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Sample records for water levels needed

  1. Quantification of Hungry Horse Reservoir Water Levels Needed to Maintain or Enhance Reservoir Fisheries, 1986 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, Bruce; Weaver, Tom (Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks, Kalispell, MT)

    1987-06-01

    The Hungry Horse Reservoir study is part of the Northwest Power Planning Council's resident fish and wildlife plan. The plan is responsible for mitigating damages to the fish and wildlife resources caused by hydroelectric development in the Columbia River Basin. The major goal of our study is to quantify seasonal water levels needed to maintain or enhance the reservoir fishery. This study began in May 1983 and is scheduled for completion in 1988. This report contains a summary of the limnological, food habits, fish abundance and fish distribution data collected primarily in 1986. A thorough statistical analysis of the data will be presented in the completion report in 1988. This study proposes to quantify seasonal water levels needed to maintain or enhance principal game fish species in Hungry Horse Reservoir. The specific study objectives are: (1) Estimate the impact of reservoir operation on major game fish species; (2) Develop relationships between reservoir drawdown and reservoir habitat use by fish and fish food organisms; (3) Quantify the amount of reservoir habitat available at different water level elevations; (4) Estimate recruitment of westslope cutthroat trout juveniles from important spawning and nursery areas; (5) Determine the abundance, growth, distribution and use of available habitat by major game species in the reservoir; (6) Determine the abundance and availability of fish food organisms in the reservoir; and (7) Quantify the seasonal use of available food items by major fish species.

  2. Gauging climate preparedness to inform adaptation needs: local level adaptation in drinking water quality in CA, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekstrom, Julia A; Bedsworth, Louise; Fencl, Amanda

    2017-01-01

    Understanding resource managers' perceptions of climate change, analytic capacity, and current adaptation activities can provide insight into what can help support adaptation processes at the local level. In California, where a major drought currently demonstrates some of the hardships that could be regularly encountered under a changing climate, we present results from a survey of drinking water utilities about the perceived threat, analytic capacity, and adaptation actions related to maintaining water quality in the face of climate change. Among surveyed utilities (n = 259), awareness is high in regard to climate change occurring and its potential impacts on water quality globally, but perceived risk is lower with regard to climate impacts on local drinking water quality. Just over half of surveyed utilities report at least some adaptation activity to date. The top three variables that most strongly correlated with reported adaptation action were (1) perceived risk on global and local water quality, (2) surface water reliance, and (3) provision of other services beyond drinking water. Other tested variables significantly correlated with reported adaptation action were (4) degree of impact from the current drought and (5) communication with climate change experts. Findings highlight that smaller groundwater-reliant utilities may need the most assistance to initiate climate adaptation processes. Trusted information sources most frequently used across respondents were state government agencies, followed by colleagues in the same utilities. The finding that frequently used sources of information are similar across utilities presents a promising opportunity for training and disseminating climate information to assist those systems needing the most support.

  3. Quantification of Hungry Horse Reservoir Water Levels Needed to Maintain or Enhance Reservoir Fisheries, 1985 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, Bruce

    1986-06-01

    The Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act, passed in 1980 by Congress, has provided a mechanism which integrates and provides for stable energy planning in the Pacific Northwest. The Act created the Northwest Power Planning Council and charged the Council with developing a comprehensive fish and wildlife program to protect and enhance fish and wildlife impacted by hydroelectric development in the Columbia River Basin. Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is one of the many agencies implementing the Council's program. The Hungry Horse Reservoir (HHR) study is part of the Council's program. This study proposes to quantify seasonal water levels needed to maintain or enhance principal gamefish species in Hungry Horse Reservoir. The specific study objectives are: (1) Quantify the amount of reservoir habitat available at different water level elevations; (2) Estimate recruitment of westslope cutthroat trout juveniles from important spawning and nursery areas; (3) Determine the abundance, growth, distribution and use of available habitat by major game species in the reservoir; (4) Determine the abundance and availability of fish food organisms in the reservoir; (5) Quantify the seasonal use of available food items by major fish species; (6) Develop relationships between reservoir drawdown and reservoir habitat use by fish and fish food organisms; and (7) Estimate the impact of reservoir operation on major gamefish species.

  4. Quantification of Hungry Horse Reservoir Water Levels Needed to Maintain or Enhance Reservoir Fisheries, 1983-1985 Summary Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, Bruce

    1985-06-01

    The Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act passed in 1980 by Congress has provided a mechanism which integrates and provides for stable energy planning in the Pacific Northwest. The Act created the Northwest Power Planning Council and charged the Council with developing a comprehensive fish and wildlife program to protect and enhance fish and wildlife impacted by hydroelectric development in the Columbia River Basin. Implementation of the plan is being carried out by the Bonneville Power Administration. The Hungry Horse Reservoir study is part of that Council's plan. This study proposes to quantify seasonal water levels needed to maintain or enhance principal gamefish species in Hungry Horse Reservoir. The specific study objects are listed below. (1) Quantify the amount of reservoir habitat available at different water level elevations; (2) Estimate recruitment of westslope cutthroat trout juveniles from important spawning and nursery tributaries; (3) Determine the abundance, growth, distribution and use of available habitat by major game species in the reservoir; (4) Determine the abundance and availability of fish food organisms in the reservoir; (5) Quantify the seasonal use of available food items by major fish species; (6) Develop relationships between reservoir drawdown and reservoir habitat used by fish and fish food organisms; and (7) Estimate the impact of reservoir operation on major gamefish species.

  5. Quantification of Hungry Horse Reservoir Water Levels Needed to Maintain or Enhance Reservoir Fisheries, 1983-1985 Summary Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, Bruce

    1985-06-01

    The Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act passed in 1980 by Congress has provided a mechanism which integrates and provides for stable energy planning in the Pacific Northwest. The Act created the Northwest Power Planning Council and charged the Council with developing a comprehensive fish and wildlife program to protect and enhance fish and wildlife impacted by hydroelectric development in the Columbia River Basin. Implementation of the plan is being carried out by the Bonneville Power Administration. The Hungry Horse Reservoir study is part of that Council's plan. This study proposes to quantify seasonal water levels needed to maintain or enhance principal gamefish species in Hungry Horse Reservoir. The specific study objects are listed below. (1) Quantify the amount of reservoir habitat available at different water level elevations; (2) Estimate recruitment of westslope cutthroat trout juveniles from important spawning and nursery tributaries; (3) Determine the abundance, growth, distribution and use of available habitat by major game species in the reservoir; (4) Determine the abundance and availability of fish food organisms in the reservoir; (5) Quantify the seasonal use of available food items by major fish species; (6) Develop relationships between reservoir drawdown and reservoir habitat used by fish and fish food organisms; and (7) Estimate the impact of reservoir operation on major gamefish species.

  6. Quantification of Libby Reservoir Water Levels Needed to Maintain or Enhance Reservoir Fisheries, 1988-1996 Methods and Data Summary.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalbey, Steven Ray

    1998-03-01

    The Libby Reservoir study is part of the Northwest Power Planning Council's resident fish and wildlife program. The program was mandated by the Northwest Planning Act of 1980, and is responsible for mitigating for damages to fish and wildlife caused by hydroelectric development in the Columbia River Basin. The objective of Phase I of the project (1983 through 1987) was to maintain or enhance the Libby Reservoir fishery by quantifying seasonal water levels and developing ecologically sound operational guidelines. The objective of Phase II of the project (1988 through 1996) was to determine the biological effects of reservoir operations combined with biotic changes associated with an aging reservoir. This report summarizes the data collected from Libby Reservoir during 1988 through 1996.

  7. Arkansas River Water Needs Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is on the legal elements, hydrologic analysis, objectives, and water levels related to the Arkansas River and the management of it.

  8. Identifying Needs and Enhancing Learning about Climate Change Adaptation for Water Professionals at the Post-Graduate Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, David Alan; Tan, Poh-Ling; Clewett, Jeffrey Frank

    2016-01-01

    Using a participatory learning approach, we report on the delivery and evaluation of a climate change and risk assessment tool to help manage water risks within the agricultural sector. Post-graduate water-professional students from a range of countries, from both developed and emerging economies were involved in using this tool. Our approach…

  9. Quantification of Hungry Horse Reservoir Water Levels Needed to Maintain or Enhance Reservoir Fisheries, 1984 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, Bruce

    1984-10-01

    This report reviews activities of the Hungry Horse Reservoir fisheries study from May 16-October 14, 1983. The first six months of the project were concerned with testing of equipment and developing methodologies for sampling physical-chemical limnology, fish food availability, fish food habits, seasonal distribution and abundance of fish, migration patterns of westslope cutthroat trout and habitat quality in tributary streams. Suitable methods have been developed for most aspects of the study, but problems remain with determining the vertical distribution of fish. Catch rates of fish in vertical nets were insufficient to determine depth distribution during the fall. If catches remain low during the spring and summer of 1984, experimental netting will be conducted using gang sets of standard gill nets. Purse seining techniques also need to be refined in the spring of 1984, Sample design should be completed in 1984. A major activity for the report period was preparation of a prospectus which reviewed: (1) environmental factors limiting gamefish production; (2) flexibility in reservoir operation; (3) effects of reservoir operation on fish populations and (4) model development. Production of westslope cutthroat trout may be limited by spawning and rearing habitat in tributary streams, reservoir habitat suitability, predation during the first year of reservoir residence and fish food availability. Reservoir operation affects fish production by altering fish habitat and food production through changes in reservoir morphometrics such as surface area, volume, littoral area and shoreline length. The instability in the fish habitat caused by reservoir operation may produce an environment which is suitable for fish which can utilize several habitat types and feed upon a wide variety of food organisms. Analysis of factors governing reservoir operation indicated that some flexibility exists in Hungry Horse operation. Changes in operation to benefit gamefish populations would

  10. Quantification of Hungry Horse Reservoir Water Levels Needed to Maintain or Enhance Reservoir Fisheries; Methods and Data, 1983-1987 Summary Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, Bruce; Michael, Gary; Wachsmuth, John (Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks, Kalispell, MT)

    1988-06-01

    The Hungry Horse Reservoir study is part of the Northwest Power Planning Council's resident fish and wildlife plan. The plan is responsible for mitigating damages to the fish and wildlife resources caused by hydroelectric development in the Columbia River Basin. The major goal of our study is to quantify seasonal water levels needed to maintain or enhance the reservoir fishery. This study began in May, 1983, and the initial phase will be completed July, 1988. This report summarizes limnological, fish abundance, fish distribution and fish food habits data collected from 1983 to 1988. The effect of reservoir operation upon fish habitat, fish food organisms and fish growth is discussed. 71 refs., 36 figs., 46 tabs.

  11. Water Level Station History

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Images contain station history information for 175 stations in the National Water Level Observation Network (NWLON). The NWLON is a network of long-term,...

  12. The Global Dimension of Water Governance: Why the River Basin Approach Is No Longer Sufficient and Why Cooperative Action at Global Level Is Needed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjen Y. Hoekstra

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available When water problems extend beyond the borders of local communities, the river basin is generally seen as the most appropriate unit for analysis, planning, and institutional arrangements. In this paper it is argued that addressing water problems at the river basin level is not always sufficient. Many of today’s seemingly local water issues carry a (subcontinental or even global dimension, which urges for a governance approach that comprises institutional arrangements at a level beyond that of the river basin. This paper examines a number of arguments for the thesis that good water governance requires a global approach complementary to the river basin approach. Subsequently, it identifies four major issues to be addressed at global scale: Efficiency, equity, sustainability and security of water supply in a globalised world. Finally, the paper raises the question of what kind of institutional arrangements could be developed to cope with the global dimension of water issues. A few possible directions are explored, ranging from an international protocol on full-cost water pricing and a water label for water-intensive products to the implementation of water footprint quotas and the water-neutral concept.

  13. The global dimension of water governance: why the river basin approach is no longer sufficient and why cooperative action at global level is needed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2011-01-01

    When water problems extend beyond the borders of local communities, the river basin is generally seen as the most appropriate unit for analysis, planning, and institutional arrangements. In this paper it is argued that addressing water problems at the river basin level is not always sufficient. Many

  14. Ancient water supports today's energy needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Odorico, Paolo; Natyzak, Jennifer L.; Castner, Elizabeth A.; Davis, Kyle F.; Emery, Kyle A.; Gephart, Jessica A.; Leach, Allison M.; Pace, Michael L.; Galloway, James N.

    2017-05-01

    The water footprint for fossil fuels typically accounts for water utilized in mining and fuel processing, whereas the water footprint of biofuels assesses the agricultural water used by crops through their lifetime. Fossil fuels have an additional water footprint that is not easily accounted for: ancient water that was used by plants millions of years ago, before they were transformed into fossil fuel. How much water is mankind using from the past to sustain current energy needs? We evaluate the link between ancient water virtually embodied in fossil fuels to current global energy demands by determining the water demand required to replace fossil fuels with biomass produced with water from the present. Using equal energy units of wood, bioethanol, and biodiesel to replace coal, natural gas, and crude oil, respectively, the resulting water demand is 7.39 × 1013 m3 y-1, approximately the same as the total annual evaporation from all land masses and transpiration from all terrestrial vegetation. Thus, there are strong hydrologic constraints to a reliance on biofuel energy produced with water from the present because the conversion from fossil fuels to biofuels would have a disproportionate and unsustainable impact on the modern water. By using fossil fuels to meet today's energy needs, we are virtually using water from a geological past. The water cycle is insufficient to sustain the production of the fuel presently consumed by human societies. Thus, non-fuel-based renewable energy sources are needed to decrease mankind's reliance on fossil fuel energy without placing an overwhelming pressure on global freshwater resources.

  15. Hierarchical Needs, Income Comparisons and Happiness Levels

    OpenAIRE

    Drakopoulos, Stavros

    2011-01-01

    The cornerstone of the hierarchical approach is that there are some basic human needs which must be satisfied before non-basic needs come into the picture. The hierarchical structure of needs implies that the satisfaction of primary needs provides substantial increases to individual happiness compared to the subsequent satisfaction of secondary needs. This idea can be combined with the concept of comparison income which means that individuals compare rewards with individuals with similar char...

  16. Meeting everyday water needs--a company's contribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, D

    2004-01-01

    As a packaged consumer goods company serving mass markets around the world for household and personal hygiene products, laundry detergents and foods, Unilever's business is inextricably linked with consumers' interest in meeting their everyday water needs. Once the basic need for drinking water is met, almost all other "everyday" water needs derive from consumption associated with the type of products Unilever sells. Use of some of these products, such as basic toilet soap, involve "actual" water consumption; others, such as margarine, concern "virtual" water consumption through agricultural production. Global scenarios for water and sanitation present a major challenge to long-term business strategies that assume sustained economic growth particularly in emerging and developing markets. Responsibility for finding and delivering solutions lies with all major actors in society. For companies such as Unilever, a priority is to help break the link between economic development on the one hand, and increased water use and water degradation on the other. Water catchment level perspectives are central to realising this vision. Unilever uses such a framework, building an experience-based model that demonstrates how a "consumer" company can engage in meeting everyday water needs with a sustained positive impact.

  17. Water Security and Climate Change: The Need for Adaptive Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuula Honkonen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change will bring about unprecedented economic, social and environmental effects, which require both the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions and adaptation to its adverse effects. Water is the main element through which the impacts of climate change will be felt. Climate change results in increased uncertainties, complexities, stress and potential for conflicts within water management, both among and within states. New forms of governance are needed if the world is to respond to the need to adapt to changes in freshwater supply and to manage water security risks. This paper suggests that adaptive governance should to be main-streamed into all water regulation to ensure the availability of and access to safe water resources and to prevent water-related conflicts. The paper discusses the concept of water security in the context of climate change, the threats that climate change poses to water security, and the concept and implications of adaptive governance as a possible solution. The application of adaptive governance requires a certain degree of institutional and normative flexibility, instruments and institutions that can respond and adapt to changes and manage the level of uncertainty associated with the impacts of climate change. The governance institutions, methods and instruments should be responsive to new information and different kinds of uncertainties, while reflecting the vulnerabilities, capacities, needs and priorities of both societies and ecosystems in the face of climate change. Water security risks could be reduced by increased hydrosolidarity among states, which would present the challenges posed by climate change on water governance and security as primarily an opportunity for new forms of cooperation.

  18. Psychological Needs as the Predictor of Teachers' Perceived Stress Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avci, Ahmet; Bozgeyikli, Hasan; Kesici, Sahin

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between teachers' psychological needs and perceived stress levels. First of all, the differentiation status of teachers' psychological needs and perceived stress levels in terms of gender, type of institution and type of the school variables was examined. Then, the psychological need's level…

  19. Considerations of the Skilled Manpower Needs for Water Supply Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watters, Gregor

    1981-01-01

    General methods for determining skilled labor needs for water supply and wastewater treatment plant operation as applied in Turkey are outlined along with a model program for training personnel to meet these needs. (DC)

  20. Development of Mechanical Water Level Controller

    OpenAIRE

    Akonyi Nasiru Sule; Chinedu Cletus Obinwa; Christian Ebele Okekeze; Eyo Ifreke

    2012-01-01

    The automatic water level controller is a device designed to regulate automatically the pumping of water to an overhead tank without allowing the water in the tank to be exhausted. The design of this mechanical device was achieved using the Archimedes principle of floatation; having a float which determines the water level in the tank depending on the choice of the minimum (lower) and maximum (upper) level inscribed in the tank. The fundamental attribute of this device is the ease in design, ...

  1. Global Water Governance in the Context of Global and Multilevel Governance: Its Need, Form, and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyeeta Gupta

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available To complement this Special Feature on global water governance, we focused on a generic challenge at the global level, namely, the degree to which water issues need to be dealt with in a centralized, concentrated, and hierarchical manner. We examined water ecosystem services and their impact on human well-being, the role of policies, indirect and direct drivers in influencing these services, and the administrative level(s at which the provision of services and potential trade-offs can be dealt with. We applied a politics of scale perspective to understand motivations for defining a problem at the global or local level and show that the multilevel approach to water governance is evolving and inevitable. We argue that a centralized overarching governance system for water is unlikely and possibly undesirable; however, there is a need for a high-level think tank and leadership to develop a cosmopolitan perspective to promote sustainable water development.

  2. Hygiene, sanitation, and water: what needs to be done?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandy Cairncross

    Full Text Available In the final article in a four-part PLoS Medicine series on water and sanitation, Sandy Cairncross and colleagues outline what needs to be done to make significant progress in providing more and better hygiene, sanitation, and water for all.

  3. High-Level Overview of Data Needs for RE Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, Anthony

    2016-12-22

    This presentation provides a high level overview of analysis topics and associated data needs. Types of renewable energy analysis are grouped into two buckets: First, analysis for renewable energy potential, and second, analysis for other goals. Data requirements are similar but and they build upon one another.

  4. The need for monetary information within corporate water accounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burritt, Roger L; Christ, Katherine L

    2017-10-01

    A conceptual discussion is provided about the need to add monetary data to water accounting initiatives and how best to achieve this if companies are to become aware of the water crisis and to take actions to improve water management. Analysis of current water accounting initiatives reveals the monetary business case for companies to improve water management is rarely considered, there being a focus on physical information about water use. Three possibilities emerge for mainstreaming the integration of monetization into water accounting: add-on to existing water accounting frameworks and tools, develop new tools which include physical and monetary information from the start, and develop environmental management accounting (EMA) into a water-specific application and set of tools. The paper appraises these three alternatives and concludes that development of EMA would be the best way forward. Suggestions for further research include the need to examine the use of a transdisciplinary method to address the complexities of water accounting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Meeting water needs for sustainable development: an overview of approaches, measures and data sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissner, Tabea; Reusser, Dominik E.; Sullivan, Caroline A.; Kropp, Jürgen P.

    2013-04-01

    An essential part of a global transition towards sustainability is the Millennium Development Goals (MDG), providing a blueprint of goals to meet human needs. Water is an essential resource in itself, but also a vital factor of production for food, energy and other industrial products. Access to sufficient water has only recently been recognized as a human right. One central MDG is halving the population without access to safe drinking water and sanitation. To adequately assess the state of development and the potential for a transition towards sustainability, consistent and meaningful measures of water availability and adequate access are thus fundamental. Much work has been done to identify thresholds and definitions to measure water scarcity. This includes some work on defining basic water needs of different sectors. A range of data and approaches has been made available from a variety of sources, but all of these approaches differ in their underlying assumptions, the nature of the data used, and consequently in the final results. We review and compare approaches, methods and data sources on human water use and human water needs. This data review enables identifying levels of consumption in different countries and different sectors. Further comparison is made between actual water needs (based on human and ecological requirements), and recognised levels of water abstraction. The results of our review highlight the differences between different accounts of water use and needs, and reflect the importance of standardised approaches to data definitions and measurements, making studies more comparable across space and time. The comparison of different use and allocation patterns in countries enables levels of water use to be identified which allow for an adequate level of human wellbeing to be maintained within sustainable water abstraction limits. Recommendations are provided of how data can be defined more clearly to make comparisons of water use more meaningful and

  6. Effect of mechanization level on manpower needs in forestry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Błuszkowska Urszula

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available High work consumption in forest operations is above all the result of the character and task realization mode in works undertaken in forestry. Development of mechanization in forest management activities allows to considerably decrease manpower needs. In the present study, there were analyzed the possibilities of reduction of work consumption by improving the mechanization level of forest works. The method was developed to consider the following assessments: 1 variant W1 - basic option comprising factual work consumption values in works carried out on the area administered by the Regional Directorate of State Forests (RDLP; 2 W2 - showing the effect of 25% upgrade of works to a higher level of mechanization; 3 W3 - showing the effect of 50% upgrade of works to a higher level of mechanization; 4 W4 - comprising analogous calculations to those in variant W1 , but work consumption upgrading was 75%. Simulation calculations revealed considerable differences in needs for labor of different categories of forest workers. On the other hand, with increasing mechanization level, there increase the demands concerning worker qualifications, e.g. a harvester operator must be trained for about 2 years, and the training has to include both simulator exercises (first using software and next - harvester simulator and field work under supervision to gain sufficient experience. The introduction of higher levels of mechanization into forest operations, and hence considerable reduction of jobs for unqualified workers who are replaced by qualified employees, can help decreasing work consumption in forest operations.

  7. How much reduction of virus is needed for recycled water: A continuous changing need for assessment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerba, Charles P; Betancourt, Walter Q; Kitajima, Masaaki

    2017-01-01

    To ensure the safety of wastewater reuse for irrigation of food crops and drinking water pathogenic viruses must be reduced to levels that pose no significant risk. To achieve this goal minimum reduction of viruses by treatment trains have been suggested. For use of edible crops a 6-log reduction and for production of potable drinking water a 12-log reduction has been suggested. These reductions were based on assuming infective virus concentrations of 10(5) to 10(6) per liter. Recent application of molecular methods suggests that some pathogenic viruses may be occurring in concentrations of 10(7) to 10(9) per liter. Factors influencing these levels include the development of molecular methods for virus detection, emergence of newly recognized viruses, decrease in per capita water use due to conservation measures, and outbreaks. Since neither cell culture nor molecular methods can assess all the potentially infectious virus in wastewater conservative estimates should be used to assess the virus load in untreated wastewater. This review indicates that an additional 2- to 3-log reduction of viruses above current recommendations may be needed to ensure the safety of recycled water. Information is needed on peak loading of viruses. In addition, more virus groups need to be quantified using better methods of virus quantification, including more accurate methods for measuring viral infectivity in order to better quantify risks from viruses in recycled water. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Development of Mechanical Water Level Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akonyi Nasiru Sule

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The automatic water level controller is a device designed to regulate automatically the pumping of water to an overhead tank without allowing the water in the tank to be exhausted. The design of this mechanical device was achieved using the Archimedes principle of floatation; having a float which determines the water level in the tank depending on the choice of the minimum (lower and maximum (upper level inscribed in the tank. The fundamental attribute of this device is the ease in design, fabrication and mounting at a lower cost. Its testing had shown and proved that it works efficiently with Archimedes’ principle of floatation. This eliminates the frequent human intervention/monitoring of the water level in the overhead tank to control overflow manually, thereby eliminating water and energy wastages.

  9. Forecasting Water Levels Using Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreenivas N. Londhe

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available For all Ocean related activities it is necessary to predict the actual water levels as accurate as possible. The present work aims at predicting the water levels with a lead time of few hours to a day using the technique of artificial neural networks. Instead of using the previous and current values of observed water level time series directly as input and output the water level anomaly (difference between the observed water level and harmonically predicted tidal level is calculated for each hour and the ANN model is developed using this time series. The network predicted anomaly is then added to harmonic tidal level to predict the water levels. The exercise is carried out at six locations, two in The Gulf of Mexico, two in The Gulf of Maine and two in The Gulf of Alaska along the USA coastline. The ANN models performed reasonably well for all forecasting intervals at all the locations. The ANN models were also run in real time mode for a period of eight months. Considering the hurricane season in Gulf of Mexico the models were also tested particularly during hurricanes.

  10. The Math You Need, When You Need It (TMYN: Leveling the Playing Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M. Wenner

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Math You Need, When You Need It (TMYN is a set of online tutorials designed to help students develop and review mathematical skills that are applied in undergraduate geoscience courses. We present results of a three-year study of more than 4000 students in 106 geoscience courses at a variety of post-secondary schools who were assigned TMYN tutorials as supplemental mathematics instruction. Changes in student scores from pre- to post-test suggest that the support provided by programs such as TMYN can begin to reduce the gap between mathematically well-prepared and underprepared students; in essence, TMYN levels the quantitative playing field for all geoscience students. On average, both high- and low-performing students who fully participated in the use of TMYN as a part of their course showed learning gains, although gains were larger for students who performed poorly on the pre-test. Our findings emphasize the conclusion that students who interact with context-specific quantitative problems can potentially improve their mathematical skills, regardless of initial level of mathematical preparation. We suggest that this type of support could generalize to other science courses.

  11. Ultrasonic Sensing of Plant Water Needs for Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Gómez Álvarez-Arenas

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Fresh water is a key natural resource for food production, sanitation and industrial uses and has a high environmental value. The largest water use worldwide (~70% corresponds to irrigation in agriculture, where use of water is becoming essential to maintain productivity. Efficient irrigation control largely depends on having access to reliable information about the actual plant water needs. Therefore, fast, portable and non-invasive sensing techniques able to measure water requirements directly on the plant are essential to face the huge challenge posed by the extensive water use in agriculture, the increasing water shortage and the impact of climate change. Non-contact resonant ultrasonic spectroscopy (NC-RUS in the frequency range 0.1–1.2 MHz has revealed as an efficient and powerful non-destructive, non-invasive and in vivo sensing technique for leaves of different plant species. In particular, NC-RUS allows determining surface mass, thickness and elastic modulus of the leaves. Hence, valuable information can be obtained about water content and turgor pressure. This work analyzes and reviews the main requirements for sensors, electronics, signal processing and data analysis in order to develop a fast, portable, robust and non-invasive NC-RUS system to monitor variations in leaves water content or turgor pressure. A sensing prototype is proposed, described and, as application example, used to study two different species: Vitis vinifera and Coffea arabica, whose leaves present thickness resonances in two different frequency bands (400–900 kHz and 200–400 kHz, respectively, These species are representative of two different climates and are related to two high-added value agricultural products where efficient irrigation management can be critical. Moreover, the technique can also be applied to other species and similar results can be obtained.

  12. Ultrasonic Sensing of Plant Water Needs for Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Álvarez-Arenas, Tomas; Gil-Pelegrin, Eustaquio; Ealo Cuello, Joao; Fariñas, Maria Dolores; Sancho-Knapik, Domingo; Collazos Burbano, David Alejandro; Peguero-Pina, Jose Javier

    2016-01-01

    Fresh water is a key natural resource for food production, sanitation and industrial uses and has a high environmental value. The largest water use worldwide (~70%) corresponds to irrigation in agriculture, where use of water is becoming essential to maintain productivity. Efficient irrigation control largely depends on having access to reliable information about the actual plant water needs. Therefore, fast, portable and non-invasive sensing techniques able to measure water requirements directly on the plant are essential to face the huge challenge posed by the extensive water use in agriculture, the increasing water shortage and the impact of climate change. Non-contact resonant ultrasonic spectroscopy (NC-RUS) in the frequency range 0.1–1.2 MHz has revealed as an efficient and powerful non-destructive, non-invasive and in vivo sensing technique for leaves of different plant species. In particular, NC-RUS allows determining surface mass, thickness and elastic modulus of the leaves. Hence, valuable information can be obtained about water content and turgor pressure. This work analyzes and reviews the main requirements for sensors, electronics, signal processing and data analysis in order to develop a fast, portable, robust and non-invasive NC-RUS system to monitor variations in leaves water content or turgor pressure. A sensing prototype is proposed, described and, as application example, used to study two different species: Vitis vinifera and Coffea arabica, whose leaves present thickness resonances in two different frequency bands (400–900 kHz and 200–400 kHz, respectively), These species are representative of two different climates and are related to two high-added value agricultural products where efficient irrigation management can be critical. Moreover, the technique can also be applied to other species and similar results can be obtained. PMID:27428968

  13. Modeling the Dynamic Water Resource Needs of California's Coastal Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alford, C.

    2009-12-01

    Many watersheds face formidable water supply challenges when it comes to managing water availability to meet diverse water supply and ecosystem management objectives. California’s central coast watersheds are no exception, and both the scarcity of water resources during drier water years and mandates to establish minimum instream flows for salmon habitat have prompted interests in reassessing water management strategies for several of these watersheds. Conventional supply-oriented hydrologic models, however, are not adequate to fully investigate and describe the reciprocal implications of surface water demands for human use and the maintenance of instream flows for salmon habitat that vary both temporally and spatially within a watershed. In an effort to address this issue I developed a coastal watershed management model based on the San Gregorio watershed utilizing the Water Evaluation and Planning (WEAP) system, which permits demand-side prioritization at a time step interval and spatial resolution that captures functional supply and demand relationships. Physiographic input data such as soil type, land cover, elevation, habitat, and water demand sites were extrapolated at a sub-basin level in a GIS. Time-series climate data were collected and processed utilizing the Berkeley Water Center Data Cube at daily time steps for the period 1952 through September 2009. Recent synoptic flow measurements taken at seven tributary sites during the 2009 water year, water depth measured by pressure transducers at six sites within the watershed from September 2005 through September 2009, and daily gauge records from temporary gauges installed in 1981 were used to assess the hydrologic patterns of sub-basins and supplement historic USGS gauge flow records. Empirical functions were used to describe evapotranspiration, surface runoff, sub-surface runoff, and deep percolation. Initial model simulations carried out under both dry and wet water year scenarios were able to capture

  14. Water-level fluctuations influence sediment porewater ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reservoirs typically have elevated fish mercury (Hg) levels compared to natural lakes and rivers. A unique feature of reservoirs is water-level management which can result in sediment exposure to the air. The objective of this study is to identify how reservoir water-level fluctuations impact Hg cycling, particularly the formation of the more toxic and bioaccumulative methylmercury (MeHg). Total-Hg (THg), MeHg, stable isotope methylation rates and several ancillary parameters were measured in reservoir sediments (including some in porewater and overlying water) that are seasonally and permanently inundated. The results showed that sediment and porewater MeHg concentrations were over 3-times higher in areas experiencing water-level fluctuations compared to permanently inundated sediments. Analysis of the data suggest that the enhanced breakdown of organic matter in sediments experiencing water-level fluctuations has a two-fold effect on stimulating Hg methylation: 1) it increases the partitioning of inorganic Hg from the solid phase into the porewater phase (lower log Kd values) where it is more bioavailable for methylation; and 2) it increases dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the porewater which can stimulate the microbial community that can methylate Hg. Sulfate concentrations and cycling were enhanced in the seasonally inundated sediments and may have also contributed to increased MeHg production. Overall, our results suggest that reservoir management a

  15. Hydro static water level systems at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volk, J.T.; Guerra, J.A.; Hansen, S.U.; Kiper, T.E.; Jostlein, H.; Shiltsev, V.; Chupyra, A.; Kondaurov, M.; Singatulin, S.

    2006-09-01

    Several Hydrostatic Water Leveling systems (HLS) are in use at Fermilab. Three systems are used to monitor quadrupoles in the Tevatron and two systems are used to monitor ground motion for potential sites for the International Linear Collider (ILC). All systems use capacitive sensors to determine the water level of water in a pool. These pools are connected with tubing so that relative vertical shifts between sensors can be determined. There are low beta quadrupoles at the B0 and D0 interaction regions of Tevatron accelerator. These quadrupoles use BINP designed and built sensors and have a resolution of 1 micron. All regular lattice superconducting quadrupoles (a total of 204) in the Tevatron use a Fermilab designed system and have a resolution of 6 microns. Data on quadrupole motion due to quenches, changes in temperature will be presented. In addition data for ground motion for ILC studies caused by natural and cultural factors will be presented.

  16. The water energy nexus, an ISO50001 water case study and the need for a water value system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan P. Walsh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The world’s current utilisation of water, allied to the forecasted increase in our dependence on it, has led to the realisation that water as a resource needs to be managed. The scarcity and cost of water worldwide, along with water management practices within Europe, are highlighted in this paper. The heavy dependence of energy generation on water and the similar dependence of water treatment and distribution on energy, collectively termed the water–energy nexus, is detailed. A summary of the recently launched ISO14046 Water Footprint Standard along with other benchmarking measures is outlined and a case history of managing water using the Energy Management Standard ISO50001 is discussed in detail. From this, the requirement for a methodology for improvement of water management has been identified, involving a value system for water streams, which, once optimised will improve water management including efficiency and total utilisation.

  17. Minimum Reservoir Water Level in Hydropower Dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkardeh, Hamed

    2017-07-01

    Vortex formation over the intakes is an undesirable phenomenon within the water withdrawal process from a dam reservoir. Calculating the minimum operating water level in power intakes by empirical equations is not a safe way and sometimes contains some errors. Therefore, current method to calculate the critical submergence of a power intake is construction of a scaled physical model in parallel with numerical model. In this research some proposed empirical relations for prediction of submergence depth in power intakes were validated with experimental data of different physical and numerical models of power intakes. Results showed that, equations which involved the geometry of intake have better correspondence with the experimental and numerical data.

  18. Matching renewable energy systems to village-level energy needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashworth, J.H.; Neuendorffer, J.W.

    1980-06-01

    This report provides a five step process for matching alternative renewable energy technologies with energy needs in rural villages of developing countries. Analytic tools are given for each of the five steps as well as information that can be expected. Twelve characterization criteria are developed to assist in the matching process. Three of these criteria, called discrimination criteria, are used for preliminary screening of technology possibilities for each need. The other criteria address site-specific temporal, climatic, social, cultural, and environmental characteristics of the energy need, technology, and cost considerations. To illustrate the matching process, seven basic human needs for energy are matched with seven potential renewable energy technologies. The final portion of the paper discusses the advantages of such a matching process and the resources required to initiate such an effort within a development project. Specific recommendations are given for field-testing this process and actions that could be taken immediately in basic research and development, applied research and technology modification, demonstrations, and commercialization to assist in the future diffusion of renewable energy technologies to rural areas of developing countries.

  19. GNSS-Reflectometry based water level monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckheinrich, Jamila; Schön, Steffen; Beyerle, Georg; Apel, Heiko; Semmling, Maximilian; Wickert, Jens

    2013-04-01

    Due to climate changing conditions severe changes in the Mekong delta in Vietnam have been recorded in the last years. The goal of the German Vietnamese WISDOM (Water-related Information system for the Sustainable Development Of the Mekong Delta) project is to build an information system to support and assist the decision makers, planners and authorities for an optimized water and land management. One of WISDOM's tasks is the flood monitoring of the Mekong delta. Earth reflected L-band signals from the Global Navigation Satellite System show a high reflectivity on water and ice surfaces or on wet soil so that GNSS-Reflectometry (GNSS-R) could contribute to monitor the water level in the main streams of the Mekong delta complementary to already existing monitoring networks. In principle, two different GNSS-R methods exist: the code- and the phase-based one. As the latter being more accurate, a new generation of GORS (GNSS Occultation, Reflectometry and Scatterometry) JAVAD DELTA GNSS receiver has been developed with the aim to extract precise phase observations. In a two week lasting measurement campaign, the receiver has been tested and several reflection events at the 150-200 m wide Can Tho river in Vietnam have been recorded. To analyze the geometrical impact on the quantity and quality of the reflection traces two different antennas height were tested. To track separately the direct and the reflected signal, two antennas were used. To derive an average height of the water level, for a 15 min observation interval, a phase model has been developed. Combined with the coherent observations, the minimum slope has been calculated based on the Least- Squares method. As cycle slips and outliers will impair the results, a preprocessing of the data has been performed. A cycle slip detection strategy that allows for automatic detection, identification and correction is proposed. To identify outliers, the data snooping method developed by Baarda 1968 is used. In this

  20. Estimating Water Levels with Google Earth Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucero, E.; Russo, T. A.; Zentner, M.; May, J.; Nguy-Robertson, A. L.

    2016-12-01

    Reservoirs serve multiple functions and are vital for storage, electricity generation, and flood control. For many areas, traditional ground-based reservoir measurements may not be available or data dissemination may be problematic. Consistent monitoring of reservoir levels in data-poor areas can be achieved through remote sensing, providing information to researchers and the international community. Estimates of trends and relative reservoir volume can be used to identify water supply vulnerability, anticipate low power generation, and predict flood risk. Image processing with automated cloud computing provides opportunities to study multiple geographic areas in near real-time. We demonstrate the prediction capability of a cloud environment for identifying water trends at reservoirs in the US, and then apply the method to data-poor areas in North Korea, Iran, Azerbaijan, Zambia, and India. The Google Earth Engine cloud platform hosts remote sensing data and can be used to automate reservoir level estimation with multispectral imagery. We combine automated cloud-based analysis from Landsat image classification to identify reservoir surface area trends and radar altimetry to identify reservoir level trends. The study estimates water level trends using three years of data from four domestic reservoirs to validate the remote sensing method, and five foreign reservoirs to demonstrate the method application. We report correlations between ground-based reservoir level measurements in the US and our remote sensing methods, and correlations between the cloud analysis and altimetry data for reservoirs in data-poor areas. The availability of regular satellite imagery and an automated, near real-time application method provides the necessary datasets for further temporal analysis, reservoir modeling, and flood forecasting. All statements of fact, analysis, or opinion are those of the author and do not reflect the official policy or position of the Department of Defense or any

  1. The water needed to have Italians eat pasta and pizza

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aldaya, M.M.; Hoekstra, A.Y.

    2009-01-01

    Problems of freshwater scarcity and pollution are related to water use by farmers, industries and households. The term ‘water users’ has always been interpreted as ‘those who apply water for some purpose’. As a result, governments responsible for water resources management have traditionally targete

  2. Decreasing residual aluminum level in drinking water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志红; 崔福义

    2004-01-01

    The relativity of coagulant dosage, residual turbidity, temperature, pH etc. with residual aluminum concentration were investigated, and several important conclusions were achieved. Firstly, dosage of alum-coagulant or PAC1 influences residual aluminum concentration greatly. There is an optimal-dosage-to-aluminum, a bit less than the optimal-dosage-to-turbidity. Secondly, it proposes that decreasing residual aluminum concentration can be theoretically divided into two methods, either decreasing (even removing) the concentration of particulate aluminum component, or decreasing dissolved aluminum. In these tests there is an optimal value of residual turbidity of postprecipitation at 7.0 NTU. Thirdly, residual aluminum level will increase while water temperature goes higher. At the last, optimal pH value corresponds a minimum dissolved aluminum at a given turbidity. Data shows the optimal pH value decreases with water temperature's increasing.

  3. Predicting Water Levels at Kainji Dam Using Artificial Neural Networks

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Predicting Water Levels at Kainji Dam Using Artificial Neural Networks. ... The aim of this study is to develop artificial neural network models for predicting water levels at Kainji Dam, which supplies water to Nigeria's largest ... Article Metrics.

  4. To save water or not? : A study of water scarcity at multiple levels, and people's attitudestowards it in Bangalore, India

    OpenAIRE

    Bognäs, Désirée

    2011-01-01

    In a situation where population growth and development is to be sustained throughnaturally limited water resources, something needs to be done to either render waterusage more effective or make more water available. This is the situation in Bangalore Urban District (BUD), an ever growing city lying far from perennial water sources. This thesis presents the water situation in BUD, and aims to analyze the current status of water resources on multiple levels in BUD. Further the aim is to look at...

  5. Water Requirements for Food Assessed at Different Levels of Scale

    OpenAIRE

    de Ruiter, Henri

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Fresh water scarcity is a major and increasing problem. Increasing water scarcity will have consequences for food security; thus strategies are needed to reduce the appropriation of water. Since agriculture uses 70% of all freshwater withdrawals,

  6. Water Requirements for Food Assessed at Different Levels of Scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiter de, Henri

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Fresh water scarcity is a major and increasing problem. Increasing water scarcity will have consequences for food security; thus strategies are needed to reduce the appropriation of water. Since agriculture uses 70% of all freshwater withdrawals,

  7. Urban Water Tariffs in Spain: What Needs to Be Done?

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel A. García-Rubio; Alberto Ruiz-Villaverde; Francisco González-Gómez

    2015-01-01

    Recently, in the context of the Integrated Water Resources Management, demand policies are playing a more important role as opposed to traditional supply policies based on the construction of large hydraulic infrastructures. In this new context, water tariffs have become an important tool in achieving economic efficiency, environmental sustainability, and social equity. This paper reviews the situation of urban water tariffs in Spain, a country subject to high water stress. It analyzes the ca...

  8. The water needed for Italians to eat pasta and pizza

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aldaya, M.M.; Hoekstra, A.Y.

    2010-01-01

    Water resources use in agriculture is generally quantified in relation to the harvest. In contrast, this paper takes a consumer perspective by assessing water use in relation to the final consumer product. The paper analyses the water use related to two products that are typical to Italian consumers

  9. EPA Office of Water (OW): Clean Watersheds Needs Survey NHDPlus Indexed Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Clean Watersheds Needs Survey (CWNS) is a comprehensive assessment of the capital needs to the water quality goals set in the Clean Water Act. Every four years,...

  10. INRA Water Resource Management Research and EducationNeeds Assessment Project

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    The Water Resources Research Needs Assessment team received funding in summer 2006 from the Inland Northwest Research Alliance (INRA) Water Resources Steering Committee to conduct a structured needs assessment study. The study was motivated by the desire to allow future INRA research and educational programs to meet better the needs of water resources managers in the five state INRA region.

  11. Managing Nicaraguan Water Resources Definition and Relative Importance of Information Needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engi, D.; Guillen, S.M.; Vammen, K.

    1999-01-01

    This report provides an overview of the results of the Vital the Nicaraguan Water Resources Management Initiative, Issues process as implemented for a collaborative effort between the Nicaraguan Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources and Sandia National Laboratories. This initiative is being developed to assist in the development of an efficient and sustainable water resources management system for Nicamgua. The Vital Issues process was used to provide information for developing a project that will develop and implement an advanced information system for managing Nicaragua's water resources. Three Vital Issues panel meetings were convened to 1) develop a mission statement and evaluation criteria for identifying and ranking the issues vital to water resources management in Nicaragua 2) define and rank the vital issues; and 3) identify a preliminary list of information needed to address the vital issues. The selection of panelists from the four basic institutional perspectives- government, industiy, academe, and citizens' groups (through nongovernmental organizations (NGOs))-ensured a high level of stakeholder representation on the panels. The already existing need for a water resource management information system has been magnified in the aftemnath of Hurricane Mitch. This information system would be beneficial for an early warning system in emergencies, and the modeling and simulation capabilities of the system would allow for advanced planning. Additionally, the outreach program will provide education to help Nicaraguan improve their water hygiene practices.

  12. Heavy metals in drinking water: Occurrences, implications, and future needs in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Shakhawat; Mazumder, M A Jafar; Al-Attas, Omar; Husain, Tahir

    2016-11-01

    Heavy metals in drinking water pose a threat to human health. Populations are exposed to heavy metals primarily through water consumption, but few heavy metals can bioaccumulate in the human body (e.g., in lipids and the gastrointestinal system) and may induce cancer and other risks. To date, few thousand publications have reported various aspects of heavy metals in drinking water, including the types and quantities of metals in drinking water, their sources, factors affecting their concentrations at exposure points, human exposure, potential risks, and their removal from drinking water. Many developing countries are faced with the challenge of reducing human exposure to heavy metals, mainly due to their limited economic capacities to use advanced technologies for heavy metal removal. This paper aims to review the state of research on heavy metals in drinking water in developing countries; understand their types and variability, sources, exposure, possible health effects, and removal; and analyze the factors contributing to heavy metals in drinking water. This study identifies the current challenges in developing countries, and future research needs to reduce the levels of heavy metals in drinking water.

  13. Urban Water Tariffs in Spain: What Needs to Be Done?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A. García-Rubio

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, in the context of the Integrated Water Resources Management, demand policies are playing a more important role as opposed to traditional supply policies based on the construction of large hydraulic infrastructures. In this new context, water tariffs have become an important tool in achieving economic efficiency, environmental sustainability, and social equity. This paper reviews the situation of urban water tariffs in Spain, a country subject to high water stress. It analyzes the capacity of urban water tariffs to recover service costs and to promote efficiency, sustainability, affordability, and equity. Although it has made significant progress in recent years, the Spanish urban water tariff system still faces many challenges. Many of these challenges would be better addressed by a national independent regulatory body.

  14. The need for water quality criteria for frogs.

    OpenAIRE

    Boyer, R; Grue, C. E.

    1995-01-01

    Amphibians are considered reliable indicators of environmental quality. In the western United States, a general decline of frog populations parallels an apparent worldwide decline. The factors thought to be contributing to declines in frog populations include habitat loss, introduction of exotic species, overexploitation, disease, climate change, and decreasing water quality. With respect to water quality, agroecosystems use 80-90% of the water resources in the western United States, frequent...

  15. Drinking Water Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — National Primary Drinking Water Regulations (NPDWRs or primary standards) are legally enforceable standards that apply to public water systems. Primary standards...

  16. Water-Table Levels and Gradients, Nevada, 1947-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Thomas J.; Buto, Susan G.; Smith, J. LaRue; Welborn, Toby L.

    2006-01-01

    In 1999, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency began a program to protect the quality of ground water in areas other than ground-water protection areas. These other sensitive ground water areas (OSGWA) are areas that are not currently, but could eventually be, used as a source of drinking water. The OSGWA program specifically addresses existing wells that are used for underground injection of motor-vehicle waste. To help determine whether a well is in an OSGWA, the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection needs statewide information on depth to water and the water table, which partly control the susceptibility of ground water to contamination and contaminant transport. This report describes a study that used available maps and data to create statewide maps of water-table and depth-to-water contours and surfaces, assessed temporal changes in water-table levels, and characterized water-table gradients in selected areas of Nevada. A literature search of published water-table and depth-to-water contours produced maps of varying detail and scope in 104 reports published from 1948 to 2004. Where multiple maps covered the same area, criteria were used to select the most recent, detailed maps that covered the largest area and had plotted control points. These selection criteria resulted in water-table and depth-to-water contours that are based on data collected from 1947 to 2004 being selected from 39 reports. If not already available digitally, contours and control points were digitized from selected maps, entered into a geographic information system, and combined to make a statewide map of water-table contours. Water-table surfaces were made by using inverse distance weighting to estimate the water table between contours and then gridding the estimates. Depth-to-water surfaces were made by subtracting the water-table altitude from the land-surface altitude. Water-table and depth-to-water surfaces were made for only 21 percent of Nevada because of a lack of

  17. A high resolution water level forecast for the German Bight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niehüser, Sebastian; Dangendorf, Sönke; Arns, Arne; Jensen, Jürgen

    2016-04-01

    Many coastal regions worldwide are potentially endangered by storm surges which can cause disastrous damages and loss of life. Due to climate change induced sea level rise, an accumulation of such events is expected by the end of the 21th century. Therefore, advanced storm surge warnings are needed to be prepared when another storm surge hits the coast. In the shallow southeastern North Sea these storm surge warnings are nowadays routinely provided for selected tide gauge locations along a coastline through state-of-the-art forecast systems, which are based on a coupled system of empirical tidal predictions and numerical storm surge forecasts. Along the German North Sea coastline, the Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency in cooperation with the German Weather Service is responsible for the storm surge warnings. They provide accurate, high frequency and real-time water level forecasts for up to six days ahead at selected tide gauge sites via internet, telephone and broadcast. Since water levels along the German North Sea coastline are dominated by shallow water effects and a very complex bathymetric structure of the seabed, the pointwise forecast is not necessarily transferable to un-gauged areas between the tide gauges. Here we aim to close this existing gap and develop water level forecasts with a high spatial (continuously with a resolution of at least 1 kilometer) as well as a high temporal (at least 15-minute values) resolution along the entire German North Sea coastline. We introduce a new methodology for water level forecasts which combines empirical or statistical and numerical models. While the tidal forecast is performed by non-parametric interpolation techniques between un-gauged and gauged sites, storm surges are estimated on the basis of statistical/empirical storm surge formulas taken from a numerical model hindcast. The procedure will be implemented in the operational mode forced with numerical weather forecasts.

  18. Adapting a geographical information system-based water resource management to the needs of the Romanian water authorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soutter, Marc; Alexandrescu, Maria; Schenk, Colin; Drobot, Radu

    2009-08-01

    commercial GIS software), also identified during the assessment of needs, are developed. This methodology was applied, on an experimental basin, in the Ialomita River basin. The results obtained from this action-research project consist of a set of tangible elements, among which (1) a conceptual data model adapted to the Romanian specificities regarding water resources management (needs, data availability, etc.), (2) a related spatial relational database (objects and attributes in tables, links, etc.), that can be used to store the data collected, among others, by the water administration, and later on exploited with geographical information systems, (3) a toolbar (in the ESRI environment) offering the requested data processing and visualizing functionalities. Lessons learned from this whole process can be considered as additional, although less tangible, results. The applied methodology is fairly classical and did not come up with revolutionary results. Actually, the interesting aspects of this work are, on the one hand, and obviously, the fact that it produced tools matching the needs of the local (if not national) water administration (i.e. with a good chance of being effectively used in the day-to-day practice), and, on the other hand, the adaptations and adjustments that were needed both at the staff level and in technical terms. This research showed that a GIS-based water management system needs to be backed by some basic data management tools that form the necessary support upon which a GIS can be deployed. The main lesson gained is that technology transfer has to pay much attention to the differences in existing situations and backgrounds in general, and therefore must be able to show much flexibility. The fact that the original objectives could be adapted to meet the real needs of the local end-users is considered as a major aspect in achieving a successful adaptation and development of water resources management tools. Time needed to setup things in real life was

  19. 20 CFR 663.840 - How is the level of needs-related payments determined?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How is the level of needs-related payments determined? 663.840 Section 663.840 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Services § 663.840 How is the level of needs-related payments determined? (a) The payment level for...

  20. Reducing production of taste and odor by deep-living cyanobacteria in drinking water reservoirs by regulation of water level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ming; Jia, Dongmin; Yu, Jianwei; Vogt, Rolf D; Wang, Jingshi; An, Wei; Yang, Min

    2017-01-01

    Abatement and control of algae, producing toxins and creating taste & odor (T&O) in drinking water sources, is a major challenge for water supply. In this study we proposed a strategy based on water level regulation for the control of odor-producing cyanobacteria in source water. Miyun Reservoir, the main surface water source for Beijing, has been suffering from 2-methylisoborneol (2-MIB) induced T&O problems caused by deep-living Planktothrix sp. since 2002. The biomass of deep-living Planktothrix in Miyun Reservoir was found to be mainly governed by the water depth above its sediment habitat. An algorithm for water level regulation aiming to minimize the risk for T&O in different types of reservoirs is proposed. The study demonstrates that risk for T&O can be minimized by increasing the water level in Miyun Reservoir. The high-risk area can be reduced by about 2.91% (0.61% to 5.76%) of surface area for each meter increase in the water level, when the water level is lower than 145m. More specifically, the water level needs to be raised to higher than 147.7ma.s.l. from 131.0m in order to obtain an acceptable risk level (ARL) of 10%. This management strategy to abate T&O problems is simpler and cheaper to implement compared to traditional physical, chemical and biological techniques. Moreover, it has no apparent negative impact on water quality and aquatic organisms.

  1. Recent and late quaternary changes in water level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walcott, R. I.

    1975-01-01

    Water level changes of both the Great Lakes and the sea are described along with methods of analyzing water level data. The influence of elastic deformation of the earth and viscosity is discussed. Causes of water level changes reviewed include: earth movements, geoid changes, storm surges or meteorological phenomena, and melting ice in Antarctica, Greenland, and the mountain glaciers.

  2. Workgroup report: Drinking-water nitrate and health - Recent findings and research needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, M.H.; deKok, T.M.; Levallois, P.; Brender, J.; Gulis, G.; Nolan, B.T.; VanDerslice, J.

    2005-01-01

    Human alteration of the nitrogen cycle has resulted in steadily accumulating nitrate in our water resources. The U.S. maximum contaminant level and World Health Organization guidelines for nitrate in drinking water were promulgated to protect infants from developing methemoglobinemia, an acute condition. Some scientists have recently suggested that the regulatory limit for nitrate is overly conservative; however, they have not thoroughly considered chronic health outcomes. In August 2004, a symposium on drinking-water nitrate and health was held at the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology meeting to evaluate nitrate exposures and associated health effects in relation to the current regulatory limit. The contribution of drinking-water nitrate toward endogenous formation of N-nitroso compounds was evaluated with a focus toward identifying subpopulations with increased rates of nitrosation. Adverse health effects may be the result of a complex interaction of the amount of nitrate ingested, the concomitant ingestion of nitrosation cofactors and precursors, and specific medical conditions that increase nitrosation. Workshop participants concluded that more experimental studies are needed and that a particularly fruitful approach may be to conduct epidemiologic studies among susceptible subgroups with increased endogenous nitrosation. The few epidemiologic studies that have evaluated intake of nitrosation precursors and/or nitrosation inhibitors have observed elevated risks for colon cancer and neural tube defects associated with drinking-water nitrate concentrations below the regulatory limit. The role of drinking-water nitrate exposure as a risk factor for specific cancers, reproductive outcomes, and other chronic health effects must be studied more thoroughly before changes to the regulatory level for nitrate in drinking water can be considered.

  3. Workgroup Report: Drinking-Water Nitrate and Health—Recent Findings and Research Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Mary H.; deKok, Theo M.; Levallois, Patrick; Brender, Jean; Gulis, Gabriel; Nolan, Bernard T.; VanDerslice, James

    2005-01-01

    Human alteration of the nitrogen cycle has resulted in steadily accumulating nitrate in our water resources. The U.S. maximum contaminant level and World Health Organization guidelines for nitrate in drinking water were promulgated to protect infants from developing methemoglobinemia, an acute condition. Some scientists have recently suggested that the regulatory limit for nitrate is overly conservative; however, they have not thoroughly considered chronic health outcomes. In August 2004, a symposium on drinking-water nitrate and health was held at the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology meeting to evaluate nitrate exposures and associated health effects in relation to the current regulatory limit. The contribution of drinking-water nitrate toward endogenous formation of N-nitroso compounds was evaluated with a focus toward identifying subpopulations with increased rates of nitrosation. Adverse health effects may be the result of a complex interaction of the amount of nitrate ingested, the concomitant ingestion of nitrosation cofactors and precursors, and specific medical conditions that increase nitrosation. Workshop participants concluded that more experimental studies are needed and that a particularly fruitful approach may be to conduct epidemiologic studies among susceptible subgroups with increased endogenous nitrosation. The few epidemiologic studies that have evaluated intake of nitrosation precursors and/or nitrosation inhibitors have observed elevated risks for colon cancer and neural tube defects associated with drinking-water nitrate concentrations below the regulatory limit. The role of drinking-water nitrate exposure as a risk factor for specific cancers, reproductive outcomes, and other chronic health effects must be studied more thoroughly before changes to the regulatory level for nitrate in drinking water can be considered. PMID:16263519

  4. Policy Brief: Enhancing water-use efficiency of thermal power plants in India: need for mandatory water audits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batra, R.K. (ed.)

    2012-12-15

    This policy brief discusses the challenges of water availability and opportunity to improve the water use efficiency in industries specially the thermal power plants. It presents TERI’s experience from comprehensive water audits conducted for thermal power plants in India. The findings indicate that there is a significant scope for saving water in the waste water discharge, cooling towers, ash handling systems, and the township water supply. Interventions like recycling wastewater, curbing leakages, increasing CoC (Cycles of concentration) in cooling towers, using dry ash handling etc., can significantly reduce the specific water consumption in power plants. However, the first step towards this is undertaking regular water audits. The policy brief highlights the need of mandatory water audits necessary to understand the current water use and losses as well as identify opportunities for water conservation, reduction in specific water consumption, and an overall improvement in water use efficiency in industries.

  5. Cholesterol Levels: What You Need to Know | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: High Cholesterol Cholesterol Levels: What You Need to Know Past Issues / Summer 2012 Table of Contents Measuring Cholesterol Levels Learn more at MedlinePlus: https://medlineplus.gov/ ...

  6. On the need for system alignment in large water infrastructure. Understanding infrastructure dynamics in Nairobi, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pär Blomkvist

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article we contribute to the discussion of infrastructural change in Africa, and explore how a new theoretical perspective may offer a different, more comprehensive and historically informed understanding of the trend towards large water infrastructure in Africa. We examine the socio-technical dynamics of large water infrastructures in Nairobi, Kenya, in a longer historical perspective using two concepts that we call intra-systemic alignment and inter-level alignment. Our theoretical perspective is inspired by Large Technical Systems (LTS and Multi-Level Perspective (MLP. While inter-level alignment focuses on the process of aligning the technological system at the three levels of niche, regime and landscape, intra-systemic alignment deals with how components within the regime are harmonised and standardised to fit with each other. We pay special attention to intrasystemic alignment between the supply side and the demand side, or as we put it, upstream and downstream components of a system. In narrating the history of water supply in Nairobi, we look at both the upstream (largescale supply and downstream activities (distribution and payment, and compare the Nairobi case with European history of large infrastructures. We emphasise that regime actors in Nairobi have dealt with the issues of alignment mainly to facilitate and expand upstream activities, while concerning downstream activities they have remained incapable of expanding service and thus integrating the large segment of low-income consumers. We conclude that the present surge of large-scale water investment in Nairobi is the result of sector reforms that enabled the return to a long tradition – a 'Nairobi style' – of upstream investment mainly benefitting the highincome earners. Our proposition is that much more attention needs to be directed at inter-level alignment at the downstream end of the system, to allow the creation of niches aligned to the regime.

  7. Stevia water needs calculated from the crop coefficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Constanza Daza Torres

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the crop coefficient (Kc curve for stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni in Candelaria, Valle del Cauca, Colombia. The experiment was conducted during the first half of 2015. In a plot planted with stevia, were located three drainage lysimeters arranged randomly and a portable weather station to determine climatic variables necessary for calculating an evapotranspiration reference (ETo, using the Penman Monteith equation. Soil eld capacity moisture was determined and regular monitoring of both, soil moisture and drainage water depth were performed. Irrigation was applied using an exhaustion coefficient of 10% to bring it back to field capacity  moisture. Statistical analyzes were performed and Kc was calculated from the ratio of crop evapotranspiration (ETc to ETo, for each plant in phenological phase. With condidence of 95% Kc for stevia were: growth stage (54 days after transplantation, ddt 0.86 ± 0.12, mature stage (55-72 ddt 1.24 ± 0.10 and senescence stage (72-96 ddt 0.85 ± 0.14. Water consumption of Stevia rebaudiana B., was 4753 m3/ha during its growing cycle of 96 days after transplantation.

  8. Managing Senegalese water resources: Definition and relative importance of information needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engi, D.

    1998-09-01

    This report provides an overview of the results of the Vital Issues process as implemented for the Senegal Water Resources Management Initiative, a collaborative effort between the Senegalese Ministry of Water Resources and Sandia National Laboratories. This Initiative is being developed to assist in the development of an efficient and sustainable water resources management system for Senegal. The Vital Issues process was used to provide information for the development of a proposal that will recommend actions to address the key management issues and establish a state-of-the-art decision support system (DSS) for managing Senegal`s water resources. Three Vital Issues panel meetings were convened to (1) develop a goal statement and criteria for identifying and ranking the issues vital to water resources management in Senegal; (2) define and rank the issues, and (3) identify and prioritize a preliminary list of information needed to address the vital issues. The selection of panelists from the four basic institutional perspectives (government, industry, academe, and citizens` interest groups) ensured a high level of stakeholder representation on the panels.

