WorldWideScience

Sample records for water levels needed

  1. The need for the use of high-level radiation in water treatment and in waste-water (sewage) treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielson, N.E.

    1975-01-01

    After excellent conventional primary, followed by the best possible conventional aerobic secondary and then chemical disinfection, significant quantities of contaminants are still present in sewage, especially pathogenic organisms and toxic or toxicity-causing long-chain-molecular forms. These contaminants are generally encountered in waste-waters with a seldom predictable, almost totally random frequency. Many of these chemical forms enter re-use situations where they can become toxic to man, or to wildlife, even in concentrations of a few parts per thousand million. It has been amply demonstrated that the long-held contention is no longer valid that dilution of these contaminants to an innocuous level is easily attained by their release into large bodies of water such as lakes, oceans and rivers. At the same time, a great deal of energy is required when using known techniques in highly reliable systems for removing or rendering innocuous a large portion of these contaminants. In the light of this new (to some people) information describing a much larger, more complex set of conditions which must be considered in effective water pollution elimination, high-level radiation becomes very attractive. There is a great need for high-level radiation in water treatment or waste-water treatment where the ultimate goal is a safe, clean, non-environmentally degrading, safely re-usable quality of water. Gamma radiation, used under the right circumstances, is the most reliable, most cost-effective, most generally efficient technique in the tertiary stages. With the addition of select chemicals to increase the number of ionizations realized and/or to capitalize upon surface charge phenomena, its effectiveness can be even further expanded. (author)

  2. Quantification of Libby Reservoir Water Levels Needed to Maintain or Enhance Reservoir Fisheries, 1988-1996 Methods and Data Summary.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalbey, Steven Ray

    1998-03-01

    The Libby Reservoir study is part of the Northwest Power Planning Council's resident fish and wildlife program. The program was mandated by the Northwest Planning Act of 1980, and is responsible for mitigating for damages to fish and wildlife caused by hydroelectric development in the Columbia River Basin. The objective of Phase I of the project (1983 through 1987) was to maintain or enhance the Libby Reservoir fishery by quantifying seasonal water levels and developing ecologically sound operational guidelines. The objective of Phase II of the project (1988 through 1996) was to determine the biological effects of reservoir operations combined with biotic changes associated with an aging reservoir. This report summarizes the data collected from Libby Reservoir during 1988 through 1996.

  3. Managing air and water quality in the face of uncertain futures: perspectives, perceptions, reported action, and needs for climate adaptation at the local level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedsworth, L. W.; Ekstrom, J.

    2017-12-01

    As the climate continues to shift, projections show amplified and more frequent extreme events, including coastal and inland flooding, wildfires, prolonged droughts, and heatwaves. Vital public goods, both air quality and water quality, can be critically affected by such extreme events. Climate change will make it increasingly difficult for managers to achieve public health targets for air and water quality. Successfully preparing governance structures developed to maintain and improve air and water quality may benefit from preventative strategies to avoid public health impacts and costs of climate change locally. Perceptions of climate change and its risks, actions taken so far, and perceived barriers to adaptation give insight into the needs of managers for preparing for climate change impacts. This paper compares results of two surveys that looked at local level management of air quality and water quality in California. Air quality managers consistently reported to recognize the risks of climate change on their sector, where water quality managers' perceptions varied between no concern to high concern. We explore the differences in governance, capacity influence the ill-defined responsibility and assumed roles of water and air districts in adaptation to extreme events increasing with climate change. The chain and network of managing air quality is compared with that of water quality - laying out similarities and differences. Then we compare how the survey respondents differed in terms of extreme weather-influenced threats to environmental quality. We end with a discussion of responsibility - where in the chain of managing these life-critical ecosystem services, is the need greatest for adapting to climate change and what does this mean for the other levels in the chain beyond the local management.

  4. Quantification of Hungry Horse Reservoir Water Levels Needed to Maintain or Enhance Reservoir Fisheries; Methods and Data, 1983-1987 Summary Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, Bruce; Michael, Gary; Wachsmuth, John (Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks, Kalispell, MT)

    1988-06-01

    The Hungry Horse Reservoir study is part of the Northwest Power Planning Council's resident fish and wildlife plan. The plan is responsible for mitigating damages to the fish and wildlife resources caused by hydroelectric development in the Columbia River Basin. The major goal of our study is to quantify seasonal water levels needed to maintain or enhance the reservoir fishery. This study began in May, 1983, and the initial phase will be completed July, 1988. This report summarizes limnological, fish abundance, fish distribution and fish food habits data collected from 1983 to 1988. The effect of reservoir operation upon fish habitat, fish food organisms and fish growth is discussed. 71 refs., 36 figs., 46 tabs.

  5. Water Level Station History

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Images contain station history information for 175 stations in the National Water Level Observation Network (NWLON). The NWLON is a network of long-term,...

  6. The Global Dimension of Water Governance: Why the River Basin Approach Is No Longer Sufficient and Why Cooperative Action at Global Level Is Needed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjen Y. Hoekstra

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available When water problems extend beyond the borders of local communities, the river basin is generally seen as the most appropriate unit for analysis, planning, and institutional arrangements. In this paper it is argued that addressing water problems at the river basin level is not always sufficient. Many of today’s seemingly local water issues carry a (subcontinental or even global dimension, which urges for a governance approach that comprises institutional arrangements at a level beyond that of the river basin. This paper examines a number of arguments for the thesis that good water governance requires a global approach complementary to the river basin approach. Subsequently, it identifies four major issues to be addressed at global scale: Efficiency, equity, sustainability and security of water supply in a globalised world. Finally, the paper raises the question of what kind of institutional arrangements could be developed to cope with the global dimension of water issues. A few possible directions are explored, ranging from an international protocol on full-cost water pricing and a water label for water-intensive products to the implementation of water footprint quotas and the water-neutral concept.

  7. The global dimension of water governance: why the river basin approach is no longer sufficient and why cooperative action at global level is needed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2011-01-01

    When water problems extend beyond the borders of local communities, the river basin is generally seen as the most appropriate unit for analysis, planning, and institutional arrangements. In this paper it is argued that addressing water problems at the river basin level is not always sufficient. Many

  8. Water level detection pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshikawa, Yukinobu; Imanishi, Masatoshi; Niizato, Masaru; Takagi, Masahiro

    1998-01-01

    In the present invention, water levels of a feedwater heater and a drain tank in a nuclear power plant are detected at high accuracy. Detection pipeline headers connected to the upper and lower portions of a feedwater heater or a drain tank are connected with each other. The connection line is branched at appropriate two positions and an upper detection pipeline and a lower detection pipeline are connected thereto, and a gauge entrance valve is disposed to each of the detection pipelines. A diaphragm of a pressure difference generator is connected to a flange formed to the end portion. When detecting the change of water level in the feedwater heater or the drain tank as a change of pressure difference, gauge entrance valves on the exit side of the upper and lower detection pipelines are connected by a connection pipe. The gauge entrance valve is closed, a tube is connected to the lower detection pipe to inject water to the diaphragm of the pressure difference generator passing through the connection pipe thereby enabling to calibrate the pressure difference generator. The accuracy of the calibration of instruments is improved and workability thereof upon flange maintenance is also improved. (I.S.)

  9. Water level indicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murase, Michio; Araki, Hidefumi.

    1996-01-01

    A difference of pressure between a standard pressure conduit in communication with a gas phase of a reactor pressure vessel and a water level pressure conduit in communication with a liquid phase of the pressure vessel is detected by a pressure difference gage. A communication pipe and a standard level vessel are disposed between the pressure vessel and the standard pressure conduit, and a standard liquid surface on the side of the standard pressure conduit is formed in the standard level vessel. A gas releaser is disposed to the gas phase portion of the standard level vessel. The gas releaser equipment is constituted by a porous material, a permeation membrane and a gas exhaustion hole. The gas phase of the standard level vessel is divided by a partition plate into a first gas phase being in contact with a connection portion with the communication pipe and a second gas phase in contact with the gas releaser. A gas flow channel hole and a condensate descending hole are disposed to the partition plate. Since incondensible gases accumulated to the standard level vessel are effectively exhausted, the incondensible gases are prevented from being dissolved into liquid. (I.N.)

  10. Agrometeorology and water needs of crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Cola

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to present some agrometeorological methods useful for water management in agriculture discussing the existing technology and giving some insights about research and development activities in this field. After a general discussion about the importance of water for plants and more generally for the ecosystem the agrometerological aspects of water balance are discussed and opportunities of use of forecasts are also presented. Some effects of climatic change on water needs of crops are also discussed.

  11. Ancient water supports today's energy needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Odorico, Paolo; Natyzak, Jennifer L.; Castner, Elizabeth A.; Davis, Kyle F.; Emery, Kyle A.; Gephart, Jessica A.; Leach, Allison M.; Pace, Michael L.; Galloway, James N.

    2017-05-01

    The water footprint for fossil fuels typically accounts for water utilized in mining and fuel processing, whereas the water footprint of biofuels assesses the agricultural water used by crops through their lifetime. Fossil fuels have an additional water footprint that is not easily accounted for: ancient water that was used by plants millions of years ago, before they were transformed into fossil fuel. How much water is mankind using from the past to sustain current energy needs? We evaluate the link between ancient water virtually embodied in fossil fuels to current global energy demands by determining the water demand required to replace fossil fuels with biomass produced with water from the present. Using equal energy units of wood, bioethanol, and biodiesel to replace coal, natural gas, and crude oil, respectively, the resulting water demand is 7.39 × 1013 m3 y-1, approximately the same as the total annual evaporation from all land masses and transpiration from all terrestrial vegetation. Thus, there are strong hydrologic constraints to a reliance on biofuel energy produced with water from the present because the conversion from fossil fuels to biofuels would have a disproportionate and unsustainable impact on the modern water. By using fossil fuels to meet today's energy needs, we are virtually using water from a geological past. The water cycle is insufficient to sustain the production of the fuel presently consumed by human societies. Thus, non-fuel-based renewable energy sources are needed to decrease mankind's reliance on fossil fuel energy without placing an overwhelming pressure on global freshwater resources.

  12. Reactor water level control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiramatsu, Yohei.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To increase the rapid response of the waterlevel control converting a reactor water level signal into a non-linear type, when the water level is near to a set value, to stabilize the water level reducting correlatively the reactor water level variation signal to stabilize greatly from the set value, and increasing the variation signal. Constitution: A main vapor flow quality transmitter detects the vapor flow generated in a reactor and introduced into a turbine. A feed water flow transmitter detects the quantity of a feed water flow from the turbine to the reactor, this detected value is sent to an addition operating apparatus. On the other hand, the power signal of the reactor water level transmitter is sent to the addition operating apparatus through a non-linear water level signal converter. The addition operation apparatus generates a signal for requesting the feed water flow quantity from both signals. Upon this occasion, the reactor water level signal converter makes small the reactor water level variation when the reactor level is close the set value, and when the water level deviates greatly from the set value, the reactor water level variation is made large thereby to improve the rapid response of the reactor coater level control. (Yoshino, Y.)

  13. Water supply and needs for West Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation focused on the water supplies and needs of West Texas, Texas High Plains. Groundwater is the most commonly used water resources on the Texas High Plains, with withdrawals from the Ogallala Aquifer dominating. The saturation thickness of the Ogallala Aquifer in Texas is such that t...

  14. Meeting everyday water needs--a company's contribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, D

    2004-01-01

    As a packaged consumer goods company serving mass markets around the world for household and personal hygiene products, laundry detergents and foods, Unilever's business is inextricably linked with consumers' interest in meeting their everyday water needs. Once the basic need for drinking water is met, almost all other "everyday" water needs derive from consumption associated with the type of products Unilever sells. Use of some of these products, such as basic toilet soap, involve "actual" water consumption; others, such as margarine, concern "virtual" water consumption through agricultural production. Global scenarios for water and sanitation present a major challenge to long-term business strategies that assume sustained economic growth particularly in emerging and developing markets. Responsibility for finding and delivering solutions lies with all major actors in society. For companies such as Unilever, a priority is to help break the link between economic development on the one hand, and increased water use and water degradation on the other. Water catchment level perspectives are central to realising this vision. Unilever uses such a framework, building an experience-based model that demonstrates how a "consumer" company can engage in meeting everyday water needs with a sustained positive impact.

  15. Reactor water level control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utagawa, Kazuyuki.

    1993-01-01

    A device of the present invention can effectively control fluctuation of a reactor water level upon power change by reactor core flow rate control operation. That is, (1) a feedback control section calculates a feedwater flow rate control amount based on a deviation between a set value of a reactor water level and a reactor water level signal. (2) a feed forward control section forecasts steam flow rate change based on a reactor core flow rate signal or a signal determining the reactor core flow rate, to calculate a feedwater flow rate control amount which off sets the steam flow rate change. Then, the sum of the output signal from the process (1) and the output signal from the process (2) is determined as a final feedwater flow rate control signal. With such procedures, it is possible to forecast the steam flow rate change accompanying the reactor core flow rate control operation, thereby enabling to conduct preceding feedwater flow rate control operation which off sets the reactor water level fluctuation based on the steam flow rate change. Further, a reactor water level deviated from the forecast can be controlled by feedback control. Accordingly, reactor water level fluctuation upon power exchange due to the reactor core flow rate control operation can rapidly be suppressed. (I.S.)

  16. Water Security and Climate Change: The Need for Adaptive Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuula Honkonen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change will bring about unprecedented economic, social and environmental effects, which require both the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions and adaptation to its adverse effects. Water is the main element through which the impacts of climate change will be felt. Climate change results in increased uncertainties, complexities, stress and potential for conflicts within water management, both among and within states. New forms of governance are needed if the world is to respond to the need to adapt to changes in freshwater supply and to manage water security risks. This paper suggests that adaptive governance should to be main-streamed into all water regulation to ensure the availability of and access to safe water resources and to prevent water-related conflicts. The paper discusses the concept of water security in the context of climate change, the threats that climate change poses to water security, and the concept and implications of adaptive governance as a possible solution. The application of adaptive governance requires a certain degree of institutional and normative flexibility, instruments and institutions that can respond and adapt to changes and manage the level of uncertainty associated with the impacts of climate change. The governance institutions, methods and instruments should be responsive to new information and different kinds of uncertainties, while reflecting the vulnerabilities, capacities, needs and priorities of both societies and ecosystems in the face of climate change. Water security risks could be reduced by increased hydrosolidarity among states, which would present the challenges posed by climate change on water governance and security as primarily an opportunity for new forms of cooperation.

  17. Determining water management training needs through stakeholder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South Africa is a water-stressed country and the efficient management of the demand for and frugal use of water is a topic that can no longer be avoided. Community-based natural resource management is an alternative approach to government stewardship of natural resources, and in the instance of water management it is ...

  18. Reactor water level measuring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroki, Reiji; Asano, Tamotsu.

    1996-01-01

    A condensation vessel is connected to the upper portion of a reactor pressure vessel by way of a pipeline. The lower portion of the condensation vessel is connected to a low pressure side of a differential pressure transmission device by way of a reference leg pipeline. The high pressure side of the differential pressure transmission device is connected to the lower portion of the pressure vessel by way of a pipeline. The condensation vessel is equipped with a temperature sensor. When a temperature of a gas phase portion in the condensation vessel is lowered below a predetermined level, and incondensible gases in the condensation vessel starts to be dissolved in water, signals are sent from the temperature sensor to a control device and a control valve is opened. With such a constitution, CRD driving water flows into the condensation vessel, and water in which gases at the upper portion of the condensation vessel is dissolved flows into the pressure vessel by way of a pipeline. Then, gases dissolved in a reference water column in the reference leg pipeline are eliminated and the value of a reference water pressure does not change even upon abrupt lowering of pressure. (I.N.)

  19. Reading Ground Water Levels with a Smartphone

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Overloop, Peter-Jules

    2015-04-01

    Most ground water levels in the world are measured manually. It requires employees of water management organizations to visit sites in the field and execute a measurement procedure that requires special tools and training. Once the measurement is done, the value is jotted down in a notebook and later, at the office, entered in a computer system. This procedure is slow and prone to human errors. A new development is the introduction of modern Information and Communication Technology to support this task and make it more efficient. Two innovations are introduced to measure and immediately store ground water levels. The first method is a measuring tape that gives a sound and light when it just touches the water in combination with an app on a smartphone with which a picture needs to be taken from the measuring tape. Using dedicated pattern recognition algorithms, the depth is read on the tape and it is verified if the light is on. The second method estimates the depth using a sound from the smartphone that is sent into the borehole and records the reflecting waves in the pipe. Both methods use gps-localization of the smartphone to store the depths in the right location in the central database, making the monitoring of ground water levels a real-time process that eliminates human errors.

  20. Responding to increased needs and demands for water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hans M. Gregersen; William K. Easter; J. Edward de Steiguer

    2000-01-01

    The nature of the increased needs and demands for water relate to water quantity and quality, bringing in the dimensions of timing and location of water flows. Some key past international activities related to water and watershed policy are reviewed. The common threads that are shaping likely future responses relate to technical vs. institutional means of addressing...

  1. Considerations of the Skilled Manpower Needs for Water Supply Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watters, Gregor

    1981-01-01

    General methods for determining skilled labor needs for water supply and wastewater treatment plant operation as applied in Turkey are outlined along with a model program for training personnel to meet these needs. (DC)

  2. Water level monitoring device in nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Kiyohide; Otake, Tomohiro.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To monitor the water level in a pressure vessel of BWR type nuclear reactors at high accuracy by improving the compensation functions. Constitution: In the conventional water level monitor in a nuclear reactor, if the pressure vessel is displaced by the change of the pressure in the reactor or the temperature of the reactor water, the relative level of the reference water head in a condensation vessel is changed to cause deviation between the actual water level and the indicated water level to reduce the monitoring accuracy. According to the invention, means for detecting the position of the reference water head and means for detection the position in the condensation vessel are disposed to the pressure vessel. Then, relative positional change between the condensation vessel and the reference water head is calculated based on detection sinals from both of the means. The water level is compensated and calculated by water level calculation means based on the relative positional change, water level signals from the level gage and the pressure signals from the pressure gage. As a result, if the pressure vessel is displaced due to the change of the temperature or pressure, it is possible to measure the reactor water level accurately thereby remakably improve the reliability for the water level control in the nuclear reactor. (Horiuchi, T.)

  3. Needs and processes for the sea water desalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livet, F.

    2007-11-01

    The author shows the needs of the sea water desalination for the dry countries. The main technique is the reverse osmosis. It requires electricity and its development needs big electric power plants. For economical and ecological reasons, the nuclear energy seems well appropriate. Libya is for instance very interested in this technique, because of their water shortage problem. (A.L.B.)

  4. Licensing information needs for a high-level waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, R.J.; Greeves, J.T.; Logsdon, M.J.

    1985-01-01

    The information needs for licensing findings during the development of a repository for high-level waste (HLW) are described. In particular, attention is given to the information and needs to demonstrate, for construction authorization purposes: repository constructibility, waste retrievability, waste containment, and waste isolation

  5. Development of reactor water level sensor for extreme conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miura, K; Ogasawara, T [Sukegawa Electric Co., Ltd., Hitachi, Ibaraki (Japan); Shibata, Akira; Nakamura, Jinichi; Saito, Takashi; Tsuchiya, Kunihiko [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Oarai Research and Development Center, Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2012-03-15

    In the Fukushima accident, measurement failure of water level was one of the most important factors which caused serious situation. The differential pressure type water level indicators are widely used in various place of nuclear power plant but after the accident of TMI-2, the need of other reliable method has been required. The BICOTH type and the TRICOTH type water level indicator for light water power reactors had been developed for in-pile water level indicator but currently those are not adopted to nuclear power plant. In this study, the development of new type water level indicator composed of thermocouple and heater is described. Demonstration test and characteristic evaluation of the water level indicator were performed and we had obtained satisfactory results. (author)

  6. Water level measurement uncertainty during BWR instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torok, R.C.; Derbidge, T.C.; Healzer, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper addresses the performance of the water-level measurement system in a boiling water reactor (BWR) during severe instability oscillations which, under some circumstances, can occur during an anticipated transient without SCRAM (ATWS). Test data from a prototypical mock-up of the water-level measurement system was used to refine and calibrate a water-level measurement system model. The model was then used to predict level measurement system response, using as boundary conditions vessel pressures calculated by ppercase RETRAN for an ATWS/instability event.The results of the study indicate that rapid pressure changes in the reactor pressure vessel which cause oscillations in downcomer water level, coupled with differences in instrument line lengths, can produce errors in the sensed water level. Using nominal parameters for the measurement system components, a severe instability transient which produced a 0.2 m peak-to-minimum water-level oscillation in the vessel downcomer was predicted to produce pressure difference equivalent to a 0.7 m level oscillation at the input to the differential pressure transmitter, 0.5 m oscillation at the output of the transmitter, and an oscillation of 0.3 m on the water-level indicator in the control room. The level measurement system error, caused by downcomer water-level oscillations and instrument line length differential, is mitigated by damping both in the differential pressure transmitter used to infer level and in the control room display instrument. ((orig.))

  7. Resources and needs: assessment of the world water situation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    The global water situation is assessed. Movement and distribution of water in the hydrologic cycle is described. Methods of appraising surface water, precipitation, evapotranspiration, groundwater, and water quality are reviewed. The reliability of such appraisals depends greatly on the adequacy of national water observation networks. Global water supplies and quality of lakes, reservoirs, and groundwater are estimated. The effects of runoff, climate, and human activities on supplies are briefly discussed. The use and demand of water for domestic, industrial, agricultural, hydroelectric, transportation, and recreational needs are assessed. Methods of projecting water demand and quality are reviewed. Demand and supply relationships for various regions of the world are presented. Socioeconomic, financial, technical, administrative, legal, and environmental considerations of these relationships are examined. By using available technology and institutional devices, the world water situation can be improved. (1 diagram, 3 graphs, 8 tables)

  8. Water: Local-Level Management

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Each publication distills IDRC's research experience with an eye to drawing out ..... in an arid area can drip as much water into the dry soil as might ever arrive ..... disintegrate without careful maintenance into smelly sources of disease and ...

  9. Global Water Governance in the Context of Global and Multilevel Governance: Its Need, Form, and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyeeta Gupta

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available To complement this Special Feature on global water governance, we focused on a generic challenge at the global level, namely, the degree to which water issues need to be dealt with in a centralized, concentrated, and hierarchical manner. We examined water ecosystem services and their impact on human well-being, the role of policies, indirect and direct drivers in influencing these services, and the administrative level(s at which the provision of services and potential trade-offs can be dealt with. We applied a politics of scale perspective to understand motivations for defining a problem at the global or local level and show that the multilevel approach to water governance is evolving and inevitable. We argue that a centralized overarching governance system for water is unlikely and possibly undesirable; however, there is a need for a high-level think tank and leadership to develop a cosmopolitan perspective to promote sustainable water development.

  10. Method of measuring reactor water level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinohara, Kaoru.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a water level measuring system so that a reactor water level detecting signal can be corrected in correspondence to a recirculation flow, thereby to carry out a correct water level detection in a wide range of the reactor. Method: According to the operation record of a precursor reactor, the ratio Δh of the lowering of the water level due to the recirculation flow is lowered in proportion to the ratiowith respect to the rated differential pressure of the recirculation flow. Accordingly, the flow of recirculation pump is measured by an elbow differential pressure generator utilizing an elbow of a pipe, and the measured value is multiplied by a gain by a ratio setter, and therefter, an addition computation is carried out by an adder for correcting the signal from a water level detector. When the signal from the water level detector is corrected in this manner, the influence of the lowering of the water level due to the recirculation flow can be removed, and an interlocker predetermined in the defined water level can be actuated, thus the influence of the dynamic pressure due to the recirculation flow acting on the instrumental pipe line detecting the reactor water level can be removed effectively. (Yoshino, Y.)

  11. High-Level Overview of Data Needs for RE Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, Anthony

    2016-12-22

    This presentation provides a high level overview of analysis topics and associated data needs. Types of renewable energy analysis are grouped into two buckets: First, analysis for renewable energy potential, and second, analysis for other goals. Data requirements are similar but and they build upon one another.

  12. The need for monetary information within corporate water accounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burritt, Roger L; Christ, Katherine L

    2017-10-01

    A conceptual discussion is provided about the need to add monetary data to water accounting initiatives and how best to achieve this if companies are to become aware of the water crisis and to take actions to improve water management. Analysis of current water accounting initiatives reveals the monetary business case for companies to improve water management is rarely considered, there being a focus on physical information about water use. Three possibilities emerge for mainstreaming the integration of monetization into water accounting: add-on to existing water accounting frameworks and tools, develop new tools which include physical and monetary information from the start, and develop environmental management accounting (EMA) into a water-specific application and set of tools. The paper appraises these three alternatives and concludes that development of EMA would be the best way forward. Suggestions for further research include the need to examine the use of a transdisciplinary method to address the complexities of water accounting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. DOES WOMEN’S REPRESENTATION IN LOCAL WATER MANAGEMENT LEAD TO BETTER MEETING WOMEN’S DOMESTIC WATER NEEDS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Geoffrey Mandara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the interface between genderroles in water provision anduse at household and community level and its relationship with women’s practicaland strategic gender needs. Data were collected innine villages in the districts ofKondoa and Mpwapwa, Dodoma region in Tanzania. Results have shown thatwomen gain more knowledge on the appropriateness ofwater for consumptiveand productive uses while pursuing their reproductive roles in the provision anduse of domestic water at the household level. However, social-cultural contextlimit women’s participation during designing and planning of water services atcommunity level; ultimately their preferences and perceptions on theappropriateness of the domestic water are not integrated in the water projects. Werecommend systematic analysis on the interdependence between women’sdomestic water needs, their involvement in community management and thebigger picture of gender roles in society.

  14. Heavy metals in drinking water: Occurrences, implications, and future needs in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhury, Shakhawat; Mazumder, M.A. Jafar; Al-Attas, Omar; Husain, Tahir

    2016-01-01

    Heavy metals in drinking water pose a threat to human health. Populations are exposed to heavy metals primarily through water consumption, but few heavy metals can bioaccumulate in the human body (e.g., in lipids and the gastrointestinal system) and may induce cancer and other risks. To date, few thousand publications have reported various aspects of heavy metals in drinking water, including the types and quantities of metals in drinking water, their sources, factors affecting their concentrations at exposure points, human exposure, potential risks, and their removal from drinking water. Many developing countries are faced with the challenge of reducing human exposure to heavy metals, mainly due to their limited economic capacities to use advanced technologies for heavy metal removal. This paper aims to review the state of research on heavy metals in drinking water in developing countries; understand their types and variability, sources, exposure, possible health effects, and removal; and analyze the factors contributing to heavy metals in drinking water. This study identifies the current challenges in developing countries, and future research needs to reduce the levels of heavy metals in drinking water. - Highlights: • Co-exposure to multiple heavy metals in drinking water needs better understanding • Low-cost technologies for arsenic removal needs urgent attention • Protonated alginate needs further research for drinking water applications • Community level and PoU devices need improvement and cost reduction • Developing countries are most affected by heavy metals in drinking water

  15. Heavy metals in drinking water: Occurrences, implications, and future needs in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chowdhury, Shakhawat, E-mail: Schowdhury@kfupm.edu.sa [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Mazumder, M.A. Jafar [Department of Chemistry, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Al-Attas, Omar [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Husain, Tahir [Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John’s, NL (Canada)

    2016-11-01

    Heavy metals in drinking water pose a threat to human health. Populations are exposed to heavy metals primarily through water consumption, but few heavy metals can bioaccumulate in the human body (e.g., in lipids and the gastrointestinal system) and may induce cancer and other risks. To date, few thousand publications have reported various aspects of heavy metals in drinking water, including the types and quantities of metals in drinking water, their sources, factors affecting their concentrations at exposure points, human exposure, potential risks, and their removal from drinking water. Many developing countries are faced with the challenge of reducing human exposure to heavy metals, mainly due to their limited economic capacities to use advanced technologies for heavy metal removal. This paper aims to review the state of research on heavy metals in drinking water in developing countries; understand their types and variability, sources, exposure, possible health effects, and removal; and analyze the factors contributing to heavy metals in drinking water. This study identifies the current challenges in developing countries, and future research needs to reduce the levels of heavy metals in drinking water. - Highlights: • Co-exposure to multiple heavy metals in drinking water needs better understanding • Low-cost technologies for arsenic removal needs urgent attention • Protonated alginate needs further research for drinking water applications • Community level and PoU devices need improvement and cost reduction • Developing countries are most affected by heavy metals in drinking water.

  16. Meeting water needs for sustainable development: an overview of approaches, measures and data sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissner, Tabea; Reusser, Dominik E.; Sullivan, Caroline A.; Kropp, Jürgen P.

    2013-04-01

    An essential part of a global transition towards sustainability is the Millennium Development Goals (MDG), providing a blueprint of goals to meet human needs. Water is an essential resource in itself, but also a vital factor of production for food, energy and other industrial products. Access to sufficient water has only recently been recognized as a human right. One central MDG is halving the population without access to safe drinking water and sanitation. To adequately assess the state of development and the potential for a transition towards sustainability, consistent and meaningful measures of water availability and adequate access are thus fundamental. Much work has been done to identify thresholds and definitions to measure water scarcity. This includes some work on defining basic water needs of different sectors. A range of data and approaches has been made available from a variety of sources, but all of these approaches differ in their underlying assumptions, the nature of the data used, and consequently in the final results. We review and compare approaches, methods and data sources on human water use and human water needs. This data review enables identifying levels of consumption in different countries and different sectors. Further comparison is made between actual water needs (based on human and ecological requirements), and recognised levels of water abstraction. The results of our review highlight the differences between different accounts of water use and needs, and reflect the importance of standardised approaches to data definitions and measurements, making studies more comparable across space and time. The comparison of different use and allocation patterns in countries enables levels of water use to be identified which allow for an adequate level of human wellbeing to be maintained within sustainable water abstraction limits. Recommendations are provided of how data can be defined more clearly to make comparisons of water use more meaningful and

  17. Method for steam generator water level measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, J.S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a nuclear power plant, a method of controlling the steam generator water level, wherein the steam generator has an upper level tap corresponding to an upper level, a lower level, a riser positioned between the lower and upper taps, and level sensor means for indicating water level between a first range limit and a second range limit, the sensor means being connected to at least the lower tap. It comprises: calculating a measure of velocity head at about the lower level tap; calculating a measure of full water level as the upper level less the measure of velocity head; calibrating the level sensor means to provide an output at the first limit corresponding to an input thereto representative of the measure of full level; calculating a high level setpoint equal to the level of the riser less a bias amount which is a function of the position of the riser relative to the span between the taps; and controlling the water level when the sensor means indicates that the high level setpoint has been reached

  18. Radon levels in a water distribution network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alabdula'aly, A.I.

    1997-01-01

    The capital city of Saudi Arabia, Riyadh, relies on both desalinated sea water as well as treated groundwater to meet all its water requirements. About 66% of the water demand is met by desalinated sea water, and the remaining is supplied by six groundwater treatment plants located in the vicinity of the city and supplied with water from 161 wells. The desalinated sea water is blended with only one plant product water and pumped to the distribution network, whereas the other five plants product water is pumped directly to the network. A study of 222 Rn levels in the city distribution network was carried out in which 89 samples were collected from different locations representing the city districts. All samples have shown low radon levels with an average concentration of 0.2 Bq l -1 and a range values of 0.1-1.0 Bq l -1 . The level of radon in different parts of the network was found to be influenced by the water sources to which they are supplied. The lowest radon levels were observed in districts supplied mostly by desalinated sea water. (Author)

  19. Effect of mechanization level on manpower needs in forestry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Błuszkowska Urszula

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available High work consumption in forest operations is above all the result of the character and task realization mode in works undertaken in forestry. Development of mechanization in forest management activities allows to considerably decrease manpower needs. In the present study, there were analyzed the possibilities of reduction of work consumption by improving the mechanization level of forest works. The method was developed to consider the following assessments: 1 variant W1 - basic option comprising factual work consumption values in works carried out on the area administered by the Regional Directorate of State Forests (RDLP; 2 W2 - showing the effect of 25% upgrade of works to a higher level of mechanization; 3 W3 - showing the effect of 50% upgrade of works to a higher level of mechanization; 4 W4 - comprising analogous calculations to those in variant W1 , but work consumption upgrading was 75%. Simulation calculations revealed considerable differences in needs for labor of different categories of forest workers. On the other hand, with increasing mechanization level, there increase the demands concerning worker qualifications, e.g. a harvester operator must be trained for about 2 years, and the training has to include both simulator exercises (first using software and next - harvester simulator and field work under supervision to gain sufficient experience. The introduction of higher levels of mechanization into forest operations, and hence considerable reduction of jobs for unqualified workers who are replaced by qualified employees, can help decreasing work consumption in forest operations.

  20. Forecasting Water Levels Using Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreenivas N. Londhe

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available For all Ocean related activities it is necessary to predict the actual water levels as accurate as possible. The present work aims at predicting the water levels with a lead time of few hours to a day using the technique of artificial neural networks. Instead of using the previous and current values of observed water level time series directly as input and output the water level anomaly (difference between the observed water level and harmonically predicted tidal level is calculated for each hour and the ANN model is developed using this time series. The network predicted anomaly is then added to harmonic tidal level to predict the water levels. The exercise is carried out at six locations, two in The Gulf of Mexico, two in The Gulf of Maine and two in The Gulf of Alaska along the USA coastline. The ANN models performed reasonably well for all forecasting intervals at all the locations. The ANN models were also run in real time mode for a period of eight months. Considering the hurricane season in Gulf of Mexico the models were also tested particularly during hurricanes.

  1. CrowdWater - Can people observe what models need?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Meerveld, I. H. J.; Seibert, J.; Vis, M.; Etter, S.; Strobl, B.

    2017-12-01

    CrowdWater (www.crowdwater.ch) is a citizen science project that explores the usefulness of crowd-sourced data for hydrological model calibration and prediction. Hydrological models are usually calibrated based on observed streamflow data but it is likely easier for people to estimate relative stream water levels, such as the water level above or below a rock, than streamflow. Relative stream water levels may, therefore, be a more suitable variable for citizen science projects than streamflow. In order to test this assumption, we held surveys near seven different sized rivers in Switzerland and asked more than 450 volunteers to estimate the water level class based on a picture with a virtual staff gauge. The results show that people can generally estimate the relative water level well, although there were also a few outliers. We also asked the volunteers to estimate streamflow based on the stick method. The median estimated streamflow was close to the observed streamflow but the spread in the streamflow estimates was large and there were very large outliers, suggesting that crowd-based streamflow data is highly uncertain. In order to determine the potential value of water level class data for model calibration, we converted streamflow time series for 100 catchments in the US to stream level class time series and used these to calibrate the HBV model. The model was then validated using the streamflow data. The results of this modeling exercise show that stream level class data are useful for constraining a simple runoff model. Time series of only two stream level classes, e.g. above or below a rock in the stream, were already informative, especially when the class boundary was chosen towards the highest stream levels. There was hardly any improvement in model performance when more than five water level classes were used. This suggests that if crowd-sourced stream level observations are available for otherwise ungauged catchments, these data can be used to constrain

  2. Balancing competing water needs in Morocco's Saiss basin

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    CCAA

    to meet the needs, a research team led by Al Akhawayn University is working with local communities and authorities to examine whether managing the demand for water can protect the basin's future in the context of growth and climate change. The focus of ... cases pitting upstream communities against their downstream.

  3. Evaluation of infiltration for the determination of palms water needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benlarbi, Dalila; Boutaoutaou, Djamel; Saggaï, Sofiane

    2018-05-01

    In arid climate conditions, irrigation water requirements increase, but available water resources are limited. And therefore the Saharan regions, large consumers of water can be seriously threatened if they do not make the necessary to become as parsimonious as allow the irrigation techniques whose technological aspect on their improvement has been privileged until now but all the problems are not solved. The objective of this work is to know the process of infiltration of water in the soil, i.e.: to try to determine exactly its value with obtaining the best combination (flow of entry, board length and irrigation time) in order to have a more or less uniform distribution in the soil and especially by avoiding significant water losses that would cause rise in the water table. The infiltration will allow us to calculate at any point the dose of water received that we will compare with the needs of the date palm. For this purpose; we varied the input flow for a constant board length. Then we varied the board length for a constant input rate. In both cases we varied the irrigation time according to the water requirements of the date palm. The flow remains of course constant during the entire feeding period. This study is primarily experimental and aims to meet practical applications but not immediately because it is necessary to continue the experiments with several other combinations to achieve practical results.

  4. Negotiating water across levels: A peace and conflict "Toolbox" for water diplomacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grech-Madin, Charlotte; Döring, Stefan; Kim, Kyungmee; Swain, Ashok

    2018-04-01

    As a key policy tool, water diplomacy offers greater political engagement in the cooperative management of shared water. A range of initiatives has been dedicated to this end, almost invariably oriented around the interactions of nation states. Crucially, however, practitioners of water diplomacy also need to address water governance at sub-state levels. As a political, multi-level, and normative field, peace and conflict research offers a pluralism of approaches designed to bring actors together at all levels. Drawing upon this research, this paper offers new focal points for water diplomacy that can enhance its policy effectiveness and enrich its underlying academic current. More specifically, it presents three hitherto undervalued tools for water diplomacy: at the interstate level, to uncover the rich body of political norms that bind states to shared understandings of acceptable practice around water. At the intrastate level, to incorporate ethnography of water users and civil society groups' responses to state-led waterworks projects, and at the communal level to employ disaggregated georeferenced data on water resources in conflict-prone areas. Taken together, these analytical tools provide a multi-faceted political gauge of the dynamics of water diplomacy, and add vital impetus to develop water diplomacy across multiple levels of policy engagement.

  5. Ultrasonic Sensing of Plant Water Needs for Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Gómez Álvarez-Arenas

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Fresh water is a key natural resource for food production, sanitation and industrial uses and has a high environmental value. The largest water use worldwide (~70% corresponds to irrigation in agriculture, where use of water is becoming essential to maintain productivity. Efficient irrigation control largely depends on having access to reliable information about the actual plant water needs. Therefore, fast, portable and non-invasive sensing techniques able to measure water requirements directly on the plant are essential to face the huge challenge posed by the extensive water use in agriculture, the increasing water shortage and the impact of climate change. Non-contact resonant ultrasonic spectroscopy (NC-RUS in the frequency range 0.1–1.2 MHz has revealed as an efficient and powerful non-destructive, non-invasive and in vivo sensing technique for leaves of different plant species. In particular, NC-RUS allows determining surface mass, thickness and elastic modulus of the leaves. Hence, valuable information can be obtained about water content and turgor pressure. This work analyzes and reviews the main requirements for sensors, electronics, signal processing and data analysis in order to develop a fast, portable, robust and non-invasive NC-RUS system to monitor variations in leaves water content or turgor pressure. A sensing prototype is proposed, described and, as application example, used to study two different species: Vitis vinifera and Coffea arabica, whose leaves present thickness resonances in two different frequency bands (400–900 kHz and 200–400 kHz, respectively, These species are representative of two different climates and are related to two high-added value agricultural products where efficient irrigation management can be critical. Moreover, the technique can also be applied to other species and similar results can be obtained.

  6. Portable Water Level Monitoring System via SMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jomar S. Vitales

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Damages and lives taken by the typhoon Ondoy and other super typhoons brought the researchers to think and develop a device that warns people an hour or more than an hour before the devastating phenomena. In this project the researchers have thought of using text messaging in which the country’s leading means of communication. The development of the project was guided by the Engineering Design Cycle of Dr. Allan Cheville in his book entitled “Rocket Engineering”. The researchers have identified and used the needed materials which are suited in the intended function of the project. The project was already evaluated and had gathered a favorable response from the knowledgeable respondents in the field where the design project is intended to use. The project has a high acceptability level in the respondents’ point of view. The researchers are highly recommending the implementation of the project for a better testing in the incoming rainy season and also recommending to be placed in the Pantalan Bridge in Pantalan, Nasugbu, Batangas, Philippines. The researchers are also suggesting another study for a better water proof casing of the project.

  7. The Math You Need, When You Need It (TMYN: Leveling the Playing Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M. Wenner

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Math You Need, When You Need It (TMYN is a set of online tutorials designed to help students develop and review mathematical skills that are applied in undergraduate geoscience courses. We present results of a three-year study of more than 4000 students in 106 geoscience courses at a variety of post-secondary schools who were assigned TMYN tutorials as supplemental mathematics instruction. Changes in student scores from pre- to post-test suggest that the support provided by programs such as TMYN can begin to reduce the gap between mathematically well-prepared and underprepared students; in essence, TMYN levels the quantitative playing field for all geoscience students. On average, both high- and low-performing students who fully participated in the use of TMYN as a part of their course showed learning gains, although gains were larger for students who performed poorly on the pre-test. Our findings emphasize the conclusion that students who interact with context-specific quantitative problems can potentially improve their mathematical skills, regardless of initial level of mathematical preparation. We suggest that this type of support could generalize to other science courses.

  8. Water-level fluctuations influence sediment porewater ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reservoirs typically have elevated fish mercury (Hg) levels compared to natural lakes and rivers. A unique feature of reservoirs is water-level management which can result in sediment exposure to the air. The objective of this study is to identify how reservoir water-level fluctuations impact Hg cycling, particularly the formation of the more toxic and bioaccumulative methylmercury (MeHg). Total-Hg (THg), MeHg, stable isotope methylation rates and several ancillary parameters were measured in reservoir sediments (including some in porewater and overlying water) that are seasonally and permanently inundated. The results showed that sediment and porewater MeHg concentrations were over 3-times higher in areas experiencing water-level fluctuations compared to permanently inundated sediments. Analysis of the data suggest that the enhanced breakdown of organic matter in sediments experiencing water-level fluctuations has a two-fold effect on stimulating Hg methylation: 1) it increases the partitioning of inorganic Hg from the solid phase into the porewater phase (lower log Kd values) where it is more bioavailable for methylation; and 2) it increases dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the porewater which can stimulate the microbial community that can methylate Hg. Sulfate concentrations and cycling were enhanced in the seasonally inundated sediments and may have also contributed to increased MeHg production. Overall, our results suggest that reservoir management a

  9. Lead, cadmium and mercury levels in pregnancy: the need for international consensus on levels of concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, C M; Golding, J; Emond, A M

    2014-02-01

    For heavy metals that have any degree of transfer though the placenta to the fetus, it is unlikely that there are safe limits for maternal blood levels. The only means of reducing fetal exposure is to minimise maternal exposure. There are few recommendations for levels of concern. With the exception of US recommendations for maternal Pb levels, but there are no international levels of concern or cut-off levels specifically for pregnancy for heavy metals, so that comparisons can generally only be made with national reference values relating to similar physiological statuses or age groups. These include recommendations for Cd levels by Germany (reference value for non-smoking adults aged 18-69 years, 1 µg/l) and for Hg by Germany (reference value for adults age 18-60 years with fish intake concern and recommended cut-off values. We also compare the levels with those found in other groups of pregnant women worldwide to strengthen the database for the development of levels of concern in pregnancy. The need for clarity of terminology in describing levels of concern is discussed. There is a pressing need for international consensus on levels of concern for all age groups and physiological statuses, particularly for pregnancy.

  10. A improved tidal method without water level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, xiaowen

    2017-04-01

    Now most tide are obtained use water Level and pressure type water gage, but it is difficult to install them and reading is in low accuracy in this method . In view of above-mentioned facts, In order to improve tide accuracy, A improved method is introduced.sea level is obtained in given time using high-precision GNSS buoy combined instantaneous position from pressure gage. two steps are as following, (1) the GNSS time service is used as the source of synchronization reference in tidal measurement; (2) centimeter-level sea surface positions are obtained in real time using difference GNSS The improved method used in seafloor topography survey,in 145 cross points, 95% meet the requirements of the Hydrographic survey specification. It is effective method to obtain higher accuracy tide.

  11. Climate-driven changes in water level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rikke Bjerring; Olsen, Jesper; Jeppesen, Erik

    2013-01-01

    level rose. Moreover, Nymphaeaceae trichosclereids were abundant during the period of algal enrichment. Cladoceran taxa associated with floating leaved plants or benthic habitats responded in a complex way to changes in water level, but the cladoceran assemblages generally reflected deep lake conditions...... hydrology driven by precipitation. The isotopic, sedimentary and plant macrofossil records suggested that the lake level started to decrease around 8400 cal. yr BP, the decrease accelerating during 8350-8260 before an abrupt increase during 8260-8210. This pattern shows that the climate anomaly started...... rates of cladoceran subfossils and algal pigments, possibly due to increased turbidity and reduced nutrient input during this drier period. Pigment analysis also showed added importance of diatoms and cryptophytes during this climate anomaly, while cyanobacteria became more important when the water...

  12. Information needs for water resources decision-making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellers, J.

    1993-01-01

    Water and related resources planning and decision-making have developed to the state of multiple objective and/or multiple criteria analysis using complicated systems analysis. The objective of this paper is to indicate the major components of information needed to facilitate the planning process for resource utilization, and to provide desirable outputs from management schemes. The process could best be described as the proper development of Management Information Systems (MIS) or Decision Support Systems (DDS). Data and information systems are never completed and must be continually updated and modified. The exact composition of any system depends also upon the general type of decision techniques being used. A brief outline of the decision process is given with the remainder of the paper dealing with the types of information needed to support the decision system. (author). 34 refs

  13. THE NEED FOR A WATER INFORMATION SYSTEM FOR THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA

    OpenAIRE

    Ion BOTNARENCO; Ala BOSCAN; Efim ZUBCO

    2015-01-01

    Novelty. Insuficient information on water resources is an important issue at both national and global levels. This issue becomes even more important under the conditions of clmate change of the last decades. Aim. The aim is to analyze the existing situation in the field and to formulate a scientific argument by means of convincing examples, to argue the need to implement an information system of water cadastre, to arise social interest as a whole towards the problem whose solution determines ...

  14. The water energy nexus, an ISO50001 water case study and the need for a water value system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan P. Walsh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The world’s current utilisation of water, allied to the forecasted increase in our dependence on it, has led to the realisation that water as a resource needs to be managed. The scarcity and cost of water worldwide, along with water management practices within Europe, are highlighted in this paper. The heavy dependence of energy generation on water and the similar dependence of water treatment and distribution on energy, collectively termed the water–energy nexus, is detailed. A summary of the recently launched ISO14046 Water Footprint Standard along with other benchmarking measures is outlined and a case history of managing water using the Energy Management Standard ISO50001 is discussed in detail. From this, the requirement for a methodology for improvement of water management has been identified, involving a value system for water streams, which, once optimised will improve water management including efficiency and total utilisation.

  15. Expanded prediction equations of human sweat loss and water needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, R R; Cheuvront, S N; Montain, S J; Goodman, D A; Blanchard, L A; Berglund, L G; Sawka, M N

    2009-08-01

    The Institute of Medicine expressed a need for improved sweating rate (msw) prediction models that calculate hourly and daily water needs based on metabolic rate, clothing, and environment. More than 25 years ago, the original Shapiro prediction equation (OSE) was formulated as msw (g.m(-2).h(-1))=27.9.Ereq.(Emax)(-0.455), where Ereq is required evaporative heat loss and Emax is maximum evaporative power of the environment; OSE was developed for a limited set of environments, exposures times, and clothing systems. Recent evidence shows that OSE often overpredicts fluid needs. Our study developed a corrected OSE and a new msw prediction equation by using independent data sets from a wide range of environmental conditions, metabolic rates (rest to losses were carefully measured in 101 volunteers (80 males and 21 females; >500 observations) by using a variety of metabolic rates over a range of environmental conditions (ambient temperature, 15-46 degrees C; water vapor pressure, 0.27-4.45 kPa; wind speed, 0.4-2.5 m/s), clothing, and equipment combinations and durations (2-8 h). Data are expressed as grams per square meter per hour and were analyzed using fuzzy piecewise regression. OSE overpredicted sweating rates (Pdata (21 males and 9 females; >200 observations). OSEC and PW were more accurate predictors of sweating rate (58 and 65% more accurate, Perror (standard error estimate<100 g.m(-2).h(-1)) for conditions both within and outside the original OSE domain of validity. The new equations provide for more accurate sweat predictions over a broader range of conditions with applications to public health, military, occupational, and sports medicine settings.

  16. Assessing the hierarchy of needs in levels of service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-01

    The primary focus of this research project was in providing empirical evidence of a Hierarchy of Transportation : Needs. The experimental procedure, methodology, and materials for this project were designed using both : transportation stated preferen...

  17. GNSS-Reflectometry based water level monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckheinrich, Jamila; Schön, Steffen; Beyerle, Georg; Apel, Heiko; Semmling, Maximilian; Wickert, Jens

    2013-04-01

    Due to climate changing conditions severe changes in the Mekong delta in Vietnam have been recorded in the last years. The goal of the German Vietnamese WISDOM (Water-related Information system for the Sustainable Development Of the Mekong Delta) project is to build an information system to support and assist the decision makers, planners and authorities for an optimized water and land management. One of WISDOM's tasks is the flood monitoring of the Mekong delta. Earth reflected L-band signals from the Global Navigation Satellite System show a high reflectivity on water and ice surfaces or on wet soil so that GNSS-Reflectometry (GNSS-R) could contribute to monitor the water level in the main streams of the Mekong delta complementary to already existing monitoring networks. In principle, two different GNSS-R methods exist: the code- and the phase-based one. As the latter being more accurate, a new generation of GORS (GNSS Occultation, Reflectometry and Scatterometry) JAVAD DELTA GNSS receiver has been developed with the aim to extract precise phase observations. In a two week lasting measurement campaign, the receiver has been tested and several reflection events at the 150-200 m wide Can Tho river in Vietnam have been recorded. To analyze the geometrical impact on the quantity and quality of the reflection traces two different antennas height were tested. To track separately the direct and the reflected signal, two antennas were used. To derive an average height of the water level, for a 15 min observation interval, a phase model has been developed. Combined with the coherent observations, the minimum slope has been calculated based on the Least- Squares method. As cycle slips and outliers will impair the results, a preprocessing of the data has been performed. A cycle slip detection strategy that allows for automatic detection, identification and correction is proposed. To identify outliers, the data snooping method developed by Baarda 1968 is used. In this

  18. Matching renewable energy systems to village-level energy needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashworth, J.H.; Neuendorffer, J.W.

    1980-06-01

    This report provides a five step process for matching alternative renewable energy technologies with energy needs in rural villages of developing countries. Analytic tools are given for each of the five steps as well as information that can be expected. Twelve characterization criteria are developed to assist in the matching process. Three of these criteria, called discrimination criteria, are used for preliminary screening of technology possibilities for each need. The other criteria address site-specific temporal, climatic, social, cultural, and environmental characteristics of the energy need, technology, and cost considerations. To illustrate the matching process, seven basic human needs for energy are matched with seven potential renewable energy technologies. The final portion of the paper discusses the advantages of such a matching process and the resources required to initiate such an effort within a development project. Specific recommendations are given for field-testing this process and actions that could be taken immediately in basic research and development, applied research and technology modification, demonstrations, and commercialization to assist in the future diffusion of renewable energy technologies to rural areas of developing countries.

  19. Hydrostatic Water Level Systems At Homestake DUSEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetler, L. D.; Volk, J. T.

    2009-12-01

    Two arrays of Fermilab-style hydrostatic water level sensors have been installed in the former Homestake gold mine in Lead, SD, the site of the new Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL). Sensors were constructed at Fermilab from 8.5 cm diameter PVC pipe (housing) that was sealed on the ends and fit with a proximity sensor. The instrument have a height of 10 cm. Two ports in each sensor housing provide for connectivity, the upper port for air and the bottom port for water. Multiple instruments connected in series provide a precise water level and differences in readings between successive sensors provide for ground tilt to be resolved. Sensor resolution is 5 μm per count and has a range of approximately 1.25 cm. Data output from each sensor is relayed to a Fermilab-constructed readout card that also has temperature/relative humidity and barometric pressure sensors connected. All data are relayed out of the mine by fiber optic cable and can be recorded by Ethernet at remote locations. The current arrays have been installed on the 2000-ft level (610 m) and consist of six instruments in each array. Three sensors were placed in a N-S oriented drift and three in an E-W oriented drift. Using this orientation, it is anticipated that tilt direction may be resolved in addition to overall tilt magnitude. To date the data show passage of earth tides and frequency analysis has revealed five components to this signal, three associated with the semi-diurnal (~12.4 hr) and two with the diurnal (~24.9 hr) tides. Currently, installation methods are being analyzed between concrete pillar and rib-mounting using the existing setup on the 2000-ft level. Using these results, two additional arrays of Fermilab instruments will be installed on the 4550-ft and 4850-ft levels (1387 and 1478 m, respectively). In addition to Fermilab instruments, several high resolution Budker tiltmeters (1 μm resolution) will be installed in the mine workings in the near future, some

  20. Water levels shape fishing participation in flood-control reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Leandro E.; Meals, K. O.

    2013-01-01

    We examined the relationship between fishing effort (hours fished) and average March–May water level in 3 flood control reservoirs in Mississippi. Fishing effort increased as water level rose, peaked at intermediate water levels, and decreased at high water levels. We suggest that the observed arched-shaped relationship is driven by the shifting influence of fishability (adequacy of the fishing circumstances from an angler's perspective) and catch rate along a water level continuum. Fishability reduces fishing effort during low water, despite the potential for higher catch rates. Conversely, reduced catch rates and fishability at high water also curtail effort. Thus, both high and low water levels seem to discourage fishing effort, whereas anglers seem to favor intermediate water levels. Our results have implications for water level management in reservoirs with large water level fluctuations.

  1. Consumption of Water for Household Needs and the Affecting Factors at Banyudono Boyolali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alif Noor Anna

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of drinking water for a community is different from one area to the other. This is normally influenced by the population development, socio-economic, cultural, and physical conditions mainly related to the supply of drinking water and how to exploit it. Banyudono district is an area located in the regency of Boyolali. The development of this area depends on Boyolali City and Kartasura district. Such a location enables the area to have a process of the physical and socio-economi developments. In addition, it has an influence upon social behaviour to consume water. This research is aimed at knowing the average consumption of household need and analyzing the factors influencing the utilization of water as drinking water. The result of this research indicated that 1 the average consumption of a human being for drinking water was 79,37 litter a day. It means that the onsumption of a human being for drinking ater generally ranged from 60 to 80 litter a day; 2 most of the ater was consumed to meet basic needs such as cooking, drinking, bathing, and washing; 3 the difference of the average consumption was influenced by the kind of water source and how to exploit it; 4 a parameter of the most significant socio-economic condition that took effect on the average consumption for drinking water was the parameter of income with correlation of 0.362 and the significant level of 0.01.

  2. The water needed to have Italians eat pasta and pizza

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinez-Aldaya, Maite; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2009-01-01

    Problems of freshwater scarcity and pollution are related to water use by farmers, industries and households. The term ‘water users’ has always been interpreted as ‘those who apply water for some purpose’. As a result, governments responsible for water resources management have traditionally

  3. Needs of nuclear data for advanced light water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaki, Masao

    2008-01-01

    Hitachi has been developing medium sized ABWRs as a power source that features flexibility to meet various market needs, such as minimizing capital risks, providing a timely return on capital investments, etc. Basic design concepts of the medium sized ABWRs are 1) using the current ABWR design which has accumulated favorable construction and operation histories as a starting point; 2) utilizing standard BWR fuels which have been fabricated by proven technology; 3) achieving a rationalized design by suitably utilizing key components developed for large sized reactors. Development of the medium sized ABWRs has proceeded in a systematic, stepwise manner. The first step was to design an output scale for the 600MWe class reactor (ABWR-600), and the next step was to develop an uprating concept to extend this output scale to the 900MWe class reactor (ABWR-900) based on the rationalized technology of the ABWR-600 for further cost savings. In addition, Hitachi and MHI developed an ultra small reactor, 'Package-Reactor'. About the nuclear data, for the purpose of verification of the nuclear analysis method of BWR for mixed oxide (MOX) cores, UO 2 and MOX fuel critical experiments EPICURE and MISTRAL were analyzed using nuclear design codes HINES and CERES with ENDF/B nuclear data file. The critical keffs of the absorber worth experiments, the water hole worth experiments and the 2D void worth experiments agreed with those of the reference experiments within about 0.1%Δk. The root mean square differences of radial power distributions between calculation and measurement were almost less than 2.0%. The calculated reactivity worth values of the absorbers, the water hole and the 2D void agreed with the measured values within nearly experimental uncertainties. These results indicate that the nuclear analysis method of BWR in the present paper give the same accuracy for the UO 2 cores and the MOX cores. (author)

  4. Long-range low-level waste management needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gloyna, E.F.

    1980-01-01

    In all waste management considerations, it is necessary to establish the waste source; characterize the waste components; determine treatability; evaluate specific details that comprise a systems approach to overall waste management; and implement practical collection, packaging, storage disposal and monitoring technology. This paper evaluates management considerations by defining the source and magnitude of low-level wastes (LLW), relating LLW disposal, defining principles of LLW burial, and listing LLW burial considerations. 17 refs

  5. High purity heavy water production: need for total organic carbon determination in process water streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayushi; Kumar, Sangita D.; Reddy, A.V.R.; Vithal, G.K.

    2009-01-01

    In recent times, demand for high purity heavy water (99.98% pure) in industries and laboratories has grown by manifold. Its application started in nuclear industry with the design of CANDU reactor, which uses natural uranium as fuel. In this reactor the purest grade of heavy water is used as the moderator and the primary coolant. Diverse industrial applications like fibre optics, medicine, semiconductors etc. use high purity heavy water extensively to achieve better performance of the specific material. In all these applications there is a stringent requirement that the total organic carbon content (TOC) of high purity heavy water should be very low. This is because the presence of TOC can lead to adverse interactions in different applications. To minimize the TOC content in the final product there is a need to monitor and control the TOC content at each and every stage of heavy water production. Hence a simple, rapid and accurate method was developed for the determination of TOC content in process water samples. The paper summarizes the results obtained for the TOC content in the water samples collected from process streams of heavy water production plant. (author)

  6. Assessing Education Needs at Tertiary Level: The Focus Group Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena-Mirela Samfira

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the paper is to point out the advantages and disadvantages of the focus group method in assessing the education needs of teachers and students in veterinary medicine. It is the first stage of a wider research aiming at developing problem-based teaching and learning methodologies in the field of veterinary medicine. The materials used consisted of literature documents on focus group as a research method in social sciences. The authors studied the literature available in the field and synthesised its main advantages and disadvantages. The paper is the first of this kind in Romania. Results show that there is no agreement yet on the advantages and disadvantages of this method. The research limitation is that there is almost no Romanian literature on focus group as a method. The usefulness of the paper is obvious: it allows other researchers in the field of education see the benefits of using such a research method. The originality of the paper consists in the fact that there has been no such research so far in Romanian higher education. Based on the results of the focus groups organised, the authors will design and implement a problem-based learning methodology for the students in veterinary medicine.

