WorldWideScience

Sample records for water level behaviour

  1. Soft Water Level Sensors for Characterizing the Hydrological Behaviour of Agricultural Catchments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Garnier

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available An innovative soft water level sensor is proposed to characterize the hydrological behaviour of agricultural catchments by measuring rainfall and stream flows. This sensor works as a capacitor coupled with a capacitance to frequency converter and measures water level at an adjustable time step acquisition. It was designed to be handy, minimally invasive and optimized in terms of energy consumption and low-cost fabrication so as to multiply its use on several catchments under natural conditions. It was used as a stage recorder to measure water level dynamics in a channel during a runoff event and as a rain gauge to measure rainfall amount and intensity. Based on the Manning equation, a method allowed estimation of water discharge with a given uncertainty and hence runoff volume at an event or annual scale. The sensor was tested under controlled conditions in the laboratory and under real conditions in the field. Comparisons of the sensor to reference devices (tipping bucket rain gauge, hydrostatic pressure transmitter limnimeter, Venturi channels… showed accurate results: rainfall intensities and dynamic responses were accurately reproduced and discharges were estimated with an uncertainty usually acceptable in hydrology. Hence, it was used to monitor eleven small agricultural catchments located in the Mediterranean region. Both catchment reactivity and water budget have been calculated. Dynamic response of the catchments has been studied at the event scale through the rising time determination and at the annual scale by calculating the frequency of occurrence of runoff events. It provided significant insight into catchment hydrological behaviour which could be useful for agricultural management perspectives involving pollutant transport, flooding event and global water balance.

  2. Verification of Dinamika-5 code on experimental data of water level behaviour in PGV-440 under dynamic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beljaev, Y.V.; Zaitsev, S.I.; Tarankov, G.A. [OKB Gidropress (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    Comparison of the results of calculational analysis with experimental data on water level behaviour in horizontal steam generator (PGV-440) under the conditions with cessation of feedwater supply is presented in the report. Calculational analysis is performed using DIMANIKA-5 code, experimental data are obtained at Kola NPP-4. (orig.). 2 refs.

  3. Effects of voluntarily-ingested buprenorphine on plasma corticosterone levels, body weight, water intake, and behaviour in permanently catheterised rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldkuhl, Renée; Hau, Jann; Abelson, Klas

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the peri- and postoperative effect of pre-emptive analgesia through voluntary ingestion of buprenorphine in Nutella, in male Sprague-Dawley rats. An arterial catheter was inserted and the rats were connected to an automated blood sampling device (AccuSampler). Blood samples...... were drawn up to 18 h after surgery and the plasma concentrations of corticosterone were quantified. Postoperative changes in water intake and body weight were recorded, and the behaviour of the rats was analysed during two 30-min periods. Pre-emptive oral buprenorphine treatment reduced the plasma...... corticosterone levels in the postoperative period, compared to controls treated with local anaesthetics. Buprenorphine-treated rats consumed more water and maintained body weight better. Behavioural observations indicated that buprenorphine changed the behaviour in non-operated rats but there was no difference...

  4. Mortality, movement and behaviour of native mussels during a planned water-level drawdown in the Upper Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Teresa J.; Zigler, Steven J.; Gray, Brian R.

    2015-01-01

    Managers in the Upper Mississippi River (UMR) are using reductions in the River's water levels during summer to mimic historical water regimes and rehabilitate habitats for vegetation and other species. Concerns for the unintended effects of these actions on mussel populations threatened to halt these projects.

  5. Suicide behaviour and arsenic levels in drinking water: a possible association?: A review of the literature about the effects of arsenic contamination in drinking water on suicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troiano, Gianmarco; Mercurio, Isabella; Melai, Paola; Nante, Nicola; Lancia, Massimo; Bacci, Mauro

    2017-01-01

    A considerable part of the global population is exposed to arsenic-contaminated drinking water which is the main source of inorganic arsenic(As) exposure in humans. Arsenic exposure interferes with the action of enzymes, essential cations, and transcriptional events in cells throughout the body, and a multitude of multisystemic non-cancer effects might ensue. The aim of our review was to evaluate the effects of arsenic contamination in drinking water on suicides rates. A systematic literature search (English written literature) was conducted in electronic databases MEDLINE, SCOPUS. Evidences dating from 1999 till 2016 have been collected. A manual search of reference lists of included studies and review articles was successively performed. All references of the retrieved studies were also reviewed to avoid missing relevant publications. The key search terms included: "arsenic AND water AND suicide". The literature search yielded 13 publications, but we identified 2 manuscripts available for this systematic review. The 2 studies included in the review, were published in 2015 and in 2017 and settled in Italy and Hungary. The levels of arsenic in the waters ranged from 0.016 μg/l to >50 μg/l. The findings of the two studies are conflicting, in fact Pompili et al. reported an apparently beneficial effect of arsenic on suicides rates, with an inverse correlation of arsenic concentration and local suicide rates, in contrast to a positive correlation with natural-cause mortality rates. Our review led to conflicting results, so the diatribe about the real effects of arsenic intake of suicidal behaviors is still open. Therefore, we encourage other colleagues to conduct further studies in other locations in order to have more reliable results.

  6. Water Level Station History

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Images contain station history information for 175 stations in the National Water Level Observation Network (NWLON). The NWLON is a network of long-term,...

  7. Behavioural syndromes and social insects: personality at multiple levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandt, Jennifer M; Bengston, Sarah; Pinter-Wollman, Noa; Pruitt, Jonathan N; Raine, Nigel E; Dornhaus, Anna; Sih, Andrew

    2014-02-01

    Animal personalities or behavioural syndromes are consistent and/or correlated behaviours across two or more situations within a population. Social insect biologists have measured consistent individual variation in behaviour within and across colonies for decades. The goal of this review is to illustrate the ways in which both the study of social insects and of behavioural syndromes has overlapped, and to highlight ways in which both fields can move forward through the synergy of knowledge from each. Here we, (i) review work to date on behavioural syndromes (though not always referred to as such) in social insects, and discuss mechanisms and fitness effects of maintaining individual behavioural variation within and between colonies; (ii) summarise approaches and principles from studies of behavioural syndromes, such as trade-offs, feedback, and statistical methods developed specifically to study behavioural consistencies and correlations, and discuss how they might be applied specifically to the study of social insects; (iii) discuss how the study of social insects can enhance our understanding of behavioural syndromes-research in behavioural syndromes is beginning to explore the role of sociality in maintaining or developing behavioural types, and work on social insects can provide new insights in this area; and (iv) suggest future directions for study, with an emphasis on examining behavioural types at multiple levels of organisation (genes, individuals, colonies, or groups of individuals). © 2013 The Authors. Biological Reviews © 2013 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  8. Behaviour of Corophium volutator in Still versus Flowing Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, R. B.; Paterson, D. M.

    2001-03-01

    Swimming behaviour in post-settlement Corophium volutator is more frequent at times of flow and is an important process controlling its distribution. It is not known, however, if swimming behaviour differs in still and flowing water, a question whose answer has important consequences for scales of movement of C. volutator. This study investigates the effect of flowing water on the initial 20 min of swimming and settling behaviour of C. volutator. In addition, this study tests the applicability of Gust's Microcosm, a new recirculating flume designed for stability testing of sediments, for use in behavioural observations of organisms in flow. Settling behaviour does not differ between still and flowing water. The same behaviour in flowing water can however result in a 60-fold increase in dispersal distance for the studied site, (from 0·7 to 43 cm) without any increase in time in the water column. Settling has been observed as an active process up to a friction velocity (U *) of 0·75 cm s -1, with C. volutator controlling both their time of entry to and length of time within the water column. Below a U *of 0·75 cm s -1settling is affected by the size of the amphipod. Increased current alone was also observed not to initiate swimming behaviour from non-desirable sediments up to a friction velocity (U *) of 1·02 cm s -1. These findings are discussed in light of their significance in the field. Gust's Microcosm is concluded to create realistic flow conditions for the field and will be useful when suspended sediment loads are low and complete viewing of the behavioural chamber from above is unnecessary.

  9. Integrating the simulation of domestic water demand behaviour to an urban water model using agent based modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutiva, Ifigeneia; Makropoulos, Christos

    2015-04-01

    The urban water system's sustainable evolution requires tools that can analyse and simulate the complete cycle including both physical and cultural environments. One of the main challenges, in this regard, is the design and development of tools that are able to simulate the society's water demand behaviour and the way policy measures affect it. The effects of these policy measures are a function of personal opinions that subsequently lead to the formation of people's attitudes. These attitudes will eventually form behaviours. This work presents the design of an ABM tool for addressing the social dimension of the urban water system. The created tool, called Urban Water Agents' Behaviour (UWAB) model, was implemented, using the NetLogo agent programming language. The main aim of the UWAB model is to capture the effects of policies and environmental pressures to water conservation behaviour of urban households. The model consists of agents representing urban households that are linked to each other creating a social network that influences the water conservation behaviour of its members. Household agents are influenced as well by policies and environmental pressures, such as drought. The UWAB model simulates behaviour resulting in the evolution of water conservation within an urban population. The final outcome of the model is the evolution of the distribution of different conservation levels (no, low, high) to the selected urban population. In addition, UWAB is implemented in combination with an existing urban water management simulation tool, the Urban Water Optioneering Tool (UWOT) in order to create a modelling platform aiming to facilitate an adaptive approach of water resources management. For the purposes of this proposed modelling platform, UWOT is used in a twofold manner: (1) to simulate domestic water demand evolution and (2) to simulate the response of the water system to the domestic water demand evolution. The main advantage of the UWAB - UWOT model

  10. Radar Based Flow and Water Level Forecasting in Sewer Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren; Rasmussen, Michael R.; Grum, M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the first radar based forecast of flow and/or water level in sewer systems in Denmark. The rainfall is successfully forecasted with a lead time of 1-2 hours, and flow/levels are forecasted an additional ½-1½ hours using models describing the behaviour of the sewer system. Both...

  11. Firm-Level Determinants of Exporting Behaviour: Evidence from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper uses firm-level panel data to investigate the exporting behaviour of the Kenyan manufacturing firms. Using probit and tobit regression models, the results obtained show that factors determining the decision to export are different from those affecting the share exported. Likewise, factors determining exporting ...

  12. Effect bf Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy on the Level of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effectiveness or otherwise of Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy in reducing the level of general and examination anxieties with a view to fostering better academic performance in English Language among students who had failed this subject at least once. Ninety eight students in ...

  13. Prize level and debt size: impact on gambling behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crewe-Brown, Courtney; Blaszczynski, Alex; Russell, Alex

    2014-09-01

    No studies to date have specifically determined the relationship between prize levels, debt size, and impulsivity on reported gambling behaviour on Electronic Gaming Machines (EGM). The present study reports the findings of a pilot study designed to investigate whether or not the likelihood of increasing the size of a bet was related to the level of prize offered and personal debt. The sample consisted of 171 first year psychology students (61 males and 120 females). Participants completed a series of gambling vignettes designed to elicit data on reported bet size according to different prize levels and debt sizes; the Eysenck Impulsivity Scale (Eysenck and Eysenck 1977); the Canadian Problem Gambling Index; and an author-constructed questionnaire eliciting data on demographic and gambling behaviours. Results indicated that as prize levels increase the odds (relative risk) of an individual placing a bet on an EGM and the amount of money reportedly bet tends to increase. A negative relationship between debt size and reported gambling behaviour moderated by prize level was found. No differences were found in the odds of placing a bet according to impulsivity. It was concluded that prize and debt sizes do influence propensities to gamble and level of bets. The findings have implications for restricting jackpot and general prize levels as a responsible gambling strategy designed to reduce motivations to gamble.

  14. Executive functions in kindergarteners with high levels of disruptive behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monette, Sébastien; Bigras, Marc; Guay, Marie-Claude

    2015-11-01

    Executive function (EF) deficits have yet to be demonstrated convincingly in children with disruptive behaviour disorders (DBD), as only a few studies have reported these. The presence of EF weaknesses in children with DBD has often been contested on account of the high comorbidity between DBD and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and of methodological shortcomings regarding EF measures. Against this background, the link between EF and disruptive behaviours in kindergarteners was investigated using a carefully selected battery of EF measures. Three groups of kindergarteners were compared: (1) a group combining high levels of disruptive behaviours and ADHD symptoms (COMB); (2) a group presenting high levels of disruptive/aggressive behaviours and low levels of ADHD symptoms (AGG); and (3) a normative group (NOR). Children in the COMB and AGG groups presented weaker inhibition capacities compared with normative peers. Also, only the COMB group showed weaker working memory capacities compared with the NOR group. Results support the idea that preschool children with DBD have weaker inhibition capacities and that this weakness could be common to both ADHD and DBD. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  15. WORK STRESS LEVEL AND CARING BEHAVIOUR OF NURSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Retno Lestari

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A nurse who experience burnout feelings will influence their motivation, and quality performance. This situation is probably affecting a decline in work quality towards the caring behaviour demonstrated by nurses to their patiens, particularly for a nurse who are working in the long-stay installation room facing directly to patient's problems. The purpose of this research is to identify the work stress level of nurse towards the nurse's caring behaviour in the long-stay installation room (IRNA in general hospital in Malang. Method: This research used descriptive – correlational, the sampling was Non Probability Purposive Sampling with 93 nurses as the corresponds. The data was analyzed by operating Correlation Pearson, with a significance of p < 0.05. Result: The result found that there was a substantial correlation between the work stress level and the nurse's caring behaviour with p = 0.008 and r = -0.274, and it was a negative correlation. Discussion: It means that when the stress level of nurses will declined, the nurse's caring behavior automatically will beamplified. Conversely, if the stess level of nurses intensively increased, the nurse's caring behaviour become decreased. Thus, this research is needed to be analyzed further in order to asses the quality of caring behaviour by expanding the connected indicator and variable. It is aimed to improve the professionalism and quality of nurses in giving the best service to patients this research need to be continued further in order to asses the quality of nurse's caring behavior by expanding the variable, which is related to internal factors, such as knowledge, perception, emotion, ect and also connected to external factors, such as environment, both physically and non physically like: climate, human being, social economic, culture and ect.

  16. Influence of Water Content on Pullout Behaviour of Geogrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rong; Song, Yang-yang; Hao, Dong-xue; Gao, Yu-cong

    2017-06-01

    The interaction between geogrid and soil is fundamental and crucial factor on safety and stability of geogrid-reinforced earth structure. Therefore, the interface index between geogrid and soil is of vital importance in the design of reinforced earth structures. The pullout behaviour of geogrid in soil is studied, an experimental investigation is conducted using geogrid in four groups of soil with 20%, 24%, 28%, 32% water contents, which correspond to normal stresses of 50, 100, 200 and 300 kPa respectively. The results indicate that the geogrid embedded in soil mainly represents pullout failure, and the ultimate pullout force is sensitive to water content. It decreases with the increase of the water content firstly. Besides, the water content influences the process of the pullout behaviour. The increase of water content leads to the ultimate pullout force soon.

  17. Behavioural disturbances in a temperate fish exposed to sustained high-CO2 levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrik Jutfelt

    Full Text Available As atmospheric CO2 levels rise, the CO2 concentration in ocean surface waters increases through a process commonly referred to as ocean acidification. Recently, surprising behavioural modifications has been detected in the early life stages of tropical coral reef fish exposed to ocean acidification-relevant CO2 concentrations, but it has been unclear if this effect could occur in temperate waters. Here we show several severe behavioural disturbances, including effects on boldness, exploratory behaviour, lateralisation, and learning in a temperate fish, the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus. The behavioural effects were consistent throughout the exposure period and increased in effect size with exposure time. We observed the effects on adult sticklebacks, a species known to be tolerant to other environmental stressors. Our findings suggest that behavioural abnormalities that stem from CO2 exposure are not restricted to sensitive tropical species or early life stages and may therefore affect fish on a global scale. The severity of disturbances and the possibility of a serious behavioural problem for fish across the globe is cause for concern.

  18. Multi-level selection for hygienic behaviour in honeybees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Sato, J A; Châline, N; Martin, S J; Hughes, W O H; Ratnieks, F L W

    2009-06-01

    Disease is one of the main factors driving both natural and artificial selection. It is a particularly important and increasing threat to the managed honeybee colonies, which are vital in crop pollination. Artificial selection for disease-resistant honeybee genotypes has previously only been carried out at the colony-level, that is, by using queens or males reared from colonies that show resistance. However, honeybee queens mate with many males and so each colony consists of multiple patrilines that will vary in heritable traits, such as disease resistance. Here, we investigate whether response to artificial selection for a key resistance mechanism, hygienic behaviour, can be improved using multi-level selection, that is, by selecting not only among colonies as normal but also among patrilines within colonies. Highly hygienic colonies were identified (between-colony selection), and the specific patrilines within them responsible for most hygienic behaviour were determined using observation hives. Queens reared from these hygienic patrilines (within-colony selection) were identified using DNA microsatellite analysis of a wing-tip tissue sample and then mated to drones from a third highly hygienic colony. The resulting colonies headed by queens from hygienic patrilines showed approximately double the level of hygienic behaviour of colonies headed by sister queens from non-hygienic patrilines. The results show that multi-level selection can significantly improve the success of honeybee breeding programs.

  19. Impact of rural water projects on hygienic behaviour in Swaziland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Graciana

    In Swaziland, access to safe water supply and sanitation has improved significantly and was expected to result in improved health and, in particular, reduced infant mortality rates. On the contrary, mortality rates in the under 5 years age group are high and have doubled from 60 in 1996, to 120 deaths per 1000 in 2006. The main objective of the study was to assess whether the water projects permit, and are accompanied by, changes in hygienic behaviour to prevent transmission of diseases. The study area was Phonjwane, located in the dry Lowveld of Swaziland, where water projects play a significant role in meeting domestic water demands. Hygienic behaviour and sanitation facilities were analysed and compared before and after project. The results of the study show that domestic water supply projects have significantly reduced distances travelled and time taken to collect water, and that increased quantities of water are collected and used. While the majority of respondents (95.6%) used the domestic water project source, the quantities allowed per household (125 l which translates to an average of 20.8 l per person) were insufficient and therefore were supplemented with harvested rainwater (57.8%), water from a polluted river (17.8%), and water from a dam (2.2%). Increased water quantities have permitted more baths and washing of clothes and hands, but significant proportions of the population still skip hygienic practices such as keeping water for washing hands inside or near toilet facilities (40%) and washing hands (20%). The study concludes that the water supply project has permitted and improved hygienic practices but not sufficiently. The health benefits of safe domestic water supplies are hampered by insufficient quantities of water availed through the projects, possible contamination of the water in the house, poor hygienic behaviours and lack of appropriate sanitation measures by some households. There is a need to provide sufficient quantities of safe water

  20. Umbilical Cord Blood Lead Levels and Neonatal Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. de Cáceres

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Negative correlations have been found between cord blood lead levels and scores on the Brazelton Neonatal Behaviour Assessment in 30 otherwise healthy newborns. Items in the Habituation, Orientation and Regulation of state clusters, particularly those items related to self-regulatory, self-quieting and auditory habituation, showed lower scores (worse performance in those newborns with higher cord blood lead levels. These disturbances are potentially important since this type of behavior may interfere with the normal process of adaptation to their environment, leading to a less than optimal bonding between newborns and their carers.

  1. Water absorption behaviour of hybrid interwoven cellulosic fibre composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslinda, A. B.; Majid, M. S. Abdul; Ridzuan, M. J. M.; Syayuthi, AR. A.

    2017-10-01

    The present paper investigated the water absorption behaviour of hybrid interwoven cellulosic fibre composites. Hybrid composites consisting of interwoven kenaf/jute and kenaf/hemp yarns were prepared by an infusion manufacturing technique that used epoxy as the polymer matrix. Water absorption test was conducted as elucidated in ASTM D570 standard by immersing the composite samples in tap water at room temperature until reaching their water content saturation point. For each composite type, average from five samples was recorded and the percentage of water uptake against the square root of time was plotted. As the effect of hybridization, the water uptake, diffusion and permeability coefficient of the hybrid composites were lesser than the individual woven composites.

  2. Food waste behaviour at the household level: A conceptual framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelradi, Fadi

    2018-01-01

    One-third of the world produced food is wasted according to FAO (2011). The aim of this paper is to have an in-depth analysis of consumers' behaviours regarding food waste in Egypt. A conceptual framework is developed that brings many factors considered in the recent literature in one model to be tested using structural equation modeling. Results indicate that the incorporated factors were found statistically significant. Additionally, the individual's perception about food waste was related with food quantities wasted at the household level. The findings suggest considering these factors when developing new policies and campaigns for food waste reduction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. GABAergic anxiolytic drug in water increases migration behaviour in salmon

    OpenAIRE

    Hellström, Gustav; Klaminder, Jonatan; Finn, Fia; Persson, Lo; Alanärä, Anders; Jonsson, Micael; Fick, Jerker; Brodin, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    Migration is an important life-history event in a wide range of taxa, yet many migrations are influenced by anthropogenic change. Although migration dynamics are extensively studied, the potential effects of environmental contaminants on migratory physiology are poorly understood. In this study we show that an anxiolytic drug in water can promote downward migratory behaviour of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in both laboratory setting and in a natural river tributary. Exposing salmon smolt to ...

  4. Injury prevention behaviour in community-level soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNoe, Bronwen M; Chalmers, David J

    2011-11-01

    To adapt and pilot test a method for undertaking routine surveillance of injury prevention behaviour in community-level soccer. Surveillance system using a cohort design. Simple random samples were drawn from the player registration databases of two soccer federations. All players aged 13 years or over who intended to play in a school or club competition during the 2006 winter season were eligible. The cohort consisted of 687 male and 193 female players. The players were contacted each week and asked about their adherence to nationally recommended injury prevention measures. No more than 20% of players completed any form of pre-season screening. Almost all players warmed-up for player-matches (97%) and player-training sessions (93%). Eighty-one percent of players undertook some form of physical conditioning on at least one occasion in the off-season. Very few players (13%) reported receiving instruction on tackling technique pre-season. Shin-guards were worn in 99% of matches. For 61% of match injury events, the injured player continued to play after the injury occurred and in 65% of these cases, the player reported that in hindsight they should not have returned to play. The results provide a baseline measure of injury prevention behaviour in community-level soccer players. Future research, employing comparable surveillance methods, could be used to monitor progress on adherence to the injury prevention measures canvassed in this study. Copyright © 2011 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Water: Local-Level Management

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Because of the hazards in black water, however, it has been judged prudent to treat only gray water in systems designed for isolated villages, individual .... For most of those centuries, of course, wells were limited to the depth of hand-dug holes (few deeper than 10 metres), or those drilled (to a few tens of metres) by human ...

  6. Behavioural water resource economics: behavioural applications to the residential water sector

    OpenAIRE

    Correia, Ricardo Emanuel Sarmento

    2016-01-01

    Thesis specially presented for the fulfillment of the degree of Doctor in Economics / JEL Classification: D03, D12, D63, Q25. Water is a natural resource whose scarcity is very likely to rise in the future (Griffin, 2006), in spite of recent breakthroughs regarding the promotion of economic instruments (European Commission, 2007) and governance principles (OECD, 2015), as well as the declaration of water and sanitation as human rights since 2010 (Albuquerque and Roaf, 2012). Be...

  7. US drinking water: fluoridation knowledge level of water plant operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalumandier, J A; Hernandez, L C; Locci, A B; Reeves, T G

    2001-01-01

    We determined the knowledge level of water plant operators who fluoridate drinking water, and we compared small and large water plants. A pretested survey was sent to 2,381 water plant operators in 12 states that adjust the fluoride concentration of drinking water. A z-test for proportion was used to test for statistical difference between small and large plants at alpha = 0.05. Small water plants were those treating less than 1 million gallons of water daily. Eight hundred small and 480 large water plant operators responded, resulting in a response rate of 54 percent. Two-thirds of water plant operators correctly identified the optimal fluoride level, but more than 20 percent used a poor source for choosing the optimal level. Only one-fourth of operators were able to maintain the fluoride concentration to within 0.1 mg/L of the optimal concentration. A significantly greater proportion of operators at large water plants than at small water plants reported that they were able to maintain a fluoride concentration to within 0.1 mg/L of the optimal concentration (33.5% vs 21.3%, z = 4.74, P fluoride level, small water plant operators were less likely to use accurate reasoning for choosing that level and in maintaining fluoride concentrations within 0.1 mg/L of that level than large water plant operators.

  8. GABAergic anxiolytic drug in water increases migration behaviour in salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellström, Gustav; Klaminder, Jonatan; Finn, Fia; Persson, Lo; Alanärä, Anders; Jonsson, Micael; Fick, Jerker; Brodin, Tomas

    2016-12-01

    Migration is an important life-history event in a wide range of taxa, yet many migrations are influenced by anthropogenic change. Although migration dynamics are extensively studied, the potential effects of environmental contaminants on migratory physiology are poorly understood. In this study we show that an anxiolytic drug in water can promote downward migratory behaviour of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in both laboratory setting and in a natural river tributary. Exposing salmon smolt to a dilute concentration of a GABAA receptor agonist (oxazepam) increased migration intensity compared with untreated smolt. These results implicate that salmon migration may be affected by human-induced changes in water chemical properties, such as acidification and pharmaceutical residues in wastewater effluent, via alterations in the GABAA receptor function.

  9. Geophysical modeling of the static water level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bochicchio, R.

    1991-04-01

    The objective of this study is to determine if a geophysical investigation technique could be used to delineate depth to static water level to within 20 meters in several areas of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Using noninvasive geophysical methods to obtain water-level data is potentially faster and more cost-effective than drilling wells, especially in the areas concerned, where water-level depths vary from approximately 200 to 600 meters. Electrical geophysical methods are well-suited for water-level delineation. The depth to the static water level is often related to that of the saturated zone, and the saturated zone often has a different electrical resistivity character than the adjacent unsaturated material. Most of the time, this will be a resistivity decrease, due to the presence of water instead of air in the pore spaces. However, a saturated zone with a resistive matrix may show a resistivity increase compared to an unsaturated layer composed of more conductive material, such as clay. The analytical method is to use known depths and electrical resistivities of the static water level to obtain simulated geophysical field data. These simulated data are referred to as the synthetic sounding curve. The synthetic sounding curve will be analyzed to see if it can be used to predict the static water level. 8 refs., 22 figs.

  10. Impact behaviour of Napier/polyester composites under different energy levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahmi, I., E-mail: fahmi-unimap@yahoo.com; Majid, M. S. Abdul, E-mail: shukry@unimap.edu.my; Afendi, M., E-mail: afendirojan@unimap.edu.my; Haameem, J. M.A., E-mail: mhaameem@gmail.com [School of Mechatronic Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Arau (Malaysia); Haslan, M., E-mail: haslan@sirim.my; Helmi, E. A., E-mail: hilmi@sirim.my [Advanced Material Research Centre (AMREC), SIRIM Berhad, Kulim (Malaysia)

    2016-07-19

    The effects of different energy levels on the impact behaviour of Napier fibre/polyester reinforced composites were investigated. Napier fibre was extracted using traditional water retting process to be utilized as reinforcing materials in polyester composite laminates. 25% fibre loading composite laminates were prepared and impacted at three different energy levels; 2.5,5 and 7.5 J using an instrumented drop weight impact testing machine (IMATEK IM10). The outcomes show that peak force and contact time increase with increased impact load. The energy absorption was then calculated from the force displacement curve. The results indicated that the energy absorption decreases with increasing energy levels of the impact. Impacted specimens were observed visually for fragmentation fracture using an optical camera to identify the failure mechanisms. Fracture fragmentation pattern from permanent dent to perforation with radial and circumferential was observed.

  11. Watercress and Water Quality: The Effect of Phenethyl Isothiocyanate on the Mating Behaviour of Gammarus pulex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie J. Dixon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Watercress releases phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC upon wounding as a defence against herbivores. PEITC levels released from watercress farms are elevated due to cropping, washing, and processing and are thought to lead to adverse effects on Gammarus pulex in chalk streams. This study elucidates the sublethal effect of PEITC on reproductive behaviour of G. pulex, employing ex situ tests to investigate the disruption of precopular pairing under conditions simulating in situ exposure. Mean time to separation of precopular pairs was 89 ± 6 minutes for watercress wash water (1 g watercress per litre water and 81 ± 15 minutes for pure PEITC (1 μL/L. Re-exposure to watercress wash water to simulate the pulsed operation at a watercress farm did not alter behavioural response. The repeated interruption of reproductive behaviour under in situ conditions would impair long-term reproductive success and could explain in part low abundance of G. pulex downstream of watercress farms.

  12. Behavioural informatics for improving water hygiene practice based on IoT environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yang; Wu, Wenyan

    2018-02-01

    The development of Internet of Things (IoT) and latest Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) have changed the nature of healthcare monitoring and health behaviour intervention in many applications. Water hygiene and water conservation behaviour intervention as important influence factors to human health are gaining much attentions for improving sustained sanitation practice. Based on face-to-face delivery, typical behaviour intervention method is costly and hardly to provide all day access to personalised intervention guidance and feedbacks. In this study, we presented a behavioural information system and water use behaviour model using IoT platform. Using Expanded Theory of Planned Behaviour (ETPB) and adopted structure equation model, this study offers a solution for understanding the behaviour intervention mechanism and methodology for developing empirical model. A case study of behaviour intervention model is presented by utilising residential water conservation behaviour data collected in China. Results suggested that cultural differences have significant influences on the understanding of intervention drivers, promoting projects and increasing awareness, which could improve the behaviour intervention efficiency and further facilitate the improvement of water hygiene practice. The performance evaluation of water saving dimension is discussed as well in the paper. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Forecasting Water Levels Using Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreenivas N. Londhe

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available For all Ocean related activities it is necessary to predict the actual water levels as accurate as possible. The present work aims at predicting the water levels with a lead time of few hours to a day using the technique of artificial neural networks. Instead of using the previous and current values of observed water level time series directly as input and output the water level anomaly (difference between the observed water level and harmonically predicted tidal level is calculated for each hour and the ANN model is developed using this time series. The network predicted anomaly is then added to harmonic tidal level to predict the water levels. The exercise is carried out at six locations, two in The Gulf of Mexico, two in The Gulf of Maine and two in The Gulf of Alaska along the USA coastline. The ANN models performed reasonably well for all forecasting intervals at all the locations. The ANN models were also run in real time mode for a period of eight months. Considering the hurricane season in Gulf of Mexico the models were also tested particularly during hurricanes.

  14. Data-driven behavioural modelling of residential water consumption to inform water demand management strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, Matteo; Cominola, Andrea; Alshaf, Ahmad; Castelletti, Andrea; Anda, Martin

    2016-04-01

    The continuous expansion of urban areas worldwide is expected to highly increase residential water demand over the next few years, ultimately challenging the distribution and supply of drinking water. Several studies have recently demonstrated that actions focused only on the water supply side of the problem (e.g., augmenting existing water supply infrastructure) will likely fail to meet future demands, thus calling for the concurrent deployment of effective water demand management strategies (WDMS) to pursue water savings and conservation. However, to be effective WDMS do require a substantial understanding of water consumers' behaviors and consumption patterns at different spatial and temporal resolutions. Retrieving information on users' behaviors, as well as their explanatory and/or causal factors, is key to spot potential areas for targeting water saving efforts and to design user-tailored WDMS, such as education campaigns and personalized recommendations. In this work, we contribute a data-driven approach to identify household water users' consumption behavioural profiles and model their water use habits. State-of-the-art clustering methods are coupled with big data machine learning techniques with the aim of extracting dominant behaviors from a set of water consumption data collected at the household scale. This allows identifying heterogeneous groups of consumers from the studied sample and characterizing them with respect to several consumption features. Our approach is validated onto a real-world household water consumption dataset associated with a variety of demographic and psychographic user data and household attributes, collected in nine towns of the Pilbara and Kimberley Regions of Western Australia. Results show the effectiveness of the proposed method in capturing the influence of candidate determinants on residential water consumption profiles and in attaining sufficiently accurate predictions of users' consumption behaviors, ultimately providing

  15. Climate-driven changes in water level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rikke Bjerring; Olsen, Jesper; Jeppesen, Erik

    2013-01-01

    level rose. Moreover, Nymphaeaceae trichosclereids were abundant during the period of algal enrichment. Cladoceran taxa associated with floating leaved plants or benthic habitats responded in a complex way to changes in water level, but the cladoceran assemblages generally reflected deep lake conditions...

  16. Impacts of water stress, environment and rootstock on the diurnal behaviour of stem water potential and leaf conductance in pistachio (Pistacia vera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houssem Memmi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Little information is available on the diurnal behaviour of water potential and leaf conductance on pistachio trees despite their relevance to fine tune irrigation strategies. Mature pistachio trees were subject to simultaneous measurements of stem water potential (Ψx and leaf conductance (gl during the day, at three important periods of the irrigation season. Trees were grown on three different rootstocks and water regimes. An initial baseline relating Ψx to air vapor pressure deficit (VPD is presented for irrigation scheduling in pistachio. Ψx was closely correlated with VPD but with a different fit according to the degree of water stress. No evidence of the variation of Ψx in relation to the phenology of the tree was observed. Furthermore, midday Ψx showed more accuracy to indicate a situation of water stress than predawn water potential. Under well irrigated conditions, gl was positively correlated with VPD during stage II of growth reaching its peak when VPD reached its maximum value (around 4 kPa. This behaviour changed during stage III of fruit growth suggesting a reliance of stomatal behaviour to the phenological stage independently to the tree water status. The levels of water stress reached were translated in a slow recovery of tree water status and leaf conductance (more than 40 days. Regarding rootstocks, P. integerrima showed little adaptation to water shortage compared to the two other rootstocks under the studied conditions.

  17. Water-level fluctuations influence sediment porewater ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reservoirs typically have elevated fish mercury (Hg) levels compared to natural lakes and rivers. A unique feature of reservoirs is water-level management which can result in sediment exposure to the air. The objective of this study is to identify how reservoir water-level fluctuations impact Hg cycling, particularly the formation of the more toxic and bioaccumulative methylmercury (MeHg). Total-Hg (THg), MeHg, stable isotope methylation rates and several ancillary parameters were measured in reservoir sediments (including some in porewater and overlying water) that are seasonally and permanently inundated. The results showed that sediment and porewater MeHg concentrations were over 3-times higher in areas experiencing water-level fluctuations compared to permanently inundated sediments. Analysis of the data suggest that the enhanced breakdown of organic matter in sediments experiencing water-level fluctuations has a two-fold effect on stimulating Hg methylation: 1) it increases the partitioning of inorganic Hg from the solid phase into the porewater phase (lower log Kd values) where it is more bioavailable for methylation; and 2) it increases dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the porewater which can stimulate the microbial community that can methylate Hg. Sulfate concentrations and cycling were enhanced in the seasonally inundated sediments and may have also contributed to increased MeHg production. Overall, our results suggest that reservoir management a

  18. Activity level and aggregation behaviour in the crustacean gammarid Gammarus insensibilis parasitized by the manipulative trematode Microphallus papillorobustus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey eArnal

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Hosts manipulated by parasites are profoundly altered organisms exhibiting a broad range of potential modifications. Exploring this multidimensionality is an emerging field. Previous studies have shown that the bird trematode Microphallus papillorobustus induces several behavioural changes in the gammarid Gammarus insensibilis. Knowing that aggregation behaviour and reduced activity levels are strategies that limit predation in other species of amphipods, we explored in this study these behavioural responses for infected and uninfected G. insensibilis in the presence of host and non-host predator olfactory cues (bird faeces and fish mucus. While uninfected individuals reduced their activity level in the presence of predator cues, infected individuals did not change their activity level in presence of aquatic bird faeces. We also studied the gammarid aggregation behaviour. Uninfected gammarids in clean water spent significantly more time in aggregates than did infected individuals. Among the uninfected individuals, the aggregation level tended to increase when bird faeces and fish mucus were added, but the difference was not significant. Among infected individuals, the level of aggregation was significantly increased only with the bird faeces. We discussed our results in the context of the literature on multidimensional manipulations, acknowledging that subtle differences between unparasitized and parasitized gammarids can also be by-products of manipulation on other traits.

  19. Gender, Grade Level, PEN Scores and Risk-taking Behaviour of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Risk-taking behaviour leading to critical accidents and deaths is widespread and a social problem world-wide among adolescents. The interplay of gender, school grade levels and PEN scores on risk-taking behaviour are mixed, without a research pattern and inconclusive hence this study anchored on the hypotheses that ...

  20. The Integrated Behavioural Model for Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene: a systematic review of behavioural models and a framework for designing and evaluating behaviour change interventions in infrastructure-restricted settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Promotion and provision of low-cost technologies that enable improved water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) practices are seen as viable solutions for reducing high rates of morbidity and mortality due to enteric illnesses in low-income countries. A number of theoretical models, explanatory frameworks, and decision-making models have emerged which attempt to guide behaviour change interventions related to WASH. The design and evaluation of such interventions would benefit from a synthesis of this body of theory informing WASH behaviour change and maintenance. Methods We completed a systematic review of existing models and frameworks through a search of related articles available in PubMed and in the grey literature. Information on the organization of behavioural determinants was extracted from the references that fulfilled the selection criteria and synthesized. Results from this synthesis were combined with other relevant literature, and from feedback through concurrent formative and pilot research conducted in the context of two cluster-randomized trials on the efficacy of WASH behaviour change interventions to inform the development of a framework to guide the development and evaluation of WASH interventions: the Integrated Behavioural Model for Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (IBM-WASH). Results We identified 15 WASH-specific theoretical models, behaviour change frameworks, or programmatic models, of which 9 addressed our review questions. Existing models under-represented the potential role of technology in influencing behavioural outcomes, focused on individual-level behavioural determinants, and had largely ignored the role of the physical and natural environment. IBM-WASH attempts to correct this by acknowledging three dimensions (Contextual Factors, Psychosocial Factors, and Technology Factors) that operate on five-levels (structural, community, household, individual, and habitual). Conclusions A number of WASH-specific models and frameworks

  1. Reading Ground Water Levels with a Smartphone

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Overloop, Peter-Jules

    2015-04-01

    Most ground water levels in the world are measured manually. It requires employees of water management organizations to visit sites in the field and execute a measurement procedure that requires special tools and training. Once the measurement is done, the value is jotted down in a notebook and later, at the office, entered in a computer system. This procedure is slow and prone to human errors. A new development is the introduction of modern Information and Communication Technology to support this task and make it more efficient. Two innovations are introduced to measure and immediately store ground water levels. The first method is a measuring tape that gives a sound and light when it just touches the water in combination with an app on a smartphone with which a picture needs to be taken from the measuring tape. Using dedicated pattern recognition algorithms, the depth is read on the tape and it is verified if the light is on. The second method estimates the depth using a sound from the smartphone that is sent into the borehole and records the reflecting waves in the pipe. Both methods use gps-localization of the smartphone to store the depths in the right location in the central database, making the monitoring of ground water levels a real-time process that eliminates human errors.

  2. Effects of elevated CO2 on predator avoidance behaviour by reef fishes is not altered by experimental test water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip L. Munday

    2016-10-01

    clownfish with 4 mg l−1 gabazine in high CO2 seawater restored the normal response to predator odour, as has been previously reported with fish tested in control water. Our results show that using control water in the experimental trials did not influence the results of previous studies on antipredator behaviour of reef fishes and also supports the results of novel experiments conducted in natural reef habitat at ambient CO2 levels.

  3. Corrosion behaviour of non-ferrous metals in sea water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birn, Jerzy; Skalski, Igor [Ship Design and Research Centre, Al. Rzeczypospolitej 8, 80-369 Gdansk (Poland)

    2004-07-01

    The most typical kinds of corrosion of brasses are selective corrosion (dezincification) and stress corrosion. Prevention against these kinds of corrosion lies in application of arsenic alloy addition and appropriate heat treatment removing internal stresses as well as in maintaining the arsenic and phosphorus contents on a proper level. The most typical corrosion of cupronickels is the local corrosion. Selective corrosion occurs less often and corrosion cracking caused by stress corrosion in sea water does not usually occur. Crevice corrosion is found especially in places of an heterogeneous oxidation of the surface under inorganic deposits or under bio-film. Common corrosive phenomena for brasses and cupronickels are the effects caused by sea water flow and most often the impingement attack. Alloy additions improve resistance to the action of intensive sea water flow but situation in this field requires further improvement, especially if the cheaper kinds of alloys are concerned. Contaminants of sea water such as ammonia and hydrogen sulphide are also the cause of common corrosion processes for all copper alloys. Corrosion of copper alloys may be caused also by sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB). Galvanic corrosion caused by a contact with titanium alloys e.g. in plate heat exchangers may cause corrosion of both kinds copper alloys. Bronzes belong to copper alloys of the highest corrosion resistance. Failures that sometimes occur are caused most often by the cavitation erosion, by an incorrect chemical composition of alloys or at last by their inadequate structure. The main problems of aluminium alloys service in sea water are following phenomena: local corrosion (pitting and crevice corrosion), galvanic corrosion, exfoliation and corrosion in the presence of OH- ions. The cause of local corrosion are caused by presence of passive film on the alloy's surface and presence of chlorides in sea water which are able to damage the passive film. Galvanic corrosion is

  4. The types and levels of physical activity and sedentary behaviour of Senior Phase learners in Potchefstroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna C.W. De Vos

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: Strategies need to be implemented to raise the physical activity levels of Senior Phase learners, especially during weekdays, and to decrease sedentary behaviour. With this view in mind, recommendations are made for Physical Education teachers.

  5. Foraging behaviour at the fourth trophic level: a comparative study of host location in aphid hyperparasitoids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buitenhuis, R.; Vet, L.E.M.; Boivin, G.; Brodeur, J.

    2005-01-01

    In studies of foraging behaviour in a multitrophic context, the fourth trophic level has generally been ignored. We used four aphid hyperparasitoid species: Dendrocerus carpenteri (Curtis) (Hymenoptera: Megaspilidae), Asaphes suspensus Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), Alloxysta victrix (Westwood)

  6. Foraging behaviour at the fourth tropic level: a comparative study of host location in aphid hyperparasitoids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buitenhuis, R.; Vet, L.E.M.; Boivin, G.; Brodeur, J.

    2005-01-01

    In studies of foraging behaviour in a multitrophic context, the fourth trophic level has generally been ignored. We used four aphid hyperparasitoid species: Dendrocerus carpenteri (Curtis) (Hymenoptera: Megaspilidae), Asaphes suspensus Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), Alloxysta victrix (Westwood)

  7. Melatonin Level Variations with Different Behavioural Risk Factors in Obese Female Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Malazonia

    2017-08-01

    CONCLUSION: Higher melatonin levels in patients with obesity and concomitant behavioural impairments may be due to its protective effect to fight free radicals and to induce vasodilatation. Further studies are needed to confirm our finding.

  8. Hydro static water level systems at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volk, J.T.; Guerra, J.A.; Hansen, S.U.; Kiper, T.E.; Jostlein, H.; Shiltsev, V.; Chupyra, A.; Kondaurov, M.; Singatulin, S.

    2006-09-01

    Several Hydrostatic Water Leveling systems (HLS) are in use at Fermilab. Three systems are used to monitor quadrupoles in the Tevatron and two systems are used to monitor ground motion for potential sites for the International Linear Collider (ILC). All systems use capacitive sensors to determine the water level of water in a pool. These pools are connected with tubing so that relative vertical shifts between sensors can be determined. There are low beta quadrupoles at the B0 and D0 interaction regions of Tevatron accelerator. These quadrupoles use BINP designed and built sensors and have a resolution of 1 micron. All regular lattice superconducting quadrupoles (a total of 204) in the Tevatron use a Fermilab designed system and have a resolution of 6 microns. Data on quadrupole motion due to quenches, changes in temperature will be presented. In addition data for ground motion for ILC studies caused by natural and cultural factors will be presented.

  9. Multiscale analysis of water level time series and surge-water level interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Francois G.; Crapoulet, Adrien; Hequette, Arnaud

    2017-04-01

    We consider here water level time series recorded in the Eastern English Channel and the North sea by the SHOM (Service Hydrographique et Oceanographique de la Marine, France) in the ports of Boulogne-sur-mer, Calais and Dunkerque, every hour from 1956 to 2010. Water level is a complex quantity, influenced by deterministic astronomic forcing (tides, daily cycle, etc.) and also by stochastic forcing: water temperature, atmospheric pressure, turbulence. The deterministic forcing are strong and can be used to reconstruct synthetic water level predictions, also provided hourly by the SHOM. Stochastic forcing exist at all scales from minutes to centuries. Here we use the 2 datasets (measurements and model reconstruction) to explore their statistical and dynamical properties. We consider return times statistics for different water level thresholds. We show that the measured time series has some scaling properties (between day and year) that are not shown by the synthetic series, indicating that this is a signature of the stochastic forcing. By considering conditional statistics, we also show that there are some interactions between surge statistics and water level data. This indicates that surge (either positive or negative) are not independent of the water level information, showing that predictions of water level can be improved if such relation is taken into account.

  10. Ingestive Behaviour of Grazing Ewes Given Two Levels of Concentrate

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TPD Silva, CAT Marques, JNC Torreão, LR Bezerra, MJ Araújo, FP Gottardi, RL Edvan, RL Oliveira ... The experimental design was a randomized 2 x 2 x 2 factorial arrangement (two breeds, two supplementation levels and two feeding shifts, morning and afternoon) with six replicates per treatment, totalling 24 experimental ...

  11. The conservative behaviour of fluorescein | Smith | Water SA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Failure to account for fluorescein absorbance changes with pH may be responsible for some of the apparent non-conservative behaviour of this easily detectable tracer compound. While it is possible to calculate an accurate absorptivity value for fluorescein at every pH, this calculation is not necessary if the sample pH is ...

  12. A Study of the Leadership and Coaching Behaviours of High Level Hurling Coaches

    OpenAIRE

    McCormack, Paddy

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the various factors which have an impact on the leadership and coaching behaviours of high-level hurling coaches. A considerable gap exists between the importance assigned to athletic leadership and the efforts to understand it (Reimer & Chelladurai, 1995). Inter-county senior hurling coaches (n = 35) were surveyed on a demographic questionnaire and their self-perception of leadership and coaching behaviours were analysed using the Revised Leadership Sc...

  13. Performance on innate behaviour during early development as a function of stress level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Soojin; De Marco, Rodrigo J

    2017-08-10

    What is the relationship between the level of acute stress and performance on innate behaviour? The diversity of innate behaviours and lack of sufficient data gathered under the same experimental conditions leave this question unresolved. While evidence points to an inverted-U shaped relationship between the level of acute stress and various measures of learning and memory function, it is unknown the extent to which such a non-linear function applies to performance on innate behaviour, which develops without example or practice under natural circumstances. The fundamental prediction of this view is that moderate stress levels will improve performance, while higher levels will not. Testing this proposition has been difficult because it entails an overall effect that must be invariant to the nature of the stressor, the behaviour under scrutiny and the stimulus that drives it. Here, we report new experimental results showing that developing zebrafish (Danio rerio) under moderate but not higher levels of stress improved their performance on instinctive activities driven by visual, hydrodynamic and thermal inputs. Our findings reveal, for the first time, the existence of an inverted-U shaped performance function according to stress level during early development in a series of innate behaviours.

  14. Estimating Water Levels with Google Earth Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucero, E.; Russo, T. A.; Zentner, M.; May, J.; Nguy-Robertson, A. L.

    2016-12-01

    Reservoirs serve multiple functions and are vital for storage, electricity generation, and flood control. For many areas, traditional ground-based reservoir measurements may not be available or data dissemination may be problematic. Consistent monitoring of reservoir levels in data-poor areas can be achieved through remote sensing, providing information to researchers and the international community. Estimates of trends and relative reservoir volume can be used to identify water supply vulnerability, anticipate low power generation, and predict flood risk. Image processing with automated cloud computing provides opportunities to study multiple geographic areas in near real-time. We demonstrate the prediction capability of a cloud environment for identifying water trends at reservoirs in the US, and then apply the method to data-poor areas in North Korea, Iran, Azerbaijan, Zambia, and India. The Google Earth Engine cloud platform hosts remote sensing data and can be used to automate reservoir level estimation with multispectral imagery. We combine automated cloud-based analysis from Landsat image classification to identify reservoir surface area trends and radar altimetry to identify reservoir level trends. The study estimates water level trends using three years of data from four domestic reservoirs to validate the remote sensing method, and five foreign reservoirs to demonstrate the method application. We report correlations between ground-based reservoir level measurements in the US and our remote sensing methods, and correlations between the cloud analysis and altimetry data for reservoirs in data-poor areas. The availability of regular satellite imagery and an automated, near real-time application method provides the necessary datasets for further temporal analysis, reservoir modeling, and flood forecasting. All statements of fact, analysis, or opinion are those of the author and do not reflect the official policy or position of the Department of Defense or any

  15. Study of water-table behaviour for the Indian Punjab using GIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Samanpreet; Aggarwal, Rajan; Soni, Ashwani

    2011-01-01

    The state of Punjab (India) has witnessed a spectacular increase in agricultural production in the last few decades. This has been possible due to high use of fertilizers, good quality seeds and increased use of water resources. This increased demand of water resources has resulted in extensive use of groundwater in the central districts of the state and surface water (canals) in South-West Punjab, where groundwater is of poor quality in general. The state has been facing the twin problem of water table decline/rise in different parts. Efficient management relies on comprehensive database and regular monitoring of the resources. GIS is one of the important tools for integrating and analyzing spatial information from different sources or disciplines. It helps to integrate, analyze and represent spatial information and database of any resource, which could be easily used for planning of resource development, environmental protection and scientific researches and investigations. Geographical Information Systems (GIS) have been used for a variety of groundwater studies. Groundwater level change maps are useful in determining areas of greatest changes in storage in the regional systems. In this study, an attempt has been made to assess the long term groundwater behaviour of the state using GIS to visually and spatially analyze water level data obtained from the state and central agencies. The data was analysed for 0-3 m, 3-10 m, 10-20 m and beyond 20 m. The study revealed that per cent area with water table depth > 10 m was 20% in 1998 and has increased to 58% by 2006 which is critical limit for shifting from centrifugal pump to submersible pump.

  16. The types and levels of physical activity and sedentary behaviour of Senior Phase learners in Potchefstroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna C.W. De Vos

    2016-10-01

    Objective: To determine the types and levels of physical activity as well as that of sedentary behaviour of a group Senior Phase learners in South Africa. Methods: The adapted Children's Leisure Activities Study Survey (CLASS questionnaire was used for determining the types and levels of physical activity and sedentary behaviour of 230 Grade 7 learners, from three schools in Potchefstroom. Data were analysed by means of the SAS statistics programme, and descriptive statistics, as well as independent t-tests andeffect sizes (ES were used. Results: Moderate to high-intensity physical activity levels of between 334 and 361 min per week were found, and sedentary behaviour of between 3077 and 3410 min per week, which implies that between 70.7% and 71.9% of the participants, did not meet the recommended health-based guidelines. Higher activity levels were shown during weekends, where the boys were significantly more active than girls (p < 0.001; ES between 0.21 and 0.56, and girls showed more sedentary behaviours than the boys (ES between 0.18 and 0.20. The leisure time physical activities with the highest participation were soccer, recreational swimming, jogging and dancing, while the sedentary activities were listening to music, riding a vehicle and being busy on the phone. Conclusion: Strategies need to be implemented to raise the physical activity levels of Senior Phase learners, especially during weekdays, and to decrease sedentary behaviour. With this view in mind, recommendations are made for Physical Education teachers.

  17. Can individual antisocial behaviour be predicted by the classmates’ level of antisocial behaviour? Findings from a cross-sectional study and their relevance for the schooling of students with behavioural problems

    OpenAIRE

    Christoph Michael Müller; Verena Hofmann; Felix Studer

    2012-01-01

    Studies conducted in primary schools give evidence, that classroom composition concerning antisocial behaviour might influence individual behavioural pathways. In this cross-sectional study, it is tested, if such findings might also apply to students in lower secondary schools (7th- to 9th-grades). In a sample of 493 students, it was found, that the level of antisocial behaviour within the personal peer environment (mean of all classmate`s behaviour without individual value) significantly pre...

  18. Scaling behaviour for the water transport in nanoconfined geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiavazzo, Eliodoro; Fasano, Matteo; Asinari, Pietro; Decuzzi, Paolo

    2014-04-01

    The transport of water in nanoconfined geometries is different from bulk phase and has tremendous implications in nanotechnology and biotechnology. Here molecular dynamics is used to compute the self-diffusion coefficient D of water within nanopores, around nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes and proteins. For almost 60 different cases, D is found to scale linearly with the sole parameter θ as D(θ)=DB[1+(DC/DB-1)θ], with DB and DC the bulk and totally confined diffusion of water, respectively. The parameter θ is primarily influenced by geometry and represents the ratio between the confined and total water volumes. The D(θ) relationship is interpreted within the thermodynamics of supercooled water. As an example, such relationship is shown to accurately predict the relaxometric response of contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging. The D(θ) relationship can help in interpreting the transport of water molecules under nanoconfined conditions and tailoring nanostructures with precise modulation of water mobility.

  19. Seasonal variability of natural water chemistry affects the fate and behaviour of silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Laura-Jayne A; Baalousha, Mohammed; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia; Lead, Jamie R

    2017-10-23

    Understanding the environmental behaviour of nanoparticles (NPs) after release into aquatic systems is essential to predict the environmental implications of nanotechnology. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) represent a major class of engineered NPs with a significant potential for environmental impact. Therefore, investigating their transformations in natural waters will help predict their long term environmental fate and behaviour. AgNPs were characterized in natural lake water collected seasonally from the same freshwater source, using column microcosms to assess their behaviour and transport at different depths. Building on our previous work using similar systems with synthetic waters, the influence of water chemistry and NP surface modifications on colloidal stability and dissolution in natural lake water over time was investigated. A simple sedimentation-diffusion model parameterized by the particle properties and total Ag concentration was successfully used to understand AgNPs transport behaviour. PVP coated AgNPs remained colloidally stable, with their transport in the water column dominated by diffusion, and exhibited no significant or substantial changes in data or model parameters for different seasons. Citrate coated AgNPs were susceptible to rapid aggregation, sedimentation, dissolution and reprecipitation; their transport in the water column was determined by both diffusion and sedimentation. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Water retention behaviour of compacted bentonites: experimental observations and constitutive model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieudonne Anne-Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bentonite-based materials are studied as potential barriers for the geological disposal of radioactive waste. In this context, the hydro-mechanical behaviour of the engineered barrier is first characterized by free swelling conditions followed by constant volume conditions. This paper presents an experimental study conducted in order to characterize the water retention behaviour of a compacted MX-80 bentonite/sand mixture. Then, based on observations of the material double structure and the water retention mechanisms in compacted bentonites, a new water retention model is proposed. The model considers adsorbed water in the microstructure and capillary water in the aggregate-porosity. The model is calibrated and validated against the experimental data. It is used for better understanding competing effects between volume change and water uptake observed during hydration under free swelling conditions.

  1. Effect of hypoxia and anoxia on invertebrate behaviour: ecological perspectives from species to community level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, B.; Pados, T.; Pretterebner, K.; Schiemer, L.; Steckbauer, A.; Haselmair, A.; Zuschin, M.; Stachowitsch, M.

    2014-03-01

    Coastal hypoxia and anoxia have become a global key stressor to marine ecosystems, with almost 500 dead zones recorded worldwide. By triggering cascading effects from the individual organism to the community- and ecosystem level, oxygen depletions threaten marine biodiversity and can alter ecosystem structure and function. By integrating both physiological function and ecological processes, animal behaviour is ideal for assessing the stress state of benthic macrofauna to low dissolved oxygen. The initial response of organisms can serve as an early warning signal, while the successive behavioural reactions of key species indicate hypoxia levels and help assess community degradation. Here we document the behavioural responses of a representative spectrum of benthic macrofauna in the natural setting in the Northern Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean). We experimentally induced small-scale anoxia with a benthic chamber in 24 m depth to overcome the difficulties in predicting the onset of hypoxia, which often hinders full documentation in the field. The behavioural reactions were documented with a time-lapse camera. Oxygen depletion elicited significant and repeatable changes in general (visibility, locomotion, body movement and posture, location) and species-specific reactions in virtually all organisms (302 individuals from 32 species and 2 species groups). Most atypical (stress) behaviours were associated with specific oxygen thresholds: arm-tipping in the ophiuroid Ophiothrix quinquemaculata, for example, with the onset of mild hypoxia (behaviour, and predator-prey interactions and relationships shifted. This nuanced scale of resolution is a useful tool to interpret present benthic community status (behaviour) and past mortalities (community composition, e.g. survival of tolerant species). This information on the sensitivity (onset of stress response), tolerance (mortality, survival), and characteristics (i.e. life habit, functional role) of key species also helps predict

  2. Drinking Water Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — National Primary Drinking Water Regulations (NPDWRs or primary standards) are legally enforceable standards that apply to public water systems. Primary standards...

