analogous conditions. The inhibition ability of coexisting anions on bromate formation at pH 8.6 follows the sequence of phosphate > sulfate > bicarbonate/carbonate. A black deposit in a water pipe harvested from a drinking water distribution system exerted significant residual oxidant decay and bromate formation during chlorination of bromide-containing waters. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analyses showed that the black deposit contained copper (14%, atomic percentage) and nickel (1.8%, atomic percentage). Cupric oxide was further confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). These results indicate that bromate formation may be of concern during chlorination of bromide-containing waters in distribution systems containing CuO and/or NiO. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Chlorination of bromide-containing waters: Enhanced bromate formation in the presence ofsynthetic metal oxides and deposits formed indrinking water distribution systems

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Chao

    2013-09-01

    Bromate formation from the reaction between chlorine and bromide in homogeneous solution is a slow process. The present study investigated metal oxides enhanced bromate formation during chlorination of bromide-containing waters. Selected metal oxides enhanced the decay of hypobromous acid (HOBr), a requisite intermediate during the oxidation of bromide to bromate, via (i) disproportionation to bromate in the presence of nickel oxide (NiO) and cupric oxide (CuO), (ii) oxidation of a metal to a higher valence state in the presence of cuprous oxide (Cu2O) and (iii) oxygen formation by NiO and CuO. Goethite (α-FeOOH) did not enhance either of these pathways. Non-charged species of metal oxides seem to be responsible for the catalytic disproportionation which shows its highest rate in the pH range near the pKa of HOBr. Due to the ability to catalyze HOBr disproportionation, bromate was formed during chlorination of bromide-containing waters in the presence of CuO and NiO, whereas no bromate was detected in the presence of Cu2O and α-FeOOH for analogous conditions. The inhibition ability of coexisting anions on bromate formation at pH 8.6 follows the sequence of phosphate>>sulfate>bicarbonate/carbonate. A black deposit in a water pipe harvested from a drinking water distribution system exerted significant residual oxidant decay and bromate formation during chlorination of bromide-containing waters. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analyses showed that the black deposit contained copper (14%, atomic percentage) and nickel (1.8%, atomic percentage). Cupric oxide was further confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). These results indicate that bromate formation may be of concern during chlorination of bromide-containing waters in distribution systems containing CuO and/or NiO. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Swelling equilibrium of dentin adhesive polymers formed on the water-adhesive phase boundary: experiments and micromechanical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, A; Parthasarathy, R; Ye, Q; Singh, V; Spencer, P

    2014-01-01

    During their application to the wet, oral environment, dentin adhesives can experience phase separation and composition change, which can compromise the quality of the hybrid layer formed at the dentin-adhesive interface. The chemical composition of polymer phases formed in the hybrid layer can be represented using a ternary water-adhesive phase diagram. In this paper, these polymer phases are characterized using a suite of mechanical tests and swelling experiments. The experimental results were evaluated using a granular micromechanics-based model incorporating poro-mechanical effects and polymer-solvent thermodynamics. The variation in the model parameters and model-predicted polymer properties was studied as a function of composition along the phase boundary. The resulting structure-property correlations provide insight into interactions occurring at the molecular level in the saturated polymer system. These correlations can be used for modeling the mechanical behavior of the hybrid layer, and are expected to aid in the design and improvement of water-compatible dentin adhesive polymers. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Swelling equilibrium of dentin adhesive polymers formed on the water-adhesive phase boundary: Experiments and micromechanical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Anil; Parthasarathy, Ranganathan; Ye, Qiang; Singh, Viraj; Spencer, Paulette

    2013-01-01

    During their application to the wet, oral environment, dentin adhesives can experience phase separation and composition change which can compromise the quality of the hybrid layer formed at the dentin-adhesive interface. The chemical composition of polymer phases formed in the hybrid layer can be represented using a ternary water-adhesive phase diagram. In this paper, these polymer phases have been characterized using a suite of mechanical tests and swelling experiments. The experimental results were evaluated using granular micromechanics based model that incorporates poro-mechanical effects and polymer-solvent thermodynamics. The variation of the model parameters and model-predicted polymer properties has been studied as a function of composition along the phase boundary. The resulting structure-property correlations provide insight into interactions occurring at the molecular level in the saturated polymer system. These correlations can be used for modeling the mechanical behavior of hybrid layer, and are expected to aid in the design and improvement of water-compatible dentin adhesive polymers. PMID:24076070

  14. Mutation in Wilted Dwarf and Lethal 1 (WDL1) causes abnormal cuticle formation and rapid water loss in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Jin; Jin, Ping; Yoon, Jinmi; Yang, Jung-Il; Jeong, Hee Joong; Ranathunge, Kosala; Schreiber, Lukas; Franke, Rochus; Lee, In-Jung; An, Gynheung

    2010-09-01

    Epidermal cell layers play important roles in plant defenses against various environmental stresses. Here we report the identification of a cuticle membrane mutant, wilted dwarf and lethal 1 (wdl1), from a rice T-DNA insertional population. The mutant is dwarf and die at seedling stage due to increased rates of water loss. Stomatal cells and pavement cells are smaller in the mutant, suggesting that WDL1 affects epidermal cell differentiation. T-DNA was inserted into a gene that encodes a protein belonging to the SGNH subfamily, within the GDSL lipase superfamily. The WDL1-sGFP signal coincided with the RFP signal driven by AtBIP-mRFP, indicating that WDL1 is an ER protein. SEM analyses showed that their leaves have a disorganized crystal wax layer. Cross-sectioning reveals loose packing of the cuticle and irregular thickness of cell wall. Detailed analyses of the epicuticular wax showed no significant changes either in the total amount and amounts of each monomer or in the levels of lipid polymers, including cutin and other covalently bound lipids, attached to the cell wall. We propose that WDL1 is involved in cutin organization, affecting depolymerizable components.

  15. A novel continuous colour mapping approach for visualization of facial skin hydration and transepidermal water loss for four ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voegeli, R; Rawlings, A V; Seroul, P; Summers, B

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this exploratory study was to develop a novel colour mapping approach to visualize and interpret the complexity of facial skin hydration and barrier properties of four ethnic groups (Caucasians, Indians, Chinese and Black Africans) living in Pretoria, South Africa. We measured transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and skin capacitance on 30 pre-defined sites on the forehead, cheek, jaw and eye areas of sixteen women (four per ethnic group) and took digital images of their faces. Continuous colour maps were generated by interpolating between each measured value and superimposing the values on the digital images. The complexity of facial skin hydration and skin barrier properties is revealed by these measurements and visualized by the continuous colour maps of the digital images. Overall, the Caucasian subjects had the better barrier properties followed by the Black African subjects, Chinese subjects and Indian subjects. Nevertheless, the two more darkly pigmented ethnic groups had superior skin hydration properties. Subtle differences were seen when examining the different facial sites. There exists remarkable skin capacitance and TEWL gradients within short distances on selected areas of the face. These gradients are distinctive in the different ethnic groups. In contrast to other reports, we found that darkly pigmented skin does not always have a superior barrier function and differences in skin hydration values are complex on the different parts of the face among the different ethnic groups. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  16. On the nature and origin of dicationic, charge-separated species formed in liquid water on X-ray irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thürmer, Stephan; Ončák, Milan; Ottosson, Niklas; Seidel, Robert; Hergenhahn, Uwe; Bradforth, Stephen E.; Slavíček, Petr; Winter, Bernd

    2013-07-01

    To understand the yield and patterns of damage in aqueous condensed matter, including biological systems, it is essential to identify the initial products subsequent to the interaction of high-energy radiation with liquid water. Until now, the observation of several fast reactions induced by energetic particles in water was not possible on their characteristic timescales. Therefore, some of the reaction intermediates involved, particularly those that require nuclear motion, were not considered when describing radiation chemistry. Here, through a combined experimental and theoretical study, we elucidate the ultrafast proton dynamics in the first few femtoseconds after X-ray core-level ionization of liquid water. We show through isotope analysis of the Auger spectra that proton-transfer dynamics occur on the same timescale as electron autoionization. Proton transfer leads to the formation of a Zundel-type intermediate [HO*···H···H2O]+, which further ionizes to form a so-far unnoticed type of dicationic charge-separated species with high internal energy. We call the process proton-transfer mediated charge separation.

  17. The soil water characteristic as new class of closed-form parametric expressions for the flow duration curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadegh, M.; Vrugt, J. A.; Gupta, H. V.; Xu, C.

    2016-04-01

    The flow duration curve is a signature catchment characteristic that depicts graphically the relationship between the exceedance probability of streamflow and its magnitude. This curve is relatively easy to create and interpret, and is used widely for hydrologic analysis, water quality management, and the design of hydroelectric power plants (among others). Several mathematical expressions have been proposed to mimic the FDC. Yet, these efforts have not been particularly successful, in large part because available functions are not flexible enough to portray accurately the functional shape of the FDC for a large range of catchments and contrasting hydrologic behaviors. Here, we extend the work of Vrugt and Sadegh (2013) and introduce several commonly used models of the soil water characteristic as new class of closed-form parametric expressions for the flow duration curve. These soil water retention functions are relatively simple to use, contain between two to three parameters, and mimic closely the empirical FDCs of 430 catchments of the MOPEX data set. We then relate the calibrated parameter values of these models to physical and climatological characteristics of the watershed using multivariate linear regression analysis, and evaluate the regionalization potential of our proposed models against those of the literature. If quality of fit is of main importance then the 3-parameter van Genuchten model is preferred, whereas the 2-parameter lognormal, 3-parameter GEV and generalized Pareto models show greater promise for regionalization.

  18. On the nature and origin of dicationic, charge-separated species formed in liquid water on X-ray irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thürmer, Stephan; Ončák, Milan; Ottosson, Niklas; Seidel, Robert; Hergenhahn, Uwe; Bradforth, Stephen E; Slavíček, Petr; Winter, Bernd

    2013-07-01

    To understand the yield and patterns of damage in aqueous condensed matter, including biological systems, it is essential to identify the initial products subsequent to the interaction of high-energy radiation with liquid water. Until now, the observation of several fast reactions induced by energetic particles in water was not possible on their characteristic timescales. Therefore, some of the reaction intermediates involved, particularly those that require nuclear motion, were not considered when describing radiation chemistry. Here, through a combined experimental and theoretical study, we elucidate the ultrafast proton dynamics in the first few femtoseconds after X-ray core-level ionization of liquid water. We show through isotope analysis of the Auger spectra that proton-transfer dynamics occur on the same timescale as electron autoionization. Proton transfer leads to the formation of a Zundel-type intermediate [HO*···H···H2O](+), which further ionizes to form a so-far unnoticed type of dicationic charge-separated species with high internal energy. We call the process proton-transfer mediated charge separation.

  19. Mitigation of Hydrogen Gas Generation from the Reaction of Uranium Metal with Water in K Basin Sludge and Sludge Waste Forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinkov, Sergey I.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2011-06-08

    Prior laboratory testing identified sodium nitrate and nitrite to be the most promising agents to minimize hydrogen generation from uranium metal aqueous corrosion in Hanford Site K Basin sludge. Of the two, nitrate was determined to be better because of higher chemical capacity, lower toxicity, more reliable efficacy, and fewer side reactions than nitrite. The present lab tests were run to determine if nitrate’s beneficial effects to lower H2 generation in simulated and genuine sludge continued for simulated sludge mixed with agents to immobilize water to help meet the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) waste acceptance drainable liquid criterion. Tests were run at ~60°C, 80°C, and 95°C using near spherical high-purity uranium metal beads and simulated sludge to emulate uranium-rich KW containerized sludge currently residing in engineered containers KW-210 and KW-220. Immobilization agents tested were Portland cement (PC), a commercial blend of PC with sepiolite clay (Aquaset II H), granulated sepiolite clay (Aquaset II G), and sepiolite clay powder (Aquaset II). In all cases except tests with Aquaset II G, the simulated sludge was mixed intimately with the immobilization agent before testing commenced. For the granulated Aquaset II G clay was added to the top of the settled sludge/solution mixture according to manufacturer application directions. The gas volumes and compositions, uranium metal corrosion mass losses, and nitrite, ammonia, and hydroxide concentrations in the interstitial solutions were measured. Uranium metal corrosion rates were compared with rates forecast from the known uranium metal anoxic water corrosion rate law. The ratios of the forecast to the observed rates were calculated to find the corrosion rate attenuation factors. Hydrogen quantities also were measured and compared with quantities expected based on non-attenuated H2 generation at the full forecast anoxic corrosion rate to arrive at H2 attenuation factors. The uranium metal

  20. Diabetic and sympathetic influences on the water permeability barrier function of human skin as measured using transepidermal water loss: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Seung Hoon; Park, Ji Woong

    2017-11-01

    The presence of long-standing hyperglycemic conditions has been suggested to lead to many skin problems associated with an impaired skin barrier function. However, the relationship between impaired skin barrier status and altered peripheral nervous system function has not yet been determined. The purpose of this study was to investigate the water evaporation rate as a measure of the permeability barrier function of diabetic skin and its relationship to diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy (DSPN) and peripheral autonomic neuropathy (PAN) using well-controlled confounding variables.This case-control study included 42 participants with chronic diabetes and 43 matched healthy controls. The diabetic group underwent a nerve conduction study and sympathetic skin response (SSR) test to confirm the presence of DSPN and PAN, respectively. Different skin regions were analyzed using the noninvasive Tewameter instrument (Courage + Khazaka Electronic GmbH, Cologne, Germany). The impacts of PAN, DSPN, age, and diabetes duration on the values of transepidermal water loss (TEWL) were each analyzed and compared between the groups.Regardless of the presence of DSPN or PAN, the TEWL values as measured on the distal extremities were significantly lower in the diabetic group than in the control group. In the diabetic group, participants with abnormal SSR test results showed decreased TEWL values in the finger, sole, and first toe, as compared with participants with normal SSR test results. In the control group, age showed a negative correlation with the TEWL values with respect to some measured regions. However, in the diabetic group, there was no significant correlation between either patient age or diabetes duration and TEWL values.The presence of a long-term hyperglycemic state can reduce the permeability barrier function of the skin, a phenomenon that might be related to the presence of an impaired peripheral sympathetic nervous system, rather than peripheral sensorimotor

  1. A comparative assessment of solubility advantage from glassy and crystalline forms of a water-insoluble drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, Garima; Bansal, Arvind K

    2007-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to generate and characterize the glassy state of Irbesartan (IBS), with a view to exploit the solubility advantage from disordered high energy system. The major reason for limited solubility benefit from amorphous systems is their devitrification, on exposure to primarily aqueous dissolution medium. IBS is a lipophilic molecule and exhibits poor aqueous solubility and incomplete dissolution. IBS was found to be a good glass former (with glass transition/melting temperature >0.7), non-hygroscopic in nature and showed reasonable solid-state stability. The present work places particular emphasis on studying the influence of various dissolution environments on the devitrification of amorphous system. It was noted that IBS forms a relatively 'stable' glassy system with a 2.5-fold increase in aqueous solubility and a higher intrinsic dissolution rate (IDR). The dissolution behavior showed pH dependency and about eight-fold solubility advantage was obtained from amorphous system at pH 3. Both the crystalline and amorphous forms exhibited appreciably high solubility in HCl and HCl strength was found to significantly influence the solubility of crystalline form. Amorphous IBS showed reduced devitrification in HCl, as against water, thus highlighting the effect of dissolution environment on devitrification kinetics. Statistical and mathematical analyses were performed to compare the solubility advantage obtained using amorphous IBS vis-à-vis the crystalline counterpart.

  2. A phylogenetic analysis of basal metabolism, total evaporative water loss, and life-history among foxes from desert and mesic regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, JB; Munoz-Garcia, A; Ostrowski, S; Tieleman, BI

    We measured basal metabolic rate (BMR) and total evaporative water loss (TEWL) of species of foxes that exist on the Arabian Peninsula, Blanford's fox (Vulpes cana) and two subspecies of Red fox (Vulpes vulpes). Combining these data with that on other canids from the literature, we searched for

  3. Shell Properties, Water Vapor Loss, and Hatching Success of Eggs from a Rain Forest Population of the Pearly-eyed Thrasher (Margarops fuscatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    WAYNE J. ARENDT

    2005-01-01

    I calculated various shell properties, water vapor loss, and hatching success of eggs of the Pearly-eyed Thrasher (Margarops fuscatus) using measurements obtained during a long-term study in the Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico. Empirical results were comparable to standard reference formulae, demonstrating that published formulae can be used with confidence by field...

  4. Skin barrier response to occlusion of healthy and irritated skin: Differences in trans-epidermal water loss, erythema and stratum corneum lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungersted, J.M.; Høgh, Julie Kaae; Hellgren, Lars

    2010-01-01

    been damaged by either sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) or tape stripping, respectively, was determined and compared with that of to non-occluded pre-damaged skin. Skin barrier function was assessed by measurements of trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL) and erythema. In study A, stratum corneum lipids were...