  7. The water needed to have Italians eat pasta and pizza

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinez-Aldaya, Maite; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2010-01-01

    Water resources use in agriculture is generally quantified in relation to the harvest. In contrast, this paper takes a consumer perspective by assessing water use in relation to the final consumer product. The paper analyses the water use related to two products that are typical to Italian

  8. Drinking Water Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — National Primary Drinking Water Regulations (NPDWRs or primary standards) are legally enforceable standards that apply to public water systems. Primary standards...

  9. Aquaponic Growbed Water Level Control Using Fog Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmi Romli, Muhamad; Daud, Shuhaizar; Raof, Rafikha Aliana A.; Awang Ahmad, Zahari; Mahrom, Norfadilla

    2018-05-01

    Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture (IMTA) is an advance method of aquaculture which combines species with different nutritional needs to live together. The combination between aquatic live and crops is called aquaponics. Aquatic waste that normally removed by biofilters in normal aquaculture practice will be absorbed by crops in this practice. Aquaponics have few common components and growbed provide the best filtration function. In growbed a siphon act as mechanical structure to control water fill and flush process. Water to the growbed comes from fish tank with multiple flow speeds based on the pump specification and height. Too low speed and too fast flow rate can result in siphon malfunctionality. Pumps with variable speed do exist but it is costly. Majority of the aquaponic practitioner use single speed pump and try to match the pump speed with siphon operational requirement. In order to remove the matching requirement some control need to be introduced. Preliminarily this research will show the concept of fill-and-flush for multiple pumping speeds. The final aim of this paper is to show how water level management can be done to remove the speed dependency. The siphon tried to be controlled remotely since wireless data transmission quite practical in vast operational area. Fog architecture will be used in order to transmit sensor data and control command. This paper able to show the water able to be retented in the growbed within suggested duration by stopping the flow in once predefined level.

  10. Operational Principle of Water Level Detector for Agricultural and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper proposes a design to automatically detect the level of water in a reservoir (storage tank) at a preset level and initializes an information to the users in case of low water level. The functionality of this sensor depends basically on the electrical conductivity of water (probes) which varies, depending on the level of its ...

  11. EPA Office of Water (OW): Clean Watersheds Needs Survey NHDPlus Indexed Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Clean Watersheds Needs Survey (CWNS) is a comprehensive assessment of the capital needs to the water quality goals set in the Clean Water Act. Every four years,...

  12. Heavy metals in drinking water: Occurrences, implications, and future needs in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Shakhawat; Mazumder, M A Jafar; Al-Attas, Omar; Husain, Tahir

    2016-11-01

    Heavy metals in drinking water pose a threat to human health. Populations are exposed to heavy metals primarily through water consumption, but few heavy metals can bioaccumulate in the human body (e.g., in lipids and the gastrointestinal system) and may induce cancer and other risks. To date, few thousand publications have reported various aspects of heavy metals in drinking water, including the types and quantities of metals in drinking water, their sources, factors affecting their concentrations at exposure points, human exposure, potential risks, and their removal from drinking water. Many developing countries are faced with the challenge of reducing human exposure to heavy metals, mainly due to their limited economic capacities to use advanced technologies for heavy metal removal. This paper aims to review the state of research on heavy metals in drinking water in developing countries; understand their types and variability, sources, exposure, possible health effects, and removal; and analyze the factors contributing to heavy metals in drinking water. This study identifies the current challenges in developing countries, and future research needs to reduce the levels of heavy metals in drinking water. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Managing Nicaraguan Water Resources Definition and Relative Importance of Information Needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engi, D.; Guillen, S.M.; Vammen, K.

    1999-01-01

    This report provides an overview of the results of the Vital the Nicaraguan Water Resources Management Initiative, Issues process as implemented for a collaborative effort between the Nicaraguan Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources and Sandia National Laboratories. This initiative is being developed to assist in the development of an efficient and sustainable water resources management system for Nicamgua. The Vital Issues process was used to provide information for developing a project that will develop and implement an advanced information system for managing Nicaragua's water resources. Three Vital Issues panel meetings were convened to 1) develop a mission statement and evaluation criteria for identifying and ranking the issues vital to water resources management in Nicaragua 2) define and rank the vital issues; and 3) identify a preliminary list of information needed to address the vital issues. The selection of panelists from the four basic institutional perspectives- government, industiy, academe, and citizens' groups (through nongovernmental organizations (NGOs))-ensured a high level of stakeholder representation on the panels. The already existing need for a water resource management information system has been magnified in the aftemnath of Hurricane Mitch. This information system would be beneficial for an early warning system in emergencies, and the modeling and simulation capabilities of the system would allow for advanced planning. Additionally, the outreach program will provide education to help Nicaraguan improve their water hygiene practices.

  14. Like Kayaking: Rough Waters Needed for School Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Judith A.

    2003-01-01

    Makes an analogy that educational leadership in this changing society is a lot like paddling a kayak through calm waters. Suggests that if public school leaders do not instill a sense of urgency in times of calm waters, schools may lose focus and fail to evolve and change. (SG)

  15. Women in water management: the need for local planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, M R

    1995-08-01

    This article on women's role in water resource management is based on a paper delivered at a seminar organized at the Water and Land Management Institute in Anand, India, in 1994. The article reflects Family Planning International's (FPI) experience in community-based water resource development. Most analyses of village and household water management data exclude women's role. The reasons are identified as the lack of inclusion of women's thinking in land-development research and planning, the dominance of males in planning and consequent male assumptions made about women's work and use of water, the lack of valuation of the nonmonetary nature of women's relationship to water, and the ease of ignoring women. Women's roles that are obstacles to inclusion in research and planning are identified as the lack of effective women's lobbies, the undervaluation by women of their work, and the lack of professional recognition of women as potential users of water or spokespersons for more than their own self-interests as women. National water policies are shifting to community-based management because local authorities are in daily contact with users, of whom about 50% are women. Historically national policy shifted from attention to distribution of investments in the water sector to reorganization of water agencies and to building up the capacity of private or voluntary agencies. The local context allows for more efficient and effective responses to local conditions. Local institutions and groups are better equipped to solicit local participation. One primary lesson learned by FPI is that local water resource planning is very important in strengthening the economic and individual capacity of poor people in underdeveloped areas. FPI's experience in Mahesana, Banaskantha, and Sabarkantha in Gujarat state supports this lesson learned. Water resource development policies resulted in mixed outcomes, and national control has been inefficient and disrespectful to local authorities

  16. Balancing competing water needs in Morocco's Saiss basin | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-04-21

    Apr 21, 2011 ... Its waters are only partially replenished each season, making it ... (though they cannot currently afford to purchase the equipment), and having ... Understanding adaptation decisions in Morocco's plains and mountains.

  17. Water and Agriculture: a relation that needs to change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farina, R.

    2015-01-01

    In the top ten of the global risks in terms of impact analysed, from the 2015 World Economic Forum's Global Risks Report, the ' water crisis' is in first place as intensity of impact: that's understandable because from water depends not only the life on the Earth but also many of the economic activities. For this reason it is essential protect water and to use it in a way more and more efficient and sustainable. The Technical Unit models, methods and technologies for environmental assessments of ENEA works since several years in the field of water resource management. It is in this context that ENEA has patented a biological system for removing phosphorus from wastewater, which is presented here schematically. [it

  18. The water needs for LDV transportation in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, Carey W.; Webber, Michael E.; Duncan, Ian J.

    2010-01-01

    Concern over increased demand for petroleum, reliable fuel supply, and global climate change has resulted in the US government passing new Corporate Average Fuel Economy standards and a Renewable Fuels Standard. Consequently, the fuel mix for light duty vehicle (LDV) travel in the United States will change over the coming years. This paper explores the embodied water consumption and withdrawal associated with two projections for future fuel use in the US LDV sector. This analysis encompasses conventional and unconventional fossil fuels, corn ethanol, cellulosic ethanol, soy biodiesel, electricity, and hydrogen. The existing mandate in the US to blend ethanol into gasoline had effectively committed 3300 billion liters of irrigation water in 2005 (approximately 2.4% of US 2005 fresh water consumption) for producing fuel for LDVs. With current irrigation practices, fuel processing, and electricity generation, it is estimated that by 2030, approximately 14,000 billion liters of water per year will be consumed and 23,000-27,000 billion liters withdrawn to produce fuels used in LDVs. Irrigation for biofuels dominates projected water usage for LDV travel, but other fuels (coal to liquids, oil shale, and electricity via plug-in hybrid vehicles) will also contribute appreciably to future water consumption and withdrawal, especially on a regional basis. (author)

  19. National Water Model assessment for water management needs over the Western United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viterbo, F.; Thorstensen, A.; Cifelli, R.; Hughes, M.; Johnson, L.; Gochis, D.; Wood, A.; Nowak, K.; Dahm, K.

    2017-12-01

    The NOAA National Water Model (NWM) became operational in August 2016, providing the first ever, real-time distributed high-resolution forecasts for the continental United States. Since the model predictions occur at the CONUS scale, there is a need to evaluate the NWM in different regions to assess the wide variety and heterogeneity of hydrological processes that are included (e.g., snow melting, ice freezing, flash flooding events). In particular, to address water management needs in the western U.S., a collaborative project between the Bureau of Reclamation, NOAA, and NCAR is ongoing to assess the NWM performance for reservoir inflow forecasting needs and water management operations. In this work, the NWM is evaluated using different forecast ranges (short to medium) and retrospective historical runs forced by North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) analysis to assess the NWM skills over key headwaters watersheds in the western U.S. that are of interest to the Bureau of Reclamation. The streamflow results are analyzed and compared with the available observations at the gauge sites, evaluating different NWM operational versions together with the already existing local River Forecast Center forecasts. The NWM uncertainty is also considered, evaluating the propagation of the precipitation forcing uncertainties in the resulting hydrograph. In addition, the possible advantages of high-resolution distributed output variables (such as soil moisture, evapotranspiration fluxes) are investigated, to determine the utility of such information for water managers in terms of watershed characteristics in areas that traditionally have not had any forecast information. The results highlight the NWM's ability to provide high-resolution forecast information in space and time. As anticipated, the performance is best in regions that are dominated by natural flows and where the model has benefited from efforts toward parameter calibration. In highly regulated basins, the

  20. Adapting a geographical information system-based water resource management to the needs of the Romanian water authorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soutter, Marc; Alexandrescu, Maria; Schenk, Colin; Drobot, Radu

    2009-08-01

    commercial GIS software), also identified during the assessment of needs, are developed. This methodology was applied, on an experimental basin, in the Ialomita River basin. The results obtained from this action-research project consist of a set of tangible elements, among which (1) a conceptual data model adapted to the Romanian specificities regarding water resources management (needs, data availability, etc.), (2) a related spatial relational database (objects and attributes in tables, links, etc.), that can be used to store the data collected, among others, by the water administration, and later on exploited with geographical information systems, (3) a toolbar (in the ESRI environment) offering the requested data processing and visualizing functionalities. Lessons learned from this whole process can be considered as additional, although less tangible, results. The applied methodology is fairly classical and did not come up with revolutionary results. Actually, the interesting aspects of this work are, on the one hand, and obviously, the fact that it produced tools matching the needs of the local (if not national) water administration (i.e. with a good chance of being effectively used in the day-to-day practice), and, on the other hand, the adaptations and adjustments that were needed both at the staff level and in technical terms. This research showed that a GIS-based water management system needs to be backed by some basic data management tools that form the necessary support upon which a GIS can be deployed. The main lesson gained is that technology transfer has to pay much attention to the differences in existing situations and backgrounds in general, and therefore must be able to show much flexibility. The fact that the original objectives could be adapted to meet the real needs of the local end-users is considered as a major aspect in achieving a successful adaptation and development of water resources management tools. Time needed to setup things in real life was

  1. Analysis of water-level fluctuations in Wisconsin wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, G.L.; Zaporozec, A.

    1987-01-01

    More than 60 percent of the residents of Wisconsin use ground water as their primary water source. Water supplies presently are abundant, but ground-water levels continually fluctuate in response to natural factors and human-related stresses. A better understanding of the magnitude, duration, and frequency of past fluctuations, and the factors controlling these fluctuations may help anticipate future changes in ground-water levels.

  2. Evaluation of yield and water-level relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cushman, R.L.; Purtymun, W.D.

    1975-10-01

    Yield and water relations in the Los Alamos supply wells were evaluated because of the increasing demand for water. Water-level declines were extrapolated for 10 yr, to 1983, on the basis of past records. On the basis of current pumpage, the extrapolations indicate that nonpumping water levels in individual wells will decline from 10 to 30 ft. Well characteristics were compiled to provide an individual history of each well, and recommendations for improving water production are presented

  3. Policy Brief: Enhancing water-use efficiency of thermal power plants in India: need for mandatory water audits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batra, R.K. (ed.)

    2012-12-15

    This policy brief discusses the challenges of water availability and opportunity to improve the water use efficiency in industries specially the thermal power plants. It presents TERI’s experience from comprehensive water audits conducted for thermal power plants in India. The findings indicate that there is a significant scope for saving water in the waste water discharge, cooling towers, ash handling systems, and the township water supply. Interventions like recycling wastewater, curbing leakages, increasing CoC (Cycles of concentration) in cooling towers, using dry ash handling etc., can significantly reduce the specific water consumption in power plants. However, the first step towards this is undertaking regular water audits. The policy brief highlights the need of mandatory water audits necessary to understand the current water use and losses as well as identify opportunities for water conservation, reduction in specific water consumption, and an overall improvement in water use efficiency in industries.

  4. Workgroup report: Drinking-water nitrate and health - Recent findings and research needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, M.H.; deKok, T.M.; Levallois, P.; Brender, J.; Gulis, G.; Nolan, B.T.; VanDerslice, J.

    2005-01-01

    Human alteration of the nitrogen cycle has resulted in steadily accumulating nitrate in our water resources. The U.S. maximum contaminant level and World Health Organization guidelines for nitrate in drinking water were promulgated to protect infants from developing methemoglobinemia, an acute condition. Some scientists have recently suggested that the regulatory limit for nitrate is overly conservative; however, they have not thoroughly considered chronic health outcomes. In August 2004, a symposium on drinking-water nitrate and health was held at the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology meeting to evaluate nitrate exposures and associated health effects in relation to the current regulatory limit. The contribution of drinking-water nitrate toward endogenous formation of N-nitroso compounds was evaluated with a focus toward identifying subpopulations with increased rates of nitrosation. Adverse health effects may be the result of a complex interaction of the amount of nitrate ingested, the concomitant ingestion of nitrosation cofactors and precursors, and specific medical conditions that increase nitrosation. Workshop participants concluded that more experimental studies are needed and that a particularly fruitful approach may be to conduct epidemiologic studies among susceptible subgroups with increased endogenous nitrosation. The few epidemiologic studies that have evaluated intake of nitrosation precursors and/or nitrosation inhibitors have observed elevated risks for colon cancer and neural tube defects associated with drinking-water nitrate concentrations below the regulatory limit. The role of drinking-water nitrate exposure as a risk factor for specific cancers, reproductive outcomes, and other chronic health effects must be studied more thoroughly before changes to the regulatory level for nitrate in drinking water can be considered.

  5. Workgroup Report: Drinking-Water Nitrate and Health—Recent Findings and Research Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Mary H.; deKok, Theo M.; Levallois, Patrick; Brender, Jean; Gulis, Gabriel; Nolan, Bernard T.; VanDerslice, James

    2005-01-01

    Human alteration of the nitrogen cycle has resulted in steadily accumulating nitrate in our water resources. The U.S. maximum contaminant level and World Health Organization guidelines for nitrate in drinking water were promulgated to protect infants from developing methemoglobinemia, an acute condition. Some scientists have recently suggested that the regulatory limit for nitrate is overly conservative; however, they have not thoroughly considered chronic health outcomes. In August 2004, a symposium on drinking-water nitrate and health was held at the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology meeting to evaluate nitrate exposures and associated health effects in relation to the current regulatory limit. The contribution of drinking-water nitrate toward endogenous formation of N-nitroso compounds was evaluated with a focus toward identifying subpopulations with increased rates of nitrosation. Adverse health effects may be the result of a complex interaction of the amount of nitrate ingested, the concomitant ingestion of nitrosation cofactors and precursors, and specific medical conditions that increase nitrosation. Workshop participants concluded that more experimental studies are needed and that a particularly fruitful approach may be to conduct epidemiologic studies among susceptible subgroups with increased endogenous nitrosation. The few epidemiologic studies that have evaluated intake of nitrosation precursors and/or nitrosation inhibitors have observed elevated risks for colon cancer and neural tube defects associated with drinking-water nitrate concentrations below the regulatory limit. The role of drinking-water nitrate exposure as a risk factor for specific cancers, reproductive outcomes, and other chronic health effects must be studied more thoroughly before changes to the regulatory level for nitrate in drinking water can be considered. PMID:16263519

  6. Water levels in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tucci, P.; Goemaat, R.L.; Burkhardt, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    Water levels were monitored in 28 wells in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada, during 1993. Seventeen wells were monitored periodically, generally on a monthly basis, and 11 wells representing 18 intervals were monitored hourly. All wells monitor water levels in Tertiary volcanic rocks, except one that monitors water levels in Paleozoic carbonate rocks. Water levels were measured using calibrated steel tapes and pressure transducers; steel-tape measurements were corrected for mechanical stretch, thermal expansion, and borehole deviation to obtain precise water-level altitudes. Water-level altitudes in the Tertiary volcanic rocks ranged from about 728 meters above sea level east of Yucca Mountain to about 1,034 meters above sea level north of Yucca Mountain. Water-level altitudes in the well monitoring the Paleozoic carbonate rocks varied between 752 and 753 meters above sea level during 1993. Water levels were an average of about 0.04 meter lower than 1992 water levels. All data were acquired in accordance with a quality-assurance program to support the reliability of the data

  7. Occurrence of 210Po and Biological Effects of Low-Level Exposure: The Need for Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiemels, Joseph L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Polonium-210 (210Po) concentrations that exceed 1 Bq/L in drinking-water supplies have been reported from four widely separated U.S. states where exposure to it went unnoticed for decades. The radionuclide grandparents of 210Po are common in sediments, and segments of the public may be chronically exposed to low levels of 210Po in drinking water or in food products from animals raised in contaminated areas. Objectives: We summarized information on the environmental behavior, biokinetics, and toxicology of 210Po and identified the need for future research. Methods: Potential linkages between environmental exposure to 210Po and human health effects were identified in a literature review. Discussion: 210Po accumulates in the ovaries where it kills primary oocytes at low doses. Because of its radiosensitivity and tendency to concentrate 210Po, the ovary may be the critical organ in determining the lowest injurious dose for 210Po. 210Po also accumulates in the yolk sac of the embryo and in the fetal and placental tissues. Low-level exposure to 210Po may have subtle, long-term biological effects because of its tropism towards reproductive and embryonic and fetal tissues where exposure to a single alpha particle may kill or damage critical cells. 210Po is present in cigarettes and maternal smoking has several effects that appear consistent with the toxicology of 210Po. Conclusions: Much of the important biological and toxicological research on 210Po is more than four decades old. New research is needed to evaluate environmental exposure to 210Po and the biological effects of low-dose exposure to it so that public health officials can develop appropriate mitigation measures where necessary. PMID:22538346

  8. Suppression device for the reactor water level lowering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasuga, Hajime; Kasuga, Hiroshi.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To suppress the lowering in the reactor water level so as to avoid unnecessary actuation of ECCS upon generation of transient changes which forecasts the lowering of the reactor water level in a BWR type reactor. Constitution: There are provided a water level suppression signal generator for generating a water level suppression signal upon generation of a transient change signal which forecasts the water level lowering in a nuclear reactor and a recycling flow rate controller that applies a recycling flow rate control signal to a recycling pump drive motor by the water level lowering suppression signal. The velocity of the recycling pump is controlled by a reactor scram signal by way of the water level lowering suppresion signal generator and a recycling flow rate controller. Then, the recycling reactor core flow rate is decreased and the void amount in the reactor is transiently increased where the water level tends to increase. Accordingly, the water level lowering by the scram is moderated by the increasing tendency of the water level. (Ikeda, J.)

  9. On the need for system alignment in large water infrastructure. Understanding infrastructure dynamics in Nairobi, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pär Blomkvist

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article we contribute to the discussion of infrastructural change in Africa, and explore how a new theoretical perspective may offer a different, more comprehensive and historically informed understanding of the trend towards large water infrastructure in Africa. We examine the socio-technical dynamics of large water infrastructures in Nairobi, Kenya, in a longer historical perspective using two concepts that we call intra-systemic alignment and inter-level alignment. Our theoretical perspective is inspired by Large Technical Systems (LTS and Multi-Level Perspective (MLP. While inter-level alignment focuses on the process of aligning the technological system at the three levels of niche, regime and landscape, intra-systemic alignment deals with how components within the regime are harmonised and standardised to fit with each other. We pay special attention to intrasystemic alignment between the supply side and the demand side, or as we put it, upstream and downstream components of a system. In narrating the history of water supply in Nairobi, we look at both the upstream (largescale supply and downstream activities (distribution and payment, and compare the Nairobi case with European history of large infrastructures. We emphasise that regime actors in Nairobi have dealt with the issues of alignment mainly to facilitate and expand upstream activities, while concerning downstream activities they have remained incapable of expanding service and thus integrating the large segment of low-income consumers. We conclude that the present surge of large-scale water investment in Nairobi is the result of sector reforms that enabled the return to a long tradition – a 'Nairobi style' – of upstream investment mainly benefitting the highincome earners. Our proposition is that much more attention needs to be directed at inter-level alignment at the downstream end of the system, to allow the creation of niches aligned to the regime.

  10. Relationship between home care service use and changes in the care needs level of Japanese elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Gohei; Tamiya, Nanako; Kashiwagi, Masayo; Sato, Mikiya; Takahashi, Hideto

    2009-12-21

    With the introduction of long-term care insurance (LTCI) in Japan, more home care services are available for the community-dwelling elderly. To deliver effective home care services, it is important to know the effects of service use. In this study, as the first step to determine this, we sought to describe different home service use in the sustained/improved group and deteriorated group in their care needs levels, and to report the relationship between the use of home care services and changes in care needs levels. The participants included 624 of a total of 1,474 users of LTCI services in one city in Japan. Home care service users were stratified into a 'lower care needs level subgroup' and a 'higher care needs level subgroup' based on the baseline care needs level. Simple statistical comparison and multiple logistic regression analyses in which the change in care needs level was set as a dependent variable were performed. Gender, age, and baseline care needs level were designated as control variables. Home based services were treated as independent variables. In this study, home care services consisted of home help, home bathing services, a visiting nurse, home rehabilitation, nursing home daycare, health daycare, loan of medical devices, respite stay in a nursing home, respite stay in a health care facility, respite stay in a sanatorium-type medical care facility, and medical management by a physician. In the lower care needs level subgroup, age (OR = 1.04, CI, 1.01-1.08), use of respite stay in a nursing home (OR = 2.55; CI, 1.43-4.56), and the number of types of long-term care services (OR = 1.33; CI, 1.02-1.74) used during an 11 month period were significantly related to a deterioration of the user's care needs level. In the higher care needs level subgroup, use of medical management by a physician (OR = 6.99; CI, 1.42-41.25) was significantly related to a deterioration of the user's care needs level. There were no home based services significantly related to

  11. Managing Senegalese water resources: Definition and relative importance of information needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engi, D.

    1998-09-01

    This report provides an overview of the results of the Vital Issues process as implemented for the Senegal Water Resources Management Initiative, a collaborative effort between the Senegalese Ministry of Water Resources and Sandia National Laboratories. This Initiative is being developed to assist in the development of an efficient and sustainable water resources management system for Senegal. The Vital Issues process was used to provide information for the development of a proposal that will recommend actions to address the key management issues and establish a state-of-the-art decision support system (DSS) for managing Senegal`s water resources. Three Vital Issues panel meetings were convened to (1) develop a goal statement and criteria for identifying and ranking the issues vital to water resources management in Senegal; (2) define and rank the issues, and (3) identify and prioritize a preliminary list of information needed to address the vital issues. The selection of panelists from the four basic institutional perspectives (government, industry, academe, and citizens` interest groups) ensured a high level of stakeholder representation on the panels.

  12. Water levels in the Yucca Mountain Area, Nevada, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graves, R.P.

    1998-01-01

    Water levels were monitored in 24 wells in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada, during 1996. Twenty-two wells representing 28 depth intervals were monitored periodically, generally on a monthly basis, and 2 wells representing 3 depth intervals were monitored both hourly and periodically. All wells monitor water levels in Tertiary volcanic rocks except one that monitors water levels in paleozoic carbonate rocks. Water levels were measured using either calibrated steel tapes or a pressure sensor. Mean water-level altitudes in the Tertiary volcanic rocks ranged from about 727.86 to about 1,034.58 meters above sea level during 1996. The mean water-level altitude in the well monitoring the Paleozoic carbonate rocks was about 752.57 meters above sea level during 1996. Mean water-level altitudes for 1996 were an average of about 0.06 meter lower than 1995 mean water-level altitudes and 0.03 meter lower than 1985--95 mean water-level altitudes. During 1996, water levels in the Yucca Mountain area could have been affected by long-term pumping at the C-hole complex that began on May 8, 1996. Through December 31, 1996, approximately 196 million liters were pumped from well UE-25 c number-sign 3 at the C-hole complex. Other ground-water pumpage in the Yucca Mountain area includes annual pumpage from water-supply wells UE-25 J-12 and UE-25 J-13 of approximately 163 and 105 million liters, respectively, and pumpage from well USW G-2 for hydraulic testing during February and April 1996 of approximately 6 million liters

  13. THE NEED FOR A WATER INFORMATION SYSTEM FOR THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion BOTNARENCO

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Novelty. Insuficient information on water resources is an important issue at both national and global levels. This issue becomes even more important under the conditions of clmate change of the last decades. Aim. The aim is to analyze the existing situation in the field and to formulate a scientific argument by means of convincing examples, to argue the need to implement an information system of water cadastre, to arise social interest as a whole towards the problem whose solution determines success. Methods. The authors of the study have used many scientific methods and namely: the systematic analysis of ongoing processes (phenomena; the analysis of statistical data; the methods of trend graphic analysis; the method of analysis and synthesis of natural phenomena and processes. Results. Information of the society is both the purpose and the final result of the present study.

  14. Controlling taste and odour levels in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowers, A J

    1980-12-01

    Taste and odor of drinking water supplies act as indicator mechanisms, indicating increased degrees of biological activity, possible contamination of the supply, treatment inadequacies, or contamination of the distribution systems. Disinfection and coagulation are effective preventive measures. Taste and odor problems may arise even with the application of preventive measures, so protective and treatment techniques must be implemented. These include chlorination and activated carbon absorption. (1 photo, 3 references, 1 table)

  15. Lake Erie Water Level Study. Main Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-01

    indirectly through excessive turbidity, current or depth would impact the higher life forms. Phytoplankton , periphyton and aquatic macrophyte comprise...System. The hydro-electric interest relates to the facilities at the St. Marys River, Welland Canal, Niagara River, St. Lawrence River at Cornwall... relates to three components: water quality, fish, and wildlife. The economic evaluations of regulation plans were also made to determine effects on

  16. Completing the ground-water model: ''We need more data''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehmeyer, D.L.

    1995-01-01

    Computer modeling of geologic structures and groundwater flow has progressed from simple number crunching in the sixties to sophisticated and complex structure and flow models in the nineties (Hatheway, 1994). In the environmental field, a detailed knowledge of the subsurface geology is required and essential for successful ground-water remediation, planning, and investigations. Current options for determining shallow (0--400 ft) subsurface geology includes standard borings, cone penetrometer, ground penetrating radar (GPR), or resistivity surveys (RS). Standards borings are expensive coverage and the close spacing required for generating accurate model data. The cone penetrometer is less expensive and faster than conventional borings. However, both the cone penetrometer and borings are limited by access and are intrusive, providing additional paths for contaminant migration. While both standard GPR and RS are non-intrusive, they suffer from other limitations. A high conductivity soil (clay) will diminish the effectiveness of GPR. The signal is absorbed and dissipated in the first few inches of high conductivity soil. The depth of penetration of RS is better, but the vertical resolution for distinguishing between finely interbedded layers is much lower. An ideal system for subsurface geologic analysis would be non-intrusive, have the depth of penetration of RS, while offering the vertical resolution of GPR> Electromagnetic methods (EM) offer distinct advantages in helping to solve these problems: (a) they are non-intrusive, and (b) the technology to support EM probing-pulse generation, data collection--is well established. Quaternary Resource Investigations, Inc., (QRI) has developed such a system

  17. Water-resources programs and hydrologic-information needs, Marion County, Indiana, 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duwelius, R.F.

    1990-01-01

    Water resources are abundant in Marion County, Indiana, and have been developed for public and industrial supply, energy generation, irrigation, and recreation. The largest water withdrawals are from surface water, and the two largest water uses are public supply and cooling water for electrical-generating plants. Water-resources programs in the county are carried out by Federal, State and local agencies to address issues of surface and groundwater availability and quality. The programs of each agency are related to the functions and goals of the agency. Although each agency has specific information needs to fulfill its functions, sometimes these needs overlap, and there are times when the same hydrologic information benefits all. Overlapping information needs and activities create opportunities for interagency coordination and cooperation. Such cooperation could lead to a savings of dollars spent on water-resources programs and could assure an improved understanding of the water resources of the county. Representatives from four agencies-- the Indiana Department of Environmental Management, the Indiana Department of Natural Resources, the Indianapolis Department of Public Works, and the U.S. Geological Survey--met four times in 1987 to describe their own water-resources programs, to identify hydrologic-information needs, and to contact other agencies with related programs. This report presents the interagency findings and is intended to further communication among water resource agencies by identifying current programs and common needs for hydrologic information. Hydrologic information needs identified by the agency representatives include more precise methods for determining the volume of water withdrawals and for determining the volume of industrial and municipal discharges to surface water. Maps of flood-prone areas need to be updated as more of the county is developed. Improved aquifer maps of the inter-till aquifers are needed, and additional observation

  18. Harmonizing water management and social needs: a necessary condition for sustainable development. The case of Israel's coastal aquifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melloul, Abraham J; Collin, Martin L

    2003-04-01

    This study focuses on the problem of most efficiently fulfilling the water requirements of society for sustainable water resources management. The goal is to coordinate effectively the social needs of the resident population with operational water resources management planning.The proposed approach consists of a pyramidal hierarchy of water resource management needs, similar to that suggested by psychologist Abraham Maslow for human social needs. The two pyramidal hierarchies can be simultaneously employed to delineate guidelines to synchronize planning for sustainable water resources development with the concerns and expectations of the resident population. In both hierarchies, higher level needs remain irrelevant and difficult to attain until lower level needs of the resident population have been fulfilled. Management planning measures employed with regard to Israel's coastal aquifer have been used to illustrate this approach. Observation of Israel's experience indicates markedly reduced effectiveness where such measures have failed to be properly synchronised with societal needs. Conversely, where hydrological management measures were successfully synchronized with societal concerns, increased efficiency towards attaining sustainable groundwater management was evident.

  19. Water levels in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graves, R.P.; Goemaat, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    Water levels were monitored in 28 wells in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada, during 1995. Seventeen wells representing 18 depth intervals were monitored periodically, generally on a monthly basis, 2 wells representing 3 depth intervals were monitored hourly, and 9 wells representing 15 depth intervals were monitored both periodically and hourly. All wells monitor water levels in Tertiary volcanic rocks except one that monitors water levels in Paleozoic carbonate rocks. Water levels were measured using calibrated steel tapes, a multiconductor cable unit, and/or pressure transducers. Mean water-level altitudes in the Tertiary volcanic rocks ranged from about 728 to about 1,034 meters above sea level during 1995. The mean water-level altitude in the well monitoring the Paleozoic carbonate rocks was about 753 meters above sea level during 1995. Mean water level altitudes were only an average of about 0.01 meters higher than 1994 mean water level altitudes. A single-well aquifer test was conducted on well UE-25 WT number-sign 12 during August and September 1995. Well USW 0-2 was also pumped during October and November 1995, in preparation for single-well aquifer test at that well. All data were acquired in accordance with a quality-assurance program to support the reliability of the data

  20. Low-Cost Alternative for the Measurement of Water Levels in Surface Water Streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis E. PEÑA

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Flood risk management and water resources planning involve a deep knowledge of surface streams so that mitigation strategies and climate change adaptations can be implemented. Commercially, there is a wide range of technologies for the measurement of hydroclimatic variables; however, many of these technologies may not be affordable for institutions with limited budgets. This paper has two main objectives: 1 Present the design of an ultrasound-based water level measurement system, and 2 Propose a methodological alternative for the development of instruments, according to the needs of institutions conducting monitoring of surface waterbodies. To that end, the proposed methodology is based on selection processes defined according to the specific needs of each waterbody. The prototype was tested in real-world scale, with the potential to obtain accurate measurements. Lastly, we present the design of the ultrasound-based water level measurement instrument, which can be built at a low cost. Low-cost instruments can potentially contribute to the sustainable instrumental autonomy of environmental entities and help define measurement and data transmission standards based on the specific requirements of the monitoring.

  1. Testing and use of radar water level sensors by the U.S. Geological Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulford, Janice M.

    2016-01-01

    The United States Geological Survey uses water-level (or stage) measurements to compute streamflow at over 8000 stream gaging stations located throughout the United States (waterwatch.usgs.gov, 2016). Streamflow (or discharge) is computed at five minute to hourly intervals from a relationship between water level and discharge that is uniquely determined for each station. The discharges are posted hourly to WaterWatch (waterwatch. usgs.gov) and are used by water managers to issue flood warnings and manage water supply and by other users of water information to make decisions. The accuracy of the water-level measurement is vital to the accuracy of the computed discharge. Because of the importance of water-level measurements, USGS has an accuracy policy of 0.02 ft or 0.2 percent of reading (whichever is larger) (Sauer and Turnipseed, 2010). Older technologies, such as float and shaft-encoder systems, bubbler systems and submersible pressure sensors, provide the needed accuracy but often require extensive construction to install and are prone to malfunctioning and damage from floating debris and sediment. No stilling wells or orifice lines need to be constructed for radar installations. During the last decade testing by the USGS Hydrologic Instrumentation Facility(HIF) found that radar water-level sensors can provide the needed accuracy for water-level measurements and because the sensor can be easily attached to bridges, reduce the construction required for installation. Additionally, the non-contact sensing of water level minimizes or eliminates damage and fouling from floating debris and sediment. This article is a brief summary of the testing efforts by the USGS HIF and field experiences with models of radar water-level sensors in streamflow measurement applications. Any use of trade names in this article is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.

  2. Critical water stress levels in Pinus patula seedlings and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Critical water stress levels in Pinus patula seedlings and their relation to measures of seedling morphology. ... Southern Forests: a Journal of Forest Science ... A pot trial was implemented to determine the effect of soil water stress following transplanting on shoot water potential and stomatal conductance of Pinus patula ...

  3. Radio Frequency Based Water Level Monitor and Controller for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Similarly, the control unit of the prototype performs automatic switching control of on and off on a single phase centrifugal water pump, 220volts, 0.5hp motor via a motor driver circuit (relay). It also incorporates a buzzer that beeps briefly when water level hits 100%, thus causing the pump to be switched off but when water ...

  4. Maslow’s Needs Hierarchy and the Effect of Income on Happiness Levels

    OpenAIRE

    Drakopoulos, Stavros A.; Grimani, Katerina

    2013-01-01

    Abraham Maslow’s theory of hierarchical needs has been employed by a large variety of conceptual frameworks. The theory can also offer additional insights to the research field which investigates the relationship between income and reported happiness levels. The incorporation of needs hierarchy into a happiness framework implies that individuals have a priority approach to happiness. This means that the most important needs must be satisfied first before the secondary needs come into the pict...

  5. Short-time variations of the ground water level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, Lars Y.

    1977-09-01

    Investigations have demonstrated that the ground water level of aquifers in the Swedish bedrock shows shorttime variations without changing their water content. The ground water level is among other things affected by regular tidal movements occuring in the ''solid'' crust of the earth variations in the atmospheric pressure strong earthquakes occuring in different parts of the world These effects proves that the system of fissures in the bedrock are not stable and that the ground water flow is influenced by both water- and airfilled fissures

  6. Needs Assessment for the Use of NASA Remote Sensing Data for Regulatory Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiering, Bruce; Underwood, Lauren

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the assessment of the needs that NASA can use for the remote sensing of water quality. The goal of this project is to provide information for decision-making activities (water quality standards) using remotely sensed/satellite based water quality data from MODIS and Landsat data.

  7. Contamination levels of domestic water sources in Maiduguri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examines the levels of contamination of domestic water sources in Maiduguri Metropolis area of Borno State based on their physicochemical and bacteriological properties. It was informed by the global concern on good drinking water quality which is an indicator of development level; hence the focus on domestic ...

  8. Climate Change and Water Working Group - User Needs to Manage Hydrclimatic Risk from Days to Decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raff, D. A.; Brekke, L. D.; Werner, K.; Wood, A.; White, K. D.

    2012-12-01

    The Federal Climate Change Water Working Group (CCAWWG) provides engineering and scientific collaborations in support of water management. CCAWWG objectives include building working relationships across federal science and water management agencies, provide a forum to share expertise and leverage resources, develop education and training forums, to work with water managers to understand scientific needs and to foster collaborative efforts across the Federal and non-Federal water management and science communities to address those needs. Identifying and addressing water management needs has been categorized across two major time scales: days to a decade and multi-decadal, respectively. These two time periods are termed "Short-Term" and "Long-Term" in terms of the types of water management decisions they support where Short-Term roughly correlates to water management operations and Long-Term roughly correlates to planning activities. This presentation will focus on portraying the identified water management user needs across these two time periods. User Needs for Long-Term planning were identified in the 2011 Reclamation and USACE "Addressing Climate Change in Long-Term Water Resources Planning and Management: User Needs for Improving Tools and Information." User needs for Long-Term planning are identified across eight major categories: Summarize Relevant Literature, Obtain Climate Change Information, Make Decisions About How to Use the Climate Change Information, Assess Natural Systems Response, Assess Socioeconomic and Institutional Response, Assess System Risks and Evaluate Alternatives, Assess and Characterize Uncertainties, and Communicating Results and Uncertainties to Decisionmakers. User Needs for Short-Term operations are focused on needs relative to available or desired monitoring and forecast products from the hydroclimatic community. These needs are presenting in the 2012 USACE, Reclamation, and NOAA - NWS "Short-Term Water Management Decisions: User

  9. WATER AND HYGIENE IN THE KHARAA RIVER BASIN, MONGOLIA: CURRENT KNOWLEDGE AND RESEARCH NEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Karthe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Kharaa River Basin has some of the highest densities of population, agricultural and industrial activities in Mongolia. This puts the naturally limited water resources under pressure in both a quantitative and qualitative perspective. Besides mining, key sources of surface water contamination include large numbers of livestock in riverine floodplains and the discharge of untreated or poorly treated waste waters, both into rivers and by soil infiltration. Since both shallow groundwater and river water are used by people and for livestock, there are at least theoretical risks related to the transmission of water-borne pathogens. Only a very limited number of studies on water and hygiene have so far been conducted in Mongolia, all indicating (potential risks to water users. However, a lack of current and reliable water microbiology data leads to the need of systematic screening of water hygiene in order to derive conclusions for public health and drinking water management at the local and regional scale.

  10. Do Estimates of Water Productivity Enhance Understanding of Farm-Level Water Management?

    OpenAIRE

    Dennis Wichelns

    2014-01-01

    Estimates of water productivity are appearing with increasing frequency in the literature pertaining to agronomy, water management, and water policy. Some authors report such estimates as one of the outcome variables of experiment station studies, while others calculate water productivities when comparing regional crop production information. Many authors suggest or imply that higher values of water productivity are needed to ensure that future food production goals are achieved. Yet maximizi...

  11. Denitrifying Bioreactors Resist Disturbance from Fluctuating Water Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah K. Hathaway

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Nitrate can be removed from wastewater streams, including subsurface agricultural drainage systems, using woodchip bioreactors to promote microbial denitrification. However, the variations in water flow in these systems could make reliable performance from this microbially-mediated process a challenge. In the current work, the effects of fluctuating water levels on nitrate removal, denitrifying activity, and microbial community composition in laboratory-scale bioreactors were investigated. The performance was sensitive to changing water level. An average of 31% nitrate was removed at high water level and 59% at low water level, despite flow adjustments to maintain a constant theoretical hydraulic retention time. The potential activity, as assessed through denitrifying enzyme assays, averaged 0.0008 mg N2O-N/h/dry g woodchip and did not show statistically significant differences between reactors, sampling depths, or operational conditions. In the denitrifying enzyme assays, nitrate removal consistently exceeded nitrous oxide production. The denitrifying bacterial communities were not significantly different from each other, regardless of water level, meaning that the denitrifying bacterial community did not change in response to disturbance. The overall bacterial communities, however, became more distinct between the two reactors when one reactor was operated with periodic disturbances of changing water height, and showed a stronger effect at the most severely disturbed location. The communities were not distinguishable, though, when comparing the same location under high and low water levels, indicating that the communities in the disturbed reactor were adapted to fluctuating conditions rather than to high or low water level. Overall, these results describe a biological treatment process and microbial community that is resistant to disturbance via water level fluctuations.

  12. Modelling soil water dynamics and crop water uptake at the field level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabat, P.; Feddes, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    Parametrization approaches to model soil water dynamics and crop water uptake at field level were analysed. Averaging and numerical difficulties in applying numerical soil water flow models to heterogeneous soils are highlighted. Simplified parametrization approaches to the soil water flow, such as

  13. Velocity flow field and water level measurements in shoaling and breaking water waves

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mukaro, R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we report on the laboratory investigations of breaking water waves. Measurements of the water levels and instantaneous fluid velocities were conducted in water waves breaking on a sloping beach within a glass flume. Instantaneous water...

  14. Measurement of low levels of cesium-137 in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milham, R.C.; Kantelo, M.V.

    1984-10-01

    Large volume water sampling systems were developed to measure very low levels of cesium-137 in river water and in finished water from water treatment plants. Three hundred to six hundred liters of filtered water are passed through the inorganic ion exchanger potassium cobalti-ferrocyanide to remove greater than 90% of the cesium. Measurement of cesium-137 by gamma ray spectrometry results in a sensitivity of 0.001 pCi/L. Portable as well as stationary samplers were developed to encompass a variety of applications. Results of a one year study of water from the Savannah River and from water treatment plants processing Savannah River water are presented. 3 references, 7 figures

  15. Effects of Water Level Increase on Phytoplankton Assemblages in a Drinking Water Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangdong Pan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Excessive water level fluctuation may affect physico-chemical characteristics, and consequently ecosystem function, in lakes and reservoirs. In this study, we assessed the changes of phytoplankton assemblages in response to water level increase in Danjiangkou Reservoir, one of the largest drinking water reservoirs in Asia. The water level increased from a low of 137 m to 161 m in 2014 as a part of the South–North Water Diversion Project. Phytoplankton assemblages were sampled four times per year before, during and after the water level increase, at 10 sites. Environmental variables such as total nitrogen as well as phytoplankton biomass decreased after the water level increase. Non-metric multi-dimensional scaling analysis indicated that before the water level increase, phytoplankton assemblages showed distinct seasonal variation with diatom dominance in both early and late seasons while such seasonal variation was much less evident after the water level increase. Month and year (before and after explained 13% and 6% of variance in phytoplankton assemblages (PERMANOVA, p < 0.001 respectively, and phytoplankton assemblages were significantly different before and after the water level increase. Both chlorophytes and cyanobacteria became more abundant in 2015. Phytoplankton compositional change may largely reflect the environmental changes, such as hydrodynamics mediated by the water level increase.

  16. Levels of toxaphene congeners in fish from Danish waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fromberg, Arvid; Cederberg, Tommy Licht; Hilbert, G.

    2000-01-01

    The levels of toxaphene congeners, in addition to PCB congeners and organochlorine pesticides, were determined in various fish samples from different Danish waters. While PCB-153 and p,p'-DDE show different levels depending on the fishing area, with highest levels in fish from the Western Baltic...... Sea, toxaphene was detected in all the samples investigated at a more constant level. The distribution of the three toxaphene congeners Parlar #26, #50 and #62 depends on the fishing area, with the Western Baltic Sea being different from the other waters by having almost equal levels of toxaphene...

  17. Evaluate prevailing climate change on Great Lakes water levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, M.

    2009-01-01

    'Full text:'In this paper, results of a comprehensive water mass balance modeling for the Great Lakes against prevailing and different anticipated climate change scenarios would be presented. Modeling is done in evaluating the changes in the lake storages and then changes in the lake's water level considering present condition, uncertainty and variability of climate and hydrologic conditions in the future. Inflow-outflow and consequent changes in the five Great Lake's storages are simulated for the last 30 years and then projected to evaluate the changes in the lake storages for the next 50 years. From the predicted changes in the lake storage data, water level is calculated using mass to linear conversion equation. Modeling and analysis results are expected to be helpful in understanding the possible impacts of the climate change on the Great Lakes water environment and preparing strategic plan for the sustainable management of lake's water resources. From the recent past, it is observed that there is a depleting trend in the lakes water level and hence there is a potential threat to lake's water environment and uncertainty of the availability of quality and quantity of water for the future generations, especially against prevailing and anticipated climate changes. For this reason, it is an urgent issue of understanding and quantifying the potential impacts of climate change on the Great Lake's water levels and storages. (author)

  18. Auto Detection For High Level Water Content For Oil Well

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janier, Josefina Barnachea; Jumaludin, Zainul Arifin B.

    2010-06-01

    Auto detection of high level water content for oil well is a system that measures the percentage of water in crude oil. This paper aims to discuss an auto detection system for measuring the content of water level in crude oil which is applicable for offshore and onshore oil operations. Data regarding water level content from wells can be determined by using automation thus, well with high water level can be determined immediately whether to be closed or not from operations. Theoretically the system measures the percentage of two- fluid mixture where the fluids have different electrical conductivities which are water and crude oil. The system made use of grid sensor which is a grid pattern like of horizontal and vertical wires. When water occupies the space at the intersection of vertical and horizontal wires, an electrical signal is detected which proved that water completed the circuit path in the system. The electrical signals are counted whereas the percentage of water is determined from the total electrical signals detected over electrical signals provided. Simulation of the system using the MultiSIM showed that the system provided the desired result.

  19. Sea Levels Online: Sea Level Variations of the United States Derived from National Water Level Observation Network Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water level records are a combination of the fluctuations of the ocean and the vertical land motion at the location of the station. Monthly mean sea level (MSL)...

  20. Ground-water levels and quality data for Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1979-01-01

    This report begins a publication format that will present annually both water-level and water-quality data in Georgia. In this format the information is presented in two-page units: the left page includes text which summarizes the information for an area or subject and the right page consists of one or more illustrations. Daily mean water-level fluctuations and trends are shown in hydrographs for the previous year and fluctuations for the monthly mean water level the previous 10 years for selected observation wells. The well data best illustrate the effects of changes in recharge and discharge in the various ground-water reservoirs in the State. A short narrative explains fluctuations and trends in each hydrograph. (Woodard-USGS)

  1. Occurrence of 210Po and Biological Effects of Low-Level Exposure: The Need for Research

    OpenAIRE

    Seiler, Ralph L.; Wiemels, Joseph L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Polonium-210 (210Po) concentrations that exceed 1 Bq/L in drinking-water supplies have been reported from four widely separated U.S. states where exposure to it went unnoticed for decades. The radionuclide grandparents of 210Po are common in sediments, and segments of the public may be chronically exposed to low levels of 210Po in drinking water or in food products from animals raised in contaminated areas. Objectives: We summarized information on the environmental behavior, bioki...

  2. NOAA tsunami water level archive - scientific perspectives and discoveries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungov, G.; Eble, M. C.; McLean, S. J.

    2013-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) and co-located World Data Service for Geophysics (WDS) provides long-term archive, data management, and access to national and global tsunami data. Currently, NGDC archives and processes high-resolution data recorded by the Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunami (DART) network, the coastal-tide-gauge network from the National Ocean Service (NOS) as well as tide-gauge data recorded by all gauges in the two National Weather Service (NWS) Tsunami Warning Centers' (TWCs) regional networks. The challenge in processing these data is that the observations from the deep-ocean, Pacific Islands, Alaska region, and United States West and East Coasts display commonalities, but, at the same time, differ significantly, especially when extreme events are considered. The focus of this work is on how time integration of raw observations (10-seconds to 1-minute) could mask extreme water levels. Analysis of the statistical and spectral characteristics obtained from records with different time step of integration will be presented. Results show the need to precisely calibrate the despiking procedure against raw data due to the significant differences in the variability of deep-ocean and coastal tide-gauge observations. It is shown that special attention should be drawn to the very strong water level declines associated with the passage of the North Atlantic cyclones. Strong changes for the deep ocean and for the West Coast have implications for data quality but these same features are typical for the East Coast regime.

  3. Experience of water chemistry and radiation levels in Swedish BWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivars, R.; Elkert, J.

    1981-01-01

    From the BWR operational experience in Sweden it has been found that the occupational radiation exposures have been comparatively low in an international comparison. One main reason for the favourable conditions is the good water chemistry performance. This paper deals at first with the design considerations of water chemistry and materials selection. Next, the experience of water chemistry and radiation levels are provided. Finally, some methods to further reduce the radiation sources are discussed. (author)

  4. Application of the Water Needs Index: Can Tho City, Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moglia, Magnus; Neumann, Luis E.; Alexander, Kim S.; Nguyen, Minh N.; Sharma, Ashok K.; Cook, Stephen; Trung, Nguyen H.; Tuan, Dinh D. A.

    2012-10-01

    SummaryProvision of urban water supplies to rapidly growing cities of South East Asia is difficult because of increasing demand for limited water supplies, periodic droughts, and depletion and contamination of surface and groundwater. In such adverse environments, effective policy and planning processes are required to secure adequate water supplies. Developing a Water Needs Index reveals key elements of the complex urban water supply by means of a participatory approach for rapid and interdisciplinary assessment. The index uses deliberative interactions with stakeholders to create opportunities for mutual understanding, confirmation of constructs and capacity building of all involved. In Can Tho City, located at the heart of the Mekong delta in Vietnam, a Water Needs Index has been developed with local stakeholders. The functional attributes of the Water Needs Index at this urban scale have been critically appraised. Systemic water issues, supply problems, health issues and inadequate, poorly functioning infrastructure requiring attention from local authorities have been identified. Entrenched social and economic inequities in access to water and sanitation, as well as polluting environmental management practices has caused widespread problems for urban populations. The framework provides a common language based on systems thinking, increased cross-sectoral communication, as well as increased recognition of problem issues; this ought to lead to improved urban water management. Importantly, the case study shows that the approach can help to overcome biases of local planners based on their limited experience (information black spots), to allow them to address problems experienced in all areas of the city.

  5. Carboxyhaemoglobin levels in water-pipe and cigarette smokers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Medical Journal ... Water-pipe smoking is growing in popularity, especially among young people, because of the social nature of the smoking session and the assumption that the ... We aimed to measure carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb) blood levels before and after water-pipe and cigarette smoking sessions.

  6. Socio–economic benefits and pollution levels of water resources ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Communities are dependent on wetlands resources for income generation. However, anthropogenic activities that result into pollution of water are one of the major public health problems. Assessment of socio–economic activities and pollution levels of domestic water sources in Gulu Municipality, Pece wetland was done.

  7. Typhoon and elevated radon level in a municipal water supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, Cheng-Hsin; Weng, Pao-Shan

    2000-01-01

    The Municipal Water Supply at Hsinchu City is a water treatment plant using poly- aluminum chloride (PAC) for coagulation and then followed by precipitation and filtration. Its capacity is 70,000 m 3 /day. The raw water is drawn from the nearby river. Since the subject of interest is the radon level during typhoon season, the sampling period was from March to December 1999. Commercially available electret was used for water samples taken from the five ponds in the plant. This technique relies on the measurement of radon in air above a water sample enclosed in a sealed vessel. The concentration of airbone radon released from water was determined by means of the electret ion chamber. During the first sampling period there came two typhoons. One is called Magie during June 10-17, and the other called Sam during August 20-26. The first typhoon led to the radon level measured from the water samples as high as 705 Bq/m 3 , while the second caused even higher radon level as high as 772 Bq/m 3 . Similar results were obtained for the second sampling period after August till December 1999. For those measured without typhoon influence, the average radon was lower from the coagulation pond yet without coagulation process during March through August 1999. However, water samples taken from the pond after precipitation did not show similar results in radon level. (author)

  8. Trace-level mercury removal from surface water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klasson, K.T.; Bostick, D.T.

    1998-01-01

    Many sorbents have been developed for the removal of mercury and heavy metals from waters; however, most of the data published thus far do not address the removal of mercury to the target levels represented in this project. The application to which these sorbents are targeted for use is the removal of mercury from microgram-per-liter levels to low nanogram-per-liter levels. Sorbents with thiouronium, thiol, amine, sulfur, and proprietary functional groups were selected for these studies. Mercury was successfully removed from surface water via adsorption onto Ionac SR-4 and Mersorb resins to levels below the target goal of 12 ng/L in batch studies. A thiol-based resin performed the best, indicating that over 200,000 volumes of water could be treated with one volume of resin. The cost of the resin is approximately $0.24 per 1,000 gal of water

  9. NOS CO-OPS Water Level Data, Verified, High Low

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has verified (quality-controlled), daily, high low water level (tide) data from NOAA NOS Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services...

  10. NOS CO-OPS Water Level Data, Verified, 6-Minute

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has verified (quality-controlled), 6-minute, water level (tide) data from NOAA NOS Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services (CO-OPS)....

  11. NOS CO-OPS Water Level Data, Preliminary, 6-Minute

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has recent, preliminary (not quality-controlled), 6-minute, water level (tide) data from NOAA NOS Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and...

  12. radio frequency based radio frequency based water level monitor

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    ABSTRACT. This paper elucidates a radio frequency (RF) based transmission and reception system used to remotely monitor and .... range the wireless can cover but in this prototype, it ... power supply to the system, the sensed water level is.

  13. NOS CO-OPS Water Level Data, Verified, Hourly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has verified (quality-controlled), hourly, water level (tide) data from NOAA NOS Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services (CO-OPS)....

  14. NOS CO-OPS Water Level Data, Preliminary, 1-Minute

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has recent, preliminary (not quality-controlled), 1-minute, water level (tide) data from NOAA NOS Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and...

  15. Utilization of water resources in Pelagonija region to meet the needs of REK 'Bitola'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madzharoski, Atanas; Cvetkovska, Bisera

    2001-01-01

    In this report a complex use of the water resources for water supplying of one the biggest industrial objects in Republic of Macedonia - the thermal power plants at REK-Bitola is shown. Water, beside the coal represents a basic raw material in the technological process for electric power production at the TPP. Three systems are built for water supplying with raw water, that are composed in one part and there is a possibility for them to be enlarged. The way of use and distribution of waters from the systems in accordance with the needs of the company is shown, taking care for rational and economical use of the water. An enlargement is performed on the systems with what safety in water supply is greater the functionality of the systems is better, and with that a rationality and economical effects are obtained. (Original)

  16. Radium-226 levels in Italian drinking waters and foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastinu, G.G.; Santaroni, G.P.

    1980-01-01

    Levels of 226 Ra in Italian waters and foods were measured. Results were similar to those found in other countries, except for some mineral waters with 226 Ra concentrations above 1 pCi/liter andup to 19 pCi/liter. No difinite correlation was found between the 226 Ra concentrations measured and the high natural background radiation levels determined in central Italy in previous work

  17. Separating decadal global water cycle variability from sea level rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlington, B D; Reager, J T; Lo, M-H; Karnauskas, K B; Leben, R R

    2017-04-20

    Under a warming climate, amplification of the water cycle and changes in precipitation patterns over land are expected to occur, subsequently impacting the terrestrial water balance. On global scales, such changes in terrestrial water storage (TWS) will be reflected in the water contained in the ocean and can manifest as global sea level variations. Naturally occurring climate-driven TWS variability can temporarily obscure the long-term trend in sea level rise, in addition to modulating the impacts of sea level rise through natural periodic undulation in regional and global sea level. The internal variability of the global water cycle, therefore, confounds both the detection and attribution of sea level rise. Here, we use a suite of observations to quantify and map the contribution of TWS variability to sea level variability on decadal timescales. In particular, we find that decadal sea level variability centered in the Pacific Ocean is closely tied to low frequency variability of TWS in key areas across the globe. The unambiguous identification and clean separation of this component of variability is the missing step in uncovering the anthropogenic trend in sea level and understanding the potential for low-frequency modulation of future TWS impacts including flooding and drought.

  18. Desalinated drinking water in the GCC countries - The need to address consumer perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shomar, Basem; Hawari, Jalal

    2017-10-01

    The Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries consist of Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates. These countries depend mainly on seawater desalination to meet their water needs. Although great emphasis is given to characterize desalinated water for its physicochemical and microbial properties, e.g. presence of metals, other organic contaminants and for bacteria, sensorial characteristics including smell, taste and color have not received the same attention. This is possibly attributed to the fact that inhabitants of GCC States do not use desalinated tap water for drinking consumption, rather they depend on locally produced or imported bottled water where color, taste and odor are not problematic. To address the consumer needs and perceptions of drinking desalinated water in GCC countries, water quality standards and guidelines, should respond to the public concern about other sensorial characteristics (organoleptic properties) including taste, odor, and trigeminal sensations. Often the root causes of color and smell in water are attributed to the presence of organic and inorganic contaminants and to bacterial growth which is frequently accompanied by the production of metabolites and byproducts that are obnoxious. The unpleasant sensorial problems associated with desalinated drinking tap water may constitute the driving force for most people in GCC countries to depend on bottled water. To encourage people in the GCC countries to consume desalinated tap water, it is essential that water testing include measurements of physicochemical properties, biofilm presence and organoleptic parameters to improve overall water quality. This review highlights the contribution of organoleptics for consumers of desalinated tap water. It extends water quality research to be addressed by standards for organoleptic parameters in desalinated drinking water. Accordingly, consumer awareness and outreach campaigns should be implemented to encourage people

  19. Removing Dams: Project-Level Policy and Scientific Research Needs (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graber, B.