  9. Personal needs versus national needs: public attitudes regarding health care priorities at the personal and national levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Giora; Baron-Epel, Orna

    2015-01-01

    Many stakeholders have little or no confidence in the ability of the public to express their opinions on health policy issues. The claim often arises that lay people prioritize according to their own personal experiences and may lack the broad perspective necessary to understand the needs of the population at large. In order to test this claim empirically, this study compares the public's priorities regarding personal insurance to their priorities regarding allocation of national health resources. Thus, the study should shed light on the extent to which the public's priorities at the national level are a reflection of their priorities at the personal level. A telephone survey was conducted with a representative sample of the Israeli adult population aged 18 and over (n = 1,225). The public's priorities were assessed by asking interviewees to assume that they were the Minister of Health and from this point of view allocate an additional budget among various health areas. Their priorities at the personal level were assessed by asking interviewees to choose preferred items for inclusion in their personal supplementary health insurance. Over half of the respondents (54%) expressed different personal and national priorities. In multivariable logistic analysis, "population group" was the only variable found to be statistically significant; Jews were 1.8 times more likely than Arabs to give a similar response to both questions. Income level was of borderline significance. At least half of the population was able to differentiate between their personal needs and national policy needs. We do not advocate a decision-making process based on polls or referendums. However, we believe that people should be allowed to express their priorities regarding national policy issues, and that decision-makers should consider these as one of the factors used to determine policy decisions.

  10. Harmonizing water management and social needs: a necessary condition for sustainable development. The case of Israel's coastal aquifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melloul, Abraham J; Collin, Martin L

    2003-04-01

    This study focuses on the problem of most efficiently fulfilling the water requirements of society for sustainable water resources management. The goal is to coordinate effectively the social needs of the resident population with operational water resources management planning.The proposed approach consists of a pyramidal hierarchy of water resource management needs, similar to that suggested by psychologist Abraham Maslow for human social needs. The two pyramidal hierarchies can be simultaneously employed to delineate guidelines to synchronize planning for sustainable water resources development with the concerns and expectations of the resident population. In both hierarchies, higher level needs remain irrelevant and difficult to attain until lower level needs of the resident population have been fulfilled. Management planning measures employed with regard to Israel's coastal aquifer have been used to illustrate this approach. Observation of Israel's experience indicates markedly reduced effectiveness where such measures have failed to be properly synchronised with societal needs. Conversely, where hydrological management measures were successfully synchronized with societal concerns, increased efficiency towards attaining sustainable groundwater management was evident.

  11. NOAA NOS SOS, EXPERIMENTAL - Water Level

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA NOS SOS server is part of the IOOS DIF SOS Project. The stations in this dataset have water surface height above a reference datum. *These services are for...

  12. Assessing maize foliar water stress levels under field conditions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessing maize foliar water stress levels under field conditions using in-situ ... is non-destructive to the crops as opposed to other traditional ground-based methods. ... water indices that could monitor the water status at leaf level on maize (Zea ... about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Contact AJOL · Terms and Conditions of Use.

  13. Water levels in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tucci, P.; Goemaat, R.L.; Burkhardt, D.J.

    1996-07-01

    Water levels were monitored in 28 wells in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada, during 1993. Seventeen wells were monitored periodically, generally on a monthly basis, and 11 wells representing 18 intervals were monitored hourly. All wells monitor water levels in Tertiary volcanic rocks, except one that monitors water levels in Paleozoic carbonate rocks. Water levels were measured using calibrated steel tapes and pressure transducers; steel-tape measurements were corrected for mechanical stretch, thermal expansion, and borehole deviation to obtain precise water-level altitudes. Water-level altitudes in the Tertiary volcanic rocks ranged from about 728 meters above sea level east of Yucca Mountain to about 1,034 meters above sea level north of Yucca Mountain. Water-level altitudes in the well monitoring the Paleozoic carbonate rocks varied between 752 and 753 meters above sea level during 1993. Water levels were an average of about 0.04 meter lower than 1992 water levels. All data were acquired in accordance with a quality-assurance program to support the reliability of the data.

  14. Socio–economic benefits and pollution levels of water resources ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Assessment of socio–economic activities and pollution levels of domestic water sources in Gulu Municipality, Pece ... The communities should be sensitized to treat water before drinking. ..... primarily related to the poor maintenance of sanitary.

  15. Needs Assessment for the Use of NASA Remote Sensing Data for Regulatory Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiering, Bruce; Underwood, Lauren

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the assessment of the needs that NASA can use for the remote sensing of water quality. The goal of this project is to provide information for decision-making activities (water quality standards) using remotely sensed/satellite based water quality data from MODIS and Landsat data.

  16. Water needs and women's health in the Kumasi metropolitan area, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buor, Daniel

    2004-03-01

    This paper examines the impact of water fetching by women and the quality of water during periods of water scarcity on the health of women in the Kumasi metropolitan area. A sample of 210 women drawn using systematic random procedure is used for the study. Formal interview is the main instrument used. The survey has established that income, quality of water, hours spent fetching water during scarcity and age are the main factors influencing women's health in the metropolis during water scarcity. In both the core and periphery, the water-related problem influencing health is hours spent fetching water during scarcity. An empirical model on water needs and women's health has emerged from the survey. Recommendations have been made on strategies to ensure regular volume of surface water, effective management of scarce water resources with the participation of women, and ensuring gender equity in domestic services.

  17. Water levels in the Yucca Mountain Area, Nevada, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graves, R.P.

    1998-11-01

    Water levels were monitored in 24 wells in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada, during 1996. Twenty-two wells representing 28 depth intervals were monitored periodically, generally on a monthly basis, and 2 wells representing 3 depth intervals were monitored both hourly and periodically. All wells monitor water levels in Tertiary volcanic rocks except one that monitors water levels in paleozoic carbonate rocks. Water levels were measured using either calibrated steel tapes or a pressure sensor. Mean water-level altitudes in the Tertiary volcanic rocks ranged from about 727.86 to about 1,034.58 meters above sea level during 1996. The mean water-level altitude in the well monitoring the Paleozoic carbonate rocks was about 752.57 meters above sea level during 1996. Mean water-level altitudes for 1996 were an average of about 0.06 meter lower than 1995 mean water-level altitudes and 0.03 meter lower than 1985--95 mean water-level altitudes. During 1996, water levels in the Yucca Mountain area could have been affected by long-term pumping at the C-hole complex that began on May 8, 1996. Through December 31, 1996, approximately 196 million liters were pumped from well UE-25 c{number_sign}3 at the C-hole complex. Other ground-water pumpage in the Yucca Mountain area includes annual pumpage from water-supply wells UE-25 J-12 and UE-25 J-13 of approximately 163 and 105 million liters, respectively, and pumpage from well USW G-2 for hydraulic testing during February and April 1996 of approximately 6 million liters.

  18. Data Assimilation to Estimate the Water Level of River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apriliani, Erna; Hanafi, Lukman; Imron, Chairul

    2017-09-01

    Data assimilation is an estimation method for stochastic dynamic system by combining the mathematical model with measurement data. Water level and velocity of river are stochastic dynamic system, and it is important to estimate the water level and velocity of river flow to reduce flood risk disaster. Here, we estimate the water level and velocity of river flow by using data assimilation specially Kalman filter and Ensemble Kalman filter. We define mathematical model of river flow, discretize and do simulation by Kalman filter and Ensemble Kalman filter. In data assimilation, we forecast the water level and velocity by using mathematical model and based on the measurement data, the correction of forecasting is made.

  19. Animating ground water levels with Excel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikaze, Steven G; Crowe, Allan S

    2003-01-01

    This note describes the use of Microsoft Excel macros (programs written in Excel's internal language, Visual Basic for Applications) to create simple onscreen animations of transient ground water data within Excel. Compared to many specialized visualization software packages, the use of Excel macros is much cheaper, much simpler, and can rapidly be learned. The Excel macro can also be used to create individual GIF files for each animation frame. This series of frames can then be used to create an AVI video file using any of a number of graphics packages, such as Corel PhotoPaint. The technique is demonstrated through a macro that animates changes in the elevation of a water table along a transect over several years.

  20. Water levels in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graves, R.P.; Tucci, P.; Goemaat, R.L.

    1996-12-31

    Water levels were monitored in 28 wells in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada, during 1994. Twelve wells representing 13 intervals were monitored periodically, generally on a monthly basis, 6 wells representing 10 intervals were monitored hourly, and 10 wells representing 13 intervals were monitored both periodically and hourly. All wells monitor water levels in Tertiary volcanic rocks, except one, that monitors water levels in Paleozoic carbonate rocks. Water levels were measured using calibrated steel tapes, a multiconductor cable unit, and pressure transducers. Water-level altitudes in the Tertiary volcanic rocks ranged from about 728 to about 1,034 meters above sea level during 1994. The mean-annual water-level altitude in the well monitoring the Paleozoic carbonate rocks was about 753 meters above sea level during 1994. Water levels were only an average of about 0.01 meters lower than 1993 water levels. All data were acquired in accordance with a quality-assurance program to support the reliability of the data.

  1. Water levels in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graves, R.P.; Goemaat, R.L.

    1998-09-01

    Water levels were monitored in 28 wells in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada, during 1995. Seventeen wells representing 18 depth intervals were monitored periodically, generally on a monthly basis, 2 wells representing 3 depth intervals were monitored hourly, and 9 wells representing 15 depth intervals were monitored both periodically and hourly. All wells monitor water levels in Tertiary volcanic rocks except one that monitors water levels in Paleozoic carbonate rocks. Water levels were measured using calibrated steel tapes, a multiconductor cable unit, and/or pressure transducers. Mean water-level altitudes in the Tertiary volcanic rocks ranged from about 728 to about 1,034 meters above sea level during 1995. The mean water-level altitude in the well monitoring the Paleozoic carbonate rocks was about 753 meters above sea level during 1995. Mean water level altitudes were only an average of about 0.01 meters higher than 1994 mean water level altitudes. A single-well aquifer test was conducted on well UE-25 WT{number_sign}12 during August and September 1995. Well USW 0-2 was also pumped during October and November 1995, in preparation for single-well aquifer test at that well. All data were acquired in accordance with a quality-assurance program to support the reliability of the data.

  2. Digitalizing historical high resolution water level data: Challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holinde, Lars; Hein, Hartmut; Barjenbruch, Ulrich

    2017-04-01

    Historical tide-gauge data offer the opportunities for determining variations in key characteristics for water level data and the analyses of past extreme events (storm surges). These information are important for calculating future trends and scenarios. But there are challenges involved due to the extensive effort needed to digitalize gauge sheets and quality control the resulting historical data. Based on these conditions, two main sources for inaccuracies in historical time series can be identified. First are several challenges due to the digitalization of the historical data, e.g. general quality of the sheets, multiple crossing lines of the observed water levels and additional comments on the sheet describing problems or additional information during the measurements. Second are problems during the measurements themselves. These can include the incorrect positioning of the sheets, trouble with the tide-gauge and maintenance. Errors resulting from these problems can be e.g. flat lines, discontinuities and outlier. Especially, the characterization of outliers has to be conducted carefully, to distinguish between real outliers and the appearance of extreme events. Methods for the quality control process involve the use of statistics, machine learning and neural networks. These will be described and applied to three different time series from tide gauge stations at the cost of Lower Saxony, Germany. Resulting difficulties and outcomes of the quality control process will be presented and explained. Furthermore, we will present a first glance at analyses for these time series.

  3. Cross-sectoral conflicts for water under climate change: the need to include water quality impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Vliet, van, A.J.H.; Ludwig, F.; P. Kabat

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is expected to increase pressures on water use between different sectors (e.g. agriculture, energy, industry, domestic uses) and ecosystems. While climate change impacts on water availability have been studied widely, less work has been done to assess impacts on water quality. This study proposes a modelling framework to incorporate water quality in analyses of cross-sectoral conflicts for water between human uses and ecosystems under climate change and socio-economic changes. ...

  4. Unmet Health Care Needs of People with Disabilities: Population Level Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    McColl, Mary Ann; Jarzynowska, Anna; Shortt, S. E. D.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined population level data on unmet needs for adults with physical, sensory and cognitive disabilities, using the National Population Health Survey. The study revealed that disabled adults (aged 20-64) reported more than three times as many unmet health care needs as their non-disabled counterparts. Even after controlling for…

  5. An Economic Analysis Model of the Classification of Needs in Level Division

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Xiao-zheng

    2004-01-01

    Because there is a vague distinction respectively between the measurable components and mutual replacement, subjective comments and objective comments in the theories given by Maslow and Orldever, the author once offered his point on the four-level classification of needs. In order to interpret the mutual relation of the four levels, this paper mainly aims at offering an appropriate support of mathematical model and technical explanation. It offers an economic analysis and explanation of human needs qualitatively and quantitatively.

  6. Underwater noise levels in UK waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, Nathan D.; Brookes, Kate L.; Faulkner, Rebecca C.; Bicknell, Anthony W. J.; Godley, Brendan J.; Witt, Matthew J.

    2016-11-01

    Underwater noise from human activities appears to be rising, with ramifications for acoustically sensitive marine organisms and the functioning of marine ecosystems. Policymakers are beginning to address the risk of ecological impact, but are constrained by a lack of data on current and historic noise levels. Here, we present the first nationally coordinated effort to quantify underwater noise levels, in support of UK policy objectives under the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). Field measurements were made during 2013-2014 at twelve sites around the UK. Median noise levels ranged from 81.5-95.5 dB re 1 μPa for one-third octave bands from 63-500 Hz. Noise exposure varied considerably, with little anthropogenic influence at the Celtic Sea site, to several North Sea sites with persistent vessel noise. Comparison of acoustic metrics found that the RMS level (conventionally used to represent the mean) was highly skewed by outliers, exceeding the 97th percentile at some frequencies. We conclude that environmental indicators of anthropogenic noise should instead use percentiles, to ensure statistical robustness. Power analysis indicated that at least three decades of continuous monitoring would be required to detect trends of similar magnitude to historic rises in noise levels observed in the Northeast Pacific.

  7. Summary of the Ground-Water-Level Hydrologic Conditions in New Jersey 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Walter; Pope, Daryll

    2007-01-01

    Ground water is one of the Nation's most important natural resources. It provides about 40 percent of our Nation's public water supply. Currently, nearly one-half of New Jersey's drinking-water is supplied by over 300,000 wells that serve more than 4.3 million people (John P. Nawyn, U.S. Geological Survey, written commun., 2007). New Jersey's population is projected to grow by more than a million people by 2030 (U.S. Census Bureau, accessed March 2, 2006, at http://www.census.gov). As demand for water increases, managing the development and use of the ground-water resource so that the supply can be maintained for an indefinite time without causing unacceptable environmental, economic, or social consequences is of paramount importance. This report describes the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) New Jersey Water Science Center Observation Well Networks. Record low ground-water levels during water year 2006 (October 1, 2005 to September 30, 2006) are listed, and water levels in six selected water-table observation wells and three selected confined wells are shown in hydrographs. The report describes the trends in water levels in various confined aquifers in southern New Jersey and in water-table and fracture rock aquifers throughout the State. Web site addresses to access the data also are included. The USGS has operated a network of observation wells in New Jersey since 1923 for the purpose of monitoring ground-water-level changes throughout the State. Long-term systematic measurement of water levels in observation wells provides the data needed to evaluate changes in the ground-water resource over time. Records of ground-water levels are used to evaluate the effects of climate changes and water-supply development, to develop ground-water models, and to forecast trends.

  8. The Need for Regular Monitoring and Prediction of Ephemeral Water Bodies in SERVIR Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Eric

    2017-01-01

    With remote sensing and modeling techniques available today it is possible to regularly identify and monitor the presence of surface water globally, for a wide range of applications. Many of the available datasets and tools, however, do not adequately resolve small or ephemeral water bodies in a timely enough fashion to make local and subnational decisions about water resources management in developing regions. This presentation introduces a specific need focused on a basin in Senegal to develop a capability to identify and disseminate timely information on small and ephemeral water bodies, and we seek feedback on methods proposed to address this need.

  9. Cross-sectoral conflicts for water under climate change: the need to include water quality impacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van M.T.H.; Ludwig, F.; Kabat, P.

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is expected to increase pressures on water use between different sectors (e.g. agriculture, energy, industry, domestic uses) and ecosystems. While climate change impacts on water availability have been studied widely, less work has been done to assess impacts on water quality. This

  10. Cross-sectoral conflicts for water under climate change: the need to include water quality impacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van M.T.H.; Ludwig, F.; Kabat, P.

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is expected to increase pressures on water use between different sectors (e.g. agriculture, energy, industry, domestic uses) and ecosystems. While climate change impacts on water availability have been studied widely, less work has been done to assess impacts on water quality. This st

  11. Relations between vegetation and water level in alkaline fen ecosystems in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch Johansen, Ole; Andersen, Dagmar Kappel; Ejrnæs, Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    is proved to be a significant limiting factor for species diversity in wetlands, which should be considered along with the fertility in order to access the habitat quality. The study provides new insight in the water level preferences for GWDTEs which is highly needed in the management and assessment......, management and conservation of fens are constrained by limited knowledge on the relations between vegetation and measurable hydrological conditions. This study investigates the relations between vegetation and water level dynamics in groundwater dependent wetlands in Denmark. A total of 35 wetland sites...... Indicator scores of moisture, pH and nutrients were calculated for each site. The water level correlates with the number of typical fen species of vascular plants, whereas bryophytes are closer connected to the stable water level conditions provided by groundwater seepage. The water level variability...

  12. The Energy and Water Emergency Module; A containerized solution for meeting the energy and water needs in protracted displacement situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nerini, Francesco Fuso; Valentini, Francesco; Modi, Anish

    2015-01-01

    The world has faced many natural and man-made disasters in the past few years, resulting in millions of people living in temporary camps across the globe. The energy and clean water needs of the relief operators in such emergency situations are primarily satisfied by diesel engine based generators...... hybrid generation from solar, wind and biomass, with the possibility of using fossil sources too thanks to a dual fuel gas engine. The module can work both in grid connected and stand-alone mode. In addition the module includes a water purification unit to meet the water needs of displaced population...

  13. Application of the Water Needs Index: Can Tho City, Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moglia, Magnus; Neumann, Luis E.; Alexander, Kim S.; Nguyen, Minh N.; Sharma, Ashok K.; Cook, Stephen; Trung, Nguyen H.; Tuan, Dinh D. A.

    2012-10-01

    SummaryProvision of urban water supplies to rapidly growing cities of South East Asia is difficult because of increasing demand for limited water supplies, periodic droughts, and depletion and contamination of surface and groundwater. In such adverse environments, effective policy and planning processes are required to secure adequate water supplies. Developing a Water Needs Index reveals key elements of the complex urban water supply by means of a participatory approach for rapid and interdisciplinary assessment. The index uses deliberative interactions with stakeholders to create opportunities for mutual understanding, confirmation of constructs and capacity building of all involved. In Can Tho City, located at the heart of the Mekong delta in Vietnam, a Water Needs Index has been developed with local stakeholders. The functional attributes of the Water Needs Index at this urban scale have been critically appraised. Systemic water issues, supply problems, health issues and inadequate, poorly functioning infrastructure requiring attention from local authorities have been identified. Entrenched social and economic inequities in access to water and sanitation, as well as polluting environmental management practices has caused widespread problems for urban populations. The framework provides a common language based on systems thinking, increased cross-sectoral communication, as well as increased recognition of problem issues; this ought to lead to improved urban water management. Importantly, the case study shows that the approach can help to overcome biases of local planners based on their limited experience (information black spots), to allow them to address problems experienced in all areas of the city.

  14. Regional and State Level Water Scarcity Report: Northeast United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoletti, C. K.; Lopez-Morales, C. A.; Hoover, J. H.; Voigt, B. G.; Vorosmarty, C. J.; Mohammed, I. N.

    2010-12-01

    There are an abundance of large-scale, coarse resolution global water scarcity studies, but the existing literature fails to address regional and state specific scarcity measures. Moreover, while environmental water requirements are an integral factor in the development and implementation of sustainable water management practices, only recently has this notion been introduced to water scarcity research. In this paper, we argue that developing a preliminary measure of water scarcity, at the regional and state levels, will allow for more informed policy development. The goal of this study is to generate a more comprehensive understanding of water scarcity in the Northeast, by gathering fine scale data, applying a consistent methodology to the calculation of a scarcity index, and analyzing the results to see relative trends in spatio-temporal water scarcity. Public supply, irrigation, rural, industrial and thermo-power withdrawals have been compiled from USGS state water use publications from 1950 to 1985. Using the WBMplus water model runoff data, state specific in-stream environmental water requirements were calculated using the accepted hydro-ecological methodology. Water scarcity was then calculated as a ratio of water withdrawals to total available water minus environmental flow requirements for the system. In so doing, this study generates a spatially explicit and temporally varying water scarcity indicator (WSI) for the Northeastern United States between 1950 and 2000 at the regional and state levels at a five-year time interval. Calculation of a spatial and temporal water scarcity indicator enabled us to identify regions and specific states that were: slightly exploited (WSI 1.0). The minimum environmental water requirements to maintain in-stream aquatic and riparian ecosystems for the Northeastern states ranged between 27.5 to 36.3 percent of the mean annual runoff within Vermont and Maryland, respectively. The regional WSI values ranged between 0.199 in 1950

  15. Desalinated drinking water in the GCC countries - The need to address consumer perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shomar, Basem; Hawari, Jalal

    2017-10-01

    The Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries consist of Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates. These countries depend mainly on seawater desalination to meet their water needs. Although great emphasis is given to characterize desalinated water for its physicochemical and microbial properties, e.g. presence of metals, other organic contaminants and for bacteria, sensorial characteristics including smell, taste and color have not received the same attention. This is possibly attributed to the fact that inhabitants of GCC States do not use desalinated tap water for drinking consumption, rather they depend on locally produced or imported bottled water where color, taste and odor are not problematic. To address the consumer needs and perceptions of drinking desalinated water in GCC countries, water quality standards and guidelines, should respond to the public concern about other sensorial characteristics (organoleptic properties) including taste, odor, and trigeminal sensations. Often the root causes of color and smell in water are attributed to the presence of organic and inorganic contaminants and to bacterial growth which is frequently accompanied by the production of metabolites and byproducts that are obnoxious. The unpleasant sensorial problems associated with desalinated drinking tap water may constitute the driving force for most people in GCC countries to depend on bottled water. To encourage people in the GCC countries to consume desalinated tap water, it is essential that water testing include measurements of physicochemical properties, biofilm presence and organoleptic parameters to improve overall water quality. This review highlights the contribution of organoleptics for consumers of desalinated tap water. It extends water quality research to be addressed by standards for organoleptic parameters in desalinated drinking water. Accordingly, consumer awareness and outreach campaigns should be implemented to encourage people

  16. Assessing the Need for Higher Levels of Care Among Problem Gambling Outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledgerwood, David M; Arfken, Cynthia L

    2017-03-02

    Most treatment for gambling disorder is provided on an outpatient basis. Only a small number of jurisdictions in North America provide higher levels of gambling treatment, such as residential or intensive outpatient (IOP) care, despite the potential need for these services. Further, there appear to be few guidelines for determining appropriate level of gambling treatment. The aim of the present study was to assess the appropriateness of higher levels of problem gambling care among clients receiving outpatient treatment. Problem gamblers and their therapists independently completed questionnaires that assessed the need and desire for residential and IOP treatment. About 42% of problem gambling outpatients noted that they would be "probably" or "definitely" willing to attend residential treatment, and about half indicated they would be equally likely to attend IOP. Therapists recommended about a third of their clients as appropriate for higher levels of care. For both client and therapist assessments, there was a significant association between desire or recommendation for level of treatment and severity of gambling and co-occurring problems. Further, therapist recommendations for level of care were significantly associated with client willingness to attend higher levels of treatment. Our data reveal the potential need for higher levels of care for problem gambling, as evaluated by clients and their therapists. Policy implications for the funding of residential and IOP treatment are discussed.

  17. Sea Levels Online: Sea Level Variations of the United States Derived from National Water Level Observation Network Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water level records are a combination of the fluctuations of the ocean and the vertical land motion at the location of the station. Monthly mean sea level (MSL)...

  18. Radar Based Flow and Water Level Forecasting in Sewer Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren; Rasmussen, Michael R.; Grum, M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the first radar based forecast of flow and/or water level in sewer systems in Denmark. The rainfall is successfully forecasted with a lead time of 1-2 hours, and flow/levels are forecasted an additional ½-1½ hours using models describing the behaviour of the sewer system. Both...... radar data and flow/water level model are continuously updated using online rain gauges and online in-sewer measurements, in order to make the best possible predictions. The project show very promising results, and show large potentials, exploiting the existing water infrastructure in future climate...

  19. Research needs in drinking water: a basis in regulations in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacangelo, Joseph G; Askenaizer, Daniel J; Schwab, Kellogg

    2006-01-01

    Regulations are one of the primary drivers for research on contaminants in drinking water in the United States. Since the original Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), enacted in 1974, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has developed a series of drinking water regulations. These regulations are focused on protecting public health. When evaluating available information on whether or not to regulate a constituent in drinking water, USEPA considers available information on health effects and occurrence of the constituent. The authors provide their view of the research needed for these contaminants. For inorganics, more data are needed on perchlorate. For organics, greater treatment and health effects information is warranted for N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) and pharmaceuticals and personal care products. Finally, more research is needed on analytical methods for noroviruses and other emerging pathogens.

  20. Estimation of Peak Water Level in Pearl River Estuary under the Background of Sea Level Rise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KONG; Lan; CHEN; Xiao-hong; ZHUANG; Cheng-bin; CHEN; Dong-wei

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The study aimed to predict the peak water level in Pearl River Estuary under the background of sea level rise. [Method] The changing trends of peak water level at Denglongshan station and Hengmen station were analyzed firstly on the basis of regression models, and then sea level rise in Pearl River Estuary in 2050 was predicted to estimate the 1-in-50-year peak water level in the same year. [Result] Regression analyses showed that the increasing rate of peak water level over past years was 6.3 mm/a at Denglongshan station and 5.8 mm/a at Hengmen station. In addition, if sea level will rise by 20, 30 and 60 cm respectively in 2050, it was predicted that the 1-in-50-year peak water level will reach 3.04, 3.14 and 3.44 m at Denglongshan station, and 3.19, 3.29 and 3.59 m at Hengmen station separately. [Conclusion] The estimation of peak water level in Pearl River Estuary could provide theoretical references for water resources planning.

  1. Terrestrial Waters and Sea Level Variations on Interannual Time Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llovel, W.; Becker, M.; Cazenave, A.; Jevrejeva, S.; Alkama, R.; Decharme, B.; Douville, H.; Ablain, M.; Beckley, B.

    2011-01-01

    On decadal to multi-decadal time scales, thermal expansion of sea waters and land ice loss are the main contributors to sea level variations. However, modification of the terrestrial water cycle due to climate variability and direct anthropogenic forcing may also affect sea level. For the past decades, variations in land water storage and corresponding effects on sea level cannot be directly estimated from observations because these are almost non-existent at global continental scale. However, global hydrological models developed for atmospheric and climatic studies can be used for estimating total water storage. For the recent years (since mid-2002), terrestrial water storage change can be directly estimated from observations of the GRACE space gravimetry mission. In this study, we analyse the interannual variability of total land water storage, and investigate its contribution to mean sea level variability at interannual time scale. We consider three different periods that, each, depend on data availability: (1) GRACE era (2003-2009), (2) 1993-2003 and (3) 1955-1995. For the GRACE era (period 1), change in land water storage is estimated using different GRACE products over the 33 largest river basins worldwide. For periods 2 and 3, we use outputs from the ISBA-TRIP (Interactions between Soil, Biosphere, and Atmosphere-Total Runoff Integrating Pathways) global hydrological model. For each time span, we compare change in land water storage (expressed in sea level equivalent) to observed mean sea level, either from satellite altimetry (periods 1 and 2) or tide gauge records (period 3). For each data set and each time span, a trend has been removed as we focus on the interannual variability. We show that whatever the period considered, interannual variability of the mean sea level is essentially explained by interannual fluctuations in land water storage, with the largest contributions arising from tropical river basins.

  2. Levels of Cadmium and Lead in Water, Sediments and Selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Daisy Ouya

    Key words: heavy metals, cadmium, lead, water, sediment, fish, Kenya coast. Abstract—Flame ... accumulate some metals within food chains ... levels of toxic heavy metals (particularly cadmium ... In order to have impact on aquatic organisms,.

  3. Radio Frequency Based Water Level Monitor and Controller for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Radio Frequency Based Water Level Monitor and Controller for Residential Applications. ... Nigerian Journal of Technology ... This paper elucidates a radio frequency (RF) based transmission and reception system used to remotely monitor ...

  4. NOS CO-OPS Water Level Data, Verified, 6-Minute

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has verified (quality-controlled), 6-minute, water level (tide) data from NOAA NOS Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services (CO-OPS)....

  5. NOS CO-OPS Water Level Data, Verified, High Low

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has verified (quality-controlled), daily, high low water level (tide) data from NOAA NOS Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services...

  6. 2012 Water Levels - Mojave River and the Morongo Groundwater Basins

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — During 2012, the U.S. Geological Survey and other agencies made approximately 2,500 water-level measurements in the Mojave River and Morongo groundwater basins....

  7. Water-level change, High Plains aquifer, 1980 to 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This raster data set represents water-level change in the High Plains aquifer of the United States from 1980 to 1995, in feet. The High Plains aquifer underlies...

  8. Water-level change, High Plains aquifer, 1995 to 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This raster data set represents water-level change in the High Plains aquifer of the United States from 1995 to 2000, in feet. The High Plains aquifer underlies...

  9. Water-level change, High Plains aquifer, 2005 to 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This raster data set represents water-level change in the High Plains aquifer of the United States from 2005 to 2009, in feet. The High Plains aquifer underlies...

  10. Water-level change, High Plains aquifer, 2000 to 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This raster data set represents water-level change in the High Plains aquifer of the United States from 2000 to 2005, in feet. The High Plains aquifer underlies...

  11. NOS CO-OPS Water Level Data, Verified, Hourly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has verified (quality-controlled), hourly, water level (tide) data from NOAA NOS Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services (CO-OPS)....

  12. NOS CO-OPS Water Level Data, Preliminary, 1-Minute

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has recent, preliminary (not quality-controlled), 1-minute, water level (tide) data from NOAA NOS Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and...

  13. Water level and vegetation change analysis at Stillwater Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The aim of the project summarized in this report was to determine the feasibility of detecting change in surface water levels and associated wetland biomass at the...

  14. NOS CO-OPS Water Level Data, Preliminary, 6-Minute

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has recent, preliminary (not quality-controlled), 6-minute, water level (tide) data from NOAA NOS Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and...

  15. Initial Survey Instructions for management unit water monitoring : level

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Initial survey instructions for 1.08 management unit water monitoring (level) survey on Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. This survey is conducted weekly and is...

  16. The science, information, and engineering needed to manage water availability and quality in 2050: Chapter 23

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter explores four water resources issues: 1) hydrologic variability, hazards, water supply and ecosystem preservation; 2) urban landscape design; 3) non-point source water quality, and 4) climate change, resiliency, and nonstationarity. It also considers what science, technology, and engineering practice may be needed in the coming decades to sustain water supplies and ecosystems in the face of increasing stresses from a growing demand for water. Dealing with these four water resource issues in the highly uncertain future would will demand predictive models that are rooted in real-world data. In a non-stationary world, continuity of observations is crucial. All watersheds are influenced by human actions through changes in land use, water use, and climate. The focus of water planning and management between today and 2050 will depend more than ever on collection and analysis of long-term data to learn about the evolving state of the system, understanding ecosystem processes in the water and on the landscape, and finding innovative ways to manage water as a shared resource. This includes sharing water with our neighbors on the landscape, sharing with the other species that depend on water, and sharing with future generations.

  17. Faecal contamination of drinking water during collection and household storage: the need to extend protection to the point of use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clasen, Thomas F; Bastable, Andrew

    2003-09-01

    Paired water samples were collected and analysed for thermotolerant coliforms (TTC) from 20 sources (17 developed or rehabilitated by Oxfam and 3 others) and from the stored household water supplies of 100 households (5 from each source) in 13 towns and villages in the Kailahun District of Sierra Leone. In addition, the female head of the 85 households drawing water from Oxfam improved sources was interviewed and information recorded on demographics, hygiene instruction and practices, sanitation facilities and water collection and storage practices. At the non-improved sources, the arithmetic mean TTC load was 407/100 ml at the point of distribution, rising to a mean count of 882/100 ml at the household level. Water from the improved sources met WHO guidelines, with no faecal contamination. At the household level, however, even this safe water was subject to frequent and extensive faecal contamination; 92.9% of stored household samples contained some level of TTC, 76.5% contained more than the 10 TTC per 100 ml threshold set by the Sphere Project for emergency conditions. The arithmetic mean TTC count for all samples from the sampled households was 244 TTC per 100 ml (geometric mean was 77). These results are consistent with other studies that demonstrate substantial levels of faecal contamination of even safe water during collection, storage and access in the home. They point to the need to extend drinking water quality beyond the point of distribution to the point of consumption. The options for such extended protection, including improved collection and storage methods and household-based water treatment, are discussed.

  18. Community Needs Assessment After Microcystin Toxin Contamination of a Municipal Water Supply - Lucas County, Ohio, September 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Carolyn L; Nelson, Leigh; Eitniear, Samantha; Zgodzinski, Eric; Zabala, Amanda; Billing, Laurie; DiOrio, Mary

    2016-09-09

    On August 1, 2014, routine testing at the Collins Park Water Treatment Plant in Lucas County, Ohio, revealed microcystin toxin levels in drinking water had reached 3.19 μg/L, surpassing the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) drinking water advisory threshold of 1.0 μg/L. Microcystin is a hepatoxin released by cyanobacteria in certain harmful algal blooms. Exposure to microcystin has been associated with gastrointestinal and hepatic illness in both humans and animals (1-3). On August 2, a do-not-drink advisory was issued, warning community members not to drink, boil, or use the water for cooking or brushing teeth. Public health officials used traditional and social media outlets to disseminate public health messages to affected communities. On August 4, 2014, the advisory was lifted after multiple water samples confirmed microcystin toxin levels had dropped below the advisory threshold. To assess communication strategies, water exposure, and household needs, the Ohio Department of Health (ODH) and Toledo-Lucas County Health Department (TLCHD) conducted a Community Assessment for Public Health Emergency Response (CASPER) in Lucas County. Most households (88.1%) reported hearing about the advisory the morning it was issued, but 11% reported drinking and 21% reported brushing teeth with municipal water during the advisory. Household members reported physical (16%) and mental (10%) health concerns that they believed were related to the advisory and activity disruptions including temporarily staying outside of the home (6%) during the advisory and continued use of alternative water sources after the advisory was lifted (82%). During a do-not-drink advisory, governmental agencies and community partners need to engage in joint prevention and response efforts to decrease water exposure and prevent activity disruptions.

  19. A union that flowed from water: "Water shortages, sanitation needs -- The unifier of Cape Town a century ago (1913)"

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wall, K

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available BLG15 .latest120324 A UNION THAT FLOWED FROM WATER (Subtitle: "Water Shortages, Sanitation Needs -- The Unifier Of Cape Town A Century Ago (1913)") Kevin Wall, Tony Murray Kevin Wall (CSIR Built Environment, P.O. Box 395, Pretoria... 0001. kwall@csir.co.za), Tony Murray (consultant) Abstract A century ago, the eleven municipalities in the Cape Peninsula, of which the then Municipality of Cape Town was only one, set in motion a process towards a unification...

  20. A New U.S. Water Policy: Long Overdue and Urgently Needed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleick, P.

    2008-12-01

    The United States has no consistent, integrated national or international water policy in place, and has not conducted a review of its water institutions or priorities since 1970. This talk will summarize the state of US water policy and make recommendations for the new administration. As we enter the 21st century, pressures on United States and international water resources are growing and conflicts among water users are worsening. International attention to these problems is increasing and the US - intentionally or not - plays a vital and irreplaceable role. Even in the US, where basic human needs for water are largely (though not completely) satisfied, controversy continues over the proper role of expensive dams, failure to adequately fund infrastructure maintenance and expansion, the different roles of public and private corporations, and local communities in managing water. And new challenges are arising, as climate change and extreme events seem to worsen, new water quality threats materialize, and financial constraints grow. Arguments among western states over allocations of shared rivers are rising, as are tensions between cities and farmers over water rights. The US and Mexico have unresolved disagreements over the Colorado and Rio Grande/Rio Bravo rivers, and our Canadian neighbors are concerned about proposals to divert Great Lakes or Canadian water. Bottled water is raising new issues about equity, cost, environmental impacts, and the role of the private sector. Some of the new ideas, new policies, and new efforts that will be required to address these issues in the coming decade will be presented here.

  1. Numerical simulation of the impacts of water level variation on water age in Dahuofang Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinwen; Shen, Yongming

    2015-06-01

    The transport timescales were investigated in response to water level variation under different constant flow rates in Dahuofang Reservoir. The concept of water age was applied to quantify the transport timescales. A three-dimensional hydrodynamic model was developed based on the Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC). The model was calibrated for water surface elevation and temperature profiles from April 1, 2008 to October 31, 2008. Comparisons of observed and modeled data showed that the model reproduced the water level fluctuation and thermal stratification during warm season and vertical mixing during cold season fairly well. The calibrated model was then applied to investigate the response of water age to water level changes in Dahuofang Reservoir. Model results showed that water age increases from confluence toward dam zone. In the vertical direction, the water age is relatively uniform at upstream and stratifies further downstream, with a larger value at bottom layer than at surface layer. Comparisons demonstrated that water level variation has a significant impact on transport timescales in the reservoir. The impact of water level drawdown on water age is stronger at bottom layer than at surface layer. Under high flow conditions, the water age decreases 0-20 days at surface layer and 15-25 days at bottom layer. Under mean flow conditions, the water age decreases 20-30 days at surface layer and 30-50 days at bottom layer. Furthermore, the impact is minor in the upstream and increases further downstream. The vertical stratification of water age weakens as the water level decreases. This study provides a numerical tool to quantify the transport timescale in Dahuofang Reservoir and supports adaptive management of regional water resources by local authorities.

  2. Image-based Water Level Measurement Method under Stained Ruler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jae-do KIM; Young-joon HAN; Hern-soo HAHN

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes the water level measuring method based on the image,while the ruler used to indicate the water level is stained.The contamination of the ruler weakens or eliminates many features which are required for the image processing.However,the feature of the color difference between the ruler and the water surface are firmer on the environmental change compare to the other features.As the color differences are embossed,only the region of the ruler is limited to eliminate the noise,and the average image is produced by using several continuous frames.A histogram is then produced based on the height axis of the produced intensity average image.Local peaks and local valleys are detected,and the section between the peak and valley which have the greatest change is looked for.The valley point at this very moment is used to detect the water level.The detected water level is then converted to the actual water level by using the mapping table.The proposed method is compared to the ultrasonic based method to evaluate its accuracy and efficiency on the various contaminated environments.

  3. Education level, not health literacy, associated with information needs for patients with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuyama, Robin K; Wilson-Genderson, Maureen; Kuhn, Laura; Moghanaki, Drew; Vachhani, Hetal; Paasche-Orlow, Michael

    2011-12-01

    Cancer patients receiving adjuvant therapy encounter increasingly complex situations and decisions with each new procedure and therapy. To make informed decisions about care, they need to be able to access, process, and understand information. Individuals with limited health literacy may not be able to obtain or understand important information about their cancer and treatment. The rate of low health literacy has been shown to be higher among African Americans than among non-Hispanic Whites. This study examined the associations between race, health literacy, and self-reported needs for information about disease, diagnostic tests, treatments, physical care, and psychosocial resources. Measures assessing information needs were administered to 138 newly diagnosed cancer patients. Demographics were assessed by survey and health literacy was assessed with two commonly used measures: the Rapid Estimate Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM) and the Short Test of Health Literacy in Adults (STOFHLA). Study findings indicate that educational attainment, rather than health literacy, is a significant predictor of information needs. Overcoming barriers to information needs may be less dependent on literacy considerations and more dependent on issues that divide across levels of educational attainment. Oncologists and hospital staff should be attentive to the fact that many patients require additional assistance to meet their information needs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. WATER-LEVEL MONITOR FOR BOREWELL AND WATER TANK BASED ON GSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Ramani

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Now a days, home automation & remote control and monitoring systems have seen a rapid growth in terms of technology. Apparently there is no early warning system to monitor the tank water level and bore well water level when it has reached the critical level. In this paper we have provided water level monitoring in the tank as well as in the bore well. If the water level in a bore well drops below the threshold level for pumping its pump motor may get air locked or more burn out due to dry running. It is awkward for farmers to walk all the way to their fields at night just to switch the pump motor off. Besides, he may never get to identify the problem. This problem can be solved by using this GSM based system that will automatically make a call to the user mobile phone, when the water Level in the bore well drops threshold below or rises to the threshold level for pumping. The user can also remotely switch on or off the pump motor by sending a SMS from his mobile phone. The system is simple, reliable, portable and affordable. We proposed the work in which, Whenever water level in the tankdrops below the required level the system try to fill the tank by switching on the bore well motor to pump the water into the tank It is must to have enough water in the bore well to avoid the formation of air gap or empty running of bore well motor. High precision water level sensor is used to identify the reference water level to activate and deactivate the motor and system properly by interfacing the sensor devices into the well definedembedded system.

  5. Lake Storage Measurements For Water Resources Management: Combining Remotely Sensed Water Levels and Surface Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brakenridge, G. R.; Birkett, C. M.

    2013-12-01

    Presently operating satellite-based radar altimeters have the ability to monitor variations in surface water height for large lakes and reservoirs, and future sensors will expand observational capabilities to many smaller water bodies. Such remote sensing provides objective, independent information where in situ data are lacking or access is restricted. A USDA/NASA (http://www.pecad.fas.usda.gov/cropexplorer/global_reservoir/) program is performing operational altimetric monitoring of the largest lakes and reservoirs around the world using data from the NASA/CNES, NRL, and ESA missions. Public lake-level products from the Global Reservoir and Lake Monitor (GRLM) are a combination of archived and near real time information. The USDA/FAS utilizes the products for assessing international irrigation potential and for crop production estimates; other end-users study climate trends, observe anthropogenic effects, and/or are are involved in other water resources management and regional water security issues. At the same time, the Dartmouth Flood Observatory (http://floodobservatory.colorado.edu/), its NASA GSFC partners (http://oas.gsfc.nasa.gov/floodmap/home.html), and associated MODIS data and automated processing algorithms are providing public access to a growing GIS record of the Earth's changing surface water extent, including changes related to floods and droughts. The Observatory's web site also provide both archival and near real time information, and is based mainly on the highest spatial resolution (250 m) MODIS bands. Therefore, it is now possible to provide on an international basis reservoir and lake storage change measurements entirely from remote sensing, on a frequently updating basis. The volume change values are based on standard numerical procedures used for many decades for analysis of coeval lake area and height data. We provide first results of this combination, including prototype displays for public access and data retrieval of water storage

  6. Philippines -- country wide water development projects and funds needed. Water crisis in Manila coincide with parliamentarians seminar on water resources and population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The Philippines' Clean Water Act was developed to protect the country's remaining water resources by institutionalizing mechanisms to monitor, regulate, and control human and industrial activities which contribute to the ongoing environmental degradation of marine and freshwater resources. Approximately 70 participants attended the Philippine Parliamentarians' Conference on Water Resources, Population and Development held December 3-4, 1997, at the Sulo Hotel in Quezon City. Participants included the legislative staff of the members of the House of Representatives and the Senate, Committee Secretaries of the House and Senate, and government and nongovernmental organization officials. Following the opening programs, panel discussions were held on the role of nongovernmental organizations as legitimate monitors of governments' activities; the need to evaluate water sector assessment methods, water policy and strategy, and water legislation standards; and waste water treatment and sewerage systems used in households and industries. The following issues were raised during the conference's open forum: the need to implement new methods in water resource management; the handling of water for both economic and social purposes; the need to implement guidelines, policies, and pricing mechanisms on bottled water; regulating the construction of recreational facilities such as golf courses; and transferring watershed rehabilitation from the Department of Environment and Natural Resources to local water districts. A declaration was prepared and signed by the participants at the close of the conference.

  7. Groundwater science in water-utility operations: global reflections on current status and future needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Stephen; Sage, Rob

    2017-08-01

    The relevance of groundwater science to water-utility operations is analysed from a broad international perspective, identifying key concerns and specific opportunities for the future. The strategic importance worldwide of water utilities assuming the role of lead stakeholders for integrated groundwater resource management, recognizing their often considerable technical know-how and highly significant data holdings, is emphasized. Concurrently, the utilities themselves will need an ever-closer appreciation of groundwater-system behaviour if they are to manage efficiently their water-supply and wastewater operations.

  8. A technique for estimating ground-water levels at sites in Rhode Island from observation-well data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socolow, Roy S.; Frimpter, Michael H.; Turtora, Michael; Bell, Richard W.

    1994-01-01

    Estimates of future high, median, and low ground- water levels are needed for engineering and architectural design decisions and for appropriate selection of land uses. For example, the failure of individual underground sewage-disposal systems due to high ground-water levels can be prevented if accurate water-level estimates are available. Estimates of extreme or average conditions are needed because short duration preconstruction obser- vations are unlikely to be adequately represen- tative. Water-level records for 40 U.S. Geological Survey observation wells in Rhode Island were used to describe and interpret water-level fluctuations. The maximum annual range of water levels average about 6 feet in sand and gravel and 11 feet in till. These data were used to develop equations for estimating future high, median, and low water levels on the basis of any one measurement at a site and records of water levels at observation wells used as indexes. The estimating technique relies on several assumptions about temporal and spatial variations: (1) Water levels will vary in the future as they have in the past, (2) Water levels fluctuate seasonally (3) Ground-water fluctuations are dependent on site geology, and (4) Water levels throughout Rhode Island are subject to similar precipitation and climate. Comparison of 6,697 estimates of high, median, and low water levels (depth to water level exceeded 95, 50, and 5 percent of the time, respectively) with the actual measured levels exceeded 95, 50, and 5 percent of the time at 14 sites unaffected by pumping and unknown reasons, yielded mean squared errors ranging from 0.34 to 1.53 square feet, 0.30 to 1.22 square feet, and 0.32 to 2.55 square feet, respectively. (USGS)

  9. Structural engineering masters level education framework of knowledge for the needs of initial professional practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogh, Zsuzsa Enriko

    For at least the last decade, engineering, civil engineering, along with structural engineering as a profession within civil engineering, have and continue to face an emerging need for "Raising the Bar" of preparedness of young engineers seeking to become practicing professional engineers. The present consensus of the civil engineering profession is that the increasing need for broad and in-depth knowledge should require the young structural engineers to have at least a Masters-Level education. This study focuses on the Masters-Level preparedness in the structural engineering area within the civil engineering field. It follows much of the methodology used in the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) Body of Knowledge determination for civil engineering and extends this type of study to better define the portion of the young engineers preparation beyond the undergraduate program for one specialty area of civil engineering. The objective of this research was to create a Framework of Knowledge for the young engineer which identifies and recognizes the needs of the profession, along with the profession's expectations of how those needs can be achieved in the graduate-level academic setting, in the practice environment, and through lifelong learning opportunities with an emphasis on the initial five years experience past completion of a Masters program in structural engineering. This study applied a modified Delphi method to obtain the critical information from members of the structural engineering profession. The results provide a Framework of Knowledge which will be useful to several groups seeking to better ensure the preparedness of the future young structural engineers at the Masters-Level.

  10. Most substrates suitable if you adapt the watering and fertiliser : take note of specific plants needs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvelink, E.; Kierkels, T.

    2012-01-01

    The diversity in substrates keeps growing. You can't say that one is better than the other if you take into account their characteristics and adapt the watering and fertilisation. But you also need take into account the specific requirements of the plant which we'll discuss in this article.

  11. Water Security at Local Government Level: What do People Think?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Meissner, Richard

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Meissner_2016.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 2853 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Meissner_2016.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Water Security at Local... Government Level: What do People Think? By Dr. Richard Meissner Integrated Water Assessment Group Natural Resources and the Environment Council for Scientific and Industrial Research Presented at the Sustainable Water Seminar 2016, CSIR ICC, 2...

  12. Observations and a linear model of water level in an interconnected inlet-bay system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aretxabaleta, Alfredo L.; Ganju, Neil K.; Butman, Bradford; Signell, Richard P.

    2017-04-01

    A system of barrier islands and back-barrier bays occurs along southern Long Island, New York, and in many coastal areas worldwide. Characterizing the bay physical response to water level fluctuations is needed to understand flooding during extreme events and evaluate their relation to geomorphological changes. Offshore sea level is one of the main drivers of water level fluctuations in semienclosed back-barrier bays. We analyzed observed water levels (October 2007 to November 2015) and developed analytical models to better understand bay water level along southern Long Island. An increase (˜0.02 m change in 0.17 m amplitude) in the dominant M2 tidal amplitude (containing the largest fraction of the variability) was observed in Great South Bay during mid-2014. The observed changes in both tidal amplitude and bay water level transfer from offshore were related to the dredging of nearby inlets and possibly the changing size of a breach across Fire Island caused by Hurricane Sandy (after December 2012). The bay response was independent of the magnitude of the fluctuations (e.g., storms) at a specific frequency. An analytical model that incorporates bay and inlet dimensions reproduced the observed transfer function in Great South Bay and surrounding areas. The model predicts the transfer function in Moriches and Shinnecock bays where long-term observations were not available. The model is a simplified tool to investigate changes in bay water level and enables the evaluation of future conditions and alternative geomorphological settings.

  13. Observations and a linear model of water level in an interconnected inlet-bay system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aretxabaleta, Alfredo; Ganju, Neil Kamal; Butman, Bradford; Signell, Richard

    2017-01-01

    A system of barrier islands and back-barrier bays occurs along southern Long Island, New York, and in many coastal areas worldwide. Characterizing the bay physical response to water level fluctuations is needed to understand flooding during extreme events and evaluate their relation to geomorphological changes. Offshore sea level is one of the main drivers of water level fluctuations in semienclosed back-barrier bays. We analyzed observed water levels (October 2007 to November 2015) and developed analytical models to better understand bay water level along southern Long Island. An increase (∼0.02 m change in 0.17 m amplitude) in the dominant M2 tidal amplitude (containing the largest fraction of the variability) was observed in Great South Bay during mid-2014. The observed changes in both tidal amplitude and bay water level transfer from offshore were related to the dredging of nearby inlets and possibly the changing size of a breach across Fire Island caused by Hurricane Sandy (after December 2012). The bay response was independent of the magnitude of the fluctuations (e.g., storms) at a specific frequency. An analytical model that incorporates bay and inlet dimensions reproduced the observed transfer function in Great South Bay and surrounding areas. The model predicts the transfer function in Moriches and Shinnecock bays where long-term observations were not available. The model is a simplified tool to investigate changes in bay water level and enables the evaluation of future conditions and alternative geomorphological settings.

  14. Drinking water: a need met for the people of the commune of Bantè, Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. R. Fousseni

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available RACINES (Recherches, Actions Communautaires, Initiatives pour un Nouvel ESpoir is a Beni¬nese non-governmental organization established in 1999 following the initiatives of young Beninese execu¬tives. A case study undertaken in 2003 in the villages of Galata and Agbon in the commune of Bantè identified the need for drinking water as the most urgent need. In response to this need, and with the financial support of Oxfam Québec, RACINES initiated a project for the installation of manual water pumps in the two villages. The development of this project involved three major phases: the mobilization of communities around this project, the installation of water pumps and the organization of socio-sanitary educational activities. Twenty months into the execution of the project, a local management committee was established and strengthened, a hand-operated water pump was installed and water-themed public awareness activities, such as water use, water sanitation and the dangers of drinking dirty or contaminated water, were organized every month or so in each of the two communities. Overall, this project has introduced a new type of leadership in the commune of Bantè, involving a high level of participation by young people working alongside the elders in the local management committees and ensuring the perpetuation of the systems installed.RACINES (Recherches, Actions Communautaires, Initiatives pour un Nouvel ESpoir est une organisation béninoise non gouvernementale créée en 1999 à l’initiative de jeunes cadres béninois. Au nombre des besoins identifiés en 2003 suite à une étude prospective, l’eau potable s’est révélée comme besoin prioritaire dans les villages de Galata et d’Agbon dans la commune de Bantè. En réponse à ce besoin, RACINES a initié, avec le soutien financier de Oxfam Québec, un projet pour l’installation de pompes d’eau manuelles dans les villages concernés. La mise en œuvre de ce projet comporte trois

  15. A neural network model for predicting aquifer water level elevations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppola, Emery A; Rana, Anthony J; Poulton, Mary M; Szidarovszky, Ferenc; Uhl, Vincent W

    2005-01-01

    Artificial neural networks (ANNs) were developed for accurately predicting potentiometric surface elevations (monitoring well water level elevations) in a semiconfined glacial sand and gravel aquifer under variable state, pumping extraction, and climate conditions. ANNs "learn" the system behavior of interest by processing representative data patterns through a mathematical structure analogous to the human brain. In this study, the ANNs used the initial water level measurements, production well extractions, and climate conditions to predict the final water level elevations 30 d into the future at two monitoring wells. A sensitivity analysis was conducted with the ANNs that quantified the importance of the various input predictor variables on final water level elevations. Unlike traditional physical-based models, ANNs do not require explicit characterization of the physical system and related physical data. Accordingly, ANN predictions were made on the basis of more easily quantifiable, measured variables, rather than physical model input parameters and conditions. This study demonstrates that ANNs can provide both excellent prediction capability and valuable sensitivity analyses, which can result in more appropriate ground water management strategies.

  16. Water reuse in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia - Status, prospects and research needs

    KAUST Repository

    Drewes, Jorg

    2012-10-01

    Saudi Arabia is one of the driest countries in the world. While desalination plants currently installed in the country represent 30% of the world\\'s desalination capacity, seawater desalination alone will not be able to provide sufficient supplies to meet the increasing freshwater demand. However, with only 9% of the total municipal wastewater generated currently being reused, the kingdom is projected as the third largest reuse market after China and the USA, and reuse capacities are projected to increase by 800% by 2016. This projected growth and the change in water portfolios offer tremendous opportunities to integrate novel approaches of water reclamation and reuse. This paper highlights the current status of reuse in the kingdom, discusses prospects of using distributed infrastructure for reuse tailored to local needs as well as the use of artificial recharge and recovery systems for reclaimed water. It also suggests research needs to helping overcoming barriers for wastewater reuse. Copyright © IWA Publishing 2012.

  17. Water-quality and ground-water-level data, Bernalillo County, central New Mexico, 1995

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, D.R.

    1996-01-01

    Water-quality and ground-water-level data were collected in two areas of eastern Bernalillo County in central New Mexico between March and July of 1995. Fifty-one wells, two springs, and the Ojo Grande Acequia in the east mountain area of Bernalillo County and nine wells in the northeast area of the city of Albuquerque were sampled. The water samples were analyzed for selected nutrient species; total organic carbon; major dissolved constituents; dissolved arsenic, boron, iron, and manganese; and methylene blue active substances. Analytical results were used to compute hardness, sodium adsorption ratio, and dissolved solids. Specific conductance, pH, temperature, and alkalinity were measured in the field at the time of sample collection. Ground- water-level and well-depth measurements were made at the time of sample collection when possible. Water-quality data, ground- water-level data, and well-depth data are presented in tabular form.

  18. Applying sustainable water management concepts in rural and urban areas: some thoughts about reasons, means and needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilderer, P A

    2004-01-01

    Serving the world population with adequate drinking water and sanitation is an important prerequisite, not only to hygienic safety, but to prosperity and political stability as well, and will foster the adaptive capacity of the societies in the developing countries and beyond. To avoid hygienic and political disasters impacting the world economy, investment in water supply and sanitation must urgently be made. Whether the classical system of urban water supply and sanitation is appropriate to satisfy the needs of the developing world, however, and whether this system meets the general criteria of sustainability is questionable. The costs and the time needed for installation of sewers and wastewater treatment plants are tremendous. In water shortage areas, the amount of tap water required to transport pollutants to the treatment plant is hardly affordable. Recovery and re-introduction of valuable substances, including water, into the urban cycle of materials is impossible because of mixing and dilution effects inherent in the system. Decentralized water and wastewater management should be seriously taken into account as an alternative. Source separation of specific fractions of domestic and industrial wastewater, separate treatment of these fractions and recovery of water and raw materials including fertilizer and energy are the main characteristics of modern high-tech on-site treatment/reuse systems. Mass production of the key components of the system could reduce the costs of the treatment units to a reasonable level. On-site units could be installed independently of the development stage of the urban sewer system. In conjunction with building new housing complexes a stepwise improvement of the hygienic situation in urban and peri-urban areas could be achieved, therefore. Remote control of the satellite systems using modern telecommunication methods would allow reliable operation, and comfort for the users. Intensive research is required, however, to develop this

  19. Water2Invest: Global facility for calculating investments needed to bridge the climate-induced water gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straatsma, Menno; Droogers, Peter; Brandsma, Jairus; Buytaert, Wouter; Karssenberg, Derek; Meijer, Karen; van Aalst, Maaike; van Beek, Rens; Wada, Yoshihide; Bierkens, Marc

    2013-04-01

    Decision makers responsible for climate change adaptation investments are confronted with large uncertainties regarding future water availability and water demand, as well as the investment cost required to reduce the water gap. Moreover, scientists have worked hard to increase fundamental knowledge on climate change and its impacts (climate services), while practical use of this knowledge is limited due to a lack of tools for decision support under uncertain long term future scenarios (decision services). The Water2Invest project aims are to (i) assess the joint impact of climate change and socioeconomic change on water scarcity, (ii) integrate impact and potential adaptation in one flow, (iii) prioritize adaptation options to counteract water scarcity on their financial, regional socio-economic and environmental implications, and (iv) deliver all this information in an integrated user-friendly web-based service. Global water availability is computed between 2006 and 2100 using the PCR-GLOBWB water resources model at a 6 minute spatial resolution. Climate change scenarios are based on the fifth Assessment Report (AR5) of the IPCC Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) that defines four CO2 emission scenarios as representative concentration pathways. Water demand is computed for agriculture, industry, domestic, and environmental requirements based on socio-economic scenarios of increase in population and gross domestic product. Using a linear programming algorithm, water is allocated on a monthly basis over the four sectors. Based on these assessments, the user can evaluate various technological and infrastructural adaptation measures to assess the investments needed to bridge the future water gap. Regional environmental and socioeconomic effects of these investments are evaluated, such as environmental flows or downstream effects. A scheme is developed to evaluate the strategies on robustness and flexibility under climate change and scenario uncertainty

  20. AUTOMATED WATER LEVEL MEASUREMENTS IN SMALL-DIAMETER AQUIFER TUBES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PETERSEN SW; EDRINGTON RS; MAHOOD RO; VANMIDDLESWORTH PE

    2011-01-14

    Groundwater contaminated with hexavalent chromium, strontium-90, and uranium discharges into the Columbia River along approximately 16 km (10 mi) of the shoreline. Various treatment systems have and will continue to be implemented to eliminate the impact of Hanford Site contamination to the river. To optimize the various remediation strategies, it is important to understand interactions between groundwater and the surface water of the Columbia River. An automated system to record water levels in aquifer sampling tubes installed in the hyporheic zone was designed and tested to (1) gain a more complete understanding of groundwater/river water interactions based on gaining and losing conditions ofthe Columbia River, (2) record and interpret data for consistent and defensible groundwater/surface water conceptual models that may be used to better predict subsurface contaminant fate and transport, and (3) evaluate the hydrodynamic influence of extraction wells in an expanded pump-and-treat system to optimize the treatment system. A system to measure water levels in small-diameter aquifer tubes was designed and tested in the laboratory and field. The system was configured to allow manual measurements to periodically calibrate the instrument and to permit aquifer tube sampling without removing the transducer tube. Manual measurements were collected with an e-tape designed and fabricated especially for this test. Results indicate that the transducer system accurately records groundwater levels in aquifer tubes. These data are being used to refine the conceptual and numeric models to better understand interactions in the hyporheic zone of the Columbia River and the adjacent river water and groundwater, and changes in hydrochemistry relative to groundwater flux as river water recharges the aquifer and then drains back out in response to changes in the river level.