  5. Nutrient losses by water erosion Perdas de nutrientes na água da erosão hídrica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildegardis Bertol

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Water erosion causes soil degradation, which is closely related to nutrient losses either in, the soluble form or adsorbed to soil particles, depending mainly on the adopted soil management system. This study was carried out in São José do Cerrito, SC, Brazil, between March 2000 and June 2001. The objective was to quantify available nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium losses in water erosion obtained with simulated rainfall in the following soil management systems: conventional tillage with no-crop (bare soil (BS, conventional tillage with soybean (CT, reduced tillage with soybean (RT, no tillage with soybean on a desiccated and burned natural pasture (DBNP, and no tillage with soybean on a desiccated natural pasture (DNP. A rotating boom rainfall simulator was used to perform three rainfall tests with constant intensity of 64 mm h-1 and sufficient duration to reach constant runoff rate, on a clayey-loam, well-structured Typic Hapludox, with an average slope of 0.18 m m-1. The first test was carried out five days before soybean emergence and the second and third at 30 and 60 days, respectively. The nutrient concentration in water and total losses of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium were higher under CT than in the other soil management systems.A erosão hídrica causa o empobrecimento dos solos, devido ao transporte de nutrientes, os quais são transportados tanto adsorvidos aos colóides do solo quanto solubilizados na água, podendo variar com o sistema de manejo solo. O trabalho foi conduzido em São José do Cerrito (SC, entre março de 2000 e junho de 2001, com o objetivo de quantificar as perdas de nitrogênio, fósforo, potássio, cálcio e magnésio na água da erosão hídrica sob chuva simulada, nos seguintes sistemas de manejo: aração+duas gradagens sem cultivo do solo (SSC, aração+duas gradagens com cultivo de soja (PCO, escarificação+uma gradagem com cultivo de soja (CMI, semeadura

  6. The Deuterium to Hydrogen Ratio in the Water that Formed the Yellowknife Bay Mudstones in Gale Crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaffy, Paul R.; Brunner, Anna E.; Webster, Chris R.; Atreya, Sushil K.; Mcadam, Amy Catherine; Stern, Jennifer Claire; Leshin, Laurie Ann; Navarro-Gonzales, Rafael; Jones, J.; Kashyap, Srishti

    2014-01-01

    A suite of isotope ratios of light elements in the present martian atmosphere (13C/12C, 15N/14N, 18O/16O, 38Ar/36Ar, and D/H) are all substantially enriched in the heavy element suggesting atmospheric loss to space over the past billions of years with preferential loss of the lighter isotope from each pair. In situ measurements from MSL's Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument [e.g. 1,2,3] have considerably refined previous measurements from the Viking mass spectrometers [e.g. 4], from remote spectroscopic observations [e.g. 5,6], and from martian meteorite studies [e.g. 7,8]. The persistence of habitable environments such as the ancient Yellowknife Bay lake recently revealed by measurements from the Curiosity rover [9] depends on the surface temperatures and the duration of an atmosphere thicker than that at present. Current and planned measurements from orbit with the Mars Express and MAVEN missions respectively intend to study the processes of atmospheric escape including solar wind interaction, sputtering, thermal escape, and dissociative recombination, and determine or refine the current rate of atmospheric loss caused by these and other mechanisms. The goal of these programs is to understand the physical processes sufficiently well so that robust extrapolations over the past billions of years can be made D/H is measured by both the Tunable Laser Spectrometer (TLS) and the Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer (QMS) of the SAM suite. to predict the atmospheric and surface conditions on early Mars. However, the study of the history of martian atmospheric evolution will be greatly facilitated if we are able to also directly measure the isotopic composition of volatiles captured in rocks that are representative of the ancient atmosphere. To date, D/H is one of the most promising candidates for this study since water is the most abundant volatile thermally released from the Yellowknife Bay phylosilicates discovered by the SAM and CheMin experiments of MSL and its

  7. The use of chipped pruned branches to control the soil and water losses in citrus plantations in Eastern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Keesstra, Saskia; Jordán, Antonio; Pereira, Paulo; Prosdocimi, Massimo; Ritsema, Coen J.; Burguet, María

    2016-04-01

    Soil erosion is the main cause of soil degradation in agriculture land, which is a world-wide problem (Cerdà et al., 2009; Novara et al., 2011; Biwas et al., 2015, Colazo and Buschiazzo, 2015; Ligonja and Shrestha, 2015). High erosion rates result in the loss of soil and also changes the hydrological, erosional, biological, and geochemical cycles (Keesstra et al., 2012; Berendse et al., 2015; Decock et al., 2015; Brevik et al., 2015; Smith et al., 2015). Thus, there is a need to reduce the soil losses to achieve soil sustainability. However, although some findings show that straw, geotextiles, vegetation cover and tillage reduction are efficient strategies (Gimenez Morera et al., 2010; Cerdà et al., 2015; Lieskovský and Kenderessy, 2014; Taguas et al., 2015) there is still a need to find easy strategies for farmers to adopt in their fields that will protect, and also recover, their soils. Chipped branches are usually burned in many orchards to remove them from the fields. However, when they would be chipped and spread on the fields, they can be a source of organic matter, and in addition this might reduce soil losses and improve the water retention capacity of the soils (Mukherjee et al., 2014; Yazdanpanah et al., 2016). The hypothesis is that the chipped branches reduce soil loss. To test this hypothesis we selected 3 study sites in which chipped branches were applied, and paired sites with bare soil to check the changes introduced by the chipped branches on the soils. We selected 3 sites of the Cànyoles river watershed (Montesa municipality), SW Spain, with 10 plots in each site. At each site, 10 rainfall simulation experiments were carried out. Paired plots were selected in the nearby (less than 10 m in distance) orchard where the pruned branches were removed. Then, 60 rainfall simulation experiments at 55 mm h-1 of rainfall intensity during 1 hour were carried out in small 0.25 m2 plots to determine the soil particle detachment. The results show that in all

  8. Daily self-monitoring of body weight, step count, fruit/vegetable intake, and water consumption: a feasible and effective long-term weight loss maintenance approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akers, Jeremy D; Cornett, Rachel A; Savla, Jyoti S; Davy, Kevin P; Davy, Brenda M

    2012-05-01

    Maintenance of weight loss remains a challenge for most individuals. Thus, practical and effective weight-loss maintenance (WTLM) strategies are needed. A two-group 12-month WTLM intervention trial was conducted from June 2007 to February 2010 to determine the feasibility and effectiveness of a WTLM intervention for older adults using daily self-monitoring of body weight, step count, fruit/vegetable (F/V) intake, and water consumption. Forty weight-reduced individuals (mean weight lost=6.7±0.6 kg; body mass index [calculated as kg/m²] 29.2±1.1), age 63±1 years, who had previously participated in a 12-week randomized controlled weight-loss intervention trial, were instructed to record daily body weight, step count, and F/V intake (WEV [defined as weight, exercise, and F/V]). Experimental group (WEV+) participants were also instructed to consume 16 fl oz of water before each main meal (ie, three times daily), and to record daily water intake. Outcome measures included weight change, diet/physical activity behaviors, theoretical constructs related to health behaviors, and other clinical measures. Statistical analyses included growth curve analyses and repeated measures analysis of variance. Over 12 months, there was a linear decrease in weight (β=-0.32, Pweight for each participant determined that weight loss was greater over the study period in the WEV+ group than in the WEV group, corresponding to weight changes of -0.67 kg and 1.00 kg, respectively, and an 87% greater weight loss (β=-0.01, Pweight, physical activity, and F/V consumption is a feasible and effective approach for maintaining weight loss for 12 months, and daily self-monitoring of increased water consumption may provide additional WTLM benefits. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The use of straw in vineyards and orchards to reduce soil and water losses in Eastern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, Artemi; García-Díaz, Andrés; Rodrigo Comino, Jesús; Pereira, Paulo; Novara, Agata; Jordán, Antonio; Brevik, Eric

    2017-04-01

    Straw has been demonstrated to be a very efficient mulch to reduce soil losses. This has been found by different authors and in different regions such as the Mediterranean Region, where there is a need to reduce the non-sustainable soil and water losses caused by the compaction of soil, lack of vegetation and intense thunderstorms. The Soil Erosion and Degradation Research Team from the University of Valencia with the collaboration of other research areas is developing a holistic research program to understand how straw mulch can be introduced and applied with success in traditional rainfed and modern irrigated orchards and vineyards. The research is based on three approaches: i) the perception of the farmers; ii) the economic cost; iii) and the biophysical impact of the straw mulch on soils, runoff generation and soil erosion. Farmer perception has been researched by means of interviews and the results shows that farmers prefer a tidy and clean soil (if possible ploughed in the vineyards) rather than vegetation or straw cover. There is a need to inform the farmers about how important it is to protect the soil and to find the right covers. It is also important to find adequate subsidies to encourage this management. Without financial support most farmers will be not convinced to use catch-crops, mulches or chipped branches. The cost of the straw is about 0.05 € Kg-1, the transport is 0.02 € Kg-1 and the application 0.04 € Kg-1. The cost is affordable for farms that have high incomes and mechanization. The results of rainfall simulation experiments and measurements under plot conditions demonstrate a reduction of one order of magnitude in soil erosion rates and 30 % in runoff discharge when straw mulch is used. The straw reduces soil erodibility due to the protective cover, which reduces raindrop impact energy on the soil surface and slows runoff, encouraging infiltration. Acknowledgements This research was funded by the European Union Seventh Framework

  10. Atmosphere Impact Losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlichting, Hilke E.; Mukhopadhyay, Sujoy

    2018-02-01

    Determining the origin of volatiles on terrestrial planets and quantifying atmospheric loss during planet formation is crucial for understanding the history and evolution of planetary atmospheres. Using geochemical observations of noble gases and major volatiles we determine what the present day inventory of volatiles tells us about the sources, the accretion process and the early differentiation of the Earth. We further quantify the key volatile loss mechanisms and the atmospheric loss history during Earth's formation. Volatiles were accreted throughout the Earth's formation, but Earth's early accretion history was volatile poor. Although nebular Ne and possible H in the deep mantle might be a fingerprint of this early accretion, most of the mantle does not remember this signature implying that volatile loss occurred during accretion. Present day geochemistry of volatiles shows no evidence of hydrodynamic escape as the isotopic compositions of most volatiles are chondritic. This suggests that atmospheric loss generated by impacts played a major role during Earth's formation. While many of the volatiles have chondritic isotopic ratios, their relative abundances are certainly not chondritic again suggesting volatile loss tied to impacts. Geochemical evidence of atmospheric loss comes from the {}3He/{}^{22}Ne, halogen ratios (e.g., F/Cl) and low H/N ratios. In addition, the geochemical ratios indicate that most of the water could have been delivered prior to the Moon forming impact and that the Moon forming impact did not drive off the ocean. Given the importance of impacts in determining the volatile budget of the Earth we examine the contributions to atmospheric loss from both small and large impacts. We find that atmospheric mass loss due to impacts can be characterized into three different regimes: 1) Giant Impacts, that create a strong shock transversing the whole planet and that can lead to atmospheric loss globally. 2) Large enough impactors (m_{cap} ≳ √{2

  11. Reducing bromate formation with H(+)-form high silica zeolites during ozonation of bromide-containing water: Effectiveness and mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Hou, Pin; Qiang, Zhimin; Lu, Xiaowei; Wang, Qunhui

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigated the effect of H(+)-form high silica ZSM-5 (HZSM-5) zeolites on bromate formation. HZSM-5 zeolites with different Si/Al molar ratios (i.e., 25-300) were tested taking ozonation alone as control. The zeolites were more effective in reducing bromate formation for the filtered surface water than CeO₂, a former reported oxide that can reduce bromate formation at slightly acidic pH. The reduction efficiencies were not closely related to their Si/Al ratios. The HZSM-5 (Si/Al=300) selected for detailed studies effectively reduced bromate formation by 58% for the filtered water, and also enhanced the removal of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) during ozonation. The efficiency of the HZSM-5 in reducing bromate formation increased with ozone dose (0.38-1.16 mg O₃ mg⁻¹ DOC) and pH (6.6-9.3). The HZSM-5 adsorbed OBr⁻ (one of the critical intermediates in bromate formation) quickly with an adsorption capacity of 54 mg g⁻¹, but had no adsorption for ozone, Br⁻, HOBr and BrO₃⁻. It also significantly inhibited the formation of trace H₂O₂ which was generated from ozone decomposition and had been considered promoting bromate formation at low concentrations during ozonation. The reduction of bromate formation in O₃/HZSM-5 is possibly ascribed to the selective OBr⁻ adsorption in combination with the inhibited H₂O₂ formation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Streamflow gains and losses along San Francisquito Creek and characterization of surface-water and ground-water quality, southern San Mateo and northern Santa Clara counties, California, 1996-97

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Loren F.

    2002-01-01

    San Francisquito Creek is an important source of recharge to the 22-square-mile San Francisquito Creek alluvial fan ground-water subbasin in the southern San Mateo and northern Santa Clara Counties of California. Ground water supplies as much as 20 percent of the water to some area communities. Local residents are concerned that infiltration and consequently ground-water recharge would be reduced if additional flood-control measures are implemented along San Francisquito Creek. To improve the understanding of the surface-water/ground-water interaction between San Francisquito Creek and the San Francisquito Creek alluvial fan, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) estimated streamflow gains and losses along San Francisquito Creek and determined the chemical quality and isotopic composition of surface and ground water in the study area.Streamflow was measured at 13 temporary streamflow-measurement stations to determine streamflow gains and losses along a 8.4-mile section of San Francisquito Creek. A series of five seepage runs between April 1996 and May 1997 indicate that losses in San Francisquito Creek were negligible until it crossed the Pulgas Fault at Sand Hill Road. Streamflow losses increased between Sand Hill Road and Middlefield Road where the alluvial deposits are predominantly coarse-grained and the water table is below the bottom of the channel. The greatest streamflow losses were measured along a 1.8-mile section of the creek between the San Mateo Drive bike bridge and Middlefield Road; average losses between San Mateo Drive and Alma Street and from there to Middlefield Road were 3.1 and 2.5 acre-feet per day, respectively.Downstream from Middlefield Road, streamflow gains and losses owing to seepage may be masked by urban runoff, changes in bank storage, and tidal effects from San Francisco Bay. Streamflow gains measured between Middlefield Road and the 1200 block of Woodland Avenue may be attributable to urban runoff and (or) ground-water inflow. Water

  13. Novel Method for Measuring the Heat Collection Rate and Heat Loss Coefficient of Water-in-Glass Evacuated Tube Solar Water Heaters Based on Artificial Neural Networks and Support Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijian Liu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The determinations of heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient are crucial for the evaluation of in service water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters. However, the direct determination requires complex detection devices and a series of standard experiments, which also wastes too much time and manpower. To address this problem, we propose machine learning models including artificial neural networks (ANNs and support vector machines (SVM to predict the heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient without a direct determination. Parameters that can be easily obtained by “portable test instruments” were set as independent variables, including tube length, number of tubes, tube center distance, heat water mass in tank, collector area, final temperature and angle between tubes and ground, while the heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient determined by the detection device were set as dependent variables respectively. Nine hundred fifteen samples from in-service water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters were used for training and testing the models. Results show that the multilayer feed-forward neural network (MLFN with 3 nodes is the best model for the prediction of heat collection rate and the general regression neural network (GRNN is the best model for the prediction of heat loss coefficient due to their low root mean square (RMS errors, short training times, and high prediction accuracies (under the tolerances of 30%, 20%, and 10%, respectively.