    2010-12-01

    More than 800 dams have been removed around the country, mostly “small” dams, under 25 feet in height. The total number of removals, however, is small relative to the number of deteriorating dams and the ecological impacts those structures continue to have on native riverine species and natural river function. The number of dam removal projects is increasing as aging dams continue to deteriorate and riverine species continue to decline. Practitioners and regulators need to find cost-effective project approaches that minimize short-term environmental impacts and maximize long-term benefits while keeping project costs manageable. Dam removals can be a regulatory challenge because they inherently have short-term impacts in order to achieve larger, self-sustaining, long-term benefits. These short-term impacts include sediment movement, construction access roads, and habitat conversion from lacustrine to riverine. Environmental regulations are designed to prevent degradation and have presented challenges for projects designed to benefit the environment. For example, a short-term release of sediment may exceed water quality standards for some period of time, but lead to a long-term beneficial project. Other regulatory challenges include permitting the loss of wetland area for increased native river function, or allowing the release of some level of contaminated sediment when the downstream sediment is similarly contaminated. Dam removal projects raise a range of engineering and scientific questions on effective implementation techniques such as appropriate sediment management approaches, construction equipment access approaches, invasive species management, channel/floodplain reconstruction, and active versus passive habitat rehabilitation. While practitioners have learned and refined implementation approaches over the last decade, more input is needed from researchers to help assess the effectiveness of those techniques, and to provide more effective techniques

  20. Do we need an integrative approach to food safety at the country level?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ristic, G E-mail:risticg@eunet yu [Department of Nutrition, Medical Faculty, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    2002-05-01

    Scientific data show increasing evidence of relationship between food safety and food standards on one hand and public health concern on the other hand. In FR Yugoslavia in 1989 the system of reporting on food safety issues on federal and republic level was established. The system provides data on laboratory analysis of 22 food items (bread, milk, meat and meat products, vegetables, processed vegetables etc). Those items were and still are tested on food quality and safety parameters such as microbiological, chemical and radio nuclides. Seldom all required testing on chemical and radio nuclides are performed, so we lack exact risk assessment for those contaminants. Further, during war conflict in FR Yugoslavia and also due to industrial hazards in neighbouring countries (Rumania, Hungary) high quantities of PCBs, dioxins, heavy metals, arsenic compounds and other toxic compounds contaminated the environment. In the soil and in some food products (animal fats predominantly) radionuclides originating from Chernobyl hazard can still be detected. In order to identify the level of exposure to chemical and radio nuclide contaminants in the food chain it is essential to test intensively and systematically food from animal and from plant origin. In order to prevent entering the contaminants to the food chain new recommendations from WHO, FAO and EU suggest implementation of integrative approach to food safety and control over the whole chain of food production from 'farm to table'. This approach provides control of the contaminants in soil, water, air, control over primary food production (covering animal feed too), intensive control over processing with implementation of HACCP system, but also, over transportation, retail trade, street food and home made food too. In our country creation of the map of the polluted areas, and actions in order to treat the pollution should accompany implementation of this new food safety system. The need for assessment of the level of

  1. Do we need an integrative approach to food safety at the country level?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ristic, G.

    2002-01-01

    Scientific data show increasing evidence of relationship between food safety and food standards on one hand and public health concern on the other hand. In FR Yugoslavia in 1989 the system of reporting on food safety issues on federal and republic level was established. The system provides data on laboratory analysis of 22 food items (bread, milk, meat and meat products, vegetables, processed vegetables etc). Those items were and still are tested on food quality and safety parameters such as microbiological, chemical and radio nuclides. Seldom all required testing on chemical and radio nuclides are performed, so we lack exact risk assessment for those contaminants. Further, during war conflict in FR Yugoslavia and also due to industrial hazards in neighbouring countries (Rumania, Hungary) high quantities of PCBs, dioxins, heavy metals, arsenic compounds and other toxic compounds contaminated the environment. In the soil and in some food products (animal fats predominantly) radionuclides originating from Chernobyl hazard can still be detected. In order to identify the level of exposure to chemical and radio nuclide contaminants in the food chain it is essential to test intensively and systematically food from animal and from plant origin. In order to prevent entering the contaminants to the food chain new recommendations from WHO, FAO and EU suggest implementation of integrative approach to food safety and control over the whole chain of food production from 'farm to table'. This approach provides control of the contaminants in soil, water, air, control over primary food production (covering animal feed too), intensive control over processing with implementation of HACCP system, but also, over transportation, retail trade, street food and home made food too. In our country creation of the map of the polluted areas, and actions in order to treat the pollution should accompany implementation of this new food safety system. The need for assessment of the level of

  2. Determination of Heavy Metal Levels in Various Industrial Waste Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Şahin Dündar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Important part of the environmetal pollution consists of waste water and water pollution. The water polluted by anthropogenical, industrial, and agricultural originated sources are defined as waste waters which are the main pollution sources for reservoirs, rivers, lakes, and seas. In this work, waste waters of leather, textile, automotive side, and metal plating industries were used to determine the levels of Cu, Zn, Cr, Pb and Ni by using Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometer. As a result, highest mean levels of copper in supernatants of plating and textile industries were observed as 377,18 ng ml-1, respectively 103 ng ml-1 lead and 963,6 ng ml-1 nickel in plating industry, 1068,2 ng ml-1 zinc and 14557,1 ng ml-1 chromium in plating and leather industries were determined.

  3. Assessing the Need for Higher Levels of Care Among Problem Gambling Outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledgerwood, David M; Arfken, Cynthia L

    2017-12-01

    Most treatment for gambling disorder is provided on an outpatient basis. Only a small number of jurisdictions in North America provide higher levels of gambling treatment, such as residential or intensive outpatient (IOP) care, despite the potential need for these services. Further, there appear to be few guidelines for determining appropriate level of gambling treatment. The aim of the present study was to assess the appropriateness of higher levels of problem gambling care among clients receiving outpatient treatment. Problem gamblers and their therapists independently completed questionnaires that assessed the need and desire for residential and IOP treatment. About 42% of problem gambling outpatients noted that they would be "probably" or "definitely" willing to attend residential treatment, and about half indicated they would be equally likely to attend IOP. Therapists recommended about a third of their clients as appropriate for higher levels of care. For both client and therapist assessments, there was a significant association between desire or recommendation for level of treatment and severity of gambling and co-occurring problems. Further, therapist recommendations for level of care were significantly associated with client willingness to attend higher levels of treatment. Our data reveal the potential need for higher levels of care for problem gambling, as evaluated by clients and their therapists. Policy implications for the funding of residential and IOP treatment are discussed.

  4. Water resources data for Virginia, water year 1991. Volume 2. Ground-water-level and ground-water-quality records. Water-data report (Annual), 1 October 1991-30 September 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prugh, B.J.; Powell, E.D.

    1993-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 1992 water year for Virginia consist of records of water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. The report (Volume 2. Ground-Water-Level and Ground-Water-Quality Records) contains water levels at 356 observation wells and water quality at 2 wells. Locations of these wells are given in the report

  5. Water levels of the Ozark aquifer in northern Arkansas, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, Tony P.

    2015-07-13

    The Ozark aquifer is the largest aquifer, both in area of outcrop and thickness, and the most important source of freshwater in the Ozark Plateaus physiographic province, supplying water to northern Arkansas, southeastern Kansas, southern Missouri, and northeastern Oklahoma. The study area includes 16 Arkansas counties lying completely or partially within the Ozark Plateaus of the Interior Highlands major physiographic division. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Arkansas Natural Resources Commission and the Arkansas Geological Survey, conducted a study of water levels in the Ozark aquifer within Arkansas. This report presents a potentiometric-surface map of the Ozark aquifer within the Ozark Plateaus of northern Arkansas, representing water-level conditions for the early spring of 2013 and selected water-level hydrographs.

  6. Radar Based Flow and Water Level Forecasting in Sewer Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren; Rasmussen, Michael R.; Grum, M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the first radar based forecast of flow and/or water level in sewer systems in Denmark. The rainfall is successfully forecasted with a lead time of 1-2 hours, and flow/levels are forecasted an additional ½-1½ hours using models describing the behaviour of the sewer system. Bot...

  7. Water quality characteristics and pollution levels of heavy metals in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main aim of this study was to assess the level of water quality of Lake Haiq, Ethiopia with respect to selected physical ... gated using standard analytical procedures. the level of the studied heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn) was determined using the .... no known discharge and hence used as reference site. Sampling ...

  8. Estimation Of Height Of Oil -Water Contact Above Free Water Level ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An estimate of oil-water contact (OWC) and the understanding of the capillary behaviour of hydrocarbon reservoirs are vital for optimum reservoir characterization, hydrocarbon exploration and production. Hence, the height of oil-water contact above free water level for different rock types from some Niger Delta reservoirs ...

  9. Cosine components in water levels at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice, J.; Lehman, L.; Keen, K.

    1990-01-01

    Water-level records from wells at Yucca Mountain, Nevada are analyzed periodically to determine if they contain periodic (cosine) components. Water-level data from selected wells are input to an iterative numerical procedure that determines a best fitting cosine function. The available water-level data, with coverage of up to 5 years, appear to be representative of the natural water-level changes. From our analysis of 9 water-level records, it appears that there may be periodic components (periods of 2-3 years) in the groundwater-level fluctuations at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, although some records are fit better than others by cosine functions. It also appears that the periodic behavior has a spatial distribution. Wells west of Yucca Mountain have different periods and phase shifts from wells on and east of Yucca Mountain. Interestingly, a similar spatial distribution of groundwater chemistry at Yucca Mountain is reported by Matuska (1988). This suggests a physical cause may underlie the different physical and chemical groundwater conditions. Although a variety of natural processes could cause water-level fluctuations, hydrologic processes are the most likely, because the periodicities are only a few years. A possible cause could be periodic recharge related to a periodicity in precipitation. It is interesting that Cochran et al., (1988), show a crude two-year cycle of precipitation for 1961 to 1970 in southern Nevada. Why periods and phase shifts may differ across Yucca Mountain is unknown. Different phase shifts could indicate different lag times of response to hydrologic stimuli. Difference in periods could mean that the geologic media is heterogeneous and displays heterogeneous response to a single stimulus, or that stimuli differ in certain regions, or that a hydraulic barrier separates the groundwater system into two regions having different water chemistry and recharge areas. 13 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  10. The science, information, and engineering needed to manage water availability and quality in 2050: Chapter 23

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter explores four water resources issues: 1) hydrologic variability, hazards, water supply and ecosystem preservation; 2) urban landscape design; 3) non-point source water quality, and 4) climate change, resiliency, and nonstationarity. It also considers what science, technology, and engineering practice may be needed in the coming decades to sustain water supplies and ecosystems in the face of increasing stresses from a growing demand for water. Dealing with these four water resource issues in the highly uncertain future would will demand predictive models that are rooted in real-world data. In a non-stationary world, continuity of observations is crucial. All watersheds are influenced by human actions through changes in land use, water use, and climate. The focus of water planning and management between today and 2050 will depend more than ever on collection and analysis of long-term data to learn about the evolving state of the system, understanding ecosystem processes in the water and on the landscape, and finding innovative ways to manage water as a shared resource. This includes sharing water with our neighbors on the landscape, sharing with the other species that depend on water, and sharing with future generations.

  11. Lake Storage Measurements For Water Resources Management: Combining Remotely Sensed Water Levels and Surface Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brakenridge, G. R.; Birkett, C. M.

    2013-12-01

    Presently operating satellite-based radar altimeters have the ability to monitor variations in surface water height for large lakes and reservoirs, and future sensors will expand observational capabilities to many smaller water bodies. Such remote sensing provides objective, independent information where in situ data are lacking or access is restricted. A USDA/NASA (http://www.pecad.fas.usda.gov/cropexplorer/global_reservoir/) program is performing operational altimetric monitoring of the largest lakes and reservoirs around the world using data from the NASA/CNES, NRL, and ESA missions. Public lake-level products from the Global Reservoir and Lake Monitor (GRLM) are a combination of archived and near real time information. The USDA/FAS utilizes the products for assessing international irrigation potential and for crop production estimates; other end-users study climate trends, observe anthropogenic effects, and/or are are involved in other water resources management and regional water security issues. At the same time, the Dartmouth Flood Observatory (http://floodobservatory.colorado.edu/), its NASA GSFC partners (http://oas.gsfc.nasa.gov/floodmap/home.html), and associated MODIS data and automated processing algorithms are providing public access to a growing GIS record of the Earth's changing surface water extent, including changes related to floods and droughts. The Observatory's web site also provide both archival and near real time information, and is based mainly on the highest spatial resolution (250 m) MODIS bands. Therefore, it is now possible to provide on an international basis reservoir and lake storage change measurements entirely from remote sensing, on a frequently updating basis. The volume change values are based on standard numerical procedures used for many decades for analysis of coeval lake area and height data. We provide first results of this combination, including prototype displays for public access and data retrieval of water storage

  12. A New U.S. Water Policy: Long Overdue and Urgently Needed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleick, P.

    2008-12-01

    The United States has no consistent, integrated national or international water policy in place, and has not conducted a review of its water institutions or priorities since 1970. This talk will summarize the state of US water policy and make recommendations for the new administration. As we enter the 21st century, pressures on United States and international water resources are growing and conflicts among water users are worsening. International attention to these problems is increasing and the US - intentionally or not - plays a vital and irreplaceable role. Even in the US, where basic human needs for water are largely (though not completely) satisfied, controversy continues over the proper role of expensive dams, failure to adequately fund infrastructure maintenance and expansion, the different roles of public and private corporations, and local communities in managing water. And new challenges are arising, as climate change and extreme events seem to worsen, new water quality threats materialize, and financial constraints grow. Arguments among western states over allocations of shared rivers are rising, as are tensions between cities and farmers over water rights. The US and Mexico have unresolved disagreements over the Colorado and Rio Grande/Rio Bravo rivers, and our Canadian neighbors are concerned about proposals to divert Great Lakes or Canadian water. Bottled water is raising new issues about equity, cost, environmental impacts, and the role of the private sector. Some of the new ideas, new policies, and new efforts that will be required to address these issues in the coming decade will be presented here.

  13. The Energy and Water Emergency Module; A containerized solution for meeting the energy and water needs in protracted displacement situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nerini, Francesco Fuso; Valentini, Francesco; Modi, Anish

    2015-01-01

    The world has faced many natural and man-made disasters in the past few years, resulting in millions of people living in temporary camps across the globe. The energy and clean water needs of the relief operators in such emergency situations are primarily satisfied by diesel engine based generators...... and importing clean water to the site, in certain cases even for several years after the emergency. This approach results in problems such as low security of supply and high costs. Especially targeting the prolonged displacement situations, this paper presents an alternative solution – the Energy and Water...

  14. Cognitive Indicators of Different Levels of Special Educational Support Needs in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljunied, Mariam; Frederickson, Norah

    2011-01-01

    Potential cognitive indicators of the level of special educational needs (SEN) were investigated in 52 children with autism. Two general indicators (intelligence quotient and cognitive modifiability) and three specific indicators (theory of mind, executive functioning and central coherence) were evaluated for their ability to discriminate three…

  15. Agricultural In-Service Needs of Introductory Level Career and Technical Education Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Jolene; Warnick, Brian K.; Spielmaker, Debra; Tarpley, Rudy S.; Straquadine, Gary S.

    2009-01-01

    This study identified and prioritized the agricultural in-service needs of introductory level career and technical education teachers in Utah. The Utah State Board of Education requires that all seventh grade students complete an introductory career and technical education course as their first formal career exploration experience. One component…

  16. Measurement of water potential in low-level waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, T.L.; Gee, G.W.; Kirkham, R.R.; Gibson, D.D.

    1982-08-01

    The measurement of soil water is important to the shallow land burial of low-level waste. Soil water flow is the principle mechanism of radionuclide transport, allows the establishment of stabilizing vegetation and also governs the dissolution and release rates of the waste. This report focuses on the measurement of soil water potential and provides an evaluation of several field instruments that are available for use to monitor waste burial sites located in arid region soils. The theoretical concept of water potential is introduced and its relationship to water content and soil water flow is discussed. Next, four major areas of soils research are presented in terms of their dependence on the water potential concept. There are four basic types of sensors used to measure soil water potential. These are: (1) tensiometers; (2) soil psychrometers; (3) electrical resistance blocks; and (4) heat dissipation probes. Tensiometers are designed to measure the soil water potential directly by measuring the soil water pressure. Monitoring efforts at burial sites require measurements of soil water over long time periods. They also require measurements at key locations such as waste-soil interfaces and within any barrier system installed. Electrical resistance blocks are well suited for these types of measurements. The measurement of soil water potential can be a difficult task. There are several sensors commercially available; however, each has its own limitations. It is important to carefully select the appropriate sensor for the job. The accuracy, range, calibration, and stability of the sensor must be carefully considered. This study suggests that for waste management activities, the choice of sensor will be the tensiometer for precise soil characterization studies and the electrical resistance block for long term monitoring programs

  17. [Modern problems of maintenance of hygienic safety of drinking water consumption at the regional level].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulakin, A V; Tsyplakova, G V; Ampleeva, G P; Kozyreva, O N; Pivneva, O S; Trukhina, G M

    Problems of hygienic reliability of the drinking water use in regions of the Russian Federation are observed in the article. The optimization of the water use was shown must be based on the bearing in mind of regional peculiarities of the shaping of water quality of groundwater and surface sources of the water use, taking into account of the effectiveness of regional water protection programs, programs for water treatment, coordination of the activity of economic entities and oversight bodies in the management of water quality on the basis of socio-hygienic monitoring. Regional problems requiring hygienic justification and accounting, include such issues as complex hydrological, hydrogeological, climatic and geographical conditions, pronouncement of the severity of anthropogenic pollution of sources of water supply, natural conditions of the shaping of water quality, efficiency of the water treatment. There is need in the improvement of the problems of the water quality monitoring, including with the use of computer technology, which allows to realize regional hygienic monitoring and spatial-temporal analysis of the water quality, to model the water quality management, to predict conditions of the water use by population in regions taking into account peculiarities of the current health situation. In the article there is shown the practicability of the so-called complex concept of multiple barriers suggesting the combined use of chemical oxidation and physical methods of the preparation of drinking water. It is required the further development of legislation for the protection of water bodies from pollution with the bigging up the status of sanitary protection zones; timely revision of the regulatory framework, establishing sanitary-epidemiological requirements to potable water and drinking water supply. The problem of the provision of the population with safe drinking water requires complex solution within the framework of the implementation of target programs

  18. Water Security at Local Government Level: What do People Think?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Meissner, Richard

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Meissner_2016.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 2853 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Meissner_2016.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Water Security at Local... Government Level: What do People Think? By Dr. Richard Meissner Integrated Water Assessment Group Natural Resources and the Environment Council for Scientific and Industrial Research Presented at the Sustainable Water Seminar 2016, CSIR ICC, 2...

  19. Philippines -- country wide water development projects and funds needed. Water crisis in Manila coincide with parliamentarians seminar on water resources and population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The Philippines' Clean Water Act was developed to protect the country's remaining water resources by institutionalizing mechanisms to monitor, regulate, and control human and industrial activities which contribute to the ongoing environmental degradation of marine and freshwater resources. Approximately 70 participants attended the Philippine Parliamentarians' Conference on Water Resources, Population and Development held December 3-4, 1997, at the Sulo Hotel in Quezon City. Participants included the legislative staff of the members of the House of Representatives and the Senate, Committee Secretaries of the House and Senate, and government and nongovernmental organization officials. Following the opening programs, panel discussions were held on the role of nongovernmental organizations as legitimate monitors of governments' activities; the need to evaluate water sector assessment methods, water policy and strategy, and water legislation standards; and waste water treatment and sewerage systems used in households and industries. The following issues were raised during the conference's open forum: the need to implement new methods in water resource management; the handling of water for both economic and social purposes; the need to implement guidelines, policies, and pricing mechanisms on bottled water; regulating the construction of recreational facilities such as golf courses; and transferring watershed rehabilitation from the Department of Environment and Natural Resources to local water districts. A declaration was prepared and signed by the participants at the close of the conference.

  20. Observations and a linear model of water level in an interconnected inlet-bay system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aretxabaleta, Alfredo; Ganju, Neil K.; Butman, Bradford; Signell, Richard

    2017-01-01

    A system of barrier islands and back-barrier bays occurs along southern Long Island, New York, and in many coastal areas worldwide. Characterizing the bay physical response to water level fluctuations is needed to understand flooding during extreme events and evaluate their relation to geomorphological changes. Offshore sea level is one of the main drivers of water level fluctuations in semienclosed back-barrier bays. We analyzed observed water levels (October 2007 to November 2015) and developed analytical models to better understand bay water level along southern Long Island. An increase (∼0.02 m change in 0.17 m amplitude) in the dominant M2 tidal amplitude (containing the largest fraction of the variability) was observed in Great South Bay during mid-2014. The observed changes in both tidal amplitude and bay water level transfer from offshore were related to the dredging of nearby inlets and possibly the changing size of a breach across Fire Island caused by Hurricane Sandy (after December 2012). The bay response was independent of the magnitude of the fluctuations (e.g., storms) at a specific frequency. An analytical model that incorporates bay and inlet dimensions reproduced the observed transfer function in Great South Bay and surrounding areas. The model predicts the transfer function in Moriches and Shinnecock bays where long-term observations were not available. The model is a simplified tool to investigate changes in bay water level and enables the evaluation of future conditions and alternative geomorphological settings.

  1. Groundwater science in water-utility operations: global reflections on current status and future needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Stephen; Sage, Rob

    2017-08-01

    The relevance of groundwater science to water-utility operations is analysed from a broad international perspective, identifying key concerns and specific opportunities for the future. The strategic importance worldwide of water utilities assuming the role of lead stakeholders for integrated groundwater resource management, recognizing their often considerable technical know-how and highly significant data holdings, is emphasized. Concurrently, the utilities themselves will need an ever-closer appreciation of groundwater-system behaviour if they are to manage efficiently their water-supply and wastewater operations.

  2. How much water do we need for irrigation under Climate Change in the Mediterranean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fader, Marianela; Alberte, Bondeau; Wolfgang, Cramer; Simon, Decock; Sinan, Shi

    2014-05-01

    Anthropogenic climate change will very likely alter the hydrological system of already water-limited agricultural landscapes around the Mediterranean. This includes the need for, as well as the availability of irrigation water. On top of that Mediterranean agroecosystems are very likely to be under strong pressure in the near future through changes in consumer demands and diets, increasing urbanization, demographic change, and new markets for agricultural exportation. As a first step to assess the water demand of the agricultural sector, we use an ecohydrological model (the Lund-Potsdam-Jena managed land model, LPJmL) to estimate current and future irrigation water requirements of this region, considering various climate and socio-economic scenarios. LPJmL is a process-based, agricultural and water balance model, where plant growth is ecophysiologically coupled with hydrological variables. For these simulations, the model was adapted to the Mediterranean region in terms of agrosystems as well as crop parameters, and a sensitivity analysis for the irrigation system efficiency was performed. Patterns of current irrigation water requirements differ strongly spatially within the Mediterranean region depending mainly on potential evapotranspiration, the combination of crops cultivated and the extension of irrigated areas. The simulations for the future indicate that the Mediterranean may need considerable additional amounts of irrigation water. However, the regional patterns differ strongly depending on changes in length of growing periods, changes in transpirational rate (temperature and precipitation change, CO2-fertilization), and the consideration of potential improvements in irrigation system efficiency.

  3. Levels of trace elements in MWSS drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andal, T.T.

    1998-01-01

    As a water supplier for the metropolis, vigilance over the water quality has not been taken for granted at the Metropolitan Waterworks and Sewerage System (MWSS). By the early 1980's, a control laboratory equipped with modern facilities had been set up to supplement the already existing control laboratory at Filter Plant II handling physical, chemical, bacteriological, biological and mineral analyses and examinations, efficiently. The new central laboratory is intended to monitor trace elements, organic constituents and other elements with health related impact so as to assure the consumers of a safe drinking water supply at all times. This presentation reviews the levels of trace element pollution in MWSS tap water, then and now, in justification of the rehabilitation projects along the distribution network, in the treatment plants and other pertinent innovations corresponding to budgeted capital outlays as invested by the system. (author)

  4. TRIHALOMETHANE LEVELS IN HOME TAP WATER AND SEMEN QUALITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trihalomethane Levels in Home Tap Water and Semen QualityLaura Fenster, 1 Kirsten Waller, 2 Gayle Windham, 1 Tanya Henneman, 2 Meredith Anderson, 2 Pauline Mendola, 3 James W. Overstreet, 4 Shanna H. Swan51California Department of Health Services, Division of Environm...

  5. Water-Level Analysis for Cumberland Sound, Georgia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kraus, Nicholas

    1997-01-01

    .... The channel through St Marys Entrance is maintained at a 50-ft depth through significant dredging that occurred from 1986-1988 Questions arose as to whether this dredging had raised the water level in Cumberland Sound. The U.S...

  6. Lake St. Clair: Storm Wave and Water Level Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    R. A. Luettich, C. Dawson, V. J. Cardone , A. T. Cox, M. D. Powell, H. J. Westerink, and H. J. Roberts. 2010. A high resolution coupled riverine flow...Storm Wave and Water Level Modeling 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Tyler J. Hesser

  7. design and implementation of a water level controller

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-03-01

    Mar 1, 2012 ... Nigerian Journal of Technology (NIJOTECH) ... in real time application by using it to control the level of water in a tank fed by a ... chine when a cow is finished in a milking par- .... Robotics Arm. IEEE Control Systems 10(1).

  8. Effect of electrolyzed reduced water on malondialdehyde levels and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the effects of electrolyzed reduced water (ERW) on malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and neutrophil cells in Wistar rats suffering from aggressive periodontitis. Methods: Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) were infected with A. actinomycetemcomitans before being divided into a control group and a treatment ...

  9. High-level water purifying technology. Kodo josui shori gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsugura, H; Tsukiashi, K [Meidensha Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1993-07-01

    Research and development have been carried out on a high-level water purifying system using ozone and activated charcoals to supply drinking water free of carcinogenic matters and odors. This system comprises a system to utilize ozone by using silent discharge and oxygen enriching device, and a living organism/activated charcoal treatment system. The latter system utilizes living organisms deposited on activated charcoal surfaces to remove polluting substances including ammonia. The treatment experimenting equipment comprises an ozone generating system, an ozone treating column, an activated charcoal treating column, an ozone/activated charcoal control device, and a water amount and quality measuring system. An experiment was carried out using an experimental plant with a capacity of 20 m[sup 3]/day on water taken from the sedimentation process at an actual water purifying plant. As a result, trihalomethane formation potential was removed at about 40% in the ozone treatment, and at 70% in the whole treatment combining the ozone and living organism/activated charcoal treatments. For parameterization of palatability of water, a method is being studied that utilizes nuclear magnetic resonance to investigate degrees of water cluster. The method is regarded promising. 1 ref., 4 figs.

  10. High-level radioactive waste disposal: Key geochemical issues and information needs for site characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, D.J.; Bembia, P.J.; Bradbury, J.W.; Jackson, K.C.; Kelly, W.R.; Kovach, L.A.; Mo, T.; Tesoriero, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    Geochemistry plays a key role in determining the potential of a high-level radioactive waste disposal site for long-term radionuclide containment and isolation. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has developed a set of issues and information needs important for characterizing geochemistry at the potential sites being investigated by the Department of Energy Basalt Waste Isolation Project, Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations project, and Salt Repository Project. The NRC site issues and information needs consider (1) the geochemical environment of the repository, (2) changes to the initial geochemical environment caused by construction and waste emplacement, and (3) interactions that affect the transport of waste radionuclides to the accessible environment. The development of these issues and information needs supports the ongoing effort of the NRC to identify and address areas of geochemical data uncertainty during prelicensing interactions

  11. The Energy and Water Emergency Module; A containerized solution for meeting the energy and water needs in protracted displacement situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuso Nerini, Francesco; Valentini, Francesco; Modi, Anish; Upadhyay, Govinda; Abeysekera, Muditha; Salehin, Sayedus; Appleyard, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy and water services are a key need in long-term displacement situations. • At present electricity is supplied mostly with diesel generators and water is imported. • On-site electricity and clean water production can decrease costs and increase security. • The proposed containerized solution produces electricity and purifies water locally. • Model results show the cost-competitiveness and technical potential of the solution. - Abstract: The world has faced many natural and man-made disasters in the past few years, resulting in millions of people living in temporary camps across the globe. The energy and clean water needs of the relief operators in such emergency situations are primarily satisfied by diesel engine based generators and importing clean water to the site, in certain cases even for several years after the emergency. This approach results in problems such as low security of supply and high costs. Especially targeting the prolonged displacement situations, this paper presents an alternative solution – the Energy and Water Emergency Module. The proposed solution aims towards reducing the dependency on fossil fuel in prolonged emergency situations to a minimum while including local energy sources in the energy supply in a flexible and reliable way. The proposed module is built in a standard 20 ft container, and encompasses hybrid generation from solar, wind and biomass, with the possibility of using fossil sources too thanks to a dual fuel gas engine. The module can work both in grid connected and stand-alone mode. In addition the module includes a water purification unit to meet the water needs of displaced population. A demonstration unit was assembled at the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm during the year 2012 as a ‘concept proof’, and is now being tested and optimized for future deployment on the field. Preliminary testing and modelling shows that the proposed solution can reliably support emergency

  12. Drinking water: a need met for the people of the commune of Bantè, Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. R. Fousseni

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available RACINES (Recherches, Actions Communautaires, Initiatives pour un Nouvel ESpoir is a Beni¬nese non-governmental organization established in 1999 following the initiatives of young Beninese execu¬tives. A case study undertaken in 2003 in the villages of Galata and Agbon in the commune of Bantè identified the need for drinking water as the most urgent need. In response to this need, and with the financial support of Oxfam Québec, RACINES initiated a project for the installation of manual water pumps in the two villages. The development of this project involved three major phases: the mobilization of communities around this project, the installation of water pumps and the organization of socio-sanitary educational activities. Twenty months into the execution of the project, a local management committee was established and strengthened, a hand-operated water pump was installed and water-themed public awareness activities, such as water use, water sanitation and the dangers of drinking dirty or contaminated water, were organized every month or so in each of the two communities. Overall, this project has introduced a new type of leadership in the commune of Bantè, involving a high level of participation by young people working alongside the elders in the local management committees and ensuring the perpetuation of the systems installed.RACINES (Recherches, Actions Communautaires, Initiatives pour un Nouvel ESpoir est une organisation béninoise non gouvernementale créée en 1999 à l’initiative de jeunes cadres béninois. Au nombre des besoins identifiés en 2003 suite à une étude prospective, l’eau potable s’est révélée comme besoin prioritaire dans les villages de Galata et d’Agbon dans la commune de Bantè. En réponse à ce besoin, RACINES a initié, avec le soutien financier de Oxfam Québec, un projet pour l’installation de pompes d’eau manuelles dans les villages concernés. La mise en œuvre de ce projet comporte trois

  13. Water2Invest: Global facility for calculating investments needed to bridge the climate-induced water gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straatsma, Menno; Droogers, Peter; Brandsma, Jairus; Buytaert, Wouter; Karssenberg, Derek; Meijer, Karen; van Aalst, Maaike; van Beek, Rens; Wada, Yoshihide; Bierkens, Marc

    2013-04-01

    Decision makers responsible for climate change adaptation investments are confronted with large uncertainties regarding future water availability and water demand, as well as the investment cost required to reduce the water gap. Moreover, scientists have worked hard to increase fundamental knowledge on climate change and its impacts (climate services), while practical use of this knowledge is limited due to a lack of tools for decision support under uncertain long term future scenarios (decision services). The Water2Invest project aims are to (i) assess the joint impact of climate change and socioeconomic change on water scarcity, (ii) integrate impact and potential adaptation in one flow, (iii) prioritize adaptation options to counteract water scarcity on their financial, regional socio-economic and environmental implications, and (iv) deliver all this information in an integrated user-friendly web-based service. Global water availability is computed between 2006 and 2100 using the PCR-GLOBWB water resources model at a 6 minute spatial resolution. Climate change scenarios are based on the fifth Assessment Report (AR5) of the IPCC Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) that defines four CO2 emission scenarios as representative concentration pathways. Water demand is computed for agriculture, industry, domestic, and environmental requirements based on socio-economic scenarios of increase in population and gross domestic product. Using a linear programming algorithm, water is allocated on a monthly basis over the four sectors. Based on these assessments, the user can evaluate various technological and infrastructural adaptation measures to assess the investments needed to bridge the future water gap. Regional environmental and socioeconomic effects of these investments are evaluated, such as environmental flows or downstream effects. A scheme is developed to evaluate the strategies on robustness and flexibility under climate change and scenario uncertainty

  14. Analytical approach for predicting fresh water discharge in an estuary based on tidal water level observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cai, H.; Savenije, H.H.G.; Jiang, C.

    2014-01-01

    As the tidal wave propagates into an estuary, the tidally averaged water level tends to rise in landward direction due to the density difference between saline and fresh water and the asymmetry of the friction. The effect of friction on the residual slope is even more remarkable when accounting for

  15. An analysis of the water-level monitoring system for a boiling-water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, R.W.; Belblidia, L.A.; Russell, J.L. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The water-level instrumentation system is very important to the overall safety of a BWR. This system is being monitored by the Safety Parameter Display System (SPDS) that is being installed in Georgia Power Company's Plant Hatch. One of the most significant functions of the SPDS is the comparison of redundant instrument readings and formation of the best estimate of each parameter from those readings which are consistent. When comparing water-level instrument readings, it is necessary to correct the individual readings for differences between current and calibration conditions as well as for differences between calibration conditions for the multiple instruments. This paper documents the examination of the water-level instrumentation system at Plant Hatch and presents the development of the equations that were used to determine the differences between indicated and actual water levels. (author)

  16. Measuring a Level of Water Pollution in Sungai Pinang Using a Mathematical Model

    OpenAIRE

    Mahamud, Mohd Amirul; Ramasamy, Rajasegeran

    2013-01-01

    Mathematical models are now a popular tool in many applications such as physics, economics and engineering; and provide useful information for decision making and planning. Water pollution in Malaysia has reached a level that needs attention and intervention from environmental department and government. In order to make a strong case, this paper has done a study on measuring the pollution level of Sungai Pinang which is located in Penang Island, Malaysia. Advection-Dispersion equation is one ...

  17. Hydraulics and drones: observations of water level, bathymetry and water surface velocity from Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandini, Filippo

    -navigable rivers and overpass obstacles (e.g. river structures). Computer vision, autopilot system and beyond visual line-of-sight (BVLOS) flights will ensure the possibility to retrieve hyper-spatial observations of water depth, without requiring the operator to access the area. Surface water speed can......The planet faces several water-related threats, including water scarcity, floods, and pollution. Satellite and airborne sensing technology is rapidly evolving to improve the observation and prediction of surface water and thus prevent natural disasters. While technological developments require....... Although UAV-borne measurements of surface water speed have already been documented in the literature, a novel approach was developed to avoid GCPs. This research is the first demonstration that orthometric water level can be measured from UAVs with a radar system and a GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite...

  18. Alternative Intake Station in Saguling Reservoir for The Needs of Raw Water in Bandung Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marselina Mariana

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Bandung Metropolitan Area (BMA region is the upper watershed of Citarum with an area of ± 2338 km2. The status carried by BMA as a National Strategic Area from the perspective of economic encourage the increasing migration flows to BMA. These circumstances lead to an imbalance between supply and demand, in which on the one hand, demand for clean water is increasing. The potency of Saguling Reservoir as an alternative of raw water of BMA region in terms of quantity in this research was determined based on the determination of mainstay discharge. In this study, the intake site selection 11 monitoring posts will be carried out by reviewing the concentration of all parameters in Government Regulation No. 82 Year 2001 on any division of discharge grade using 5-grade Makov Discrete method (very dry, dry, normal, wet and very wet. In addition, the calculation of the value of Water Quality Index (WQI was done at each monitoring station for each division of discharge grade that has been done. The series of data flow and concentration parameters used in this study start from the year 1999 to 2014. The allocation of raw water discharge calculation for Saguling Reservoir in order to fulfill the needs of raw water in Bandung Metropolitan Area is 46,92m3/second (R5 dry for irrigation raw water supply and 29,53 92 m3/second (R10 dry for drinking water supply. Based on the assessment of the concentration of measured parameters and determination of Water Quality Index, it can be found that around Muara Ciminyak location is the most qualified location to be used as drinking raw water intake for Bandung Metropolitan Area. Based on this study, it also notes that the determination of the concentration of pollutant parameters needs to be done on the each division of discharge grade occurred.

  19. Water reuse in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia - Status, prospects and research needs

    KAUST Repository

    Drewes, Jorg; Garduñ o, C. Patricio Roa; Amy, Gary L.

    2012-01-01

    Saudi Arabia is one of the driest countries in the world. While desalination plants currently installed in the country represent 30% of the world's desalination capacity, seawater desalination alone will not be able to provide sufficient supplies to meet the increasing freshwater demand. However, with only 9% of the total municipal wastewater generated currently being reused, the kingdom is projected as the third largest reuse market after China and the USA, and reuse capacities are projected to increase by 800% by 2016. This projected growth and the change in water portfolios offer tremendous opportunities to integrate novel approaches of water reclamation and reuse. This paper highlights the current status of reuse in the kingdom, discusses prospects of using distributed infrastructure for reuse tailored to local needs as well as the use of artificial recharge and recovery systems for reclaimed water. It also suggests research needs to helping overcoming barriers for wastewater reuse. Copyright © IWA Publishing 2012.

  20. Water reuse in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia - Status, prospects and research needs

    KAUST Repository

    Drewes, Jorg

    2012-10-01

    Saudi Arabia is one of the driest countries in the world. While desalination plants currently installed in the country represent 30% of the world\\'s desalination capacity, seawater desalination alone will not be able to provide sufficient supplies to meet the increasing freshwater demand. However, with only 9% of the total municipal wastewater generated currently being reused, the kingdom is projected as the third largest reuse market after China and the USA, and reuse capacities are projected to increase by 800% by 2016. This projected growth and the change in water portfolios offer tremendous opportunities to integrate novel approaches of water reclamation and reuse. This paper highlights the current status of reuse in the kingdom, discusses prospects of using distributed infrastructure for reuse tailored to local needs as well as the use of artificial recharge and recovery systems for reclaimed water. It also suggests research needs to helping overcoming barriers for wastewater reuse. Copyright © IWA Publishing 2012.

  1. Assessing exposure and health consequences of chemicals in drinking water: current state of knowledge and research needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Cristina M; Kogevinas, Manolis; Cordier, Sylvaine; Templeton, Michael R; Vermeulen, Roel; Nuckols, John R; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Levallois, Patrick

    2014-03-01

    Safe drinking water is essential for well-being. Although microbiological contamination remains the largest cause of water-related morbidity and mortality globally, chemicals in water supplies may also cause disease, and evidence of the human health consequences is limited or lacking for many of them. We aimed to summarize the state of knowledge, identify gaps in understanding, and provide recommendations for epidemiological research relating to chemicals occurring in drinking water. Assessing exposure and the health consequences of chemicals in drinking water is challenging. Exposures are typically at low concentrations, measurements in water are frequently insufficient, chemicals are present in mixtures, exposure periods are usually long, multiple exposure routes may be involved, and valid biomarkers reflecting the relevant exposure period are scarce. In addition, the magnitude of the relative risks tends to be small. Research should include well-designed epidemiological studies covering regions with contrasting contaminant levels and sufficient sample size; comprehensive evaluation of contaminant occurrence in combination with bioassays integrating the effect of complex mixtures; sufficient numbers of measurements in water to evaluate geographical and temporal variability; detailed information on personal habits resulting in exposure (e.g., ingestion, showering, swimming, diet); collection of biological samples to measure relevant biomarkers; and advanced statistical models to estimate exposure and relative risks, considering methods to address measurement error. Last, the incorporation of molecular markers of early biological effects and genetic susceptibility is essential to understand the mechanisms of action. There is a particular knowledge gap and need to evaluate human exposure and the risks of a wide range of emerging contaminants. Villanueva CM, Kogevinas M, Cordier S, Templeton MR, Vermeulen R, Nuckols JR, Nieuwenhuijsen MJ, Levallois P. 2014. Assessing

  2. Intercomparison of low-level tritium in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sipka, V.; Zupancic, M.; Hadzisehovic, M.; Bacic, S.; Vukovic, Z.

    1989-01-01

    In 1985 the Section of Isotope Hydrology of the IAEA organized the fourth intercomparison for low-level tritium counting in waters. Four water samples with different 3 H concentration were sent to 85 laboratories willing to participate. The results from the different laboratories were presented in the unified questionnaires and coded. The participation in the intercomparisons for every laboratory doing low-level 3 H measurements in the waters is very important and useful. This is a best way to check the entire procedure and methods of the measurements and the reliability of the standards used. Since our laboratories are doing the natural 3 H concentration measurement in the waters for the environmental control and hydrology reasons it was necessary to take part in this intercomparison. Our standard procedure was applied. The 3 H activity in the samples was measured by liquid scintillation counting after an electrolytic enrichment. The results of our measurements of the four water samples, received from the organizers, are presented on the figures and tables presenting summary of the intercomparison. It is clear that our measurement (procedure and standards) have given satisfactory results (author)

  3. A Need for Education in Water Sustainability in the Agricultural Realm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajewski, J.

    2015-12-01

    This study draws upon the definition of water sustainability from the National Water Research Institute as the continual supply of clean water for human uses and for other living beings without compromising the water welfare of future generations. Currently, the greatest consumer of water resources worldwide is irrigation. The move from small-scale, family farms towards corporately owned and market driven, mass scale operations have drastically increased corn production and large-scale factory hog farming in the American Midwest—and the water quality related costs associated with this shift are well-documented. In the heart of the corn belt, the state of Iowa has dealt with issues over the past two decades ranging from flooding of historic proportions, to yield destroying droughts. Most recently, the state's water quality is intensely scrutinized due to nutrient levels higher than almost anywhere else in the world. While the changed agricultural landscape is ultimately responsible for these environmental costs, they can be mitigated if the farmers adopt practices that support water sustainability. However, many Iowa farmers have yet to embrace these necessary practices because of a lack of proper education in this context. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to explore how water sustainability is being conceptualized within the agricultural realm, and ultimately, how the issues are being communicated and understood within various subgroups in Iowa, such as the farmers, the college students, and the general public.

  4. Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis as pathogenic contaminants of water in Galicia, Spain: the need for safe drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Hermida, José Antonio; González-Warleta, Marta; Mezo, Mercedes

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this cross-sectional study were to detect the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis in drinking water treatments plants (DWTPs) in Galicia (NW Spain) and to identify which species and genotype of these pathogenic protozoans are present in the water. Samples of untreated water (surface or ground water sources) and of treated drinking water (in total, 254 samples) were collected from 127 DWTPs and analysed by an immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) and by PCR. Considering the untreated water samples, Cryptosporidium spp. were detected in 69 samples (54.3%) by IFAT, and DNA of this parasite was detected in 57 samples (44.8%) by PCR, whereas G. duodenalis was detected in 76 samples (59.8%) by IFAT and in 56 samples (44.0%) by PCR. Considering the treated drinking water samples, Cryptosporidium spp. was detected in 52 samples (40.9%) by IFAT, and the parasite DNA was detected in 51 samples (40.1%) by PCR, whereas G. duodenalis was detected in 58 samples (45.6%) by IFAT and in 43 samples (33.8%) by PCR. The percentage viability of the (oo)cysts ranged between 90.0% and 95.0% in all samples analysed. Cryptosporidium andersoni, C. hominis, C. parvum and assemblages A-I, A-II, E of G. duodenalis were identified. The results indicate that Cryptosporidium spp. and G. duodenalis are widespread in the environment and that DWTPs are largely ineffective in reducing/inactivating these pathogens in drinking water destined for human and animal consumption in Galicia. In conclusion, the findings suggest the need for better monitoring of water quality and identification of sources of contamination. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Assessing information needs and instrument availability for a pressurized water reactor during severe accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, Duane J. (Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States)); Arcieri, William C. (Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States)); Ward, Leonard W. (Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States))

    1994-07-01

    A five-step methodology was developed to evaluate information needs for nuclear power plants under accident conditions and the availability of plant instrumentation during severe accidents. Step 1 examines the credible accidents and their relationships to plant safety functions. Step 2 determines the information that personnel involved in accident management will need to understand plant behavior. Step 3 determines the capability of the instrumentation to function properly under severe accident conditions. Step 4 determines the conditions expected during the identified severe accidents. Step 5 compares the instrument capabilities and severe accident conditions, to evaluate the availability of the instrumentation to supply needed plant information. This methodology was applied to a pressurized water reactor with a large dry containment and the results are presented. A companion article describes application of the methodology to a boiling water reactor with a Mark I containment. ((orig.))

  6. Assessing information needs and instrument availability for a pressurized water reactor during severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, Duane J.; Arcieri, William C.; Ward, Leonard W.

    1994-01-01

    A five-step methodology was developed to evaluate information needs for nuclear power plants under accident conditions and the availability of plant instrumentation during severe accidents. Step 1 examines the credible accidents and their relationships to plant safety functions. Step 2 determines the information that personnel involved in accident management will need to understand plant behavior. Step 3 determines the capability of the instrumentation to function properly under severe accident conditions. Step 4 determines the conditions expected during the identified severe accidents. Step 5 compares the instrument capabilities and severe accident conditions, to evaluate the availability of the instrumentation to supply needed plant information. This methodology was applied to a pressurized water reactor with a large dry containment and the results are presented. A companion article describes application of the methodology to a boiling water reactor with a Mark I containment. ((orig.))

  7. The need for congressional action to finance arsenic reductions in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Rebecca Leah

    2012-11-01

    Many public water systems in the U.S. are unsafe because the communities cannot afford to comply with the current 10 parts per billion (ppb) federal arsenic standard for drinking water. Communities unable to afford improvements remain vulnerable to adverse health effects associated with higher levels of arsenic exposure. Scientific and bipartisan political consensus exists that the arsenic standard should not be less stringent than 10 ppb, and new data suggest additional adverse health effects related to arsenic exposure through drinking water. Congress has failed to reauthorize the Drinking Water State Revolving Fund program to provide reliable funding to promote compliance and reduce the risk of adverse health effects. Congress's recent ad hoc appropriations do not allow long-term planning and ongoing monitoring and maintenance. Investing in water infrastructure will lower health care costs and create American jobs. Delaying necessary upgrades will only increase the costs of improvements over time.

  8. Treatment needs for greater-than-Class C low-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, W.A.; Brouns, R.A.; Burkholder, H.C.

    1988-01-01

    Greater-than-Class C (GTCC) radioactive wastes are those low-level wastes that exceed the 10CFR61 limits for shallow-land burial but are not within the historical definition of high-level wastes (i.e., spent fuel and first-cycle reprocessing wastes). The GTCC category can include all transuranic (TRU) wastes, although for the purposes of this paper, contact-handled defense TRU wastes are excluded because of the major efforts in the past decade to prepare them for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Thus, the GTCC category includes all high-activity and remote-handled TRU wastes regardless of origin. This paper defines the need for treatment of existing and projected GTCC low-level radioactive wastes in the United States. The sources, characteristics, treatment considerations, and methods for treatment are reviewed

  9. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... www.girlshealth.gov/ Home Nutrition Nutrition basics Water Water Did you know that water makes up more ... to drink more water Other drinks How much water do you need? top Water is very important, ...

  10. Physical water scarcity metrics for monitoring progress towards SDG target 6.4: An evaluation of indicator 6.4.2 "Level of water stress".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanham, D; Hoekstra, A Y; Wada, Y; Bouraoui, F; de Roo, A; Mekonnen, M M; van de Bund, W J; Batelaan, O; Pavelic, P; Bastiaanssen, W G M; Kummu, M; Rockström, J; Liu, J; Bisselink, B; Ronco, P; Pistocchi, A; Bidoglio, G

    2018-02-01

    Target 6.4 of the recently adopted Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) deals with the reduction of water scarcity. To monitor progress towards this target, two indicators are used: Indicator 6.4.1 measuring water use efficiency and 6.4.2 measuring the level of water stress (WS). This paper aims to identify whether the currently proposed indicator 6.4.2 considers the different elements that need to be accounted for in a WS indicator. WS indicators compare water use with water availability. We identify seven essential elements: 1) both gross and net water abstraction (or withdrawal) provide important information to understand WS; 2) WS indicators need to incorporate environmental flow requirements (EFR); 3) temporal and 4) spatial disaggregation is required in a WS assessment; 5) both renewable surface water and groundwater resources, including their interaction, need to be accounted for as renewable water availability; 6) alternative available water resources need to be accounted for as well, like fossil groundwater and desalinated water; 7) WS indicators need to account for water storage in reservoirs, water recycling and managed aquifer recharge. Indicator 6.4.2 considers many of these elements, but there is need for improvement. It is recommended that WS is measured based on net abstraction as well, in addition to currently only measuring WS based on gross abstraction. It does incorporate EFR. Temporal and spatial disaggregation is indeed defined as a goal in more advanced monitoring levels, in which it is also called for a differentiation between surface and groundwater resources. However, regarding element 6 and 7 there are some shortcomings for which we provide recommendations. In addition, indicator 6.4.2 is only one indicator, which monitors blue WS, but does not give information on green or green-blue water scarcity or on water quality. Within the SDG indicator framework, some of these topics are covered with other indicators. Copyright © 2017 The Authors

  11. Development and initial validation of the Three-Levels-of-Needs Questionnaire for self-assessment of palliative needs in patients with cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Anna Thit; Petersen, Morten Aagaard; Pedersen, Lise

    2011-01-01

    To improve palliative care, it is important that questionnaires accurately assess the needs of the patients. No questionnaire existed that combined three different and important approaches to needs assessment. We developed such a questionnaire, called the Three-Levels-of-Needs Questionnaire (3LNQ......), based on literature searches. The 3LNQ measures 12 important needs with three different approaches when used as a supplement to the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30): problem intensity, problem burden, and felt need....

  12. Coupling of sea level and tidal range changes, with implications for future water levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, Adam T; Jay, David A; Talke, Stefan A; Zaron, Edward D; Pan, Jiayi; Lin, Hui

    2017-12-05

    Are perturbations to ocean tides correlated with changing sea-level and climate, and how will this affect high water levels? Here, we survey 152 tide gauges in the Pacific Ocean and South China Sea and statistically evaluate how the sum of the four largest tidal constituents, a proxy for the highest astronomical tide (HAT), changes over seasonal and interannual time scales. We find that the variability in HAT is significantly correlated with sea-level variability; approximately 35% of stations exhibit a greater than ±50 mm tidal change per meter sea-level fluctuation. Focusing on a subset of three stations with long records, probability density function (PDF) analyses of the 95% percentile exceedance of total sea level (TSL) show long-term changes of this high-water metric. At Hong Kong, the increase in tides significantly amplifies the risk caused by sea-level rise. Regions of tidal decrease and/or amplification highlight the non-linear response to sea-level variations, with the potential to amplify or mitigate against the increased flood risk caused by sea-level rise. Overall, our analysis suggests that in many regions, local flood level determinations should consider the joint effects of non-stationary tides and mean sea level (MSL) at multiple time scales.

  13. Economic sustainability, water security and multi-level governance of local water schemes in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Hakala

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the role of multi-level governance and power structures in local water security through a case study of the Nawalparasi district in Nepal. It focuses on economic sustainability as a measure to address water security, placing this thematic in the context of a complicated power structure consisting of local, district and national administration as well as external development cooperation actors. The study aims to find out whether efforts to improve the economic sustainability of water schemes have contributed to water security at the local level. In addition, it will consider the interactions between water security, power structures and local equality and justice. The research builds upon survey data from the Nepalese districts of Nawalparasi and Palpa, and a case study based on interviews and observation in Nawalparasi. The survey was performed in water schemes built within a Finnish development cooperation programme spanning from 1990 to 2004, allowing a consideration of the long-term sustainability of water management projects. This adds a crucial external influence into the intra-state power structures shaping water management in Nepal. The article thus provides an alternative perspective to cross-regional water security through a discussion combining transnational involvement with national and local points of view.

  14. Fluctuations of Lake Orta water levels: preliminary analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmi Saidi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available While the effects of past industrial pollution on the chemistry and biology of Lake Orta have been well documented, annual and seasonal fluctuations of lake levels have not yet been studied. Considering their potential impacts on both the ecosystem and on human safety, fluctuations in lake levels are an important aspect of limnological research. In the enormous catchment of Lake Maggiore, there are many rivers and lakes, and the amount of annual precipitation is both high and concentrated in spring and autumn. This has produced major flood events, most recently in November 2014. Flood events are also frequent on Lake Orta, occurring roughly triennially since 1917. The 1926, 1951, 1976 and 2014 floods were severe, with lake levels raised from 2.30 m to 3.46 m above the hydrometric zero. The most important event occurred in 1976, with a maximum level equal to 292.31 m asl and a return period of 147 years. In 2014 the lake level reached 291.89 m asl and its return period was 54 years. In this study, we defined trends and temporal fluctuations in Lake Orta water levels from 1917 to 2014, focusing on extremes. We report both annual maximum and seasonal variations of the lake water levels over this period. Both Mann-Kendall trend tests and simple linear regression were utilized to detect monotonic trends in annual and seasonal extremes, and logistic regression was used to detect trends in the number of flood events. Lake level decreased during winter and summer seasons, and a small but statistically non-significant positive trend was found in the number of flood events over the period. We provide estimations of return period for lake levels, a metric which could be used in planning lake flood protection measures.

  15. Total Water Level Fun Facts: The Relative Contribution of Extreme Total Water Levels Along the US West Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, K.; Ruggiero, P.; Stockdon, H. F.

    2016-02-01

    In the fall of 2014, parts of the US West Coast endured some of the highest monthly mean sea level anomalies on record, likely due to the presence of "the blob" (Bond et al., 2015), an anomalously warm water mass in the NE Pacific. However, despite the significantly above average water levels, the coastline experienced only marginal coastal flooding and erosion hazards because the ensuing winter lacked significant storms, underscoring the fact that extreme total water levels (TWLs) are compound events. To better understand how several individual processes combine to cause devastating coastal hazards, we investigate the relative contribution that each component (waves, tides, and non-tidal residuals) has on extreme TWLs on sandy beaches. Water level records along the US West Coast are decomposed into mean sea level, astronomical tide, and non-tidal residuals (NTRs). The NTR is further split into an intra-annual seasonal signal, monthly mean sea level anomalies (inter-annual variability), and meteorological surge. TWL time series are then generated by combining water levels with wave runup, computed using wave data and beach morphology. We use this data-driven, structural function approach to investigate the spatial variability of the relative contribution of each component to the maximum TWL event on record. We also use a probabilistic, full simulation TWL model (Serafin and Ruggiero, 2014) to generate multiple, synthetic TWL records, to explore the relative contribution of each component to extreme TWL return levels. We assess the sensitivity to local beach morphology by computing TWLs for a range of observed beach slopes. Extreme TWLs are higher in Oregon and Washington than in California. Wave runup typically comprises > 50% of the TWL signal, while NTRs often compose < 5%, illustrating the importance wave climate has on the potential for extreme TWLs. While waves are typically larger in the North, California experiences greater contributions to extreme TWLs from

  16. The need for a common standard for voltage levels of HVDC VSC technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Müller, H.K.; Torbaghan, S. Shariat; Gibescu, M.; Roggenkamp, M.M.; Meijden, M.A.M.M. van der

    2013-01-01

    The expansion of offshore wind energy as well as the increase in electricity trade between the North Sea countries leads to a growing need for additional transmission capacity. Due to the predominantly remote locations of offshore wind farms, the majority of future connections will be high-voltage direct current (HVDC) connections. In order to make the construction of offshore infrastructure more efficient, the North Sea states are currently discussing the development of a common offshore grid. Although this development still stands at the very beginning, we argue in this paper that some crucial elements should be standardized from the outset; the most important one being a common voltage level. Without such standardization, the development of a European offshore grid may be suboptimal, not cost-efficient and might even be prevented from coming into existence. We examine the technical and legal issues associated with introducing a common voltage level for the use of HVDC VSC technology, and discuss the optimal standard as well as the way in which this common standard can best be achieved. - Highlights: • We highlight the need for a common standard for HVDC VSC technology. • We outline that a standardized voltage level at ± 500 kV should be the initial focus. • We discuss the developments regarding standardization of HVDC VSC technology. • We conclude that current developments are not sufficient

  17. Analysis of facility needs level in architecture studio for students’ studio grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubis, A. S.; Hamid, B.; Pane, I. F.; Marpaung, B. O. Y.

    2018-03-01

    Architects must be able to play an active role and contribute to the realization of a sustainable environment. Architectural education has inherited many education research used qualitative and quantitative methods. The data were gathered by conducting (a) observation,(b) interviews, (c) documentation, (d) literature study, and (e) Questionnaire. The gathered data were analyzed qualitatively to find out what equipment needed in the learning process in the Architecture Studio, USU. Questionnaires and Ms. Excel were used for the quantitative analysis. The tabulation of quantitative data would be correlated with the students’ studio grades. The result of the research showed that equipment with the highest level of needs was (1) drawing table, (2) Special room for each student, (3) Internet Network, (4) Air Conditioning, (5) Sufficient lighting.

  18. Male Labor Migrants in Russia: HIV Risk Behavior Levels, Contextual Factors, and Prevention Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirkhanian, Yuri A.; Kuznetsova, Anna V.; Kelly, Jeffrey A.; DiFranceisco, Wayne J; Musatov, Vladimir B.; Avsukevich, Natalya A.; Chaika, Nikolay A.; McAuliffe, Timothy L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Although the dire life circumstances of labor migrants working in Russia are well-known, their HIV risk vulnerability and prevention needs are understudied. Low socioeconomic status, lack of access to services, separation from family, and limited risk awareness all contribute to migrants’ HIV vulnerability. Methods Male labor migrants in St. Petersburg (n=499) were administered assessments of their sexual behavior practices, substance use, and psychosocial characteristics related to risk and well-being. Results Thirty percent of migrants reported multiple female partners in the past 3 months. Condom use was low, ranging from 35% with permanent to 52% with casual partners. Central Asian migrants had very low AIDS knowledge, low levels of substance use, moderate sexual risk, high depression, and poor social supports. Eastern European migrants had higher AIDS knowledge, alcohol and drug use, and sexual risk. Discussion Improved HIV prevention efforts are needed to reduce the risk vulnerability of migrants who relocate to high disease prevalence areas. PMID:20690041

  19. Site characterization information needs for a high-level waste geologic repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, D.C.; Nataraja, M.S.; Justus, P.S.

    1987-01-01

    At each of the three candidate sites recommended for site characterization for High-Level Waste Geologic Repository development, the DOE has proposed to conduct both surface-based testing and in situ exploration and testing at the depths that wastes would be emplaced. The basic information needs and consequently the planned surface-based and in situ testing program will be governed to a large extent by the amount of credit taken for individual components of the geologic repository in meeting the performance objectives and siting criteria. Therefore, identified information to be acquired from site characterization activities should be commensurate with DOE's assigned performance goals for the repository system components on a site-specific basis. Because of the uncertainties that are likely to be associated with initial assignment of performance goals, the information needs should be both reasonably and conservatively identified

  20. The study and improvement of water level control of pressurizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Peng; Zhang Qinshun

    2006-01-01

    The PI controller which is used widely in water level control of pressurizer in reactor control system usually leads dynamic overshoot and long setting time. The improvement project for intelligent fuzzy controller to take the place of PI controller is advanced. This paper researches the water level control of pressurizer in reactor control system of Daya Bay Phase I, and describes the method of intelligent fuzzy control in practice. Simulation indicates that the fuzzy control has advantages of small overshoot and short settling time. It can also improve control system's real time property and anti-interference ability. Especially for non-linear and time-varying complicated control systems, it can obtain good control results. (authors)

  1. Units 3 and 4 steam generators new water level control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragoev, D.; Genov, St.