  1. The awareness level and needs for education on reducing sugar consumption among mothers with preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Younhee; Joo, Nami

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out the level of knowledge on sugar-related nutrition among mothers with preschool children. The study conducted a survey on 350 mothers whose children attended daycare. The dietary lives of the children and the nutritional knowledge of the mothers on sugar were checked. In order to analyze results, SPSS 18.0 was used. ANOVA and t-test were also performed to analyze recognition and educational needs. When the degree of nutritional knowledge was measured and analyzed, the results showed about 11 average points out of 15. The higher a group's nutritional knowledge, the better the dietary habits and activities were and the activities were more ccommon. The group with a low level of nutritional knowledge consumed more foods with high sugar content, but this difference was not statistically significant. Also the children from the group of mothers that provided nutritional education to their children were more likely to engage in better dietary habits and activities. 66.5% respondents did not know about policies to reduce sugar consumption, but most indicated that education on reducing sugar consumption is needed. Therefore, a government-driven search for efficient methods to campaign and publicize sugar reduction is needed in order to continuously provide appropriate education.

  2. Politics of innovation in multi-level water governance systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniell, Katherine A.; Coombes, Peter J.; White, Ian

    2014-11-01

    Innovations are being proposed in many countries in order to support change towards more sustainable and water secure futures. However, the extent to which they can be implemented is subject to complex politics and powerful coalitions across multi-level governance systems and scales of interest. Exactly how innovation uptake can be best facilitated or blocked in these complex systems is thus a matter of important practical and research interest in water cycle management. From intervention research studies in Australia, China and Bulgaria, this paper seeks to describe and analyse the behind-the-scenes struggles and coalition-building that occurs between water utility providers, private companies, experts, communities and all levels of government in an effort to support or block specific innovations. The research findings suggest that in order to ensure successful passage of the proposed innovations, champions for it are required from at least two administrative levels, including one with innovation implementation capacity, as part of a larger supportive coalition. Higher governance levels can play an important enabling role in facilitating the passage of certain types of innovations that may be in competition with currently entrenched systems of water management. Due to a range of natural biases, experts on certain innovations and disciplines may form part of supporting or blocking coalitions but their evaluations of worth for water system sustainability and security are likely to be subject to competing claims based on different values and expertise, so may not necessarily be of use in resolving questions of "best courses of action". This remains a political values-based decision to be negotiated through the receiving multi-level water governance system.

  3. A Need for Education in Water Sustainability in the Agricultural Realm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajewski, J.

    2015-12-01

    This study draws upon the definition of water sustainability from the National Water Research Institute as the continual supply of clean water for human uses and for other living beings without compromising the water welfare of future generations. Currently, the greatest consumer of water resources worldwide is irrigation. The move from small-scale, family farms towards corporately owned and market driven, mass scale operations have drastically increased corn production and large-scale factory hog farming in the American Midwest—and the water quality related costs associated with this shift are well-documented. In the heart of the corn belt, the state of Iowa has dealt with issues over the past two decades ranging from flooding of historic proportions, to yield destroying droughts. Most recently, the state's water quality is intensely scrutinized due to nutrient levels higher than almost anywhere else in the world. While the changed agricultural landscape is ultimately responsible for these environmental costs, they can be mitigated if the farmers adopt practices that support water sustainability. However, many Iowa farmers have yet to embrace these necessary practices because of a lack of proper education in this context. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to explore how water sustainability is being conceptualized within the agricultural realm, and ultimately, how the issues are being communicated and understood within various subgroups in Iowa, such as the farmers, the college students, and the general public.

  4. Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis as pathogenic contaminants of water in Galicia, Spain: the need for safe drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Hermida, José Antonio; González-Warleta, Marta; Mezo, Mercedes

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this cross-sectional study were to detect the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis in drinking water treatments plants (DWTPs) in Galicia (NW Spain) and to identify which species and genotype of these pathogenic protozoans are present in the water. Samples of untreated water (surface or ground water sources) and of treated drinking water (in total, 254 samples) were collected from 127 DWTPs and analysed by an immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) and by PCR. Considering the untreated water samples, Cryptosporidium spp. were detected in 69 samples (54.3%) by IFAT, and DNA of this parasite was detected in 57 samples (44.8%) by PCR, whereas G. duodenalis was detected in 76 samples (59.8%) by IFAT and in 56 samples (44.0%) by PCR. Considering the treated drinking water samples, Cryptosporidium spp. was detected in 52 samples (40.9%) by IFAT, and the parasite DNA was detected in 51 samples (40.1%) by PCR, whereas G. duodenalis was detected in 58 samples (45.6%) by IFAT and in 43 samples (33.8%) by PCR. The percentage viability of the (oo)cysts ranged between 90.0% and 95.0% in all samples analysed. Cryptosporidium andersoni, C. hominis, C. parvum and assemblages A-I, A-II, E of G. duodenalis were identified. The results indicate that Cryptosporidium spp. and G. duodenalis are widespread in the environment and that DWTPs are largely ineffective in reducing/inactivating these pathogens in drinking water destined for human and animal consumption in Galicia. In conclusion, the findings suggest the need for better monitoring of water quality and identification of sources of contamination.

  5. The response of mire vegetation to water level drawdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurki, Kirsi; Laine, Jukka; Vasander, Harri; Tuittila, Eeva-Stiina

    2010-05-01

    Mires have a significant role in climate change mitigation due to their enormous carbon storage and due to the fluxes of greenhouse gases between ecosystem and the atmosphere. Mire vegetation is controlled by ecohydrology, climate and by the competition of plants on light and nutrients. The water logged conditions create a challenging environment for both vascular plants and bryophytes; therefore majority of plants growing in these habitats are highly specialized. Global warming is predicted to affect mire vegetation indirectly through increased evapotranspiration leading to decreased water table levels down to 14-22 centimeters. Water level drawdown is likely to affect the vegetation composition and consequently the ecosystem functioning of mires. Previous studies covering the first years following water table level drawdown have shown that vascular plants benefit from a lower water table and hollow-specific Sphagnum species suffer. In addition to changes in plant abundances the diversity of plant communities decreases. The lawn and hollow communities of Sphagna and sedges are found to be the most sensitive plant groups. It has been shown that surveys on vegetation changes can have different results depending on the time scale. The short and long term responses are likely vary in heterogenous mire vegetation; therefore predictions can be done more reliably with longer surveys. We applied BACI (before-after-control-impact) experimental approach to study the responses of different functional mire plant groups to water level drawdown. There are 3 control plots, 3 treatment plots with moderate water level drawdown and 3 plots drained for forestry 40 years ago as a reference. The plots are located in meso-, oligo- and ombrotrophic sites in Lakkasuo (Orivesi, Finland). The vegetation was surveyed from permanent sampling points before ditching in 2000 and during the years 2001-2003 and 2009. The data was analyzed with NMDS (PC-Ord) and DCA (CANOCO). Overall results show

  6. The need for congressional action to finance arsenic reductions in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Rebecca Leah

    2012-11-01

    Many public water systems in the U.S. are unsafe because the communities cannot afford to comply with the current 10 parts per billion (ppb) federal arsenic standard for drinking water. Communities unable to afford improvements remain vulnerable to adverse health effects associated with higher levels of arsenic exposure. Scientific and bipartisan political consensus exists that the arsenic standard should not be less stringent than 10 ppb, and new data suggest additional adverse health effects related to arsenic exposure through drinking water. Congress has failed to reauthorize the Drinking Water State Revolving Fund program to provide reliable funding to promote compliance and reduce the risk of adverse health effects. Congress's recent ad hoc appropriations do not allow long-term planning and ongoing monitoring and maintenance. Investing in water infrastructure will lower health care costs and create American jobs. Delaying necessary upgrades will only increase the costs of improvements over time.

  7. Influence of nutrient level on methylmercury content in water spinach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greger, Maria; Dabrowska, Beata

    2010-08-01

    Widely consumed vegetables are often cultivated in sewage waters with high nutrient levels. They can contain high levels of methylmercury (MeHg), because they can form MeHg from inorganic Hg in their young shoots. We determined whether the MeHg uptake and the MeHg formation in the shoots of water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica) were affected by the presence of a high nutrient level in the growth medium. Water spinach shoots were rooted and pretreated in growth medium containing 7% (low) or 70% (high) Hoagland nutrient solution; thereafter, the plants were treated with either 0.02 microM MeHg or 0.2 microM HgCl2 for 3 d. Half the plants were then analyzed for total Hg and MeHg. The remaining plants were transferred to mercury-free medium with low or high nutrient levels and posttreated for 3 days before analysis of total Hg and MeHg in order to measure MeHg formation in the absence of external Hg. The results indicate that nutrient level did not influence MeHg uptake, but that a high nutrient level reduced the distribution of MeHg to the shoots 2.7-fold versus low nutrient level. After treatment with HgCl2, MeHg was found in roots and new shoots but not in old shoots. The MeHg:total-Hg ratio was higher in new shoots than in roots, being 13 times higher at high versus low nutrient levels. Thus, MeHg formation was the same in new shoots independent of inorganic Hg concentration, since the total Hg level decreased at a high nutrient level.

  8. Water level oscillations in Monterey Bay and Harbor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Park

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Seiches are normal modes of water bodies responding to geophysical forcings with potential to significantly impact ecology and maritime operations. Analysis of high-frequency (1 Hz water level data in Monterey, California, identifies harbor modes between 10 and 120 s that are attributed to specific geographic features. It is found that modal amplitude modulation arises from cross-modal interaction and that offshore wave energy is a primary driver of these modes. Synchronous coupling between modes is observed to significantly impact dynamic water levels. At lower frequencies with periods between 15 and 60 min, modes are independent of offshore wave energy, yet are continuously present. This is unexpected since seiches normally dissipate after cessation of the driving force, indicating an unknown forcing. Spectral and kinematic estimates of these low-frequency oscillations support the idea that a persistent anticyclonic mesoscale gyre adjacent to the bay is a potential mode driver, while discounting other sources.

  9. Water level oscillations in Monterey Bay and Harbor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Park

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Seiches are normal modes of water bodies responding to geophysical forcings with potential to significantly impact ecology and maritime operations. Analysis of high-frequency (1 Hz water level data in Monterey California identifies Harbor modes between 10 and 120 s that are attributed with specific geographic features. It found that modal amplitude modulation arises from cross-modal interaction and that offshore wave energy is a primary driver of these modes. Synchronous coupling between modes is observed to significantly impact dynamic water levels. At lower frequencies between 15 and 60 min modes are independent of offshore wave energy, yet are continuously present. This is unexpected since seiches normally dissipate after cessation of the driving force, indicating an unknown forcing. Spectral and kinematic estimates of these low frequency oscillations supports the idea that a persistent anticyclonic mesoscale gyre adjacent to the Bay is a potential mode driver, while discounting other sources.

  10. design and implementation of a water level controller

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-03-01

    Mar 1, 2012 ... ... E.C. Anoliefod,a a. National Ctr. For Energy Research and Development, Univ. of Nigeria Nsukka ... Experimental performance results indicated that the device is quite suitable for .... the water level indicator. In the design ...

  11. Evaluation of the Dynamic Velocity Effect for Steam Generator Wide Range Water Level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, In Soo; Nam, Ki Haeng; Kim, Jeong Hoon; Yun, Jae Hee [Korea Power Engineering Company, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    The measurement of Steam Generator (SG) water level is based upon pressure differential of the level transmitter. As shown in Fig. 1, if the location of a lower tap is in the downcomer region, a deviation between the indicated level and the actual level occurs. This phenomenon is called 'velocity effect' or 'dynamic effect.' This effect needs to be addressed to obtain a more accurate SG water level. Korean Utility Requirements Document (KURD) requires Downcomer Velocity Effect (DVE) to be quantified and to be considered in the instrument requirements. In this paper, DVE occurred through downcomer will be evaluated for SG wide range (WR) level for OPR1000

  12. Water needs in citrus fruit in a dry region of Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdellah El Hari

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available An irrigation plan for citrus fruit in the climatic context of the area studied seems possible on the basis of evaporation from a class A pan. In principle, a coefficient value of 0.6 could be retained. Indeed, the use of this coefficient together with a high frequency of irrigation has made it possible not only to satisfy the water requirements of the citrus fruit, but also to obtain a good yield, namely 40 tons per hectare. In addition, it has been possible to achieve a great economy in water in comparison to the considerably larger quantities otherwise needed by many farmers. Hence, a great saving in water compared to quantities commonly bought by other farmers. This was reflected not only in the yield but also in the quality of the fruit, which turned out to be even better, as indicated by its size, since the quantity of water was closer to that needed. A poor yield was obtained when the water deficit was severe.

  13. Comparison of nitrate levels in raw water and finished water from historical monitoring data on Iowa municipal drinking water supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyer, Peter J; Smith, Brian J; Feng, Zhen-Fang; Kantamneni, Jiji R; Riley, David G

    2006-05-01

    Nitrate contamination of water sources is a concern where large amounts of nitrogen fertilizers are regularly applied to soils. Ingested nitrate from dietary sources and drinking water can be converted to nitrite and ultimately to N-nitroso compounds, many of which are known carcinogens. Epidemiologic studies of drinking water nitrate and cancer report mixed findings; a criticism is the use of nitrate concentrations from retrospective drinking water data to assign exposure levels. Residential point-of-use nitrate data are scarce; gaps in historical data for municipal supply finished water hamper exposure classification efforts. We used generalized linear regression models to estimate and compare historical raw water and finished water nitrate levels (1960s-1990s) in single source Iowa municipal supplies to determine whether raw water monitoring data could supplement finished water data to improve exposure assessment. Comparison of raw water and finished water samples (same sampling date) showed a significant difference in nitrate levels in municipalities using rivers; municipalities using other surface water or alluvial groundwater had no difference in nitrate levels. A regional aggregation of alluvial groundwater municipalities was constructed based on results from a previous study showing regional differences in nitrate contamination of private wells; results from this analysis were mixed, dependent upon region and decade. These analyses demonstrate using historical raw water nitrate monitoring data to supplement finished water data for exposure assessment is appropriate for individual Iowa municipal supplies using alluvial groundwater, lakes or reservoirs. Using alluvial raw water data on a regional basis is dependent on region and decade.

  14. Physical water scarcity metrics for monitoring progress towards SDG target 6.4: An evaluation of indicator 6.4.2 "Level of water stress".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanham, D; Hoekstra, A Y; Wada, Y; Bouraoui, F; de Roo, A; Mekonnen, M M; van de Bund, W J; Batelaan, O; Pavelic, P; Bastiaanssen, W G M; Kummu, M; Rockström, J; Liu, J; Bisselink, B; Ronco, P; Pistocchi, A; Bidoglio, G

    2017-09-12

    Target 6.4 of the recently adopted Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) deals with the reduction of water scarcity. To monitor progress towards this target, two indicators are used: Indicator 6.4.1 measuring water use efficiency and 6.4.2 measuring the level of water stress (WS). This paper aims to identify whether the currently proposed indicator 6.4.2 considers the different elements that need to be accounted for in a WS indicator. WS indicators compare water use with water availability. We identify seven essential elements: 1) both gross and net water abstraction (or withdrawal) provide important information to understand WS; 2) WS indicators need to incorporate environmental flow requirements (EFR); 3) temporal and 4) spatial disaggregation is required in a WS assessment; 5) both renewable surface water and groundwater resources, including their interaction, need to be accounted for as renewable water availability; 6) alternative available water resources need to be accounted for as well, like fossil groundwater and desalinated water; 7) WS indicators need to account for water storage in reservoirs, water recycling and managed aquifer recharge. Indicator 6.4.2 considers many of these elements, but there is need for improvement. It is recommended that WS is measured based on net abstraction as well, in addition to currently only measuring WS based on gross abstraction. It does incorporate EFR. Temporal and spatial disaggregation is indeed defined as a goal in more advanced monitoring levels, in which it is also called for a differentiation between surface and groundwater resources. However, regarding element 6 and 7 there are some shortcomings for which we provide recommendations. In addition, indicator 6.4.2 is only one indicator, which monitors blue WS, but does not give information on green or green-blue water scarcity or on water quality. Within the SDG indicator framework, some of these topics are covered with other indicators. Copyright © 2017 The Authors

  15. Mediterranean agriculture: More efficient irrigation needed to compensate increases in future irrigation water requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fader, Marianela; Shi, Sinan; von Bloh, Werner; Bondeau, Alberte; Cramer, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    Irrigation in the Mediterranean is of vital importance for food security, employment and economic development. Our research shows that, at present, Mediterranean region could save 35% of water by implementing more efficient irrigation and conveyance systems. Some countries like Syria, Egypt and Turkey have higher saving potentials than others. Currently some crops, especially sugar cane and agricultural trees, consume in average more irrigation water per hectare than annual crops (1). Also under climate change, more efficient irrigation is of vital importance for counteracting increases in irrigation water requirements. The Mediterranean area as a whole might face an increase in gross irrigation requirements between 4% and 18% from climate change alone by the end of the century if irrigation systems and conveyance are not improved. Population growth increases these numbers to 22% and 74%, respectively, affecting mainly the Southern and Eastern Mediterranean. However, improved irrigation technologies and conveyance systems have large water saving potentials, especially in the Eastern Mediterranean, and may be able to compensate to some degree the increases due to climate change and population growth. Both subregions would need around 35% more water than today if they could afford some degree of modernization of irrigation and conveyance systems and benefit from the CO2-fertilization effect (1). However, in some scenarios (in this case as combinations of climate change, irrigation technology, influence of population growth and CO2-fertilization effect) water scarcity may constrain the supply of the irrigation water needed in future in Algeria, Libya, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Serbia, Morocco, Tunisia and Spain (1). In this study, vegetation growth, phenology, agricultural production and irrigation water requirements and withdrawal were simulated with the process-based ecohydrological and agro-ecosystem model LPJmL ("Lund-Potsdam-Jena managed Land") after a

  16. Analytical approach for predicting fresh water discharge in an estuary based on tidal water level observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cai, H.; Savenije, H.H.G.; Jiang, C.

    2014-01-01

    As the tidal wave propagates into an estuary, the tidally averaged water level tends to rise in landward direction due to the density difference between saline and fresh water and the asymmetry of the friction. The effect of friction on the residual slope is even more remarkable when accounting for

  17. Water level observations from Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for improving estimates of surface water-groundwater interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandini, Filippo; Butts, Michael; Vammen Jacobsen, Torsten

    2017-01-01

    . However, traditional river gauging stations are normally spaced too far apart to capture spatial patterns in the water surface, while spaceborne observations have limited spatial and temporal resolution. UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles) can retrieve river water level measurements, providing: i) high...

  18. System for water level measurement based on pressure transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paczesny, Daniel; Marzecki, Michał; Woyke, Michał; Tarapata, Grzegorz

    2016-09-01

    The paper reports system for water level measurement, which is designed to be used for measuring liquid levels in the tanks of an autonomous industrial cleaning robot. The selected method of measurement utilized by the designed system is based on pressure measurement. Such system is insensitive on vibrations, foams presence and liquid impurities. The influences of variable pressure on the measurements were eliminated by utilizing the differential method and as well as the system design. The system is capable of measuring water level in tanks up to 400 mm of height with accuracy of about 2,5%. The system was tested in a container during filling and emptying with various liquids. Performed tests exhibited the linearity of the sensor characteristic and the lack of hysteresis. Obtained sensitivity of the sensor prototype was approximately 6,2 mV/mm H2O.

  19. Influence of periodic water level increase on flow in Poznań Water Ways System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Kałuża

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the period 1968-1972, a project named “Rebuilding of the Poznań Water Ways System” was carried out. Within the scope of the project the Chwaliszewo Meander of the Warta river was cut off and covered. A discussion about reconstruction of Chwaliszewo Meander has been run for many years. The results of hydraulic computations of the influence of a weir on water table distribution in Poznań Water Ways System have been presented in the paper. Two different localizations of the weir were considered. Initial maximum water level of upper side of the weir was calculated. The influence of damming up on water level distribution in the Poznań Water Ways System was analysed. One-dimensional unsteady open channel flow computer systems HEC-RAS and SPRuNeR were used to carry out calculations. Building the weir, regardless of its localization, allows to raise water level in the main channel of the Warta river, increase minimum water depth and point to the architecture and recreation values of the Warta river. It is assumed that damming up is necessary only for flow rate below 100 m3/s in both localizations of the weir. The weir in focus should not create obstacles to the inland navigation and fish migration. To meet these requirements two additional hydraulic constructions must be projected: sluice and fish migration water gate.

  20. Video and image retrieval beyond the cognitive level: the needs and possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanjalic, Alan

    2001-01-01

    The worldwide research efforts in the are of image and video retrieval have concentrated so far on increasing the efficiency and reliability of extracting the elements of image and video semantics and so on improving the search and retrieval performance at the cognitive level of content abstraction. At this abstraction level, the user is searching for 'factual' or 'objective' content such as image showing a panorama of San Francisco, an outdoor or an indoor image, a broadcast news report on a defined topic, a movie dialog between the actors A and B or the parts of a basketball game showing fast breaks, steals and scores. These efforts, however, do not address the retrieval applications at the so-called affective level of content abstraction where the 'ground truth' is not strictly defined. Such applications are, for instance, those where subjectivity of the user plays the major role, e.g. the task of retrieving all images that the user 'likes most', and those that are based on 'recognizing emotions' in audiovisual data. Typical examples are searching for all images that 'radiate happiness', identifying all 'sad' movie fragments and looking for the 'romantic landscapes', 'sentimental' movie segments, 'movie highlights' or 'most exciting' moments of a sport event. This paper discusses the needs and possibilities for widening the current scope of research in the area of image and video search and retrieval in order to enable applications at the affective level of content abstraction.

  1. The need to consider temporal variability when modelling exchange at the sediment-water interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberry, Donald O.

    2011-01-01

    Most conceptual or numerical models of flows and processes at the sediment-water interface assume steady-state conditions and do not consider temporal variability. The steady-state assumption is required because temporal variability, if quantified at all, is usually determined on a seasonal or inter-annual scale. In order to design models that can incorporate finer-scale temporal resolution we first need to measure variability at a finer scale. Automated seepage meters that can measure flow across the sediment-water interface with temporal resolution of seconds to minutes were used in a variety of settings to characterize seepage response to rainfall, wind, and evapotranspiration. Results indicate that instantaneous seepage fluxes can be much larger than values commonly reported in the literature, although seepage does not always respond to hydrological processes. Additional study is needed to understand the reasons for the wide range and types of responses to these hydrologic and atmospheric events.

  2. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... www.girlshealth.gov/ Home Nutrition Nutrition basics Water Water Did you know that water makes up more ... to drink more water Other drinks How much water do you need? top Water is very important, ...

  3. A review on effectiveness of best management practices in improving hydrology and water quality: Needs and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yaoze; Engel, Bernard A; Flanagan, Dennis C; Gitau, Margaret W; McMillan, Sara K; Chaubey, Indrajeet

    2017-12-01

    Best management practices (BMPs) have been widely used to address hydrology and water quality issues in both agricultural and urban areas. Increasing numbers of BMPs have been studied in research projects and implemented in watershed management projects, but a gap remains in quantifying their effectiveness through time. In this paper, we review the current knowledge about BMP efficiencies, which indicates that most empirical studies have focused on short-term efficiencies, while few have explored long-term efficiencies. Most simulation efforts that consider BMPs assume constant performance irrespective of ages of the practices, generally based on anticipated maintenance activities or the expected performance over the life of the BMP(s). However, efficiencies of BMPs likely change over time irrespective of maintenance due to factors such as degradation of structures and accumulation of pollutants. Generally, the impacts of BMPs implemented in water quality protection programs at watershed levels have not been as rapid or large as expected, possibly due to overly high expectations for practice long-term efficiency, with BMPs even being sources of pollutants under some conditions and during some time periods. The review of available datasets reveals that current data are limited regarding both short-term and long-term BMP efficiency. Based on this review, this paper provides suggestions regarding needs and opportunities. Existing practice efficiency data need to be compiled. New data on BMP efficiencies that consider important factors, such as maintenance activities, also need to be collected. Then, the existing and new data need to be analyzed. Further research is needed to create a framework, as well as modeling approaches built on the framework, to simulate changes in BMP efficiencies with time. The research community needs to work together in addressing these needs and opportunities, which will assist decision makers in formulating better decisions regarding BMP

  4. Concentration of nitrogen molecules needed by nitrogen nanobubbles existing in bulk water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张萌; 涂育松; 方海平

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the stability of nitrogen nanobubbles under dif-ferent concentrations of nitrogen molecules by molecular dynamics simulations. It is found that the stability of nanobubbles is very sensitive to the concentration of nitrogen molecules in water. A sharp transition between disperse states and assemble states of nitrogen molecules is observed when the concentration of nitrogen molecules is changed. The relevant critical concentration of nitrogen molecules needed by the existing nitrogen nanobubbles is analyzed.

  5. Water Infrastructure Needs and Investment: Review and Analysis of Key Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-24

    Nicole T. Carter and Jeffrey A. Zinn . drinking water systems, for example), there is a perception that EPA’s programs are more geared to aiding small...Betsy A. Cody, Claudia Copeland, Mary Tiemann, Nicole T. Carter, and Jeffrey A. Zinn .) USDA Assistance Programs While EPA administers the largest federal...approximately one-quarter of those reporting saying that their needs exceed $1 million.28 CRS-20 28 (...continued) p. 79. 29 Statement of Howard

  6. Quadratic controller syntheses for the steam generator water level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arzelier, D.; Daafouz, J.; Bernussou, J.; Garcia, G

    1998-06-01

    The steam generator water level, (SGWL), control problem in the pressurized water reactor of a nuclear power plant is considered from robust control techniques point of view. The plant is a time-varying system with a non minimum phase behavior and an unstable open-loop response. The time-varying nature of the plant due to change in operating power is taken into account by including slowly time-varying uncertainty in the model. A linear Time-Invariant, (LTI) guaranteed cost quadratic stabilizing controller is designed in order to address some of the particular issues arising for such a control problem. (author) 17 refs.

  7. A detection-level hazardous waste ground-water monitoring compliance plan for the 200 areas low-level burial grounds and retrievable storage units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-02-01

    This plan defines the actions needed to achieve detection-level monitoring compliance at the Hanford Site 200 Areas Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBG) in accordance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Compliance will be achieved through characterization of the hydrogeology and monitoring of the ground water beneath the LLBG located in the Hanford Site 200 Areas. 13 refs., 20 figs.

  8. The effects of water-level fluctuations on vegetation in a Lake Huron wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, D.A.; Nichols, S.J.

    2008-01-01

    The diversity and resultant habitat value of wetland plant communities in the Laurentian Great Lake's are dependent on water-level fluctuations of varying frequency and amplitude. Conceptual models have described the response of vegetation to alternating high and low lake levels, but few quantitative studies have documented the changes that occur. In response to recent concerns over shoreline management activities during an ongoing period of low lake levels in lakes Superior, Michigan, and Huron that began in 1999, we analyzed a quantitative data set from Saginaw Bay of Lake Huron collected from 1988 to 1993 during a previous lake-level decline to provide the needed information on vegetation responses. Transects were established that followed topographic contours with water-level histories that differed across a six-year period, ranging from barely flooded to dewatered for varying numbers of years to never dewatered. Percent cover data from randomly placed quadrats along those transects were analyzed to assess floristic changes over time, document development of distinct plant assemblages, and relate the results to lake-level changes. Ordinations showed that plant assemblages sorted out by transects that reflect differing water-level histories. Distinction of assemblages was maintained for at least three years, although the composition and positioning of those assemblages changed as lake levels changed. We present a model that uses orthogonal axes to plot transects by years out of water against distance above water and sorted those transects in a manner that matched ordination results. The model suggests that vegetation response following dewatering is dependent on both position along the water level/soil moisture gradient and length of time since dewatering. This study provided quantitative evidence that lake-level fluctuations drive vegetative change in Great Lakes wetlands, and it may assist in making decisions regarding shoreline management in areas that

  9. Predicting the residual aluminum level in water treatment process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Tomperi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In water treatment processes, aluminum salts are widely used as coagulation chemical. High dose of aluminum has been proved to be at least a minor health risk and some evidence points out that aluminum could increase the risk of Alzheimer's disease thus it is important to minimize the amount of residual aluminum in drinking water and water used at food industry. In this study, the data of a water treatment plant (WTP was analyzed and the residual aluminum in drinking water was predicted using Multiple Linear Regression (MLR and Artificial Neural Network (ANN models. The purpose was to find out which variables affect the amount of residual aluminum and create simple and reliable prediction models which can be used in an early warning system (EWS. Accuracy of ANN and MLR models were compared. The new nonlinear scaling method based on generalized norms and skewness was used to scale all measurement variables to range [−2...+2] before data-analysis and modeling. The effect of data pre-processing was studied by comparing prediction results to ones achieved in an earlier study. Results showed that it is possible to predict the baseline level of residual aluminum in drinking water with a simple model. Variables that affected the most the amount of residual aluminum were among others: raw water temperature, raw water KMnO4 and PAC / KMnO4-ratio. The accuracies of MLR and ANN models were found to be almost equal. Study also showed that data pre-processing affects to the final prediction result.

  10. Predicting the residual aluminum level in water treatment process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Tomperi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In water treatment processes, aluminum salts are widely used as coagulation chemical. High dose of aluminum has been proved to be at least a minor health risk and some evidence points out that aluminum could increase the risk of Alzheimer's disease. Thus it is important to minimize the amount of residual aluminum in drinking water and water used at food industry. In this study, the data of a water treatment plant (WTP was analyzed and the residual aluminum in drinking water was predicted using Multiple Linear Regression (MLR and Artificial Neural Network (ANN models. The purpose was to find out which variables affect the amount of residual aluminum and create simple and reliable prediction models which can be used in an early warning system (EWS. Accuracy of ANN and MLR models were compared. The new nonlinear scaling method based on generalized norms and skewness was used to scale all measurement variables to range [−2...+2] before data-analysis and modeling. The effect of data pre-processing was studied by comparing prediction results to ones achieved in an earlier study. Results showed that it is possible to predict the baseline level of residual aluminum in drinking water with a simple model. Variables that affected the most the amount of residual aluminum were among others: raw water temperature, raw water KMnO4 and PAC/KMnO4 (Poly-Aluminum Chloride/Potassium permanganate-ratio. The accuracies of MLR and ANN models were found to be almost the same. Study also showed that data pre-processing affects to the final prediction result.

  11. Groundwater level deterioration issues and suggested solution for the water curtain cultivation area in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yongcheol; Lee, Bongju; Ha, Kucheol; Yoon, Yunyeol; Moon, Sangho; Cho, Suyoung; Kim, Seongyun

    2013-04-01

    Protected water curtain cultivation system is an energy saving technique for winter season by splashing groundwater on the inner roof of the green house. But the issue is that the method results in groundwater level deterioration because it disposes the used groundwater to nearby stream. Reuse of the groundwater for water curtain cultivation is important Groundwater level, steam level, and groundwater usage rate are investigated at the five green house concentrated areas such as Cheongwon, Namyangju, Choongju, Namwon, Jinju. Groundwater usage rate is estimated using a ultrasonic flowmeter for a specific well and using the combination of pressure sensor and propeller type velocity counting equipment at a water disposal channel from November to April which is water curtain cultivating season. Groundwater usage rate ranges from 46.9m3/d to 108.0m3/d for a 10a greenhouse. Groundwater level change is strongly influenced by seasonal variation of rainfall and concentrated pumping activities in winter but the level is lower than stream level all year long resulting in all year around losing stream at Cheongwon, Namyangju, Jinju. At Nanwon, the stream is converted from losing one in winter to gaining one in summer. Groundwater level deterioration at concentrated water curtain cultivation area is found to be severe for some area where circulating water curtain cultivation system is need to be applied for groundwater restoration and sustainable cultivation in winter. Circulating water curtain cultivation system can restore the groundwater level by recharging the used groundwater through injection well and then pumping out from pumping well.

  12. Ditch water levels manages for environmental aims: effects on field soil water regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Armstrong

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of ditch water management regimes on water tables are examined for two test sites in England, Halvergate in the Broads and Southlake Moor in the Somerset Levels and Moors Environmentally Sensitive Areas. It is observed that in some fields the effects of water management are only poorly transferred from the ditch to the field centre, especially where the hydraulic conductivity of the subsoil is small. Where there are large variations in the ditch water levels, reflecting the influence of major ditches subject to pump drainage, field soil water regimes differ significantly. Nevertheless, the effects of even quite small changes in the ditch regime cam be noticeable. Simple modelling studies show that much greater effects can be achieved by increasing the frequency of ditches within wetlands.

  13. Economic sustainability, water security and multi-level governance of local water schemes in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Hakala

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the role of multi-level governance and power structures in local water security through a case study of the Nawalparasi district in Nepal. It focuses on economic sustainability as a measure to address water security, placing this thematic in the context of a complicated power structure consisting of local, district and national administration as well as external development cooperation actors. The study aims to find out whether efforts to improve the economic sustainability of water schemes have contributed to water security at the local level. In addition, it will consider the interactions between water security, power structures and local equality and justice. The research builds upon survey data from the Nepalese districts of Nawalparasi and Palpa, and a case study based on interviews and observation in Nawalparasi. The survey was performed in water schemes built within a Finnish development cooperation programme spanning from 1990 to 2004, allowing a consideration of the long-term sustainability of water management projects. This adds a crucial external influence into the intra-state power structures shaping water management in Nepal. The article thus provides an alternative perspective to cross-regional water security through a discussion combining transnational involvement with national and local points of view.

  14. Fluctuations of Lake Orta water levels: preliminary analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmi Saidi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available While the effects of past industrial pollution on the chemistry and biology of Lake Orta have been well documented, annual and seasonal fluctuations of lake levels have not yet been studied. Considering their potential impacts on both the ecosystem and on human safety, fluctuations in lake levels are an important aspect of limnological research. In the enormous catchment of Lake Maggiore, there are many rivers and lakes, and the amount of annual precipitation is both high and concentrated in spring and autumn. This has produced major flood events, most recently in November 2014. Flood events are also frequent on Lake Orta, occurring roughly triennially since 1917. The 1926, 1951, 1976 and 2014 floods were severe, with lake levels raised from 2.30 m to 3.46 m above the hydrometric zero. The most important event occurred in 1976, with a maximum level equal to 292.31 m asl and a return period of 147 years. In 2014 the lake level reached 291.89 m asl and its return period was 54 years. In this study, we defined trends and temporal fluctuations in Lake Orta water levels from 1917 to 2014, focusing on extremes. We report both annual maximum and seasonal variations of the lake water levels over this period. Both Mann-Kendall trend tests and simple linear regression were utilized to detect monotonic trends in annual and seasonal extremes, and logistic regression was used to detect trends in the number of flood events. Lake level decreased during winter and summer seasons, and a small but statistically non-significant positive trend was found in the number of flood events over the period. We provide estimations of return period for lake levels, a metric which could be used in planning lake flood protection measures.

  15. Data needs for policy research on state-level health insurance markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Kosali

    2008-01-01

    Private and public health insurance provision in the United States operates against a backdrop of 50 different regulatory environments in addition to federal rules. Through creative use of available data, a large body of research has contributed to our understanding of public policy in state health insurance markets. This research plays an important role as recent trends suggest states are taking the lead in health care reform. However, several important questions have not been answered due to lack of data. This paper identifies some of these areas, and discusses how the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality could push the research agenda in state health insurance policy further by augmenting the market-level data available to researchers. As states consider new forms of regulation and assistance for their insurance markets, there is increased need for better warehousing and maintenance of policy databases.

  16. Level of Proficiency and Professional Development Needs in Peripheral Online Teaching Roles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes González-Sanmamed

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Teaching in virtual environments demands mastery of several teaching competencies. Although the most accepted ones are pedagogical, in order to successfully teach online it becomes necessary to acquire and develop some other competencies, sometimes referred to as peripheral roles (Denis et al., 2004. The aim of this study is to analyse perceptions on the level of proficiency that online teachers have regarding these peripheral roles (social, evaluator, manager, technologist, advisor/counsellor, personal, and researcher, and their professional development needs required to improve their online teaching competencies. A questionnaire was specifically created and validated by experts, and data was gathered from 166 university teachers. The findings show that teachers highlight the importance of the peripheral roles for quality teaching, and thus, professional development programmes should be based on a balance between central and peripheral roles to better train online teachers and increase the quality of their teaching.

  17. Radon concentration levels in ground water from Toluca, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olguin, M T; Segovia, N; Tamez, E; Alcántara, M; Bulbulian, S

    1993-03-25

    Concentration levels of 222Rn have been analysed in water samples from deep wells of the aquifers around the City of Toluca, Mexico. The 222Rn source is the decay of 226Ra within the solid matrix of the aquifer. With a half life of 1600 years the 226Ra continuously releases 222Rn to the pores, from which it diffuses into the main body of water. This paper describes the methods used for sampling and measuring solubilized and 226Ra-supported 222Rn in the water samples, in order to evaluate possible health hazards due to the presence of radon in the drinking water supplies. The relationship of 222Rn with the hydrogeologic characteristics of the zone is also described. The analytical method involves laboratory extraction of 222Rn into toluene. Alpha disintegrations of 222Rn and contributions from short-lived daughters are counted by the liquid scintillation technique. The system was calibrated using a 226Ra standard solution. Results up to 11.3 Bq/l of 222Rn were obtained in the water samples.

  18. An initial needs assessment of science inquiry curriculum practices at a local level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottingham, Susan M.

    Frequently, students learn in science classes taught like traditional reading courses in which reading texts and answering questions is the main activity. The problem at one southern middle school is that students are not developing an understanding of science concepts and are doing poorly on standardized testing. Students are seldom given the opportunity model scientific inquiry methods that promote experiential learning in the classroom. The purpose of this project was to create a curriculum for inquiry science (IS) instruction at the seventh-grade level to increase student understanding of science concepts after conducting an initial needs assessment to guide deploying the intervention. Research guiding the IS movement at the national level suggests that many teachers use only the textbook and students do not apply what they have learned. Factors affecting this problem include a lack of integrated curricula for IS learning and teacher understanding and confidence in IS skills. A constructivist view of student learning served as the conceptual framework. The needs analysis for the project questioned if teachers were willing to adopt the IS method and prepared to conduct it through a quantitative survey research design. Results indicated that all teachers supported the IS approach, however it was infrequently used in instruction and only two of five teachers were somewhat comfortable with their IS skills. The local IS project draws from empirically tested elements to develop an integrated IS curricula aligned to the state science criterion. The curricula will be supported through a concurrently deployed professional learning community to support teacher professional development and confidence. This project can positively impact social change by increasing science related academic performance, and ultimately, interest in careers in science among middle school students.

  19. Hydration level is an internal variable for computing motivation to obtain water rewards in monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamimoto, Takafumi; Yamada, Hiroshi; Hori, Yukiko; Suhara, Tetsuya

    2012-05-01

    In the process of motivation to engage in a behavior, valuation of the expected outcome is comprised of not only external variables (i.e., incentives) but also internal variables (i.e., drive). However, the exact neural mechanism that integrates these variables for the computation of motivational value remains unclear. Besides, the signal of physiological needs, which serves as the primary internal variable for this computation, remains to be identified. Concerning fluid rewards, the osmolality level, one of the physiological indices for the level of thirst, may be an internal variable for valuation, since an increase in the osmolality level induces drinking behavior. Here, to examine the relationship between osmolality and the motivational value of a water reward, we repeatedly measured the blood osmolality level, while 2 monkeys continuously performed an instrumental task until they spontaneously stopped. We found that, as the total amount of water earned increased, the osmolality level progressively decreased (i.e., the hydration level increased) in an individual-dependent manner. There was a significant negative correlation between the error rate of the task (the proportion of trials with low motivation) and the osmolality level. We also found that the increase in the error rate with reward accumulation can be well explained by a formula describing the changes in the osmolality level. These results provide a biologically supported computational formula for the motivational value of a water reward that depends on the hydration level, enabling us to identify the neural mechanism that integrates internal and external variables.

  20. Normal streamflows and water levels continue—Summary of hydrologic conditions in Georgia, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaak, Andrew E.; Ankcorn, Paul D.; Peck, Michael F.

    2016-03-31

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) South Atlantic Water Science Center (SAWSC) Georgia office, in cooperation with local, State, and other Federal agencies, maintains a long-term hydrologic monitoring network of more than 350 real-time, continuous-record, streamflow-gaging stations (streamgages). The network includes 14 real-time lake-level monitoring stations, 72 real-time surface-water-quality monitors, and several water-quality sampling programs. Additionally, the SAWSC Georgia office operates more than 204 groundwater monitoring wells, 39 of which are real-time. The wide-ranging coverage of streamflow, reservoir, and groundwater monitoring sites allows for a comprehensive view of hydrologic conditions across the State. One of the many benefits this monitoring network provides is a spatially distributed overview of the hydrologic conditions of creeks, rivers, reservoirs, and aquifers in Georgia.Streamflow and groundwater data are verified throughout the year by USGS hydrographers and made available to water-resource managers, recreationists, and Federal, State, and local agencies. Hydrologic conditions are determined by comparing the statistical analyses of data collected during the current water year to historical data. Changing hydrologic conditions underscore the need for accurate, timely data to allow informed decisions about the management and conservation of Georgia’s water resources for agricultural, recreational, ecological, and water-supply needs and in protecting life and property.

  1. The growing epidemic of water pipe smoking: health effects and future needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bou Fakhreddine, Hisham M; Kanj, Amjad N; Kanj, Nadim A

    2014-09-01

    Water pipe smoking (WPS), an old method of tobacco smoking, is re-gaining widespread popularity all over the world and among various populations. Smoking machine studies have shown that the water pipe (WP) mainstream smoke (MSS) contains a wide array of chemical substances, many of which are highly toxic and carcinogenic for humans. The concentrations of some substances exceed those present in MSS of cigarettes. Despite being of low grade, current evidence indicates that WPS is associated with different adverse health effects, not only on the respiratory system but also on the cardiovascular, hematological, and reproductive systems, including pregnancy outcomes. In addition, association between WPS and malignancies, such as lung, oral and nasopharyngeal cancer, has been suggested in different studies and systematic reviews. Despite its long standing history, WPS research still harbors a lot of deficiencies. The magnitude of toxicants and carcinogen exposures, effects on human health, as well as the addiction and dependence potentials associated with WPS need to be studied in well-designed prospective trials. Unfortunately, many of the tobacco control and clean indoor policies have exempted water pipes. World wide awareness among the public, smokers, and policymakers about the potential health effects of WPS is urgently required. Furthermore, stringent policies and laws that control and ban WPS in public places, similar to those applied on cigarettes smoking need to be implemented.

  2. Expanded school mental health services: assessing needs related to school level and geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weist, M D; Myers, C P; Danforth, J; McNeil, D W; Ollendick, T H; Hawkins, R

    2000-06-01

    We surveyed 62 school administrators from three midatlantic (MD, VA, WV) and one northeastern (CT) state on factors relevant to developing school-based mental health programs. Administrators were from schools that varied on education level (elementary, middle, and high) and geographic location (urban, suburban, and rural), with equivalent numbers in each subgroup. Administrators provided ratings to questions grouped in five categories: (a) Stressful Conditions, (b) Internalizing Behavioral Problems, (c) Externalizing Behavioral Problems, (d) Substance Abuse, and (e) Barriers to Mental Health Care, and provided open-ended comments on needs of youth and mental health programs for them. They rated behavioral and substance abuse problems as progressively more serious as students advanced in school level. Urban youth were reported to encounter higher stress and present more severe internalizing problems than suburban or rural youth. Suburban and rural schools provided more health and mental health services than urban schools. Across geographic locales, physical health services far outnumbered mental health services. Findings related to barriers to mental health care, and the viability of schools as delivery sites for comprehensive mental health services, are discussed.

  3. Country-level entrepreneurship: Crowding out the population’s need for autonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin D. Reddy

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose and problem: Governments through their policy support of new and growing enterprises continue to emphasise economic incentives as if most members of the population prioritise material gain. This article argues that high levels of government policy support for new and growing enterprises crowd out the population’s need for autonomy when potential entrepreneurs perceive government to be controlling.Methodology: The researchers constructed a country-level panel data set based on the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor, World Bank Group Entrepreneurship Survey, the World Economic Forum competitiveness reports and the International Monetary Fund data base for 44 countries over the period 2000 to 2007. Since we relied on eight years of secondary data, we applied panel analysis to the regressions. We used multiple regression to model the moderating effects of government policy support on the autonomy-entrepreneurship relationship.Findings: The findings show that government policy support tends to buffer the effect of autonomy on entrepreneurship, lending support to the article’s argument.Implications: This research has tested one of the most important anomalies in economics on entrepreneurship data: that ‘crowding out’ might reverse the most fundamental economic law, namely that raising economic incentives increases the supply of entrepreneurship.

  4. The exceptional influence of storm ‘Xaver’ on design water levels in the German Bight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangendorf, Sönke; Arns, Arne; Pinto, Joaquim G.; Ludwig, Patrick; Jensen, Jürgen

    2016-05-01

    Design water levels for coastal structures are usually estimated based on extreme value statistics. Since their robustness depends heavily on the sample size of observations, regular statistical updates are needed, especially after extreme events. Here, we demonstrate the exceptional influence of such an event based on storm ‘Xaver’, which caused record breaking water levels for large parts of the southwestern German North Sea coastline on 6 December 2013. We show that the water level estimates for a 1 in 200 years event increased by up to 40 cm due to the update after ‘Xaver’, a value twice as large as the estimated regional sea level rise for the entire 20th century. However, a thorough analysis of different independent meteorological (winds and pressure) and oceanographic components (tides, surges, mean sea level (MSL) anomalies) driving the event reveals that their observed combination does not yet represent the physically possible worst case scenario. Neither tides, nor surges nor MSL anomalies were at their observational maximum, suggesting that there is a realistic risk of a storm like ‘Xaver’ to cause even higher extreme water levels by a few decimetres under current climate conditions. Our results question purely statistical design approaches of coastal structures, which neglect the physical boundary conditions of individual extreme events.

  5. Climate Change Extreme Events: Meeting the Information Needs of Water Resource Managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quay, R.; Garfin, G. M.; Dominguez, F.; Hirschboeck, K. K.; Woodhouse, C. A.; Guido, Z.; White, D. D.

    2013-12-01

    Information about climate has long been used by water managers to develop short term and long term plans and strategies for regional and local water resources. Inherent within longer term forecasts is an element of uncertainty, which is particularly evident in Global Climate model results for precipitation. For example in the southwest estimates in the flow of the Colorado River based on GCM results indicate changes from 120% or current flow to 60%. Many water resource managers are now using global climate model down scaled estimates results as indications of potential climate change as part of that planning. They are addressing the uncertainty within these estimates by using an anticipatory planning approach looking at a range of possible futures. One aspect of climate that is important for such planning are estimates of future extreme storm (short term) and drought (long term) events. However, the climate science of future possible changes in extreme events is less mature than general climate change science. At a recent workshop among climate scientists and water managers in the southwest, it was concluded the science of climate change extreme events is at least a decade away from being robust enough to be useful for water managers in their water resource management activities. However, it was proposed that there are existing estimates and records of past flooding and drought events that could be combined with general climate change science to create possible future events. These derived events could be of sufficient detail to be used by water resource managers until such time that the science of extreme events is able to provide more detailed estimates. Based on the results of this workshop and other work being done by the Decision Center for a Desert City at Arizona State University and the Climate Assessment for the Southwest center at University of Arizona., this article will 1) review what are the extreme event data needs of Water Resource Managers in the

  6. Future agriculture with minimized phosphorus losses to waters: Research needs and direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpley, Andrew N; Bergström, Lars; Aronsson, Helena; Bechmann, Marianne; Bolster, Carl H; Börling, Katarina; Djodjic, Faruk; Jarvie, Helen P; Schoumans, Oscar F; Stamm, Christian; Tonderski, Karin S; Ulén, Barbro; Uusitalo, Risto; Withers, Paul J A

    2015-03-01

    The series of papers in this issue of AMBIO represent technical presentations made at the 7th International Phosphorus Workshop (IPW7), held in September, 2013 in Uppsala, Sweden. At that meeting, the 150 delegates were involved in round table discussions on major, predetermined themes facing the management of agricultural phosphorus (P) for optimum production goals with minimal water quality impairment. The six themes were (1) P management in a changing world; (2) transport pathways of P from soil to water; (3) monitoring, modeling, and communication; (4) importance of manure and agricultural production systems for P management; (5) identification of appropriate mitigation measures for reduction of P loss; and (6) implementation of mitigation strategies to reduce P loss. This paper details the major challenges and research needs that were identified for each theme and identifies a future roadmap for catchment management that cost-effectively minimizes P loss from agricultural activities.

  7. [Residual levels of acetochlor in source water and drinking water of China's major cities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhi-Yong; Jin, Fen; Li, Hong-Yan; An, Wei; Yang, Min

    2014-05-01

    The concentration levels of acetochlor were investigated in source water and drinking water from 36 major cities in China by solid phase extraction (SPE) combined with gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Acetochlor detection rate was 66.9% in all the 145 source water samples collected with an average concentration of 33.9 ng L-1. The average removal rate of acetochlor was limited through the drinking water treatment process. The detection concentration of the northeast region was the highest. The concentrations of acetochlor detected in lake were higher than those in river and groundwater as source water. The detection rate and concentration of Liaohe river watershed and the coastal watershed were the highest.

  8. Fundamental Research Needs for Water and Wastewater Treatment Systems. Proceedings of a Conference (Arlington, Virginia, December 15, 1977).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrard, J. H., Ed.

    Papers are presented identifying fundamental research needs in water and wastewater treatment by industrial users of technology, industrial users of research, a municipal water department, a consulting engineer, Congress, and the EPA. Areas of research needs addressed include: (1) microbial, viral, and organic contaminants; (2) biological…

  9. Influence of Closing Storm Surge Barrier on Extreme Water Levels and Water Exchange; The Limfjord, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen Quvang Harck; Bentzen, Thomas Ruby; Larsen, Torben;

    2014-01-01

    of the fjord. The reduction is obtained by blocking the ingoing flow with a sluice in due time before the storm surge peaks in the North Sea. In order to avoid problems with reduced water quality and salinity, the water exchange should be controlled by only keeping the sluice open for ingoing currents...... the increased risk of flooding in the estuary has revitalized the discussion whether this connection should be closed. In this paper, it is shown by numerical simulation that the establishment of a storm surge barrier across Thyborøn Channel can significantly reduce the peak water levels in the central...

  10. Katrina and the Thai Tsunami - Water Quality and Public Health Aspects Mitigation and Research Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Englande

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The South East Asian Tsunami in Thailand and Hurricane Katrina in the United States were natural disasters of different origin but of similar destruction and response. Both disasters exhibited synonymous health outcomes and similar structural damage from large surges of water, waves, and flooding. A systematic discussion and comparison of the disasters in Thailand and the Gulf Coast considers both calamities to be similar types of disaster in different coastal locations. Thus valuable comparisons can be made for improvements in response, preparedness and mitigation. Research needs are discussed and recommendations made regarding potential methologies. Recommendations are made to: (1 improve disaster response time in terms of needs assessments for public health and environmental data collection; (2 develop an access-oriented data sharing policy; and (3 prioritize natural geomorphic structures such as barrier islands, mangroves, and wetlands to help reduce the scale of future natural disasters. Based on the experiences gained opportunities to enhance disaster preparedness through research are presented.

  11. Development of a Robust Model-Based Water Level Controller for U-Tube Steam Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basher, A.M.H.

    2001-09-04

    Poor control of steam generator water level of a nuclear power plant may lead to frequent nuclear reactor shutdowns. These shutdowns are more common at low power where the plant exhibits strong non-minimum phase characteristics and flow measurements at low power are unreliable in many instances. There is need to investigate this problem and systematically design a controller for water level regulation. This work is concerned with the study and the design of a suitable controller for a U-Tube Steam Generator (UTSG) of a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) which has time varying dynamics. The controller should be suitable for the water level control of UTSG without manual operation from start-up to full load transient condition. Some preliminary simulation results are presented that demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed controller. The development of the complete control algorithm includes components such as robust output tracking, and adaptively estimating both the system parameters and state variables simultaneously. At the present time all these components are not completed due to time constraints. A robust tracking component of the controller for water level control is developed and its effectiveness on the parameter variations is demonstrated in this study. The results appear encouraging and they are only preliminary. Additional work is warranted to resolve other issues such as robust adaptive estimation.

  12. Supercritical Water Reactor (SCWR) - Survey of Materials Research and Development Needs to Assess Viability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philip E. MacDonald

    2003-09-01

    Supercritical water-cooled reactors (SCWRs) are among the most promising advanced nuclear systems because of their high thermal efficiency [i.e., about 45% vs. 33% of current light water reactors (LWRs)] and considerable plant simplification. SCWRs achieve this with superior thermodynamic conditions (i.e., high operating pressure and temperature), and by reducing the containment volume and eliminating the need for recirculation and jet pumps, pressurizer, steam generators, steam separators and dryers. The reference SCWR design in the U.S. is a direct cycle, thermal spectrum, light-water-cooled and moderated reactor with an operating pressure of 25 MPa and inlet/outlet coolant temperature of 280/500 °C. The inlet flow splits, partly to a down-comer and partly to a plenum at the top of the reactor pressure vessel to flow downward through the core in special water rods to the inlet plenum. This strategy is employed to provide good moderation at the top of the core, where the coolant density is only about 15-20% that of liquid water. The SCWR uses a power conversion cycle similar to that used in supercritical fossil-fired plants: high- intermediate- and low-pressure turbines are employed with one moisture-separator re-heater and up to eight feedwater heaters. The reference power is 3575 MWt, the net electric power is 1600 MWe and the thermal efficiency is 44.8%. The fuel is low-enriched uranium oxide fuel and the plant is designed primarily for base load operation. The purpose of this report is to survey existing materials for fossil, fission and fusion applications and identify the materials research and development needed to establish the SCWR viabilitya with regard to possible materials of construction. The two most significant materials related factors in going from the current LWR designs to the SCWR are the increase in outlet coolant temperature from 300 to 500 °C and the possible compatibility issues associated with the supercritical water environment.

  13. Considering rating curve uncertainty in water level predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikorska, A. E.; Scheidegger, A.; Banasik, K.; Rieckermann, J.

    2013-11-01

    Streamflow cannot be measured directly and is typically derived with a rating curve model. Unfortunately, this causes uncertainties in the streamflow data and also influences the calibration of rainfall-runoff models if they are conditioned on such data. However, it is currently unknown to what extent these uncertainties propagate to rainfall-runoff predictions. This study therefore presents a quantitative approach to rigorously consider the impact of the rating curve on the prediction uncertainty of water levels. The uncertainty analysis is performed within a formal Bayesian framework and the contributions of rating curve versus rainfall-runoff model parameters to the total predictive uncertainty are addressed. A major benefit of the approach is its independence from the applied rainfall-runoff model and rating curve. In addition, it only requires already existing hydrometric data. The approach was successfully demonstrated on a small catchment in Poland, where a dedicated monitoring campaign was performed in 2011. The results of our case study indicate that the uncertainty in calibration data derived by the rating curve method may be of the same relevance as rainfall-runoff model parameters themselves. A conceptual limitation of the approach presented is that it is limited to water level predictions. Nevertheless, regarding flood level predictions, the Bayesian framework seems very promising because it (i) enables the modeler to incorporate informal knowledge from easily accessible information and (ii) better assesses the individual error contributions. Especially the latter is important to improve the predictive capability of hydrological models.

  14. Considering rating curve uncertainty in water level predictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Sikorska

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Streamflow cannot be measured directly and is typically derived with a rating curve model. Unfortunately, this causes uncertainties in the streamflow data and also influences the calibration of rainfall-runoff models if they are conditioned on such data. However, it is currently unknown to what extent these uncertainties propagate to rainfall-runoff predictions. This study therefore presents a quantitative approach to rigorously consider the impact of the rating curve on the prediction uncertainty of water levels. The uncertainty analysis is performed within a formal Bayesian framework and the contributions of rating curve versus rainfall-runoff model parameters to the total predictive uncertainty are addressed. A major benefit of the approach is its independence from the applied rainfall-runoff model and rating curve. In addition, it only requires already existing hydrometric data. The approach was successfully tested on a small urbanized basin in Poland, where a dedicated monitoring campaign was performed in 2011. The results of our case study indicate that the uncertainty in calibration data derived by the rating curve method may be of the same relevance as rainfall-runoff model parameters themselves. A conceptual limitation of the approach presented is that it is limited to water level predictions. Nevertheless, regarding flood level predictions, the Bayesian framework seems very promising because it (i enables the modeler to incorporate informal knowledge from easily accessible information and (ii better assesses the individual error contributions. Especially the latter is important to improve the predictive capability of hydrological models.

  15. Highest Plasma Phenylalanine Levels in (Very Premature Infants on Intravenous Feeding; A Need for Concern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Cortés-Castell

    Full Text Available To analyse the association in newborns between blood levels of phenylalanine and feeding method and gestational age.This observational, cross-sectional study included a sample of 11,829 infants between 2008 and 2013 in a Spanish region. Data were recorded on phenylalanine values, feeding method [breast, formula, mixed (breast plus formula, or partial or fully intravenous feeding], gestational age in weeks (<32, 32-37, ≥37, gender and days since birth at the moment of blood collection. Outcomes were [phenylalanine] and [phenylalanine] ≥95th percentile. Associations were analysed using multivariate models [linear (means difference and logistic regression (adjusted odds ratios].Higher phenylalanine values were associated with lower gestational age (p<0.001 and with intravenous feeding (p<0.001.The degree of prematurity and intravenous feeding influenced the plasma concentration of phenylalanine in the newborn. Caution should be taken in [phenylalanine] for newborns with intravenous feeding, monitoring them carefully. Very preterm infants given the recommended amount of amino acids should also be strictly monitored. These findings should be taken into consideration and call for adapting the amounts to the needs of the infant.

  16. Predicting fire effects on water quality: a perspective and future needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Hugh; Sheridan, Gary; Nyman, Petter; Langhans, Christoph; Noske, Philip; Lane, Patrick

    2017-04-01

    zones of erosion vulnerability is required to support quantitative evaluation of water quality risk and the effect of future changes in climate and land management. Second, we underscore previous calls for characterisation of landscape-scale domains to support regionalisation of parameter sets derived from empirical studies. Recent examples include work identifying aridity as a control of hydro-geomorphic response to fire and the use of spectral-based indices to predict spatial heterogeneity in ash loadings. Third, information on post-fire erosion from colluvial or alluvial stores is needed to determine their significance as both sediment-contaminant sinks and sources. Such sediment stores may require explicit spatial representation in risk models for some environments and sediment tracing can be used to determine their relative importance as secondary sources. Fourth, increased dating of sediment archives could provide regional datasets of fire-related erosion event frequency. Presently, the lack of such data hinders evaluation of risk models linking fire and storm events to erosion and water quality impacts.

  17. Establishing solar water disinfection as a water treatment method at household level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regula Meierhofer

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available 1.1 billion People worldwide do not have access to safe drinking water and therefore are exposed to a high risk for diarrhoeal diseases. As a consequence, about 6,000 children die each day of dehydration due to diarrhoea. Adequate water treatment methods and safe storage of drinking water, combined with hygiene promotion, are required to prevent the population without access to safe drinking water from illness and death. Solar water disinfection (SODIS is a new water treatment to be applied at household level with a great potential to reduce diarrhoea incidence of users. The method is very simple and the only resources required for its application are transparent PET plastic bottles (or glass bottles and sufficient sunlight: microbiologically contaminated water is filled into the bottles and exposed to the full sunlight for 6 hours. During solar exposure, the diarrhoea causing pathogens are killed by the UV-A radiation of the sunlight. At present, SODIS is used by about 2 Million users in more than 20 countries of the South. Diarrhoea incidence of users significantly has been reduced by 30 to 70 %. A careful and long-term community education process that involves creating awareness on the importance of treating drinking water and initiates behaviour change is required to establish the sustainable practice of SODIS at community level. In Madagascar, more than 160 children younger than 5 years die each day from malaria, diarrhoea and acute respiratory illnesses. The application of household water treatment methods such as SODIS significantly could contribute to improve their health.