  14. On the influence of the UOE forming process on material properties and collapse pressure of deep water pipelines: experimental work

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timms, Chris; Swanek, Doug; DeGeer, Duane [C-FER Technologies, Alberta (Canada); Mantovano, Luciano O. [Tenaris Siderca, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Ernst, Hugo A. [Tenaris Siderca, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Structural Integrity Dept.; Toscano, Rita G. [SIM y TEC, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Souza, Marcos P.; Chad, Luis C. [Tenaris Confab, Pindamonhangaba, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Large diameter pipes for onshore and offshore applications are manufactured using the UOE process. The manufacturing process consists in the cold forming of heavy plates followed by welding and then by an expansion. It has been demonstrated in previous work that, for deep water applications, the cold forming process involved in UOE pipe manufacturing significantly reduces pipe collapse strength. To improve the understanding of these effects, Tenaris has embarked on a program to model the phases of the UOE manufacturing process using finite element methods. Previous phases of this work formulated the basis for the model development and described the 2D approach taken to model the various steps of manufacture. More recent developments included modeling enhancements, some sensitivity analyses, and comparison of predictions to the results of full-scale collapse testing performed at C FER. This work has shown correlations between manufacturing parameters and collapse pressure predictions. The results of the latest phase of the research program are presented in this paper. This work consists of full scale collapse testing and extensive coupon testing on samples collected from various stages of the UOE pipe manufacturing process including plate, UO, UOE, and thermally aged UOE. Four UOE pipe samples manufactured with varying forming parameters were provided by Tenaris for this test program along with associated plate and UO samples. Full-scale collapse and buckle propagation tests were conducted on a sample from each of the four UOE pipes including one that was thermally aged. Additional coupon-scale work included measurement of the through thickness variation of material properties and a thermal ageing study aimed at better understanding UOE pipe strength recovery. The results of these tests will provide the basis for further refinement of the finite element model as the program proceeds into the next phase. (author)

  15. Cutaneous water loss and sphingolipids in the stratum corneum of house sparrows, Passer domesticus L., from desert and mesic environments as determined by reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with atmospheric pressure photospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Garcia, Agustí; Ro, Jennifer; Brown, Johnie C; Williams, Joseph B

    2008-02-01

    Because cutaneous water loss (CWL) represents half of total water loss in birds, selection to reduce CWL may be strong in desert birds. We previously found that CWL of house sparrows from a desert population was about 25% lower than that of individuals from a mesic environment. The stratum corneum (SC), the outer layer of the epidermis, serves as the primary barrier to water vapor diffusion through the skin. The avian SC is formed by layers of corneocytes embedded in a lipid matrix consisting of cholesterol, free fatty acids and two classes of sphingolipids, ceramides and cerebrosides. The SC of birds also serves a thermoregulatory function; high rates of CWL keep body temperatures under lethal limits in episodes of heat stress. In this study, we used high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with atmospheric pressure photoionization-mass spectrometry (HPLC/APPI-MS) to identify and quantify over 200 sphingolipids in the SC of house sparrows from desert and mesic populations. Principal components analysis (PCA) led to the hypotheses that sphingolipids in the SC of desert sparrows have longer carbon chains in the fatty acid moiety and are more polar than those found in mesic sparrows. We also tested the association between principal components and CWL in both populations. Our study suggested that a reduction in CWL found in desert sparrows was, in part, the result of modifications in chain length and polarity of the sphingolipids, changes that apparently determine the interactions of the lipid molecules within the SC.

  16. Hair loss in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harfmann, Katya L; Bechtel, Mark A

    2015-03-01

    Hair loss is a common cause of morbidity for many women. As a key member of the woman's health care team, the obstetrician/gynecologist may be the first person to evaluate the complaint of hair loss. Common types of nonscarring hair loss, including female pattern hair loss and telogen effluvium, may be diagnosed and managed by the obstetrician/gynecologist. A systematic approach to diagnosis and management of these common forms of hair loss is presented.

  17. Hearing loss in pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Ashok Murthy, V.; Krishna, Kirtan

    2011-01-01

    To study hearing loss in healthy pregnant women. Tertiary care hospital. Prospective study. We screened fifty healthy, non-complicated pregnant women (study group) in the third trimester for hearing loss who had no previous history for the same. Fifty healthy, non-pregnant women (control group) were also screened for hearing loss with a normal pure tone audiogram (PTA) for evidence of hearing loss. Thirteen women in the study group had evidence of hearing loss, in the form of absence of disto...

  18. Evaluation of Disinfection Byproducts formed from the Chlorination of Lyophilized and Reconstituted NOM Concentrate from a Drinking Water Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinking water treatment and disinfection byproduct (DBP) research can be complicated by difficulties in shipping large water quantities and NOM geographical and temporal variability. Access to a drinking water representative, shelf-stable, concentrated NOM source would solve th...

  19. Evaluation of Disinfection Byproducts Formed from the Chlorination of Lyophilized and Reconstituted NOM Concentrate from a Drinking Water Source - Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinking water treatment and disinfection byproduct (DBP) research can be complicated by difficulties in shipping large water quantities and NOM geographical and temporal variability. Access to a drinking water representative, shelf-stable, concentrated NOM source would solve th...

  20. Water in star-forming regions with Herschel (WISH) : IV. A survey of low-J H2O line profiles toward high-mass protostars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Tak, F. F. S.; Chavarria, L.; Herpin, F.; Wyrowski, F.; Walmsley, C. M.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Benz, A. O.; Bergin, E. A.; Caselli, P.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Johnstone, D.; Kristensen, L. E.; Liseau, R.; Nisini, B.; Tafalla, M.

    Context. Water is a key constituent of star-forming matter, but the origin of its line emission and absorption during high-mass star formation is not well understood. Aims. We study the velocity profiles of low-excitation H2O lines toward 19 high-mass star-forming regions and search for trends with

  1. Phenotypic plasticity of gas exchange pattern and water loss in Scarabaeus spretus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae): deconstructing the basis for metabolic rate variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terblanche, John S; Clusella-Trullas, Susana; Chown, Steven L

    2010-09-01

    Investigation of gas exchange patterns and modulation of metabolism provide insight into metabolic control systems and evolution in diverse terrestrial environments. Variation in metabolic rate in response to environmental conditions has been explained largely in the context of two contrasting hypotheses, namely metabolic depression in response to stressful or resource-(e.g. water) limited conditions, or elevation of metabolism at low temperatures to sustain life in extreme conditions. To deconstruct the basis for metabolic rate changes in response to temperature variation, here we undertake a full factorial study investigating the longer- and short-term effects of temperature exposure on gas exchange patterns. We examined responses of traits of gas exchange [standard metabolic rate (SMR); discontinuous gas exchange (DGE) cycle frequency; cuticular, respiratory and total water loss rate (WLR)] to elucidate the magnitude and form of plastic responses in the dung beetle, Scarabaeus spretus. Results showed that short- and longer-term temperature variation generally have significant effects on SMR and WLR. Overall, acclimation to increased temperature led to a decline in SMR (from 0.071+/-0.004 ml CO(2) h(-1) in 15 degrees C-acclimated beetles to 0.039+/-0.004 ml CO(2) h(-1) in 25 degrees C-acclimated beetles measured at 20 degrees C) modulated by reduced DGE frequency (15 degrees C acclimation: 0.554+/-0.027 mHz, 20 degrees C acclimation: 0.257+/-0.030 mHz, 25 degrees C acclimation: 0.208+/-0.027 mHz recorded at 20 degrees C), reduced cuticular WLRs (from 1.058+/-0.537 mg h(-1) in 15 degrees C-acclimated beetles to 0.900+/-0.400 mg h(-1) in 25 degrees C-acclimated beetles measured at 20 degrees C) and reduced total WLR (from 4.2+/-0.5 mg h(-1) in 15 degrees C-acclimated beetles to 3.1+/-0.5 mg h(-1) in 25 degrees C-acclimated beetles measured at 25 degrees C). Respiratory WLR was reduced from 2.25+/-0.40 mg h(-1) in 15 degrees C-acclimated beetles to 1.60+/-0.40 mg h

  2. Defilade, Stationary Target and Moving Target Embankment, Low Water Crossing, and Course Road Designs for Soil Loss Prevention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Svendsen, Niels G; Kalita, Prasanta K; Gebhart, Dick L; Denight, Michael L

    2006-01-01

    ... for military training requirements. This report proposes several new range structure designs to begin the iterative process of developing new range edifices that reduce soil loss, control erosion, promote sustainability, and enhance training...

  3. Application of modified export coefficient method on the load estimation of non-point source nitrogen and phosphorus pollution of soil and water loss in semiarid regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lei; Gao, Jian-en; Ma, Xiao-yi; Li, Dan

    2015-07-01

    Chinese Loess Plateau is considered as one of the most serious soil loss regions in the world, its annual sediment output accounts for 90 % of the total sediment loads of the Yellow River, and most of the Loess Plateau has a very typical characteristic of "soil and water flow together", and water flow in this area performs with a high sand content. Serious soil loss results in nitrogen and phosphorus loss of soil. Special processes of water and soil in the Loess Plateau lead to the loss mechanisms of water, sediment, nitrogen, and phosphorus are different from each other, which are greatly different from other areas of China. In this study, the modified export coefficient method considering the rainfall erosivity factor was proposed to simulate and evaluate non-point source (NPS) nitrogen and phosphorus loss load caused by soil and water loss in the Yanhe River basin of the hilly and gully area, Loess Plateau. The results indicate that (1) compared with the traditional export coefficient method, annual differences of NPS total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) load after considering the rainfall erosivity factor are obvious; it is more in line with the general law of NPS pollution formation in a watershed, and it can reflect the annual variability of NPS pollution more accurately. (2) Under the traditional and modified conditions, annual changes of NPS TN and TP load in four counties (districts) took on the similar trends from 1999 to 2008; the load emission intensity not only is closely related to rainfall intensity but also to the regional distribution of land use and other pollution sources. (3) The output structure, source composition, and contribution rate of NPS pollution load under the modified method are basically the same with the traditional method. The average output structure of TN from land use and rural life is about 66.5 and 17.1 %, the TP is about 53.8 and 32.7 %; the maximum source composition of TN (59 %) is farmland; the maximum source

  4. Can the dodecahedral water cluster naturally form in methane aqueous solutions? A molecular dynamics study on the hydrate nucleation mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Guang-Jun; Zhang, Yi-Gang; Li, Meng; Wu, Chang-Hua

    2008-05-21

    By performing a large scale of molecular dynamics simulations, we analyze 60 x 10(6) hydration shells of methane to examine whether the dodecahedral water cluster (DWC) can naturally form in methane aqueous solutions--a fundamental question relevant to the nucleation mechanisms of methane hydrate. The analyzing method is based on identifying the incomplete cages (ICs) from the hydration shells and quantifying their cagelike degrees (zetaC=0-1). Here, the zetaC is calculated according to the H-bond topological network of IC and reflects how the IC resembles the complete polyhedral cage. In this study, we obtain the zetaC distributions of ICs in methane solutions and find the occurrence probabilities of ICs reduce with zetaC very rapidly. The ICs with zetaC>or=0.65 are studied, which can be regarded as the acceptable cagelike structures in appearance. Both increasing the methane concentration and lowering the temperature can increase their occurrence probabilities through slowing down the water molecules. Their shapes, cage-maker numbers, and average radii are also discussed. About 13-14 of these ICs are face saturated, meaning that every edges are shared by two faces. The face-saturated ICs have the potential to act as precursors of hydrate nucleus because they can prevent the encaged methane from directly contacting other dissolved methane when an event of methane aggregation occurs. The complete cages, i.e., the ICs with zetaC=1, form only in the solutions with high methane concentration, and their occurrence probabilities are about 10(-6). Most of their shapes are different from the known hydrate cages, but we indeed observe a standard 5(12)6(2) hydrate cage. We do not find the expected DWC, and its occurrence probability is estimated to be far less than 10(-7). Additionally, the IC analysis proposed in this work is also very useful in other studies not only on the formation, dissociation, and structural transition of hydrates but also on the hydrophobic

  5. Rapid response of hydrological loss of DOC to water table drawdown and warming in Zoige peatland: results from a mesocosm experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-Dong Lou

    Full Text Available A large portion of the global carbon pool is stored in peatlands, which are sensitive to a changing environment conditions. The hydrological loss of dissolved organic carbon (DOC is believed to play a key role in determining the carbon balance in peatlands. Zoige peatland, the largest peat store in China, is experiencing climatic warming and drying as well as experiencing severe artificial drainage. Using a fully crossed factorial design, we experimentally manipulated temperature and controlled the water tables in large mesocosms containing intact peat monoliths. Specifically, we determined the impact of warming and water table position on the hydrological loss of DOC, the exported amounts, concentrations and qualities of DOC, and the discharge volume in Zoige peatland. Our results revealed that of the water table position had a greater impact on DOC export than the warming treatment, which showed no interactive effects with the water table treatment. Both DOC concentration and discharge volume were significantly increased when water table drawdown, while only the DOC concentration was significantly promoted by warming treatment. Annual DOC export was increased by 69% and 102% when the water table, controlled at 0 cm, was experimentally lowered by -10 cm and -20 cm. Increases in colored and aromatic constituents of DOC (measured by Abs(254 nm, SUVA(254 nm, Abs(400 nm, and SUVA(400 nm were observed under the lower water tables and at the higher peat temperature. Our results provide an indication of the potential impacts of climatic change and anthropogenic drainage on the carbon cycle and/or water storage in a peatland and simultaneously imply the likelihood of potential damage to downstream ecosystems. Furthermore, our results highlight the need for local protection and sustainable development, as well as suggest that more research is required to better understand the impacts of climatic change and artificial disturbances on peatland degradation.

  6. THE EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT K2HP04 AND NaCl LEVELS ON THE WATER-HOLDING CAPACITY AND COOKING LOSS OF GOAT MEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Karakaya

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted on the laboratory conditions. Different levels of K2HP04 (0.00%, 0.25%, 0.30% and NaCl (2.5%, 3.0% were applied on the goat meat and the pH, water holding capacity and cooking loss were observed. According to the results the effects of 0.25% K2HP04 addition was found statistically insignificant (p

  7. Can water sensitive urban design systems help to preserve natural channel-forming flow regimes in an urbanised catchment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wella-Hewage, Chathurika Subhashini; Alankarage Hewa, Guna; Pezzaniti, David

    2016-01-01

    Increased stormwater runoff and pollutant loads due to catchment urbanisation bring inevitable impacts on the physical and ecological conditions of environmentally sensitive urban streams. Water sensitive urban design (WSUD) has been recognised as a possible means to minimise these negative impacts. This paper reports on a study that investigated the ability of infiltration-based WSUD systems to replicate the predevelopment channel-forming flow (CFF) regime in urban catchments. Catchment models were developed for the 'pre-urban', 'urban' and 'managed' conditions of a case study catchment and the hydrological effect on CFF regime was investigated using a number of flow indices. The results clearly show that changes to flow regime are apparent under urban catchment conditions and are even more severe under highly urbanised conditions. The use of WSUD systems was found to result in the replication of predevelopment flow regimes, particularly at low levels of urbanisation. Under highly urbanised conditions (of managed catchments) overcontrol of the CFF indices was observed as indicated by flow statistics below their pre-urban values. The overall results suggest that WSUD systems are highly effective in replicating the predevelopment CFF regime in urban streams and could be used as a means to protect environmentally sensitive urban streams.

  8. Water in star-forming regions with Herschel (WISH). V. The physical conditions in low-mass protostellar outflows revealed by multi-transition water observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottram, J. C.; Kristensen, L. E.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Bruderer, S.; San José-García, I.; Karska, A.; Visser, R.; Santangelo, G.; Benz, A. O.; Bergin, E. A.; Caselli, P.; Herpin, F.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Johnstone, D.; van Kempen, T. A.; Liseau, R.; Nisini, B.; Tafalla, M.; van der Tak, F. F. S.; Wyrowski, F.

    2014-12-01

    Context. Outflows are an important part of the star formation process as both the result of ongoing active accretion and one of the main sources of mechanical feedback on small scales. Water is the ideal tracer of these effects because it is present in high abundance for the conditions expected in various parts of the protostar, particularly the outflow. Aims: We constrain and quantify the physical conditions probed by water in the outflow-jet system for Class 0 and I sources. Methods: We present velocity-resolved Herschel HIFI spectra of multiple water-transitions observed towards 29 nearby Class 0/I protostars as part of the WISH guaranteed time key programme. The lines are decomposed into different Gaussian components, with each component related to one of three parts of the protostellar system; quiescent envelope, cavity shock and spot shocks in the jet and at the base of the outflow. We then use non-LTE radex models to constrain the excitation conditions present in the two outflow-related components. Results: Water emission at the source position is optically thick but effectively thin, with line ratios that do not vary with velocity, in contrast to CO. The physical conditions of the cavity and spot shocks are similar, with post-shock H2 densities of order 105 - 108 cm-3 and H2O column densities of order 1016 - 1018 cm-2. H2O emission originates in compact emitting regions: for the spot shocks these correspond to point sources with radii of order 10-200 AU, while for the cavity shocks these come from a thin layer along the outflow cavity wall with thickness of order 1-30 AU. Conclusions: Water emission at the source position traces two distinct kinematic components in the outflow; J shocks at the base of the outflow or in the jet, and C shocks in a thin layer in the cavity wall. The similarity of the physical conditions is in contrast to off-source determinations which show similar densities but lower column densities and larger filling factors. We propose

  9. Domestic hot water. Measurements of consumption and heat loss from circulation pipes; Varmt brugsvand. Maaling af forbrug og varmetab fra cirkulationsledninger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, B.; Schroeder, F.; Bergsoee, N.C.