    2001-01-01

    The Steam Generator Water Level Control System is one of the most important for the normal operation systems, related to the safety and reliability of the units. The main upgrading objective for the SG level and SGWLC System modernization is to assure an automatic maintaining of the SG level within acceptable limits (below protections and interlocks) from 0% to 100% of the power in normal operation conditions and in case of transients followed by disturbances in the SG controlled parameters - level, steam flow, feedwater flow and/or pressure/temperature. To achieve this objective, the computerized controllers of new SG water level control system follows current computer control technology and is implemented together with replacement of the feedwater control valves and the needed I and C equipment. (author)

  2. Reservoir water level forecasting using group method of data handling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaji, Amir Hossein; Bonakdari, Hossein; Gharabaghi, Bahram

    2018-06-01

    Accurately forecasted reservoir water level is among the most vital data for efficient reservoir structure design and management. In this study, the group method of data handling is combined with the minimum description length method to develop a very practical and functional model for predicting reservoir water levels. The models' performance is evaluated using two groups of input combinations based on recent days and recent weeks. Four different input combinations are considered in total. The data collected from Chahnimeh#1 Reservoir in eastern Iran are used for model training and validation. To assess the models' applicability in practical situations, the models are made to predict a non-observed dataset for the nearby Chahnimeh#4 Reservoir. According to the results, input combinations (L, L -1) and (L, L -1, L -12) for recent days with root-mean-squared error (RMSE) of 0.3478 and 0.3767, respectively, outperform input combinations (L, L -7) and (L, L -7, L -14) for recent weeks with RMSE of 0.3866 and 0.4378, respectively, with the dataset from https://www.typingclub.com/st. Accordingly, (L, L -1) is selected as the best input combination for making 7-day ahead predictions of reservoir water levels.

  3. A detection-level hazardous waste ground-water monitoring compliance plan for the 200 areas low-level burial grounds and retrievable storage units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-02-01

    This plan defines the actions needed to achieve detection-level monitoring compliance at the Hanford Site 200 Areas Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBG) in accordance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Compliance will be achieved through characterization of the hydrogeology and monitoring of the ground water beneath the LLBG located in the Hanford Site 200 Areas. 13 refs., 20 figs

  4. Voyageurs National Park: Water-level regulation and effects on water quality and aquatic biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Victoria G.; Maki, Ryan P.; LeDuc, Jaime F.

    2018-01-01

    Following dam installations in the remote Rainy Lake Basin during the early 1900s, water-level fluctuations were considered extreme (1914–1949) compared to more natural conditions. In 1949, the International Joint Commission (IJC), which sets rules governing dam operation on waters shared by the United States and Canada, established the first rule curves to regulate water levels on these waterbodies. However, rule curves established prior to 2000 were determined to be detrimental to the ecosystem. Therefore, the IJC implemented an order in 2000 to change rule curves and to restore a more natural water regime. After 2000, measured chlorophyll-a concentrations in the two most eutrophic water bodies decreased whereas concentrations in oligotrophic lakes did not show significant water-quality differences. Fish mercury data were inconclusive, due to the variation in water levels and fish mercury concentrations, but can be used by the IJC as part of a long term data set.

  5. Water Balance and Level Change of Lake Babati, Tanzania: Sensitivity to Hydroclimatic Forcings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René P. Mbanguka

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We develop and present a novel integrated water balance model that accounts for lake water—groundwater interactions, and apply it to the semi-closed freshwater Lake Babati system, Northern Tanzania, East Africa. The model was calibrated and used to evaluate the lake level sensitivity to changes in key hydro-climatic variables such as temperature, precipitation, humidity and cloudiness. The lake response to the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, Phase 5 (CMIP5 output on possible future climate outcomes was evaluated, an essential basis in understanding future water security and flooding risk in the region. Results show high lake level sensitivity to cloudiness. Increased focus on cloud fraction measurement and interpretation could likely improve projections of lake levels and surface water availability. Modelled divergent results on the future (21st century development of Lake Babati can be explained by the precipitation output variability of CMIP5 models being comparable to the precipitation change needed to drive the water balance model from lake dry-out to overflow; this condition is likely shared with many other East African lake systems. The developed methodology could be useful in investigations on change-driving processes in complex climate—drainage basin—lake systems, which are needed to support sustainable water resource planning in data scarce tropical Africa.

  6. Sodium-water reaction data needed by a utility for design assessment purposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolt, P R [Fast Reactor Engineering, Barnwood, Gloucester (United Kingdom)

    1978-10-01

    Worldwide LMFBR experience has shown that LMFBR steam generator water/steam leakage into sodium can severely reduce steam generator availability and cause lengthy plant outages. Utility assessment LMFBR designs prior to placing an order to construct are likely to give emphasis to matters that can affect steam generator integrity, reliability and total operating cost. The data needed in carrying out such assessments is described. (author)

  7. Sodium-water reaction data needed by a utility for design assessment purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolt, P.R.

    1978-01-01

    Worldwide LMFBR experience has shown that LMFBR steam generator water/steam leakage into sodium can severely reduce steam generator availability and cause lengthy plant outages. Utility assessment LMFBR designs prior to placing an order to construct are likely to give emphasis to matters that can affect steam generator integrity, reliability and total operating cost. The data needed in carrying out such assessments is described. (author)

  8. The need for national diagnostic reference levels: entrance surface dose measurement in intraoral radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortazavi, S. M. J.; Shareghi, A.; Kavousi, A.; Ghiassi-Nejad, M.; Jafari-Zadeh, M.; Nazeri, F.; Mozdarani, H.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Intraoral radiographies are the most frequent X-ray examinations in humans. According to International Commission on Radiation Protection recommendations, the selection of a diagnostic reference level should be specific to a country or region. Critical organs such as thyroid gland are exposed to X-rays in intraoral radiography and these exposures should be kept as low as reasonably achievable. To assist the development of DRLs for intraoral radiography, a National Radiation Protection Department-sponsored pilot study was carried out. Materials and methods: thermoluminescent dosimetry is widely acknowledged to be the recommended method for measuring entrance surface doses. In this study, entrance surface doses was measured using LiF thermoluminescent dosimeters on the skin (either mandibular or maxillary arcs) of 40 patients. Three thermoluminescent dosimetry chips were placed on the skin of each patient. The doses were averaged for each radiography and mean entrance surface doses of all patients calculated. Results: the mean ±SD entrance surface dose at the center of the beam on the patient's skin in intraoral radiography was 1.173 ±0.606 mGy (ranged from 0.01 o 0.40 m Gy). The mean entrance surface doses for male and female patients were 1.380± 0.823, and 1.004± 0.258 respectively. No statistically significant difference was found between these means. Despite its necessity , in national level , there is no published data on the diagnostic reference levels for intraoral radiography. However, the results obtained in this study are lower than those reported by investigators in other countries. Conclusion: in IR Iran , due to lack of large scale studies, no diagnostic reference levels have been set for X-ray diagnostic procedures. Due to lack of national diagnostic reference levels, it is not possible to clarify whether in intraoral radiographies any dose reduction techniques are needed. We intend to perform similar nationwide studies to set the

  9. Field instrumentation and testing needs for a high level waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marti, J.; Maini, T.

    1981-03-01

    A review has been conducted of the testing and measurement needs posed by a deep geologic High Level Waste (HLW) repository in crystalline or argillaceous rocks. Siting, design, construction, operation and decommissioning of the repository have been covered, together with the planning of a Test and Demonstration Facility. Instruments and methods available have been critically assessed in their ability to fulfil the aforementioned testing and monitoring programmes. Special attention has been paid to the relation of measurements to the data needs and to the tests likely to generate such data. This assessment has concentrated on measurements of absolute rock stresses, monitoring of changes in rock stress, evaluation of the rock mass deformability, measurement of relative displacements and determination of the hydrogeologic parameters of the rock mass. Other measurements have been studied with a lesser degree of attention. The overall conclusion is that, from the instrumentation and testing points of view, present plans for a test and demonstration facility in the early nineties and a repository soon after 2000 are indeed feasible. Specific conclusions on the state-of-the-art and development needs are presented in the report. (author)

  10. Hydration level is an internal variable for computing motivation to obtain water rewards in monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamimoto, Takafumi; Yamada, Hiroshi; Hori, Yukiko; Suhara, Tetsuya

    2012-05-01

    In the process of motivation to engage in a behavior, valuation of the expected outcome is comprised of not only external variables (i.e., incentives) but also internal variables (i.e., drive). However, the exact neural mechanism that integrates these variables for the computation of motivational value remains unclear. Besides, the signal of physiological needs, which serves as the primary internal variable for this computation, remains to be identified. Concerning fluid rewards, the osmolality level, one of the physiological indices for the level of thirst, may be an internal variable for valuation, since an increase in the osmolality level induces drinking behavior. Here, to examine the relationship between osmolality and the motivational value of a water reward, we repeatedly measured the blood osmolality level, while 2 monkeys continuously performed an instrumental task until they spontaneously stopped. We found that, as the total amount of water earned increased, the osmolality level progressively decreased (i.e., the hydration level increased) in an individual-dependent manner. There was a significant negative correlation between the error rate of the task (the proportion of trials with low motivation) and the osmolality level. We also found that the increase in the error rate with reward accumulation can be well explained by a formula describing the changes in the osmolality level. These results provide a biologically supported computational formula for the motivational value of a water reward that depends on the hydration level, enabling us to identify the neural mechanism that integrates internal and external variables.

  11. Water level control for a nuclear steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Tan

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → A water level control system for a nuclear steam generator (SG) is proposed. → The parameters of the control system are directly related to those of the plant model thus scheduling is easy to implement in practice. → The proposed gain-scheduled controller can achieve good performance at both low and high power levels. - Abstract: A water level control system for a nuclear steam generator (SG) is proposed. The control system consists of a feedback controller and a feedforward controller. The feedback controller is of first order, the feedforward controller is of second order, and parameters of the two controllers are directly related to the parameters of plant model thus scheduling is easy to implement in practice. Robustness and performance of the feedback and the feedforward controllers are analyzed in details and tuning of the two parameters of the controllers are discussed. Comparisons among a single robust controller, a multi-model controller and a gain-scheduled controller are studied. It is shown that the proposed gain-scheduled controller can achieve good performance at both low and high power levels.

  12. A review on effectiveness of best management practices in improving hydrology and water quality: Needs and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yaoze; Engel, Bernard A; Flanagan, Dennis C; Gitau, Margaret W; McMillan, Sara K; Chaubey, Indrajeet

    2017-12-01

    Best management practices (BMPs) have been widely used to address hydrology and water quality issues in both agricultural and urban areas. Increasing numbers of BMPs have been studied in research projects and implemented in watershed management projects, but a gap remains in quantifying their effectiveness through time. In this paper, we review the current knowledge about BMP efficiencies, which indicates that most empirical studies have focused on short-term efficiencies, while few have explored long-term efficiencies. Most simulation efforts that consider BMPs assume constant performance irrespective of ages of the practices, generally based on anticipated maintenance activities or the expected performance over the life of the BMP(s). However, efficiencies of BMPs likely change over time irrespective of maintenance due to factors such as degradation of structures and accumulation of pollutants. Generally, the impacts of BMPs implemented in water quality protection programs at watershed levels have not been as rapid or large as expected, possibly due to overly high expectations for practice long-term efficiency, with BMPs even being sources of pollutants under some conditions and during some time periods. The review of available datasets reveals that current data are limited regarding both short-term and long-term BMP efficiency. Based on this review, this paper provides suggestions regarding needs and opportunities. Existing practice efficiency data need to be compiled. New data on BMP efficiencies that consider important factors, such as maintenance activities, also need to be collected. Then, the existing and new data need to be analyzed. Further research is needed to create a framework, as well as modeling approaches built on the framework, to simulate changes in BMP efficiencies with time. The research community needs to work together in addressing these needs and opportunities, which will assist decision makers in formulating better decisions regarding BMP

  13. Comparative Analysis of Nitrate Levels in Pensacola Area Rain Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, J.; Caffrey, J. M.; Maestre, A.; Landing, W. M.

    2017-12-01

    Nitrate is an important constituent of acid rain and often correlated with atmospheric NOx levels. This link between air and water quality was tested over a course of summer 2017 and compared to data from 2005-2012. Rain water samples collected from late May through early July of 2017 were tested for pH and nitrate concentrations. These months were among the stormiest on record for the Northwest Florida region with a total rainfall of 648 mm. The data analyzed from these rain events was compared to previous data to show the trends of nitrate and pH levels in the rainwater. Median pH for this study was 5.2, higher than the medians between 2015-2012 which ranged from 4.2 to 5.0, while nitrate concentrations for this study were 15.2 µM. This contrasts with a significant drop in nitrate concentrations from 41 µM in 2005 and 2006 to around 12 µM between 2007 and 2012. The drop between 2006-7 was suspected to be a result of implementation of NOx controls at Plant Crist coal fired power plant and other Clean Air Act requirements. These inputs of nitrate and H+ ions from rainwater can have a significant influence water quality throughout the region.

  14. Amount of leachant and water absorption levels of wood treated with borates and water repellents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baysal, Ergun; Sonmez, Abdullah; Colak, Mehmet; Toker, Hilmi

    2006-12-01

    Wood protection efficacy of borates against biological agents, flame retardancy, and suitability to the environment is well known. Since borates can be applied to timber as water based solutions, they are preferred economically as well. Even though they are highly mobile in wood, boron compounds are widely used in timber preservation. Borates migrate in liquid and increase the hygroscopicity of wood in damp conditions. This study deals with the physical restriction of water access in wood by impregnating water repellent agents into wood to limit amount of leachant and water absorption levels of wood after boron treatment. Borates were incorporated with polyethylene glycol-400 (PEG-400) their bulking effect in wood was considered. Results indicated that the amount of leachates from wood treated with borates in PEG-400 was remarkably higher compared to those of wood treated with the aqueous solutions of borates. Water absorption (WA) levels of wood treated with aqueous solutions of borates were higher than those of their treated samples with the solutions in PEG-400. Secondary treatments of wood with the water repellent (WR) chemicals following borate impregnation reduced the leaching of chemicals from wood in water and also WA of the specimens were less than those of the wood treated with only borates from aqueous and PEG solutions. Styrene (St) was the most effective monomer among the other agents used in terms of immobility effect on borates and WA.

  15. Occurrence of ²¹⁰Po and biological effects of low-level exposure: the need for research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, Ralph L; Wiemels, Joseph L

    2012-09-01

    Polonium-210 (²¹⁰Po) concentrations that exceed 1 Bq/L in drinking-water supplies have been reported from four widely separated U.S. states where exposure to it went unnoticed for decades. The radionuclide grandparents of ²¹⁰Po are common in sediments, and segments of the public may be chronically exposed to low levels of ²¹⁰Po in drinking water or in food products from animals raised in contaminated areas. We summarized information on the environmental behavior, biokinetics, and toxicology of ²¹⁰Po and identified the need for future research. Potential linkages between environmental exposure to ²¹⁰Po and human health effects were identified in a literature review. ²¹⁰Po accumulates in the ovaries where it kills primary oocytes at low doses. Because of its radiosensitivity and tendency to concentrate ²¹⁰Po, the ovary may be the critical organ in determining the lowest injurious dose for ²¹⁰Po. ²¹⁰Po also accumulates in the yolk sac of the embryo and in the fetal and placental tissues. Low-level exposure to ²¹⁰Po may have subtle, long-term biological effects because of its tropism towards reproductive and embryonic and fetal tissues where exposure to a single alpha particle may kill or damage critical cells. ²¹⁰Po is present in cigarettes and maternal smoking has several effects that appear consistent with the toxicology of ²¹⁰Po. Much of the important biological and toxicological research on ²¹⁰Po is more than four decades old. New research is needed to evaluate environmental exposure to ²¹⁰Po and the biological effects of low-dose exposure to it so that public health officials can develop appropriate mitigation measures where necessary.

  16. Relative Sea Level, Tidal Range, and Extreme Water Levels in Boston Harbor from 1825 to 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talke, S. A.; Kemp, A.; Woodruff, J. D.

    2017-12-01

    Long time series of water-level measurements made by tide gauges provide a rich and valuable observational history of relative sea-level change, the frequency and height of extreme water levels and evolving tidal regimes. However, relatively few locations have available tide-gauge records longer than 100 years and most of these places are in northern Europe. This spatio-temporal distribution hinders efforts to understand global-, regional- and local-scale trends. Using newly-discovered archival measurements, we constructed a 200 year, instrumental record of water levels, tides, and storm surges in Boston Harbor. We detail the recovery, datum reconstruction, digitization, quality assurance, and analysis of this extended observational record. Local, decadally-averaged relative sea-level rose by 0.28 ± 0.05 m since the 1820s, with an acceleration of 0.023 ±0.009 mm/yr2. Approximately 0.13 ± 0.02 m of the observed RSL rise occurred due to ongoing glacial isostatic adjustment, and the remainder occurred due to changes in ocean mass and volume associated with the onset of modern mean sea-level rise. Change-point analysis of the new relative sea level record confirms that anthropogenic rise began in 1924-1932, which is in agreement with global mean sea level estimates from the global tide gauge network. Tide range decreased by 5.5% between 1830 and 1910, likely due in large part to anthropogenic development. Storm tides in Boston Harbor are produced primarily by extratropical storms during the November-April time frame. The three largest storm tides occurred in 1851, 1909, and 1978. Because 90% of the top 20 storm tides since 1825 occurred during a spring tide, the secular change in tide range contributes to a slight reduction in storm tide magnitudes. However, non-stationarity in storm hazard was historically driven primarily by local relative sea-level rise; a modest 0.2 m increase in relative sea level reduces the 100 year high water mark to a once-in-10 year event.

  17. Detection of ultra-low levels of DNA changes by drinking water: epidemiologically important finding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Parmila; Kamiseki, Meiko; Biyani, Manish; Suzuki, Miho; Nemoto, Naoto; Aita, Takuyo; Nishigaki, Koichi

    2015-02-01

    The safety of drinking water is essential to our health. In this context, the mutagenicity of water needs to be checked strictly. However, from the methodological limit, the lower concentration (less than parts per million) of mutagenicity could not be detected, though there have been of interest in the effect of less concentration mutagens. Here, we describe a highly sensitive mutation assay that detects mutagens at the ppb level, termed genome profiling-based mutation assay (GPMA). This consists of two steps; (i) Escherichia coli culture in the medium with/without mutagens and (ii) Genome profiling (GP) method (an integrated method of random PCR, temperature gradient gel electrophoresis and computer-aided normalization). Owing to high sensitivity of this method, very low concentration of mutagens in tap water could be directly detected without introducing burdensome concentration processes, enabling rapid measurement of low concentration samples. Less expectedly, all of the tap waters tested (22 samples) were shown to be significantly mutagenic while mineral waters were not. Resultantly, this article informs two facts that the GPMA method is competent to measure the mutagenicity of waters directly and the experimental results supported the former reports that the city tap waters contain very low level of mutagenicity reagent trihalomethanes. © The Authors 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Japanese Biochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  18. Global gray water footprint and water pollution levels related to anthropogenic nitrogen loads to fresh water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mekonnen, Mesfin; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2015-01-01

    This is the first global assessment of nitrogen-related water pollution in river basins with a specification of the pollution by economic sector, and by crop for the agricultural sector. At a spatial resolution of 5 by 5 arc minute, we estimate anthropogenic nitrogen (N) loads to freshwater,

  19. An Analysis of the Needs of Korean EFL Learners in the Collegiate Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Suk Lee

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the learning needs and preferences of Korean EFL learners in the collegiate level studying at a university in Korea. The result of this study indicates that the respondents feel, among the four macro skills of English, speaking and writing are as equally difficult skills to master. These were followed by reading and listening, respectively. Also as the goal of English learning, the respondents answered getting a high score in such tests as TOEIC and TOEFL. As the effective strategies to learn English, the respondents consider immediate correction of mistakes in speaking and writing and using English as a method of instruction to be effective learning methods. On the other hand, the usage of the Korean language to teach English and the intensive grammar classes are considered as unhelpful in English learning.

  20. Formal specification and animation of a water level monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, P.S.; Stokes, P.A.

    1993-03-01

    This report describes the Vienna Development Method (VDM), which is a formal method for software specification and development. VDM evolved out of attempts to use mathematics in programming language specifications in order to avoid ambiguities in specifications written in natural language. This report also describes the use of VDM for a real-time application, where it is used to formally specify the requirements of a water level monitoring system. The procedures and techniques used to produce an executable form (animation) of the specification are covered. (Author)

  1. Surface Water Connectivity, Flow Pathways and Water Level Fluctuation in a Cold Region Deltaic Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, D. L.; Niemann, O.; Skelly, R.; Monk, W. A.; Baird, D. J.

    2017-12-01

    The Peace-Athabasca Delta (PAD) is a 6000 km2 deltaic floodplain ecosystem of international importance (Wood Buffalo National Park, Ramsar Convention, UNESCO World Heritage, and SWOT satellite water level calibration/validation site). The low-relief floodplain formed at the confluence of the Peace, Athabasca and Birch rivers with Lake Athabasca. More than 1000 wetland and lake basins have varying degrees of connectivity to the main flow system. Hydroperiod and water storage is influenced by ice-jam and open-water inundations and prevailing semi-arid climate that control water drawdown. Prior studies have identified pathways of river-to-wetland floodwater connection and historical water level fluctuation/trends as a key knowledge gaps, limiting our knowledge of deltaic ecosystem status and potential hydroecological responses to climate change and upstream water alterations to flow contributions. To address this knowledge gap, surface elevation mapping of the PAD has been conducted since 2012 using aerial remote sensing Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR), plus thousands of ground based surface and bathymetric survey points tied to Global Positioning System (GPS) were obtained. The elevation information was used to develop a high resolution digital terrain model to simulate and investigate surface water connectivity. Importantly, the surveyed areas contain a set of wetland monitoring sites where ground-based surface water connectivity, water level/depth, water quality, and aquatic ecology (eg, vegetation, macroinvertebrate and muskrat) have been examined. The goal of this presentation is to present an assessment of: i) surface water fluctuation and connectivity for PAD wetland sites; ii) 40+ year inter-annual hydroperiod reconstruction for a perched basin using a combination of field measurements, remote sensing estimates, and historical documents; and iii) outline an approach to integrate newly available hydro-bio-geophysical information into a novel, multi

  2. Climate Change Extreme Events: Meeting the Information Needs of Water Resource Managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quay, R.; Garfin, G. M.; Dominguez, F.; Hirschboeck, K. K.; Woodhouse, C. A.; Guido, Z.; White, D. D.

    2013-12-01

    Information about climate has long been used by water managers to develop short term and long term plans and strategies for regional and local water resources. Inherent within longer term forecasts is an element of uncertainty, which is particularly evident in Global Climate model results for precipitation. For example in the southwest estimates in the flow of the Colorado River based on GCM results indicate changes from 120% or current flow to 60%. Many water resource managers are now using global climate model down scaled estimates results as indications of potential climate change as part of that planning. They are addressing the uncertainty within these estimates by using an anticipatory planning approach looking at a range of possible futures. One aspect of climate that is important for such planning are estimates of future extreme storm (short term) and drought (long term) events. However, the climate science of future possible changes in extreme events is less mature than general climate change science. At a recent workshop among climate scientists and water managers in the southwest, it was concluded the science of climate change extreme events is at least a decade away from being robust enough to be useful for water managers in their water resource management activities. However, it was proposed that there are existing estimates and records of past flooding and drought events that could be combined with general climate change science to create possible future events. These derived events could be of sufficient detail to be used by water resource managers until such time that the science of extreme events is able to provide more detailed estimates. Based on the results of this workshop and other work being done by the Decision Center for a Desert City at Arizona State University and the Climate Assessment for the Southwest center at University of Arizona., this article will 1) review what are the extreme event data needs of Water Resource Managers in the

  3. Littoral zones in shallow lakes. Contribution to water quality in relation to water level regime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sollie, S.

    2007-01-01

    Littoral zones with emergent vegetation are very narrow or even lacking in Dutch shallow lakes due to a combination of changed water level regime and unfavorable shore morphometry. These zones are important as a habitat for plants and animals, increasing species diversity. It has also been

  4. Influence of Closing Storm Surge Barrier on Extreme Water Levels and Water Exchange; The Limfjord, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen Quvang Harck; Bentzen, Thomas Ruby; Larsen, Torben

    2014-01-01

    the increased risk of flooding in the estuary has revitalized the discussion whether this connection should be closed. In this paper, it is shown by numerical simulation that the establishment of a storm surge barrier across Thyborøn Channel can significantly reduce the peak water levels in the central...

  5. What evidence and support do state-level public health practitioners need to address obesity prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeman, Jennifer; Teal, Randall; Jernigan, Jan; Reed, Jenica Huddleston; Farris, Rosanne; Ammerman, Alice

    2014-01-01

    Obesity has reached epidemic proportions. Public health practitioners are distinctly positioned to promote the environmental changes essential to addressing obesity. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and other entities provide evidence and technical assistance to support this work, yet little is known about how practitioners use evidence and support as they intervene to prevent obesity. The study's purpose was to describe how practitioners and CDC project officers characterized the obesity prevention task, where practitioners accessed support and evidence, and what approaches to support and evidence they found most useful. APPROACH OR DESIGN: Mixed-methods, cross-sectional interviews, and survey. State-level public health obesity prevention programs. Public health practitioners and CDC project officers. We conducted 10 in-depth interviews with public health practitioners (n = 7) and project officers (n = 3) followed by an online survey completed by 62 practitioners (50% response rate). We applied content analysis to interview data and descriptive statistics to survey data. Practitioners characterized obesity prevention as uncertain and complex, involving interdependence among actors, multiple levels of activity, an excess of information, and a paucity of evidence. Survey findings provide further detail on the types of evidence and support practitioners used and valued. We recommend approaches to tailoring evidence and support to the needs of practitioners working on obesity prevention and other complex health problems.

  6. Need for certification of household water treatment products: examples from Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Anna; Pierre-Louis, Jocelyne; Joseph, Flaurine; Sylvain, Ginelove; Patrick, Molly; Lantagne, Daniele

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate four household water treatment (HWT) products currently seeking approval for distribution in Haiti, through the application of a recently-developed national HWT product certification process. Four chemical treatment products were evaluated against the certification process validation stage by verifying international product certifications confirming treatment efficacy and reviewing laboratory efficacy data against WHO HWT microbiological performance targets; and against the approval stage by confirming product composition, evaluating treated water chemical content against national and international drinking water quality guidelines and reviewing packaging for dosing ability and usage directions in Creole. None of the four evaluated products fulfilled validation or approval stage requirements. None was certified by an international agency as efficacious for drinking water treatment, and none had data demonstrating its ability to meet WHO HWT performance targets. All product sample compositions differed from labelled composition by >20%, and no packaging included complete usage directions in Creole. Product manufacturers provided information that was inapplicable, did not demonstrate product efficacy, and was insufficient to ensure safe product use. Capacity building is needed with country regulatory agencies to objectively evaluate HWT products. Products should be internationally assessed against WHO performance targets and also locally approved, considering language, culture and usability, to ensure effective HWT. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Water-Stressed Loquat Trees Need More Time and Heat to Ripen Their Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Cuevas

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available To determine if water-stressed trees need more time and heat to mature their fruits, we compared chronological and thermal time from bloom to harvest among control fully-irrigated ‘Algerie’ loquat trees and trees suffering prior-to-bloom deficit irrigation (DI. Heat requirement calculation was performed using the double sine method with a lower threshold temperature of 3 °C. The results show that the greater the blooming advancement achieved by DI, the longer the period to mature the fruits. Such a pattern indicates that the longer duration for bloom-harvest period under DI is due to a displacement of the reproductive phenology to cooler dates. However, some effects of DI on heat requirements for ripening persist, indicating a slower fruit development in some, but not all, DI treatments. The differences in fruit development rate between fully-irrigated and water-stressed trees were established during the phase of rapid fruit growth. The comparison of water stress effects on sink (flower size and seed number and source (leaf number and size, gas exchange and mineral and carbohydrate nutrition of DI treatments seems to indicate that the amount of stored reserves in the leaves to sustain early fruit development is the most plausible reason behind the increase in thermal time between bloom and harvest in water-stressed loquats.

  8. Arsenic removal methods for drinking water in the developing countries: technological developments and research needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Fayzul; Chowdhury, Shakhawat

    2017-11-01

    Arsenic pollution of drinking water is a concern, particularly in the developing countries. Removal of arsenic from drinking water is strongly recommended. Despite the availability of efficient technologies for arsenic removal, the small and rural communities in the developing countries are not capable of employing most of these technologies due to their high cost and technical complexity. There is a need for the "low-cost" and "easy to use" technologies to protect the humans in the arsenic affected developing countries. In this study, arsenic removal technologies were summarized and the low-cost technologies were reviewed. The advantages and disadvantages of these technologies were identified and their scopes of applications and improvements were investigated. The costs were compared in context to the capacity of the low-income populations in the developing countries. Finally, future research directions were proposed to protect the low-income populations in the developing countries.

  9. Automated concept-level information extraction to reduce the need for custom software and rules development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Avolio, Leonard W; Nguyen, Thien M; Goryachev, Sergey; Fiore, Louis D

    2011-01-01

    Despite at least 40 years of promising empirical performance, very few clinical natural language processing (NLP) or information extraction systems currently contribute to medical science or care. The authors address this gap by reducing the need for custom software and rules development with a graphical user interface-driven, highly generalizable approach to concept-level retrieval. A 'learn by example' approach combines features derived from open-source NLP pipelines with open-source machine learning classifiers to automatically and iteratively evaluate top-performing configurations. The Fourth i2b2/VA Shared Task Challenge's concept extraction task provided the data sets and metrics used to evaluate performance. Top F-measure scores for each of the tasks were medical problems (0.83), treatments (0.82), and tests (0.83). Recall lagged precision in all experiments. Precision was near or above 0.90 in all tasks. Discussion With no customization for the tasks and less than 5 min of end-user time to configure and launch each experiment, the average F-measure was 0.83, one point behind the mean F-measure of the 22 entrants in the competition. Strong precision scores indicate the potential of applying the approach for more specific clinical information extraction tasks. There was not one best configuration, supporting an iterative approach to model creation. Acceptable levels of performance can be achieved using fully automated and generalizable approaches to concept-level information extraction. The described implementation and related documentation is available for download.

  10. Mercury and water level fluctuations in lakes of northern Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, James H.; Maki, Ryan P; Christensen, Victoria G.; Sandheinrich, Mark B.; LeDuc, Jaime F.; Kissane, Claire; Knights, Brent C.

    2017-01-01

    Large lake ecosystems support a variety of ecosystem services in surrounding communities, including recreational and commercial fishing. However, many northern temperate fisheries are contaminated by mercury. Annual variation in mercury accumulation in fish has previously been linked to water level (WL) fluctuations, opening the possibility of regulating water levels in a manner that minimizes or reduces mercury contamination in fisheries. Here, we compiled a long-term dataset (1997-2015) of mercury content in young-of-year Yellow Perch (Perca flavescens) from six lakes on the border between the U.S. and Canada and examined whether mercury content appeared to be related to several metrics of WL fluctuation (e.g., spring WL rise, annual maximum WL, and year-to-year change in maximum WL). Using simple correlation analysis, several WL metrics appear to be strongly correlated to Yellow Perch mercury content, although the strength of these correlations varies by lake. We also used many WL metrics, water quality measurements, temperature and annual deposition data to build predictive models using partial least squared regression (PLSR) analysis for each lake. These PLSR models showed some variation among lakes, but also supported strong associations between WL fluctuations and annual variation in Yellow Perch mercury content. The study lakes underwent a modest change in WL management in 2000, when winter WL minimums were increased by about 1 m in five of the six study lakes. Using the PLSR models, we estimated how this change in WL management would have affected Yellow Perch mercury content. For four of the study lakes, the change in WL management that occurred in 2000 likely reduced Yellow Perch mercury content, relative to the previous WL management regime.

  11. A Receding Horizon Controller for the Steam Generator Water Level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, Man Gyun; Lee, Yoon Joon

    2003-01-01

    In this work, the receding horizon control method was used to control the water level of nuclear steam generators and applied to two linear models and also a nonlinear model of steam generators. A receding horizon control method is to solve an optimization problem for finite future steps at current time and to implement the first optimal control input as the current control input. The procedure is then repeated at each subsequent instant. The dynamics of steam generators is very different according to power levels. The receding horizon controller is designed by using a reduced linear steam generator model fixed over a certain power range and applied to a Westinghouse-type (U-tube recirculating type) nuclear steam generator. The proposed controller designed at a fixed power level shows good performance for any other power level within this power range. The steam generator shows actually nonlinear characteristics. Therefore, the proposed algorithm is implemented for a nonlinear model of the nuclear steam generator to verify its real performance and also shows good responses

  12. Towards tributyltin quantification in natural water at the Environmental Quality Standard level required by the Water Framework Directive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alasonati, Enrica; Fettig, Ina; Richter, Janine; Philipp, Rosemarie; Milačič, Radmila; Sčančar, Janez; Zuliani, Tea; Tunç, Murat; Bilsel, Mine; Gören, Ahmet Ceyhan; Fisicaro, Paola

    2016-11-01

    The European Union (EU) has included tributyltin (TBT) and its compounds in the list of priority water pollutants. Quality standards demanded by the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) require determination of TBT at so low concentration level that chemical analysis is still difficult and further research is needed to improve the sensitivity, the accuracy and the precision of existing methodologies. Within the frame of a joint research project "Traceable measurements for monitoring critical pollutants under the European Water Framework Directive" in the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP), four metrological and designated institutes have developed a primary method to quantify TBT in natural water using liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and species-specific isotope dilution mass spectrometry (SSIDMS). The procedure has been validated at the Environmental Quality Standard (EQS) level (0.2ngL(-1) as cation) and at the WFD-required limit of quantification (LOQ) (0.06ngL(-1) as cation). The LOQ of the methodology was 0.06ngL(-1) and the average measurement uncertainty at the LOQ was 36%, which agreed with WFD requirements. The analytical difficulties of the method, namely the presence of TBT in blanks and the sources of measurement uncertainties, as well as the interlaboratory comparison results are discussed in detail. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Mainstreaming ecosystem services in state-level conservation planning: progress and future needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan R. Noe

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystem services (ES have become an important focus of the conservation movement but have yet to be mainstreamed into environmental policy and management, especially at the state and federal levels. Adoption of an ES approach requires agency personnel to have knowledge or experience in implementing an ES approach and metrics that link potential actions to impacts on ES. We characterize the degree to which ES considerations are taken into account in setting priorities for conservation acquisitions in the U.S. state of Minnesota. We assess two core dimensions of an ES approach: (1 multiobjective targeting and (2 measuring program benefits in terms of increases in human well-being. We assess the degree to which these two dimensions occur in statute and in conservation program decision making. We find that state statute provides clear support for an ES approach in conservation funding mechanisms. However, we find that many of the programs funded through those mechanisms have more traditional habitat-centric approaches. In contrast to statutory emphasis, water quality related metrics were not prominent. We recommend expanding current prioritization systems to include a broader suite of metrics that are linked to human well-being to further mainstream ES in Minnesota. These metrics can be generated from existing data and would allow program managers to better communicate the public benefits of conservation spending.

  14. Real-time Geographic Information System (GIS) for Monitoring the Area of Potential Water Level Using Rule Based System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anugrah, Wirdah; Suryono; Suseno, Jatmiko Endro

    2018-02-01

    Management of water resources based on Geographic Information System can provide substantial benefits to water availability settings. Monitoring the potential water level is needed in the development sector, agriculture, energy and others. In this research is developed water resource information system using real-time Geographic Information System concept for monitoring the potential water level of web based area by applying rule based system method. GIS consists of hardware, software, and database. Based on the web-based GIS architecture, this study uses a set of computer that are connected to the network, run on the Apache web server and PHP programming language using MySQL database. The Ultrasound Wireless Sensor System is used as a water level data input. It also includes time and geographic location information. This GIS maps the five sensor locations. GIS is processed through a rule based system to determine the level of potential water level of the area. Water level monitoring information result can be displayed on thematic maps by overlaying more than one layer, and also generating information in the form of tables from the database, as well as graphs are based on the timing of events and the water level values.

  15. Non-chemical water purification a Westinghouse/Wallenius product for nuclear power plant needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goetberg, J.; Carlsson, M.

    2014-01-01

    Increasing demand for ecologically effective water treatment technologies has resulted in the development of several new oxidation methods. These technologies are generally labelled Advanced Oxidation Technologies (AOT) or Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOP) and currently represent the most widely recognized alternative for ecologically sound, high-tech water purification. Many years of intensive research have culminated in the innovative Wallenius-AOT technology, a patented method that is remarkable in several ways. It imitates nature's own water purification method. This means no chemical additives are needed. The technology utilizes the ability of light, together with photo-catalytic semiconductor surfaces, to produce free radicals, like nature does. These reactive radicals create an environment in which organic and inorganic substances oxidize, whereby a broad spectrum of organisms is rendered harmless more effectively than with conventional UV technology. The entire process takes just a few micro-seconds. A major advantage of the technology is that it can be adjusted according to the desired degree of purification. By altering the dynamics of the process, the purification can be designed for specific applications. In this way, AOT tackles precise problems, regardless of flow and whether the problem is chemical or biological. The product was originally introduced for ballast treatment in the shipping industry. Ballast water has created severe damages to the biology at many locations. By moving an organism from one ocean to another we have introduced a possible threat to the local ecosystem. This has been prevented by using the AOT water treatment units. During ballasting and de-ballasting, the units create radicals with the help of a catalyst and a light source. These radicals then destroy the cell membrane of microorganisms. The radicals, which never leave the unit, have a lifetime of only a few milliseconds and pose no risk to the environment or crew

  16. Predicting fire effects on water quality: a perspective and future needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Hugh; Sheridan, Gary; Nyman, Petter; Langhans, Christoph; Noske, Philip; Lane, Patrick

    2017-04-01

    zones of erosion vulnerability is required to support quantitative evaluation of water quality risk and the effect of future changes in climate and land management. Second, we underscore previous calls for characterisation of landscape-scale domains to support regionalisation of parameter sets derived from empirical studies. Recent examples include work identifying aridity as a control of hydro-geomorphic response to fire and the use of spectral-based indices to predict spatial heterogeneity in ash loadings. Third, information on post-fire erosion from colluvial or alluvial stores is needed to determine their significance as both sediment-contaminant sinks and sources. Such sediment stores may require explicit spatial representation in risk models for some environments and sediment tracing can be used to determine their relative importance as secondary sources. Fourth, increased dating of sediment archives could provide regional datasets of fire-related erosion event frequency. Presently, the lack of such data hinders evaluation of risk models linking fire and storm events to erosion and water quality impacts.

  17. Alternatives to High-Level Waste Vitrification: The Need for Common Sense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, Jimmy T.

    2000-01-01

    The competition for government funding for remediation of defense wastes (and for other legitimate government functions) is intensifying as the United States moves toward a balanced national budget. Determining waste remediation priorities for the use of available tax dollars will likely depend on established international agreements and on the real risks posed to human health.Remediation of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) high-level radioactive tank wastes has been described as the most important priority in the DOE system. The proposed tank waste remediation at three DOE sites will include retrieval of the wastes from the aging storage tanks, immobilization of the wastes, and safe disposal of the processed waste. Vitrification, the current immobilization technology chosen by DOE, is very costly. The U.S. Congress and the American people may not be aware that the present cost of preparing just 1 m 3 of processed waste product at the Savannah River Site is ∼$2 million! In a smaller waste remediation project at the West Valley Site, similar waste treatment is costing >$2 million/m 3 of waste product. Privatization efforts at the Hanford Site are now estimated to cost >$4 million/m 3 of waste product. Even at the lowest current cost of $2 million/m 3 of HLW glass product, the total estimated costs for remediating the tank wastes at the three DOE sites of Savannah River, Hanford, and Idaho Falls is $75 billion.Whether our nation can afford treatment costs of this magnitude and whether Congress will be willing to appropriate these huge sums for waste vitrification when alternative technologies can provide safe disposal at considerably lower cost are questions that need to be addressed. The hazard levels posed by the DOE tank wastes do not warrant high priority in comparison to the hazards of other defense wastes. Unless DOE selects a lower-cost technology for tank waste remediation, such efforts are likely to continue in a holding pattern, with little actually

  18. Alternatives to high-level waste vitrification: The need for common sense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, J.T.

    2000-01-01

    The competition for government funding for remediation of defense wastes (and for other legitimate government functions) is intensifying as the United states moves toward a balanced national budget. Determining waste remediation priorities for the use of available tax dollars will likely depend on established international agreements and on the real risks posed to human health. Remediation of the US Department of Energy (DOE) high-level radioactive tank wastes has been described as the most important priority in the DOE system. The proposed tank waste remediation at three DOE sites will include retrieval of the wastes from the aging storage tanks, immobilization of the wastes, and safe disposal of the processed waste. Vitrification, the current immobilization technology chosen by DOE, is very costly. The US Congress and the American people may not be aware that the present cost of preparing just 1 m 3 of processed waste product at the Savannah River Site is approximately$2 million. In a smaller waste remediation project at the West Valley Site, similar waste treatment is costing $2 million/m 3 of waste product. Privatization efforts at the Hanford Site are now estimated to cost $4 million/m 3 of waste product. Even at the lowest current cost of $2 million/m 3 of HLW glass product, the total estimated costs for remediating the tank wastes at the three DOE sites of Savannah River, Hanford, and Idaho Falls is $75 billion. Whether the nation can afford treatment costs of this magnitude and whether Congress will be willing to appropriate these huge sums for waste vitrification when alternative technologies can provide safe disposal at considerably lower cost are questions that need to be addressed. The hazard levels posed by the DOE tank wastes do not warrant high priority in comparison to the hazards of other defense wastes. Unless DOE selects a lower-cost technology for tank waste remediation, such efforts are likely to continue in a holding pattern, with little

  19. Assessing water pollution level and gray water footprint of anthropogenic nitrogen in agricultural system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guorui; Chen, Han; Yu, Chaoqing

    2017-04-01

    Water pollution has become a global problem which is one of the most critical issues of today's water treatment. At a spatial resolution of 10km, we use the DeNitrification-DeComposition (DNDC) model to simulate the biogeochemical processes for major cropping systems from 1955 to 2014, estimate the anthropogenic nitrogen loads to fresh, and calculate the resultant grey water footprints and N-related water pollution level in China. The accumulated annual Nitrogen loads to fresh from agricultural system is 0.38Tg in 1955 and 4.42Tg in 2014, while the grey water footprints vary from 1.53 billion m3 to 17.67 billion m3, respectively. N loads in north of China contributes much more on the N leaching because of the high fertilizer but in south of China, it is mainly focused on the N runoff because of the heavy rain. There are more than 25% of grids with WPL>1 (exceed the water capacity of assimilation), which is mainly located on the North China Plain.

  20. Model-Aided Altimeter-Based Water Level Forecasting System in Mekong River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, C. H.; Lee, H.; Hossain, F.; Okeowo, M. A.; Basnayake, S. B.; Jayasinghe, S.; Saah, D. S.; Anderson, E.; Hwang, E.

    2017-12-01

    Mekong River, one of the massive river systems in the world, has drainage area of about 795,000 km2 covering six countries. People living in its drainage area highly rely on resources given by the river in terms of agriculture, fishery, and hydropower. Monitoring and forecasting the water level in a timely manner, is urgently needed over the Mekong River. Recently, using TOPEX/Poseidon (T/P) altimetry water level measurements in India, Biancamaria et al. [2011] has demonstrated the capability of an altimeter-based flood forecasting system in Bangladesh, with RMSE from 0.6 - 0.8 m for lead times up to 5 days on 10-day basis due to T/P's repeat period. Hossain et al. [2013] further established a daily water level forecasting system in Bangladesh using observations from Jason-2 in India and HEC-RAS hydraulic model, with RMSE from 0.5 - 1.5 m and an underestimating mean bias of 0.25 - 1.25 m. However, such daily forecasting system relies on a collection of Jason-2 virtual stations (VSs) to ensure frequent sampling and data availability. Since the Mekong River is a meridional river with few number of VSs, the direct application of this system to the Mekong River becomes challenging. To address this problem, we propose a model-aided altimeter-based forecasting system. The discharge output by Variable Infiltration Capacity hydrologic model is used to reconstruct a daily water level product at upstream Jason-2 VSs based on the discharge-to-level rating curve. The reconstructed daily water level is then used to perform regression analysis with downstream in-situ water level to build regression models, which are used to forecast a daily water level. In the middle reach of the Mekong River from Nakhon Phanom to Kratie, a 3-day lead time forecasting can reach RMSE about 0.7 - 1.3 m with correlation coefficient around 0.95. For the lower reach of the Mekong River, the water flow becomes more complicated due to the reversal flow between the Tonle Sap Lake and the Mekong River

  1. Patient's Perceptions Regarding Orthodontic Needs and Satisfactory Level with the Procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farishta, Saibel

    2015-09-01

    In order to keep the patients satisfied with Orthodontic treatment and to address the growing concern among new orthodontic patients, this study was undertaken to evaluate patient's perceptions of their orthodontic treatment needs and the satisfactory level with the procedure. This cross-sectional study was conducted among a sample of 362 patients who had received orthodontic treatment. Questionnaires included information factors that encouraged them to take orthodontic treatment, painful experience of orthodontic therapy, and also to know the effectiveness of the treatment. Student's t-test and ANOVA test were used to analyze results at P = 0.05. Most of the participants faced problems due to their dentition (60.2%), followed by mastication 23.6%. It was found that most of the study subjects were motivated by orthodontist to receive the treatment (29.7%). When the participants were asked about the complications faced by them during the procedure and the most common answer was a longer duration of the treatment (23.3%). Pain was also a common factor faced by the participants (15.9%). Significant results were seen according to gender and age. The study concluded that problems in the dentition were the main factor to seek orthodontic treatment and most of the subjects were convinced by the specialist to undergo orthodontic therapy. Many problems faced during the treatment, but still majority gave a positive response to the treatment.

  2. Highest Plasma Phenylalanine Levels in (Very Premature Infants on Intravenous Feeding; A Need for Concern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Cortés-Castell

    Full Text Available To analyse the association in newborns between blood levels of phenylalanine and feeding method and gestational age.This observational, cross-sectional study included a sample of 11,829 infants between 2008 and 2013 in a Spanish region. Data were recorded on phenylalanine values, feeding method [breast, formula, mixed (breast plus formula, or partial or fully intravenous feeding], gestational age in weeks (<32, 32-37, ≥37, gender and days since birth at the moment of blood collection. Outcomes were [phenylalanine] and [phenylalanine] ≥95th percentile. Associations were analysed using multivariate models [linear (means difference and logistic regression (adjusted odds ratios].Higher phenylalanine values were associated with lower gestational age (p<0.001 and with intravenous feeding (p<0.001.The degree of prematurity and intravenous feeding influenced the plasma concentration of phenylalanine in the newborn. Caution should be taken in [phenylalanine] for newborns with intravenous feeding, monitoring them carefully. Very preterm infants given the recommended amount of amino acids should also be strictly monitored. These findings should be taken into consideration and call for adapting the amounts to the needs of the infant.

  3. Need For Coastal Water Management Tool For Oil Spill Simulation In Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uba

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Ghanaian water bodies have been under threats recently ranging from illegal mining sand winning reclamation of water bodies for the purposes of human settlement pollution etc. Civil and mechanical installations on the coastal waters have increase due to the discovery of oil recently and such situations are not spared by oil spills. Oil spills are an inevitable consequence of the need to produce store and transport oil. The commercialization of oil production has placed Ghana among High-Risk Zones which are characterised by high traffic density and the presence of navigational hazards. Despite Ghanas awareness about oil spill accidents in both preparedness and response it is likely it will be compromised when any accident occurs as it has more pressing demands on finite funds and resources. This situation might place Ghana among ill-prepared countries against oil spill combat. An important part of contingency plan is the prediction of locations that are susceptible to oil after spillage. This can be done by the use of satellite information reviewing and comparing previous incidents laboratory work or by fine tuning models which as of now the country is not having despite all the precautions to prevent oil spills. When spill models are used properly they provide ecological economic and social benefits. Hence the need for such decision-making tool for Ghana to create an environment for the contingency plans to be tested validated and upgraded. Such exercises not only maintain and increase the skills of the response personnel but also lead to improvements and fine tuning of the plan as weaknesses and gaps are identified.

  4. Global Anthropogenic Phosphorus Loads to Fresh Water, Grey Water Footprint and Water Pollution Levels: A High-Resolution Global Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonnen, M. M.; Hoekstra, A. Y. Y.

    2014-12-01

    We estimated anthropogenic phosphorus (P) loads to freshwater, globally at a spatial resolution level of 5 by 5 arc minute. The global anthropogenic P load to freshwater systems from both diffuse and point sources in the period 2002-2010 was 1.5 million tonnes per year. China contributed about 30% to this global anthropogenic P load. India was the second largest contributor (8%), followed by the USA (7%), Spain and Brazil each contributing 6% to the total. The domestic sector contributed the largest share (54%) to this total followed by agriculture (38%) and industry (8%). Among the crops, production of cereals had the largest contribution to the P loads (32%), followed by fruits, vegetables, and oil crops, each contributing about 15% to the total. We also calculated the resultant grey water footprints, and relate the grey water footprints per river basin to runoff to calculate the P-related water pollution level (WPL) per catchment.

  5. Natural radioactivity levels in different mineral waters from Bulgaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamenova-Totzeva, R.; Kotova, R.; Tenev, J.; Ivanova, G.; Badulin, V. [Public Exposure Monitoring Laboratory, National Centre of Radiobiology and Radiation Protection, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2013-07-01

    The total radioactivity content of 76 mineral waters from different districts in Bulgaria was determined. Natural radioactivity levels resulting from uranium, radium-226, gross alpha and gross beta activity were measured. The results show that the specific activity range from < 0.02 Bq/l to 1.34 (12) Bq/l and from 0.068 (23) Bq/l to 2.60 (50) Bq/l for gross alpha and gross beta activity respectively. For natural Uranium the results vary between 0.020 (5) μg/l and 180(50) μg/l. Radium-226 content is between < 0.03 Bq/l to 0.296 (75) Bq/l. Due to differences in the geological structure of the aquifer, a large difference in values of the radioactive content was mSv/year. Excluding one value, TID do not exceed the permissible limit of 0.10 mSv/year. The correlations between investigated isotopes and Total Dissolved observed. The estimated Total Indicative Dose (TID) ranged from 0.0113 (57) mSv/year to 0.1713 (481) Solvents (TDS) in water were carried out. The results do not show a strong correlation between TDS values and dissolved radionuclides. (author)

  6. On the derivation of specific yield and soil water retention characteristics in peatlands from rainfall, microrelief and water level data - Theory and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettmann, Ullrich; Bechtold, Michel

    2016-04-01

    -dimensional expression we developed a novel approach for the in situ determination of soil water retention characteristics that is applicable to shallow groundwater systems. Our approach is built on two assumptions: i) for shallow groundwater systems with medium- to high conductive soils the soil moisture profile is always close to hydrostatic equilibrium and ii) over short time periods differences in total water storage due to lateral fluxes are negligible. Given these assumptions, the height of a water level rise due to a precipitation event mainly depends on the soil water retention characteristics, the precipitation amount, the initial water level depth and, if present, the microrelief. We use this dependency to determine water retention characteristics (van Genuchten parameter) by Bayesian inversion. Our results demonstrate that observations of water level rises, caused by precipitation events, contain sufficient information to constrain the water retention characteristics around two dip wells in a Sphagnum bog to plausible ranges. We discuss the possible biases that come along with our approach and point out the research that is needed to quantify their significance.

  7. Water Level Loggers as a Low-Cost Tool for Monitoring of Stormwater Control Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Toran

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Stormwater control measures (SCMs are a key component of watershed health in urbanized areas. SCMs are used to increase infiltration and reduce discharge to streams or storm sewer systems during rain events. Monitoring is important for the evaluation of design and causes of failure in SCMs. However, the expense of monitoring means it is not always included in stormwater control planning. This study shows how low-cost water level loggers can be used to answer certain questions about SCM performance. Five case studies are presented that use water level loggers to evaluate the overflow of basins, compare a traditional stormpipe trench with an infiltration trench, monitor timing of blue roof storage, show the effects of retrofitting a basin, and provide long term performance data. Water level loggers can be used to answer questions about the timing and location of stormwater overflows, which helps to evaluate the effectiveness of SCMs. More expensive monitoring and modeling can be used as a follow up if needed to more thoroughly assess a site. Nonetheless, low-cost monitoring can be a first step in identifying sites that need improvement or additional monitoring.

  8. Level of natural radiation nuclides in food and water in Hubei Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Keling; Sun Bangyin; Zhang Xiaozhen; Li Guangming

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports the level of natural radiation nuclides in Hubei Province, China. 10 spots were selected in Wuhan, Jiangling etc., 171 samples in 14 kinds of food such as rice, cabbage and tap water, water in Yangtze River and other rivers were analysed.The results show that the values of U, Th, 226 Ra were n x 10 -2 Bq.kg -1 and that of 40 K was n x 10 Bq.kg -1 in food. The values of U, Th, 226 Ra, 40 K were n x 10 -2 Bq.L -1 , and that of 3 H was nBq.L -1 in drinking water. The data investigated indicates that Hubei Province belongs to the region of normal natural radiation. It is found that 226 Ra value in food is higher in general in the county of Tongcheng, and this problem needs further study

  9. What’s Needed from Climate Modeling to Advance Actionable Science for Water Utilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsugli, J. J.; Anderson, C. J.; Smith, J. B.; Vogel, J. M.

    2009-12-01

    “…perfect information on climate change is neither available today nor likely to be available in the future, but … over time, as the threats climate change poses to our systems grow more real, predicting those effects with greater certainty is non-discretionary. We’re not yet at a level at which climate change projections can drive climate change adaptation.” (Testimony of WUCA Staff Chair David Behar to the House Committee on Science and Technology, May 5, 2009) To respond to this challenge, the Water Utility Climate Alliance (WUCA) has sponsored a white paper titled “Options for Improving Climate Modeling to Assist Water Utility Planning for Climate Change. ” This report concerns how investments in the science of climate change, and in particular climate modeling and downscaling, can best be directed to help make climate projections more actionable. The meaning of “model improvement” can be very different depending on whether one is talking to a climate model developer or to a water manager trying to incorporate climate projections in to planning. We first surveyed the WUCA members on present and potential uses of climate model projections and on climate inputs to their various system models. Based on those surveys and on subsequent discussions, we identified four dimensions along which improvement in modeling would make the science more “actionable”: improved model agreement on change in key parameters; narrowing the range of model projections; providing projections at spatial and temporal scales that match water utilities system models; providing projections that water utility planning horizons. With these goals in mind we developed four options for improving global-scale climate modeling and three options for improving downscaling that will be discussed. However, there does not seem to be a single investment - the proverbial “magic bullet” -- which will substantially reduce the range of model projections at the scales at which utility

  10. Model estimation of land-use effects on water levels of northern Prairie wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voldseth, R.A.; Johnson, W.C.; Gilmanov, T.; Guntenspergen, G.R.; Millett, B.V.

    2007-01-01

    Wetlands of the Prairie Pothole Region exist in a matrix of grassland dominated by intensive pastoral and cultivation agriculture. Recent conservation management has emphasized the conversion of cultivated farmland and degraded pastures to intact grassland to improve upland nesting habitat. The consequences of changes in land-use cover that alter watershed processes have not been evaluated relative to their effect on the water budgets and vegetation dynamics of associated wetlands. We simulated the effect of upland agricultural practices on the water budget and vegetation of a semipermanent prairie wetland by modifying a previously published mathematical model (WETSIM). Watershed cover/land-use practices were categorized as unmanaged grassland (native grass, smooth brome), managed grassland (moderately heavily grazed, prescribed burned), cultivated crops (row crop, small grain), and alfalfa hayland. Model simulations showed that differing rates of evapotranspiration and runoff associated with different upland plant-cover categories in the surrounding catchment produced differences in wetland water budgets and linked ecological dynamics. Wetland water levels were highest and vegetation the most dynamic under the managed-grassland simulations, while water levels were the lowest and vegetation the least dynamic under the unmanaged-grassland simulations. The modeling results suggest that unmanaged grassland, often planted for waterfowl nesting, may produce the least favorable wetland conditions for birds, especially in drier regions of the Prairie Pothole Region. These results stand as hypotheses that urgently need to be verified with empirical data.

  11. GPS water level measurements for Indonesia's Tsunami Early Warning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Schöne

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available On Boxing Day 2004, a severe tsunami was generated by a strong earthquake in Northern Sumatra causing a large number of casualties. At this time, neither an offshore buoy network was in place to measure tsunami waves, nor a system to disseminate tsunami warnings to local governmental entities. Since then, buoys have been developed by Indonesia and Germany, complemented by NOAA's Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis (DART buoys, and have been moored offshore Sumatra and Java. The suite of sensors for offshore tsunami detection in Indonesia has been advanced by adding GPS technology for water level measurements.

    The usage of GPS buoys in tsunami warning systems is a relatively new approach. The concept of the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS (Rudloff et al., 2009 combines GPS technology and ocean bottom pressure (OBP measurements. Especially for near-field installations where the seismic noise may deteriorate the OBP data, GPS-derived sea level heights provide additional information.

    The GPS buoy technology is precise enough to detect medium to large tsunamis of amplitudes larger than 10 cm. The analysis presented here suggests that for about 68% of the time, tsunamis larger than 5 cm may be detectable.

  12. Enhancing Seasonal Water Outlooks: Needs and Opportunities in the Critical Runoff Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, A. J.; Barsugli, J. J.; Yocum, H.; Stokes, M.; Miskus, D.