  18. Developing the educational needs of Telehealthcare support staff at SCQF/QCF level 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cund, Audrey; Henderson, Donna; Watson, Doreen; Fleming, Donna; Honeyman, John; Fraser, Fiona; Wright, Polly

    2012-01-01

    Background The use, monitoring and care of individuals through the use of technology have played a key role in the delivery of health and social care services for decades (Wooton et al. 2006). Contemporary changes in how health and social care is provided in Scotland have focussed on using Telehealthcare as a medium to improve access, efficiency and equity of services across the country for a range of service users and the management of a range of conditions (JIT 2011). The Scottish Government Joint Improvement Team (JIT) and the Scottish Centre for Telehealth (SCT) published an Education and Training Strategy for Telehealthcare in Scotland in March 2010. The Strategy acknowledged that the provision of education and training to support unqualified staff working in telehealthcare service delivery was limited to locally developed, non-accredited training delivered in-house by telehealthcare service providers. It identified that although accredited frameworks do exist in Higher Education at SCQF/QCF 9, 10 and 11, the context, content and academic level was not appropriate for support staff. To meet the education and training needs of unqualified staff working in telehealthcare, the Strategy Action Plan included a workstream to develop a Competency Framework for Telehealthcare Support Staff. A subsequent workstream within the Action Plan focussed on the design and development of an academic award based on the competencies identified within the new Framework. This involved setting up a Qualification Design Team (QDT) made up of telehealthcare and education service providers and specialists. The Qualification Design Team worked with the Scottish Qualifications Authority (SQA) to design and accredit a Professional Development Award (PDA) in Telehealthcare at SCQF/QCF level 6. This paper outlines the design and development of the Professional Development Award. Project objectives To design a Professional Development Award in Telehealthcare to meet the educational needs of

  19. Structured hydrological analysis for targeting fallow evaporation to improve water productivity at the irrigation system level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Khan

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides results of an application of a holistic systematic approach of water accounting using remote sensing and GIS coupled with ground water modeling to evaluate water saving options by tracking non-beneficial evaporation in the Liuyuankou Irrigation System (LIS of China. Groundwater rise is a major issue in the LIS, where groundwater levels have risen alarmingly close to the ground surface (within 1 m near the Yellow River. The lumped water balance analysis showed high fallow evaporation losses and which need to be reduced for improving water productivity.

    The seasonal actual evapotranspiration (ETs was estimated by applying the SEBAL algorithm for eighteen NOAA AVHRR-12 images over the year of 1990–1991. This analysis was aided by the unsupervised land use classification applied to two Landsat 5 TM images of the study area. SEBAL results confirmed that a significant amount (116.7 MCM of water can be saved by reducing ETs from fallow land which will result in improved water productivity at the irrigation system. The water accounting indicator (for the analysis period shows that the process fraction per unit of depleted water (PFdepleted is 0.52 for LIS, meaning that 52% of the depleted water is consumed by agricultural crops and 48% is lost through non-process depletion.

    Finally, the groundwater modeling was applied to simulate three land use and water management interventions to assess their effectiveness for both water savings and impact on the groundwater in LIS. MODFLOW's Zone Budget code calculates the groundwater budget of user-specified subregions, the exchange of flows between subregions and also calculates a volumetric water budget for the entire model at the end of each time step. The simulation results showed that fallow evaporation could be reduced between 14.2% (25.51 MCM and 45.3% (81.36 MCM by interventions such as canal lining and ground

  20. Ground-water protection, low-level waste, and below regulatory concern: What`s the connection?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruhlke, J.M.; Galpin, F.L. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Radiation Programs

    1991-12-31

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has a responsibility to protect ground water and drinking water under a wide variety of statutes. Each statute establishes different but specific requirements for EPA and applies to diverse environmental contaminants. Radionuclides are but one of the many contaminants subject to this regulatory matrix. Low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and below regulatory concern (BRC) are but two of many activities falling into this regulatory structure. The nation`s ground water serves as a major source of drinking water, supports sensitive ecosystems, and supplies the needs of agriculture and industry. Ground water can prove enormously expensive to clean up. EPA policy for protecting ground water has evolved considerably over the last ten years. The overall goal is to prevent adverse effects to human health, both now and in the future, and to protect the integrity of the nation`s ground-water resources. The Agency uses the Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs) under the Safe Drinking Water Act as reference points for protection in both prevention and remediation activities. What`s the connection? Both low-level waste management and disposal activities and the implementation of below regulatory concern related to low-level waste disposal have the potential for contaminating ground water. EPA is proposing to use the MCLs as reference points for low-level waste disposal and BRC disposal in order to define limits to the environmental contamination of ground water that is, or may be, used for drinking water.

  1. Comparative Analysis of Seepage Losses From Nighttime Water Level Changes and Water Balance Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, A.; Shukla, S.; Wu, C.

    2013-12-01

    Several techniques including Darcy's theory of one and two dimensional groundwater flow, seepage meters, and water balance have been used in the past to estimate seepage from impoundments such as reservoirs, ponds, and constructed wetlands. These methods result in varying level of errors in seepage estimates depending on method and biogeophysical setting to which they are applied. In this study, we explore a simple yet effective method of estimating groundwater fluxes for two stormwater impoundments (SIs) and a partially drained wetland located in agricultural areas using diurnal changes in surface water levels inside these systems. Days with no inflow, outflow, and rainfall were selected to minimize the effect of the error associated water balance components on seepage estimation. Difference in water levels between 20:00 hrs and 5:00 hrs was calculated for the selected days. Only nighttime change was considered keeping in mind the fact that evapotranspiration is negligible during night and hence, the change in water levels can be attributed to seepage alone. Seepage from the analysis of night-time change in the water levels was compared to the estimates from the water balance method with seepage being the residual component of the balance. Results show that seepage constitutes a large part of total outflow from the impoundments (29% and 17% for SI1 during 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 respectively, 30% for SI2 during 2009-2010 and seepage was greater than the total surface water outflow from SI2 during 2010-2011). Accuracy of this method varied from 5% to 41% for first and 4% to 29% for the second SI. Considering that errors as high as 100% have been reported with the use of Darcy's approach, the errors from our method are lower. The lower errors combined with ease of application without using the hydraulic conductivity values makes our approach feasible for other similar systems. Improved seepage estimate from the proposed method will result in quantification of

  2. Littoral zones in shallow lakes. Contribution to water quality in relation to water level regime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sollie, S.

    2007-01-01

    Littoral zones with emergent vegetation are very narrow or even lacking in Dutch shallow lakes due to a combination of changed water level regime and unfavorable shore morphometry. These zones are important as a habitat for plants and animals, increasing species diversity. It has also been demonstra

  3. Littoral zones in shallow lakes. Contribution to water quality in relation to water level regime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sollie, S.

    2007-01-01

    Littoral zones with emergent vegetation are very narrow or even lacking in Dutch shallow lakes due to a combination of changed water level regime and unfavorable shore morphometry. These zones are important as a habitat for plants and animals, increasing species diversity. It has also been

  4. Water and the other three revolutions needed to end rural poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polak, P

    2005-01-01

    Eight hundred million of the current 1.1 billion people who earn less than a dollar-a-day live in rural areas in developing countries. Since more than 550 million of them earn their living from agriculture, poverty eradication depends on increasing their income from farming. The millennium goals for hunger and poverty in the semi-arid tropics will not be met without four simultaneous revolutions. A revolution in water is needed to develop and mass disseminate a whole range of new affordable small plot irrigation technology. A revolution in agriculture is required to enable smallholders to produce a variety of high value marketable labor intensive cash crops. A revolution in markets is needed to open access to inputs and to profitable markets for their high value crops, incorporating effective strategies for aggregation, quality control, and decentralized added value processing. Finally, a revolution in design based on the ruthless pursuit of affordability is needed to support the other three revolutions. This paper describes the rapidly growing micro-irrigation revolution exemplified by the 250 million dollars in new net annual income now being earned by Treadle Pump farmers, and outlines the key features of the other three revolutions required to meet millennium poverty goals.

  5. Mercury and water level fluctuations in lakes of northern Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, James H.; Maki, Ryan P; Christensen, Victoria G.; Sandheinrich, Mark B.; LeDuc, Jaime F.; Kissane, Claire; Knights, Brent C.

    2017-01-01

    Large lake ecosystems support a variety of ecosystem services in surrounding communities, including recreational and commercial fishing. However, many northern temperate fisheries are contaminated by mercury. Annual variation in mercury accumulation in fish has previously been linked to water level (WL) fluctuations, opening the possibility of regulating water levels in a manner that minimizes or reduces mercury contamination in fisheries. Here, we compiled a long-term dataset (1997-2015) of mercury content in young-of-year Yellow Perch (Perca flavescens) from six lakes on the border between the U.S. and Canada and examined whether mercury content appeared to be related to several metrics of WL fluctuation (e.g., spring WL rise, annual maximum WL, and year-to-year change in maximum WL). Using simple correlation analysis, several WL metrics appear to be strongly correlated to Yellow Perch mercury content, although the strength of these correlations varies by lake. We also used many WL metrics, water quality measurements, temperature and annual deposition data to build predictive models using partial least squared regression (PLSR) analysis for each lake. These PLSR models showed some variation among lakes, but also supported strong associations between WL fluctuations and annual variation in Yellow Perch mercury content. The study lakes underwent a modest change in WL management in 2000, when winter WL minimums were increased by about 1 m in five of the six study lakes. Using the PLSR models, we estimated how this change in WL management would have affected Yellow Perch mercury content. For four of the study lakes, the change in WL management that occurred in 2000 likely reduced Yellow Perch mercury content, relative to the previous WL management regime.

  6. Education and training need the involvement of all levels of government : leader

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2011-01-01

    Education and training - including a growing need now for so-called 'further education', 'skills development' and 'adult education' - rank amongst South Africa's highest priorities, with an overall...

  7. Mediterranean irrigation under climate change: more efficient irrigation needed to compensate for increases in irrigation water requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fader, M.; Shi, S.; von Bloh, W.; Bondeau, A.; Cramer, W.

    2016-03-01

    Irrigation in the Mediterranean is of vital importance for food security, employment and economic development. This study systematically assesses how climate change and increases in atmospheric CO2 concentrations may affect irrigation requirements in the Mediterranean region by 2080-2090. Future demographic change and technological improvements in irrigation systems are taken into account, as is the spread of climate forcing, warming levels and potential realization of the CO2-fertilization effect. Vegetation growth, phenology, agricultural production and irrigation water requirements and withdrawal were simulated with the process-based ecohydrological and agro-ecosystem model LPJmL (Lund-Potsdam-Jena managed Land) after an extensive development that comprised the improved representation of Mediterranean crops. At present the Mediterranean region could save 35 % of water by implementing more efficient irrigation and conveyance systems. Some countries such as Syria, Egypt and Turkey have a higher savings potential than others. Currently some crops, especially sugar cane and agricultural trees, consume on average more irrigation water per hectare than annual crops. Different crops show different magnitudes of changes in net irrigation requirements due to climate change, the increases being most pronounced in agricultural trees. The Mediterranean area as a whole may face an increase in gross irrigation requirements between 4 and 18 % from climate change alone if irrigation systems and conveyance are not improved (4 and 18 % with 2 °C global warming combined with the full CO2-fertilization effect and 5 °C global warming combined with no CO2-fertilization effect, respectively). Population growth increases these numbers to 22 and 74 %, respectively, affecting mainly the southern and eastern Mediterranean. However, improved irrigation technologies and conveyance systems have a large water saving potential, especially in the eastern Mediterranean, and may be able to

  8. The Predictive Degree of University Students' Levels of Metacognition and Need for Cognition on Their Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpur, Ugur

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to find out the predictive degree of university students' levels of need for cognition and metacognition on their academic achievement. A total of 253 university students formed the study group. To collect the data of the study, "The Metacognition Awareness Inventory" (MAI) and "The Need for Cognition…

  9. A Comparison of Able-Bodied and Disabled College Students on Erikson's Ego Stages and Maslow's Needs Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriegsman, Kay Harris; Hershenson, David B.

    1987-01-01

    Compared physically disabled and able-bodied college students on Erickson's epigenetic stages of life-span development, and Maslow's motivational needs hierarchy of personality development. The groups were more similar than dissimilar in ego development and needs level. College students with disabilities may be a select population because of their…

  10. Water Level Loggers as a Low-Cost Tool for Monitoring of Stormwater Control Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Toran

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Stormwater control measures (SCMs are a key component of watershed health in urbanized areas. SCMs are used to increase infiltration and reduce discharge to streams or storm sewer systems during rain events. Monitoring is important for the evaluation of design and causes of failure in SCMs. However, the expense of monitoring means it is not always included in stormwater control planning. This study shows how low-cost water level loggers can be used to answer certain questions about SCM performance. Five case studies are presented that use water level loggers to evaluate the overflow of basins, compare a traditional stormpipe trench with an infiltration trench, monitor timing of blue roof storage, show the effects of retrofitting a basin, and provide long term performance data. Water level loggers can be used to answer questions about the timing and location of stormwater overflows, which helps to evaluate the effectiveness of SCMs. More expensive monitoring and modeling can be used as a follow up if needed to more thoroughly assess a site. Nonetheless, low-cost monitoring can be a first step in identifying sites that need improvement or additional monitoring.

  11. Simulated water budgets and ground-water/surface-water interactions in Bushkill and parts of Monocacy Creek watersheds, Northampton County, Pennsylvania--a preliminary study with identification of data needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risser, Dennis W.

    2006-01-01

    per second. Raising the deepest sump to an altitude of 200 feet caused the simulated discharge to the quarry to decrease about 14 cubic feet per second.Decreasing the hydraulic conductivity of the streambed of Bushkill Creek in the reach of large losses of flow caused simulated ground-water levels to decline and ground-water discharge to a quarry to decrease from 74 to 45 cubic feet per second. Decreasing the hydraulic conductivity of a hypothesized highly transmissive zone with a plug of relatively impermeable material caused ground-water levels to increase east of the plug and decline west of the plug, and decreased the discharge to a quarry from 74 to 53 cubic feet per second. Preliminary results of the study have significant limitations, which need to be recognized by the user. The results demonstrated the usefulness of ground-water modeling with available data sets, but as more data become available through field studies, a more complete evaluation could be conducted of the preliminary assumptions in the conceptual model, model sensitivity, and effects of boundary conditions. Additional streamflow and ground-water-level measurements would be needed to better quantify recharge and aquifer properties, particularly the anisotropy of carbonate rocks. Measurements of streamflow losses at average, steady-state hydrologic conditions could provide a more accurate estimate of ground-water recharge from this source, which directly affects water budgets and contributing areas simulated by the model.

  12. An innovative Oklahoma program to coordinate interdisciplinary and interagency services for children with special healthcare needs at a county level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolraich, Mark; Lockhart, Jennifer; Worley, Louis

    2013-03-01

    Children and youth with special health care needs (CYSHCN) and their families often require multiple services from multiple providers in order to meet their needs. The Sooner SUCCESS (State Unified Children's Comprehensive Exemplary Services for Special Needs), was developed based on a complex adaptive systems approach allowing local coalitions to address their unique needs. Sooner SUCCESS provides support to families and service providers at the community level including a broad range of supports from simply helping a family identify and access a service that already exists to innovatively marshaling generic resources to meet a unique need. The program uses these family support activities coupled with the Community Needs Assessment to identify local service needs encouraging community capacity building by coordinating the efforts of the health, mental health, social and education systems to identify service gaps and develop community-based strategies to fill those gaps.

  13. System Life Cycle Evaluation(SM) (SLiCE): harmonizing water treatment systems with implementers' needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Joseph; Caravati, Kevin; Foote, Andrew; Nelson, Molly; Woods, Emily

    2013-06-01

    One of the methods proposed to improve access to clean drinking water is the mobile packaged water treatment system (MPWTS). The lack of published system performance comparisons combined with the diversity of technology available and intended operating conditions make it difficult for stakeholders to choose the system best suited for their application. MPWTS are often deployed in emergency situations, making selection of the appropriate system crucial to avoiding wasted resources and loss of life. Measurable critical-to-quality characteristics (CTQs) and a system selection tool for MPWTS were developed by utilizing relevant literature, including field studies, and implementing and comparing seven different MPWTS. The proposed System Life Cycle Evaluation (SLiCE) method uses these CTQs to evaluate the diversity in system performance and harmonize relevant performance with stakeholder preference via a selection tool. Agencies and field workers can use SLiCE results to inform and drive decision-making. The evaluation and selection tool also serves as a catalyst for communicating system performance, common design flaws, and stakeholder needs to system manufacturers. The SLiCE framework can be adopted into other emerging system technologies to communicate system performance over the life cycle of use.

  14. Defense Inventory: DOD Needs Additional Information for Managing War Reserve Levels of Meals Ready to Eat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    affect future demand. Without obtaining this information from the military services, DLA may be limited in its ability to optimize the supply chain ...future demand, DLA may be limited in its ability to optimize the supply chain across the department. Forecasting demand for supplies has been a long...across the department. DLA uses various supply - chain strategies to balance cost with readiness in meeting the need for items identified as WRM and needed

  15. Study Water Availability of Malino River to Meet the Need of Water Requirement in District Ongka Malino, Central Sulawesi of Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Wayan Sutapa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Global climate change is marked by changes in weather patterns and climate patterns result in increased or reduced rainfall in some areas. Decreased rainfall as input variables watershed due to irregularities global climate will affect the flow of the river, both annual river flow and seasonal dynamics. One of the basic human needs are affected by global warming is the water. The importance of adequate water supply for the community public hearings mandated by the declaration of the United Nations in 2000 which set the year 2015 as the horizon for achieving the Millennium Development Goal's (MDG’s. This is confirmed again at the Earth Summit in Johannesburg in September 2002 on the preparation of programs and strategies in 2015 for water supply and sanitation. In this study, the availability of water is analyzed by the FJ. Mock model and water needs were analyzed based on the guidelines for water needs. The analysis showed that there is excess water in January and May to August and the lack of water in the Month of February and the month of September to December. To overcome the shortage of water is necessary to change the cropping pattern and prioritize water for the needs of the population and livestock.

  16. Global Anthropogenic Phosphorus Loads to Fresh Water, Grey Water Footprint and Water Pollution Levels: A High-Resolution Global Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonnen, M. M.; Hoekstra, A. Y. Y.

    2014-12-01

    We estimated anthropogenic phosphorus (P) loads to freshwater, globally at a spatial resolution level of 5 by 5 arc minute. The global anthropogenic P load to freshwater systems from both diffuse and point sources in the period 2002-2010 was 1.5 million tonnes per year. China contributed about 30% to this global anthropogenic P load. India was the second largest contributor (8%), followed by the USA (7%), Spain and Brazil each contributing 6% to the total. The domestic sector contributed the largest share (54%) to this total followed by agriculture (38%) and industry (8%). Among the crops, production of cereals had the largest contribution to the P loads (32%), followed by fruits, vegetables, and oil crops, each contributing about 15% to the total. We also calculated the resultant grey water footprints, and relate the grey water footprints per river basin to runoff to calculate the P-related water pollution level (WPL) per catchment.

  17. Model estimation of land-use effects on water levels of northern prairie wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voldseth, Richard A; Johnson, W Carter; Gilmanov, Tagir; Guntenspergen, Glenn R; Millett, Bruce V

    2007-03-01

    Wetlands of the Prairie Pothole Region exist in a matrix of grassland dominated by intensive pastoral and cultivation agriculture. Recent conservation management has emphasized the conversion of cultivated farmland and degraded pastures to intact grassland to improve upland nesting habitat. The consequences of changes in land-use cover that alter watershed processes have not been evaluated relative to their effect on the water budgets and vegetation dynamics of associated wetlands. We simulated the effect of upland agricultural practices on the water budget and vegetation of a semipermanent prairie wetland by modifying a previously published mathematical model (WETSIM). Watershed cover/land-use practices were categorized as unmanaged grassland (native grass, smooth brome), managed grassland (moderately heavily grazed, prescribed burned), cultivated crops (row crop, small grain), and alfalfa hayland. Model simulations showed that differing rates of evapotranspiration and runoff associated with different upland plant-cover categories in the surrounding catchment produced differences in wetland water budgets and linked ecological dynamics. Wetland water levels were highest and vegetation the most dynamic under the managed-grassland simulations, while water levels were the lowest and vegetation the least dynamic under the unmanaged-grassland simulations. The modeling results suggest that unmanaged grassland, often planted for waterfowl nesting, may produce the least favorable wetland conditions for birds, especially in drier regions of the Prairie Pothole Region. These results stand as hypotheses that urgently need to be verified with empirical data.

  18. Environmental assessment for the natural fluctuation of water level in Par Pond and reduced water flow in Steel Creek below L-Lake at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The Savannah River Operations Office Strategic Plan directs Savannah River Site (SRS) to find ways to reduce operating costs, and to determine what site infrastructure must be maintained and what infrastructure is surplus. Because of the mission change, L-Lake, Par Pond, and the river water system are no longer needed to support current missions and therefore provide an opportunity for operating cost reduction. If SRS determines that L-Lake, Par Pond, and the river water system are no longer needed to support future missions and are considered surplus, appropriate NEPA documentation will be prepared. The purpose of the proposed action in this Environmental Assessment is to begin an examination of the need for the Site`s river water system by (1) developing data needed to evaluate the potential environmental impacts of further reducing or eliminating the flow demands from the Site`s river water system and; (2) evaluating the potential of reducing operating costs by allowing the water level in Par Pond to fluctuate naturally through reduced pumping. This action also includes reducing the current flow rates from L-Lake to Steel Creek to natural stream flows while maintaining full pool. The recently approved Par Pond CERCLA Interim Action Proposed Plan (IAPP) committed to evaluate in a NEPA document the environmental consequences of this proposed action. This document evaluated the remediation of human health and ecological risks associated with the three year drawdown of Par Pond. Should any of the parameters sampled in the reservoir and streams (e.g., water quality, biota, etc.) exceed established threshold levels during the implementation of the proposed action, water would again be pumped into the reservoir to minimize any impacts by bringing the water level back to an appropriate level about 58.2 m (195 ft).

  19. Water-level changes induced by local and distant earthquakes at Long Valley caldera, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeloffs, E.; Sneed, M.; Galloway, D.L.; Sorey, M.L.; Farrar, C.D.; Howle, J.F.; Hughes, J.

    2003-01-01

    small to be detected by the two-color electronic distance-measuring network. Opening-mode displacement in the south moat, inferred to have followed a M4.9 earthquake on November 22, 1997, could also create extensional strain on the dome and lead to water-level changes similar to those following dome inflation. Contractional strain that could account for earthquake-induced water-level rises at the CW-3 well is inconsistent with geodetic observations. We instead attribute these water-level rises to diffusion of elevated fluid pressure localized in the south moat thermal aquifer. For hydraulic diffusivities appropriate to the upper few hundred meters at Long Valley, an influx of material at temperatures of 300??C can thermally generate pressure of 6 m of water or more, an order of magnitude larger than needed to account for the CW-3 water-level rises. If magma or hot aqueous fluid rises to within 1 km of the surface in the eastern part of the south moat, then hydraulic diffusivities are high enough to allow fluid pressure to propagate to CW-3 on the time scale observed. The data indicate that seismic waves from large distant earthquakes can stimulate upward movement of fluid in the hydrothermal system at Long Valley. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. How reframing a water management issue across scales and levels impacts on perceptions of justice and injustice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, M. J.; Syme, G. J.; Horwitz, P.

    2014-11-01

    Social justice is a key outcome of water allocation, management and governance. It is commonly expressed in water policies and strategies in terms of achieving equitable distribution of water resources. In complex multi-level systems just and unjust outcomes can result from the same water allocation decision. In some cases a just outcome at one level may cause an injustice at another level for the same or a different set of stakeholders. The manner in which a water management issue is framed and reframed across different levels within a system influences stakeholder perceptions of whether a water allocation decision is just or unjust, which in turn influences the successful adoption and implementation of such a decision. This paper utilises a case study from the Murray-Darling Basin in Australia to illustrate how reframing a water management issue across multiple scales and levels can help understand stakeholders' perceptions of justice and injustice. In this case study two scales are explored, an institutional and an organisational scale; each comprising levels at the federal, basin, state and region. The water management issue of domestic and stock dams was tracked through the various scales and levels and illustrated how reframing an issue at different levels can influence the analysis of just or equitable outcomes. The case study highlights the need to treat justice in water allocation as an ever evolving problem of the behaviour of a social system rather than the meeting of static principles of what is 'right'. This points to the importance of being attentive to the dynamic and dialogical nature of justice when dealing with water allocation issues across scales and levels of water governance.

  1. Using a crowdsourced approach for monitoring water level in a remote Kenyan catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeser, Björn; Jacobs, Suzanne; Rufino, Mariana; Breuer, Lutz

    2017-04-01

    Hydrological models or effective water management strategies only succeed if they are based on reliable data. Decreasing costs of technical equipment lower the barrier to create comprehensive monitoring networks and allow both spatial and temporal high-resolution measurements. However, these networks depend on specialised equipment, supervision, and maintenance producing high running expenses. This becomes particularly challenging for remote areas. Low income countries often do not have the capacity to run such networks. Delegating simple measurements to citizens living close to relevant monitoring points may reduce costs and increase the public awareness. Here we present our experiences of using a crowdsourced approach for monitoring water levels in remote catchments in Kenya. We established a low-cost system consisting of thirteen simple water level gauges and a Raspberry Pi based SMS-Server for data handling. Volunteers determine the water level and transmit their records using a simple text message. These messages are automatically processed and real-time feedback on the data quality is given. During the first year, more than 1200 valid records with high quality have been collected. In summary, the simple techniques for data collecting, transmitting and processing created an open platform that has the potential for reaching volunteers without the need for special equipment. Even though the temporal resolution of measurements cannot be controlled and peak flows might be missed, this data can still be considered as a valuable enhancement for developing management strategies or for hydrological modelling.

  2. [Analysis of pollution levels of 16 antibiotics in the river water of Daliao River water system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Changqing; Wang, Longxing; Hou, Xiaohong; Chen, Jiping

    2012-08-01

    The detection of the pollution level of antibiotics in Daliao River system is a meaningful work. Sixteen antibiotics (6 sulfonamides, 5 fluoroquinolones, 3 tetracyclines and 2 chloramphenicols) were simultaneously quantified with solid-phase extraction (SPE) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). In the SPE procedure, methanol and 2% (v/v) ammonia/methanol were used as the elution solvents in sequence to reduce the elution volume and improve the recovery. The results showed that this method have good sensitivity and enrichment effect for the target antibiotics in aqueous water, the recoveries ranged from 69.5% to 122.6%, the detection limits ranged from 0.05 ng/L to 0.32 ng/L. Thirteen antibiotics were found in the river water of Daliao River water system. Sulfa antibiotics were widely distributed, in which sulfamethoxazole was detected in all the sampling sites. The concentration of fluoroquinolones was relatively high in some sampling sites. The highest detection concentration of enoxacin was 41.3 ng/L. The frequencies and concentrations of tetracyclines and chloramphenicols were lower. In the upper reaches of the river, the concentrations of the 4 types of antibiotics appeared lower, but around the large cities such as Shenyang City, Benxi City, Liaoyang City, the concentrations showed higher levels. The study indicated that the Daliao River water system suffered from the pollution of antibiotics to a certain extent.

  3. Managing the financial risk of low water levels in Great Lakes with index-based contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, E.; Characklis, G. W.; Brown, C. M.; Moody, P.

    2014-12-01

    Low water levels in the Great Lakes have recently had significant financial impacts on the region's commercial shipping, responsible for transporting millions of dollars' worth of bulk goods each year. Low lake levels can significantly affect shipping firms, as cargo capacity is a function of draft, or the distance between water level and the ship's bottom. Draft increases with weight, and lower lake levels force ships to reduce cargo to prevent running aground in shallow harbors, directly impacting the finances of shipping companies. Risk transfer instruments may provide adaptable, yet unexplored, alternatives for managing these financial risks, at significantly less expense than more traditional solutions (e.g., dredging). Index-based financial instruments can be particularly attractive as contract payouts are directly linked to well-defined transparent metrics (e.g., lake levels), eliminating the need for subjective adjustors, as well as concerns over moral hazard. In developing such instruments, a major challenge is identifying an index that is well correlated with financial losses, and thus a contract that reliably pays out when losses are experienced (low basis risk). In this work, a relationship between lake levels and shipping revenues is developed, and actuarial analyses of the frequency and magnitude of revenue losses is completed using this relationship and synthetic water level data. This analysis is used to develop several types of index-based contracts. A standardized suite of binary contracts is developed, with each indexed to lake levels and priced according to predefined thresholds. These are combined to form portfolios with different objectives (e.g. options, collars), with optimal portfolio structure and length of coverage determined by limiting basis risk and contract cost, using simulations over the historic dataset. Results suggest that portfolios of these binary contracts can substantially reduce the risk of financial losses during periods of

  4. The Human Brain Does Not Need High Levels of Motivation to Learn a Foreign Language: Motivation Has Had Its Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Kieran

    2016-01-01

    Language is nature in action and something humans do. This literature review presents evidence from the literature that suggests that learning a foreign language in a classroom situation does not require high levels of student motivation. It is instead suggested that high levels of motivation are needed to make progress when a teacher is using…

  5. Hydrogeology, ground-water use, and ground-water levels in the Mill Creek Valley near Evendale, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalk, Charles; Schumann, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Withdrawals of ground water in the central Mill Creek Valley near Evendale, Ohio, caused water-level declines of more than 100 feet by the 1950s. Since the 1950s, management practices have changed to reduce the withdrawals of ground water, and recovery of water levels in long-term monitoring wells in the valley has been documented. Changing conditions such as these prompted a survey of water use, streamflow conditions, and water levels in several aquifers in the central Mill Creek Valley, Hamilton and Butler Counties, Ohio. Geohydrologic information, water use, and water levels were compiled from historical records and collected during the regional survey. Data collected during the survey are presented in terms of updated geohydrologic information, water use in the study area, water levels in the aquifers, and interactions between ground water and surface water. Some of the data are concentrated at former Air Force Plant 36 (AFP36), which is collocated with the General Electric Aircraft Engines (GEAE) plant, and these data are used to describe geohydrology and water levels on a more local scale at and near the plant. A comparison of past and current ground-water use and levels indicates that the demand for ground water is decreasing and water levels are rising. Before 1955, most of the major industrial ground-water users had their own wells, ground water was mined from a confined surficial (lower) aquifer, and water levels were more than 100 feet below their predevelopment level. Since 1955, however, these users have been purchasing their water from the city of Cincinnati or a private water purveyor. The cities of Reading and Lockland, both producers of municipal ground-water supplies in the area, shut down their well fields within their city limits. Because the demand for ground-water supplies in the valley has lessened greatly since the 1950s, withdrawals have decreased, and, consequently, water levels in the lower aquifer are 65 to 105 feet higher than they were

  6. Why do we need three levels to understand the molecular optical response?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Moreno, Javier; Clays, Koen; Kuzyk, Mark G.

    2011-10-01

    Traditionally, the nonlinear optical response at the molecular level has been modeled using the two-level approximation, under the assumption that the behavior of the exact sum-over-states (SOS) expressions for the molecular polarizabilities is well represented by the contribution of only two levels. We show how, a rigorous application of the Thomas-Kuhn sum-rules over the SOS expression for the diagonal component of the first-hyperpolarziability proves that the two-level approximation is unphysical. In addition, we indicate how the contributions of potentially infinite number of states to the SOS expressions for the first-hyperpolarizability are well represented by the contributions of a generic three-level system. This explains why the analysis of the three-level model in conjugation with the sum rules has lead to successful paradigms for the optimization of organic chromophores.

  7. GPS water level measurements for Indonesia's Tsunami Early Warning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöne, T.; Pandoe, W.; Mudita, I.; Roemer, S.; Illigner, J.; Zech, C.; Galas, R.

    2011-03-01

    On Boxing Day 2004, a severe tsunami was generated by a strong earthquake in Northern Sumatra causing a large number of casualties. At this time, neither an offshore buoy network was in place to measure tsunami waves, nor a system to disseminate tsunami warnings to local governmental entities. Since then, buoys have been developed by Indonesia and Germany, complemented by NOAA's Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis (DART) buoys, and have been moored offshore Sumatra and Java. The suite of sensors for offshore tsunami detection in Indonesia has been advanced by adding GPS technology for water level measurements. The usage of GPS buoys in tsunami warning systems is a relatively new approach. The concept of the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS) (Rudloff et al., 2009) combines GPS technology and ocean bottom pressure (OBP) measurements. Especially for near-field installations where the seismic noise may deteriorate the OBP data, GPS-derived sea level heights provide additional information. The GPS buoy technology is precise enough to detect medium to large tsunamis of amplitudes larger than 10 cm. The analysis presented here suggests that for about 68% of the time, tsunamis larger than 5 cm may be detectable.

  8. GPS water level measurements for Indonesia's Tsunami Early Warning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Schöne

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available On Boxing Day 2004, a severe tsunami was generated by a strong earthquake in Northern Sumatra causing a large number of casualties. At this time, neither an offshore buoy network was in place to measure tsunami waves, nor a system to disseminate tsunami warnings to local governmental entities. Since then, buoys have been developed by Indonesia and Germany, complemented by NOAA's Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis (DART buoys, and have been moored offshore Sumatra and Java. The suite of sensors for offshore tsunami detection in Indonesia has been advanced by adding GPS technology for water level measurements.

    The usage of GPS buoys in tsunami warning systems is a relatively new approach. The concept of the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS (Rudloff et al., 2009 combines GPS technology and ocean bottom pressure (OBP measurements. Especially for near-field installations where the seismic noise may deteriorate the OBP data, GPS-derived sea level heights provide additional information.

    The GPS buoy technology is precise enough to detect medium to large tsunamis of amplitudes larger than 10 cm. The analysis presented here suggests that for about 68% of the time, tsunamis larger than 5 cm may be detectable.

  9. How much locomotive activity is needed for an active physical activity level: analysis of total step counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohkawara Kazunori

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although physical activity recommendations for public health have focused on locomotive activity such as walking and running, it is uncertain how much these activities contribute to overall physical activity level (PAL. The purpose of the present study was to determine the contribution of locomotive activity to PAL using total step counts measured in a calorimeter study. Methods PAL, calculated as total energy expenditure divided by basal metabolic rate, was evaluated in 11 adult men using three different conditions for 24-hour human calorimeter measurements: a low-activity day (L-day targeted at a low active level of PAL (1.45, and a high-frequency moderate activity day (M-day or a high-frequency vigorous activity day (V-day targeted at an active level of PAL (1.75. These subjects were permitted only light activities except prescribed activities. In a separate group of 41 adults, free-living PAL was evaluated using doubly-labeled water (DLW. In both experiments, step counts per day were also measured using an accelerometer. Results In the human calorimeter study, PAL and step counts were 1.42 ± 0.10 and 8,973 ± 543 steps/d (L-day, 1.82 ± 0.14 and 29,588 ± 1,126 steps/d (M-day, and 1.74 ± 0.15 and 23,755 ± 1,038 steps/d (V-day, respectively. In the DLW study, PAL and step counts were 1.73 ± 0.15 and 10,022 ± 2,605 steps/d, and there was no significant relationship between PAL and daily step counts. Conclusions These results indicate that an enormous number of steps are needed for an active level of PAL if individuals extend physical activity-induced energy expenditure by only locomotive activity. Therefore, non-locomotive activity such as household activity should also play a significant role in increasing PAL under free-living conditions.

  10. MODEL OF CALCULATING WATER QUANTITY NEEDED TO DILUTE AND PURIFY POLLUTANTS IN RIVER NETWORK AND ITS APPLICATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Chao; WANG Pei-fang

    2005-01-01

    Based on the analysis of dilution capacity and self-purification capacity of water body, the dilution, dispersion, entrapping and purification principles of pollutants in river system at river network area were discussed in this paper. Also, the one and two dimensional models of water quantity needed for improving water environment quality and pollutant concentrations were developed for rivers and lakes respectively. The calculation method for the quantity of water transfer was given and the forecasting evaluation of the effect of water transfer was carried out. It was took the project, water transfer from Yangtze River to improve the water quality of rivers in Zhangjiagang City, as an example, and changing principles of water quantity and quality were observed in rivers and lakes through site water transfer experiments. The theory of estimating parameters in inverse problem was used to determine parameters in water quantity and quality models. The water quantity and quality coupled models in river system were applied to calculate the minimal water transfer quantity. The theoretical and technical support for the improvement of water environmental quality in Zhangjiagang City and the project "water transfer form Yangtze River to Taihu Lake" were provided.

  11. 77 FR 25721 - Small Entity Compliance Guide: Bottled Water: Quality Standard: Establishing an Allowable Level...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Small Entity Compliance Guide: Bottled Water: Quality... availability of a guidance for industry entitled ``Bottled Water: Quality Standard: Establishing an Allowable... its bottled water standard of quality regulations by establishing an allowable level for...

  12. Using inferential sensors for quality control of Everglades Depth Estimation Network water-level data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkewich, Matthew D.; Daamen, Ruby C.; Roehl, Edwin A.; Conrads, Paul A.

    2016-09-29

    The Everglades Depth Estimation Network (EDEN), with over 240 real-time gaging stations, provides hydrologic data for freshwater and tidal areas of the Everglades. These data are used to generate daily water-level and water-depth maps of the Everglades that are used to assess biotic responses to hydrologic change resulting from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan. The generation of EDEN daily water-level and water-depth maps is dependent on high quality real-time data from water-level stations. Real-time data are automatically checked for outliers by assigning minimum and maximum thresholds for each station. Small errors in the real-time data, such as gradual drift of malfunctioning pressure transducers, are more difficult to immediately identify with visual inspection of time-series plots and may only be identified during on-site inspections of the stations. Correcting these small errors in the data often is time consuming and water-level data may not be finalized for several months. To provide daily water-level and water-depth maps on a near real-time basis, EDEN needed an automated process to identify errors in water-level data and to provide estimates for missing or erroneous water-level data.The Automated Data Assurance and Management (ADAM) software uses inferential sensor technology often used in industrial applications. Rather than installing a redundant sensor to measure a process, such as an additional water-level station, inferential sensors, or virtual sensors, were developed for each station that make accurate estimates of the process measured by the hard sensor (water-level gaging station). The inferential sensors in the ADAM software are empirical models that use inputs from one or more proximal stations. The advantage of ADAM is that it provides a redundant signal to the sensor in the field without the environmental threats associated with field conditions at stations (flood or hurricane, for example). In the

  13. ENVIRONMENTAL MANGANESE: GUIDELINE EXPOSURE LEVELS, EVIDENCE OF HEALTH EFFECTS AND RESEARCH NEEDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction. The ubiquitous element, manganese (Mn), is an essential nutrient, but toxic at excessive exposure levels. The US EPA, therefore, set guideline levels for Mn exposure through inhalation (reference concentration-RfC=0.05 g/m3) and ingestion (reference dose-RfD=0.14 m...

  14. The Use of Elementary School Goals in a Grade Level Needs Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMuth, Joyce

    This study is one part of an Elementary School Evaluation Kit, and it deals with the initial step of needs assessment -- that of helping the elementary principal determine which educational goals should be examined at this school. The report investigates the priority ratings of educational goals by parents and teachers of an urban community. More…

  15. State-level income inequality and family burden of U.S. families raising children with special health care needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parish, Susan L; Rose, Roderick A; Dababnah, Sarah; Yoo, Joan; Cassiman, Shawn A

    2012-02-01

    Growing evidence supports the hypothesis that income inequality within a nation influences health outcomes net of the effect of any given household's absolute income. We tested the hypothesis that state-level income inequality in the United States is associated with increased family burden for care and health-related expenditures for low-income families of children with special health care needs. We analyzed the 2005-06 wave of the National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs, a probability sample of approximately 750 children with special health care needs in each state and the District of Columbia in the US Our measure of state-level income inequality was the Gini coefficient. Dependent measures of family caregiving burden included whether the parent received help arranging or coordinating the child's care and whether the parent stopped working due to the child's health. Dependent measures of family financial burden included absolute burden (spending in past 12 months for child's health care needs) and relative burden (spending as a proportion of total family income). After controlling for a host of child, family, and state factors, including family income and measures of the severity of a child's impairments, state-level income inequality has a significant and independent association with family burden related to the health care of their children with special health care needs. Families of children with special health care needs living in states with greater levels of income inequality report higher rates of absolute and relative financial burden.

  16. Saskatchewan water policy : what does the oil and gas industry need to know

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dybvig, W. [Saskatchewan Watershed Authority, Regina, SK (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    Water use and supply in the province of Saskatchewan was discussed along with planning activities, regulatory processes and current water issues facing the province. The Saskatchewan Watershed Authority was created to address water use and concerns regarding water protection. Some historical information regarding water management strategies in the province of Saskatchewan was presented, including the creation of SaskWater in 1984; the provincial wetlands policy in 1995; a water management framework in 1999; the North Battleford water contamination in 2001; a long term drinking water strategy in 2002; and the creation of the Saskatchewan Watershed Authority in 2002. The Saskatchewan Watershed Authority took over responsibilities from SaskWater, the Saskatchewan Wetlands Conservation Corporation and Saskatchewan Environment with a mandate for watershed planning; water source protection; wetlands conservation; water allocation; infrastructure management; and public education about water. This presentation explained how the Saskatchewan Watershed Authority will achieve its goals for a safe and sustainable water supply, and healthy watersheds and aquifers. Industrial water use charges were described with reference to the oil and gas industry in Saskatchewan, the second largest crude oil producer in Canada and the third largest natural gas producer. In 2002 there 1700 gas well and 3400 oil wells drilled in the province. All non domestic water uses require approval from the Saskatchewan Watershed Authority. Regulations for groundwater use and purchasing water from other users were also outlined. tabs., figs.

  17. Accurate Linking of Lake Erie Water Level with Shoreline Datum Using GPS Buoy and Satellite Altimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Chien Cheng

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a need to accurately link the water level to the shoreline vertical datum for various applications including coastal management, lake/river/estuary/wetland hydrological or storm surge modeling/forecasting. Coastal topography is historically surveyed and referenced to the predetermined vertical datum in terms of orthometric heights, or the heights above the geoid, which is poorly known in terms of accuracy and lack of adequate spatial resolution for coastal applications such as estuary or storm surge modeling. We demonstrate an accurate linking of the lake surface to a shoreline datum using satellite techniques, including GPS buoy and satellite altimetry, water level gauges, and local geoid and lake circulation models. The possible error sources are analyzed and an error budget is reported in this study. An innovated method to estimate geoid height near the water level gauge using a GPS buoy is proposed. It is found that at a 95% confidence interval, the method is consistent with the National Geodetic Survey GEOID03 geoid model. The lake surface represented using a lake circulation model provided by the Great Lakes Forecasting Systems is also verified with kriging based on the data (1999 - 2001 from the water level gauge, and TOPEX/POSEIDON altimeter. Mean discrepancies of 2.7 and 7.2 cm are found with the data from the gauges around Lake Erie, and from the combination of the gauges and the altimeter, respectively. It reveals that the current dominant limitation of more accurate linking of water surface to shoreline is the insufficient knowledge of geoid in the current models. Further improvement is feasible through more accurate and higher resolution modeling of the lake geoid.

  18. Hydrologic record extension of water-level data in the Everglades Depth Estimation Network (EDEN), 1991-99

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrads, Paul A.; Petkewich, Matthew D.; O'Reilly, Andrew M.; Telis, Pamela A.

    2015-01-01

    The real-time Everglades Depth Estimation Network (EDEN) has been established to support a variety of scientific and water management purposes. The expansiveness of the Everglades, limited number of gaging stations, and extreme sensitivity of the ecosystem to small changes in water depth have created a need for accurate water-level and water-depth maps. The EDEN water-surface elevation model uses data from approximately 240 gages in the Everglades to create daily continuous interpolations of the water-surface elevation and water depth for the freshwater portion of the Everglades from 2000 to the present (2014). These maps provide hydrologic data previously unavailable for assessing biological and ecological studies.

  19. Report: EPA Needs to Strengthen Internal Controls for Determining Workforce Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #11-P-0031, December 20, 2010. EPA’s policies and procedures do not include a process for determining employment levels based on workload as prescribed by the Office of Management and Budget.

  20. Empowering Learners to Choose the Difficulty Level of Problems Based on Their Learning Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Mannheimer Zydney

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Research has found that increasing learner control offers several benefits, including increased motivation, attitude, and learning. The goal of the present study was to determine how prior math achievement influences students' selection of the difficulty level of problems within Math Pursuits, a hypermedia learning program. Math Pursuits was designed to help children understand mathematics by discovering how it relates to the world around them. The program presented each learner with an adjustable level of challenge, along with the necessary scaffolding to support success. The researchers hypothesized that students with lower math skills would choose to start with a lower difficultly level; whereas, students with higher math skills would begin the program by choosing a question with a higher level of difficulty. Results supported these hypotheses. This research also examined the motivational framework guiding students' selection of problem difficulty.

  1. Geographical distribution of drinking-water with high iodine level and association between high iodine level in drinking-water and goitre: a Chinese national investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hongmei; Liu, Shoujun; Sun, Dianjun; Zhang, Shubin; Su, Xiaohui; Shen, Yanfeng; Han, Hepeng

    2011-07-01

    Excessive iodine intake can cause thyroid function disorders as can be caused by iodine deficiency. There are many people residing in areas with high iodine levels in drinking-water in China. The main aim of the present study was to map the geographical distribution of drinking-water with high iodine level in China and to determine the relationship between high iodine level in drinking-water and goitre prevalence. Iodine in drinking-water was measured in 1978 towns of eleven provinces in China, with a total of 28,857 water samples. We randomly selected children of 8-10 years old, examined the presence of goitre and measured their urinary iodine in 299 towns of nine provinces. Of the 1978 towns studied, 488 had iodine levels between 150 and 300 μg/l in drinking-water, and in 246 towns, the iodine level was >300 μg/l. These towns are mainly distributed along the original Yellow River flood areas, the second largest river in China. Of the 56 751 children examined, goitre prevalence was 6.3 % in the areas with drinking-water iodine levels of 150-300 μg/l and 11.0 % in the areas with drinking-water iodine >300 μg/l. Goitre prevalence increased with water and urinary iodine levels. For children with urinary iodine >1500 μg/l, goitre prevalence was 3.69 times higher than that for those with urinary iodine levels of 100-199 μg/l. The present study suggests that drinking-water with high iodine levels is distributed in eleven provinces of China. Goitre becomes more prevalent with the increase in iodine level in drinking-water. Therefore, it becomes important to prevent goitre through stopping the provision of iodised salt and providing normal drinking-water iodine through pipelines in these areas in China.

  2. Land Surface Water Mapping Using Multi-Scale Level Sets and a Visual Saliency Model from SAR Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Xu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Land surface water mapping is one of the most basic classification tasks to distinguish water bodies from dry land surfaces. In this paper, a water mapping method was proposed based on multi-scale level sets and a visual saliency model (MLSVS, to overcome the lack of an operational solution for automatically, rapidly and reliably extracting water from large-area and fine spatial resolution Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR images. This paper has two main contributions, as follows: (1 The method integrated the advantages of both level sets and the visual saliency model. First, the visual saliency map was applied to detect the suspected water regions (SWR, and then the level set method only needed to be applied to the SWR regions to accurately extract the water bodies, thereby yielding a simultaneous reduction in time cost and increase in accuracy; (2 In order to make the classical Itti model more suitable for extracting water in SAR imagery, an improved texture weighted with the Itti model (TW-Itti is employed to detect those suspected water regions, which take into account texture features generated by the Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM algorithm, Furthermore, a novel calculation method for center-surround differences was merged into this model. The proposed method was tested on both Radarsat-2 and TerraSAR-X images, and experiments demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed method, the overall accuracy of water mapping is 98.48% and the Kappa coefficient is 0.856.

  3. Heterogeneous photocatalysis for air and water treatment: Fundamental needs for quantum efficiency enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ollis, D.F. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1996-09-01

    In the remediation industries, a useful treatment technology must be {open_quotes}general, robust, and cheap{close_quotes}. Among oxidation processes, heterogeneous photocatalysis is now broadly demonstrated to destroy common water and air contaminants. The potential process uses of highly stable titania, long lived lamps (one year), and room temperature operation, indicating a simple and robust process. We are left to address the third criterion: Can photocatalysis be {open_quotes}cheap{close_quotes}? In both liquid phase and gas phase treatment and purification by photocatalysis, it is established that the primary barrier to commercialization is often cost. Cost in return is dominated by the efficiency with which solar or lamp photons are harvested for productive light, and subsequent dark, reactions. This paper therefore defines fundamental needs in photocatalysis for pollution control in terms of activities which could lead to quantum efficiency enhancement. We first recall three related definitions. The quantum yield (QY) is the ratio of molecules of reactant converted per photon absorbed, a fundamental quantity. A less fundamental, but more easily measured variable is the quantum efficiency (QE), the ratio of molecules converted per photon entering the reactor. A third variable is the energy required per order of magnitude pollutant reduction, or EEO, a definition which provides for easy energy cost comparisons among different technologies. Each measure cited here reflects the photon, and thus the electrical, cost of this photochemistry.

  4. Predicting the residual aluminum level in water treatment process

    OpenAIRE

    J. Tomperi; M. Pelo; K. Leiviskä

    2012-01-01

    In water treatment processes, aluminum salts are widely used as coagulation chemical. High dose of aluminum has been proved to be at least a minor health risk and some evidence points out that aluminum could increase the risk of Alzheimer's disease thus it is important to minimize the amount of residual aluminum in drinking water and water used at food industry. In this study, the data of a water treatment plant (WTP) was analyzed and the residual aluminum in drinking water was predicted usin...

  5. Predicting the residual aluminum level in water treatment process

    OpenAIRE

    J. Tomperi; M. Pelo; K. Leiviskä

    2013-01-01

    In water treatment processes, aluminum salts are widely used as coagulation chemical. High dose of aluminum has been proved to be at least a minor health risk and some evidence points out that aluminum could increase the risk of Alzheimer's disease. Thus it is important to minimize the amount of residual aluminum in drinking water and water used at food industry. In this study, the data of a water treatment plant (WTP) was analyzed and the residual aluminum in drinking water was predicted usi...

  6. Scoping Adaptation Needs for Smallholders in the Brazilian Amazon: A Municipal Level Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osuna Vanesa Rodríguez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, several climate extreme events have caused considerable economic damage and hardship in the Brazilian Amazon region, especially for small-scale producers. Based on household surveys and focus group interviews in the Municipality of Alenquer as well as secondary data analyses and a literature review at the regional level, this study seeks to assess rural small-scale producers’ vulnerability to climate and non-climate related shocks and identify entry points for government action to support adaptation at the local level. In our case study area, small-scale producers with similar wealth, self-sufficiency, and resource use specialisation levels exhibited stark variation in levels of sensitivity and adaptive capacity to climate and nonclimate related shocks. Our findings indicate that this variation is partly driven by cultural, historical, and environmental resource use specialisation strategies and partly by differences in local governance capacity and the level of social organisation. Emerging governmentled initiatives to promote climate change adaptation in the region would benefit from taking these factors into account when designing local implementation strategies and priorities.

  7. Wave transformation and shoreline water level on Funafuti Atoll, Tuvalu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beetham, Edward; Kench, Paul S.; O'Callaghan, Joanne; Popinet, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    The influence of sea swell (SS) waves, infragravity (IG) waves, and wave setup on maximum runup (Rmax) is investigated across different tidal stages on Fatato Island, Funafuti Atoll, Tuvalu. Field results illustrate that SS waves are tidally modulated at the shoreline, with comparatively greater wave attenuation and setup occurring at low tide versus high tide. A shoreward increase in IG wave height is observed across the 100 m wide reef flat at all tidal elevations, with no tidal modulation of IG wave height at the reef flat or island shoreline. A 1-D shock-capturing Green-Naghdi solver is used to replicate the field deployment and analyze Rmax. Model outputs for SS wave height, IG wave height and setup at the shoreline match field results with model skill >0.96. Model outputs for Rmax are used to identify the temporal window when geomorphic activity can occur on the beach face. During periods of moderate swell energy, waves can impact the beach face at spring low tide, due to a combination of wave setup and strong IG wave activity. Under mean wave conditions, the combined influence of setup, IG waves and SS waves results in interaction with island sediment at midtide. At high tide, SS and IG waves directly impact the beach face. Overall, wave activity is present on the beach face for 71% of the study period, a significantly longer duration than is calculated using mean water level and topographic data.

  8. Posttraumatic levels of liver enzymes can reduce the need for CT in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, Peter James; Østerballe, Lene; Hillingsø, Jens;

    2016-01-01

    algorithm in suspected pediatric blunt liver trauma. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of consecutively collected data from children (0-17 years) with blunt liver trauma, admitted to a single trauma centre in Denmark, between 2000 and 2013. Patients underwent abdominal CT during initial evaluation......, and initial AST and/or ALT was measured. Based on local guidelines, we set the threshold for blood AST and ALT level to 50 IU/L. Nonparametric statistical tests were used. RESULTS: Sixty consecutive children with liver injury following blunt abdominal trauma were enrolled in the study. All patients...... with normal AST and/or ALT level were treated conservatively with success. Information on both AST and ALT was available in 47 children. Of these 47 children, three children had AST and ALT levels ≤50 IU/L. These children suffered from grade I liver injuries, and were treated conservatively...

  9. Water Partitioning at the Base of the Transition Zone: No Need for a Lower Mantle Water Filter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panero, W. R.; Pigott, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    Recent measurements of water in ringwoodite inclusions found in a deep diamond suggests that the diamond formed in a part of the transition zone containing ~1 wt% water. Experimental and computational results consistently show a significantly lower water storage capacity in MgSiO3 perovskite, the dominant mineral of the Earth's lower mantle. This disparity in water solubility predicts widespread melting at the base of the transition zone in mantle downwellings or some other process to create a transition zone "water filter." We present the results of ab-initio calculations on the hydrogen incorporation in ringwoodite, majorite, ilmenite, calcium silicate perovskite, and magnesium silicate perovskite. We demonstrate a multiplicity of OH defect mechanisms at the base of the transition zone, including vacancies on the Mg and Si sites, as well as coupled substitutions with aluminum. We calculate the partitioning of water between each phase. While the partitioning of water between ringwoodite and MgSiO3 is >100, we find that partitioning of water between CaSiO3-perovskite and ringwoodite exceeds unity under the conditions of cold downwellings at the base of the transition zone, suggesting that a significant fraction of the water can be stored in minor phases of the lower mantle instead of requiring a filter at the base of the transition zone. This finding significantly relaxes the constraints on the Earth's total water budget and suggests a mechanism for sequestering deep water through subduction.

  10. Research Needs Assessment in the Health Insurance Organization: Level of Health Care Provider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadkarim Bahadori

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Setting research priorities in the research management cycle is a key. It is important to set the research priorities to make optimal use of scarce resources. The aim of this research was to determine the research needs of Health Insurance Organization based on its health care centers research needs.Methods: This is a qualitative, descriptive and cross-sectional study that was conducted in 2011. A purposeful sample of 60 participants from 14 hospitals, seven dispensaries, five dental clinics, two rehabilitation centers, four radiology centers, six medical diagnostic laboratories, 12 pharmacies, and 20 medical offices that were contracted with the Health Insurance Organization in Iran was interviewed. The framework analysis method (a qualitative research method was used for analysis of interviews. Atlas-Ti software was used to analyze quantitative data, respectively. The topics were prioritized using the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP method through Expert Choice software.Results: Based on the problems extracted in our qualitative study, 12 research topics were proposed by the experts. Among these “Design of standard treatment protocols,” “Designing model of ranking the health care centers under contract,” and “Pathology of payment system” took the priority ranks of 1 to 3, earning the scores of 0.44, 0.42, and 0.37, respectively.Conclusion: Considering limited resources and unlimited needs and to prevent research resource wasting, conducting research related to health care providers in the Health Insurance Organization can help it achieve its goals.

  11. Monitoring Water Pollution Levels in Wadi Hanifa, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia and its Public Health Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hammad, Bushra Ahmed; Abd El-Salam, Magda Magdy

    2017-04-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the levels of metals in the fish caught from Wadi Hanifa's main basin over four seasons, determine the potential fitness of the fish for human consumption, and evaluate the overall water quality after enforcement of local standards. The physical and chemical parameters from a total of 192 water samples were tested using standard methods. Additionally, a total of 48 fish samples were analyzed for heavy metal concentrations. Mean values for basic water quality parameters of COD, PO4(-3), NH3(-)-N, and NO3(-)-N exceeded Saudi standards in all seasons. Mean metal concentrations in water were consistently at their highest concentrations in samples collected during the summer, and the lowest in samples collected during the winter. Mean metal concentrations in fish muscle tissue exceeded Saudi standards for As and Cd, and United Nations FAO standards for Cr, Ni, Zn, Fe and Mn. Statistical analysis showed highly significant positive correlations between metal concentrations in water and metal concentrations in fish muscle for As-Fe, Pb-Cr, Pb-Ni, Cr-Cu, and Cu-Fe. This study highlights the urgent need for monitoring and controlling wastewater discharge in Wadi Hanifa to ensure public safety.

  12. Costs of reducing water use of concentrating solar power to sustainable levels: Scenarios for North Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damerau, Kerstin, E-mail: damerau@iiasa.ac.at [International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (Austria); Williges, Keith; Patt, Anthony G. [International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (Austria); Gauche, Paul [Department of Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering, Stellenbosch University (South Africa)

    2011-07-15

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) has the potential to become a leading sustainable energy technology for the European electricity system. In order to reach a substantial share in the energy mix, European investment in CSP appears most profitable in North Africa, where solar potential is significantly higher than in southern Europe. As well as sufficient solar irradiance, however, the majority of today's CSP plants also require a considerable amount of water, primarily for cooling purposes. In this paper we examine water usage associated with CSP in North Africa, and the cost penalties associated with technologies that could reduce those needs. We inspect four representative sites to compare the ecological and economical drawbacks from conventional and alternative cooling systems, depending on the local environment, and including an outlook with climate change to the mid-century. Scaling our results up to a regional level indicates that the use of wet cooling technologies would likely be unsustainable. Dry cooling systems, as well as sourcing of alternative water supplies, would allow for sustainable operation. Their cost penalty would be minor compared to the variance in CSP costs due to different average solar irradiance values. - Highlights: > Scaling up CSP with wet cooling from ground water will be unsustainable in North Africa. > Desalination and alternative cooling systems can assure a sustainable water supply. > On large-scale, the cost penalties of alternative cooling technologies appear minor.

  13. Water levels in wells J-11 and J-12, 1989-91, Yucca Mountain Area, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boucher, M.S.

    1994-12-31

    Water levels have been measured in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada, since 1981 in order to gain a better understanding of the ground-water flow system in the area. Water levels in wells J-11 and J-12 have been periodically measured using calibrated reeled steel tapes since 1989, however, calculation of water-level altitude was not possible prior to 1993 due to missing reference elevations. These elevations were determined in 1993 by the U.S. Geological Survey. During 1989-91, water-level altitudes for well J-11 ranged from 732.09 to 732.40 meters and the mean water-level altitude was 732.19 meters. During 1989-91, water-level altitudes for well J-12 ranged from 727.84 to 728.03 meters, and the mean water-level altitude was 727.95 meters.

  14. Flow Forecasting using Deterministic Updating of Water Levels in Distributed Hydrodynamic Urban Drainage Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisbet Sneftrup Hansen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing requirement to generate more precise model simulations and forecasts of flows in urban drainage systems in both offline and online situations. Data assimilation tools are hence needed to make it possible to include system measurements in distributed, physically-based urban drainage models and reduce a number of unavoidable discrepancies between the model and reality. The latter can be achieved partly by inserting measured water levels from the sewer system into the model. This article describes how deterministic updating of model states in this manner affects a simulation, and then evaluates and documents the performance of this particular updating procedure for flow forecasting. A hypothetical case study and synthetic observations are used to illustrate how the Update method works and affects downstream nodes. A real case study in a 544 ha urban catchment furthermore shows that it is possible to improve the 20-min forecast of water levels in an updated node and the three-hour forecast of flow through a downstream node, compared to simulations without updating. Deterministic water level updating produces better forecasts when implemented in large networks with slow flow dynamics and with measurements from upstream basins that contribute significantly to the flow at the forecast location.

  15. Entry-Level Information Services and Support Personnel: Needed Workplace and Technology Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awang, Faridah; Anderson, Marcia A.; Baker, Clora Mae

    2003-01-01

    Responses to an Illinois survey by 19 human resource managers and 26 university and 71 community college information systems instructors rated the importance of workplace and technology skills for entry-level information services and support personnel. Both groups ranked nontechnical/soft skills and information technology certification as…

  16. Measurements of Indoor Radon Levels in India using Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors: Need for Standardisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Subba Ramu

    1992-10-01

    Full Text Available Solid-state nuclear track detectors are being used to obtain the time integrated concentration levels of indoor radon/thoron and their daughters. This technique is preferred for taking such measurements in dwellings. Such measurements are important as the radiation dose to human beings due to indoor radon constitutes more than 50 per cent of the total dose including that received from the natural sources. Normalisation is necessary to obtain a representative value of the effective dose equivalent to the population. Indoor measurements carried out by several laboratories all over the country show that the indoor radon levels vary from 1.5 to about 2000 Bq m/sup -3/, while the normal level is in the range of 10 to 60 Bq m/sup -3/. It is rather difficult to compare the levels since the exposure conditions, the period of measurements and the calibration techniques used are not standardised. The present paper discusses the measurements of indoor radon in India by various groups and the important problems associated with the standardisation of these measurements. The standardisation procedure and the calibration set-up developed at this laboratory are also presented.