    2009-07-01

    It is likely that the production and distribution of domestic hot water (DHW) in buildings will constitute a dominant share of both the present and in particular future energy design requirements. The goal of this project has been to propose more energy efficient and environmentally friendly solutions for DHW systems based on analyses of existing conditions. The possibilities include new types of circulation pipes, which have the potential of a 40 per cent reduction of heat losses. In addition to the reduction of heat losses inside the building, a low return temperature from the hot water system will have a large impact on the heat losses from the district heating network when the building is being heated by district heating. The results of this project could influence not only future buildings but also existing buildings in case of renovation of the installations. In this project measurements of water and energy consumptions have been carried out in a number of buildings, and heat losses from the production of domestic hot water and the distribution lines have been measured. In addition to the measurements, analyses and simulations have been carried out. Two models have been developed: One of an apartment room with vertical pipes passing through the room, and one of a room above a basement with horizontal heating pipes. The models make it possible to assess how much of the heat loss from the heating pipes is utilised for space heating. The following recommendations are pointed out: 1) In large buildings e.g. apartment buildings and office buildings the technical installations should be provided with meters so that it is possible to separate the energy consumption for DHW, space heating and ventilation, respectively. 2) In new buildings and in case of retrofitting existing buildings, careful planning of the placement and disposition of hot water taps compared with the location of the hot water tank or heat exchanger is recommended. Also, the necessity of a

  10. Replacing caloric beverages with water or diet beverages for weight loss in adults: main results of the Choose Healthy Options Consciously Everyday (CHOICE) randomized clinical trial1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Lyons, Elizabeth; Stevens, June; Erickson, Karen; Polzien, Kristen; Diamond, Molly; Wang, Xiaoshan; Popkin, Barry

    2012-01-01

    Background: Replacement of caloric beverages with noncaloric beverages may be a simple strategy for promoting modest weight reduction; however, the effectiveness of this strategy is not known. Objective: We compared the replacement of caloric beverages with water or diet beverages (DBs) as a method of weight loss over 6 mo in adults and attention controls (ACs). Design: Overweight and obese adults [n = 318; BMI (in kg/m2): 36.3 ± 5.9; 84% female; age (mean ± SD): 42 ± 10.7 y; 54% black] substituted noncaloric beverages (water or DBs) for caloric beverages (≥200 kcal/d) or made dietary changes of their choosing (AC) for 6 mo. Results: In an intent-to-treat analysis, a significant reduction in weight and waist circumference and an improvement in systolic blood pressure were observed from 0 to 6 mo. Mean (±SEM) weight losses at 6 mo were −2.5 ± 0.45% in the DB group, −2.03 ± 0.40% in the Water group, and −1.76 ± 0.35% in the AC group; there were no significant differences between groups. The chance of achieving a 5% weight loss at 6 mo was greater in the DB group than in the AC group (OR: 2.29; 95% CI: 1.05, 5.01; P = 0.04). A significant reduction in fasting glucose at 6 mo (P = 0.019) and improved hydration at 3 (P = 0.0017) and 6 (P = 0.049) mo was observed in the Water group relative to the AC group. In a combined analysis, participants assigned to beverage replacement were 2 times as likely to have achieved a 5% weight loss (OR: 2.07; 95% CI: 1.02, 4.22; P = 0.04) than were the AC participants. Conclusions: Replacement of caloric beverages with noncaloric beverages as a weight-loss strategy resulted in average weight losses of 2% to 2.5%. This strategy could have public health significance and is a simple, straightforward message. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01017783. PMID:22301929

  11. Sequential bond energies and barrier heights for the water loss and charge separation dissociation pathways of Cd(2+)(H2O)n, n = 3-11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Theresa E; Armentrout, P B

    2011-03-21

    The bond dissociation energies for losing one water from Cd(2+)(H(2)O)(n) complexes, n = 3-11, are measured using threshold collision-induced dissociation in a guided ion beam tandem mass spectrometer coupled with a thermal electrospray ionization source. Kinetic energy dependent cross sections are obtained for n = 4-11 complexes and analyzed to yield 0 K threshold measurements for loss of one, two, and three water ligands after accounting for multiple collisions, kinetic shifts, and energy distributions. The threshold measurements are converted from 0 to 298 K values to give the hydration enthalpies and free energies for sequentially losing one water from each complex. Theoretical geometry optimizations and single point energy calculations are performed on reactant and product complexes using several levels of theory and basis sets to obtain thermochemistry for comparison to experiment. The charge separation process, Cd(2+)(H(2)O)(n) → CdOH(+)(H(2)O)(m) + H(+)(H(2)O)(n-m-1), is also observed for n = 4 and 5 and the competition between this process and water loss is analyzed. Rate-limiting transition states for the charge separation process at n = 3-6 are calculated and compared to experimental threshold measurements resulting in the conclusion that the critical size for this dissociation pathway of hydrated cadmium is n(crit) = 4.

  12. Effectiveness Of Miraba an Indigenous Soil and Water Conservation Measures On Reducing Runoff And Soil Loss In Arable Land Of Western Usambara Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Msita, H. B.; Kimaro, D. N.; Mtakwa, P. W.; Msanya, B. M.; Dondyene, S.; Poesen, J.; Deckers, J.

    2012-04-01

    Soil erosion by water is rampant mainly in mountainous areas of Tanzania leading to environmental hazards, low land productivity, low income and increased poverty. Despite the severity of the soil erosion problem, there is not much quantitative data on the erosion effects and effectiveness of indigenous soil and water conservation (SWC) measures. The consequence is that indigenous knowledge in SWC planning is ignored. The on-farm field experiment was conducted for three years in Migambo village, Lushoto district in Tanzania, to determine the effectiveness of improved Miraba (IM) an indigenous soil erosion control measure on reducing runoff and soil loss. Management practices were tested viz: control that is without any soil conservation measure (C), Miraba alone (M), Miraba with farmyard manure and mulching (MFM) replicated three times in CRD setting. Maize (Zea mays) and beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) were used as test crops, due to their importance as food crops and the high erosion rates on fields with these crops. The crops were planted in rotation, maize and beans in short and long rains respectively. Gerlach troughs and runoff plots were used to evaluate the physical effectiveness. Results show significant effects of IM against control on crop yields, soil loss, surface runoff and moisture retention. MFM is the most effective measure in reducing soil and water losses followed by MF and M. The results further showed that these management practices can be implemented to reduce soil erosion and nutrient losses in the study area and areas with similar ecological setting. To facilitate adoption of these practices further research works is recommended for identifying economically feasible indigenous SWC measures under different biophysical and socio-economic conditions.

  13. Hearing loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decreased hearing; Deafness; Loss of hearing; Conductive hearing loss; Sensorineural hearing loss; Presbycusis ... Symptoms of hearing loss may include: Certain sounds seeming too loud Difficulty following conversations when two or more people are talking ...

  14. Water deuteration and ortho-to-para nuclear spin ratio of H2 in molecular clouds formed via the accumulation of H I gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuya, K.; Aikawa, Y.; Hincelin, U.; Hassel, G. E.; Bergin, E. A.; Vasyunin, A. I.; Herbst, E.

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the water deuteration ratio and ortho-to-para nuclear spin ratio of H2 (OPR(H2)) during the formation and early evolution of a molecular cloud, following the scenario that accretion flows sweep and accumulate H i gas to form molecular clouds. We follow the physical evolution of post-shock materials using a one-dimensional shock model, combined with post-processing gas-ice chemistry simulations. This approach allows us to study the evolution of the OPR(H2) and water deuteration ratio without an arbitrary assumption of the initial molecular abundances, including the initial OPR(H2). When the conversion of hydrogen into H2 is almost complete the OPR(H2) is already much smaller than the statistical value of three because of the spin conversion in the gas phase. As the gas accumulates, the OPR(H2) decreases in a non-equilibrium manner. We find that water ice can be deuterium-poor at the end of its main formation stage in the cloud, compared to water vapor observed in the vicinity of low-mass protostars where water ice is sublimated. If this is the case, the enrichment of deuterium in water should mostly occur at somewhat later evolutionary stages of star formation, i.e., cold prestellar/protostellar cores. The main mechanism to suppress water ice deuteration in the cloud is the cycle of photodissociation and reformation of water ice, which efficiently removes deuterium from water ice chemistry. The removal efficiency depends on the main formation pathway of water ice. The OPR(H2) plays a minor role in water ice deuteration at the main formation stage of water ice. Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  15. A scenario for impacts of water availability loss due to climate change on riverine fish extinction rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tedesco, P.A.; Oberdorff, T.; Cornu, J.-F.; Beauchard, O.; Brosse, S.; Dürr, H.H.; Grenouillet, G.; Leprieur, F.; Tisseuil, C.; Zaiss, R.; Hugueny, B.

    2013-01-01

    1. Current models estimating impact of habitat loss on biodiversity in the face of global climate change usually project only percentages of species committed to extinction' on an uncertain time-scale. Here, we show that this limitation can be overcome using an empirically derived background

  16. Effect of Integrated Water-Nutrient Management Strategies on Soil Erosion Mediated Nutrient Loss and Crop Productivity in Cabo Verde Drylands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaurinda Baptista

    Full Text Available Soil erosion, runoff and related nutrient losses are a big risk for soil fertility in Cabo Verde drylands. In 2012, field trials were conducted in two agro-ecological zones to evaluate the effects of selected techniques of soil-water management combined with organic amendments (T1: compost/manure + soil surfactant; T2: compost/animal or green manure + pigeon-pea hedges + soil surfactant; T3: compost/animal or green manure + mulch + pigeon-pea hedges on nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P losses in eroded soil and runoff and on crop yields. Three treatments and one control (traditional practice were tested in field plots at three sites with a local maize variety and two types of beans. Runoff and eroded soil were collected after each erosive rain, quantified, and analysed for NO3-N and PO4-P concentrations. In all treatments runoff had higher concentrations of NO3-N (2.20-4.83 mg L-1 than of PO4-P (0.02-0.07 mg L-1, and the eroded soil had higher content of PO4-P (5.27-18.8 mg g-1 than of NO3-N (1.30-8.51 mg g-1. The control had significantly higher losses of both NO3-N (5.4, 4.4 and 19 kg ha-1 and PO4-P (0.2, 0.1 and 0.4 kg ha-1 than the other treatments. T3 reduced soil loss, runoff and nutrient losses to nearly a 100% while T1 and T2 reduced those losses from 43 to 88%. The losses of NO3-N and PO4-P were highly correlated with the amounts of runoff and eroded soil. Nutrient losses from the applied amendments were low (5.7% maximum, but the losses in the control could indicate long-term nutrient depletion in the soil (19 and 0.4 kg ha-1 of NO3-N and PO4-P, respectively. T1-T3 did not consistently increase crop yield or biomass in all three sites, but T1 increased both crop yield and biomass. We conclude that T3 (combining crop-residue mulch with organic amendment and runoff hedges is the best treatment for steep slope areas but, the pigeon-pea hedges need to be managed for higher maize yield. T1 (combining organic amendment with soil surfactant could

  17. Effect of Integrated Water-Nutrient Management Strategies on Soil Erosion Mediated Nutrient Loss and Crop Productivity in Cabo Verde Drylands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Isaurinda; Ritsema, Coen; Geissen, Violette

    2015-01-01

    Soil erosion, runoff and related nutrient losses are a big risk for soil fertility in Cabo Verde drylands. In 2012, field trials were conducted in two agro-ecological zones to evaluate the effects of selected techniques of soil-water management combined with organic amendments (T1: compost/manure + soil surfactant; T2: compost/animal or green manure + pigeon-pea hedges + soil surfactant; T3: compost/animal or green manure + mulch + pigeon-pea hedges) on nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) losses in eroded soil and runoff and on crop yields. Three treatments and one control (traditional practice) were tested in field plots at three sites with a local maize variety and two types of beans. Runoff and eroded soil were collected after each erosive rain, quantified, and analysed for NO3-N and PO4-P concentrations. In all treatments runoff had higher concentrations of NO3-N (2.20-4.83 mg L-1) than of PO4-P (0.02-0.07 mg L-1), and the eroded soil had higher content of PO4-P (5.27-18.8 mg g-1) than of NO3-N (1.30-8.51 mg g-1). The control had significantly higher losses of both NO3-N (5.4, 4.4 and 19 kg ha-1) and PO4-P (0.2, 0.1 and 0.4 kg ha-1) than the other treatments. T3 reduced soil loss, runoff and nutrient losses to nearly a 100% while T1 and T2 reduced those losses from 43 to 88%. The losses of NO3-N and PO4-P were highly correlated with the amounts of runoff and eroded soil. Nutrient losses from the applied amendments were low (5.7% maximum), but the losses in the control could indicate long-term nutrient depletion in the soil (19 and 0.4 kg ha-1 of NO3-N and PO4-P, respectively). T1-T3 did not consistently increase crop yield or biomass in all three sites, but T1 increased both crop yield and biomass. We conclude that T3 (combining crop-residue mulch with organic amendment and runoff hedges) is the best treatment for steep slope areas but, the pigeon-pea hedges need to be managed for higher maize yield. T1 (combining organic amendment with soil surfactant) could be a

  18. Effect of Integrated Water-Nutrient Management Strategies on Soil Erosion Mediated Nutrient Loss and Crop Productivity in Cabo Verde Drylands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Isaurinda; Ritsema, Coen; Geissen, Violette

    2015-01-01

    Soil erosion, runoff and related nutrient losses are a big risk for soil fertility in Cabo Verde drylands. In 2012, field trials were conducted in two agro-ecological zones to evaluate the effects of selected techniques of soil-water management combined with organic amendments (T1: compost/manure + soil surfactant; T2: compost/animal or green manure + pigeon-pea hedges + soil surfactant; T3: compost/animal or green manure + mulch + pigeon-pea hedges) on nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) losses in eroded soil and runoff and on crop yields. Three treatments and one control (traditional practice) were tested in field plots at three sites with a local maize variety and two types of beans. Runoff and eroded soil were collected after each erosive rain, quantified, and analysed for NO3-N and PO4-P concentrations. In all treatments runoff had higher concentrations of NO3-N (2.20-4.83 mg L-1) than of PO4-P (0.02-0.07 mg L-1), and the eroded soil had higher content of PO4-P (5.27-18.8 mg g-1) than of NO3-N (1.30-8.51 mg g-1). The control had significantly higher losses of both NO3-N (5.4, 4.4 and 19 kg ha-1) and PO4-P (0.2, 0.1 and 0.4 kg ha-1) than the other treatments. T3 reduced soil loss, runoff and nutrient losses to nearly a 100% while T1 and T2 reduced those losses from 43 to 88%. The losses of NO3-N and PO4-P were highly correlated with the amounts of runoff and eroded soil. Nutrient losses from the applied amendments were low (5.7% maximum), but the losses in the control could indicate long-term nutrient depletion in the soil (19 and 0.4 kg ha-1 of NO3-N and PO4-P, respectively). T1-T3 did not consistently increase crop yield or biomass in all three sites, but T1 increased both crop yield and biomass. We conclude that T3 (combining crop-residue mulch with organic amendment and runoff hedges) is the best treatment for steep slope areas but, the pigeon-pea hedges need to be managed for higher maize yield. T1 (combining organic amendment with soil surfactant) could be a

  19. Identification of transformation products of antiviral drugs formed during biological wastewater treatment and their occurrence in the urban water cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funke, Jan; Prasse, Carsten; Ternes, Thomas A

    2016-07-01

    The fate of five antiviral drugs (abacavir, emtricitabine, ganciclovir, lamivudine and zidovudine) was investigated in biological wastewater treatment. Investigations of degradation kinetics were accompanied by the elucidation of formed transformation products (TPs) using activated sludge lab experiments and subsequent LC-HRMS analysis. Degradation rate constants ranged between 0.46 L d(-1) gSS(-1) (zidovudine) and 55.8 L d(-1) gSS(-1) (abacavir). Despite these differences of the degradation kinetics, the same main biotransformation reaction was observed for all five compounds: oxidation of the terminal hydroxyl-moiety to the corresponding carboxylic acid (formation of carboxy-TPs). In addition, the oxidation of thioether moieties to sulfoxides was observed for emtricitabine and lamivudine. Antiviral drugs were detected in influents of municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) with concentrations up to 980 ng L(-1) (emtricitabine), while in WWTP effluents mainly the TPs were found with concentration levels up to 1320 ng L(-1) (carboxy-abacavir). Except of zidovudine none of the original antiviral drugs were detected in German rivers and streams, whereas the concentrations of the TPs ranged from 16 ng L(-1) for carboxy-lamivudine up to 750 ng L(-1) for carboxy-acyclovir. These concentrations indicate an appreciable portion from WWTP effluents present in rivers and streams, as well as the high environmental persistence of the carboxy-TPs. As a result three of the carboxylic TPs were detected in finished drinking water. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Redistribution of Lunar Polar Water to Mid-latitudes and its Role in Forming an OH veneer - Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, W. M.; Killen, R. M.; Hurley, D. M.; Hodges, R. R.; Halekas, J. S.; Delory, G. T.

    2012-01-01

    We suggest that energization processes like ion sputtering and impact vaporization can eject/release polar water molecules residing within lunar cold trapped regions with sufficient velocity to allow their redistribution to mid-latitudes. We consider the possibility that these polar-ejected molecules can be an additional (but not dominant) contribution to the water/OH veneer observed as a 3 micron absorption feature at mid-latitudes by Chandrayaan-I, Cassini, and EPOXI. Taking the conservative case that polar water is ejected only from the floor of polar craters with an 0.1 % icy regolith then overall source rates are near 10(exp 18) H20s/s. This outflow amounts to approx 10(exp -7) kg/s of water to be ejected from each pole and is a water source rate that is 10(exp .5 lower than the overall exospheric source rate for all species. Hence, the out-flowing polar water is a perturbation in the overall exosphere composition & dynamics. This polar water 'fountain' model may not fully account for the relatively high concentrations in the mid-latitude water veneer observed in the IR (approx 10-1000 ppm). However, it may account for some part of the veneer. We note that the polar water fountain source rates scale linearly with ice concentration, and larger mass fractions of polar crater water should provide correspondingly larger fractions of water emission out of the poles which then 'spills' on to mid-latitude surfaces.