    2017-12-01

    The runoff season is a critical period for the management of water supply in the western U.S., where in many places over 70% of the annual runoff occurs in the snowmelt period. Managing not only the volume, but the intra-seasonal timing of the runoff is important for optimizing storage, as well as achieving other goals such as mitigating flood risk, and providing peak flows for riparian habitat management, for example, for endangered species. Western river forecast centers produce volume forecasts for western reservoirs that are key input into many water supply decisions, and also short term river forecasts out to 10 days. The early volume forecasts each year typically begin in December, and are updated throughout the winter and into the runoff season (April-July for many areas, but varies). This presentation will discuss opportunities for enhancing this existing suite of RFC water outlooks, including the needs for and potential use for "intraseasonal" products beyond those provided by the Ensemble Streamflow Prediction system and the volume forecasts. While precipitation outlooks have little skill for many areas and seasons, and may not contribute significantly to the outlook, late winter and spring temperature forecasts have meaningful skill in certain areas and sub-seasonal to seasonal time scales. This current skill in CPC temperature outlooks is an opportunity to translate these products into information about the snowpack and potential runoff timing, even where the skill in precipitation is low. Temperature is important for whether precipitation falls as snow or rain, which is critical for streamflow forecasts, especially in the melt season in snowpack-dependent watersheds. There is a need for better outlooks of the evolution of snowpack, conditions influencing the April-July runoff, and the timing of spring peak or shape of the spring hydrograph. The presentation will also discuss a our work with stakeholders of the River Forecast Centers and the NIDIS

  13. Low-level laser therapy equipment needs calibration before clinical use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado de Senna, André; Machado-de-sena, Rosa Maria; Facundes, Arseni Lázaro; Barros Nepomuceno, Patrícia; Sávya Florentino, Wanilza; Olegário de Araújo, Ronyere

    2018-04-01

    Many factors can influence the radiant power delivered by the low-level laser therapy (LLLT) equipment, such as its cleaning and condition, as well as the use of plastic films for protecting the laser or even its time of use. Radiant power is an important factor to consider because it affects the amount of energy delivered to the target tissue. The difference between real radiant power (RRP) and nominal radiant power (NRP) may interfere in the expected results, because the delivered energy is different from the desired energy. Purpose: The objective of this study was to compare the NRP with the RRP offered by LLLT devices under clinical conditions of use. Material and Methods: For data collection to this study, 61 LLLT devices used in private and public dental practices in the state of Tocantins, Brazil, were evaluated. Three consecutive power measurements were performed at one-minute intervals and then the average of the measured power was calculated. The RRP was compared to the NRP. Results: The equipment presented NRP from 30 to 500mW while RRP ranged from 17.3 to 107.0mW. Discussion and Conclusion: The mean power measured in clinical conditions of use of the laser equipment was different from the nominal power reported by the manufacturers of the devices (p<0,01). The RRP ranged between 12.92% and 107% of NRP. This fact is worrisome, since one of the most important parameters for the success of the treatment of an injury using LLLT is the energy (power x time) delivered. These findings reinforce the need of calibrating the equipment before each laser application in order to avoid failures in the therapeutic conduct.

  14. Increasing advance personal planning: the need for action at the community level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Amy; Sanson-Fisher, Rob; Ries, Nola; Bryant, Jamie

    2018-05-09

    Advance personal planning is the process by which people consider, document and communicate their preferences for personal, financial and health matters in case they lose the ability to make decisions or express their wishes in the future. Advance personal planning is most often undertaken by individuals who are seriously ill, often in the context of a medical crisis and/or at the time of admission to hospital. However, the clinical utility and legal validity of the planning process may be compromised in these circumstances. Patients may lack sufficient capacity to meaningfully engage in advance personal planning; there may be insufficient time to adequately reflect on and discuss wishes with key others; and there may also be limited opportunity for inter-professional input and collaboration in the process. Here, we propose an agenda for research to advance the science of advance personal planning by promoting a 'whole community' approach. Adoption of advance personal planning at a community level may be achieved using a variety of strategies including public media campaigns, intervening with professionals across a range of health care and legal settings, and mobilising support from influential groups and local government. One potentially promising method for encouraging earlier adoption of advance personal planning among a broader population involves a community action approach, whereby multiple evidence-based strategies are integrated across multiple access points. Community action involves calling on community members, professionals, community and/or government organisations to work collaboratively to design and systematically implement intervention strategies with the aim of bringing about desired behaviour change. An example of a community action trial to improving uptake and quality of advance personal planning is described. While promising, there is a need for rigorous evidence to demonstrate whether a community action approach is effective in

  15. How the USGS collects national water-use data, and why it needs to be improved to aid hydrologic research (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worland, S. C.

    2017-12-01

    through improved data collection, more efficient databases, and the development of deterministic and probabilistic models. Water-use data and research needs significantly more attention at the national level if we are to meet the water availability needs of society in the coming decades.

  16. How reframing a water management issue across scales and levels impacts on perceptions of justice and injustice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, M. J.; Syme, G. J.; Horwitz, P.

    2014-11-01

    Social justice is a key outcome of water allocation, management and governance. It is commonly expressed in water policies and strategies in terms of achieving equitable distribution of water resources. In complex multi-level systems just and unjust outcomes can result from the same water allocation decision. In some cases a just outcome at one level may cause an injustice at another level for the same or a different set of stakeholders. The manner in which a water management issue is framed and reframed across different levels within a system influences stakeholder perceptions of whether a water allocation decision is just or unjust, which in turn influences the successful adoption and implementation of such a decision. This paper utilises a case study from the Murray-Darling Basin in Australia to illustrate how reframing a water management issue across multiple scales and levels can help understand stakeholders' perceptions of justice and injustice. In this case study two scales are explored, an institutional and an organisational scale; each comprising levels at the federal, basin, state and region. The water management issue of domestic and stock dams was tracked through the various scales and levels and illustrated how reframing an issue at different levels can influence the analysis of just or equitable outcomes. The case study highlights the need to treat justice in water allocation as an ever evolving problem of the behaviour of a social system rather than the meeting of static principles of what is 'right'. This points to the importance of being attentive to the dynamic and dialogical nature of justice when dealing with water allocation issues across scales and levels of water governance.

  17. In Conversation: David Brooks on Water Scarcity and Local-level ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-11-26

    Nov 26, 2010 ... While sound water management requires action from all levels, ... Local management is certainly an essential component in managing the world's water crisis. ... case studies that show the promise of local water management.

  18. Environmental assessment for the natural fluctuation of water level in Par Pond and reduced water flow in Steel Creek below L-Lake at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    The Savannah River Operations Office Strategic Plan directs Savannah River Site (SRS) to find ways to reduce operating costs, and to determine what site infrastructure must be maintained and what infrastructure is surplus. Because of the mission change, L-Lake, Par Pond, and the river water system are no longer needed to support current missions and therefore provide an opportunity for operating cost reduction. If SRS determines that L-Lake, Par Pond, and the river water system are no longer needed to support future missions and are considered surplus, appropriate NEPA documentation will be prepared. The purpose of the proposed action in this Environmental Assessment is to begin an examination of the need for the Site's river water system by (1) developing data needed to evaluate the potential environmental impacts of further reducing or eliminating the flow demands from the Site's river water system and; (2) evaluating the potential of reducing operating costs by allowing the water level in Par Pond to fluctuate naturally through reduced pumping. This action also includes reducing the current flow rates from L-Lake to Steel Creek to natural stream flows while maintaining full pool. The recently approved Par Pond CERCLA Interim Action Proposed Plan (IAPP) committed to evaluate in a NEPA document the environmental consequences of this proposed action. This document evaluated the remediation of human health and ecological risks associated with the three year drawdown of Par Pond. Should any of the parameters sampled in the reservoir and streams (e.g., water quality, biota, etc.) exceed established threshold levels during the implementation of the proposed action, water would again be pumped into the reservoir to minimize any impacts by bringing the water level back to an appropriate level about 58.2 m (195 ft)

  19. Environmental assessment for the natural fluctuation of water level in Par Pond and reduced water flow in Steel Creek below L-Lake at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The Savannah River Operations Office Strategic Plan directs Savannah River Site (SRS) to find ways to reduce operating costs, and to determine what site infrastructure must be maintained and what infrastructure is surplus. Because of the mission change, L-Lake, Par Pond, and the river water system are no longer needed to support current missions and therefore provide an opportunity for operating cost reduction. If SRS determines that L-Lake, Par Pond, and the river water system are no longer needed to support future missions and are considered surplus, appropriate NEPA documentation will be prepared. The purpose of the proposed action in this Environmental Assessment is to begin an examination of the need for the Site`s river water system by (1) developing data needed to evaluate the potential environmental impacts of further reducing or eliminating the flow demands from the Site`s river water system and; (2) evaluating the potential of reducing operating costs by allowing the water level in Par Pond to fluctuate naturally through reduced pumping. This action also includes reducing the current flow rates from L-Lake to Steel Creek to natural stream flows while maintaining full pool. The recently approved Par Pond CERCLA Interim Action Proposed Plan (IAPP) committed to evaluate in a NEPA document the environmental consequences of this proposed action. This document evaluated the remediation of human health and ecological risks associated with the three year drawdown of Par Pond. Should any of the parameters sampled in the reservoir and streams (e.g., water quality, biota, etc.) exceed established threshold levels during the implementation of the proposed action, water would again be pumped into the reservoir to minimize any impacts by bringing the water level back to an appropriate level about 58.2 m (195 ft).

  20. Using inferential sensors for quality control of Everglades Depth Estimation Network water-level data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkewich, Matthew D.; Daamen, Ruby C.; Roehl, Edwin A.; Conrads, Paul

    2016-09-29

    The Everglades Depth Estimation Network (EDEN), with over 240 real-time gaging stations, provides hydrologic data for freshwater and tidal areas of the Everglades. These data are used to generate daily water-level and water-depth maps of the Everglades that are used to assess biotic responses to hydrologic change resulting from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan. The generation of EDEN daily water-level and water-depth maps is dependent on high quality real-time data from water-level stations. Real-time data are automatically checked for outliers by assigning minimum and maximum thresholds for each station. Small errors in the real-time data, such as gradual drift of malfunctioning pressure transducers, are more difficult to immediately identify with visual inspection of time-series plots and may only be identified during on-site inspections of the stations. Correcting these small errors in the data often is time consuming and water-level data may not be finalized for several months. To provide daily water-level and water-depth maps on a near real-time basis, EDEN needed an automated process to identify errors in water-level data and to provide estimates for missing or erroneous water-level data.The Automated Data Assurance and Management (ADAM) software uses inferential sensor technology often used in industrial applications. Rather than installing a redundant sensor to measure a process, such as an additional water-level station, inferential sensors, or virtual sensors, were developed for each station that make accurate estimates of the process measured by the hard sensor (water-level gaging station). The inferential sensors in the ADAM software are empirical models that use inputs from one or more proximal stations. The advantage of ADAM is that it provides a redundant signal to the sensor in the field without the environmental threats associated with field conditions at stations (flood or hurricane, for example). In the

  1. System Life Cycle Evaluation(SM) (SLiCE): harmonizing water treatment systems with implementers' needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Joseph; Caravati, Kevin; Foote, Andrew; Nelson, Molly; Woods, Emily

    2013-06-01

    One of the methods proposed to improve access to clean drinking water is the mobile packaged water treatment system (MPWTS). The lack of published system performance comparisons combined with the diversity of technology available and intended operating conditions make it difficult for stakeholders to choose the system best suited for their application. MPWTS are often deployed in emergency situations, making selection of the appropriate system crucial to avoiding wasted resources and loss of life. Measurable critical-to-quality characteristics (CTQs) and a system selection tool for MPWTS were developed by utilizing relevant literature, including field studies, and implementing and comparing seven different MPWTS. The proposed System Life Cycle Evaluation (SLiCE) method uses these CTQs to evaluate the diversity in system performance and harmonize relevant performance with stakeholder preference via a selection tool. Agencies and field workers can use SLiCE results to inform and drive decision-making. The evaluation and selection tool also serves as a catalyst for communicating system performance, common design flaws, and stakeholder needs to system manufacturers. The SLiCE framework can be adopted into other emerging system technologies to communicate system performance over the life cycle of use.

  2. A Quick Review on Steam Generator Water Level Tracking Methods and Its Uncertainties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ki Moon; Lee, Jeong Ik [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The tracking of the SG water level is important for maintaining the heat removal of the reactor and the power plant safety. In addition, the SG water level is important for the reactor trip and the actuation of SG back-up feedwater system as well. The SG water level is mainly controlled by the Feed Water Control System (FWCS) during either normal operation or transients therefore, the selection of the FWCS control parameters is also important. In this paper, methods of SG water level calculation are first reviewed and future works to perform sensitivity study of the SG water level calculation with a system analysis code will be identified. This is partially shown from Loss-of-feedwater experiments carried out in PACTEL and the LOF-10 experiment. The experiment was chosen to test the modeling capabilities of TRACE code for VVER SG. The experiment measured the water level with the pressure differential and the code calculated the water level directly from the code results. In this paper, three previously suggested parameters which can be used as an indicator of the SG water level are briefly introduced: (1) downcomer collapsed water level, (2) water mass inventory and (3) pressure differential. From the review of previous works, it was identified that most of the system analysis code calculates the SG water level directly by using the downcomer collapsed level. In contrast, the pressure difference is measured as used for the SG water level tracking in a real nuclear power plant or experiment.

  3. Drinking water treatment technologies in Europe : State of the art - vulnerabilities - research needs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Hoek, J.P.; Bertelkamp, C.; Verliefde, A.R.D.; Singhal, N.

    2012-01-01

    Eureau is the European Federation of National Associations of Water and Wastewater Services. At the request of Eureau Commission 1, dealing with drinking water, a survey was made focusing on raw drinking water sources and drinking water treatment technologies applied in Europe. Raw water sources

  4. Multiobjective optimization of cluster-scale urban water systems investigating alternative water sources and level of decentralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, J. P.; Dandy, G. C.; Maier, H. R.

    2014-10-01

    In many regions, conventional water supplies are unable to meet projected consumer demand. Consequently, interest has arisen in integrated urban water systems, which involve the reclamation or harvesting of alternative, localized water sources. However, this makes the planning and design of water infrastructure more difficult, as multiple objectives need to be considered, water sources need to be selected from a number of alternatives, and end uses of these sources need to be specified. In addition, the scale at which each treatment, collection, and distribution network should operate needs to be investigated. In order to deal with this complexity, a framework for planning and designing water infrastructure taking into account integrated urban water management principles is presented in this paper and applied to a rural greenfield development. Various options for water supply, and the scale at which they operate were investigated in order to determine the life-cycle trade-offs between water savings, cost, and GHG emissions as calculated from models calibrated using Australian data. The decision space includes the choice of water sources, storage tanks, treatment facilities, and pipes for water conveyance. For each water system analyzed, infrastructure components were sized using multiobjective genetic algorithms. The results indicate that local water sources are competitive in terms of cost and GHG emissions, and can reduce demand on the potable system by as much as 54%. Economies of scale in treatment dominated the diseconomies of scale in collection and distribution of water. Therefore, water systems that connect large clusters of households tend to be more cost efficient and have lower GHG emissions. In addition, water systems that recycle wastewater tended to perform better than systems that captured roof-runoff. Through these results, the framework was shown to be effective at identifying near optimal trade-offs between competing objectives, thereby enabling

  5. Projecting Future Sea Level Rise for Water Resources Planning in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J.; Kao, K.; Chung, F.

    2008-12-01

    Sea level rise is one of the major concerns for the management of California's water resources. Higher water levels and salinity intrusion into the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta could affect water supplies, water quality, levee stability, and aquatic and terrestrial flora and fauna species and their habitat. Over the 20th century, sea levels near San Francisco Bay increased by over 0.6ft. Some tidal gauge and satellite data indicate that rates of sea level rise are accelerating. Sea levels are expected to continue to rise due to increasing air temperatures causing thermal expansion of the ocean and melting of land-based ice such as ice on Greenland and in southeastern Alaska. For water planners, two related questions are raised on the uncertainty of future sea levels. First, what is the expected sea level at a specific point in time in the future, e.g., what is the expected sea level in 2050? Second, what is the expected point of time in the future when sea levels will exceed a certain height, e.g., what is the expected range of time when the sea level rises by one foot? To address these two types of questions, two factors are considered: (1) long term sea level rise trend, and (2) local extreme sea level fluctuations. A two-step approach will be used to develop sea level rise projection guidelines for decision making that takes both of these factors into account. The first step is developing global sea level rise probability distributions for the long term trends. The second step will extend the approach to take into account the effects of local astronomical tides, changes in atmospheric pressure, wind stress, floods, and the El Niño/Southern Oscillation. In this paper, the development of the first step approach is presented. To project the long term sea level rise trend, one option is to extend the current rate of sea level rise into the future. However, since recent data indicate rates of sea level rise are accelerating, methods for estimating sea level rise

  6. Geographical distribution of drinking-water with high iodine level and association between high iodine level in drinking-water and goitre: a Chinese national investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hongmei; Liu, Shoujun; Sun, Dianjun; Zhang, Shubin; Su, Xiaohui; Shen, Yanfeng; Han, Hepeng

    2011-07-01

    Excessive iodine intake can cause thyroid function disorders as can be caused by iodine deficiency. There are many people residing in areas with high iodine levels in drinking-water in China. The main aim of the present study was to map the geographical distribution of drinking-water with high iodine level in China and to determine the relationship between high iodine level in drinking-water and goitre prevalence. Iodine in drinking-water was measured in 1978 towns of eleven provinces in China, with a total of 28,857 water samples. We randomly selected children of 8-10 years old, examined the presence of goitre and measured their urinary iodine in 299 towns of nine provinces. Of the 1978 towns studied, 488 had iodine levels between 150 and 300 μg/l in drinking-water, and in 246 towns, the iodine level was >300 μg/l. These towns are mainly distributed along the original Yellow River flood areas, the second largest river in China. Of the 56 751 children examined, goitre prevalence was 6.3 % in the areas with drinking-water iodine levels of 150-300 μg/l and 11.0 % in the areas with drinking-water iodine >300 μg/l. Goitre prevalence increased with water and urinary iodine levels. For children with urinary iodine >1500 μg/l, goitre prevalence was 3.69 times higher than that for those with urinary iodine levels of 100-199 μg/l. The present study suggests that drinking-water with high iodine levels is distributed in eleven provinces of China. Goitre becomes more prevalent with the increase in iodine level in drinking-water. Therefore, it becomes important to prevent goitre through stopping the provision of iodised salt and providing normal drinking-water iodine through pipelines in these areas in China.

  7. Considerations on monitoring needs of advanced, passive safety light water reactors for severe accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bava, G.; Zambardi, F.

    1992-01-01

    This paper deals with problems concerning information and related instrumentation needs for Accident Management (AM), with special emphasis on Severe Accidents (SA) in the new advanced, passive safety Light Water Reactors (PLWR), presently in a development stage. The passive safety conception adopted in the plants concerned goes parallel with a deeper consideration of SA, that reflects the need of increasing the plant resistance against conditions going beyond traditional ''design basis accidents''. Further, the role of Accident Management (AM) is still emphasized as last step of the defence in depth concept, in spite of the design efforts aimed to reduce human factor importance; as a consequence, the availability of pertinent information on actual plant conditions remains a necessary premise for performing preplanned actions. This information is essential to assess the evolution of the accident scenarios, to monitor the performances of the safety systems, to evaluate the ultimate challenge to the plant safety, and to implement the emergency operating procedures and the emergency plans. Based on these general purposes, the impact of the new conception on the monitoring structure is discussed, furthermore reference is made to the accident monitoring criteria applied in current plants to evaluate the requirements for possible solutions. (orig.)

  8. A Comparison of Able-Bodied and Disabled College Students on Erikson's Ego Stages and Maslow's Needs Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriegsman, Kay Harris; Hershenson, David B.

    1987-01-01

    Compared physically disabled and able-bodied college students on Erickson's epigenetic stages of life-span development, and Maslow's motivational needs hierarchy of personality development. The groups were more similar than dissimilar in ego development and needs level. College students with disabilities may be a select population because of their…

  9. NRC's geotechnical engineering research needs for the high-level waste repository program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, D.C.; Philip, J.; Lorig, L.J.; Chowdhury, A.H.

    1992-01-01

    To develop the capability for independently assessing the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) geologic repository design within a limited time, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff needs to perform certain research well before receiving the license application. The NRC staff is using a number of factors to identify the areas that it needs to research. The staff assigns priorities to the needed research based on programmatic considerations and the significance of the work. In the geotechnical engineering field, the staff is conducting research in the following three areas: response of the repository to repeated strong ground motion, rock-mass sealing, and coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical interactions. In this paper, the NRC staff also presents the areas of additional research needed in the geotechnical engineering field

  10. Fuzzy logic control of steam generator water level in pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuan, C.C.; Lin, C.; Hsu, C.C.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper a fuzzy logic controller is applied to control the steam generator water level in a pressurized water reactor. The method does not require a detailed mathematical mode of the object to be controlled. The design is based on a set of linguistic rules that were adopted from the human operator's experience. After off-line fuzzy computation, the controller is a lookup table, and thus, real-time control is achieved. Shrink-and-swell phenomena are considered in the linguistic rules, and the simulation results show that their effect is dramatically reduced. The performance of the control system can also be improved by changing the input and output scaling factors, which is convenient for on-line tuning

  11. Effects of reservoirs water level variations on fish recruitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabíula T. de Lima

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The construction of hydroelectric power plants has many social and environmental impacts. Among them, the impacts on fish communities, which habitats are drastically modified by dams, with consequences across the ecosystem. This study aimed to assess the influence of water level (WL variations in the reservoirs of the Itá and Machadinho hydroelectric plants on the recruitment of fish species from the upper Uruguay River in southern Brazil. The data analyzed resulted from the WL variation produced exclusively by the hydroelectric plants generation and were collected between the years 2001 and 2012. The results showed significant correlations between the abundance of juvenile fish and the hydrological parameters only for some reproductive guilds. The species that spawn in nests showed, in general, a clear preference for the stability in the WL of the reservoirs, while the species that spawn in macrophytes or that release demersal eggs showed no significant correlation between the abundance of juvenile fish and hydrological parameters. A divergence of results between the two reservoirs was observed between the species that release semi-dense eggs; a positive correlation with a more stable WL was only observed in the Machadinho reservoir. This result can be driven by a wider range of WL variation in Machadinho reservoir.

  12. Hydrologic record extension of water-level data in the Everglades Depth Estimation Network (EDEN), 1991-99

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrads, Paul; Petkewich, Matthew D.; O'Reilly, Andrew M.; Telis, Pamela A.

    2015-01-01

    The real-time Everglades Depth Estimation Network (EDEN) has been established to support a variety of scientific and water management purposes. The expansiveness of the Everglades, limited number of gaging stations, and extreme sensitivity of the ecosystem to small changes in water depth have created a need for accurate water-level and water-depth maps. The EDEN water-surface elevation model uses data from approximately 240 gages in the Everglades to create daily continuous interpolations of the water-surface elevation and water depth for the freshwater portion of the Everglades from 2000 to the present (2014). These maps provide hydrologic data previously unavailable for assessing biological and ecological studies.

  13. Impacts of water level fluctuation on mesotrophic rich fens: acidification versus eutrophication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cusell, C.; Lamers, L.P.M.; van Wirdum, G.; Kooijman, A.

    2013-01-01

    Water levels in areas with intensive agriculture have often been strictly controlled for decades. Recently, more natural fluctuating water levels have been propagated to improve the ecological quality of wetlands in these areas. This study investigated the effects of water levels on protected

  14. An innovative Oklahoma program to coordinate interdisciplinary and interagency services for children with special healthcare needs at a county level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolraich, Mark; Lockhart, Jennifer; Worley, Louis

    2013-03-01

    Children and youth with special health care needs (CYSHCN) and their families often require multiple services from multiple providers in order to meet their needs. The Sooner SUCCESS (State Unified Children's Comprehensive Exemplary Services for Special Needs), was developed based on a complex adaptive systems approach allowing local coalitions to address their unique needs. Sooner SUCCESS provides support to families and service providers at the community level including a broad range of supports from simply helping a family identify and access a service that already exists to innovatively marshaling generic resources to meet a unique need. The program uses these family support activities coupled with the Community Needs Assessment to identify local service needs encouraging community capacity building by coordinating the efforts of the health, mental health, social and education systems to identify service gaps and develop community-based strategies to fill those gaps.

  15. Water levels in wells J-11 and J-12, 1989-91, Yucca Mountain Area, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boucher, M.S.

    1994-01-01

    Water levels have been measured in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada, since 1981 in order to gain a better understanding of the ground-water flow system in the area. Water levels in wells J-11 and J-12 have been periodically measured using calibrated reeled steel tapes since 1989, however, calculation of water-level altitude was not possible prior to 1993 due to missing reference elevations. These elevations were determined in 1993 by the U.S. Geological Survey. During 1989-91, water-level altitudes for well J-11 ranged from 732.09 to 732.40 meters and the mean water-level altitude was 732.19 meters. During 1989-91, water-level altitudes for well J-12 ranged from 727.84 to 728.03 meters, and the mean water-level altitude was 727.95 meters

  16. “We need more data”! The politics of scientific information for water governance in the context of hydraulic fracturing

    OpenAIRE

    Michele-Lee Moore; Karena Shaw; Heather Castleden

    2018-01-01

    Proposed and actual developments of hydraulic fracturing, as a high-volume water user, have proven contentious in recent years. However, one point of agreement has emerged amongst all actors with regards to water use and hydraulic fracturing: we need more data. This consensus fits with a longstanding reification of the role of data in water governance, and yet we argue it hides a politically contested terrain. Based on a literature review, an empirical Delphi study and a workshop ...

  17. Costs of reducing water use of concentrating solar power to sustainable levels: Scenarios for North Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damerau, Kerstin; Williges, Keith; Patt, Anthony G.; Gauche, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) has the potential to become a leading sustainable energy technology for the European electricity system. In order to reach a substantial share in the energy mix, European investment in CSP appears most profitable in North Africa, where solar potential is significantly higher than in southern Europe. As well as sufficient solar irradiance, however, the majority of today's CSP plants also require a considerable amount of water, primarily for cooling purposes. In this paper we examine water usage associated with CSP in North Africa, and the cost penalties associated with technologies that could reduce those needs. We inspect four representative sites to compare the ecological and economical drawbacks from conventional and alternative cooling systems, depending on the local environment, and including an outlook with climate change to the mid-century. Scaling our results up to a regional level indicates that the use of wet cooling technologies would likely be unsustainable. Dry cooling systems, as well as sourcing of alternative water supplies, would allow for sustainable operation. Their cost penalty would be minor compared to the variance in CSP costs due to different average solar irradiance values. - Highlights: → Scaling up CSP with wet cooling from ground water will be unsustainable in North Africa. → Desalination and alternative cooling systems can assure a sustainable water supply. → On large-scale, the cost penalties of alternative cooling technologies appear minor.

  18. The Human Brain Does Not Need High Levels of Motivation to Learn a Foreign Language: Motivation Has Had Its Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Kieran

    2016-01-01

    Language is nature in action and something humans do. This literature review presents evidence from the literature that suggests that learning a foreign language in a classroom situation does not require high levels of student motivation. It is instead suggested that high levels of motivation are needed to make progress when a teacher is using…

  19. How much locomotive activity is needed for an active physical activity level: analysis of total step counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohkawara Kazunori

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although physical activity recommendations for public health have focused on locomotive activity such as walking and running, it is uncertain how much these activities contribute to overall physical activity level (PAL. The purpose of the present study was to determine the contribution of locomotive activity to PAL using total step counts measured in a calorimeter study. Methods PAL, calculated as total energy expenditure divided by basal metabolic rate, was evaluated in 11 adult men using three different conditions for 24-hour human calorimeter measurements: a low-activity day (L-day targeted at a low active level of PAL (1.45, and a high-frequency moderate activity day (M-day or a high-frequency vigorous activity day (V-day targeted at an active level of PAL (1.75. These subjects were permitted only light activities except prescribed activities. In a separate group of 41 adults, free-living PAL was evaluated using doubly-labeled water (DLW. In both experiments, step counts per day were also measured using an accelerometer. Results In the human calorimeter study, PAL and step counts were 1.42 ± 0.10 and 8,973 ± 543 steps/d (L-day, 1.82 ± 0.14 and 29,588 ± 1,126 steps/d (M-day, and 1.74 ± 0.15 and 23,755 ± 1,038 steps/d (V-day, respectively. In the DLW study, PAL and step counts were 1.73 ± 0.15 and 10,022 ± 2,605 steps/d, and there was no significant relationship between PAL and daily step counts. Conclusions These results indicate that an enormous number of steps are needed for an active level of PAL if individuals extend physical activity-induced energy expenditure by only locomotive activity. Therefore, non-locomotive activity such as household activity should also play a significant role in increasing PAL under free-living conditions.

  20. The need for (further) development of water treatment processes against the background of the European water outline regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurst, S.; Boerke, P.; Abo-Rady, M.; Engelmann, U.; Felix, M.

    2005-01-01

    In the German state of Sachsen, large areas have been contaminated by coal, lignite and uranium mining. Pollutants like sulfate, chloride, heavy metals and radionuclides are emitted into groundwater and surface water. Regeneration of the water according to the European Water Directive (EG-WRRL) can be achieved only by (further) development of passive water treatment methods. This means that pollutants, seepage mechanisms and experience so far must be revisited. Exemplary technologies are presented which are low-cost, sustainable and appropriate for the conditions prevailing in Sachsen. Areas that require further investigation are defined, and it is shown how the European water standards may be achieved. (orig.)

  1. An Analysis of the Priority Needs of Cooperative Extension at the County Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harder, Amy; Lamm, Alexa; Strong, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Cooperative Extension's role as a relevant provider of nonformal education is dependent upon its ability to improve and adjust in response to internal and external pressures. Periodically conducting needs assessments focused on the Extension organization can aid in Extension's efforts to deliver quality educational programs by pinpointing priority…

  2. The Need for Large-Scale, Longitudinal Empirical Studies in Middle Level Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Steven B.; Caskey, Micki M.; Flowers, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    This essay describes and discusses the ongoing need for large-scale, longitudinal, empirical research studies focused on middle grades education. After a statement of the problem and concerns, the essay describes and critiques several prior middle grades efforts and research studies. Recommendations for future research efforts to inform policy…

  3. The nuclear physical method for high pressure steam manifold water level gauging and its error

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Nianzu; Li Beicheng; Jia Shengming

    1993-10-01

    A new method, which is non-contact on measured water level, for measuring high pressure steam manifold water level with nuclear detection technique is introduced. This method overcomes the inherent drawback of previous water level gauges based on other principles. This method can realize full range real time monitoring on the continuous water level of high pressure steam manifold from the start to full load of boiler, and the actual value of water level can be obtained. The measuring errors were analysed on site. Errors from practical operation in Tianjin Junliangcheng Power Plant and in laboratory are also presented

  4. Assessing maize foliar water stress levels under field conditions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The management of spectral reflectance data to extract information of importance for plant water status has been motivated by knowledge of the availability of specific bands in the electromagnetic spectrum responsible for water absorption. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of using selected spectral ...

  5. Empowering Learners to Choose the Difficulty Level of Problems Based on Their Learning Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Mannheimer Zydney

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Research has found that increasing learner control offers several benefits, including increased motivation, attitude, and learning. The goal of the present study was to determine how prior math achievement influences students' selection of the difficulty level of problems within Math Pursuits, a hypermedia learning program. Math Pursuits was designed to help children understand mathematics by discovering how it relates to the world around them. The program presented each learner with an adjustable level of challenge, along with the necessary scaffolding to support success. The researchers hypothesized that students with lower math skills would choose to start with a lower difficultly level; whereas, students with higher math skills would begin the program by choosing a question with a higher level of difficulty. Results supported these hypotheses. This research also examined the motivational framework guiding students' selection of problem difficulty.

  6. Report: EPA Needs to Strengthen Internal Controls for Determining Workforce Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #11-P-0031, December 20, 2010. EPA’s policies and procedures do not include a process for determining employment levels based on workload as prescribed by the Office of Management and Budget.

  7. The drinking water contamination crisis in Flint: Modeling temporal trends of lead level since returning to Detroit water system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goovaerts, Pierre

    2017-03-01

    Since Flint returned to its pre-crisis source of drinking water close to 25,000 water samples have been collected and tested for lead and copper in >10,000 residences. This paper presents the first analysis and time trend modeling of lead data, providing new insights about the impact of this intervention. The analysis started with geocoding all water lead levels (WLL) measured during an 11-month period following the return to the Detroit water supply. Each data was allocated to the corresponding tax parcel unit and linked to secondary datasets, such as the composition of service lines, year built, or census tract poverty level. Only data collected on residential parcels within the City limits were used in the analysis. One key feature of Flint data is their collection through two different sampling initiatives: (i) voluntary or homeowner-driven sampling whereby concerned citizens decided to acquire a testing kit and conduct sampling on their own (non-sentinel sites), and (ii) State-controlled sampling where data were collected bi-weekly at selected sites after training of residents by technical teams (sentinel sites). Temporal trends modeled from these two datasets were found to be statistically different with fewer sentinel data exceeding WLL thresholds ranging from 10 to 50μg/L. Even after adjusting for housing characteristics the odds ratio (OR) of measuring WLL above 15μg/L at non-sentinel sites is significantly >1 (OR=1.480) and it increases with the threshold (OR=2.055 for 50μg/L). Joinpoint regression showed that the city-wide percentage of WLL data above 15μg/L displayed four successive trends since the return to Detroit Water System. Despite the recent improvement in water quality, the culprit for differences between sampling programs needs to be identified as it impacts exposure assessment and might influence whether there is compliance or not with the Lead and Copper Rule. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Water levels in continuously monitored wells in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada, 1985--88

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luckey, R.R.; Lobmeyer, D.H.; Burkhardt, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    Water levels have been monitored hourly in 15 wells completed in 23 depth intervals in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada. Water levels were monitored using pressure transducers and were recorded by data loggers. The pressure transducers were periodically calibrated by raising and lowering them in the wells. The water levels were normally measured at approximately the same time that the transducers were calibrated. Where the transducer output appeared reasonable, it was converted to water levels using the calibrations and manual water- level measurements. The amount of transducer output that was converted to water levels ranged from zero for several intervals to about 98 percent for one interval. Fourteen of the wells were completed in Tertiary volcanic rocks and one well was completed in Paleozoic carbonate rocks. Each well monitored from one to four depth intervals. Water-level fluctuation caused by barometric pressure changes and earth tides were observed

  9. Heterogeneous photocatalysis for air and water treatment: Fundamental needs for quantum efficiency enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ollis, D.F. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1996-09-01

    In the remediation industries, a useful treatment technology must be {open_quotes}general, robust, and cheap{close_quotes}. Among oxidation processes, heterogeneous photocatalysis is now broadly demonstrated to destroy common water and air contaminants. The potential process uses of highly stable titania, long lived lamps (one year), and room temperature operation, indicating a simple and robust process. We are left to address the third criterion: Can photocatalysis be {open_quotes}cheap{close_quotes}? In both liquid phase and gas phase treatment and purification by photocatalysis, it is established that the primary barrier to commercialization is often cost. Cost in return is dominated by the efficiency with which solar or lamp photons are harvested for productive light, and subsequent dark, reactions. This paper therefore defines fundamental needs in photocatalysis for pollution control in terms of activities which could lead to quantum efficiency enhancement. We first recall three related definitions. The quantum yield (QY) is the ratio of molecules of reactant converted per photon absorbed, a fundamental quantity. A less fundamental, but more easily measured variable is the quantum efficiency (QE), the ratio of molecules converted per photon entering the reactor. A third variable is the energy required per order of magnitude pollutant reduction, or EEO, a definition which provides for easy energy cost comparisons among different technologies. Each measure cited here reflects the photon, and thus the electrical, cost of this photochemistry.

  10. Modal Analysis of a Steel Radial Gate Exposed to Different Water Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusewicz, Krzysztof; Sterpejkowicz-Wersocki, Witold; Jankowski, Robert

    2017-06-01

    With the increase in water retention needs and planned river regulation, it might be important to investigate the dynamic resistance of vulnerable elements of hydroelectric power plants, including steelwater locks. The most frequent dynamic loads affecting hydroengineering structures in Poland include vibrations caused by heavy road and railway traffic, piling works and mining tremors. More destructive dynamic loads, including earthquakes, may also occur in our country, although their incidence is relatively low. However, given the unpredictable nature of such events, as well as serious consequences they might cause, the study of the seismic resistance of the steel water gate, as one of the most vulnerable elements of a hydroelectric power plant, seems to be important. In this study, a steel radial gate has been analyzed. As far as water gates are concerned, it is among the most popular solutions because of its relatively small weight, compared to plain gates. A modal analysis of the steel radial gate was conducted with the use of the FEM in the ABAQUS software. All structural members were modelled using shell elements with detailed geometry representing a real structure.Water was modelled as an added mass affecting the structure. Different water levels were used to determine the most vulnerable state of the working steel water gate. The results of the modal analysis allowed us to compare the frequencies and their eigenmodes in response to different loads, which is one of the first steps in researching the dynamic properties of steel water gates and their behaviour during extreme dynamic loads, including earthquakes.

  11. Evaluation of long-term water-level declines in basalt aquifers near Mosier, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Erick R.; Morgan, David S.; Lee, Karl K.; Haynes, Jonathan V.; Conlon, Terrence D.

    2012-01-01

    local combination of geology and well construction have resulted in aquifer commingling at a particular well, the well needs to be tested by measuring intraborehole flow. During geophysical testing of one known commingling well, the flow rate through the well between aquifers ranged between 70 and 135 gallons per minute (11-22 percent of total annual pumping in the study area). Historically, when aquifer water levels were 150-200 feet higher, this flow rate would have been correspondingly higher. 5. Because aquifer commingling through well boreholes is likely the dominant cause of aquifer declines, flow simulations were conducted to evaluate the benefit of repairing wells in specified locations and the benefit of recharging aquifers using diverted flow from study area creeks. As part of this analysis, maps were generated that show which areas are more vulnerable to commingling. These maps indicate that the value of repairing wells in the area generally coincident with the OWRD administrative area is higher than in areas farther upstream in the watershed. Simulation results also indicate that artificial recharge of the aquifers using diverted creek water will not significantly improve water levels in the aquifer system unless at least some commingling wells are repaired first. Repairs would entail construction of wells in a manner that prevents commingling of multiple aquifers. The value of artificially recharging the aquifers improves as more wells are repaired because the aquifer system more efficiently stores water.

  12. Market oriented and rational use of energy and power. Level of competence and need of skill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morch, Andrei Z.; Groenli, Helle

    2001-03-01

    This report surveys the existing research and development (R and D) skill in Norway in the field of ''Market oriented and rational use of energy and power''. The need for skills upgrading and future R and D is discussed. Four areas for R and D are identified as especially important: (1) external conditions, (2) end user behavior, (3) the interplay of all issues related to the end user's competence, and (4) information and communication technology

  13. Scoping Adaptation Needs for Smallholders in the Brazilian Amazon: A Municipal Level Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osuna Vanesa Rodríguez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, several climate extreme events have caused considerable economic damage and hardship in the Brazilian Amazon region, especially for small-scale producers. Based on household surveys and focus group interviews in the Municipality of Alenquer as well as secondary data analyses and a literature review at the regional level, this study seeks to assess rural small-scale producers’ vulnerability to climate and non-climate related shocks and identify entry points for government action to support adaptation at the local level. In our case study area, small-scale producers with similar wealth, self-sufficiency, and resource use specialisation levels exhibited stark variation in levels of sensitivity and adaptive capacity to climate and nonclimate related shocks. Our findings indicate that this variation is partly driven by cultural, historical, and environmental resource use specialisation strategies and partly by differences in local governance capacity and the level of social organisation. Emerging governmentled initiatives to promote climate change adaptation in the region would benefit from taking these factors into account when designing local implementation strategies and priorities.

  14. PWR type reactor equipped with a primary circuit loop water level gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Mitsuhiro.

    1990-01-01

    The time of lowering a water level to less than the position of high temperature side pipeway nozzle has been rather delayed because of the swelling of mixed water level due to heat generation of the reactor core. Further, there has been a certain restriction for the installation, maintenance and adjustment of a water level gauge since it is at a position under high radiation exposure. Then, a differential pressure type water level gauge with temperature compensation is disposed at a portion below a water level gauge of a pressurizer and between the steam generator exit plenum and the lower end of the loop seal. Further, a similar water level system is disposed to all of the loops of the primary circulation circuits. In a case that the amount of water contained in a reactor container should decreased upon occurrence of loss of coolant accidents caused by small rupture and stoppage of primary circuit pumps, lowering of the water level preceding to the lowering of the water level in the reactor core is detected to ensure the amount of water. Since they are disposed to all of the loops and ensure the excess margin, reliability for the detection of the amount of contained water can be improved by averaging time for the data of the water level and averaging the entire systems, even when there are vibrations in the fluid or pressure in the primary circuit. (N.H.)

  15. Innovative Disposal Practices at the Nevada Test Site to Meet Its Low-Level Waste Generators' Future Disposal Needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Sanza, E.F.; Carilli, J.T.

    2006-01-01

    Low-level radioactive waste (LLW) streams which have a clear, defined pathway to disposal are becoming less common as U.S. Department of Energy accelerated cleanup sites enters their closure phase. These commonly disposed LLW waste streams are rapidly being disposed and the LLW inventory awaiting disposal is dwindling. However, more complex waste streams that have no path for disposal are now requiring attention. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NSO) Environmental Management Program is charged with the responsibility of carrying out the disposal of onsite and off-site defense-generated and research-related LLW at the Nevada. Test Site (NTS). The NSO and its generator community are constantly pursuing new LLW disposal techniques while meeting the core mission of safe and cost-effective disposal that protects the worker, the public and the environment. From trenches to present-day super-cells, the NTS disposal techniques must change to meet the LLW generator's disposal needs. One of the many ways the NTS is addressing complex waste streams is by designing waste specific pits and trenches. This ensures unusual waste streams with high-activity or large packaging have a disposal path. Another option the NTS offers is disposal of classified low-level radioactive-contaminated material. In order to perform this function, the NTS has a safety plan in place as well as a secure facility. By doing this, the NTS can accept DOE generated classified low-level radioactive-contaminated material that would be equivalent to U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Class B, C, and Greater than Class C waste. In fiscal year 2006, the NTS will be the only federal disposal facility that will be able to dispose mixed low-level radioactive waste (MLLW) streams. This is an activity that is highly anticipated by waste generators. In order for the NTS to accept MLLW, generators will have to meet the stringent requirements of the NTS

  16. Investigation of the Effect of Water Removal from Wells Surrounding Parishan Lake on Groundwater and Surface Water Levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafiei, M.; Raini Sarjaz, M.; Fazloli, R.; Gholami Sefidkouhi, M. A.

    2017-01-01

    In recent decades the human impacts on global warming and, its consequences, climate change, stirred up earth ecosystems balance and has created many problems all over the world. Unauthorized underground water removal, especially in arid and semi-arid regions of Iran, along with recent decade drought occurrences significantly lowered underground and surface water levels. To investigate the impacts of water removal from surrounding wells in Parishan Lake water level, during 1996 to 2009 interval, 8 buffer layers surrounding the lake were mapped in ArcGIS 9.3 environment. Each buffer layer wells and their total annual discharges were determined. Using SPSS 16 software, the regression equations between wells water levels and water discharges were computed. By employing Thiessen function and creating Thiessen network (TIN) around observation wells, decline of groundwater levels was evaluated. Finally regression equations between wells discharges and groundwater level declines were created. The findings showed that there are highly significant correlations (p ≤ 0.01), in all buffer layers, between water levels and wells discharges. Investigation of the observation wells surrounding lake showed that severe groundwater level declines has been started since the beginning of the first decade of the 21st century. Using satellite images in ArcGIS 9.3 environment it was confirmed that lake’s area has been reduced significantly. In conclusion, it is obvious that human interferences on lake’s natural ecosystem by digging unauthorized wells and removing underground water more than annual recharges significantly impacted surface and groundwater levels.

  17. Water-level changes and directions of ground-water flow in the shallow aquifer, Fallon area, Churchill County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, R.L.; Allander, K.K.

    1993-01-01

    The Truckee-Carson-Pyramid Lake Water Rights Settlement Act of 1990 directed the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to acquire water rights for wetland areas in the Carson Desert, Nevada. The public is concerned that htis acquisition of water rights and delivery of the water directly to wildlife areas would result in less recharge to the shallow ground water in the Fallon area and cause domestic wells to go dry. In January 1992, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, began a study of the shallow ground-water system in the Fallon area in Churchill County, Nevada. A network of 126 wells in the study area was monitored. Between January and November 1992, water levels in most wells declined, usually less than 2 feet. The maximum measured decline over this period was 2.68 feet in a well near Stillwater Marsh. Between April and July, however, water levels rose in irrigated areas, typically 1 to 2 feet. Newlands Project water deliveries to the study area began soon after the turn of the century. Since then, water levels have risen more than 15 feet across much of the study area. Water lost from unlined irrigtiaon canals caused the stage in Big Soda Lake to rise nearly 60 feet; ground-water levels near the lake have risen 30 to 40 feet. The depth to water in most irrigated areas is now less than 10 feet. The altitude of the water table ranges from 4.025 feet above sea level 11 miles west of Fallon to 3,865 feet in the Stillwater Marsh area. Ground water flows eastward and divides; some flow goes to the northeast toward the Carson Sink and Stillwater areas, and some goes southeastward to Carson Lake.

  18. BWR [boiling water reactor] core criticality versus water level during an ATWS [anticipated transient without scram] event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sehgal, B.R.; Peng, C.M.; Maly, J.

    1988-01-01

    The BWR [boiling water reactor] emergency procedures guidelines recommend management of core water level to reduce the power generated during an anticipated transient without scram (ATWS) event. BWR power level variation has traditionally been calculated in the system codes using a 1-D [one-dimensional] 2-group neutron kinetics model to determine criticality. This methodology used also for calculating criticality of the partially covered BWR cores has, however, never been validated against data. In this paper, the power level versus water level issues in an ATWS severe accident are introduced and the accuracy of the traditional methodology is investigated by comparing with measured data. It is found that the 1-D 2-group treatment is not adequate for accurate predictions of criticality and therefore the system power level for the water level variations that may be encountered in a prototypical ATWS severe accident. It is believed that the current predictions for power level may be too high

  19. Edge type affects leaf-level water relations and estimated transpiration of Eucalyptus arenacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Thomas E; Tausz, Michael; Kasel, Sabine; Volkova, Liubov; Merchant, Andrew; Bennett, Lauren T

    2012-03-01

    plantation edges in summer months (most likely due to greater water availability at pasture edges), resulting in significantly greater estimates of annual transpiration at pasture than plantation edges (430 vs. 343lm(-2)year(-1), respectively). Our study highlights the need for landscape-level water flux models to account for edge effects on stand transpiration, particularly in highly fragmented landscapes.

  20. Using monomer vibrational wavefunctions to compute numerically exact (12D) rovibrational levels of water dimer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Gang; Carrington, Tucker

    2018-02-01

    We compute numerically exact rovibrational levels of water dimer, with 12 vibrational coordinates, on the accurate CCpol-8sf ab initio flexible monomer potential energy surface [C. Leforestier et al., J. Chem. Phys. 137, 014305 (2012)]. It does not have a sum-of-products or multimode form and therefore quadrature in some form must be used. To do the calculation, it is necessary to use an efficient basis set and to develop computational tools, for evaluating the matrix-vector products required to calculate the spectrum, that obviate the need to store the potential on a 12D quadrature grid. The basis functions we use are products of monomer vibrational wavefunctions and standard rigid-monomer basis functions (which involve products of three Wigner functions). Potential matrix-vector products are evaluated using the F matrix idea previously used to compute rovibrational levels of 5-atom and 6-atom molecules. When the coupling between inter- and intra-monomer coordinates is weak, this crude adiabatic type basis is efficient (only a few monomer vibrational wavefunctions are necessary), although the calculation of matrix elements is straightforward. It is much easier to use than an adiabatic basis. The product structure of the basis is compatible with the product structure of the kinetic energy operator and this facilitates computation of matrix-vector products. Compared with the results obtained using a [6 + 6]D adiabatic approach, we find good agreement for the inter-molecular levels and larger differences for the intra-molecular water bend levels.

  1. REDUCING ARSENIC LEVELS IN DRINKING WATER DURING IRON REMOVAL PROCESSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The presentation provides an overview of iron removal technology for the removal of arsenic from drinking water. The presentation is divided into several topic topics: Arsenic Chemistry, Treatment Selection, Treatment Options, Case Studies and Iron Removal Processes. Each topic i...

  2. NOAA NOS SOS, EXPERIMENTAL, 1853-present, Water Level

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA NOS SOS server is part of the IOOS DIF SOS Project. The stations in this dataset have water surface height above a reference datum. *These services are for...

  3. Level of Faecal Coliform Contamination of Drinking Water Sources ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-03-01

    Mar 1, 2018 ... ... of Drinking Water Sources and Its Associated Risk Factors in Rural Settings of North Gondar ... of Environmental & Occupational. Health & Safety, Gondar, Ethiopia. 2University of Gondar .... technicians. All sampling bottles ...

  4. Effect of electrolyzed reduced water on malondialdehyde levels and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the effects of electrolyzed reduced water (ERW) on .... dehydrated and cleared with alcohol. ... assay tubes were incubated at a temperature of ... oxygen-dependent and oxygen-independent .... Oxidative Medicine and.

  5. Highly Selective Fluorescence Determination of the Hematin Level in Human Erythrocytes with No Need for Separation from Bulk Hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Lijuan; Chen, Li; Wu, Ping; Gervasio, Dominic F; Cai, Chenxin

    2016-04-05

    Hematin-induced fluorescence quenching of boron-doped graphene quantum dots (BGQDs) allows for determination of hematin concentration in human erythrocytes with no need for separating hematin from hemoglobin before performing the assay. The BGQDs are made by oxidizing a graphite anode by holding the voltage between a graphite rod and a Pt cathode at 3 V for 2 h in an aqueous borax solution at pH 7; then, the borate solution was filtered with BGQDs, and the borate was dialyzed from the filtrate, leaving a solution of BGQDs in water. The fluorescence intensity of BGQDs is measurable in real time, and its quenching is very sensitive to the concentration of hematin in the system but not to other coexisting biological substances. The analytical signal is defined as ΔF = 1 - F/F0, where F0 and F are the fluorescence intensities of the BGQDs before and after interaction with hematin, respectively. There is a good linear relationship between ΔF and hematin concentration, ranging from 0.01 to 0.92 μM, with the limit of detection (LOD) being ∼0.005 ± 0.001 μM at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3. This new method is sensitive, label-free, simple, and inexpensive, and many tedious procedures related to sample separation and preparation can be omitted, implying that this method has potential for applications in clinical examinations and disease diagnoses. For example, the determination of the hematin levels in two kind of red blood cell samples, healthy human and sickle cell erythrocytes, gives average concentrations of hematin of ∼(23.1 ± 4.9) μM (average of five samples) for healthy red cell cytosols and ∼(52.5 ± 9.5) μM (average of two samples) for sickle red cell cytosols.

  6. Research Needs Assessment in the Health Insurance Organization: Level of Health Care Provider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadkarim Bahadori

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Setting research priorities in the research management cycle is a key. It is important to set the research priorities to make optimal use of scarce resources. The aim of this research was to determine the research needs of Health Insurance Organization based on its health care centers research needs.Methods: This is a qualitative, descriptive and cross-sectional study that was conducted in 2011. A purposeful sample of 60 participants from 14 hospitals, seven dispensaries, five dental clinics, two rehabilitation centers, four radiology centers, six medical diagnostic laboratories, 12 pharmacies, and 20 medical offices that were contracted with the Health Insurance Organization in Iran was interviewed. The framework analysis method (a qualitative research method was used for analysis of interviews. Atlas-Ti software was used to analyze quantitative data, respectively. The topics were prioritized using the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP method through Expert Choice software.Results: Based on the problems extracted in our qualitative study, 12 research topics were proposed by the experts. Among these “Design of standard treatment protocols,” “Designing model of ranking the health care centers under contract,” and “Pathology of payment system” took the priority ranks of 1 to 3, earning the scores of 0.44, 0.42, and 0.37, respectively.Conclusion: Considering limited resources and unlimited needs and to prevent research resource wasting, conducting research related to health care providers in the Health Insurance Organization can help it achieve its goals.

  7. Technology needs for selecting and evaluating high-level waste repository sites in crystalline rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-12-01

    This report describes properties and processes that govern the performance of the geological barrier in a nuclear waste isolation system in crystalline rock and the state-of-the-art in the understanding of these properties and processes. Areas and topics that require further research and development as well as technology needs for investigating and selecting repository sites are presented. Experiences from the Swedish site selection program are discussed, and a general investigation strategy is presented for an area characterization phase of an exploratory program in crystalline rocks. 255 refs., 65 figs., 10 tabs

  8. Contribution of complementary foods to the total daily water needs of urban Guatemalan infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enneman, A.; Campos, R.; Hernandez, L.; Palma, A.V.; Vossenaar, M.; Solomons, N.W.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Estimates of adequate intake (AI) for water only became available in 2005. The daily water AI for 6-12-month-old infants of both sexes is 800 mL. The present study aimed to estimate the water intake of urban infants receiving both breast milk and complementary feeding (CF) and to compare

  9. Is an institute for the study of high-level radioactive waste disposal needed in southern Nevada?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, M.B.; Robison, A.C.; Baepler, D.H.

    1993-01-01

    This paper examines key questions about the need for a formal institute that would study storage and disposal concepts for high-level radioactive waste (HLRW) in the United States and throughout the world. The questions that have been analyzed so far include: Why is an institute needed? What could this institute do to achieve the goal? How could an institute of this nature work? When could an institute form and begin functioning to meet the goals? Where could an institute be located?

  10. Digital Board Game: Is there a need for it in language learning among tertiary level students?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Zuraina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of learning while playing to learn language is a pedagogy that can enhance students’ learning interest. In this digital era, the use of board games, for instance, has provided a solution to learning a language. A considerable literature has grown up around the theme of digital board in language learning. Therefore, this paper aims at finding the significance of developing a digital board game for the purpose of vocabulary learning. Fifty-seven (57 students from Universiti Malaysia Pahang (UMP were selected as samples using purposive random sampling to collect data for the current study. A questionnaire was employed to explore their needs of a digital board game to learn vocabulary. The findings revealed that digital board game has significant needs among students to learn vocabulary, and further support the idea of using digital board game in language classroom. Majority of them believed that digital board game may provide a significant impact on vocabulary learning. Overall, the current study proves to be particularly valuable to language teachers to incorporate digital board game into their instructional activity. Also, these findings suggest a role for interactive learning in motivating language learner to enrich their vocabulary size.

  11. Water Hardness Level and ItAND#8217;s Health Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necmettin Kocak

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Water hardness is a term used to define the number of ions contained in the water, especially quantity sulphate, carbonate salts of calcium and magnesium. This characteristis of water is a important quality in it’s use as drinking water, industrial water and service water. The temporary hardness level of water cames from bicarbonate salts of calcium and magnesium whereas chloride, sulphate, nitrate, phosphate, silicate salts of calcium and magnesium. In order to indicate the hardness level of water samples French Hardness Level is used in our country. There is a larger amounth of calcium and magnesium salts in hard water samples. These minerals have very important functions in the human body. In this study, the importance of hard water in terms of human health has been assessed under light of current information. The studies about the preventive role of hard water in cardiovascular diseases, cerebrovascular diseases, stroke and many types of cancer areviewed. These studies Express that higher levels of calcium and magnesium hard water provide a higher reduction in these disease. Water, which must be consumed as 2 liters per dayis very important for human life. Hard water contains a lot of the minerals that must be taker daily, especially calcium and magnesium. It’s advised that water for consumption to have medium hardness. The hardness level of water is an aesthetic quality. Thus, in populations having a taste for soft water, the effort of individuals to softer the network water provided by municipalities using different equipments, in addition to their preference of soft water in plastic or glass bottles for consumption could imply lack of benefit of hard water for population health and also bring out some risks in terms of water hygiene. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(2.000: 187-192

  12. Well-Construction, Water-Level, and Water-Quality Data for Ground-Water Monitoring Wells for the J4 Hydrogeologic Study, Arnold Air Force Base, Tennessee

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Haugh, Connor J

    1996-01-01

    ...) in Coffee County, Tennessee. The wells ranged from 28 to 289 feet deep and were installed to provide information on subsurface lithology, aquifer characteristics, ground-water levels, and ground-water quality...

  13. A simplified method for low-level tritium measurement in the environmental water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakuma, Yoichi; Yamanishi, Hirokuni; Ogata, Yoshimune

    2004-01-01

    Low level liquid scintillation counting took much time with a lot of doing to distill off the impurities in the sample water before mixing the sample with the liquid scintillation cocktail. In the light of it, we investigated the possibility of an alternative filtration method for sample purification. The tritium concentration in the environmental water has become very low, and the samples have to be treated by electrolysis enrichment with a liquid scintillation analyzer. Using the solid polymer electrolyte enriching device, there is no need to add neither any electrolyte nor the neutralization after the concentration. If we could replace the distillation process with the filtration, the procedure would be simplified very much. We investigated the procedure and we were able to prove that the reverse osmosis (RO) filtration was available. Moreover, in order to rationalize all through the measurement method, we examined the followings: (1) Improvement of the enriching apparatus. (2) Easier measurement of heavy water concentration using a density meter, instead of a mass spectrometer. The concentration of water samples was measured to determine the enrichment rate of tritium during the electrolysis enrichment. (author)

  14. Comparative study of different types of granular activated carbon in removing medium level radon from water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alabdula'aly, A.I.; Maghrawy, H.B.

    2011-01-01

    Granular activated carbon (GAC) has proven its effectiveness in removing radon from water supplies. Laboratory and pilot plant studies were carried out using three different types of activated carbons (F-300, F-400, and HD-4000) to remove radon from water supply. From the experimental kinetic study, the data indicated that at least 6 h are needed to attain equilibrium between radon activity adsorbed onto carbon and its concentration in the aqueous phase. Also, it showed that HD-4000 has higher capacity for removing radon than the other two investigated carbons F-300 and F-400. The adsorption isotherms were satisfactorily explained by Freundlich equation. In the pilot plant study, the performance of the three activated carbons in removing radon at medium concentration (∼111 Bq dm -3 ) was evaluated over 60 days of continuous water flow. Four empty-bed contact times (EBCTs) corresponding to four bed depths were continuously monitored and the corresponding steady state adsorption-decay constant values were calculated and the efficiency of each carbon was used to provide a facet for comparison. The γ-radiation exposure rate distribution throughout each GAC bed was measured and compared. This study, despite paucity of literature in this field, is useful for designing a GAC adsorption system for the removal of medium level radon concentration from water supplies. (author)

  15. A Systematic Study for Smart Residential Thermostats: User Needs for the Input, Output, and Intelligence Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Luen Patrick Rau

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of “smart” residential thermostats—both in terms of wider connectivity and higher intelligence—has revealed great opportunity for energy conservation, as well as providing comfort and convenience. This paper focuses on the interaction design of such a novel system, and analyzed user requirements for input, output, and level of intelligence systematically through both in-depth interviews and a survey.

  16. Radioactivity levels in surface water of lakes around Izmir / Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyurum, S.; Turkozu, D. A.; Aslani, M. A. A.; Aytas, S.; Eral, M.; Kaygun, A. K.