  17. A Study of the Competencies Needed of Entry-Level Academic Health Sciences Librarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philbrick, Jodi Lynn

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the professional and personal competencies that entry-level academic health sciences librarians should possess from the perspectives of academic health sciences library directors, library and information sciences (LIS) educators who specialize in educating health sciences librarians, and individuals who…

  18. Reactor Testing and Qualification: Prioritized High-level Criticality Testing Needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Bragg-Sitton; J. Bess; J. Werner; G. Harms; S. Bailey

    2011-09-01

    Researchers at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) were tasked with reviewing possible criticality testing needs to support development of the fission surface power system reactor design. Reactor physics testing can provide significant information to aid in development of technologies associated with small, fast spectrum reactors that could be applied for non-terrestrial power systems, leading to eventual system qualification. Several studies have been conducted in recent years to assess the data and analyses required to design and build a space fission power system with high confidence that the system will perform as designed [Marcille, 2004a, 2004b; Weaver, 2007; Parry et al., 2008]. This report will provide a summary of previous critical tests and physics measurements that are potentially applicable to the current reactor design (both those that have been benchmarked and those not yet benchmarked), summarize recent studies of potential nuclear testing needs for space reactor development and their applicability to the current baseline fission surface power (FSP) system design, and provide an overview of a suite of tests (separate effects, sub-critical or critical) that could fill in the information database to improve the accuracy of physics modeling efforts as the FSP design is refined. Some recommendations for tasks that could be completed in the near term are also included. Specific recommendations on critical test configurations will be reserved until after the sensitivity analyses being conducted by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are completed (due August 2011).

  19. Review of Knowledge on the Occurrence, Chemical Composition, and Potential Use for Desalination of Saline Ground Water in Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas with a Discussion of Potential Future Study Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, G.F.

    2004-01-01

    Increasing demand on the limited supplies of freshwater in the desert Southwest, as well as other parts of the United States, has increased the level of interest in saline-water resources. Saline ground water has long been recognized as a potentially important contributor to water supply in the Southwest, as demonstrated by the number of hydrologic, geologic, and engineering studies on the distribution of saline water and the feasibility of desalination. Potential future study needs include investigating and documenting the three-dimensional distribution of salinity and chemical composition of saline-water resources and the hydraulic properties of aquifers containing these saline-water resources, assessing the chemical suitability of saline water for use with existing and anticipated desalination technologies, simulating the effect of withdrawal of saline ground water on water levels and water composition in saline and adjoining or overlying freshwater aquifers, and determining the suitability of target geologic formations for injection of desalination-generated waste.

  20. The calcium concentration of public drinking waters and bottled mineral waters in Spain and its contribution to satisfying nutritional needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isidro Vitoria

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A sufficient intake of calcium enables correct bone mineralization. The bioavailability of calcium in water is similar to that in milk. Objective: To determine the concentration of calcium in public drinking water and bottled mineral water. Methods: We used ion chromatography to analyse the calcium concentrations of public drinking waters in a representative sample of 108 Spanish municipalities (21,290,707 people and of 109 natural mineral waters sold in Spain, 97 of which were produced in Spain and 12 of which were imported. Results: The average calcium concentration of public drinking waters was 38.96 ± 32.44 mg/L (range: 0.40159.68 mg/L. In 27 municipalities, the water contained 50-100 mg/L of calcium and in six municipalities it contained over 100 mg/L. The average calcium concentration of the 97 Spanish natural mineral water brands was 39.6 mg/L (range: 0.6-610.1 mg/L. Of these, 34 contained 50-100 mg/L of calcium and six contained over 100 mg/L. Of the 12 imported brands, 10 contained over 50 mg/L. Assuming water consumption is as recommended, water containing 50-100 mg/L of calcium provides 5.4-12.8% of the recommended intake of calcium for children aged one to thirteen, up to 13.6% for adolescents, 5.8-17.6% for adults, and up to 20.8% for lactating mothers. Water with 100-150 mg/L of calcium provides 10-31% of the recommended dietary allowance, depending on the age of the individual. Discussion: Public drinking water and natural mineral water consumption in a third of Spanish cities can be considered an important complementary source of calcium.

  1. Ground-water levels and directions of flow in Geauga County, Ohio, September 1994, and changes in ground-water levels, 1986-94

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagucki, M.L.; Lesney, L.L.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Geauga County Planning Commission and Board of County Commissioners, to determine directions of ground-water flow and to assess differences from 1986 to 1994 in ground-water levels in the glacial deposits and Pottsville Formation, Cuyahoga Group, and the Berea Sandstone. Water levels were measured in 219 wells in Geauga County, Ohio, in September 1994. Water levels measured in January and February 1986 in 88 of the 219 wells were used for comparison. Water-level maps constructed from measurements made in September 1994 to show that ground-water levels in the Pottsville Formation and the glacial deposits generally correspond to the land-surface configuration and that ground water flows from the uplands to adjacent streams and buried valleys. Ground-water flow in the Cuyahoga Group is generally downward from the Pottsville Formation to the Berea Sandstone. Directions of ground-water flow in the Berea Sandstone are toward outcrop areas at the north and east edges of Geauga County and toward sub-crops beneath buried glacial valley deposits in Chardon, Chester, Munson, and Russel Townships and along the west edge of the county. A comparison of water level measurements in 1986 and 1994 indicates that water levels declined in 70 percent of the measured wells and increased in 30 percent. The change in water levels from 1986 to 1994 ranged from an increase of 13.58 feet to a decrease of 29.25 feet. Thirty percent of all water-level changes were less than 1 foot in magnitude. In nearly 80 percent of the wells, water-level changes were within the range of plus or minus 5 feet. Among the wells for which two or more historical measurements were available, the 1994 water levels in 54 percent were outside the range of water-levels observed in previous studies (only 24 percent were greater than 1 foot outside of the previously-observed range). Water-level declines of greater than 10 feet

  2. Tritium activity levels in environmental water samples from different origins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palomo, M.; Penalver, A.; Aguilar, C. [Unitat de Radioquimica Ambiental i Sanitaria, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Edifici CTT-FURV, Av. Paisos Catalans 18, 43007 Tarragona (Spain); Borrull, F. [Unitat de Radioquimica Ambiental i Sanitaria, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Edifici CTT-FURV, Av. Paisos Catalans 18, 43007 Tarragona (Spain)], E-mail: francesc.borrull@urv.cat

    2007-09-15

    Tritium activity was determined in environmental waters from different areas of Catalonia, using a distillation procedure before liquid scintillation counting. The developed method was validated by analysing two samples from proficiency tests. In most of water samples (from rivers, rain, mineral bottled waters and tap waters) analysed, the activity values were lower or close to the minimum detectable activity (MDA) for our method which has a value of 0.6 Bq/l. However, the Ebro river samples had a mean activity around 3.6{+-}0.6Bq/l. The nuclear power station of Asco, which is located on the banks of this river, can be a source of tritium production and introduction into the environment, so a more exhaustive study of these waters was carried out. Tritium activities in this river were a long way above the normative limit in Spain for waters intended for human consumption, which is 100 Bq/l.

  3. Multi-level Split Cord Malformation: Do We Need a New Classification?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gmaan A Alzhrani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Split cord malformations (SCMs are thought to be rare abnormalities representing 3.8-5% of all spinal cord anomalies. The prevalence is estimated to be 1 in 5499 live births (0.02%, with a slight female predominance (1.3:1. Although the estimates of prevalence vary, Type I SCM occurs more frequently than Type II SCM. In this paper, we are reporting the clinical presentation and imaging findings of multi-level SCM in a 27-year-old male. A literature review of the embryological background of SCM and pathological hypothesis for this entity is provided. A systematic review has been conducted to identify multi-level SCM cases reported in the literature, followed by proposing a new classification system to further our understanding and management of SCMs.

  4. The Need and Importance of Field Trips at Higher Level in Karachi, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anila Fatima Shakil

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This study identifies the importance of educational field trips at higher level in different universities of Karachi. This study was carried out through survey. The population of this study was the students and teachers of both government and private universities. The ideas and views of male and female students and teachers were sought out regarding the importance of educational field trips at higher level. One hundred and fifty respondents including 50 teachersand 100 students were randomly selected. The questionnaire was used as a research instrument which was consisted of 28, 28 items, collected data was analyzed by using simple percentage method. Majority of the respondents had a view that educational field trip ishelpful to cope up with advance learning. A large number of respondents opinioned that educational field trip help to give a practical approach for the curriculum and it is helpful to develop more interest in learning among students.

  5. Multi-level Split Cord Malformation: Do We Need a New Classification?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzhrani, Gmaan A; Al-Jehani, Hosam M; Melançon, Denis

    2014-01-01

    Split cord malformations (SCMs) are thought to be rare abnormalities representing 3.8-5% of all spinal cord anomalies. The prevalence is estimated to be 1 in 5499 live births (0.02%), with a slight female predominance (1.3:1). Although the estimates of prevalence vary, Type I SCM occurs more frequently than Type II SCM. In this paper, we are reporting the clinical presentation and imaging findings of multi-level SCM in a 27-year-old male. A literature review of the embryological background of SCM and pathological hypothesis for this entity is provided. A systematic review has been conducted to identify multi-level SCM cases reported in the literature, followed by proposing a new classification system to further our understanding and management of SCMs.

  6. Air Force Working Capital Fund: Actions Needed to Manage Cash Balances to Required Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    may transfer budget authority only as authorized by law. “ cash levels should be maintained at 7 to 10 days of operational cost and six months of...USTRANSCOM documentation to ascertain the reasons.6 To address the second objective, we obtained and analyzed AFWCF budget documents and cash ...requirement, we analyzed DOD budget and accounting reports to determine the dollar amount of transfers made for the period. We analyzed cash transfers

  7. A Systematic Study for Smart Residential Thermostats: User Needs for the Input, Output, and Intelligence Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Luen Patrick Rau

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of “smart” residential thermostats—both in terms of wider connectivity and higher intelligence—has revealed great opportunity for energy conservation, as well as providing comfort and convenience. This paper focuses on the interaction design of such a novel system, and analyzed user requirements for input, output, and level of intelligence systematically through both in-depth interviews and a survey.

  8. Water needs and women's health in the Kumasi metropolitan area, Ghana.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buor, D.

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of water fetching by women and the quality of water during periods of water scarcity on the health of women in the Kumasi metropolitan area. A sample of 210 women drawn using systematic random procedure is used for the study. Formal interview is the main instrument use

  9. Contribution of complementary foods to the total daily water needs of urban Guatemalan infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enneman, A.; Campos, R.; Hernandez, L.; Palma, A.V.; Vossenaar, M.; Solomons, N.W.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Estimates of adequate intake (AI) for water only became available in 2005. The daily water AI for 6-12-month-old infants of both sexes is 800 mL. The present study aimed to estimate the water intake of urban infants receiving both breast milk and complementary feeding (CF) and to compare

  10. Knowledge levels and training needs of disaster medicine among health professionals, medical students, and local residents in Shanghai, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Su

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Disaster is a serious public health issue. Health professionals and community residents are main players in disaster responses but their knowledge levels of disaster medicine are not readily available. This study aimed to evaluate knowledge levels and training needs of disaster medicine among potential disaster responders and presented a necessity to popularize disaster medicine education. METHODS: A self-reporting questionnaire survey on knowledge level and training needs of disaster medicine was conducted in Shanghai, China, in 2012. A total of randomly selected 547 health professionals, 456 medical students, and 1,526 local residents provided intact information. The total response rate was 93.7%. RESULTS: Overall, 1.3% of these participants have received systematic disaster medicine training. News media (87.1% was the most common channel to acquire disaster medicine knowledge. Although health professionals were more knowledgeable than community residents, their knowledge structure of disaster medicine was not intact. Medical teachers were more knowledgeable than medical practitioners and health administrators (p = 0.002. Clinicians performed better than public health physicians (p<0.001, whereas public health students performed better than clinical medical students (p<0.001. In community residents, education background significantly affected the knowledge level on disaster medicine (p<0.001. Training needs of disaster medicine were generally high among the surveyed. 'Lecture' and 'practical training' were preferred teaching methods. The selected key and interested contents on disaster medicine training were similar between health professionals and medical students, while the priorities chosen by local residents were quite different from health professionals and medical students (p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Traditional clinical-oriented medical education might lead to a huge gap between the knowledge level on disaster medicine and

  11. Behaviors of extreme water level in the Pearl River Delta and possible impacts from human activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. D. Chen

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Trends and variations of the extreme water levels defined as exceeding/falling below certain thresholds (mean ± std across the Pearl River Delta (PRD are systematically explored using the linear regression method. Research results indicate that: 1 The upper PRD is dominated by the significant decreasing low water level, and significant increasing low water level can be identified in the lower PRD. The variations of the relative frequency of the high water level are characterized by the decreasing variability in the middle PRD. However more stations show significant changes of the relative frequency of the low water level across the PRD. No confirmative changing patterns of the relative frequency of the low water level can be detected in the middle PRD; 2 When it comes to the seasonal variations of the high/low water level in JJA (high flow periods in the PRD, stations located closer to the estuary tend to exhibit increasing high/low water level. However stations located closer to the upper PRD tend to show decreasing high/low water level. Similar patterns can be identified in the high/low water level in DJF (low flow periods in the PRD; 3 The changes of the water level in the PRD are heavily affected by human interferences, e.g. in-channel dredging, sand mining and the construction of levees. The stations dominated by decreasing water level are mostly located along the river channels featured by highly-intensive dredging. The stations along the coastal regions show significant increasing extreme high/low water level. The coastal regions are not influenced by in-channel dredging, and furthermore, sediment loads from upper and middle PRD are deposited in the river mouths and which will tend to raise the water level in the estuary of the PRD. The findings of this paper may be helpful for local water resource management.

  12. Water shortage and needs for wastewater re-use in the north China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X C; Jin, P K

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyses the present condition of the water shortage in north China where annual rainfall is low and per capita water resource is below the line of regular water stress, or even the line of absolute water scarcity. Of the available water resources, the percentge of water withdrawal in all the north basins is high--the Yellow River and Huai River basins being greater than 80% and the Hai River basin mainly depending on interbasin water transfer. Over-withdrawal of water also results in serious water environmental problems including "flow cut-off" of the Yellow River main channel and water pollution of many rivers. The paper also analyses the potential of wastewater as a resource and the demand for treated wastewater re-use. In north China, due to low rainfall and high potential evaporation environmental re-use, gardening, afforestation, etc. is considered as the main usage of the treated wastewater. Considering the economic restrictions in the less developed area, a decentralised system can be taken as an important option in formulating water re-use strategies.

  13. Effects of full-scale beach renovation on fecal indicator levels in shoreline sand and water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Rafael J; Hernandez, Yasiel; Jimenez, Nasly H; Piggot, Alan M; Klaus, James S; Feng, Zhixuan; Reniers, Ad; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M

    2014-01-01

    Recolonization of enterococci, at a non-point source beach known to contain high background levels of bacteria, was studied after a full-scale beach renovation project. The renovation involved importation of new exogenous sand, in addition to infrastructure improvements. The study's objectives were to document changes in sand and water quality and to evaluate the relative contribution of different renovation activities towards these changes. These objectives were addressed: by measuring enterococci levels in the sand and fecal indicator bacteria levels (enterococci and fecal coliform) in the water, by documenting sediment characteristics (mineralogy and biofilm levels), and by estimating changes in observable enterococci loads. Analysis of enterococci levels on surface sand and within sediment depth cores were significantly higher prior to beach renovation (6.3-72 CFU/g for each sampling day) when compared to levels during and after beach renovation (0.8-12 CFU/g) (P < 0.01). During the renovation process, sand enterococci levels were frequently below detection limits (<0.1 CFU/g). For water, exceedances in the regulatory thresholds that would trigger a beach advisory decreased by 40% for enterococci and by 90% for fecal coliform. Factors that did not change significantly between pre- and post- renovation included the enterococci loads from animals (approx. 3 × 10(11) CFU per month). Factors that were observed to change between pre- and post- renovation activities included: the composition of the beach sand (64% versus 98% quartz, and a significant decrease in biofilm levels) and loads from direct stormwater inputs (reduction of 3 × 10(11) CFU per month). Overall, this study supports that beach renovation activities contributed to improved sand and water quality resulting in a 50% decrease of observable enterococci loads due to upgrades to the stormwater infrastructure. Of interest was that the change in the sand mineralogy also coincided with changes in biofilm

  14. The Examination of the Needs and Stress Levels of the Parents of Handicapped Children in Terms of Some Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ender, Durualp; Kubra, Kocabas; Asli, Arslan; Kezban, Ozaydin

    2011-01-01

    The investigation was concerned with the examination of the needs and stress levels of the parents of mentally disabled children in terms of some variables. The study included parents (15 mothers and 13 fathers) of 28 mentally disabled children composed of 14 girls and 14 boys who were getting education in the School of Practice and Work Center…

  15. Evaluation of long-term water-level declines in basalt aquifers near Mosier, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Erick R.; Morgan, David S.; Lee, Karl K.; Haynes, Jonathan V.; Conlon, Terrence D.

    2012-01-01

    local combination of geology and well construction have resulted in aquifer commingling at a particular well, the well needs to be tested by measuring intraborehole flow. During geophysical testing of one known commingling well, the flow rate through the well between aquifers ranged between 70 and 135 gallons per minute (11-22 percent of total annual pumping in the study area). Historically, when aquifer water levels were 150-200 feet higher, this flow rate would have been correspondingly higher. 5. Because aquifer commingling through well boreholes is likely the dominant cause of aquifer declines, flow simulations were conducted to evaluate the benefit of repairing wells in specified locations and the benefit of recharging aquifers using diverted flow from study area creeks. As part of this analysis, maps were generated that show which areas are more vulnerable to commingling. These maps indicate that the value of repairing wells in the area generally coincident with the OWRD administrative area is higher than in areas farther upstream in the watershed. Simulation results also indicate that artificial recharge of the aquifers using diverted creek water will not significantly improve water levels in the aquifer system unless at least some commingling wells are repaired first. Repairs would entail construction of wells in a manner that prevents commingling of multiple aquifers. The value of artificially recharging the aquifers improves as more wells are repaired because the aquifer system more efficiently stores water.

  16. Physicochemical Characteristics and Heavy Metal Levels in Water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL

    Studies on the water samples collected from the rivers showed that the physicochemical characteristics of the river ... chromium 0.001-0.03mg/l, nickel 0.01-0.004mg/l, manganese 0.008- ..... drinking water standard in any of the rivers sampled.

  17. Water levels in continuously monitored wells in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada, 1985--88

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luckey, R.R.; Lobmeyer, D.H.; Burkhardt, D.J.

    1993-07-01

    Water levels have been monitored hourly in 15 wells completed in 23 depth intervals in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada. Water levels were monitored using pressure transducers and were recorded by data loggers. The pressure transducers were periodically calibrated by raising and lowering them in the wells. The water levels were normally measured at approximately the same time that the transducers were calibrated. Where the transducer output appeared reasonable, it was converted to water levels using the calibrations and manual water- level measurements. The amount of transducer output that was converted to water levels ranged from zero for several intervals to about 98 percent for one interval. Fourteen of the wells were completed in Tertiary volcanic rocks and one well was completed in Paleozoic carbonate rocks. Each well monitored from one to four depth intervals. Water-level fluctuation caused by barometric pressure changes and earth tides were observed.

  18. Water-Air Volatilization Factors to Determine Volatile Organic Compound (VOC Reference Levels in Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicenç Martí

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this work is the modeling and calculation of volatilization factors (VFs from water to air for volatile organic compounds (VOCs in order to perform human health risk-based reference levels (RLs for the safe use of water. The VF models have been developed starting from the overall mass-transfer coefficients (Koverall concept from air to water for two interaction geometries (flat surface and spherical droplets in indoor and outdoor scenarios. For a case study with five groups of risk scenarios and thirty VOCs, theoretical VFs have been calculated by using the developed models. Results showed that Koverall values for flat and spherical surface geometries were close to the mass transfer coefficient for water (KL when Henry’s law constant (KH was high. In the case of spherical drop geometry, the fraction of volatilization (fV was asymptotical when increasing KH with fV values also limited due to Koverall. VFs for flat surfaces were calculated from the emission flux of VOCs, and results showed values close to 1000KH for the most conservative indoor scenarios and almost constant values for outdoor scenarios. VFs for spherical geometry in indoor scenarios followed also constant VFs and were far from 1000KH. The highest calculated VF values corresponded to the E2A, E2B, E3A and E5A scenarios and were compared with experimental and real results in order to check the goodness of flat and sphere geometry models. Results showed an overestimation of calculated values for the E2A and E2B scenarios and an underestimation for the E3A and E5A scenarios. In both cases, most of the calculated VFs were from 0.1- to 10-times higher than experimental/real values.

  19. GPS inland water buoys for precise and high temporal resolution water level and movement monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apel, Heiko; Nghia Hung, Nguyen; Thoss, Heiko; Güntner, Andreas

    2010-05-01

    Monitoring of river and lake stages is one of the basic issues in understanding catchment hydrology and hydraulic systems. There are numerous techniques available for this, but in case of large water bodies technical as well as financial problems may restrict the use of traditional techniques. Therefore we explored the potential of GPS based altimetry for stage monitoring by developing small and easy to handle buoys with mounted high precision GPS devices. The advantages of the buoys are the freedom of positioning over the whole water body and their quick and easy deployment. The developed devices were tested in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam in two different locations: On the Mekong river where high currents over the flood season occur and in a small lake with hydraulic connections to a major channel with hardly any currents present. The collected GPS data were processed differentially and tested against standard pressure gauge data. The recorded stages proved to be of high quality and a valuable resource for flood monitoring and modeling. In addition to the stage data, the high-precision GPS positioning data could also be used for monitoring the movement of the buoys, from which alternating currents caused by ocean tides and flood waves could be detected, thus providing an additional information on the hydraulic system. We conclude that the developed buoys add well to the existing hydrological monitoring pool and are a goof option for the monitoring in large water bodies where a) traditional methods are technically difficult to deploy or are too costly, and b) where additional information about flow direction is needed.

  20. Climate Change and European Water Bodies, a Review of Existing Gaps and Future Research Needs: Findings of the ClimateWater Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, Monica; Harper, David M; Blaskovicova, Lotta; Hancz, Gabriella; Janauer, Georg A; Jolánkai, Zsolt; Lanz, Eva; Lo Porto, Antonio; Mándoki, Monika; Pataki, Beata; Rahuel, Jean-Luc; Robinson, Victoria J; Stoate, Chris; Tóth, Eszter; Jolánkai, Géza

    2015-08-01

    There is general agreement among scientists that global temperatures are rising and will continue to increase in the future. It is also agreed that human activities are the most important causes of these climatic variations, and that water resources are already suffering and will continue to be greatly impaired as a consequence of these changes. In particular, it is probable that areas with limited water resources will expand and that an increase of global water demand will occur, estimated to be around 35-60% by 2025 as a consequence of population growth and the competing needs of water uses. This will cause a growing imbalance between water demand (including the needs of nature) and supply. This urgency demands that climate change impacts on water be evaluated in different sectors using a cross-cutting approach (Contestabile in Nat Clim Chang 3:11-12, 2013). These issues were examined by the EU FP7-funded Co-ordination and support action "ClimateWater" (bridging the gap between adaptation strategies of climate change impacts and European water policies). The project studied adaptation strategies to minimize the water-related consequences of climate change and assessed how these strategies should be taken into consideration by European policies. This article emphasizes that knowledge gaps still exist about the direct effects of climate change on water bodies and their indirect impacts on production areas that employ large amounts of water (e.g., agriculture). Some sectors, such as ecohydrology and alternative sewage treatment technologies, could represent a powerful tool to mitigate climate change impacts. Research needs in these still novel fields are summarized.

  1. Phylogenetic Signal of Threatening Processes among Hylids: The Need for Clade-Level Conservation Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J. Corey

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid, global declines among amphibians are partly alarming because many occur for apparently unknown or enigmatic reasons. Moreover, the relationship between phylogeny and enigmatic declines in higher clades of the amphibian phylogeny appears at first to be an intractable problem. I present a working solution by assessing threatening processes potentially underlying enigmatic declines in the family, Hylidae. Applying comparative methods that account for various evolutionary scenarios, I find extreme concentrations of threatening processes, including pollution and habitat loss, in the clade Hylini, potentially influenced by traits under selection. The analysis highlights hotspots of declines under phylogenetic influence in the genera Isthmohyla, Plectrohyla and Ptychohyla, and geographically in Mexico and Guatemala. The conservation implications of concentrated phylogenetic influence across multiple threatening processes are twofold: Data Deficient species of threatened clades should be prioritized in future surveys and, perhaps, a greater vulnerability should be assigned to such clades for further consideration of clade-level conservation priorities.

  2. The Australasian Triage Scale Level 5 Criteria may Need to be Revised

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Mirhaghi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Australasian Triage Scale (ATS is used to prioritize incoming patients in the emergency department (ED according to patient acuity. It`s a five-level triage scale endorsed by the Australasian College for Emergency Medicine (ACEM. The ATS categories are defined by physiological predictors (airway, breathing, circulation, and disability and maximum waiting time to treatment (1: immediate, 2: 10 minutes, 3: 30 minutes, 4: 60 minutes and 5: 120 minutes. Triage scales should be valid and reliable to ensure safe practice and promote clinical applicability in ED. Ebrahimi et al. reported that the pooled coefficient for ATS is fair: 0.390 (95% CI 0.307–0.466. 

  3. A National Strategy is Needed to Prevent the Coming Water War: The Mississippi River Watershed Shows Us Why

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    process of hydraulic fracturing as the cause of this drop. Others point to droughts and an increased use of groundwater for irrigation as a cause. It is... Amazon and the Congo.4 The watershed moves excess rain, storm water, and snow melt out of the interior of the country to the Gulf of Mexico...Midwest drought that resulted in water levels approaching the 1988 record low levels in the Upper Mississippi River near St. Louis in December 2012. These

  4. Options for water-level control in developed wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, J. R.; Laubhan, M. K.; Reid, F. A.; Wortham, J. S.; Fredrickson, L. H.

    1993-01-01

    Wetland habitats in the United States currently are lost at a rate of 260,000 acres/year (105,218 ha/year). Consequently, water birds concentrate in fewer and smaller areas. Such concentrations may deplete food supplies and influence behavior, physiology, and survival. Continued losses increase the importance of sound management of the remaining wetlands because water birds depend on them. Human activities modified the natural hydrology of most remaining wetlands in the conterminous United States, and such hydrologic alterations frequently reduce wetland productivity. The restoration of original wetland functions and productivity often requires the development of water distribution and discharge systems to emulate natural hydrologic regimes. Construction of levees and correct placement of control structures and water-delivery and water-discharge systems are necessary to (1) create soil and water conditions for the germination of desirable plants, (2) control nuisance vegetation, (3) promote the production of invertebrates, and (4) make foods available for wildlife that depends of wetlands (Leaflets 13.2.1 and 13.4.6). This paper provides basic guidelines for the design of wetlands that benefit wildlife. If biological considerations are not incorporated into such designs, the capability of managing wetlands for water birds is reduced and costs often are greater. Although we address the development of palustrine wetlands in migration and wintering areas, many of the discussed principles are applicable to the development of other wetland types and in other locations.

  5. Molecular level water and solute transport in reverse osmosis membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueptow, Richard M.; Shen, Meng; Keten, Sinan

    2015-11-01

    The water permeability and rejection characteristics of six solutes, methanol, ethanol, 2-propanol, urea, Na+, and Cl-, were studied for a polymeric reverse osmosis (RO) membrane using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. Results indicate that water flux increases with an increasing fraction of percolated free volume in the membrane polymer structure. Solute molecules display Brownian motion and hop from pore to pore as they pass through the membrane. The solute rejection depends on both the size of the solute molecule and the chemical interaction of the solute with water and the membrane. When the open spaces in the polymeric structure are such that solutes have to shed at least one water molecule from their solvation shell to pass through the membrane molecular structure, the water-solute pair interaction energy governs solute rejection. Organic solutes more easily shed water molecules than ions to more readily pass through the membrane. Hydrogen-bonding sites for molecules like urea also lead to a higher rejection. These findings underline the importance of the solute's solvation shell and solute-water-membrane chemistry in solute transport and rejection in RO membranes. Funded by the Institute for Sustainability and Energy at Northwestern with computing resources from XSEDE (NSF grant ACI-1053575).

  6. Raising the level: orangutans use water as a tool

    OpenAIRE

    Mendes, N; . D. Hanus; Call, J.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the use of water as a tool by presenting five orangutans (Pongo abelii) with an out-of-reach peanut floating inside a vertical transparent tube. All orangutans collected water from a drinker and spat it inside the tube to get access to the peanut. Subjects required an average of three mouthfuls of water to get the peanut. This solution occurred in the first trial and all subjects continued using this successful strategy in subsequent trials. The latency to retrieve the reward ...

  7. Options for future effective water management in Lombok: A multi-level nested framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjah, Taslim; Baldwin, Claudia

    2014-11-01

    Previous research on water use in Lombok identified reduced water available in springs and limits on seasonal water availability. It foreshadowed increasing competition for water resources in critical areas of Lombok. This study examines preliminary information on local social-institutional arrangements for water allocation in the context of Ostrom's rules for self-governing institutions. We identify robust customary mechanisms for decision-making about water sharing and rules at a local level and suggest areas of further investigation for strengthening multi-level networked and nested frameworks, in collaboration with higher levels of government.

  8. Water-level changes and directions of ground-water flow in the shallow aquifer, Fallon area, Churchill County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, R.L.; Allander, K.K.

    1993-01-01

    The Truckee-Carson-Pyramid Lake Water Rights Settlement Act of 1990 directed the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to acquire water rights for wetland areas in the Carson Desert, Nevada. The public is concerned that htis acquisition of water rights and delivery of the water directly to wildlife areas would result in less recharge to the shallow ground water in the Fallon area and cause domestic wells to go dry. In January 1992, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, began a study of the shallow ground-water system in the Fallon area in Churchill County, Nevada. A network of 126 wells in the study area was monitored. Between January and November 1992, water levels in most wells declined, usually less than 2 feet. The maximum measured decline over this period was 2.68 feet in a well near Stillwater Marsh. Between April and July, however, water levels rose in irrigated areas, typically 1 to 2 feet. Newlands Project water deliveries to the study area began soon after the turn of the century. Since then, water levels have risen more than 15 feet across much of the study area. Water lost from unlined irrigtiaon canals caused the stage in Big Soda Lake to rise nearly 60 feet; ground-water levels near the lake have risen 30 to 40 feet. The depth to water in most irrigated areas is now less than 10 feet. The altitude of the water table ranges from 4.025 feet above sea level 11 miles west of Fallon to 3,865 feet in the Stillwater Marsh area. Ground water flows eastward and divides; some flow goes to the northeast toward the Carson Sink and Stillwater areas, and some goes southeastward to Carson Lake.

  9. Water Wizards: School Program on Water Conservation for Third and Fourth Grade Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massachusetts State Water Resources Authority, Boston.

    Water is precious. It is also easy to take for granted. Many people recognize that water is scarce in desert areas. but it is harder to realize that places like Massachusetts could face a shortage of pure drinking water. This manual provides teachers with curriculum resources to introduce concepts of water supply and water conservation to third…

  10. Army Corps of Engineers: Additional Steps Needed for Review and Revision of Water Control Manuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    water supply, recreation, and fish and wildlife conservation. However, much of the Corps’ infrastructure for these dams and their associated...according to the report, a shift in precipitation from snow to rain , combined with earlier melting of mountain snowpack, has been documented in...statistical analysis of historical rain events. For those projects that have multiple authorized purposes, water control plans attempt to balance water

  11. What day-ahead reserves are needed in electric grids with high levels of wind power?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauch, Brandon; Apt, Jay; Carvalho, Pedro M. S.; Jaramillo, Paulina

    2013-09-01

    Day-ahead load and wind power forecasts provide useful information for operational decision making, but they are imperfect and forecast errors must be offset with operational reserves and balancing of (real time) energy. Procurement of these reserves is of great operational and financial importance in integrating large-scale wind power. We present a probabilistic method to determine net load forecast uncertainty for day-ahead wind and load forecasts. Our analysis uses data from two different electric grids in the US with similar levels of installed wind capacity but with large differences in wind and load forecast accuracy, due to geographic characteristics. We demonstrate that the day-ahead capacity requirements can be computed based on forecasts of wind and load. For 95% day-ahead reliability, this required capacity ranges from 2100 to 5700 MW for ERCOT, and 1900 to 4500 MW for MISO (with 10 GW of installed wind capacity), depending on the wind and load forecast values. We also show that for each MW of additional wind power capacity for ERCOT, 0.16-0.30 MW of dispatchable capacity will be used to compensate for wind uncertainty based on day-ahead forecasts. For MISO (with its more accurate forecasts), the requirement is 0.07-0.13 MW of dispatchable capacity for each MW of additional wind capacity.

  12. Highlighting the Need for Systems-Level Experimental Characterization of Plant Metabolic Enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engqvist, Martin K M

    2016-01-01

    The biology of living organisms is determined by the action and interaction of a large number of individual gene products, each with specific functions. Discovering and annotating the function of gene products is key to our understanding of these organisms. Controlled experiments and bioinformatic predictions both contribute to functional gene annotation. For most species it is difficult to gain an overview of what portion of gene annotations are based on experiments and what portion represent predictions. Here, I survey the current state of experimental knowledge of enzymes and metabolism in Arabidopsis thaliana as well as eleven economically important crops and forestry trees - with a particular focus on reactions involving organic acids in central metabolism. I illustrate the limited availability of experimental data for functional annotation of enzymes in most of these species. Many enzymes involved in metabolism of citrate, malate, fumarate, lactate, and glycolate in crops and forestry trees have not been characterized. Furthermore, enzymes involved in key biosynthetic pathways which shape important traits in crops and forestry trees have not been characterized. I argue for the development of novel high-throughput platforms with which limited functional characterization of gene products can be performed quickly and relatively cheaply. I refer to this approach as systems-level experimental characterization. The data collected from such platforms would form a layer intermediate between bioinformatic gene function predictions and in-depth experimental studies of these functions. Such a data layer would greatly aid in the pursuit of understanding a multiplicity of biological processes in living organisms.

  13. Investigation of the relationship between aggression levels and basic psychological needs school of physical education and sports students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Çağrı Çetin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The search has been made for fixing if it varies or not regarding some variations aggressive levels and basic psychological needs of physical education and sports school students; and for if it has any relationship between aggression tendency and basic psychological need of the students. The research has been made in the year of 2010-2011 Education and Teaching. The students chosen by random sampling method (female students: 138, male students: 233 and totally: 371 participated to the searching from those majoring in the University of Mustafa Kemal Physical Education and Sports School, Physical Education and Sports Teacher (female students: 33, male students: 86, totally: 119, Coaching Training (female students: 32, male students: 44, totally: 76, Sports Management (female students: 29, male students: 55; totally: 84, Recreation (female students: 44, male students: 48, totally: 92. In the research had been used as the data collection tools “Aggression inventory’’ developed by Kiper (1984, “Basic psychological needs scale’’ adapted to Turkish by Kesici et al (2003, developed by Deci and Ryan (2000 and Personal Information Form developed by the researchers. As a result of the research it has been defined that the aggression degree has meaningful differences for female students at the destructive aggression subdimension, the aggression degree does not have a meaningful difference between those doing sports and those not doing sports. It has been seen that the individual need of the student at the subdimension of his basic psychological needs has a high considerate level for male students, those doing active sports have a considerate level in comparison with those not doing it about being individual, need of competence relationship.

  14. Amount of water needed to save 1 m3 of water: life cycle assessment of a flow regulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Markus; Söchtig, Michael; Weis, Christoph; Finkbeiner, Matthias

    2017-06-01

    Water saving devices in the sanitary equipment, such as flow regulators, are assumed to be environmentally advantageous even though their environmental benefit has never been compared to the environmental burden caused during their production und disposal. Therefore, a life cycle assessment according to ISO 14044 has been conducted to identify and quantify the environmental effects throughout the lifespan of a flow regulator. The analysis comprises the production of materials, manufacturing of components at suppliers, the assembly at NEOPERL®, all transports, savings of water and thermal energy during use as well as waste incineration including energy recovery in the end-of-life stage. Results show that the production of one flow regulator causes 0.12 MJ primary energy demand, a global warming potential of 5.9 g CO2-equivalent, and a water consumption of 30.3 ml. On the other hand, during a use of 10 years, it saves 19,231 MJ primary energy, 1223 kg CO2-equivalent, and avoids a water consumption of 790 l (166,200 l water use). Since local impacts of water consumption are more relevant than volumes, consequences of water consumption have been analyzed using recently developed impact assessment models. Accordingly, the production of a flow regulator causes 8.5 ml freshwater depletion, 1.4 × 10-13 disability adjusted life years, and 4.8 × 10-6 potentially disappeared fractions of species m2 a. Even though avoided environmental impacts resulting from water savings highly depend on the region where the flow regulator is used, the analysis has shown that environmental benefits are at least 15,000 times higher than impacts caused during the production.

  15. ‘Glocal’ water governance: a multi-level challenge in the anthropocene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, J.; Pahl-Wostl, C.; Zondervan, R.

    2013-01-01

    The water crisis is a crisis of governance. A literature review reveals that this crisis concerns definitional issues, issues of ownership and access, boundary issues, the multiple uses of water, and the levels at which water should be managed. Paradigms for managing water have evolved from integrat

  16. Water Hardness Level and ItAND#8217;s Health Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necmettin Kocak

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Water hardness is a term used to define the number of ions contained in the water, especially quantity sulphate, carbonate salts of calcium and magnesium. This characteristis of water is a important quality in it’s use as drinking water, industrial water and service water. The temporary hardness level of water cames from bicarbonate salts of calcium and magnesium whereas chloride, sulphate, nitrate, phosphate, silicate salts of calcium and magnesium. In order to indicate the hardness level of water samples French Hardness Level is used in our country. There is a larger amounth of calcium and magnesium salts in hard water samples. These minerals have very important functions in the human body. In this study, the importance of hard water in terms of human health has been assessed under light of current information. The studies about the preventive role of hard water in cardiovascular diseases, cerebrovascular diseases, stroke and many types of cancer areviewed. These studies Express that higher levels of calcium and magnesium hard water provide a higher reduction in these disease. Water, which must be consumed as 2 liters per dayis very important for human life. Hard water contains a lot of the minerals that must be taker daily, especially calcium and magnesium. It’s advised that water for consumption to have medium hardness. The hardness level of water is an aesthetic quality. Thus, in populations having a taste for soft water, the effort of individuals to softer the network water provided by municipalities using different equipments, in addition to their preference of soft water in plastic or glass bottles for consumption could imply lack of benefit of hard water for population health and also bring out some risks in terms of water hygiene. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(2.000: 187-192

  17. Can mercury in fish be reduced by water level management? Evaluating the effects of water level fluctuation on mercury accumulation in yellow perch (Perca flavescens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, James H; Maki, Ryan P; Knights, Brent C; Gray, Brian R

    2014-10-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination of fisheries is a major concern for resource managers of many temperate lakes. Anthropogenic Hg contamination is largely derived from atmospheric deposition within a lake's watershed, but its incorporation into the food web is facilitated by bacterial activity in sediments. Temporal variation in Hg content of fish (young-of-year yellow perch) in the regulated lakes of the Rainy-Namakan complex (on the border of the United States and Canada) has been linked to water level (WL) fluctuations, presumably through variation in sediment inundation. As a result, Hg contamination of fish has been linked to international regulations of WL fluctuation. Here we assess the relationship between WL fluctuations and fish Hg content using a 10-year dataset covering six lakes. Within-year WL rise did not appear in strongly supported models of fish Hg, but year-to-year variation in maximum water levels (∆maxWL) was positively associated with fish Hg content. This WL effect varied in magnitude among lakes: In Crane Lake, a 1 m increase in ∆maxWL from the previous year was associated with a 108 ng increase in fish Hg content (per gram wet weight), while the same WL change in Kabetogama was associated with only a 5 ng increase in fish Hg content. In half the lakes sampled here, effect sizes could not be distinguished from zero. Given the persistent and wide-ranging extent of Hg contamination and the large number of regulated waterways, future research is needed to identify the conditions in which WL fluctuations influence fish Hg content.

  18. The Innovation Deficit in Urban Water: The Need for an Integrated Perspective on Institutions, Organizations, and Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiparsky, Michael; Sedlak, David L; Thompson, Barton H; Truffer, Bernhard

    2013-08-01

    Interaction between institutional change and technological change poses important constraints on transitions of urban water systems to a state that can meet future needs. Research on urban water and other technology-dependent systems provides insights that are valuable to technology researchers interested in assuring that their efforts will have an impact. In the context of research on institutional change, innovation is the development, application, diffusion, and utilization of new knowledge and technology. This definition is intentionally inclusive: technological innovation will play a key role in reinvention of urban water systems, but is only part of what is necessary. Innovation usually depends on context, such that major changes to infrastructure include not only the technological inventions that drive greater efficiencies and physical transformations of water treatment and delivery systems, but also the political, cultural, social, and economic factors that hinder and enable such changes. On the basis of past and present changes in urban water systems, institutional innovation will be of similar importance to technological innovation in urban water reinvention. To solve current urban water infrastructure challenges, technology-focused researchers need to recognize the intertwined nature of technologies and institutions and the social systems that control change.

  19. How Do We Clean Our Water and How Clean Does It Need to Be?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitburn, Niki

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, in the United Kingdom, citizens take for granted clean water pumped directly into their homes, but it was not always the case, and is still not so in many countries. Could people clean water themselves if they had to and what could they then use it for? Would it actually be "clean enough" to drink? The author presents children…

  20. Using midday stem water potential to assess irrigation needs of landscape valley oaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ken Shackel; Rob Gross

    2002-01-01

    In a number of deciduous tree crops a reliable pressure chamber measurement of water stress (midday stem water potential or SWP) has been recently developed and found to be closely related to both irrigation regime and tree physiological responses to stress. A standard pressure chamber is used for the measurement of SWP, but prior to sampling, the leaf is enclosed in a...

  1. Water Cycling Between Ocean and Mantle: Super-Earths Need Not be Waterworlds

    CERN Document Server

    Cowan, Nicolas B

    2014-01-01

    Large terrestrial planets are expected to have muted topography and deep oceans, implying that most super-Earths should be entirely covered in water, so-called waterworlds. This is important because waterworlds lack a silicate weathering thermostat so their climate is predicted to be less stable than that of planets with exposed continents. In other words, the continuously habitable zone for waterworlds is much narrower than for Earth-like planets. A planet's water is partitioned, however, between a surface reservoir, the ocean, and an interior reservoir, the mantle. Plate tectonics transports water between these reservoirs on geological timescales. Degassing of melt at mid-ocean ridges and serpentinization of oceanic crust depend negatively and positively on seafloor pressure, respectively, providing a stabilizing feedback on long-term ocean volume. Motivated by Earth's approximately steady-state deep water cycle, we develop a two-box model of the hydrosphere and derive steady-state solutions to the water pa...

  2. Diverse Land Use and the Impact on (Irrigation Water Quality and Need for Measures — A Case Study of a Norwegian River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gro S. Johannessen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Surface water is used for irrigation of food plants all over the World. Such water can be of variable hygienic quality, and can be contaminated from many different sources. The association of contaminated irrigation water with contamination of fresh produce is well established, and many outbreaks of foodborne disease associated with fresh produce consumption have been reported. The objective of the present study was to summarize the data on fecal indicators and selected bacterial pathogens to assess the level of fecal contamination of a Norwegian river used for irrigation in an area which has a high production level of various types of food commodities. Sources for fecal pollution of the river were identified. Measures implemented to reduce discharges from the wastewater sector and agriculture, and potential measures identified for future implementation are presented and discussed in relation to potential benefits and costs. It is important that the users of the water, independent of intended use, are aware of the hygienic quality and the potential interventions that may be applied. Our results suggest that contamination of surface water is a complex web of many factors and that several measures and interventions on different levels are needed to achieve a sound river and safe irrigation.

  3. Identification of the key variables that can be estimated using remote sensing data and needed for Water Footprint (WF) assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaguera, Mireia; Toulios, Leonidas; Stancalie, Gheorghe; Nertan, Argentina; Spiliotopoulos, Marios; Struzik, Piotr; Calleja, Eman J.; Papadavid, Giorgos

    2014-08-01

    Accurate assessment of water use is an important issue in a globally changing climate and environment, where water is becoming a scarce but essential resource. The concept `Water Footprint' (WF) of a crop is defined as the volume of water consumed for its production, where green and blue WF stand for rain and irrigation water usage, respectively. This indicator provides valuable information for a global assessment of how water resources are used. Remote sensing (RS) provides physically-based, worldwide, and consistent spatial information over space and time, and has been used in hydrological applications in order to estimate relevant variables at different temporal and spatial scales. The paper focuses on exploring and exploiting the potential of using RS techniques and data for WF assessment in agriculture. Based on recent papers initiated in this research topic the investigation focuses on how variables needed in the calculation of water footprint are obtained (based on non RS and on RS approaches), on identifying the inputs required for estimating the WF of crops and whether it is feasible to integrate various RS approaches. The results of this study demonstrate the usefulness of satellite data for water footprint assessment, which were obtained by the Remote Sensing Working Group in the framework of the ESSEM COST Action ES1106, "Assessment of EUROpean AGRIculture WATer use and trade under climate change" (EURO-AGRIWAT).

  4. Biogas production using water hyacinths to meet collective energy needs in a sahelian country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Almoustapha

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a pilot project that investigates the possibility of producing biogas from a mixture of water hyacinth and fresh rumen residue – replacing firewood as a source of fuel – to meet the energy needs of a maternity facility in Niamey (Niger. The discontinuous-type installation (batch reactors is made up of six digesters measuring 5 m3 each. The output during hot and cool seasons, 0.52 m3 and 0.29 m3 respectively of biogas per m3 of digester per day, has met the energy needs of the maternity facility, estimated at 8 m3 of biogas per day. The study revealed strong seasonal variations: output during the hot season is approximatively 1.8 times greater than it is during the cool season. Large quantities of water hyacinth, an invasive plant present in Niger since 1986, are manually harvested in aquatic environments. The project is run by a local NGO, the Groupe d’Initiative pour les Energies Renouvelables (GIER, and supported by UNICEF and the Niger Basin Authority. The duration of the project is 8 months.Ce papier présente un projet pilote vérifiant la possibilité de produire du biogaz à partir d’un mélange de jacinthe d’eau et de résidu frais de rumen, en substitution au bois de chauffe pour satisfaire aux besoins en énergie d’une maternité de Niamey (Niger. L’installation de type discontinu (réacteurs batch est composée de six digesteurs de 5 m3. Les rendements en saison chaude et en saison fraîche, respectivement 0,52 et de 0,29 m3 de biogaz par m3 de digesteur par jour et ont permis de couvrir les besoins de la maternité évalués à 8 m3 de biogaz par jour. L’étude révèle une forte variation saisonnière : le rendement en saison chaude est d’environ 1,8 fois supérieur à celle de la saison fraîche. La jacinthe d’eau est une plante envahissante présente au Niger depuis 1986, dont des quantités importantes sont récoltées en  milieux aquatiques. Le projet est porté par une ONG locale, le

  5. Investigation of pond water levels during the 1972 waterfowl brooding season

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Water level management in the ponds of Malheur National Wildlife Refuge is important in providing food and habitat for migrating waterfowl. Water flow measurements...

  6. Water Information System Platforms Addressing Critical Societal Needs in the Mena Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Shahid; Kfouri, Claire; Peters, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The MENA region includes 18 countries, the occupied Palestinian territories and Western Sahara. However, the region of interest for this study has a strategic interest in countries adjacent to the Mediterranean Sea, which includes, Morocco, Tunisia, Egypt, Lebanon and Jordan. The 90% of the water in the MENA region is used for the agriculture use. By the end of this century. this region is projected to experience an increase of 3 C to 5 C in mean temperatures and a 20% decline in precipitation (lPCC, 2007). Due to lower precipitation, water run-off is projected to drop by 20% to 30% in most of MENA by 2050 Reduced stream flow and groundwater recharge might lead to a reduction in water supply of 10% or greater by 2050. Therefore, per IPCC projections in temperature rise and precipitation decline in the region, the scarcity of water will become more acute with population growth, and rising demand of food in the region. Additionally, the trans boundary water issues will continue to plague the region in terms of sharing data for better management of water resources. Such pressing issues have brought The World Bank, USAID and NASA to jointly collaborate for establishing integrated, modern, up to date NASA developed capabilities for countries in the MENA region for addressing water resource issues and adapting to climate change impacts for improved decision making and societal benefit. This initiative was launched in October 2011 and is schedule to be completed by the end of2015.

  7. What Medical Directors Need to Know about Dialysis Facility Water Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasparek, Ted; Rodriguez, Oscar E

    2015-06-05

    The medical directors of dialysis facilities have many operational clinic responsibilities, which on first glance, may seem outside the realm of excellence in patient care. However, a smoothly running clinic is integral to positive patient outcomes. Of the conditions for coverage outlined by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, one most critical to quality dialysis treatment is the provision of safe purified dialysis water, because there are many published instances where clinic failure in this regard has resulted in patient harm. As the clinical leader of the facility, the medical director is obliged to have knowledge of his/her facility's water treatment system to reliably ensure that the purified water used in dialysis will meet the standards for quality set by the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation and used by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services for conditions for coverage. The methods used to both achieve and maintain these quality standards should be a part of quality assessment and performance improvement program meetings. The steps for water treatment, which include pretreatment, purification, and distribution, are largely the same, regardless of the system used. Each water treatment system component has a specific role in the process and requires individualized maintenance and monitoring. The medical director should provide leadership by being engaged with the process, knowing the facility's source water, and understanding water treatment system operation as well as the clinical significance of system failure. Successful provision of quality water will be achieved by those medical directors who learn, know, and embrace the requirements of dialysis water purification and system maintenance.

  8. Water cycling between ocean and mantle: Super-earths need not be waterworlds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowan, Nicolas B. [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA), Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Abbot, Dorian S., E-mail: n-cowan@northwestern.edu [Department of the Geophysical Sciences, University of Chicago, 5734 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2014-01-20

    Large terrestrial planets are expected to have muted topography and deep oceans, implying that most super-Earths should be entirely covered in water, so-called waterworlds. This is important because waterworlds lack a silicate weathering thermostat so their climate is predicted to be less stable than that of planets with exposed continents. In other words, the continuously habitable zone for waterworlds is much narrower than for Earth-like planets. A planet's water is partitioned, however, between a surface reservoir, the ocean, and an interior reservoir, the mantle. Plate tectonics transports water between these reservoirs on geological timescales. Degassing of melt at mid-ocean ridges and serpentinization of oceanic crust depend negatively and positively on seafloor pressure, respectively, providing a stabilizing feedback on long-term ocean volume. Motivated by Earth's approximately steady-state deep water cycle, we develop a two-box model of the hydrosphere and derive steady-state solutions to the water partitioning on terrestrial planets. Critically, hydrostatic seafloor pressure is proportional to surface gravity, so super-Earths with a deep water cycle will tend to store more water in the mantle. We conclude that a tectonically active terrestrial planet of any mass can maintain exposed continents if its water mass fraction is less than ∼0.2%, dramatically increasing the odds that super-Earths are habitable. The greatest source of uncertainty in our study is Earth's current mantle water inventory: the greater its value, the more robust planets are to inundation. Lastly, we discuss how future missions can test our hypothesis by mapping the oceans and continents of massive terrestrial planets.

  9. Assessing Security Needs of the multifaceted relationships of Energy and Water Providers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, N; Newmark, R; Burton, L; May, D; McMahon, J; Whitehead, C D; Ghatikar, G

    2007-08-22

    In the near future, the United States will be facing constraints on energy availability due to the heightened demand for both energy and water, especially during droughts and summers. Increasing stress on the inextricably linked resource availability of both water and energy can be mitigated with integrated planning. Exchanging data is an important component to current and future mitigation approaches within the Energy-Water Nexus. We describe the types of relationships that are formed in the United States EWN, and address the data sharing obstacles within. Approaches to removing the obstacles of data sharing are presented, based on case studies.

  10. Stochastic modeling of Lake Van water level time series with jumps and multiple trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Aksoy

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the 1990s, water level in the closed-basin Lake Van located in the Eastern Anatolia, Turkey, has risen up about 2 m. Analysis of the hydrometeorological data shows that change in the water level is related to the water budget of the lake. In this study, stochastic models are proposed for simulating monthly water level data. Two models considering mono- and multiple-trend time series are developed. The models are derived after removal of trend and periodicity in the dataset. Trend observed in the lake water level time series is fitted by mono- and multiple-trend lines. In the so-called mono-trend model, the time series is treated as a whole under the hypothesis that the lake water level has an increasing trend. In the second model (so-called multiple-trend, the time series is divided into a number of segments to each a linear trend can be fitted separately. Application on the lake water level data shows that four segments, each fitted with a trend line, are meaningful. Both the mono- and multiple-trend models are used for simulation of synthetic lake water level time series under the hypothesis that the observed mono- and multiple-trend structure of the lake water level persist during the simulation period. The multiple-trend model is found better for planning the future infrastructural projects in surrounding areas of the lake as it generates higher maxima for the simulated lake water level.

  11. Water-level and recoverable water in storage changes, High Plains aquifer, predevelopment to 2015 and 2013–15

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Virginia L.

    2017-06-01

    The High Plains aquifer underlies 111.8 million acres (about 175,000 square miles) in parts of eight States—Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. Water-level declines began in parts of the High Plains aquifer soon after the beginning of substantial irrigation with groundwater in the aquifer area (about 1950). This report presents water-level changes and change in recoverable water in storage in the High Plains aquifer from predevelopment (about 1950) to 2015 and from 2013 to 2015.The methods to calculate area-weighted, average water-level changes; change in recoverable water in storage; and total recoverable water in storage used geospatial data layers organized as rasters with a cell size of 500 meters by 500 meters, which is an area of about 62 acres. Raster datasets of water-level changes are provided for other uses.Water-level changes from predevelopment to 2015, by well, ranged from a rise of 84 feet to a decline of 234 feet. Water-level changes from 2013 to 2015, by well, ranged from a rise of 24 feet to a decline of 33 feet. The area-weighted, average water-level changes in the aquifer were an overall decline of 15.8 feet from predevelopment to 2015 and a decline of 0.6 feet from 2013 to 2015. Total recoverable water in storage in the aquifer in 2015 was about 2.91 billion acre-feet, which was a decline of about 273.2 million acre-feet since predevelopment and a decline of 10.7 million acre-feet from 2013 to 2015.

  12. Effect of water deprivation on baseline and stress-induced corticosterone levels in the Children's python (Antaresia childreni).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupoué, Andréaz; Angelier, Frédéric; Lourdais, Olivier; Bonnet, Xavier; Brischoux, François

    2014-02-01

    Corticosterone (CORT) secretion is influenced by endogenous factors (e.g., physiological status) and environmental stressors (e.g., ambient temperature). Heretofore, the impact of water deprivation on CORT plasma levels has not been thoroughly investigated. However, both baseline CORT and stress-induced CORT are expected to respond to water deprivation not only because of hydric stress per se, but also because CORT is an important mineralocorticoid in vertebrates. We assessed the effects of water deprivation on baseline CORT and stress-induced CORT, in Children's pythons (Antaresia childreni), a species that experiences seasonal droughts in natural conditions. We imposed a 52-day water deprivation on a group of unfed Children's pythons (i.e., water-deprived treatment) and provided water ad libitum to another group (i.e., control treatment). We examined body mass variations throughout the experiment, and baseline CORT and stress-induced CORT at the end of the treatments. Relative body mass loss averaged ~10% in pythons without water, a value 2 to 4 times higher compared to control snakes. Following re-exposition to water, pythons from the water-deprived treatment drank readily and abundantly and attained a body mass similar to pythons from the control treatment. Together, these results suggest a substantial dehydration as a consequence of water deprivation. Interestingly, stress-induced but not baseline CORT level was significantly higher in water-deprived snakes, suggesting that baseline CORT might not respond to this degree of dehydration. Therefore, possible mineralocorticoid role of CORT needs to be clarified in snakes. Because dehydration usually induces adjustments (reduced movements, lowered body temperature) to limit water loss, and decreases locomotor performances, elevated stress-induced CORT in water-deprived snakes might therefore compensate for altered locomotor performances. Future studies should test this hypothesis.

  13. Use of Aquaporins to Achieve Needed Water Purity On ISS for the EMU Space Suit System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Terry R.; Taylor, Brandon W.

    2011-01-01

    With the U.S. Space Shuttle fleet retired, the supply of extremely high-quality water 'super-Q' - required for the EMU Space suit cooling on this ISS - will become a significant operational hardware challenge in the very near future. A proposed potential solution is the use of a filtration system consisting of a semi-permeable membrane embedded with aquaporin proteins. Aquaporins are a special class of trans-membrane proteins that facilitate passive transport of water and other substances across a membrane. The specificity of these proteins is such that only water is allowed through the protein structure, and this novel property invites their adaptation for use in water filtration systems, specifically usage on the ISS for the EMU space suit system. These proteins are found in many living systems and have been developed for commercial use today.

  14. LANDSAT supports data needs for EPA 208 planning. [water quality control and waste treatment management

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Excerpts from federal legislation and regulations mandating areawide waster treatment management as a means of restoring and maintaining the integrity of the nation's water are presented along with requirements for grants to the states for water quality planning, management, and implementation. Experiences using LANDSAT to identify nonpoint sources of water pollution as well as land/use/land cover features in South Dakota, Kentucky, Georgia, New Jersey, and Texas are described. Present activities suggest that this type of remote sensing is an efficient, effective tool for areawide water quality planning. Interaction with cognizant federal, state, and local government personnel involved in EPA section 208 planning activities can guide the development of new capabilities and enhance their utility and prospect for use.

  15. Lake St. Clair: Storm Wave and Water Level Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    environmental challenges. ERDC develops innovative solutions in civil and military engineering, geospatial sciences, water resources, and...anemometer, barometer ) was changed. The station, if older than 1970, may have been referenced by WBAN number only, so a USAF number was added which would

  16. determination of lead at nanogram level in water samples by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    concentration of Pb(II) in the range of 0.04–1.8 μg/mL for the system with a low ... storage battery, drainage from lead ore mines, paints, munitions, and ... Water samples were immediately filtered through cellulose nitrate (0.45 μm pore size, 47.

  17. Cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins: need for their control in water for human consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Mª Cameán Fernández

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacterial waterblooms are becoming an important water quality problem in many countries in the world, as a result of its hepatotoxic and neurotoxic cyanotoxins production, which make these toxins a health risk. Microcystins (MC are the most frequent cyanotoxins detected on superficial freshwaters. In the present work, toxic risks derived from exposure to MC have been revised, mainly due to the consumption of contaminated waters. This fact makes necessary to perform control and monitoring programs.

  18. Interactions of forests, climate, water resources, and humans in a changing environment: research needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge Sun; Catalina Segura

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the special issue “Interactions of Forests, Climate, Water Resources, and Humans in a Changing Environment” is to present case studies on the influences of natural and human disturbances on forest water resources under a changing climate. Studies in this collection of six papers cover a wide range of geographic regions from Australia to Nigeria with spatial...

  19. Analysis of water-level data in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada, 1985--95

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graves, R.P.; Tucci, P.; O`Brien, G.M.

    1997-12-31

    From 1985 through 1995, a water-level network that consists of 28 wells for monitoring 36 depth intervals has been maintained in the Yucca Mountain area. The network includes wells that were measured manually, approximately monthly, and/or measured hourly with a transducer/data logger system. Manual water-level measurements were made with either calibrated steel tapes or single or multiconductor-cable units. All wells monitor water levels in Tertiary volcanic rocks, except one that monitors water levels in Paleozoic carbonate rocks. Annual mean water-level altitudes for all wells for the period 1985-95 ranged from 727.93 to 1,034.60 meters. The maximum range in water-level change between monthly measurements and/or monthly mean values was 12.22 meters in well USW H-3 lower interval, and the minimum range was 0.31 meter in wells UE-25 b-1 upper interval, and J-11. In 31 of the 36 depth intervals monitored, the range of water-level change was less than 1 meter. The range of standard deviation of all depth interval measurements for all wells that were monitored was 0.053 to 3.098 meters. No seasonal water-level trends were detected in any of the wells, and regional ground-water withdrawals did not appear to cause water-level changes. Most annual water-level fluctuations can be attributed to barometric and Earth-tide changes. Regional earthquakes, which occurred on June 28--29, 1992, might have simultaneously affected the water level in seven wells. Periods of rising and declining water levels were observed in most wells. However, 11 years of record were not sufficient to determine if these periods were cyclic. Because a goal of monitoring water levels at Yucca Mountain is to determine if there are water-level trends that could affect the potential repository, observed water-level changes over the period of this report may not be representative of the overall long-term trends in water levels.