  3. First detection of tidal behaviour in polar mesospheric water vapour by ground based microwave spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hallgren

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Mesospheric water vapour has been observed above ALOMAR in northern Norway (69° N 16° E by our group since 1995 using a 22 GHz ground based microwave spectrometer. A new instrument with higher sensitivity, providing a much better time resolution especially in the upper mesosphere, was installed in May 2008. The time resolution is high enough to provide observations of daily variations in the water vapour mixing ratio. We present the first ground based detections of tidal behaviour in the polar middle atmospheric water vapour distribution.

    Diurnal and semidiurnal variations of water vapour have been observed and due to the long chemical lifetime of water they are assumed to be caused by changing wind patterns which transport water-rich or poor air into the observed region. The detected tidal behaviour does not follow any single other dynamical field but is instead assumed to be a result of the different wind components.

    Both the diurnal and semidiurnal amplitude and phase components are resolved. The former shows a stable seasonal behaviour consistent with earlier observations of wind fields and model calculations, whereas the latter appears more complex and no regular behaviour has so far been observed.

  4. The types and levels of physical activity and sedentary behaviour of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: The adapted Children's Leisure Activities Study Survey (CLASS) questionnaire was used for determining the types and levels of physical activity and sedentary behaviour of 230 Grade 7 learners, from three schools in Potchefstroom. Data were analysed by means of the SAS statistics programme, and descriptive ...

  5. Attitudes and behaviours of top-level junior rugby union coaches ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Coaching strategies for effective technique and injury prevention have been proposed for the tackle. Despite this, little is known about current coaching attitudes and the behaviours of coaches towards proper contact technique in the tackle, especially at the junior level. Objective. To report on the attitudes and ...

  6. Geographical mapping of fluoride levels in drinking water sources in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Knowledge of fluoride levels in drinking water is of importance in dental public health, yet this information is lacking, at national level, in Nigeria. Objective: To map out fluoride levels in drinking water sources in Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Fluoride levels in drinking water sources from 109 randomly ...

  7. Self-assembly behaviour of conjugated terthiophene surfactants in water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijn, Patrick; Janeliunas, Dainius; Brizard, Aurelie M.; Stuart, Marc C. A.; Koper, Ger J. M.; Eelkema, Rienk; van Esch, Jan H.

    2011-01-01

    Conjugated self-assembled systems in water are of great interest because of their potential application in biocompatible supramolecular electronics, but so far their supramolecular chemistry remains almost unexplored. Here we present amphiphilic terthiophenes as a general self-assembling platform

  8. Bioflocculation behaviours of microbial communities in water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yanbin; Li, Shan; Li, Dengxin; Liu, Chunyan; Ma, Fang

    2014-01-01

    We studied the flocculation behaviours of microbial communities in 21 soil, wastewater and activated sludge samples to clarify the effects of culture medium types on flocculation ability and screening efficiency, and to analyze diverse functions and microbial compositions. The bioflocculants produced by 33% of the microbial communities had flocculating efficiencies higher than 90%. Six out of the eight microbial communities with efficiencies over 94% were screened from the culture medium using dibutyl phthalate (DBP) as the carbon source. BF-BCT, which was derived from the Chinese cabbage soil sample, had the highest flocculating efficiency (99.6%), species diversity and uniformity. Nine highly efficient strains were separated and purified from seven different microbial communities, indicating that flocculating microorganisms are widely distributed in ecosystems. The 16S rRNA gene testing shows that the eight bacterial and the one fungal strains are common soil microorganisms. The flocculating abilities of BB11 (Sphingobacterium multivorum) and SE3 (Galactomyces geotrichum) have never been reported hitherto. Six strains, including the most flocculating-active TB13 and JB17, were screened from the culture medium using DBP as the sole carbon source. In particular, we compared the performance of culture media and analyzed analogous microbial communities with a Biolog automatic micro-analysis system for the first time.

  9. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of a Flexible Polyethylene: A Protein-Like Behaviour in a Water Solvent

    CERN Document Server

    Kretov, D A

    2005-01-01

    We used molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to study the density and the temperature behaviour of a flexible polyethylene (PE) subjected to various heating conditions and to investigate the PE chain conformational changes in a water solvent. First, we have considered the influence of the heating process on the final state of the polymeric system and the sensitivity of its thermodynamic characteristics (density, energy, etc.) for different heating regimes. For this purpose three different simulations were performed: fast, moderate, and slow heating. Second, we have investigated the PE chain conformational dynamics in water solvent for various simulation conditions and various configurations of the environment. From the obtained results we have got the pictures of the PE dynamical motions in water. We have observed a protein-like behaviour of the PE chain, like that of the DNA and the proteins in water, and have also estimated the rates of the conformational changes. For the MD simulations we used the optimized...

  10. Marine mollusc predator-escape behaviour altered by near-future carbon dioxide levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Sue-Ann; Lefevre, Sjannie; McCormick, Mark I; Domenici, Paolo; Nilsson, Göran E; Munday, Philip L

    2014-01-07

    Ocean acidification poses a range of threats to marine invertebrates; however, the potential effects of rising carbon dioxide (CO2) on marine invertebrate behaviour are largely unknown. Marine gastropod conch snails have a modified foot and operculum allowing them to leap backwards rapidly when faced with a predator, such as a venomous cone shell. Here, we show that projected near-future seawater CO2 levels (961 µatm) impair this escape behaviour during a predator-prey interaction. Elevated-CO2 halved the number of snails that jumped from the predator, increased their latency to jump and altered their escape trajectory. Physical ability to jump was not affected by elevated-CO2 indicating instead that decision-making was impaired. Antipredator behaviour was fully restored by treatment with gabazine, a GABA antagonist of some invertebrate nervous systems, indicating potential interference of neurotransmitter receptor function by elevated-CO2, as previously observed in marine fishes. Altered behaviour of marine invertebrates at projected future CO2 levels could have potentially far-reaching implications for marine ecosystems.

  11. Behaviour of AISI 316L Steel Exposed to Demineralized Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kožuh, S.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The subject of investigation was the passivation of AISI 316L austenitic stainless steel. The effectiveness of various passivation media was tested by means of the potentiodynamic polarization technique. Potentiodynamic polarization was carried out in demineralized water before and after passivation treatment. Comparative analysis of the potentiodynamic curves for different passivation media showed that the best protection of the steel surface was provided by a HNO3 solution, φ= 6.0 %, containing CuSO4 · 5H2O, w = 2.0 %. The satisfactory protective properties were found to agree with the high value of the pitting potential.

  12. Empowering behaviour and leader fairness and integrity: studying perceptions of ethical leader behaviour from a levels-of-analysis perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hoogh, A.H.B.; den Hartog, D.N.

    2009-01-01

    Ethical leadership is seen as important by many researchers and practitioners. However, empirical research on ethical leader behaviour is limited and to date multilevel research is hardly found in this area. This study examines the relationships of two forms of perceived ethical leader behaviour

  13. Effects of Lambing on Behaviour and Cortisol Levels in Postparturient Ewes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinu Gavojdian

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current research was to evaluate the effects that lambing process has on major behavioural patterns and cortisol levels in multiparous Turcana ewes during the first 21 days after parturition. At 14 hours following lambing, cortisol level was 7.78±0.47 µg/dl, and decreased to 5.08±0.72 µg/dl on the 7th day of the experiment (p≤0.05, then to 2.75±0.50 µg/dl on the day 14 (p≤0.05 and to 1.61±0.43 µg/dl in the last day of experiments (p>0.05. Differences in cortisol levels between single and twin lambing ewes were not significant (p>0.05, suggesting that either cortisol sampling could not be used as an indicator for assessing stress caused by the additional lamb(s in postparturient ewes, either in multiparous Turcana ewes rearing two lambs does not impose a great stress to the mothers’ organism. Both the major behavioural patterns and milk cortisol levels are influenced significantly by the lambing process in multiparous ewes during first 14 days following parturition. After two weeks, time devoted to feeding, rumination and resting behaviours tend to be less influenced by the lambing process.

  14. Corrosion behaviour of construction materials for high temperature water electrolysers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikiforov, Aleksey

    2010-01-01

    Different types of corrosion resistant stainless steels, Ni-based alloys as well as titanium and tantalum were evaluated as a possible metallic bipolar plate and construction material with respect to corrosion resistance under simulated conditions corresponding to the conditions in high temperature...... proton exchange membrane (PEM) water electrolysers (HTPEMWE). All samples were exposed to anodic polarisation in 85% phosphoric acid electrolyte solution. Platinum and gold plates were tested for the valid comparison. Steady-state voltammetry was used in combination with scanning electron microscopy...... and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Results show that stainless steels are the most inclined to corrosion under high anodic polarization. Among alloys, Ni-based showed the highest corrosion resistance under conditions, simulating HTPEMWE. In particular, Inconel625 is the most promising alloy...

  15. Lake St. Clair: Storm Wave and Water Level Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    levels at St. Clair Shores and Windmill Point. The ADCIRC model was tightly coupled with four near-shore Full-Plane STWAVE model grids using CSTORM...levels at St. Clair Shores. ............... 71  Figure 4-6. Comparison of Storm 002 observed and modeled water levels at Windmill Point...observed and modeled water levels at Windmill Point. ................. 74  Figure 4-9. Comparison of Storm 004 observed and modeled water levels at St

  16. Examining Associations of Environmental Characteristics with Recreational Cycling Behaviour by Street-Level Strava Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yeran; Du, Yunyan; Wang, Yu; Zhuang, Liyuan

    2017-06-15

    Policymakers pay much attention to effectively increasing frequency of people's cycling in the context of developing sustainable and green cities. Investigating associations of environmental characteristics and cycling behaviour could offer implications for changing urban infrastructure aiming at encouraging active travel. However, earlier examinations of associations between environmental characteristics and active travel behaviour are limited by low spatial granularity and coverage of traditional data. Crowdsourced geographic information offers an opportunity to determine the fine-grained travel patterns of people. Particularly, Strava Metro data offer a good opportunity for studies of recreational cycling behaviour as they can offer hourly, daily or annual cycling volumes with different purposes (commuting or recreational) in each street across a city. Therefore, in this study, we utilised Strava Metro data for investigating associations between environmental characteristics and recreational cycling behaviour at a large spatial scale (street level). In this study, we took account of population density, employment density, road length, road connectivity, proximity to public transit services, land use mix, proximity to green space, volume of motor vehicles and traffic accidents in an empirical investigation over Glasgow. Empirical results reveal that Strava cyclists are more likely to cycle for recreation on streets with short length, large connectivity or low volume of motor vehicles or on streets surrounded by residential land.

  17. Examining Associations of Environmental Characteristics with Recreational Cycling Behaviour by Street-Level Strava Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeran Sun

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Policymakers pay much attention to effectively increasing frequency of people’s cycling in the context of developing sustainable and green cities. Investigating associations of environmental characteristics and cycling behaviour could offer implications for changing urban infrastructure aiming at encouraging active travel. However, earlier examinations of associations between environmental characteristics and active travel behaviour are limited by low spatial granularity and coverage of traditional data. Crowdsourced geographic information offers an opportunity to determine the fine-grained travel patterns of people. Particularly, Strava Metro data offer a good opportunity for studies of recreational cycling behaviour as they can offer hourly, daily or annual cycling volumes with different purposes (commuting or recreational in each street across a city. Therefore, in this study, we utilised Strava Metro data for investigating associations between environmental characteristics and recreational cycling behaviour at a large spatial scale (street level. In this study, we took account of population density, employment density, road length, road connectivity, proximity to public transit services, land use mix, proximity to green space, volume of motor vehicles and traffic accidents in an empirical investigation over Glasgow. Empirical results reveal that Strava cyclists are more likely to cycle for recreation on streets with short length, large connectivity or low volume of motor vehicles or on streets surrounded by residential land.

  18. Individual-level personality influences social foraging and collective behaviour in wild birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aplin, Lucy M; Farine, Damien R; Mann, Richard P; Sheldon, Ben C

    2014-08-22

    There is increasing evidence that animal groups can maintain coordinated behaviour and make collective decisions based on simple interaction rules. Effective collective action may be further facilitated by individual variation within groups, particularly through leader-follower polymorphisms. Recent studies have suggested that individual-level personality traits influence the degree to which individuals use social information, are attracted to conspecifics, or act as leaders/followers. However, evidence is equivocal and largely limited to laboratory studies. We use an automated data-collection system to conduct an experiment testing the relationship between personality and collective decision-making in the wild. First, we report that foraging flocks of great tits (Parus major) show strikingly synchronous behaviour. A predictive model of collective decision-making replicates patterns well, suggesting simple interaction rules are sufficient to explain the observed social behaviour. Second, within groups, individuals with more reactive personalities behave more collectively, moving to within-flock areas of higher density. By contrast, proactive individuals tend to move to and feed at spatial periphery of flocks. Finally, comparing alternative simulations of flocking with empirical data, we demonstrate that variation in personality promotes within-patch movement while maintaining group cohesion. Our results illustrate the importance of incorporating individual variability in models of social behaviour.

  19. Effect of water restriction on drinking behaviour and water intake in German black-head mutton sheep and Boer goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ramamneh, D; Riek, A; Gerken, M

    2012-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate and compare the physiological responses of sheep and goats to water restriction using the deuterium dilution technique (D2O) to predict the total water intake (TWI) in both species. In two consecutive trials, 10 non-lactating Boer goats and 10 non-lactating German black-head mutton ewes were each randomly allocated into a treatment and a control group. In the control groups (n = 5, for each species), water was offered ad libitum, whereas the treatment groups (n = 5, for each species) received water 3 h/day on experimental days 8 to 14 and 6 h every 2 days on experimental days 15 to 22. The respiratory rate, rectal temperature, body mass and drinking behaviour were also recorded. The TWI was estimated by D2O for each animal. Water restriction for 21 h/day or 42 h/2 days had no significant (P > 0.05) effect on water intake (WI), feed intake, WI to dry matter intake ratio or body mass in both species. The absence of differences between species in their WIs was also confirmed using D2O. However, sheep had higher respiratory rates and rectal temperatures than goats in both control and treatment groups. Both species showed the ability to tolerate a moderate water shortage by activating several physiological mechanisms and behavioural strategies.

  20. NOAA NOS SOS, EXPERIMENTAL - Water Level

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA NOS SOS server is part of the IOOS DIF SOS Project. The stations in this dataset have water surface height above a reference datum. *These services are for...

  1. The interaction between water currents and salmon swimming behaviour in sea cages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Johansson

    Full Text Available Positioning of sea cages at sites with high water current velocities expose the fish to a largely unknown environmental challenge. In this study we observed the swimming behaviour of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L. at a commercial farm with tidal currents altering between low, moderate and high velocities. At high current velocities the salmon switched from the traditional circular polarized group structure, seen at low and moderate current velocities, to a group structure where all fish kept stations at fixed positions swimming against the current. This type of group behaviour has not been described in sea cages previously. The structural changes could be explained by a preferred swimming speed of salmon spatially restricted in a cage in combination with a behavioural plasticity of the fish.

  2. Crack growth behaviour of low alloy steels for pressure boundary components under transient light water reactor operating conditions (CASTOC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foehl, J.; Weissenberg, T. [Materialpruefungsanstalt, Univ. Stuttgart (Germany); Gomez-Briceno, D.; Lapena, J. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT) (Spain); Ernestova, M.; Zamboch, M. [Nuclear Research Inst. (NRI) (Czech Republic); Seifert, H.P.; Ritter, S. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI) (Switzerland); Roth, A.; Devrient, B. [Framatome ANP GmbH (F ANP) (Germany); Ehrnsten, U. [Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) (Finland)

    2004-07-01

    The CASTOC project addresses environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) phenomena in low alloy steels used for pressure boundary components in both Western type boiling water reactors (BWR) and Russian type pressurised water reactors (VVER). It comprises the four work packages (WP): inter-laboratory comparison test (WP1); EAC behaviour under static load (WP2), EAC behaviour under cyclic load and load transients (WP3); evaluation of the results with regard to their relevance for components in practice (WP4). The use of sophisticated test facilities and measurement techniques for the on-line detection of crack advances have provided a more detailed understanding of the mechanisms of environmentally assisted cracking and provided quantitative data of crack growth rates as a function of loading events and time, respectively. The effect of several major parameters controlling EAC was investigated with particular emphasis on the transferability of the results to components in service. The obtained crack growth rate data were reflected on literature data and on commonly applied prediction curves as presented in the appropriate Code. At relevant stress intensity factors it could be shown that immediate cessation of growing cracks occurs after changing from cyclic to static load in high purity oxygenated BWR water and oxygen-free VVER water corresponding to steady state operation conditions. Susceptibility to environmentally assisted cracking under static load was observed for a heat affected zone material in oxygenated high purity water and also in base materials during a chloride transient representing BWR water condition below Action Level 1 of the EPRI Water Chemistry Guidelines according to the lectrical conductivity of the water but in the range of Action Level 2 according to the content of chlorides. Time based crack growth was also observed in one Russian type base material in oxygenated VVER water and in one Western type base material in oxygenated high purity BWR

  3. Lake water levels across the U.S.: What are the spatial patterns and drivers of water level change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background Lake water-level changes affect the physical, chemical, and biological condition of lakes; and we expect that disturbances such as land use conversion, water withdrawal, and climate change may alter water-level regimes and impact lake integrity. However, we have a poor...

  4. Debinding behaviour of a water soluble PEG/PMMA binder for Ti metal injection moulding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Gang [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, The University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand); Cao, Peng, E-mail: p.cao@auckland.ac.nz [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, The University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand); Wen, Guian [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, The University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand); Edmonds, Neil [School of Chemical Science, The University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand)

    2013-05-15

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG) has been becoming a common component in the design of water soluble binder systems for metal injection moulding. Similar to solvent debinding, PEG can be leached out by water and the mechanism of debinding was proposed in the literature with somehow misleading information about the debinding mechanism, particularly about the formation of PEG gel. This work investigates the debinding behaviours of a PEG-based binder in titanium compacts. Titanium powder is formulated with PEG, poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and stearic acid (SA) to formulate titanium feedstock. To determine the debinding kinetics, the PEG removal percentages are measured at three different temperatures and for various specimen thicknesses. A mathematic model based on diffusion-controlled debinding process is established. The evolution of porous microstructure during the water debinding process is observed using scanning electron microscopy. Based on these observations, a water debinding mechanism for titanium alloy compacts formulated with PEG-based binders is proposed. - Highlights: ► The water-debinding behaviours of the PEG binder system were investigated. ► PEG dissolution and transportation, and the pore structure development. ► A water debinding mechanism of PEG-based binders is proposed. ► Incorrect explanation of PEG gelling in the literature is corrected. ► Correction/modification made as per the reviewers' comments and suggestions.

  5. EFFECT OF LEVEL OF CONCENTRATE FEEDING LEVEL ON EFFICIENCY OF EATING BEHAVIOUR ON ONGOLE CROSSBRED CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dartosukarno

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Eight bulls of Ongole Crossbred (OC cattle with initial body weight (BW of 297 + 26 kg (CV = 8.75% fed rice straw treated with urine (RU (ad libitum were divided into two groups (each four heads to determine the effect of concentrate feeding level on efficiency of eating behavior. The cattle was given concentrate feeding composed of beer cake and rice bran to make 14% crude protein at 1% and at 2% BW for RUC1 and RUC2 group, respectively. Eating behavior was measured for 3x24 hours and was performed twice at weeks 2 and 6 of the study. Data obtained were analyzed by t-test. The results showed that the level of concentrate feeding affected the intake of urinated rice straw (P0.05 on DMI, length time for eating (196.5 vs. 221.5 min/d, length time for rumination (351.0 vs. 449.4 min/d, efficiency of eating time (37.21 vs. 37.67 gDM/min and efficiency rumination time (21.43 vs. 18.50 gDM/min. This research showed that concentrate feeding at 2% BW did not alter the efficiency of eating time and rumination compared to 1% BW, although able to improve BWG of OC cattle.

  6. EFFECT OF LEVEL OF CONCENTRATE FEEDING LEVEL ON EFFICIENCY OF EATING BEHAVIOUR ON ONGOLE CROSSBRED CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dartosukarno

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Eight bulls of Ongole Crossbred (OC cattle with initial body weight (BW of 297 + 26 kg (CV =8.75% fed rice straw treated with urine (RU (ad libitum were divided into two groups (each fourheads to determine the effect of concentrate feeding level on efficiency of eating behavior. The cattlewas given concentrate feeding composed of beer cake and rice bran to make 14% crude protein at 1%and at 2% BW for RUC1 and RUC2 group, respectively. Eating behavior was measured for 3x24 hoursand was performed twice at weeks 2 and 6 of the study. Data obtained were analyzed by t-test. Theresults showed that the level of concentrate feeding affected the intake of urinated rice straw (P<0.01and daily BWGain (P<0.05, but the effect was not found (P>0.05 on DMI, length time for eating(196.5 vs. 221.5 min/d, length time for rumination (351.0 vs. 449.4 min/d, efficiency of eating time(37.21 vs. 37.67 gDM/min and efficiency rumination time (21.43 vs. 18.50 gDM/min. This researchshowed that concentrate feeding at 2% BW did not alter the efficiency of eating time and ruminationcompared to 1% BW, although able to improve BWG of OC cattle.

  7. Data Assimilation to Estimate the Water Level of River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apriliani, Erna; Hanafi, Lukman; Imron, Chairul

    2017-09-01

    Data assimilation is an estimation method for stochastic dynamic system by combining the mathematical model with measurement data. Water level and velocity of river are stochastic dynamic system, and it is important to estimate the water level and velocity of river flow to reduce flood risk disaster. Here, we estimate the water level and velocity of river flow by using data assimilation specially Kalman filter and Ensemble Kalman filter. We define mathematical model of river flow, discretize and do simulation by Kalman filter and Ensemble Kalman filter. In data assimilation, we forecast the water level and velocity by using mathematical model and based on the measurement data, the correction of forecasting is made.

  8. A New Technique for Deep in situ Measurements of the Soil Water Retention Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rocchi, Irene; Gragnano, Carmine Gerardo; Govoni, Laura

    2018-01-01

    In situ measurements of soil suction and water content in deep soil layers still represent an experimental challenge. Mostly developed within agriculture related disciplines, field techniques for the identification of soil retention behaviour have been so far employed in the geotechnical context...... instruments to characterise deep soil layers. Multi-depth installations have been successfully carried out using two different sensors to measure the soil suction and water content up to 7m from the soil surface. Preliminary laboratory investigations were also shown to provide a reasonable benchmark...

  9. Supporting and Developing Self-Regulatory Behaviours in Early Childhood in Young Children with High Levels of Impulsive Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, Aviva

    2016-01-01

    Deficits in self-regulatory skills underlie or contribute to a range of adverse developmental problems and disorders, including ADHD (Barkley, 1997), eating disorders (Attie & Brooks-Gunn, 1995) and risk -taking behaviour (Cantor & Sanderson 1998; Eisenberg et al., 2005). Self-regulation has been recognised as an important factor in aiding…

  10. Internalising a Crisis? Household Level Response to Water Scarcity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Household Level Response to Water Scarcity in the City of Harare, Zimbabwe. ... The paper argues that internalisation of the crisis by households cannot be said to represent a sustainable and long-term solution to the water crisis, and that the perseverance on the part of the households to engage with the water situation.

  11. Assessing Maize Foliar Water Stress Levels Under Field Conditions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Initially, plant water stress has been measured through destructive approaches that are limited in spatial extent as a result of being labour intensive (Graeff & Claupein,. 2007). The basis of detecting water stress with remote sensing relates to the difference in reflectance properties of plants under different water stress levels ...

  12. Lake Erie Water Level Study. Main Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-01

    from thermal installations (oil, fossil , or nuclear fueled), maximum utilization of the hydroelectric power capacity is economically and environmentally...the factors affecting lake level fluctuations and the study methodology. A popular misconception is that artificial means currently exist which...public information program to eliminate the confusion and misconceptions that currently exist. 3. COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES SHOULD BE ENCOURAGED

  13. Automated optimisation of multi-level models of collective behaviour in a mixed society of animals and robots

    OpenAIRE

    Cazenille, Leo; Bredeche, Nicolas; Halloy, José

    2016-01-01

    Animal and robotic collective behaviours can exhibit complex dynamics that require multi-level descriptions. Here, we are interested in developing a multi-level modeling framework for the use of robots in studies about animal collective decision-making. In this context, using robots can be useful for validating models in silico, inducing calibrated repetitive stimuli to trigger animal responses or modulating and controlling animal collective behaviour. However, designing appropriate biomimeti...

  14. design and implementation of a water level controller

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-03-01

    Mar 1, 2012 ... Abstract. An automatic regulator suitable for water level sensing and control was realized using the. MC14066 integrated circuit. This enabled the entire circuit to function as a threshold detector; thus working as an ON/OFF switch. The proposed water level sensor was tested in real time application by using ...

  15. Dissolved oxygen levels in estuarine and coastal waters around Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Boyle, Shane; McDermott, Georgina; Wilkes, Robert

    2009-11-01

    This paper presents the status of summer oxygen conditions in estuarine and coastal waters around Ireland between 2003 and 2007. Of the 95 water bodies surveyed, 85 had oxygen levels sufficient to support aquatic life. This corresponds to a surface area of 3125 km(2) or 99.4% of the total area assessed. Ten water bodies, representing a surface area of 20.2 km(2), were deficient in oxygen but still capable of supporting most aquatic life. No evidence of hypoxia (Nitrates and Urban Waste Water Treatment Directives, together with those of the Water Framework Directive, should ensure areas of oxygen deficiency are eliminated from Irish waters.

  16. Behaviour and fate of perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in drinking water treatment: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mohammad Feisal; Peldszus, Sigrid; Anderson, William B

    2014-03-01

    This article reviews perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substance (PFAS) characteristics, their occurrence in surface water, and their fate in drinking water treatment processes. PFASs have been detected globally in the aquatic environment including drinking water at trace concentrations and due, in part, to their persistence in human tissue some are being investigated for regulation. They are aliphatic compounds containing saturated carbon-fluorine bonds and are resistant to chemical, physical, and biological degradation. Functional groups, carbon chain length, and hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity are some of the important structural properties of PFASs that affect their fate during drinking water treatment. Full-scale drinking water treatment plant occurrence data indicate that PFASs, if present in raw water, are not substantially removed by most drinking water treatment processes including coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, filtration, biofiltration, oxidation (chlorination, ozonation, AOPs), UV irradiation, and low pressure membranes. Early observations suggest that activated carbon adsorption, ion exchange, and high pressure membrane filtration may be effective in controlling these contaminants. However, branched isomers and the increasingly used shorter chain PFAS replacement products may be problematic as it pertains to the accurate assessment of PFAS behaviour through drinking water treatment processes since only limited information is available for these PFASs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Chronoamperometric study of the passive behaviour of tantalum in hostile media during water addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trompette, J.L., E-mail: jeanluc.trompette@ensiacet.fr [Laboratoire de Genie Chimique (LGC), UMR 5503, 4 allee Emile Monso, 31432 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Massot, L. [Laboratoire de Genie Chimique (LGC), UMR 5503, 4 allee Emile Monso, 31432 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France)

    2012-04-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chronoamperometric study of the behaviour of tantalum in aggressive anhydrous media. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Achievement of passivity is modulated according to the potential and the anion nature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The concomitant building of the passive film and influence of proton mobility are modelled. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Anion-specific hydration effects play a crucial role in the corrosion/passive behaviour of valve metals. - Abstract: The ability of tantalum to become passive through water addition in methanol solution during chronoamperometric experiments has been investigated. The achievement of passivity was found to be modulated according to the applied electrical potential and the nature of the aggressive anions. The chronoamperometric curves were interpreted as resulting from the balance between the influence of proton mobility in solution and the building of the passive film.

  18. Atlantic Coast Water-Level Climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-01

    5 35.S -13.4 .6 37.Z Yakutat. AK 194 -. 3 .6 3. 53 .6 33.6 INelul". 6II 190S 1.6 .2 35.8 0.3 .5 30.8 Cristobal . CZ 1909 197S 1.3 .2 23. 7 1.1 .4 23.2...44r4,j 44iiA’ r-4 4𔃺 MONHLYAP YARL A MMM AN YERLYMA SEA LEVELS 0Y) r- i 0) rc 0)LL U:0) L’-4 C) - C)J 0r) 0091 S4 colO ~ (AA 12A1 U39 NH W Al (9) a) cn

  19. Regional and State Level Water Scarcity Report: Northeast United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoletti, C. K.; Lopez-Morales, C. A.; Hoover, J. H.; Voigt, B. G.; Vorosmarty, C. J.; Mohammed, I. N.

    2010-12-01

    There are an abundance of large-scale, coarse resolution global water scarcity studies, but the existing literature fails to address regional and state specific scarcity measures. Moreover, while environmental water requirements are an integral factor in the development and implementation of sustainable water management practices, only recently has this notion been introduced to water scarcity research. In this paper, we argue that developing a preliminary measure of water scarcity, at the regional and state levels, will allow for more informed policy development. The goal of this study is to generate a more comprehensive understanding of water scarcity in the Northeast, by gathering fine scale data, applying a consistent methodology to the calculation of a scarcity index, and analyzing the results to see relative trends in spatio-temporal water scarcity. Public supply, irrigation, rural, industrial and thermo-power withdrawals have been compiled from USGS state water use publications from 1950 to 1985. Using the WBMplus water model runoff data, state specific in-stream environmental water requirements were calculated using the accepted hydro-ecological methodology. Water scarcity was then calculated as a ratio of water withdrawals to total available water minus environmental flow requirements for the system. In so doing, this study generates a spatially explicit and temporally varying water scarcity indicator (WSI) for the Northeastern United States between 1950 and 2000 at the regional and state levels at a five-year time interval. Calculation of a spatial and temporal water scarcity indicator enabled us to identify regions and specific states that were: slightly exploited (WSI 1.0). The minimum environmental water requirements to maintain in-stream aquatic and riparian ecosystems for the Northeastern states ranged between 27.5 to 36.3 percent of the mean annual runoff within Vermont and Maryland, respectively. The regional WSI values ranged between 0.199 in 1950

  20. Effect of water trough type on the drinking behaviour of pasture-based beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coimbra, P A D; Machado Filho, L C P; Nunes, P A; Hötzel, M J; de Oliveira, A G L; Cecato, U

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of different trough types on the water consumption and drinking behaviour of pasture-based beef heifers. Two trials were implemented with 32 beef heifers to test two different types of water troughs, namely a rectangular concrete trough (RC) and a round polyvinyl chloride water tank (PVC). In Trial 1, both troughs were simultaneously available to groups of four animals within eight paddocks. In Trial 2, the animals were distributed in pairs throughout 16 paddocks and, in a crossover design, were exposed to one type of trough at a time. In both trials, estimated water intake was per four animals. Number of drinking bouts, time spent drinking and amount of water intake from the RC and PVC trough were recorded in both trials. Data were statistically analysed by analysis of variance. In Trial 1, group and trough effect were in the model. In Trial 2, stage, pair and trough were tested. In Trial 1, where both types of troughs were available, animals had a higher number of drinking bouts (3.32 v. 0.57 ± 0.09; P water tank, compared to the RC trough. In Trial 2, all groups drank more often (5.10 v. 3.28 ± 0.32; P water tank in comparison to a RC trough.

  1. Swelling behaviour of Early Jurassic shales when exposed to water vapour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houben, Maartje; Barnhoorn, Auke; Peach, Colin; Drury, Martyn

    2017-04-01

    The presence of water in mudrocks has a largely negative impact on production of gas, due to the fact that water causes swelling of the rock. Removing the water from the mudrock on the other hand could potentially shrink the rock and increase the matrix permeability. Investigation of the swelling/shrinkage behaviour of the rock during exposure to water vapour is of key importance in designing and optimizing unconventional production strategies. We have used outcrop samples of the Whitby Mudstone and the Posidonia shale [1], potential unconventional sources for gas in North-western Europe, to measure the swelling and shrinkage behaviour. Subsamples, 1 mm cubes, were prepared by the Glass Workshop at Utrecht University using a high precision digitally controlled diamond wafering saw cooled by air. The mm cubes were then exposed to atmospheres with different relative humidities either in an Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope (ESEM) or in a 3D dilatometer. So that the sample responses to exposure of water vapour could be measured. Parallel to the bedding we found a swelling strain between 0.5 and 1.5 %, perpendicular to the bedding though swelling strain varied between 1 and 3.5%. Volumetric swelling strain varied between 1 and 2% at a maximum relative humidity of 95%. Volumetric swelling strains measured in the Early Toarcian Shales are similar to the ones found in coal [2], where the results suggest that it might be possible to increase permeability in the reservoir by decreasing the in-situ water activity due to shrinkage of the matrix. [1] M.E. Houben, A. Barnhoorn, L. Wasch, J. Trabucho-Alexandre, C. J. Peach, M.R. Drury (2016). Microstructures of Early Jurassic (Toarcian) shales of Northern Europe, International Journal of Coal Geology, 165, 76-89. [2] Jinfeng Liu, Colin J. Peach, Christopher J. Spiers (2016). Anisotropic swelling behaviour of coal matrix cubes exposed to water vapour: Effects of relative humidity and sample size, International Journal of

  2. Velocity flow field and water level measurements in shoaling and breaking water waves

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mukaro, R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we report on the laboratory investigations of breaking water waves. Measurements of the water levels and instantaneous fluid velocities were conducted in water waves breaking on a sloping beach within a glass flume. Instantaneous water...

  3. Corrosion fatigue crack growth behaviour of austenitic stainless steels under light water reactor conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seifert, H.P., E-mail: hans-peter.seifert@psi.ch [Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), Nuclear Energy and Safety Research Department, Laboratory for Nuclear Materials, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Ritter, S.; Leber, H.J. [Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), Nuclear Energy and Safety Research Department, Laboratory for Nuclear Materials, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2012-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Corrosion fatigue in austenitic stainless steels under light water reactor conditions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Identification of major parameters of influence. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Critical system conditions for environmental acceleration of fatigue crack growth. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Proposal for new code fatigue curves, which consider environmental effects. - Abstract: The corrosion fatigue crack growth behaviour of different wrought low-carbon and stabilised austenitic stainless steels was characterised under simulated boiling water and primary pressurised water reactor conditions by cyclic fatigue tests with pre-cracked fracture mechanics specimens in the temperature range from 70 to 320 Degree-Sign C. The major parameter effects and critical conjoint threshold conditions, which result in relevant environmental acceleration of fatigue crack growth are discussed and summarised. Furthermore, the observed corrosion fatigue behaviour is compared with the corresponding (corrosion) fatigue curves in the ASME and JSME boiler and pressure vessel code or open literature and conclusions with regard to their adequacy and conservatism are given.

  4. The behaviour of a floating water bridge under reduced gravity conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchs, Elmar C; Agostinho, Luewton L F; Wexler, Adam; Wagterveld, R Martijn; Tuinstra, Jan [Wetsus, Center of Excellence for Sustainable Water Technology, Agora 1, 8900 CC Leeuwarden (Netherlands); Woisetschlaeger, Jakob, E-mail: elmar.fuchs@wetsus.nl [Institute for Thermal Turbomachinery and Machine Dynamics, Graz University of Technology, Inffeldgasse 25A, Graz (Austria)

    2011-01-19

    When high voltage is applied to pure water filled into two beakers close to each other, a connection forms spontaneously, giving the impression of a floating water bridge (Armstrong 1893 The Electrical Engineer pp 154-45, Uhlig W 2005 personal communication, Fuchs et al 2007 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 40 6112-4, Fuchs et al 2008 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41 185502, Fuchs et al 2009 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 42 065502, Fuchs et al 2010 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 43 105502, Woisetschlaeger et al 2010 Exp. Fluids 48 121-31, Nishiumi and Honda 2009 Res. Lett. Phys. Chem. 2009 371650). This phenomenon is of special interest, since it comprises a number of phenomena currently tackled in modern water science. In this work, the behaviour of this phenomenon under reduced gravity conditions during a parabolic flight is presented by the means of high speed imaging with fringe projection. An analysis of the behaviour is presented and compared with theoretical considerations.

  5. Mesoscale barrier estuary behaviour in response to sea-level rise, storms and sediment supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Christine; Kirby, Jason; Plater, Andrew; Lane, Timothy

    2017-04-01

    Future vulnerability and resilience of coastal landscapes, and their associated communities, infrastructure and nature conservation interests, is of increasing concern due to the combined effects of climate change and sea-level rise. The Suffolk coast, UK, characterised by gravel barrier beaches and a spit feature of international geomorphological interest, has changed dramatically. However, existing Holocene research in this respect is limited. Sediments preserved within the enclosed valleys and back-barrier wetlands of Suffolk provide an opportunity to improve understanding of the complex mesoscale (years-decades-centuries) behaviour of coastlines and their geomorphological response to changes in natural forcing. This research aims to reconstruct Holocene changes in coastline behaviour to develop reconstructions of coastal evolution relating to changes in relative sea level, sediment supply and storm incidence. Litho- and bio-stratigraphic analysis (sedimentology, particle size, and diatom analysis) has been undertaken on three marsh and wetland sites in a 5 km section between Walberswick and Dunwich. Though intra-site sediment variability is high, a consistent pattern of interbedded intertidal and freshwater units separated by transitional marsh deposits is seen at all sites. Diatom analysis from two sites (Westwood Marsh and Oldtown Marsh) indicates increased marine and brackish conditions across the organic-minerogenic transitions. The diatom assemblage from Great Dingle Hill, a more seaward site, is dominated by brackish species, with an increase in marine conditions across the main organic-minerogenic stratigraphic transition. Freshwater and salt tolerant species are minimal in this assemblage, indicating a constant saltwater input. The onset of peat deposition has been dated to 6950-6790 cal. BP at the base of the Westwood Marsh sequence. These results contrast with existing research from the Blyth estuary (5 km north) where peat deposition was dated to

  6. Levels of toxaphene congeners in fish from Danish waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fromberg, Arvid; Cederberg, Tommy Licht; Hilbert, G.

    2000-01-01

    The levels of toxaphene congeners, in addition to PCB congeners and organochlorine pesticides, were determined in various fish samples from different Danish waters. While PCB-153 and p,p'-DDE show different levels depending on the fishing area, with highest levels in fish from the Western Baltic...... Sea, toxaphene was detected in all the samples investigated at a more constant level. The distribution of the three toxaphene congeners Parlar #26, #50 and #62 depends on the fishing area, with the Western Baltic Sea being different from the other waters by having almost equal levels of toxaphene...

  7. Hydrogen influence on the behaviour of alloy 718 in primary water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foucault, M.; Cloue, J.M. [Societe Franco-Americaine de Constructions Atomiques (FRAMATOME), 92 - Paris-La-Defense (France); Splimont, J.G.; Andrieu, E. [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines, 75 - Paris (France)

    1996-12-31

    Cold-worked and aged alloy 718 is used in nuclear industry for application in primary water. Main risks are stress corrosion cracks (SCC) during high temperature periods, and mechanical characteristics evolution (mainly ductility loss at low temperature) related with hydrogen dissolved in metal. SCC risks can be drastically decreased by a good surface conditioning control. However, hydrogen influence upon mechanical behaviour of this alloy has to be taken into account.It is still badly known and specific studies are actually undertaken on this subject. (authors). 3 refs., 1 fig.

  8. Determination of fluoride level in drinking water from water samples in Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabita M Ram

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The concentration of fluoride in drinking water influences the dental caries situation in the region. There are no studies reported determining the fluoride levels in drinking water supplies of Navi Mumbai. Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the fluoride level in drinking water samples from different areas of Navi Mumbai region. Materials and Methods: In an in vitro experimental study, water samples were collected from seven different locations of Navi Mumbai region. Water samples were collected from the Morbe dam, water purification plant at Bhokarpada in Raigad district, and five randomly selected residential areas of Navi Mumbai region. A total of 35 water subsamples were analyzed for fluoride content using fluoride analysis kit (HiMedia AQUACheck Fluoride Testing Kit. Results: The mean concentration of fluoride level in water samples from dam, water purification plant, as well as the five random residential areas was 0.5 mg/L (1 mg/L = 1 ppm. The fluoride level remained constant throughout from the source till the end consumer. Conclusion: There was no effect of water purification process at the plant on fluoride content of water samples. Similarly, the fluoride content was constant in the distributed purified water to residential areas. In this study, it was observed that the fluoride level in drinking water of Navi Mumbai was below the recommended levels by the World Health Organization as well as the Ministry of Health, Government of India.

  9. Sea Levels Online: Sea Level Variations of the United States Derived from National Water Level Observation Network Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water level records are a combination of the fluctuations of the ocean and the vertical land motion at the location of the station. Monthly mean sea level (MSL)...

  10. Effects of Fe-chlorosis on the stomatal behaviour and water relations of field-grown peach leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Eichert, Thomas; Peguero-Pina, Jose J.; Gil-Pelegrin, Eustaquio; Fernández, Victoria

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the effects of Fe nutrition on the stomatal behaviour and water relations of peach leaves (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch, cv. Miraflores), under field conditions. Transpiration rates, net photosynthesis and water use efficiency were significantly lower in chlorotic leaves than in healthy green leaves. In the course of the day, the water potentials in healthy leaves strongly declined to –2.0 MPa, whereas in chlorotic leaves the minimum water potential was only -1.0 MPa. The hydrau...

  11. Activity level and aggregation behaviour in the crustacean gammarid Gammarus insensibilis parasitized by the manipulative trematode Microphallus papillorobustus

    OpenAIRE

    Audrey eArnal; Anaïs eDroit; Hugo eDucasse; Sanchez, Marta I.; THIERRY eLEFEVRE; Dorothee eMisse; Malia eBeredina; Marion eVittecoq; Simon eDaoust; Frédéric eThomas

    2015-01-01

    Hosts manipulated by parasites are profoundly altered organisms exhibiting a broad range of potential modifications. Exploring this multidimensionality is an emerging field. Previous studies have shown that the bird trematode Microphallus papillorobustus induces several behavioural changes in the gammarid Gammarus insensibilis. Knowing that aggregation behaviour and reduced activity levels are strategies that limit predation in other species of amphipods, we explored in this study these behav...

  12. The level of social contact affects social behaviour in pre-weaned dairy calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duve, Linda Rosager; Jensen, Margit Bak

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of the level of social contact in the home environment on the social preference, bonding and social behaviour of pre-weaned dairy calves. Twenty-seven pairs of calves were reared from birth until 6 weeks either individually (with limited social contact...... environment. The following day the social preference was evaluated in a triangular test arena where the calves could choose between the companion and an unfamiliar calf. Finally, at 6 weeks of age the response of the calves to a novel arena, alone and with the companion, was measured. During separation...... in the home environment L-calves spent more time being inactive (F: 779 ± 65, LF: 731 ± 69, L: 975 ± 65 s; P = 0.04) compared to LF-calves and F-calves. During the preference test more F-calves approached the companion before the unfamiliar calf, while more Lcalves approached the unfamiliar calf first (F: 8...

  13. A new way of assessing foraging behaviour at the individual level using faeces marking and satellite telemetry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Andrée Giroux

    Full Text Available Heterogeneity in foraging behaviour can profoundly influence ecological processes shaping populations. To scale-up from individual foraging behaviour to processes occurring at the population scale, one needs to sample foraging behaviour at the individual level, and over large temporal scales or during critical seasons known to influence life-history traits. We developed an innovative technique to monitor foraging behaviour at the individual level in secretive species, a technique that can be ultimately used to investigate the links between foraging behaviour and life-history traits. First, the technique used a novel approach, namely the combination of telemetry tracking and biomarking of faeces with food dyes to locate fresh signs of presence left by individuals equipped with GPS collars. Second, the technique is based on the simultaneous or successive sampling of life-history traits and individual foraging behaviour, using tracks with high probabilities of recovery of dyed faeces. We first describe our methodological approach, using a case study of a large herbivore, and then provide recommendations and guidelines for its use. Sampling single snow tracks of individuals equipped with a GPS collar was a reliable way to assess individual winter foraging behaviour in a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus Zimmermann population. During that period, the probability of recovery of dyed faeces within the range of the collar precision was very high for single snow tracks of equipped deer (97%. Our approach is well suited to study individual foraging behaviour, and could ultimately be used to investigate the interplay between intra-population heterogeneity in foraging behaviour, life-history traits, and demographic processes.

  14. Tobacco retailer density surrounding schools and youth smoking behaviour: a multi-level analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leatherdale Scott T

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Youth smoking prevention should be a public health priority. It is not only vital to prevent youth from smoking but also to prevent non-smoking youth from becoming susceptible to smoking. Past research has examined factors associated with youth's susceptibility to become a future smoker, but research has yet to examine tobacco retailer density and susceptibility to smoking among never smokers. The objectives of this study are to examine how tobacco retailer density surrounding schools and social smoking influences are associated with smoking susceptibility among youth of never smokers, and occasional and daily smoking among youth of current smokers. Methods Data were collected in 2005-2006 from grade 9 to 12 students attending 76 secondary schools in Ontario, Canada, as part of the SHAPES-On study. A series of multi-level logistic regression analyses were performed to understand how student- and school-level factors are associated with three smoking behaviour outcomes: smoking susceptibility among never smokers, occasional smoking, and daily smoking. Results The number of tobacco retailers surrounding a school was found to be associated with the likelihood of a never smoker being susceptible to future smoking (OR 1.03, 95CI% 1.01, 1.05. We also identified that being surrounded by smoking social influences, specifically family and close friends, can substantially increase the likelihood that never smokers are at risk for future smoking or that youth are already occasional or daily smokers. Conclusions We identified that the number of tobacco retailers surrounding a school was associated with an increased odds of being susceptible to future smoking among male never smokers. Smoking social models surrounding youth also appears to have an important impact on their smoking behaviour regardless of their smoking status. It is important for youth smoking prevention programs to begin early, interrupt youths' susceptibility to future

  15. Effects of DNA methylation inhibitors and conventional antidepressants on mice behaviour and brain DNA methylation levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, Amanda Juliana; Joca, Sâmia Regiane Lourenço

    2016-02-01

    Stress increases DNA methylation and decreases the expression of genes involved in neural plasticity, while treatment with DNA methyltransferase inhibitors (DNMTi) increases gene expression and induces antidepressant-like effects in preclinical models. Therefore, the aim of the present work was to further investigate the potential antidepressant-like effect induced by DNMTi by evaluating the behavioural effects induced by associating DNMTi treatment with conventional antidepressant drugs in mice submitted to the forced swimming test (FST). In addition, brain levels of DNA methylation were also investigated. Mice received systemic injections of 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-AzaD, 0.1, 0.2 mg/kg), RG108 (0.1, 0.2, 0.4 mg/kg), desipramine (DES, 2.5, 5, 10 mg/kg) or fluoxetine (FLX, 5, 10, 20, 30 mg/kg) and were submitted to the FST or to the open field test (OFT). Additional groups received a combination of subeffective doses of 5-AzaD or RG108 (DNMTi) with subeffective doses of DES or FLX (antidepressants). Subeffective doses of RG108 (0.1 mg/kg) or 5-AzaD (0.1 mg/kg) in association with subeffective doses of DES (2.5 mg/kg) or FLX (10 mg/kg) induced significant antidepressant-like effects. Effective doses of RG108 (0.2 mg/kg), 5-AzaD (0.2 mg/kg), DES (10 mg/kg) and FLX (20 mg/kg) atenuated stress-induced changes in DNA methylation levels in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. None of the treatments induced locomotor effects in the OFT. These results suggest that DNMTi potentiate the behavioural effects of antidepressant drugs in the FST and that antidepressants, as well as DNMTi, are able to modulate stress-induced changes in DNA methylation in brain regions closely associated with the neurobiology of depression.

  16. Predicting Water Levels at Kainji Dam Using Artificial Neural Networks

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Poor electricity generation in Nigeria is a very serious problem. Accurate prediction of water levels in dams is very important in power planning. Effective power planning helps in ensuring steady supply of electric power to consumers. The aim of this study is to develop artificial neural network models for predicting water ...

  17. Determination of radionuclide levels in soil and water around ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study of the radionuclide concentration levels in soil and water samples in Eagle, Atlas and rock cement companies in Port Harcourt was carried out. Soil and water samples collected from the respective premises were analyzed using the gamma -ray spectrometry. The average absorbed dose rates of the soil samples ...

  18. Socio–economic benefits and pollution levels of water resources ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Communities are dependent on wetlands resources for income generation. However, anthropogenic activities that result into pollution of water are one of the major public health problems. Assessment of socio–economic activities and pollution levels of domestic water sources in Gulu Municipality, Pece wetland was done.

  19. Typhoon and elevated radon level in a municipal water supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, Cheng-Hsin [Nuclear Science and Development Center, National Tsing Hua Univ., Taiwan (China); Weng, Pao-Shan [Radiation Protection Association ROC, Taiwan (China)

    2000-05-01

    The Municipal Water Supply at Hsinchu City is a water treatment plant using poly- aluminum chloride (PAC) for coagulation and then followed by precipitation and filtration. Its capacity is 70,000 m{sup 3}/day. The raw water is drawn from the nearby river. Since the subject of interest is the radon level during typhoon season, the sampling period was from March to December 1999. Commercially available electret was used for water samples taken from the five ponds in the plant. This technique relies on the measurement of radon in air above a water sample enclosed in a sealed vessel. The concentration of airbone radon released from water was determined by means of the electret ion chamber. During the first sampling period there came two typhoons. One is called Magie during June 10-17, and the other called Sam during August 20-26. The first typhoon led to the radon level measured from the water samples as high as 705 Bq/m{sup 3}, while the second caused even higher radon level as high as 772 Bq/m{sup 3}. Similar results were obtained for the second sampling period after August till December 1999. For those measured without typhoon influence, the average radon was lower from the coagulation pond yet without coagulation process during March through August 1999. However, water samples taken from the pond after precipitation did not show similar results in radon level. (author)

  20. Arsenic contamination levels in drinking water sources in mining ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arsenic contamination in drinking water is a public health problem all over the World especially in mining areas. The study herein reported assessed the concentration levels of arsenic in some drinking water sources in the mining areas in the Lake Victoria Basin and investigated the potential for its removal by adsorption ...

  1. Water-level change, High Plains aquifer, 2005 to 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This raster data set represents water-level change in the High Plains aquifer of the United States from 2005 to 2009, in feet. The High Plains aquifer underlies...

  2. NOS CO-OPS Water Level Data, Verified, Hourly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has verified (quality-controlled), hourly, water level (tide) data from NOAA NOS Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services (CO-OPS)....

  3. NOS CO-OPS Water Level Data, Preliminary, 6-Minute

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has recent, preliminary (not quality-controlled), 6-minute, water level (tide) data from NOAA NOS Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and...

  4. NOS CO-OPS Water Level Data, Preliminary, 1-Minute

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has recent, preliminary (not quality-controlled), 1-minute, water level (tide) data from NOAA NOS Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and...

  5. NOS CO-OPS Water Level Data, Verified, 6-Minute

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has verified (quality-controlled), 6-minute, water level (tide) data from NOAA NOS Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services (CO-OPS)....

  6. NOS CO-OPS Water Level Data, Verified, High Low

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has verified (quality-controlled), daily, high low water level (tide) data from NOAA NOS Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services...

  7. 2012 Water Levels - Mojave River and the Morongo Groundwater Basins

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — During 2012, the U.S. Geological Survey and other agencies made approximately 2,500 water-level measurements in the Mojave River and Morongo groundwater basins....

  8. Initial Survey Instructions for management unit water monitoring : level

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Initial survey instructions for 1.08 management unit water monitoring (level) survey on Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. This survey is conducted weekly and is...

  9. Water-level change, High Plains aquifer, 1980 to 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This raster data set represents water-level change in the High Plains aquifer of the United States from 1980 to 1995, in feet. The High Plains aquifer underlies...

  10. Water-level change, High Plains aquifer, 1995 to 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This raster data set represents water-level change in the High Plains aquifer of the United States from 1995 to 2000, in feet. The High Plains aquifer underlies...

  11. Water-level change, High Plains aquifer, 2000 to 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This raster data set represents water-level change in the High Plains aquifer of the United States from 2000 to 2005, in feet. The High Plains aquifer underlies...

  12. The relation between cerebral serotonin levels and conditioned behaviour in the rat following the administration of LSD-25 and UML.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torre, M; Torre, E; Bogetto, F

    1975-01-01

    Successive daily injections of LSD-25 and UML (1-methyl-d-lysergic acid butanolamide) caused progressive depression of brain 5-HT levels in the rat. On the fourth day, the decrease was significant with respect to the highly significant fall observed after a single administration, whereas it had been shown earlier that conditioned behaviour is no longer affected by LSD-25 after 3 days and that simultaneous administration of a single dose of LSD-25 and UML is equally ineffective in this respect. Its depression of 5-HT levels, however, has now been shown to be equal to that of LSD-25 alone at doses that influence conditioned behaviour. The findings indicate that changes in such behaviour are not dependent on brain 5-HT levels and that no link exists between such levels and the psychotomimetic effect of LSD-25 in man.

  13. The genetic basis of novel water utilisation and drinking behaviour traits and their relationship with biological performance in turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusakovica, Julija; Kremer, Valentin D; Plötz, Thomas; Rohlf, Paige; Kyriazakis, Ilias

    2017-09-29

    There is increasing interest in the definition, measurement and use of traits associated with water use and drinking behaviour, mainly because water is a finite resource and its intake is an important part of animal health and well-being. Analysis of such traits has received little attention, due in part to the lack of appropriate technology to measure drinking behaviour. We exploited novel equipment to collect water intake data in two lines of turkey (A: 27,415 and B: 12,956 birds). The equipment allowed continuous recording of individual visits to the water station in a group environment. Our aim was to identify drinking behaviour traits of biological relevance, to estimate their genetic parameters and their genetic relationships with performance traits, and to identify drinking behaviour strategies among individuals. Visits to the drinkers were clustered into bouts, i.e. time intervals spent in drinking-related activity. Based on this, biologically relevant traits were defined: (1) number of visits per bout, (2) water intake per bout, (3) drinking time per bout, (4) drinking rate, (5) daily bout frequency, (6) daily bout duration, (7) daily drinking time and (8) daily water intake. Heritability estimates for most drinking behaviour traits were moderate to high and the most highly heritable traits were drinking rate (0.49 and 0.50) and daily drinking time (0.35 and 0.46 in lines A and B, respectively). Genetic correlations between drinking behaviour and performance traits were low except for moderate correlations between daily water intake and weight gain (0.46 and 0.47 in lines A and B, respectively). High estimates of breeding values for weight gain were found across the whole range of estimated breeding values for daily water intake, daily drinking time and water intake per bout. We show for the first time that drinking behaviour traits are moderately to highly heritable. Low genetic and phenotypic correlations with performance traits suggest that current

  14. Transient response of Salix cuttings to changing water level regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorla, L.; Signarbieux, C.; Turberg, P.; Buttler, A.; Perona, P.