  1. Forming mechanism and prevention of water-coal-burst disaster on extremely inclined faces under Ordovician aquifer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Q.; Qian, Z.; Dong, D.; Song, E.; Hong, Y. [China University Of Mining and Technology, Beijing (China). Beijing Campus

    2000-08-01

    The formation of a saturated body of coal-water mixture is due to the actions of multiple controlling factors of water source, coal characteristics, potential energy and time. Coal-water burst disaster is characterized by paroxysm, huge energy, short duration, strong explosive force and causing severe damages. Very often it takes place only under special background conditions. In extremely inclined coal seam districts, because the working faces are generally arranged under water-prevention coal pillars, the mining inbreak heights are too near the location of the body of coal-water mixture. Hence the mining activity may induce the occurrence of coal-water burst disaster. Based on the analysis of the disaster mechanism, some effective preventive measures for coal-water burst disaster in coal mines are put forward. 3 refs., 1 fig.

  2. Water deuterium fractionation in the high-mass star-forming region G34.26+0.15 based on Herschel/HIFI data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coutens, Audrey; Vastel, C.; Hincelin, U.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding water deuterium fractionation is important for constraining the mechanisms of water formation in interstellar clouds. Observations of HDO and H_2^{18}O transitions were carried out towards the high-mass star-forming region G34.26+0.15 with the Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infra...... to an age of ˜105 yr after the infrared dark cloud stage....

  3. Water in star-forming regions with Herschel: highly excited molecular emission from the NGC 1333 IRAS 4B outflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herczeg, G. J.; Karska, A.; Bruderer, S.; Kristensen, L. E.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Jørgensen, J. K.; Visser, R.; Wampfler, S. F.; Bergin, E. A.; Yıldız, U. A.; Pontoppidan, K. M.; Gracia-Carpio, J.

    2012-04-01

    During the embedded phase of pre-main sequence stellar evolution, a disk forms from the dense envelope while an accretion-driven outflow carves out a cavity within the envelope. Highly excited (E' = 1000 - 3000 K) H2O emission in spatially unresolved Spitzer/IRS spectra of a low-mass Class 0 object, NGC 1333 IRAS 4B, has previously been attributed to the envelope-disk accretion shock. However, the highly excited H2O emission could instead be produced in an outflow. As part of the survey of low-mass sources in the Water in Star Forming Regions with Herschel (WISH-LM) program, we used Herschel/PACS to obtain a far-IR spectrum and several Nyquist-sampled spectral images to determine the origin of excited H2O emission from NGC 1333 IRAS 4B. The spectrum has high signal-to-noise in a rich forest of H2O, CO, and OH lines, providing a near-complete census of far-IR molecular emission from a Class 0 protostar. The excitation diagrams for the three molecules all require fits with two excitation temperatures. The highly excited component of H2O emission is characterized by subthermal excitation of ~1500 K gas with a density of ~3 × 106 cm-3, conditions that also reproduce the mid-IR H2O emission detected by Spitzer. On the other hand, a high density, low temperature gas can reproduce the H2O spectrum observed by Spitzer but underpredicts the H2O lines seen by Herschel. Nyquist-sampled spectral maps of several lines show two spatial components of H2O emission, one centered at ~5'' (1200 AU) south of the central source at the position of the blueshifted outflow lobe and a heavily extincted component centered on-source. The redshifted outflow lobe is likely completely obscured, even in the far-IR, by the optically thick envelope. Both spatial components of the far-IR H2O emission are consistent with emission from the outflow. In the blueshifted outflow lobe over 90% of the gas-phase O is molecular, with H2O twice as abundant than CO and 10 times more abundant than OH. The gas

  4. Stream-gage locations where streamflow gains/losses were quantified along the Central Valley surface-water network

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset contains the name and location for the diversions from the surface-water network for the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM). The Central...

  5. Ageing-induced solubility loss in milk protein concentrate powder: effect of protein conformational modifications and interactions with water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Enamul; Bhandari, Bhesh R; Gidley, Michael J; Deeth, Hilton C; Whittaker, Andrew K

    2011-11-01

    Protein conformational modifications and water-protein interactions are two major factors believed to induce instability of protein and eventually affect the solubility of milk protein concentrate (MPC) powder. To test these hypotheses, MPC was stored at different water activities (a(w) 0.0-0.85) and temperatures (25 and 45 °C) for up to 12 weeks. Samples were examined periodically to determine solubility, change in protein conformation by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and water status (interaction of water with the protein molecule/surface) by measuring the transverse relaxation time (T(2) ) with proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1) H NMR). The solubility of MPC decreased significantly with ageing and this process was enhanced by increasing water activity (a(w) ) and temperature. Minor changes in protein secondary structure were observed with FTIR which indicated some degree of unfolding of protein molecules. The NMR T(2) results indicated the presence of three distinct populations of water molecules and the proton signal intensity and T(2) values of proton fractions varied with storage condition (humidity) and ageing. Results suggest that protein/protein interactions may be initiated by unfolding of protein molecules that eventually affects solubility. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. The mobility of single-file water molecules is governed by the number of H-bonds they may form with channel-lining residues

    OpenAIRE

    Horner, Andreas; Zocher, Florian; Preiner, Johannes; Ollinger, Nicole; Siligan, Christine; Akimov, Sergey A.; Pohl, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Channel geometry governs the unitary osmotic water channel permeability, p f, according to classical hydrodynamics. Yet, p f varies by several orders of magnitude for membrane channels with a constriction zone that is one water molecule in width and four to eight molecules in length. We show that both the p f of those channels and the diffusion coefficient of the single-file waters within them are determined by the number N H of residues in the channel wall that may form a hydrogen bond with ...

  7. Investigation of some locally water-soluble natural polymers as circulation loss control agents during oil fields drilling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Alsabagh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Eliminating or controlling lost circulation during drilling process is costly and time-consuming. Polymers play an important role in mud loss control for their viscosity due to their high molecular weight. In this paper, three natural cellulosic polymers (carboxymethyl cellulose, guar gum and potato starch were investigated as lost circulation control material by measuring different filtration parameters such as; spurt loss, fluid loss and permeability plugging tester value according to the American Petroleum Institute (API standard. The experiments were conducted in a permeability plugging apparatus (PPA at a differential pressure of 100 and 300 psi, using 10, 60 and 90 ceramic discs. From the obtained data, it was found that the 0.1% from the carboxymethyl cellulose exhibited the best results in the filtration parameters among 0.3% guar gum and 0.6% potato starch. At the same time the carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC enhanced the rheological properties of the drilling mud better than the two other used natural polymers in the term of gel strength, thixotropy, plastic and apparent viscosity. These results were discussed in the light of the adsorption and micellar formation.

  8. Teaching Form as Form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    2012-01-01

    , this book offers both inspiration to teaching form and a systematic framework for pedagogical and didactical reflection on this topic. In this sense, it shapes and professionalizes design teaching, and contributes to the development of the double-professionalism, which is so essential for teachers in modern...... means that form serves both as the connective value and as the concept for reflection. In other words, form is observed as form, not anything else. The didactical challenge of teaching form as form is accentuated by students’ everyday-based pre-orientation towards function at the expense of form...... in this book that they are highly interested in both the declarative and formative dimension of making form. Methodologically, the courses described in the contributions have a strong focus on student-centered experiential activities, thereby implicitly claiming that students must learn to make form...

  9. Impact of Nitrogen Fertilization on Forest Carbon Sequestration and Water Loss in a Chronosequence of Three Douglas-Fir Stands in the Pacific Northwest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianming Dou

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available To examine the effect of nitrogen (N fertilization on forest carbon (C sequestration and water loss, we used an artificial neural network model to estimate C fluxes and evapotranspiration (ET in response to N fertilization during four post-fertilization years in a Pacific Northwest chronosequence of three Douglas-fir stands aged 61, 22 and 10 years old in 2010 (DF49, HDF88 and HDF00, respectively. Results showed that N fertilization increased gross primary productivity (GPP for all three sites in all four years with the largest absolute increase at HDF00 followed by HDF88. Ecosystem respiration increased in all four years at HDF00, but decreased over the last three years at HDF88 and over all four years at DF49. As a result, fertilization increased the net ecosystem productivity of all three stands with the largest increase at HDF88, followed by DF49. Fertilization had no discernible effect on ET in any of the stands. Consequently, fertilization increased water use efficiency (WUE in all four post-fertilization years at all three sites and also increased light use efficiency (LUE of all the stands, especially HDF00. Our results suggest that the effects of fertilization on forest C sequestration and water loss may be associated with stand age and fertilization; the two younger stands appeared to be more efficient than the older stand with respect to GPP, WUE and LUE.

  10. Cutaneous water loss and the development of the stratum corneum of nestling house sparrows (Passer domesticus) from desert and mesic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Garcia, Agustí; Williams, Joseph B

    2011-01-01

    Evaporation through the skin contributes to more than half of the total water loss in birds. Therefore, we expect the regulation of cutaneous water loss (CWL) to be crucial for birds, especially those that live in deserts, to maintain a normal state of hydration. Previous studies in adult birds showed that modifications of the lipid composition of the stratum corneum (SC), the outer layer of the epidermis, were associated with changes in rates of CWL. However, few studies have examined the ontogeny of CWL and the lipids of the SC in nestling birds. In this study, we measured CWL and the lipid composition of the SC during development of nestlings from two populations of house sparrows, one from the deserts of Saudi Arabia and the other from mesic Ohio. We found that desert and mesic nestlings followed different developmental trajectories for CWL. Desert nestlings seemed to make a more frugal use of water than did mesic nestlings. To regulate CWL, nestlings appeared to modify the lipid composition of the SC during ontogeny. Our results also suggest a tighter regulation of CWL in desert nestlings, presumably as a result of the stronger selection pressures to which nestlings are exposed in deserts.

  11. Regional variations in transepidermal water loss, eccrine sweat gland density, sweat secretion rates and electrolyte composition in resting and exercising humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Literature from the past 168 years has been filtered to provide a unified summary of the regional distribution of cutaneous water and electrolyte losses. The former occurs via transepidermal water vapour diffusion and secretion from the eccrine sweat glands. Daily insensible water losses for a standardised individual (surface area 1.8 m2) will be 0.6–2.3 L, with the hands (80–160 g.h−1) and feet (50–150 g.h−1) losing the most, the head and neck losing intermediate amounts (40–75 g.h−1) and all remaining sites losing 15–60 g.h−1. Whilst sweat gland densities vary widely across the skin surface, this same individual would possess some 2.03 million functional glands, with the highest density on the volar surfaces of the fingers (530 glands.cm−2) and the lowest on the upper lip (16 glands.cm−2). During passive heating that results in a resting whole-body sweat rate of approximately 0.4 L.min−1, the forehead (0.99 mg.cm−2.min−1), dorsal fingers (0.62 mg.cm−2.min−1) and upper back (0.59 mg.cm−2.min−1) would display the highest sweat flows, whilst the medial thighs and anterior legs will secrete the least (both 0.12 mg.cm−2.min−1). Since sweat glands selectively reabsorb electrolytes, the sodium and chloride composition of discharged sweat varies with secretion rate. Across whole-body sweat rates from 0.72 to 3.65 mg.cm−2.min−1, sodium losses of 26.5–49.7 mmol.L−1 could be expected, with the corresponding chloride loss being 26.8–36.7 mmol.L−1. Nevertheless, there can be threefold differences in electrolyte losses across skin regions. When exercising in the heat, local sweat rates increase dramatically, with regional glandular flows becoming more homogeneous. However, intra-regional evaporative potential remains proportional to each local surface area. Thus, there is little evidence that regional sudomotor variations reflect an hierarchical distribution of sweating either at rest or during exercise. PMID:23849497

  12. Regional variations in transepidermal water loss, eccrine sweat gland density, sweat secretion rates and electrolyte composition in resting and exercising humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Nigel As; Machado-Moreira, Christiano A

    2013-02-01

    Literature from the past 168 years has been filtered to provide a unified summary of the regional distribution of cutaneous water and electrolyte losses. The former occurs via transepidermal water vapour diffusion and secretion from the eccrine sweat glands. Daily insensible water losses for a standardised individual (surface area 1.8 m2) will be 0.6-2.3 L, with the hands (80-160 g.h-1) and feet (50-150 g.h-1) losing the most, the head and neck losing intermediate amounts (40-75 g.h-1) and all remaining sites losing 15-60 g.h-1. Whilst sweat gland densities vary widely across the skin surface, this same individual would possess some 2.03 million functional glands, with the highest density on the volar surfaces of the fingers (530 glands.cm-2) and the lowest on the upper lip (16 glands.cm-2). During passive heating that results in a resting whole-body sweat rate of approximately 0.4 L.min-1, the forehead (0.99 mg.cm-2.min-1), dorsal fingers (0.62 mg.cm-2.min-1) and upper back (0.59 mg.cm-2.min-1) would display the highest sweat flows, whilst the medial thighs and anterior legs will secrete the least (both 0.12 mg.cm-2.min-1). Since sweat glands selectively reabsorb electrolytes, the sodium and chloride composition of discharged sweat varies with secretion rate. Across whole-body sweat rates from 0.72 to 3.65 mg.cm-2.min-1, sodium losses of 26.5-49.7 mmol.L-1 could be expected, with the corresponding chloride loss being 26.8-36.7 mmol.L-1. Nevertheless, there can be threefold differences in electrolyte losses across skin regions. When exercising in the heat, local sweat rates increase dramatically, with regional glandular flows becoming more homogeneous. However, intra-regional evaporative potential remains proportional to each local surface area. Thus, there is little evidence that regional sudomotor variations reflect an hierarchical distribution of sweating either at rest or during exercise.

  13. Combined effect of water loss and wounding stress on gene activation of metabolic pathways associated with phenolic biosynthesis in carrot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro eBecerra-Moreno

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The application of postharvest abiotic stresses is an effective strategy to activate the primary and secondary metabolism of plants inducing the accumulation of antioxidant phenolic compounds. In the present study, the effect of water stress applied alone and in combination with wounding stress on the activation of primary (shikimic acid and secondary (phenylpropanoid metabolic pathways related with the accumulation of phenolic compound in plants was evaluated. Carrot (Daucus carota was used as model system for this study, and the effect of abiotic stresses was evaluated at the gene expression level and on the accumulation of metabolites. As control of the study, whole carrots were stored under the same conditions. Results demonstrated that water stress activated the primary and secondary metabolism of carrots, favoring the lignification process. Likewise, wounding stress induced higher activation of the primary and secondary metabolism of carrots as compared to water stress alone, leading to higher accumulation of shikimic acid, phenolic compounds and lignin. Additional water stress applied on wounded carrots exerted a synergistic effect on the wound-response at the gene expression level. For instance, when wounded carrots were treated with water stress, the tissue showed 20- and 14-fold increases in the relative expression of 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosanate synthase and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase genes, respectively. However, since lignification was increased, lower accumulation of phenolic compounds was detected. Indicatively, at 48 h of storage, wounded carrots treated with water stress showed ~31% lower levels of phenolic compounds and ~23% higher lignin content as compared with wounded controls. In the present study, it was demonstrated that water stress is one of the pivotal mechanism of the wound-response in carrot. Results allowed the elucidation of strategies to induce the accumulation of specific primary or secondary

  14. Hydrogen in drinking water reduces dopaminergic neuronal loss in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine mouse model of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Kyota; Seike, Toshihiro; Yutsudo, Noriko; Ohno, Mizuki; Yamada, Hidetaka; Yamaguchi, Hiroo; Sakumi, Kunihiko; Yamakawa, Yukiko; Kido, Mizuho A; Takaki, Atsushi; Katafuchi, Toshihiko; Tanaka, Yoshinori; Nakabeppu, Yusaku; Noda, Mami

    2009-09-30

    It has been shown that molecular hydrogen (H(2)) acts as a therapeutic antioxidant and suppresses brain injury by buffering the effects of oxidative stress. Chronic oxidative stress causes neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD). Here, we show that drinking H(2)-containing water significantly reduced the loss of dopaminergic neurons in PD model mice using both acute and chronic administration of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). The concentration-dependency of H(2) showed that H(2) as low as 0.08 ppm had almost the same effect as saturated H(2) water (1.5 ppm). MPTP-induced accumulation of cellular 8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG), a marker of DNA damage, and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), a marker of lipid peroxidation were significantly decreased in the nigro-striatal dopaminergic pathway in mice drinking H(2)-containing water, whereas production of superoxide (O(2)*(-)) detected by intravascular injection of dihydroethidium (DHE) was not reduced significantly. Our results indicated that low concentration of H(2) in drinking water can reduce oxidative stress in the brain. Thus, drinking H(2)-containing water may be useful in daily life to prevent or minimize the risk of life style-related oxidative stress and neurodegeneration.