  20. Is there a need for a more explicit accounting of invasive alien species under the Water Framework Directive?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Vandekerkhove

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Through ratification of the Water Framework Directive (WFD, EU Member States committed themselves to a pressure-based assessment ofthe ecological status of their water bodies. Invasive alien species (IAS constitute a major pressure in many aquatic ecosystems, yet are notexplicitly accounted for by the majority of WFD assessment methods. Most Member States argue that no explicit assessment of IAS isrequired, assuming that significant IAS pressures will affect the WFD biological quality elements (BQEs, and be detected by generic WFDstatus assessments. We tested this assumption for a selection of country-by-surface-water category combinations, covering nearly 40,000water bodies. For each of the combinations, the pressure by high-impact IAS is higher in water bodies with ecological status varying from bad to moderate than in water bodies in good or high ecological status. Most high-impact IAS show strong associations with low status class categories. Of the 17 most frequently occurring high-impact IAS, only Mustela vison (Schreber, 1777 and Potamopyrgus antipodarum(Gray, 1853 are disproportionately frequent in high status water bodies. The sensitivity of WFD methods varies across BQEs, withmacrophyte-based methods showing a consistently high sensitivity to IAS pressures. However, significant pressures are observed in anumber of high status water bodies. This points to a need for further optimization of existing methods so that they address the full range of pressures exerted by IAS.

  1. Mechanism analysis of landslide of a layered slope induced by drawdown of water level

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Junfeng; LI; Zhengguo; QI; Tao

    2005-01-01

    The frequent drawdown of water level of Yangtze River will greatly influence the stability of the widely existing slopes in the Three Gorges reservoir zone, especially those layered ones. Apart from the fluctuating speed of water level, the different geological materials will also play important roles in the failure of slopes. Thus, it must be first to study the mechanism of such a landslide caused by drawdown of water level.A new experimental setup is designed to study the performance of a layered slope under the drawdown of water level. The pattern of landslide of a layered slope induced by drawdown of water level has been explored by means of simulating experiments. The influence of fluctuating speed of water level on the stability of the layered slope is probed,especially the whole process of deformation and development of landslide of the slope versus time. The experimental results show that the slope is stable during the water level rising, and the sliding body occurs in the upper layer of the slope under a certain drawdown speed of water level. In the process of slope failure, some new small sliding body will develop on the main sliding body, and the result is that they speed up the disassembly of the whole slope.Based on the simulating experiment on landslide of a layered slope induced by drawdown of water level, the stress and displacement field of the slope are calculated.The seepage velocity, the pore water pressure, and the gradient of pore water head are also calculated for the whole process of drawdown of water level. The computing results are in good agreement with the experimental results. Accordingly, the mechanism of deformation and landslide of the layered slope induced by drawdown of water level is analyzed. It may provide basis for treating this kind of layered slopes in practical engineering.

  2. Determination of an acceptable assimilable organic carbon (AOC) level for biological stability in water distribution systems with minimized chlorine residual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkouchi, Yumiko; Ly, Bich Thuy; Ishikawa, Suguru; Kawano, Yoshihiro; Itoh, Sadahiko

    2013-02-01

    There is considerable interest in minimizing the chlorine residual in Japan because of increasing complaints about a chlorinous odor in drinking water. However, minimizing the chlorine residual causes the microbiological water quality to deteriorate, and stricter control of biodegradable organics in finished water is thus needed to maintain biological stability during water distribution. In this investigation, an acceptable level of assimilable organic carbon (AOC) for biologically stable water with minimized chlorine residual was determined based on the relationship between AOC, the chlorine residual, and bacterial regrowth. In order to prepare water samples containing lower AOC, the fractions of AOC and biodegradable organic matter (BOM) in tap water samples were reduced by converting into biomass after thermal hydrolysis of BOM at alkaline conditions. The batch-mode incubations at different conditions of AOC and chlorine residual were carried out at 20 °C, and the presence or absence of bacterial regrowth was determined. The determined curve for biologically stable water indicated that the acceptable AOC was 10.9 μg C/L at a minimized chlorine residual (0.05 mg Cl(2)/L). This result indicated that AOC removal during current water treatment processes in Japan should be significantly enhanced prior to minimization of the chlorine residual in water distribution.

  3. Theory and Method for Identifying Well Water Level Anomalies in a Groundwater Overdraft Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Suxin; Zhang Ziguang; Ren Xiaoxia; Wang Xiang

    2007-01-01

    The overexploitation of underground water leads to the continuous drawdown of groundwater levels, change of water quality and dry-up in dynamic water level observation wells. Due to land subsidence, the well pipes uplift and the observation piping systems are damaged. These environmental geology problems can present serious difficulties for the identification of earthquake anomalies by groundwater level observation. Basied on hydrogeological theories and methods, the paper analyzes the relations of the water balance state of aquifers with stressstrain conditions and the water level regime, and then discusses preliminarily the theory and method for identifying well water level anomalies in a groundwater overdraft area. The result shows that we can accurately judge the nature of the anomaly according to the diffusion character of the drawdown funnel in the well area in combination with the aforementioned theory and method and multi-year variation patterns obtained from existing data. The results of the research are helpful for distinguishing the influence of single centralized water pumping from the long-term overdraft of water on the water level, correctly recognizing water level anomalies in the groundwater overdraft area and increasing the level of earthquake analysis and prediction.

  4. Mission Need Statement for the Idaho National Laboratory Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisa Harvego

    2009-06-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory proposes to establish replacement remote-handled low-level waste disposal capability to meet Nuclear Energy and Naval Reactors mission-critical, remote-handled low-level waste disposal needs beyond planned cessation of existing disposal capability at the end of Fiscal Year 2015. Remote-handled low-level waste is generated from nuclear programs conducted at the Idaho National Laboratory, including spent nuclear fuel handling and operations at the Naval Reactors Facility and operations at the Advanced Test Reactor. Remote-handled low-level waste also will be generated by new programs and from segregation and treatment (as necessary) of remote-handled scrap and waste currently stored in the Radioactive Scrap and Waste Facility at the Materials and Fuels Complex. Replacement disposal capability must be in place by Fiscal Year 2016 to support uninterrupted Idaho operations. This mission need statement provides the basis for the laboratory’s recommendation to the Department of Energy to proceed with establishing the replacement remote-handled low-level waste disposal capability, project assumptions and constraints, and preliminary cost and schedule information for developing the proposed capability. Without continued remote-handled low-level waste disposal capability, Department of Energy missions at the Idaho National Laboratory would be jeopardized, including operations at the Naval Reactors Facility that are critical to effective execution of the Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program and national security. Remote-handled low-level waste disposal capability is also critical to the Department of Energy’s ability to meet obligations with the State of Idaho.

  5. Study on Volume Strain Inversion from Water Level Change of Well-aquifer Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Rui; Gao Fuwang; Chen Yong

    2008-01-01

    Based on linear poroelastic and hydrogcology theory, a mathematical expression describing the relationship between water level change and aquifer volume strain is put forward. Combined with earth tidal theory, we analyze the response characteristics from well-aquifer water level change to earth tide of volume strain and present a method of volume strain inversion from water level change. Comparing the results of inversion with real observed data, we found that there is a good consistency. This suggcsts that the method of volume strain inversion from water level change is proper. It will offer a reference for learning about hydrogeology characteristics, volume strain and searching for precursor anomalies.

  6. Water level influences on body condition of Geophagus brasiliensis (Perciformes: Cichlidae in a Brazilian oligotrophic reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Filippo Gonzalez Neves dos Santos

    Full Text Available Effects of water level fluctuations on body condition of Geophagus brasiliensis were studied in a 30 km² Brazilian oligotrophic reservoir. Physiological condition (K and gonadosomatic index (GSI were compared according to water level (low and high. Females' best conditions were associated to higher resources availability during high water, since gonad development did not change between low and high water. Males' condition did not change between water levels, while the highest gonad development occurred in low water. Females presented higher reproductive investment than males, which allocated most of energy for somatic development. This strategy could be a mechanism to undergo the stress caused by oligotrophic characteristics of the reservoir enhanced during low water level.

  7. Towards risk-based drought management in the Netherlands: making water supply levels transparent to water users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maat Judith, Ter; Marjolein, Mens; Vuren Saskia, Van; der Vat Marnix, Van

    2016-04-01

    To prepare the Dutch Delta for future droughts and water scarcity, a nation-wide 4-year project, called Delta Programme, assessed the impact of climate change and socio-economic development, and explored strategies to deal with these impacts. The Programme initiated a joint approach to water supply management with stakeholders and developed a national adaptation plan that is able to adapt to future uncertain conditions. The adaptation plan consists of a set of preferred policy pathways - sequences of possible actions and measures through time - to achieve targets while responding in a flexible manner to uncertain developments over time, allowing room to respond to new opportunities and insights. With regard to fresh water allocation, the Delta Programme stated that supplying water of sufficient quality is a shared responsibility that requires cohesive efforts among users in the main and regional water system. The national and local authorities and water users involved agreed that the water availability and, where relevant, the water quality should be as transparent and predictable as possible under normal, dry and extremely dry conditions. They therefore introduced the concept of "water supply service levels", which should describe water availability and quality that can be delivered with a certain return period, for all regions and all relevant water users in the Netherlands. The service levels form an addition to the present policy and should be decided on by 2021. At present water allocation during periods of (expected) water shortage occurs according to a prearranged ranking system (a water hierarchy scheme based on a list of priorities), if water availability drops below a critical low level. The aim is to have supply levels available that are based on the probability of occurrence and economic impact of water shortage, and that are transparent for all water users in the regional water systems and the main water system. As part of the European project

  8. The Human Brain Does Not Need High Levels of Motivation to Learn a Foreign Language: Motivation Has Had its Day

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kieran Green

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Language is nature in action and something humans do.  This literature review presents evidence from the literature that suggests that learning a foreign language in a classroom situation does not require high levels of student motivation.  It is instead suggested that high levels of motivation are needed to make progress when a teacher is using traditional teaching methods.  It is shown that all healthy human brains are excellent at learning and using language, and high levels of motivation to learn a foreign language are not required if teaching practices and materials replicate natural learning experiences, and class participation is ensured.  This work is of great importance to teachers as it demonstrates that teachers would help students more by investing their time in developing class materials than by worrying about student motivation. Keywords:  foreign language, cognitive linguistics, language evolution, language learnability, language usability, motivation

  9. [Disinfection of water: on the need for analysis and solution of fundamental and applied problems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokienko, A V

    2014-01-01

    In the paper there is presented an analysis of hygienic--medical and environmental aspects of water disinfection as exemplified of chlorine and chlorine dioxide (CD). The concept of persistent multivariate risk for aquatic pathogens, the own vision of the mechanism of formation of chlorine resistance of bacteria under the influence of biocides based on a two-step process of information and spatial interaction of the receptor and the substrate, the hypothesis of hormetic stimulating effect of residual active chlorine (in the complex with other factors) on the growth of aquatic pathogens have been proposed. The aggravation of the significance of halogen containing compounds (HCC) as byproducts of water chlorination in terms of their potential danger as toxicants and carcinogens has been substantiated. Analysis of hygienic and medical and environmental aspects of the use of chlorine dioxide as a means of disinfection of water allowed to justify chemism of its biocidal effect and mechanisms of bactericidal, virucidal, protozoocidal, sporicidal, algacidal actions, removal of biofilms, formation of disinfection byproducts. Chlorine dioxide was shown both to provide epidemic safety of drinking water due to its high virucidal, bactericidal and mycocidal action and to be toxicologically harmless in the context of the influence on the organism of laboratory animals as well as in relation to aquatic organisms under the discharge of disinfected wastewater. There has proved the necessity of the close relationship of fundamental and applied research in performing the first in terms of depth study of microbiological, molecular genetic and epidemiological problems of disinfection (chlorination) of water and the implementation of the latters by means of the introduction of alternative, including combined, technologies for water treatment and disinfection.

  10. radio frequency based radio frequency based water level monitor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    used for point level sensing of sediments, liquids with suspended solids, and liquid-liquid interfaces. These sensors sense the decrease or change ... This RF data sent from the transmitter is received by the receiver sub-circuit placed remotely.

  11. Preliminary Assessment of Water Levels in Bedrock Wells in New Hampshire, 1984 to 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayotte, Joseph D.; Kernen, Brandon M.; Wunsch, David R.; Argue, Denise M.; Bennett, Derek S.; Mack, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    Analysis of nearly 60,000 reported values of static water level (SWL, as depth below land surface) in bedrock wells in New Hampshire, aggregated on a yearly basis, showed an apparent deepening of SWL of about 13 ft (4 m) over the period 1984–2007. Water-level data were one-time measurements at each well and were analyzed, in part, to determine if they were suitable for analysis of trends in groundwater levels across the state. Other well characteristics, however, also have been changing over time, such as total well depth, casing length, the length of casing in bedrock, and to some extent, well yield. Analyses indicated that many of the well construction variables are significantly correlated; the apparent declines in water levels may have been caused by some of these factors. Information on changes in water use for the period was not available, although water use may be an important factor affecting water levels.

  12. The waiting time of the ship on port entrance at required water level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesław GALOR

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The safety of a ship which manoeuvres within a port area depends to a large extent on the underkeel clearance (UKC. Ports have been built to handle ships of specific maximum parameters. In many cases, however, the existing ports face the need to accept ships larger than those they were designed for. The construction of newharbours is limited by both natural conditions and exceedingly high estimated costs. The main restriction for handling larger ships is the depth of port basins, directly affecting the safety of the manoeuvring ship. The minimum underkeel clearance is most often specified by port regulations as a constant value. However, depending on the prevailingconditions, mainly water level, this required UKC value can be reduced. Thus, ships of larger draft will be allowed to enter. This article / paper present a method of UKC optimization with two restrictions: maximum permitted navigational risk and the time ofwaiting for sufficient water level. An example has been given in reference to ship’s waiting time probability for the port of Świnoujście.

  13. Water Level Monitoring on Tibetan Lakes Based on Icesat and Envisat Data Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H. W.; Qiao, G.; Wu, Y. J.; Cao, Y. J.; Mi, H.

    2017-09-01

    Satellite altimetry technique is an effective method to monitor the water level of lakes in a wide range, especially in sparsely populated areas, such as the Tibet Plateau (TP). To provide high quality data for time-series change detection of lake water level, an automatic and efficient algorithm for lake water footprint (LWF) detection in a wide range is used. Based on ICESat GLA14 Release634 data and ENVISat GDR 1Hz data, water level of 167 lakes were obtained from ICESat data series, and water level of 120 lakes were obtained from ENVISat data series. Among them, 67 lakes contained two data series. Mean standard deviation of all lakes is 0.088 meters (ICESat), 0.339 meters (ENVISat). Combination of multi-source altimetry data is helpful for us to get longer and more dense periods cover water level, study the lake level changes, manage water resources and understand the impacts of climate change better. In addition, the standard deviation of LWF elevation used to calculate the water level were analyzed by month. Based on lake data set for the TP from the 1960s, 2005, and 2014 in Scientific Data, it is found that the water level changes in the TP have a strong spatial correlation with the area changes.

  14. Monitoring water level using Sentinel-1 Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavroulaki, Eleni; Alexakis, Dimitrios D.; Tsanis, Ioannis K.

    2017-04-01

    Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) methodology can successfully detect phase variations related to water level changes and produce corresponding water level maps. Two lakes located in Western Crete, Greece, namely Lake Kournas and Lake Agia were used as case studies to study water level change with means of SAR interferometry. The change of the water surface in the lake is examined over a period of two years, 2015-2016 using Sentinel 1 IW mode images and in situ water level data. Initially, all the SAR images were preprocessed in terms of atmospheric and radiometric corrections. Various interferograms were developed to study the multi-temporal regime of water level in both lakes. Optical satellite sensor data (Landsat 8) were used to study the vegetation regime and how this affect the interferogram processing. The results denoted the fact that the combination of SAR backscattering intensity and unwrapped phase water level data can provide additional insight into hydrological state. It is also shown that integrated analysis of the backscattering mechanism and interferometric characteristics can considerably enhance the reliability of the water-level retrieval scheme and optimize the capture of hydrological patterns spatial distribution. Keywords: Sentinel-1, interferogram, water level, Backscattering

  15. The exceptional influence of storm Xaver on design water levels in the German Bight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangendorf, S.

    2015-12-01

    Design water levels for coastal structures are usually estimated on the basis of extreme value statistics. Since their robustness heavily depends on the sample size of heuristic observations there is an urgent need of regular statistical updates especially after the occurrence of record high extreme events. Here we demonstrate the exceptional influence of such an event based on storm Xaver which brought record high extremes for large parts of the southwestern German North Sea coastline on December 6th 2013. We show that the estimates of an event occurring once in 200 years increased by roughly 30 cm due to the update after Xaver, a value 1.5 times larger than the entire 20th century sea level rise in the region. However, a thorough analysis of different independent meteorological (winds and pressure) and oceanographic components (tides, surges, mean sea level anomalies) driving the event also indicates that their observed combination still does not represent the physically possible worst case scenario. Neither tides nor surges and mean sea level anomalies were at their observational maximum, suggesting that there is a realistic risk of storms bringing even up to a few decimeter higher extremes just under present day conditions without any influence of future global warming. The results question purely statistical design approaches neglecting the physical boundary conditions of individual extreme events.

  16. Water production for irrigation and drinking needs in remote arid communities using closed-system greenhouse: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E. Kabeel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Water needs for agriculture, food production and drinking are considered one of the most critical challenges facing the world in the present days. This is due mainly to the scarcity and lack of fresh water resources, and the increasing ground water salinity. Most of these countries have a high solar energy potential. This potential can be best developed by solar desalination concepts and methods specifically suited for rural water supply, irrigation. In this paper, a humidification–dehumidification (HD water desalination system with several technologies for irrigation and drinking needs in remote arid areas is introduced from technical and economic point of views. This study has investigated (1 detailed discussion of technical developments, economical and sustainable aspects; (2 benefits of the new design over traditional applications, desalination and other irrigation methods; (3 specific requirements and implementation challenges in remote and cold regions; (4 performance and reliability improvement possible techniques. Recommended researches and projects leading to high efficiency, economical and sustainable applications of some desalination devices driven by solar energy are highlighted.

  17. Do Amplitudes of Water Level Fluctuations Affect the Growth and Community Structure of Submerged Macrophytes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mo-Zhu; Liu, Zheng-Yuan; Luo, Fang-Li; Lei, Guang-Chun; Li, Hong-Li

    2016-01-01

    Submerged macrophytes are subjected to potential mechanical stresses associated with fluctuating water levels in natural conditions. However, few experimental studies have been conducted to further understand the effects of water level fluctuating amplitude on submerged macrophyte species and their assemblages or communities. We designed a controlled experiment to investigate the responses of three submerged macrophyte species (Hydrilla verticillata, Ceratophyllum demersum and Elodea nuttallii) and their combinations in communities to three amplitudes (static, ± 30 cm, ± 60 cm) of water level fluctuations. Results showed that water level fluctuating amplitude had little effects on the community performance and the three tested species responded differently. H. verticillata exhibited more growth in static water and it was negatively affected by either of the water level fluctuations amplitude, however, growth parameters of H. verticillata in two fluctuating water level treatments (i.e., ± 30 cm, ± 60 cm) were not significantly different. On the other hand, the growth of C. demersum was not significantly correlated with different amplitude treatments. However, it became more abundant when water levels fluctuated. E. nuttallii was inhibited by the two fluctuating water level treatments, and was less in growth parameters compared to the other species especially in water level fluctuating conditions. The inherent differences in the adaptive capabilities of the tested species indicate that C. demersum or other species with similar responses may be dominant species to restore submerged macrophyte communities with great fluctuating water levels. Otherwise, H. verticillata, E. nuttallii or other species with similar responses could be considered for constructing the community in static water conditions.

  18. Inland water ecosystems in South Africa – a review of research needs.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Noble, RG

    1978-11-01

    Full Text Available expressed by Dr A F Bartsch (US Environmental Protection Agency) who visited South Africa in March 1977 as a consultant to the Water Research Commission. It has been drawn up with both limnologists and decision makers in mind, in order to facilitate...

  19. Multi-temporal, high spatial resolution water level monitoring of the Everglades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, S.; Wdowinski, S.; Kim, S.

    2008-05-01

    Water level information in South Florida's Everglades is very important for understanding the hydrology of this fragile ecosystem. Currently water levels are determined by a dense stage (water level) network providing high spatial resolution observation. However, because there are a finite number of stage stations in Everglades, water levels in areas located between stage stations can only be estimated by interpolation. Space-borne Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) techniques were successfully used to detect high spatial resolution (20-50 meter pixel resolution) water level changes in the Everglades and other wetlands. However, the InSAR observations are relative, providing measure of water level changes (not absolute). In this study we presents a new InSAR technique which enables to estimate a time series of absolute water levels using radar observations acquired successively over the Everglades. In this preliminary stage, we limit our study to Water Conservation Area 1 (WCA1), which is a managed area located in the northern section of the Everglades. The main advantage of the new technique is the reconstruction of absolute water level information instead of previous approaches calculating only relative water level changes. The new technique is called Small Temporal Baseline Subset (STBAS), which utilizes highly coherent interferometric phases obtained only with relatively short time difference between two SAR acquisitions (e.g. 24 or 48 recurrence periods in Radarsat-1 SAR system). The observed interferometric observations have to be calibrated with ground truth data as the reference wetland sheet flow vary daily. We use daily stage data measured at 13 stage stations in WCA1 to calibrate the space-based observations. This information is integrated using the Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) method to generate a time series of absolute water levels. Our calibration-validation study shows a very good fit to the stage data. The correlation

  20. Design and Implementation of a Water Level Controller using Fuzzy Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namrata Dey

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the effectiveness of water level control using fuzzy logic. The water level in the tank is sensed using transistor switching principle. The level sensed is fed to the PIC16 microcontroller. The user provides the set point to the microcontroller through serial communication using the COM development port software, Terminal. It computes the error as the difference between the set point and the process variable. The fuzzy logic programmed in the microcontroller is applied which controls the water level in the tank using the drain and the feed pumps. Once the set point has been reached, the message along with the present level is sent back through serial communication to the user interface on a PC. Thus, the water level in the tank is controlled according to the set point given by the user. The implementation of a fuzzy level controller has many applications such as boiler drum level control, reverse osmosis plant, demineralisation plant etc.

  1. Evaluation of a performance assessment methodology for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities: Validation needs. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozak, M.W.; Olague, N.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-02-01

    In this report, concepts on how validation fits into the scheme of developing confidence in performance assessments are introduced. A general framework for validation and confidence building in regulatory decision making is provided. It is found that traditional validation studies have a very limited role in developing site-specific confidence in performance assessments. Indeed, validation studies are shown to have a role only in the context that their results can narrow the scope of initial investigations that should be considered in a performance assessment. In addition, validation needs for performance assessment of low-level waste disposal facilities are discussed, and potential approaches to address those needs are suggested. These areas of topical research are ranked in order of importance based on relevance to a performance assessment and likelihood of success.

  2. Estimation of missing water-level data for the Everglades Depth Estimation Network (EDEN), 2013 update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkewich, Matthew D.; Conrads, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    The Everglades Depth Estimation Network is an integrated network of real-time water-level gaging stations, a ground-elevation model, and a water-surface elevation model designed to provide scientists, engineers, and water-resource managers with water-level and water-depth information (1991-2013) for the entire freshwater portion of the Greater Everglades. The U.S. Geological Survey Greater Everglades Priority Ecosystems Science provides support for the Everglades Depth Estimation Network in order for the Network to provide quality-assured monitoring data for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan. In a previous study, water-level estimation equations were developed to fill in missing data to increase the accuracy of the daily water-surface elevation model. During this study, those equations were updated because of the addition and removal of water-level gaging stations, the consistent use of water-level data relative to the North American Vertical Datum of 1988, and availability of recent data (March 1, 2006, to September 30, 2011). Up to three linear regression equations were developed for each station by using three different input stations to minimize the occurrences of missing data for an input station. Of the 667 water-level estimation equations developed to fill missing data at 223 stations, more than 72 percent of the equations have coefficients of determination greater than 0.90, and 97 percent have coefficients of determination greater than 0.70.

  3. Bridge over Troubled Waters: Meeting the Mental Health Needs of Black Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cokley, Kevin; Cody, Bretjet; Smith, Leann; Beasley, Samuel; Miller, Keino I. S.; Hurst, Ashley; Awosogba, Olufunke; Stone, Steven; Jackson, Stacey

    2015-01-01

    Meeting the mental health needs of black children will take more than just increasing access to mental health services and early identification. It also will require a critical evaluation of the practices and models being used to diagnose and treat mental health concerns. Frameworks have been established that use a positive, strengths-based,…

  4. How historical information can improve extreme coastal water levels probability prediction: application to the Xynthia event at La Rochelle (France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Bulteau

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of extreme coastal water levels is useful for coastal flooding studies or the design of coastal defences. While deriving such extremes with standard analyses using tide gauge measurements, one often needs to deal with limited effective duration of observation which can result in large statistical uncertainties. This is even truer when one faces the issue of outliers, those particularly extreme values distant from the others which increase the uncertainty on the results. In this study, we investigate how historical information, even partial, of past events reported in archives can reduce statistical uncertainties and relativize such outlying observations. A Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo method is developed to tackle this issue. We apply this method to the site of La Rochelle (France, where the storm Xynthia in 2010 generated a water level considered so far as an outlier. Based on 30 years of tide gauge measurements and 8 historical events, the analysis shows that: (1 integrating historical information in the analysis greatly reduces statistical uncertainties on return levels (2 Xynthia's water level no longer appears as an outlier, (3 we could have reasonably predicted the annual exceedance probability of that level beforehand (predictive probability for 2010 based on data till end of 2009 of the same order of magnitude as the standard estimative probability using data till end of 2010. Such results illustrate the usefulness of historical information in extreme value analyses of coastal water levels, as well as the relevance of the proposed method to integrate heterogeneous data in such analyses.

  5. What caused the decline of China's largest freshwater lake? Attribution analysis on Poyang Lake water level variations in recent years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xuchun; Xu, Chong-Yu; Zhang, Qi

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, dramatic decline of water level of the Poyang Lake, China's largest freshwater lake, has raised wide concerns about the water security and wetland ecosystem. This remarkable hydrological change coincided with several factors like the initial operation of the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) in 2003, the big change of lake bottom topography due to extensive sand mining in the lake since 2000, and also climate change and other human activities in the Yangtze River basin may add to this complexity. Questions raised to what extent that the lake hydrological changes is caused by climate change and/or human activities. In this study, quantitative assessment was conducted to clarify the magnitude and mechanism of specific influencing factors on recent lake decline (2003-2014), with reference to the period of 1980-1999. The attempts were achieved through the reconstruction of lake water level scenarios by the framework of neural network. Major result indicates that the effect of lake bottom topography change due to sand mining activities has became the dominant factor for the recent lake decline, especially in winter season with low water level. However, the effect of TGD regulation shows strong seasonal features, its effect can accounts for 33%-42% of the average water level decline across the lake during the impoundment period of September-October. In addition, the effect of climate change and other human activities over the Yangtze River basin needs to be highly addressed, which is particularly prominent on reducing lake water level during the summer flood season and autumn recession period. The result also revealed that due to different mechanism, the responses of the lake water level to the three influencing factors are not consistent and show great spatial and temporal differences.

  6. Linking poverty levels to water resource use and conflicts in rural Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madulu, Ndalahwa F.

    Water scarcity is an important environmental constraint to development. Water availability is closely linked to human welfare and health by affecting nutrition status and quantity of drinking water especially for the poor. It has impacts on household labour because of the time and energy spent in obtaining it. These problems are more keenly felt among the poor households and in the agricultural subsistence economy. In many areas, the demand for water has been increasing due to rapid population growth, economic development, and climatic change. Water scarcity also stimulates social conflicts between various water users: individuals, communities, industries, livestock, wildlife, agriculture etc. Consequently, local communities have evolved strategies for coping with water stress and drought. These strategies include use of various sources of water, inaction to strict bye-laws regarding the use of water, crop diversification, wage labour, and possibly seasonal migration. The available strategies are likely to vary from one area to another. Some of these actions have measurable longterm demographic consequences, particularly if water stress is severe or repetitive. Although most governments and donor organizations often put much emphasis on the provision of water for drinking purposes, there is clear evidence that the supply of water for other uses has equal importance especially among rural communities. This observation suggests that putting too much emphasis on drinking water needs, addresses a rather insignificant part of the problem of water resources and biases the range of solutions which are likely to be proposed for perceived shortages. The presence of other water uses necessitates the provision of multi-purpose water sources that can serve a number of contrasting functions. This demand-responsive approach can enable the local communities and the poor households to choose the type of services they require on the basis of perceived needs and their ability to

  7. Challenging empowerment: AIDS-affected South African children and the need for a multi-level relational approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansell, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Critics of empowerment have highlighted the concept's mutability, focus on individual transformation, one-dimensionality and challenges of operationalisation. Relating these critiques to children's empowerment raises new challenges. Drawing on scholarship on children's subjecthood and exercise of power, alongside empirical research with children affected by AIDS, I argue that empowerment envisaged as individual self-transformation and increased capacity to act independently offers little basis for progressive change. Rather it is essential to adopt a relational approach that recognises the need to transform power relationships at multiple levels. This analysis has implications for our wider understanding of empowerment in the 21st century.

  8. Recent Changes in Land Water Storage and its Contribution to Sea Level Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Yoshihide; Reager, John T.; Chao, Benjamin F.; Wang, Jida; Lo, Min-Hui; Song, Chunqiao; Li, Yuwen; Gardner, Alex S.

    2016-11-01

    Sea level rise is generally attributed to increased ocean heat content and increased rates glacier and ice melt. However, human transformations of Earth's surface have impacted water exchange between land, atmosphere, and ocean, ultimately affecting global sea level variations. Impoundment of water in reservoirs and artificial lakes has reduced the outflow of water to the sea, while river runoff has increased due to groundwater mining, wetland and endorheic lake storage losses, and deforestation. In addition, climate-driven changes in land water stores can have a large impact on global sea level variations over decadal timescales. Here, we review each component of negative and positive land water contribution separately in order to highlight and understand recent changes in land water contribution to sea level variations.

  9. Recent Changes in Land Water Storage and Its Contribution to Sea Level Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Yoshihide; Reager, John T.; Chao, Benjamin F.; Wang, Jida; Lo, Min-Hui; Song, Chunqiao; Li, Yuwen; Gardner, Alex S.

    2016-01-01

    Sea level rise is generally attributed to increased ocean heat content and increased rates glacier and ice melt. However, human transformations of Earth's surface have impacted water exchange between land, atmosphere, and ocean, ultimately affecting global sea level variations. Impoundment of water in reservoirs and artificial lakes has reduced the outflow of water to the sea, while river runoff has increased due to groundwater mining, wetland and endorheic lake storage losses, and deforestation. In addition, climate-driven changes in land water stores can have a large impact on global sea level variations over decadal timescales. Here, we review each component of negative and positive land water contribution separately in order to highlight and understand recent changes in land water contribution to sea level variations.

  10. Recent Changes in Land Water Storage and Its Contribution to Sea Level Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Yoshihide; Reager, John T.; Chao, Benjamin F.; Wang, Jida; Lo, Min-Hui; Song, Chunqiao; Li, Yuwen; Gardner, Alex S.

    2016-01-01

    Sea level rise is generally attributed to increased ocean heat content and increased rates glacier and ice melt. However, human transformations of Earth's surface have impacted water exchange between land, atmosphere, and ocean, ultimately affecting global sea level variations. Impoundment of water in reservoirs and artificial lakes has reduced the outflow of water to the sea, while river runoff has increased due to groundwater mining, wetland and endorheic lake storage losses, and deforestation. In addition, climate-driven changes in land water stores can have a large impact on global sea level variations over decadal timescales. Here, we review each component of negative and positive land water contribution separately in order to highlight and understand recent changes in land water contribution to sea level variations.

  11. Recent Changes in Land Water Storage and its Contribution to Sea Level Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Yoshihide; Reager, John T.; Chao, Benjamin F.; Wang, Jida; Lo, Min-Hui; Song, Chunqiao; Li, Yuwen; Gardner, Alex S.

    2017-01-01

    Sea level rise is generally attributed to increased ocean heat content and increased rates glacier and ice melt. However, human transformations of Earth's surface have impacted water exchange between land, atmosphere, and ocean, ultimately affecting global sea level variations. Impoundment of water in reservoirs and artificial lakes has reduced the outflow of water to the sea, while river runoff has increased due to groundwater mining, wetland and endorheic lake storage losses, and deforestation. In addition, climate-driven changes in land water stores can have a large impact on global sea level variations over decadal timescales. Here, we review each component of negative and positive land water contribution separately in order to highlight and understand recent changes in land water contribution to sea level variations.

  12. Multi variate regression model of the water level and production rate time series of the geothermal reservoir Waiwera (New Zealand)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, Michael; Schöne, Tim

    2017-04-01

    Water management tools are essential to ensure the conservation of natural resources. The geothermal hot water reservoir below the village of Waiwera, on the Northern Island of New Zealand is used commercially since 1863. The continuous production of 50 °C hot geothermal water, to supply hotels and spas, has a negative impact on the reservoir. Until the year 1969 from all wells drilled the warm water flow was artesian. Due to overproduction the water needs to be pumped up nowadays. Further, within the years 1975 to 1976 the warm water seeps on the beach of Waiwera ran dry. In order to protect the reservoir and the historical and tourist site in the early 1980s a water management plan was deployed. The "Auckland Council" established guidelines to enable a sustainable management of the resource [1]. The management plan demands that the water level in the official and appropriate observation well of the council is 0.5 m above sea level throughout the year in average. Almost four decades of data (since 1978 until today) are now available [2]. For a sustainable water management, it is necessary to be able to forecast the water level as a function of the production rates in the production wells. The best predictions are provided by a multivariate regression model of the water level and production rate time series, which takes into account the production rates of individual wells. It is based on the inversely proportional relationship between the independent variable (production rate) and the dependent variable (measured water level). In production scenarios, a maximum total production rate of approx. 1,100 m3 / day is determined in order to comply with the guidelines of the "Auckland Council". [1] Kühn M., Stöfen H. (2005) A reactive flow model of the geothermal reservoir Waiwera, New Zealand. Hydrogeology Journal 13, 606-626, doi: 10.1007/s10040-004-0377-6 [2] Kühn M., Altmannsberger C. (2016) Assessment of data driven and process based water management tools for

  13. Water-level records for the Big Sioux Aquifer, Minnehaha County, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, Wendell L.

    1981-01-01

    This report contains a tabulation of water levels in wells tapping the Big Sioux aquifer in Minnehaha County, S. Dak. Included is a compilation of all water levels in 43 wells measured by the U.S. Geological Survey and State agencies during the period 1957-80. The data are presented in tabular and graphic form. (USGS)

  14. Water levels in continuously monitored wells in the Yucca Mountain Area, Nevada, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobmeyer, D.H.; Luckey, R.R.; O`Brien, G.M.; Burkhardt, D.J.

    1995-02-01

    Water levels have been monitored hourly in 16 wells representing 24 intervals in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada. Water levels were monitored using pressure transducers and were recorded by data loggers. The pressure transducers were periodically calibrated by raising and lowering them in the wells. The water levels were normally measured at approximately the same time that the transducers were calibrated. Where the transducer output appeared reasonable, it was converted to water levels using the calibrations and manual water-level measurements. The amount of transducer output that was converted to water levels ranged from zero for one interval to 100 percent for one interval. Fifteen of the wells were completed in Tertiary volcanic rocks and one well was completed in Paleozoic carbonate rocks. Each well monitored from one to four depth intervals. Water-level fluctuation caused by barometric pressure changes and earth tides were observed. Transducer output is presented in graphic form and, where appropriate, water-level altitude is presented in graphical and tabular form.

  15. Optimal dike investments under uncertainty and learning about increasing water levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, van der T.D.; Ierland, van E.C.; Weikard, H.P.

    2014-01-01

    Water level extremes for seas and rivers are crucial to determine optimal dike heights. Future development in extremes under climate change is, however, uncertain. In this paper, we explore impacts of uncertainty and learning about increasing water levels on dike investment. We extend previous work

  16. Microbial Contamination Detection in Water Resources: Interest of Current Optical Methods, Trends and Needs in the Context of Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aude-Valérie Jung

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Microbial pollution in aquatic environments is one of the crucial issues with regard to the sanitary state of water bodies used for drinking water supply, recreational activities and harvesting seafood due to a potential contamination by pathogenic bacteria, protozoa or viruses. To address this risk, microbial contamination monitoring is usually assessed by turbidity measurements performed at drinking water plants. Some recent studies have shown significant correlations of microbial contamination with the risk of endemic gastroenteresis. However the relevance of turbidimetry may be limited since the presence of colloids in water creates interferences with the nephelometric response. Thus there is a need for a more relevant, simple and fast indicator for microbial contamination detection in water, especially in the perspective of climate change with the increase of heavy rainfall events. This review focuses on the one hand on sources, fate and behavior of microorganisms in water and factors influencing pathogens’ presence, transportation and mobilization, and on the second hand, on the existing optical methods used for monitoring microbiological risks. Finally, this paper proposes new ways of research.

  17. Microbial contamination detection in water resources: interest of current optical methods, trends and needs in the context of climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Aude-Valérie; Le Cann, Pierre; Roig, Benoit; Thomas, Olivier; Baurès, Estelle; Thomas, Marie-Florence

    2014-04-17

    Microbial pollution in aquatic environments is one of the crucial issues with regard to the sanitary state of water bodies used for drinking water supply, recreational activities and harvesting seafood due to a potential contamination by pathogenic bacteria, protozoa or viruses. To address this risk, microbial contamination monitoring is usually assessed by turbidity measurements performed at drinking water plants. Some recent studies have shown significant correlations of microbial contamination with the risk of endemic gastroenteresis. However the relevance of turbidimetry may be limited since the presence of colloids in water creates interferences with the nephelometric response. Thus there is a need for a more relevant, simple and fast indicator for microbial contamination detection in water, especially in the perspective of climate change with the increase of heavy rainfall events. This review focuses on the one hand on sources, fate and behavior of microorganisms in water and factors influencing pathogens' presence, transportation and mobilization, and on the second hand, on the existing optical methods used for monitoring microbiological risks. Finally, this paper proposes new ways of research.

  18. Changes in CO2 dynamics related to rainfall and water level variations in a subtropical lake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonetta, Denise; Staehr, Peter Anton; Petrucio, Mauricio Mello

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the implications of low rainfall and reduced water level for changes in nutrients and chlorophyll-a in a subtropical lake, and how these changes affected levels and atmospheric fluxes of CO2. Based on nine consecutive years of monthly monitoring of pH, alkalinity, oxygen, and temp......We investigated the implications of low rainfall and reduced water level for changes in nutrients and chlorophyll-a in a subtropical lake, and how these changes affected levels and atmospheric fluxes of CO2. Based on nine consecutive years of monthly monitoring of pH, alkalinity, oxygen......, and temperature, we calculated the pCO(2) and CO2 flux and related these to environmental drivers. Variations in annual rainfall, with extreme low levels along 2012-2014 caused the water level to decrease up to 1 m. Low water levels were associated with higher concentrations of chlorophyll-a and organic carbon...

  19. The Water Footprint as an indicator of environmental sustainability in water use at the river basin level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellicer-Martínez, Francisco; Martínez-Paz, José Miguel

    2016-11-15

    One of the main challenges in water management is to determine how the current water use can condition its availability to future generations and hence its sustainability. This study proposes the use of the Water Footprint (WF) indicator to assess the environmental sustainability in water resources management at the river basin level. The current study presents the methodology developed and applies it to a case study. The WF is a relatively new indicator that measures the total volume of freshwater that is used as a production factor. Its application is ever growing in the evaluation of water use in production processes. The calculation of the WF involves water resources (blue), precipitation stored in the soil (green) and pollution (grey). It provides a comprehensive assessment of the environmental sustainability of water use in a river basin. The methodology is based upon the simulation of the anthropised water cycle, which is conducted by combining a hydrological model and a decision support system. The methodology allows the assessment of the environmental sustainability of water management at different levels, and/or ex-ante analysis of how the decisions made in water planning process affect sustainability. The sustainability study was carried out in the Segura River Basin (SRB) in South-eastern Spain. The SRB is among the most complex basins in Europe, given its special peculiarities: competition for the use, overexploitation of aquifers, pollution, alternative sources, among others. The results indicate that blue water use is not sustainable due to the generalised overexploitation of aquifers. They also reveal that surface water pollution, which is not sustainable, is mainly caused by phosphate concentrations. The assessment of future scenarios reveals that these problems will worsen if no additional measures are implemented, and therefore the water management in the SRB is environmentally unsustainable in both the short- and medium-term. Copyright © 2016

  20. Fewer not more leaves - Key to obtaining the needed jump in crop yield potential and water use efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, V.; Kumar, P.; Long, S.

    2013-12-01

    Word food and feed supply needs to increase by 75% by 2050 to meet the increasing demands of our growing population. Soybean which is the world`s fourth most important crop in terms of total production at 250 million Mt/yr is a key protein source, and together with rice and wheat, are experiencing declining global yield increases year on year. At present rates of improvement, 2050 targets cannot be reached without new innovations. In this study we demonstrate an innovative approach that could provide a yield jump. While, natural selection favors individual plants to maximize leaf production to maximize light interception and shade competitors, the presence of this trait in domestic crops could be disadvantageous. In addition, rising CO2 causes increased leaf production further exacerbating the problem. Here, we show by mathematical model and field experiment that, a modern cultivar growing at the center of US soy cultivation produces too many leaves and reduction to an optimal level would increase yield. Our model results indicate that an LAI of 3.5 and 3.8 produces maximal rates of net canopy assimilation under ambient and elevated CO2 conditions respectively. However, observed peak LAI values are 6.9 and 7.5 under ambient and elevated CO2 conditions respectively. This results in a NPP loss of 30% and 20% under ambient and elevated CO2 conditions respectively. Furthermore, the optimal LAI results in a decreased transpiration of up to 30% thus increasing water use efficiency. We show that as LAI increases, the tradeoffs between diminishing day time gains in NPP, and increasing losses in respiration is responsible for this effect. By designing a more optimum canopy, we can increase NPP and this potentially translates to increased seed yield. To test this model result, we perform canopy manipulation experiments on soybean plants, where we artificially decrease LAI by periodically removing young and emerging leaves throughout the growing season (after pod onset), and

  1. Reactor vessel water level estimation during severe accidents using cascaded fuzzy neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Yeong; Yoo, Kwae Hwan; Choi, Geon Pil; Back, Ju Hyun; Na, Man Gyun [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Global concern and interest in the safety of nuclear power plants have increased considerably since the Fukushima accident. In the event of a severe accident, the reactor vessel water level cannot be measured. The reactor vessel water level has a direct impact on confirming the safety of reactor core cooling. However, in the event of a severe accident, it may be possible to estimate the reactor vessel water level by employing other information. The cascaded fuzzy neural network (CFNN) model can be used to estimate the reactor vessel water level through the process of repeatedly adding fuzzy neural networks. The developed CFNN model was found to be sufficiently accurate for estimating the reactor vessel water level when the sensor performance had deteriorated. Therefore, the developed CFNN model can help provide effective information to operators in the event of a severe accident.

  2. Anomalies in Water Level Records in Yunnan Caused by the Great Indonesian Earthquakes and Their Significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Hong; Wu Chengdong; Liu Qiang; Wang Shiqin; Chen Yan

    2008-01-01

    Two great earthquakes occurred in the sea northwest of Sumatra,Indonesia,on December 26,2004 and March 29,2005.The observation of water levels in Yunnan yielded abundant information about the two earthquakes.This paper presents the water level response to the two earthquakes in Yunnan and makes a preliminary analysis.It is observed that the large earthquake-induced abnormal water level change could be better recorded by analog recording than by digital recording.The large earthquake-caused water level rise or decline may be attributed to the effect of seismic waves that change the stress in tectonic units,and is correlated with the geological structure where the well is located.The water level response mode in a well is totally the same for earthquakes occurring on the same fault and with the same fracture mode.The only difference is that the response amplitude increases with the growth of the earthquake magnitude.

  3. Changes in Water Levels and Storage in the High Plains Aquifer, Predevelopment to 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, V.L.

    2009-01-01

    The High Plains aquifer underlies 111.6 million acres (174,000 square miles) in parts of eight States - Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. The area overlying the High Plains aquifer is one of the primary agricultural regions in the Nation. Water-level declines began in parts of the High Plains aquifer soon after the beginning of substantial irrigation with ground water in the aquifer area. By 1980, water levels in the High Plains aquifer in parts of Texas, Oklahoma, and southwestern Kansas had declined more than 100 feet (Luckey and others, 1981). In response to these water-level declines, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in collaboration with numerous Federal, State, and local water-resources agencies, began monitoring more than 7,000 wells in 1988 to assess annual water-level changes in the aquifer. This fact sheet summarizes changes in water levels and drainable water in storage in the High Plains aquifer from predevelopment (before about 1950) to 2007 and serves as a companion product to a USGS report that presents more detailed and technical information about water-level and storage changes in the High Plains aquifer during this period (McGuire, 2009).

  4. The UK water crisis: What actions the government and private sector need to take.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelton, Emmeline

    2015-01-01

    The paper discusses why resilience is increasingly important for companies to measure and address, thinking about relevant issues such as climate change and extreme weather. It gives insight on how companies measure their resilience and that it is more than a business continuity issue; indeed, it is a board issue. The paper looks at the role of regulation for companies with national critical infrastructure in putting in resilience guidelines and discusses the benefits of regulation in resilience, presenting a case study of the UK Water Services Regulation Authority resilience guidelines.

  5. Paradigm Shift in Transboundary Water Management Policy: Linking Water Environment Energy and Food (weef) to Catchment Hydropolitics - Needs, Scope and Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    RAI, S.; Wolf, A.; Sharma, N.; Tiwari, H.

    2015-12-01

    The incessant use of water due to rapid growth of population, enhanced agricultural and industrial activities, degraded environment and ecology will in the coming decades constrain the socioeconomic development of humans. To add on to the precarious situation, political boundaries rarely embrace hydrological boundaries of lakes, rivers, aquifers etc. Hydropolitics relate to the ability of geopolitical institutions to manage shared water resources in a politically sustainable manner, i.e., without tensions or conflict between political entities. Riparian hydropolitics caters to differing objectives, needs and requirements of states making it difficult to administer the catchment. The diverse riparian objectives can be merged to form a holistic catchment objective of sustainable water resources development and management. It can be proposed to make a paradigm shift in the present-day transboundary water policy from riparian hydropolitics (in which the focal point of water resources use is hinged on state's need) to catchment hydropolitics (in which the interest of the basin inhabitants are accorded primacy holistically over state interests) and specifically wherein the water, environment, energy and food (WEEF) demands of the catchment are a priority and not of the states in particular. The demands of the basin pertaining to water, food and energy have to be fulfilled, keeping the environment and ecology healthy in a cooperative political framework; the need for which is overwhelming. In the present scenario, the policy for water resources development of a basin is segmented into independent uncoordinated parts controlled by various riparians; whereas in catchment hydropolitics the whole basin should be considered as a unit. The riparians should compromise a part of national interest and work in collaboration on a joint objective which works on the principle of the whole as against the part. Catchment hydropolitics may find greater interest in the more than 250

  6. A systematic review of the amount of water per person per day needed to prevent morbidity and mortality in (post-disaster settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmy De Buck

    Full Text Available In order to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of humanitarian efforts, minimum standards for humanitarian assistance and key indicators, showing whether a standard has been attained, have been developed. However, many of these standards and indicators are based on a consensus on best practices and experiences in humanitarian response, because relevant evidence on the impact of humanitarian interventions is often lacking.One important example of a standard in humanitarian aid in a disaster setting is "water quantity." The accompanying indicator states how many litres of water are needed per person per day in a disaster setting. It was our objective to determine the evidence base behind this indicator, in order to improve health outcomes such as morbidity (e.g., diarrhoea and mortality.A systematic review was performed searching The Cochrane Library, Medline and Embase. We included studies performed during disasters and in refugee camps that reported a specific water amount and health-related outcomes related to water shortages, including diarrhoea, cholera, and mortality. We used GRADE to determine the quality of evidence.Out of 3,630 articles, 111 references relevant to our question were selected. Based on our selection criteria, we finally retained 6 observational studies, including 1 study that was performed during the disaster and 5 studies in a post-disaster phase. From two studies there is conclusive evidence on the relationship between the amount of water received and diarrhoea or mortality rates in refugee camps. However, overall, these studies do not contain enough data with relevance to a specific amount of water, and the level of evidence is very low.More primary research on water amounts in a disaster setting is necessary, so that the humanitarian sector can further professionalise its water-related standards, indicators and interventions.

  7. Spatial–Temporal Dynamics of Wetland Vegetation Related to Water Level Fluctuations in Poyang Lake, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiang Tan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Hydrological properties are driving forces of wetland systems. The influence of water level fluctuations on vegetation distribution is of growing interest as wetlands are increasingly disturbed by climate change and intensive human activity. Based on time series MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer imagery from 2000 to 2012, we investigated the spatial–temporal dynamics of wetland vegetation in Poyang Lake using a combined Sen’s slope and Mann–Kendall (MK test approach, and explored their correlations with water level fluctuations in different hydrological periods. The results showed that more than 34% of wetlands at lower elevations of Poyang Lake had experienced an increasing trend in the enhanced vegetation index (EVI, whereas EVI in about 11% of the wetlands at higher elevations decreased significantly. Responses of grassland area extracted from MODIS EVI were found to be more sensitive to water level fluctuations in the southern lakes. The change rate of grassland area decreased with the rising water level during the rising period, but increased with the rising water level during the retreating period. Correlations between grassland area and water level were much weaker in the dry period. In addition, we found fluctuations of the main water body had negligible effect on grassland area since the water level at Xingzi station was below 14 m. These results provide new insights for predicting future changes of wetland vegetation influenced by the ongoing threats from climate change and human activity, and form a foundation for ecosystem management of Poyang Lake.

  8. Level of Need for Cognition and Metacognitive Thinking among Undergraduate Kindergarten Female Students at King Sa'ud University in Sa'udi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daghistani, Bulquees

    2015-01-01

    This study aims at examining the level of need for cognition and metacognitive thinking among undergraduate kindergarten female students in Education Faculty at King Sa'ud University in Sa'udi Arabia from their own perceptions. Results showed that the need for the cognition level was moderate, but metacognitive thinking level was high. In…

  9. Level of Need for Cognition and Metacognitive Thinking among Undergraduate Kindergarten Female Students at King Sa'ud University in Sa'udi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daghistani, Bulquees

    2015-01-01

    This study aims at examining the level of need for cognition and metacognitive thinking among undergraduate kindergarten female students in Education Faculty at King Sa'ud University in Sa'udi Arabia from their own perceptions. Results showed that the need for the cognition level was moderate, but metacognitive thinking level was high. In…

  10. Analysis of Water Level Fluctuations and TDS Variations in the Groundwater at Mewat (Nuh District, Haryana (India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka1

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater is the major source for fulfilling the water needs of domestic and agricultural sectors in Mewat district, Haryana, India and its continuous use has put an enormous pressure on the groundwater resource, which along with low rainfall and variable geographical conditions lead to the declining water levels. The other problem of this area is high salinity which is reported intruding to the freshwater zone1. Taking into account the twin problem of declining water level and high salinity the study was taken up jointly by National Institute of Hydrology, Roorkee; Sehgal Foundation, Gurgaon and Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee. Groundwater level and TDS (Total dissolved solids data for pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons for the time period of 2011–2015 of 40 monitoring wells developed by Sehgal Foundation, Gurgaon was collected and analysed. It has been found that the groundwater level is decreasing in the area while TDS values show inconsistent trends during 2011-15. Further monitoring of the wells is continued to get the more information on water level and TDS which will help in facilitating the researchers in finding out the applicable solutions for the above problems in the Mewat, Haryana.

  11. Water levels in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada, 1990--91

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tucci, P.; O`Brien, G.M.; Burkhardt, D.J.

    1996-07-01

    Water levels were monitored in 27 wells in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada during 1990--91. Twelve wells were monitored periodically, generally on a monthly basis, and 15 wells representing 24 intervals were monitored hourly. All wells monitor water levels in Tertiary volcanic rocks, except one that monitors levels in paleozoic carbonate rocks. Water levels were measured using calibrated steel tapes and pressure transducers; steel-tape measurements were corrected for mechanical stretch, thermal expansion, and borehole deviation to obtain precise water-level altitudes. Water-level altitudes in the Tertiary volcanic rocks ranged from about 728 meters above sea level east of Yucca Mountain to about 1,035 meters above sea level north of Yucca Mountain. Water-level altitudes in the well monitoring the Paleozoic carbonate rocks varied between 752 and 753 meters above sea level during 1990--91. All data were acquired in accordance with a quality-assurance program to support the reliability of the data.

  12. Water-Level Data Analysis for the Saturated Zone Site-Scale Flow and Transport Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Tucci

    2001-12-20

    This Analysis/Model Report (AMR) documents an updated analysis of water-level data performed to provide the saturated-zone, site-scale flow and transport model (CRWMS M&O 2000) with the configuration of the potentiometric surface, target water-level data, and hydraulic gradients for model calibration. The previous analysis was presented in ANL-NBS-HS-000034, Rev 00 ICN 01, Water-Level Data Analysis for the Saturated Zone Site-Scale Flow and Transport Model (USGS 2001). This analysis is designed to use updated water-level data as the basis for estimating water-level altitudes and the potentiometric surface in the SZ site-scale flow and transport model domain. The objectives of this revision are to develop computer files containing (1) water-level data within the model area (DTN: GS010908312332.002), (2) a table of known vertical head differences (DTN: GS0109083 12332.003), and (3) a potentiometric-surface map (DTN: GS010608312332.001) using an alternate concept from that presented in ANL-NBS-HS-000034, Rev 00 ICN 01 for the area north of Yucca Mountain. The updated water-level data include data obtained from the Nye County Early Warning Drilling Program (EWDP) and data from borehole USW WT-24. In addition to being utilized by the SZ site-scale flow and transport model, the water-level data and potentiometric-surface map contained within this report will be available to other government agencies and water users for ground-water management purposes. The potentiometric surface defines an upper boundary of the site-scale flow model, as well as provides information useful to estimation of the magnitude and direction of lateral ground-water flow within the flow system. Therefore, the analysis documented in this revision is important to SZ flow and transport calculations in support of total system performance assessment.

  13. Sensitivity and uncertainty analysis for crop water footprint accounting at a basin level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, L.; Mekonnen, M. M.; Hoekstra, A. Y.

    2013-12-01

    Water footprint has been recognized as a comprehensive indicator in water management to evaluate the human pressure on water resources from either production or consumption perspectives. The agricultural sector in particular crop production takes the largest share of the global water footprint. Water footprint of producing unit mass of a crop (m3/ ton) is normally expressed by single volumetric numbers referring to an average value for certain areas and periods. However, the divergence in crop water footprint accounts from different studies, primarily due to the input data quality, may confuse water users and managers. The study investigates the output sensitivity and uncertainty of the green (rainfall) and blue (irrigation water) crop water footprint to key input variables (reference evapotranspiration (ETo), precipitation (PR), crop coefficient (Kc) and crop calendar (D)) at a basin level. A grid-based daily water balance model was applied to compute water footprints of four major crops - maize, rice, soybean and wheat - in the Yellow River basin for 1996-2005 at a 5 by 5 arc minute resolution. Sensitivities of the yearly crop water footprints to individual input variability were assessed by the one-at-a-time (';sensitivity curve') method. Uncertainty in crop water footprint to input uncertainties were quantified through Monte Carlo simulations for selected years 1996 (wet), 2000 (dry) and 2005 (average). Results show that the crop water footprint is most sensitive to ETo and Kc, followed by D and PR. Blue water footprints were more sensitive than green water footprints to input variability. Interestingly, the smaller the annual blue water footprint, the higher its sensitivity to PR, ETo and Kc variability. The uncertainties in total crop water footprints to combined uncertainties in four key input variables was less than × 30% for total water footprints at 95% confidence level. The sensitivity and uncertainty level of crop water footprints also differs with

  14. Analysis of Long-Term Water Level Variation in Dongting Lake, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiaoqian Han

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The water level of Dongting Lake has changed because of the combined impact of climatic change and anthropogenic activities. A study of the long-term statistical properties of water level variations at Chenglingji station will help with the management of water resources in Dongting Lake. In this case, 54 years of water level data for Dongting Lake were analyzed with the non-parametric Mann–Kendall trend test, Sen’s slope test, and the Pettitt test. The results showed the following: (1 Trends in annual maximum lake water level (WLM, annual mean lake water level (WL, and annual minimum lake water level (WLm increased from 1961 to 2014; however, the three variables showed different trends from 1981 to 2014; (2 The annual change trends in Dongting Lake between 1961–2014 and 1981–2014 were found to be from approximately 0.90 cm/year to −2.27 cm/year, 1.65 cm/year to −0.79 cm/year, and 4.58 cm/year to 2.56 cm/year for WLM, WL, and WLm, respectively; (3 A greater degree of increase in water level during the dry season (November–April was found from 2003 to 2014 than from 1981 to 2002, but a smaller degree of increase, even to the point of decreasing, was found during the wet season (May–October; (4 The measured discharge data and numerical modeling results showed the operation of Three Gorge Reservoir (TGR pushed to influence partly the recent inter-annual variation of water level in Dongting Lake region, especially in the flood and dry seasons. The analysis indicated that the water level of Dongting Lake has changed in the long term with decreasing of range between WLM and WLm, and may decrease the probability of future drought and flood events. These results can provide useful information for the management of Dongting Lake.

  15. Opportunistic pathogens and elements of the resistome that are common in bottled mineral water support the need for continuous surveillance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Falcone-Dias

    Full Text Available Several differences concerning bacterial species, opportunistic pathogens, elements of the resistome as well as variations concerning the CFU/mL counts were identified in some of the five most marketed bottled mineral water from Araraquara city, São Paulo, Brazil. Two out of five brands tested were confirmed as potential source of opportunistic pathogens, including Mycobacterium gordonae, Ralstonia picketti and Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc. A total of one hundred and six isolates were recovered from four of these bottled mineral water brands. Betaproteobacteria was predominant followed by Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and Firmicutes. Ninety percent of the bacteria isolated demonstrated resistance to seventeen of the nineteen antimicrobials tested. These antimicrobials included eight different classes, including 3rd and 4th generation cephalosporins, carbapenems and fluoroquinolones. Multidrug resistant bacteria were detected for fifty-nine percent of isolates in three water brands at counts up to 103 CFU/ml. Of major concern, the two bottled mineral water harboring opportunistic pathogens were also source of elements of the resistome that could be directly transferred to humans. All these differences found among brands highlight the need for continuous bacteriological surveillance of bottled mineral water.

  16. Opportunistic pathogens and elements of the resistome that are common in bottled mineral water support the need for continuous surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcone-Dias, Maria Fernanda; Centrón, Daniela; Pavan, Fernando; Moura, Adriana Candido da Silva; Naveca, Felipe Gomes; de Souza, Victor Costa; Farache Filho, Adalberto; Leite, Clarice Queico Fujimura

    2015-01-01

    Several differences concerning bacterial species, opportunistic pathogens, elements of the resistome as well as variations concerning the CFU/mL counts were identified in some of the five most marketed bottled mineral water from Araraquara city, São Paulo, Brazil. Two out of five brands tested were confirmed as potential source of opportunistic pathogens, including Mycobacterium gordonae, Ralstonia picketti and Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc). A total of one hundred and six isolates were recovered from four of these bottled mineral water brands. Betaproteobacteria was predominant followed by Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and Firmicutes. Ninety percent of the bacteria isolated demonstrated resistance to seventeen of the nineteen antimicrobials tested. These antimicrobials included eight different classes, including 3rd and 4th generation cephalosporins, carbapenems and fluoroquinolones. Multidrug resistant bacteria were detected for fifty-nine percent of isolates in three water brands at counts up to 103 CFU/ml. Of major concern, the two bottled mineral water harboring opportunistic pathogens were also source of elements of the resistome that could be directly transferred to humans. All these differences found among brands highlight the need for continuous bacteriological surveillance of bottled mineral water.