    2015-03-01

    Sustainable water management requires an understanding of the effects of flow regulation on riparian ecomorphological processes. We investigated the transient response of Salix viminalis by examining the effect of water-level regimes on its above-ground and below-ground biomass. Four sets of Salix cuttings, three juveniles (in the first growing season) and one mature (1 year old), were planted and initially grown under the same water-level regime for 1 month. We imposed three different water-level regime treatments representing natural variability, a seasonal trend with no peaks, and minimal flow (characteristic of hydropower) consisting of a constant water level and natural flood peaks. We measured sap flux, stem water potential, photosynthesis, growth parameters, and final root architecture. The mature cuttings were not affected by water table dynamics, but the juveniles displayed causal relationships between the changing water regime, plant growth, and root distribution during a 2 month transient period. For example, a 50% drop in mean sap flux corresponded with a -1.5 Mpa decrease in leaf water potential during the first day after the water regime was changed. In agreement with published field observations, the cuttings concentrated their roots close to the mean water table of the corresponding treatment, allowing survival under altered conditions and resilience to successive stress events. Juvenile development was strongly impacted by the minimum flow regime, leading to more than 60% reduction of both above-ground and below-ground biomass, with respect to the other treatments. Hence, we suggest avoiding minimum flow regimes where Salix restoration is prioritized.

  15. Effects of different dietary protein levels during rearing and different dietary energy levels during lay on behaviour and feather cover in broiler breeder females

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emous, Van Rick A.; Kwakkel, René; Krimpen, van Marinus; Hendriks, Wouter

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of different dietary protein levels during rearing and different dietary energy levels during lay on behaviour and feather cover in broiler breeder females. A 2×3×2 factorial arrangement of treatments was used. A total of 2880 Ross 308

  16. Water disinfection and hygiene behaviour in an urban slum in Kenya: impact on childhood diarrhoea and influence of beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Jürg; Meierhofer, Regula; Wegelin, Martin; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2008-10-01

    In this research project, we studied factors that presumably affect the incidence of diarrhoea among young children in urban slums in developing countries: consumption of safe drinks, hygiene behaviour, cleanliness of household surroundings and the quality of raw water. Beliefs concerning the causes of diarrhoea were also related to health-improving behaviour, namely the application of the water-treatment method SODIS (solar water disinfection) and hygiene behaviour. We conducted a survey in a shanty town in Nairobi, Kenya. Field workers interviewed 500 households. Analysis with regression models revealed that two out of the four postulated factors were significant: children have a lower risk of contracting diarrhoea when they consume high percentages of safe drinks and live in households with good hygiene. As regards beliefs, we found that biomedical knowledge of children's diarrhoea as well as the perceived social norm for treating water was associated with the use of SODIS and good hygiene.

  17. Determination of Heavy Metal Levels in Various Industrial Waste Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Şahin Dündar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Important part of the environmetal pollution consists of waste water and water pollution. The water polluted by anthropogenical, industrial, and agricultural originated sources are defined as waste waters which are the main pollution sources for reservoirs, rivers, lakes, and seas. In this work, waste waters of leather, textile, automotive side, and metal plating industries were used to determine the levels of Cu, Zn, Cr, Pb and Ni by using Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometer. As a result, highest mean levels of copper in supernatants of plating and textile industries were observed as 377,18 ng ml-1, respectively 103 ng ml-1 lead and 963,6 ng ml-1 nickel in plating industry, 1068,2 ng ml-1 zinc and 14557,1 ng ml-1 chromium in plating and leather industries were determined.

  18. Colony-level behavioural variation correlates with differences in expression of the foraging gene in red imported fire ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockoven, Alison A; Coates, Craig J; Eubanks, Micky D

    2017-11-01

    Among social insects, colony-level variation is likely to be widespread and has significant ecological consequences. Very few studies, however, have documented how genetic factors relate to behaviour at the colony level. Differences in expression of the foraging gene have been associated with differences in foraging and activity of a wide variety of organisms. We quantified expression of the red imported fire ant foraging gene (sifor) in workers from 21 colonies collected across the natural range of Texas fire ant populations, but maintained under standardized, environmentally controlled conditions. Colonies varied significantly in their behaviour. The most active colonies had up to 10 times more active foragers than the least active colony and more than 16 times as many workers outside the nest. Expression differences among colonies correlated with this colony-level behavioural variation. Colonies with higher sifor expression in foragers had, on average, significantly higher foraging activity, exploratory activity and recruitment to nectar than colonies with lower expression. Expression of sifor was also strongly correlated with worker task (foraging vs. working in the interior of the nest). These results provide insight into the genetic and physiological processes underlying collective differences in social behaviour. Quantifying variation in expression of the foraging gene may provide an important tool for understanding and predicting the ecological consequences of colony-level behavioural variation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Water levels of the Ozark aquifer in northern Arkansas, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, Tony P.

    2015-07-13

    The Ozark aquifer is the largest aquifer, both in area of outcrop and thickness, and the most important source of freshwater in the Ozark Plateaus physiographic province, supplying water to northern Arkansas, southeastern Kansas, southern Missouri, and northeastern Oklahoma. The study area includes 16 Arkansas counties lying completely or partially within the Ozark Plateaus of the Interior Highlands major physiographic division. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Arkansas Natural Resources Commission and the Arkansas Geological Survey, conducted a study of water levels in the Ozark aquifer within Arkansas. This report presents a potentiometric-surface map of the Ozark aquifer within the Ozark Plateaus of northern Arkansas, representing water-level conditions for the early spring of 2013 and selected water-level hydrographs.

  20. Global Gray Water Footprint and Water Pollution Levels Related to Anthropogenic Nitrogen Loads to Fresh Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonnen, Mesfin M; Hoekstra, Arjen Y

    2015-11-03

    This is the first global assessment of nitrogen-related water pollution in river basins with a specification of the pollution by economic sector, and by crop for the agricultural sector. At a spatial resolution of 5 by 5 arc minute, we estimate anthropogenic nitrogen (N) loads to freshwater, calculate the resultant gray water footprints (GWFs), and relate the GWFs per river basin to runoff to calculate the N-related water pollution level (WPL) per catchment. The accumulated global GWF related to anthropogenic N loads in the period 2002-2010 was 13×10(12) m3/y. China contributed about 45% to the global total. Three quarters of the GWF related to N loads came from diffuse sources (agriculture), 23% from domestic point sources and 2% from industrial point sources. Among the crops, production of cereals had the largest contribution to the N-related GWF (18%), followed by vegetables (15%) and oil crops (11%). The river basins with WPL>1 (where the N load exceeds the basin's assimilation capacity), cover about 17% of the global land area, contribute about 9% of the global river discharge, and provide residence to 48% of the global population.

  1. Monitoring water levels by integrating optical and synthetic aperture radar water masks with lidar DEMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkinson, C.; Brisco, B.; Patterson, S.

    2014-12-01

    The ability to map and monitor wetland and lake open water extent and levels across the landscape allows improved estimates of watershed water balance, surface storage and flood inundation. The study presents open water classifications over the wetland dominated Sheppard Slough watershed east of Calgary in western Canada using parallel temporal imagery captured from the RapidEye and RadarSat satellites throughout 2013, a year of widespread and costly flood inundation in this region. The optical and SAR-based temporal image stacks were integrated with a high-resolution lidar DEM in order to delineate regions of inundation on the DEM surface. GIS techniques were developed to extract lidar-derived water surface elevations and track the spatio-temporal variation in pond and lake water level across the watershed. Water bodies were assigned unique identifiers so that levels could be tracked and linked to their associated watershed channel reach. The procedure of optical image classification through to merging of individual water bodies into watershed channel topology and extracting reach water levels has been automated within python scripts. The presentation will describe: i) the procedures used; ii) a comparison of the SAR and optical classification and water level extraction results; iii) a discussion of the spatio-temporal variations in water level across the Sheppard Slough watershed; and iv) a commentary on how the approach could be implemented for web-based operational monitoring and as simulation initialisation inputs for flood inundation model studies.

  2. Prediction of the wetting-induced collapse behaviour using the soil-water characteristic curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wan-Li; Li, Ping; Vanapalli, Sai K.; Wang, Jia-Ding

    2018-01-01

    Collapsible soils go through three distinct phases in response to matric suction decrease during wetting: pre-collapse phase, collapse phase and post-collapse phase. It is reasonable and conservative to consider a strain path that includes a pre-collapse phase in which constant volume is maintained and a collapse phase that extends to the final matric suction to be experienced by collapsible soils during wetting. Upon this assumption, a method is proposed for predicting the collapse behaviour due to wetting. To use the proposed method, two parameters, critical suction and collapse rate, are required. The former is the suction value below which significant collapse deformations take place in response to matric suction decease, and the later is the rate at which void ratio reduces with matric suction in the collapse phase. The value of critical suction can be estimated from the water-entry value taking account of both the microstructure characteristics and collapse mechanism of fine-grained collapsible soils; the wetting soil-water characteristic curve thus can be used as a tool. Five sets of data of wetting tests on both compacted and natural collapsible soils reported in the literature were used to validate the proposed method. The critical suction values were estimated from the water-entry value with parameter a that is suggested to vary between 0.10 and 0.25 for compacted soils and to be lower for natural collapsible soils. The results of a field permeation test in collapsible loess soils were also used to validate the proposed method. The relatively good agreement between the measured and estimated collapse deformations suggests that the proposed method can provide reasonable prediction of the collapse behaviour due to wetting.

  3. Influence of Reservoir Water Level Fluctuations on Sediment ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercury (Hg) is a pollutant of global concern due to its ability to accumulate as methylmercury (MeHg) in biota. Mercury is methylated by anaerobic microorganisms such as sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) in water and sediment. Throughout North America, reservoirs tend to have elevated methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations compared to natural lakes and rivers. This impact is most pronounced in newly created reservoirs where methylation is fueled by the decomposition of flooded organic material, which can release Hg and enhance microbial activity. Much less is known about the longer-term water-level management impacts on Hg cycling in older reservoirs. The objective of our study was to understand the role of on-going water-level fluctuations on sediment MeHg concentrations and sulfur speciation within a reservoir 75 years after initial impoundment. The study was performed at the Cottage Grove Reservoir located 15 km downstream of the historical Black Butte Hg mine. For 8 months each year, the water level is lowered resulting in roughly half of the reservoir’s sediment being exposed to the atmosphere. Water samples from the inflow, water-column, outflow, and sediment were collected seasonally over a year for total-Hg, MeHg, and several ancillary parameters. The results showed that conditions in the reservoir were favorable to methylation with a much higher %MeHg observed in the outflowing water (34%) compared to the inflow (7%) during the late-summer. An

  4. Processing of water level derived from water pressure data at the Time Series Station Spiekeroog

    OpenAIRE

    Holinde, L.; Badewien, T. H.; Freund, J. A.; E. V. Stanev; Zielinski, O.

    2015-01-01

    The quality of water level time series data strongly varies with periods of high- and low-quality sensor data. In this paper we are presenting the processing steps which were used to generate high-quality water level data from water pressure measured at the Time Series Station (TSS) Spiekeroog. The TSS is positioned in a tidal inlet between the islands of Spiekeroog and Langeoog in the East Frisian Wadden Sea (southern North Sea). The processing steps will cover sensor drift...

  5. Partitioning behaviour of perfluorinated alkyl contaminants between water, sediment and fish in the Orge River (nearby Paris, France)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labadie, Pierre, E-mail: pierre.labadie@upmc.f [UMR 7619 Sisyphe, CNRS/UPMC, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, BP 105, 4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Chevreuil, Marc [Laboratoire Hydrologie et Environnement EPHE, UMR 7619 Sisyphe, CNRS/UPMC, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, BP 105, 4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2011-02-15

    This paper reports on the partitioning behaviour of 15 perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), including C{sub 4}-C{sub 10} sulfonates and C{sub 5}-C{sub 14} carboxylic acids, between water, sediment and fish (European chub, Leuciscus cephalus) in the Orge River (nearby Paris). Total PFC levels were 73.0 {+-} 3.0 ng L{sup -1} in water and 8.4 {+-} 0.5 ng g{sup -1} in sediment. They were in the range 43.1-4997.2 ng g{sup -1} in fish, in which PFC tissue distribution followed the order plasma > liver > gills > gonads > muscle. Sediment-water distribution coefficients (log K{sub d}) and bioaccumulation factors (log BAF) were in the range 0.8-4.3 and 0.9-6.7, respectively. Both distribution coefficients positively correlated with perfluoroalkyl chain length. Field-based biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) are also reported, for the first time for PFCs other than perfluorooctane sulfonate. log BSAF ranged between -1.3 and 1.5 and was negatively correlated with the perfluoroalkyl chain length in the case of carboxylic acids. - Research highlights: PFC tissue distribution in European chub followed the order plasma > liver > gills > gonads > muscle. K{sub d} and BAF correlated with PFC alkyl chain length. BSAF negatively correlated with the perfluoroalkyl chain length in the case of carboxylic acids. BSAF did not correlate with alkyl chain length of sulfonates. - Sediment-water, biota-water and biota-sediment partitioning coefficients were determined for perfluorinated acids and sulfonates and were generally correlated with alkyl chain length.

  6. Water Security at Local Government Level: What do People Think?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Meissner, Richard

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Meissner_2016.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 2853 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Meissner_2016.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Water Security at Local... Government Level: What do People Think? By Dr. Richard Meissner Integrated Water Assessment Group Natural Resources and the Environment Council for Scientific and Industrial Research Presented at the Sustainable Water Seminar 2016, CSIR ICC, 2...

  7. TRIBOLOGICAL BEHAVIOURS OF ABS AND PA6 POLYMERMETAL SLIDING COMBINATIONS UNDER DRY FRICTION, WATER ABSORBED AND ELECTROPLATED CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MITHUN V. KULKARNI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The friction and wear properties of polyamide 6 (PA6 and poly-Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS sliding against metal under dry sliding, water absorption and electroplated (EP conditions were studied by using a pin-ondisc tribometer. The effect of applied load and sliding speed on the tribological behaviours of the polymer–metal sliding combinations under dry sliding, water absorbed and EP conditions were also investigated. The worn surfaces were examined by using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM. Experimental results showed that ABS samples under water absorbed conditions showed higher wear loss compared to normal samples and the EP samples had exhibited lower wear loss compared to the water absorbed samples. Similarly EP-PA6 samples exhibited excellent wear resistance when compared with EP-ABS samples. Further, it was observed that the frictional heat produced on account of sliding action had a significant effect on the tribological behaviours of samples under dry sliding and water absorbed conditions.

  8. Motivational indicators of protective behaviour in response to urban water shortage threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankad, Aditi; Greenhill, Murni; Tucker, David; Tapsuwan, Sorada

    2013-05-01

    The present study examined the role of protection motivation variables in predicting rainwater tank adoption among urban householders. A regression analysis found that subjective knowledge, threat appraisal, response efficacy, response costs, subjective norms and social norms significantly predicted adaptive behavioural intentions (F(6, 399) = 50.769, p subjective knowledge and subjective norms). This suggests that people who perceive there is a real water shortage threat, and believe that rainwater tanks are effective in relieving the threat and require minimal or manageable effort to obtain, are more likely to install a tank on their property as a protective measure. Implications of these results are discussed from a research and policy perspective. Recommendations for future motivational research in the area of urban decentralised system acceptance and adoption are presented.

  9. Responses of Nile tilapia to different levels of water salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Vieira de Azevedo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A 45 day experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of water salinity on the performance, haematological parameters and histological characteristics of the gills of the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. The water salinity levels evaluated were: 0, 7, 14 and 21 g L-1. Nile tilapia specimens (1.62 ± 0.01 g, distributed into 20 fibreglass tanks (100 L at a density of 15 fish per tank. There were no significant differences of the water salinity levels on daily feed intake; however, there were differences (P 0.05 between these levels. Regarding the haematological parameters, it was observed that the percentage of the haematocrits and the erythrocyte count were influenced (P < 0.05 by the water salinity level, which was not observed for the leukocyte count. The observed histopathological alterations were chloride cell hypertrophy, epithelial lifting, structure alteration, telangiectasia, primary lamellae cells aggregation, fusion and occurrence of aneurisms of different sizes in some secondary lamellae. Regarding the frequency of gills infection intensity, there were slight changes between the salinities of 0, 7 and 14 g L-1 and moderate changes at 21 g L-1. It is concluded that Nile tilapia can be reared in water salinities of up to 7 g L-1 without damage to the parameters evaluated in this work.

  10. Temperatures and Water Levels at Tanana Flats Monitoring Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    a Druck pressure trans- ducer near the bottom. In response to this drawdown, the initial record showed a water level of 1.13 m on 1 April 2005, which...gradually increased to 1.68 m on 8 April. Freezing of the sensor on 9–10 April ended the reli- able water level record. A pair of replacement Drucks ...again, and a new Druck was installed to replace those that had been frozen. With rising tem- peratures at the bottom of the well, an injection of 400 g

  11. Individual and group level trajectories of behavioural development in Border collies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riemer, Stefanie; Müller, Corsin; Virányi, Zsófia; Huber, Ludwig; Range, Friederike

    2017-01-01

    In order to assess dogs’ personality changes during ontogeny, a cohort of 69 Border collies was followed up from six to 18–24 months. When the dogs were 6, 12, and 18–24 months old, their owners repeatedly filled in a dog personality questionnaire (DPQ), which yielded five personality factors divided into fifteen facets. All five DPQ factors were highly correlated between the three age classes, indicating that the dogs’ personality remained consistent relative to other individuals. Nonetheless, at the group level significant changes with age were found for four of the five DPQ factors. Fearfulness, Aggression towards People, Responsiveness to Training and Aggression towards Animals increased with age; only Activity/Excitability did not change significantly over time. These changes in DPQ factor scores occurred mainly between the ages of 6 and 12 months, although some facets changed beyond this age. No sex differences were found for any of the tested factors or facets, suggesting that individual variation in personality was greater than male/female differences. There were significant litter effects for the factors Fearfulness, Aggression towards People and Activity/Excitability, indicating either a strong genetic basis for these traits or a high influence of the shared early environment. To conclude, from the age of six months, consistency in personality relative to other individuals can be observed in Border collies. However, at the group level, increases in fearful and aggressive behaviours occur up to 12 months and for some traits up to two years, highlighting the need for early interventions. Follow-up studies are needed to assess trajectories of personality development prior to six months and after two years, and to include a wider variety of breeds. PMID:28184101

  12. Monitoring and Modelling of Salinity Behaviour in Drinking Water Ponds in Southern Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, M. A.; Williams, A.; Mathewson, E.; Rahman, A. K. M. M.; Ahmed, K. M.; Scheelbeek, P. F. D.; Vineis, P.; Butler, A. P.

    2015-12-01

    Drinking water in southern Bangladesh is provided by a variety of sources including constructed storage ponds, seasonal rainwater and, ubiquitously saline, shallow groundwater. The ponds, the communal reservoirs for harvested rainwater, also tend to be saline, some as high as 2 g/l. Drinking water salinity has several health impacts including high blood pressure associated major risk factor for several cardio-vascular diseases. Two representative drinking water ponds in Dacope Upazila of Khulna District in southwest Bangladesh were monitored over two years for rainfall, evaporation, pond and groundwater level, abstraction, and solute concentration, to better understand the controls on drinking water salinity. Water level monitoring at both ponds shows groundwater levels predominantly below the pond level throughout the year implying a downward gradient. The grain size analysis of the underlying sediments gives an estimated hydraulic conductivity of 3E-8 m/s allowing limited seepage loss. Water balance modelling indicates that the seepage has a relatively minor effect on the pond level and that the bulk of the losses come from the combination of evaporation and abstraction particularly in dry season when precipitation, the only inflow to the pond, is close to zero. Seasonal variation in salinity (electrical conductivities, EC, ranged between 1500 to 3000 μS/cm) has been observed, and are primarily due to dilution from rainfall and concentration from evaporation, except on one occasion when EC reached 16,000 μS/cm due to a breach in the pond levee. This event was analogous to the episodic inundation that occurs from tropical cyclone storm surges and appears to indicate that such events are important for explaining the widespread salinisation of surface water and shallow groundwater bodies in coastal areas. A variety of adaptations (either from practical protection measures) or novel alternative drinking sources (such as aquifer storage and recovery) can be applied

  13. A Comparative Study of Mothers' Beliefs and Childrearing Behaviour: The Effect of the Child's Disability and the Mother's Educational Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roskam, Isabelle

    2005-01-01

    The article presents the results of a data analysis intended to examine the relationship between children's personality, maternal beliefs and childrearing behaviour and various disabilities on the one hand (mildly, moderate or severe mental handicap, sensorial handicap, developmental disabilities) and mothers' educational level on the other. Data…

  14. Lateralization in escape behaviour at different hierarchical levels in a gecko: Tarentola angustimentalis from Eastern Canary Islands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique García-Muñoz

    Full Text Available At the individual level, to be behaviourally lateralized avoids costly duplication of neural circuitry and decreases possible contradictory order from the two brain hemispheres. However, being prey behaviour lateralized at higher hierarchical levels could generate different negative implications, especially if predators are able to make predictions after multiple encounters. These conflicting pressures, namely between the advantages for individuals and the disadvantages for populations could be concealed if higher-level lateralization would arise from the combination of lateralized behaviours of individuals which are mutually dependent. Here, we investigated the lateralization patterns in the escape behaviour of the gecko Tarentola angustimentalis undergoing a predatory attack simulation in a "T" maze experiment. Results showed that gecko populations displayed different degrees of lateralization, with an overall dominance of right-biased individuals. This trend is similar to that observed in the Podarcis wall lizards, which share predators with Tarentola. In addition, different morphological parameters plausible to affect refuge selection were explored in order to link directional asymmetries at morphological level with lateralization during refuge selection.

  15. Lateralization in escape behaviour at different hierarchical levels in a gecko: Tarentola angustimentalis from Eastern Canary Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Muñoz, Enrique; Rato, Catarina; Jorge, Fátima; Carretero, Miguel A

    2013-01-01

    At the individual level, to be behaviourally lateralized avoids costly duplication of neural circuitry and decreases possible contradictory order from the two brain hemispheres. However, being prey behaviour lateralized at higher hierarchical levels could generate different negative implications, especially if predators are able to make predictions after multiple encounters. These conflicting pressures, namely between the advantages for individuals and the disadvantages for populations could be concealed if higher-level lateralization would arise from the combination of lateralized behaviours of individuals which are mutually dependent. Here, we investigated the lateralization patterns in the escape behaviour of the gecko Tarentola angustimentalis undergoing a predatory attack simulation in a "T" maze experiment. Results showed that gecko populations displayed different degrees of lateralization, with an overall dominance of right-biased individuals. This trend is similar to that observed in the Podarcis wall lizards, which share predators with Tarentola. In addition, different morphological parameters plausible to affect refuge selection were explored in order to link directional asymmetries at morphological level with lateralization during refuge selection.

  16. Politics of innovation in multi-level water governance systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniell, Katherine A.; Coombes, Peter J.; White, Ian

    2014-11-01

    Innovations are being proposed in many countries in order to support change towards more sustainable and water secure futures. However, the extent to which they can be implemented is subject to complex politics and powerful coalitions across multi-level governance systems and scales of interest. Exactly how innovation uptake can be best facilitated or blocked in these complex systems is thus a matter of important practical and research interest in water cycle management. From intervention research studies in Australia, China and Bulgaria, this paper seeks to describe and analyse the behind-the-scenes struggles and coalition-building that occurs between water utility providers, private companies, experts, communities and all levels of government in an effort to support or block specific innovations. The research findings suggest that in order to ensure successful passage of the proposed innovations, champions for it are required from at least two administrative levels, including one with innovation implementation capacity, as part of a larger supportive coalition. Higher governance levels can play an important enabling role in facilitating the passage of certain types of innovations that may be in competition with currently entrenched systems of water management. Due to a range of natural biases, experts on certain innovations and disciplines may form part of supporting or blocking coalitions but their evaluations of worth for water system sustainability and security are likely to be subject to competing claims based on different values and expertise, so may not necessarily be of use in resolving questions of "best courses of action". This remains a political values-based decision to be negotiated through the receiving multi-level water governance system.

  17. Correlated behaviour and stress physiology in fish exposed to different levels of predation pressure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Archard, Gabrieslle A; Earley, Ryan L; Hanninen, Amanda F; Braithwaite, Victoria A

    2012-01-01

    ....  Current theory, supported by artificial selection studies, suggests that physiological and behavioural stress responses are at least partially under genetic control and covary in a predictable manner...

  18. Time-dependent behaviour of deep level tabular excavations in hard rock

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Malan, DF

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Although hard rock is not usually associated with large creep deformation, significant time-dependent behaviour is observed in the tabular excavations of the South African gold mines. Time-dependent closure data was collected in stopes...

  19. Examining Associations of Environmental Characteristics with Recreational Cycling Behaviour by Street-Level Strava Data

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Yeran; Du, Yunyan; Wang, Yu; Zhuang, Liyuan

    2017-01-01

    Policymakers pay much attention to effectively increasing frequency of people’s cycling in\\ud the context of developing sustainable and green cities. Investigating associations of environmental characteristics and cycling behaviour could offer implications for changing urban infrastructure aiming at encouraging active travel. However, earlier examinations of associations between environmental characteristics and active travel behaviour are limited by low spatial granularity and coverage of tr...

  20. Influence of cassava genotype and composite flours’ substitution level on rheological behaviour during bread-making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Henao Osorio

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Given increasing dependence on imported wheat, studies have been carried out in Colombia regarding the use of composite wheat-cassava flour in bread-making. A project was carried out from 1986-1991 in which different cassava genotypes, harvest ages, substitution levels and bread acceptability were evaluated. However, these studies did not have any effect on the baking sector because a constant supply of high quality, high volume and reasonably-priced cassava flour was lacking. Based on these studies, this work was aimed at determining the influence of three industrial cassava market genotypes (CMC-40, HMC-1, MCOL-1505, using four wheat-cassava flour composite substitution levels (0%, 5%, 10%, 15% regarding the rheological and fermentative characteristics of dough in bread-making. Farinogram, alveogram, amylogram and falling number index analysis were analysed. Specific volume and acceptability of three types of bread (common, mold and hamburger were evaluated. It was determined that composite flours had higher fiber and reduced sugar content than the wheat flour pattern, thereby increasing wa-ter absorption and available sugar content during fermentation. Dough development time for the composite flours was half the a-verage required for wheat flour and the tolerance index was higher; its stability became reduced due to increased substitution le-vels and its firmness increased due to a rise in water absorption. Falling number values came within an acceptable range (250-400 s. The specific volume of all bread having 5% and 10% substitution was higher than that for the pattern. The best general acceptability was assigned to common and mold type bread from all varieties and substitution levels.

  1. Knowledge levels of food handlers in Portuguese school canteens and their self-reported behaviour towards food safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Maria-José; Nogueira, José Rocha; Patarata, Luis; Mayan, Olga

    2008-12-01

    Food safety levels in school food services are an important concern, given that any incident can affect a high number of students. The purpose of this research was to evaluate food handlers' knowledge and self-reported behaviour as regards the safe handling of food in school canteens. The study was conducted in 32 school canteens and included 124 participants. Food handlers displayed a reasonable level of knowledge, particularly regarding personal hygiene and cross-contamination, but fared worse in other areas. The level of knowledge displayed was influenced by age, motivation and training. A high correctness in handlers' self-reported behaviour towards food safety was observed, with a negative trend appearing when workload was increased. Our assessment of prevailing knowledge levels indicates that food professionals need to be made significantly more aware of the importance their actions can have on children's health.

  2. In situ observation of water distribution and behaviour in a polymer electrolyte fuel cell by synchrotron X-ray imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukaide, Taihei; Mogi, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Jun; Morita, Akira; Koji, Shinnosuke; Takada, Kazuhiro; Uesugi, Kentaro; Kajiwara, Kentaro; Noma, Takashi

    2008-07-01

    In situ visualization of the distribution and behaviour of water in a polymer electrolyte fuel cell during power generation has been demonstrated using a synchrotron X-ray imaging technique. Images were recorded using a CCD detector combined with a scintillator (Gd(2)O(2)S:Tb) and relay lens system, which were placed at 2.0 m or 2.5 m from the fuel cell. The images were measured continuously before and during power generation, and data on cell performance was recorded. The change of water distribution during power generation was obtained from X-ray images normalized with the initial state of the fuel cell. Compared with other techniques for visualizing the water in fuel cells, this technique enables the water distribution and behaviour in the fuel cell to be visualized during power generation with high spatial resolution. In particular, the effects of the specifications of the gas diffusion layer on the cathode side of the fuel cell on the distribution of water were efficiently identified. This is a very powerful technique for investigating the mechanism of water flow within the fuel cell and the relationship between water behaviour and cell performance.

  3. Analysis of tritium behaviour and recovery from a water-cooled Pb17Li blanket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malara, C. [Institute Regional des Materiaux Avances, Ispra (Italy); Casini, G. [Systems Engineering and Informatics Institute, JRC Ispra, Ispra (Vatican City State, Holy See) (Italy); Viola, A. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Cagliari, Cagliari (Italy)

    1995-03-01

    The question of the tritium recovery in water-cooled Pb17Li blankets has been under investigation for several years at JRC Ispra. The method which has been more extensively analysed is that of slowly circulating the breeder out from the blanket units and of extracting the tritium from it outside the plasma vacuum vessel by helium gas purging or vacuum degassing in a suited process apparatus. A computerized model of the tritium behaviour in the blanket units and in the extraction system was developed. It includes four submodels: (1) tritium permeation process from the breeder to the cooling water as a function of the local operative conditions (tritium concentration in Pb17Li, breeder temperature and flow rate); (2) tritium mass balance in each breeding unit; (3) tritium desorption from the breeder material to the gas phase of the extraction system; (4) tritium extraction efficiency as a function of the design parameters of the recovery apparatus. In the present paper, on the basis of this model, a parametric study of the tritium permeation rate in the cooling water and of the tritium inventory in the blanket is carried out. Results are reported and discussed in terms of dimensionless groups which describe the relative effects of the overall resistance on tritium transfer to the cooling water (with and without permeation barriers), circulating Pb17Li flow rate and extraction efficiency of the tritium recovery unit. The parametric study is extended to the recovery unit in the case of tritium extraction by helium purge or vacuum degassing in a droplet spray unit. (orig.).

  4. Water level oscillations in Monterey Bay and Harbor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Park

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Seiches are normal modes of water bodies responding to geophysical forcings with potential to significantly impact ecology and maritime operations. Analysis of high-frequency (1 Hz water level data in Monterey, California, identifies harbor modes between 10 and 120 s that are attributed to specific geographic features. It is found that modal amplitude modulation arises from cross-modal interaction and that offshore wave energy is a primary driver of these modes. Synchronous coupling between modes is observed to significantly impact dynamic water levels. At lower frequencies with periods between 15 and 60 min, modes are independent of offshore wave energy, yet are continuously present. This is unexpected since seiches normally dissipate after cessation of the driving force, indicating an unknown forcing. Spectral and kinematic estimates of these low-frequency oscillations support the idea that a persistent anticyclonic mesoscale gyre adjacent to the bay is a potential mode driver, while discounting other sources.

  5. Stationary flow solution for water levels in open channels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opheusden, van J.H.J.; Molenaar, J.; Beltman, W.H.J.; Adriaanse, P.I.

    2010-01-01

    We study stationary flow in open discharge channels. A model is derived from basic principles, which is solved numerically for the water level and discharge as a function of position along the channel. The model describes the effect of external inflow from fields adjacent to the channel. Several

  6. Interactions between stream channel incision, soil water levels and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wetland degradation in the form of channel incisioning can significantly alter the hydrological functioning of a wetland. In this study in a small headwater wetland in the Hogsback area, Eastern Cape province, the impact of channel incisioning on soil water levels and soil morphology was examined. A good correlation (R2 ...

  7. Water quality characteristics and pollution levels of heavy metals in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main aim of this study was to assess the level of water quality of Lake Haiq, Ethiopia with respect to selected physical parameters and heavy metals. Parameters such as temperature, pH, turbidity, electrical conductivity and total dissolved solids were measured in situ. While total alkalinity, chloride, ammonia, nitrate and ...

  8. Radio Frequency Based Water Level Monitor and Controller for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper elucidates a radio frequency (RF) based transmission and reception system used to remotely monitor and control the water Level of an overhead tank placed up to 100 meters away from the pump and controller. It uses two Radio Frequency transceivers along with a controller each installed at the overhead tank ...

  9. Physicochemical Characteristics and Heavy Metal Levels in Water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL

    ABSTRACT: Physicochemical characteristics and heavy metal levels in water samples from five river systems in central part of Delta State, Nigeria were investigated to access the quality status of the rivers. All the watersheds selected for study were well distributed and possessed similar geology, climate, soil, and ...

  10. CAN FLUORIDATION AFFECT WATER LEAD LEVELS AND LEAD NEUROTOXICITY?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent reports have attempted to show that certain approaches to fluoridating potable water is linked to increased levels of lead(II) in the blood. We examine these claims in light of the established science and critically evaluate their significance. The completeness of nexafluo...

  11. Soil Moisture and Excavation Behaviour in the Chaco Leaf-Cutting Ant (Atta vollenweideri): Digging Performance and Prevention of Water Inflow into the Nest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pielström, Steffen; Roces, Flavio

    2014-01-01

    The Chaco leaf-cutting ant Atta vollenweideri is native to the clay-heavy soils of the Gran Chaco region in South America. Because of seasonal floods, colonies are regularly exposed to varying moisture across the soil profile, a factor that not only strongly influences workers' digging performance during nest building, but also determines the suitability of the soil for the rearing of the colony's symbiotic fungus. In this study, we investigated the effects of varying soil moisture on behaviours associated with underground nest building in A. vollenweideri. This was done in a series of laboratory experiments using standardised, plastic clay-water mixtures with gravimetric water contents ranging from relatively brittle material to mixtures close to the liquid limit. Our experiments showed that preference and group-level digging rate increased with increasing water content, but then dropped considerably for extremely moist materials. The production of vibrational recruitment signals during digging showed, on the contrary, a slightly negative linear correlation with soil moisture. Workers formed and carried clay pellets at higher rates in moist clay, even at the highest water content tested. Hence, their weak preference and low group-level excavation rate observed for that mixture cannot be explained by any inability to work with the material. More likely, extremely high moistures may indicate locations unsuitable for nest building. To test this hypothesis, we simulated a situation in which workers excavated an upward tunnel below accumulated surface water. The ants stopped digging about 12 mm below the interface soil/water, a behaviour representing a possible adaptation to the threat of water inflow field colonies are exposed to while digging under seasonally flooded soils. Possible roles of soil water in the temporal and spatial pattern of nest growth are discussed. PMID:24748382

  12. Proposing a Revised Pedestrian Walkway Level of Service Based on Characteristics of Pedestrian Interactive Behaviours in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaonian Shan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to analyse characteristics of Pedestrian Interactive Behaviours (PIBs in order to propose a revised pedestrian walkway Level of Service (LOS in China. Field data on overtaking and evasive behaviours were collected at a metro station walkway in Shanghai, China to calculate macro and micro indicators. Occurrence intensities of these two PIBs initially increased with moderate density and later decreased with high density that reduced available space. PIBs were also analysed in terms of sideways behaviours to account for the varying difficulties of PIBs at different densities. It was found that available space for PIBs was the main factor contributing to the intensity features. Moreover, the different space demands of the two PIBs resulted in different features between them. Finally, a revised pedestrian walkway LOS was proposed based on the macro and micro characteristics of PIBs in China.

  13. The effect of water temperature on routine swimming behaviour of new born guppies (Poecilia reticulata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maud Kent

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Guppies have successfully established populations in places with thermal regimes very different from the Tropical conditions in their native range. This indicates a remarkable capacity for thermal adaptation. Given their vulnerability to predation as juveniles, acute changes in temperature, which can alter predator-prey relationships, can impact juvenile survival and have amplified consequences at the population level. To understand how temperature may impact juvenile survival and gain insight into their success as an invasive species, we researched the effect of acute temperature changes on the routine swimming behaviour of juvenile guppies. Using a novel 3-dimensional tracking technique, we calculated 4 routine swimming parameters, speed, depth, and variation in speed or depth, at 6 different test temperatures (17, 20, 23, 26, 29, or 32°C. These temperatures cover their natural thermal range and also extended past it in order to include upper and lower thermal limits. Using model selection, we found that body length and temperature had a significant positive relationship with speed. Variation in speed decreased with rising temperatures and fish swam slightly closer to the bottom at higher temperatures. All juveniles increased variation in depth at higher temperatures, though larger individuals maintained slightly more consistent depths. Our results indicate that guppies have a large thermal range and show substantial plasticity in routine swimming behaviours, which may account for their success as an invasive species.

  14. The effect of water temperature on routine swimming behaviour of new born guppies (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Maud; Ojanguren, Alfredo F

    2015-03-06

    Guppies have successfully established populations in places with thermal regimes very different from the Tropical conditions in their native range. This indicates a remarkable capacity for thermal adaptation. Given their vulnerability to predation as juveniles, acute changes in temperature, which can alter predator-prey relationships, can impact juvenile survival and have amplified consequences at the population level. To understand how temperature may impact juvenile survival and gain insight into their success as an invasive species, we researched the effect of acute temperature changes on the routine swimming behaviour of juvenile guppies. Using a novel 3-dimensional tracking technique, we calculated 4 routine swimming parameters, speed, depth, and variation in speed or depth, at 6 different test temperatures (17, 20, 23, 26, 29, or 32°C). These temperatures cover their natural thermal range and also extended past it in order to include upper and lower thermal limits. Using model selection, we found that body length and temperature had a significant positive relationship with speed. Variation in speed decreased with rising temperatures and fish swam slightly closer to the bottom at higher temperatures. All juveniles increased variation in depth at higher temperatures, though larger individuals maintained slightly more consistent depths. Our results indicate that guppies have a large thermal range and show substantial plasticity in routine swimming behaviours, which may account for their success as an invasive species. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  15. Challenges and Alternatives in Tsunami Water Levels Processing in NOAA/NCEI-CO Global Water-Level Data Repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungov, G.; Dunbar, P. K.; Stroker, K. J.; Sweeney, A.

    2016-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Centers for Environmental Information is data repository for high-resolution, integrated water-level data to support tsunami research, risk assessment and mitigation to protect life and property damages along the coasts. NCEI responsibilities include, but are not limited to process, archiv and distribut and coastal water level data from different sourcesg tsunami and storm-surge inundation, sea-level change, climate variability, etc. High-resolution data for global historical tsunami events are collected by the Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunami (DART®) tsunameter network maintained by NOAA's National Data Buoy Center NDBC, coastal tide-gauges maintained by NOAA's Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services (CO-OPS) and Tsunami Warning Centers, historic marigrams and images, bathymetric data, and from other national and international sources. NCEI-CO water level database is developed in close collaboration with all data providers along with NOAA's Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory. We outline here the present state in water-level data processing regarding the increasing needs for high-precision, homogeneous and "clean" tsunami records from data different sources and different sampling interval. Two tidal models are compared: the Mike Foreman's improved oceanographic model (2009) and the Akaike Bayesian Information Criterion approach applied by Tamura et al. (1991). The effects of filtering and the limits of its application are also discussed along with the used method for de-spiking the raw time series.

  16. Tests to characterize the behaviour of natural stone in contact with water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vielba Cuerpo, C.

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental analysis of the stone behaviour in contact with water in the different construction uses. In any of these cases is analyse how the water penetrates into the material. As a result of the study the need of modification of the UNE test standards is concluded. It is proposed a procedure to determinate the material's properties and a method to compare and analyse the result obtained that keep into consideration the climate factors. The method have been applied to sandstone of Villamayor (Spain showing its utility in the analysis of the stone properties.

    Se expone la necesidad de revisión de las normas UNE de ensayo para la determinación del comportamiento frente al agua de las rocas porosas teniendo en cuenta las formas de exposición que suponen las distintas aplicaciones constructivas y los mecanismos de penetración del agua que en cada caso operan. Se propone para ello una sistemática de ensayos y un método comparado de análisis de resultados basado en la consideración de los factores climatológicos. La utilidad del método se ilustra con un ejemplo de aplicación al estudio de la Arenisca de Villamayor

  17. Peri-ictal water drinking: a rare automatic behaviour in temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrafusa, Nicola; Trivisano, Marina; de Palma, Luca; Serino, Domenico; Moavero, Romina; Benvenga, Antonella; Cappelletti, Simona; Boero, Giovanni; Vigevano, Federico; La Neve, Angela; Specchio, Nicola

    2015-12-01

    Peri-ictal water drinking (PIWD) has been reported as the action of drinking during or within two minutes of an electroclinical seizure. It is considered a peri-ictal vegetative symptom, evident both during childhood and adulthood epilepsy. The aim of this paper was to describe the clinical and electroencephalographic features of two new adult subjects suffering from symptomatic temporal lobe epilepsy with episodes of PIWD recorded by VIDEO-EEG and to review literature data in order to better define this peculiar event during seizures, a rare and probably underestimated semiological sign. To date, 51 cases with focal epilepsy and seizures associated with PIWD have been reported. All patients presented with temporal lobe epilepsy. All cases but one had symptomatic epilepsy. Most of the patients had an involvement of the right hemisphere. Water drinking was reported as an ictal sign in the majority of patients, and less frequently was reported as postictal. We believe that PIWD might be considered a rare automatic behaviour, like other automatisms. Automatisms are more frequently described in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. PIWD was reported also to have lateralizing significance in the non-dominant temporal lobe, however, because of its rarity, this finding remains unclear.

  18. Behaviour of Salmonella Typhimurium during production and storage of artisan water buffalo mozzarella cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Rosmini

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Water buffalo mozzarella cheese (WBMC is a fresh pasta filata cheese produced from whole chilled buffalo milk. Although pasteurization of milk and the use of defined starter cultures are recommended, traditional technology involving the use of unpasteurized milk and natural whey cultures is still employed for WBMC production in Italy. The aim of this study were to assess the behaviour of Salmonella Typhimurium during the production of artisan water buffalo mozzarella cheese and during its shelf life under different temperature conditions. Raw milk was inoculated with S. Typhimurium and the evolution of S. Typhimurium count during production and shelf life was monitored. In artisan WBMC production technology S. Typhimurium multiplied in the curd during ripening, but its growth rate expressed in log CFU/g/h was lower than the growth rate reported by theoretical predictions. Stretching proved to be a process with good repeatability and able to reduce S. Typhimurium contamination by 5.5 Log CFU/g. The intrinsic characteristics of traditional WBMC proved to be unable to obstacolate the growth of S. Typhimurium during storage in the case of thermal abuse. Control of raw milk contamination and a proper refrigeration temperature are key factors in reducing the risk for consumers.

  19. Doping Attitudes and Covariates of Potential Doping Behaviour in High-Level Team-Sport Athletes; Gender Specific Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Sekulic, Enver Tahiraj, Milan Zvan, Natasa Zenic, Ognjen Uljevic, Blaz Lesnik

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Team sports are rarely studied with regard to doping behaviour and doping-related factors regardless of their global popularity. This study aimed to investigate doping factors and covariates of potential doping behaviour in high-level team-sport athletes. The subjects were 457 high-performing, national- and international-level athletes (21.9 ± 3.4 years of age; 179 females involved in volleyball (n = 77, soccer (n = 163, basketball (n = 114 and handball (n = 103. Previously validated self-administered questionnaires aimed at evidencing sport factors, doping-related factors, knowledge on sport nutrition and doping, and attitudes to performance enhancement were used. The results indicated a higher doping likelihood in male athletes, with a significant gender difference for basketball and handball. In males, a higher doping likelihood is found for athletes who had achieved better results at junior-age level, those who regularly consume dietary supplements, and who perceive their sport as being contaminated by doping. A higher sport achievement at senior-age level is protective against potential doping behaviour in males. In females, a higher likelihood of doping is evidenced in those athletes involved in binge drinking, while a lower tendency for doping is evidenced in female athletes who possess better knowledge on sport nutrition. Knowledge about doping is very low and thus education about doping is urgently needed. An improvement of knowledge on sport nutrition might be a potentially effective method for reducing the tendency for doping in females. Future studies should consider other approaches and theories, such as theory of planned behaviour and/or social-cognitive theory, in studying the problem of doping behaviour in team-sports.

  20. The role of the tractus diagonalis in drinking behaviour induced by central chemical stimulation, water deprivation and salt injection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terpstra, G.K.; Slangen, J.L.

    The role of the tractus diagonalis in drinking behaviour induced by central chemical stimulation, 23-hr water deprivation and injection of a hypertonic sodium chloride solution was investigated by means of central and peripheral administration of atropine and methylatropine. The effect of the same

  1. The role of the tractus diagonalis in drinking behaviour induced by central chemical stimulation, water deprivation and salt injection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terpstra, G.K.; Slangen, J.L.

    1972-01-01

    The role of the tractus diagonalis in drinking behaviour induced by central chemical stimulation, 23-hr water deprivation and injection of a hypertonic sodium chloride solution was investigated by means of central and peripheral administration of atropine and methylatropine. The effect of the same

  2. Analytical approach for predicting fresh water discharge in an estuary based on tidal water level observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cai, H.; Savenije, H.H.G.; Jiang, C.

    2014-01-01

    As the tidal wave propagates into an estuary, the tidally averaged water level tends to rise in landward direction due to the density difference between saline and fresh water and the asymmetry of the friction. The effect of friction on the residual slope is even more remarkable when accounting for

  3. Hydraulics and drones: observations of water level, bathymetry and water surface velocity from Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandini, Filippo

    extensive research and funding, they are far less expensive and therefore more important than disaster restoration and remediation. Thus, our research question was “Can we retrieve hydraulic observations of inland surface water bodies, whenever and wherever it is required, with (i) high accuracy, (ii) high...... in monitoring surface water bodies, at a limited cost and with high flexibility. This PhD project investigates and demonstrates how UAVs can enrich the set of available hydraulic observations in inland water bodies, including: 1. Orthometric water level. 2. Water depth (bathymetry). 3. Surface water speed...... to satellites, UAVs have several advantages: high spatial resolution, repeatability of the flight missions and good tracking of the water bodies. Nevertheless, UAVs face several constraints: vibrations, limited size, weight, and electric power available for the sensors. In this thesis, we present the first...

  4. Quadratic controller syntheses for the steam generator water level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arzelier, D.; Daafouz, J.; Bernussou, J.; Garcia, G

    1998-06-01

    The steam generator water level, (SGWL), control problem in the pressurized water reactor of a nuclear power plant is considered from robust control techniques point of view. The plant is a time-varying system with a non minimum phase behavior and an unstable open-loop response. The time-varying nature of the plant due to change in operating power is taken into account by including slowly time-varying uncertainty in the model. A linear Time-Invariant, (LTI) guaranteed cost quadratic stabilizing controller is designed in order to address some of the particular issues arising for such a control problem. (author) 17 refs.

  5. Do management practices support or constrain safe driving behaviour? A multi-level investigation in a sample of occupational drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newnam, Sharon; Warmerdam, Amanda; Sheppard, Dianne; Griffin, Mark; Stevenson, Mark

    2017-05-01

    It has been estimated that one-third of all work-related deaths occur while driving for work-related purposes. Despite this, many organisations are unaware of the practices, beyond those that identify and control the impact of unforeseen events (i.e., risk management), that predispose drivers to risk. This study addresses the issue by identifying the management practices operationalised as, High Performance Workplace Systems (HPWS) that influence safe driver behaviour. The study also explores the value given to safety by senior level management as a moderator of the relationship between HPWS practices and driver behaviour. Each factor was tested within a two level hierarchical model consisting of 911 drivers, nested within 161 supervisors and 83 organisations. The findings highight that under conditions of high investment in job and work design, communication and selection practices, drivers reported poorer driving behaviour. An interaction effect also demonstrated that under conditions of high investment in remuneration, drivers reported safer behaviour, but only when they perceived that managers valued and prioritised safety. The findings challenge current thinking in the management of workplace road safety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Water level observations from Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for improving estimates of surface water-groundwater interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandini, Filippo; Butts, Michael; Vammen Jacobsen, Torsten

    2017-01-01

    . However, traditional river gauging stations are normally spaced too far apart to capture spatial patterns in the water surface, while spaceborne observations have limited spatial and temporal resolution. UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles) can retrieve river water level measurements, providing: i) high...... spatial resolution; ii) spatially continuous profiles along or across the water body; iii) flexible timing of sampling. A semi-synthetic study was conducted to analyse the value of the new UAV-borne datatype for improving hydrological models, in particular estimates of GW (Groundwater)- SW (Surface Water...

  7. Predicting the residual aluminum level in water treatment process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Tomperi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In water treatment processes, aluminum salts are widely used as coagulation chemical. High dose of aluminum has been proved to be at least a minor health risk and some evidence points out that aluminum could increase the risk of Alzheimer's disease. Thus it is important to minimize the amount of residual aluminum in drinking water and water used at food industry. In this study, the data of a water treatment plant (WTP was analyzed and the residual aluminum in drinking water was predicted using Multiple Linear Regression (MLR and Artificial Neural Network (ANN models. The purpose was to find out which variables affect the amount of residual aluminum and create simple and reliable prediction models which can be used in an early warning system (EWS. Accuracy of ANN and MLR models were compared. The new nonlinear scaling method based on generalized norms and skewness was used to scale all measurement variables to range [−2...+2] before data-analysis and modeling. The effect of data pre-processing was studied by comparing prediction results to ones achieved in an earlier study. Results showed that it is possible to predict the baseline level of residual aluminum in drinking water with a simple model. Variables that affected the most the amount of residual aluminum were among others: raw water temperature, raw water KMnO4 and PAC/KMnO4 (Poly-Aluminum Chloride/Potassium permanganate-ratio. The accuracies of MLR and ANN models were found to be almost the same. Study also showed that data pre-processing affects to the final prediction result.

  8. Communication, perception and behaviour during a natural disaster involving a 'Do Not Drink' and a subsequent 'Boil Water' notice: a postal questionnaire study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundblad, Gabriella; Knapton, Olivia; Hunter, Paul R

    2010-10-25

    During times of public health emergencies, effective communication between the emergency response agencies and the affected public is important to ensure that people protect themselves from injury or disease. In order to investigate compliance with public health advice during natural disasters, we examined consumer behaviour during two water notices that were issued as a result of serious flooding. During the summer of 2007, 140,000 homes in Gloucestershire, United Kingdom, that are supplied water from Mythe treatment works, lost their drinking water for up to 17 days. Consumers were issued a 'Do Not Drink' notice when the water was restored, which was subsequently replaced with a 'Boil Water' notice. The rare occurrence of two water notices provided a unique opportunity to compare compliance with public health advice. Information source use and other factors that may affect consumer perception and behaviour were also explored. A postal questionnaire was sent to 1,000 randomly selected households. Chi-square, ANOVA, MANOVA and generalised estimating equation (with and without prior factor analysis) were used for quantitative analysis. In terms of information sources, we found high use of and clear preference for the local radio throughout the incident, but family/friends/neighbours also proved crucial at the onset. Local newspapers and the water company were associated with clarity of advice and feeling informed, respectively. Older consumers and those in paid employment were particularly unlikely to read the official information leaflets. We also found a high degree of confusion regarding which notice was in place at which time, with correct recall varying between 23.2%-26.7%, and a great number of consumers believed two notices were in place simultaneously. In terms of behaviour, overall non-compliance levels were significantly higher for the 'Do Not Drink' notice (62.9%) compared to the 'Boil Water' notice (48.3%); consumers in paid employment were not likely to

  9. Communication, perception and behaviour during a natural disaster involving a 'Do Not Drink' and a subsequent 'Boil Water' notice: a postal questionnaire study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knapton Olivia

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During times of public health emergencies, effective communication between the emergency response agencies and the affected public is important to ensure that people protect themselves from injury or disease. In order to investigate compliance with public health advice during natural disasters, we examined consumer behaviour during two water notices that were issued as a result of serious flooding. During the summer of 2007, 140,000 homes in Gloucestershire, United Kingdom, that are supplied water from Mythe treatment works, lost their drinking water for up to 17 days. Consumers were issued a 'Do Not Drink' notice when the water was restored, which was subsequently replaced with a 'Boil Water' notice. The rare occurrence of two water notices provided a unique opportunity to compare compliance with public health advice. Information source use and other factors that may affect consumer perception and behaviour were also explored. Method A postal questionnaire was sent to 1,000 randomly selected households. Chi-square, ANOVA, MANOVA and generalised estimating equation (with and without prior factor analysis were used for quantitative analysis. Results In terms of information sources, we found high use of and clear preference for the local radio throughout the incident, but family/friends/neighbours also proved crucial at the onset. Local newspapers and the water company were associated with clarity of advice and feeling informed, respectively. Older consumers and those in paid employment were particularly unlikely to read the official information leaflets. We also found a high degree of confusion regarding which notice was in place at which time, with correct recall varying between 23.2%-26.7%, and a great number of consumers believed two notices were in place simultaneously. In terms of behaviour, overall non-compliance levels were significantly higher for the 'Do Not Drink' notice (62.9% compared to the 'Boil Water' notice (48

  10. Economic sustainability, water security and multi-level governance of local water schemes in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Hakala

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the role of multi-level governance and power structures in local water security through a case study of the Nawalparasi district in Nepal. It focuses on economic sustainability as a measure to address water security, placing this thematic in the context of a complicated power structure consisting of local, district and national administration as well as external development cooperation actors. The study aims to find out whether efforts to improve the economic sustainability of water schemes have contributed to water security at the local level. In addition, it will consider the interactions between water security, power structures and local equality and justice. The research builds upon survey data from the Nepalese districts of Nawalparasi and Palpa, and a case study based on interviews and observation in Nawalparasi. The survey was performed in water schemes built within a Finnish development cooperation programme spanning from 1990 to 2004, allowing a consideration of the long-term sustainability of water management projects. This adds a crucial external influence into the intra-state power structures shaping water management in Nepal. The article thus provides an alternative perspective to cross-regional water security through a discussion combining transnational involvement with national and local points of view.

  11. Fluctuations of Lake Orta water levels: preliminary analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmi Saidi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available While the effects of past industrial pollution on the chemistry and biology of Lake Orta have been well documented, annual and seasonal fluctuations of lake levels have not yet been studied. Considering their potential impacts on both the ecosystem and on human safety, fluctuations in lake levels are an important aspect of limnological research. In the enormous catchment of Lake Maggiore, there are many rivers and lakes, and the amount of annual precipitation is both high and concentrated in spring and autumn. This has produced major flood events, most recently in November 2014. Flood events are also frequent on Lake Orta, occurring roughly triennially since 1917. The 1926, 1951, 1976 and 2014 floods were severe, with lake levels raised from 2.30 m to 3.46 m above the hydrometric zero. The most important event occurred in 1976, with a maximum level equal to 292.31 m asl and a return period of 147 years. In 2014 the lake level reached 291.89 m asl and its return period was 54 years. In this study, we defined trends and temporal fluctuations in Lake Orta water levels from 1917 to 2014, focusing on extremes. We report both annual maximum and seasonal variations of the lake water levels over this period. Both Mann-Kendall trend tests and simple linear regression were utilized to detect monotonic trends in annual and seasonal extremes, and logistic regression was used to detect trends in the number of flood events. Lake level decreased during winter and summer seasons, and a small but statistically non-significant positive trend was found in the number of flood events over the period. We provide estimations of return period for lake levels, a metric which could be used in planning lake flood protection measures.

  12. Mechanisms of behavioural maintenance: Long-term effects of theory-based interventions to promote safe water consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inauen, Jennifer; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Theory-based interventions can enhance people's safe water consumption, but the sustainability of these interventions and the mechanisms of maintenance remain unclear. We investigated these questions based on an extended theory of planned behaviour. Seven hundred and ten (445 analysed) randomly selected households participated in two cluster-randomised controlled trials in Bangladesh. Study 1 promoted switching to neighbours' arsenic-safe wells, and Study 2 promoted switching to arsenic-safe deep wells. Both studies included two intervention phases. Structured interviews were conducted at baseline (T1), and at 1-month (T2), 2-month (T3) and 9-month (T4) follow-ups. In intervention phase 1 (between T1 and T2), commitment-based behaviour change techniques--reminders, implementation intentions and public commitment--were combined with information and compared to an information-only control group. In phase 2 (between T2 and T3), half of each phase 1 intervention group was randomly assigned to receive either commitment-based techniques once more or coping planning with reminders and information. Initial well-switching rates of up to 60% significantly declined by T4: 38.3% of T2 safe water users stopped consuming arsenic-safe water. The decline depended on the intervention. Perceived behavioural control, intentions, commitment strength and coping planning were associated with maintenance. In line with previous studies, the results indicate that commitment and reminders engender long-term behavioural change.