    2006-01-01

    Radioactivity presents in surface continental waters is mainly due to the presence of radioactive elements in the earth's crust, other artificial radionuclides have appeared due to such human activities as nuclear power plants, nuclear weapons testing and manufacture and use of radioactive sources It is well known that natural radionuclides can be effective as tracers for the different processes controlling the distribution of elements among dissolved and particulate phases in aquatic systems. The detection of high radionuclide concentrations was proposed as a public health problem in several areas and consequently studies into the risks of radionuclides were started in the 2000s. Especially, these radioactive substances in groundwater are an unwanted and involuntary risk factor from natural sources, not artificial sources. These radioactive substances include uranium, radon found in uranium series, and other radioactive substances such as radium and gross alpha. Uranium present in rock, soil, and natural materials, and is found in small quantities in air, water, and food that people always contact. In this project, lake water samples were collected from three lakes around Izmir-Turkey. In surface lake water samples, pH, mV and conductivity values were measured and alkaline content was determined titrimetrically. The uranium concentrations in the lake water samples were measured using uranium analyzer. The radioactivity concentrations related to gross radium isotopes, gross-? and gross-? activities in the surface lake water were determined. The correlation among some parameters for water samples and concentrations of uranium, activity concentration of gross radium isotopes, gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity are also discussed

  17. Precursory changes in well water level prior to the March, 2000 eruption of Usu Volcano, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Tomo; Akita, Fujio

    The height of water levels in two wells located near Usu volcano, Japan, changed in a systematic fashion for several months prior to the eruption of Usu volcano on 31 March 2000. In one well, water-level decrease relative to normal levels was first observed at the beginning of October 1999. The decreasing water-level is postulated to result from groundwater flow into cracks widened by intruding magma during dike formation. From the beginning of January 2000, the rate of decrease became higher. During this time, the water level of the second well increased by 0.05 m and then gradually decreased. The water-level changes are consistent with volumetric expansion of magma inside the magma chamber, followed by intrusion of magma into the fracture system associated with widening of cracks. We conclude that water-level observations can provide information that may potentially be used to predict further volcanic eruptions.

  18. Ex-vessel water-level and fission-product monitoring for LWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeVolpi, A.; Markoff, D.

    1988-01-01

    Given that the need for direct measurement of reactor coolant inventory under operational or abnormal conditions remains unsatisfied, a high-energy gamma-ray detection system is described for ex-vessel monitoring. The system has been modeled to predict response in a PWR, and the model has been validated with a LOFT LOCA sequence. The apparatus, situated outside the pressure vessel, would give relative water level and density over the entire vessel height and distinguish differing levels in the downcomer and core. It would also have significant sensitivity after power shutdown because of high-energy gamma rays from photoneutron capture, the photoneutrons being the result of fission-product decay in the core. Fission-products released to the coolant and accumulated in the top of a PWR vessel would also be theoretically detectable

  19. Reproductive success of Whiskered Tern Chlidonias hybrida in eastern Spain in relation to water level variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz Lledó, Álvaro; Vidal Mateo, Javier; Urios Moliner, Vicente

    2018-01-01

    caused the loss of nests, eggs and nestlings, even when wetland water levels remained constant. The influence of the anchorage depth of the nest and the water level fluctuation rate were analyzed and did not provide statistically significant results. It was not possible to establish a clear pattern on these latter variables, so further studies are needed to obtain more significant results. We propose to undertake similar studies in wetlands where the water level can be regulated, with the range of nest anchorage depth on the emergent vegetation being between 30 and 60 cm, which could improve the reproductive success in this kind of habitats. As recommendation, in water level controlled wetlands (that use sluices), it should not vary more than ±6 cm in a short time (1-2 days) once the nests are established since it negatively affects their reproductive success.

  20. Reproductive success of Whiskered Tern Chlidonias hybrida in eastern Spain in relation to water level variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Ortiz Lledó

    2018-04-01

    climatic events, such as strong wind, rain or hail, also caused the loss of nests, eggs and nestlings, even when wetland water levels remained constant. The influence of the anchorage depth of the nest and the water level fluctuation rate were analyzed and did not provide statistically significant results. It was not possible to establish a clear pattern on these latter variables, so further studies are needed to obtain more significant results. We propose to undertake similar studies in wetlands where the water level can be regulated, with the range of nest anchorage depth on the emergent vegetation being between 30 and 60 cm, which could improve the reproductive success in this kind of habitats. As recommendation, in water level controlled wetlands (that use sluices, it should not vary more than ±6 cm in a short time (1–2 days once the nests are established since it negatively affects their reproductive success.

  1. Climate Change and European Water Bodies, a Review of Existing Gaps and Future Research Needs: Findings of the ClimateWater Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, Monica; Harper, David M; Blaskovicova, Lotta; Hancz, Gabriella; Janauer, Georg A; Jolánkai, Zsolt; Lanz, Eva; Lo Porto, Antonio; Mándoki, Monika; Pataki, Beata; Rahuel, Jean-Luc; Robinson, Victoria J; Stoate, Chris; Tóth, Eszter; Jolánkai, Géza

    2015-08-01

    There is general agreement among scientists that global temperatures are rising and will continue to increase in the future. It is also agreed that human activities are the most important causes of these climatic variations, and that water resources are already suffering and will continue to be greatly impaired as a consequence of these changes. In particular, it is probable that areas with limited water resources will expand and that an increase of global water demand will occur, estimated to be around 35-60% by 2025 as a consequence of population growth and the competing needs of water uses. This will cause a growing imbalance between water demand (including the needs of nature) and supply. This urgency demands that climate change impacts on water be evaluated in different sectors using a cross-cutting approach (Contestabile in Nat Clim Chang 3:11-12, 2013). These issues were examined by the EU FP7-funded Co-ordination and support action "ClimateWater" (bridging the gap between adaptation strategies of climate change impacts and European water policies). The project studied adaptation strategies to minimize the water-related consequences of climate change and assessed how these strategies should be taken into consideration by European policies. This article emphasizes that knowledge gaps still exist about the direct effects of climate change on water bodies and their indirect impacts on production areas that employ large amounts of water (e.g., agriculture). Some sectors, such as ecohydrology and alternative sewage treatment technologies, could represent a powerful tool to mitigate climate change impacts. Research needs in these still novel fields are summarized.

  2. Climate Change and European Water Bodies, a Review of Existing Gaps and Future Research Needs: Findings of the ClimateWater Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, Monica; Harper, David M.; Blaskovicova, Lotta; Hancz, Gabriella; Janauer, Georg A.; Jolánkai, Zsolt; Lanz, Eva; Porto, Antonio Lo; Mándoki, Monika; Pataki, Beata; Rahuel, Jean-Luc; Robinson, Victoria J.; Stoate, Chris; Tóth, Eszter; Jolánkai, Géza

    2015-08-01

    There is general agreement among scientists that global temperatures are rising and will continue to increase in the future. It is also agreed that human activities are the most important causes of these climatic variations, and that water resources are already suffering and will continue to be greatly impaired as a consequence of these changes. In particular, it is probable that areas with limited water resources will expand and that an increase of global water demand will occur, estimated to be around 35-60 % by 2025 as a consequence of population growth and the competing needs of water uses. This will cause a growing imbalance between water demand (including the needs of nature) and supply. This urgency demands that climate change impacts on water be evaluated in different sectors using a cross-cutting approach (Contestabile in Nat Clim Chang 3:11-12, 2013). These issues were examined by the EU FP7-funded Co-ordination and support action "ClimateWater" (bridging the gap between adaptation strategies of climate change impacts and European water policies). The project studied adaptation strategies to minimize the water-related consequences of climate change and assessed how these strategies should be taken into consideration by European policies. This article emphasizes that knowledge gaps still exist about the direct effects of climate change on water bodies and their indirect impacts on production areas that employ large amounts of water (e.g., agriculture). Some sectors, such as ecohydrology and alternative sewage treatment technologies, could represent a powerful tool to mitigate climate change impacts. Research needs in these still novel fields are summarized.

  3. Treatment of low level waste water by reverse osmosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Kaijun; Zhang Chuanzhi; Xue Qinhua; Liu Meijun

    1987-11-01

    A Study on the removal of certain radioactive elements Such as 141 Ce, 51 Cr 134 Cu, 106 Ru and 131 I by Reverse Osmosis and the effect of surface activity agent on property of membrance are described in this paper. RO model is carried out to examine the treatment of actual reactor waste water and radioactive laundry waste water. The removal efficiency of total β is 98%. Three preprocessing (cloth pocket filtrator, hivefiltrator and zone) and membrane cleaning methods (acid, ozone and spongeball) are also investigated

  4. Natural radiation level in drinking water in Homs city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shweikani, R.; Raja, Gh.

    2008-11-01

    In this study, radon concentrations were measured at the sources of drinking water and in some tap water in houses in Homs County. All measurements showed that concentrations are within the international allowed limits and there is no big difference in concentration between the sources and the houses. Also total alpha/beta and radium-226 content were measured in the samples of the sources and the houses using liquid scintillation counter. All measurements showed that concentrations are within the international allowed limits. (authors)

  5. Self-Driving Cars and Engineering Ethics: The Need for a System Level Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borenstein, Jason; Herkert, Joseph R; Miller, Keith W

    2017-11-13

    The literature on self-driving cars and ethics continues to grow. Yet much of it focuses on ethical complexities emerging from an individual vehicle. That is an important but insufficient step towards determining how the technology will impact human lives and society more generally. What must complement ongoing discussions is a broader, system level of analysis that engages with the interactions and effects that these cars will have on one another and on the socio-technical systems in which they are embedded. To bring the conversation of self-driving cars to the system level, we make use of two traffic scenarios which highlight some of the complexities that designers, policymakers, and others should consider related to the technology. We then describe three approaches that could be used to address such complexities and their associated shortcomings. We conclude by bringing attention to the "Moral Responsibility for Computing Artifacts: The Rules", a framework that can provide insight into how to approach ethical issues related to self-driving cars.

  6. Water-level and recoverable water in storage changes, High Plains aquifer, predevelopment to 2015 and 2013–15

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Virginia L.

    2017-06-01

    The High Plains aquifer underlies 111.8 million acres (about 175,000 square miles) in parts of eight States—Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. Water-level declines began in parts of the High Plains aquifer soon after the beginning of substantial irrigation with groundwater in the aquifer area (about 1950). This report presents water-level changes and change in recoverable water in storage in the High Plains aquifer from predevelopment (about 1950) to 2015 and from 2013 to 2015.The methods to calculate area-weighted, average water-level changes; change in recoverable water in storage; and total recoverable water in storage used geospatial data layers organized as rasters with a cell size of 500 meters by 500 meters, which is an area of about 62 acres. Raster datasets of water-level changes are provided for other uses.Water-level changes from predevelopment to 2015, by well, ranged from a rise of 84 feet to a decline of 234 feet. Water-level changes from 2013 to 2015, by well, ranged from a rise of 24 feet to a decline of 33 feet. The area-weighted, average water-level changes in the aquifer were an overall decline of 15.8 feet from predevelopment to 2015 and a decline of 0.6 feet from 2013 to 2015. Total recoverable water in storage in the aquifer in 2015 was about 2.91 billion acre-feet, which was a decline of about 273.2 million acre-feet since predevelopment and a decline of 10.7 million acre-feet from 2013 to 2015.

  7. A cross sectional study at subcentre level reflecting need for improving coverage of maternal health services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geetu Singh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: A Health Sub-centre is the most peripheral and first point of contact between the primary health care system and the community. It is imperative to get insight into their functioning which were established with the objectives of minimizing the hardships of the rural people. Objective: To study the coverages of maternal services at subcentres in district Jhansi. Material & Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with sample of 20 subcentres in the district Jhansi from June 2012 to July 2013. Various records of the Health workers were examined for maternal health services coverages and noted down on a pre-designed questionnaire. Results: Present study showed that currently married pregnant women aged 15-49 years registered for ANC were 72.1%. Women who received antenatal check-up in first trimester in subcentres were around 50%. Women who received 3 or more antenatal visits were only 29% in study. Meager 3.6% women received IFA for 100 days or more. Similarly women with full antenatal check-up were only 3%. In current study it was found that family planning coverages for female Sterilization was 60% but male Sterilization was just 0.5%. Conclusion: Higher emphasis needs to be given for better coverage of all maternal services. There should be provision for improvement of competence, confidence and motivation of health workers to ensure full range of maternal care activities specified under NRHM program.

  8. Dual-Level Material and Psychological Assessment of Urban Water Security in a Water-Stressed Coastal City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajing Huang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The acceleration of urbanization and industrialization has been gradually aggravating water security issues, such as water shortages, water pollution, and flooding or drought disasters and so on. Water security issues have become a great challenge to urban sustainable development. In this context, we proposed a dual-level material and psychological assessment method to assess urban water security. Psychological security coefficients were introduced in this method to combine material security and residents’ security feelings. A typical water-stressed coastal city in China (Dalian was chosen as a case study. The water security status of Dalian from 2010 to 2012 was analysed dynamically. The results indicated that the Dalian water security statuses from 2010 to 2012 were basically secure, but solutions to improve water security status and solve water resource problems are still required. This dual-level material and psychological assessment for urban water security has improved conventional material assessment through the introduction of psychological security coefficients, which can benefit decision-making for urban water planning, management and protection.

  9. Fluorine level in some city water supplies of Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoque, A.K.M.F.; Abedin, M.J.; Rahman, M.M.; Mia, M. Y.; Tarafder, M.S.A.; Khaliquzzaman, M.; Hossain, M.D.; Khan, A.H.

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear reaction based Proton Induced Gamma Emission (PIGE) analytical method was employed for the quantitative measurement of fluorine in the city water supplies of the major cities of Bangladesh. 102 water samples collected from 14 city supplies were analyzed and these samples contain fluorine in the range of 0.03 to 1.10 mg/L with a mean of 0.33 ± 0.21 mg/L. It was also observed that except the samples of Barisal, Dinajpur and Rajshahi, all other water samples analyzed contain a much lower amount of fluorine than the maximum permissible value for Bangladesh in drinking water, which is 1 mg/L. The mean concentration of fluorine in the samples of Barisal, Dinajpur and Rajshahi are respectively 0.79±0.01, 0.71±0.13 and 0.92±0.18 mg/L. For the 55 samples of Dhaka city supply the mean fluorine concentration is 0.31±0.17 mg/L and that of 9 samples from Chittagong city supply is 0.19±0.10 mg/L, which is the lowest among the 14 city supply samples analyzed in this study

  10. levels of heavy metals in gubi dam water bauchi, nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ada

    copper and lead were always highest in the suspended materials which indicate the dominant role played by ... essential. However, at high concentrations, these trace metals become toxic (Nurnberg, 1982). Heavy metals in .... mobilization of cobalt minerals into the dam. .... Interaction between sediments and fresh water ...

  11. Determination of lead at nanogram level in water samples by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A novel method of chemistry applicable to the determination of trace lead in water samples based on the resonance light scattering (RLS) technique has been developed. In dilute phosphoric acid medium, in the presence of a large excess of I-, Pb(II) can form [PbI4]2-, which further reacts with tetrabutyl ammonium bromide ...

  12. in_focus - Water: Local-level Management | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... in the availability and supply of fresh water are truly a matter of life and death, and ... David B. Brooks is a specialist in natural resources who works with the ... of Energy Conservation, Dr Brooks worked for 6 years with Friends of the Earth ...

  13. Effect of Different Levels of Molasses Fed Through Drinking Water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of molasses fed through drinking water on growth and economic performance of broiler chickens. One hundred and sixty unsexed day old chicks of Anak strain were used. They were divided into four treatment groups with each group having four replicates of ten birds per ...

  14. Phylogenetic Signal of Threatening Processes among Hylids: The Need for Clade-Level Conservation Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J. Corey

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid, global declines among amphibians are partly alarming because many occur for apparently unknown or enigmatic reasons. Moreover, the relationship between phylogeny and enigmatic declines in higher clades of the amphibian phylogeny appears at first to be an intractable problem. I present a working solution by assessing threatening processes potentially underlying enigmatic declines in the family, Hylidae. Applying comparative methods that account for various evolutionary scenarios, I find extreme concentrations of threatening processes, including pollution and habitat loss, in the clade Hylini, potentially influenced by traits under selection. The analysis highlights hotspots of declines under phylogenetic influence in the genera Isthmohyla, Plectrohyla and Ptychohyla, and geographically in Mexico and Guatemala. The conservation implications of concentrated phylogenetic influence across multiple threatening processes are twofold: Data Deficient species of threatened clades should be prioritized in future surveys and, perhaps, a greater vulnerability should be assigned to such clades for further consideration of clade-level conservation priorities.

  15. The disposal of high level radioactive waste and the need for assessing the radiological impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, G.; Haegg, C.

    1990-01-01

    Different options for the disposal of high level radioactive waste are being considered in several different countries. When assessing the possible future impact of these disposal concepts, very large uncertainties are associated with the predictions. These uncertainties include scenario representation, conceptual and mathematical modelling, parameter evaluation and finally the interpretation of the results. Some of these uncertainties cannot be eliminated regardless of research efforts, e.g. the evolution of the society and the environment. The paper discusses in general terms to what extent uncertainties in the predictions could be reduced and in the light of this discussion the authors present their point of view regarding the fruitfulness of assessing radiological impact in the far future. (orig.)

  16. Posttraumatic levels of liver enzymes can reduce the need for CT in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, Peter James; Østerballe, Lene; Hillingsø, Jens

    2016-01-01

    alternative diagnostic modalities. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) are hepatic enzymes, which are elevated in peripheral blood in relation to liver injury. The aim of the present study was to investigate a potential role of normal liver transaminase levels in the decision......BACKGROUND: Computed tomography (CT) is the gold standard in the initial evaluation of the hemodynamically stable patient with suspected liver trauma. However, the adverse effects of radiation exposure are of specific concern in the pediatric population. It is therefore desirable to explore...... algorithm in suspected pediatric blunt liver trauma. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of consecutively collected data from children (0-17 years) with blunt liver trauma, admitted to a single trauma centre in Denmark, between 2000 and 2013. Patients underwent abdominal CT during initial evaluation...

  17. 77 FR 25721 - Small Entity Compliance Guide: Bottled Water: Quality Standard: Establishing an Allowable Level...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    ...] Small Entity Compliance Guide: Bottled Water: Quality Standard: Establishing an Allowable Level for di(2... ``Bottled Water: Quality Standard: Establishing an Allowable Level for di(2- ethylhexyl)phthalate--Small... an allowable level for di(2- ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP). This final rule is effective April 16, 2012...

  18. State-level income inequality and family burden of U.S. families raising children with special health care needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parish, Susan L; Rose, Roderick A; Dababnah, Sarah; Yoo, Joan; Cassiman, Shawn A

    2012-02-01

    Growing evidence supports the hypothesis that income inequality within a nation influences health outcomes net of the effect of any given household's absolute income. We tested the hypothesis that state-level income inequality in the United States is associated with increased family burden for care and health-related expenditures for low-income families of children with special health care needs. We analyzed the 2005-06 wave of the National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs, a probability sample of approximately 750 children with special health care needs in each state and the District of Columbia in the US Our measure of state-level income inequality was the Gini coefficient. Dependent measures of family caregiving burden included whether the parent received help arranging or coordinating the child's care and whether the parent stopped working due to the child's health. Dependent measures of family financial burden included absolute burden (spending in past 12 months for child's health care needs) and relative burden (spending as a proportion of total family income). After controlling for a host of child, family, and state factors, including family income and measures of the severity of a child's impairments, state-level income inequality has a significant and independent association with family burden related to the health care of their children with special health care needs. Families of children with special health care needs living in states with greater levels of income inequality report higher rates of absolute and relative financial burden. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. What day-ahead reserves are needed in electric grids with high levels of wind power?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauch, Brandon; Apt, Jay; Jaramillo, Paulina; Carvalho, Pedro M S

    2013-01-01

    Day-ahead load and wind power forecasts provide useful information for operational decision making, but they are imperfect and forecast errors must be offset with operational reserves and balancing of (real time) energy. Procurement of these reserves is of great operational and financial importance in integrating large-scale wind power. We present a probabilistic method to determine net load forecast uncertainty for day-ahead wind and load forecasts. Our analysis uses data from two different electric grids in the US with similar levels of installed wind capacity but with large differences in wind and load forecast accuracy, due to geographic characteristics. We demonstrate that the day-ahead capacity requirements can be computed based on forecasts of wind and load. For 95% day-ahead reliability, this required capacity ranges from 2100 to 5700 MW for ERCOT, and 1900 to 4500 MW for MISO (with 10 GW of installed wind capacity), depending on the wind and load forecast values. We also show that for each MW of additional wind power capacity for ERCOT, 0.16–0.30 MW of dispatchable capacity will be used to compensate for wind uncertainty based on day-ahead forecasts. For MISO (with its more accurate forecasts), the requirement is 0.07–0.13 MW of dispatchable capacity for each MW of additional wind capacity. (letter)

  20. Effect of water deprivation on baseline and stress-induced corticosterone levels in the Children's python (Antaresia childreni).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupoué, Andréaz; Angelier, Frédéric; Lourdais, Olivier; Bonnet, Xavier; Brischoux, François

    2014-02-01

    Corticosterone (CORT) secretion is influenced by endogenous factors (e.g., physiological status) and environmental stressors (e.g., ambient temperature). Heretofore, the impact of water deprivation on CORT plasma levels has not been thoroughly investigated. However, both baseline CORT and stress-induced CORT are expected to respond to water deprivation not only because of hydric stress per se, but also because CORT is an important mineralocorticoid in vertebrates. We assessed the effects of water deprivation on baseline CORT and stress-induced CORT, in Children's pythons (Antaresia childreni), a species that experiences seasonal droughts in natural conditions. We imposed a 52-day water deprivation on a group of unfed Children's pythons (i.e., water-deprived treatment) and provided water ad libitum to another group (i.e., control treatment). We examined body mass variations throughout the experiment, and baseline CORT and stress-induced CORT at the end of the treatments. Relative body mass loss averaged ~10% in pythons without water, a value 2 to 4 times higher compared to control snakes. Following re-exposition to water, pythons from the water-deprived treatment drank readily and abundantly and attained a body mass similar to pythons from the control treatment. Together, these results suggest a substantial dehydration as a consequence of water deprivation. Interestingly, stress-induced but not baseline CORT level was significantly higher in water-deprived snakes, suggesting that baseline CORT might not respond to this degree of dehydration. Therefore, possible mineralocorticoid role of CORT needs to be clarified in snakes. Because dehydration usually induces adjustments (reduced movements, lowered body temperature) to limit water loss, and decreases locomotor performances, elevated stress-induced CORT in water-deprived snakes might therefore compensate for altered locomotor performances. Future studies should test this hypothesis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc

  1. Governance conditions for improving quality drinking water resources : the need for enhancing connectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wuijts, Susanne; Driessen, P.P.J.; van Rijswick, H.F.M.W.

    Realising the water quality objectives of the European Water Framework Directive have appeared to stagnate over the last decade all across Europe because of their highly complex nature. In the literature, interactive governance approaches tend to be regarded as the best way of dealing with complex

  2. Evaluating changes to reservoir rule curves using historical water-level data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mower, Ethan; Miranda, Leandro E.

    2013-01-01

    Flood control reservoirs are typically managed through rule curves (i.e. target water levels) which control the storage and release timing of flood waters. Changes to rule curves are often contemplated and requested by various user groups and management agencies with no information available about the actual flood risk of such requests. Methods of estimating flood risk in reservoirs are not easily available to those unfamiliar with hydrological models that track water movement through a river basin. We developed a quantile regression model that uses readily available daily water-level data to estimate risk of spilling. Our model provided a relatively simple process for estimating the maximum applicable water level under a specific flood risk for any day of the year. This water level represents an upper-limit umbrella under which water levels can be operated in a variety of ways. Our model allows the visualization of water-level management under a user-specified flood risk and provides a framework for incorporating the effect of a changing environment on water-level management in reservoirs, but is not designed to replace existing hydrological models. The model can improve communication and collaboration among agencies responsible for managing natural resources dependent on reservoir water levels.

  3. Drinking cholera: salinity levels and palatability of drinking water in coastal Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Stephen Lawrence; Tamason, Charlotte Crim; Hoque, Bilqis Amin; Jensen, Peter Kjaer Mackie

    2015-04-01

    To measure the salinity levels of common water sources in coastal Bangladesh and explore perceptions of water palatability among the local population to investigate the plausibility of linking cholera outbreaks in Bangladesh with ingestion of saline-rich cholera-infected river water. Hundred participants took part in a taste-testing experiment of water with varying levels of salinity. Salinity measurements were taken of both drinking and non-drinking water sources. Informal group discussions were conducted to gain an in-depth understanding of water sources and water uses. Salinity levels of non-drinking water sources suggest that the conditions for Vibrio cholerae survival exist 7-8 days within the local aquatic environment. However, 96% of participants in the taste-testing experiment reported that they would never drink water with salinity levels that would be conducive to V. cholerae survival. Furthermore, salinity levels of participant's drinking water sources were all well below the levels required for optimal survival of V. cholerae. Respondents explained that they preferred less salty and more aesthetically pleasing drinking water. Theoretically, V. cholerae can survive in the river systems in Bangladesh; however, water sources which have been contaminated with river water are avoided as potential drinking water sources. Furthermore, there are no physical connecting points between the river system and drinking water sources among the study population, indicating that the primary driver for cholera cases in Bangladesh is likely not through the contamination of saline-rich river water into drinking water sources. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Groundwater footprint methodology as policy tool for balancing water needs (agriculture & tourism) in water scarce islands - The case of Crete, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourgialas, Nektarios N; Karatzas, George P; Dokou, Zoi; Kokorogiannis, Andreas

    2018-02-15

    In many Mediterranean islands with limited surface water resources, the growth of agricultural and touristic sectors, which are the main water consumers, highly depends on the sustainable water resources management. This work highlights the crucial role of groundwater footprint (GF) as a tool for the sustainable management of water resources, especially in water scarce islands. The groundwater footprint represents the water budget between inflows and outflows in an aquifer system and is used as an index of the effect of groundwater use in natural resources and environmental flows. The case study presented in this paper is the island of Crete, which consists of 11 main aquifer systems. The data used for estimating the groundwater footprint in each system were groundwater recharges, abstractions through 412 wells, environmental flows (discharges) from 76 springs and 19 streams present in the area of study. The proposed methodology takes into consideration not only the water quantity but also the water quality of the aquifer systems and can be used as an integrated decision making tool for the sustainable management of groundwater resources. This methodology can be applied in any groundwater system. The results serve as a tool for assessing the potential of sustainable use and the optimal distribution of water needs under the current and future climatic conditions, considering both quantitative and qualitative factors. Adaptation measures and water policies that will effectively promote sustainable development are also proposed for the management of the aquifer systems that exhibit a large groundwater footprint. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Support Needs and Coping Strategies as Predictors of Stress Level among Mothers of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheri R. Kiami

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined maternal stress, coping strategies, and support needs among mothers of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD. A convenience sample of 70 mothers completed the Parent Stress Index Short Form (PSI-SF, Coping Health Inventory for Parents (CHIP, and Modified Family Needs Questionnaire (FNQ. PSI-SF scores reflected clinically significant levels of stress for 77% of mothers, and mothers identified 62.4% of important needs as unmet. The five most frequently reported important unmet needs were (1 financial support; (2 break from responsibilities; (3 understanding of other after-school program children; (4 rest/sleep; (5 help remaining hopeful about the future. Most coping strategies (81% were identified as helpful. Additionally, both coping strategies and support needs served as predictors for maternal stress. Maternal stress scores decreased by .402 points for each percent increase in helpful coping strategy, and stress scores increased by .529 points with each percent increase in unmet needs. Given large variation in questionnaire responses across participants and studies, utilization of user-friendly questionnaires, such as the PSI-SF, CHIP, and FNQ, is advocated to determine the evolving important needs unique to each family over the child’s lifetime as well as guide prioritization of care, compilation of resources, and referrals for additional services.

  6. Highlighting the Need for Systems-level Experimental Characterization of Plant Metabolic Enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Karl Magnus Engqvist

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The biology of living organisms is determined by the action and interaction of a large number of individual gene products, each with specific functions. Discovering and annotating the function of gene products is key to our understanding of these organisms. Controlled experiments and bioinformatic predictions both contribute to functional gene annotation. For most species it is difficult to gain an overview of what portion of gene annotations are based on experiments and what portion represent predictions. Here, I survey the current state of experimental knowledge of enzymes and metabolism in Arabidopsis thaliana as well as eleven economically important crops and forestry trees – with a particular focus on reactions involving organic acids in central metabolism. I illustrate the limited availability of experimental data for functional annotation of enzymes in most of these species. Many enzymes involved in metabolism of citrate, malate, fumarate, lactate, and glycolate in crops and forestry trees have not been characterized. Furthermore, enzymes involved in key biosynthetic pathways which shape important traits in crops and forestry trees have not been characterized. I argue for the development of novel high-throughput platforms with which limited functional characterization of gene products can be performed quickly and relatively cheaply. I refer to this approach as systems-level experimental characterization. The data collected from such platforms would form a layer intermediate between bioinformatic gene function predictions and in-depth experimental studies of these functions. Such a data layer would greatly aid in the pursuit of understanding a multiplicity of biological processes in living organisms.

  7. “We need more data”! The politics of scientific information for water governance in the context of hydraulic fracturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele-Lee Moore

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Proposed and actual developments of hydraulic fracturing, as a high-volume water user, have proven contentious in recent years. However, one point of agreement has emerged amongst all actors with regards to water use and hydraulic fracturing: we need more data. This consensus fits with a longstanding reification of the role of data in water governance, and yet we argue it hides a politically contested terrain. Based on a literature review, an empirical Delphi study and a workshop with a diverse array of participants from across Canada, we explore the data needs related to water governance and hydraulic fracturing. We then investigate three areas of deficiency that point to a lack of trust and oversight as well as the exclusion of community and Indigenous knowledge. We argue that in an era of neoliberal approaches to water governance, issues of trust, accountability and transparency all link back to a diminished role for data management within existing water governance arrangements. The challenge is that simply collecting more data will not help decision-makers navigate the complexity of water governance. Our findings suggest a growing call by participants for greater engagement by governments in data collection and knowledge management, new funding mechanisms for data collection and rethinking how and what to monitor if including multiple ways of knowing and values.

  8. Identification and simulation for steam generator water level based on Kalman Filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Chen; Zhang Qinshun

    2008-01-01

    In order to effectively control the water level of the steam generator (SG), this paper has set about the state-observer theory in modern control and put forward a method to detect the 'false water level' based on Kalman Filter. Kalman Filter is a efficient tool to estimate state-variable by measured value including noise. For heavy measurement noise of steam flow, constructing a 'false water level' observer by Kalman Filter could availably obtain state variable of 'false water level'. The simulation computing for the dynamics characteristic of nuclear SG water level process under several typically running power was implemented by employing the simulation model. The result shows that the simulation model accurately identifies the 'false water level' produced in the reverse thermal-dynamic effects of nuclear SG water level process. The simulation model can realize the precise analysis of dynamics characteristic for the nuclear SG water level process. It can provide a kind of new ideas for the 'false water level' detecting of SG. (authors)

  9. Digitization and simulation realization of full range control system for steam generator water level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Hong; Ye Jianhua; Qian Fei; Li Chao

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a full range digital control system for the steam generator water level is designed by a control scheme of single element control and three-element cascade feed-forward control, and the method to use the software module configuration is proposed to realize the water level control strategy. This control strategy is then applied in the operation of the nuclear power simulation machine. The simulation result curves indicate that the steam generator water level maintains constant at the stable operation condition, and when the load changes, the water level changes but finally maintains the constant. (authors)

  10. Towards risk-based drought management in the Netherlands: making water supply levels transparent to water users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maat Judith, Ter; Marjolein, Mens; Vuren Saskia, Van; der Vat Marnix, Van

    2016-04-01

    To prepare the Dutch Delta for future droughts and water scarcity, a nation-wide 4-year project, called Delta Programme, assessed the impact of climate change and socio-economic development, and explored strategies to deal with these impacts. The Programme initiated a joint approach to water supply management with stakeholders and developed a national adaptation plan that is able to adapt to future uncertain conditions. The adaptation plan consists of a set of preferred policy pathways - sequences of possible actions and measures through time - to achieve targets while responding in a flexible manner to uncertain developments over time, allowing room to respond to new opportunities and insights. With regard to fresh water allocation, the Delta Programme stated that supplying water of sufficient quality is a shared responsibility that requires cohesive efforts among users in the main and regional water system. The national and local authorities and water users involved agreed that the water availability and, where relevant, the water quality should be as transparent and predictable as possible under normal, dry and extremely dry conditions. They therefore introduced the concept of "water supply service levels", which should describe water availability and quality that can be delivered with a certain return period, for all regions and all relevant water users in the Netherlands. The service levels form an addition to the present policy and should be decided on by 2021. At present water allocation during periods of (expected) water shortage occurs according to a prearranged ranking system (a water hierarchy scheme based on a list of priorities), if water availability drops below a critical low level. The aim is to have supply levels available that are based on the probability of occurrence and economic impact of water shortage, and that are transparent for all water users in the regional water systems and the main water system. As part of the European project

  11. Water level influences on body condition of Geophagus brasiliensis (Perciformes: Cichlidae in a Brazilian oligotrophic reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Filippo Gonzalez Neves dos Santos

    Full Text Available Effects of water level fluctuations on body condition of Geophagus brasiliensis were studied in a 30 km² Brazilian oligotrophic reservoir. Physiological condition (K and gonadosomatic index (GSI were compared according to water level (low and high. Females' best conditions were associated to higher resources availability during high water, since gonad development did not change between low and high water. Males' condition did not change between water levels, while the highest gonad development occurred in low water. Females presented higher reproductive investment than males, which allocated most of energy for somatic development. This strategy could be a mechanism to undergo the stress caused by oligotrophic characteristics of the reservoir enhanced during low water level.

  12. Elevated levels of radioactivity in water wells in Los Angeles and Orange Counties, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weigand, J.; Yamamoto, G.; Gaston, W.

    1987-01-01

    Levels of gross alpha particle radioactivity nearly three times the maximum contamination levels (MCL) have been detected for several years in well waters and related surface waters in Los Angeles and Orange Counties, California. A few elevated levels of uranium have also been recorded. The affected wells and related surface waters represent only a minor fraction of the water sampled and tested in this area. None of the excessive radioactivity is believed to persist in the municipal waters sold to the public, due to the customary blending of waters from several wells or sources which water purveyors practice. This papers is a preliminary survey of the occurrence, possible sources, fate, and implications of these elevated radioactivity levels

  13. Diverse Land Use and the Impact on (Irrigation Water Quality and Need for Measures — A Case Study of a Norwegian River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gro S. Johannessen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Surface water is used for irrigation of food plants all over the World. Such water can be of variable hygienic quality, and can be contaminated from many different sources. The association of contaminated irrigation water with contamination of fresh produce is well established, and many outbreaks of foodborne disease associated with fresh produce consumption have been reported. The objective of the present study was to summarize the data on fecal indicators and selected bacterial pathogens to assess the level of fecal contamination of a Norwegian river used for irrigation in an area which has a high production level of various types of food commodities. Sources for fecal pollution of the river were identified. Measures implemented to reduce discharges from the wastewater sector and agriculture, and potential measures identified for future implementation are presented and discussed in relation to potential benefits and costs. It is important that the users of the water, independent of intended use, are aware of the hygienic quality and the potential interventions that may be applied. Our results suggest that contamination of surface water is a complex web of many factors and that several measures and interventions on different levels are needed to achieve a sound river and safe irrigation.

  14. Water Information System Platforms Addressing Critical Societal Needs in the Mena Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Shahid; Kfouri, Claire; Peters, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The MENA region includes 18 countries, the occupied Palestinian territories and Western Sahara. However, the region of interest for this study has a strategic interest in countries adjacent to the Mediterranean Sea, which includes, Morocco, Tunisia, Egypt, Lebanon and Jordan. The 90% of the water in the MENA region is used for the agriculture use. By the end of this century. this region is projected to experience an increase of 3 C to 5 C in mean temperatures and a 20% decline in precipitation (lPCC, 2007). Due to lower precipitation, water run-off is projected to drop by 20% to 30% in most of MENA by 2050 Reduced stream flow and groundwater recharge might lead to a reduction in water supply of 10% or greater by 2050. Therefore, per IPCC projections in temperature rise and precipitation decline in the region, the scarcity of water will become more acute with population growth, and rising demand of food in the region. Additionally, the trans boundary water issues will continue to plague the region in terms of sharing data for better management of water resources. Such pressing issues have brought The World Bank, USAID and NASA to jointly collaborate for establishing integrated, modern, up to date NASA developed capabilities for countries in the MENA region for addressing water resource issues and adapting to climate change impacts for improved decision making and societal benefit. This initiative was launched in October 2011 and is schedule to be completed by the end of2015.

  15. Ground-water levels in aquifers used for residential supply, Campton Township, Kane County, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Robert T.; Kraske, Kurt A.

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Campton Township Board of Trustees, measured water levels in the aquifers used for residential supply in Campton Township, Kane County, Illinois. Aquifers used for residential supply are the shallow and deep aquifers in the glacial drift, composed of unconsolidated sand and gravels; the Alexandrian-Maquoketa aquifer, composed of dolomite and shale of the Alexandrian Series and the Maquoketa Group; the Galena-Platteville aquifer, composed of dolomite of the Platteville and Galena Groups; and the Ancell aquifer, composed of sandstones of the Glenwood Formation and the St. Peter Sanstone. Water-level altitudes in the shallow drift aquifers generally follow surface topography. Analysis of water-level data does not clearly indicate overutilization of these aquifers. Water-level altitudes in the deep drift aquifers decrease from west to east. Comparison of historical depth to water measurements with current (1995) measurements indicates large decreases in water levels in some areas. The deep drift aquifers may be overutilized at these locations. Water-level altitudes in the Alexandrian-Maquoketa aquifer generally decrease from west to east. The potentiometric surface of the aquifer follows the bedrock-surface topography in some locations. Localized low water-level altitudes and large decreases in water levels indicate the Alexandrian-Maquoketa aquifer is overutilized in several areas. Water-level altitudes in the wells finished in the Galena- Platteville aquifer vary by more than 300 feet. Large decreases in water levels in wells finished in the Galena-Platteville aquifer indicate the Galena-Platteville and Alexandrian-Maquoketa aquifers are overutilized in the northern part of the township. Water-level altitudes in the wells finished in the Ancell aquifer are also highly variable. There is no indication that the Ancell aquifer is overutilized.

  16. Biogas production using water hyacinths to meet collective energy needs in a sahelian country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Almoustapha

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a pilot project that investigates the possibility of producing biogas from a mixture of water hyacinth and fresh rumen residue – replacing firewood as a source of fuel – to meet the energy needs of a maternity facility in Niamey (Niger. The discontinuous-type installation (batch reactors is made up of six digesters measuring 5 m3 each. The output during hot and cool seasons, 0.52 m3 and 0.29 m3 respectively of biogas per m3 of digester per day, has met the energy needs of the maternity facility, estimated at 8 m3 of biogas per day. The study revealed strong seasonal variations: output during the hot season is approximatively 1.8 times greater than it is during the cool season. Large quantities of water hyacinth, an invasive plant present in Niger since 1986, are manually harvested in aquatic environments. The project is run by a local NGO, the Groupe d’Initiative pour les Energies Renouvelables (GIER, and supported by UNICEF and the Niger Basin Authority. The duration of the project is 8 months.Ce papier présente un projet pilote vérifiant la possibilité de produire du biogaz à partir d’un mélange de jacinthe d’eau et de résidu frais de rumen, en substitution au bois de chauffe pour satisfaire aux besoins en énergie d’une maternité de Niamey (Niger. L’installation de type discontinu (réacteurs batch est composée de six digesteurs de 5 m3. Les rendements en saison chaude et en saison fraîche, respectivement 0,52 et de 0,29 m3 de biogaz par m3 de digesteur par jour et ont permis de couvrir les besoins de la maternité évalués à 8 m3 de biogaz par jour. L’étude révèle une forte variation saisonnière : le rendement en saison chaude est d’environ 1,8 fois supérieur à celle de la saison fraîche. La jacinthe d’eau est une plante envahissante présente au Niger depuis 1986, dont des quantités importantes sont récoltées en  milieux aquatiques. Le projet est porté par une ONG locale, le

  17. Water cycling between ocean and mantle: Super-earths need not be waterworlds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, Nicolas B.; Abbot, Dorian S.

    2014-01-01

    Large terrestrial planets are expected to have muted topography and deep oceans, implying that most super-Earths should be entirely covered in water, so-called waterworlds. This is important because waterworlds lack a silicate weathering thermostat so their climate is predicted to be less stable than that of planets with exposed continents. In other words, the continuously habitable zone for waterworlds is much narrower than for Earth-like planets. A planet's water is partitioned, however, between a surface reservoir, the ocean, and an interior reservoir, the mantle. Plate tectonics transports water between these reservoirs on geological timescales. Degassing of melt at mid-ocean ridges and serpentinization of oceanic crust depend negatively and positively on seafloor pressure, respectively, providing a stabilizing feedback on long-term ocean volume. Motivated by Earth's approximately steady-state deep water cycle, we develop a two-box model of the hydrosphere and derive steady-state solutions to the water partitioning on terrestrial planets. Critically, hydrostatic seafloor pressure is proportional to surface gravity, so super-Earths with a deep water cycle will tend to store more water in the mantle. We conclude that a tectonically active terrestrial planet of any mass can maintain exposed continents if its water mass fraction is less than ∼0.2%, dramatically increasing the odds that super-Earths are habitable. The greatest source of uncertainty in our study is Earth's current mantle water inventory: the greater its value, the more robust planets are to inundation. Lastly, we discuss how future missions can test our hypothesis by mapping the oceans and continents of massive terrestrial planets.

  18. Water cycling between ocean and mantle: Super-earths need not be waterworlds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowan, Nicolas B. [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA), Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Abbot, Dorian S., E-mail: n-cowan@northwestern.edu [Department of the Geophysical Sciences, University of Chicago, 5734 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2014-01-20

    Large terrestrial planets are expected to have muted topography and deep oceans, implying that most super-Earths should be entirely covered in water, so-called waterworlds. This is important because waterworlds lack a silicate weathering thermostat so their climate is predicted to be less stable than that of planets with exposed continents. In other words, the continuously habitable zone for waterworlds is much narrower than for Earth-like planets. A planet's water is partitioned, however, between a surface reservoir, the ocean, and an interior reservoir, the mantle. Plate tectonics transports water between these reservoirs on geological timescales. Degassing of melt at mid-ocean ridges and serpentinization of oceanic crust depend negatively and positively on seafloor pressure, respectively, providing a stabilizing feedback on long-term ocean volume. Motivated by Earth's approximately steady-state deep water cycle, we develop a two-box model of the hydrosphere and derive steady-state solutions to the water partitioning on terrestrial planets. Critically, hydrostatic seafloor pressure is proportional to surface gravity, so super-Earths with a deep water cycle will tend to store more water in the mantle. We conclude that a tectonically active terrestrial planet of any mass can maintain exposed continents if its water mass fraction is less than ∼0.2%, dramatically increasing the odds that super-Earths are habitable. The greatest source of uncertainty in our study is Earth's current mantle water inventory: the greater its value, the more robust planets are to inundation. Lastly, we discuss how future missions can test our hypothesis by mapping the oceans and continents of massive terrestrial planets.

  19. Nonlinear Stochastic Models for Water Level Dynamics in Closed Lakes

    OpenAIRE

    Mishchenko, A.S.; Zelikin, M.I.; Zelikina, L.F.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the results of investigation of nonlinear mathematical models of the behavior of closed lakes using the example of the Caspian Sea. Forecasting the level of the Caspian Sea is crucial both for the economy of the region and for the region's environment. The Caspian Sea is a closed reservoir; it is well known that its level changes considerably due to a variety of factors including global climate change. A series of forecasts exists based on different methods and taking...

  20. Assessing Security Needs of the multifaceted relationships of Energy and Water Providers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, N; Newmark, R; Burton, L; May, D; McMahon, J; Whitehead, C D; Ghatikar, G

    2007-08-22

    In the near future, the United States will be facing constraints on energy availability due to the heightened demand for both energy and water, especially during droughts and summers. Increasing stress on the inextricably linked resource availability of both water and energy can be mitigated with integrated planning. Exchanging data is an important component to current and future mitigation approaches within the Energy-Water Nexus. We describe the types of relationships that are formed in the United States EWN, and address the data sharing obstacles within. Approaches to removing the obstacles of data sharing are presented, based on case studies.

  1. Energy information needs for U. S. state-level policy making: Minimal data requirements during normal and emergency periods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkenbus, J.N.; Leff, H.S.

    1983-01-01

    Since the oil embargo of 1973, state governments have increased their efforts to track and understand energy flows within their boundaries. There is a commonly perceived need to comprehend the status of present and expected future energy availability, demand, and price and to be prepared to exercise responsible and effective management during energy emergencies. This responsibility has brought with it new needs for accurate and timely state-level information on energy transactions and the external parameters that effect energy availability and disposition. What energy data are needed by a state, regardless of its idiosyncracies, during both normal and energy emergency periods, and to what extent are these data available now. The authors find that needed ongoing (core) data are only partially available at present, and that emergency data can be obtained only with a carefully planned monitoring program that can be fitted to specific emergency conditions. Overall, this paper provides a realistic assessment of the state-level energy data needed to provide state policy makers with sufficient information to make considered judgments.

  2. Energy-information needs for US state-level policy making: minimal data requirements during normal and emergency periods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkenbus, J.N.; Leff, H.S.

    1983-01-01

    Since the oil embargo of 1973, state governments have increased their efforts to track and understand energy flows within their boundaries. There is a commonly perceived need to comprehend the status of present and expected future energy availability, demand, and price and to be prepared to exercise responsible and effective management during energy emergencies. This responsibility has brought with it new needs for accurate and timely state-level information on energy transactions and the external parameters that effect energy availability and disposition. Hence, we ask: what energy data are needed by a state, regardless of its idiosyncracies, during both normal and energy emergency periods, and to what extent are these data available now. We find that needed ongoing (core) data are only partially available at present, and that emergency data can be obtained only with a carefully planned monitoring program that can be fitted to specific emergency conditions. Overall, this paper provides a realistic assessment of the state-level energy data needed to provide state policy makers with sufficient information to make considered judgments. 7 references, 6 tables.

  3. Preliminary Assessment of Water Levels in Bedrock Wells in New Hampshire, 1984 to 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayotte, Joseph D.; Kernen, Brandon M.; Wunsch, David R.; Argue, Denise M.; Bennett, Derek S.; Mack, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    Analysis of nearly 60,000 reported values of static water level (SWL, as depth below land surface) in bedrock wells in New Hampshire, aggregated on a yearly basis, showed an apparent deepening of SWL of about 13 ft (4 m) over the period 1984–2007. Water-level data were one-time measurements at each well and were analyzed, in part, to determine if they were suitable for analysis of trends in groundwater levels across the state. Other well characteristics, however, also have been changing over time, such as total well depth, casing length, the length of casing in bedrock, and to some extent, well yield. Analyses indicated that many of the well construction variables are significantly correlated; the apparent declines in water levels may have been caused by some of these factors. Information on changes in water use for the period was not available, although water use may be an important factor affecting water levels.

  4. Water level affects availability of optimal feeding habitats for threatened migratory waterbirds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aharon-Rotman, Yaara; McEvoy, John; Zheng Zhaoju

    2017-01-01

    within the lake. Changing the natural hydrological system will affect waterbirds dependent on water level changes for food availability and accessibility. We tracked two goose species with different feeding behaviors (greater white-fronted geese Anser albifrons [grazing species] and swan geese Anser......Extensive ephemeral wetlands at Poyang Lake, created by dramatic seasonal changes in water level, constitute the main wintering site for migratory Anatidae in China. Reductions in wetland area during the last 15years have led to proposals to build a Poyang Dam to retain high winter water levels...... cygnoides [tuber-feeding species]) during two winters with contrasting water levels (continuous recession in 2015; sustained high water in 2016, similar to those predicted post-Poyang Dam), investigating the effects of water level change on their habitat selection based on vegetation and elevation. In 2015...

  5. County-level poverty is equally associated with unmet health care needs in rural and urban settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Lars E; Litaker, David G

    2010-01-01

    Regional poverty is associated with reduced access to health care. Whether this relationship is equally strong in both rural and urban settings or is affected by the contextual and individual-level characteristics that distinguish these areas, is unclear. Compare the association between regional poverty with self-reported unmet need, a marker of health care access, by rural/urban setting. Multilevel, cross-sectional analysis of a state-representative sample of 39,953 adults stratified by rural/urban status, linked at the county level to data describing contextual characteristics. Weighted random intercept models examined the independent association of regional poverty with unmet needs, controlling for a range of contextual and individual-level characteristics. The unadjusted association between regional poverty levels and unmet needs was similar in both rural (OR = 1.06 [95% CI, 1.04-1.08]) and urban (OR = 1.03 [1.02-1.05]) settings. Adjusting for other contextual characteristics increased the size of the association in both rural (OR = 1.11 [1.04-1.19]) and urban (OR = 1.11 [1.05-1.18]) settings. Further adjustment for individual characteristics had little additional effect in rural (OR = 1.10 [1.00-1.20]) or urban (OR = 1.11 [1.01-1.22]) settings. To better meet the health care needs of all Americans, health care systems in areas with high regional poverty should acknowledge the relationship between poverty and unmet health care needs. Investments, or other interventions, that reduce regional poverty may be useful strategies for improving health through better access to health care. © 2010 National Rural Health Association.

  6. LANDSAT supports data needs for EPA 208 planning. [water quality control and waste treatment management

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Excerpts from federal legislation and regulations mandating areawide waster treatment management as a means of restoring and maintaining the integrity of the nation's water are presented along with requirements for grants to the states for water quality planning, management, and implementation. Experiences using LANDSAT to identify nonpoint sources of water pollution as well as land/use/land cover features in South Dakota, Kentucky, Georgia, New Jersey, and Texas are described. Present activities suggest that this type of remote sensing is an efficient, effective tool for areawide water quality planning. Interaction with cognizant federal, state, and local government personnel involved in EPA section 208 planning activities can guide the development of new capabilities and enhance their utility and prospect for use.

  7. Emerging Concepts for Integrating Human and Environmental Water Needs in River Basin Management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Petts, Geoff; Kennedy, Robert

    2005-01-01

    The key to successful water and river management is the advancement of holistic approaches that seek to benefit human societies by sustaining the full range of resources created by rivers, including...

  8. Return momentum effect on reactor coolant water level distribution during mid-loop conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Jae Kwang; Yang, Jae Young; Park, Goon Cherl

    2001-01-01

    An accurate prediction of the Reactor Coolant System( RCS) water level is of importance in the determination of the allowable operating range to ensure safety during mid-loop operations. However, complex hydrualic phenomena induced by the Shutdown Cooling System (SCS) return momentum causes different water levels from those in the loop where the water level indicators are located. This was apparently observed at the pre-core cold hydro test of the Younggwang Nuclear Unit 3 (YGN 3) in Korea. In this study, in order to analytically understand the effect of the SCS return momentum on the RCS water level distribution, a model using a one-dimensional momentum and energy conservation for cylindrical channel, hydraulic jump in operating cold leg, water level build-up at the Reactor Vessel (RV) inlet nozzle, Bernoulli constant in downcomer region, and total water volume conservation has been developed. The model predicts the RCS water levels at various RCS locations during the mid-loop conditions and the calculation results were compared with the test data. The analysis shows that the hydraulic jump in the operating cold legs, in conjuction with the pressure drop throughout the RCS, is the main cause creating the water level differences at various RCS locations. The prediction results provide good explanations for the test data and show the significant effect of the SCS return momentum on the RCS water levels

  9. Water and sanitation hygiene in South Sudan: What needs to be done to bridge the gap?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Vuni Joseph

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Water, and sanitation hygiene (WASH is a major public health challenge, not only globally, but also in the Republic of South Sudan. It is estimated that 1 in 10 (768 million of the world’s population do not have access to safe drinking water, most of whom are in developing countries, while a third of the world’s population (2.5 billion people do not have access to adequate sanitation

  10. Interactions of forests, climate, water resources, and humans in a changing environment: research needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge Sun; Catalina Segura

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the special issue “Interactions of Forests, Climate, Water Resources, and Humans in a Changing Environment” is to present case studies on the influences of natural and human disturbances on forest water resources under a changing climate. Studies in this collection of six papers cover a wide range of geographic regions from Australia to Nigeria with spatial...

  11. The European Pressurized Water Reactor. A safe and competitive solution for future energy needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leverenz, R.; Gerhard, L.; Goebel, A.

    2004-01-01

    The European Pressurized Water Reactor - the EPR - is a PWR in the 1600 MW class. Its design is based on experience feedback from several thousand reactors x years of light water reactor operation worldwide, primarily those incorporating the most recent technologies: the French N4 and the German KONVOI reactors. It is an evolutionary design that ensures continuity in the mastery of PWR technology, minimizing the risk for the customer. (author)

  12. Interactions of Forests, Climate, Water Resources, and Humans in a Changing Environment: Research Needs

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Ge; Segura, Catalina

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the special issue “Interactions of Forests, Climate, Water Resources, and Humans in a Changing Environment” is to present case studies on the influences of natural and human disturbances on forest water resources under a changing climate. Studies in this collection of six papers cover a wide range of geographic regions from Australia to Nigeria with spatial research scale spanning from a tree leaf, to a segment of forest road, and large basins with mixed land uses. T...

  13. Do Amplitudes of Water Level Fluctuations Affect the Growth and Community Structure of Submerged Macrophytes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mo-Zhu; Liu, Zheng-Yuan; Luo, Fang-Li; Lei, Guang-Chun; Li, Hong-Li

    2016-01-01

    Submerged macrophytes are subjected to potential mechanical stresses associated with fluctuating water levels in natural conditions. However, few experimental studies have been conducted to further understand the effects of water level fluctuating amplitude on submerged macrophyte species and their assemblages or communities. We designed a controlled experiment to investigate the responses of three submerged macrophyte species (Hydrilla verticillata, Ceratophyllum demersum and Elodea nuttallii) and their combinations in communities to three amplitudes (static, ± 30 cm, ± 60 cm) of water level fluctuations. Results showed that water level fluctuating amplitude had little effects on the community performance and the three tested species responded differently. H. verticillata exhibited more growth in static water and it was negatively affected by either of the water level fluctuations amplitude, however, growth parameters of H. verticillata in two fluctuating water level treatments (i.e., ± 30 cm, ± 60 cm) were not significantly different. On the other hand, the growth of C. demersum was not significantly correlated with different amplitude treatments. However, it became more abundant when water levels fluctuated. E. nuttallii was inhibited by the two fluctuating water level treatments, and was less in growth parameters compared to the other species especially in water level fluctuating conditions. The inherent differences in the adaptive capabilities of the tested species indicate that C. demersum or other species with similar responses may be dominant species to restore submerged macrophyte communities with great fluctuating water levels. Otherwise, H. verticillata, E. nuttallii or other species with similar responses could be considered for constructing the community in static water conditions.

  14. Do Amplitudes of Water Level Fluctuations Affect the Growth and Community Structure of Submerged Macrophytes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mo-Zhu Wang

    Full Text Available Submerged macrophytes are subjected to potential mechanical stresses associated with fluctuating water levels in natural conditions. However, few experimental studies have been conducted to further understand the effects of water level fluctuating amplitude on submerged macrophyte species and their assemblages or communities. We designed a controlled experiment to investigate the responses of three submerged macrophyte species (Hydrilla verticillata, Ceratophyllum demersum and Elodea nuttallii and their combinations in communities to three amplitudes (static, ± 30 cm, ± 60 cm of water level fluctuations. Results showed that water level fluctuating amplitude had little effects on the community performance and the three tested species responded differently. H. verticillata exhibited more growth in static water and it was negatively affected by either of the water level fluctuations amplitude, however, growth parameters of H. verticillata in two fluctuating water level treatments (i.e., ± 30 cm, ± 60 cm were not significantly different. On the other hand, the growth of C. demersum was not significantly correlated with different amplitude treatments. However, it became more abundant when water levels fluctuated. E. nuttallii was inhibited by the two fluctuating water level treatments, and was less in growth parameters compared to the other species especially in water level fluctuating conditions. The inherent differences in the adaptive capabilities of the tested species indicate that C. demersum or other species with similar responses may be dominant species to restore submerged macrophyte communities with great fluctuating water levels. Otherwise, H. verticillata, E. nuttallii or other species with similar responses could be considered for constructing the community in static water conditions.

  15. Do Amplitudes of Water Level Fluctuations Affect the Growth and Community Structure of Submerged Macrophytes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mo-Zhu; Liu, Zheng-Yuan; Luo, Fang-Li; Lei, Guang-Chun; Li, Hong-Li

    2016-01-01

    Submerged macrophytes are subjected to potential mechanical stresses associated with fluctuating water levels in natural conditions. However, few experimental studies have been conducted to further understand the effects of water level fluctuating amplitude on submerged macrophyte species and their assemblages or communities. We designed a controlled experiment to investigate the responses of three submerged macrophyte species (Hydrilla verticillata, Ceratophyllum demersum and Elodea nuttallii) and their combinations in communities to three amplitudes (static, ± 30 cm, ± 60 cm) of water level fluctuations. Results showed that water level fluctuating amplitude had little effects on the community performance and the three tested species responded differently. H. verticillata exhibited more growth in static water and it was negatively affected by either of the water level fluctuations amplitude, however, growth parameters of H. verticillata in two fluctuating water level treatments (i.e., ± 30 cm, ± 60 cm) were not significantly different. On the other hand, the growth of C. demersum was not significantly correlated with different amplitude treatments. However, it became more abundant when water levels fluctuated. E. nuttallii was inhibited by the two fluctuating water level treatments, and was less in growth parameters compared to the other species especially in water level fluctuating conditions. The inherent differences in the adaptive capabilities of the tested species indicate that C. demersum or other species with similar responses may be dominant species to restore submerged macrophyte communities with great fluctuating water levels. Otherwise, H. verticillata, E. nuttallii or other species with similar responses could be considered for constructing the community in static water conditions. PMID:26735689

  16. Fuzzy logic control of water level in advanced boiling water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Chaung; Lee, Chi-Szu; Raghavan, R.; Fahrner, D.M.

    1995-01-01

    The feedwater control system in the Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR) is more challenging to design compared to other control systems in the plant, due to the possible change in level from void collapses and swells during transient events. A basic fuzzy logic controller is developed using a simplified ABWR mathematical model to demonstrate and compare the performance of this controller with a simplified conventional controller. To reduce the design effort, methods are developed to automatically tune the scaling factors and control rules. As a first step in developing the fuzzy controller, a fuzzy controller with a limited number of rules is developed to respond to normal plant transients such as setpoint changes of plant parameters and load demand changes. Various simulations for setpoint and load demand changes of plant performances were conducted to evaluate the modeled fuzzy logic design against the simplified ABWR model control system. The simulation results show that the performance of the fuzzy logic controller is comparable to that of the Proportional-Integral (PI) controller, However, the fuzzy logic controller produced shorter settling time for step setpoint changes compared to the simplified conventional controller

  17. Comparison of 1972 and 1996 water levels in the Goleta central ground-water subbasin, Santa Barbara County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaehler, Charles A.; Pratt, David A.; Paybins, Katherine S.