  17. Modeling Caspian Sea water level oscillations under different scenarios of increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations

    OpenAIRE

    Roshan GholamReza; Moghbel Masumeh; Grab Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The rapid rise of Caspian Sea water level (about 2.25 meters since 1978) has caused much concern to all five surrounding countries, primarily because flooding has destroyed or damaged buildings and other engineering structures, roads, beaches and farm lands in the coastal zone. Given that climate, and more specifically climate change, is a primary factor influencing oscillations in Caspian Sea water levels, the effect of different climate change scenarios on future Caspian Sea levels...

  18. A Screening-Level Hydroeconomic Model of South Florida Water Resources System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirchi, A.; Watkins, D. W., Jr.; Flaxman, M.; Wiesmann, D.

    2014-12-01

    South Florida's water resources management is characterized by system-wide tradeoffs associated with maintaining the ecological integrity of natural environments such as the Everglades while meeting the water demands of the agricultural sector and growing urban areas. As these tradeoffs become more pronounced due to pressures from climate change, sea level rise, and population growth, it will be increasingly challenging for policy makers and stakeholders to reach consensus on water resources management objectives and planning horizons. A hydroeconomic optimization model of south Florida's water resources system is developed to incorporate the value of water for preserving ecosystem services alongside water supplies to the Everglades Agricultural Area and urban areas. Results of this screening-level network flow model facilitate quantitative analysis and provide insights for long-term adaptive management strategies for the region's water resources.

  19. Stochastic modeling of Lake Van water level time series with jumps and multiple trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Aksoy

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In 1990s, water level in the closed-basin Lake Van located in the Eastern Anatolia, Turkey has risen up about 2 m. Analysis of the hydrometeorological shows that change in the water level is related to the water budget of the lake. In this study, a stochastic model is generated using the measured monthly water level data of the lake. The model is derived after removal of trend and periodicity in the data set. Trend observed in the lake water level time series is fitted by mono- and multiple-trend lines. For the multiple-trend, the time series is first divided into homogeneous segments by means of SEGMENTER, segmentation software. Four segments are found meaningful practically each fitted with a trend line. Two models considering mono- and multiple-trend time series are developed. The multiple-trend model is found better for planning future development in surrounding areas of the lake.

  20. Monitoring Everglades freshwater marsh water level using L-band synthetic aperture radar backscatter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Woo; Lu, Zhong; Jones, John W.; Shum, C.K.; Lee, Hyongki; Jia, Yuanyuan

    2014-01-01

    The Florida Everglades plays a significant role in controlling floods, improving water quality, supporting ecosystems, and maintaining biodiversity in south Florida. Adaptive restoration and management of the Everglades requires the best information possible regarding wetland hydrology. We developed a new and innovative approach to quantify spatial and temporal variations in wetland water levels within the Everglades, Florida. We observed high correlations between water level measured at in situ gages and L-band SAR backscatter coefficients in the freshwater marsh, though C-band SAR backscatter has no close relationship with water level. Here we illustrate the complementarity of SAR backscatter coefficient differencing and interferometry (InSAR) for improved estimation of high spatial resolution water level variations in the Everglades. This technique has a certain limitation in applying to swamp forests with dense vegetation cover, but we conclude that this new method is promising in future applications to wetland hydrology research.

  1. [Evaluation of chlorine dioxide concentrations needed to effectively control contamination by Legionella spp in hospital hot water distribution systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusaroli, Paolo; Ravaioli, Cinzia; Gabutti, Giovanni; Caroli, Maria; Stefanati, Armando

    2016-01-01

    This aim of the study was to identify effective levels of ClO2 for control of Legionella spp. contamination in the hot water (45-55 °C.) distribution system of a 579-bed hospital in Ravenna (Italy). Overall, 663 hot water samples were collected from the hospital's sinks and shower taps and were analyzed. Trend line analysis, which describes the trend in the number of positive samples collected according to disinfectant concentration, shows that the lowest number of positive samples was achieved with concentrations of ClO2 between 0.22 and 0, 32 mg /l.

  2. Assessment of the Level of Satisfaction and Unmet Data Needs for Specialty Drug Formulary Decisions in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yoonyoung; Navarro, Robert P

    2016-04-01

    Formulary management within a limited budget is critical, especially for specialty drugs, which are used for serious medical conditions and are very expensive. Despite attempts to summarize the pertinent evidence, it is uncertain whether data needs of formulary decision makers for specialty drugs are satisfied. To assess the level of satisfaction of specialty drug formulary decision makers with regards to the strength of current available data sources and unmet needs regarding clinical, economic, and unpublished evidence. This study targeted pharmacists and physicians involved with formulary decision making at health plans or pharmacy benefit management companies at the national, large regional, and local levels. 95 individuals were invited to participate (without compensation) in a 21-item, web-based survey (Qualtrics), which was open from June 14 to July 31, 2014. The responses were coded for descriptive and statistical analysis. Statistical analyses included the Kruskal-Wallis test, analysis of variance, and the Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon test. Of 95 pharmacists or physicians, 40 respondents initiated the survey, and 33 respondents completed the survey (response rate = 34.7%). Drug formulary decision makers infrequently rated data evidence strength (17.1% "always"). Clinical data evidence strength was rated highest with published randomized controlled trials (RCTs; mean [SD] = 4.06 [0.87] of 5.0), while participant organizations' internal data were rated highest for economic data evidence strength (mean [SD] = 3.91 [1.07] of 5.0). Decision makers rated the highest unmet need as more data generated from head-to-head RCTs (mean [SD] = 2.94 [0.25] of 3.0) and cost-effectiveness analyses (mean [SD] = 2.53 [0.67] of 3.0). The participants believed manufacturers might be in the best position to satisfy their desire for head-to-head RCTs (mean [SD] = 4.31 [1.09] of 5.0). Despite a variety of data sources, drug formulary decision makers continue to rely on published RCTs or

  3. Evidence-based surgical training in orthopaedics: how many arthroscopies of the knee are needed to achieve consultant level performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, A J; Erturan, G; Akhtar, K; Judge, A; Alvand, A; Rees, J L

    2015-10-01

    Despite being one of the most common orthopaedic operations, it is still not known how many arthroscopies of the knee must be performed during training in order to develop the skills required to become a Consultant. A total of 54 subjects were divided into five groups according to clinical experience: Novices (n = 10), Junior trainees (n = 10), Registrars (n = 18), Fellows (n = 10) and Consultants (n = 6). After viewing an instructional presentation, each subject performed a simple diagnostic arthroscopy of the knee on a simulator with visualisation and probing of ten anatomical landmarks. Performance was assessed using a validated global rating scale (GRS). Comparisons were made against clinical experience measured by the number of arthroscopies which had been undertaken, and ROC curve analysis was used to determine the number of procedures needed to perform at the level of the Consultants. There were marked differences between the groups. There was significant improvement in performance with increasing experience (p < 0.05). ROC curve analysis identified that approximately 170 procedures were required to achieve the level of skills of a Consultant. We suggest that this approach to identify what represents the level of surgical skills of a Consultant should be used more widely so that standards of training are maintained through the development of an evidenced-based curriculum. ©2015 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  4. Artificial regulation of water level and its effect on aquatic macrophyte distribution in Taihu Lake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dehua Zhao

    Full Text Available Management of water levels for flood control, water quality, and water safety purposes has become a priority for many lakes worldwide. However, the effects of water level management on the distribution and composition of aquatic vegetation has received little attention. Relevant studies have used either limited short-term or discrete long-term data and thus are either narrowly applicable or easily confounded by the effects of other environmental factors. We developed classification tree models using ground surveys combined with 52 remotely sensed images (15-30 m resolution to map the distributions of two groups of aquatic vegetation in Taihu Lake, China from 1989-2010. Type 1 vegetation included emergent, floating, and floating-leaf plants, whereas Type 2 consisted of submerged vegetation. We sought to identify both inter- and intra-annual dynamics of water level and corresponding dynamics in the aquatic vegetation. Water levels in the ten-year period from 2000-2010 were 0.06-0.21 m lower from July to September (wet season and 0.22-0.27 m higher from December to March (dry season than in the 1989-1999 period. Average intra-annual variation (CV(a decreased from 10.21% in 1989-1999 to 5.41% in 2000-2010. The areas of both Type 1 and Type 2 vegetation increased substantially in 2000-2010 relative to 1989-1999. Neither annual average water level nor CV(a influenced aquatic vegetation area, but water level from January to March had significant positive and negative correlations, respectively, with areas of Type 1 and Type 2 vegetation. Our findings revealed problems with the current management of water levels in Taihu Lake. To restore Taihu Lake to its original state of submerged vegetation dominance, water levels in the dry season should be lowered to better approximate natural conditions and reinstate the high variability (i.e., greater extremes that was present historically.

  5. Impact of water-level changes to aquatic vegetation in small oligotrophic lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egert VANDEL

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study demonstrates the effect of drastic water-level changes to the aquatic vegetation in three small oligotrophic lakes situated in Kurtna Kame Field in north-eastern Estonia. The area holds around 40 lakes in 30 km2 of which 18 lakes are under protection as Natura Habitat lakes (Natura 2000 network. The area is under a strong human impact as it is surrounded by oil shale mines, sand quarry, peat harvesting field etc. The most severe impact comes from the groundwater intake established in 1972 in the vicinity of three studied lakes. The exploitation of groundwater led to drastic water-level drops. In 1980s the water-level drops were measured to be up to 3 to 4 meters compared to the levels of 1946. Lake Martiska and Lake Kuradijärv were severely affected and only 29% and 45% of lake area respectively and 21% of initial volume remained. Both lakes were described as oligotrophic lakes before severe human impact and held characteristic macrophytes such as Isoëtes lacustris L., Sparganium angustifolium Michx and Lobelia dortmanna L. As the water level declined the lakes lost their rare characteristic species and can now be described more as a meso- or even eutrophic lakes. When the volume of groundwater abstraction decreased in the 1990s the water levels started to recover but did not reach the natural levels of pre-industrialized era. Also the vegetation did not show any signs of recovery. In 2012 the pumping rates increased again causing a new rapid decline in water levels which almost exceed the previous minimum levels. The water-level monitoring alongside with the macrophyte monitoring data gives us a good case study on how the long term abrupt water-level changes can affect the aquatic vegetation

  6. Rural drinking water at supply and household levels: quality and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, Bilqis A; Hallman, Kelly; Levy, Jason; Bouis, Howarth; Ali, Nahid; Khan, Feroze; Khanam, Sufia; Kabir, Mamun; Hossain, Sanower; Shah Alam, Mohammad

    2006-09-01

    Access to safe drinking water has been an important national goal in Bangladesh and other developing countries. While Bangladesh has almost achieved accepted bacteriological drinking water standards for water supply, high rates of diarrheal disease morbidity indicate that pathogen transmission continues through water supply chain (and other modes). This paper investigates the association between water quality and selected management practices by users at both the supply and household levels in rural Bangladesh. Two hundred and seventy tube-well water samples and 300 water samples from household storage containers were tested for fecal coliform (FC) concentrations over three surveys (during different seasons). The tube-well water samples were tested for arsenic concentration during the first survey. Overall, the FC was low (the median value ranged from 0 to 4 cfu/100ml) in water at the supply point (tube-well water samples) but significantly higher in water samples stored in households. At the supply point, 61% of tube-well water samples met the Bangladesh and WHO standards of FC; however, only 37% of stored water samples met the standards during the first survey. When arsenic contamination was also taken into account, only 52% of the samples met both the minimum microbiological and arsenic content standards of safety. The contamination rate for water samples from covered household storage containers was significantly lower than that of uncovered containers. The rate of water contamination in storage containers was highest during the February-May period. It is shown that safe drinking water was achieved by a combination of a protected and high quality source at the initial point and maintaining quality from the initial supply (source) point through to final consumption. It is recommended that the government and other relevant actors in Bangladesh establish a comprehensive drinking water system that integrates water supply, quality, handling and related educational

  7. Urban water : harvesting rainwater at household level to improve the current water metabolism in Cuenca, Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Godoy Gacha, Juan Diego

    2015-01-01

    With a global population about 7 billion people and their continued growth are pressuring global natural resources, in freshwater matter this pressure is altering both the river flows; timing season of water flows; and spatial patterns in order to meet human demands both in urban as rural areas. However, water stress in urban areas are increasing and expectations by 2050 are grim with a global urban development by 70 percent moreover urbanization rate expected by 2030 in Latin America is 80 p...

  8. Flood Water Level Mapping and Prediction Due to Dam Failures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musa, S.; Adnan, M. S.; Ahmad, N. A.; Ayob, S.

    2016-07-01

    Sembrong dam has undergone overflow failure. Flooding has been reported to hit the town, covering an area of up to Parit Raja, located in the district of Batu Pahat. This study aims to identify the areas that will be affected by flood in the event of a dam failure in Sembrong Dam, Kluang, Johor at a maximum level. To grasp the extent, the flood inundation maps have been generated by using the InfoWorks ICM and GIS software. By using these maps, information such as the depth and extent of floods can be identified the main ares flooded. The flood map was created starting with the collection of relevant data such as measuring the depth of the river and a maximum flow rate for Sembrong Dam. The data were obtained from the Drainage and Irrigation Department Malaysia and the Department of Survey and Mapping and HLA Associates Sdn. Bhd. Then, the data were analyzed according to the established Info Works ICM method. The results found that the flooded area were listed at Sri Lalang, Parit Sagil, Parit Sonto, Sri Paya, Parit Raja, Parit Sempadan, Talang Bunut, Asam Bubok, Tanjung Sembrong, Sungai Rambut and Parit Haji Talib. Flood depth obtained for the related area started from 0.5 m up to 1.2 m. As a conclusion, the flood emanating from this study include the area around the town of Ayer Hitam up to Parit Raja approximately of more than 20 km distance. This may give bad implication to residents around these areas. In future studies, other rivers such as Sungai Batu Pahat should be considered for this study to predict and reduce the yearly flood victims for this area.

  9. Human impacts on tides overwhelm the effect of sea level rise on extreme water levels in the Rhine–Meuse delta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vellinga, N.E.; Hoitink, A.J.F.; Vegt, van der M.; Zhang, W.; Hoekstra, P.

    2014-01-01

    With the aim to link tidal and subtidal water level changes to human interventions, 70 years of water level data for the Rhine–Meuse tidal river network is analysed using a variety of statistical methods. Using a novel parameterization of probability density functions, mean high and low water levels

  10. Human impacts on tides overwhelm the effect of sea level rise on extreme water levels in the Rhine-Meuse delta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vellinga, N. E.; Hoitink, A. J F; van der Vegt, M.; Zhang, W.; Hoekstra, P.

    2014-01-01

    With the aim to link tidal and subtidal water level changes to human interventions, 70. years of water level data for the Rhine-Meuse tidal river network is analysed using a variety of statistical methods. Using a novel parameterization of probability density functions, mean high and low water level

  11. Survey of statistical and sampling needs for environmental monitoring of commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberhardt, L.L.; Thomas, J.M.

    1986-07-01

    This project was designed to develop guidance for implementing 10 CFR Part 61 and to determine the overall needs for sampling and statistical work in characterizing, surveying, monitoring, and closing commercial low-level waste sites. When cost-effectiveness and statistical reliability are of prime importance, then double sampling, compositing, and stratification (with optimal allocation) are identified as key issues. If the principal concern is avoiding questionable statistical practice, then the applicability of kriging (for assessing spatial pattern), methods for routine monitoring, and use of standard textbook formulae in reporting monitoring results should be reevaluated. Other important issues identified include sampling for estimating model parameters and the use of data from left-censored (less than detectable limits) distributions.

  12. Flow Forecasting in Urban Drainage Systems using Deterministic Updating of Water Levels in Distributed Hydraulic Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lisbeth S.; Borup, Morten; Møller, A.;

    2011-01-01

    the performance of the updating procedure for flow forecasting. Measured water levels in combination with rain gauge input are used as basis for the evaluation. When compared to simulations without updating, the results show that it is possible to obtain an improvement in the 20 minute forecast of the water level...... to eliminate some of the unavoidable discrepancies between model and reality. The latter can partly be achieved by using the commercial tool MOUSE UPDATE, which is capable of inserting measured water levels from the system into the distributed, physically based MOUSE model. This study evaluates and documents...

  13. Potentiometric surface, 2013, and water-level differences, 1991-2013, of the Carrizo-Wilcox aquifer in northwest Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fendick, Robert B.; Carter, Kayla

    2015-01-01

    The Carrizo-Wilcox aquifer is the primary source of fresh groundwater for public supply as well as industrial, agricultural, and domestic uses in several parishes in northwestern Louisiana, including Bienville, Bossier, Caddo, De Soto, Natchitoches, Red River, Sabine, and Webster. In 2010, about 19 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) were withdrawn from the Carrizo-Wilcox aquifer in Louisiana. This is an increase of over 6 Mgal/d from 1990 withdrawal amounts. The largest increase in withdrawals occurred in Caddo (3.79 Mgal/d) and De Soto Parishes (2.32 Mgal/d), whereas the largest decrease in withdrawals occurred in Natchitoches Parish (1.17 Mgal/d). Groundwater withdrawals from the Carrizo-Wilcox aquifer have caused water-level declines throughout much of the aquifer in the study area. Additional knowledge about the effects of withdrawals on water levels and flow directions in the Carrizo-Wilcox aquifer are needed to assess current conditions in the aquifer. In 2012, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Louisiana Department of Natural Resources began a study to document current water levels and water-level changes in selected aquifers.

  14. Rectal cancer mortality and total hardness levels in Taiwan's drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C Y; Tsai, S S; Lai, T C; Hung, C F; Chiu, H F

    1999-05-01

    The possible association between the risk of rectal cancer and hardness levels in drinking water from municipal supplies was investigated in a matched case-control study in Taiwan. All eligible rectal cancer deaths (986 cases) of Taiwan residents from 1990 through 1994 were compared with deaths from other causes (986 controls), and the hardness levels of the drinking water used by these residents were determined. Data on water hardness throughout Taiwan were collected from Taiwan Water Supply Corporation (TWSC). The control group consisted of people who died from other causes and the controls were pair matched to the cases by sex, year of birth, and year of death. The results show a significant negative relationship between drinking water hardness and rectal cancer mortality. Odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals were 1.24 (1.01-1. 55) and 1.38 (1.10-1.73), respectively, for exposure to moderately hard water and soft water compared with the use of hard water. Trend analyses showed an increasing odds ratio for rectal cancer with decreasing levels of hardness in drinking water. This is an important finding for the Taiwan water industry and human health. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  15. Use of inexpensive pressure transducers for measuring water levels in wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeland, B.D.; Dowd, J.F.; Hardegree, W.S.

    1997-01-01

    Frequent measurement of below ground water levels at multiple locations is an important component of many wetland ecosystem studies. These measurements, however, are usually time consuming, labor intensive, and expensive. This paper describes a water-level sensor that is inexpensive and easy to construct. The sensor is placed below the expected low water level in a shallow well and, when connected to a datalogger, uses a pressure transducer to detect groundwater or surface water elevations. Details of pressure transducer theory, sensor construction, calibration, and examples of field installations are presented. Although the transducers must be individually calibrated, the sensors have a linear response to changing water levels (r2 ??? .999). Measurement errors resulting from temperature fluctuations are shown to be about 4 cm over a 35??C temperature range, but are minimal when the sensors are installed in groundwater wells where temperatures are less variable. Greater accuracy may be obtained by incorporating water temperature data into the initial calibration (0.14 cm error over a 35??C temperature range). Examples of the utility of these sensors in studies of groundwater/surface water interactions and the effects of water level fluctuations on tree growth are provided. ?? 1997 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

  16. Recent reduction in the water level of Lake Victoria has created more habitats for Anopheles funestus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Futami Kyoko

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The water level of Lake Victoria has fallen more than 1.5 m since 1998, revealing a narrow strip of land along the shore. This study determined whether the recent drop in the water level has created additional breeding grounds for malaria vectors. Methods The recent and past shorelines were estimated using landmarks and a satellite image. The locations of breeding habitats were recorded using a GPS unit during the high and low lake water periods. GIS was used to determine whether the breeding habitats were located on newly emerged land between the new and old shorelines. Results Over half of the breeding habitats existed on newly emerged land. Fewer habitats for the Anopheles gambiae complex were found during the low water level period compared to the high water period. However, more habitats for Anopheles funestus were found during the high water level period, and they were all located on the newly emerged land. Conclusion The recent reduction in water level of Lake Victoria has increased the amount of available habitat for A. funestus. The results suggest that the water drop has substantially affected the population of this malaria vector in the Lake Victoria basin, particularly because the lake has a long shoreline that may harbour many new breeding habitats.

  17. OPTIMIZATION OF TRANSIEN PROCESSES OF WATER LEVEL VARIATION IN DRUM OF STEAM BOILERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. T. Kulakov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The work of regulator in general three-impulse automatic control system of water level in drum of boiler doesn’t supply quality of internal and external disturbance attack (presentation of regulation mistakes. That is why it is needed to improve. Different methods of proportional plus reset controller regulation of three-phase automatic feed control system are considered. There were suggested new methods to improve the quality of regulation of water level in boilers. Here the step system of automatic regulation was determined, on the base of transfer function.It is noticed that optimal transient processes supply calculation of numerical value of transmission factor of regulator at g =2,618, it is more then was recommended, but statistic mistakes remain. The transient simulation method in fast-time scale is recommended, this allow to determine early the value of statistic mistake of regulation by disturbances of reheated steam consumption and properly change the task to compensating device of step automatic control system. And numerical value of time constant criteria  should be calculated on the base of numbers of golden section(Phi, taking into account the definite time constant of lead section and time-lag, time-lag on controlled influence channel, and also taking into account maximum value of controlled influence. This method allow to reduce in two times the total time of regulation, to decrease absolute mistake of regulation in three times, and maximum value of regulation influence by feedwater in 1,7 times.

  18. Stand-level variation in evapotranspiration in non-water-limited eucalypt forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benyon, Richard G.; Nolan, Rachael H.; Hawthorn, Sandra N. D.; Lane, Patrick N. J.

    2017-08-01

    To better understand water and energy cycles in forests over years to decades, measurements of spatial and long-term temporal variability in evapotranspiration (Ea) are needed. In mountainous terrain, plot-level measurements are important to achieving this. Forest inventory data including tree density and size measurements, often collected repeatedly over decades, sample the variability occurring within the geographic and topographic range of specific forest types. Using simple allometric relationships, tree stocking and size data can be used to estimate variables including sapwood area index (SAI), which may be strongly correlated with annual Ea. This study analysed plot-level variability in SAI and its relationship with overstorey and understorey transpiration, interception and evaporation over a 670 m elevation gradient, in non-water-limited, even-aged stands of Eucalyptus regnans F. Muell. to determine how well spatial variation in annual Ea from forests can be mapped using SAI. Over the 3 year study, mean sap velocity in five E. regnans stands was uncorrelated with overstorey sapwood area index (SAI) or elevation: annual transpiration was predicted well by SAI (R2 0.98). Overstorey and total annual interception were positively correlated with SAI (R2 0.90 and 0.75). Ea from the understorey was strongly correlated with vapour pressure deficit (VPD) and net radiation (Rn) measured just above the understorey, but relationships between understorey Ea and VPD and Rn differed between understorey types and understorey annual Ea was not correlated with SAI. Annual total Ea was also strongly correlated with SAI: the relationship being similar to two previous studies in the same region, despite differences in stand age and species. Thus, spatial variation in annual Ea can be reliably mapped using measurements of SAI.

  19. Water Quality and Level of Some Heavy Metals in Water and Sediments of Kpeshie Lagoon, La-Accra, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Addo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The water quality and levels of some trace metals in water and sediments of the Kpeshie Lagoon located in Accra, Ghana were studied in March, 2009. Water and sediment samples of the lagoon were analyzed for various parameters. The water quality parameters included pH, temperature, conductivity, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS, salinity, Dissolved Oxygen (DO, and nutrients. The results showed that conductivity (19370- 28500 μS/cm, total dissolved solids (9750-14180 mg/L, chlorine (5725.2-8277.6 mg/L and total alkalinity (800-2000 mg/L were at an intermediate state between fresh and saline waters. However, the studied nutrients contents of the water were at levels within regulatory limits for natural waters. The heavy metals in the sediment especially nickel (71.8-1568 μg/g, lead (0.5-27.10 μg/g and chromium (190-26328 μg/g was adjudged a potential health risk to humans and the aquatic life of the lagoon’s ecosystem. The contamination status of the sediment’s heavy metals was confirmed on the basis of Enrichment Factor (EF and geoaccumulation index (Igeo. The EF and Igeo results supported the fact that the sediments were highly enriched with Ni, and Cr and to a lesser extent Pb. The sediment was found to be practically unpolluted with Zn and that the source of contamination was natural.

  20. Measuring Water Level Fluctuations of two Connected Wetlands in the Dominican Republic Using InSAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichardo Marcano, M. D.; Liu, L.; Zebker, H. A.

    2012-12-01

    Wetlands are ecosystems of high endemism and great biodiversity. Using the double-reflected radar waves off the water surface and trunks of inundated vegetation, Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) is capable of measuring water level fluctuations from space at a cm-level accuracy in these ecosystems with emergent vegetation. InSAR can provide a high spatial resolution over a large area that the more traditional terrestrial-based methods lack. In this study, we applied InSAR to study the seasonal variations in water level of the wetlands near two lakes in the southwest of the Dominican Republic: Lake Enriquillo, a highly saline lake designated as a Wetland of International Importance under the Ramsar Convention in 2002, and Laguna del Limon. Both lake-wetland systems are located in the Jaragua-Bahoruco-Enriquillo Biosphere Reserve. Since 2003 the water level of Lake Enriquillo has increased drastically and caused the evacuation of many farmers from nearby villages. Lake level changes also affected the habitats of several native and migratory species. We used the data acquired by the Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) sensor on board of the Japanese Advanced Land Observation Satellite (ALOS) from October 2008 to January 2011. For the smaller lake, Laguna del Limon, we found a seasonal variation of 10-15 centimeters. This result was confirmed using two different satellite paths. For Lake Enriquillo we found a net decrease of about 20 centimeters in the water level from September 2009 to January 2011. This result agrees with an independent estimation based on lake hydrodynamics model predictions. In addition, our InSAR-based time series of lake level fluctuations revealed distinct behaviors of the two wetlands. For the Lake Enriquillo we found a continuous decrease in the water level throughout 2010 with a brief increase of the water level during the summer months, while for Laguna del Limon during the summer months the water level

  1. Implementation Of Water Level Conditioning System Using Wireless Multi-Point Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohnmar Htwe

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Wireless communication is the most popular in these days. Recently people are trying to use the wireless communication systems in home appliances. In this system that is designed and development of a water level conditioning system using wireless which is being used to control the water distribution system. The development system based on the wireless RF Radio Frequency technology which can be installed in industries departments domestics and so on. The level controller is used with ultrasonic sensors to sense the level of water in the tanks and a reservoir. The system used microcontrollersthesecontrollers have the ability to detect the level of water in a Tank1 Tank2 and a Reservoir and then display the status of water on LCD screen and moreover the buzzer will be work depending on the condition of water level in a reservoir. The main objectives of this paper are to design and develop a wireless water level conditioning system using point-to-multi-point RF communication technology. It is reliable because it has no problems arising after installation such as a breakage of wire.

  2. The water level simulation for crane habitat optimization in Xianghai Nature Reserve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGYanhong; LIUZhaoli; DENGWei; ZHANGSHuwen; ZHAIJinliang

    2003-01-01

    The probaility of crane living in reedy wetlands can reach 100%, at the same time,the area of reed ,the water level and adjacent water area are main factors which control the crane''''''''s habitat selection.We all know that all these factors are spatially heterogeneous.For the Xianghai wetland safety and to protect the Xianghai wetland habitat of crane,this paper has mainly identified a solution to these problems.The wetland in formation is extracted from the TM images,which reflect the whole wetland landscape and are very important for both quantitative analysis of remote sensing observation of the earth system and positioning analysis in GIS database that is automatically extracted from DEM.The DEM for Xianghai characteristics of topography is created.On the basis of the GRID SUBMODULE,applying the GIS spatial overlay analysis,the relationship between the water level and the reed area below the water level and the rating distribution maps of reed area above water level is established ,When the water level reaches the altitude of 165 n ,the reed area,981.2 ha is maximum,i.e., the water level of 165 m is the optimal.

  3. The utility of gravity and water-level monitoring at alluvial aquifer wells in southern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pool, D.R.

    2008-01-01

    Coincident monitoring of gravity and water levels at 39 wells in southern Arizona indicate that water-level change might not be a reliable indicator of aquifer-storage change for alluvial aquifer systems. One reason is that water levels in wells that are screened across single or multiple aquifers might not represent the hydraulic head and storage change in a local unconfined aquifer. Gravity estimates of aquifer-storage change can be approximated as a one-dimensional feature except near some withdrawal wells and recharge sources. The aquifer storage coefficient is estimated by the linear regression slope of storage change (estimated using gravity methods) and water-level change. Nonaquifer storage change that does not percolate to the aquifer can be significant, greater than 3 ??Gal, when water is held in the root zone during brief periods following extreme rates of precipitation. Monitor-ing of storage change using gravity methods at wells also can improve understanding of local hydrogeologic conditions. In the study area, confined aquifer conditions are likely at three wells where large water-level variations were accompanied by little gravity change. Unconfined conditions were indicated at 15 wells where significant water-level and gravity change were positively linearly correlated. Good positive linear correlations resulted in extremely large specific-yield values, greater than 0.35, at seven wells where it is likely that significant ephemeral streamflow infiltration resulted in unsaturated storage change. Poor or negative linear correlations indicate the occurrence of confined, multiple, or perched aquifers. Monitoring of a multiple compressible aquifer system at one well resulted in negative correlation of rising water levels and subsidence-corrected gravity change, which suggests that water-level trends at the well are not a good indicatior of overall storage change. ?? 2008 Society of Exploration Geophysicists. All rights reserved.

  4. Characteristic of water level changes in river-bed during the 2012 drought in context of ground water levels in a small catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasilewicz, Michał; Kaznowska, Ewa; Hejduk, Leszek

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this paper is to characterize the water level changes in river bed during the 2012 drought, in the context of ground water levels in the catchment. During the growing season , and long- lasting lack of precipitation causes atmospheric drought. Prolonged lack of precipitation causes depletion of water resources in the saturated zone . Groundwater recharge of rivers decreases , and hence streamflow droughts (summer droughts) occur, which is identified as hydrological droughts. In the phase of hydrological drought a much stronger relationship between surface and ground waters is observed. The study area is the Zagożdżonka river. The Zagożdzonka catchment is situated in the strip of the Central Polish Lowlands, in the region where droughts are the most frequent. The basin is the research area of the Department of Hydraulic Engineering of WUoLS-SGGW in Warsaw. It is one of the few catchments in Poland, with long-term records of rainfall and runoff occurrences. Hydrometeorological measurements are carried out from July 1962. The catchment area is mainly covered by one Quaternary aquifer . Quaternary layer is composed mostly of Pleistocene sands and gravels, with thickness from 4 to 40 m. Aquifer is at a depth of 1 to 12 m below ground level and is unconfined and fed by direct infiltration of precipitation. The Zagożdżonka river is the main drainage in the local hydrologic cycle. There is a strong relationship between surface waters and occurring in the Quaternary sediments. In the hydrological year 2012 hydrological and atmospheric drought occurred. The duration and deficit of streamflow drought ( defined by with the Q90 % truncation level) in 2012 was three time greater than the average value from the multi-annual period, which influenced the groundwater level fluctuations. Acknowledgment The paper has been prepared with financial support by a grant from National Science Centre

  5. Does drinking water influence hospital-admitted sialolithiasis on an epidemiological level in Denmark?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Stine; Homøe, Preben; Wagner, Niels;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Sialolithiasis, or salivary stones, is not a rare disease of the major salivary glands. However, the aetiology and incidence remain largely unknown. Since sialoliths are comprised mainly of calcium phosphate salts, we hypothesise that drinking water calcium levels and other elements i......: Differences in drinking water calcium and magnesium may play a role in the incidence of sialolithiasis. These findings are of interest because many countries have started large-scale desalination programmes of drinking water.......OBJECTIVES: Sialolithiasis, or salivary stones, is not a rare disease of the major salivary glands. However, the aetiology and incidence remain largely unknown. Since sialoliths are comprised mainly of calcium phosphate salts, we hypothesise that drinking water calcium levels and other elements...... in drinking water could play a role in sialolithiasis. Owing to substantial intermunicipality differences in drinking water composition, Denmark constitutes a unique environment for testing such relations. DESIGN: An epidemiological study based on patient data extracted from the National Patient Registry...

  6. Needs and processes for the sea water desalination; Besoins et Procedes pour le dessalement de l'eau de mer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livet, F. [Institut National Polytechnique (INPG-UJF), SIMaP, UMR CNRS 5266, 38 - Grenoble (France)

    2007-11-15

    The author shows the needs of the sea water desalination for the dry countries. The main technique is the reverse osmosis. It requires electricity and its development needs big electric power plants. For economical and ecological reasons, the nuclear energy seems well appropriate. Libya is for instance very interested in this technique, because of their water shortage problem. (A.L.B.)

  7. Needs assessment to strengthen capacity in water and sanitation research in Africa: experiences of the African SNOWS consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Paul R; Abdelrahman, Samira H; Antwi-Agyei, Prince; Awuah, Esi; Cairncross, Sandy; Chappell, Eileen; Dalsgaard, Anders; Ensink, Jeroen H J; Potgieter, Natasha; Mokgobu, Ingrid; Muchiri, Edward W; Mulogo, Edgar; van der Es, Mike; Odai, Samuel N

    2014-12-15

    Despite its contribution to global disease burden, diarrhoeal disease is still a relatively neglected area for research funding, especially in low-income country settings. The SNOWS consortium (Scientists Networked for Outcomes from Water and Sanitation) is funded by the Wellcome Trust under an initiative to build the necessary research skills in Africa. This paper focuses on the research training needs of the consortium as identified during the first three years of the project. We reviewed the reports of two needs assessments. The first was a detailed needs assessment led by one northern partner, with follow-up visits which included reciprocal representation from the African universities. The second assessment, led by another northern partner, focused primarily on training needs. The reports from both needs assessments were read and stated needs were extracted and summarised. Key common issues identified in both assessments were supervisory skills, applications for external research funding, research management, and writing for publication in the peer-reviewed scientific literature. The bureaucratisation of university processes and inconsistencies through administration processes also caused problems. The lack of specialist laboratory equipment presented difficulties, particularly of inaccessibility through a lack of skilled staff for operation and maintenance, and of a budget provision for repairs and running costs. The lack of taught PhD modules and of research training methods also caused problems. Institutionally, there were often no mechanisms for identifying funding opportunities. On the other hand, grantees were often unable to understand or comply with the funders' financial and reporting requirements and were not supported by their institution. Skills in staff recruitment, retention, and performance were poor, as were performance in proposal and paper writing. The requirements for ethical clearance were often not known and governance issues not understood

  8. Assessing the need for transfusion of premature infants and role of hematocrit, clinical signs, and erythropoietin level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, W G; Donohue, P K; Spivak, J L; Jones, M D; Oski, F A

    1989-09-01

    There are no clear criteria for administration of blood to premature infants. In the past, indications for transfusion have included tachypnea, tachycardia, poor weight gain, apnea, bradycardia, pallor, lethargy, decreased activity, or poor feeding. Some have suggested that erythropoietin levels may also be useful in determining the need for transfusion. Data were studied from 11 premature infants with birth weights less than 1500 g collected throughout 469 hospital days. During that period the infants received a total of 37 blood transfusions. No overall relationship was found between hematocrit of 19% to 64% and heart rate, respiratory rate, or the occurrence of bradycardia; ie, these variables proved to be clinically unreliable as indicators of hematocrit. Furthermore, no predictable effect of transfusion could be identified on heart rate, respiratory rate, or on the incidence of apnea or bradycardia. It was anticipated that frequent episodes of apnea or bradycardia might increase serum erythropoietin concentration. To the contrary, more frequent bradycardia was associated with the low erythropoietin levels because those infants tended to receive transfusions for "symptomatic" anemia. The data are consistent with the concept that "anemia of prematurity" is not predictably associated with symptoms classically attributed to anemia. Possible reasons for this are that the premature infant has a different inherent response to anemia; that it is inappropriate to extrapolate symptoms of severe acute anemia to persons with mild or moderate chronic anemia; or, most likely, that other determinants of heart rate, respiratory rate, and apnea/bradycardia are of more importance than mild or moderate anemia.

  9. Extracting cross sections and water levels of minor streams and ditches from LiDAR point data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelens, Jennifer; Dondeyne, Stefaan; Deckers, Jozef; Van Orshoven, Jos; Diels, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Quantitative data on the shape and dimensions of location-specific cross-sections is useful for water and floodplain management. In addition, information about the water level is often needed, for example to be used as a boundary condition in hydrological, hydraulic and groundwater models. To detect a water course, let alone the cross section of small streams, the spatial resolution of DEM's derived from LiDAR or other data sources is insufficient. This is not the case for high resolution LiDAR data clouds. An aerial LiDAR database encompassing on average 16 points per square meter is available for the entire Flanders region. LiDAR elevation point clouds and digital RGB aerial images were collected simultaneously. To extract the right points for determination of the water course's cross-section at a given location, a buffer zone is defined around a predefined cross-section. This is based on the assumption that the cross-section of a channel is invariable over a small distance (0.1-1m). The set of extracted and then projected points was subjected to curve fitting based on shape language modelling (SLM). Based on the modelled cross-sectional profile, characteristics like cross-sectional area, width and water level were extracted. Furthermore, normalized indices combining the RGB and intensity data were used to detect the presence of water and the different characteristics of the points close to the water level and close to the banks. The study area is located in the alluvial valley of the Dijle, 20 km east of Brussels. It is part of the nature reserve 'de Doode Bemde'. The area of the test site is 10.3 ha and contains a ditch network of approximately three km. The field data, collected during August 2015 with a real time kinematic (RTK) GPS, was used for validation. The measurement result contained 153 cross sections with all the bathymetry data under the water level. Validation showed that all of the cross-sections modelled with the LiDAR data had a positive mean

  10. Understanding the connection of extreme water levels to mortality in the megacity Dhaka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele-Eich, Insa; Burkart, Katrin; Simmer, Clemens

    2015-04-01

    To quantitatively assess the impact of extreme water levels on a local scale we study both low and high water levels and their connection to mortality in the megacity Dhaka. Dhaka is currently threatened by a range of natural hazards such as earth quakes, tropical cyclones and - on an almost annual basis - flooding . Flooding in the megacity is largely determined by the close proximity to the confluence of the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers upstream as well as the conjunction with the Meghna river further downstream. The risk of flooding is aggravated through rapid urbanization and concurrent encroachment on retention areas, as well as increasing problems with both the natural and man-made drainage system. A growing population, continuing urbanization and climate change are all expected to worsen the situation in Dhaka. This prompted us to study historical trends in extreme water levels using over 100 years of daily water level data with respect to trends in frequency, magnitude and duration, focusing on rare but particularly high-risk events using extreme-value theory. In a further step, the complex link between water levels and mortality are studied using a distributed lag non-linear model with mortality data available on a daily basis for a five-year period (2003-2007). Our analysis suggests that water levels have indeed changed over the course of the past century. While the magnitude and duration of average flood events decreased, the frequency of extreme flood events has increased. Low water levels have also changed, with a significant decrease in the annual minimum water level when comparing the time periods 1909-1939 and 1979-2009. Results further indicate that for the period of 2003-2007, which entails two major flood events in 2004 and 2007, high water levels do not lead to a significant increase in relative mortality, which indicates a good level of adaptation and capacity to cope with flooding. However, following low water levels, an increase in mortality

  11. Water level response to hydropower development in the upper Mekong River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shaojuan; He, Daming

    2008-05-01

    Environmental changes and their transboundary influences on the Mekong watercourse system have been an international research focus in recent years, but the opinions and results related to the impacts of upper Mekong River dams are quite different. In this paper, based on the records of water levels from 1960 to 2003 at three mainstream sites in the upper Mekong River, a quantitative examination has been undertaken into characteristics of the mainstream water-level process at multiple timescales and its response to cascade development. The major results are: i) Annual mean, wet period mean, and the mean water levels during the period between March and April (PBMA period) exhibit a significant increasing trend at Jiuzhou and Yunjinghong sites, which are influenced by large-scale factors such as climate change and solar activity. ii) The interdecadal and interannual variations of annual mean, annual maximum, and wet period mean water levels at three sites show similar features during the dam construction period. iii) The interdecadal variations of PBMA period water level show a gradual increase at Gajiu and Yunjinghong sites but a falling trend at Jiuzhou; these trends confirm that there is some regulation on the flow in the dry season caused by the two existing dams. iv) The downstream effects of the present dams on water levels are very limited at the annual mean and wet season mean levels, not apparent at the monthly and yearly timescales, and relatively significant at daily and hourly timescales.

  12. Historical impact of water infrastructure on water levels of the Mekong River and the Tonle Sap System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Cochrane

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The rapid rate of water infrastructure development in the Mekong basin is a cause for concern due to its potential impact on fisheries and downstream natural ecosystems. In this paper we analyse the historical water levels of the Mekong River and Tonle Sap system by comparing pre and post 1991 daily observations from six stations along the Mekong mainstream from Chiang Sean (northern Laos, to Stung Treng (Cambodia, and the Prek Kdam station on the Tonle Sap River. Observed alterations in water level patterns along the Mekong are linked to temporal and spatial trends in water infrastructure development from 1960 to 2010. We argue that variations in historical climatic factors are important, but they are not the main cause of observed changes in key hydrological indicators related to ecosystem productivity. Our analysis shows that the development of mainstream dams in the upper Mekong basin in the post-1991 period have resulted in a significant increase of 7 day minimum (+91.6%, fall rates (+42%, and the number of water level fluctuations (+75 observed in Chiang Sean. This effect diminishes downstream until it becomes negligible at Mukdahan (northeast Thailand, which represents a drainage area of over 50% of the total Mekong Basin. Further downstream at Pakse (southern Laos, alterations to the number of fluctuations and rise rate became strongly significant after 1991. The observed alterations slowly decrease downstream, but modified rise rates, fall rates, and dry season water levels were still quantifiable and significant as far as Prek Kdam. This paper provides the first set of evidence of hydrological alterations in the Mekong beyond the Chinese dam cascade in the upper Mekong. Given the evident alterations with no precedence at Pakse and downstream, post-1991 changes can also be directly attributed to water infrastructure development in the Chi and Mun basins of Thailand. A reduction of 23 and 11% in the water raising and fall rates

  13. Response of littoral macrophytes to water level fluctuations in a storage reservoir

    OpenAIRE

    Krolová M.; Čížková H.; Hejzlar J.; Poláková S.

    2013-01-01

    Lakes and reservoirs that are used for water supply and/or flow regulations have usually poorly developed littoral macrophyte communities, which impairs ecological potential in terms of the EU Water Framework Directive. The aim of our study was to reveal controlling factors for the growth of littoral macrophytes in a storage reservoir with fluctuating water level (Lipno Reservoir, Czech Republic). Macrophytes occurred in this reservoir only in the eulittoral zone i.e., the shoreline region be...

  14. Response of littoral macrophytes to water level fluctuations in a storage reservoir

    OpenAIRE

    Krolová M.; Čížková H.; Hejzlar J.; Poláková S.

    2013-01-01

    Lakes and reservoirs that are used for water supply and/or flow regulations have usually poorly developed littoral macrophyte communities, which impairs ecological potential in terms of the EU Water Framework Directive. The aim of our study was to reveal controlling factors for the growth of littoral macrophytes in a storage reservoir with fluctuating water level (Lipno Reservoir, Czech Republic). Macrophytes occurred in this reservoir only in the eulittoral zone i.e., the shoreline region be...

  15. Prediction of Water-level Changes and Water Use in the High Plains Aquifer from Radar Precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittemore, D. O.; Butler, J. J., Jr.; Wilson, B. B.

    2015-12-01

    Meteorological conditions are the primary driver of variations in the annual volume of groundwater pumped for irrigation from the High Plains aquifer (HPA), one of the largest aquifers of the world. Correlations between climatic indices (such as the Standardized Precipitation Index [SPI]) and mean annual water-level changes and water use have been shown to be valuable tools for assessing the aquifer's response to various climatic scenarios in the semi-arid Kansas HPA (Whittemore et al., 2015). The correlations are generally better for a relatively large area (region) of the aquifer (such as that encompassed by a climatic division) because of the number of weather stations from which the climatic indices are computed. Correlations can be poor for county-sized and smaller areas (less than a few to several hundred km2) because of the low density of weather stations. Since 2005, radar precipitation data have been served online by the National Weather Service. The radar data are adjusted based on ground observations and are available at a spatial resolution of ~4x4 km. Correlations between radar precipitation and mean annual water-level changes and water use are comparable to those using SPI for the same region. Correlations using radar precipitation data are generally higher than with SPI computed for smaller areas, such as for counties and areas around individual monitoring wells. The optimum correlations for radar precipitation are determined using sums of different spans of monthly mean precipitation that include the irrigation season for the area of interest. Coefficients of determination, R2, for radar precipitation versus annual water-level change and water use can exceed 0.8 for counties and monitoring well areas in the Kansas HPA. These correlations are being used to assess the impact of drought and water-use management on HPA sustainability. These correlations can also be used to assess the quality of the reported water-use data.

  16. Estimating National-Level Exposure to Antineoplastic Agents in the Workplace: CAREX Canada Findings and Future Research Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Amy L; Demers, Paul A; Astrakianakis, George; Ge, Calvin; Peters, Cheryl E

    2017-07-01

    Occupational exposure to antineoplastic agents occurs in various environments and is associated with increased cancer risk and adverse reproductive outcomes. National-level information describing the location and extent of occupational exposure to antineoplastic agents is unavailable in Canada and most other countries. CAREX Canada aimed to estimate the prevalence and relative levels of occupational exposures to antineoplastic agents across work setting, occupation, and sex. 'Exposure' was defined as any potential for worker contact with antineoplastic agents. Baseline numbers of licensed workers were obtained from their respective professional bodies. For unlicensed workers, Census data or data extrapolated from human resources reports (e.g., staffing ratios) were used. Prevalence was estimated by combining population estimates with exposure proportions from peer-reviewed and grey literature. Exposure levels (classified as low, moderate, and high) by occupation and work setting were estimated qualitatively by combining estimates of contact frequency and exposure control practices. Approximately 75000 Canadians (0.42% of the total workforce) are estimated as occupationally exposed to antineoplastic agents; over 75% are female. The largest occupational group exposed to antineoplastic agents is community pharmacy workers, with 30200 exposed. By work setting, 39000 workers (52% of all exposed) are located in non-hospital settings; the remaining 48% are exposed in hospitals. The majority (75%) of workers are in the moderate exposure category. These estimates of the prevalence and location of occupational exposures to antineoplastic agents could be used to identify high-risk groups, estimate disease burden, and target new research and prevention activities. The limited secondary data available for developing these estimates highlights the need for increased quantitative measurement and documentation of antineoplastic agent contamination and exposure, particularly in

  17. Effects of Barometric Fluctuations on Well Water-Level Measurements and Aquifer Test Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FA Spane, Jr.

    1999-12-16

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, as part of the Hanford Groundwater Monitoring Project, examines the potential for offsite migration of contamination within underlying aquifer systems. Well water-level elevation measurements from selected wells within these aquifer systems commonly form the basis for delineating groundwater-flow patterns (i.e., flow direction and hydraulic gradient). In addition, the analysis of water-level responses obtained in wells during hydrologic tests provides estimates of hydraulic properties that are important for evaluating groundwater-flow velocity and transport characteristics. Barometric pressure fluctuations, however, can have a discernible impact on well water-level measurements. These barometric effects may lead to erroneous indications of hydraulic head within the aquifer. Total hydraulic head (i.e., sum of the water-table elevation and the atmospheric pressure at the water-table surface) within the aquifer, not well water-level elevation, is the hydrologic parameter for determining groundwater-flow direction and hydraulic gradient conditions. Temporal variations in barometric pressure may also adversely affect well water-level responses obtained during hydrologic tests. If significant, adjustments or removal of these barometric effects from the test-response record may be required for quantitative hydraulic property determination. This report examines the effects of barometric fluctuations on well water-level measurements and evaluates adjustment and removal methods for determining areal aquifer head conditions and aquifer test analysis. Two examples of Hanford Site unconfined aquifer tests are examined that demonstrate barometric response analysis and illustrate the predictive/removal capabilities of various methods for well water-level and aquifer total head values. Good predictive/removal characteristics were demonstrated with best corrective results provided by multiple-regression deconvolution methods.

  18. Analysis of environmental issues related to small-scale hydroelectric development. III. Water level fluctuation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hildebrand, S.G. (ed.)

    1980-10-01

    Potential environmental impacts in reservoirs and downstream river reaches below dams that may be caused by the water level fluctuation resulting from development and operation of small scale (under 25MW) hydroelectric projects are identified. The impacts discussed will be of potential concern at only those small-scale hydroelectric projects that are operated in a store and release (peaking) mode. Potential impacts on physical and chemical characteristics in reservoirs resulting from water level fluctuation include resuspension and redistribution of bank and bed sediment; leaching of soluble organic matter from sediment in the littoral zone; and changes in water quality resulting from changes in sediment and nutrient trap efficiency. Potential impacts on reservoir biota as a result of water level fluctuation include habitat destruction and the resulting partial or total loss of aquatic species; changes in habitat quality, which result in reduced standing crop and production of aquatic biota; and possible shifts in species diversity. The potential physical effects of water level fluctuation on downstream systems below dams are streambed and bank erosion and water quality problems related to resuspension and redistribution of these materials. Potential biological impacts of water level fluctuation on downstream systems below dams result from changes in current velocity, habitat reduction, and alteration in food supply. These alterations, either singly or in combination, can adversely affect aquatic populations below dams. The nature and potential significance of adverse impacts resulting from water level fluctuation are discussed. Recommendations for site-specific evaluation of water level fluctuation at small-scale hydroelectric projects are presented.

  19. Great Lakes Daily Ice Observations at NOAA Water Level Gauge Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains daily visual ice observations taken yearly from 1 November to 30 April at NOAA/National Ocean Service water level gauge sites in the Great...

  20. Potentiometric water-level altitude contours of Dixie Valley, west-central Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set contains the potentiometric water-level altitude contours representing the 2009 potentiometric surface of the basin fill groundwater system of Dixie...

  1. Relationship of Rainfall Distribution and Water Level on Major Flood 2014 in Pahang River Basin, Malaysia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nur Hishaam Sulaiman; Mohd Khairul Amri Kamarudin; Mohd Ekhwan Toriman; Hafizan Juahir; Frankie Marcus Ata; Azman Azid; Noor Jima Abd Wahab; Roslan Umar; Saiful iskandar Khalit; Mokhairi Makhtar; Amal Arfan; Uca Sideng

    2017-01-01

    .... This article discusses about the relationship of rainfall distribution and water level on major flood 2014 in Pahang River Basin, Malaysia in helping decision makers to flood management system...

  2. Relationships among gender, cognitive style, academic major, and performance on the Piaget water-level task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, R E; Hoffer, N; King, W L

    1995-06-01

    Many researchers have found that more college-age adults than would be expected fail Piaget's water-level task, with women failing more frequently than men. It has been hypothesized that differences in cognitive style may account for performance differences on the water-level task. In the present study, 27 male and 27 female architectural students and 27 male and 27 female liberal-arts students were assessed for their performance on both Piaget's Water-level Task and Witkin's Group Embedded Figures Test. No difference was found in performance of male and female architectural students on either task, but male liberal-arts students scored significantly higher than female liberal-arts students on both measures. A disembedding cognitive style predicted success on the water-level task for the architectural students but not for the liberal arts students.

  3. TIDESTATIONS - Pacific Northwest Water-Level Stations and Tidal Datum Distributions

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This geospatial data set depicts the locations of National Ocean Service water-level stations to determine tidal datum distributions with the Seaside, Oregon, region.

  4. Back-Analyses of Landfill Instability Induced by High Water Level: Case Study of Shenzhen Landfill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren Peng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In June 2008, the Shenzhen landfill slope failed. This case is used as an example to study the deformation characteristics and failure mode of a slope induced by high water levels. An integrated monitoring system, including water level gauges, electronic total stations, and inclinometers, was used to monitor the slope failure process. The field measurements suggest that the landfill landslide was caused by a deep slip along the weak interface of the composite liner system at the base of the landfill. The high water level is considered to be the main factor that caused this failure. To calculate the relative interface shear displacements in the geosynthetic multilayer liner system, a series of numerical direct shear tests were carried out. Based on the numerical results, the composite lining system simplified and the centrifuge modeling technique was used to quantitatively evaluate the effect of water levels on landfill instability.

  5. HIRDLS/Aura Level 3 Water Vapor (H2O) Zonal Fourier Coefficients V007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The "HIRDLS/Aura Level 3 Water Vapor (H2O) Zonal Fourier Coefficients" version 7 data product (H3ZFCH2O) contains the entire mission (~3 years) of HIRDLS data...

  6. An Environmental Chemistry Experiment: The Determination of Radon Levels in Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Lawrence E.; Mossman, Daniel M.

    1994-01-01

    Describes a radiation experiment developed to complement a new environmental chemistry laboratory curriculum. A scintillation counter is used to measure radon in water. The procedure relies on the fact that toluene will preferentially extract radon from water. Sample preparation is complete in less than 90 minutes. Because the level of…

  7. Impact of water level fluctuations on cyanobacterial blooms: Options for management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, E.S.; Hilt, S.

    2016-01-01

    Climate change can promote harmful cyanobacteria blooms in eutrophic waters through increased droughts or flooding. In this paper, we explore how water-level fluctuations affect the occurrence of cyanobacterial blooms, and based on the observations from case studies, we discuss the options and pitfa

  8. Data quality assurance in pressure transducer-based automatic water level monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Submersible pressure transducers integrated with data loggers have become relatively common water-level measuring devices used in flow or well water elevation measurements. However, drift, linearity, hysteresis and other problems can lead to erroneous data. Researchers at the USDA-ARS in Watkinsvill...

  9. 1:750,000-scale static ground-water levels of Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of static ground-water levels for the State of Nevada based on a 1974 ground-water map (Rush, 1974) published by the Nevada Department of...

  10. Modified atmosphere packaging for prevention of mold spoilage of bakery products with different pH and water activity levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guynot, M E; Marín, S; Sanchis, V; Ramos, A J

    2003-10-01

    A sponge cake analog was used to study the influence of pH, water activity (aw), and carbon dioxide (CO2) levels on the growth of seven fungal species commonly causing bakery product spoilage (Eurotium amstelodami, Eurotium herbariorum, Eurotium repens, Eurotium rubrum, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, and Penicillium corylophilum). A full factorial design was used. Water activity, CO2, and their interaction were the main factors significantly affecting fungal growth. Water activity at levels of 0.80 to 0.90 had a significant influence on fungal growth and determined the concentration of CO2 needed to prevent cake analog spoilage. At an aw level of 0.85, lag phases increased twofold when the level of CO2 in the headspace increased from 0 to 70%. In general, no fungal growth was observed for up to 28 days of incubation at 25 degrees C when samples were packaged with 100% CO2, regardless of the aw level. Partial least squares projection to latent structures regression was used to build a polynomial model to predict sponge cake shelf life on the basis of the lag phases of all seven species tested. The model developed explained quite well (R2 = 79%) the growth of almost all species, which responded similarly to changes in tested factors. The results of this study emphasize the importance of combining several hurdles, such as modified atmosphere packaging, aw, and pH, that have synergistic or additive effects on the inhibition of mold growth.

  11. Changes in Blood Lead Levels Associated with Use of Chloramines in Water Treatment Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Marie Lynn; Kim, Dohyeong; Hull, Andrew P.; Paul, Christopher J.; Galeano, M. Alicia Overstreet

    2007-01-01

    Background More municipal water treatment plants are using chloramines as a disinfectant in order to reduce carcinogenic by-products. In some instances, this has coincided with an increase in lead levels in drinking water in those systems. Lead in drinking water can be a significant health risk. Objectives We sought to test the potential effect of switching to chloramines for disinfection in water treatment systems on childhood blood lead levels using data from Wayne County, located in the central Coastal Plain of North Carolina. Methods We constructed a unified geographic information system (GIS) that links blood lead screening data with age of housing, drinking water source, and census data for 7,270 records. The data were analyzed using both exploratory methods and more formal multivariate techniques. Results The analysis indicates that the change to chloramine disinfection may lead to an increase in blood lead levels, the impact of which is progressively mitigated in newer housing. Conclusions Introducing chloramines to reduce carcinogenic by-products may increase exposure to lead in drinking water. Our research provides guidance on adjustments in the local childhood lead poisoning prevention program that should accompany changes in water treatment. As similar research is conducted in other areas, and the underlying environmental chemistry is clarified, water treatment strategies can be optimized across the multiple objectives that municipalities face in providing high quality drinking water to local residents. PMID:17384768

  12. Factors Influencing the Iterative Accuracy of Ground Water Level in Forecasting the Water Burst of Deep Drawdown Mines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李铎; 杨小荟; 武强; 张志忠

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the influential factors of iteration accuracy when we use iteration to determine the numerical model for predicting water yield of deep drawdown mines and calculating the groundwater level. The relationship among the calculation error of groundwater level, the pumping rate, the limit of iteration convergence error, the calculation time, and the aquifer parameters were discussed by using an ideal model. Finally, the water yield of Dianzi iron mine was predicted using the testified numerical model. It is indicated that the calculation error of groundwater level is related to the limit of iteration convergence error, the calculation time and the aquifer parameters, but not to the pumping rate and the variation of groundwater level.

  13. Groundwater Flow Systems and Their Response to Climate Change: A Need for a Water-System View Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel J. Carrillo-Rivera

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The interest in early hydrogeological studies was the aquifer unit, as it is the physical media that stores and permits groundwater transfers from the recharge zone to the discharge zone, making groundwater available to boreholes for water extraction. Approach: Recently, the aquifer concept has been complemented by the groundwater flow system theory, where groundwater may be defined by local, intermediate and regional flow systems. This implies that groundwater may travel from one aquifer unit to another aquifer unit (or more located above or below the former. Water in a local flow system takes months or several years to travel from the recharge to the discharge zone. These flows usually transfer the best natural quality water, so a reduction in precipitation would lessen recharge and diminish stored water, making them more vulnerable to contamination and variability in climatic conditions. Thus, there is a need to define local flows and to enhance actions to protect them from contamination and inefficient extraction. Results: In contrast to local flows, intermediate and regional flows travel from a region, or country, into another, with their recharge processes usually taking place in a zone located far away from the discharge zone (natural or by boreholes. There is a need of groundwater flow systems evaluation by means of an integrated wide system-view analysis of partial evidence represented by surface (soil and vegetation covers as well as hydraulic, isotopic and chemical groundwater characterization in the related geological media where the depth of actual basement rock is paramount as well as discharge areas. The flow system definition may assist in extraction management strategies to control related issues as subsidence, obtained the water quality change, desiccation of springs and water bodies, soil erosion, flooding response, contamination processes in recharge areas, among others; many of which could be efficiently

  14. Statistical analysis and mapping of water levels in the Biscayne aquifer, water conservation areas, and Everglades National Park, Miami-Dade County, Florida, 2000–2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinos, Scott T.; Dixon, Joann F.

    2016-02-25

    Statistical analyses and maps representing mean, high, and low water-level conditions in the surface water and groundwater of Miami-Dade County were made by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Miami-Dade County Department of Regulatory and Economic Resources, to help inform decisions necessary for urban planning and development. Sixteen maps were created that show contours of (1) the mean of daily water levels at each site during October and May for the 2000–2009 water years; (2) the 25th, 50th, and 75th percentiles of the daily water levels at each site during October and May and for all months during 2000–2009; and (3) the differences between mean October and May water levels, as well as the differences in the percentiles of water levels for all months, between 1990–1999 and 2000–2009. The 80th, 90th, and 96th percentiles of the annual maximums of daily groundwater levels during 1974–2009 (a 35-year period) were computed to provide an indication of unusually high groundwater-level conditions. These maps and statistics provide a generalized understanding of the variations of water levels in the aquifer, rather than a survey of concurrent water levels. Water-level measurements from 473 sites in Miami-Dade County and surrounding counties were analyzed to generate statistical analyses. The monitored water levels included surface-water levels in canals and wetland areas and groundwater levels in the Biscayne aquifer.