  13. Correlations between cognitive, behavioural and psychological findings and levels of vitamin B12 and folate in patients with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelborghs, Sebastiaan; Vloeberghs, Ellen; Maertens, Karen; Mariën, Peter; Somers, Nore; Symons, Anoek; Clement, Frederik; Ketels, Veerle; Saerens, Jos; Goeman, Johan; Pickut, Barbara A; Vandevivere, Johan; De Deyn, Peter P

    2004-04-01

    Associations between low levels of folate and vitamin B12 and cognitive impairment in patients with dementia have been reported. Some studies revealed correlations between low levels of vitamin B12 and behavioural and psychological signs and symptoms of dementia (BPSD) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Given the lack of studies in frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and on folate and given the methodological shortcomings of former publications, we set up a prospective study. At inclusion, AD (n=152) and FTD (n=28) patients underwent a neuropsychological examination. Behaviour was assessed using a battery of behavioural assessment scales. Determination of serum vitamin B12 and red cell folate levels were performed within a time frame of two weeks of inclusion. In both patient groups, significantly negative correlations between levels of serum vitamin B12 and red cell folate and the degree of cognitive deterioration were found. No correlations with BPSD were found in the AD patient group. In FTD patients, levels of vitamin B12 were negatively correlated with both hallucinations (p=0.022) and diurnal rhythm disturbances (p=0.036). The observed negative correlations between levels of vitamin B12 and folate and cognitive impairment in both AD and FTD patients, raise the possibility of a non-specific etiological role. Although levels of vitamin B12 and folate did not correlate with BPSD in AD patients, negative correlations between serum vitamin B12 levels and BPSD in FTD patients were revealed. Decreased serum vitamin B12 levels may predispose FTD patients to develop hallucinations and diurnal rhythm disturbances. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. The effect of varying duration of water restriction on drinking behaviour, welfare and production of lactating sows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Margit Bak; Schild, Sarah-Lina Aagaard; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2016-01-01

    trough was seen (22%, 18%, 42% and 67% of 0, 3, 6 and 12 h sows; P = 0.09). Duration of water restriction did not affect water consumption on a 24-h basis, nursing behaviour or performance. In conclusion, behavioural indicators of thirst increased with increasing duration of nightly water restriction......Access to drinking water is essential for animal welfare, but it is unclear if temporary water restriction during the night represents a welfare problem. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of various durations of nightly restriction of water on thirst in loose housed...... lactating sows from day 10 to 28 of lactation. A total of 48 sows were deprived of water for either 0 h (n = 12; control), 3 h (n = 12; 0500 to 0800 h), 6 h (n = 12; 0200 to 0800 h) or 12 h (n = 12; 2000 to 0800 h). Control sows consumed 22% of their water intake during the night (2000 to 0800 h), whereas...

  15. The causes and circumstances of drinking water incidents impact consumer behaviour: Comparison of a routine versus a natural disaster incident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundblad, Gabriella; Knapton, Olivia; Hunter, Paul R

    2014-11-18

    When public health is endangered, the general public can only protect themselves if timely messages are received and understood. Previous research has shown that the cause of threats to public health can affect risk perception and behaviours. This study compares compliance to public health advice and consumer behaviour during two "Boil Water" notices issued in the UK due to a routine incident versus a natural disaster incident. A postal questionnaire was sent to 1000 randomly selected households issued a routine "Boil Water" notice. Findings were then compared to a previous study that explored drinking water behaviour during a "Boil Water" notice issued after serious floods. Consumers affected by the routine incident showed a significant preference for official water company information, whereas consumers affected by the natural disaster preferred local information sources. Confusion over which notice was in place was found for both incidents. Non-compliance was significantly higher for the natural disaster (48.3%) than the routine incident (35.4%). For the routine incident, compliance with advice on drinking as well as preparing/cooking food and brushing teeth was positively associated with receiving advice from the local radio, while the opposite was true for those receiving advice from the water company/leaflet through the post; we suggest this may largely be due to confusion over needing boiled tap water for brushing teeth. No associations were found for demographic factors. We conclude that information dissemination plans should be tailored to the circumstances under which the advice is issued. Water companies should seek to educate the general public about water notices and which actions are safe and unsafe during which notice, as well as construct and disseminate clearer advice on brushing teeth and preparing/cooking food.

  16. Projecting Future Water Levels of the Laurentian Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennington, V.; Notaro, M.; Holman, K.

    2013-12-01

    The Laurentian Great Lakes are the largest freshwater system on Earth, containing 84% of North America's freshwater. The lakes are a valuable economic and recreational resource, valued at over 62 billion in annual wages and supporting a 7 billion fishery. Shipping, recreation, and coastal property values are significantly impacted by water level variability, with large economic consequences. Great Lakes water levels fluctuate both seasonally and long-term, responding to natural and anthropogenic climate changes. Due to the integrated nature of water levels, a prolonged small change in any one of the net basin supply components: over-lake precipitation, watershed runoff, or evaporation from the lake surface, may result in important trends in water levels. We utilize the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics's Regional Climate Model Version 4.5.6 to dynamically downscale three global global climate models that represent a spread of potential future climate change for the region to determine whether the climate models suggest a robust response of the Laurentian Great Lakes to anthropogenic climate change. The Model for Interdisciplinary Research on Climate Version 5 (MIROC5), the National Centre for Meteorological Research Earth system model (CNRM-CM5), and the Community Climate System Model Version 4 (CCSM4) project different regional temperature increases and precipitation change over the next century and are used as lateral boundary conditions. We simulate the historical (1980-2000) and late-century periods (2080-2100). Upon model evaluation we will present dynamically downscaled projections of net basin supply changes for each of the Laurentian Great Lakes.

  17. Operational Principle of Water Level Detector for Agricultural and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this sensor system, an actuator that operates on the basic principle of an astable multivibrator, operating with a duty cycle of 50.25% with an output frequency of 3.256Hz is required to operate on the water level detection. Hence, a continuous train of rectangular pulses whose band width is 0.154s at a period of 0.306s was ...

  18. Fasting and exercise increase plasma cannabinoid levels in THC pre-treated rats: an examination of behavioural consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Alexander; Keats, Kirily; Rooney, Kieron; Hicks, Callum; Allsop, David J; Arnold, Jonathon C; McGregor, Iain S

    2014-10-01

    Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive constituent of cannabis, accumulates in fat tissue where it can remain for prolonged periods. Under conditions of increased fat utilisation, blood cannabinoid concentrations can increase. However, it is unclear whether this has behavioural consequences. Here, we examined whether rats pre-treated with multiple or single doses of THC followed by a washout would show elevated plasma cannabinoids and altered behaviour following fasting or exercise manipulations designed to increase fat utilisation. Behavioural impairment was measured as an inhibition of spontaneous locomotor activity or a failure to successfully complete a treadmill exercise session. Fat utilisation was indexed by plasma free fatty acid (FFA) levels with plasma concentrations of THC and its terminal metabolite (-)-11-nor-9-carboxy-∆(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH) also measured. Rats given daily THC (10 mg/kg) for 5 days followed by a 4-day washout showed elevated plasma THC-COOH when fasted for 24 h relative to non-fasted controls. Fasted rats showed lower locomotor activity than controls suggesting a behavioural effect of fat-released THC. However, rats fasted for 20 h after a single 5-mg/kg THC injection did not show locomotor suppression, despite modestly elevated plasma THC-COOH. Rats pre-treated with THC (5 mg/kg) and exercised 20 h later also showed elevated plasma THC-COOH but did not differ from controls in their likelihood of completing 30 min of treadmill exercise. These results confirm that fasting and exercise can increase plasma cannabinoid levels. Behavioural consequences are more clearly observed with pre-treatment regimes involving repeated rather than single THC dosing.

  19. Conceptual model for dietary behaviour change at household level: a 'best-fit' qualitative study using primary data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daivadanam, Meena; Wahlström, Rolf; Ravindran, T K Sundari; Thankappan, K R; Ramanathan, Mala

    2014-06-09

    Interventions having a strong theoretical basis are more efficacious, providing a strong argument for incorporating theory into intervention planning. The objective of this study was to develop a conceptual model to facilitate the planning of dietary intervention strategies at the household level in rural Kerala. Three focus group discussions and 17 individual interviews were conducted among men and women, aged between 23 and 75 years. An interview guide facilitated the process to understand: 1) feasibility and acceptability of a proposed dietary behaviour change intervention; 2) beliefs about foods, particularly fruits and vegetables; 3) decision-making in households with reference to food choices and access; and 4) to gain insights into the kind of intervention strategies that may be practical at community and household level. The data were analysed using a modified form of qualitative framework analysis, which combined both deductive and inductive reasoning. A priori themes were identified from relevant behaviour change theories using construct definitions, and used to index the meaning units identified from the primary qualitative data. In addition, new themes emerging from the data were included. The associations between the themes were mapped into four main factors and its components, which contributed to construction of the conceptual model. Thirteen of the a priori themes from three behaviour change theories (Trans-theoretical model, Health Belief model and Theory of Planned Behaviour) were confirmed or slightly modified, while four new themes emerged from the data. The conceptual model had four main factors and its components: impact factors (decisional balance, risk perception, attitude); change processes (action-oriented, cognitive); background factors (personal modifiers, societal norms); and overarching factors (accessibility, perceived needs and preferences), built around a three-stage change spiral (pre-contemplation, intention, action). Decisional

  20. The behaviour of 39 pesticides in surface waters as a function of scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capel, P.D.; Larson, S.J.; Winterstein, T.A.

    2001-01-01

    A portion of applied pesticides runs off agricultural fields and is transported through surface waters. In this study, the behaviour of 39 pesticides is examined as a function of scale across 14 orders of magnitude from the field to the ocean. Data on pesticide loads in streams from two US Geological Survey programs were combined with literature data from field and watershed studies. The annual load as percent of use (LAPU) was quantified for each of the fields and watersheds and was used as the normalization factor across watersheds and compounds. The in-stream losses of each pesticide were estimated for a model stream with a 15 day travel time (similar in characteristics to the upper Mississippi River). These estimated in-stream losses agreed well with the observed changes in apparent LAPU values as a function of watershed area. In general, herbicides applied to the soil surface had the greatest LAPU values and minimal in-stream losses. Soil-incorporated herbicides had smaller LAPU values and substantial in-stream losses. Insecticides generally had LAPU values similar to the incorporated herbicides, but had more variation in their in-stream losses. On the basis of the LAPU values of the 39 pesticides as a function of watershed area, a generalized conceptual model of the movement of pesticides from the field to the ocean is suggested. The importance of considering both field runoff and in-stream losses is discussed in relation to interpreting monitoring data and making regulatory decisions.

  1. Modal Analysis of a Steel Radial Gate Exposed to Different Water Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusewicz, Krzysztof; Sterpejkowicz-Wersocki, Witold; Jankowski, Robert

    2017-06-01

    With the increase in water retention needs and planned river regulation, it might be important to investigate the dynamic resistance of vulnerable elements of hydroelectric power plants, including steelwater locks. The most frequent dynamic loads affecting hydroengineering structures in Poland include vibrations caused by heavy road and railway traffic, piling works and mining tremors. More destructive dynamic loads, including earthquakes, may also occur in our country, although their incidence is relatively low. However, given the unpredictable nature of such events, as well as serious consequences they might cause, the study of the seismic resistance of the steel water gate, as one of the most vulnerable elements of a hydroelectric power plant, seems to be important. In this study, a steel radial gate has been analyzed. As far as water gates are concerned, it is among the most popular solutions because of its relatively small weight, compared to plain gates. A modal analysis of the steel radial gate was conducted with the use of the FEM in the ABAQUS software. All structural members were modelled using shell elements with detailed geometry representing a real structure.Water was modelled as an added mass affecting the structure. Different water levels were used to determine the most vulnerable state of the working steel water gate. The results of the modal analysis allowed us to compare the frequencies and their eigenmodes in response to different loads, which is one of the first steps in researching the dynamic properties of steel water gates and their behaviour during extreme dynamic loads, including earthquakes.

  2. Household-level dynamics of food waste production and related beliefs, attitudes, and behaviours in Guelph, Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parizeau, Kate; von Massow, Mike; Martin, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    It has been estimated that Canadians waste $27 billion of food annually, and that half of that waste occurs at the household level (Gooch et al., 2010). There are social, environmental, and economic implications for this scale of food waste, and source separation of organic waste is an increasingly common municipal intervention. There is relatively little research that assesses the dynamics of household food waste (particularly in Canada). The purpose of this study is to combine observations of organic, recyclable, and garbage waste production rates to survey results of food waste-related beliefs, attitudes, and behaviours at the household level in the mid-sized municipality of Guelph, Ontario. Waste weights and surveys were obtained from 68 households in the summer of 2013. The results of this study indicate multiple relationships between food waste production and household shopping practices, food preparation behaviours, household waste management practices, and food-related attitudes, beliefs, and lifestyles. Notably, we observed that food awareness, waste awareness, family lifestyles, and convenience lifestyles were related to food waste production. We conclude that it is important to understand the diversity of factors that can influence food wasting behaviours at the household level in order to design waste management systems and policies to reduce food waste. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Ozone and Water Stress: Effects on the Behaviour of Two White Clover Biotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Fagnano

    Full Text Available ozone pollution, water stress, stomata conductance, ozone uptake, clover, OTC.Ozone is a strong oxidizing pollutant which derives by alteration of the photolytic NOx cycle and it accumulates in the troposphere spreading in rural areas and therefore determining injuries on natural vegetation and crops. Since its penetration occurs mainly through stomata, all factors which alter plant-atmosphere relations could be able to modify plant response to ozone. Interaction between ozone and water stress in Mediterranean environment was studied on ozone resistant and sensitive biotypes of white clover, which were grown in charcoal filtered and notfiltered Open Top Chambers in factorial combination with different levels of water supply. Measurements of biomass, leaf area and stomatal conductance were made during the growth period. Ozone injuries were estimated as not-filtered/filtered OTC yield ratio; the stomatal flux of ozone was estimated multiplying stomata conductance x diffusivity ratio between ozone and water vapour (0.613 x ozone hourly concentrations. The hourly values of ozone uptake were cumulated throughout the cropping periods of the two years. In the sensitive biotype, water stress reduced yield losses due to ozone from 38% to 22%, as well as yield losses due to water stress were reduced by the presence of ozone from 43% to 29%, while no interaction between ozone and water stress was observed in the resistant biotype. Biomass yield losses of the sensitive biotype were strictly correlated to cumulated ozone uptake (R2 = 0.99, while biomass yield losses of the resistant biotype were not affected by the ozone fluxes variations created by the treatments. Flux based models could better estimate yield losses due to ozone in Mediterranean environments in which other stresses could be contemporary present; therefore, the new European directives might replace the actual thresholds based

  4. Characterization of recharge and flow behaviour of different water sources in Gunung Kidul and its impact on water quality based on hydrochemical and physico-chemical monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiche, Elisabeth; Hochschild, Maren; Haryono, Eko; Neumann, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    Karst aquifers are important water resources but highly vulnerable due to their heterogeneous and complex characteristics. Various hydrological aspects (recharge, flow behaviour) have to be known in detail to develop a sustainable concept for water collection, distribution and treatment. In the karst area of Gunung Sewu (Java, Indonesia) such a concept was to be implemented within a German-Indonesian joint IWRM project. The basic hydrogeological conditions and water quality aspects were characterized on a regional scale through hydrochemical monitoring of springs, wells, subsurface and surface rivers. More detailed information about the recharge, flow and storage behaviour was obtained from high resolution monitoring of T, EC and discharge in one large underground river system. The water quality is well below any guideline values with regard to inorganic pollutants during dry season. During rainy season, dissolved Al concentrations are frequently above the Indonesian guideline value. Slow matrix flow is the most important recharge component during dry season, thus assuring the year-round water availability in the subsurface karst. During rainy season, quick infiltration of the surface water is a dominant recharge component. Rapid response of discharge, T and EC to heavy rain suggests the presence of point recharge that feeds a highly karstfied conduit system with fast conduit flow and short transit time of water. The strong variations in discharge and hydrochemistry are particularly challenging for technical water usage and treatment facilities. Piston flow is indicated to be the third important flow component and is induced by heavy rainfall.

  5. The acoustic advantage of hunting at low heights above water: behavioural experiments on the European 'trawling' bats Myotis capaccinii, M. dasycneme and M. daubentonii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemers, B M; Stilz, P; Schnitzler, H U

    2001-11-01

    We have demonstrated in behavioural experiments that success in capturing prey from surfaces in 'trawling Myotis' (Leuconoë-type) depends on the acoustic properties of the surface on which the prey is presented. Two types of surface structure were ensonified with artificial bat signals to probe their acoustic characteristics. We have shown that perception of prey by echolocation is easier if the prey is presented on a smooth surface (such as calm water) than if it is presented on a structured surface (such as vegetation or the ground). This is because the smooth surface reflects a much lower level of clutter echoes than the structured one if ensonified at an angle typical for bats foraging low over water. The ensonification experiments revealed that the sound pressure level of the echo was even higher for mealworms on a smooth surface than for mealworms suspended in air. This might be because waves travelling via the surface also contribute to the echo (e.g. reflection from the surface to the mealworm, back to the surface and then to the receiver). From the behavioural experiments, we conclude that 'trawling Myotis' take isolated objects on smooth (water) surfaces for prey. Those objects reflect isolated, stationary acoustic glints back to the echolocating bats. Conversely, 'trawling Myotis' will not recognise prey if prey echoes are embedded in numerous clutter echoes. We have demonstrated marked similarities between the three European 'trawling Myotis' species M. dasycneme, M. daubentonii and M. capaccinii in echolocation behaviour, search image, foraging strategy and prey perception. We propose that a combination of prey abundance and acoustic advantages could have led to repeated and convergent evolution of 'trawling' bats in different parts of the world.

  6. Assessing coupling between lakes and layered aquifers in a complex Pleistocene landscape based on water level dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lischeid, Gunnar; Natkhin, Marco; Steidl, Jörg; Dietrich, Ottfried; Dannowski, Ralf; Merz, Christoph

    2010-11-01

    The biosphere reserve Schorfheide-Chorin is a scenic region with many lakes. Hydraulic coupling between lakes and groundwater is difficult to assess due to the very heterogeneous Pleistocene deposits with a complex layering of different aquifers, part of them being confined. Thus, a principal component analysis of time series of groundwater and lake water levels was performed. The first two principal components provided a quantitative measure of damping of the input signal, i.e., the extent to which time series of groundwater pressure heads or lake water levels are smoothed and delayed with respect to the input signal, i.e., groundwater recharge or precipitation minus evapotranspiration, respectively. The lakes differed substantially with respect to damping behaviour, indicating different impacts of deep groundwater contribution. For most of the groundwater wells, damping increased linearly with mean depth to water table. In contrast, some wells exhibited nearly identical behaviour independent of depth. High-pass filtered data of water table level from these wells were strongly and inversely correlated with those of barometric pressure fluctuations, pointing to a confined aquifer which was evidently not connected to the adjacent lake.

  7. Behaviour of Radium in coastal marine water of India - Behaviour of Radium in coastal marine environment of India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jha, S.K.; Sartandel, S.; Tripathi, R.M. [Environmental Radioactivity measurement Section, Health Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400085 (India)

    2014-07-01

    In the recent years, there has also been an increased recognition of the radiological significance of non-nuclear process of natural radioactivity in particular {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 222}Rn, {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb produced, for example by Phosphate processing plants, offshore oil and gas installations and ceramic industries etc. Keeping this in mind, special distribution of radium was carried out to generate region specific values of Radium. The Indian Ocean differs from the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans in its limited northward extent, to only 25 deg. N. Indian subcontinent divides the Indian ocean in the north into two tropical basin namely Arabian sea and Bay of Bengal both being located within same latitude and being under the direct influence of monsoon. For measurements of {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra concentration in the coastal marine waters of India, MnO{sub 2} impregnated cartridge based in-situ pre-concentration technique was applied by passing 1000 liters of seawater at thirty locations covering Arabian Sea in the west of India and Bay of Bengal in the east. {sup 226}Ra was estimated using gamma ray peak of its daughter radionuclides {sup 214}Bi and {sup 214}Pb while {sup 228}Ra was estimated from its daughter {sup 228}Ac. {sup 214}Pb emissions occur at 295 and 352 keV; {sup 214}Bi has an emission at 609 keV. For {sup 228}Ac gamma emissions at 911 keV, 968 keV and 338 keV were used. In the coastal waters, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra concentration was observed to be in the range of 0.69 to 4.10 mBql{sup -1} and 0.70 to 8 Bq m{sup -3} respectively with an average of 1.52 and 4.53 Bq m{sup -3}. The concentration of {sup 228}Ra was observed to be more than {sup 226}Ra in all the locations. The activity ratio of {sup 228}Ra/{sup 226}Ra in coastal marine water from the Bay of Bengal showed a ratio varying from 0.8 to 2.4 with a mean of 2.1.In the present study, activity ratio varies from 1.9 to 2.4 at Karaikkal. But the regions of Rameswaram and

  8. Methods for the determination of low-level actinide concentrations and their behaviour in the aquatic environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilvioe, R

    1998-12-31

    Intentional and accidental releases have contaminated the environment with radionuclides, posing a potential health hazard to populations of the polluted regions. Low concentrations of the actinides in the environment and complex sample matrices have made their determination a time consuming and complicated task. Separation methods based on anion exchange and extraction chromatography were developed, and subsequently modified, for analysis of different sample matrices in this work. These methods were used for the investigations of the behaviour of actinides in the environment. Chemical properties play an important role in the phenomena affecting the migration of radionuclides. The method based on anion exchange was used to study the behaviour of U in a small U-Th deposit and also the behaviour of Pu, Am and Cm in a lake system after the Chernobyl accident. The speciation of U and Pu in natural waters has also been investigated. A trend of higher {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U activity ratios with lower {sup 238}U concentrations was seen in the ground waters in the Palmottu analogue study site in southern Finland. This indicates chemical leaching of U(VI) in oxidising conditions and preferable dissolution of {sup 234}U due to the recoil effects of the alpha decay in reducing conditions. The factors affecting the distribution of U concentrations and the {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U activity ratios in filtered ground water and the particulate fraction in the Palmottu are also discussed. The concentrations of Pu, Am and Cm in filtered water, particulate and surface sediment samples in Lake Paeijaenne in southern Finland have been determined. Pu, Am and Cm fallout from the Chernobyl accident was minor compared to global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapon tests. Based on the {sup 238}Pu/{sup 239,240}Pu isotopic ratio, only 10 % of the Pu in the surface layer of the bottom sediment derived from the Chernobyl accident. Three months after the accident, 73 % of the total {sup 239

  9. Quantitative Analysis of Dynamic Behaviours of Rural Areas at Provincial Level Using Public Data of Gross Domestic Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Chen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A spatial approach that incorporates three economic components and one environmental factor has been developed to evaluate the dynamic behaviours of the rural areas at a provincial level. An artificial fish swarm algorithm with variable population size (AFSAVP is proposed for the spatial problem. A functional region affecting index θ is employed as a fitness function for the AFSAVP driven optimisation, in which a gross domestic product (GDP based method is utilised to estimate the CO2 emission of all provinces. A simulation for the administrative provinces of China has been implemented, and the results have shown that the modelling method based on GDP data can assess the spatial dynamic behaviours and can be taken as an operational tool for the policy planners. 

  10. Global gray water footprint and water pollution levels related to anthropogenic nitrogen loads to fresh water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mekonnen, Mesfin; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2015-01-01

    This is the first global assessment of nitrogen-related water pollution in river basins with a specification of the pollution by economic sector, and by crop for the agricultural sector. At a spatial resolution of 5 by 5 arc minute, we estimate anthropogenic nitrogen (N) loads to freshwater,

  11. RELATION IN PERCEPTION OF THE STYLE OF BEHAVIOUR OF THE COACH AND THE LEVEL OF STRESS IN FOOTBALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijana Tišma

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Stress is an occurrence that is increasingly taken care of, as it can significantly influence both the outcome of the game and the outcome of the training process and the entire career of an athlete or a team. It leads to a drop of immunity, frequent injuries, makes recovery difficult, leads to a drop in motivation, self-confidence and concetration in players. When it comes to combatting athletic stress, sport psychologists are usually consulted, although there are ways in which the coach himself can help with stress prevention, as well. The main goal of the paper is to establish whether there is a significant link between the athletes’ perception of the style of behaviour of the coach and their level of stress. The secondary goals lies in obtaining the answers to the questions of whether there is a significant difference in the stress level and the perception of the style of behaviour of the coach in regard to the competitive level of the athlete and/or the age and state of development of the athlete. The sample of the examinees is comprised of 192 football players from the territory of Vojvodina and of various ages (12 to 35 and various competitive levels (top class / professional athlete; average / standard athlete; recreational athlete. Obtained results partially answer the question of what the attitude of the coach should be during the training process and during the match in order to reduce the level of stress in his players to a minimum. As highly valued behavioural traits of the coach, we can single out: offering support and comfort, clear communication, dedication to the athletes, while as the negative sides emphasized are: instilling fear, neglecting of athletes and being stern.

  12. Exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields alters the behaviour, physiology and stress protein levels of desert locusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyszkowska, Joanna; Shepherd, Sebastian; Sharkh, Suleiman; Jackson, Christopher W.; Newland, Philip L.

    2016-01-01

    Electromagnetic fields (EMFs) are present throughout the modern world and are derived from many man-made sources including overhead transmission lines. The risks of extremely-low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields are particularly poorly understood especially at high field strengths as they are rarely encountered at ground level. Flying insects, however, can approach close to high field strength transmission lines prompting the question as to how these high levels of exposure affect behaviour and physiology. Here we utilise the accessible nervous system of the locust to ask how exposure to high levels of ELF EMF impact at multiple levels. We show that exposure to ELF EMFs above 4 mT leads to reduced walking. Moreover, intracellular recordings from an identified motor neuron, the fast extensor tibiae motor neuron, show increased spike latency and a broadening of its spike in exposed animals. In addition, hind leg kick force, produced by stimulating the extensor tibiae muscle, was reduced following exposure, while stress-protein levels (Hsp70) increased. Together these results suggest that ELF EMF exposure has the capacity to cause dramatic effects from behaviour to physiology and protein expression, and this study lays the foundation to explore the ecological significance of these effects in other flying insects. PMID:27808167

  13. Field dimension and skill level constrain team tactical behaviours in small-sided and conditioned games in football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Pedro; Duarte, Ricardo; Sampaio, Jaime; Aguiar, Paulo; Davids, Keith; Araújo, Duarte; Garganta, Júlio

    2014-12-01

    Abstract This study analysed the influence of field dimension and players' skill level on collective tactical behaviours during small-sided and conditioned games (SSCGs). Positioning and displacement data were collected using global positioning systems (15 Hz) during SSCGs (Gk+4 v. 4+Gk) played by two groups of participants (NLP- national-level and RLP-regional-level players) on different field dimensions (small: 36.8 × 23.8 m; intermediate: 47.3 × 30.6 and large: 57.8 × 37.4 m). Team tactical performance was assessed through established dynamic team variables (effective playing space, playing length per width ratio and team separateness) and nonlinear signal processing techniques (sample entropy of distances to nearest opponents and the teams' centroids' mutual information). Results showed that the effective playing space and team separateness increased significantly with pitch size regardless of participant skill level (P small (P = 0.003) and intermediate fields (P = 0.01). Findings suggest that tactical behaviours in SSCGs are constrained by field size and skill level, which need to be considered by coaches when designing training practices.

  14. A comparative experimental approach to ecotoxicology in shallow-water and deep-sea holothurians suggests similar behavioural responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Alastair; Wright, Roseanna; Mevenkamp, Lisa; Hauton, Chris

    2017-10-01

    Exploration of deep-sea mineral resources is burgeoning, raising concerns regarding ecotoxicological impacts on deep-sea fauna. Assessing toxicity in deep-sea species is technologically challenging, which promotes interest in establishing shallow-water ecotoxicological proxy species. However, the effects of temperature and hydrostatic pressure on toxicity, and how adaptation to deep-sea environmental conditions might moderate these effects, are unknown. To address these uncertainties we assessed behavioural and physiological (antioxidant enzyme activity) responses to exposure to copper-spiked artificial sediments in a laboratory experiment using a shallow-water holothurian (Holothuria forskali), and in an in situ experiment using a deep-sea holothurian (Amperima sp.). Both species demonstrated sustained avoidance behaviour, evading contact with contaminated artificial sediment. However, A. sp. demonstrated sustained avoidance of 5mgl -1 copper-contaminated artificial sediment whereas H. forskali demonstrated only temporary avoidance of 5mgl -1 copper-contaminated artificial sediment, suggesting that H. forskali may be more tolerant of metal exposure over 96h. Nonetheless, the acute behavioural response appears consistent between the shallow-water species and the deep-sea species, suggesting that H. forskali may be a suitable ecotoxicological proxy for A. sp. in acute (≤24h) exposures, which may be representative of deep-sea mining impacts. No antioxidant response was observed in either species, which was interpreted to be the consequence of avoiding copper exposure. Although these data suggest that shallow-water taxa may be suitable ecotoxicological proxies for deep-sea taxa, differences in methodological and analytical approaches, and in sex and reproductive stage of experimental subjects, require caution in assessing the suitability of H. forskali as an ecotoxicological proxy for A. sp. Nonetheless, avoidance behaviour may have bioenergetic consequences that

  15. Using Photovoice as a Community Based Participatory Research Tool for Changing Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Behaviours in Usoma, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elijah Bisung

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have witnessed an increase in the use of community based participatory research (CBPR tools for understanding environment and health issues and facilitating social action. This paper explores the application and utility of photovoice for understanding water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH behaviours and catalysing community led solutions to change behaviours. Between June and August 2013, photovoice was conducted with eight (8 women in Usoma, a lakeshore community in Western Kenya with a follow-up community meeting (baraza in May 2014 to discuss findings with the community members and government officials. In the first part of the study, photovoice one-on-one interviews were used to explore local perceptions and practices around water-health linkages and how the ecological and socio-political environment shapes these perceptions and practices. This paper, which is the second component of the study, uses photovoice group discussions to explore participants’ experiences with and (reaction to the photographs and the photovoice project. The findings illustrate that photovoice was an effective CBPR methodology for understanding behaviours, creating awareness, facilitating collective action, and engaging with local government and local health officials at the water-health nexus.

  16. The Causes and Circumstances of Drinking Water Incidents Impact Consumer Behaviour: Comparison of a Routine versus a Natural Disaster Incident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Rundblad

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available When public health is endangered, the general public can only protect themselves if timely messages are received and understood. Previous research has shown that the cause of threats to public health can affect risk perception and behaviours. This study compares compliance to public health advice and consumer behaviour during two “Boil Water” notices issued in the UK due to a routine incident versus a natural disaster incident. A postal questionnaire was sent to 1000 randomly selected households issued a routine “Boil Water” notice. Findings were then compared to a previous study that explored drinking water behaviour during a “Boil Water” notice issued after serious floods. Consumers affected by the routine incident showed a significant preference for official water company information, whereas consumers affected by the natural disaster preferred local information sources. Confusion over which notice was in place was found for both incidents. Non-compliance was significantly higher for the natural disaster (48.3% than the routine incident (35.4%. For the routine incident, compliance with advice on drinking as well as preparing/cooking food and brushing teeth was positively associated with receiving advice from the local radio, while the opposite was true for those receiving advice from the water company/leaflet through the post; we suggest this may largely be due to confusion over needing boiled tap water for brushing teeth. No associations were found for demographic factors. We conclude that information dissemination plans should be tailored to the circumstances under which the advice is issued. Water companies should seek to educate the general public about water notices and which actions are safe and unsafe during which notice, as well as construct and disseminate clearer advice on brushing teeth and preparing/cooking food.

  17. Littoral zones in shallow lakes. Contribution to water quality in relation to water level regime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sollie, S.

    2007-01-01

    Littoral zones with emergent vegetation are very narrow or even lacking in Dutch shallow lakes due to a combination of changed water level regime and unfavorable shore morphometry. These zones are important as a habitat for plants and animals, increasing species diversity. It has also been

  18. The effect of varying levels of vehicle automation on drivers' lane changing behaviour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Madigan

    Full Text Available Much of the Human Factors research into vehicle automation has focused on driver responses to critical scenarios where a crash might occur. However, there is less knowledge about the effects of vehicle automation on drivers' behaviour during non-critical take-over situations, such as driver-initiated lane-changing or overtaking. The current driving simulator study, conducted as part of the EC-funded AdaptIVe project, addresses this issue. It uses a within-subjects design to compare drivers' lane-changing behaviour in conventional manual driving, partially automated driving (PAD and conditionally automated driving (CAD. In PAD, drivers were required to re-take control from an automated driving system in order to overtake a slow moving vehicle, while in CAD, the driver used the indicator lever to initiate a system-performed overtaking manoeuvre. Results showed that while drivers' acceptance of both the PAD and CAD systems was high, they generally preferred CAD. A comparison of overtaking positions showed that drivers initiated overtaking manoeuvres slightly later in PAD than in manual driving or CAD. In addition, when compared to conventional driving, drivers had higher deviations in lane positioning and speed, along with higher lateral accelerations during lane changes following PAD. These results indicate that even in situations which are not time-critical, drivers' vehicle control after automation is degraded compared to conventional driving.

  19. The effect of raising and lowering tryptophan levels on human mood and social behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Simon N.

    2013-01-01

    Acute tryptophan depletion (ATD) studies indicate that low serotonin can lower mood and also increase aggression, although results vary somewhat between studies with similar participants. Lowering of mood after ATD is related to the susceptibility of the study participants to clinical depression, and some participants show no effect on mood. This indicates that low serotonin can contribute to lowered mood, but cannot—by itself—cause lowered mood, unless other unknown systems interact with serotonin to lower mood. Studies using tryptophan supplementation demonstrate that increased serotonin can decrease quarrelsomeness and increase agreeableness in everyday life. Social interactions that are more agreeable and less quarrelsome are associated with better mood. Thus, serotonin may have direct effects on mood, but may also be able to influence mood through changes in social behaviour. The increased agreeableness and decreased quarrelsomeness resulting from increases in serotonin will help foster congenial relations with others and should help to increase social support. As social support and social isolation have an important relationship with both physical and mental health, more research is needed on the implications of the ability of serotonin to modulate social behaviour for the regulation of mood, and for future physical and mental health. PMID:23440461

  20. Digitalizing historical high resolution water level data: Challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holinde, Lars; Hein, Hartmut; Barjenbruch, Ulrich

    2017-04-01

    Historical tide-gauge data offer the opportunities for determining variations in key characteristics for water level data and the analyses of past extreme events (storm surges). These information are important for calculating future trends and scenarios. But there are challenges involved due to the extensive effort needed to digitalize gauge sheets and quality control the resulting historical data. Based on these conditions, two main sources for inaccuracies in historical time series can be identified. First are several challenges due to the digitalization of the historical data, e.g. general quality of the sheets, multiple crossing lines of the observed water levels and additional comments on the sheet describing problems or additional information during the measurements. Second are problems during the measurements themselves. These can include the incorrect positioning of the sheets, trouble with the tide-gauge and maintenance. Errors resulting from these problems can be e.g. flat lines, discontinuities and outlier. Especially, the characterization of outliers has to be conducted carefully, to distinguish between real outliers and the appearance of extreme events. Methods for the quality control process involve the use of statistics, machine learning and neural networks. These will be described and applied to three different time series from tide gauge stations at the cost of Lower Saxony, Germany. Resulting difficulties and outcomes of the quality control process will be presented and explained. Furthermore, we will present a first glance at analyses for these time series.

  1. Investigation of natural radioactivity levels in water around Kadugli, Sudan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osman, Alfatih A.A. [Sudan Atomic Energy Commission, P.O. Box 3001, Khartoum (Sudan)], E-mail: alfatih_123@yahoo.com; Salih, Isam; Shaddad, Ibrahim A.; El Din, Saif; Siddeeg, M.B.; Eltayeb, Hatem; Idriss, Hajo; Hamza, Walid; Yousif, E.H. [Sudan Atomic Energy Commission, P.O. Box 3001, Khartoum (Sudan)

    2008-11-15

    Surface water from Miri Lake and groundwater from around Kadugli (West-Central Sudan) obtained by means of hand-pumps was analysed for {sup 238}U, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 222}Rn, and {sup 232}Th activity concentrations. The surface water showed very low levels of radionuclide concentrations: <1.0-7.5, 8.5-16.5, <1.6, and <0.1-0.39 mBq L{sup -1} for {sup 238}U, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 222}Rn, and {sup 232}Th, respectively. Groundwater revealed a significant amount of natural radioactivity (16.1-1720, 7.7-14.3, 3000-139,000, <0.1-39 mBq L{sup -1}) respectively. The overall annual effective dose was below the WHO reference dose level of 0.1 mSv yr{sup -1} except in one groundwater sample with an associated dose of 0.7 mSv yr{sup -1}.

  2. Mercury and water level fluctuations in lakes of northern Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, James H.; Maki, Ryan P; Christensen, Victoria G.; Sandheinrich, Mark B.; LeDuc, Jaime F.; Kissane, Claire; Knights, Brent C.

    2017-01-01

    Large lake ecosystems support a variety of ecosystem services in surrounding communities, including recreational and commercial fishing. However, many northern temperate fisheries are contaminated by mercury. Annual variation in mercury accumulation in fish has previously been linked to water level (WL) fluctuations, opening the possibility of regulating water levels in a manner that minimizes or reduces mercury contamination in fisheries. Here, we compiled a long-term dataset (1997-2015) of mercury content in young-of-year Yellow Perch (Perca flavescens) from six lakes on the border between the U.S. and Canada and examined whether mercury content appeared to be related to several metrics of WL fluctuation (e.g., spring WL rise, annual maximum WL, and year-to-year change in maximum WL). Using simple correlation analysis, several WL metrics appear to be strongly correlated to Yellow Perch mercury content, although the strength of these correlations varies by lake. We also used many WL metrics, water quality measurements, temperature and annual deposition data to build predictive models using partial least squared regression (PLSR) analysis for each lake. These PLSR models showed some variation among lakes, but also supported strong associations between WL fluctuations and annual variation in Yellow Perch mercury content. The study lakes underwent a modest change in WL management in 2000, when winter WL minimums were increased by about 1 m in five of the six study lakes. Using the PLSR models, we estimated how this change in WL management would have affected Yellow Perch mercury content. For four of the study lakes, the change in WL management that occurred in 2000 likely reduced Yellow Perch mercury content, relative to the previous WL management regime.

  3. Increased noise levels have different impacts on the anti-predator behaviour of two sympatric fish species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene K Voellmy

    Full Text Available Animals must avoid predation to survive and reproduce, and there is increasing evidence that man-made (anthropogenic factors can influence predator-prey relationships. Anthropogenic noise has been shown to have a variety of effects on many species, but work investigating the impact on anti-predator behaviour is rare. In this laboratory study, we examined how additional noise (playback of field recordings of a ship passing through a harbour, compared with control conditions (playback of recordings from the same harbours without ship noise, affected responses to a visual predatory stimulus. We compared the anti-predator behaviour of two sympatric fish species, the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus and the European minnow (Phoxinus phoxinus, which share similar feeding and predator ecologies, but differ in their body armour. Effects of additional-noise playbacks differed between species: sticklebacks responded significantly more quickly to the visual predatory stimulus during additional-noise playbacks than during control conditions, while minnows exhibited no significant change in their response latency. Our results suggest that elevated noise levels have the potential to affect anti-predator behaviour of different species in different ways. Future field-based experiments are needed to confirm whether this effect and the interspecific difference exist in relation to real-world noise sources, and to determine survival and population consequences.

  4. Blood lead and erythrocyte protoporphyrin levels in association with smoking and personal hygienic behaviour among lead exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karita, K; Nakao, M; Ohwaki, K; Yamanouchi, Y; Nishikitani, M; Nomura, K; Sato, M; Yano, E

    2005-05-01

    To investigate the effects of smoking and personal hygienic behaviour on blood lead (BPb) and free erythrocyte protoporphyrin levels (FEP) in lead exposed workers. Subjects were 105 lead exposed male workers in a battery recycling plant during the years 2000-03. BPb and FEP were measured as part of the ongoing occupational surveillance. Each worker completed a questionnaire for assessment of smoking and four measures of personal hygienic behaviour (glove and mask use, hand and face washing before meals during working hours). Statistically significant decreases in mean BPb and FEP occurred during the three years. The proportion of BPb reduction in the non-smoking workers was significantly higher (mean 24.3%) than in the smoking workers (15.3%). When the workers were classified into three groups (excellent, good, and poor) based on the four personal hygienic behavioural indicators, the greatest decreases of BPb and FEP were observed in the non-smoking workers of the excellent group. The consistent use of protection devices and cleanliness at work appeared to contribute to the lowering of BPb and FEP. Cessation of smoking in the workplace was also of importance.

  5. Ternary phase behaviour and vesicle formation of a sodium N-lauroylsarcosinate hydrate/1-decanol/water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akter, Nasima; Radiman, Shahidan; Mohamed, Faizal; Rahman, Irman Abdul; Reza, Mohammad Imam Hasan

    2011-08-01

    The phase behaviour of a system composed of amino acid-based surfactant (sodium N-lauroylsarcosinate hydrate), 1-decanol and deionised water was investigated for vesicle formation. Changing the molar ratio of the amphiphiles, two important aggregate structures were observed in the aqueous corner of the phase diagram. Two different sizes of microemulsions were found at two amphiphile-water boundaries. A stable single vesicle lobe was found for 1∶2 molar ratios in 92 wt% water with vesicles approximately 100 nm in size and with high zeta potential value. Structural variation arises due to the reduction of electrostatic repulsions among the ionic headgroups of the surfactants and the hydration forces due to adsorbed water onto monolayer's. The balance of these two forces determines the aggregate structures. Analysis was followed by the molecular geometrical structure. These findings may have implications for the development of drug delivery systems for cancer treatments, as well as cosmetic and food formulations.

  6. Effects of lake warming on behavioural thermoregulatory tactics in a cold-water stenothermic fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerine Goyer

    Full Text Available Despite some evidence of within-population phenotypic variation in fish thermal behaviour, the occurrence of alternative tactics of this behaviour is rarely explicitly considered when studying natural populations. Brook charr provide an example of within-population variability in behavioural thermoregulation as revealed by a recent study on a lacustrine population of this species. The objectives of the present study were (i to determine the influence of natural variability in the lake's thermal profiles on the expression of thermoregulatory tactics, and (ii to determine the vertical and horizontal movements of individuals at different periods of the day to better understand the spatio-temporal behaviour associated with each thermoregulatory tactic. During summer 2010, 30 adult brook charr were equipped with thermo-sensitive radio transmitters to monitor their selected temperatures and daily movements. These individuals exhibited the same four behavioural thermoregulatory tactics observed in 2003 and 2005, but the expression of two of these was weaker in 2010. This result was associated with lake warming, which constrained the expression of two thermoregulatory tactics: brook charr significantly decreased their selected temperatures and daily movements when the mean daily epilimnion temperature was above 22.4°C. This study shows for the first time that the expression of behavioural thermoregulatory tactics is related to the lake's thermal regime and that the tactics are plastic through time.

  7. Project Water Science. General Science High School Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water Education Foundation, Sacramento, CA.

    This teacher's guide presents 12 hands-on laboratory activities for high school science classes that cover the environmental issue of water resources in California. The activities are separated into three sections. Five activities in the section on water quality address the topics of groundwater, water hardness, bottled water, water purity, and…

  8. Household-level dynamics of food waste production and related beliefs, attitudes, and behaviours in Guelph, Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parizeau, Kate, E-mail: kate.parizeau@uoguelph.ca [Department of Geography, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON (Canada); Massow, Mike von [School of Hospitality, Food, and Tourism Management, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON (Canada); Martin, Ralph [Plant Agriculture Department, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON (Canada)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • We combined household waste stream weights with survey data. • We examine relationships between waste and food-related practices and beliefs. • Families and large households produced more total waste, but less waste per capita. • Food awareness and waste awareness were related to reduced food waste. • Convenience lifestyles were differentially associated with food waste. - Abstract: It has been estimated that Canadians waste $27 billion of food annually, and that half of that waste occurs at the household level (Gooch et al., 2010). There are social, environmental, and economic implications for this scale of food waste, and source separation of organic waste is an increasingly common municipal intervention. There is relatively little research that assesses the dynamics of household food waste (particularly in Canada). The purpose of this study is to combine observations of organic, recyclable, and garbage waste production rates to survey results of food waste-related beliefs, attitudes, and behaviours at the household level in the mid-sized municipality of Guelph, Ontario. Waste weights and surveys were obtained from 68 households in the summer of 2013. The results of this study indicate multiple relationships between food waste production and household shopping practices, food preparation behaviours, household waste management practices, and food-related attitudes, beliefs, and lifestyles. Notably, we observed that food awareness, waste awareness, family lifestyles, and convenience lifestyles were related to food waste production. We conclude that it is important to understand the diversity of factors that can influence food wasting behaviours at the household level in order to design waste management systems and policies to reduce food waste.

  9. Quantitative Analysis of Dynamic Behaviours of Rural Areas at Provincial Level Using Public Data of Gross Domestic Product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yi; Zhang, Guangfeng; Li, Yiyang

    2013-01-01

    A spatial approach that incorporates three economic components and one environmental factor has been developed to evaluate the dynamic behaviours of the rural areas at a provincial level. An artificial fish swarm algorithm with variable population size (AFSAVP) is proposed for the spatial problem....... A functional region affecting index (Θ) is employed as a fitness function for the AFSAVP driven optimisation, in which a gross domestic product (GDP) based method is utilised to estimate the CO2 emission of all provinces. A simulation for the administrative provinces of China has been implemented...

  10. Perception of Emotional Facial Expressions in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) at Behavioural and Brain Metabolic Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aho-Özhan, Helena E A; Keller, Jürgen; Heimrath, Johanna; Uttner, Ingo; Kassubek, Jan; Birbaumer, Niels; Ludolph, Albert C; Lulé, Dorothée

    2016-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) primarily impairs motor abilities but also affects cognition and emotional processing. We hypothesise that subjective ratings of emotional stimuli depicting social interactions and facial expressions is changed in ALS. It was found that recognition of negative emotions and ability to mentalize other's intentions is reduced. Processing of emotions in faces was investigated. A behavioural test of Ekman faces expressing six basic emotions was presented to 30 ALS patients and 29 age-, gender and education matched healthy controls. Additionally, a subgroup of 15 ALS patients that were able to lie supine in the scanner and 14 matched healthy controls viewed the Ekman faces during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Affective state and a number of daily social contacts were measured. ALS patients recognized disgust and fear less accurately than healthy controls. In fMRI, reduced brain activity was seen in areas involved in processing of negative emotions replicating our previous results. During processing of sad faces, increased brain activity was seen in areas associated with social emotions in right inferior frontal gyrus and reduced activity in hippocampus bilaterally. No differences in brain activity were seen for any of the other emotional expressions. Inferior frontal gyrus activity for sad faces was associated with increased amount of social contacts of ALS patients. ALS patients showed decreased brain and behavioural responses in processing of disgust and fear and an altered brain response pattern for sadness. The negative consequences of neurodegenerative processes in the course of ALS might be counteracted by positive emotional activity and positive social interactions.

  11. Water Requirements for Food Assessed at Different Levels of Scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiter de, Henri

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Fresh water scarcity is a major and increasing problem. Increasing water scarcity will have consequences for food security; thus strategies are needed to reduce the appropriation of water. Since agriculture uses 70% of all freshwater withdrawals,

  12. [Level of education comparing to eating behaviours and anthropometrical indicators of nutritional status among men of Cracovian population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gacek, Maria; Chrzanowska, Maria

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate of educating level effect as one indicator of social status on eating behaviours and anthropometrical parameters of nutritional status in professionally active men aged 20-60 at city environment. The research was conducted into 1320 workers of Tadeusz Sendzimir's Steelworks in Cracov. The research tool was the author's questionnaire which included questions about meal consumption regularity and frequency of consuming selected groups of foodstuffs. The indicators of nutritional status were fixed on the base of anthropometrical measurements, whereas the body content was estimated by method of bioimpendation with the use of electronic scales TBF-300P. Differentiation of some eating behaviours depending on the level of education was proved; but one cannot definitely estimate the relation of these parameters, as the higher educated people aged 40-60 years old more frequently declare two meal style of eating and more often consume confectionery than the lower educated; in turn vocationally educated men aged 20-40 more often declare consuming fast food products. Statistically considerable differentiation in some anthropometrical indicators of nutritional status depending of the level of education among men aged 40-60 was also proved. Men of vocational education are characterized by the highest value of WHR indicator but at the same time lower value of the 4 skin-fatty folds sum than higher educated people.

  13. Survey of fluoride levels in vended water stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadav, Urvi G; Archarya, Bhavini S; Velasquez, Gisela M; Vance, Bradley J; Tate, Robert H; Quock, Ryan L

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to measure the fluoride concentration of water derived from vended water stations (VWS) and to identify its clinical implications, especially with regard to caries prevention and fluorosis. VWS and corresponding tap water samples were collected from 34 unique postal zip codes; samples were analyzed in duplicate for fluoride concentration. Average fluoride concentration in VWS water was significantly lower than that of tap water (P water ranged from drinking water may not be receiving optimal caries preventive benefits; thus dietary fluoride supplementation may be indicated. Conversely, to minimize the risk of fluorosis in infants consuming reconstituted infant formula, water from a VWS may be used.

  14. Global Anthropogenic Phosphorus Loads to Fresh Water, Grey Water Footprint and Water Pollution Levels: A High-Resolution Global Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonnen, M. M.; Hoekstra, A. Y. Y.

    2014-12-01

    We estimated anthropogenic phosphorus (P) loads to freshwater, globally at a spatial resolution level of 5 by 5 arc minute. The global anthropogenic P load to freshwater systems from both diffuse and point sources in the period 2002-2010 was 1.5 million tonnes per year. China contributed about 30% to this global anthropogenic P load. India was the second largest contributor (8%), followed by the USA (7%), Spain and Brazil each contributing 6% to the total. The domestic sector contributed the largest share (54%) to this total followed by agriculture (38%) and industry (8%). Among the crops, production of cereals had the largest contribution to the P loads (32%), followed by fruits, vegetables, and oil crops, each contributing about 15% to the total. We also calculated the resultant grey water footprints, and relate the grey water footprints per river basin to runoff to calculate the P-related water pollution level (WPL) per catchment.

  15. Influence of Closing Storm Surge Barrier on Extreme Water Levels and Water Exchange; The Limfjord, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen Quvang Harck; Bentzen, Thomas Ruby; Larsen, Torben

    2014-01-01

    The Limfjord is the largest Danish estuary and is connected to both the North Sea in the west and the Kattegat in the east. The connection to the North Sea was formed in 1825 by a storm surge, and has since been kept open partly artificially. The debate about the climate changes and thereby...... the increased risk of flooding in the estuary has revitalized the discussion whether this connection should be closed. In this paper, it is shown by numerical simulation that the establishment of a storm surge barrier across Thyborøn Channel can significantly reduce the peak water levels in the central...... of the fjord. The reduction is obtained by blocking the ingoing flow with a sluice in due time before the storm surge peaks in the North Sea. In order to avoid problems with reduced water quality and salinity, the water exchange should be controlled by only keeping the sluice open for ingoing currents...

  16. Sex in troubled waters: Widespread agricultural contaminant disrupts reproductive behaviour in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, Michael G; Saaristo, Minna; Baumgartner, John B; Johnstone, Christopher P; Allinson, Mayumi; Allinson, Graeme; Wong, Bob B M

    2015-04-01

    Chemical pollution is a pervasive and insidious agent of environmental change. One class of chemical pollutant threatening ecosystems globally is the endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). The capacity of EDCs to disrupt development and reproduction is well established, but their effects on behaviour have received far less attention. Here, we investigate the impact of a widespread androgenic EDC on reproductive behaviour in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata. We found that short-term exposure of male guppies to an environmentally relevant concentration of 17β-trenbolone-a common environmental pollutant associated with livestock production-influenced the amount of male courtship and forced copulatory behaviour (sneaking) performed toward females, as well as the receptivity of females toward exposed males. Exposure to 17β-trenbolone was also associated with greater male mass. However, no effect of female exposure to 17β-trenbolone was detected on female reproductive behaviour, indicating sex-specific vulnerability at this dosage. Our study is the first to show altered male reproductive behaviour following exposure to an environmentally realistic concentration of 17β-trenbolone, demonstrating the possibility of widespread disruption of mating systems of aquatic organisms by common agricultural contaminants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Towards understanding the dynamic behaviour of floodplains as human-water systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Di Baldassarre

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a conceptual approach to explore the complex dynamics of floodplains as fully coupled human-water systems. A number of hydrologists have recently investigated the impact of human activities (such as flood control measures, land-use changes, and settlement patterns on the frequency and severity of floods. Meanwhile, social scientists have shown how interactions between society and waters in deltas and floodplain areas, including the frequency and severity of floods, have an impact on the ways in which social relations unfold (in terms of governance processes, policies, and institutions and societies are organised (spatially, politically, and socially. However, we argue that the interactions and associated feedback mechanisms between hydrological and social processes remain largely unexplored and poorly understood. Thus, there is a need to better understand how the institutions and governance processes interact with hydrological processes in deltas and floodplains to influence the frequency and severity of floods, while (in turn hydrological processes co-constitute the social realm and make a difference for how social relations unfold to shape governance processes and institutions. Our research goal, therefore, is not in identifying one or the other side of the cycle (hydrological or social, but in explaining the relationship between them: how, when, where, and why they interact, and to what result for both social relations and hydrological processes? We argue that long time series of hydrological and social data, along with remote sensing data, can be used to observe floodplain dynamics from unconventional approaches, and understand the complex interactions between water and human systems taking place in floodplain areas, across scales and levels of human impacts, and within different hydro-climatic conditions, socio-cultural settings, and modes of governance.

  18. The chlorination behaviour and environmental fate of the antiretroviral drug nevirapine in South African surface water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Timothy Paul; Basson, Adriaan Erasmus; Duvenage, Cornelia; Rohwer, Egmont Richard

    2016-11-01

    The wastewater treatment process, besides discharging pharmaceuticals into the environment, has been found to result in the formation of a variety of undescribed compounds. Here we investigate the laboratory scale chlorination of the commonly used anti-HIV drug Nevirapine, characterise its disinfection transformation products (DTPs), and using liquid chromatography with high resolution mass spectrometry, screen environmental surface water for these DTPs. Chlorination of Nevirapine was scaled up, fractioned by preparative chromatography and the fractions were tested in vitro for toxicity and anti-HIV activity. Nevirapine was found to be resistant to degradation at relevant chlorination levels, which may partially explain its ubiquitous presence in South African surface water. During simulated chlorination, a variety of DTPs with varying properties were formed, some of which were detected in the environment, close to wastewater treatment plants. Interestingly, some of these compounds, although not as toxic as Nevirapine, retained antiviral activity. Further purification and synthesis is required to fully characterise these novel molecules. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. GPS water level measurements for Indonesia's Tsunami Early Warning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Schöne

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available On Boxing Day 2004, a severe tsunami was generated by a strong earthquake in Northern Sumatra causing a large number of casualties. At this time, neither an offshore buoy network was in place to measure tsunami waves, nor a system to disseminate tsunami warnings to local governmental entities. Since then, buoys have been developed by Indonesia and Germany, complemented by NOAA's Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis (DART buoys, and have been moored offshore Sumatra and Java. The suite of sensors for offshore tsunami detection in Indonesia has been advanced by adding GPS technology for water level measurements.

    The usage of GPS buoys in tsunami warning systems is a relatively new approach. The concept of the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS (Rudloff et al., 2009 combines GPS technology and ocean bottom pressure (OBP measurements. Especially for near-field installations where the seismic noise may deteriorate the OBP data, GPS-derived sea level heights provide additional information.

    The GPS buoy technology is precise enough to detect medium to large tsunamis of amplitudes larger than 10 cm. The analysis presented here suggests that for about 68% of the time, tsunamis larger than 5 cm may be detectable.