    1997-01-01

    Ground-water levels for 1996 were compared with 1972 water levels to determine if a "drought buffer" currently exists. The drought buffer was defined previously, in a litigated settlement involving the Goleta Water District, as the 1972 water level in the Central ground-water subbasin. To make this deter mination, a network of 15 well sites was selected, water levels were measured monthly from April through December 1996, and the 1996 water-level data were compared with1972 data. The study was done in cooperation with the Goleta Water District. The 1972-1996 water-level-altitude changes for corresponding months of the comparison years were averaged for each network well. These averaged changes ranged from a rise of 9.4 ft for well 2N2 to a decline of 45.0 ft for well 8K8. The results of the comparison indicate a rise in water level at 1 site (well 2N2) and a decline at 14 sites. The mean of the 14 negative average values was a decline of 24.0 ft. The altitude of the bottom of well 2N2 was higher than the bottom altitudes at the other network sites, and this well is located a few feet from a fault that acts as a hydrologic barrier. The results of the water-level comparison for the Central subbasin were influenced to some unknown degree by the areal distribution of the set of wells selected for the network and the vertical dis tribution of the perforated intervals of the wells. For this reason, the mean water-level change--a decline of 21.8 ft--calculated from the averages of the month-to-month changes for the 15 network sites, should be used with caution. In addition, the number of usable individual monthly comparison measurements available for an individual site ranged from one to nine, and averaged six. Therefore, a weighted mean of the monthly averages was calculated on the basis of the number of comparison measurements available for each site. The weighted mean is a decline of 20.9 ft. All Central subbasin wells that were idle (that is, were not being pumped

  18. Nitrates in drinking water and methemoglobin levels in pregnancy: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manassaram, Deana M; Backer, Lorraine C; Messing, Rita; Fleming, Lora E; Luke, Barbara; Monteilh, Carolyn P

    2010-10-14

    Private water systems are more likely to have nitrate levels above the maximum contaminant level (MCL). Pregnant women are considered vulnerable to the effects of exposure to high levels of nitrates in drinking water due to their altered physiological states. The level of methemoglobin in the blood is the biomarker often used in research for assessing exposure to nitrates. The objective of this study was to assess methemoglobin levels and examine how various factors affected methemoglobin levels during pregnancy. We also examined whether differences in water use practices existed among pregnant women based on household drinking water source of private vs. public supply. A longitudinal study of 357 pregnant women was conducted. Longitudinal regression models were used to examine changes and predictors of the change in methemoglobin levels over the period of gestation. Pregnant women showed a decrease in methemoglobin levels with increasing gestation although nitrate intake from tap water among pregnant women around 36 weeks gestation (β = 0.046, p = 0.986). Four women had tap water nitrate levels above the MCL of 10 mg/L. At enrollment, a greater proportion of women who reported using water treatment devices were private wells users (66%) compared to public system users (46%) (p nitrate from water (p nitrate levels primarily below the MCL for drinking water were unlikely to show methemoglobin levels above the physiologic normal. Water use practices such as the use of treatment devices to remove nitrates varied according to water source and should be considered in the assessment of exposure to nitrates in future studies.

  19. Water level response measurement in a steel cylindrical liquid storage tank using image filter processing under seismic excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Wan; Choi, Hyoung-Suk; Park, Dong-Uk; Baek, Eun-Rim; Kim, Jae-Min

    2018-02-01

    Sloshing refers to the movement of fluid that occurs when the kinetic energy of various storage tanks containing fluid (e.g., excitation and vibration) is continuously applied to the fluid inside the tanks. As the movement induced by an external force gets closer to the resonance frequency of the fluid, the effect of sloshing increases, and this can lead to a serious problem with the structural stability of the system. Thus, it is important to accurately understand the physics of sloshing, and to effectively suppress and reduce the sloshing. Also, a method for the economical measurement of the water level response of a liquid storage tank is needed for the exact analysis of sloshing. In this study, a method using images was employed among the methods for measuring the water level response of a liquid storage tank, and the water level response was measured using an image filter processing algorithm for the reduction of the noise of the fluid induced by light, and for the sharpening of the structure installed at the liquid storage tank. A shaking table test was performed to verify the validity of the method of measuring the water level response of a liquid storage tank using images, and the result was analyzed and compared with the response measured using a water level gauge.

  20. Levels of trace metals in water and sediment from Tyume River and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Levels of trace metals (Cd, Pb, Co, Zn Cu and Ni) were determined in water and sediment ... mg/l) and Pb (0.021 ± 0.004 to 0.035 ± 0.001 mg/l) were found in the river water, ... Key words: trace metals, water, sediment, farmland, Tyume River

  1. Defining groundwater-dependent ecosystems and assessing critical water needs for their foundational plant communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stella, J. C.

    2017-12-01

    In many water-limited regions, human water use in conjunction with increased climate variability threaten the sustainability of groundwater-dependent plant communities and the ecosystems that depend on them (GDEs). Identifying and delineating vulnerable GDEs and determining critical functional thresholds for their foundational species has proved challenging, but recent research across several disciplines shows great promise for reducing scientific uncertainty and increasing applicability to ecosystem and groundwater management. Combining interdisciplinary approaches provides insights into indicators that may serve as early indicators of ecosystem decline, or alternatively demonstrate lags in responses depending on scale or sensitivity, or that even may decouple over time (Fig. 1). At the plant scale, miniaturization of plant sap flow sensors and tensiometers allow for non-destructive, continual measurements of plant water status in response to environmental stressors. Novel applications of proven tree-ring and stable isotope methods provide multi-decadal chronologies of radial growth, physiological function (using d13C ratios) and source water use (using d18O ratios) in response to annual variation in climate and subsurface water availability to plant roots. At a landscape scale, integration of disparate geospatial data such as hyperspectral imagery and LiDAR, as well as novel spectral mixing analysis promote the development of novel water stress indices such as vegetation greenness and non-photosynthetic (i.e., dead) vegetation (Fig. 2), as well as change detection using time series (Fig. 3). Furthermore, increases in data resolution across numerous data types can increasingly differentiate individual plant species, including sensitive taxa that serve as early warning indicators of ecosystem impairment. Combining and cross-calibrating these approaches provide insight into the full range of GDE response to environmental change, including increased climate drought

  2. Nitrate and ammonium levels of some water bodies and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study examined the nitrate (NO3-) and ammonium (NH4+) levels of Rivers Wouri and Dibamba and some streams that feed them. The interaction of NO3- and NH4+ with some soil properties was also investigated. It was necessitated by the usage of these rivers for livelihood, despite the deposition of discharges ...

  3. The study of chloroform levels during water disinfection by chlorination reference to health risk in drinking water of karachi (pakistan)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khawaja, H.A.; Khattak, I.

    2008-01-01

    This study presents the levels of the chloroform formation during water disinfiction treatment by chlorination with the subsequent formation of by-products like trihalomethanes (THMs) are formed. These THMs in drinking water are found in the form of chloroform, bromodichloromethane, Chlorodibromomethane and bromoform. Out of these four compounds chloroform is the major culprit and Contribute 9.0% of the total THMs concentration (I). Therefore the present work was focused on the Estimation of levels of chloroform in the drinking water samples of Karachi city (Pakistan) by using Bootstrapping statistical technique with regards to the average cancer risk in the community. (author)

  4. About the need for low or very low level radioactive waste disposal in the Republic of Montenegro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jovanovic, S.

    2005-01-01

    After the major constitutional changes in 2003, all nuclear related issues in Serbia and Montenegro, including the treatment of radioactive waste, went to the portfolios of the two constituent states, the Republic of Serbia and the Republic of Montenegro. Within the establishing of nuclear regulatory framework, and towards meeting the international requirements (e.g. IAEA's Basic Safety Standards and the Code of Conduct), the need for a low or very low level radioactive waste disposal in Montenegro is discussed. (author)

  5. Recent Changes in Land Water Storage and Its Contribution to Sea Level Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Yoshihide; Reager, John T.; Chao, Benjamin F.; Wang, Jida; Lo, Min-Hui; Song, Chunqiao; Li, Yuwen; Gardner, Alex S.

    2016-01-01

    Sea level rise is generally attributed to increased ocean heat content and increased rates glacier and ice melt. However, human transformations of Earth's surface have impacted water exchange between land, atmosphere, and ocean, ultimately affecting global sea level variations. Impoundment of water in reservoirs and artificial lakes has reduced the outflow of water to the sea, while river runoff has increased due to groundwater mining, wetland and endorheic lake storage losses, and deforestation. In addition, climate-driven changes in land water stores can have a large impact on global sea level variations over decadal timescales. Here, we review each component of negative and positive land water contribution separately in order to highlight and understand recent changes in land water contribution to sea level variations.

  6. The Water Footprint as an indicator of environmental sustainability in water use at the river basin level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellicer-Martínez, Francisco; Martínez-Paz, José Miguel

    2016-11-15

    One of the main challenges in water management is to determine how the current water use can condition its availability to future generations and hence its sustainability. This study proposes the use of the Water Footprint (WF) indicator to assess the environmental sustainability in water resources management at the river basin level. The current study presents the methodology developed and applies it to a case study. The WF is a relatively new indicator that measures the total volume of freshwater that is used as a production factor. Its application is ever growing in the evaluation of water use in production processes. The calculation of the WF involves water resources (blue), precipitation stored in the soil (green) and pollution (grey). It provides a comprehensive assessment of the environmental sustainability of water use in a river basin. The methodology is based upon the simulation of the anthropised water cycle, which is conducted by combining a hydrological model and a decision support system. The methodology allows the assessment of the environmental sustainability of water management at different levels, and/or ex-ante analysis of how the decisions made in water planning process affect sustainability. The sustainability study was carried out in the Segura River Basin (SRB) in South-eastern Spain. The SRB is among the most complex basins in Europe, given its special peculiarities: competition for the use, overexploitation of aquifers, pollution, alternative sources, among others. The results indicate that blue water use is not sustainable due to the generalised overexploitation of aquifers. They also reveal that surface water pollution, which is not sustainable, is mainly caused by phosphate concentrations. The assessment of future scenarios reveals that these problems will worsen if no additional measures are implemented, and therefore the water management in the SRB is environmentally unsustainable in both the short- and medium-term. Copyright © 2016

  7. QUANTIFICATION OF INSTREAM FLOW NEEDS OF A WILD AND SCENIC RIVER FOR WATER RIGHTS LITIGATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garn, Herbert S.

    1986-01-01

    The lower 4 miles of the Red River, a tributary of the Rio Grande in northern New Mexico, was designated as one of the 'instant' components of the National Wild and Scenic River System in 1968. Instream flow requirements were determined by several methods to quantify the claims made by the United States for a federal reserved water right under the Wild and Scenic Rivers Act. The scenic (aesthetic), recreational, and fish and wildlife values are the purposes for which instream flow requirements were claimed. Since water quality is related to these values, instream flows for waste transport and protection of water quality were also included in the claim. The U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service's Instream Flow Incremental Methodology was used to quantify the relationship between various flow regimes and fish habitat. Study results are discussed.

  8. Investigation of natural radioactivity level of the waters in the tibet autonomous region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Tianhua; Li Yankun; Yao Ke; Pan Chengchang

    1995-01-01

    The investigation results of natural radioactivity level in river, lake, spring, well and tap water in the Tibet Autonomous Region is reported. There were totally 46 samples collected from 53 measuring points. The results show that the radioactivity level of water bodies of the Tibet Autonomous region was within normal natural background

  9. Investigation of natural radioactivity level of the waters in Inner Mongolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Xuelin; Li Wenyuan; Fu Su

    1993-01-01

    The authors reports the investigation results of natural radioactivity level in rivers, lakes, reservoirs, springs, wells and tap water in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. There were totally 326 samples collected from 178 measuring points. The results show that the radioactivity level of varied water bodies of the region was within normal natural background

  10. Investigation of natural radioactivity level of the waters in Guangxi Zhuangzu Autonomous Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Mingshen; Ming Chuanbao; Dai Guozhi; Liang Runping; Chen Xiuyu; Yang Gang; Jin Mei

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports the investigation results of natural radioactivity level in river, lake reservoir, spring, well and tap water in Guangxi Zhuangzu Autonomous Region. There were totally 194 samples collected from 143 measuring points. The results show that the radioactivity level of varied water bodies of the region was within normal natural background

  11. Investigation of natural radioactivity level of the waters in the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing Yupei; Wang Li; Tian Yi; Ai Xianyuan; Liang Ningbu

    1995-01-01

    This paper reports the investigation results of natural radioactivity level in river, lake, reservoir, spring, well and tap water in the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region. There were totally 117 samples collected from 84 measuring points. The results show that the radioactivity level of varied water bodies of the region was within normal natural background

  12. Linking poverty levels to water resource use and conflicts in rural Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madulu, Ndalahwa F.

    Water scarcity is an important environmental constraint to development. Water availability is closely linked to human welfare and health by affecting nutrition status and quantity of drinking water especially for the poor. It has impacts on household labour because of the time and energy spent in obtaining it. These problems are more keenly felt among the poor households and in the agricultural subsistence economy. In many areas, the demand for water has been increasing due to rapid population growth, economic development, and climatic change. Water scarcity also stimulates social conflicts between various water users: individuals, communities, industries, livestock, wildlife, agriculture etc. Consequently, local communities have evolved strategies for coping with water stress and drought. These strategies include use of various sources of water, inaction to strict bye-laws regarding the use of water, crop diversification, wage labour, and possibly seasonal migration. The available strategies are likely to vary from one area to another. Some of these actions have measurable longterm demographic consequences, particularly if water stress is severe or repetitive. Although most governments and donor organizations often put much emphasis on the provision of water for drinking purposes, there is clear evidence that the supply of water for other uses has equal importance especially among rural communities. This observation suggests that putting too much emphasis on drinking water needs, addresses a rather insignificant part of the problem of water resources and biases the range of solutions which are likely to be proposed for perceived shortages. The presence of other water uses necessitates the provision of multi-purpose water sources that can serve a number of contrasting functions. This demand-responsive approach can enable the local communities and the poor households to choose the type of services they require on the basis of perceived needs and their ability to

  13. The need for a standard approach to assessing the functionality of rural community water supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonsor, Helen; MacDonald, Alan; Casey, Vincent; Carter, Richard; Wilson, Paul

    2018-03-01

    The Sustainable Development Goals have set an agenda for transformational change in water access, aiming for secure household connections globally. Despite this goal, communal groundwater supplies are likely to remain the main source of improved water supplies for many rural areas in Africa and South Asia for decades to come. Understanding the poor functionality of existing communal supplies remains, therefore, a priority. A critical first step is to establish a sector-wide definition of borehole supply functionality and a standard method of its assessment.

  14. Observations and estimates of wave-driven water level extremes at the Marshall Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrifield, M. A.; Becker, J. M.; Ford, M.; Yao, Y.

    2014-10-01

    Wave-driven extreme water levels are examined for coastlines protected by fringing reefs using field observations obtained in the Republic of the Marshall Islands. The 2% exceedence water level near the shoreline due to waves is estimated empirically for the study sites from breaking wave height at the outer reef and by combining separate contributions from setup, sea and swell, and infragravity waves, which are estimated based on breaking wave height and water level over the reef flat. Although each component exhibits a tidal dependence, they sum to yield a 2% exceedence level that does not. A hindcast based on the breaking wave height parameterization is used to assess factors leading to flooding at Roi-Namur caused by an energetic swell event during December 2008. Extreme water levels similar to December 2008 are projected to increase significantly with rising sea level as more wave and tide events combine to exceed inundation threshold levels.

  15. What caused the decline of China's largest freshwater lake? Attribution analysis on Poyang Lake water level variations in recent years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xuchun; Xu, Chong-Yu; Zhang, Qi

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, dramatic decline of water level of the Poyang Lake, China's largest freshwater lake, has raised wide concerns about the water security and wetland ecosystem. This remarkable hydrological change coincided with several factors like the initial operation of the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) in 2003, the big change of lake bottom topography due to extensive sand mining in the lake since 2000, and also climate change and other human activities in the Yangtze River basin may add to this complexity. Questions raised to what extent that the lake hydrological changes is caused by climate change and/or human activities. In this study, quantitative assessment was conducted to clarify the magnitude and mechanism of specific influencing factors on recent lake decline (2003-2014), with reference to the period of 1980-1999. The attempts were achieved through the reconstruction of lake water level scenarios by the framework of neural network. Major result indicates that the effect of lake bottom topography change due to sand mining activities has became the dominant factor for the recent lake decline, especially in winter season with low water level. However, the effect of TGD regulation shows strong seasonal features, its effect can accounts for 33%-42% of the average water level decline across the lake during the impoundment period of September-October. In addition, the effect of climate change and other human activities over the Yangtze River basin needs to be highly addressed, which is particularly prominent on reducing lake water level during the summer flood season and autumn recession period. The result also revealed that due to different mechanism, the responses of the lake water level to the three influencing factors are not consistent and show great spatial and temporal differences.

  16. Mission Need Statement for the Idaho National Laboratory Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvego, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory proposes to establish replacement remote-handled low-level waste disposal capability to meet Nuclear Energy and Naval Reactors mission-critical, remote-handled low-level waste disposal needs beyond planned cessation of existing disposal capability at the end of Fiscal Year 2015. Remote-handled low-level waste is generated from nuclear programs conducted at the Idaho National Laboratory, including spent nuclear fuel handling and operations at the Naval Reactors Facility and operations at the Advanced Test Reactor. Remote-handled low-level waste also will be generated by new programs and from segregation and treatment (as necessary) of remote-handled scrap and waste currently stored in the Radioactive Scrap and Waste Facility at the Materials and Fuels Complex. Replacement disposal capability must be in place by Fiscal Year 2016 to support uninterrupted Idaho operations. This mission need statement provides the basis for the laboratory's recommendation to the Department of Energy to proceed with establishing the replacement remote-handled low-level waste disposal capability, project assumptions and constraints, and preliminary cost and schedule information for developing the proposed capability. Without continued remote-handled low-level waste disposal capability, Department of Energy missions at the Idaho National Laboratory would be jeopardized, including operations at the Naval Reactors Facility that are critical to effective execution of the Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program and national security. Remote-handled low-level waste disposal capability is also critical to the Department of Energy's ability to meet obligations with the State of Idaho

  17. Mission Need Statement for the Idaho National Laboratory Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisa Harvego

    2009-06-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory proposes to establish replacement remote-handled low-level waste disposal capability to meet Nuclear Energy and Naval Reactors mission-critical, remote-handled low-level waste disposal needs beyond planned cessation of existing disposal capability at the end of Fiscal Year 2015. Remote-handled low-level waste is generated from nuclear programs conducted at the Idaho National Laboratory, including spent nuclear fuel handling and operations at the Naval Reactors Facility and operations at the Advanced Test Reactor. Remote-handled low-level waste also will be generated by new programs and from segregation and treatment (as necessary) of remote-handled scrap and waste currently stored in the Radioactive Scrap and Waste Facility at the Materials and Fuels Complex. Replacement disposal capability must be in place by Fiscal Year 2016 to support uninterrupted Idaho operations. This mission need statement provides the basis for the laboratory’s recommendation to the Department of Energy to proceed with establishing the replacement remote-handled low-level waste disposal capability, project assumptions and constraints, and preliminary cost and schedule information for developing the proposed capability. Without continued remote-handled low-level waste disposal capability, Department of Energy missions at the Idaho National Laboratory would be jeopardized, including operations at the Naval Reactors Facility that are critical to effective execution of the Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program and national security. Remote-handled low-level waste disposal capability is also critical to the Department of Energy’s ability to meet obligations with the State of Idaho.

  18. Type GQS-1 high pressure steam manifold water level monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Nianzu; Li Beicheng; Jia Shengming

    1993-10-01

    The GQS-1 high pressure steam manifold water level monitoring system is an advanced nuclear gauge that is suitable for on-line detecting and monitor in high pressure steam manifold water level. The physical variable of water level is transformed into electrical pulses by the nuclear sensor. A computer is equipped for data acquisition, analysis and processing and the results are displayed on a 14 inch color monitor. In addition, a 4 ∼ 20 mA output current is used for the recording and regulation of water level. The main application of this gauge is for on-line measurement of high pressure steam manifold water level in fossil-fired power plant and other industries

  19. Relations between vegetation and water level in groundwater dependent terrestrial ecosystems (GWDTEs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch Johansen, Ole; Andersen, Dagmar Kappel; Ejrnæs, Rasmus

    2018-01-01

    , management and conservation of fens are constrained by limited knowledge on the relations between vegetation and measurable hydrological conditions. This study investigates the relations between vegetation and water level dynamics in groundwater dependent wetlands in Denmark. A total of 35 wetland sites...... across Denmark were included in the study. The sites represent a continuum of wetlands with respect to vegetation and hydrological conditions. Water level was measured continuously using pressure transducers at each site. Metrics expressing different hydrological characteristics, such as mean water level...... and low and high water level periods, were calculated based on the water level time series. A complete plant species list was recorded in plots covering 78.5 m2 at each site. Community metrics such as total number of species and the number of bryophytes were generated from the species lists and Ellenberg...

  20. Projections of extreme water level events for atolls in the western Tropical Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrifield, M. A.; Becker, J. M.; Ford, M.; Yao, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Conditions that lead to extreme water levels and coastal flooding are examined for atolls in the Republic of the Marshall Islands based on a recent field study of wave transformations over fringing reefs, tide gauge observations, and wave model hindcasts. Wave-driven water level extremes pose the largest threat to atoll shorelines, with coastal levels scaling as approximately one-third of the incident breaking wave height. The wave-driven coastal water level is partitioned into a mean setup, low frequency oscillations associated with cross-reef quasi-standing modes, and wind waves that reach the shore after undergoing high dissipation due to breaking and bottom friction. All three components depend on the water level over the reef; however, the sum of the components is independent of water level due to cancelling effects. Wave hindcasts suggest that wave-driven water level extremes capable of coastal flooding are infrequent events that require a peak wave event to coincide with mid- to high-tide conditions. Interannual and decadal variations in sea level do not change the frequency of these events appreciably. Future sea-level rise scenarios significantly increase the flooding threat associated with wave events, with a nearly exponential increase in flooding days per year as sea level exceeds 0.3 to 1.0 m above current levels.

  1. Multi variate regression model of the water level and production rate time series of the geothermal reservoir Waiwera (New Zealand)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, Michael; Schöne, Tim

    2017-04-01

    Water management tools are essential to ensure the conservation of natural resources. The geothermal hot water reservoir below the village of Waiwera, on the Northern Island of New Zealand is used commercially since 1863. The continuous production of 50 °C hot geothermal water, to supply hotels and spas, has a negative impact on the reservoir. Until the year 1969 from all wells drilled the warm water flow was artesian. Due to overproduction the water needs to be pumped up nowadays. Further, within the years 1975 to 1976 the warm water seeps on the beach of Waiwera ran dry. In order to protect the reservoir and the historical and tourist site in the early 1980s a water management plan was deployed. The "Auckland Council" established guidelines to enable a sustainable management of the resource [1]. The management plan demands that the water level in the official and appropriate observation well of the council is 0.5 m above sea level throughout the year in average. Almost four decades of data (since 1978 until today) are now available [2]. For a sustainable water management, it is necessary to be able to forecast the water level as a function of the production rates in the production wells. The best predictions are provided by a multivariate regression model of the water level and production rate time series, which takes into account the production rates of individual wells. It is based on the inversely proportional relationship between the independent variable (production rate) and the dependent variable (measured water level). In production scenarios, a maximum total production rate of approx. 1,100 m3 / day is determined in order to comply with the guidelines of the "Auckland Council". [1] Kühn M., Stöfen H. (2005) A reactive flow model of the geothermal reservoir Waiwera, New Zealand. Hydrogeology Journal 13, 606-626, doi: 10.1007/s10040-004-0377-6 [2] Kühn M., Altmannsberger C. (2016) Assessment of data driven and process based water management tools for

  2. The Effect of The Utilitarian Need For the High Water Tanks Towers to Sustain Life in the City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amjad Mahmoud a. Albadry

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The service system has become a necessity of life in modern cities to be the most basic necessities of modern humans, they constitute a major base, which is based on the sustainability of life in the city and a standard measured through the degree of well-being and progress of civilized peoples and their interaction with the surrounding environment, making the services sector as a need not be an option, whenever the cities widened in population and space whenever provision of services and upgrading the quality and quantity more pressing, which made the subject of the services takes the biggest area of the trends and thinking of urban planners and those who in charge of drawing the cities policies. Considering that the processing and transfer of the water system with all its components (stations – water tanks -transmission and distribution pipelines, it is one of the most important parts of the services systems in the city. It has become a key element of the arteries of the establishment of life, but for several considerations of most important ( like storage of water and supplied with constant pressure that balanced without wobbling at the peak daytime hours with the necessary provision of water to fight fires , as well as secured it to the sectors of city n the maintenance time of the parts of the water system or the occurrence of a failure, with the need to confirm the save and generate energy factor in renewable way. For this in whole and others, the elevated water towers cornerstone of the pillars of the water system was made that can be indispensable in providing outsourcing and distribution network , and on the grounds that the case study concerning our capital Baghdad and its suffering of the water distribution and pressure intermittent problems, this research aims to clarify the idea of the elevated water tanks have become an important actor and is a part of the process and transport of the water in the city's system, and that its

  3. Inland water ecosystems in South Africa – a review of research needs.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Noble, RG

    1978-11-01

    Full Text Available expressed by Dr A F Bartsch (US Environmental Protection Agency) who visited South Africa in March 1977 as a consultant to the Water Research Commission. It has been drawn up with both limnologists and decision makers in mind, in order to facilitate...

  4. The need for accurate deuterium analysis in a heavy water plant and its achievement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, R.R.; Pradhan, D.G.

    1979-01-01

    Importance of Mass Spectrometer as an analytical tool for deuterium analysis in heavy water plants is discussed. Some of the important requirements such as memory effect and H 3 + correction are described with reference to the Mass Spectrometer used at HWP (Talcher). For achieving the accuracy required, use of international deuterium standards and error estimation found by intercalibration are discussed. (auth.)

  5. Urban stormwater - greywater management system for sustainable urban water management at sub-watershed level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh Arora, Amarpreet

    2017-11-01

    Urban water management involves urban water supply (import, treatment and distribution of water), urban wastewater management (collection, treatment and disposal of urban sewage) and urban storm water management. Declining groundwater tables, polluted and declining sources of water, water scarcity in urban areas, unsatisfactory urban water supply and sanitation situation, pollution of receiving water bodies (including the ground water), and urban floods have become the concerns and issues of sustainable urban water management. This paper proposes a model for urban stormwater and sewage management which addresses these concerns and issues of sustainable urban water management. This model proposes segregation of the sewage into black water and greywater, and urban sub-watershed level stormwater-greywater management systems. During dry weather this system will be handling only the greywater and making the latter available as reclaimed water for reuse in place of the fresh water supply. During wet weather, the system will be taking care of (collection and treatment) both the storm water and the greywater, and the excess of the treated water will be disposed off through groundwater recharging. Application of this model in the Patiala city, Punjab, INDIA for selected urban sub-watersheds has been tried. Information and background data required for the conceptualization and design of the sub-watershed level urban stormwater-greywater management system was collected and the system has been designed for one of the sub-watersheds in the Patiala city. In this paper, the model for sustainable urban water management and the design of the Sub-watershed level Urban Stormwater-Greywater Management System are described.

  6. Water level observations from Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for improving estimates of surface water-groundwater interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandini, Filippo; Butts, Michael; Vammen Jacobsen, Torsten

    2017-01-01

    spatial resolution; ii) spatially continuous profiles along or across the water body; iii) flexible timing of sampling. A semi-synthetic study was conducted to analyse the value of the new UAV-borne datatype for improving hydrological models, in particular estimates of GW (Groundwater)- SW (Surface Water...

  7. Water level determination for transportation projects : mean high water manual, final report, November 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    To ensure proficient network management and safe usage of navigable waterways especially in waters that are : subject to tides, it is essential that the height of the water at various tidal phases be known. This knowledge is also : essential for prop...

  8. Effects of water level on three wetlands soil seed banks on the Tibetan Plateau.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miaojun Ma

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although the effect of water level on germination in soil seed banks has been documented in many ecosystems, the mechanism is not fully understood, and to date no empirical studies on this subject exist. Further, no work has been done on the effect of water level on seed banks of drying and saline-alkaline wetlands in alpine areas on the Tibetan Plateau. METHODOLOGY: We examined the effects of water level (0 cm, 5 cm and 10 cm on seed germination and seedling establishment from soil seed banks at 0-5 cm and 5-10 cm depths in typical, drying, and saline-alkaline wetlands. We also explore the potential role of soil seed bank in restoration of drying and saline-alkaline wetlands. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Species richness decreased with increase in water level, but there almost no change in seed density. A huge difference exists in species composition of the seed bank among different water levels in all three wetlands, especially between 0 cm and 5 cm and 0 cm and 10 cm. Similarity of species composition between seed bank and plant community was higher in 0 cm water level in drying wetland than in the other two wetlands. The similarity was much higher in 0 cm water level than in 5 cm and 10 cm water levels in all three wetlands. Species composition of the alpine wetland plant community changed significantly after drying and salinization, however, species composition of the seed bank was unchanged regardless of the environment change. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Water level greatly affects seed bank recruitment and plant community establishment. Further, different water levels in restored habitats are likely to determine its species composition of the plant community. The seed bank is important in restoration of degraded wetlands. Successful restoration of drying and salinization wetlands could depend on the seed bank.

  9. Water production for irrigation and drinking needs in remote arid communities using closed-system greenhouse: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E. Kabeel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Water needs for agriculture, food production and drinking are considered one of the most critical challenges facing the world in the present days. This is due mainly to the scarcity and lack of fresh water resources, and the increasing ground water salinity. Most of these countries have a high solar energy potential. This potential can be best developed by solar desalination concepts and methods specifically suited for rural water supply, irrigation. In this paper, a humidification–dehumidification (HD water desalination system with several technologies for irrigation and drinking needs in remote arid areas is introduced from technical and economic point of views. This study has investigated (1 detailed discussion of technical developments, economical and sustainable aspects; (2 benefits of the new design over traditional applications, desalination and other irrigation methods; (3 specific requirements and implementation challenges in remote and cold regions; (4 performance and reliability improvement possible techniques. Recommended researches and projects leading to high efficiency, economical and sustainable applications of some desalination devices driven by solar energy are highlighted.

  10. The Geography of Diabetes in London, Canada: The Need for Local Level Policy for Prevention and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, Jordan W.; Luginaah, Isaac N.; Booth, Gillian L.; Harris, Stewart B.

    2010-01-01

    Recent reports aimed at improving diabetes care in socially disadvantaged populations suggest that interventions must be tailored to meet the unique needs of the local community—specifically, the community’s geography. We have examined the spatial distribution of diabetes in the context of socioeconomic determinants of health in London (Ontario, Canada) to characterize neighbourhoods in an effort to target these neighbourhoods for local level community-based program planning and intervention. Multivariate spatial-statistical techniques and geographic information systems were used to examine diabetes rates and socioeconomic variables aggregated at the census tract level. Creation of a deprivation index facilitated investigation across multiple determinants of health. Findings from our research identified ‘at risk’ neighbourhoods in London with socioeconomic disadvantage and high diabetes. Future endeavours must continue to identify local level trends in order to support policy development, resource planning and care for improved health outcomes and improved equity in access to care across geographic regions. PMID:20623032

  11. Operational challenges to feedwater/steam generator water level control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, V.M.; Whaley, S.D.; Federico, P.A. [Westinghouse Electric Company, Cranberry Township, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Feedwater control and turbine control have historically been at the top of the list of contributors to unplanned outages and forced curtailments in the nuclear industry, and they remain so according to recent industry data. Much has been done and is available by way of measures to improve this area and, in spite of much progress, opportunities remain to extend implementation. Toward this end, this paper aims to focus upon feedwater control and provide background on associated characteristics and attributes as a context for identifying the issues which are key challenges that lie at the root of this concern. Primary groupings of these issues will be discussed in order to better define their nature and to establish a basis for a presentation of the range of solutions which have been implemented and remain available to address them. The need for a systems engineering approach, and the role of I&C and field-mounted equipment to application of these solutions will be discussed. (author)

  12. Water-Level Data Analysis for the Saturated Zone Site-Scale Flow and Transport Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tucci, P.

    2001-01-01

    This Analysis/Model Report (AMR) documents an updated analysis of water-level data performed to provide the saturated-zone, site-scale flow and transport model (CRWMS M and O 2000) with the configuration of the potentiometric surface, target water-level data, and hydraulic gradients for model calibration. The previous analysis was presented in ANL-NBS-HS-000034, Rev 00 ICN 01, Water-Level Data Analysis for the Saturated Zone Site-Scale Flow and Transport Model (USGS 2001). This analysis is designed to use updated water-level data as the basis for estimating water-level altitudes and the potentiometric surface in the SZ site-scale flow and transport model domain. The objectives of this revision are to develop computer files containing (1) water-level data within the model area (DTN: GS010908312332.002), (2) a table of known vertical head differences (DTN: GS0109083 12332.003), and (3) a potentiometric-surface map (DTN: GS010608312332.001) using an alternate concept from that presented in ANL-NBS-HS-000034, Rev 00 ICN 01 for the area north of Yucca Mountain. The updated water-level data include data obtained from the Nye County Early Warning Drilling Program (EWDP) and data from borehole USW WT-24. In addition to being utilized by the SZ site-scale flow and transport model, the water-level data and potentiometric-surface map contained within this report will be available to other government agencies and water users for ground-water management purposes. The potentiometric surface defines an upper boundary of the site-scale flow model, as well as provides information useful to estimation of the magnitude and direction of lateral ground-water flow within the flow system. Therefore, the analysis documented in this revision is important to SZ flow and transport calculations in support of total system performance assessment

  13. Predicted impacts of future water level decline on monitoring wells using a ground-water model of the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wurstner, S.K.; Freshley, M.D.

    1994-12-01

    A ground-water flow model was used to predict water level decline in selected wells in the operating areas (100, 200, 300, and 400 Areas) and the 600 Area. To predict future water levels, the unconfined aquifer system was stimulated with the two-dimensional version of a ground-water model of the Hanford Site, which is based on the Coupled Fluid, Energy, and Solute Transport (CFEST) Code in conjunction with the Geographic Information Systems (GIS) software package. The model was developed using the assumption that artificial recharge to the unconfined aquifer system from Site operations was much greater than any natural recharge from precipitation or from the basalt aquifers below. However, artificial recharge is presently decreasing and projected to decrease even more in the future. Wells currently used for monitoring at the Hanford Site are beginning to go dry or are difficult to sample, and as the water table declines over the next 5 to 10 years, a larger number of wells is expected to be impacted. The water levels predicted by the ground-water model were compared with monitoring well completion intervals to determine which wells will become dry in the future. Predictions of wells that will go dry within the next 5 years have less uncertainty than predictions for wells that will become dry within 5 to 10 years. Each prediction is an estimate based on assumed future Hanford Site operating conditions and model assumptions

  14. Interpretation of changes in water level accompanying fault creep and implications for earthquake prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesson, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    Quantitative calculations for the effect of a fault creep event on observations of changes in water level in wells provide an approach to the tectonic interpretation of these phenomena. For the pore pressure field associated with an idealized creep event having an exponential displacement versus time curve, an analytic expression has been obtained in terms of exponential-integral functions. The pore pressure versus time curves for observation points near the fault are pulselike; a sharp pressure increase (or decrease, depending on the direction of propagation) is followed by more gradual decay to the normal level after the creep event. The time function of the water level change may be obtained by applying the filter - derived by A.G.Johnson and others to determine the influence of atmospheric pressure on water level - to the analytic pore pressure versus time curves. The resulting water level curves show a fairly rapid increase (or decrease) and then a very gradual return to normal. The results of this analytic model do not reproduce the steplike changes in water level observed by Johnson and others. If the procedure used to obtain the water level from the pore pressure is correct, these results suggest that steplike changes in water level are not produced by smoothly propagating creep events but by creep events that propagate discontinuously, by changes in the bulk properties of the region around the well, or by some other mechanism.-Author

  15. Data needs for the track structure of alpha particles and electrons in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagnamenta, A.

    1983-01-01

    We have made calculations of the ionization spectra for alpha particle and electron tracks in water. We have also computed the number of ions created per micrometre of track length, the energy distribution of the secondaries, and the energy expended per ion pair created. Our aim is less toward theoretical derivations than to obtain a numerically accurate description of the track structure at all energies in a form suitable for biomedical applications. 13 references

  16. DRINKING WATER CONSUMPTION AND LOSS IN ALGERIA THE CASE OF NETWORKS WITH LOW LEVEL COUNTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachid Masmoudi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Demand for drinking domestic water is continuously increasing specially in urban centres which experience high demographic expansion. The decrease of water losses in water supply networks can help preserve such a rare resource. Low number of water meters and intermittent supply make it difficult to quantify the leaking volumes of water. This article presents an analysis of the consumption for drinking water based on an extrapolation from a sample of consumers on whom data are available. Comparison of the volumes of water produced allows a determination of the losses in the water supply system. This analysis is completed by measurements of night flows. The results obtained may be relied on for an evaluation of the needs for drinking water in the South of Algeria, and for future regional development. The study indicates a high rate of water losses in the distribution network, reaching about 40%, and over-consumption due to an insufficient number of water meters and discontinuous supply. It is recommended that water meters come into general use and defective parts of the network are rehabilitated. We will try then to make the necessary recommendations in order to better functioning of the water supply systems in Algeria.

  17. Bridge over Troubled Waters: Meeting the Mental Health Needs of Black Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cokley, Kevin; Cody, Bretjet; Smith, Leann; Beasley, Samuel; Miller, Keino I. S.; Hurst, Ashley; Awosogba, Olufunke; Stone, Steven; Jackson, Stacey

    2015-01-01

    Meeting the mental health needs of black children will take more than just increasing access to mental health services and early identification. It also will require a critical evaluation of the practices and models being used to diagnose and treat mental health concerns. Frameworks have been established that use a positive, strengths-based,…

  18. Water, sanitation and hygiene in South Sudan: what needs to be ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Involvement of local and national government,. • communities and external organisations;. The need for regulation (laws), guidance and best. • practice in sanitation;. The World Health Organization [10] also described standards for a simple, and basic form of sanitation. (latrine) called the ventilated pit latrine (VIP) that could.

  19. Participatory appraisal for farm-level soil and water conservation planning in West Usambara highlands, Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tenge, A.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Soil and water conservation (SWC) measures are needed to control soil erosion and sustain agricultural production on the steep slopes of Usambara Mountains. The need for SWC has resulted in the development and promotion of several SWC measures by both governmental and non-governmental programmes.

  20. Origin of elevated water levels encountered in Pahute Mesa emplacement boreholes: Preliminary investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brikowski, T.; Chapman, J.; Lyles, B.; Hokett, S.

    1993-11-01

    The presence of standing water well above the predicted water table in emplacement boreholes on Pahute Mesa has been a recurring phenomenon at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). If these levels represent naturally perched aquifers, they may indicate a radionuclide migration hazard. In any case, they can pose engineering problems in the performance of underground nuclear tests. The origin of these elevated waters is uncertain. Large volumes of water are introduced during emplacement drilling, providing ample source for artificially perched water, yet elevated water levels can remain constant for years, suggesting a natural origin instead. In an effort to address the issue of unexpected standing water in emplacement boreholes, three different sites were investigated in Area 19 on Pahute Mesa by Desert Research Institute (DRI) staff from 1990-93. These sites were U-19az, U-19ba, and U-19bh. As of this writing, U-19bh remains available for access; however, nuclear tests were conducted at the former two locations subsequent to this investigations. The experiments are discussed in chronological order. Taken together, the experiments indicate that standing water in Pahute Mesa emplacement holes originates from the drainage of small-volume naturally perched zones. In the final study, the fluids used during drilling of the bottom 100 m of emplacement borehole U-19bh were labeled with a chemical tracer. After hole completion, water level rose in the borehole, while tracer concentration decreased. In fact, total mass of tracer in the borehole remained constant, while water levels rose. After water levels stabilized in this hole, no change in tracer mass was observed over two years, indicating that no movement of water out of the borehole is taking place (as at U- 19ba). Continued labeling tests of standing water are recommended to confirm the conclusions made here, and to establish their validity throughout Pahute Mesa

  1. Earthquake-induced water-level fluctuations at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, June 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, G.M.

    1993-01-01

    This report presents earthquake-induced water-level and fluid-pressure data for wells in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada, during June 1992. Three earthquakes occurred which caused significant water-level and fluid-pressure responses in wells. Wells USW H-5 and USW H-6 are continuously monitored to detect short-term responses caused by earthquakes. Two wells, monitored hourly, had significant, longer-term responses in water level following the earthquakes. On June 28, 1992, a 7.5-magnitude earthquake occurred near Landers, California causing an estimated maximum water-level change of 90 centimeters in well USW H-5. Three hours later a 6.6-magnitude earthquake occurred near Big Bear Lake, California; the maximum water-level fluctuation was 20 centimeters in well USW H-5. A 5.6-magnitude earthquake occurred at Little Skull Mountain, Nevada, on June 29, approximately 23 kilometers from Yucca Mountain. The maximum estimated short-term water-level fluctuation from the Little Skull Mountain earthquake was 40 centimeters in well USW H-5. The water level in well UE-25p number-sign 1, monitored hourly, decreased approximately 50 centimeters over 3 days following the Little Skull Mountain earthquake. The water level in UE-25p number-sign 1 returned to pre-earthquake levels in approximately 6 months. The water level in the lower interval of well USW H-3 increased 28 centimeters following the Little Skull Mountain earthquake. The Landers and Little Skull Mountain earthquakes caused responses in 17 intervals of 14 hourly monitored wells, however, most responses were small and of short duration. For several days following the major earthquakes, many smaller magnitude aftershocks occurred causing measurable responses in the continuously monitored wells

  2. A linear bi-level multi-objective program for optimal allocation of water resources.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ijaz Ahmad

    Full Text Available This paper presents a simple bi-level multi-objective linear program (BLMOLP with a hierarchical structure consisting of reservoir managers and several water use sectors under a multi-objective framework for the optimal allocation of limited water resources. Being the upper level decision makers (i.e., leader in the hierarchy, the reservoir managers control the water allocation system and tend to create a balance among the competing water users thereby maximizing the total benefits to the society. On the other hand, the competing water use sectors, being the lower level decision makers (i.e., followers in the hierarchy, aim only to maximize individual sectoral benefits. This multi-objective bi-level optimization problem can be solved using the simultaneous compromise constraint (SICCON technique which creates a compromise between upper and lower level decision makers (DMs, and transforms the multi-objective function into a single decision-making problem. The bi-level model developed in this study has been applied to the Swat River basin in Pakistan for the optimal allocation of water resources among competing water demand sectors and different scenarios have been developed. The application of the model in this study shows that the SICCON is a simple, applicable and feasible approach to solve the BLMOLP problem. Finally, the comparisons of the model results show that the optimization model is practical and efficient when it is applied to different conditions with priorities assigned to various water users.

  3. Plan for support of large-plant (post-CRBR) needs in large-leak sodium-water reaction area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whipple, J.C.

    1980-03-01

    Work in the large leak test and analysis area of steam generator development has been carried out at GE-ARSD under 189a SG037 since 1973. The currently planned master schedule for the SG037 program is shown. Principal activities are the large leak testing program being carried out at the Large Leak Test Rig and the analysis methods development. The plan for supporting the large plant (post-CRBR) needs in the large leak sodium-water reaction area is outlined. Most of the needs will be answered in the current SG037 large leak program

  4. Microbial Contamination Detection in Water Resources: Interest of Current Optical Methods, Trends and Needs in the Context of Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aude-Valérie Jung

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Microbial pollution in aquatic environments is one of the crucial issues with regard to the sanitary state of water bodies used for drinking water supply, recreational activities and harvesting seafood due to a potential contamination by pathogenic bacteria, protozoa or viruses. To address this risk, microbial contamination monitoring is usually assessed by turbidity measurements performed at drinking water plants. Some recent studies have shown significant correlations of microbial contamination with the risk of endemic gastroenteresis. However the relevance of turbidimetry may be limited since the presence of colloids in water creates interferences with the nephelometric response. Thus there is a need for a more relevant, simple and fast indicator for microbial contamination detection in water, especially in the perspective of climate change with the increase of heavy rainfall events. This review focuses on the one hand on sources, fate and behavior of microorganisms in water and factors influencing pathogens’ presence, transportation and mobilization, and on the second hand, on the existing optical methods used for monitoring microbiological risks. Finally, this paper proposes new ways of research.

  5. Evaluation of a performance assessment methodology for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities: Validation needs. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozak, M.W.; Olague, N.E.

    1995-02-01

    In this report, concepts on how validation fits into the scheme of developing confidence in performance assessments are introduced. A general framework for validation and confidence building in regulatory decision making is provided. It is found that traditional validation studies have a very limited role in developing site-specific confidence in performance assessments. Indeed, validation studies are shown to have a role only in the context that their results can narrow the scope of initial investigations that should be considered in a performance assessment. In addition, validation needs for performance assessment of low-level waste disposal facilities are discussed, and potential approaches to address those needs are suggested. These areas of topical research are ranked in order of importance based on relevance to a performance assessment and likelihood of success

  6. Evaluation of a performance assessment methodology for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities: Validation needs. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozak, M.W.; Olague, N.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-02-01

    In this report, concepts on how validation fits into the scheme of developing confidence in performance assessments are introduced. A general framework for validation and confidence building in regulatory decision making is provided. It is found that traditional validation studies have a very limited role in developing site-specific confidence in performance assessments. Indeed, validation studies are shown to have a role only in the context that their results can narrow the scope of initial investigations that should be considered in a performance assessment. In addition, validation needs for performance assessment of low-level waste disposal facilities are discussed, and potential approaches to address those needs are suggested. These areas of topical research are ranked in order of importance based on relevance to a performance assessment and likelihood of success.

  7. Impact of water-level changes to aquatic vegetation in small oligotrophic lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egert VANDEL

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study demonstrates the effect of drastic water-level changes to the aquatic vegetation in three small oligotrophic lakes situated in Kurtna Kame Field in north-eastern Estonia. The area holds around 40 lakes in 30 km2 of which 18 lakes are under protection as Natura Habitat lakes (Natura 2000 network. The area is under a strong human impact as it is surrounded by oil shale mines, sand quarry, peat harvesting field etc. The most severe impact comes from the groundwater intake established in 1972 in the vicinity of three studied lakes. The exploitation of groundwater led to drastic water-level drops. In 1980s the water-level drops were measured to be up to 3 to 4 meters compared to the levels of 1946. Lake Martiska and Lake Kuradijärv were severely affected and only 29% and 45% of lake area respectively and 21% of initial volume remained. Both lakes were described as oligotrophic lakes before severe human impact and held characteristic macrophytes such as Isoëtes lacustris L., Sparganium angustifolium Michx and Lobelia dortmanna L. As the water level declined the lakes lost their rare characteristic species and can now be described more as a meso- or even eutrophic lakes. When the volume of groundwater abstraction decreased in the 1990s the water levels started to recover but did not reach the natural levels of pre-industrialized era. Also the vegetation did not show any signs of recovery. In 2012 the pumping rates increased again causing a new rapid decline in water levels which almost exceed the previous minimum levels. The water-level monitoring alongside with the macrophyte monitoring data gives us a good case study on how the long term abrupt water-level changes can affect the aquatic vegetation

  8. The UK water crisis: What actions the government and private sector need to take.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelton, Emmeline

    2015-01-01

    The paper discusses why resilience is increasingly important for companies to measure and address, thinking about relevant issues such as climate change and extreme weather. It gives insight on how companies measure their resilience and that it is more than a business continuity issue; indeed, it is a board issue. The paper looks at the role of regulation for companies with national critical infrastructure in putting in resilience guidelines and discusses the benefits of regulation in resilience, presenting a case study of the UK Water Services Regulation Authority resilience guidelines.

  9. Virtual Crop Water Export Analysis: The Case of Greece at River Basin District Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Mellios

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of virtual crop water export through international trade is conducted for Greece, downscaled to the River Basin District (RBD level, in order to identify critical “hotspots” of localized water shortage in the country. A computable general equilibrium model (MAGNET was used to obtain the export shares of crops and associated irrigation water was calculated for all major crops in Greece. A distinction between virtual crop water locally consumed and traded internationally was made for all Greek RBDs. Cotton was identified as a large water consumer and virtual water exporter, while GR08 and GR10 were identified as the RBDs mostly impacted. The value of virtual water exported was calculated for all crop types and fruits and vegetables were identified as the crop most beneficial, since they consume the least water for the obtained value.

  10. Paradigm Shift in Transboundary Water Management Policy: Linking Water Environment Energy and Food (weef) to Catchment Hydropolitics - Needs, Scope and Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    RAI, S.; Wolf, A.; Sharma, N.; Tiwari, H.

    2015-12-01

    The incessant use of water due to rapid growth of population, enhanced agricultural and industrial activities, degraded environment and ecology will in the coming decades constrain the socioeconomic development of humans. To add on to the precarious situation, political boundaries rarely embrace hydrological boundaries of lakes, rivers, aquifers etc. Hydropolitics relate to the ability of geopolitical institutions to manage shared water resources in a politically sustainable manner, i.e., without tensions or conflict between political entities. Riparian hydropolitics caters to differing objectives, needs and requirements of states making it difficult to administer the catchment. The diverse riparian objectives can be merged to form a holistic catchment objective of sustainable water resources development and management. It can be proposed to make a paradigm shift in the present-day transboundary water policy from riparian hydropolitics (in which the focal point of water resources use is hinged on state's need) to catchment hydropolitics (in which the interest of the basin inhabitants are accorded primacy holistically over state interests) and specifically wherein the water, environment, energy and food (WEEF) demands of the catchment are a priority and not of the states in particular. The demands of the basin pertaining to water, food and energy have to be fulfilled, keeping the environment and ecology healthy in a cooperative political framework; the need for which is overwhelming. In the present scenario, the policy for water resources development of a basin is segmented into independent uncoordinated parts controlled by various riparians; whereas in catchment hydropolitics the whole basin should be considered as a unit. The riparians should compromise a part of national interest and work in collaboration on a joint objective which works on the principle of the whole as against the part. Catchment hydropolitics may find greater interest in the more than 250

  11. DATA QUALIFICATION REPORT: WATER-LEVEL DATA FROM THE NYE COUNTY EARLY WARNING DRILLING PROGRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F. H. Dove, P. Sanchez, and L. Saraka

    2000-04-21

    The objective of this work is to evaluate unqualified, water-level data gathered under the Nye County Early Warning Drilling Program (EWDP) and to determine whether the status of the data should be changed to ''qualified'' data in accordance with AP-SIII.2Q (Qualification of Unqualified Data and the Documentation of Rationale for Accepted Data). The corroboration method (as defined in Attachment 2 of AP-SIII.2Q) was implemented to qualify water-level data from Nye County measurements obtained directly from the Nye County Nuclear Waste Repository Program Office (NWRPO). Comparison of United States Geological Survey (USGS) measurements contained in DTN GS990608312312.003 with the Nye County water-level data has shown that the differences in water-level altitudes for the same wells are significantly less than 1 meter. This is an acceptable finding. Evaluation and recommendation criteria have been strictly applied to qualify Nye County measurements of water levels in selected wells measured by the USGS. However, the process of qualifying measured results by corroboration also builds confidence that the Nye County method for measurement of water levels is adequate for the intended use of the data (which is regional modeling). Therefore, it is reasonable to extend the term of ''qualified'' to water-level measurements in the remaining Nye County Phase I wells on the basis that the method has been shown to produce adequate results for the intended purpose of supporting large-scale modeling activities for the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP). The Data Qualification Team recommends the Nye County, water-level data contained in Appendix D of this report be designated as ''qualified''. These data document manual measurements of water-levels in eight (8) EWDP Phase I drillholes that were obtained prior to the field installation of continuous monitoring equipment.

  12. DATA QUALIFICATION REPORT: WATER-LEVEL DATA FROM THE NYE COUNTY EARLY WARNING DRILLING PROGRAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    F. H. Dove, P. Sanchez, and L. Saraka

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this work is to evaluate unqualified, water-level data gathered under the Nye County Early Warning Drilling Program (EWDP) and to determine whether the status of the data should be changed to ''qualified'' data in accordance with AP-SIII.2Q (Qualification of Unqualified Data and the Documentation of Rationale for Accepted Data). The corroboration method (as defined in Attachment 2 of AP-SIII.2Q) was implemented to qualify water-level data from Nye County measurements obtained directly from the Nye County Nuclear Waste Repository Program Office (NWRPO). Comparison of United States Geological Survey (USGS) measurements contained in DTN GS990608312312.003 with the Nye County water-level data has shown that the differences in water-level altitudes for the same wells are significantly less than 1 meter. This is an acceptable finding. Evaluation and recommendation criteria have been strictly applied to qualify Nye County measurements of water levels in selected wells measured by the USGS. However, the process of qualifying measured results by corroboration also builds confidence that the Nye County method for measurement of water levels is adequate for the intended use of the data (which is regional modeling). Therefore, it is reasonable to extend the term of ''qualified'' to water-level measurements in the remaining Nye County Phase I wells on the basis that the method has been shown to produce adequate results for the intended purpose of supporting large-scale modeling activities for the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP). The Data Qualification Team recommends the Nye County, water-level data contained in Appendix D of this report be designated as ''qualified''. These data document manual measurements of water-levels in eight (8) EWDP Phase I drillholes that were obtained prior to the field installation of continuous monitoring equipment

  13. Challenging empowerment: AIDS-affected South African children and the need for a multi-level relational approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansell, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Critics of empowerment have highlighted the concept's mutability, focus on individual transformation, one-dimensionality and challenges of operationalisation. Relating these critiques to children's empowerment raises new challenges. Drawing on scholarship on children's subjecthood and exercise of power, alongside empirical research with children affected by AIDS, I argue that empowerment envisaged as individual self-transformation and increased capacity to act independently offers little basis for progressive change. Rather it is essential to adopt a relational approach that recognises the need to transform power relationships at multiple levels. This analysis has implications for our wider understanding of empowerment in the 21st century.

  14. Gauging leaf-level contributions to landscape-level water loss within a Western US dryland fores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, P.; Potts, D. L.; Minor, R. L.; Hamerlynck, E. P.; Sutter, L., Jr.; Barron-Gafford, G.

    2017-12-01

    Western US forests represent a large constituent of the North American water and carbon cycles, yet the primary controls on water loss from these ecosystems remains unknown. In dryland forests, such as those found in the Southwestern US, water availability is key to ecosystem function, and the timing and magnitude of water loss can have lasting effects on the health of these communities. One poorly defined part of the water balance in these forests is the partitioning of evapotranspiration (ET) into evaporation (E; blue flow) to transpiration (T; green flow). A study of water fluxes at multiple scales in a semiarid montane forest in Southern Arizona speaks to the partitioning of these two water flows. Within the footprint of an eddy covariance system, which estimates ecosystem ET, we have examined the impacts of variation in climate, species makeup, and topographic position on E and T. This was done using leaf-level measures of T, pedon-scale measures of E, and whole-tree water loss by way of sap flux sensors. Where available, we have examined E, T, and ET fluxes across multiple seasons and years of highly variable precipitation records. Understanding the partitioning of ET is crucial, considering that projected changes to dryland ecosystems include longer periods of drought separated by heavier precipitation events. At a moment when potential impacts of changing climate on dryland structure and function are poorly understood, a stronger comprehension of these blue and green water flows is necessary to forecast the productivity of Western US forests into the future.

  15. Interannual water-level fluctuations and the vegetation of prairie potholes: Potential impacts of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Valk, Arnold; Mushet, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Mean water depth and range of interannual water-level fluctuations over wet-dry cycles in precipitation are major drivers of vegetation zone formation in North American prairie potholes. We used harmonic hydrological models, which require only mean interannual water depth and amplitude of water-level fluctuations over a wet–dry cycle, to examine how the vegetation zones in a pothole would respond to small changes in water depth and/or amplitude of water-level fluctuations. Field data from wetlands in Saskatchewan, North Dakota, and South Dakota were used to parameterize harmonic models for four pothole classes. Six scenarios in which small negative or positive changes in either mean water depth, amplitude of interannual fluctuations, or both, were modeled to predict if they would affect the number of zones in each wetland class. The results indicated that, in some cases, even small changes in mean water depth when coupled with a small change in amplitude of water-level fluctuations can shift a prairie pothole wetland from one class to another. Our results suggest that climate change could alter the relative proportion of different wetland classes in the prairie pothole region.

  16. Subseasonal to Seasonal Predictions of U.S. West Coast High Water Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khouakhi, A.; Villarini, G.; Zhang, W.; Slater, L. J.

    2017-12-01

    Extreme sea levels pose a significant threat to coastal communities, ecosystems, and assets, as they are conducive to coastal flooding, coastal erosion and inland salt-water intrusion. As sea levels continue to rise, these sea level extremes - including occasional minor coastal flooding experienced during high tide (nuisance floods) - are of concern. Extreme sea levels are increasing at many locations around the globe and have been attributed largely to rising mean sea levels associated with intra-seasonal to interannual climate processes such as the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Here, intra-seasonal to seasonal probabilistic forecasts of high water levels are computed at the Toke Point tide gage station on the US west coast. We first identify the main climate drivers that are responsible for high water levels and examine their predictability using General Circulation Models (GCMs) from the North American Multi-Model Ensemble (NMME). These drivers are then used to develop a probabilistic framework for the seasonal forecasting of high water levels. We focus on the climate controls on the frequency of high water levels using the number of exceedances above the 99.5th percentile and above the nuisance flood level established by the National Weather Service. Our findings indicate good forecast skill at the shortest lead time, with the skill that decreases as we increase the lead time. In general, these models aptly capture the year-to-year variability in the observational records.

  17. Participative approach to elicit water quality monitoring needs from stakeholder groups - An application of integrated watershed management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behmel, S; Damour, M; Ludwig, R; Rodriguez, M J

    2018-07-15

    Water quality monitoring programs (WQMPs) must be based on monitoring objectives originating from the real knowledge needs of all stakeholders in a watershed and users of the resource. This paper proposes a participative approach to elicit knowledge needs and preferred modes of communication from citizens and representatives of organized stakeholders (ROS) on water quality and quantity issues. The participative approach includes six steps and is adaptable and transferable to different types of watersheds. These steps are: (1) perform a stakeholder analysis; (2) conduct an adaptable survey accompanied by a user-friendly public participation geographical information system (PPGIS); (3) hold workshops to meet with ROS to inform them of the results of the survey and PPGIS; discuss attainment of past monitoring objectives; exchange views on new knowledge needs and concerns on water quality and quantity; (4) meet with citizens to obtain the same type of input (as from ROS); (5) analyze the data and information collected to identify new knowledge needs and modes of communication and (6) identify, in collaboration with the individuals in charge of the WQMPs, the short-, medium- and long-term monitoring objectives and communication strategies to be pursued. The participative approach was tested on two distinct watersheds in the province of Quebec, Canada. It resulted in a series of optimization objectives of the existing WQMPs, new monitoring objectives and recommendations regarding communication strategies of the WQMPs' results. The results of this study show that the proposed methodology is appreciated by all parties and that the outcomes and monitoring objectives are acceptable. We also conclude that successful integrated watershed management is a question of scale, and that every aspect of integrated watershed management needs to be adapted to the surface watershed, the groundwater watershed (aquifers) and the human catchment area. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All

  18. The effect of water level in a prey-predator interactions: A nonlinear analysis study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiboub Fellah, N.; Bouguima, S.M.; Moussaoui, A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A new model describing the interaction between predator and prey in Parloup Lake. ► Existence of periodic solution is proved. ► Seasonal variation in water level is an important factor for persitence. - Abstract: Water level may influence local community dynamics. We examine how seasonal variations in water level affect the outcome of prey-predator interactions in Parloup Lake in the south of France. We propose a new model to describe the annual cycle of persistence by using continuation theorem of coincidence degree.