  15. Water level-dependent morphological plasticity in Sagittaria montevidensis Cham. and Schl. (Alismataceae).

    OpenAIRE

    GR Demetrio; MEA Barbosa; FF Coelho

    2014-01-01

    Aquatic plants are able to alter their morphology in response to environmental condition variation, such as water level fluctuations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of water level on Sagittaria montevidensis morphology through measures of vegetative structures formed in drought and flood periods. We hypothesised that the plant height and the biomass of S. montevidensis leaves will increase during flood periods, while the biomass and diameter of petioles, and the basal plant ...

  16. Most oxidative stress response in water samples comes from unknown chemicals: the need for effect-based water quality trigger values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escher, Beate I; van Daele, Charlotte; Dutt, Mriga; Tang, Janet Y M; Altenburger, Rolf

    2013-07-02

    The induction of adaptive stress response pathways is an early and sensitive indicator of the presence of chemical and non-chemical stressors in cells. An important stress response is the Nrf-2 mediated oxidative stress response pathway where electrophilic chemicals or chemicals that cause the formation of reactive oxygen species initiate the production of antioxidants and metabolic detoxification enzymes. The AREc32 cell line is sensitive to chemicals inducing oxidative stress and has been previously applied for water quality monitoring of organic micropollutants and disinfection byproducts. Here we propose an algorithm for the derivation of effect-based water quality trigger values for this end point that is based on the combined effects of mixtures of regulated chemicals. Mixture experiments agreed with predictions by the mixture toxicity concept of concentration addition. The responses in the AREc32 and the concentrations of 269 individual chemicals were quantified in nine environmental samples, ranging from treated effluent, recycled water, stormwater to drinking water. The effects of the detected chemicals could explain less than 0.1% of the observed induction of the oxidative stress response in the sample, affirming the need to use effect-based trigger values that account for all chemicals present.

  17. Linking levels of societal and ecosystems metabolism of water in a Mediterranean watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello, V.

    2014-12-01

    Water resources degradation is a complex environmental problem that involves multiple dimensions and scales of analysis. The Socio-Ecological Systems Water Metabolism has been proposed as a general holistic framework to deal with integrated analysis of water use sustainability (Madrid and Giampietro 2014). The innovation of the approach is that it sets the research focus beyond the classical supply-demand modeling to societal integrity and ecosystems integrity. To do so, it integrates quantitative grammars of water use (relating water exchange to societal and ecosystems organization) and qualitative methods (discourse analysis). This work presents the first case study focused at a river basin extent: the Upper Andarax, in South-East Spain. Water metabolism is indicated at multiple levels for ecosystems and society. To deal with the interfaces among them, relational indicators of water exploitation, water use and impact over ecosystems are used alongside policies and narratives analysis.While being a rather not intensively exploited river basin (year Water Exploitation Index~0.3 blue water,~0.15 green water), impacts over water bodies are yet important (periodic aquifer overdraft, biological degradation of the river) especially during dry season. Perceived mayor problems of water sustainability are generated by the not integration of different policies at European, national and regional scales: while the water authority establishes a compulsory reduction over water withdrawal to attend environmental flows, agricultural markets force to raise productivity increasing water demands. Adaptation strategies are divided among irrigation efficiency improvement and a reorientation of the economy towards touristic activities. Both of them entail specific trade-offs to be deemed. Aquifer-river interactions and climate change impacts are yet mayor research challenges.

  18. Maps showing ground-water levels, springs, and depth to ground water, Basin and Range Province, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, B.T.; Bedinger, M.S.; Mulvihill, D.A.; Mikels, John; Langer, W.H.

    1984-01-01

    This report on ground-water levels, springs, and depth to ground water in the Basin and Range province of Texas (see index map) was prepared as part of a program of the U.S. Geological Survey to identify prospective regions for further study relative to isolation of high-level nuclear waste (Bedinger, Sargent, and Reed, 1984), utilizing program guidelines defined in Sargent and Bedinger (1984). Also included in this report are selected references on pertinent geologic and hydrologic studies of the region. Other map reports in this series contain detailed data on ground-water quality, surface distribution of selected rock types, tectonic conditions, areal geophysics, Pleistocene lakes and marshes, and mineral and energy resources.

  19. Quantification of Libby Reservoir Levels Needed to Maintain or Enhance Reservoir Fisheries, 1983-1987 Methods and Data Summary.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chisholm, Ian

    1989-12-01

    Libby Reservoir was created under an International Columbia River Treaty between the United States and Canada for cooperative water development of the Columbia River Basin. The authorized purpose of the dam is to provide power, flood control, and navigation and other benefits. Research began in May 1983 to determine how operations of Libby dam impact the reservoir fishery and to suggest ways to lessen these impacts. This study is unique in that it was designed to accomplish its goal through detailed information gathering on every trophic level in the reservoir system and integration of this information into a quantitative computer model. The specific study objectives are to: quantify available reservoir habitat, determine abundance, growth and distribution of fish within the reservoir and potential recruitment of salmonids from Libby Reservoir tributaries within the United States, determine abundance and availability of food organisms for fish in the reservoir, quantify fish use of available food items, develop relationships between reservoir drawdown and reservoir habitat for fish and fish food organisms, and estimate impacts of reservoir operation on the reservoir fishery. 115 refs., 22 figs., 51 tabs.

  20. Water level response in back-barrier bays unchanged following Hurricane Sandy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aretxabaleta, Alfredo L.; Butman, Bradford; Ganju, Neil K.

    2014-01-01

    On 28–30 October 2012, Hurricane Sandy caused severe flooding along portions of the northeast coast of the United States and cut new inlets across barrier islands in New Jersey and New York. About 30% of the 20 highest daily maximum water levels observed between 2007 and 2013 in Barnegat and Great South Bay occurred in 5 months following Hurricane Sandy. Hurricane Sandy provided a rare opportunity to determine whether extreme events alter systems protected by barrier islands, leaving the mainland more vulnerable to flooding. Comparisons between water levels before and after Hurricane Sandy at bay stations and an offshore station show no significant differences in the transfer of sea level fluctuations from offshore to either bay following Sandy. The post-Hurricane Sandy bay high water levels reflected offshore sea levels caused by winter storms, not by barrier island breaching or geomorphic changes within the bays.

  1. Hydrological drivers of record-setting water level rise on Earth's largest lake system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronewold, A. D.; Bruxer, J.; Durnford, D.; Smith, J. P.; Clites, A. H.; Seglenieks, F.; Qian, S. S.; Hunter, T. S.; Fortin, V.

    2016-05-01

    Between January 2013 and December 2014, water levels on Lake Superior and Lake Michigan-Huron, the two largest lakes on Earth by surface area, rose at the highest rate ever recorded for a 2 year period beginning in January and ending in December of the following year. This historic event coincided with below-average air temperatures and extensive winter ice cover across the Great Lakes. It also brought an end to a 15 year period of persistently below-average water levels on Lakes Superior and Michigan-Huron that included several months of record-low water levels. To differentiate hydrological drivers behind the recent water level rise, we developed a Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) routine for inferring historical estimates of the major components of each lake's water budget. Our results indicate that, in 2013, the water level rise on Lake Superior was driven by increased spring runoff and over-lake precipitation. In 2014, reduced over-lake evaporation played a more significant role in Lake Superior's water level rise. The water level rise on Lake Michigan-Huron in 2013 was also due to above-average spring runoff and persistent over-lake precipitation, while in 2014, it was due to a rare combination of below-average evaporation, above-average runoff and precipitation, and very high inflow rates from Lake Superior through the St. Marys River. We expect, in future research, to apply our new framework across the other Laurentian Great Lakes, and to Earth's other large freshwater basins as well.

  2. Determinants of Use of Household-level Water Chlorination Products in Rural Kenya, 2003–2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy E. DuBois

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Household-level water treatment products provide safe drinking water to at-risk populations, but relatively few people use them regularly; little is known about factors that influence uptake of this proven health intervention. We assessed uptake of these water treatments in Nyanza Province, Kenya, November 2003–February 2005. We interviewed users and non-user controls of a new household water treatment product regarding drinking water and socioeconomic factors. We calculated regional use-prevalence of these products based on 10 randomly selected villages in the Asembo region of Nyanza Province, Kenya. Thirty-eight percent of respondents reported ever using household-level treatment products. Initial use of a household-level product was associated with having turbid water as a source (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 16.6, p = 0.007, but consistent usage was more common for a less costly and more accessible product that did not address turbidity. A combination of social marketing, retail marketing, and donor subsidies may be necessary to extend the health benefits of household-level water treatment to populations most at risk.

  3. Response of littoral macrophytes to water level fluctuations in a storage reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krolová M.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Lakes and reservoirs that are used for water supply and/or flow regulations have usually poorly developed littoral macrophyte communities, which impairs ecological potential in terms of the EU Water Framework Directive. The aim of our study was to reveal controlling factors for the growth of littoral macrophytes in a storage reservoir with fluctuating water level (Lipno Reservoir, Czech Republic. Macrophytes occurred in this reservoir only in the eulittoral zone i.e., the shoreline region between the highest and the lowest seasonal water levels. Three eulittoral sub-zones could be distinguished: the upper eulittoral with a stable community of perennial species with high cover, the middle eulittoral with relatively high richness of emergent and amphibious species present at low cover values, and the lower eulittoral devoid of permanent vegetation. Cover and species composition in particular sub-zones were primarily influenced by the duration and timing of flooding, followed by nutrient limitation and strongly reducing conditions in the flooded organic sediment. Our results stress the ecological importance of eulittoral zone in reservoirs with fluctuating water levels where macrophyte growth can be supported by targeted management of water level, thus helping reservoir managers in improving the ecological potential of this type of water bodies.

  4. The effect of applying different water levels and irrigation frequencies in propagating rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Giovanni Álvarez Herrera

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Rosemary seedlings are obtained by vegetative propagation because the seeds present low viability. Despite being an expanding crop, there is little information on water consumption during the propagation stage. Water levels and irrigation frequencies were therefore applied using a completely randomised design having a 4 x 2 factorial arrangement. The first factor concerned irrigation frequency (4 and 8 days and the second concerned water level (0.6, 0.8, 1.0 and 1.2 evaporation inside the greenhouse. A 1.0 coefficient combined with 4-day irrigation frequency presented the best results regarding height (39.3 cm, fresh weight, dry weight and branch length (146 cm. Water level affected the fresh and dry weight of leaves regardless of frequency. Relative water content in leaves did not present differences due to environmental conditions minimising treatment effect. Rooting percent- tage showed no significant differences regarding irrigation frequency or water level. Irrigation frequency did not affect rosemary growing pattern because sphagnum retains high moisture content. The best branch number (34 was obtained with 1.0 coefficient and 4-day frequency, this being important from the production point of view because this is the material which is sold. Water management changes photoassimilate distribution in rosemary plants.

  5. Correlation between lead levels in drinking water and mothers' breast milk: Dakahlia, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandour, Raafat A; Ghanem, Abdel-Aziz; El-Azab, Somaia M

    2013-04-01

    This study was performed on fifty-two drinking tap water samples (surface and groundwater) collected from different districts of Dakahlia Governorate and fifty-two breast milk samples from lactating mothers hosted in Dakahlia Governorate hospitals. All these samples were subjected to lead analysis. Lead level in drinking groundwater showed higher levels than in drinking surface water. Also, an elevation of lead levels in breast milk of mothers drinking groundwater was noticed when compared with that of mothers drinking surface water. The comparison between mean lead levels in drinking water and mothers' breast milk samples showed positive relationship. Lead concentrations in breast milk of the studied samples were elevated by exposure to smoking. We conclude that prolonged contact with lead plumbing can increase the lead content in tap water with subsequent increase in lead burden in infant fed formula and infant blood. Also, we recommend that chemical analyses must be carried out periodically for the surface and groundwater to ensure the water suitability for drinking purposes. Passive exposure to smoking during lactation should be avoided. Capsule: Prolonged contact with lead plumbing can increase the lead content in tap water with subsequent increase in lead burden in infant fed formula and infant blood.

  6. Bone densitometry and calcium serum levels in chickens treated with filtered or unfiltered water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Amoroso

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the drinking water of the School of Agricultural and Veterinary Sciences, UNESP, Jaboticabal, Brazil, affected bone mineral density and serum calcium levels of 14-, 21-, and 45-day-old broilers. Bone mineral density (BMD of the tibiae was assessed using optical densitometry radiographic technique and serum calcium levels. Tibial BMD increased as broilers aged, and achieved its peak at 45 days of age. It was higher in the distal epiphysis of the birds that ingested filtered water (p<0.05 compared with those supplied with unfiltered water. Therefore, it is concluded that filtered water promoted better bone quality in relative to those ingested unfiltered water.

  7. Does drinking water influence hospital-admitted sialolithiasis on an epidemiological level in Denmark?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Stine; Homøe, Preben; Wagner, Niels;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Sialolithiasis, or salivary stones, is not a rare disease of the major salivary glands. However, the aetiology and incidence remain largely unknown. Since sialoliths are comprised mainly of calcium phosphate salts, we hypothesise that drinking water calcium levels and other elements...... and drinking water data from the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland retrieved as weighted data on all major drinking water constituents for each of the 3364 waterworks in Denmark. All patient cases with International Statistical Classification of Diseases 10th Revision (ICD-10) codes for sialolithiasis...... registered between the years 2000 and 2010 were included in the study (n=3014) and related to the drinking water composition on a municipality level (n=98). PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Multiple regression analysis using iterative search and testing among all demographic and drinking water...

  8. Improving the Predictability of Severe Water Levels along the Coasts of Marginal Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridder, N. N.; de Vries, H.; van den Brink, H.; De Vries, H.

    2016-12-01

    Extreme water levels can lead to catastrophic consequences with severe societal and economic repercussions. Particularly vulnerable are countries that are largely situated below sea level. To support and optimize forecast models, as well as future adaptation efforts, this study assesses the modeled contribution of storm surges and astronomical tides to total water levels under different air-sea momentum transfer parameterizations in a numerical surge model (WAQUA/DCSMv5) of the North Sea. It particularly focuses on the implications for the representation of extreme and rapidly recurring severe water levels over the past decades based on the example of the Netherlands. For this, WAQUA/DCSMv5, which is currently used to forecast coastal water levels in the Netherlands, is forced with ERA Interim reanalysis data. Model results are obtained from two different methodologies to parameterize air-sea momentum transfer. The first calculates the governing wind stress forcing using a drag coefficient derived from the conventional approach of wind speed dependent Charnock constants. The other uses instantaneous wind stress from the parameterization of the quasi-linear theory applied within the ECMWF wave model which is expected to deliver a more realistic forcing. The performance of both methods is tested by validating the model output with observations, paying particular attention to their ability to reproduce rapidly succeeding high water levels and extreme events. In a second step, the common features of and connections between these events are analyzed. The results of this study will allow recommendations for the improvement of water level forecasts within marginal seas and support decisions by policy makers. Furthermore, they will strengthen the general understanding of severe and extreme water levels as a whole and help to extend the currently limited knowledge about clustering events.

  9. Combined effects of projected sea level rise, storm surge, and peak river flows on water levels in the Skagit Floodplain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamman, Josheph J; Hamlet, Alan F.; Fuller, Roger; Grossman, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Current understanding of the combined effects of sea level rise (SLR), storm surge, and changes in river flooding on near-coastal environments is very limited. This project uses a suite of numerical models to examine the combined effects of projected future climate change on flooding in the Skagit floodplain and estuary. Statistically and dynamically downscaled global climate model scenarios from the ECHAM-5 GCM were used as the climate forcings. Unregulated daily river flows were simulated using the VIC hydrology model, and regulated river flows were simulated using the SkagitSim reservoir operations model. Daily tidal anomalies (TA) were calculated using a regression approach based on ENSO and atmospheric pressure forcing simulated by the WRF regional climate model. A 2-D hydrodynamic model was used to estimate water surface elevations in the Skagit floodplain using resampled hourly hydrographs keyed to regulated daily flood flows produced by the reservoir simulation model, and tide predictions adjusted for SLR and TA. Combining peak annual TA with projected sea level rise, the historical (1970–1999) 100-yr peak high water level is exceeded essentially every year by the 2050s. The combination of projected sea level rise and larger floods by the 2080s yields both increased flood inundation area (+ 74%), and increased average water depth (+ 25 cm) in the Skagit floodplain during a 100-year flood. Adding sea level rise to the historical FEMA 100-year flood resulted in a 35% increase in inundation area by the 2040's, compared to a 57% increase when both SLR and projected changes in river flow were combined.

  10. Impact of birth rate, seasonality and transmission rate on minimum levels of coverage needed for rubella vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalf, C J E; Lessler, J; Klepac, P; Cutts, F; Grenfell, B T

    2012-12-01

    Childhood rubella infection in early pregnancy can lead to fetal death or congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) with multiple disabilities. Reduction of transmission via universal vaccination can prevent CRS, but inadequate coverage may increase CRS numbers by increasing the average age at infection. Consequently, many countries do not vaccinate against rubella. The World Health Organization recommends that for safe rubella vaccination, at least 80% coverage of each birth cohort should be sustained. The nonlinear relationship between CRS burden and infection dynamics has been much studied; however, how the complex interaction between epidemic and demographic dynamics affects minimum safe levels of coverage has not been quantitatively evaluated across scales necessary for a global assessment. We modelled 30-year CRS burdens across epidemiological and demographic settings, including the effect of local interruption of transmission via stochastic fadeout. Necessary minimum vaccination coverage increases markedly with birth and transmission rates, independent of amplitude of seasonal fluctuations in transmission. Susceptible build-up in older age groups following local stochastic extinction of rubella increased CRS burden, indicating that spatial context is important. In low birth-rate settings, 80% routine coverage is a conservative guideline, particularly if supplemented with campaigns and vaccination of women of childbearing age. Where birth and transmission rates are high, immunization coverage must be well above 80% and campaigns may be needed. Policy-makers should be aware of the potential negative effect of local extinction of rubella, since heterogeneity in vaccination coverage will shape extinction patterns, potentially increasing CRS burdens.

  11. Identifying of ground water level by using geoelectric method in Karanganyar, Central Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koesuma, S.; Sulastoro

    2016-11-01

    This study aims to determine ground water level in Karanganyar regency, Central Java Province, Indonesia. Karanganyar regency is located in west flank of Lawu volcano, the third highest volcano in Central Java Province. Karanganyar lays from the top submit of Lawu volcano to down town of city with altitude 3265 m to 88 m. Same as other mountain area, Karanganyar has a lot of ground water potential. We use geoelectric method to finds out how deep of ground water level. The survey locations are distributed surround Karanganyar regency which contain 22 sites, in period survey of 2013 - 2015. Schlumberger configuration is used for acqusition data with lenght of current electrode distance varies from 1 m to 700 m. The result shows that ground water level are located in depth from 50 meter to 150 meter with lithology of tuff and sand. In Munggur and Kedung Jeruk sites, we found two potential aquifers, which are shallow and deep aquifers.

  12. Molecular Tools for the Selective Detection of Nine Diatom Species Biomarkers of Various Water Quality Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Cimarelli

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Our understanding of the composition of diatom communities and their response to environmental changes is currently limited by laborious taxonomic identification procedures. Advances in molecular technologies are expected to contribute more efficient, robust and sensitive tools for the detection of these ecologically relevant microorganisms. There is a need to explore and test phylogenetic markers as an alternative to the use of rRNA genes, whose limited sequence divergence does not allow the accurate discrimination of diatoms at the species level. In this work, nine diatom species belonging to eight genera, isolated from epylithic environmental samples collected in central Italy, were chosen to implement a panel of diatoms covering the full range of ecological status of freshwaters. The procedure described in this work relies on the PCR amplification of specific regions in two conserved diatom genes, elongation factor 1-a (eEF1-a and silicic acid transporter (SIT, as a first step to narrow down the complexity of the targets, followed by microarray hybridization experiments. Oligonucleotide probes with the potential to discriminate closely related species were designed taking into account the genetic polymorphisms found in target genes. These probes were tested, refined and validated on a small-scale prototype DNA chip. Overall, we obtained 17 highly specific probes targeting eEF1-a and SIT, along with 19 probes having lower discriminatory power recognizing at the same time two or three species. This basic array was validated in a laboratory setting and is ready for tests with crude environmental samples eventually to be scaled-up to include a larger panel of diatoms. Its possible use for the simultaneous detection of diatoms selected from the classes of water quality identified by the European Water Framework Directive is discussed.

  13. Diffuse radiation increases global ecosystem-level water-use efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffat, A. M.; Reichstein, M.; Cescatti, A.; Knohl, A.; Zaehle, S.

    2012-12-01

    Current environmental changes lead not only to rising atmospheric CO2 levels and air temperature but also to changes in air pollution and thus the light quality of the solar radiation reaching the land-surface. While rising CO2 levels are thought to enhance photosynthesis and closure of stomata, thus leading to relative water savings, the effect of diffuse radiation on transpiration by plants is less clear. It has been speculated that the stimulation of photosynthesis by increased levels of diffuse light may be counteracted by higher transpiration and consequently water depletion and drought stress. Ultimately, in water co-limited systems, the overall effect of diffuse radiation will depend on the sensitivity of canopy transpiration versus photosynthesis to diffuse light, i.e. whether water-use efficiency changes with relative levels of diffuse light. Our study shows that water-use efficiency increases significantly with higher fractions of diffuse light. It uses the ecosystem-atmosphere gas-exchange observations obtained with the eddy covariance method at 29 flux tower sites. In contrast to previous global studies, the analysis is based directly on measurements of diffuse radiation. Its effect on water-use efficiency was derived by analyzing the multivariate response of carbon and water fluxes to radiation and air humidity using a purely empirical approach based on artificial neural networks. We infer that per unit change of diffuse fraction the water-use efficiency increases up to 40% depending on diffuse fraction levels and ecosystem type. Hence, in regions with increasing diffuse radiation positive effects on primary production are expected even under conditions where water is co-limiting productivity.

  14. Changes in water manganese levels and longitudinal assessment of intellectual function in children exposed through drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dion, Laurie-Anne; Saint-Amour, Dave; Sauvé, Sébastien; Barbeau, Benoit; Mergler, Donna; Bouchard, Maryse F

    2017-09-16

    Manganese is commonly found in water but potential neurotoxic effects from exposure through drinking water are poorly understood. We previously reported a cross-sectional study showing that drinking water Mn concentration was associated with lower IQ in children aged 6 to 13 years. For this follow-up study, we aimed to re-assess the relation between exposure to Mn from drinking water and IQ at adolescence. In addition, we aimed to examine whether changes in drinking water Mn concentration was associated with changes in IQ scores. From the 380 children enrolled in the baseline study, 287 participated to this follow-up study conducted in average 4.4 years after. Mn concentration was measured in home tap water and children's hair. The relationships between these Mn exposure indicators and IQ scores (Weschsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence) at follow-up were assessed with linear regression analysis, adjusting for potential confounders. Intra-individual differences in IQ scores between the two examinations were compared for children whose Mn concentration in water remained stable between examinations, increased or decreased. The mean age at follow-up was 13.7 years (range, 10.5 to 18.0 years). Geometric mean of Mn concentration in water at follow-up was 14.5μg/L. Higher Mn concentration in water measured at follow-up was associated with lower Performance IQ in girls (β for a 10-fold increase=-2.8, 95% confidence intervals [CI] -4.8 to -0.8) and higher Performance IQ in boys (β=3.9, 95% CI 1.4 to 6.4). IQ scores were not significantly associated with Mn concentration in hair, although similar trends as for concentration in water were observed. For children whose Mn concentration in water increased between baseline and follow-up, Performance IQ scores decreased significantly (intra-individual difference, -2.4 points). Higher levels of Mn in drinking water were associated with lower Performance IQ in girls, whereas the opposite was observed in boys. These findings

  15. Long-term trends in field level irrigation water demand in Mahanadi delta districts - a hydrological modeling approach for coping with climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju Pokkuluri, Venkat; Rao, Diwakar Parsi Guru; Hazra, Sugata; Srikant Kulkarni, Sunil

    2017-04-01

    India uses its 85 percent of available water resources for irrigation making it the country with largest net irrigated area in the world. With one of the largest delta plains, sustaining the needs of irrigation supplies is critical for food security and coping with challenges of climate change. The extensive development of upstream river basins/catchments is posing serious challenge and constrains to the water availability to delta regions, which depend on the controlled/regulated flows from the upstream catchments. The irrigation water demands vary due to changes in agricultural practices, cropping pattern and changing climate conditions. Estimation of realistic irrigation water demand and its trend over time is critical for meeting the supplementary water needs of productive agricultural lands in delta plains and there by coping the challenges of extensive upstream river basin development and climate change. The present study carried out in delta districts of Mahanadi river in Odisha State of India, wherein the long-term trends in field level irrigation water requirements were estimated, both on spatial & temporal scales, using hydrological modeling framework. This study attempts to estimate field level irrigation water requirements through simulation of soil water balance during the crop growing season through process based hydrological modeling framework. The soil water balance computations were carried out using FAO-56 framework, by modifying the crop coefficient (Kc) proportional to the water stress coefficient (Ks), which is a function of root zone depletion of water. Daily meteorological data, spatial cropping pattern, terrain are incorporated in the soil water balance simulation in the model. The irrigation water demand is derived considering the exclusion of soil water stress for each model time step. The field level irrigation water requirement at 8 day interval had been estimated for the each Rabi season (post-monsoon) spanning over 1986 to 2015. The

  16. Moderate wetting and drying increases rice yield and reduces water use, grain arsenic level, and methane emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianchang Yang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available To meet the major challenge of increasing rice production to feed a growing population under increasing water scarcity, many water-saving regimes have been introduced in irrigated rice, such as an aerobic rice system, non-flooded mulching cultivation, and alternate wetting and drying (AWD. These regimes could substantially enhance water use efficiency (WUE by reducing irrigation water. However, such enhancements greatly compromise grain yield. Recent work has shown that moderate AWD, in which photosynthesis is not severely inhibited and plants can rehydrate overnight during the soil drying period, or plants are rewatered at a soil water potential of −10 to −15 kPa, or midday leaf potential is approximately −0.60 to −0.80 MPa, or the water table is maintained at 10 to 15 cm below the soil surface, could increase not only WUE but also grain yield. Increases in grain yield WUE under moderate AWD are due mainly to reduced redundant vegetative growth; improved canopy structure and root growth; elevated hormonal levels, in particular increases in abscisic acid levels during soil drying and cytokinin levels during rewatering; and enhanced carbon remobilization from vegetative tissues to grain. Moderate AWD could also improve rice quality, including reductions in grain arsenic accumulation, and reduce methane emissions from paddies. Adoption of moderate AWD with an appropriate nitrogen application rate may exert a synergistic effect on grain yield and result in higher WUE and nitrogen use efficiency. Further research is needed to understand root–soil interaction and evaluate the long-term effects of moderate AWD on sustainable agriculture.

  17. Characterising Bedrock Aquifer Systems in Korea Using Paired Water-Level Monitoring Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Min Lee

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on characterising aquifer systems based on water-level changes observed systematically at 159 paired groundwater monitoring wells throughout Korea. Using spectral analysis, principal component analysis (PCA, and cross-correlation analysis with linear regression, aquifer conditions were identified from the comparison of water-level changes in shallow alluvial and deep bedrock monitoring wells. The spectral analysis could identify the aquifer conditions (i.e., unconfined, semi-confined and confined of 58.5% of bedrock wells and 42.8% of alluvial wells: 93 and 68 wells out of 159 wells, respectively. Even among the bedrock wells, 50 wells (53.7% exhibited characteristics of the unconfined condition, implying significant vulnerability of the aquifer to contaminants from the land surface and shallow depths. It appears to be better approach for deep bedrock aquifers than shallow alluvial aquifers. However, significant portions of the water-level changes remained unclear for categorising aquifer conditions due to disturbances in data continuity. For different aquifer conditions, PCA could show typical pattern and factor scores of principal components. Principal component 1 due to wet-and-dry seasonal changes and water-level response time was dominant covering about 55% of total variances of each aquifer conditions, implying the usefulness of supplementary method of aquifer characterisation. Cross-correlation and time-lag analysis in the water-level responses to precipitations clearly show how the water levels in shallow and deep wells correspond in time scale. No significant differences in time-lags was found between shallow and deep wells. However, clear time-lags were found to be increasing from unconfined to confined conditions: from 1.47 to 2.75 days and from 1.78 to 2.75 days for both shallow alluvial and deep bedrock wells, respectively. In combination of various statistical methods, three types of water-level fluctuation

  18. Extreme value analysis of annual maximum water levels in the Pearl River Delta, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiang ZHANG; Chong-Yu XU; Yongqin David CHEN; Chun-ling LIU

    2009-01-01

    We analyzed the statistical properties of water level extremes in the Pearl River Delta using five probability distribution functions. Estimation of para-meters was performed using the L-moment technique.Goodness-of-fit was done based on Kolmogorov-Smirnov's statistic D (K-S D). The research results indicate that Wakeby distribution is the best statistical model for description of statistical behaviors of water level extremes in the study region. Statistical analysis indicates that water levels corresponding to different return periods and associated variability tend to be larger in the landward side of the Pearl River Delta and vice versa. A ridge characterized by higher water level can be identified expanding along the West River and the Modaomen channel, showing the impacts of the hydrologic process of the West River basin. Trough and higher grades of water level changes can be detected in the region drained by Xi'nanyong channel, Dongping channel, and mainstream of Pearl River. The Pearl River Delta region is character-ized by low-lying topography and a highly-advanced socio-economy, and is heavily populated, being prone to flood hazards and flood inundation due to rising sea level and typhoons. Therefore, sound and effective counter-measures should be made for human mitigation to natural hazards such as floods and typhoons.

  19. Water level and strain changes preceding and following the August 4, 1985 Kettleman Hills, California, earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeloffs, E.; Quilty, E.

    1997-01-01

    Two of the four wells monitored near Parkfield, California, during 1985 showed water level rises beginning three days before the M4 6.1 Kettleman Hills earthquake. In one of these wells, the 3.0 cm rise was nearly unique in five years of water level data. However, in the other well, which showed a 3.8 cm rise, many other changes of comparable size have been observed. Both wells that did not display pre-earthquake rises tap partially confined aquifers that cannot sustain pressure changes due to tectonic strain having periods longer than several days. We evaluate the effect of partial aquifer confinement on the ability of these four wells to display water level changes in response to aquifer strain. Although the vertical hydraulic diffusivities cannot be determined uniquely, we can find a value of diffusivity for each site that is consistent with the site's tidal and barometric responses as well as with the rate of partial recovery of the coseismic water level drops. Furthermore, the diffusivity for one well is high enough to explain why the preseismic rise could not have been detected there. For the fourth well, the diffusivity is high enough to have reduced the size of the preseismic signal as much as 50%, although it should still have been detectable. Imperfect confinement cannot explain the persistent water level changes in the two partially confined aquifers, but it does show that they were not due to volume strain. The pre-earthquake water level rises may have been precursors to the Kettleman Hills earthquake. If so, they probably were not caused by accelerating slip over the part of the fault plane that ruptured in that earthquake because they are of opposite sign to the observed coseismic water level drops.

  20. Water level changes for Lake Turkana and climate variability during the African Humid Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloszies, C.; Forman, S. L.; Wright, D. K.

    2013-12-01

    The chronology of East African paleoclimate suggests the transition through the African Humid Period (AHP) at ca. 15 to 5 ka was a binary shift from wet conditions in the Late Pleistocene to current aridity. Previous studies indicate that water levels for Lake Turkana for the AHP were stable at ~88 to 98 m above current level with outflow into the White Nile Basin. This study of relict beaches around Lake Turkana indicates surprisingly >50 m variability in water level between 14 and 4 ka. The elevation of past water level is constrained by barometric and GPS-based altimetry of relict beaches and age control by 14C dating of associated mollusks and OSL dating of quartz grains from surrounding littoral and sublittoral deposits. We also include well provenanced lake level data from prior studies to constrain more fully the timing and height of water level fluctuations in the Late Quaternary. Additionally, previous studies indicate that peak water levels may be regionally amplified by increased precipitation causing overflow into the Lake Turkana Basin from the adjacent Suguta and Chew Bahir basins, particularly during high stands at ca. >8.5 ka and at 6.3 ka. Our analysis of the Lake Turkana strandplain reveals that water level may have varied by × 60 m, potentially reaching the outlet elevation at ca.11.3, 10.3, 9.0, 6.3 and 5.1 ka. There are other possible high stands at ca. 13.0, 8.4, 7.8 and 7.0 ka with limited elevational and age constraints; it is unknown if these lake stands reached the outlet elevation. Evidence from relict strand plains indicate that lake level was probably below 20 m since ca. 4.5 ka, though there were two noticeable high stands up to >12 to 18 m at ca. 830 years ago and extreme water level variability, rather than a sustained water level, with a final and rapid fall in lake level between 5.0 and 4.5 ka associated with increasing aridity.

  1. Long-Term Exposure to Low-Level Arsenic in Drinking Water and Diabetes Incidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner, Elvira V; Nordsborg, Rikke B; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Established causes of diabetes do not fully explain the epidemic. High level arsenic exposure has been implicated in diabetes risk but the effect of low-level arsenic exposure in drinking water remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: To determine if long-term exposure to low-level arsenic...... in drinking water in Denmark is associated with increased risk of diabetes using a large prospective cohort. METHODS: During 1993-1997 we recruited 57,053 persons. We followed each cohort member for diabetes occurrence from enrollment until 31 December 2006. We traced and geocoded residential addresses......, and 3,035 (5.8%) cases of diabetes based on a stricter definition. The adjusted incidence rate ratio's per 1 µg/L increment in arsenic levels in drinking water were (IRR = 1.03; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.06) and (IRR = 1.02; 95% CI: 0.99, 1.05) for all and strict diabetes cases, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Long...

  2. Hydrogeology and simulation of regional ground-water-level declines in Monroe County, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Howard W.; Wright, Kirsten V.; Nicholas, J.R.

    2004-01-01

    Observed ground-water-level declines from 1991 to 2003 in northern Monroe County, Michigan, are consistent with increased ground-water demands in the region. In 1991, the estimated ground-water use in the county was 20 million gallons per day, and 80 percent of this total was from quarry dewatering. In 2001, the estimated ground-water use in the county was 30 million gallons per day, and 75 percent of this total was from quarry dewatering. Prior to approximately 1990, the ground-water demands were met by capturing natural discharge from the area and by inducing leakage through glacial deposits that cover the bedrock aquifer. Increased ground-water demand after 1990 led to declines in ground-water level as the system moves toward a new steady-state. Much of the available natural discharge from the bedrock aquifer had been captured by the 1991 conditions, and the response to additional withdrawals resulted in the observed widespread decline in water levels. The causes of the observed declines were explored through the use of a regional ground-water-flow model. The model area includes portions of Lenawee, Monroe, Washtenaw, and Wayne Counties in Michigan, and portions of Fulton, Henry, and Lucas Counties in Ohio. Factors, including lowered water-table elevations because of below average precipitation during the time period (1991 - 2001) and reduction in water supply to the bedrock aquifer because of land-use changes, were found to affect the regional system, but these factors did not explain the regional decline. Potential ground-water capture for the bedrock aquifer in Monroe County is limited by the low hydraulic conductivity of the overlying glacial deposits and shales and the presence of dense saline water within the bedrock as it dips into the Michigan Basin to the west and north of the county. Hydrogeologic features of the bedrock and the overlying glacial deposits were included in the model design. An important step of characterizing the bedrock aquifer was the

  3. Water-Level Monitoring Plan for the Hanford Groundwater Monitoring Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.R. Newcomer; J.P. McDonald; M.A. Chamness

    1999-09-30

    This document presents the water-level monitoring plan for the Hanford Groundwater Monitoring Project, conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Water-level monitoring of the groundwater system beneath the Hanford Site is performed to fulfill the requirements of various state and federal regulations, orders, and agreements. The primary objective of this monitoring is to determine groundwater flow rates and directions. To meet this and other objectives, water-levels are measured annually in monitoring wells completed within the unconfined aquifer system, the upper basalt-confined aquifer system, and in the lower basalt-confined aquifers for surveillance monitoring. At regulated waste units, water levels are taken monthly, quarterly, semi-annually, or annually, depending on the hydrogeologic conditions and regulatory status of a given site. The techniques used to collect water-level data are described in this document along with the factors that affect the quality of the data and the strategies employed by the project to minimize error in the measurement and interpretation of water levels. Well networks are presented for monitoring the unconfined aquifer system, the upper basalt-confined aquifer system, and the lower basalt-confined aquifers, all at a regional scale (surveillance monitoring), as well as the local-scale well networks for each of the regulated waste units studied by this project (regulated-unit monitoring). The criteria used to select wells for water-table monitoring are discussed. It is observed that poor well coverage for surveillance water-table monitoring exists south and west of the 200-West Area, south of the 100-F Area, and east of B Pond and the Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF). This poor coverage results from a lack of wells suitable for water-table monitoring, and causes uncertainty in representation of the regional water-table in these areas. These deficiencies are regional in scale and apply to regions outside

  4. Low-level arsenic exposure from drinking water is associated with prostate cancer in Iowa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Taehyun; Lynch, Charles F; Weyer, Peter; Wang, Kai; Kelly, Kevin M; Ludewig, Gabriele

    2017-11-01

    Inorganic arsenic is a toxic naturally occurring element in soil and water in many regions of the US including the Midwest. Prostate cancer is the second most common type of cancer in men in Iowa, surpassed only by non-melanotic skin cancer. Epidemiology studies have evaluated arsenic exposure from drinking water and prostate cancer, but most have focused on high-level exposures outside the US. As drinking water from groundwater sources is a major source of arsenic exposure, we conducted an ecologic study to evaluate prostate cancer and arsenic in drinking water from public water sources and private wells in Iowa, where exposure levels are low, but duration of exposure can be long. Arsenic data from public water systems were obtained from the Iowa Safe Drinking Water Information System for the years 1994-2003 and for private wells from two Iowa Well Water Studies, the Iowa Community Private Well Study (ICPWS, 2002-2003) and Iowa Statewide Rural Well Water Survey Phase 2 (SWIRL2, 2006-2008) that provided data for 87 Iowa counties. Prostate cancer incidence data from 2009 to 2013 for Iowa were obtained from Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results' SEER*Stat software. County averages of water arsenic levels varied from 1.08 to 18.6 ppb, with three counties above the current 10 ppb limit. Based on the tertiles of arsenic levels, counties were divided into three groups: low (1.08-2.06 ppb), medium (2.07-2.98 ppb), and high (2.99-18.6 ppb). Spatial Poisson regression modeling was conducted to estimate the risk ratios (RR) of prostate cancer by tertiles of arsenic level at a county level, adjusted for demographic and risk factors. The RR of prostate cancer were 1.23 (95% CI, 1.16-1.30) and 1.28 (95% CI, 1.21-1.35) in the medium and high groups, respectively, compared to the low group after adjusting for risk factors. The RR increased to 1.36 (95% CI, 1.28-1.45) in the high group when analyses were restricted to aggressive prostate cancers (Gleason score ≥ 7). This

  5. Water-Level Data Analysis for the Saturated Zone Site-Scale Flow and Transport Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Rehfeldt

    2004-10-08

    This report is an updated analysis of water-level data performed to provide the ''Saturated Zone Site-Scale Flow Model'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170037]) (referred to as the saturated zone (SZ) site-scale flow model or site-scale SZ flow model in this report) with the configuration of the potentiometric surface, target water-level data, and hydraulic gradients for calibration of groundwater flow models. This report also contains an expanded discussion of uncertainty in the potentiometric-surface map. The analysis of the potentiometric data presented in Revision 00 of this report (USGS 2001 [DIRS 154625]) provides the configuration of the potentiometric surface, target heads, and hydraulic gradients for the calibration of the SZ site-scale flow model (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170037]). Revision 01 of this report (USGS 2004 [DIRS 168473]) used updated water-level data for selected wells through the year 2000 as the basis for estimating water-level altitudes and the potentiometric surface in the SZ site-scale flow and transport model domain based on an alternative interpretation of perched water conditions. That revision developed computer files containing: Water-level data within the model area (DTN: GS010908312332.002); A table of known vertical head differences (DTN: GS010908312332.003); and A potentiometric-surface map (DTN: GS010608312332.001) using an alternative concept from that presented by USGS (2001 [DIRS 154625]) for the area north of Yucca Mountain. The updated water-level data presented in USGS (2004 [DIRS 168473]) include data obtained from the Nye County Early Warning Drilling Program (EWDP) Phases I and II and data from Borehole USW WT-24. This document is based on Revision 01 (USGS 2004 [DIRS 168473]) and expands the discussion of uncertainty in the potentiometric-surface map. This uncertainty assessment includes an analysis of the impact of more recent water-level data and the impact of adding data from the EWDP Phases III and IV wells. In

  6. Association of Down's syndrome and water fluoride level: a systematic review of the evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McDonagh Marian

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A review of the safety and efficacy of drinking water fluoridation was commissioned by the UK Department of Health to investigate whether the evidence supported a beneficial effect of water fluoridation and whether there was any evidence of adverse effects. Down's syndrome was one of the adverse effects reported. The aim of this review is to examine the evidence for an association between water fluoride level and Down's syndrome. Methods A systematic review of research. Studies were identified through a comprehensive literature search, scanning citations and online requests for papers. Studies in all languages which investigated the incidence of Down's syndrome in areas with different levels of fluoride in their water supplies were included. Study inclusion and quality was assessed independently by 2 reviewers. A qualitative analysis was conducted. Results Six studies were included. All were ecological in design and scored poorly on the validity assessment. The estimates of the crude relative risk ranged from 0.84 to 3.0. Four studies showed no significant associations between the incidence of Down's syndrome and water fluoride level and two studies by the same author found a significant (p Conclusions The evidence of an association between water fluoride level and Down's syndrome incidence is inconclusive.

  7. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopold, Luna Bergere; Baldwin, Helene L.

    1962-01-01

    What do you use water for?If someone asked you this question you would probably think right away of water for drinking. Then you would think of water for bathing, brushing teeth, flushing the toilet. Your list would get longer as you thought of water for cooking, washing the dishes, running the garbage grinder. Water for lawn watering, for play pools, for swimming pools, for washing the car and the dog. Water for washing machines and for air conditioning. You can hardly do without water for fun and pleasure—water for swimming, boating, fishing, water-skiing, and skin diving. In school or the public library, you need water to wash your hands, or to have a drink. If your home or school bursts into flames, quantities of water are needed to put it out.In fact, life to Americans is unthinkable without large supplies of fresh, clean water. If you give the matter a little thought, you will realize that people in many countries, even in our own, may suffer from disease and dirt simply because their homes are not equipped with running water. Imagine your own town if for some reason - an explosion, perhaps - water service were cut off for a week or several weeks. You would have to drive or walk to a neighboring town and bring water back in pails. Certainly if people had to carry water themselves they might not be inclined to bathe very often; washing clothes would be a real chore.Nothing can live without water. The earth is covered by water over three-fourths of its surface - water as a liquid in rivers, lakes and oceans, and water as ice and snow on the tops of high mountains and in the polar regions. Only one-quarter of our bodies is bone and muscle; the other three-fourths is made of water. We need water to live, and so do plants and animals. People and animals can live a long time without food, but without water they die in a few days. Without water, everything would die, and the world would turn into a huge desert.

  8. Assessing county-level water footprints of different cellulosic-biofuel feedstock pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Yi-Wen; Wu, May

    2012-08-21

    While agricultural residue is considered as a near-term feedstock option for cellulosic biofuels, its sustainability must be evaluated by taking water into account. This study aims to analyze the county-level water footprint for four biofuel pathways in the United States, including bioethanol generated from corn grain, stover, wheat straw, and biodiesel from soybean. The county-level blue water footprint of ethanol from corn grain, stover, and wheat straw shows extremely wide variances with a national average of 31, 132, and 139 L of water per liter biofuel (L(w)/L(bf)), and standard deviation of 133, 323, and 297 L(w)/L(bf), respectively. Soybean biodiesel production results in a blue water footprint of 313 L(w)/L(bf) on the national average with standard deviation of 894 L(w)/L(bf). All biofuels show a greater green water footprint than the blue one. This work elucidates how diverse spatial resolutions affect biofuel water footprints, which can provide detailed insights into biofuels' implications on local water sustainability.

  9. Plasticity in leaf-level water relations of tropical rainforest trees in response to experimental drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binks, Oliver; Meir, Patrick; Rowland, Lucy; da Costa, Antonio Carlos Lola; Vasconcelos, Steel Silva; de Oliveira, Alex Antonio Ribeiro; Ferreira, Leandro; Christoffersen, Bradley; Nardini, Andrea; Mencuccini, Maurizio

    2016-07-01

    The tropics are predicted to become warmer and drier, and understanding the sensitivity of tree species to drought is important for characterizing the risk to forests of climate change. This study makes use of a long-term drought experiment in the Amazon rainforest to evaluate the role of leaf-level water relations, leaf anatomy and their plasticity in response to drought in six tree genera. The variables (osmotic potential at full turgor, turgor loss point, capacitance, elastic modulus, relative water content and saturated water content) were compared between seasons and between plots (control and through-fall exclusion) enabling a comparison between short- and long-term plasticity in traits. Leaf anatomical traits were correlated with water relation parameters to determine whether water relations differed among tissues. The key findings were: osmotic adjustment occurred in response to the long-term drought treatment; species resistant to drought stress showed less osmotic adjustment than drought-sensitive species; and water relation traits were correlated with tissue properties, especially the thickness of the abaxial epidermis and the spongy mesophyll. These findings demonstrate that cell-level water relation traits can acclimate to long-term water stress, and highlight the limitations of extrapolating the results of short-term studies to temporal scales associated with climate change.

  10. Low-level arsenic exposure via drinking water consumption and female fecundity - A preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susko, Michele L; Bloom, Michael S; Neamtiu, Iulia A; Appleton, Allison A; Surdu, Simona; Pop, Cristian; Fitzgerald, Edward F; Anastasiu, Doru; Gurzau, Eugen S

    2017-04-01

    High level arsenic exposure is associated with reproductive toxicity in experimental and observational studies; however, few data exist to assess risks at low levels. Even less data are available to evaluate the impact of low level arsenic exposure on human fecundity. Our aim in this pilot study was a preliminary evaluation of associations between low level drinking water arsenic contamination and female fecundity. This retrospective study was conducted among women previously recruited to a hospital-based case-control study of spontaneous pregnancy loss in Timiṣ County, Romania. Women (n=94) with planned pregnancies of 5-20 weeks gestation completed a comprehensive physician-administered study questionnaire and reported the number of menstrual cycles attempting to conceive as the time to pregnancy (TTP). Drinking water samples were collected from residential drinking water sources and we determined arsenic levels using hydride generation-atomic absorption spectrometry (HG-AAS). Multivariable Cox-proportional hazards regression with Efron approximation was employed to evaluate TTP as a function of drinking water arsenic concentrations among planned pregnancies, adjusted for covariates. There was no main effect for drinking water arsenic exposure, yet the conditional probability for pregnancy was modestly lower among arsenic exposed women with longer TTPs, relative to women with shorter TTPs, and relative to unexposed women. For example, 1µg/L average drinking water arsenic conferred 5%, 8%, and 10% lower likelihoods for pregnancy in the 6th, 9th, and 12th cycles, respectively (P=0.01). While preliminary, our results suggest that low level arsenic contamination in residential drinking water sources may further impair fecundity among women with longer waiting times; however, this hypothesis requires confirmation by a future, more definitive study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. How Trace Element Levels of Public Drinking Water Affect Body Composition in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Ihsan; Nalbantcilar, Mahmut Tahir; Tosun, Kezban; Nazik, Aydan

    2017-02-01

    Since waterborne minerals appear in ionic form and are readily absorbed by the gastrointestinal tract, drinking water could be a crucial source of mineral intake. However, no comprehensive research has yet determined how trace elements in drinking water relate to body composition. We aimed to assess the relationship between clinically important trace elements in public drinking water and body composition in average, overweight and obese individuals in Turkey. The study's population consisted of 423 participants: 143 overweight, 138 obese and 142 healthy control individuals, grouped according to clinical cutoff points of body mass index (BMI). We measured levels of lithium (Li), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), silicon (Si), tin (Sn), strontium (Sr), boron (B), aluminium (Al), barium (Ba) and rubidium (Rb) in samples from wells of municipal water by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. We gauged all the participants' body composition measurements with a BC-418 body composition analyser. In all the participants, body weight values showed significant positive correlations with Ni levels in drinking water, as did BMI values with Al levels and percentage of obesity with Ni, Si and B levels. In particular, Ni levels showed significant positive correlations with the basal metabolic rate, activity calories, and total activity of participants. Giving findings showing correlations between obesity-related parameters and Al, Si, B and Ni content in drinking water, we hope that these associations will be clarified with further studies including cellular, experimental and clinical studies. Hence, medical practitioners must be aware of trace element levels in drinking water for overweight and obese patients.

  12. Nanotechnology for social needs: contributions from Latin American research in the areas of health, energy and water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Invernizzi, Noela, E-mail: noela@ufpr.br; Foladori, Guillermo; Robles-Belmont, Eduardo; Záyago Lau, Edgar; Figueroa, Edgar Arteaga; Bagattolli, Carolina; Carrozza, Tomás Javier; Chiancone, Adriana; Urquijo, William [Universidade Federal do Paraná, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Políticas Públicas (Brazil)

    2015-05-15

    This paper reviews, based on data from scientific publications and research groups, the state of the art of nanotechnology research applied to the areas of medicine, energy and water in Latin America. Such areas have been considered as particularly relevant in order to meet the social needs of the developing countries. It is shown that the countries in the region have incorporated these areas to their nanotechnology agendas and several countries have increasing research capacities. However, such capacities are concentrated in Brazil and Mexico, while the regional cooperation networks are still weak. Although the research topics tend to align with relevant social issues, there are still a number of challenges so as the results of such investigations may be effectively reflected in quality of life improvements; one of them is that many publications and research topics are on basic science, which makes it difficult to evaluate their potential application field.

  13. Modernizing Water Quality Criteria in the United States: A Need to Expand the Definition of Acceptable Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchwalter, David B; Clements, William H; Luoma, Samuel N

    2017-02-01

    The development of water quality criteria (WQC) for the protection of aquatic life is a fundamental component of the Clean Water Act-the primary US legislation responsible for protecting aquatic ecosystems from pollution. Water quality criteria define acceptable levels of contamination in the environment and thus play an important role in society. Rules for how science is used to develop WQC were created in 1985. Most rely on only data and knowledge obtained through a single methodology, the single-species laboratory toxicity test. Since 1985, understanding of the fate and effects of environmental contaminants has advanced markedly from multiple perspectives and disciplines. However, many of these advances are routinely discarded in WQC development because they do not adhere to data limits imposed by the 1985 guidelines. The present Focus article outlines how multiple lines of inquiry have played important roles in improving understanding of the ecological implications of environmental contaminants. The authors focus on gains in understanding that would not have been possible through traditional toxicity bioassays alone and argue that more robust scientific understanding can be used to modernize WQC development. In particular, the present article highlights ways to increase the relevance of toxicity testing (at different spatiotemporal scales) and incorporate all relevant lines of evidence into WQC modernization. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:285-291. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  14. Water stress, CO2 and photoperiod influence hormone levels in wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Rubin; Carman, John G.; Salisbury, Frank B.; Campbell, W. F. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    'Super Dwarf' wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plants have been grown from seed to maturity in the Mir space station where they were periodically exposed, because of microgravity and other constraints, to water deficit, waterlogging, high CO2 levels, and low light intensities. The plants produced many tillers, but none of them produced viable seed. Studies have been initiated to determine why the plants responded in these ways. In the present study, effects of the listed stresses on abscisic acid (ABA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and isopentenyl adenosine ([9R]iP) levels in roots and leaves of plants grown under otherwise near optimal conditions on earth were measured. Hormones were extracted, purified by HPLC, and quantified by noncompetitive indirect ELISA. In response to water deficit, ABA levels increased in roots and leaves, IAA levels decreased in roots and leaves, and [9R]iP levels increased in leaves but decreased in roots. In response to waterlogging, ABA, IAA and [9R]iP levels briefly increased in roots and leaves and then decreased. When portions of the root system were exposed to waterlogging and/or water deficit, ABA levels in leaves increased while [9R]iP and IAA levels decreased. These responses were correlated with the percentage of the root system stressed. At a low photosynthetic photon flux (100 micromoles m-2 s-1), plants grown in continuous light had higher leaf ABA levels than plants grown using an 18 or 21 h photoperiod.

  15. Water stress, CO2 and photoperiod influence hormone levels in wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Rubin; Carman, John G.; Salisbury, Frank B.; Campbell, W. F. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    'Super Dwarf' wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plants have been grown from seed to maturity in the Mir space station where they were periodically exposed, because of microgravity and other constraints, to water deficit, waterlogging, high CO2 levels, and low light intensities. The plants produced many tillers, but none of them produced viable seed. Studies have been initiated to determine why the plants responded in these ways. In the present study, effects of the listed stresses on abscisic acid (ABA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and isopentenyl adenosine ([9R]iP) levels in roots and leaves of plants grown under otherwise near optimal conditions on earth were measured. Hormones were extracted, purified by HPLC, and quantified by noncompetitive indirect ELISA. In response to water deficit, ABA levels increased in roots and leaves, IAA levels decreased in roots and leaves, and [9R]iP levels increased in leaves but decreased in roots. In response to waterlogging, ABA, IAA and [9R]iP levels briefly increased in roots and leaves and then decreased. When portions of the root system were exposed to waterlogging and/or water deficit, ABA levels in leaves increased while [9R]iP and IAA levels decreased. These responses were correlated with the percentage of the root system stressed. At a low photosynthetic photon flux (100 micromoles m-2 s-1), plants grown in continuous light had higher leaf ABA levels than plants grown using an 18 or 21 h photoperiod.

  16. The combined effect of water status and crop level on Tempranillo wine volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaverano, Inmaculada; Valdés, Esperanza; Moreno, Daniel; Gamero, Esther; Mancha, Luis; Vilanova, Mar

    2017-03-01

    The effect of water status and crop level on the volatile composition of Tempranillo wine was investigated over two growing seasons (2010-2011) in Extremadura (Spain). Three water status treatments (T0, Rainfed control; T1, Early regulated deficit irrigation; T2, Late regulated deficit irrigation) were combined with two crop levels treatments (TH, cluster thinning; C, control). Crop level treatment had a higher effect on individual volatiles analyzed in Tempranillo wine than water status. The combinations of water status and crop level treatments showed effects on all families of compounds with the exception of acetates and volatile fatty acids. Alcohols, C6 compounds and phenol volatiles produced the highest concentrations at the lower level of available water and when cluster thinning was applied (T0-TH). However, ethyl ester and lactones showed higher concentrations in regulated deficit irrigation (T1 and T2) and when cluster thinning was not applied. The combined effect of rainfed and cluster-thinning treatments (T0-TH) increased the majority of individual aromatic compounds quantified in Tempranillo wines and also showed the highest total odor activity value. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Coseismic water level changes induced by two distant earthquakes in multiple wells of the Chinese mainland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yuchuan; Huang, Fuqiong

    2017-01-01

    Coseismic water level oscillations, or step-like rises and step-like drops were recorded in 159 wells throughout the Chinese mainland due to the 2015 Nepal Mw 7.8 earthquake, and 184 wells for the 2011 Japan Mw 9.0 earthquake. The earthquake magnitude, and the associated dynamic stresses, has positive roles in both the sensitivity of water level to earthquake induced change, and the amplitude and duration of resulting coseismic water level changes. Wells whose water levels are sensitive to Earth tides have high potential to response to earthquakes. Polarities of step-like changes (rises or drops) are locally controlled and spatially variable, with artesian wells generally recording water-level rises. Permeability enhancement was assessed as a mechanism responsible for step-like changes by analyzing the tidal phase responses. Permeability variations are inferred for 17 out of 95 wells with step-like changes during the Nepal earthquake and for 32 out of 105 wells following the Japan earthquake; however, only 6 wells have permeability variations after both earthquakes.

  18. Water-quality and ground-water-level trends, 1990-99, and data collected from 1995 through 1999, East Mountain area, Bernalillo County, central New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, D.R.

    2000-01-01

    Bernalillo County officials recognize the importance of monitoring water quality and ground-water levels in rapidly developing areas. For this reason, water-quality and ground-water- level data were collected from 87 wells, 3 springs, and the Ojo Grande Acequia in the east mountain area of Bernalillo County between January 1990 and June 1999. The water samples were analyzed for selected nutrient species; total organic carbon; major dissolved constituents; methylene blue active substances; and dissolved arsenic. Analytical results were used to compute hardness, sodium adsorption ratio, and dissolved solids. Specific conductance, pH, air and water temperature, alkalinity, and dissolved oxygen were measured in the field at the time of sample collection. Ground-water levels were measured at the time of sample collection. From January 1990 through June 1993, water-quality and ground- water-level data were collected monthly from an initial set of 20 wells; these data were published in a 1995 report. During 1995, water samples and ground-water-level data were collected and analyzed from the initial set of 20 wells and from an additional 31 wells, 2 springs, and the Ojo Grande Acequia; these data were published in a 1996 report. Additional water-quality and ground-water-level data have been collected from sites in the east mountain area: 34 wells and the acequia during 1997, 14 wells and 1 spring during 1998, and 6 wells during 1999. Water-quality and ground- water-level data collected in the east mountain area during 1995 through 1999 are presented in tables. In addition, temporal trends for ground-water levels, concentrations of total and dissolved nitrite plus nitrate, concentrations of dissolved chloride, and specific conductance are presented for 20 selected wells in water-quality and water- level hydrographs.

  19. Analysis of the impact of water level fluctuations on macrophytes in Miyun Reservoir after receiving water transferred by the South-to-North Water Diversion Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, L.; Gu, H.; Lou, C. H.; Zhang, L.; Meng, Q. Y.

    2016-08-01

    As the main primary producers in aquatic ecosystems, macrophytes affect the structure and function of aquatic ecosystems, and their distribution is controlled by water depth. Miyun Reservoir in Beijing will have to experience substantial changes in water level and surface area as it begins to receive water transferred by the South-to-North Water Diversion Project, which will have an adverse impact on the macrophytes growing there. In this study, a hydrodynamic model was constructed with MIKE21 and then used in a simulation in three scenarios: dry year, normal year and wet year. The results suggest that during water diversion, the annual and interannual water level fluctuations will be too significant for them to adapt and as a result, the original macrophytes in the reservoir tend to die and disappear completely. The area of the zone suitable for macrophyte growth, or suitable growth zone (SGZ), fluctuated. Restricted by the main dam and auxiliary dam to its south, the overall suitable growth zone moved toward the northeast and northwest of the reservoir, with a northeastward movement of its centroid. The distance and path of movement varied between scenarios. After the water diversion was completed, the suitable growth zone shrunk in the three scenarios. It is predicted that the macrophyte species diversity and richness of the reservoir can recover to the levels recorded before water diversion only in dry year. These results suggest that manual interventions should be implemented after water diversion to speed up the natural recovery of aquatic plant communities in Miyun Reservoir and thereby maintain the stability of the aquatic ecosystem.

  20. A hydro-economic model for water level fluctuations: combining limnology with economics for sustainable development of hydropower.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Emanuel Hirsch

    Full Text Available Water level fluctuations in lakes lead to shoreline displacement. The seasonality of flooding or beaching of the littoral area affects nutrient cycling, redox gradients in sediments, and life cycles of aquatic organisms. Despite the ecological importance of water level fluctuations, we still lack a method that assesses water levels in the context of hydropower operations. Water levels in reservoirs are influenced by the operator of a hydropower plant, who discharges water through the turbines or stores water in the reservoir, in a fashion that maximizes profit. This rationale governs the seasonal operation scheme and hence determines the water levels within the boundaries of the reservoir's water balance. For progress towards a sustainable development of hydropower, the benefits of this form of electricity generation have to be weighed against the possible detrimental effects of the anthropogenic water level fluctuations. We developed a hydro-economic model that combines an economic optimization function with hydrological estimators of the water balance of a reservoir. Applying this model allowed us to accurately predict water level fluctuations in a reservoir. The hydro-economic model also allowed for scenario calculation of how water levels change with climate change scenarios and with a change in operating scheme of t