  20. The types and levels of physical activity and sedentary behaviour of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Johanna C.W. De Vos

    Methods: The adapted Children's Leisure Activities Study Survey (CLASS) questionnaire was used for determining the types and levels ... increasingly show an inverted relationship between physical activity levels and time spent in .... period at the schools and learners sat in the classroom and completed the questionnaire ...

  1. Target detection and driving behaviour measurements in a driving simulator at mesopic light levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alferdinck, J.W.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    During night-time driving hazardous objects often appear at mesopic light levels, which are typically measured using light meters with a spectral sensitivity that is only valid for photopic light levels. In order to develop suitable mesopic models a target detection experiment was performed in a

  2. The Research on Submissive Behaviour of Students in the Second Level of Elementary School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah ATLİ

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the submissive behaviors of second level of elementary school students at with respect to some variables. Participants were 430 students, 172 (42,6 % girls and 231 (57,4 % boys. Among these participants, 156 (38,6 % were 6th graders, 104 (26% were 7th graders, and 143 (35,4% were 8th graders. The data were collected using Student Personal Information Form developed by researchers and Submissive Behaviors Scale. The data collected were analyzed using t-test, One-way ANOVA, Tukey Test, and Mann–Whitney U test. The findings revealed that students’ levels of submissive behaviors significantly differed by the variables including school type, gender, school class level, achievement, residence, economic level, mother’s and father’s education level, violence by mother and father.

  3. Habitat selection by African buffalo (Syncerus caffer in response to landscape-level fluctuations in water availability on two temporal scales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Bennitt

    Full Text Available Seasonal fluctuations in water availability cause predictable changes in the profitability of habitats in tropical ecosystems, and animals evolve adaptive behavioural and spatial responses to these fluctuations. However, stochastic changes in the distribution and abundance of surface water between years can alter resource availability at a landscape scale, causing shifts in animal behaviour. In the Okavango Delta, Botswana, a flood-pulsed ecosystem, the volume of water entering the system doubled between 2008 and 2009, creating a sudden change in the landscape. We used African buffalo (Syncerus caffer to test the hypotheses that seasonal habitat selection would be related to water availability, that increased floodwater levels would decrease forage abundance and affect habitat selection, and that this would decrease buffalo resting time, reduce reproductive success and decrease body condition. Buffalo selected contrasting seasonal habitats, using habitats far from permanent water during the rainy season and seasonally-flooded habitats close to permanent water during the early and late flood seasons. The 2009 water increase reduced forage availability in seasonally-flooded habitats, removing a resource buffer used by the buffalo during the late flood season, when resources were most limited. In response, buffalo used drier habitats in 2009, although there was no significant change in the time spent moving or resting, or daily distance moved. While their reproductive success decreased in 2009, body condition increased. A protracted period of high water levels could prove detrimental to herbivores, especially to smaller-bodied species that require high quality forage. Stochastic annual fluctuations in water levels, predicted to increase as a result of anthropogenically-induced climate change, are likely to have substantial impacts on the functioning of water-driven tropical ecosystems, affecting environmental conditions within protected areas

  4. Thermal Behaviour of Some Azo Dyes Containing Sterically Hindered and Water-Soluble Groups

    OpenAIRE

    KOCAOKUTGEN, Hasan; HEREN, Zerrin

    1998-01-01

    Thermal behaviour of six azo dyes containing steric hindered groups such as tert-butyl, sec-butyl and isopropyl, were investigated by means of thermogravimetry (TG), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and differential thermogravimetry (DTG). The thermal decomposition points and amount of volatile pyrolysis products, were determined in nitrogen atmosphere using TG, DTA and DTG curves.

  5. Dispersal patterns, active behaviour, and flow environment during early life history of coastal cold water fishes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Stanley

    Full Text Available During the pelagic larval phase, fish dispersal may be influenced passively by surface currents or actively determined by swimming behaviour. In situ observations of larval swimming are few given the constraints of field sampling. Active behaviour is therefore often inferred from spatial patterns in the field, laboratory studies, or hydrodynamic theory, but rarely are these approaches considered in concert. Ichthyoplankton survey data collected during 2004 and 2006 from coastal Newfoundland show that changes in spatial heterogeneity for multiple species do not conform to predictions based on passive transport. We evaluated the interaction of individual larvae with their environment by calculating Reynolds number as a function of ontogeny. Typically, larvae hatch into a viscous environment in which swimming is inefficient, and later grow into more efficient intermediate and inertial swimming environments. Swimming is therefore closely related to length, not only because of swimming capacity but also in how larvae experience viscosity. Six of eight species sampled demonstrated consistent changes in spatial patchiness and concomitant increases in spatial heterogeneity as they transitioned into more favourable hydrodynamic swimming environments, suggesting an active behavioural element to dispersal. We propose the tandem assessment of spatial heterogeneity and hydrodynamic environment as a potential approach to understand and predict the onset of ecologically significant swimming behaviour of larval fishes in the field.

  6. Dispersal patterns, active behaviour, and flow environment during early life history of coastal cold water fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Ryan; Snelgrove, Paul V R; Deyoung, Brad; Gregory, Robert S

    2012-01-01

    During the pelagic larval phase, fish dispersal may be influenced passively by surface currents or actively determined by swimming behaviour. In situ observations of larval swimming are few given the constraints of field sampling. Active behaviour is therefore often inferred from spatial patterns in the field, laboratory studies, or hydrodynamic theory, but rarely are these approaches considered in concert. Ichthyoplankton survey data collected during 2004 and 2006 from coastal Newfoundland show that changes in spatial heterogeneity for multiple species do not conform to predictions based on passive transport. We evaluated the interaction of individual larvae with their environment by calculating Reynolds number as a function of ontogeny. Typically, larvae hatch into a viscous environment in which swimming is inefficient, and later grow into more efficient intermediate and inertial swimming environments. Swimming is therefore closely related to length, not only because of swimming capacity but also in how larvae experience viscosity. Six of eight species sampled demonstrated consistent changes in spatial patchiness and concomitant increases in spatial heterogeneity as they transitioned into more favourable hydrodynamic swimming environments, suggesting an active behavioural element to dispersal. We propose the tandem assessment of spatial heterogeneity and hydrodynamic environment as a potential approach to understand and predict the onset of ecologically significant swimming behaviour of larval fishes in the field.

  7. To stop or not to stop: Contrasting compliant and non-compliant driver behaviour at rural rail level crossings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beanland, Vanessa; Salmon, Paul M; Filtness, Ashleigh J; Lenné, Michael G; Stanton, Neville A

    2017-11-01

    Many rail level crossings (RLXs) have only passive protection, such as static signs instructing road users to stop, yield, or look for trains. Stop signs have been suggested as a low-cost option to improve safety at passive RLXs, as requiring drivers to stop should encourage safe behaviour. However, field observations have noted high rates of non-compliance at stop-controlled RLXs. To explore this further, we conducted an on-road study to identify factors that influence compliance at stop-controlled RLXs. Twenty-two drivers drove a 30.5km route in rural Australia, encompassing three stop-controlled RLXs. In over half of all cases (59%) drivers stopped completely at the RLX; on 27% of crossings drivers executed a rolling stop, and on 14% of crossings drivers violated the stop controls. Rolling stops were defined as a continuous deceleration to 10km/h. Behavioural patterns, including visual checks and decision-making, were similar when comparing drivers who made complete versus rolling stops. Non-compliant drivers did not differ from compliant drivers in approach speeds, but spent less time visually checking for trains. Post-drive interviews revealed some drivers wilfully disregarded the stop sign, whereas others did not notice the stop sign. Those who intentionally violated noted trains were infrequent and suggested sight distance was good enough (even though all crossings had been formally assessed as having inadequate sight distance). Overall the results suggest most drivers exhibit safe behaviour at passive RLXs, but a notable minority disregard or fail to notice signs. Potential avenues for redesigning passive RLXs to improve safety are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Thermal annealing behaviour of deep levels in as-grown p-type MOCVD GaAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naz, Nazir A., E-mail: nazir_phys@yahoo.co [Semiconductor Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Department of Applied Physics, Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and technology, G-7/1, Islamabad (Pakistan); Qurashi, Umar S.; Zafar Iqbal, M. [Semiconductor Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan)

    2009-12-15

    Thermal annealing behaviour of deep levels in p-GaAs grown by metal-organic chemical-vapor deposition (MOCVD) has been studied by deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) technique. Thermal annealing is found to introduce at least six new defects, four majority-carrier emitting deep levels, situated at E{sub v}+0.11, E{sub v}+0.27, E{sub v}+0.44 and E{sub v}+0.89 eV in the bandgap, and two minority-carrier emitting defects, at E{sub c}-0.49 eV and E{sub c}-0.99 eV. The minority-carrier emitting band of deep levels around approx100 K in the as-grown material has also been found to resolve into two distinct peaks corresponding to deep levels at E{sub c}-0.16 eV and E{sub c}-0.21 eV, upon isochronal annealing. Four of the annealed-in defects at E{sub v}+0.27, E{sub v}+0.44, E{sub c}-0.16 eV and E{sub c}-0.49 eV are identified with previously reported deep levels, while the other four defects cannot be identified with any of the deep levels reported in the literature. Data on the annealing behavior and other characteristics of these annealed-in levels are presented. The thermal annealing behavior of the both inadvertent levels observed at E{sub v}+0.55 eV and E{sub v}+0.96 eV suggests that these levels are most likely related to arsenic antisite, As{sub Ga}, defects.

  9. Environmental assessment of drainage water impacts on water quality and eutrophication level of Lake Idku, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Elham M; Khairy, Hanan M

    2016-09-01

    Lake Idku, northern Egypt, receives large quantities of drainage water from four main discharging drains. Ecological and biological status of Lake Idku has been monitored during (autumn 2012 to summer 2013) to examine the lake water quality and eutrophication level in response to the quality as well as the source of the discharging water. Discrete water samples were collected from the lake body and the drains. Chemical analyses revealed an excessive nutrient load goes into the lake. A range of 1.4-10.6 mg nitrites/L was determined for drain waters, however a sudden increase was observed in lake and drain water samples of up to 84 and 74.5 mg/L, respectively. Reactive silicate ranged between 2.9 and 4.8 mg/L; while inorganic phosphate fluctuated between 0.2 and 0.43 mg/L. Transparency varied from 45 cm to 134 cm with better light conditions at drain sites. Biological results indicated a hyper-eutrophic status for the lake with a range of chlorophyll-a varied from a minimum of 39.9 μg/L (at Idku Drains) and a maximum of 104.2 μg/L (at El-Khairy drain). Phytoplankton community structure revealed higher abundance at lake sites compared with the drains. Maximum phytoplankton density was detected during summer with the dominance of Bacilariophyceae (e.g. Cyclotella meneghiniana, Cyclotella comate, Melosira varians) followed by Chlorophycean taxon (e.g. Scenedesmus dimorphus, S. bijuga and Crucigenia tetrapedia). Five indices were applied to evaluate the water quality of the lake. Diversity Index (DI) indicated slight to light pollution along all sites; while Sapropic Index (SI) indicated slight pollution with acceptable oxygen conditions and an availability of sensitive species. Palmer Index (PI) gave a strong evidence of high organic pollution at some sites in the lake, while Generic Diatom Index (GDI) revealed that levels of pollution varied from average to strong. Trophic Index (TI), suggest that there are an obvious signs of eutrophication in the lake

  10. Post-adoption behaviour of farmers towards soil and water conservation technologies of watershed management in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal Lal Bagdi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Indian Institute of Soil and Water Conservation (IISWC and its Research Centres have developed many successful model watershed projects in India in the past and implemented many Soil and Water Conservation (SWC technologies for sustainable watershed management. While many evaluation studies were conducted on these projects in the past, there has been no assessment of the post-adoption status of the SWC technologies over a longer period. It was imperative to appraise the behaviour of the farmers with regard to the continuance or discontinuance of the technologies adopted, diffusion or infusion that took place and technological gaps that occurred in due course of time in the post watershed programme. Therefore, it was realized that the post-adoption behaviour of beneficiary farmers who have adopted different soil and water conservation technologies for watershed management projects should be studied in detail. The research study was initiated in 2012 as a core project at Vasad as the lead Centre along with IISWC headquarter Dehradun, and Centres Agra, Bellary, Chandigarh, Datia, Kota & Ooty, with the specific objectives of the study to measure the extent of post-adoption behaviour (continued-adoption, discontinuance, technological gap, diffusion and infusion of farmers towards the adopted SWC technologies of watershed management. In the present study various indices regarding continued adoption, dis-adoption (discontinuance, technological gap, diffusion, infusion regarding soil and water conservation technologies for watershed management were developed for measurement of post-adoption behaviour of farmers. It was revealed that a little less than three-fourth (73% of SWC technologies continued to be adopted and more than one-fourth (27% were discontinued by farmers. Out of the total continue adopted SWC technologies by farmers, a little less than one-fifth (19% of technologies continued to be adopted with a technological gap. More than one

  11. levels of heavy metals in gubi dam water bauchi, nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ada

    constituents or pollutants in natural waters are the particles. All substances that ... rivers to the ocean is in the form of particulate matter (Martin and ..... pollution. Water Research, 9: pp. 189-. 195. Aston S.R. and Thornton, I., 1977. Regional geochemical data in relation to seasonal variations in water quality. Science of the.

  12. in_focus - Water: Local-level Management | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Today, more than 1 billion people lack access to safe drinking water. Within the next 25 years, fully one-third of the world's population will experience severe water scarcity. It is clear that disparities in the availability and supply of fresh water are truly a matter of life and death, and constitute one of the great governance ...

  13. Geographical distribution of drinking-water with high iodine level and association between high iodine level in drinking-water and goitre: a Chinese national investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hongmei; Liu, Shoujun; Sun, Dianjun; Zhang, Shubin; Su, Xiaohui; Shen, Yanfeng; Han, Hepeng

    2011-07-01

    Excessive iodine intake can cause thyroid function disorders as can be caused by iodine deficiency. There are many people residing in areas with high iodine levels in drinking-water in China. The main aim of the present study was to map the geographical distribution of drinking-water with high iodine level in China and to determine the relationship between high iodine level in drinking-water and goitre prevalence. Iodine in drinking-water was measured in 1978 towns of eleven provinces in China, with a total of 28,857 water samples. We randomly selected children of 8-10 years old, examined the presence of goitre and measured their urinary iodine in 299 towns of nine provinces. Of the 1978 towns studied, 488 had iodine levels between 150 and 300 μg/l in drinking-water, and in 246 towns, the iodine level was >300 μg/l. These towns are mainly distributed along the original Yellow River flood areas, the second largest river in China. Of the 56 751 children examined, goitre prevalence was 6.3 % in the areas with drinking-water iodine levels of 150-300 μg/l and 11.0 % in the areas with drinking-water iodine >300 μg/l. Goitre prevalence increased with water and urinary iodine levels. For children with urinary iodine >1500 μg/l, goitre prevalence was 3.69 times higher than that for those with urinary iodine levels of 100-199 μg/l. The present study suggests that drinking-water with high iodine levels is distributed in eleven provinces of China. Goitre becomes more prevalent with the increase in iodine level in drinking-water. Therefore, it becomes important to prevent goitre through stopping the provision of iodised salt and providing normal drinking-water iodine through pipelines in these areas in China.

  14. Observed behaviours of precipitable water vapour and precipitation intensity in response to upper air profiles estimated from surface air temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Mikiko; Sato, Tomonori

    2017-07-06

    Extremely heavy precipitation affects human society and the natural environment, and its behaviour under a warming climate needs to be elucidated. Recent studies have demonstrated that observed extreme precipitation increases with surface air temperature (SAT) at approximately the Clausius-Clapeyron (CC) rate, suggesting that atmospheric water vapour content can explain the relationship between extreme precipitation and SAT. However, the relationship between atmospheric water vapour content and SAT is poorly understood due to the lack of reliable observations with sufficient spatial and temporal coverage for statistical analyses. Here, we analyse the relationship between atmospheric water vapour content and SAT using precipitable water vapour (PWV) derived from global positioning system satellites. A super-CC rate appears in hourly PWV when the SAT is below 16 °C, whereas the rate decreases at high SAT, which is different from the precipitation-SAT relationship. The effects of upper air temperature and water vapour can consistently explain the super-CC rate of PWV relative to SAT. The difference between moist and dry adiabatic lapse rates increases with SAT, in consequence of more ability to hold water vapour in the free atmosphere under higher SAT conditions; therefore, attainable PWV increases more rapidly than the CC rate as SAT increases.

  15. The hypoxia avoidance behaviour of juvenile Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) depends on the provision and pressure level of an O2 refuge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbert, Neill A.; Skjaeraasen, Jon E.; Nilsen, Trygve

    2011-01-01

    The frequency of low O(2) (hypoxia) has increased in coastal marine areas but how fish avoid deleterious water masses is not yet clear. To assess whether the presence and oxygen pressure (PO(2)) level of an O(2) refuge affects the hypoxia avoidance behaviour of fish, individual Atlantic cod (Gadus...... morhua L.) were exposed to a range of O(2) choices in a 2-way choice chamber at 11.4 degrees C over two different experiments. Cod in the first experiment were allowed access to a fixed O(2) refuge (fully air-saturated seawater) whilst oxygen pressure (PO(2)) on the other side was reduced in steps...... to a critically low level, i.e. 4.3 kPa-a point where cod can no longer regulate O(2) consumption. Under these conditions, cod did not avoid any level of hypoxia and fish swimming speed also remained unchanged. In contrast, strong avoidance reactions were exhibited in a second experiment when fish were again...

  16. Lithium, magnesium and silicon isotope behaviour accompanying weathering in a basaltic soil and pore water profile in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogge von Strandmann, Philip A. E.; Opfergelt, Sophie; Lai, Yi-Jen; Sigfússon, Bergur; Gislason, Sigurður R.; Burton, Kevin W.

    2012-07-01

    This study presents lithium, magnesium and silicon isotope ratios from pore waters and soils from a well-characterised Histic Andosol in south-west Iceland. The soil δ7Li composition ranges between values slightly lighter than basalt, to those that are much heavier (-1.1‰ to +26.8‰), and are possibly influenced by sea salt. In contrast, precipitation-corrected dissolved (pore water) δ7Li values (1.8-10.0‰) appear to reflect preferential adsorption of 6Li onto secondary minerals, where allophane supersaturation results in high δ7Li values. Conversely low δ7Li together with high [Li] are probably due to destabilisation of allophane at low pH, and thus desorption of Li. When compared to Icelandic river values, it would appear that soil pore waters reflect an intermediate isotope composition between basalts and river waters. Precipitation corrected pore water Mg isotope ratios (δ26Mg) range between -0.46‰ and -0.12‰, and correlate with the amount of heavy Mg adsorbed onto the soil exchange complex. Silicon isotopes in the soils are isotopically lighter (δ30Si=-0.91‰ to -0.53‰) than basalt (-0.29‰), whereas pore waters are heavier (+0.13‰ to +1.03‰). Soil δ30Si values show a clear evolution between unweathered basalt and a hypothetical isotopically light endmember representing secondary minerals. Dissolved Si isotopes also respond to chemical weathering processes, and show that isotopically heavy δ30Si corresponds to high cation fluxes and high secondary mineral formation. However, comparison of all these proposed isotopic weathering tracers suggests that they respond differently to the same chemical weathering conditions. This indicates a differing behaviour during secondary mineral neoformation or adsorption depending on whether the incorporated element is a major or trace constituent. In turn, this behaviour can potentially yield important information on secondary mineral behaviour and destabilisation, and thus on the chemical weathering

  17. Description and effects of 1988 drought on ground-water levels, streamflow, and reservoir levels in Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, K.K.

    1992-01-01

    Documentation of the 1988 drought in Indiana was undertaken to aid water-management agencies and planners concerned with periods of below-normal precipitation and their effect on commercial, agricultural, and residential water use. Precipitation, temperature, Palmer Drought Severity Indices, and ground- and surface-water levels from water years 1988 and 1989 were compared to the historical record to evaluate severity, extent, and duration of the 1988 drought in Indiana.

  18. Effects of reservoirs water level variations on fish recruitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabíula T. de Lima

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The construction of hydroelectric power plants has many social and environmental impacts. Among them, the impacts on fish communities, which habitats are drastically modified by dams, with consequences across the ecosystem. This study aimed to assess the influence of water level (WL variations in the reservoirs of the Itá and Machadinho hydroelectric plants on the recruitment of fish species from the upper Uruguay River in southern Brazil. The data analyzed resulted from the WL variation produced exclusively by the hydroelectric plants generation and were collected between the years 2001 and 2012. The results showed significant correlations between the abundance of juvenile fish and the hydrological parameters only for some reproductive guilds. The species that spawn in nests showed, in general, a clear preference for the stability in the WL of the reservoirs, while the species that spawn in macrophytes or that release demersal eggs showed no significant correlation between the abundance of juvenile fish and hydrological parameters. A divergence of results between the two reservoirs was observed between the species that release semi-dense eggs; a positive correlation with a more stable WL was only observed in the Machadinho reservoir. This result can be driven by a wider range of WL variation in Machadinho reservoir.

  19. The effect of O{sub 2} content on the corrosion behaviour of X65 and 5Cr in water-containing supercritical CO{sub 2} environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hua, Yong, E-mail: leo.huayong@gmail.com; Barker, Richard; Neville, Anne

    2015-11-30

    Highlights: • Corrosion behaviour was evaluated in water-containing SC-CO{sub 2} with different O{sub 2} levels. • Corrosion was observed when no free water was present. • Localized corrosion was a fundamental consideration in water-containing CO{sub 2} systems. • O{sub 2} content plays a key role in influencing the critical water content. - Abstract: The general and localized corrosion behaviour of X65 carbon steel and 5Cr low alloy steel were evaluated in a water-saturated supercritical CO{sub 2} environment in the presence of varying concentrations of O{sub 2}. Experiments were performed at a temperature of 35 °C and a pressure of 80 bar to simulate the conditions encountered during CO{sub 2} transport and injection. Results indicated that increasing O{sub 2} concentration from 0 to 1000 ppm caused a progressive reduction in the general corrosion rate, but served to increase the extent of localized corrosion observed on both materials. Pitting (or localized attack) rates for X65 ranged between 0.9 and 1.7 mm/year, while for 5Cr rose from 0.3 to 1.4 mm/year as O{sub 2} concentration was increased from 0 to 1000 ppm. General corrosion rates were over an order of magnitude lower than the pitting rates measured. Increasing O{sub 2} content in the presence of X65 and 5Cr suppressed the growth of iron carbonate (FeCO{sub 3}) on the steel surface and resulted in the formation of a corrosion product consisting mainly of iron oxide (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}). 5Cr was shown to offer more resistance to pitting corrosion in comparison to X65 steel over the conditions tested. At concentrations of O{sub 2} above 500 ppm 5Cr produced general corrosion rates less than 0.04 mm/year, which were half that recorded for X65. The improved corrosion resistance of 5Cr was believed to be at least partially attributed to the formation of a Cr-rich film on the steel surface which was shown using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to contain chromium oxide (Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and chromium

  20. Lake Storage Measurements For Water Resources Management: Combining Remotely Sensed Water Levels and Surface Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brakenridge, G. R.; Birkett, C. M.

    2013-12-01

    Presently operating satellite-based radar altimeters have the ability to monitor variations in surface water height for large lakes and reservoirs, and future sensors will expand observational capabilities to many smaller water bodies. Such remote sensing provides objective, independent information where in situ data are lacking or access is restricted. A USDA/NASA (http://www.pecad.fas.usda.gov/cropexplorer/global_reservoir/) program is performing operational altimetric monitoring of the largest lakes and reservoirs around the world using data from the NASA/CNES, NRL, and ESA missions. Public lake-level products from the Global Reservoir and Lake Monitor (GRLM) are a combination of archived and near real time information. The USDA/FAS utilizes the products for assessing international irrigation potential and for crop production estimates; other end-users study climate trends, observe anthropogenic effects, and/or are are involved in other water resources management and regional water security issues. At the same time, the Dartmouth Flood Observatory (http://floodobservatory.colorado.edu/), its NASA GSFC partners (http://oas.gsfc.nasa.gov/floodmap/home.html), and associated MODIS data and automated processing algorithms are providing public access to a growing GIS record of the Earth's changing surface water extent, including changes related to floods and droughts. The Observatory's web site also provide both archival and near real time information, and is based mainly on the highest spatial resolution (250 m) MODIS bands. Therefore, it is now possible to provide on an international basis reservoir and lake storage change measurements entirely from remote sensing, on a frequently updating basis. The volume change values are based on standard numerical procedures used for many decades for analysis of coeval lake area and height data. We provide first results of this combination, including prototype displays for public access and data retrieval of water storage

  1. The simulation of the non-Markovian behaviour of a two-level system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semina, I.; Petruccione, F.

    2016-05-01

    Non-Markovian relaxation dynamics of a two-level system is studied with the help of the non-linear stochastic Schrödinger equation with coloured Ornstein-Uhlenbeck noise. This stochastic Schrödinger equation is investigated numerically with an adapted Platen scheme. It is shown, that the memory effects have a significant impact to the dynamics of the system.

  2. The effects of sound propagation and avoidance behaviour on naval sonar levels received by cetaceans

    OpenAIRE

    Wensveen, Paul J.

    2012-01-01

    The use of active sonar is deemed to be essential for naval operations, but its potential impact on marine life has raised concerns worldwide. In a risk-assessment framework, characterisation of risk of harm is accomplished by combining exposure assessment and dose−response relationships. The overall topic of this thesis is an evaluation of factors that influence exposure assessment, including analysis of how sound levels received by cetaceans are affected by in-situ sound propagation and the...

  3. [Investigation of the association between arsenic levels in drinking water and suicide rate of Hungarian settlements between 2005 and 2011. A preliminary study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rihmer, Zoltán; Hal, Melinda; Kapitány, Balázs; Gonda, Xénia; Vargha, Márta; Döme, Péter

    2016-01-01

    Both suicidal behaviour and consumption of arsenic-contaminated drinking-water represent major public health problems. Previous epidemiological and animal studies showed that high arsenic intake may also be associated with the elevated risk for depression. Since untreated depression is the most powerful risk factor for suicidal behaviour, we postulated that the consumption of arsenic-contaminated tap drinking-water may also be related to suicide. Based on the level of arsenic in their drinking water Hungarian settlements with more then 500 inhabitants (n=1639) were divided into four groups. Then average age-standardized suicide rates of the four groups were compared. We found that the higher is the arsenic level in the drinking water the higher is the suicide rate of the settlements. In addition to the practical consequences of our preliminary results (e.g. in the suicide prevention) they also suggest that high level of arsenic in drinking water might contribute, at least in part, to the well-known and stable in time regional differences in suicide mortality of Hungary since the highest arsenic levels in drinking water have been found in counties with traditionally high suicide rates, such as Bacs-Kiskun, Csongrad, Bekes and Hajdu- Bihar.

  4. Exploring the behaviour of water in glycerol solutions by using delayed luminescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosaria Grasso

    Full Text Available The crucial role of water in the engine of life have encouraged many researchers in studying, both theoretically and experimentally, the possible "structure" of water. Many properties of water have been related to the interplay between two distinct and interconverting structural species, namely the low-density water (LDW and the high-density water (HDW. Supported by the results obtained with other aqueous solutions, this paper deals with the possibility of using the ultra-weak delayed luminescence (DL to investigate water structuring in a mixture with glycerol, characterized only by hydrogen bonds between the various molecules. Spectral and temporal characteristics of DL decays give information on the two components of the mixture, by evidencing the contribution of water at glycerol concentrations close to the values used in cryopreservation. DL results have shown a correlation with LDW clusters size as determined by other researchers on the basis of neutron diffraction experiments and computational modelling, as reported in Literature.

  5. Incremental learning of Bayesian sensorimotor models: from low-level behaviours to large-scale structure of the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diard, Julien; Gilet, Estelle; Simonin, Éva; Bessière, Pierre

    2010-12-01

    This paper concerns the incremental learning of hierarchies of representations of space in artificial or natural cognitive systems. We propose a mathematical formalism for defining space representations (Bayesian Maps) and modelling their interaction in hierarchies of representations (sensorimotor interaction operator). We illustrate our formalism with a robotic experiment. Starting from a model based on the proximity to obstacles, we learn a new one related to the direction of the light source. It provides new behaviours, like phototaxis and photophobia. We then combine these two maps so as to identify parts of the environment where the way the two modalities interact is recognisable. This classification is a basis for learning a higher level of abstraction map that describes the large-scale structure of the environment. In the final model, the perception-action cycle is modelled by a hierarchy of sensorimotor models of increasing time and space scales, which provide navigation strategies of increasing complexities.

  6. Correlations between the electrochemical behaviour and surface film composition of TZM alloy exposed to divertor water coolant environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maday, M.-F. [ENEA-CRE-Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Div. Nuovi Mater.; Giorgi, R. [ENEA-CRE-Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Div. Nuovi Mater.; Dikonimos-Makris, T. [ENEA-CRE-Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Div. Nuovi Mater.

    1997-07-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has been carried out on TZM alloy surfaces after short and long immersion tests in high temperature (250 C) aqueous environments simulating possible fusion reactor coolant conditions during operation. Phase identification by XPS was used in connection with the open circuit potential trends to suggest plausible hypotheses about TZM corrosion behaviour in the various chemical environments considered in this study. It was proposed that exposure of TZM to oxidizing water conditions produced poorly protective layers, which consist essentially of low (IV) and intermediate (V) valency Mo oxides/hydroxides. Conversely the results obtained in deaerated and reducing water conditions suggested that barrier films could develop in these environments: the phases exhibit a bilayered structure and consisted of an inner tetravalent Mo oxide/hydroxide and an outer hexavalent Mo oxide. The protective properties of such layers were attributed to the hexavalent Mo species. (orig.).

  7. The corrosion behaviour of galvanized steel in cooling tower water containing a biocide and a corrosion inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnoş, Bihter; Ilhan-Sungur, Esra; Çotuk, Ayşın; Güngör, Nihal Doğruöz; Cansever, Nurhan

    2013-01-01

    The corrosion behaviour of galvanized steel in cooling tower water containing a biocide and a corrosion inhibitor was investigated over a 10-month period in a hotel. Planktonic and sessile numbers of sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) and heterotrophic bacteria were monitored. The corrosion rate was determined by the weight loss method. The corrosion products were analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. A mineralized, heterogeneous biofilm was observed on the coupons. Although a biocide and a corrosion inhibitor were regularly added to the cooling water, the results showed that microorganisms, such as SRB in the mixed species biofilm, caused corrosion of galvanized steel. It was observed that Zn layers on the test coupons were completely depleted after 3 months. The Fe concentrations in the biofilm showed significant correlations with the weight loss and carbohydrate concentration (respectively, p < 0.01 and p < 0.01).

  8. Comparison of the dilational behaviour of adsorbed milk proteins at the air-water and oil-water interfaces.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, A.; Prins, A.

    1996-01-01

    The interfacial dilational properties of two milk proteins, β-casein and β-lactoglobulin, have been compared at the air-water and paraffin oil-water interfaces. The measurements were performed as a function of bulk protein concentration using a modified Langmuir trough technique at a frequency of

  9. Effects of a long term water level reduction on the ecology and water quality in an eastern Mediterranean lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanidis K.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Water level fluctuations play a significant role in the lake nutrient dynamics, and consequently may have a strong influence on the biological communities and productivity. In this article we investigated the effects of a long term water level reduction on key chemistry parameters and major biological communities in an eastern Mediterranean lake. Our approach is based on temporal data regarding water quality, fish, zooplankton and aquatic vegetation that are representative of different water level periods. The results revealed significant correlations between water level, conductivity and chloride concentration suggesting a clear effect of the water level reduction on the water quality. Among the key findings of this study is the significant increase of zoobenthivorous fish (roach and carp from 1973 to 1999 that correlates with the water level reduction. A decline of charophytes is also noted whereas the reed beds appear to have expanded at the shallower parts of the lake. The zooplankton composition of the lake is mostly dominated by nauplii, rotifer and small-sized crustaceans indicating a possible effect of fish predation. Overall, this article has ascertained an alarming shift of water quality and composition of biological communities that can be attributed to the combined effects of eutrophication and the extreme water level decrease.

  10. The degradation behaviour of nine diverse contaminants in urban surface water and wastewater prior to water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormier, Guillaume; Barbeau, Benoit; Arp, Hans Peter H; Sauvé, Sébastien

    2015-12-01

    An increasing diversity of emerging contaminants are entering urban surface water and wastewater, posing unknown risks for the environment. One of the main contemporary challenges in ensuring water quality is to design efficient strategies for minimizing such risks. As a first step in such strategies, it is important to establish the fate and degradation behavior of contaminants prior to any engineered secondary water treatment. Such information is relevant for assessing treatment solutions by simple storage, or to assess the impacts of contaminant spreading in the absence of water treatment, such as during times of flooding or in areas of poor infrastructure. Therefore in this study we examined the degradation behavior of a broad array of water contaminants in actual urban surface water and wastewater, in the presence and absence of naturally occurring bacteria and at two temperatures. The chemicals included caffeine, sulfamethoxazole, carbamazepine, atrazine, 17β-estradiol, ethinylestradiol, diclofenac, desethylatrazine and norethindrone. Little information on the degradation behavior of these pollutants in actual influent wastewater exist, nor in general in water for desethylatrazine (a transformation product of atrazine) and the synthetic hormone norethindrone. Investigations were done in aerobic conditions, in the absence of sunlight. The results suggest that all chemicals except estradiol are stable in urban surface water, and in waste water neither abiotic nor biological degradation in the absence of sunlight contribute significantly to the disappearance of desethylatrazine, atrazine, carbamazepine and diclofenac. Biological degradation in wastewater was effective at transforming norethindrone, 17β-estradiol, ethinylestradiol, caffeine and sulfamethoxazole, with measured degradation rate constants k and half-lives ranging respectively from 0.0082-0.52 d(-1) and 1.3-85 days. The obtained degradation data generally followed a pseudo-first-order-kinetic model

  11. Electron transfer behaviour of biological macromolecules towards the single-molecule level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingdong; Grubb, Mikala; Hansen, Allan G.; Kuznetsov, Alexander M.; Boisen, Anja; Wackerbarth, Hainer; Ulstrup, Jens

    2003-05-01

    Redox metalloproteins immobilized on metallic surfaces in contact with aqueous biological media are important in many areas of pure and applied sciences. Redox metalloprotein films are currently being addressed by new approaches where biotechnology including modified and synthetic proteins is combined with state-of-the-art physical electrochemistry with emphasis on single-crystal, atomically planar electrode surfaces, in situ scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) and other surface techniques. These approaches have brought bioelectrochemistry important steps forward towards the nanoscale and single-molecule levels. We discuss here these advances with reference to two specific redox metalloproteins, the blue single-copper protein Pseudomonas aeruginosa azurin and the single-haem protein Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast cytochrome c, and a short oligonucleotide. Both proteins can be immobilized on Au(111) by chemisorption via exposed sulfur-containing residues. Voltammetric, interfacial capacitance, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and microcantilever sensor data, together with in situ STM with single-molecule resolution, all point to a coherent view of monolayer organization with protein electron transfer (ET) function retained. In situ STM can also address the microscopic mechanisms for electron tunnelling through the biomolecules and offers novel notions such as coherent multi-ET between the substrate and tip via the molecular redox levels. This differs in important respects from electrochemical ET at a single metal/electrolyte interface. Similar data for a short oligonucleotide immobilized on Au(111) show that oligonucleotides can be characterized with comparable detail, with novel perspectives for addressing DNA electronic conduction mechanisms and for biological screening towards the single-molecule level.

  12. Chemoreception of hunger levels alters the following behaviour of a freshwater snail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larcher, Marie; Crane, Adam L

    2015-12-01

    Chemically-mediated orientation is essential for many animals that must locate sites containing resources such as mates or food. One way to find these areas is by using publically-available information from other individuals. We tested a freshwater snail, Physa gyrina, for chemoreception of conspecific cues and predicted they could discriminate between cues based on information regarding hunger levels. We placed 'tracker' snails into a 2-arm arena where they could either follow or avoid an area previously used by a 'marker' snail. The hunger levels of both trackers and markers was manipulated, being either starved or fed. Starved and fed trackers did not differ in their following response when markers were hungry, but starved trackers were significantly more likely to follow fed markers, compared to fed trackers that tended to avoid areas used by fed markers. This outcome suggests that P. gyrina uses conspecific chemical cues to find food and potentially in some situations to avoid intra-specific food competition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Assessing maize foliar water stress levels under field conditions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plant physiological processes required for crop productivity are dependent on the availability of water to crops. Water availability to crops therefore requires real time monitoring for timeous rescue or intervention measures. Such monitoring over vast areas is only possible through remotely sensed techniques such as ...

  14. Carboxyhaemoglobin levels in water-pipe and cigarette smokers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water-pipe smoking is growing in popularity, especially among young people, because of the social nature of the smoking session and the assumption that the effects are less harmful than those of cigarette smoking. It has however been shown that a single water-pipe smoking session produces a 24-hour urinary cotinine ...

  15. Contamination levels of domestic water sources in Maiduguri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experimental design was adopted, where water samples derived from four different sources i.e. from treated surface water, deep boreholes, wash boreholes and harvested rainwater were tested in the laboratory for pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), total hardness (TH), aluminium (Al), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium ...

  16. Levels of Cadmium and Lead in Water, Sediments and Selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: heavy metals, cadmium, lead, water, sediment, fish, Kenya coast. Flame absorption spectrophotometry was used to investigate the concentration and distribution of cadmium and lead in water, sediments and selected fish species in Makupa and Tudor creeks in Mombasa, Kenya between May 1997 and March ...

  17. Water Levels In Major Artesian Aquifers Of The New Jersey Coastal Plain, 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosman, Robert; Lacombe, Pierre J.; Storck, Donald A.

    1995-01-01

    Water levels in 1,251 wells in the New Jersey Coastal Plain, Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania, and Kent and New Castle Counties, Delaware, were measured from October 1988 to February 1989 and compared with 1,071 water levels measured from September 1983 to May 1984. Water levels in 916 of the wells measured in the 1983 study were remeasured in the 1988 study. Alternate wells were selected to replace wells used in 1983 that were inaccessible at the time of the water-level measurements in 1988 or had been destroyed. New well sites were added in strategic locations to increase coverage where possible. Large cones of depression have formed or expanded in the nine major artesian aquifers that underlie the New Jersey Coastal Plain. Water levels are shown on nine potentiometric-surface maps. Hydrographs for observation wells typically show water-level declines for 1983, through 1989. In the confined Cohansey aquifer, the lowest water level, 20 feet below sea level, was measured in a well located at Cape May City Water Department, Cape May County. Water levels in the Atlantic City 800-foot sand declined as much as 21 feet at Ventnor, Atlantic County, over the 6-year period from the 1983 study to this study for 1988. Water levels in the Piney Point aquifer were as low as 56 feet below sea level at Seaside Park, Ocean County; 45 feet below sea level in southern Cumberland County; and 28 feet below sea level at Margate, Atlantic County. Water levels in the Vincentown aquifer did not change over the 6-year period. The lowest water levels in the Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifer and the Englishtown aquifer system were 218 feet and 256 feet below sea level, respectively. Large cones of depression in the Potomac- Raritan-Magothy aquifer system are centered in the Camden County area and the Middlesex and Monmouth County area. Water levels declined as much as 46 feet in these areas over the 6-year period.

  18. Seven-year time trends in energy balance-related behaviours according to educational level and ethnic background among 14-year-old adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijerink, Frederika J; van Vuuren, C Leontine; Wijnhoven, Hanneke A H; van Eijsden, Manon

    2016-04-01

    To assess seven-year time trends in energy balance-related behaviours in 14-year-old adolescents living in an urban area and to examine the influence of educational level and ethnicity on these time trends. Second grade students (mean age 13·6 years) filled in questionnaires about the energy balance-related behaviours of breakfast consumption, fruit and vegetable consumption, physical activity and screen-time behaviour from school years 2006-2007 to 2012-2013. Energy balance-related behaviours were dichotomized and logistic regression analyses were used to examine time trends in healthy energy balance-related behaviours, including interaction terms for educational level and ethnicity. Secondary schools in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Per school year, 2185-3331 children participated. The total sample included 19 244 students of Dutch, Surinamese, Turkish and Moroccan ethnic background. A significant linear increase was found for positive screen-time behaviour (<2 h/d; OR per year=1·04; 95 % CI 1·03, 1·06). For daily vegetable consumption a non-linear negative trend was observed (school year 2012-2013 v. 2006-2007: OR=0·90; 95 % CI 0·80, 1·00). Time trends in screen time were significantly different across educational levels (P-interaction=0·002) and ethnic backgrounds (P<0·001), as were time trends in daily fruit consumption (P=0·017 and P=0·018, respectively) and, for ethnicity, trends in daily vegetable consumption (P<0·001). The increase in positive screen-time behaviour is a positive finding. However, discouraging screen time and promoting other healthy behaviours, more specifically daily fruit and vegetable consumption, remain important particularly among adolescents enrolled in pre-vocational education and of non-Dutch ethnic background.

  19. Behaviour of the buccal crestal bone levels after immediate placement of implants subjected to immediate loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemes, H deP; Sartori, I A deM; Cardoso, L C; Ponzoni, D

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to measure changes in buccal alveolar crestal bone levels after immediate placement and loading of dental implants with Morse taper prosthetic abutments after tooth extraction. This study followed the STROBE guidelines regarding prospective cohort studies. The sample comprised 12 patients with a mean age of 45 years, in whom a central or upper lateral incisor was indicated for extraction. Prior to extraction, computed tomography (CT) analysis was carried out to assess the presence of the buccal bone crest. CT scans were performed at 24 h and at 6 months after immediate implant placement and immediate loading. The distance from the most apical point of the implant platform to the buccal bone crest was assessed at the two time points. The buccal bone crest height was evaluated at three points in the mesio-distal direction: (1) the centre point of the alveolus, (2) 1mm mesial to the centre point, and (3) 1 mm distal to the centre point. The values obtained were subjected to statistical analysis, comparing the distances from the bone crest to the implant platform for the two time points. After 6 months there was a statistically significant, non-uniform reduction in height at the level of the crest of the buccal bone in the cervical direction. It is concluded that the buccal bone crest of the immediate implants that replaced the maxillary incisors underwent apical resorption when subjected to immediate loading. Copyright © 2014 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Water levels in continuously monitored wells in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada, 1985--88

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luckey, R.R.; Lobmeyer, D.H.; Burkhardt, D.J.

    1993-07-01

    Water levels have been monitored hourly in 15 wells completed in 23 depth intervals in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada. Water levels were monitored using pressure transducers and were recorded by data loggers. The pressure transducers were periodically calibrated by raising and lowering them in the wells. The water levels were normally measured at approximately the same time that the transducers were calibrated. Where the transducer output appeared reasonable, it was converted to water levels using the calibrations and manual water- level measurements. The amount of transducer output that was converted to water levels ranged from zero for several intervals to about 98 percent for one interval. Fourteen of the wells were completed in Tertiary volcanic rocks and one well was completed in Paleozoic carbonate rocks. Each well monitored from one to four depth intervals. Water-level fluctuation caused by barometric pressure changes and earth tides were observed.

  1. Molecular level water and solute transport in reverse osmosis membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueptow, Richard M.; Shen, Meng; Keten, Sinan

    2015-11-01

    The water permeability and rejection characteristics of six solutes, methanol, ethanol, 2-propanol, urea, Na+, and Cl-, were studied for a polymeric reverse osmosis (RO) membrane using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. Results indicate that water flux increases with an increasing fraction of percolated free volume in the membrane polymer structure. Solute molecules display Brownian motion and hop from pore to pore as they pass through the membrane. The solute rejection depends on both the size of the solute molecule and the chemical interaction of the solute with water and the membrane. When the open spaces in the polymeric structure are such that solutes have to shed at least one water molecule from their solvation shell to pass through the membrane molecular structure, the water-solute pair interaction energy governs solute rejection. Organic solutes more easily shed water molecules than ions to more readily pass through the membrane. Hydrogen-bonding sites for molecules like urea also lead to a higher rejection. These findings underline the importance of the solute's solvation shell and solute-water-membrane chemistry in solute transport and rejection in RO membranes. Funded by the Institute for Sustainability and Energy at Northwestern with computing resources from XSEDE (NSF grant ACI-1053575).

  2. Options for water-level control in developed wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, J. R.; Laubhan, M. K.; Reid, F. A.; Wortham, J. S.; Fredrickson, L. H.

    1993-01-01

    Wetland habitats in the United States currently are lost at a rate of 260,000 acres/year (105,218 ha/year). Consequently, water birds concentrate in fewer and smaller areas. Such concentrations may deplete food supplies and influence behavior, physiology, and survival. Continued losses increase the importance of sound management of the remaining wetlands because water birds depend on them. Human activities modified the natural hydrology of most remaining wetlands in the conterminous United States, and such hydrologic alterations frequently reduce wetland productivity. The restoration of original wetland functions and productivity often requires the development of water distribution and discharge systems to emulate natural hydrologic regimes. Construction of levees and correct placement of control structures and water-delivery and water-discharge systems are necessary to (1) create soil and water conditions for the germination of desirable plants, (2) control nuisance vegetation, (3) promote the production of invertebrates, and (4) make foods available for wildlife that depends of wetlands (Leaflets 13.2.1 and 13.4.6). This paper provides basic guidelines for the design of wetlands that benefit wildlife. If biological considerations are not incorporated into such designs, the capability of managing wetlands for water birds is reduced and costs often are greater. Although we address the development of palustrine wetlands in migration and wintering areas, many of the discussed principles are applicable to the development of other wetland types and in other locations.

  3. Effects of levels and sources of dietary fermentable non-starch polysaccharides on blood glucose stability and behaviour of group-housed pregnant gilts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, de J.A.; Zonderland, J.J.; Altena, H.; Spoolder, H.A.M.; Jongbloed, A.W.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2005-01-01

    A fermentable non-starch polysaccharides (fNSP)-rich diet (sugarbeet pulp; SBP) was previously shown to reduce within-day variation in blood glucose levels and reduce stereotyped behaviour. The aim of the present experiment was to study (1) whether there is a relationship between fNSP level in a

  4. Water Wizards: School Program on Water Conservation for Third and Fourth Grade Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massachusetts State Water Resources Authority, Boston.

    Water is precious. It is also easy to take for granted. Many people recognize that water is scarce in desert areas. but it is harder to realize that places like Massachusetts could face a shortage of pure drinking water. This manual provides teachers with curriculum resources to introduce concepts of water supply and water conservation to third…

  5. Water relations and foliar isotopic composition of Prosopis tamarugo Phil. an endemic tree of the Atacama Desert growing under three levels of water table depth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco eGarrido

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Prosopis tamarugo Phil. is a strict phreatophyte tree species endemic to the Pampa del Tamarugal, Atacama Desert. The extraction of water for various uses has increased the depth of the water table in the Pampa aquifers threatening its conservation. This study aimed to determine the effect of the groundwater table depth on the water relations of P. tamarugo and to present thresholds of groundwater depth (GWD that can be used in the groundwater management of the P. tamarugo ecosystem. Three levels of GWD, 11.2 ± 0.3 m, 10.3 ± 0.3 m and 7.1 ± 0.1 m, (the last GWD being our reference were selected and groups of 4 individuals per GWD were studied in the months of January and July of the years 2011 through 2014. When the water table depth exceeded 10 m, P. tamarugo had lower pre-dawn and midday water potential but no differences were observed in minimum leaf stomatal resistance when compared to the condition of 7.1 m GWD; the leaf tissue increased its δ13C and δ18O composition. Furthermore, a smaller green canopy fraction of the trees and increased foliage loss in winter with increasing water table depth was observed. The differences observed in the physiological behavior of P. tamarugo trees, attributable to the ground water depth; show that increasing the depth of the water table from 7 to 11 m significantly affects the water status of P. tamarugo. The results indicate that P. tamarugo has an anisohydric stomatal behaviour and that given a reduction in water supply it regulates the water demand via foliage loss. The growth and leaf physiological activities are highly sensitive to GWD. The foliage loss appears to prevent the trees from reaching water potentials leading to complete loss of hydraulic functionality by cavitation. The balance achieved between water supply and demand was reflected in the low variation of the water potential and of the variables related to gas exchange over time for a given GWD. This acclimation capacity of P

  6. The effect of fight cost structure on fighting behaviour involving simultaneous decisions and variable investment levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broom, Mark; Johanis, Michal; Rychtář, Jan

    2017-06-21

    In the "producer-scrounger" model, a producer discovers a resource and is in turn discovered by a second individual, the scrounger, who attempts to steal it. This resource can be food or a territory, and in some situations, potentially divisible. In a previous paper we considered a producer and scrounger competing for an indivisible resource, where each individual could choose the level of energy that they would invest in the contest. The higher the investment, the higher the probability of success, but also the higher the costs incurred in the contest. In that paper decisions were sequential with the scrounger choosing their strategy before the producer. In this paper we consider a version of the game where decisions are made simultaneously. For the same cost functions as before, we analyse this case in detail, and then make comparisons between the two cases. Finally we discuss some real examples with potentially variable and asymmetric energetic investments, including intraspecific contests amongst spiders and amongst parasitoid wasps. In the case of the spiders, detailed estimates of energetic expenditure are available which demonstrate the asymmetric values assumed in our models. For the wasps the value of the resource can affect the probabilities of success of the defender and attacker, and differential energetic investment can be inferred. In general for real populations energy usage varies markedly depending upon crucial parameters extrinsic to the individual such as resource value and intrinsic ones such as age, and is thus an important factor to consider when modelling.

  7. Long-term Behaviour Of Venus Winds At Cloud Level From Virtis/vex Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueso, Ricardo; Peralta, J.; Sánchez-Lavega, A.; Pérez-Hoyos, S.; Piccioni, G.; Drossart, P.

    2009-09-01

    The Venus Express (VEX) mission has been in orbit to Venus for more than three years now. The VIRTIS instrument onboard VEX observes Venus in two channels (visible and infrared) obtaining spectra and multi-wavelength images of the planet. Images in the ultraviolet range are used to study the upper cloud at 66 km while images in the infrared (1.74 μm) map the opacity of the lower cloud deck at 48 km. Here we present an analysis of the overall dynamics of Venus’ atmosphere at both levels using observations that cover a large fraction of the VIRTIS dataset. We will present our latest results concerning the zonal winds, the overall stability in the lower cloud deck motions and the variability in the upper cloud. Meridional winds are also observed in the upper and lower cloud in the UV and IR images obtained with VIRTIS. While the upper clouds present a net meridional motion consistent with the upper branch of a Hadley cell the lower cloud present more irregular, variable and less intense motions in the meridional direction. Acknowledgements This work has been funded by Spanish MEC AYA2006-07735 with FEDER support and Grupos Gobierno Vasco IT-464-07. RH acknowledges a "Ramón y Cajal” contract from MEC.

  8. Surfactant controlled switching of water-in-oil wetting behaviour of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Selective permeation of oil and water across a porous medium, as in oil recovery operations, depends on the preferential wetting properties of the porous medium. We show a profound influence of surfactants in wetting of porous media and thus demonstrate a new route for the control of water-in-oil wetting of porous ...

  9. Surfactant controlled switching of water-in-oil wetting behaviour of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    Abstract. Selective permeation of oil and water across a porous medium, as in oil recovery operations, depends on the preferential wetting properties of the porous medium. We show a profound influence of surfactants in wetting of porous media and thus demonstrate a new route for the control of water-in-oil wetting of ...

  10. Water-level changes and directions of ground-water flow in the shallow aquifer, Fallon area, Churchill County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, R.L.; Allander, K.K.

    1993-01-01

    The Truckee-Carson-Pyramid Lake Water Rights Settlement Act of 1990 directed the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to acquire water rights for wetland areas in the Carson Desert, Nevada. The public is concerned that htis acquisition of water rights and delivery of the water directly to wildlife areas would result in less recharge to the shallow ground water in the Fallon area and cause domestic wells to go dry. In January 1992, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, began a study of the shallow ground-water system in the Fallon area in Churchill County, Nevada. A network of 126 wells in the study area was monitored. Between January and November 1992, water levels in most wells declined, usually less than 2 feet. The maximum measured decline over this period was 2.68 feet in a well near Stillwater Marsh. Between April and July, however, water levels rose in irrigated areas, typically 1 to 2 feet. Newlands Project water deliveries to the study area began soon after the turn of the century. Since then, water levels have risen more than 15 feet across much of the study area. Water lost from unlined irrigtiaon canals caused the stage in Big Soda Lake to rise nearly 60 feet; ground-water levels near the lake have risen 30 to 40 feet. The depth to water in most irrigated areas is now less than 10 feet. The altitude of the water table ranges from 4.025 feet above sea level 11 miles west of Fallon to 3,865 feet in the Stillwater Marsh area. Ground water flows eastward and divides; some flow goes to the northeast toward the Carson Sink and Stillwater areas, and some goes southeastward to Carson Lake.

  11. Levels of Cadmium and Lead in Water, Sediments and Selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Daisy Ouya

    Key words: heavy metals, cadmium, lead, water, sediment, fish, Kenya coast. Abstract—Flame absorption ... known essential role in living organisms, and are toxic at even low ... Changes in. pH and electrode potential (Eh) can mobilise heavy.

  12. Levels of trihalomethanes in the blended water of Bahrain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Saleh, Fowzia S.; Al-Haddad, Ameera S. (Dept. of Chemistry, Univ. of Bahrain, Bahrain (Bahrain))

    1994-07-08

    The distribution of trihalomethanes in the water of the two main power stations and the 10 blending stations in Bahrain has been studied. Total trihalomethanes in the drinking water averaged 2.95 [mu]g/l. Average concentrations ([mu]g/l) of individual compounds were: CHBr[sub 3], 2.17 [+-] 0.3; CHBr[sub 2]Cl, 0.48 [+-] 0.14; CHBrCl[sub 2], 0.30 [+-] 0.13

  13. Socio–economic benefits and pollution levels of water resources ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The values ranged from 23.4 to 26.0°C and 5.37 to 5.83 for all the water sources respectively. There was significant difference (p = 0.00 and p = 0.03) in EC and TSS that ranged from 52 to 330 μScm-1 and 0.89 to 2.93 mgL-1 respectively. Spring water had higher EC and TSS than the boreholes. Faecal coliforms ranged ...

  14. Water potential in ponderosa pine stands of different growing-stock levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. M. Schmid; S. A. Mata; R. K. Watkins; M. R. Kaufmann

    1991-01-01

    Water potential was measured in five ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws.) in each of four stands of different growing-stock levels at two locations in the Black Hills of South Dakota. Mean water potentials at dawn and midday varied significantly among growing-stock levels at one location, but differences were not consistent. Mean dawn and midday water potentials...