  19. Use of inexpensive pressure transducers for measuring water levels in wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeland, B.D.; Dowd, J.F.; Hardegree, W.S.

    1997-01-01

    Frequent measurement of below ground water levels at multiple locations is an important component of many wetland ecosystem studies. These measurements, however, are usually time consuming, labor intensive, and expensive. This paper describes a water-level sensor that is inexpensive and easy to construct. The sensor is placed below the expected low water level in a shallow well and, when connected to a datalogger, uses a pressure transducer to detect groundwater or surface water elevations. Details of pressure transducer theory, sensor construction, calibration, and examples of field installations are presented. Although the transducers must be individually calibrated, the sensors have a linear response to changing water levels (r2 ??? .999). Measurement errors resulting from temperature fluctuations are shown to be about 4 cm over a 35??C temperature range, but are minimal when the sensors are installed in groundwater wells where temperatures are less variable. Greater accuracy may be obtained by incorporating water temperature data into the initial calibration (0.14 cm error over a 35??C temperature range). Examples of the utility of these sensors in studies of groundwater/surface water interactions and the effects of water level fluctuations on tree growth are provided. ?? 1997 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

  20. Miniaturized Water Flow and Level Monitoring System for Flood Disaster Early Warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ifedapo Abdullahi, Salami; Hadi Habaebi, Mohamed; Surya Gunawan, Teddy; Rafiqul Islam, MD

    2017-11-01

    This study presents the performance of a prototype miniaturised water flow and water level monitoring sensor designed towards supporting flood disaster early warning systems. The design involved selection of sensors, coding to control the system mechanism, and automatic data logging and storage. During the design phase, the apparatus was constructed where all the components were assembled using locally sourced items. Subsequently, under controlled laboratory environment, the system was tested by running water through the inlet during which the flow rate and rising water levels are automatically recorded and stored in a database via Microsoft Excel using Coolterm software. The system is simulated such that the water level readings measured in centimeters is output in meters using a multiplicative of 10. A total number of 80 readings were analyzed to evaluate the performance of the system. The result shows that the system is sensitive to water level rise and yielded accurate measurement of water level. But, the flow rate fluctuates due to the manual water supply that produced inconsistent flow. It was also observed that the flow sensor has a duty cycle of 50% of operating time under normal condition which implies that the performance of the flow sensor is optimal.

  1. Steam drum level dynamics in a multiple loop natural circulation system of a pressure-tube type boiling water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Vikas; Kulkarni, P.P.; Nayak, A.K.; Vijayan, P.K.; Saha, D.; Sinha, R.K.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We have highlighted the problem of drum level dynamics in a multiple loop type NC system using RELAP5 code. → The need of interconnections in steam and liquid spaces close to drum is established. → The steam space interconnections equalize pressure and liquid space interconnections equalize level. → With this scheme, the system can withstand anomalous conditions. → However, the controller is found to be inevitable for inventory balance. - Abstract: Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR) is a pressure tube type boiling water reactor employing natural circulation as the mode of heat removal under all the operating conditions. Main heat transport system (MHTS) of AHWR is essentially a multi-loop natural circulation system with all the loops connected to each other. Each loop of MHTS has a steam drum that provides for gravity based steam-water separation. Steam drum level is a very critical parameter especially in multi-loop natural circulation systems as large departures from the set point may lead to ineffective separation of steam-water or may affect the driving head. However, such a system is susceptible to steam drum level anomalies under postulated asymmetrical operating conditions among the different quadrants of the core like feedwater flow distribution anomaly among the steam drums or power anomaly among the core quadrants. Analyses were carried out to probe such scenarios and unravel the underlying dynamics of steam drum level using system code RELAP5/Mod3.2. In addition, a scheme to obviate such problem in a passive manner without dependence on level controller was examined. It was concluded that steam drums need to be connected in the liquid as well as steam space to make the system tolerant to asymmetrical operating conditions.

  2. Preliminary assessment of the impact of fluctuating water levels on northern pike in Reindeer Lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, M.

    1993-03-01

    Reindeer Lake in north eastern Saskatchewan regulates water levels for the Island Falls hydroelectric power plant. Since inception of the Whitesand Dam on the lake, there have been concerns that fluctuating water levels could be adversely impacting the habitat and population of northern pike in the lake. The extent of water level fluctuations during the pike spawning period of Reindeer Lake and its effect on spawning success was investigated. Since construction of the Whitesand Dam in 1942 Reindeer Lake water levels have averaged ca 1.71 m higher than had the dam not existed, creating ca 430 km 2 of new surface area. Much of this area is shallow water and prone to growth of aquatic vegetation, which is suitable spawning and nursery habitat for northern pike. Annual and periodic water level fluctuations of Reindeer Lake have been higher than under natural conditions. During northern pike spawning and nursing periods, water levels in the lake have generally increased, in 60 out of 64 y. It is concluded that operation of the dam has not caused any direct negative impacts on the northern pike habitat in the lake. 2 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs

  3. Pulsating potentiometric titration technique for assay of dissolved oxygen in water at trace level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, P; Ananthanarayanan, R; Malathi, N; Rajiniganth, M P; Murali, N; Swaminathan, P

    2010-06-11

    A simple but high performance potentiometric titration technique using pulsating sensors has been developed for assay of dissolved oxygen (DO) in water samples down to 10.0 microg L(-1) levels. The technique involves Winkler titration chemistry, commonly used for determination of dissolved oxygen in water at mg L(-1) levels, with modification in methodology for accurate detection of end point even at 10.0 microg L(-1) levels DO present in the sample. An indigenously built sampling cum pretreatment vessel has been deployed for collection and chemical fixing of dissolved oxygen in water samples from flowing water line without exposure to air. A potentiometric titration facility using pulsating sensors developed in-house is used to carry out titration. The power of the titration technique has been realised in estimation of very dilute solution of iodine equivalent to 10 microg L(-1) O(2). Finally, several water samples containing dissolved oxygen from mg L(-1) to microg L(-1) levels were successfully analysed with excellent reproducibility using this new technique. The precision in measurement of DO in water at 10 microg L(-1) O(2) level is 0.14 (n=5), RSD: 1.4%. Probably for the first time a potentiometric titration technique has been successfully deployed for assay of dissolved oxygen in water samples at 10 microg L(-1) levels. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Pulsating potentiometric titration technique for assay of dissolved oxygen in water at trace level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, P.; Ananthanarayanan, R.; Malathi, N.; Rajiniganth, M.P.; Murali, N.; Swaminathan, P.

    2010-01-01

    A simple but high performance potentiometric titration technique using pulsating sensors has been developed for assay of dissolved oxygen (DO) in water samples down to 10.0 μg L -1 levels. The technique involves Winkler titration chemistry, commonly used for determination of dissolved oxygen in water at mg L -1 levels, with modification in methodology for accurate detection of end point even at 10.0 μg L -1 levels DO present in the sample. An indigenously built sampling cum pretreatment vessel has been deployed for collection and chemical fixing of dissolved oxygen in water samples from flowing water line without exposure to air. A potentiometric titration facility using pulsating sensors developed in-house is used to carry out titration. The power of the titration technique has been realised in estimation of very dilute solution of iodine equivalent to 10 μg L -1 O 2 . Finally, several water samples containing dissolved oxygen from mg L -1 to μg L -1 levels were successfully analysed with excellent reproducibility using this new technique. The precision in measurement of DO in water at 10 μg L -1 O 2 level is 0.14 (n = 5), RSD: 1.4%. Probably for the first time a potentiometric titration technique has been successfully deployed for assay of dissolved oxygen in water samples at 10 μg L -1 levels.

  5. Development of capacitive sensor for automatically measuring tumbler water level with FEA simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qun; Kim, Mi-Jung; Lee, Jong-Ha

    2018-01-01

    Drinking water has several advantages that have already been established, such as improving blood circulation, reducing acid in the stomach, etc. However, due to people not noticing the amount of water they consume every time they drink, most people drink less water than the recommended daily allowance. In this paper, a capacitive sensor for developing an automatic tumbler to measure water level is proposed. Different than in previous studies, the proposed capacitive sensor was separated into two sets: the main sensor for measuring the water level in the tumbler, and the reference sensor for measuring the incremental level unit. In order to confirm the feasibility of the proposed idea, and to optimize the shape of the sensor, a 3D model of the capacitive sensor with the tumbler was designed and subjected to Finite Element Analysis (FEA) simulation. According to the simulation results, the electrodes were made of copper and assembled in a tumbler manufactured by a 3D printer. The tumbler was filled with water and was subjected to experiments in order to assess the sensor's performance. The comparison of experimental results to the simulation results shows that the measured capacitance value of the capacitive sensor changed linearly as the water level varied. This proves that the proposed sensor can accurately measure the water level in the tumbler. Additionally, by use of the curve fitting method, a compensation algorithm was found to match the actual level with the measured level. The experimental results proved that the proposed capacitive sensor is able to measure the actual water level in the tumbler accurately. A digital control part with micro-processor will be designed and fixed on the bottom of the tumbler for developing a smart tumbler.

  6. Monitoring Vertical Crustal Deformation and Gravity Variations during Water Level Changes at the Three Gorges Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Wei

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring vertical crustal deformation and gravity changes during water level changes at the Three Gorges reservoir is important for the safe operation of the Three Gorges Dam and for the monitoring and prevention of a regional geological disaster. In this study, we determined vertical crustal deformation and gravity changes during water level variations of the Three Gorges reservoir from direct calculations and actual measurements and a comprehensive solution. We used water areas extracted image data from the ZY-3 satellite and water level data to calculate gravity changes and vertical crustal deformation caused by every 5 m change in the water level due to storage and drainage of the Three Gorges reservoir from 145 m to 175 m. The vertical crustal deformation was up to 30 mm. The location of gravity change above 20 μ Gal(1 Gal=10-2 m/s2 was less than 2 km from the centerline of the Yangtze River. The CORS ES13 in Badong, near the reservoir, measured the vertical crustal deformation during water level changes. Because of the small number of CORS and gravity stations in the Three Gorges reservoir area, monitoring deformation and gravity related to changes in the Three Gorges reservoir water level cannot be closely followed. Using 26 CORS and some of the gravity stations in the Three Gorges area and based on loading deformation and the spherical harmonic analysis method, an integrated solution of vertical deformation and gravity variations during water level changes of the reservoir was determined, which is consistent with the actual CORS monitoring results. By comparison, we found that an integrated solution based on a CORS network can effectively enhance the capability of monitoring vertical crustal deformation and gravity changes during water level variations of the reservoir.

  7. OPTIMIZATION OF TRANSIEN PROCESSES OF WATER LEVEL VARIATION IN DRUM OF STEAM BOILERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. T. Kulakov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The work of regulator in general three-impulse automatic control system of water level in drum of boiler doesn’t supply quality of internal and external disturbance attack (presentation of regulation mistakes. That is why it is needed to improve. Different methods of proportional plus reset controller regulation of three-phase automatic feed control system are considered. There were suggested new methods to improve the quality of regulation of water level in boilers. Here the step system of automatic regulation was determined, on the base of transfer function.It is noticed that optimal transient processes supply calculation of numerical value of transmission factor of regulator at g =2,618, it is more then was recommended, but statistic mistakes remain. The transient simulation method in fast-time scale is recommended, this allow to determine early the value of statistic mistake of regulation by disturbances of reheated steam consumption and properly change the task to compensating device of step automatic control system. And numerical value of time constant criteria  should be calculated on the base of numbers of golden section(Phi, taking into account the definite time constant of lead section and time-lag, time-lag on controlled influence channel, and also taking into account maximum value of controlled influence. This method allow to reduce in two times the total time of regulation, to decrease absolute mistake of regulation in three times, and maximum value of regulation influence by feedwater in 1,7 times.

  8. Stand-level variation in evapotranspiration in non-water-limited eucalypt forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benyon, Richard G.; Nolan, Rachael H.; Hawthorn, Sandra N. D.; Lane, Patrick N. J.

    2017-08-01

    To better understand water and energy cycles in forests over years to decades, measurements of spatial and long-term temporal variability in evapotranspiration (Ea) are needed. In mountainous terrain, plot-level measurements are important to achieving this. Forest inventory data including tree density and size measurements, often collected repeatedly over decades, sample the variability occurring within the geographic and topographic range of specific forest types. Using simple allometric relationships, tree stocking and size data can be used to estimate variables including sapwood area index (SAI), which may be strongly correlated with annual Ea. This study analysed plot-level variability in SAI and its relationship with overstorey and understorey transpiration, interception and evaporation over a 670 m elevation gradient, in non-water-limited, even-aged stands of Eucalyptus regnans F. Muell. to determine how well spatial variation in annual Ea from forests can be mapped using SAI. Over the 3 year study, mean sap velocity in five E. regnans stands was uncorrelated with overstorey sapwood area index (SAI) or elevation: annual transpiration was predicted well by SAI (R2 0.98). Overstorey and total annual interception were positively correlated with SAI (R2 0.90 and 0.75). Ea from the understorey was strongly correlated with vapour pressure deficit (VPD) and net radiation (Rn) measured just above the understorey, but relationships between understorey Ea and VPD and Rn differed between understorey types and understorey annual Ea was not correlated with SAI. Annual total Ea was also strongly correlated with SAI: the relationship being similar to two previous studies in the same region, despite differences in stand age and species. Thus, spatial variation in annual Ea can be reliably mapped using measurements of SAI.

  9. The rain water management model on an appropriate hilly area to fulfil the needs of cocoa farm during dry season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasbi, M.; Darma, R.; Yamin, M.; Nurdin, M.; Rizal, M.

    2018-05-01

    Cocoa is an important commodity because 90% farmers involved, easily marketed, and potentially harvested along the year. However, cocoa productivity tended to decrease by an average of only 300 kg hectare-1 year-1 or away from the potential productivity of two tons. Water management was an alternative method to increase its productivity by harvesting rainwater on the hilly cocoa farm area and distributing the water based on the gravity law. The research objective was to describes how to manage rainwater at the hilly cocoa farm area, so that the water needs of cocoa farm were met during the dry season. The important implication of the management was the water availability that supports the cocoa cultivation during the year. This research used qualitative method with descriptive approach to explain the appropriate technical specification of infrastructure to support the rainwater management. This research generated several mathematical formulas to support rainwater management infrastructure. The implementation of an appropriate rainwater utilization management for cocoa farm will ensuring the availability of water during dry season, so the cocoa farm allowed to produce cacao fruit during the year.

  10. Opportunistic pathogens and elements of the resistome that are common in bottled mineral water support the need for continuous surveillance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Falcone-Dias

    Full Text Available Several differences concerning bacterial species, opportunistic pathogens, elements of the resistome as well as variations concerning the CFU/mL counts were identified in some of the five most marketed bottled mineral water from Araraquara city, São Paulo, Brazil. Two out of five brands tested were confirmed as potential source of opportunistic pathogens, including Mycobacterium gordonae, Ralstonia picketti and Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc. A total of one hundred and six isolates were recovered from four of these bottled mineral water brands. Betaproteobacteria was predominant followed by Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and Firmicutes. Ninety percent of the bacteria isolated demonstrated resistance to seventeen of the nineteen antimicrobials tested. These antimicrobials included eight different classes, including 3rd and 4th generation cephalosporins, carbapenems and fluoroquinolones. Multidrug resistant bacteria were detected for fifty-nine percent of isolates in three water brands at counts up to 103 CFU/ml. Of major concern, the two bottled mineral water harboring opportunistic pathogens were also source of elements of the resistome that could be directly transferred to humans. All these differences found among brands highlight the need for continuous bacteriological surveillance of bottled mineral water.

  11. Opportunistic pathogens and elements of the resistome that are common in bottled mineral water support the need for continuous surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcone-Dias, Maria Fernanda; Centrón, Daniela; Pavan, Fernando; Moura, Adriana Candido da Silva; Naveca, Felipe Gomes; de Souza, Victor Costa; Farache Filho, Adalberto; Leite, Clarice Queico Fujimura

    2015-01-01

    Several differences concerning bacterial species, opportunistic pathogens, elements of the resistome as well as variations concerning the CFU/mL counts were identified in some of the five most marketed bottled mineral water from Araraquara city, São Paulo, Brazil. Two out of five brands tested were confirmed as potential source of opportunistic pathogens, including Mycobacterium gordonae, Ralstonia picketti and Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc). A total of one hundred and six isolates were recovered from four of these bottled mineral water brands. Betaproteobacteria was predominant followed by Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and Firmicutes. Ninety percent of the bacteria isolated demonstrated resistance to seventeen of the nineteen antimicrobials tested. These antimicrobials included eight different classes, including 3rd and 4th generation cephalosporins, carbapenems and fluoroquinolones. Multidrug resistant bacteria were detected for fifty-nine percent of isolates in three water brands at counts up to 103 CFU/ml. Of major concern, the two bottled mineral water harboring opportunistic pathogens were also source of elements of the resistome that could be directly transferred to humans. All these differences found among brands highlight the need for continuous bacteriological surveillance of bottled mineral water.

  12. [Arsenic levels in drinking water supplies from underground sources in the community of Madrid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragonés Sanz, N; Palacios Diez, M; Avello de Miguel, A; Gómez Rodríguez, P; Martínez Cortés, M; Rodríguez Bernabeu, M J

    2001-01-01

    In 1998, arsenic concentrations of more than 50 micrograms/l were detected in some drinking water supplies from underground sources in the Autonomous Community of Madrid, which is the maximum permissible concentration for drinking water in Spain. These two facts have meant the getting under way of a specific plan for monitoring arsenic in the drinking water in the Autonomous Community of Madrid. The results of the first two sampling processes conducted in the arsenic level monitoring plan set out are presented. In the initial phase, water samples from 353 water supplies comprised within the census of the Public Health Administration of the Autonomous Community of Madrid were analyzed. A water supply risk classification was made based on these initial results. In a second phase, six months later, the analyses were repeated on those 35 water supplies which were considered to possibly pose a risk to public health. Seventy-four percent (74%) of the water supplies studied in the initial phase were revealed to have an arsenic concentration of less than 10 micrograms/l, 22.6% containing levels of 10 micrograms/l-50 micrograms/l, and 3.7% over 50 micrograms/l. Most of the water supplies showing arsenic levels of more than 10 micrograms/l are located in the same geographical area. In the second sampling process (six months later), the 35 water supplies classified as posing a risk were included. Twenty-six (26) of these supplies were revealed to have the same arsenic level ((10-50 micrograms/l), and nine changed category, six of which had less than 10 micrograms/l and three more than 50 micrograms/l. In the Autonomous Community of Madrid, less than 2% of the population drinks water coming from supplies which are from underground sources. The regular water quality monitoring conducted by the Public Health Administration has led to detecting the presence of more than 50 micrograms/l of arsenic in sixteen drinking water supplies from underground sources, which is the maximum

  13. Levels of trace metals in water and sediment from Tyume River and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Higher levels of Cd (0.038 ± 0.004 to 0.044 ± 0.003 mg/l) and Pb (0.021 ± 0.004 to 0.035 ± 0.001 mg/l) were found in the river water, which may be detrimental to the “health” of the aquatic ecosystem and the rural communities that utilise the river water for ... Key words: trace metals, water, sediment, farmland, Tyume River

  14. Development and application of YSJ-1 type oil-water interface level gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Punan

    2003-01-01

    A new type nuclear device for measuring the oil-water interface level as well as the total liquid level was presented. A series of new methods, such as non-linear fitting of the level, automatic compensations for the deviation caused by the decay of radioactive source, the medium's temperature, etc., were employed. Comparing with other non-nuclear techniques, this device has the following advantages: non-contact surveying, anti-interference of paraffin wax coagulating and a little of repairing. The measuring range is 0-200cm for total liquid level and 0-100cm for oil-water interface level respectively. The measurement precision is 1% for total liquid level and 2% for the interface level respectively. The respond time is ≤10s, the long time stability ≤0.5% FS/48h and the temperature influence ≤0.01% FS /degree C. The gauge can be used in surveying oil-water interface level and total liquid level in oil-water separation tanks on oil fields. It is also suitable to measure the interface level of two kinds of liquids as well as the total liquid level in various storage tanks

  15. Ground-water quality, levels, and flow direction near Fort Cobb Reservoir, Caddo County, Oklahoma, 1998-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Carol J.

    2001-01-01

    Fort Cobb Reservoir in northwest Caddo County Oklahoma is managed by the Bureau of Reclamation for water supply, recreation, flood control, and wildlife. Excessive amounts of nitrogen in the watershed have the potential to cause long-term eutrophication of the reservoir and increase already elevated concentrations of nitrogen in the Rush Springs aquifer. The U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation studied ground water in the area surrounding a swine feeding operation located less than 2 miles upgradient from Fort Cobb Reservoir in Caddo County, Oklahoma. Objectives of the study were to (1) determine if the operation was contributing nitrogen to the ground water and (2) measure changes in ground-water levels and determine the local ground-water flow direction in the area surrounding the swine feeding operation. Nitrate concentrations (28.1 and 31.5 milligrams per liter) were largest in two ground-water samples from a well upgradient of the wastewater lagoon. Nitrate concentrations ranged from 4.30 to 8.20 milligrams per liter in samples from downgradient wells. Traces of ammonia and nitrite were detected in a downgradient well, but not in upgradient wells. d15N values indicate atmospheric nitrogen, synthetic fertilizer, or plants were the predominate sources of nitrate in ground water from the downgradient wells. The d15N values in these samples are depleted in nitrogen-15, indicating that animal waste was not a significant contributor of nitrate. Manganese concentrations (1,150 and 965 micrograms per liter) in samples from a downgradient well were substantially larger than concentrations in samples from other wells, exceeding the secondary drinking-water standard of 50 micrograms per liter. Larger concentrations of bicarbonate, magnesium, fluoride, and iron and a higher pH were also measured in water from a downgradient well. Ground-water levels in an observation well were higher from April to mid-July and lower during the late summer

  16. Analysis of environmental issues related to small-scale hydroelectric development. III. Water level fluctuation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hildebrand, S.G. (ed.)

    1980-10-01

    Potential environmental impacts in reservoirs and downstream river reaches below dams that may be caused by the water level fluctuation resulting from development and operation of small scale (under 25MW) hydroelectric projects are identified. The impacts discussed will be of potential concern at only those small-scale hydroelectric projects that are operated in a store and release (peaking) mode. Potential impacts on physical and chemical characteristics in reservoirs resulting from water level fluctuation include resuspension and redistribution of bank and bed sediment; leaching of soluble organic matter from sediment in the littoral zone; and changes in water quality resulting from changes in sediment and nutrient trap efficiency. Potential impacts on reservoir biota as a result of water level fluctuation include habitat destruction and the resulting partial or total loss of aquatic species; changes in habitat quality, which result in reduced standing crop and production of aquatic biota; and possible shifts in species diversity. The potential physical effects of water level fluctuation on downstream systems below dams are streambed and bank erosion and water quality problems related to resuspension and redistribution of these materials. Potential biological impacts of water level fluctuation on downstream systems below dams result from changes in current velocity, habitat reduction, and alteration in food supply. These alterations, either singly or in combination, can adversely affect aquatic populations below dams. The nature and potential significance of adverse impacts resulting from water level fluctuation are discussed. Recommendations for site-specific evaluation of water level fluctuation at small-scale hydroelectric projects are presented.

  17. Effects of Barometric Fluctuations on Well Water-Level Measurements and Aquifer Test Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FA Spane, Jr.

    1999-12-16

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, as part of the Hanford Groundwater Monitoring Project, examines the potential for offsite migration of contamination within underlying aquifer systems. Well water-level elevation measurements from selected wells within these aquifer systems commonly form the basis for delineating groundwater-flow patterns (i.e., flow direction and hydraulic gradient). In addition, the analysis of water-level responses obtained in wells during hydrologic tests provides estimates of hydraulic properties that are important for evaluating groundwater-flow velocity and transport characteristics. Barometric pressure fluctuations, however, can have a discernible impact on well water-level measurements. These barometric effects may lead to erroneous indications of hydraulic head within the aquifer. Total hydraulic head (i.e., sum of the water-table elevation and the atmospheric pressure at the water-table surface) within the aquifer, not well water-level elevation, is the hydrologic parameter for determining groundwater-flow direction and hydraulic gradient conditions. Temporal variations in barometric pressure may also adversely affect well water-level responses obtained during hydrologic tests. If significant, adjustments or removal of these barometric effects from the test-response record may be required for quantitative hydraulic property determination. This report examines the effects of barometric fluctuations on well water-level measurements and evaluates adjustment and removal methods for determining areal aquifer head conditions and aquifer test analysis. Two examples of Hanford Site unconfined aquifer tests are examined that demonstrate barometric response analysis and illustrate the predictive/removal capabilities of various methods for well water-level and aquifer total head values. Good predictive/removal characteristics were demonstrated with best corrective results provided by multiple-regression deconvolution methods.

  18. A simple procedure to model water level fluctuations in partially inundated wetlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spieksma, JFM; Schouwenaars, JM

    When modelling groundwater behaviour in wetlands, there are specific problems related to the presence of open water in small-sized mosaic patterns. A simple quasi two-dimensional model to predict water level fluctuations in partially inundated wetlands is presented. In this model, the ratio between

  19. Data quality assurance in pressure transducer-based automatic water level monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Submersible pressure transducers integrated with data loggers have become relatively common water-level measuring devices used in flow or well water elevation measurements. However, drift, linearity, hysteresis and other problems can lead to erroneous data. Researchers at the USDA-ARS in Watkinsvill...

  20. Determination of Trace Level Triclosan in Water by Online Preconcentration and HPLC-UV Diode Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    An online high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the detection and quantification of trace levels of triclosan in water is discussed. Triclosan, an anti-bacterial agent, and related compounds have been shown to reach municipal waste waters through the disposal ...

  1. Accessibility levels to potable Water Supply in Rural Areas of Akwa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    `123456789jkl''''#

    1987-09-23

    Sep 23, 1987 ... number of water boreholes in the communities were collected and analyzed. The population of the communities provided a basis for evolving an index that measured the levels of access to potable water supply in the study area. The use of GIS was subsequently employed to map out the study area on the ...

  2. Development of a Regional Neural Network for Coastal Water Level Predictions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huang, Wenrui; Murray, Catherine; Kraus, Nicholas; Rosati, Julie

    2003-01-01

    .... Fortunately, the US National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has a national network of water level monitoring stations distributed in regional scale that has been operating for several decades...

  3. Relationships among gender, cognitive style, academic major, and performance on the Piaget water-level task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, R E; Hoffer, N; King, W L

    1995-06-01

    Many researchers have found that more college-age adults than would be expected fail Piaget's water-level task, with women failing more frequently than men. It has been hypothesized that differences in cognitive style may account for performance differences on the water-level task. In the present study, 27 male and 27 female architectural students and 27 male and 27 female liberal-arts students were assessed for their performance on both Piaget's Water-level Task and Witkin's Group Embedded Figures Test. No difference was found in performance of male and female architectural students on either task, but male liberal-arts students scored significantly higher than female liberal-arts students on both measures. A disembedding cognitive style predicted success on the water-level task for the architectural students but not for the liberal arts students.

  4. Great Lakes Daily Ice Observations at NOAA Water Level Gauge Sites, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains daily visual ice observations taken yearly from 1 November to 30 April at NOAA/National Ocean Service water level gauge sites in the Great...

  5. SHORT-TERM AND LONG-TERM WATER LEVEL PREDICTION AT ONE RIVER MEASUREMENT LOCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Scitovski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Global hydrological cycles mainly depend on climate changes whose occurrence is predominantly triggered by solar and terrestrial influence, and the knowledge of the high water regime is widely applied in hydrology. Regular monitoring and studying of river water level behavior is important from several perspectives. On the basis of the given data, by using modifications of general approaches known from literature, especially from investigation in hydrology, the problem of long- and short-term water level forecast at one river measurement location is considered in the paper. Long-term forecasting is considered as the problem of investigating the periodicity of water level behavior by using linear-trigonometric regression and short-term forecasting is based on the modification of the nearest neighbor method. The proposed methods are tested on data referring to the Drava River level by Donji Miholjac, Croatia, in the period between the beginning of 1900 and the end of 2012.

  6. Great Lakes Daily Ice Observations at NOAA Water Level Gauge Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains daily visual ice observations taken yearly from 1 November to 30 April at NOAA/National Ocean Service water level gauge sites in the Great...

  7. Back-Analyses of Landfill Instability Induced by High Water Level: Case Study of Shenzhen Landfill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren Peng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In June 2008, the Shenzhen landfill slope failed. This case is used as an example to study the deformation characteristics and failure mode of a slope induced by high water levels. An integrated monitoring system, including water level gauges, electronic total stations, and inclinometers, was used to monitor the slope failure process. The field measurements suggest that the landfill landslide was caused by a deep slip along the weak interface of the composite liner system at the base of the landfill. The high water level is considered to be the main factor that caused this failure. To calculate the relative interface shear displacements in the geosynthetic multilayer liner system, a series of numerical direct shear tests were carried out. Based on the numerical results, the composite lining system simplified and the centrifuge modeling technique was used to quantitatively evaluate the effect of water levels on landfill instability.

  8. Back-Analyses of Landfill Instability Induced by High Water Level: Case Study of Shenzhen Landfill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ren; Hou, Yujing; Zhan, Liangtong; Yao, Yangping

    2016-01-01

    In June 2008, the Shenzhen landfill slope failed. This case is used as an example to study the deformation characteristics and failure mode of a slope induced by high water levels. An integrated monitoring system, including water level gauges, electronic total stations, and inclinometers, was used to monitor the slope failure process. The field measurements suggest that the landfill landslide was caused by a deep slip along the weak interface of the composite liner system at the base of the landfill. The high water level is considered to be the main factor that caused this failure. To calculate the relative interface shear displacements in the geosynthetic multilayer liner system, a series of numerical direct shear tests were carried out. Based on the numerical results, the composite lining system simplified and the centrifuge modeling technique was used to quantitatively evaluate the effect of water levels on landfill instability. PMID:26771627

  9. Changes in blood lead levels associated with use of chloramines in water treatment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Marie Lynn; Kim, Dohyeong; Hull, Andrew P; Paul, Christopher J; Galeano, M Alicia Overstreet

    2007-02-01

    More municipal water treatment plants are using chloramines as a disinfectant in order to reduce carcinogenic by-products. In some instances, this has coincided with an increase in lead levels in drinking water in those systems. Lead in drinking water can be a significant health risk. We sought to test the potential effect of switching to chloramines for disinfection in water treatment systems on childhood blood lead levels using data from Wayne County, located in the central Coastal Plain of North Carolina. We constructed a unified geographic information system (GIS) that links blood lead screening data with age of housing, drinking water source, and census data for 7,270 records. The data were analyzed using both exploratory methods and more formal multivariate techniques. The analysis indicates that the change to chloramine disinfection may lead to an increase in blood lead levels, the impact of which is progressively mitigated in newer housing. Introducing chloramines to reduce carcinogenic by-products may increase exposure to lead in drinking water. Our research provides guidance on adjustments in the local childhood lead poisoning prevention program that should accompany changes in water treatment. As similar research is conducted in other areas, and the underlying environmental chemistry is clarified, water treatment strategies can be optimized across the multiple objectives that municipalities face in providing high quality drinking water to local residents.

  10. Levels, trends and correlates of unmet need for family planning among postpartum women in Indonesia: 2007-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilopo, Siswanto Agus; Setyawan, Althaf; Pinandari, Anggriyani Wahyu; Prihyugiarto, Titut; Juliaan, Flourisa; Magnani, Robert J

    2017-11-28

    Although Indonesia has relatively high contraceptive prevalence, postpartum family planning (PP-FP) has not been a particular point of emphasis. This article reports the results of analyses undertaken in order to (1) better understand levels and trends in unmet need for family planning among postpartum women, (2) assess the extent to which unmet need is concentrated among particular population sub-groups, and (3) assess the policy priority that PP-FP should have in relation to other interventions. The analyses were based on data from the 2007 and 2012 Indonesia Demographic and Health Surveys (IDHS) and the 2015 PMA2020 survey. Postpartum contraceptive use and unmet need were analyzed for fecund women who had given birth in the 3-5 years of preceding the respective surveys who were in the extended postpartum period at the time of the respective surveys. Factors associated with contraceptive use and unmet were assessed via multivariable logistic regressions using merged data from all three surveys. A wide range of biologic, demographic, socio-economic, geographic and programmatic factors were considered. Contraceptive use during the extended postpartum period is high in Indonesia, with more than 74% of post-partum women reporting currently using a family planning method in the 2015 PMA2020 survey. This is up from 68% in 2007 and 70% in 2012. Total unmet need was 28% in 2007, falling slightly to 23% in 2012 and 24% in 2015. However, the timing of contraceptive initiation is less than optimal. By six months postpartum, only 50% of mothers had begun contraceptive use. Unmet need was highest among older women, women with 4+ children, with limited knowledge of contraceptive methods, making fewer ANC visits, from poor families and residents of islands other than Java and Bali. Unmet need for family planning among postpartum women in Indonesia is low in comparison with other low- and middle-income countries. However, because of limited durations of exclusive breastfeeding

  11. 46 CFR 52.01-110 - Water-level indicators, water columns, gauge-glass connections, gauge cocks, and pressure gauges...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... § 52.01-110 Water-level indicators, water columns, gauge-glass connections, gauge cocks, and pressure... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Water-level indicators, water columns, gauge-glass connections, gauge cocks, and pressure gauges (modifies PG-60). 52.01-110 Section 52.01-110 Shipping COAST...

  12. Improvements in Hudson River Water Quality Create the Need for a new Approach to Monitoring and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mullan, G. D.; Juhl, A.; Sambrotto, R.; Lipscomb, J.; Brown, T.

    2008-12-01

    localized events, demonstrate that a new approach is needed to monitor and manage the lower Hudson River Estuary. One important component of this new approach is consideration of local and extreme conditions, rather than just spatial and temporal means. Another aspect is increased public dissemination of available water quality data. A new Hudson River water quality web site has been launched as an example of this type of public outreach.

  13. Evaluation and use of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Clean Watersheds Needs Survey data to quantify nutrient loads to surface water, 1978–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivahnenko, Tamara I.

    2017-12-07

    Changes in municipal and industrial point-source discharges over time have been an important factor affecting nutrient trends in many of the Nation’s streams and rivers. This report documents how three U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) national datasets—the Permit Compliance System, the Integrated Compliance Information System, and the Clean Watersheds Needs Survey—were evaluated for use in the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment project to assess the causes of nutrient trends. This report also describes how a database of total nitrogen load and total phosphorous load was generated for select wastewater treatment facilities in the United States based on information reported in the EPA Clean Watersheds Needs Survey. Nutrient loads were calculated for the years 1978, 1980, 1982, 1984, 1986, 1988, 1990, 1992, 1996, 2000, 2004, 2008, and 2012 based on average nitrogen and phosphorous concentrations for reported treatment levels and on annual reported flow values.The EPA Permit Compliance System (PCS) and Integrated Compliance Information System (ICIS), which monitor point-source facility discharges, together are the Nation’s most spatially comprehensive dataset for nutrients released to surface waters. However, datasets for many individual facilities are incomplete, the PCS/ICIS historical data date back only to 1989, and historical data are available for only a limited number of facilities. Additionally, inconsistencies in facility reporting make it difficult to track or identify changes in nutrient discharges over time. Previous efforts made by the U.S. Geological Survey to “fill in” gaps in the PCS/ICIS data were based on statistical methods—missing data were filled in through the use of a statistical model based on the Standard Industrial Classification code, size, and flow class of the facility and on seasonal nutrient discharges of similar facilities. This approach was used to estimate point-source loads for a single

  14. Level of Need for Cognition and Metacognitive Thinking among Undergraduate Kindergarten Female Students at King Sa'ud University in Sa'udi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daghistani, Bulquees

    2015-01-01

    This study aims at examining the level of need for cognition and metacognitive thinking among undergraduate kindergarten female students in Education Faculty at King Sa'ud University in Sa'udi Arabia from their own perceptions. Results showed that the need for the cognition level was moderate, but metacognitive thinking level was high. In…

  15. Cadmium accumulation in soils caused by contaminated irrigation water in relation to safety level of enviromental water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, H; Iimura, K

    1974-01-01

    Adsorption of cadmium on the soil from irrigation water contaminated by human production activites were investigated. Both in the equilibrium and column experiments, the soils adsorbed more than 90 per cent of cadmium from the water containing 0.01 ppm cadmium and 18 or 300 ppm calcium. The amounts of cadmium adsorbed by the soils in the equilibrium experiments increased with the increasing concentrations (0.001-10 ppm) in accordance with the Freundlich's adsorption formula, the indices of which were near unity. In column experiments, the proportions of cadmium adsorbed by the soils from the water containing 0.01 ppm cadmium and 18 ppm calcium were equal to or more than those of calcium. It was estimated that if the water containing 0.01 ppm cadmium, that is the safety level of environmental water for human health by WHO and adopted as the permissible concentration by the Japanese Government, were irrigated in paddy fields, cadmium contents of the soils would exceed 1 ppm within a few years. Furthermore, on some of those contaminated soils, brown rice containing more than 1 ppm cadmium, that is the permissible concentration in brown rice authorised by the Japanese Government, will be produced. From the viewpoint of soil conservation from contamination, it is suggested that the permissible concentration of cadmium in the environment water should be lowered to at least one tenth of the present level. The exchange equilibriums in the soils between Cd and Ca and Cd and Na were discussed.

  16. Statistical analysis and mapping of water levels in the Biscayne aquifer, water conservation areas, and Everglades National Park, Miami-Dade County, Florida, 2000–2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinos, Scott T.; Dixon, Joann F.

    2016-02-25

    Statistical analyses and maps representing mean, high, and low water-level conditions in the surface water and groundwater of Miami-Dade County were made by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Miami-Dade County Department of Regulatory and Economic Resources, to help inform decisions necessary for urban planning and development. Sixteen maps were created that show contours of (1) the mean of daily water levels at each site during October and May for the 2000–2009 water years; (2) the 25th, 50th, and 75th percentiles of the daily water levels at each site during October and May and for all months during 2000–2009; and (3) the differences between mean October and May water levels, as well as the differences in the percentiles of water levels for all months, between 1990–1999 and 2000–2009. The 80th, 90th, and 96th percentiles of the annual maximums of daily groundwater levels during 1974–2009 (a 35-year period) were computed to provide an indication of unusually high groundwater-level conditions. These maps and statistics provide a generalized understanding of the variations of water levels in the aquifer, rather than a survey of concurrent water levels. Water-level measurements from 473 sites in Miami-Dade County and surrounding counties were analyzed to generate statistical analyses. The monitored water levels included surface-water levels in canals and wetland areas and groundwater levels in the Biscayne aquifer.

  17. Linking levels of societal and ecosystems metabolism of water in a Mediterranean watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello, V.

    2014-12-01

    Water resources degradation is a complex environmental problem that involves multiple dimensions and scales of analysis. The Socio-Ecological Systems Water Metabolism has been proposed as a general holistic framework to deal with integrated analysis of water use sustainability (Madrid and Giampietro 2014). The innovation of the approach is that it sets the research focus beyond the classical supply-demand modeling to societal integrity and ecosystems integrity. To do so, it integrates quantitative grammars of water use (relating water exchange to societal and ecosystems organization) and qualitative methods (discourse analysis). This work presents the first case study focused at a river basin extent: the Upper Andarax, in South-East Spain. Water metabolism is indicated at multiple levels for ecosystems and society. To deal with the interfaces among them, relational indicators of water exploitation, water use and impact over ecosystems are used alongside policies and narratives analysis.While being a rather not intensively exploited river basin (year Water Exploitation Index~0.3 blue water,~0.15 green water), impacts over water bodies are yet important (periodic aquifer overdraft, biological degradation of the river) especially during dry season. Perceived mayor problems of water sustainability are generated by the not integration of different policies at European, national and regional scales: while the water authority establishes a compulsory reduction over water withdrawal to attend environmental flows, agricultural markets force to raise productivity increasing water demands. Adaptation strategies are divided among irrigation efficiency improvement and a reorientation of the economy towards touristic activities. Both of them entail specific trade-offs to be deemed. Aquifer-river interactions and climate change impacts are yet mayor research challenges.

  18. Regional Sea Level Scenarios for Coastal Risk Management: Managing the Uncertainty of Future Sea Level Change and Extreme Water Levels for Department of Defense Coastal Sites Worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    authors and do not necessarily reflect the view of the authors’ Agencies. MANAGING THE UNCERTAINTY OF FUTURE SEA LEVEL CHANGE AND EXTREME WATER LEVELS FOR...COASTAL RISK MANAGEMENT 2-20 contingent probabilities given their dependence on non-probabilistic emissions futures, have extended the ranges of...flood risk provides confidence in the associated projection as a true minimum value for risk management purposes. The contemporary rate observed by

  19. Water Level Fluctuations in the Congo Basin Derived from ENVISAT Satellite Altimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mélanie Becker

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the Congo Basin, the elevated vulnerability of food security and the water supply implies that sustainable development strategies must incorporate the effects of climate change on hydrological regimes. However, the lack of observational hydro-climatic data over the past decades strongly limits the number of studies investigating the effects of climate change in the Congo Basin. We present the largest altimetry-based dataset of water levels ever constituted over the entire Congo Basin. This dataset of water levels illuminates the hydrological regimes of various tributaries of the Congo River. A total of 140 water level time series are extracted using ENVISAT altimetry over the period of 2003 to 2009. To improve the understanding of the physical phenomena dominating the region, we perform a K-means cluster analysis of the altimeter-derived river level height variations to identify groups of hydrologically similar catchments. This analysis reveals nine distinct hydrological regions. The proposed regionalization scheme is validated and therefore considered reliable for estimating monthly water level variations in the Congo Basin. This result confirms the potential of satellite altimetry in monitoring spatio-temporal water level variations as a promising and unprecedented means for improved representation of the hydrologic characteristics in large ungauged river basins.

  20. Analysis of the relationship between water level fluctuation and seismicity in the Three Gorges Reservoir (China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lifen Zhang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Three Gorges Reservoir is a good site for the further researches on reservoir induced seismicity due to decades' seismic monitoring. After the first water impounding in 2003, seismic activity becomes more frequent than that before water impoundment. In order to quantitatively study, the relationship between the water level fluctuation and earthquakes in TGR, we introduced statistical methods to attain the goal. First of all, we relocated the earthquakes in TGR region with double difference method and divided the earthquakes into 5 clusters with clustering analysis method. Secondly, to examine the impacts of water level fluctuation in different water filling stages on the seismic activity in the 5 clusters, a series of statistical analyses are applied. Pearson correlation results show that only the 175 m water level fluctuation has significantly positive impacts on the seismic activity in clusters Ⅰ, Ⅱ, Ⅲ and Ⅴ with correlation coefficients of 0.44, 0.38, 0.66 and 0.63. Cross-correlation analysis demonstrates that 0, 1, 0 and 0 month time delay separately for the clusters Ⅰ, Ⅱ, Ⅲ and Ⅴ exists. It illustrated the influences of the water loading and pore pressure diffusion on induced earthquakes. Cointegration tests and impulse response analysis denoted that the 175 m water level only had long term and significant effects just on the seismic events in the intersection region of the Fairy Mount Fault and Nine-brook Fault. One standard deviation shock to 175 m water level increased the seismic activity in cluster Ⅴ for the first 3 months, and then the negative influence was shown. After 7 months, the negative impulse response becomes stable. The long-term effect of the 175 m water impoundment also proved the important role of pore pressure diffusion in RIS with time.

  1. Modified atmosphere packaging for prevention of mold spoilage of bakery products with different pH and water activity levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guynot, M E; Marín, S; Sanchis, V; Ramos, A J

    2003-10-01

    A sponge cake analog was used to study the influence of pH, water activity (aw), and carbon dioxide (CO2) levels on the growth of seven fungal species commonly causing bakery product spoilage (Eurotium amstelodami, Eurotium herbariorum, Eurotium repens, Eurotium rubrum, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, and Penicillium corylophilum). A full factorial design was used. Water activity, CO2, and their interaction were the main factors significantly affecting fungal growth. Water activity at levels of 0.80 to 0.90 had a significant influence on fungal growth and determined the concentration of CO2 needed to prevent cake analog spoilage. At an aw level of 0.85, lag phases increased twofold when the level of CO2 in the headspace increased from 0 to 70%. In general, no fungal growth was observed for up to 28 days of incubation at 25 degrees C when samples were packaged with 100% CO2, regardless of the aw level. Partial least squares projection to latent structures regression was used to build a polynomial model to predict sponge cake shelf life on the basis of the lag phases of all seven species tested. The model developed explained quite well (R2 = 79%) the growth of almost all species, which responded similarly to changes in tested factors. The results of this study emphasize the importance of combining several hurdles, such as modified atmosphere packaging, aw, and pH, that have synergistic or additive effects on the inhibition of mold growth.

  2. WE-DE-202-02: Are Track Structure Simulations Truly Needed for Radiobiology at the Cellular and Tissue Levels?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, R. [University of Washington (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Radiation therapy for the treatment of cancer has been established as a highly precise and effective way to eradicate a localized region of diseased tissue. To achieve further significant gains in the therapeutic ratio, we need to move towards biologically optimized treatment planning. To achieve this goal, we need to understand how the radiation-type dependent patterns of induced energy depositions within the cell (physics) connect via molecular, cellular and tissue reactions to treatment outcome such as tumor control and undesirable effects on normal tissue. Several computational biology approaches have been developed connecting physics to biology. Monte Carlo simulations are the most accurate method to calculate physical dose distributions at the nanometer scale, however simulations at the DNA scale are slow and repair processes are generally not simulated. Alternative models that rely on the random formation of individual DNA lesions within one or two turns of the DNA have been shown to reproduce the clusters of DNA lesions, including single strand breaks (SSBs), double strand breaks (DSBs) without the need for detailed track structure simulations. Efficient computational simulations of initial DNA damage induction facilitate computational modeling of DNA repair and other molecular and cellular processes. Mechanistic, multiscale models provide a useful conceptual framework to test biological hypotheses and help connect fundamental information about track structure and dosimetry at the sub-cellular level to dose-response effects on larger scales. In this symposium we will learn about the current state of the art of computational approaches estimating radiation damage at the cellular and sub-cellular scale. How can understanding the physics interactions at the DNA level be used to predict biological outcome? We will discuss if and how such calculations are relevant to advance our understanding of radiation damage and its repair, or, if the underlying biological

  3. WE-DE-202-02: Are Track Structure Simulations Truly Needed for Radiobiology at the Cellular and Tissue Levels?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, R.

    2016-01-01

    Radiation therapy for the treatment of cancer has been established as a highly precise and effective way to eradicate a localized region of diseased tissue. To achieve further significant gains in the therapeutic ratio, we need to move towards biologically optimized treatment planning. To achieve this goal, we need to understand how the radiation-type dependent patterns of induced energy depositions within the cell (physics) connect via molecular, cellular and tissue reactions to treatment outcome such as tumor control and undesirable effects on normal tissue. Several computational biology approaches have been developed connecting physics to biology. Monte Carlo simulations are the most accurate method to calculate physical dose distributions at the nanometer scale, however simulations at the DNA scale are slow and repair processes are generally not simulated. Alternative models that rely on the random formation of individual DNA lesions within one or two turns of the DNA have been shown to reproduce the clusters of DNA lesions, including single strand breaks (SSBs), double strand breaks (DSBs) without the need for detailed track structure simulations. Efficient computational simulations of initial DNA damage induction facilitate computational modeling of DNA repair and other molecular and cellular processes. Mechanistic, multiscale models provide a useful conceptual framework to test biological hypotheses and help connect fundamental information about track structure and dosimetry at the sub-cellular level to dose-response effects on larger scales. In this symposium we will learn about the current state of the art of computational approaches estimating radiation damage at the cellular and sub-cellular scale. How can understanding the physics interactions at the DNA level be used to predict biological outcome? We will discuss if and how such calculations are relevant to advance our understanding of radiation damage and its repair, or, if the underlying biological

  4. Assessment and the levels of radioactivity of natural radionuclides in drinking waters in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yulan

    1989-03-01

    In order to assess the levels of radioactivity of natural radionuclides in drinking waters and to estimate the internal doses of the population of China from ingestion, 1650 samples of waters were collected from normal radiation background areas of 28 provinces or autonomous regions of China. Radioactivity levels of U, Th, 226 Ra and 40 K in drinking waters were determined. The levels and the characteristics of distribution of 4 radionuclides are given. The results show that radioactivity levels in the southeast China are lower than in the north and northwest China. The average radioactivity levles of the 4 radionuclides in China close to the average levels given in UNSCEAR 1986 report. The result of estimation of internal doses from ingestion in the population of China is below the corresponding results given in UNSCEAR 1986 report, but near the result given by ICRP

  5. Trench water chemistry at commercially operated low-level radioactive waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietrzak, R.F.; Dayal, R.; Kinsley, M.T.; Clinton, J.; Czyscinski, K.S.; Weiss, A.J.

    1982-01-01

    Water samples from the disposal trenches of two low-level radioactive-waste-disposal sites were analyzed for their inorganic, organic, and radionuclide contents. Since oxidation of the trench waters can occur during their movement along the groundwater flow path, experiments were performed to measure the chemical and physical changes that occur in these waters upon oxidation. Low concentrations of chelating agents, shown to exist in trench waters, may be responsible for keeping radionuclides, particularly 60 Co, in solution. 4 figures, 5 tables

  6. Report on studies with doubly labelled water on adaptation in human energy needs in India, Mexico and Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haggarty, P.; McNeill, G.; James, W.P.T.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes the use of the doubly labelled water (DLW) method for estimating energy expenditure in free living subjects to investigate possible adaptation to low energy intakes in subjects in India, Mexico and Malaysia. The DLW method, which utilizes, the stable isotopes 2 H and 18 O, was used together with established methodologies to determine whether adaptation of energy needs to chronically low energy intakes occurs and, if so, whether it operates via an effect on metabolism, body composition or behaviour. Experimental design relevant on the DLW method is discussed with reference to the methodological problems anticipated for each of the groups studied. Particular attention is given to errors introduced by isotope sequestration and fractionation and the measures taken to deal with these potential sources of error. New approaches to monitoring mass spectrometer performance during routine sample analysis are described. A method is described whereby serial dilutions of the dose material may be analyzed as if they were biological samples and the pool size and water and CO 2 flux rates calculated as normal. The accuracy of pool size and water flux may be verified by comparison with the gravimetric data and the accuracy of the CO 2 flux determined by comparison with the theoretical value of zero. The formulae used to calculate pool size, and water and CO 2 flux rates are given. The results of the complete DLW studies are presented and areas of continuing work described. (author). 10 refs, 7 figs, 2 tabs

  7. Monitoring of Water-Level Fluctuation of Lake Nasser Using Altimetry Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shirbeny, Mohammed A.; Abutaleb, Khaled A.

    2018-05-01

    Apart from the Renaissance Dam and other constructed dams on the River Nile tributaries, Egypt is classified globally as a state of scarce water. Egypt's water resources are very limited and do not contribute a significant amount to its water share except the River Nile (55.5 billion m3/year). While the number of population increases every year, putting more stress on these limited resources. This study aims to use remote-sensing data to assess the change in surface area and water-level variation in Lake Nasser using remote-sensing data from Landsat-8 and altimetry data. In addition, it investigates the use of thermal data from Landsat-8 to calculate water loss based on evaporation from Lake Nasser. The eight Landsat-8 satellite images were used to study the change in surface area of Lake Nasser representing winter (January) and summer (June/July) seasons in two consecutive years (2015 and 2016). Time series analyses for 10-day temporal resolution water-level data from Jason-2/OSTM and Jason-3 altimetry was carried out to investigate water-level trends over the long term (1993 and 2016) and short term (2015-2016) in correspondence with the change of the surface area. Results indicated a shrink in the lake surface area in 2016 of approximately 14% compared to the 2015 area. In addition, the evaporation rate in the lake is very high causing a loss of approximately 20% of the total water share from the river Nile.

  8. Response of littoral macrophytes to water level fluctuations in a storage reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krolová M.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Lakes and reservoirs that are used for water supply and/or flow regulations have usually poorly developed littoral macrophyte communities, which impairs ecological potential in terms of the EU Water Framework Directive. The aim of our study was to reveal controlling factors for the growth of littoral macrophytes in a storage reservoir with fluctuating water level (Lipno Reservoir, Czech Republic. Macrophytes occurred in this reservoir only in the eulittoral zone i.e., the shoreline region between the highest and the lowest seasonal water levels. Three eulittoral sub-zones could be distinguished: the upper eulittoral with a stable community of perennial species with high cover, the middle eulittoral with relatively high richness of emergent and amphibious species present at low cover values, and the lower eulittoral devoid of permanent vegetation. Cover and species composition in particular sub-zones were primarily influenced by the duration and timing of flooding, followed by nutrient limitation and strongly reducing conditions in the flooded organic sediment. Our results stress the ecological importance of eulittoral zone in reservoirs with fluctuating water levels where macrophyte growth can be supported by targeted management of water level, thus helping reservoir managers in improving the ecological potential of this type of water bodies.

  9. The effect of applying different water levels and irrigation frequencies in propagating rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Giovanni Álvarez Herrera

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Rosemary seedlings are obtained by vegetative propagation because the seeds present low viability. Despite being an expanding crop, there is little information on water consumption during the propagation stage. Water levels and irrigation frequencies were therefore applied using a completely randomised design having a 4 x 2 factorial arrangement. The first factor concerned irrigation frequency (4 and 8 days and the second concerned water level (0.6, 0.8, 1.0 and 1.2 evaporation inside the greenhouse. A 1.0 coefficient combined with 4-day irrigation frequency presented the best results regarding height (39.3 cm, fresh weight, dry weight and branch length (146 cm. Water level affected the fresh and dry weight of leaves regardless of frequency. Relative water content in leaves did not present differences due to environmental conditions minimising treatment effect. Rooting percent- tage showed no significant differences regarding irrigation frequency or water level. Irrigation frequency did not affect rosemary growing pattern because sphagnum retains high moisture content. The best branch number (34 was obtained with 1.0 coefficient and 4-day frequency, this being important from the production point of view because this is the material which is sold. Water management changes photoassimilate distribution in rosemary plants.

  10. Laboratory and field tests of the Sutron RLR-0003-1 water level sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulford, Janice M.; Bryars, R. Scott

    2015-01-01

    Three Sutron RLR-0003-1 water level sensors were tested in laboratory conditions to evaluate the accuracy of the sensor over the manufacturer’s specified operating temperature and distance-to-water ranges. The sensor was also tested for compliance to SDI-12 communication protocol and in field conditions at a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamgaging site. Laboratory results were compared to the manufacturer’s accuracy specification for water level and to the USGS Office of Surface Water (OSW) policy requirement that water level sensors have a measurement uncertainty of no more than 0.01 foot or 0.20 percent of the indicated reading. Except for one sensor, the differences for the temperature testing were within 0.05 foot and the average measurements for the sensors were within the manufacturer’s accuracy specification. Two of the three sensors were within the manufacturer’s specified accuracy and met the USGS accuracy requirements for the laboratory distance to water testing. Three units passed a basic SDI-12 communication compliance test. Water level measurements made by the Sutron RLR-0003-1 during field testing agreed well with those made by the bubbler system and a Design Analysis Associates (DAA) H3613 radar, and they met the USGS accuracy requirements when compared to the wire-weight gage readings.

  11. Measuring water level in rivers and lakes from lightweight Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandini, Filippo; Jakobsen, Jakob; Olesen, Daniel Haugård

    2017-01-01

    The assessment of hydrologic dynamics in rivers, lakes, reservoirs and wetlands requires measurements of water level, its temporal and spatial derivatives, and the extent and dynamics of open water surfaces. Motivated by the declining number of ground-based measurement stations, research efforts...... complex water dynamics. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) can fill the gap between spaceborne and ground-based observations, and provide high spatial resolution and dense temporal coverage data, in quick turn-around time, using flexible payload design. This study focused on categorizing and testing sensors......, which comply with the weight constraint of small UAVs (around 1.5 kg), capable of measuring the range to water surface. Subtracting the measured range from the vertical position retrieved by the onboard Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receiver, we can determine the water level (orthometric...

  12. Background level of natural radioactivities in a giant water Cherenkov detector and its surrounding environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Sakanoue, Masanobu; Komura, Kazuhisa; Ueno, Kaoru

    1989-01-01

    The KAMIOKANDE-II water Cherenkov detector for the measurement of nucleon decay and/or solar neutrino has been operating in the underground laboratory at a depth of 2,700 m.w.e. (meter water equivalent) in Kamioka mine of Gifu Prefecture. Concentrations of 238 U, 232 Th, 226 Ra and 222 Rn as the major background sources have been measured for various kinds of rocks, mine water, mine air and high purity water used as a detector during the period from August 1986 to December 1987. The concentration levels of these radionuclides and their seasonal variation have become clear. Some of these results have provided useful informations for decreasing the background level of water Cherenkov detector. (author)

  13. Survey of statistical and sampling needs for environmental monitoring of commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberhardt, L.L.; Thomas, J.M.

    1986-07-01

    This project was designed to develop guidance for implementing 10 CFR Part 61 and to determine the overall needs for sampling and statistical work in characterizing, surveying, monitoring, and closing commercial low-level waste sites. When cost-effectiveness and statistical reliability are of prime importance, then double sampling, compositing, and stratification (with optimal allocation) are identified as key issues. If the principal concern is avoiding questionable statistical practice, then the applicability of kriging (for assessing spatial pattern), methods for routine monitoring, and use of standard textbook formulae in reporting monitoring results should be reevaluated. Other important issues identified include sampling for estimating model parameters and the use of data from left-censored (less than detectable limits) distributions

  14. Effects of UV-B radiation and water stress on gas exchange of soybeans under two different nitrogen levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, L.M.; Forseth, I.N.

    1993-01-01

    Due to anthropogenic destruction of stratospheric ozone, UV-B radiation is projected to increase in the near future. Other potential global climate changes in temperature and precipitation patterns raise the need for research into plant responses to multiple environmental stresses. The objective of this study was to document UV-B and water stress effects on gas exchange of soybean (Glycine max Merr.) under two nitrogen levels. Two soybean c