  15. Agricultural land use and N losses to water: the case study of a fluvial park in northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morari, F; Lugato, E; Borin, M

    2003-01-01

    An integrated water resource management programme has been under way since 1999 to reduce agricultural water pollution in the River Mincio fluvial park. The experimental part of the programme consisted of: a) a monitoring phase to evaluate the impact of conventional and environmentally sound techniques (Best Management Practices, BMPs) on water quality; this was done on four representative landscape units, where twelve fields were instrumented to monitor the soil, surface and subsurface water quality; b) a modelling phase to extend the results obtained at field scale to the whole territory of the Mincio watershed. For this purpose a GIS developed in the Arc/Info environment was integrated into the CropSyst model. The model had previously been calibrated to test its ability to describe the complexity of the agricultural systems. The first results showed a variable efficiency of the BMPs depending on the interaction between management and pedo-climatic conditions. In general though, the BMPs had positive effects in improving the surface and subsurface water quality. The CropSyst model was able to describe the agricultural systems monitored and its linking with the GIS represented a valuable tool for identifying the vulnerable areas within the watershed.

  16. Consumo de água e perdas de nutrientes e de sedimentos na água de drenagem inicial do arroz irrigado Water use and nutrients and sediments losses on the initial water drainage on flooded rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Luiz de Oliveira Machado

    2006-02-01

    ção vigente. A turbidez e a presença de sedimentos na água de drenagem inicial foi menor no mix de pré-germinado em comparação com o pré-germinado e transplante de mudas, indicando que a manutenção da água na lavoura nestes sistemas de cultivo é importante para sustentabilidade do ecossistema arroz irrigado e manutenção do potencial produtivo da cultura.In Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, irrigated rice fields use large amount of water and have the potential of contaminate surface water bodies when drainage is performed. The objective of this experiment was to quantify the amount of water in flooded rice fields under different cropping systems (Experiment I and to measure the concentration of nutrients in the initial drainage water of pre-germinated, pre-germinated mix and seedling transplanting systems (Experiment II. The research was conducted during 2000/01 and 2001/02 (Experiment I and during 1999/00, 2000/01 and 2001/02 (Experiment II in a lowland area of a Planosoil located at the Federal University of Santa Maria-RS, Brazil. In the years 2000/01 and 2001/02 (Experiment I five cropping systems (conventional, minimum tillage, pre-germinated, mix of pre-germinated and seedling transplanting randomized block experimental design with four replications were used. The cropping systems did not influence the use of water by flooded rice, varying from 5,431 to 6,422 and 5,347 to 5,852m³ ha-1 for the years 2000/01 and 2001/02, respectively. The amount of water used for flooding the soil in the pre-germinated and seedling transplanting systems or form stablishing a layer of water in the mix pre-germinated was 1,285m³ ha-1. In Experiment II, three cropping systems (pre-germinated, mix of pre-germinated and seedling transplanting were compared. Nitrate, phosphorus and magnesium concentrations in the initial drainage water were similar in the different cropping systems. In the mix of pre-germinated system, ammonium and potassium concentrations were higher when compared with

  17. Response of Earth's Atmosphere to Increases in Solar Flux and Implications for Loss of Water from Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasting, J. F.; Pollock, J. G.; Ackerman, T. P.

    1985-01-01

    A one dimensional radiative convective model is used to compute temperature and water vapor profiles as functions of solar flux for earthlike atmosphere. The troposphere is assumed to be fully saturated with a moist adiabatic lapse rate, and changes in cloudiness are neglected. Predicted surface temperatures increase monotonically from -1 to 111 C as the solar flux is increased from 0.81 to 1.45 times its present value. The results imply that the surface temperature of a primitive water rich Venus should have been at least 80-100 C and may have been much higher, water vapor should have been a major atmospheric constituent at all altitudes, leading to the rapid hydrodynamic escape of hydrogen. The oxygen left behind by this process was presumably consumed by reactions with reduced minerals in the crust.

  18. The influence of current parameters during the water-bath stunning of overfed geese (Anser anser) on blood loss and on fatty liver and meat downgrading

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez, Xavier; Leprettre, Stéphane; Dubois, Jean-Pierre; Auvergne, Alain; Babile, René

    2003-01-01

    International audience; Three experiments were carried out to study the effect of current intensity, stunning duration and current frequency during the water-bath stunning of overfed geese, on blood loss and fatty liver downgrading. In experiment 1, 259 geese and ganders were stunned for 5 s with a sinusoidal alternating current (AC) of 50 Hz at 30, 50 or 70 mA. In experiment 2, a sinusoidal AC (50 Hz, 50mA) was applied for 2, 5 or 13 s on 223 geese and ganders. In experiment 3, 180 geese and...

  19. Reversible multistimuli-responsive vesicles formed by an amphiphilic cationic platinum(II) terpyridyl complex with a ferrocene unit in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Ling-Bao; Yu, Shan; Wang, Xiao-Jun; Wang, Ge-Xia; Chen, Bin; Zhang, Li-Ping; Tung, Chen-Ho; Wu, Li-Zhu

    2012-11-14

    An amphiphilic cationic platinum(II) terpyridyl complex 1 with a redox ferrocene unit has been demonstrated to form well-defined vesicular architectures that could be disrupted and regenerated reversibly by multi-stimuli in water. The hydrophobic and hydrophilic alternation of 1 was achieved via modulating its intramolecular ILCT state to MLCT state.

  20. Water vapor in high-mass star-forming regions and PDRs : Tracing the dynamics and chemistry with Herschel/HIFI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Choi, Yunhee

    2015-01-01

    Massive stars play a major role in the interstellar energy budget and the shaping of the galactic environment. The water molecule is thought to be a sensitive tracer of physical conditions in star-forming regions because of its large abundance variations between hot and cold regions. Herschel/HIFI

  1. Monitoring coastal marine waters for spore-forming bacteria of faecal and soil origin to determine point from non-point source pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujioka, R S

    2001-01-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and the World Health Organization (WHO) have established recreational water quality standards limiting the concentrations of faecal indicator bacteria (faecal coliform, E. coli, enterococci) to ensure that these waters are safe for swimming. In the application of these hygienic water quality standards, it is assumed that there are no significant environmental sources of these faecal indicator bacteria which are unrelated to direct faecal contamination. However, we previously reported that these faecal indicator bacteria are able to grow in the soil environment of humid tropical island environments such as Hawaii and Guam and are transported at high concentrations into streams and storm drains by rain. Thus, streams and storm drains in Hawaii contain consistently high concentrations of faecal indicator bacteria which routinely exceed the EPA and WHO recreational water quality standards. Since, streams and storm drains eventually flow out to coastal marine waters, we hypothesize that all the coastal beaches which receive run-off from streams and storm drains will contain elevated concentrations of faecal indicator bacteria. To test this hypothesis, we monitored the coastal waters at four beaches known to receive water from stream or storm drains for salinity, turbidity, and used the two faecal indicator bacteria (E. coli, enterococci) to establish recreational water quality standards. To determine if these coastal waters are contaminated with non-point source pollution (streams) or with point source pollution (sewage effluent), these same water samples were also assayed for spore-forming bacteria of faecal origin (Cl. perfringens) and of soil origin (Bacillus species). Using this monitoring strategy it was possible to determine when coastal marine waters were contaminated with non-point source pollution and when coastal waters were contaminated with point source pollution. The results of this study are most likely

  2. Thermal-hydraulic analysis under partial loss of flow accident hypothesis of a plate-type fuel surrounded by two water channels using RELAP5 code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itamar Iliuk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal-hydraulic analysis of plate-type fuel has great importance to the establishment of safety criteria, also to the licensing of the future nuclear reactor with the objective of propelling the Brazilian nuclear submarine. In this work, an analysis of a single plate-type fuel surrounding by two water channels was performed using the RELAP5 thermal-hydraulic code. To realize the simulations, a plate-type fuel with the meat of uranium dioxide sandwiched between two Zircaloy-4 plates was proposed. A partial loss of flow accident was simulated to show the behavior of the model under this type of accident. The results show that the critical heat flux was detected in the central region along the axial direction of the plate when the right water channel was blocked.

  3. Comparing effects of land reclamation techniques on water pollution and fishery loss for a large-scale offshore airport island in Jinzhou Bay, Bohai Sea, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hua-Kun; Wang, Nuo; Yu, Tiao-Lan; Fu, Qiang; Liang, Chen

    2013-06-15

    Plans are being made to construct Dalian Offshore Airport in Jinzhou Bay with a reclamation area of 21 km(2). The large-scale reclamation can be expected to have negative effects on the marine environment, and these effects vary depending on the reclamation techniques used. Water quality mathematical models were developed and biology resource investigations were conducted to compare effects of an underwater explosion sediment removal and rock dumping technique and a silt dredging and rock dumping technique on water pollution and fishery loss. The findings show that creation of the artificial island with the underwater explosion sediment removal technique would greatly impact the marine environment. However, the impact for the silt dredging technique would be less. The conclusions from this study provide an important foundation for the planning of Dalian Offshore Airport and can be used as a reference for similar coastal reclamation and marine environment protection. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Hot, dry, & windy: The impacts of strongly advective conditions on measurements of evaporative water loss from irrigated croplands

    Science.gov (United States)

    As the demand for water has grown in recent years, balancing the needs of urban, rural, and agricultural communities has become formidable task, particularly in the western United States where more than 70% of the freshwater supply is used for irrigated agriculture. To ensure there is sufficient wat...

  5. Orthodoxy, recalcitrance and in-between: describing variation in seed storage characteristics using threshold responses to water loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolerance of desiccation is typically described by a threshold or low-water-content-limit to survival. This convention provides fairly good distinction between orthodox and recalcitrant seeds, which show thresholds of less than about 0.07 and greater than about 0.2 g H2O g dw-1, respectively. Thresh...

  6. Long term dynamics of nitrate concentrations and leaching losses in tile drainage water from cultivated clayey till at field scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernstsen, Vibeke; Olsen, Preben; Rosenbom, Annette Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    of application). Furthermore, the standard climatic conditions (e.g. temperature, precipitation) as well as soil moisture and temperature to a depth of approx. 2 meter were measured. Concentrations of nitrate in the drainage and groundwater, recharge of water through the drainage system as well as depth...

  7. Growth of food-borne pathogenic bacteria in oil-in-water emulsions: I--Methods for investigating the form of growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, M L; Brocklehurst, T F; Gunning, P A; Coleman, H P; Robins, M M

    1995-06-01

    Methods are presented for investigating the site and form of growth of bacteria in model oil-in-water emulsions and in dairy cream. Following growth of the bacteria, the continuous aqueous phase is gelled using agarose and the oil phase removed using a mixture of chloroform and methanol. Using this method, the authors have found that Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium and Yersinia enterocolitica grow in the form of colonies in concentrated oil-in-water emulsions. Colonies of L. monocytogenes and Y. enterocolitica also form in artificially-inoculated fresh and tinned dairy cream. If information about the precise site of growth is not required, the authors have discovered that intact colonies can be liberated from the model emulsions by dissolving away the oil phase with chloroform:methanol.

  8. The effect of grazing on soil and water losses under arid and mediterranean climates. Implications for desertification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cerdà, A.

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Two sites, both affected by grazing but under different climatic conditions, were selected in Israel to study the effect of grazing on soil degradation. One site was selected in the Judean Desert, a dry environment (260 mm mean annual rainfall with a long history of overgrazing and very little vegetative cover. The second site was selected in the Galilee Mountains where the climate is of Mediterranean type (650 mm mean annual rainfall and the vegetative cover is much greater in spite of the grazing. Simulated rain experiments were performed in the field and in the laboratory in order to evaluate differences in hydrological and erosional response to rainfall between the two sites. The results show a clear difference between these two ecosystems. In the Judean Desert, where vascular plant cover is sparse, a crust was developed which enhanced overland flow and erosion. In the Mediterranean environment the overland flow and erosion were negligible under shrubs and relatively high at the intershrub corridors. At the hillslope scale a mosaiclike pattern of water and soil contributing and accepting patches was developed. Such a pattern usually protect the hillslope from being eroded. Runoff and erosion rates luere very high in the Judean Desert and negligible in the Galilee Mountains.

    [fr] Afin d'étudier l'effet du pâturage sur la dégradation des sols, deux zones de caractéristiques climatiques différentes soumises au pâturage ont été sélectionnées en Israel. L'une de ces zones se trouve située dans le désert de Judée, un milieu très aride (260 mm de précipitation annuelle moyenne avec un couvert végétal peu dense et une longue influence du surpâturage. La deuxième zone se trouve sur les montagnes de Galilée, caractérisées par un climat méditerranéen (650 mm de précipitation annuelle moyenne et un couvert végétal bien plus dense et ce malgré l'influence du pâturage. Afin d'évaluer le comportement hydrologique et

  9. Oil/Water Emulsion and Aqueous Film Forming Foam (AFFF) Treatment Using Air-Sparged Hydrocyclone Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    of Defense EPA Environmental Protection Agency FOG Fats, Oils and Grease FFTF Fire Fighting Training Facilities gpm Gallons per minute HP Horsepower...unit and a high equipment cost. An alternative technology to remove oil is froth floatation. Since hydrocarbon oils are hydrophobic in nature , froth...allowed the oil/water separator to be re-filled to 800 gallons. The ASH system wastewater feed pump was used to circulate the water between the sludge

  10. Phosphorus losses from agricultural land to natural waters are reduced by immobilization in iron-rich sediments of drainage ditches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baken, Stijn; Verbeeck, Mieke; Verheyen, Dries; Diels, Jan; Smolders, Erik

    2015-03-15

    Redox reactions involving iron (Fe) strongly affect the mobility of phosphorus (P) and its migration from agricultural land to freshwater. We studied the transfer of P from groundwater to open drainage ditches in an area where, due to Fe(II) rich groundwater, the sediments of these ditches contain accumulated Fe oxyhydroxides. The average P concentrations in the groundwater feeding two out of three studied drainage ditches exceeded environmental limits for freshwaters by factors 11 and 16, but after passing through the Fe-rich sediments, the P concentrations in the ditch water were below these limits. In order to identify the processes which govern Fe and P mobility in these systems, we used diffusive equilibration in thin films (DET) to measure the vertical concentration profiles of P and Fe in the sediment pore water and in the ditchwater. The Fe concentrations in the sediment pore water ranged between 10 and 200 mg L(-1) and exceeded those in the inflowing groundwater by approximately one order of magnitude, due to reductive dissolution of Fe oxyhydroxides in the sediment. The dissolved P concentrations only marginally increased between groundwater and sediment pore water. In the poorly mixed ditchwater, the dissolved Fe concentrations decreased towards the water surface due to oxidative precipitation of fresh Fe oxyhydroxides, and the P concentrations decreased more sharply than those of Fe. These observations support the view that the dynamics of Fe and P are governed by reduction reactions in the sediment and by oxidation reactions in the ditchwater. In the sediment, reductive dissolution of P-containing Fe oxyhydroxides causes more efficient solubilization of Fe than of P, likely because P is buffered by adsorption on residual Fe oxyhydroxides. Conversely, in the ditchwater, oxidative precipitation causes more efficient immobilization of P than of Fe, due to ferric phosphate formation. The combination of these processes yields a natural and highly

  11. Culture-Independent Techniques for Rapid Detection of Bacteria Associated with Loss of Chloramine Residual in a Drinking Water System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoefel, Daniel; Monis, Paul T.; Grooby, Warwick L.; Andrews, Stuart; Saint, Christopher P.

    2005-01-01

    Chloramination is often the disinfection regimen of choice for extended drinking water systems. However, this process is prone to instability due to the growth of nitrifying bacteria. This is the first study to use alternative approaches for rapid investigation of chloraminated drinking water system instability in which flow cytometric cell sorting of bacteria with intact membranes (membrane-intact fraction) (BacLight kit) or with active esterases (esterase-active fraction) (carboxyfluorescein diacetate) was combined with 16S rRNA gene-directed PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). No active bacteria were detected when water left the water treatment plant (WTP), but 12 km downstream the chloramine residual had diminished and the level of active bacteria in the bulk water had increased to more than 1 × 105 bacteria ml−1. The bacterial diversity in the system was represented by six major DGGE bands for the membrane-intact fraction and 10 major DGGE bands for the esterase-active fraction. PCR targeting of the 16S rRNA gene of chemolithotrophic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and subsequent DGGE and DNA sequence analysis revealed the presence of an active Nitrosospira-related species and Nitrosomonas cryotolerans in the system, but no AOB were detected in the associated WTP. The abundance of active AOB was then determined by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) targeting the amoA gene; 3.43 × 103 active AOB ml−1 were detected in the membrane-intact fraction, and 1.40 × 104 active AOB ml−1 were detected in the esterase-active fraction. These values were several orders of magnitude greater than the 2.5 AOB ml−1 detected using a routine liquid most-probable-number assay. Culture-independent techniques described here, in combination with existing chemical indicators, should allow the water industry to obtain more comprehensive data with which to make informed decisions regarding remedial action that may be required either prior to or during an

  12. Rice-based electrolyte drinks more effective than water in replacing sweat losses during hot weather training and operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerold, Kevin B; Greenough, William B

    2013-01-01

    Heat-related injury presents significant threats to the health and operational effectiveness of Soldiers and military operations. In 2012, active component, U.S. Armed Forces experienced 365 incident cases of heat stroke and 2,257 incident cases of ?other heat injury.? Most of these occurred among recruit and enlisted personnel and most were under the age of 30. In conditioned military personnel, a rice-based oral rehydration solution was superior to water alone at maintaining body weight and, by inference, enabled Soldiers to better maintain their the state of hydration during prolonged exercise in high ambient temperatures. In view of the health risks associated with dehydration and their effects on training and operations, this study suggests that the consumption of beverages containing electrolytes and a rice-based carbohydrate is superior to the consumption of water alone in preventing dehydration and heat related illness. 2013.