  15. Evolution of water repellency of organic growing media used in Horticulture and consequences on hysteretic behaviours of the water retention curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Jean-Charles; Qi, Guifang; Charpentier, Sylvain; Boivin, Pascal

    2010-05-01

    Most of growing media used in horticulture (particularly peat substrates) shows hysteresis phenomena during desiccation and rehydration cycles, which greatly affects their hydraulic properties. The origins of these properties have often been related to one or several of the specific mechanisms such as the non-geometrical uniformity of the pores (also called ‘ink bottle' effect), presence of trapped air, shrinkage-swelling phenomena, and changes in water repellency. However, recent results showed that changes in wettability during desiccation and rehydration could be considered as one of the main factors leading to hysteretic behaviour in these materials with high organic matter contents (Naasz et al., 2008). The general objective was to estimate the evolutions of changes in water repellency on the water retention properties and associated hysteresis phenomena in relation to the intensity and the number of drying/wetting cycles. For this, simultaneous shrinkage/swelling and water retention curves were obtained using method previously developed for soil shrinkage analysis by Boivin (2006) that we have adapted for growing media and to their physical behaviours during rewetting. The experiment was performed in a climatic chamber at 20°C. A cylinder with the growing medium tested was placed on a porous ceramic disk which is used to control the pressure and to full/empty water of the sample. The whole of the device was then placed on a balance to record the water loss/storage with time; whereas linear displacement transducers were used to measure the changes in sample height and diameter upon drying and wetting in the axial and radial directions. Ceramic cups (2 cm long and 0.21 cm diameter) connected to pressure transducers were inserted in the middle of the samples to record the water pressure head. In parallell, contact angles were measured by direct droplet method at different steps during the drying/rewetting cycles. First results obtained on weakly decomposed

  16. Water Absorption Behaviour and Its Effect on the Mechanical Properties of Flax Fibre Reinforced Bioepoxy Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Muñoz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the context of sustainable development, considerable interest is being shown in the use of natural fibres like as reinforcement in polymer composites and in the development of resins from renewable resources. This paper focuses on eco-friendly and sustainable green composites manufacturing using resin transfer moulding (RTM process. Flax fibre reinforced bioepoxy composites at different weight fractions (40 and 55 wt% were prepared in order to study the effect of water absorption on their mechanical properties. Water absorption test was carried out by immersion specimens in water bath at room temperature for a time duration. The process of water absorption of these composites was found to approach Fickian diffusion behavior. Diffusion coefficients and maximum water uptake values were evaluated; the results showed that both increased with an increase in fibre content. Tensile and flexural properties of water immersed specimens were evaluated and compared to dry composite specimens. The results suggest that swelling of flax fibres due to water absorption can have positive effects on mechanical properties of the composite material. The results of this study showed that RTM process could be used to manufacture natural fibre reinforced composites with good mechanical properties even for potential applications in a humid environment.

  17. Water Hardness Level and ItAND#8217;s Health Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necmettin Kocak

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Water hardness is a term used to define the number of ions contained in the water, especially quantity sulphate, carbonate salts of calcium and magnesium. This characteristis of water is a important quality in it’s use as drinking water, industrial water and service water. The temporary hardness level of water cames from bicarbonate salts of calcium and magnesium whereas chloride, sulphate, nitrate, phosphate, silicate salts of calcium and magnesium. In order to indicate the hardness level of water samples French Hardness Level is used in our country. There is a larger amounth of calcium and magnesium salts in hard water samples. These minerals have very important functions in the human body. In this study, the importance of hard water in terms of human health has been assessed under light of current information. The studies about the preventive role of hard water in cardiovascular diseases, cerebrovascular diseases, stroke and many types of cancer areviewed. These studies Express that higher levels of calcium and magnesium hard water provide a higher reduction in these disease. Water, which must be consumed as 2 liters per dayis very important for human life. Hard water contains a lot of the minerals that must be taker daily, especially calcium and magnesium. It’s advised that water for consumption to have medium hardness. The hardness level of water is an aesthetic quality. Thus, in populations having a taste for soft water, the effort of individuals to softer the network water provided by municipalities using different equipments, in addition to their preference of soft water in plastic or glass bottles for consumption could imply lack of benefit of hard water for population health and also bring out some risks in terms of water hygiene. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(2.000: 187-192

  18. The Influence of Water Column Hypoxia on the Behaviour of Manganese and Iron in Sandy Coastal Marine Sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristiansen, K. D.; Kristensen, E.; Jensen, E. M. H.

    2002-10-01

    The influence of bottom water hypoxia on manganese, iron and sulfur biogeochemistry was examined in sandy sediment from the shallow coastal lagoon, Fællesstrand, Denmark. The organic-poor sediment at Fællesstrand experiences occasional coverage of floating macroalgae and variable degrees of hypoxia at the sediment-water interface, resulting in dramatic changes in metal behaviour. The narrow peaks and steep gradients in Mn and Fe oxides as well as porewater Mn 2+ and Fe 2+ observed in the upper 2-3 cm of the sediment under fully oxic conditions indicate intense metal reduction-oxidation cycles. The Fe zones were generally displaced about 1 cm downwards compared with the Mn zones due to differences in reactivity. At lowered O 2 conditions in the overlying water, Mn oxides gradually disappeared followed by Fe oxides. The subsequent diffusive loss of Mn 2+ and Fe 2+ to the overlying water was inversely related to the O 2 concentration in the overlying water. The ability of the sediment to retain upward diffusion of H 2S (sulfide retaining capacity) gradually disappeared at lowered O 2 concentrations in a temporal pattern closely related to the changes in reactive Mn and Fe present. The sulfide retaining capacity is sustained for about 14 days under anoxia in Fællesstrand sediment. After 28 days of anoxia, 30-35% of the total Mn and Fe pools initially present in the sediment was lost. Despite the relatively low metal content, this organic-poor sediment may withstand hypoxic conditions in the bottom water (e.g. caused by coverage with floating macroalgae) and is thus capable of maintaining an intact benthic community for extended periods of time.

  19. Flow Behaviour of Creosote-in-Water Emulsions through Straight and Square Wave Capillary Tubes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Podolsak, A.K; Tiu, C

    1994-01-01

    ...) and water-in-creosote (W/O) emulsions at moderate shear rates. This paper investigates the flow of O/Wemulsions in straight and square-wave capillaries at high shear rates, as a preludeto predicting timber treatability...

  20. [Fluoride levels in commercial dentifrices and drinking water in Algeria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merghache, D; Bellout, B; Merghache, S; Boucherit-Atmani, Z

    2011-12-01

    More and more scientific evidence show that fluorides have a cariostatic action to the plaque-saliva-tooth interface during cariogenous dissolution. Fluorides slow down demineralization and enhance remineralization. Their action is optimal, in the oral environment, when used at low concentrations on a continuous basis. The use of the fluorinated toothpastes during brushing of the teeth is a simple, rational method of daily topics application of fluorine, largely used in the context of prevention of dental caries and which can even be regarded as a public health measure. The water ingestion fluorinated represents itself an excellent average of the local application of fluorine. Our work concerned a quantitative study of fluorine in toothpaste and drinking water, and comparative between the local product and the imported one for the toothpastes, and the mineral water and public supply. The standard method of fluorine based on the potentiometry and distillation has shown that 50% of the tested toothpastes contain adequate concentration so that a product of dental care fights against decay. The Tlemcen tap water contains acceptable fluorine content, but the mineral water, with an excessive contribution, can cause fluorose. Of this, we can deduce that a topical application of a suitable quantity of fluorine on a daily basis in accordance with the precautions is not only the prevention of dental caries, but also to stabilize it if it already exists.

  1. Designing a handwashing station for infrastructure-restricted communities in Bangladesh using the integrated behavioural model for water, sanitation and hygiene interventions (IBM-WASH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulland, Kristyna R S; Leontsini, Elli; Dreibelbis, Robert; Unicomb, Leanne; Afroz, Aasma; Dutta, Notan Chandra; Nizame, Fosiul Alam; Luby, Stephen P; Ram, Pavani K; Winch, Peter J

    2013-09-23

    In Bangladesh diarrhoeal disease and respiratory infections contribute significantly to morbidity and mortality. Handwashing with soap reduces the risk of infection; however, handwashing rates in infrastructure-restricted settings remain low. Handwashing stations--a dedicated, convenient location where both soap and water are available for handwashing--are associated with improved handwashing practices. Our aim was to identify a locally feasible and acceptable handwashing station that enabled frequent handwashing for two subsequent randomized trials testing the health effects of this behaviour. We conducted formative research in the form of household trials of improved practices in urban and rural Bangladesh. Seven candidate handwashing technologies were tested by nine to ten households each during two iterative phases. We conducted interviews with participants during an introductory visit and two to five follow up visits over two to six weeks, depending on the phase. We used the Integrated Behavioural Model for Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (IBM-WASH) to guide selection of candidate handwashing stations and data analysis. Factors presented in the IBM-WASH informed thematic coding of interview transcripts and contextualized feasibility and acceptability of specific handwashing station designs. Factors that influenced selection of candidate designs were market availability of low cost, durable materials that were easy to replace or replenish in an infrastructure-restricted and shared environment. Water storage capacity, ease of use and maintenance, and quality of materials determined the acceptability and feasibility of specific handwashing station designs. After examining technology, psychosocial and contextual factors, we selected a handwashing system with two different water storage capacities, each with a tap, stand, basin, soapy water bottle and detergent powder for pilot testing in preparation for the subsequent randomized trials. A number of contextual

  2. The environmental behaviour of water treatment products in cooling water systems; Das Umweltverhalten von Wasserbehandlungsmitteln in Kuehlkreislaeufen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guhl, W.; Hater, W. [Henkel KGA, Duesseldorf (Germany); Hoertinger, T.

    2003-10-01

    Water treatment products must be technically and economically effective; in addition, they have to be environmentally compatible. The ecological profile of a hardness stabilizer with long-term effects (P3-ferrofos 8444) shows that the product degrades slowly after use in the receiving water, but due to its nontoxicity to water organisms, the environment will not be affected. A hardness stabilizer for shock dosage (P3-ferrofos 8413-3) is nontoxic, too, but is additionally rapidly biodegradable. When using the biocide for shock dosage, the product is destroyed in the environment by hydrolysis within a few minutes to some hours, so that a negative influence on the environment can be excluded. To reduce the biocide quantity, a biocide activator and dispersant (P3-ferrofos 8460) with a very low toxicity to water organisms is used. This product is eliminated slowly, but enrichment in the receiving water can be excluded. The product properties promised by the producer have been confirmed by use in a German power station for several years. (orig.) [German] Anhand von vier Wasserbehandlungsmitteln (2 Haertestabilisatoren, einem Dispergator und einem Biozid), die in einem deutschen Kraftwerk eingesetzt werden, wird gezeigt, dass eine intensive Zusammenarbeit von Produktentwicklung, Anwendungstechnik und Oekologie zu oekonomisch und oekologisch optimierten Produkten fuehrt, die fuer ihren Einsatzzweck massgeschneidert sind. Die vom Hersteller ausgelobten Produkteigenschaften werden durch den Einsatz in diesem Kraftwerk seit Jahren bestaetigt. Die im Bypass der Kuehlwaesser betriebene Fischwirtschaft wird durch den Einsatz dieser Produkte nicht beeinflusst. Durch einige Anpassungsmassnahmen, z.B. Fuetterungsoptimierung, sind Kraftwerk und Fischwirtschaft unter Einbeziehung der Wasserbehandlungsmittel so aufeinander abgestimmt, dass man von einer Symbiose zwischen Technik und Natur sprechen kann. (orig.)

  3. Dietary long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids prevent impaired social behaviour and normalize brain dopamine levels in food allergic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Theije, Caroline G M; van den Elsen, Lieke W J; Willemsen, Linette E M; Milosevic, Vanja; Korte-Bouws, Gerdien A H; Lopes da Silva, Sofia; Broersen, Laus M; Korte, S Mechiel; Olivier, Berend; Garssen, Johan; Kraneveld, Aletta D

    2015-03-01

    Allergy is suggested to exacerbate impaired behaviour in children with neurodevelopmental disorders. We have previously shown that food allergy impaired social behaviour in mice. Dietary fatty acid composition may affect both the immune and nervous system. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) on food allergy-induced impaired social behaviour and associated deficits in prefrontal dopamine (DA) in mice. Mice were fed either control or n-3 LCPUFA-enriched diet before and during sensitization with whey. Social behaviour, acute allergic skin response and serum immunoglobulins were assessed. Monoamine levels were measured in brain and intestine and fatty acid content in brain. N-3 LCPUFA prevented impaired social behaviour of allergic mice. Moreover, n-3 LCPUFA supplementation increased docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) incorporation into the brain and restored reduced levels of prefrontal DA and its metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, 3-methoxytyramine and homovanillic acid in allergic mice. In addition to these brain effects, n-3 LCPUFA supplementation reduced the allergic skin response and restored decreased intestinal levels of serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in allergic mice. N-3 LCPUFA may have beneficial effects on food allergy-induced deficits in social behaviour, either indirectly by reducing the allergic response and restoring intestinal 5-HT signalling, or directly by DHA incorporation into neuronal membranes, affecting the DA system. Therefore, it is of interest to further investigate the relevance of food allergy-enhanced impairments in social behaviour in humans and the potential benefits of dietary n-3 LCPUFA supplementation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Thin terrestrial sediment deposits on intertidal sandflats: effects on pore-water solutes and juvenile bivalve burial behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohaia, A.; Vopel, K.; Pilditch, C. A.

    2014-04-01

    Nearshore zones experience increased sedimentation due to coastal development and enhanced loads of fine terrestrial sediment (hereafter, TS) in river waters. Deposition of TS can alter seabed biogeochemical processes but the effects on benthic ecosystem functioning are unknown. The results of a past experiment with defaunated, intertidal sediment suggest that a decrease in the oxygenation of this sediment by a thin (mm) TS deposit causes substrate rejection (refusal to bury) by post-settlement juvenile recruits of the tellinid bivalve Macomona liliana. We further examined this behaviour, asking if such deposits negatively affect burial when applied to intertidal sediment that is oxygenated by bioturbation (C) or depleted of dead and living organic matter (D). We observed recruits on the surface of four treatments: C, D, and the same sediments to which we added a 1.7-1.9 mm layer of TS (CTS, DTS). The TS deposit decreased the oxygenation and the pH of the underlying intertidal sediment (CTS) confirming previous results, but significantly increased but not decreased the probability of burial, irrespectively of treatment. Juveniles more likely buried into C than into D. The mechanism that caused previously observed substrate rejection by post-settlement juvenile M. liliana remains unclear but our results suggest that contact of the recruits with the TS deposit does not cause substrate rejection. We now hypothesise that conditioning of sediment by bioturbation can mediate negative effects of TS deposits on the recruits' burial behaviour.

  5. Changes in growth rate, root morphology and water use efficiency of potted Callistemon citrinus plants in response to different levels of water deficit

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez Martín, Sara; Sánchez-Blanco, María Jesús

    2013-01-01

    Callistemon is widely used as a flowering shrub in gardening and landscaping in the Mediterranean area. However, prolonged or severe water stress may alter its physiological and morphological behaviour. Callistemon citrinus plants were grown in nursery conditions and subjected to three irrigation treatments: a control (watered to container capacity) and two water deficit treatments of 50 and 25% of the amount of water supplied in the control treatment (moderate and severe deficit irrigation, ...

  6. MODIS/Aqua Granule Level 2 Water Vapor Near Infrared Jpeg image

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is a Jpeg image product generated from MODIS Level 2 Precipitable Water product (MYD05_L2) using WATER_VAPOR_NEAR_INFRARED parameter. For more information about...

  7. MODIS/Terra Granule Level 2 Water Vapor Near Infrared Jpeg image

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is a Jpeg image product generated from MODIS Level 2 Precipitable Water product (MOD05_L2) using WATER_VAPOR_NEAR_INFRARED parameter. For more information about...

  8. STATISTICAL PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINATION AND VERIFICATION OF MINIMUM REPORTING LEVELS FOR DRINKING WATER METHODS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water (OGWDW) has developed a single-laboratory quantitation procedure: the lowest concentration minimum reporting level (LCMRL). The LCMRL is the lowest true concentration for which fu...

  9. Water-level and recoverable water in storage changes, High Plains aquifer, predevelopment to 2015 and 2013–15

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Virginia L.

    2017-06-01

    The High Plains aquifer underlies 111.8 million acres (about 175,000 square miles) in parts of eight States—Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. Water-level declines began in parts of the High Plains aquifer soon after the beginning of substantial irrigation with groundwater in the aquifer area (about 1950). This report presents water-level changes and change in recoverable water in storage in the High Plains aquifer from predevelopment (about 1950) to 2015 and from 2013 to 2015.The methods to calculate area-weighted, average water-level changes; change in recoverable water in storage; and total recoverable water in storage used geospatial data layers organized as rasters with a cell size of 500 meters by 500 meters, which is an area of about 62 acres. Raster datasets of water-level changes are provided for other uses.Water-level changes from predevelopment to 2015, by well, ranged from a rise of 84 feet to a decline of 234 feet. Water-level changes from 2013 to 2015, by well, ranged from a rise of 24 feet to a decline of 33 feet. The area-weighted, average water-level changes in the aquifer were an overall decline of 15.8 feet from predevelopment to 2015 and a decline of 0.6 feet from 2013 to 2015. Total recoverable water in storage in the aquifer in 2015 was about 2.91 billion acre-feet, which was a decline of about 273.2 million acre-feet since predevelopment and a decline of 10.7 million acre-feet from 2013 to 2015.

  10. Animal behaviour shapes the ecological effects of ocean acidification and warming: moving from individual to community-level responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagelkerken, Ivan; Munday, Philip L

    2016-03-01

    Biological communities are shaped by complex interactions between organisms and their environment as well as interactions with other species. Humans are rapidly changing the marine environment through increasing greenhouse gas emissions, resulting in ocean warming and acidification. The first response by animals to environmental change is predominantly through modification of their behaviour, which in turn affects species interactions and ecological processes. Yet, many climate change studies ignore animal behaviour. Furthermore, our current knowledge of how global change alters animal behaviour is mostly restricted to single species, life phases and stressors, leading to an incomplete view of how coinciding climate stressors can affect the ecological interactions that structure biological communities. Here, we first review studies on the effects of warming and acidification on the behaviour of marine animals. We demonstrate how pervasive the effects of global change are on a wide range of critical behaviours that determine the persistence of species and their success in ecological communities. We then evaluate several approaches to studying the ecological effects of warming and acidification, and identify knowledge gaps that need to be filled, to better understand how global change will affect marine populations and communities through altered animal behaviours. Our review provides a synthesis of the far-reaching consequences that behavioural changes could have for marine ecosystems in a rapidly changing environment. Without considering the pervasive effects of climate change on animal behaviour we will limit our ability to forecast the impacts of ocean change and provide insights that can aid management strategies. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Stochastic modeling of Lake Van water level time series with jumps and multiple trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Aksoy

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the 1990s, water level in the closed-basin Lake Van located in the Eastern Anatolia, Turkey, has risen up about 2 m. Analysis of the hydrometeorological data shows that change in the water level is related to the water budget of the lake. In this study, stochastic models are proposed for simulating monthly water level data. Two models considering mono- and multiple-trend time series are developed. The models are derived after removal of trend and periodicity in the dataset. Trend observed in the lake water level time series is fitted by mono- and multiple-trend lines. In the so-called mono-trend model, the time series is treated as a whole under the hypothesis that the lake water level has an increasing trend. In the second model (so-called multiple-trend, the time series is divided into a number of segments to each a linear trend can be fitted separately. Application on the lake water level data shows that four segments, each fitted with a trend line, are meaningful. Both the mono- and multiple-trend models are used for simulation of synthetic lake water level time series under the hypothesis that the observed mono- and multiple-trend structure of the lake water level persist during the simulation period. The multiple-trend model is found better for planning the future infrastructural projects in surrounding areas of the lake as it generates higher maxima for the simulated lake water level.

  12. Household adoption of energy and water-efficient appliances: An analysis of attitudes, labelling and complementary green behaviours in selected OECD countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieu-Hang, To; Grafton, R Quentin; Martínez-Espiñeira, Roberto; Garcia-Valiñas, Maria

    2017-07-15

    Using a household-based data set of more than 12,000 households from 11 OECD countries, we analyse the factors underlying the decision by households to adopt energy-efficient and water-efficient equipment. We evaluate the roles of both attitudes and labelling schemes on the adoption of energy and water-efficient equipment, and also the interaction and complementarity between energy and water conservation behaviours. Our findings show: one, 'green' social norms and favourable attitudes towards the environment are associated with an increased likelihood of households' adoption of energy and water-efficient appliances; two, households' purchase decisions are positively affected by their awareness, understanding, and trust of labelling schemes; and three, there is evidence of complementarity between energy conservation and water conservation behaviours. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. levels of heavy metals in gubi dam water bauchi, nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ada

    rivers to the ocean is in the form of particulate ... B.M. Wufem, Chemistry Programme, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, P.M.B. 0248, Bauchi. A.Q. Ibrahim ..... Chemistry. Wiley Interscience NY, p. 780. Sukiman, S.B., 1989. The determination of heavy metals in water, suspended materials and sediments from Langat River,.

  14. determination of lead at nanogram level in water samples

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    ABSTRACT. A novel method of chemistry applicable to the determination of trace lead in water samples based on the resonance light scattering (RLS) technique has been developed. In dilute phosphoric acid medium, in the presence of a large excess of I-, Pb(II) can form [PbI4]2-, which further reacts with tetrabutyl ...

  15. Determination of lead at nanogram level in water samples by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A novel method of chemistry applicable to the determination of trace lead in water samples based on the resonance light scattering (RLS) technique has been developed. In dilute phosphoric acid medium, in the presence of a large excess of I-, Pb(II) can form [PbI4]2-, which further reacts with tetrabutyl ammonium bromide ...

  16. Effect of Different Levels of Molasses Fed Through Drinking Water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of molasses fed through drinking water on growth and economic performance of broiler chickens. One hundred and sixty unsexed day old chicks of Anak strain were used. They were divided into four treatment groups with each group having four replicates of ten birds per ...

  17. nitrate-nitrogen and ammonium- nitrogen levels of some water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NaREM

    is increasing while accessibility to available freshwater is on the decrease. Aderibigbe et al. (2008) observed that the human race was becoming increasingly vulnerable due to dependence on polluted water. Compounds of nitrogen have a significant contribution in this pollution. The most important of these compounds are ...

  18. Heavy metal pollution levels in water and oysters, Saccostrea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heavy metal (cadmium, chromium, copper, mercury, lead and zinc) concentrations in mangrove forests were investigated in water, suspended particulate matter (SPM) and oyster samples from the Mzinga Creek and Ras Dege mangrove stands, Tanzania, using Inductively Coupled Plasma–Atomic Emission Spectroscopy.

  19. Physicochemical Characteristics and Heavy Metal Levels in Water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From the findings, there is need to protect the quality of the water systems for recreational, industrial and domestic uses. It is hoped that the result of this study would help the Delta State government and other interest groups to maintain existing projects, plan and also to execute properly future development programs in the ...

  20. Applying Water-Level Difference Control to Central Arizona Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Central Arizona Project (CAP) has been supplying Colorado River water to Central Arizona for roughly 25 years. The CAP canal is operated remotely with a Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) System. Gate position changes are made either manually or through the use of automatic control...

  1. Physicochemical Characteristics and Heavy Metal Levels in Water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL

    selected for study were well distributed and possessed similar geology, climate, soil, and vegetation characteristics. Studies on the water samples collected from ... geology, climates, soil, vegetation and drainage characteristics (Atakpo et al., 2000; ..... hydrologic balance of the watersheds. This balance was a function of the ...

  2. radio frequency based radio frequency based water level monitor

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Key words: radio frequency, PIC microcontroller, encoder, decoder, water pump, residential. 1. ... The sensors emit high frequency (20kHz to 200 kHz) acoustic waves that are reflected back to and detected by the emitting transducer [2-4]. In addition, optical interface ... is another method; in this method optical sensors are.

  3. Changes in behaviour and faecal glucocorticoid levels in response to increased human activities during weekends in the pin-tailed sandgrouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Fabián; Benítez-López, Ana; Tarjuelo, Rocío; Barja, Isabel; Viñuela, Javier; García, Jesús T; Morales, Manuel B; Mougeot, Francois

    2016-12-01

    Human recreational activities are becoming increasingly widespread and frequent, a fact that may potentially exacerbate their effects on wildlife. These human-related disturbances on animals may induce behavioural and physiological changes that can ultimately affect their fitness, showing a similar anti-predator response that against natural predator or other threats. Here, we combine the use of behavioural and physiological approaches to assess the potential effect of winter human activities on a threatened farmland bird in Europe, the pin-tailed sandgrouse (Pterocles alchata). We compared before, during and after weekend variations in human activity rates, pin-tailed sandgrouse behaviour (flocking and flying behaviour, interspecific association in mixed flocks and habitat use) and faecal glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations. Human disturbances, in particular those associated with hunting activities, peaked during weekends. Sandgrouse showed significant behavioural changes (increased sandgrouse-only flock sizes, increased proportion of birds flying and changes in habitat use) during weekends and higher faecal glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations after the weekends compared with during or before weekends. Therefore, physiological stress levels could be modulated by behavioural adjustments such as increased flock sizes and changes in habitat use that may allow sandgrouse to cope with increased human disturbance rates during weekends. Nevertheless, temporal and spatial organization of hunting days among groups of estates might be good strategies to buffer these potential adverse effects on wintering pin-tailed sandgrouse and other steppe species of conservation concern, while preserving a socio-economically important activity such as hunting.

  4. Changes in behaviour and faecal glucocorticoid levels in response to increased human activities during weekends in the pin-tailed sandgrouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Fabián; Benítez-López, Ana; Tarjuelo, Rocío; Barja, Isabel; Viñuela, Javier; García, Jesús T.; Morales, Manuel B.; Mougeot, Francois

    2016-12-01

    Human recreational activities are becoming increasingly widespread and frequent, a fact that may potentially exacerbate their effects on wildlife. These human-related disturbances on animals may induce behavioural and physiological changes that can ultimately affect their fitness, showing a similar anti-predator response that against natural predator or other threats. Here, we combine the use of behavioural and physiological approaches to assess the potential effect of winter human activities on a threatened farmland bird in Europe, the pin-tailed sandgrouse ( Pterocles alchata). We compared before, during and after weekend variations in human activity rates, pin-tailed sandgrouse behaviour (flocking and flying behaviour, interspecific association in mixed flocks and habitat use) and faecal glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations. Human disturbances, in particular those associated with hunting activities, peaked during weekends. Sandgrouse showed significant behavioural changes (increased sandgrouse-only flock sizes, increased proportion of birds flying and changes in habitat use) during weekends and higher faecal glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations after the weekends compared with during or before weekends. Therefore, physiological stress levels could be modulated by behavioural adjustments such as increased flock sizes and changes in habitat use that may allow sandgrouse to cope with increased human disturbance rates during weekends. Nevertheless, temporal and spatial organization of hunting days among groups of estates might be good strategies to buffer these potential adverse effects on wintering pin-tailed sandgrouse and other steppe species of conservation concern, while preserving a socio-economically important activity such as hunting.

  5. Effects of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery on eating behaviour and allopregnanolone levels in obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkmen, Sahruh; Andreen, Lotta; Cengiz, Yucel

    2015-04-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with abnormal eating habits. We examined whether surgical treatment affected allopregnanolone levels and eating behaviour in nine women with PCOS who qualified for Rou-en-Y gastric bypass surgery. Blood samples were obtained to measure sex-hormone-binding globulin, total testosterone, progesterone, and allopregnanolone, and eating behaviour was evaluated using the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire before surgery and at 6 and 12 months after surgery. Body mass index and total testosterone levels decreased, and progesterone and sex-hormone-binding globulin levels increased after bariatric surgery compared with pre-surgical values. In patients with anovulatory menstrual cycles, both the serum allopregnanolone level and the allopregnanolone/progesterone ratio were unchanged after surgery. The patients had high uncontrolled and emotional eating scores, and low cognitive restraint scores before surgery, and these scores had improved significantly at 6 and 12 months after surgery. The presurgical allopregnanolone levels were significantly correlated with uncontrolled eating. In conclusion, these results suggest that allopregnanolone appear to be part of the mechanism underlying the abnormal eating behaviour of obese PCOS patients by causing the loss of control over food intake. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery can improve eating behaviour and clinical symptoms, and may facilitate weight loss in obese women with PCOS.

  6. Evaluating changes to reservoir rule curves using historical water-level data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mower, Ethan; Miranda, Leandro E.

    2013-01-01

    Flood control reservoirs are typically managed through rule curves (i.e. target water levels) which control the storage and release timing of flood waters. Changes to rule curves are often contemplated and requested by various user groups and management agencies with no information available about the actual flood risk of such requests. Methods of estimating flood risk in reservoirs are not easily available to those unfamiliar with hydrological models that track water movement through a river basin. We developed a quantile regression model that uses readily available daily water-level data to estimate risk of spilling. Our model provided a relatively simple process for estimating the maximum applicable water level under a specific flood risk for any day of the year. This water level represents an upper-limit umbrella under which water levels can be operated in a variety of ways. Our model allows the visualization of water-level management under a user-specified flood risk and provides a framework for incorporating the effect of a changing environment on water-level management in reservoirs, but is not designed to replace existing hydrological models. The model can improve communication and collaboration among agencies responsible for managing natural resources dependent on reservoir water levels.

  7. Drinking cholera: salinity levels and palatability of drinking water in coastal Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Stephen Lawrence; Tamason, Charlotte Crim; Hoque, Bilqis Amin; Jensen, Peter Kjaer Mackie

    2015-04-01

    To measure the salinity levels of common water sources in coastal Bangladesh and explore perceptions of water palatability among the local population to investigate the plausibility of linking cholera outbreaks in Bangladesh with ingestion of saline-rich cholera-infected river water. Hundred participants took part in a taste-testing experiment of water with varying levels of salinity. Salinity measurements were taken of both drinking and non-drinking water sources. Informal group discussions were conducted to gain an in-depth understanding of water sources and water uses. Salinity levels of non-drinking water sources suggest that the conditions for Vibrio cholerae survival exist 7-8 days within the local aquatic environment. However, 96% of participants in the taste-testing experiment reported that they would never drink water with salinity levels that would be conducive to V. cholerae survival. Furthermore, salinity levels of participant's drinking water sources were all well below the levels required for optimal survival of V. cholerae. Respondents explained that they preferred less salty and more aesthetically pleasing drinking water. Theoretically, V. cholerae can survive in the river systems in Bangladesh; however, water sources which have been contaminated with river water are avoided as potential drinking water sources. Furthermore, there are no physical connecting points between the river system and drinking water sources among the study population, indicating that the primary driver for cholera cases in Bangladesh is likely not through the contamination of saline-rich river water into drinking water sources. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Mildly refined fractions of yellow peas show rich behaviour in thickened oil-in-water emulsions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerts, Marlies E.J.; Mienis, Esther; Nikiforidis, Constantinos V.; Padt, van der Albert; Goot, van der Atze Jan

    2017-01-01

    Conventional fractionation processes aim at high ingredient purity, leading to large water, chemicals and energy consumption. However, as most food product consist of mixtures of ingredients, it is questionable if this high purity is always be necessary. Mild fractionation makes use of the

  9. Temperature and salt addition effects on the solubility behaviour of some phenolic compounds in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noubigh, Adel [Laboratoire de Physico-chimie des materiaux, IPEST, BP51, 2070 La MARSA (Tunisia)]. E-mail: Adel.anoubigh@ipest.rnu.tn; Abderrabba, Manef [Laboratoire de Physico-chimie des materiaux, IPEST, BP51, 2070 La MARSA (Tunisia); Provost, Elise [Laboratoire Chimie et procedes, ENSTA, 32 Rue de Boulevard Victor, 75739 Paris, Cedex 15 (France)

    2007-02-15

    Solubility-temperature dependence data for six phenolic compounds (PhC), contained in olive mill wastewater (OMWW), in water and in some chloride salts (KCl, NaCl, and LiCl) aqueous solutions have been presented and solution standard molar enthalpies ({delta}{sub sol} H {sup 0}) were determined using Van't Hoff plots. The temperature was varied from 293.15 K to 318.15 K. Solubility data were estimated using a thermostated reactor and HPLC analysis. It has been observed that solubility, in pure water and in aqueous chloride solutions, increases with increasing temperature. The salting-out LiCl > NaCl > KCl order obtained at 298.15 K is confirmed. Results were interpreted in terms of the salt hydration shells and the ability of the solute to form hydrogen-bond with water. The standard molar Gibbs free energies of transfer of PhC ({delta}{sub tr} G {sup 0}) from pure water to aqueous solutions of the chloride salts have been calculated from the solubility data. In order to estimate the contribution of enthalpic and entropic terms, standard molar enthalpies ({delta}{sub tr} H {sup 0}) and entropies ({delta}{sub tr} S {sup 0}) of transfer have also been calculated. The decrease in solubility is correlated to the positive {delta}{sub tr} G {sup 0} value which is mainly of enthalpic origin.

  10. Behaviour of carbon dioxide and water vapour flux densities from a disturbed raised peat bog

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieveen, J.P.; Jacobs, A.F.G.

    2002-01-01

    Measurements of carbon dioxide and water vapour flux densities were carried out for a disturbed raised peat bog in the north of the Netherlands during an 18 month continuous experiment. Tussock grass (sp. Molinea caerulae) mainly dominated the vegetation of the bog area. The maximum leaf area index

  11. Behaviour and biodegradation of sulfonamides (p-TSA, o-TSA, BSA) during drinking water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Doreen; Massmann, Gudrun; Dünnbier, Uwe

    2008-04-01

    Three sulfonamides -para-toluenesulfonamide (p-TSA), ortho-toluenesulfonamide (o-TSA) and benzenesulfonamide (BSA) - have recently been detected in groundwater within a catchment area of one drinking water treatment plant (DWTP), which is located downstream of a former sewage farm. The degradation pathways of p-TSA, o-TSA and BSA were investigated during drinking water treatment with incubation experiments and an experimental filter. Incubation experiments showed that p-TSA is removed during the treatment by microbiological processes. Removal of p-TSA is performed by adapted microorganisms only present in polluted groundwater. The elimination in an experimental filter of 1.6m length applying filtration velocities from 2 to 6 m h(-1) was approximately 93% of p-TSA. The microbial degradation rates in the incubation experiment were approximately 0.029 microg l(-1) h(-1) (zero order reaction). In the experimental filter, the reaction rate constants were around 0.0063 s(-1) for all filtration velocities (1st order reaction). Drinking water treatment does not reduce the concentration of o-TSA and BSA under conditions encountered in Berlin. p-TSA, o-TSA and BSA were only measured in the low microg l(-1) concentrations range in the purified water.

  12. Occurrence and behaviour of Paromola cuvieri (Crustacea, Decapoda) in the Santa Maria di Leuca cold-water coral community (Mediterranean Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capezzuto, Francesca; Maiorano, Porzia; Panza, Michele; Indennidate, Antonella; Sion, Letizia; D'Onghia, Gianfranco

    2012-01-01

    Occurrence and behaviour of Paromola cuvieri (Crustacea, Decapoda) were recorded by means of the MEMO lander equipped with two digital cameras and deployed in the cold-water coral community of the Santa Maria di Leuca (Mediterranean Sea). A total of 14 individuals were observed at depths between 547 and 648 m; 10 in the coral habitat on coral mounds and 4 off the coral habitat on muddy bottoms. Thirteen specimens recorded were females, one male and all were shown to scavenge the bait. All the specimens carried a sponge on their exoskeleton using the fifth pereiopods. The specimens were distinguishable by the size and shape of the carried sponge. The present observations demonstrate both passive covering behaviour and active behaviour of discouraging approach and attack from competitors or predators, respectively. This study represents the first in situ documentation of Paromola cuvieri behaviour interacting with other deep-sea species in the Mediterranean Sea.

  13. nitrate-nitrogen and ammonium- nitrogen levels of some water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NaREM

    Key words: Nitrate, ammonium, water bodies/quality, soils, Douala metropolis. ... This has initiated progressive degradation of land and other vital resources .... 2.74 35.0 30.8. Downstream. Wouri Bridge. WOU6. 04 03 59.9N. 009 41 36.3E. 7.3. 6960. 0.11 39.2 22.4. Wouri Wharf. WOU7. 04 02 27.8N. 009 40 23.9E. 7.4. 9600.

  14. Relations between vegetation and water level in groundwater dependent terrestrial ecosystems (GWDTEs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch Johansen, Ole; Andersen, Dagmar Kappel; Ejrnæs, Rasmus

    2018-01-01

    Indicator scores of moisture, pH and nutrients were calculated for each site. The water level correlates with the number of typical fen species of vascular plants, whereas bryophytes are closer connected to the stable water level conditions provided by groundwater seepage. The water level variability...... is proved to be a significant limiting factor for species diversity in wetlands, which should be considered along with the fertility in order to access the habitat quality. The study provides new insight in the water level preferences for GWDTEs which is highly needed in the management and assessment...

  15. Towards risk-based drought management in the Netherlands: making water supply levels transparent to water users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maat Judith, Ter; Marjolein, Mens; Vuren Saskia, Van; der Vat Marnix, Van

    2016-04-01

    To prepare the Dutch Delta for future droughts and water scarcity, a nation-wide 4-year project, called Delta Programme, assessed the impact of climate change and socio-economic development, and explored strategies to deal with these impacts. The Programme initiated a joint approach to water supply management with stakeholders and developed a national adaptation plan that is able to adapt to future uncertain conditions. The adaptation plan consists of a set of preferred policy pathways - sequences of possible actions and measures through time - to achieve targets while responding in a flexible manner to uncertain developments over time, allowing room to respond to new opportunities and insights. With regard to fresh water allocation, the Delta Programme stated that supplying water of sufficient quality is a shared responsibility that requires cohesive efforts among users in the main and regional water system. The national and local authorities and water users involved agreed that the water availability and, where relevant, the water quality should be as transparent and predictable as possible under normal, dry and extremely dry conditions. They therefore introduced the concept of "water supply service levels", which should describe water availability and quality that can be delivered with a certain return period, for all regions and all relevant water users in the Netherlands. The service levels form an addition to the present policy and should be decided on by 2021. At present water allocation during periods of (expected) water shortage occurs according to a prearranged ranking system (a water hierarchy scheme based on a list of priorities), if water availability drops below a critical low level. The aim is to have supply levels available that are based on the probability of occurrence and economic impact of water shortage, and that are transparent for all water users in the regional water systems and the main water system. As part of the European project

  16. Impact of coastal land reclamation on ground water level and the sea water interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Haipeng; Jiao, Jiu Jimmy

    2007-01-01

    Land reclamation in coastal areas may have a significant effect on local ground water systems. Steady-state analytic solutions based on Dupuit and Ghyben-Herzberg assumptions are derived to evaluate this effect. Two situations are considered, both with ground water flow resulting from precipitation recharge: the coastal aquifer of an extensive landmass and an island. The results show that after reclamation, the water table rises and the salt water-fresh water interface moves seaward. The degree of these changes depends on the extent of reclamation and the hydraulic conductivity of the fill material. For the island situation, the reclamation displaces the ground water divide and changes the ground water conditions in the entire island. An unintended advantage of the reclamation is an increase of fresh ground water resource because the reclaimed land can be an additional aquifer and rain recharge takes place over a larger area.

  17. Water level influences on body condition of Geophagus brasiliensis (Perciformes: Cichlidae in a Brazilian oligotrophic reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Filippo Gonzalez Neves dos Santos

    Full Text Available Effects of water level fluctuations on body condition of Geophagus brasiliensis were studied in a 30 km² Brazilian oligotrophic reservoir. Physiological condition (K and gonadosomatic index (GSI were compared according to water level (low and high. Females' best conditions were associated to higher resources availability during high water, since gonad development did not change between low and high water. Males' condition did not change between water levels, while the highest gonad development occurred in low water. Females presented higher reproductive investment than males, which allocated most of energy for somatic development. This strategy could be a mechanism to undergo the stress caused by oligotrophic characteristics of the reservoir enhanced during low water level.

  18. The response of open channel aqueduct water levels to local and regional tilt fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leary, P. C.

    1981-04-01

    Simple hydraulics of open channel water flow is used to find the water level response to earth tilt along the 200 km long Los Angeles Aqueduct. The water level changes are shown to depend on the length scale of the tilt field. Tilts over lengths greater than 10 km permit the water to assume an essentially equilibrium level throughout the tilt field; change in water depth is therefore directly proportional to the degree of slope change. Tilts occurring on length scales shorter than 10 km require the use of an integral relation between tilt and water depth. The relation is used to model a tilt field corresponding to an anomalous water level event observed on the Los Angeles Aqueduct.

  19. Hydraulics and drones: observations of water level, bathymetry and water surface velocity from Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandini, Filippo

    profilers (ADCPs). For these reasons, water speed observations have been traditionally challenging, especially in difficult-to-access environments. Conversely, UAV-borne observations open up the possibility of measuring water speed over extended regions at a low cost. The 2D water surface velocity field...

  20. Water level affects availability of optimal feeding habitats for threatened migratory waterbirds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aharon-Rotman, Yaara; McEvoy, John; Zheng Zhaoju

    2017-01-01

    Extensive ephemeral wetlands at Poyang Lake, created by dramatic seasonal changes in water level, constitute the main wintering site for migratory Anatidae in China. Reductions in wetland area during the last 15years have led to proposals to build a Poyang Dam to retain high winter water levels...... within the lake. Changing the natural hydrological system will affect waterbirds dependent on water level changes for food availability and accessibility. We tracked two goose species with different feeding behaviors (greater white-fronted geese Anser albifrons [grazing species] and swan geese Anser...... cygnoides [tuber-feeding species]) during two winters with contrasting water levels (continuous recession in 2015; sustained high water in 2016, similar to those predicted post-Poyang Dam), investigating the effects of water level change on their habitat selection based on vegetation and elevation. In 2015...

  1. Maternal educational level and children's healthy eating behaviour: Role of the home food environment (cross-sectional results from the INPACT study)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.J.C. van Ansem (Wilke); C.Th.M. Schrijvers (Carola); G. Rodenburg (Gerda); H. van de Mheen (Dike)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The aims of this study are 1) to investigate the association between maternal educational level and healthy eating behaviour of 11-year-old children (fruit, vegetables and breakfast consumption), and 2) to examine whether factors in the home food environment (parental intake

  2. Seven-year time trends in energy balance-related behaviours according to educational level and ethnic background among 14-year-old adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijerink, Frederika J.; Van Vuuren, C. Leontine; Wijnhoven, Hanneke A H; Van Eijsden, Manon

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess seven-year time trends in energy balance-related behaviours in 14-year-old adolescents living in an urban area and to examine the influence of educational level and ethnicity on these time trends. Design Second grade students (mean age 13·6 years) filled in questionnaires about

  3. Three-Dimensions vs. Two-Dimensions Intervention Programs: The Effect on the Mediation Level and Behavioural Aspects of Children with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eden, S.; Bezer, M.

    2011-01-01

    The research examined the effect of an intervention program employing 3D immersive virtual reality (IVR), which focused on the perception of sequential time, on the mediation level and behavioural aspects of children with intellectual disability (ID). The intervention is based on the mediated learning experience (MLE) theory, which refers the…

  4. A RE-AIM evaluation of evidence-based multi-level interventions to improve obesity-related behaviours in adults: a systematic review (the SPOTLIGHT project)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Compernolle, S.; De Cocker, K.; Lakerveld, J.; Mackenbach, J.D.; Nijpels, G.; Oppert, J.M.; Rutter, H.; Teixeira, P.J.; Cardon, G.; de Bourdeaudhuij, I.

    2014-01-01

    This systematic literature review describes the potential public health impact of evidence-based multi-level interventions to improve obesity-related behaviours in adults, using the Reach, Efficacy, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance (RE-AIM) framework. Methods: Electronic databases (PubMed,

  5. Effects of feeding level and the presence of a foraging substrate on the behaviour and stress physiological response of individually housed gilts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, de J.A.; Ekkel, E.D.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of feeding level (unrestricted, UR and restricted, R) and the presence of a foraging substrate (no substrate, NS and substrate, S; wood chips on the floor) on both the behaviour and stress physiological response were studied in a 2 x 2 factorial design. In three batches and two rooms, 96

  6. Socio-behavioural aspects in the prevention and control of dental caries and periodontal diseases at an individual and population level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sälzer, S.; Alkilzy, M.; Slot, D.E.; Dörfer, C.E.; Schmoeckel, J.; Splieth, C.H.

    AIM: Aim was to systematically review behavioural aspects in the prevention and control of dental caries and periodontal diseases at individual and population level. MATERIAL & METHODS: With regard to caries, MEDLINE/PubMed was searched on three subheadings focusing on early childhood, proximal and

  7. Tribological and anticorrosion behaviour of novel xanthate-containing triazine derivatives in water-glycol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Yinglei; He, Zhongyi; Zeng, Xiangqiong; Ren, Tianhui; de Vries, Erik; van der Heide, Emile

    2017-01-01

    Three novel xanthate-containing water-soluble triazine derivatives, 2,4-Di-(N,N-diethanolamine)-6-(ethyl xanthate ester-yl)-1,3,5-triazine (EXT), 2,4-Di-(N,N-diethanolamine)-6-(butyl xanthate ester-yl)-1,3,5-triazine (BXT) and 2,4-Di-(N, N-diethanolamine)-6-(hexyl xanthate ester-yl)-1,3,5-triazine

  8. The Incidence of Water Quality: A County Level Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asch, Peter; Seneca, Joseph J.

    1980-04-01

    Relationships between nine quality characteristics of domestic water systems and the income and racial composition of the using populations are examined for a national sample of counties. Simple correlations suggest a regressive distribution for some but not all pollutants. More detailed analysis of two pollutants adjusts for variation in size of county population and shows a regressive distribution of fecal coliform but an income neutral distribution of cadminum. The findings are far from definitive but point to the type of analysis required to draw broader incidence conclusions.

  9. Behaviour of bentazon as influenced by water and tillage management in rice-growing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Piñeiro, Antonio; Peña, David; Albarrán, Ángel; Sánchez-Llerena, Javier; Rato-Nunes, José Manuel; Rozas, María Ángeles

    2017-06-01

    Bentazon is a widely used herbicide in rice agroecosystems that has commonly been found in water resources. To assess how tillage and water regimes affect sorption/desorption, dissipation and leaching of bentazon in Mediterranean rice-growing conditions, field experiments were carried out using tillage and flooding (TF), tillage and sprinkler irrigation (TS), no-tillage and sprinkler irrigation (NTS) and long-term no-tillage and sprinkler irrigation (NTS7). After 3 years, the Kd values in TS were 2.3, 1.6 and 1.7 times lower than the values in NTS7, NTS and TF respectively. Greater sorption of bentazon was related to higher contents in total organic carbon and, although to a lesser extent, in humic acids and dissolved organic carbon. The persistence of bentazon was significantly greater under anaerobic (half-life DT50 = 94.1-135 days) than under aerobic (DT50 = 42.4-91.3 days) incubation conditions for all management regimes. Leaching losses of bentazon were reduced from 78 and 74% in TS and TF to 61 and 62% in NTS7 and NTS respectively. The mid- and long-term implementation of sprinkler irrigation in combination with no-tillage could be considered a management system that is effective at reducing water contamination by bentazon in Mediterranean rice-growing agroecosystems. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Water Level Monitoring on Tibetan Lakes Based on Icesat and Envisat Data Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H. W.; Qiao, G.; Wu, Y. J.; Cao, Y. J.; Mi, H.

    2017-09-01

    Satellite altimetry technique is an effective method to monitor the water level of lakes in a wide range, especially in sparsely populated areas, such as the Tibet Plateau (TP). To provide high quality data for time-series change detection of lake water level, an automatic and efficient algorithm for lake water footprint (LWF) detection in a wide range is used. Based on ICESat GLA14 Release634 data and ENVISat GDR 1Hz data, water level of 167 lakes were obtained from ICESat data series, and water level of 120 lakes were obtained from ENVISat data series. Among them, 67 lakes contained two data series. Mean standard deviation of all lakes is 0.088 meters (ICESat), 0.339 meters (ENVISat). Combination of multi-source altimetry data is helpful for us to get longer and more dense periods cover water level, study the lake level changes, manage water resources and understand the impacts of climate change better. In addition, the standard deviation of LWF elevation used to calculate the water level were analyzed by month. Based on lake data set for the TP from the 1960s, 2005, and 2014 in Scientific Data, it is found that the water level changes in the TP have a strong spatial correlation with the area changes.

  11. The early diagenetic and PETROphysical behaviour of recent cold-water CARbonate mounds in Deep Environments (PETROCARDE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foubert, Anneleen; Pirlet, Hans; Thierens, Mieke; de Mol, Ben; Henriet, Jean-Pierre; Swennen, Rudy

    2010-05-01

    Sub-recent cold-water carbonate mounds localized in deeper slope settings on the Atlantic continental margins cannot be any longer neglected in the study of carbonate systems. They clearly play a major role in the dynamics of mixed siliciclastic-carbonate and/or carbonate-dominated continental slopes. Carbonate accumulation rates of cold-water carbonate mounds are about 4 to 12 % of the carbonate accumulation rates of tropical shallow-water reefs but exceed the carbonate accumulation rates of their slope settings by a factor of 4 to 12 (Titschack et al., 2009). These findings emphasize the importance of these carbonate factories as carbonate niches on the continental margins. The primary environmental architecture of such carbonate bodies is well-characterized. However, despite proven evidences of early diagenesis overprinting the primary environmental record (e.g. aragonite dissolution) (Foubert & Henriet, 2009), the extent of early diagenetic and biogeochemical processes shaping the petrophysical nature of mounds is until now not yet fully understood. Understanding (1) the functioning of a carbonate mound as biogeochemical reactor triggering early diagenetic processes and (2) the impact of early diagenesis on the petrophysical behaviour of a carbonate mound in space and through time are necessary (vital) for the reliable prediction of potential late diagenetic processes. Approaching the fossil carbonate mound record, through a profound study of recent carbonate bodies is innovative and will help to better understand processes observed in the fossil mound world (such as cementation, brecciation, fracturing, etc…). In this study, the 155-m high Challenger mound (Porcupine Seabight, SW of Ireland), drilled during IODP Expedition 307 aboard the R/V Joides Resolution (Foubert & Henriet, 2009), and mounds from the Gulf of Cadiz (Moroccan margin) will be discussed in terms of early diagenetic processes and petrophysical behaviour. Early differential diagenesis

  12. Effect of hydrodynamics and surface roughness on the electrochemical behaviour of carbon steel in CSG produced water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eyu, Gaius Debi; Will, Geoffrey, E-mail: g.will@qut.edu.au; Dekkers, Willem; MacLeod, Jennifer

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • Surface roughness increases the anodic current density under dynamic conditions. • Pitting corrosion increases with an increasing surface roughness for carbon steel in coal seam gas produced water. • Flow accelerates the mass transfer of the corrosion product under dynamic conditions. • Corrosion rate of carbon steel decreased with immersion time. - Abstract: The influence of fluid flow, surface roughness and immersion time on the electrochemical behaviour of carbon steel in coal seam gas produced water under static and hydrodynamic conditions has been studied. The disc electrode surface morphology before and after the corrosion test was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The corrosion product was examined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD).The results show that the anodic current density increased with increasing surface roughness and consequently a decrease in corrosion surface resistance. Under dynamic flow conditions, the corrosion rate increased with increasing rotating speed due to the high mass transfer coefficient and formation of non-protective akaganeite β-FeO(OH) and goethite α-FeO(OH) corrosion scale at the electrode surface. The corrosion rate was lowest at 0 rpm. The corrosion rate decreased in both static and dynamic conditions with increasing immersion time. The decrease in corrosion rate is attributed to the deposition of corrosion products on the electrode surface. SEM results revealed that the rougher surface exhibited a great tendency toward pitting corrosion.

  13. Water Scarcity and Allocation in the Tarim Basin: Decision Structures and Adaptations on the Local Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Thevs

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Tarim River is the major water source for all kinds of human activities and for the natural ecosystems in the Tarim Basin, Xinjiang, China. The major water consumer is irrigation agriculture, mainly cotton. As the area under irrigation has been increasing ever since the 1950s, the lower and middle reaches of the Tarim are suffering from a water shortage. Within the framework of the Water Law and two World Bank projects, the Tarim River Basin Water Resource Commission was founded in 1997 in order to foster integrated water resource management along the Tarim River. Water quotas were fixed for the water utilization along the upstream and downstream river stretches. Furthermore, along each river stretch, quotas were set for water withdrawal by agriculture and industry and the amount of water to remain for the natural ecosystems (environmental flow. Furthermore, huge investments were undertaken in order to increase irrigation effectiveness and restore the lower reaches of the Tarim River. Still, a regular water supply for water consumers along the Tarim River cannot be ensured. This paper thus introduces the hydrology of the Tarim River and its impacts on land use and natural ecosystems along its banks. The water administration in the Tarim Basin and the water allocation plan are elaborated upon, and the current water supply situation is discussed. Finally, the adaptations made due to issues of water allocation and water scarcity on the farm level are investigated and discussed.

  14. Water quality and some nutrient levels in Shiroro Lake, Niger State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water physical and chemical properties and nutrient levels of the surface water of Shiroro Lake (Nigeria) were determined over a period of eighteen months from June 1999 to December 2000. Five sampling stations were located within the lake basin. The wet season mean values for water temperature, and turbidity, were ...

  15. levels of common ions in bottled mineral waters consumed in addis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    and Zn were in higher levels in municipal water as compared to mineral waters and the reverse was true in the case of common ... Key words/phrases: Addis Ababa (Ethiopia), bottled mineral water, common cations and anions, heavy metals, physical .... WHO recommends that social, economic and environmental factors be ...

  16. Estimation of missing water-level data for the Everglades Depth Estimation Network (EDEN), 2013 update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkewich, Matthew D.; Conrads, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The Everglades Depth Estimation Network is an integrated network of real-time water-level gaging stations, a ground-elevation model, and a water-surface elevation model designed to provide scientists, engineers, and water-resource managers with water-level and water-depth information (1991-2013) for the entire freshwater portion of the Greater Everglades. The U.S. Geological Survey Greater Everglades Priority Ecosystems Science provides support for the Everglades Depth Estimation Network in order for the Network to provide quality-assured monitoring data for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan. In a previous study, water-level estimation equations were developed to fill in missing data to increase the accuracy of the daily water-surface elevation model. During this study, those equations were updated because of the addition and removal of water-level gaging stations, the consistent use of water-level data relative to the North American Vertical Datum of 1988, and availability of recent data (March 1, 2006, to September 30, 2011). Up to three linear regression equations were developed for each station by using three different input stations to minimize the occurrences of missing data for an input station. Of the 667 water-level estimation equations developed to fill missing data at 223 stations, more than 72 percent of the equations have coefficients of determination greater than 0.90, and 97 percent have coefficients of determination greater than 0.70.

  17. Nitrate and ammonium levels of some water bodies and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study examined the nitrate (NO3-) and ammonium (NH4+) levels of Rivers Wouri and Dibamba and some streams that feed them. The interaction of NO3- and NH4+ with some soil properties was also investigated. It was necessitated by the usage of these rivers for livelihood, despite the deposition of discharges ...

  18. design and implementation of a water level controller

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-03-01

    Mar 1, 2012 ... systems cause a machine or system to go through a set series of operations. ... flowcharts or state diagrams. Contemporary se- ... Liquid level will be monitored using two electronic sensors placed at the appropriate positions to detect the low and high values. The output signal is fed into the electronic circuit ...

  19. An Analysis of Historical Impacts of Water Resources Development on Water Levels of the Mekong River (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, T. A.; Arias, M. E.; Piman, T.

    2013-12-01

    The rapid rate of water resources development in the Mekong basin of Southeast Asia is a cause for concern due to potential impacts on highly valued fisheries and natural ecosystems. Historical water levels of the Mekong were analyzed by comparing pre and post 1991 daily data of 6 stations along the mainstream from Chiang Sean, in northern Lao PDR and Thailand, to Stung Treng, in Cambodia, and the Pre Kdam station near the Tonle Sap Lake in the lower Mekong floodplain using the Indicators of Hydrological Alteration (IHA) software. The year 1991 marks a turning point in the rate of development in the basin, with the start of development of mainstream dams in the upper Mekong and accelerated hydropower and irrigation development in key tributaries. Observed changes in water level patterns along the Mekong were linked to temporal and spatial water resources development from 1960 to 2010. Variations in climate were accounted for and are important, but they were not observed to be the main causes of changes in key hydrological indicators related to ecosystem productivity. The development of mainstream dams in the upper Mekong basin in the post 1991 period resulted in a significant change of seasonal water levels, raise rates, fall rates, and the number of water level fluctuations at Chiang Sean. This effect diminishes downstream until it becomes negligible at the Mukdahan monitoring station in Thailand, which represents a drainage area of over 50% of the total Mekong Basin. Further downstream at Pakse station in Southern Lao PDR, changes in hydrological indicators post 1991 were observed to be significant again, which can be directly attributed to water resource development in the Chi and Mun River basins in Northeastern Thailand. A reduction of 23% and 11% in water level raising rates and fall rates, respectively at Prek Kdam, provides clear evidence of a diminished flood pulse of the Tonle Sap Lake in the post 1991 period. Given the observed water level alterations

  20. Risk factors and study designs used in research of youths' suicide behaviour-an epidemiological discussion with focus on level of evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Erik; Larsen, Kim Juul; Agerbo, Esben

    2014-01-01

    to level of evidence (LoE). Methods: We searched PubMed and psycINFO in order to identify relevant individual studies. Results: We included 36 studies of children and youth on suicidal behaviour and ideation-many rank low on LoE. For suicide, cohort design was often used, and mental illness (depression....... For suicidal ideation, survey was the only design used, and substance abuse and psychopathology the most common risk factors. Surveys are ranked 4, which are low according to LoE. Many risk factors were broad and unspecific, and standard definitions of outcome and exposure were rarely used. Conclusion: A good......Introduction: Many different epidemiology study designs have been used to analyse risk factors for suicide behaviour. The purpose of this study was to obtain an insight into the current study design used in research on youths' risk factors for suicide behaviour and to rank the studies according...

  1. Recent Changes in Land Water Storage and Its Contribution to Sea Level Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Yoshihide; Reager, John T.; Chao, Benjamin F.; Wang, Jida; Lo, Min-Hui; Song, Chunqiao; Li, Yuwen; Gardner, Alex S.

    2016-01-01

    Sea level rise is generally attributed to increased ocean heat content and increased rates glacier and ice melt. However, human transformations of Earth's surface have impacted water exchange between land, atmosphere, and ocean, ultimately affecting global sea level variations. Impoundment of water in reservoirs and artificial lakes has reduced the outflow of water to the sea, while river runoff has increased due to groundwater mining, wetland and endorheic lake storage losses, and deforestation. In addition, climate-driven changes in land water stores can have a large impact on global sea level variations over decadal timescales. Here, we review each component of negative and positive land water contribution separately in order to highlight and understand recent changes in land water contribution to sea level variations.

  2. Extreme diving behaviour in devil rays links surface waters and the deep ocean

    KAUST Repository

    Thorrold, Simon R.

    2014-07-01

    Ecological connections between surface waters and the deep ocean remain poorly studied despite the high biomass of fishes and squids residing at depths beyond the euphotic zone. These animals likely support pelagic food webs containing a suite of predators that include commercially important fishes and marine mammals. Here we deploy pop-up satellite archival transmitting tags on 15 Chilean devil rays (Mobula tarapacana) in the central North Atlantic Ocean, which provide movement patterns of individuals for up to 9 months. Devil rays were considered surface dwellers but our data reveal individuals descending at speeds up to 6.0 ms-1 to depths of almost 2,000 m and water temperatures <4 C. The shape of the dive profiles suggests that the rays are foraging at these depths in deep scattering layers. Our results provide evidence of an important link between predators in the surface ocean and forage species occupying pelagic habitats below the euphotic zone in ocean ecosystems. 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  3. Hydrological behaviour and water balance analysis for Xitiaoxi catchment of Taihu Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Lijuan

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid social and economic development of the Taihu region, Taihu Lake now faces an increasingly severe eutrophication problem. Pollution from surrounding catchments contributes greatly to the eutrophication of water bodies in the region. Investigation of surface flow and associated mass transport for the Xitiaoxi catchment is of a significant degree of importance as the Xitiaoxi catchment is one of the major catchments within the Taihu region. A SWAT-based distributed hydrological model was established for the Xitiaoxi catchment. The model was calibrated and verified using hydrometeorological data from 1988 to 2001. The results indicate that the modeled daily and annual stream flow match the observed data both in the calibration period and the verification period, with a linear regression coefficient R2 and a coefficient e for modeled daily stream flow greater than 0.8 at Hengtangcun and Fanjiacun gauge stations. The results show that the runoff process in the Xitiaoxi catchment is affected both by rainfall and human activities (e.g., reservoirs and polder areas. Moreover, the human activities weaken flood peaks more noticeably during rainstorms. The water balance analysis reveals the percentages of precipitation made up by surface flow, evapotranspiration, groundwater recharge and the change of soil storage, all of which are considered useful to the further understanding of the hydrological processes in the Xitiaoxi catchment. This study provides a good base for further studies in mass transport modeling and comparison of modeling results from similar hydrological models.

  4. Extreme diving behaviour in devil rays links surface waters and the deep ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorrold, Simon R; Afonso, Pedro; Fontes, Jorge; Braun, Camrin D; Santos, Ricardo S; Skomal, Gregory B; Berumen, Michael L

    2014-07-01

    Ecological connections between surface waters and the deep ocean remain poorly studied despite the high biomass of fishes and squids residing at depths beyond the euphotic zone. These animals likely support pelagic food webs containing a suite of predators that include commercially important fishes and marine mammals. Here we deploy pop-up satellite archival transmitting tags on 15 Chilean devil rays (Mobula tarapacana) in the central North Atlantic Ocean, which provide movement patterns of individuals for up to 9 months. Devil rays were considered surface dwellers but our data reveal individuals descending at speeds up to 6.0 m s(-1) to depths of almost 2,000 m and water temperatures <4 °C. The shape of the dive profiles suggests that the rays are foraging at these depths in deep scattering layers. Our results provide evidence of an important link between predators in the surface ocean and forage species occupying pelagic habitats below the euphotic zone in ocean ecosystems.

  5. Simulation of water movement and isoproturon behaviour in a heavy clay soil using the MACRO model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. Besien

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the dual-porosity MACRO model has been used to investigate methods of reducing leaching of isoproturon from a structured heavy clay soil. The MACRO model was applied to a pesticide leaching data-set generated from a plot scale experiment on a heavy clay soil at the Oxford University Farm, Wytham, England. The field drain was found to be the most important outflow from the plot in terms of pesticide removal. Therefore, this modelling exercise concentrated on simulating field drain flow. With calibration of field-saturated and micropore saturated hydraulic conductivity, the drain flow hydrographs were simulated during extended periods of above average rainfall, with both the hydrograph shape and peak flows agreeing well. Over the whole field season, the observed drain flow water budget was well simulated. However, the first and second drain flow events after pesticide application were not simulated satisfactorily. This is believed to be due to a poor simulation of evapotranspiration during a period of low rainfall around the pesticide application day. Apart from an initial rapid drop in the observed isoproturon soil residue, the model simulated isoproturon residues during the 100 days after pesticide application reasonably well. Finally, the calibrated model was used to show that changes in agricultural practice (deep ploughing, creating fine consolidated seed beds and organic matter applications could potentially reduce pesticide leaching to surface waters by up to 60%.

  6. Hybrid complexity modelling of changes to estuary morphology, hydrodynamics and tidal surge water levels at 10 to 200 year timescales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, J.; Burningham, H.

    2016-12-01

    Extreme coastal flooding is expected to increase with climate change, especially in estuaries susceptible to tidal surges. Estuary hydrodynamics are well understood and models can predict spatial variation in tide and surge water levels with skill. However, estuary morphological change alters the pathway between sources of flood risk (tides, surges) and receptors (humans, assets, activities) in vulnerable areas. Our ability to predict morphological change at timescales relevant to climate change remains limited, and this hinders quantitative assessment of changing flood risk. Reductionist hydrodynamic and sediment transport models tend to perform poorly at longer timescales and estuary morphodynamics are increasingly modelled using more `synthesist' approaches to capture landform behaviour at 10 to 100+ year timescales. However, non-linear interaction between tides and morphology means that it is useful to retain hydrodynamic complexity to resolve feedbacks between morphological change and tide/surge propagation. This paper presents a new approach to estuary morphological evolution that combines 1D simulation of tidal hydrodynamics with parameterised 2D representation of intertidal sedimentation and erosion under the influence of fetch-limited waves (Estuary Spatial Landscape Evolution Model; ESTEEM). ESTEEM is used in combination with a 2D shallow water equation model (Telemac2D) to simulate changes in 100 to 200-year flood levels that include changes in morphology due to continuing natural sedimentary processes and realignment of flood defences to accommodate sea-level rise. Results for two UK estuaries indicate that hydrodynamics and surge levels change only slightly with present defences in place. Flood defence realignment results in step-changes to the morphology and significant effects on tide and surge water levels. Evolution of the altered morphology tends to counter the hydrodynamic impact, but is sensitive to wind climate, which strongly controls

  7. Comparative analysis of year-end water level determining methods for cascade carryover storage reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J.; Huang, C. H.; Zeng, G. Z.

    2017-08-01

    Based on the analysis of the determining methods of year-end water level for the cascade carryover storage reservoir, two prediction methods have been used to study the year-end water level: Multi-objective decision model and statistical regression predictive function. The advantages and applicable conditions of each of them have been compared and discussed.

  8. Effect of different irrigation water level on cotton yield and yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of different water level on yield and yield components of the drip irrigated cotton were evaluated in Amik Plain in the East Mediterranean Region of Turkey. Four levels of irrigation water were tested in 2003 and 2004. Treatments were 25 (I25), 50 (I50), 75% (I75) of the full irrigation treatment (I100) which received ...

  9. Accessibility levels to potable Water Supply in Rural Areas of Akwa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The population of the communities provided a basis for evolving an index that measured the levels of access to potable water supply in the study area. The use of GIS was subsequently employed to map out the study area on the basis of levels of access to potable water supply. The overall result depicts a very poor status ...

  10. Maternal educational level and children's healthy eating behaviour: role of the home food environment (cross-sectional results from the INPACT study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ansem, Wilke Jc; Schrijvers, Carola Tm; Rodenburg, Gerda; van de Mheen, Dike

    2014-09-12

    The aims of this study are 1) to investigate the association between maternal educational level and healthy eating behaviour of 11-year-old children (fruit, vegetables and breakfast consumption), and 2) to examine whether factors in the home food environment (parental intake of fruit, vegetables and breakfast; rules about fruit and vegetables and home availability of fruit and vegetables) mediate these associations. Data were obtained from the Dutch INPACT study. In total, 1318 parent-child dyads were included in this study. Multilevel regression models were used to investigate whether factors of the home food environment mediated the association between maternal educational level and children's healthy eating behaviour. Children of mothers with a high educational level consumed more pieces of fruit per day (B = 0.13, 95% CI: 0.04-0.22), more grams of vegetables per day (B = 23.81, 95% CI = 14.93-32.69) and were more likely to have breakfast on a daily basis (OR = 2.97, 95% CI: 1.38-6.39) than children of mothers with a low educational level. Home availability, food consumption rules and parental consumption mediated the association between maternal education level and children's fruit and vegetable consumption. Parental breakfast consumption mediated the association between maternal education level and children's breakfast consumption. Factors in the home food environment play an important role in the explanation of socio-economic disparities in children's healthy eating behaviour and may be promising targets for interventions.

  11. Natural circulation steam generator model for optimal steam generator water level control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feeley, J.J.

    1979-06-01

    Several authors have cited the control of steam generator water level as an important problem in the operation of pressurized water reactor plants. In this paper problems associated with steam generator water level control are identified, and advantages of modern estimation and control theory in dealing with these problems are discussed. A new state variable steam generator model and preliminary verification results using data from the loss of fluid test (LOFT) plant are also presented.

  12. Fluoride Levels of Major Sources of Drinking Water in Edo State of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out on the major sources of drinking water in the Fourteen Local Government Areas [L.G.A] of Edo State. The calorimetric method of fluoride level determination in water was used. The fluoride level in all the water sample analyses ranged between 0.0ppm to 0.8ppm, which is below the upper limit of ...

  13. Reactor vessel water level estimation during severe accidents using cascaded fuzzy neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Yeong; Yoo, Kwae Hwan; Choi, Geon Pil; Back, Ju Hyun; Na, Man Gyun [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Global concern and interest in the safety of nuclear power plants have increased considerably since the Fukushima accident. In the event of a severe accident, the reactor vessel water level cannot be measured. The reactor vessel water level has a direct impact on confirming the safety of reactor core cooling. However, in the event of a severe accident, it may be possible to estimate the reactor vessel water level by employing other information. The cascaded fuzzy neural network (CFNN) model can be used to estimate the reactor vessel water level through the process of repeatedly adding fuzzy neural networks. The developed CFNN model was found to be sufficiently accurate for estimating the reactor vessel water level when the sensor performance had deteriorated. Therefore, the developed CFNN model can help provide effective information to operators in the event of a severe accident.

  14. Relations between vegetation and water level in alkaline fen ecosystems in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch Johansen, Ole; Andersen, Dagmar Kappel; Ejrnæs, Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    , management and conservation of fens are constrained by limited knowledge on the relations between vegetation and measurable hydrological conditions. This study investigates the relations between vegetation and water level dynamics in groundwater dependent wetlands in Denmark. A total of 35 wetland sites...... across Denmark were included in the study. The sites represent a continuum of wetlands with respect to vegetation and hydrological conditions. Water level was measured continuously using pressure transducers at each site. Metrics expressing different hydrological characteristics, such as mean water level...... and low and high water level periods, were calculated based on the water level time series. A complete plant species list was recorded in plots covering 78.5 m2 at each site. Community metrics such as total number of species and the number of bryophytes were generated from the species lists and Ellenberg...

  15. Levels of Water-Soluble Vitamins in Methanogenic and Non-Methanogenic Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Leigh, John A.

    1983-01-01

    The levels of seven water-soluble vitamins in Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum, Methanococcus voltae, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron were compared by using a vitamin-requiring Leuconostoc strain. Both methanogens contained levels of folic acid and pantothenic acid which were approximately two orders of magnitude lower than levels in the nonmethanogens. Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum contained levels of thiamine, biotin,...

  16. Urban stormwater – greywater management system for sustainable urban water management at sub-watershed level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arora Amarpreet Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban water management involves urban water supply (import, treatment and distribution of water, urban wastewater management (collection, treatment and disposal of urban sewage and urban storm water management. Declining groundwater tables, polluted and declining sources of water, water scarcity in urban areas, unsatisfactory urban water supply and sanitation situation, pollution of receiving water bodies (including the ground water, and urban floods have become the concerns and issues of sustainable urban water management. This paper proposes a model for urban stormwater and sewage management which addresses these concerns and issues of sustainable urban water management. This model proposes segregation of the sewage into black water and greywater, and urban sub-watershed level stormwater-greywater management systems. During dry weather this system will be handling only the greywater and making the latter available as reclaimed water for reuse in place of the fresh water supply. During wet weather, the system will be taking care of (collection and treatment both the storm water and the greywater, and the excess of the treated water will be disposed off through groundwater recharging. Application of this model in the Patiala city, Punjab, INDIA for selected urban sub-watersheds has been tried. Information and background data required for the conceptualization and design of the sub-watershed level urban stormwater-greywater management system was collected and the system has been designed for one of the sub-watersheds in the Patiala city. In this paper, the model for sustainable urban water management and the design of the Sub-watershed level Urban Stormwater-Greywater Management System are described.

  17. Urban stormwater - greywater management system for sustainable urban water management at sub-watershed level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh Arora, Amarpreet

    2017-11-01

    Urban water management involves urban water supply (import, treatment and distribution of water), urban wastewater management (collection, treatment and disposal of urban sewage) and urban storm water management. Declining groundwater tables, polluted and declining sources of water, water scarcity in urban areas, unsatisfactory urban water supply and sanitation situation, pollution of receiving water bodies (including the ground water), and urban floods have become the concerns and issues of sustainable urban water management. This paper proposes a model for urban stormwater and sewage management which addresses these concerns and issues of sustainable urban water management. This model proposes segregation of the sewage into black water and greywater, and urban sub-watershed level stormwater-greywater management systems. During dry weather this system will be handling only the greywater and making the latter available as reclaimed water for reuse in place of the fresh water supply. During wet weather, the system will be taking care of (collection and treatment) both the storm water and the greywater, and the excess of the treated water will be disposed off through groundwater recharging. Application of this model in the Patiala city, Punjab, INDIA for selected urban sub-watersheds has been tried. Information and background data required for the conceptualization and design of the sub-watershed level urban stormwater-greywater management system was collected and the system has been designed for one of the sub-watersheds in the Patiala city. In this paper, the model for sustainable urban water management and the design of the Sub-watershed level Urban Stormwater-Greywater Management System are described.

  18. Water levels in, extent of freshwater in, and water withdrawal from eight major confined aquifers, New Jersey Coastal Plain, 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacombe, Pierre J.; Rosman, Robert

    1997-01-01

    Water levels in 722 wells in the Coastal Plain of New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and northeastern Delaware were measured during October and November 1993 and were used to define the potentiometric surface of the eight major confined aquifers of the area. Isochlors (lines of equal chloride concentration) for 250 and 10,000 milligrams per liter are included to show the extent of freshwater in each of the aquifers. Estimated water withdrawals from the eight major confined aquifers are reported for 1978-94. Water-withdrawal and water-level maps including isochlors were constructed for the Cohansey aquifer of Cape May County, the Atlantic City 800-foot sand, the Piney Point aquifer, the Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifer, the Englishtown aquifer system, the Upper Potomac-Raritan-Magothy, the Middle and undifferentiated Potomac-Raritan-Magothy, and the Lower Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifers. From 1988 to 1993, water levels near the center of the large cones of depression in the Middlesex-Monmouth County area rose as much as 120 ft in the Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifer and Englishtown aquifer system, 40 ft in the Upper Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer, and 96 ft in the Middle and undifferentiated Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifers. Large cones of depression in the potentiometric surface of aquifers of the Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer system in the Burlington-Camden-Gloucester area remained at about the same altitude; that is, the potentiometric surface neither rose nor fell in the aquifers by more than 5 feet. In the same area, water levels in the Englishtown aquifer system were static, whereas the water levels in the Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifer declined 5 to 20 feet, forming an expanded cone of depression. Water levels in the Cohansey, Atlantic City 800-foot sand, and Piney Point aquifers declined by 1 to 10 feet during 1988?93.

  19. Water level determination for transportation projects : mean high water manual, final report, November 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    To ensure proficient network management and safe usage of navigable waterways especially in waters that are : subject to tides, it is essential that the height of the water at various tidal phases be known. This knowledge is also : essential for prop...

  20. A Simple Water Balance Approach to Monitor Lake Water Level Changes: Validation using TOPEX/Poseidon and Jason Altimetry Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velpuri, N.; Senay, G. B.; Alemu, H.; Asante, K. O.

    2008-12-01

    A simple water balance approach is adapted to monitor water resources in semi-arid region of east Africa by integrating coarse and dynamic datasets such as rainfall with fine and static elevation datasets. The model takes in Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) rainfall data, modeled runoff and reference evapotranspiration (ET) data to monitor changes in lake water heights. Shuttle Radar Topography Mission Digital Elevation Model (SRTM DEM) was used to delineate lake Turkana watershed. A simple water balance modeling approach was applied on Turkana basin to estimate lake water level heights for ten years (1997- 2008) and the results were compared with TOPEX/Poseidon and Jason satellite altimeter data. It was observed that simple water balance approach could capture the trend and seasonal variations of lake water fluctuations as measured by the satellite. The El Nino year of 1998 and the following consecutive dry years until 2002 are captured well on both. A mean deviation up to 30 cm of lake water height was found when compared to the satellite measurements. The satellite measurements made since 2004 showed that the lake water height gradually reduced, whereas simulations made using the water balance model showed an increasing trend. This could be reasoned by the fact that, on the Omo river, which contributes to over 80% of the lake inflows, a dam was commissioned in 2004. Knowledge of such processes occurring upstream or downstream is often required while analyzing satellite altimetry data to avoid misinterpretation. Although the absolute accuracy is low, the advantage of the simple water balance method lies in its ability to: (i) capture the trend and seasonal variations of water level fluctuations of small to large lakes around the world; (ii) when coupled with ground measurements or satellite altimetry data for lake water heights, the simple water balance method can identify the presence and absence of upstream and downstream processes; (iii) since water

  1. Understanding spatial variability in extreme estuarine water levels to inform better coastal management practise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyddon, Charlotte; Plater, Andy, ,, Prof.; Brown, Jenny, ,, Dr.; Leonardi, Nicoletta, ,, Dr.

    2017-04-01

    Coastal zones worldwide are subject to short term, local variations in sea-level, particularly communities and industries developed on estuaries. Astronomical high tides, meteorological storm surges and increased river flow present a combined flood hazard. This can elevate water level at the coast above predicted levels, generating extreme water levels. These contributions can also interact to alter the phase and amplitude of tides and surges, and thus cause significant mismatches between the predicted and observed water level. The combined effect of tide, surge, river flow and their interactions are the key to understanding and assessing flood risk in estuarine environments for design purposes. Delft3D-FLOW, a hydrodynamic model which solves the unsteady shallow-water equation, is used to access spatial variability in extreme water levels for a range of historical events of different severity within the Severn Estuary, southwest England. Long-term tide gauge records from Ilfracombe and Mumbles and river level data from Sandhurst are analysed to generate a series of extreme water level events, representing the 90th, 95th and 99th percentile conditions, to force the model boundaries. To separate out the time-varying contributions of tidal, fluvial, meteorological processes and their interactions the model is run with different physical forcing. A low pass filter is applied to "de-tide" the residual water elevation, to separate out the time-varying meteorological residual and the tide-surge interactions within the surge. The filtered surge is recombined with the predicted tide so the peak occurs at different times relative to high water. The resulting time series are used to force the model boundary to identify how the interactive processes influence the timing of extreme water level across the estuarine domain. This methodology is first validated using the most extreme event on record to ensure that modelled extreme water levels can be predicted with confidence

  2. Mechanical analyses on the digital behaviour of the Tokay gecko (Gekko gecko) based on a multi-level directional adhesion model

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Xuan; Wang, Xiaojie; Mei, Tao; Sun, Shaoming

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a multi-level hierarchical model for the Tokay gecko (Gekko gecko) adhesive system and analyses the digital behaviour of the G. gecko under macro/meso-level scale. The model describes the structures of G. gecko's adhesive system from the nano-level spatulae to the sub-millimetre-level lamella. The G. gecko's seta is modelled using inextensible fibril based on Euler's elastica theorem. Considering the side contact of the spatular pads of the seta on the flat and rigid subst...

  3. Simulated water-level responses, ground-water fluxes, and storage changes for recharge scenarios along Rillito Creek, Tucson, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, John P.; Leake, Stanley A.

    2005-01-01

    A local ground-water flow model is used to simulate four recharge scenarios along Rillito Creek in northern Tucson to evaluate mitigating effects on ground-water deficits and water-level declines in Tucson's Central Well Field. The local model, which derives boundary conditions from a basin-scale model, spans the 12-mile reach of Rillito Creek and extends 9 miles south into the Central Well Field. Recharge scenarios along Rillito Creek range from 5,000 to 60,000 acre-feet per year and are simulated to begin in 2005 and extend through 2225 to estimate long-term changes in ground-water level, ground-water storage, ground-water flux, and evapotranspiration. The base case for comparison of simulated water levels and flows, referred to as scenario A, uses a long-term recharge rate of 5,000 acre-feet per year to 2225. Scenario B, which increases the recharge along Rillito Creek by 9,500 acre-feet per year, has simulated water-level rises beneath Rillito Creek that range from about 53 feet to 86 feet. Water-level rises within the Central Well Field range from about 60 feet to 80 feet. More than half of these rises occur by 2050, and more than 95 percent occur by 2188. Scenario C, which increases the recharge along Rillito Creek by 16,700 acre-feet per year relative to scenario A, has simulated water-level rises beneath Rillito Creek that range from about 71 feet to 102 feet. Water-level rises within the Central Well Field range from about 80 feet to 95 feet. More than half of the rises occur by 2036, and more than 95 percent occur by 2100. Scenario D, which initially increases the recharge rate by about 55,000 acre-feet per year relative to scenario A, resulted in simulated water levels that rise to land surface along Rillito Creek. This rise in water level resulted in rejected recharge. As the water table continued to rise, the area of stream-channel surface intersected by the water table increased causing continual decline in the recharge rate until a long-term recharge

  4. THE MANAGEMENT OF INDEPENDENTLY SIMPLE WATER FURIFICATION IN THEORY AND PRACTICE COMMUNITY LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernawati Hendrakusumah

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available PKM activity is based on the phenomenon of many people who do not get access to drinking water services (SPAM in standard quality. The PKM Objects is a community in Cikole village Lembang district, Bandung Barat regency whose predominantly work as farmers and use raw water sources to fulfil their needs and even for drinking water direct from the surface water comes from mountain spring water, without the appropriate water treatment standards. The water from the source  accommodated through the water reservoirs and then distributed by gravity directly to each home with simple piping systems, without going through the process of screening and testing the water quality in advance. Regarding quality, the water requires the filtering, especially during the rainy season. Therefore through the PKM activity of "The Training of Environmental Sanitation Management: Water Treatment” hopes that the people, besides the understanding the standard criteria of water quality, are also able to do the water treatment through screening models / simple water purification that can be done independently by the community. The PKM activity has involved several related institutions, starting at the level community such as RT, RW, Kadus, water management, Cikole village officials and Lembang district, Bandung Barat regency.

  5. To swim or not to swim: A population-level model of Xenopus tadpole decision making and locomotor behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisyuk, Roman; Merrison-Hort, Robert; Soffe, Steve R; Koutsikou, Stella; Li, Wen-Chang

    2017-11-01

    We present a detailed computational model of interacting neuronal populations that mimic the hatchling Xenopus tadpole nervous system. The model includes four sensory pathways, integrators of sensory information, and a central pattern generator (CPG) network. Sensory pathways of different modalities receive inputs from an "environment"; these inputs are then processed and integrated to select the most appropriate locomotor action. The CPG populations execute the selected action, generating output in motor neuron populations. Thus, the model describes a detailed and biologically plausible chain of information processing from external signals to sensors, sensory pathways, integration and decision-making, action selection and execution and finally, generation of appropriate motor activity and behaviour. We show how the model produces appropriate behaviours in response to a selected scenario, which consists of a sequence of "environmental" signals. These behaviours might be relatively complex due to noisy sensory pathways and the possibility of spontaneous actions. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Fluorescence quenching behaviour of uric acid interacting with water-soluble cationic porphyrin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makarska-Bialokoz, Magdalena, E-mail: makarska@hektor.umcs.lublin.pl [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University M. C. Sklodowska Sq. 2, 20-031 Lublin (Poland); Borowski, Piotr [Faculty of Chemistry, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University M. C. Sklodowska Sq. 3, 20-031 Lublin (Poland)

    2015-04-15

    The process of association between 5,10,15,20-tetrakis[4-(trimethylammonio)phenyl]-21H,23H-porphine tetra-p-tosylate (H{sub 2}TTMePP) and uric acid as well as its sodium salt has been studied in aqueous NaOH solution analysing its absorption and steady-state fluorescence spectra. The fluorescence quenching effect observed during interactions porphyrin-uric acid compounds points at the fractional accessibility of the fluorophore for the quencher. The association and fluorescence quenching constants are of the order of magnitude of 10{sup 5} mol{sup −1}. The fluorescence lifetimes and the quantum yields of the porphyrin anionic form were established. The results demonstrate that uric acid and its sodium salt can interact with H{sub 2}TTMePP at basic pH and through formation of stacking complexes are able to quench its ability to emission. - Highlights: • Association study of water soluble cationic porphyrin with uric acid. • Porphyrin absorption spectra undergo the bathochromic and hypochromic effects. • Uric acid interacts with porphyrin in inhibiting manner, quenching its emission. • Fluorescence quenching effect testifies for the partial inactivation of a porphyrin. • The association and fluorescence quenching constants were calculated.

  7. Behaviour of fibroblasts on water born acrylonitrile-based copolymers containing different cationic and anionic moieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharnagl, N; Hiebl, B; Trescher, K; Zierke, M; Behl, M; Kratz, K; Jung, F; Lendlein, A

    2012-01-01

    The chemical composition of a substrate can influence the adhesion, viability and proliferation of cells seeded on the substrate. The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of different cationic or anionic moieties in acrylonitrile-based copolymers on the interaction with fibroblasts. A series of ten different types of acrylonitrile-based copolymers with a random sequence structure was prepared using a water born synthesis process to exclude potential residues of organic solvents. As charged comonomers cationic methacrylic acid-2-aminoethylester hydrochloride (AEMA), N-3-amino-propyl-methacrylamide hydrochloride (APMA) and anionic 2-methyl-2-propene-1-sulfonic acid sodium salt (NaMAS) were utilized. By application of a specific sintering procedure the copolymer materials were processed into transparent disks for conducting cell tests in direct contact. The copolymers were analyzed with respect to their composition and surface properties. Cytotoxicity tests of the polymer extracts, as well as of the disks were performed with L929 mouse fibroblasts. All copolymers showed no cytotoxic effects. Furthermore, for higher molar ratios of AEMA an increase in cell growth could be observed, which might be a hint that higher charge densities are favorable for the proliferation of L929 cells.

  8. Application of the cubic-plus-association (CPA) equation of state to model the fluid phase behaviour of binary mixtures of water and tetrahydrofuran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herslund, Peter Jørgensen; Thomsen, Kaj; Abildskov, Jens

    2013-01-01

    The complex fluid phase behaviour, of the binary system comprised of water and tetrahydrofuran (THF) is modelled by use of the cubic-plus-association (CPA) equation of state. A total of seven modelling approaches are analysed, differing only in their way of describing THF and its interactions...... presented in this work, it is suggested to model this binary system considering THF as cross-associating only, with two cross-association sites. The use of a temperature dependent binary interaction parameter and a correlated binary cross-association volume then allows for both accurate VLE and LLE...... (hydrogen bonding) with water.The qualitative behaviour of the fluid phase equilibria in this system can only be described by CPA when cross-association between water and THF is allowed.Six of the seven tested modelling scenarios allow for cross-association between the two compounds. These scenarios...

  9. Application of Transistors in Textiles: Monitoring Water Transportation Behaviour in Fibrous Assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Arobindo; Singh, Pratibha; Ghosh, Subrata

    2017-06-01

    Simple semiconductor device has been used for amplifying the analog signals, obtained with the change in electrical resistance in fibrous assembly and converting these amplified copies of signals to digital signals. This paper deals with the application of transistors as amplifier, as well as switch. Different circuit configurations using transistors have been tried for sensing and reciprocating the real time data on suitable display device. It is found that transistors configured as common-emitter amplifiers can precisely sense the liquid at the surface of fibrous assembly at different levels with respect to time.

  10. Participatory monitoring of water levels with worrying citizens in a recreational area in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottow, Bouke; Ellen, Gerald Jan

    2013-04-01

    In the recreational area of Loosdrecht, the water board decided to apply flexible water level management: letting the water level be determined by rainfall and evatranspiration between predefined limits. This caused the citizens to worry for the wooden foundations of their houses and possible limitations of the possibilities for water recreation. This eventually lead to lawsuits by private citizens, interest groups and the municipality against the water manager. In this tense situation we started with participatory monitoring: placing water level instruments at the properties of those citizens that wanted to participate in the measuring. 15 citizens participated, including the ones that filed the lawsuits. At all of these sites the water level was gauged automatically. 8 of the citizens also measured the water level by hand with devices supplied to them by the water manager. During 1 year, all the measurements were collected and processed and discussed with the citizens in 2 meetings. At the end of this year, the the citizens expressed the growth of their understanding of the hydrological situation, the understanding of the different points of view and their trust in eachother.

  11. Potential of ENVISAT Radar Altimetry for Water Level Monitoring in the Pantanal Wetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Dettmering

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands are important ecosystems playing an essential role for continental water regulation and the hydrologic cycle. Moreover, they are sensitive to climate changes as well as anthropogenic influences, such as land-use or dams. However, the monitoring of these regions is challenging as they are normally located in remote areas without in situ measurement stations. Radar altimetry provides important measurements for monitoring and analyzing water level variations in wetlands and flooded areas. Using the example of the Pantanal region in South America, this study demonstrates the capability and limitations of ENVISAT radar altimeter for monitoring water levels in inundation areas. By applying an innovative processing method consisting of a rigorous data screening by means of radar echo classification as well as an optimized waveform retracking, water level time series with respect to a global reference and with a temporal resolution of about one month are derived. A comparison between altimetry-derived height variations and six in situ time series reveals accuracies of 30 to 50 cm RMS. The derived water level time series document seasonal height variations of up to 1.5 m amplitude with maximum water levels between January and June. Large scale geographical pattern of water heights are visible within the wetland. However, some regions of the Pantanal show water level variations less than a few decimeter, which is below the accuracies of the method. These areas cannot be reliably monitored by ENVISAT.

  12. Monitoring Everglades freshwater marsh water level using L-band synthetic aperture radar backscatter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Woo; Lu, Zhong; Jones, John W.; Shum, C.K.; Lee, Hyongki; Jia, Yuanyuan

    2014-01-01

    The Florida Everglades plays a significant role in controlling floods, improving water quality, supporting ecosystems, and maintaining biodiversity in south Florida. Adaptive restoration and management of the Everglades requires the best information possible regarding wetland hydrology. We developed a new and innovative approach to quantify spatial and temporal variations in wetland water levels within the Everglades, Florida. We observed high correlations between water level measured at in situ gages and L-band SAR backscatter coefficients in the freshwater marsh, though C-band SAR backscatter has no close relationship with water level. Here we illustrate the complementarity of SAR backscatter coefficient differencing and interferometry (InSAR) for improved estimation of high spatial resolution water level variations in the Everglades. This technique has a certain limitation in applying to swamp forests with dense vegetation cover, but we conclude that this new method is promising in future applications to wetland hydrology research.

  13. Flood Water Level Mapping and Prediction Due to Dam Failures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musa, S.; Adnan, M. S.; Ahmad, N. A.; Ayob, S.

    2016-07-01

    Sembrong dam has undergone overflow failure. Flooding has been reported to hit the town, covering an area of up to Parit Raja, located in the district of Batu Pahat. This study aims to identify the areas that will be affected by flood in the event of a dam failure in Sembrong Dam, Kluang, Johor at a maximum level. To grasp the extent, the flood inundation maps have been generated by using the InfoWorks ICM and GIS software. By using these maps, information such as the depth and extent of floods can be identified the main ares flooded. The flood map was created starting with the collection of relevant data such as measuring the depth of the river and a maximum flow rate for Sembrong Dam. The data were obtained from the Drainage and Irrigation Department Malaysia and the Department of Survey and Mapping and HLA Associates Sdn. Bhd. Then, the data were analyzed according to the established Info Works ICM method. The results found that the flooded area were listed at Sri Lalang, Parit Sagil, Parit Sonto, Sri Paya, Parit Raja, Parit Sempadan, Talang Bunut, Asam Bubok, Tanjung Sembrong, Sungai Rambut and Parit Haji Talib. Flood depth obtained for the related area started from 0.5 m up to 1.2 m. As a conclusion, the flood emanating from this study include the area around the town of Ayer Hitam up to Parit Raja approximately of more than 20 km distance. This may give bad implication to residents around these areas. In future studies, other rivers such as Sungai Batu Pahat should be considered for this study to predict and reduce the yearly flood victims for this area.

  14. Aggressive behaviour of Robins Erithacus rubecula (Passeriformes, Muscicapidae at watering places in the forest steppe zone of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Markova

    2016-06-01

    Blackbird. The rating in contact with Spotted Flycatcher was zero. The critical distance of aggressive behaviour in intraspecific contacts at watering places was 40–50 cm, while for interspecific contacts it varied from5 cm to2 m. Our research emphasizes the importance of long-term research and multivariate approaches for understanding the complexity of dominance relations in birds.

  15. Artificial regulation of water level and its effect on aquatic macrophyte distribution in Taihu Lake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dehua Zhao

    Full Text Available Management of water levels for flood control, water quality, and water safety purposes has become a priority for many lakes worldwide. However, the effects of water level management on the distribution and composition of aquatic vegetation has received little attention. Relevant studies have used either limited short-term or discrete long-term data and thus are either narrowly applicable or easily confounded by the effects of other environmental factors. We developed classification tree models using ground surveys combined with 52 remotely sensed images (15-30 m resolution to map the distributions of two groups of aquatic vegetation in Taihu Lake, China from 1989-2010. Type 1 vegetation included emergent, floating, and floating-leaf plants, whereas Type 2 consisted of submerged vegetation. We sought to identify both inter- and intra-annual dynamics of water level and corresponding dynamics in the aquatic vegetation. Water levels in the ten-year period from 2000-2010 were 0.06-0.21 m lower from July to September (wet season and 0.22-0.27 m higher from December to March (dry season than in the 1989-1999 period. Average intra-annual variation (CV(a decreased from 10.21% in 1989-1999 to 5.41% in 2000-2010. The areas of both Type 1 and Type 2 vegetation increased substantially in 2000-2010 relative to 1989-1999. Neither annual average water level nor CV(a influenced aquatic vegetation area, but water level from January to March had significant positive and negative correlations, respectively, with areas of Type 1 and Type 2 vegetation. Our findings revealed problems with the current management of water levels in Taihu Lake. To restore Taihu Lake to its original state of submerged vegetation dominance, water levels in the dry season should be lowered to better approximate natural conditions and reinstate the high variability (i.e., greater extremes that was present historically.

  16. Artificial regulation of water level and its effect on aquatic macrophyte distribution in Taihu Lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dehua; Jiang, Hao; Cai, Ying; An, Shuqing

    2012-01-01

    Management of water levels for flood control, water quality, and water safety purposes has become a priority for many lakes worldwide. However, the effects of water level management on the distribution and composition of aquatic vegetation has received little attention. Relevant studies have used either limited short-term or discrete long-term data and thus are either narrowly applicable or easily confounded by the effects of other environmental factors. We developed classification tree models using ground surveys combined with 52 remotely sensed images (15-30 m resolution) to map the distributions of two groups of aquatic vegetation in Taihu Lake, China from 1989-2010. Type 1 vegetation included emergent, floating, and floating-leaf plants, whereas Type 2 consisted of submerged vegetation. We sought to identify both inter- and intra-annual dynamics of water level and corresponding dynamics in the aquatic vegetation. Water levels in the ten-year period from 2000-2010 were 0.06-0.21 m lower from July to September (wet season) and 0.22-0.27 m higher from December to March (dry season) than in the 1989-1999 period. Average intra-annual variation (CV(a)) decreased from 10.21% in 1989-1999 to 5.41% in 2000-2010. The areas of both Type 1 and Type 2 vegetation increased substantially in 2000-2010 relative to 1989-1999. Neither annual average water level nor CV(a) influenced aquatic vegetation area, but water level from January to March had significant positive and negative correlations, respectively, with areas of Type 1 and Type 2 vegetation. Our findings revealed problems with the current management of water levels in Taihu Lake. To restore Taihu Lake to its original state of submerged vegetation dominance, water levels in the dry season should be lowered to better approximate natural conditions and reinstate the high variability (i.e., greater extremes) that was present historically.

  17. Sex difference in cue strategy in a modified version of the Morris water task: correlations between brain and behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, Robin J; Tyndall, Amanda V; Scott, Gavin A; Saucier, Deborah M

    2013-01-01

    Sex differences in spatial memory function have been reported with mixed results in the literature, with some studies showing male advantages and others showing no differences. When considering estrus cycle in females, results are mixed at to whether high or low circulating estradiol results in an advantage in spatial navigation tasks. Research involving humans and rodents has demonstrated males preferentially employ Euclidean strategies and utilize geometric cues in order to spatially navigate, whereas females employ landmark strategies and cues in order to spatially navigate. This study used the water-based snowcone maze in order to assess male and female preference for landmark or geometric cues, with specific emphasis placed on the effects of estrus cycle phase for female rat. Performance and preference for the geometric cue was examined in relation to total hippocampal and hippocampal subregions (CA1&2, CA3 and dentate gyrus) volumes and entorhinal cortex thickness in order to determine the relation between strategy and spatial performance and brain area size. The study revealed that males outperformed females overall during training trials, relied on the geometric cue when the platform was moved and showed significant correlations between entorhinal cortex thickness and spatial memory performance. No gross differences in behavioural performance was observed within females when accounting for cyclicity, and only total hippocampal volume was correlated with performance during the learning trials. This study demonstrates the sex-specific use of cues and brain areas in a spatial learning task.

  18. Geographical mapping of fluoride levels in drinking water sources in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpata, Enosakhare S; Danfillo, I S; Otoh, E C; Mafeni, J O

    2009-12-01

    Knowledge of fluoride levels in drinking water is of importance in dental public health, yet this information is lacking, at national level, in Nigeria. To map out fluoride levels in drinking water sources in Nigeria. Fluoride levels in drinking water sources from 109 randomly selected Local Government Areas (LGAs) in the 6 Nigerian geopolitical zones were determined. From the results, maps showing LGAs with fluoride concentrations exceeding 0.3 ppm, were drawn. ANOVA and t-test were used to determine the significance of the differences between the fluoride levels in the drinking water sources. Fluoride levels were low in most parts of the country, being 0.3 ppm or less in 62% of the LGAs. Fluoride concentrations were generally higher in North Central geopolitical zone, than the other zones in the country (pwater sources, fluoride concentrations exceeded 1.5 ppm, but was as high as 6.7 ppm in one well. Only 9% of the water sources were from waterworks. Most of the water sources in Nigeria contained low fluoride levels; but few had excessive concentrations and need to be partially defluoridated, or else alternative sources of drinking water provided for the community.

  19. Impact of water-level changes to aquatic vegetation in small oligotrophic lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egert VANDEL

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study demonstrates the effect of drastic water-level changes to the aquatic vegetation in three small oligotrophic lakes situated in Kurtna Kame Field in north-eastern Estonia. The area holds around 40 lakes in 30 km2 of which 18 lakes are under protection as Natura Habitat lakes (Natura 2000 network. The area is under a strong human impact as it is surrounded by oil shale mines, sand quarry, peat harvesting field etc. The most severe impact comes from the groundwater intake established in 1972 in the vicinity of three studied lakes. The exploitation of groundwater led to drastic water-level drops. In 1980s the water-level drops were measured to be up to 3 to 4 meters compared to the levels of 1946. Lake Martiska and Lake Kuradijärv were severely affected and only 29% and 45% of lake area respectively and 21% of initial volume remained. Both lakes were described as oligotrophic lakes before severe human impact and held characteristic macrophytes such as Isoëtes lacustris L., Sparganium angustifolium Michx and Lobelia dortmanna L. As the water level declined the lakes lost their rare characteristic species and can now be described more as a meso- or even eutrophic lakes. When the volume of groundwater abstraction decreased in the 1990s the water levels started to recover but did not reach the natural levels of pre-industrialized era. Also the vegetation did not show any signs of recovery. In 2012 the pumping rates increased again causing a new rapid decline in water levels which almost exceed the previous minimum levels. The water-level monitoring alongside with the macrophyte monitoring data gives us a good case study on how the long term abrupt water-level changes can affect the aquatic vegetation

  20. The effects of diabetes and low blood sugar levels on driving behaviour : Comparison of diabetics and non-diabetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martens, M.; Janssen, W.H.; Stork, A.

    2001-01-01

    Under contract with the University Medical Centre, Utrecht, TNO Human Factors has conducted research to investigate the effect of diabetes on driving behaviour. In a driving simulator experiment, patients with diabetes and non-diabetics were confronted with various trafßc situations. The subject

  1. Validation of the Ford Score as a Measure for Predicting the Level of Emotional and Behavioural Problems in Mainstream Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Anna; Ford, Tamsin

    2008-01-01

    Emotional and behavioural difficulties (EBD) are common in children, and forecasting their prevalence in schools is of interest to both academic researchers and local authorities. Percentage of pupils eligible for free school meals is one measure often used for this purpose. The article presents the first independent validation of a simple…

  2. Interannual water-level fluctuations and the vegetation of prairie potholes: Potential impacts of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Valk, Arnold; Mushet, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Mean water depth and range of interannual water-level fluctuations over wet-dry cycles in precipitation are major drivers of vegetation zone formation in North American prairie potholes. We used harmonic hydrological models, which require only mean interannual water depth and amplitude of water-level fluctuations over a wet–dry cycle, to examine how the vegetation zones in a pothole would respond to small changes in water depth and/or amplitude of water-level fluctuations. Field data from wetlands in Saskatchewan, North Dakota, and South Dakota were used to parameterize harmonic models for four pothole classes. Six scenarios in which small negative or positive changes in either mean water depth, amplitude of interannual fluctuations, or both, were modeled to predict if they would affect the number of zones in each wetland class. The results indicated that, in some cases, even small changes in mean water depth when coupled with a small change in amplitude of water-level fluctuations can shift a prairie pothole wetland from one class to another. Our results suggest that climate change could alter the relative proportion of different wetland classes in the prairie pothole region.

  3. Estimating of aquifer parameters from the single-well water-level measurements in response to advancing longwall mine by using particle swarm optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyuk, Ersin; Karaman, Abdullah

    2017-04-01

    We estimated transmissivity and storage coefficient values from the single well water-level measurements positioned ahead of the mining face by using particle swarm optimization (PSO) technique. The water-level response to the advancing mining face contains an semi-analytical function that is not suitable for conventional inversion shemes because the partial derivative is difficult to calculate . Morever, the logaritmic behaviour of the model create difficulty for obtaining an initial model that may lead to a stable convergence. The PSO appears to obtain a reliable solution that produce a reasonable fit between water-level data and model function response. Optimization methods have been used to find optimum conditions consisting either minimum or maximum of a given objective function with regard to some criteria. Unlike PSO, traditional non-linear optimization methods have been used for many hydrogeologic and geophysical engineering problems. These methods indicate some difficulties such as dependencies to initial model, evolution of the partial derivatives that is required while linearizing the model and trapping at local optimum. Recently, Particle swarm optimization (PSO) became the focus of modern global optimization method that is inspired from the social behaviour of birds of swarms, and appears to be a reliable and powerful algorithms for complex engineering applications. PSO that is not dependent on an initial model, and non-derivative stochastic process appears to be capable of searching all possible solutions in the model space either around local or global optimum points.

  4. Rectal cancer mortality and total hardness levels in Taiwan's drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C Y; Tsai, S S; Lai, T C; Hung, C F; Chiu, H F

    1999-05-01

    The possible association between the risk of rectal cancer and hardness levels in drinking water from municipal supplies was investigated in a matched case-control study in Taiwan. All eligible rectal cancer deaths (986 cases) of Taiwan residents from 1990 through 1994 were compared with deaths from other causes (986 controls), and the hardness levels of the drinking water used by these residents were determined. Data on water hardness throughout Taiwan were collected from Taiwan Water Supply Corporation (TWSC). The control group consisted of people who died from other causes and the controls were pair matched to the cases by sex, year of birth, and year of death. The results show a significant negative relationship between drinking water hardness and rectal cancer mortality. Odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals were 1.24 (1.01-1. 55) and 1.38 (1.10-1.73), respectively, for exposure to moderately hard water and soft water compared with the use of hard water. Trend analyses showed an increasing odds ratio for rectal cancer with decreasing levels of hardness in drinking water. This is an important finding for the Taiwan water industry and human health. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  5. Implications of end-user behaviour in response to deficiencies in water supply for electricity consumption - A case study of Delhi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Ruchira; Kansal, Arun; Aghi, Sakshi

    2016-05-01

    Over the past two decades, urban lifestyles have changed phenomenally. One aspect of this change is the increasing use of household appliances, which, in turn, influences water and electricity consumption in urban households. It is therefore necessary to revisit water supply norms in view of these behavioural changes. Increasing use of water-related appliances by the surveyed households in Delhi, India has lowered their water consumption but increased their electricity consumption (10-16 kW h a month). Also, longer working hours away from homes have shifted water demand from homes to commercial establishments and institutions. The per-capita water requirement to meet the basic needs for health and hygiene is approximately 76-78 L a day, of which bathing claims the largest share (32%). Nearly 70% of electricity consumption of a household is spent in coping with deficiencies in water supply. Strategies adopted by end users to save water were negatively correlated with those to save electricity. Household incomes have no influence on water consumption except in the case of those living in slums, who are forced to curtail their use of water even at the cost of health and hygiene; for the rest, coping with poor water supply amounts to spending nearly 50% more on electricity, defeating the purpose of subsidised water supply.

  6. Recent reduction in the water level of Lake Victoria has created more habitats for Anopheles funestus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Futami Kyoko

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The water level of Lake Victoria has fallen more than 1.5 m since 1998, revealing a narrow strip of land along the shore. This study determined whether the recent drop in the water level has created additional breeding grounds for malaria vectors. Methods The recent and past shorelines were estimated using landmarks and a satellite image. The locations of breeding habitats were recorded using a GPS unit during the high and low lake water periods. GIS was used to determine whether the breeding habitats were located on newly emerged land between the new and old shorelines. Results Over half of the breeding habitats existed on newly emerged land. Fewer habitats for the Anopheles gambiae complex were found during the low water level period compared to the high water period. However, more habitats for Anopheles funestus were found during the high water level period, and they were all located on the newly emerged land. Conclusion The recent reduction in water level of Lake Victoria has increased the amount of available habitat for A. funestus. The results suggest that the water drop has substantially affected the population of this malaria vector in the Lake Victoria basin, particularly because the lake has a long shoreline that may harbour many new breeding habitats.

  7. Miniaturized Water Flow and Level Monitoring System for Flood Disaster Early Warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ifedapo Abdullahi, Salami; Hadi Habaebi, Mohamed; Surya Gunawan, Teddy; Rafiqul Islam, MD

    2017-11-01

    This study presents the performance of a prototype miniaturised water flow and water level monitoring sensor designed towards supporting flood disaster early warning systems. The design involved selection of sensors, coding to control the system mechanism, and automatic data logging and storage. During the design phase, the apparatus was constructed where all the components were assembled using locally sourced items. Subsequently, under controlled laboratory environment, the system was tested by running water through the inlet during which the flow rate and rising water levels are automatically recorded and stored in a database via Microsoft Excel using Coolterm software. The system is simulated such that the water level readings measured in centimeters is output in meters using a multiplicative of 10. A total number of 80 readings were analyzed to evaluate the performance of the system. The result shows that the system is sensitive to water level rise and yielded accurate measurement of water level. But, the flow rate fluctuates due to the manual water supply that produced inconsistent flow. It was also observed that the flow sensor has a duty cycle of 50% of operating time under normal condition which implies that the performance of the flow sensor is optimal.

  8. Combining classification and time series modeling for improved water level prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Karina; Boergens, Eva; Andersen, Ole; Stenseng, Lars; Knudsen, Per

    2017-04-01

    Obtaining accurate water level estimates is one of the primary goals when processing altimetry data. This can, however, be challenging over inland water due to land contamination in the received signal, which may result in noisy and potentially erroneous water level estimates. The shape of the waveform contains information regarding the quality and in some degree also the surface type of the received signal. Hence, by considering various features of the waveform we can classify the waveforms according to their shape. The waveform class information is not used as a criterium for discarding problematic data but simply used as an additional information when predicting the water level with a robust state-space model. In the model, we estimate a different data variance for each class. Hence, we expect that water levels obtained from complex waveform classes will tend to have a higher variance compared to classes with more simple water returns. The additional data variance information is expected to aid the construction of the final time series. Her we investigate the effect of a class defined data variance in the construction of time series for inland water. We use Cryosat-2 data to estimate water levels for selected lakes and compare with in-situ data when possible.

  9. Implementation Of Water Level Conditioning System Using Wireless Multi-Point Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohnmar Htwe

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Wireless communication is the most popular in these days. Recently people are trying to use the wireless communication systems in home appliances. In this system that is designed and development of a water level conditioning system using wireless which is being used to control the water distribution system. The development system based on the wireless RF Radio Frequency technology which can be installed in industries departments domestics and so on. The level controller is used with ultrasonic sensors to sense the level of water in the tanks and a reservoir. The system used microcontrollersthesecontrollers have the ability to detect the level of water in a Tank1 Tank2 and a Reservoir and then display the status of water on LCD screen and moreover the buzzer will be work depending on the condition of water level in a reservoir. The main objectives of this paper are to design and develop a wireless water level conditioning system using point-to-multi-point RF communication technology. It is reliable because it has no problems arising after installation such as a breakage of wire.

  10. Monitoring Vertical Crustal Deformation and Gravity Variations during Water Level Changes at the Three Gorges Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Wei

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring vertical crustal deformation and gravity changes during water level changes at the Three Gorges reservoir is important for the safe operation of the Three Gorges Dam and for the monitoring and prevention of a regional geological disaster. In this study, we determined vertical crustal deformation and gravity changes during water level variations of the Three Gorges reservoir from direct calculations and actual measurements and a comprehensive solution. We used water areas extracted image data from the ZY-3 satellite and water level data to calculate gravity changes and vertical crustal deformation caused by every 5 m change in the water level due to storage and drainage of the Three Gorges reservoir from 145 m to 175 m. The vertical crustal deformation was up to 30 mm. The location of gravity change above 20 μ Gal(1 Gal=10-2 m/s2 was less than 2 km from the centerline of the Yangtze River. The CORS ES13 in Badong, near the reservoir, measured the vertical crustal deformation during water level changes. Because of the small number of CORS and gravity stations in the Three Gorges reservoir area, monitoring deformation and gravity related to changes in the Three Gorges reservoir water level cannot be closely followed. Using 26 CORS and some of the gravity stations in the Three Gorges area and based on loading deformation and the spherical harmonic analysis method, an integrated solution of vertical deformation and gravity variations during water level changes of the reservoir was determined, which is consistent with the actual CORS monitoring results. By comparison, we found that an integrated solution based on a CORS network can effectively enhance the capability of monitoring vertical crustal deformation and gravity changes during water level variations of the reservoir.

  11. Socio-behavioural aspects in the prevention and control of dental caries and periodontal diseases at an individual and population level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sälzer, Sonja; Alkilzy, Mohammad; Slot, Dagmar E; Dörfer, Christof E; Schmoeckel, Julian; Splieth, Christian H

    2017-03-01

    Aim was to systematically review behavioural aspects in the prevention and control of dental caries and periodontal diseases at individual and population level. With regard to caries, MEDLINE/PubMed was searched on three subheadings focusing on early childhood, proximal and root caries. For periodontal diseases, a meta-review on systematic reviews was performed; thus, the search strategy included specific interventions to change behaviour in order to perform a meta-review on systematic reviews. After extraction of data and conclusions, the potential risk of bias was estimated and the emerging evidence was graded. Regarding early childhood, proximal and root caries, 28, 6 and 0 papers, respectively, could be included, which predominantly reported on cohort studies. Regarding periodontal diseases, five systematic reviews were included. High evidence of mostly high magnitude was retrieved for behavioural interventions in early childhood caries (ECC), weak evidence for a small effect in proximal caries and an unclear effect of specific informational/motivational programmes on prevention of periodontal diseases and no evidence of root caries. Early childhood caries can be successfully prevented by population-based preventive programmes via aiming at the change in behaviour. The effect of individual specific motivational/informational interventions has not yet been clearly demonstrated neither for the prevention of caries nor for periodontal diseases. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. [Arsenic levels in drinking water supplies from underground sources in the community of Madrid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragonés Sanz, N; Palacios Diez, M; Avello de Miguel, A; Gómez Rodríguez, P; Martínez Cortés, M; Rodríguez Bernabeu, M J

    2001-01-01

    In 1998, arsenic concentrations of more than 50 micrograms/l were detected in some drinking water supplies from underground sources in the Autonomous Community of Madrid, which is the maximum permissible concentration for drinking water in Spain. These two facts have meant the getting under way of a specific plan for monitoring arsenic in the drinking water in the Autonomous Community of Madrid. The results of the first two sampling processes conducted in the arsenic level monitoring plan set out are presented. In the initial phase, water samples from 353 water supplies comprised within the census of the Public Health Administration of the Autonomous Community of Madrid were analyzed. A water supply risk classification was made based on these initial results. In a second phase, six months later, the analyses were repeated on those 35 water supplies which were considered to possibly pose a risk to public health. Seventy-four percent (74%) of the water supplies studied in the initial phase were revealed to have an arsenic concentration of less than 10 micrograms/l, 22.6% containing levels of 10 micrograms/l-50 micrograms/l, and 3.7% over 50 micrograms/l. Most of the water supplies showing arsenic levels of more than 10 micrograms/l are located in the same geographical area. In the second sampling process (six months later), the 35 water supplies classified as posing a risk were included. Twenty-six (26) of these supplies were revealed to have the same arsenic level ((10-50 micrograms/l), and nine changed category, six of which had less than 10 micrograms/l and three more than 50 micrograms/l. In the Autonomous Community of Madrid, less than 2% of the population drinks water coming from supplies which are from underground sources. The regular water quality monitoring conducted by the Public Health Administration has led to detecting the presence of more than 50 micrograms/l of arsenic in sixteen drinking water supplies from underground sources, which is the maximum

  13. Trends in Water Level and Flooding in Dhaka, Bangladesh and Their Impact on Mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Insa Thiele-Eich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is expected to impact flooding in many highly populated coastal regions, including Dhaka (Bangladesh, which is currently among the fastest growing cities in the world. In the past, high mortality counts have been associated with extreme flood events. We first analyzed daily water levels of the past 100 years in order to detect potential shifts in extremes. A distributed lag non-linear model was then used to examine the connection between water levels and mortality. Results indicate that for the period of 2003–2007, which entails two major flood events in 2004 and 2007, high water levels do not lead to a significant increase in relative mortality, which indicates a good level of adaptation and capacity to cope with flooding. However, following low water levels, an increase in mortality could be found. As our trend analysis of past water levels shows that minimum water levels have decreased during the past 100 years, action should be taken to ensure that the exposed population is also well-adapted to drought.