  13. Phenotypic plasticity and geographic variation in thermal tolerance and water loss of the tsetse Glossina pallidipes (Diptera: Glossinidae): implications for distribution modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terblanche, John S; Klok, C Jaco; Krafsur, Elliot S; Chown, Steven L

    2006-05-01

    Using the tsetse, Glossina pallidipes, we show that physiologic plasticity (resulting from temperature acclimation) accounts for among-population variation in thermal tolerance and water loss rates. Critical thermal minimum (CT(Min)) was highly variable among populations, seasons, and acclimation treatments, and the full range of variation was 9.3 degrees C (maximum value = 3.1 x minimum). Water loss rate showed similar variation (max = 3.7 x min). In contrast, critical thermal maxima (CT(Max)) varied least among populations, seasons, and acclimation treatments, and the full range of variation was only approximately 1 degree C. Most of the variation among the four field populations could be accounted for by phenotypic plasticity, which in the case of CT(Min), develops within 5 days of temperature exposure and is lost rapidly on return to the original conditions. Limited variation in CT(Max) supports bioclimatic models that suggest tsetse are likely to show range contraction with warming from climate change.

  14. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... www.girlshealth.gov/ Home Nutrition Nutrition basics Water Water Did you know that water makes up more ... to drink more water Other drinks How much water do you need? top Water is very important, ...

  15. Toward a better δDalkanes paleoclimate proxy; Partitioning of seasonal water sources and xylem-leaf deuterium enrichment according to plant growth form and phenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wispelaere, Lien; Bodé, Samuel; Herve-Fernández, Pedro; Hemp, Andreas; Verschuren, Dirk; Boeckx, Pascal

    2016-04-01

    deuterium enrichment, averaged over all plant species, sites and seasons equals 23 ± 27‰. Several factors influence the isotopic enrichment between xylem and leaf water, but according to our results, the growth form and phenology of plant species are the primary factors, while the location (proximity to the lake) and season exert relatively minor effects.

  16. Numerical-experimental contrast of a mathematical model that simulates the movement of a fluid under shallow water conditions including energy losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Balaguer-Beser

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In  this  paper,  a  comparison  between  the  results  obtained  in  laboratory  experiments  and  those  calculated  by  a numerical  simulation  of  shallow  water  equations  in  an  open  channel  is  performed,  considering  the  energy  losses that  occur  as  it  passes  through  a  local  narrowing  of  the  cross  section.  The mathematical model that simulates this physical phenomenon is governed by a partial differential equations system whose solution provides the water depth and the flow rate per unit of width, which is related to the velocity of the water. Such movement is controlled primarily  by  the  force  of  gravity,  being  fundamental  the  relationship  between  it  and  the  inertial  forces.  In the present study we have also taken into account energy losses caused by friction of the water with the contours and local losses caused by obstacles or changes in the width of the channel. A numerical scheme based on a high-order finite  volume  method  has  been  used  for  obtaining  the  solutions  of  such  model.  Two type of laboratory tests have been simulated.  The   first  type  represents  a  slow  transition  regime,  upstream  and  downstream  of  a  narrowing  in the channel. The second type represents a subcritical flow upstream, a narrowing that works as a control (regime change and a downstream supercritical flow. Numerical-experimental comparison demonstrates the importance of adequately modeling of the different physical phenomena involved in the process, and the proper imposition of the boundary conditions of the problem.

  17. The differences in crown formation during the splash on the thin water layers formed on the saturated soil surface and model surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Rafał; Polakowski, Cezary; Bieganowski, Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    Splash is the first stage of a negative phenomenon–soil erosion. The aim of this work was to describe the crown formation quantitatively (as part of the splash erosion) and compare the course of this phenomenon on the thin water film formed on a smooth glass surface and on the surface of saturated soil. The height of the falling water drop was 1.5 m. The observation of the crowns was carried out by high-speed cameras. The static and dynamic parameters of crown formation were analysed. It was found that the crowns formed on the water film covering the saturated soil surface were smaller and the time intervals of their existence were shorter. In addition, the shapes of the crowns were different from those created on the water layer covering the glass surface. These differences can be explained by the slightly different values of surface tension and viscosity of the soil solution, the greater roughness of the soil surface and the lower thickness of the water film on the soil surface. PMID:28750072

  18. Redistribution of Lunar Polar Water to Mid-latitudes and Its Role in Forming an OH Veneer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, William M.; Hurley, D. M.; Hodges, R. R.; Killen, R. M.; Halekas, J. S.; Zimmerman, M. I.; Delory, G. T.

    2013-01-01

    We suggest that energization processes like ion sputtering and impact vaporization can eject/release polar water molecules residing within cold trapped regions with sufficient velocity to allow their redistribution to mid-latitudes. We consider the possibility that these polar-ejected molecules can contribution to the water/OH veneer observed as a 3 micrometer IR absorption feature at mid-latitudes by Chandrayaan-1, Cassini, and EPOXI. We find this source cannot fully account for the observed IR feature, but could be a low intensity additional source.

  19. Wheat yield loss attributable to heat waves, drought and water excess at the global, national and subnational scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampieri, M.; Ceglar, A.; Dentener, F.; Toreti, A.

    2017-06-01

    Heat waves and drought are often considered the most damaging climatic stressors for wheat. In this study, we characterize and attribute the effects of these climate extremes on wheat yield anomalies (at global and national scales) from 1980 to 2010. Using a combination of up-to-date heat wave and drought indexes (the latter capturing both excessively dry and wet conditions), we have developed a composite indicator that is able to capture the spatio-temporal characteristics of the underlying physical processes in the different agro-climatic regions of the world. At the global level, our diagnostic explains a significant portion (more than 40%) of the inter-annual production variability. By quantifying the contribution of national yield anomalies to global fluctuations, we have found that just two concurrent yield anomalies affecting the larger producers of the world could be responsible for more than half of the global annual fluctuations. The relative importance of heat stress and drought in determining the yield anomalies depends on the region. Moreover, in contrast to common perception, water excess affects wheat production more than drought in several countries. We have also performed the same analysis at the subnational level for France, which is the largest wheat producer of the European Union, and home to a range of climatic zones. Large subnational variability of inter-annual wheat yield is mostly captured by the heat and water stress indicators, consistently with the country-level result.

  20. Analysis of the Processes in Spent Fuel Pools in Case of Loss of Heat Removal due to Water Leakage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Algirdas Kaliatka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The safe storage of spent fuel assemblies in the spent fuel pools is very important. These facilities are not covered by leaktight containment; thus, the consequences of overheating and melting of fuel in the spent fuel pools can be very severe. On the other hand, due to low decay heat of fuel assemblies, the processes in pools are slow in comparison with processes in reactor core during LOCA accident. Thus, the accident management measures play a very important role in case of some accidents in spent fuel pools. This paper presents the analysis of possible consequences of fuel overheating due to leakage of water from spent fuel pool. Also, the accident mitigation measure, the late injection of water was evaluated. The analysis was performed for the Ignalina NPP Unit 2 spent fuel pool, using system thermal hydraulic code for severe accident analysis ATHLET-CD. The phenomena, taking place during such accident, are discussed. Also, benchmarking of results of the same accident calculation using ASTEC and RELAP/SCDAPSIM codes is presented here.

  1. An assessment of the use of native and denatured forms of okra seed proteins as coagulants in drinking water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alfred Ndahi; Bridgeman, John

    2016-10-01

    The effects of temperature, storage time and water pH on the coagulation performance of okra seed protein in water treatment were assessed. In a jar test experiment, okra salt extract achieved a notable improvement in treatment efficiency with storage time and showed good performance in quality after thermal treatment at 60, 97 and 140 °C temperatures for 6, 4 and 2 hours, respectively. The performance improvement of more than 8% is considered to be due to the denaturation and subsequent removal of coagulation-hindering proteins in okra seed. Furthermore, the results of a sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis show two distinctive bands of protein responsible for the coagulation process after denaturation. It was further shown that at optimal coagulant dose, the pH of the treated water remained unaffected as a result of the protein's buffering capability during coagulation. Therefore, denatured okra seed exhibited improved performance compared to the native crude extract and offers clear benefits as a water treatment coagulant.

  2. I. Enabling Single-Chain Surfactants to Form Vesicles by Nonamphiphilic Liquid Crystals in Water II. Controlling Attachment and Ligand-Mediated Adherence of Candida albicans on Monolayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Nisha

    This dissertation describes a fundamental study of weak noncovalent interactions and surface forces that exist at the interfaces of various interacting moieties (small molecules or microbes), and its relevance to colloidal and material chemistry. Chapter 1 presents an emulsion system that enables single-chain anionic or nonionic surfactants to sequester and encapsulate certain water-soluble organic salts, leading to the formation of vesicles in water. The water-soluble organic salt in the system comprises of disodium cromoglycate crystals that are emulsified by surfactants in water to form stable liquid crystal droplets. The work provides an exception to the rule of geometric packing factor that dictates formation of micelles by the surfactants in water. Chapter 2 shows that the odd or even number of carbon atoms present in the aliphatic chain of surfactants affect the ability of surfactants to emulsify aqueous-based liquid crystals of disodium cromoglycate. Such an odd-even effect is frequently observed for solid state properties like melting point, heat of fusion and refractive index but is rarely observed for molecules present in solution. When mixed in water, anionic single-chain surfactants with odd number of carbon atoms emulsifies disodium cromoglycate to form liquid crystal droplets, while surfactants with even number of carbon atoms fail to emulsify disodium cromoglycate. Chapter 3 Bolaamphiphiles usually form vesicles only in extreme conditions or in the presence of surfactants. Here, we explore the co-assembly system of synthesized bolaamphiphiles and disodium cromoglycate in water. The combination of the self-assembly forces of the bolaamphiphile and self-associating property of disodium cromoglycate liquid crystals act together at the interface form a unique microemulsion of liquid crystal droplets of disodium cromoglycate embedded in liquid crystal phase. Chapter 4 describes a key event (adhesion) that precedes infections caused by Candida albicans

  3. Microbial fixation of CO2 in water bodies and in drylands to combat climate change, soil loss and desertification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Federico; Olguín, Eugenia J; Diels, Ludo; De Philippis, Roberto

    2015-01-25

    The growing concern for the increase of the global warming effects due to anthropogenic activities raises the challenge of finding novel technological approaches to stabilize CO2 emissions in the atmosphere and counteract impinging interconnected issues such as desertification and loss of biodiversity. Biological-CO2 mitigation, triggered through biological fixation, is considered a promising and eco-sustainable method, mostly owing to its downstream benefits that can be exploited. Microorganisms such as cyanobacteria, green algae and some autotrophic bacteria could potentially fix CO2 more efficiently than higher plants, due to their faster growth. Some examples of the potential of biological-CO2 mitigation are reported and discussed in this paper. In arid and semiarid environments, soil carbon sequestration (CO2 fixation) by cyanobacteria and biological soil crusts is considered an eco-friendly and natural process to increase soil C content and a viable pathway to soil restoration after one disturbance event. Another way for biological-CO2 mitigation intensively studied in the last few years is related to the possibility to perform carbon dioxide sequestration using microalgae, obtaining at the same time bioproducts of industrial interest. Another possibility under study is the exploitation of specific chemotrophic bacteria, such as Ralstonia eutropha (or picketii) and related organisms, for CO2 fixation coupled with the production chemicals such as polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs). In spite of the potential of these processes, multiple factors still have to be optimized for maximum rate of CO2 fixation by these microorganisms. The optimization of culture conditions, including the optimal concentration of CO2 in the provided gas, the use of metabolic engineering and of dual purpose systems for the treatment of wastewater and production of biofuels and high value products within a biorefinery concept, the design of photobioreactors in the case of phototrophs are some

  4. Free chlorine loss during spraying of membraneless acidic electrolyzed water and its antimicrobial effect on airborne bacteria from poultry house

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available introduction. Spray-application of membraneless acidic electrolyzed water (MLAEW is a novel technique for disinfection in livestock houses. This study investigated the loss of free chlorine (FC – the major germicidal component in MLAEW over distance during spraying, as affected by air temperature and initial FC concentration. The anti-microbial effect of MLAEW on airborne bacteria from an aviary laying-hen house was examined. materials and methods. MLAEW was prepared at two FC concentrations: app. 15 and 60 mg L -1 , and sprayed at three air temperatures (18, 25, 32 °C. The original MLAEW solution and MLAEW aerosols collected at 0, 25, and 50 cm from the spray nozzle were analyzed for FC concentrations. Bacteria were immersed into these MLAEW samples and numerated for viable count after 0.5, 2 and 5-min treatments. results. MLAEW aerosols collected at 0 cm lost 11.7–13.2% FC, compared with the original MLAEW solution. This initial loss was affected neither by the initial FC concentration (P = 0.13 nor by air temperature (P = 0.57. The rate of FC loss during travelling was 0.79–0.87 % per cm of aerosol travel distance (% cm -1 at 18 °C, 1.08–1.15 % cm -1 at 25 °C, and 1.35–1.49% cm -1 at 32 °C. This travelling loss was affected by air temperature (P = 0.02, but not by initial FC concentration (P = 0.38. Bacteria were completely inactivated at 0.5 min when treated with MLAEW samples with FC > 16.8 mg L -1 , in 2 min when FC > 13.8 mg L -1 , and in 5 min when FC > 7.2 mg L -1 . conclusion. Airborne bacteria from aviary hen house can be effectively inactivated by MLAEW with adequate FC concentration and contact time. During spraying, the anti-microbial efficacy of MLAEW aerosols decreased over distance due to FC loss which exacerbated at higher air temperatures.

  5. Phase equilibria of microemulsion forming system n-decyl-(beta)-D-glucopyranoside/water/n-octane/1-butanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahl, Heike; Quitzsch, Konrad; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    1997-01-01

    A systematic investigation of the phase behaviour involving microemulsions is presented with respect to experimental and calculated data for the four-component system n-decyl-(beta)-D-glucopyranoside/water/n-octane/1-butanol and its corresponding ternaries at 25°C. The main feature of this kind...... of the UNIQUAC-equation and the UNIFAC-method. The UNIFAC-method is able to describe the phase behaviour in the quaternary system qualitatively, without fitting parameters. However, by applying the UNIQUAC-method, with adjustable parameters, it was only possible to model the ternary subsystems. The modelling...... of multicomponent system is the coexistence of a highly structural liquid phase enriched with amphiphilic compounds and an excess water or an excess oil phase or both of them. The phase behaviour was studied experimentally by use of turbidity titration and HPLC measurements and theoretically by application...

  6. Sphagnum can 'filter' N deposition, but effects on the plant and pore water depend on the N form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiwa, Masaaki; Sheppard, Lucy J; Leith, Ian D; Leeson, Sarah R; Tang, Y Sim; Cape, J Neil

    2016-07-15

    The ability of Sphagnum moss to efficiently intercept atmospheric nitrogen (N) has been assumed to be vulnerable to increased N deposition. However, the proposed critical load (20kgNha(-1)yr(-1)) to exceed the capacity of the Sphagnum N filter has not been confirmed. A long-term (11years) and realistic N manipulation on Whim bog was used to study the N filter function of Sphagnum (Sphagnum capillifolium) in response to increased wet N deposition. On this ombrotrophic peatland where ambient deposition was 8kgNha(-1)yr(-1), an additional 8, 24, and 56kgNha(-1)yr(-1) of either ammonium (NH4(+)) or nitrate (NO3(-)) has been applied for 11years. Nutrient status of Sphagnum and pore water quality from the Sphagnum layer were assessed. The N filter function of Sphagnum was still active up to 32kgNha(-1)yr(-1) even after 11years. N saturation of Sphagnum and subsequent increases in dissolved inorganic N (DIN) concentration in pore water occurred only for 56kgNha(-1)yr(-1) of NH4(+) addition. These results indicate that the Sphagnum N filter is more resilient to wet N deposition than previously inferred. However, functionality will be more compromised when NH4(+) dominates wet deposition for high inputs (56kgNha(-1)yr(-1)). The N filter function in response to NO3(-) uptake increased the concentration of dissolved organic N (DON) and associated organic anions in pore water. NH4(+) uptake increased the concentration of base cations and hydrogen ions in pore water though ion exchange. The resilience of the Sphagnum N filter can explain the reported small magnitude of species change in the Whim bog ecosystem exposed to wet N deposition. However, changes in the leaching substances, arising from the assimilation of NO3(-) and NH4(+), may lead to species change. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Partitioning of chromium (VI) and chromium (III) between dissolved and colloidal forms in a stream and reservoir contaminated with tannery waste water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominik, J.; Bas, B.; Bobrowski, A.; Dworak, T.; Koukal, B.; Niewiara, E.; Pereira de Abreu, M.-H.; Rossé, P.; Szalinska, E.; Vignati, D.

    2003-05-01

    Environmental fate of chromium rejected from tannery wastewater to the Dunajec River (southern Poland) was investigated using separation with tangential flow filtration followed by measurements with Cathodic Adsorptive Stripping Voltammetry (CAdSV) and ICP-MS. Virtually all Cr(VI) was found in the dissolved fraction (<1 kDa). Thus form was present at low concentrations. Cr(III) was rapidly transferred from dissolved and low molecular weight colloidal fractions to particles and high molecular weight colloids and thus scavenged from the water column of the Czorsztyn Reservoir to the sediments. The possibility of Cr remobilization via oxidation of Cr(III) in the presence of freshly precipitated Mn-oxides in water or at the water-sediment interface needs further investigation.

  8. Estimation of the Effect of Green Water and Bow Flare Slamming on the Wave-Induced Vertical Bending Moment Using Closed-Form Ex-pressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Mansour, A. E.

    2003-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The effect of impulsive loads like slamming and green water on deck on the wave-induced bending mo-ment is estimated by a semi-analytical approach. The impulse loads leading to transient vibrations are described in terms of magnitude, phase lag relative to the wave-induced peak and decay...... rate. These loads can be due to bow flare slamming, bottom slamming or green water loads as they all can be characterised by a short duration relative to the wave cycle. The magnitude of the bow flare slamming loads is estimated using accurate results from wedge-shaped sections, Zhao and Faltinsen...... (1993) and for green water loads the results from Buchner (1995) and Wang et al .(1998) are applied. The phase lag relative to the wave-induced peak and the decay rate are derived mainly from published experimental results, Sikora, (1998). The results are given in closed-form expressions...

  9. Plant Growth and Water Purification of Porous Vegetation Concrete Formed of Blast Furnace Slag, Natural Jute Fiber and Styrene Butadiene Latex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwang-Hee Kim

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate porous vegetation concrete formed using the industrial by-products blast furnace slag powder and blast furnace slag aggregates. We investigated the void ratio, compressive strength, freeze–thaw resistance, plant growth and water purification properties using concretes containing these by-products, natural jute fiber and latex. The target performance was a compressive strength of ≥12 MPa, a void ratio of ≥25% and a residual compressive strength of ≥80% following 100 freeze–thaw cycles. Using these target performance metrics and test results for plant growth and water purification, an optimal mixing ratio was identified. The study characterized the physical and mechanical properties of the optimal mix, and found that the compressive strength decreased compared with the default mix, but that the void ratio and the freeze–thaw resistance increased. When latex was used, the compressive strength, void ratio and freeze–thaw resistance all improved, satisfying the target performance metrics. Vegetation growth tests showed that plant growth was more active when the blast furnace slag aggregate was used. Furthermore, the use of latex was also found to promote vegetation growth, which is attributed to the latex forming a film coating that suppresses leaching of toxic components from the cement. Water purification tests showed no so significant differences between different mixing ratios; however, a comparison of mixes with and without vegetation indicated improved water purification in terms of the total phosphorus content when vegetation had been allowed to grow.

  10. Aspectos financeiros relacionados às perdas de nutrientes por erosão hídrica em diferentes sistemas de manejo do solo Financial aspects of nutrient losses by water erosion in different soil management systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildegardis Bertol

    2007-02-01

    SD e o PM comportaram-se de modo semelhante em termos de valor monetário das referidas perdas, em cujos tratamentos as perdas de água e solo foram expressivamente menores que no preparo convencional. O valor monetário da perda anual por hectare de K expresso na forma de cloreto de potássio, por erosão hídrica, foi equivalente a 2,6 vezes aquele representado pelo somatório das perdas de P na forma de superfosfato triplo e de Ca e Mg na forma de calcário, na média dos sistemas de manejo do solo. Na SD, essas perdas foram de US$ 14,83 por hectare por ano, enquanto no PM foram de US$ 16,33 e, no PC, de US$ 24,94. Na média destes sistemas de manejo do solo, o valor monetário total anual por hectare das perdas de P expresso na forma de superfosfato triplo correspondeu a 8,6 %, enquanto de K na forma de cloreto de potássio e de Ca e Mg expressos na forma de calcário o valor correspondeu a 76,8 e 14,6 %, respectivamente.Water erosion is the most deleterious form of soil degradation. Besides reducing the production capacity of soils for crops, it causes strong financial and environmental impacts, due to the nutrient losses associated with it. This research work was developed with the objective of quantifying water and soil losses, P, K, Ca, and Mg losses in runoff water and extracted P, and exchangeable K, Ca and Mg losses in runoff sediments, caused by rainfall erosion, in an experiment conducted under natural rainfall, in the period from November, 1992 to October, 2003, in the south of the region Planalto Catarinense, in Santa Catarina State, Brazil. The financial value of these nutrients were calculated, expressed in triple phosphate (P, potassium chloride (K, and limestone (Ca and Mg, which were lost through water erosion from an Inceptsoil with 0.10 m m-1 slope steepness, under the following three different soil management systems: (a conventional tillage (CT, (b minimum tillage (MT, and (c no tillage (NT, in duplication. One of the replications was

  11. Connecting Soil Water to Groundwater to Streams: Understanding Controls of Nitrate Losses from a Dryland Agricultural Landscape in the Upper Missouri River Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigler, W. A.; Ewing, S. A.; Payn, R. A.; Jones, C. A.; Brookshire, J.; Klassen, J. K.; Jackson-Smith, D.; Weissmann, G. S.

    2016-12-01

    Shallow aquifers impaired by nitrate from agriculture are widespread and remediation or prevention of this problem requires understanding of N leaching rates at a variety of spatial scales. Characterization of the drivers of nitrate leaching at an intermediate scale (103 to 105 ha) is needed to bridge from field scale observations to the landscape-scale context, allowing informed water resource management decisions. Here we explore patterns in nitrate leaching rates across a depositional landform with a predominant land use of non-irrigated small grain production in the Northern Great Plains within the Upper Missouri Basin. The shallow Moccasin terrace (260,000 ha) aquifer is bounded in vertical extent by underlying shale and is isolated from mountain front stream recharge, such that aquifer recharge is dominated by infiltration of precipitation through agricultural soils. We leverage this simplified landform scale water balance to estimate leaching rates using groundwater nitrate concentrations and surface water discharge, and quantify uncertainty using a Monte Carlo approach based on spatial variation in groundwater nitrate concentrations. Landform-scale nitrate-N leaching rates ranged between 10 and 24 kg ha-1 yr-1 during 2012-2014 across two terrace catchments. These rates represent 11 to 27% of fertilizer application rates but are likely derived from a combination of soil organic N mineralization and direct fertilizer loss. While groundwater apparent age is relatively young (0-5 y) based on tritium-helium analysis, whole-aquifer turnover time calculations are an order of magnitude longer (20-23 y), suggesting aquifer heterogeneity and thus a longer potential response time to management changes than suggested by tracer-based aging. We collaborated with local producers to undertake this work, and discussed our results with community members throughout the study. Based on a follow-up survey, producers are now more likely to consider nitrate leaching when making

  12. Assessment of pepper spray product potency in Asian and Caucasian forearm skin using transepidermal water loss, skin temperature and reflectance colorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pershing, Lynn K; Reilly, Christopher A; Corlett, Judy L; Crouch, Dennis J

    2006-01-01

    Historically, pepper spray product potency has been established using a taste test evaluation. A taste test is subjective and may not be appropriate for assessing pepper potency in skin. The current study evaluated chemically diverse pepper sprays in human forearm skin using three objective, noninvasive parameters: transepidermal water loss, skin surface temperature and erythema, as a means for assessing dermal pharmacology, toxicology and product potency. Five commercial pepper spray products containing various capsaicinoid analogs at various concentrations were evaluated in duplicate on volar forearms of six Caucasians and six Asians using a 10 min exposure. Mean surface skin temperature, transepidermal water loss results were highly variable and therefore did not demonstrate dose responsive behavior to increasing capsaicinoid concentrations. Erythema, as measured by increases in a* (reflected light in the red-to-green color spectrum) of the L*a*b* uniform color scale, was superior among parameters evaluated in discriminating pepper spray potency and correlated well with the relative and total capsaicinoid concentration in the products. Products containing greater than 16 mg ml(-1) capsaicinoid concentration produced greater erythema responses in Caucasians than Asians. Asians responded greater to the synthetic analog, nonivamide, than to mixtures of capsaicinoids, while Caucasians responded equally to both capsaicinoid analogs. Thus, pepper spray product potency in human skin reflects the total capsaicinoid concentration, the specific capsaicin analog(s) present, and the race of the individual exposed. The finding that the reflectance colorimeter a* scale can differentiate these parameters in skin will have a significant impact on evaluating the use and efficacy of pepper spray products in humans. 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Two-phase numerical study of the flow field formed in water pump sump: influence of air entrainment

    OpenAIRE

    BAYEUL-LAINE, Annie-Claude; Simonet, Sophie; BOIS, Gérard; Issa, Abir

    2012-01-01

    In a pump sump it is imperative that the amount of non-homogenous flow and entrained air be kept to a minimum. Free air-core vortex occurring at a water-intake pipe is an important problem encountered in hydraulic engineering. These vortices reduce pump performances, may have large effects on the operating conditions and lead to increase plant operating costs.This work is an extended study starting from 2006 in LML and published by ISSA and al. in 2008, 2009 and 2010. Several cases of sump co...

  14. Removal plan for Shippingport pressurized water reactor core 2 blanket fuel assemblies form T plant to the canister storage building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lata

    1996-09-26

    This document presents the current strategy and path forward for removal of the Shippingport Pressurized Water Reactor Core 2 blanket fuel assemblies from their existing storage configuration (wet storage within the T Plant canyon) and transport to the Canister Storage Building (designed and managed by the Spent Nuclear Fuel. Division). The removal plan identifies all processes, equipment, facility interfaces, and documentation (safety, permitting, procedures, etc.) required to facilitate the PWR Core 2 assembly removal (from T Plant), transport (to the Canister storage Building), and storage to the Canister Storage Building. The plan also provides schedules, associated milestones, and cost estimates for all handling activities.

  15. Memory loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... amnesia (sudden, temporary loss of memory) of unclear cause Transient ischemic attack (TIA) or stroke Hydrocephalus (fluid collection in the brain) Sometimes, memory loss occurs with mental health problems, such as: After a major, traumatic or stressful ...

  16. Hair Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... overall hair thinning and not bald patches. Full-body hair loss. Some conditions and medical treatments, such as ... in the loss of hair all over your body. The hair usually grows back. Patches of scaling that spread ...

  17. Protection of total body water content and absence of hyperthermia despite 2% body mass loss ('voluntary dehydration') in soldiers drinking ad libitum during prolonged exercise in cool environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolte, Heinrich W; Noakes, Timothy D; van Vuuren, Bernard

    2011-11-01

    The extent to which humans need to replace fluid losses during exercise remains contentious despite years of focused research. The primary objective was to evaluate ad libitum drinking on hydration status to determine whether body mass loss can be used as an accurate surrogate for changes in total body water (TBW) during exercise. Data were collected during a 14.6-km route march (wet bulb globe temperature of 14.1°C ). 18 subjects with an average age of 26 ± 2.5 (SD) years participated. Their mean ad libitum total fluid intake was 2.1 ± 1.4 litres during the exercise. Predicted sweat rate was 1.289 ± 0.530 l/h. There were no significant changes (p>0.05) in TBW, urine specific gravity or urine osmolality despite an average body mass loss (ploss during exercise includes losses other than water or there is an endogenous body water source that is released during exercise not requiring replacement during exercise, or both. Ad libitum water replacement between 65% and 70% of sweat losses maintained safe levels of hydration during the experiment. The finding that TBW was protected by ad libitum drinking despite approximately 2% body mass loss suggests that the concept of 'voluntary dehydration' may require revision.

  18. A water-forming NADH oxidase from Lactobacillus pentosus and its potential application in the regeneration of synthetic biomimetic cofactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia eNowak

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The cell-free biocatalytic production of fine chemicals by oxidoreductases has continuously grown over the past years. Since especially dehydrogenases depend on the stoichiometric use of nicotinamide pyridine cofactors, an integrated efficient recycling system is crucial to allow process operation under economic conditions. Lately, the variety of cofactors for biocatalysis was broadened by the utilization of totally synthetic and cheap biomimetics. Though, to date the regeneration has been limited to chemical or electrochemical methods. Here, we report an enzymatic recycling by the flavoprotein NADH-oxidase from Lactobacillus pentosus (LpNox. Since this enzyme has not been described before, we first characterized it in regard to its optimal reaction parameters. We found that the heterologously overexpressed enzyme only contained 13 % FAD. In vitro loading of the enzyme with FAD, resulted in a higher specific activity towards its natural cofactor NADH as well as different nicotinamide derived biomimetics. Apart from the enzymatic recycling, which gives water as a by-product by transferring four electrons onto oxygen, unbound FAD can also catalyse the oxidation of biomimetic cofactors. Here a two electron process takes place yielding H2O2 instead. The enzymatic and chemical recycling was compared in regard to reaction kinetics for the natural and biomimetic cofactors. With LpNox and FAD, two recycling strategies for biomimetic cofactors are described with either water or hydrogen peroxide as a by-product.

  19. Significance of excipients to enhance the bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs in oral solid dosage forms: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadlamudi, Manoj Kumar; Dhanaraj, Sangeetha

    2017-11-01

    Nowadays most of the drug substances are coming into the innovation pipeline with poor water solubility. Here, the influence of excipients will play a significant role to improve the dissolution of poorly aqueous soluble compounds. The drug substance needs to be dissolved in gastric fluids to get the better absorption and bioavailability of an orally administered drug. Dissolution is the rate-controlling stage for drugs which controls the rate and degree of absorption. Usually, poorly soluble oral administrated drugs show a slower dissolution rate, inconsistent and incomplete absorption which can lead to lower bioavailability. The low aqueous solubility of BCS class II and IV drugs is a major challenge in the drug development and delivery process. Several technologies have been used in an attempt to progress the bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drug compounds which include solid dispersions, lipid-based formulations, micronization, solvent evaporation, co-precipitation, ordered mixing, liquid-solid compacts, solvent deposition inclusion complexation, and steam aided granulation. In fact, most of the technologies require excipient as a carrier which plays a significant role in improving the bioavailability using Hypromellose acetate succinate, Cyclodextrin, Povidone, Copovidone, Hydroxypropyl cellulose, Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, Crospovidone, Starch, Dimethylacetamide, Polyethylene glycol, Sodium lauryl sulfate, Polysorbate, Poloxamer. Mesoporous silica and so on. This review deliberates about the excipients significance on bioavailability enhancement of drug products in a single platform along with pragmatically proved applications so that user can able to select the right excipients as per the molecule.

  20. ArcNEMO, a spatially distributed nutrient emission model developed in Python to quantify losses of nitrogen and phosphorous from agriculture to surface waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Opstal, Mattias; Tits, Mia; Beckers, Veronique; Batelaan, Okke; Van Orshoven, Jos; Elsen, Annemie; Diels, Jan; D'heygere, Tom; Van Hoof, Kor

    2014-05-01

    Pollution of surface water bodies with nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) from agricultural sources is a major problem in areas with intensive agriculture in Europe. The Flemish Environment Agency requires information on how spatially explicit policy measures on manure and fertilizer use, and changes in land use and soil management affect the N and P concentration in the surface waters in the region of Flanders, Belgium. To assist in this, a new spatially distributed, mechanistic nutrient emission model was developed in the open-source language Python. The model is called ArcNEMO (Nutrient Emission MOdel). The model is fully integrated in ArcGIS, but could be easily adapted to work with open-source GIS software. In Flanders, detailed information is available each year on the delineation of each agricultural parcel and the crops grown on them. Parcels are linked to farms, and for each farm yearly manure and fertilizer use is available. To take full advantage of this information and to be able to simulate nutrient losses to the high-density surface water network, the model makes use of grid cells of 50 by 50m. A fertilizer allocation model was developed to calculate from the yearly parcel and farm data the fertilizer and manure input per grid cell for further use in the ArcNEMO-model. The model architecture was chosen such that the model can be used to simulate spatially explicit monthly discharge and losses of N and P to the surface water for the whole of Flanders (13,500 km²) over periods of 10-20 years. The extended time period is necessary because residence times in groundwater and the rates of organic matter turnover imply that water quality reacts slowly to changes of land use and fertilization practices. Vertical water flow and nutrient transport in the unsaturated zone are described per grid cell using a cascading bucket-type model with daily time steps. Groundwater flow is described by solving the 2D-groundwater flow equation using an explicit numerical