  14. Observations and a linear model of water level in an interconnected inlet-bay system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aretxabaleta, Alfredo; Ganju, Neil K.; Butman, Bradford; Signell, Richard

    2017-01-01

    A system of barrier islands and back-barrier bays occurs along southern Long Island, New York, and in many coastal areas worldwide. Characterizing the bay physical response to water level fluctuations is needed to understand flooding during extreme events and evaluate their relation to geomorphological changes. Offshore sea level is one of the main drivers of water level fluctuations in semienclosed back-barrier bays. We analyzed observed water levels (October 2007 to November 2015) and developed analytical models to better understand bay water level along southern Long Island. An increase (∼0.02 m change in 0.17 m amplitude) in the dominant M2 tidal amplitude (containing the largest fraction of the variability) was observed in Great South Bay during mid-2014. The observed changes in both tidal amplitude and bay water level transfer from offshore were related to the dredging of nearby inlets and possibly the changing size of a breach across Fire Island caused by Hurricane Sandy (after December 2012). The bay response was independent of the magnitude of the fluctuations (e.g., storms) at a specific frequency. An analytical model that incorporates bay and inlet dimensions reproduced the observed transfer function in Great South Bay and surrounding areas. The model predicts the transfer function in Moriches and Shinnecock bays where long-term observations were not available. The model is a simplified tool to investigate changes in bay water level and enables the evaluation of future conditions and alternative geomorphological settings.

  15. WP2: Assessing multi-level activities in water and biodiversity governance. Report

    OpenAIRE

    Antunes, Paula; Quillacq, Patricia; Rauschmayer, Felix; Santos, Rui; Videira, Nuno; Egerton, Catrin

    2010-01-01

    This report constitutes the main deliverable of WorkPackage 2 of GoverNat, "Assessing multilevel activities in water and biodiversity governance", dealing with an assessment of state-ofthe- art European water and biodiversity governance, based on the analysis of a series of casestudies developed by GoverNat fellows. The cases, all dealing with participation in multi-level governance of water and biodiversity in Europe, were analysed with the support of the framework for analysis and evaluatio...

  16. Estimation Of Height Of Oil -Water Contact Above Free Water Level ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The derived knowledge of water density, oil density and saturation height function adequately estimates the quality of reservoirs and classify them in terms of prominence of the plateaux and channels. The results show that the typical Niger Delta reservoirs are of good quality as confirmed by the relatively low shale presence ...

  17. Analysis of environmental issues related to small-scale hydroelectric development. III. Water level fluctuation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hildebrand, S.G. (ed.)

    1980-10-01

    Potential environmental impacts in reservoirs and downstream river reaches below dams that may be caused by the water level fluctuation resulting from development and operation of small scale (under 25MW) hydroelectric projects are identified. The impacts discussed will be of potential concern at only those small-scale hydroelectric projects that are operated in a store and release (peaking) mode. Potential impacts on physical and chemical characteristics in reservoirs resulting from water level fluctuation include resuspension and redistribution of bank and bed sediment; leaching of soluble organic matter from sediment in the littoral zone; and changes in water quality resulting from changes in sediment and nutrient trap efficiency. Potential impacts on reservoir biota as a result of water level fluctuation include habitat destruction and the resulting partial or total loss of aquatic species; changes in habitat quality, which result in reduced standing crop and production of aquatic biota; and possible shifts in species diversity. The potential physical effects of water level fluctuation on downstream systems below dams are streambed and bank erosion and water quality problems related to resuspension and redistribution of these materials. Potential biological impacts of water level fluctuation on downstream systems below dams result from changes in current velocity, habitat reduction, and alteration in food supply. These alterations, either singly or in combination, can adversely affect aquatic populations below dams. The nature and potential significance of adverse impacts resulting from water level fluctuation are discussed. Recommendations for site-specific evaluation of water level fluctuation at small-scale hydroelectric projects are presented.

  18. Effects of Barometric Fluctuations on Well Water-Level Measurements and Aquifer Test Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FA Spane, Jr.

    1999-12-16

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, as part of the Hanford Groundwater Monitoring Project, examines the potential for offsite migration of contamination within underlying aquifer systems. Well water-level elevation measurements from selected wells within these aquifer systems commonly form the basis for delineating groundwater-flow patterns (i.e., flow direction and hydraulic gradient). In addition, the analysis of water-level responses obtained in wells during hydrologic tests provides estimates of hydraulic properties that are important for evaluating groundwater-flow velocity and transport characteristics. Barometric pressure fluctuations, however, can have a discernible impact on well water-level measurements. These barometric effects may lead to erroneous indications of hydraulic head within the aquifer. Total hydraulic head (i.e., sum of the water-table elevation and the atmospheric pressure at the water-table surface) within the aquifer, not well water-level elevation, is the hydrologic parameter for determining groundwater-flow direction and hydraulic gradient conditions. Temporal variations in barometric pressure may also adversely affect well water-level responses obtained during hydrologic tests. If significant, adjustments or removal of these barometric effects from the test-response record may be required for quantitative hydraulic property determination. This report examines the effects of barometric fluctuations on well water-level measurements and evaluates adjustment and removal methods for determining areal aquifer head conditions and aquifer test analysis. Two examples of Hanford Site unconfined aquifer tests are examined that demonstrate barometric response analysis and illustrate the predictive/removal capabilities of various methods for well water-level and aquifer total head values. Good predictive/removal characteristics were demonstrated with best corrective results provided by multiple-regression deconvolution methods.

  19. Determination of Trace Level Triclosan in Water by Online Preconcentration and HPLC-UV Diode Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    An online high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the detection and quantification of trace levels of triclosan in water is discussed. Triclosan, an anti-bacterial agent, and related compounds have been shown to reach municipal waste waters through the disposal ...

  20. 1:750,000-scale static ground-water levels of Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of static ground-water levels for the State of Nevada based on a 1974 ground-water map (Rush, 1974) published by the Nevada Department of...

  1. Comparison of Levels of some Metals in the Water and Sediment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Level of some Metals (Cd,Cr,Mn,Pb,Zn,Na and K) was seasonally determined in the water and sediments of Challawa Gorge dam.The result obtained showed that the values of the metal contents were generally higher in the dry season than the wet season. The metal contents of the water and sediment were obtained using ...

  2. Relationships among gender, cognitive style, academic major, and performance on the Piaget water-level task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, R E; Hoffer, N; King, W L

    1995-06-01

    Many researchers have found that more college-age adults than would be expected fail Piaget's water-level task, with women failing more frequently than men. It has been hypothesized that differences in cognitive style may account for performance differences on the water-level task. In the present study, 27 male and 27 female architectural students and 27 male and 27 female liberal-arts students were assessed for their performance on both Piaget's Water-level Task and Witkin's Group Embedded Figures Test. No difference was found in performance of male and female architectural students on either task, but male liberal-arts students scored significantly higher than female liberal-arts students on both measures. A disembedding cognitive style predicted success on the water-level task for the architectural students but not for the liberal arts students.

  3. Sea Level Changes Due to Water Mass Variations in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpytchev, M.

    2016-12-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that interannual sea level variations on the shelfof the Gulf of Mexico are weakly correlated with the sea level over the Gulf deep waters.This has been shown to be due to a complex interplay between the Loop Currentdriving sea level changes in the deeper part of the Gulf with the shelf waves propagatingfrom the North Atlantic. In this study, we, first, examine the relationship between the low-frequency sea levelfluctuations deduced from satellite altimetry observations and from tide gauge recordsand, then, focus on evaluating water mass changes in the Gulf of Mexico.We compare the estimates obtained from satellite altimetry corrected forthermosteric effects with the changes in water mass observed by GRACEand discuss the importance of water mass changes for the low-frequency sea level fluctuationsin the Gulf.

  4. Great Lakes Daily Ice Observations at NOAA Water Level Gauge Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains daily visual ice observations taken yearly from 1 November to 30 April at NOAA/National Ocean Service water level gauge sites in the Great...

  5. Nimbus-6/SCAMS Level 2 Water Vapor and Temperature V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Nimbus-6 Scanning Microwave Spectrometer (SCAMS) Level 2 data product contains water vapor and temperature profiles. The SCAMS was designed to map tropospheric...

  6. Back-Analyses of Landfill Instability Induced by High Water Level: Case Study of Shenzhen Landfill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren Peng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In June 2008, the Shenzhen landfill slope failed. This case is used as an example to study the deformation characteristics and failure mode of a slope induced by high water levels. An integrated monitoring system, including water level gauges, electronic total stations, and inclinometers, was used to monitor the slope failure process. The field measurements suggest that the landfill landslide was caused by a deep slip along the weak interface of the composite liner system at the base of the landfill. The high water level is considered to be the main factor that caused this failure. To calculate the relative interface shear displacements in the geosynthetic multilayer liner system, a series of numerical direct shear tests were carried out. Based on the numerical results, the composite lining system simplified and the centrifuge modeling technique was used to quantitatively evaluate the effect of water levels on landfill instability.

  7. Levels of trace metals in water and sediment from Tyume River and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Levels of trace metals (Cd, Pb, Co, Zn Cu and Ni) were determined in water and sediment from the Tyume River. Occurrence of these metals in vegetables and soil from a nearby farmland as a result of irrigation with the river water was also investigated. Higher levels of Cd (0.038 ± 0.004 to 0.044 ± 0.003 mg/l) and Pb ...

  8. Lying behaviour and IgG-levels of newborn calves after feeding colostrum via tube and nipple bottle feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonk, Stephanie; Nadalin, Audrey; Heuwieser, Wolfgang; Veira, Douglas

    2016-08-01

    Oesophageal tube feeding colostrum is used to ensure sufficient colostrum intake in newborn calves but the impact of tube feeding on animal behaviour is unclear. Therefore the objective of this study was to compare lying behaviour of tube-fed or bottle-fed dairy calves. Calves (n = 37) in 3 groups were offered 3·5 l colostrum 2 h after birth. Calves of the bottle group were fed with a nipple bottle. Calves of the placebo tubing group were tubed for 4 min but no colostrum was given and they were then fed with a nipple bottle. Calves of the tubing group received 3·5 l colostrum via tube feeding. Consumed amount of bottle and placebo tubing calves was recorded. If they refused some of the offered 3·5 l the rest was offered in a second feeding 2 h later. Lying behaviour was measured by data loggers fitted to right hind leg for 3 d. Blood samples were taken 24 h after birth for determination of IgG concentration. The voluntary colostrum intake differed significantly between bottle-fed and placebo tubed calves at first feeding. Considering both colostrum feedings, bottle-fed calves consumed 3·44 ± 0·14 l and placebo tubed calves consumed 3·20 ± 0·38 l colostrum. ImmunoglobulinG intake (255·6 ± 77·5 g IgG), serum IgG concentration 24 h after birth (22·8 ± 6·7 g/l) and total serum protein concentration (6·1 ± 0·6 g/dl) did not differ between groups. None of the calves had a failure of passive transfer. There was no effect of tubing on lying behaviour.

  9. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the tap as described). 3. In all situations, drink or cook only with water that comes out of the tap cold. Water that comes out of the tap warm or hot can contain much higher levels of lead. Boiling ...

  10. Linking levels of societal and ecosystems metabolism of water in a Mediterranean watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello, V.

    2014-12-01

    Water resources degradation is a complex environmental problem that involves multiple dimensions and scales of analysis. The Socio-Ecological Systems Water Metabolism has been proposed as a general holistic framework to deal with integrated analysis of water use sustainability (Madrid and Giampietro 2014). The innovation of the approach is that it sets the research focus beyond the classical supply-demand modeling to societal integrity and ecosystems integrity. To do so, it integrates quantitative grammars of water use (relating water exchange to societal and ecosystems organization) and qualitative methods (discourse analysis). This work presents the first case study focused at a river basin extent: the Upper Andarax, in South-East Spain. Water metabolism is indicated at multiple levels for ecosystems and society. To deal with the interfaces among them, relational indicators of water exploitation, water use and impact over ecosystems are used alongside policies and narratives analysis.While being a rather not intensively exploited river basin (year Water Exploitation Index~0.3 blue water,~0.15 green water), impacts over water bodies are yet important (periodic aquifer overdraft, biological degradation of the river) especially during dry season. Perceived mayor problems of water sustainability are generated by the not integration of different policies at European, national and regional scales: while the water authority establishes a compulsory reduction over water withdrawal to attend environmental flows, agricultural markets force to raise productivity increasing water demands. Adaptation strategies are divided among irrigation efficiency improvement and a reorientation of the economy towards touristic activities. Both of them entail specific trade-offs to be deemed. Aquifer-river interactions and climate change impacts are yet mayor research challenges.

  11. Differences in greeting behaviour towards humans with varying levels of familiarity in hand-reared wolves (Canis lupus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujfalussy, Dorottya Júlia; Kurys, Anita; Kubinyi, Enikő; Gácsi, Márta; Virányi, Zsófia

    2017-06-01

    Socialized wolves' relationship with humans is a much debated, but important question in light of dog domestication. Earlier findings reported no attachment to the caretaker at four months of age in a Strange Situation Test, while recently attachment to the caretaker was reported at a few weeks of age in a similar paradigm. To explore wolf-human relationship, we analysed behaviours of hand reared, extensively socialized wolves towards four visitor types: foster-parents, close acquaintances, persons met once before, and complete strangers during a greeting episode. As hypothesized, in the greeting context subjects showed more intense and friendly behaviour towards foster-parents, than other visitor types, which may reflect familiarity and affinity. However, differences were more pronounced in the group situation (at six months of age) than in the individual situation (at 12 and 24 months), suggesting that unique status of foster parents may become less distinct as wolves get older, while exploration of novel social agents is expressed more with older age. Fear related behaviour patterns were only found in the individual situation, mainly displayed towards strangers. We showed that, in case of extensively socialized wolves, distinctive affiliation and affinity towards the foster parent prevails into adulthood.

  12. Risk factors and study designs used in research of youths' suicide behaviour-an epidemiological discussion with focus on level of evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Erik; Larsen, Kim Juul; Agerbo, Esben; Bilenberg, Niels; Stenager, Elsebeth

    2014-11-01

    Abstract Introduction: Many different epidemiology study designs have been used to analyse risk factors for suicide behaviour. The purpose of this study was to obtain an insight into the current study design used in research on youths' risk factors for suicide behaviour and to rank the studies according to level of evidence (LoE). We searched PubMed and psycINFO in order to identify relevant individual studies. We included 36 studies of children and youth on suicidal behaviour and ideation-many rank low on LoE. For suicide, cohort design was often used, and mental illness (depression, substance abuse and severity of mental illness) was the most common risk factor. Cohort studies are ranked 2b, which is high according to LoE. For suicide attempts, survey was often used, and psychopathology, substance abuse and being exposed to suicidal behaviour were the most common risk factors. For suicidal ideation, survey was the only design used, and substance abuse and psychopathology the most common risk factors. Surveys are ranked 4, which are low according to LoE. Many risk factors were broad and unspecific, and standard definitions of outcome and exposure were rarely used. A good study of risk factors for suicidal behaviour would need a high LoE, as a high-powered longitudinal epidemiological study (cohort or case-control) of very specific risk factors. The factors would have high prevention potential, compared with more broad and unspecific risk factors, to which many people are exposed. We would recommend a cohort design (in high-risk populations) or a case-control design to identify risk factors, using clinical and/or register data instead of self-reported information, reporting adjusted estimates and using standard definition of suicidal outcome and risk factors.

  13. Effect of nutrient level on phytoplankton community structure in different water bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wei; Wan, Lei; Zhao, Lianfang

    2010-01-01

    Increasing levels of pollution within water bodies can cause eutrophication and an associated rapid growth in and reproduction of phytoplankton. Although most frequently occurring in bodies of water such as lakes and dams, in recent years an increasing number of river systems in China have suffered serious algal blooms. The community structure of phytoplankton may differ, however, dependent on the hydrodynamic conditions and nutrient levels within the water body. The field investigation results obtained from a stagnant river in Suzhou City and Taihu Lake, China, showed that in water with higher concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus, Chlorophyta became the predominant species and in water with lower concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus, Cyanobacteria became the predominant species. Growth experiments with competitive species, Microcystis aeruginosa Kütz and Scenedesmus quadricauda (Turp.), were conducted at three different nutrient levels. The biomass of algae in pure and mixed cultures was measured under conditions of different N/P ratios at oligotrophic, eutrophic and hypertrophic nutrient levels. The results indicated that the most suitable state for the growth and reproduction of M. aeruginosa and S. quadricauda were eutrophic conditions in both pure and mixed cultures. Under competition, however, the lower medium nutrient levels favoured M. aeruginosa, while the higher medium nutrient levels better suited S. quadricauda. Under similar hydrodynamic conditions, the community structure of phytoplankton in the water body was determined by the dominant species in competition for nutrients.

  14. The effect of a behaviour change intervention on the diets and physical activity levels of women attending Sure Start Children's Centres: results from a complex public health intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Janis; Jarman, Megan; Lawrence, Wendy; Black, Christina; Davies, Jenny; Tinati, Tannaze; Begum, Rufia; Mortimore, Andrew; Robinson, Sian; Margetts, Barrie; Cooper, Cyrus; Barker, Mary; Inskip, Hazel

    2014-07-15

    The UK government's response to the obesity epidemic calls for action in communities to improve people's health behaviour. This study evaluated the effects of a community intervention on dietary quality and levels of physical activity of women from disadvantaged backgrounds. Non-randomised controlled evaluation of a complex public health intervention. 527 women attending Sure Start Children's Centres (SSCC) in Southampton (intervention) and 495 women attending SSCCs in Gosport and Havant (control). Training SSCC staff in behaviour change skills that would empower women to change their health behaviours. Main outcomes dietary quality and physical activity. Intermediate outcomes self-efficacy and sense of control. 1-year post-training, intervention staff used skills to support behaviour change significantly more than control staff. There were statistically significant reductions of 0.1 SD in the dietary quality of all women between baseline and follow-up and reductions in self-efficacy and sense of control. The decline in self-efficacy and control was significantly smaller in women in the intervention group than in women in the control group (adjusted differences in self-efficacy and control, respectively, 0.26 (95% CI 0.001 to 0.50) and 0.35 (0.05 to 0.65)). A lower decline in control was associated with higher levels of exposure in women in the intervention group. There was a statistically significant improvement in physical activity in the intervention group, with 22.9% of women reporting the highest level of physical activity compared with 12.4% at baseline, and a smaller improvement in the control group. The difference in change in physical activity level between the groups was not statistically significant (adjusted difference 1.02 (0.74 to 1.41)). While the intervention did not improve women's diets and physical activity levels, it had a protective effect on intermediate factors-control and self-efficacy-suggesting that a more prolonged exposure to the

  15. Analysis of the relationship between water level fluctuation and seismicity in the Three Gorges Reservoir (China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lifen Zhang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Three Gorges Reservoir is a good site for the further researches on reservoir induced seismicity due to decades' seismic monitoring. After the first water impounding in 2003, seismic activity becomes more frequent than that before water impoundment. In order to quantitatively study, the relationship between the water level fluctuation and earthquakes in TGR, we introduced statistical methods to attain the goal. First of all, we relocated the earthquakes in TGR region with double difference method and divided the earthquakes into 5 clusters with clustering analysis method. Secondly, to examine the impacts of water level fluctuation in different water filling stages on the seismic activity in the 5 clusters, a series of statistical analyses are applied. Pearson correlation results show that only the 175 m water level fluctuation has significantly positive impacts on the seismic activity in clusters Ⅰ, Ⅱ, Ⅲ and Ⅴ with correlation coefficients of 0.44, 0.38, 0.66 and 0.63. Cross-correlation analysis demonstrates that 0, 1, 0 and 0 month time delay separately for the clusters Ⅰ, Ⅱ, Ⅲ and Ⅴ exists. It illustrated the influences of the water loading and pore pressure diffusion on induced earthquakes. Cointegration tests and impulse response analysis denoted that the 175 m water level only had long term and significant effects just on the seismic events in the intersection region of the Fairy Mount Fault and Nine-brook Fault. One standard deviation shock to 175 m water level increased the seismic activity in cluster Ⅴ for the first 3 months, and then the negative influence was shown. After 7 months, the negative impulse response becomes stable. The long-term effect of the 175 m water impoundment also proved the important role of pore pressure diffusion in RIS with time.

  16. Are fluoride levels in drinking water associated with hypothyroidism prevalence in England? A large observational study of GP practice data and fluoride levels in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckham, S; Lowery, D; Spencer, S

    2015-07-01

    While previous research has suggested that there is an association between fluoride ingestion and the incidence of hypothyroidism, few population level studies have been undertaken. In England, approximately 10% of the population live in areas with community fluoridation schemes and hypothyroidism prevalence can be assessed from general practice data. This observational study examines the association between levels of fluoride in water supplies with practice level hypothyroidism prevalence. We used a cross-sectional study design using secondary data to develop binary logistic regression models of predictive factors for hypothyroidism prevalence at practice level using 2012 data on fluoride levels in drinking water, 2012/2013 Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF) diagnosed hypothyroidism prevalence data, 2013 General Practitioner registered patient numbers and 2012 practice level Index of Multiple Deprivation scores. We found that higher levels of fluoride in drinking water provide a useful contribution for predicting prevalence of hypothyroidism. We found that practices located in the West Midlands (a wholly fluoridated area) are nearly twice as likely to report high hypothyroidism prevalence in comparison to Greater Manchester (non-fluoridated area). In many areas of the world, hypothyroidism is a major health concern and in addition to other factors-such as iodine deficiency-fluoride exposure should be considered as a contributing factor. The findings of the study raise particular concerns about the validity of community fluoridation as a safe public health measure. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  17. Effect different levels of nitrate water on performance and blood parameter of broiler chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    alireza hessabi nameghi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to evaluate of different levels of water nitrate on performance and blood parameter of broiler chicks. 240 day old Ross 308 were assigned in 5 treatments, 4 replicates and 12 chicks per replicate in a completely randomized design. Treatments so that water nitrate concentration was 10 mg in drinking water of poultry farm (control group or CG and another treatment 40, 70, 100 mg/ Lit nitrate Used. A group used from minimum nitrate(MN water (nitrate, 1.8 mg/ Lit respectively. Results showed that different levels of water nitrate did not affect on feed intake (FI, but in distance 42-0 days group used from MN water compared to the control group FI significantly reduced. Treatments in 21-0 days was no effect on FI. Body weight gain (42 days in CG comparative another groups significantly increased, but different levels of nitrate had no effect on body weight gain in 21 days. Taking 100 mg of nitrate caused a significant increase feed conversion ratio (FCR in 42-1 days. Minimum FCR was showed that in CG. The results about lymphoid organs showed that maximum weight of spleen and bourse observed in group receiving 70 mg/Lit nitrate. Group drinking MN water had minimum weight of spleen and bourse, but the thymus weight in another groups higher than the CG. Different levels of nitrate had no effect on blood HDL, but on the another blood parameter had significant effect (P

  18. Estimating severity of seismically induced landslides and lateral spreads using threshold water levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jae-won; Rogers, J. David; Watkins, Conor M.

    2014-01-01

    The potential for an earthquake-induced landslide increases when the shear strength of a slope decreases and the hydrostatic pressure increases from the dynamic stresses induced by seismic shaking and/or heavy rainfalls. This paper presents an assessment of seismically induced slope failure in the St. Louis, MO, USA, area; it emphasizes water elevations as the controlling factor, realizing that such levels vary over space and time. We estimated the threshold water table depths to initiate seismically induced landslides in the uplands and liquefaction-induced lateral spreads in the alluvial floodplains under an M7.5 earthquake with a peak ground acceleration of 0.20 to 0.40 g. These threshold water table depths were computed as a function of ground steepness using the Newmark model for rigid block landslides and an empirical regression for lateral spreads. The seismic microzonation was prepared by comparing the map of threshold water table depths and maps of average water levels. The resultant hazard maps suggest that the river bluffs are prone to seismically induced landslides only when the water reaches its highest recorded levels, while much of the floodplains are prone to lateral spreads. Lateral spreads occur more extensively when the water exceeds its normal level.

  19. The effect of applying different water levels and irrigation frequencies in propagating rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Giovanni Álvarez Herrera

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Rosemary seedlings are obtained by vegetative propagation because the seeds present low viability. Despite being an expanding crop, there is little information on water consumption during the propagation stage. Water levels and irrigation frequencies were therefore applied using a completely randomised design having a 4 x 2 factorial arrangement. The first factor concerned irrigation frequency (4 and 8 days and the second concerned water level (0.6, 0.8, 1.0 and 1.2 evaporation inside the greenhouse. A 1.0 coefficient combined with 4-day irrigation frequency presented the best results regarding height (39.3 cm, fresh weight, dry weight and branch length (146 cm. Water level affected the fresh and dry weight of leaves regardless of frequency. Relative water content in leaves did not present differences due to environmental conditions minimising treatment effect. Rooting percent- tage showed no significant differences regarding irrigation frequency or water level. Irrigation frequency did not affect rosemary growing pattern because sphagnum retains high moisture content. The best branch number (34 was obtained with 1.0 coefficient and 4-day frequency, this being important from the production point of view because this is the material which is sold. Water management changes photoassimilate distribution in rosemary plants.

  20. Determinants of Use of Household-level Water Chlorination Products in Rural Kenya, 2003–2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy E. DuBois

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Household-level water treatment products provide safe drinking water to at-risk populations, but relatively few people use them regularly; little is known about factors that influence uptake of this proven health intervention. We assessed uptake of these water treatments in Nyanza Province, Kenya, November 2003–February 2005. We interviewed users and non-user controls of a new household water treatment product regarding drinking water and socioeconomic factors. We calculated regional use-prevalence of these products based on 10 randomly selected villages in the Asembo region of Nyanza Province, Kenya. Thirty-eight percent of respondents reported ever using household-level treatment products. Initial use of a household-level product was associated with having turbid water as a source (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 16.6, p = 0.007, but consistent usage was more common for a less costly and more accessible product that did not address turbidity. A combination of social marketing, retail marketing, and donor subsidies may be necessary to extend the health benefits of household-level water treatment to populations most at risk.

  1. The effect of applying different water levels and irrigation frequencies in propagating rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Giovanni Álvarez Herrera

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Rosemary seedlings are obtained by vegetative propagation because the seeds present low viability. Despite being an expanding crop, there is little information on water consumption during the propagation stage. Water levels and irrigation frequencies were therefore applied using a completely randomised design having a 4 x 2 factorial arrangement. The first factor concerned irrigation frequency (4 and 8 days and the second concerned water level (0.6, 0.8, 1.0 and 1.2 evaporation inside the greenhouse. A 1.0 coefficient combined with 4-day irrigation frequency presented the best results regarding height (39.3 cm, fresh weight, dry weight and branch length (146 cm. Water level affected the fresh and dry weight of leaves regardless of frequency. Relative water content in leaves did not present differences due to environmental conditions minimising treatment effect. Rooting percent- tage showed no significant differences regarding irrigation frequency or water level. Irrigation frequency did not affect rosemary growing pattern because sphagnum retains high moisture content. The best branch number (34 was obtained with 1.0 coefficient and 4-day frequency, this being important from the production point of view because this is the material which is sold. Water management changes photoassimilate distribution in rosemary plants.

  2. Does drinking water influence hospital-admitted sialolithiasis on an epidemiological level in Denmark?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Stine; Homøe, Preben; Wagner, Niels

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Sialolithiasis, or salivary stones, is not a rare disease of the major salivary glands. However, the aetiology and incidence remain largely unknown. Since sialoliths are comprised mainly of calcium phosphate salts, we hypothesise that drinking water calcium levels and other elements...... registered between the years 2000 and 2010 were included in the study (n=3014) and related to the drinking water composition on a municipality level (n=98). PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Multiple regression analysis using iterative search and testing among all demographic and drinking water......: Differences in drinking water calcium and magnesium may play a role in the incidence of sialolithiasis. These findings are of interest because many countries have started large-scale desalination programmes of drinking water....

  3. Bone densitometry and calcium serum levels in chickens treated with filtered or unfiltered water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Amoroso

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the drinking water of the School of Agricultural and Veterinary Sciences, UNESP, Jaboticabal, Brazil, affected bone mineral density and serum calcium levels of 14-, 21-, and 45-day-old broilers. Bone mineral density (BMD of the tibiae was assessed using optical densitometry radiographic technique and serum calcium levels. Tibial BMD increased as broilers aged, and achieved its peak at 45 days of age. It was higher in the distal epiphysis of the birds that ingested filtered water (p<0.05 compared with those supplied with unfiltered water. Therefore, it is concluded that filtered water promoted better bone quality in relative to those ingested unfiltered water.

  4. Water levels and water quality in the Sparta-Memphis aquifer (middle Claiborne aquifer) in Arkansas, spring-summer 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, T.P.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Arkansas Natural Resources Commission and the Arkansas Geological Survey, has monitored water levels in the Sparta Sand of Claiborne Group and Memphis Sand of Claiborne Group (herein referred to as “the Sparta Sand” and “the Memphis Sand,” respectively) since the 1920s. Groundwater withdrawals have increased while water levels have declined since monitoring was initiated. Herein, aquifers in the Sparta Sand and Memphis Sand will be referred to as “the Sparta-Memphis aquifer” throughout Arkansas. During the spring of 2011, 291 water levels were measured in wells completed in the Sparta-Memphis aquifer and used to produce a regional potentiometric-surface map. During the summer of 2011, groundwater-quality samples were collected and measured from 61 wells for specific conductance, pH, and temperature.In the northern half of Arkansas, the regional direction of groundwater flow in the Sparta-Memphis aquifer is generally to the south-southeast and flows east and south in the southern half of Arkansas. The groundwater in the southern half of Arkansas flows away from the outcrop area except where affected by large depressions in the potentiometric surface. The highest and lowest water-level altitudes measured in the Sparta-Memphis aquifer were 326 feet above and 120 feet below National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929 (NGVD 29), respectively.Five depressions are located in the following counties: Arkansas, Cleveland, Jefferson, Lincoln, and Prairie; Union; Cross, Poinsett, St. Francis, and Woodruff; Columbia; and Bradley. Two large depressions, centered in Jefferson and Union Counties, are the result of large withdrawals for industrial, irrigation, or public supply. The depression centered in Jefferson County has expanded in recent years into Arkansas and Prairie Counties as a result of large withdrawals for irrigation and public supply. The lowest water-level altitude measured in this depression is

  5. Changes in water manganese levels and longitudinal assessment of intellectual function in children exposed through drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dion, Laurie-Anne; Saint-Amour, Dave; Sauvé, Sébastien; Barbeau, Benoit; Mergler, Donna; Bouchard, Maryse F

    2018-01-01

    Manganese is commonly found in water but potential neurotoxic effects from exposure through drinking water are poorly understood. We previously reported a cross-sectional study showing that drinking water Mn concentration was associated with lower IQ in children aged 6 to 13 years. For this follow-up study, we aimed to re-assess the relation between exposure to Mn from drinking water and IQ at adolescence. In addition, we aimed to examine whether changes in drinking water Mn concentration was associated with changes in IQ scores. From the 380 children enrolled in the baseline study, 287 participated to this follow-up study conducted in average 4.4 years after. Mn concentration was measured in home tap water and children's hair. The relationships between these Mn exposure indicators and IQ scores (Weschsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence) at follow-up were assessed with linear regression analysis, adjusting for potential confounders. Intra-individual differences in IQ scores between the two examinations were compared for children whose Mn concentration in water remained stable between examinations, increased or decreased. The mean age at follow-up was 13.7 years (range, 10.5 to 18.0 years). Geometric mean of Mn concentration in water at follow-up was 14.5μg/L. Higher Mn concentration in water measured at follow-up was associated with lower Performance IQ in girls (β for a 10-fold increase=-2.8, 95% confidence intervals [CI] -4.8 to -0.8) and higher Performance IQ in boys (β=3.9, 95% CI 1.4 to 6.4). IQ scores were not significantly associated with Mn concentration in hair, although similar trends as for concentration in water were observed. For children whose Mn concentration in water increased between baseline and follow-up, Performance IQ scores decreased significantly (intra-individual difference, -2.4 points). Higher levels of Mn in drinking water were associated with lower Performance IQ in girls, whereas the opposite was observed in boys. These findings

  6. Water Level Changes of Nam-Co Lake Based on Satellite Altimetry Data Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y. J.; Qiao, G.; Li, H. W.

    2017-09-01

    Nam-Co Lake is the largest saltwater lake in Tibet and less influenced by human activity. In order to study the change of water level of Nam-Co Lake over the past decades and the impacts of climate change on the region, this paper combined height measurements of ERS-1, ERS-2, ENVISAT, ICESat-2 and CryoSat-2. We found that the water level of Nam Co Lake experienced three periods of change, namely, slightly decreasing period (1992-1993), significantly increasing period (1995-2005), and stable period (2006-2015). The change is consistent with the change of meteorological factors in the Nam-Co Basin. The increase of glacier melt water and precipitation in the basin is considered to be the cause of the overall trend of water level.

  7. WATER LEVEL CHANGES OF NAM-CO LAKE BASED ON SATELLITE ALTIMETRY DATA SERIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. J. Wu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Nam-Co Lake is the largest saltwater lake in Tibet and less influenced by human activity. In order to study the change of water level of Nam-Co Lake over the past decades and the impacts of climate change on the region, this paper combined height measurements of ERS-1, ERS-2, ENVISAT, ICESat-2 and CryoSat-2. We found that the water level of Nam Co Lake experienced three periods of change, namely, slightly decreasing period (1992–1993, significantly increasing period (1995–2005, and stable period (2006–2015. The change is consistent with the change of meteorological factors in the Nam-Co Basin. The increase of glacier melt water and precipitation in the basin is considered to be the cause of the overall trend of water level.

  8. Is the water level during dry season in Poyang Lake really lower than before?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaolong; Yu, Meixiu; Shi, Yong; Luan, Zhenyu; Fu, Dafang

    2017-04-01

    The Poyang Lake, the largest freshwater lake in China, has attracted world widely attentions in recent years due to it being dammed or not at the Lake's outlet. It was reported that the Poyang Lake water levels have been declining significantly in dry seasons, which resulted in severe water supply, irrigation and ecological flow requirement problems. The purpose of the study was to answer the question that the water level of the Poyang Lake during dry season is really lower than before or not. Based on topographical data, and long-term hydrological and meteorological data from 1950 to 2016, the relationship between the Poyang Lake and the Yangtze River before and after the completion of the Three Gorges Dam, the relationship between the Poyang Lake and its Five major tributaries (Ganjiang River, Fuhe River, Xinjiang River, Raohe River and Xiushui River), and as well as sand mining contributions to the water level in dry seasons of the Poyang Lake were investigated respectively.

  9. Combined effects of projected sea level rise, storm surge, and peak river flows on water levels in the Skagit Floodplain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamman, Josheph J; Hamlet, Alan F.; Fuller, Roger; Grossman, Eric E.

    2016-01-01

    Current understanding of the combined effects of sea level rise (SLR), storm surge, and changes in river flooding on near-coastal environments is very limited. This project uses a suite of numerical models to examine the combined effects of projected future climate change on flooding in the Skagit floodplain and estuary. Statistically and dynamically downscaled global climate model scenarios from the ECHAM-5 GCM were used as the climate forcings. Unregulated daily river flows were simulated using the VIC hydrology model, and regulated river flows were simulated using the SkagitSim reservoir operations model. Daily tidal anomalies (TA) were calculated using a regression approach based on ENSO and atmospheric pressure forcing simulated by the WRF regional climate model. A 2-D hydrodynamic model was used to estimate water surface elevations in the Skagit floodplain using resampled hourly hydrographs keyed to regulated daily flood flows produced by the reservoir simulation model, and tide predictions adjusted for SLR and TA. Combining peak annual TA with projected sea level rise, the historical (1970–1999) 100-yr peak high water level is exceeded essentially every year by the 2050s. The combination of projected sea level rise and larger floods by the 2080s yields both increased flood inundation area (+ 74%), and increased average water depth (+ 25 cm) in the Skagit floodplain during a 100-year flood. Adding sea level rise to the historical FEMA 100-year flood resulted in a 35% increase in inundation area by the 2040's, compared to a 57% increase when both SLR and projected changes in river flow were combined.

  10. Soil water storage and groundwater behaviour in a catenary sequence beneath forest in central Amazonia: I. Comparisons between plateau, slope and valley floor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Hodnett

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil water storage was monitored in three landscape elements in the forest (plateau, slope and valley floor over a 3 year period to identify differences in sub-surface hydrological response. Under the plateau and slope, the changes of storage were very similar and there was no indication of surface runoff on the slope. The mean maximum seasonal storage change was 156 mm in the 2 m profile but it was clear that, in the dry season, the forest was able to take up water from below 3.6 m. Soil water availability was low. Soil water storage changes in the valley were dominated by the behaviour of a shallow water table which, in normal years, varied between 0.1 m below the surface at the end of the wet season and 0.8 m at the end of the dry season. Soil water storage changes were small because root uptake was largely replenished by groundwater flow towards the stream. The groundwater behaviour is controlled mainly by the deep drainage from beneath the plateau and slope areas. The groundwater gradient beneath the slope indicated that recharge beneath the plateau and slope commences only after the soil water deficits from the previous dry season have been replenished. Following a wet season with little recharge, the water table fell, ceasing to influence the valley soil water storage, and the stream dried up. The plateau and slope, a zone of very high porosity between 0.4 and 1.1 m, underlain by a less conductive layer, is a probable route for interflow during, and for a few hours after, heavy and prolonged rainfall.

  11. Water level changes for Lake Turkana and climate variability during the African Humid Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloszies, C.; Forman, S. L.; Wright, D. K.

    2013-12-01

    The chronology of East African paleoclimate suggests the transition through the African Humid Period (AHP) at ca. 15 to 5 ka was a binary shift from wet conditions in the Late Pleistocene to current aridity. Previous studies indicate that water levels for Lake Turkana for the AHP were stable at ~88 to 98 m above current level with outflow into the White Nile Basin. This study of relict beaches around Lake Turkana indicates surprisingly >50 m variability in water level between 14 and 4 ka. The elevation of past water level is constrained by barometric and GPS-based altimetry of relict beaches and age control by 14C dating of associated mollusks and OSL dating of quartz grains from surrounding littoral and sublittoral deposits. We also include well provenanced lake level data from prior studies to constrain more fully the timing and height of water level fluctuations in the Late Quaternary. Additionally, previous studies indicate that peak water levels may be regionally amplified by increased precipitation causing overflow into the Lake Turkana Basin from the adjacent Suguta and Chew Bahir basins, particularly during high stands at ca. >8.5 ka and at 6.3 ka. Our analysis of the Lake Turkana strandplain reveals that water level may have varied by × 60 m, potentially reaching the outlet elevation at ca.11.3, 10.3, 9.0, 6.3 and 5.1 ka. There are other possible high stands at ca. 13.0, 8.4, 7.8 and 7.0 ka with limited elevational and age constraints; it is unknown if these lake stands reached the outlet elevation. Evidence from relict strand plains indicate that lake level was probably below 20 m since ca. 4.5 ka, though there were two noticeable high stands up to >12 to 18 m at ca. 830 years ago and lake levels. Inferences on the source of moisture to sustain these many high stands are based on the isotopic data on leaf wax (δDwax) from lakes Tanganika and Victoria and associated sea surface temperature (SST) records from the Indian and the Atlantic oceans. A brief

  12. Assessment of impacts from water level fluctuations on fish in the Hanford Reach, Columbia River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, C.D.; Fickeisen, D.H.; Montgomery, J.C.

    1981-05-01

    Observations on the effects of water level fluctuations in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, Washington, were made in 1976 and 1977. The two years provided contrasting flow regimes: high water and fluctuations of greater magnitude prevailed in 1976; low water and higher temperatures prevailed in 1977. Situations where fish and other aquatic organisms were destroyed by changing water levels were observed and evaluated each year in three study areas: Hanford, F-Area, and White Bluffs sloughs. Losses primarily were due to stranding, entrapment (with or without complete dewatering), and predation. Juvenile fish were more susceptible to entrapment and stranding than were adult fish. Estimates of actual losses were biased and conservative because relatively few fish could be found after each decline of water level and dewatering. The most valued species of fish affected by water level fluctuations at Hanford were the anadromus fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and the resident smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui). Crucial periods for chinook salmon occurred during winter when incubating eggs were in the gravel of the main channel, and before and during seaward migration in the spring when fry were abundant in shoreline zones. The crucial period for smallmouth bass was during spring and early summer when adults were spawning in warmed sloughs and shoreline zones. Chinook salmon and smallmouth bass fry were vulnerable to stranding and entrapment, and smallmouth bass nests were susceptible to exposure and temperature changes resulting from repeated water level fluctuations. Thus, flow manipulation may be crucial to their survival. The extent to which other species of riverine fish were affected by water level fluctuations depended upon their use of shoreline zones for spawning and rearing young.

  13. Combining urbanization and hydrodynamics data to evaluate sea level rise impacts on coastal water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, C. R.; Martin, J. B.

    2016-02-01

    Assessments of the potential for salt water intrusion due to sea level rise require consideration of both coastal hydrodynamic and human activity thresholds. In siliciclastic systems, sea level rise may cause salt intrusion to coastal aquifers at annual or decadal scales, whereas in karst systems salt intrudes at the tidal scalse. In both cases, human activity impacts the freshwater portion of the system by altering the water demand on the aquifer. We combine physicochemical and human activity data to evaluate impact of sea level rise on salt intrusion to siliclastic (Indian River Lagoon, Fl, USA) and karst (Puerto Morelos, Yucatan, Mexico) systems under different sea level rise rate scenarios. Two hydrodynamic modeling scenarios are considered; flux controlled and head controlled. Under a flux controlled system hydraulic head gradients remain constant during sea level rise while under a head controlled system hydraulic graidents diminish, allowing saltwater intrusion. Our model contains three key terms; aquifer recharge, groundwater discharge and hydraulic conductivity. Groundwater discharge and hydraulic conductivity were calculated based on high frequency (karst system) and decadal (siliciclastic system) field measurements. Aquifer recharge is defined as precipitation less evapotranspiration and water demand was evaluated based on urban planning data that provided the regional water demand. Water demand includes agricultural area, toursim, traffic patterns, garbage collection and total population. Water demand was initially estimated using a partial leaset squares regression based on these variables. Our model indicates that water demand depends most on agricultural area, which has changed significantly over the last 30 years. In both systems, additional water demand creates a head controlled scenario, thus increaseing the protential fo salt intrusion with projected sea level rise.

  14. Numerical study on the influence of entrapped air bubbles on the time-dependent pore pressure distribution in soils due to external changes in water level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ausweger Georg M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In practical geotechnical engineering soils below the groundwater table are usually regarded as a two-phase medium, consisting of solids and water. The pore water is assumed to be incompressible. However, under certain conditions soils below the groundwater table may exhibit a liquid phase consisting of water and air. The air occurs in form of entrapped air bubbles and dissolved air. Such conditions are named quasi-saturated and the assumption of incompressibility is no longer justified. In addition the entrapped air bubbles influence the hydraulic conductivity of soils. These effects are usually neglected in standard problems of geotechnical engineering. However, sometimes it is required to include the pore fluid compressibility when modelling the hydraulic behaviour of soils in order to be able to explain certain phenomena observed in the field. This is for example true for fast fluctuating water levels in reservoirs. In order to study these phenomena, numerical investigations on the influence of the pore fluid compressibility on the pore water pressure changes in a soil layer beneath a reservoir with fast fluctuating water levels were performed. Preliminary results of this study are presented and it could be shown that numerical analysis and field data are in good agreement.

  15. Determination of the level of some heavy metals in water collected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In view of this, levels of some heavy metals, Zn, Pb, Cr, Cu, Ni, Co, Ag, Fe and Mn were determined in water samples collected from two pollution prone areas around Kano (Sharada and Bompai industrial estates) and control site (Thomas Dam, Dambatta). The levels of the heavy metals were determined by Atomic ...

  16. Wax and wane of eelgrass Zostera marina and water column silicon levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herman, P.M.J.; Hemminga, M.A.; Nienhuis, P.H.; Verschuure, J.M.; Wessel, E.G.J.

    1996-01-01

    Long-term observations in an enclosed estuarine branch in The Netherlands showed a remarkably strong correlation between water column levels of dissolved silicon (DSi) and standing stock of eelgrass Zostera marina. Si levels in the leaves of Z. marina varied between 0.02 and 0.66% of tissue dry

  17. Early Water Stress Detection Using Leaf-Level Measurements of Chlorophyll Fluorescence and Temperature Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuoya Ni

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to investigate the early water stress in maize using leaf-level measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence and temperature. In this study, a series of diurnal measurements, such as leaf chlorophyll fluorescence (Fs, leaf spectrum, temperature and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, were conducted for maize during gradient watering and filled watering experiments. Fraunhofer Line Discriminator methods (FLD and 3FLD were used to obtain fluorescence from leaves spectrum. This simulated work using the SCOPE model demonstrated the variations in fluorescence and temperature in stress levels expressed by different stress factors. In the field measurement, the gradient experiment revealed that chlorophyll fluorescence decreased for plants with water stress relative to well-water plants and Tleaf-Tair increased; the filled watering experiment stated that chlorophyll fluorescence of maize under water stress were similar to those of maize under well-watering condition. In addition, the relationships between the Fs, retrieved fluorescence, Tleaf-Tair and water content were analyzed. The Fs determination resulted to the best coefficients of determination for the normalized retrieved fluorescence FLD/PAR (R2 = 0.54, Tleaf-Tair (R2 = 0.48 and water content (R2 = 0.71. The normalized retrieved fluorescence yielded a good coefficient of determination for Tleaf-Tair (R2 = 0.48. This study demonstrated that chlorophyll fluorescence could reflect variations in the physiological states of plants during early water stress, and leaf temperature confirmed the chlorophyll fluorescence analysis results and improved the accuracy of the water stress detection.

  18. Characterising Bedrock Aquifer Systems in Korea Using Paired Water-Level Monitoring Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Min Lee

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on characterising aquifer systems based on water-level changes observed systematically at 159 paired groundwater monitoring wells throughout Korea. Using spectral analysis, principal component analysis (PCA, and cross-correlation analysis with linear regression, aquifer conditions were identified from the comparison of water-level changes in shallow alluvial and deep bedrock monitoring wells. The spectral analysis could identify the aquifer conditions (i.e., unconfined, semi-confined and confined of 58.5% of bedrock wells and 42.8% of alluvial wells: 93 and 68 wells out of 159 wells, respectively. Even among the bedrock wells, 50 wells (53.7% exhibited characteristics of the unconfined condition, implying significant vulnerability of the aquifer to contaminants from the land surface and shallow depths. It appears to be better approach for deep bedrock aquifers than shallow alluvial aquifers. However, significant portions of the water-level changes remained unclear for categorising aquifer conditions due to disturbances in data continuity. For different aquifer conditions, PCA could show typical pattern and factor scores of principal components. Principal component 1 due to wet-and-dry seasonal changes and water-level response time was dominant covering about 55% of total variances of each aquifer conditions, implying the usefulness of supplementary method of aquifer characterisation. Cross-correlation and time-lag analysis in the water-level responses to precipitations clearly show how the water levels in shallow and deep wells correspond in time scale. No significant differences in time-lags was found between shallow and deep wells. However, clear time-lags were found to be increasing from unconfined to confined conditions: from 1.47 to 2.75 days and from 1.78 to 2.75 days for both shallow alluvial and deep bedrock wells, respectively. In combination of various statistical methods, three types of water-level fluctuation

  19. Monitoring water levels in the Pantanal floodplain using satellite altimetry data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frappart, F.; Cazenave, A.; Mechoso, C.; Seyler, F.; Sassier, H.; Phalippou, L.

    2003-04-01

    Satellite altimetry was developed and optimised for studying sea level variations over open oceans. Its use for monitoring level variations of inland waters such as lakes, rivers and floodplains have demonstrated great potentialities yet. In this study we focus our attention on the Pantanal floodplain (La Plata basin). Our goal is to identify possible signatures of climate variability on water levels. First, time series of the Pantanal floodplain water levels are derived from altimeter data of the Topex/Poseidon satellite over the period 1993-2002 for different sites. The data used are the 10 Hz, which corresponds to along-track ground spacing of 580 meters. Second, we analyse both spatial and temporal variability in water levels by applying an Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis for the selected sites after removal of the average seasonal cycle. The water level time series over the Pantanal floodplain are further compared to results obtained earlier with Topex/Poseidon altimetry over the Parana, Paraguay and Uruguay rivers. These satellite-derived observations are interpreted in terms of hydrologic and climate variability over the La Plata basin.

  20. Behaviour of Water Droplets Under the Influence of a Uniform Electric Field in Nanocomposite Samples of Epoxy Resin/TiO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Α. Bairaktari

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper nanocomposite samples of epoxy resin and TiO2 nanoparticles were investigated with water droplets on their surface. A uniform electric field was applied and the behaviour of the water droplets was observed. Parameters that were studied were the water conductivity, the droplet volume, the number of droplets and the droplet positioning with respect to (w.r.t. the electrodes. All above mentioned parameters influence the flashover voltage of the samples. It is to be noted that – at least in some cases – the water droplet positioning w.r.t. the electrodes was more important in determining the flashover voltage than the droplet volume.

  1. The ecological effects of water level fluctuation and phosphate enrichment in mesotrophic peatlands are strongly mediated by soil chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mettrop, I.S.; Rutte, M.D.; Kooijman, A.M.; Lamers, L.P.M.

    2015-01-01

    Since the re-establishment of a more natural water regime is considered by water management in wetlands with artificially stable water levels, the biogeochemical and ecological effects of water level fluctuation with different nutrient loads should be investigated. This is particularly important for

  2. Four phases of the Flint Water Crisis: Evidence from blood lead levels in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahran, Sammy; McElmurry, Shawn P; Sadler, Richard C

    2017-08-01

    The Flint Water Crisis (FWC) is divisible into four phases of child water-lead exposure risk: Phase A) before the switch in water source to the Flint River (our baseline); Phase B) after the switch in water source, but before boil water advisories; Phase C) after boil water advisories, but before the switch back to the baseline water source of the Detroit Water and Sewerage Department (DWSD); and Phase D) after the switch back to DWSD. The objective of this work is to estimate water-lead attributable movements in child blood lead levels (BLLs) that correspond with the four phases in the FWC. With over 21,000 geo-referenced and time-stamped blood lead samples from children in Genesee County drawn from January 01, 2013 to July 19, 2016, we develop a series of quasi-experimental models to identify the causal effect of water-lead exposure on child BLLs in Flint. We find that the switch in water source (transitioning from phase A to B) caused mean BLLs to increase by about 0.5μg/dL, and increased the likelihood of a child presenting with a BLL ≥ 5μg/dL by a factor of 1.91-3.50, implying an additional 561 children exceeding 5μg/dL. We conservatively estimate cohort social costs (through lost earnings alone) of this increase in water-lead exposed children at $65 million, contrasted with expected annual savings of $2 million from switching water source. On the switch from Phase B to C, we find BLLs decreased about 50% from their initial rise following boil water advisories and subsequent water avoidance behaviors by households. Finally, the return to the baseline source water (Phase D) returned child BLLs to pre-FWC levels further implicating water-lead exposure as a causal source of child BLLs throughout the FWC. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [Weight misperception and physical fitness perception in relation to the physical activity level, dietary behaviour and psychosocial well-being].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Prieto, Inmaculada; Carbonero-Carreño, Rocío; Jáuregui-Lobera, Ignacio

    2014-09-28

    Most of the studies on weight misperception have been carried out in the US where it has been estimated that 20-40% of overweight or obese people underestimate their weight status. The perception of the physical fitness is a little studied variable but suggested as relevant in the adoption of healthy behaviours. The aims were to analyze weight misperception and physical fitness perception in adolescents, evaluating the relationship between weight misperception and physical fitness perception and body weight management behaviours (diet and exercise) as well as to analyze the relationship between weight misperception and psychosocial well-being. A total of 655 students participated voluntarily in the study during which they completed a series of questionnaires. Weight and height of all participants were collected. Many young people misperceived their weight and its physical fitness. The majority of participants who were overweight or obese did not go on diet to manage their body weight. Those who overestimated their weight had the worst psycho-emotional state. The work is novel in Spain, it follows the methodology carried out in international studies on the same topic and the results are similar to those obtained in other populations. Weight misperception and physical fitness perception influence the adoption of healthy body weight management behaviors and is related to psychosocial well- being of young people. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  4. Low-level arsenic exposure from drinking water is associated with prostate cancer in Iowa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Taehyun; Lynch, Charles F; Weyer, Peter; Wang, Kai; Kelly, Kevin M; Ludewig, Gabriele

    2017-11-01

    Inorganic arsenic is a toxic naturally occurring element in soil and water in many regions of the US including the Midwest. Prostate cancer is the second most common type of cancer in men in Iowa, surpassed only by non-melanotic skin cancer. Epidemiology studies have evaluated arsenic exposure from drinking water and prostate cancer, but most have focused on high-level exposures outside the US. As drinking water from groundwater sources is a major source of arsenic exposure, we conducted an ecologic study to evaluate prostate cancer and arsenic in drinking water from public water sources and private wells in Iowa, where exposure levels are low, but duration of exposure can be long. Arsenic data from public water systems were obtained from the Iowa Safe Drinking Water Information System for the years 1994-2003 and for private wells from two Iowa Well Water Studies, the Iowa Community Private Well Study (ICPWS, 2002-2003) and Iowa Statewide Rural Well Water Survey Phase 2 (SWIRL2, 2006-2008) that provided data for 87 Iowa counties. Prostate cancer incidence data from 2009 to 2013 for Iowa were obtained from Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results' SEER*Stat software. County averages of water arsenic levels varied from 1.08 to 18.6 ppb, with three counties above the current 10 ppb limit. Based on the tertiles of arsenic levels, counties were divided into three groups: low (1.08-2.06 ppb), medium (2.07-2.98 ppb), and high (2.99-18.6 ppb). Spatial Poisson regression modeling was conducted to estimate the risk ratios (RR) of prostate cancer by tertiles of arsenic level at a county level, adjusted for demographic and risk factors. The RR of prostate cancer were 1.23 (95% CI, 1.16-1.30) and 1.28 (95% CI, 1.21-1.35) in the medium and high groups, respectively, compared to the low group after adjusting for risk factors. The RR increased to 1.36 (95% CI, 1.28-1.45) in the high group when analyses were restricted to aggressive prostate cancers (Gleason score ≥ 7). This

  5. Association of Down's syndrome and water fluoride level: a systematic review of the evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McDonagh Marian

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A review of the safety and efficacy of drinking water fluoridation was commissioned by the UK Department of Health to investigate whether the evidence supported a beneficial effect of water fluoridation and whether there was any evidence of adverse effects. Down's syndrome was one of the adverse effects reported. The aim of this review is to examine the evidence for an association between water fluoride level and Down's syndrome. Methods A systematic review of research. Studies were identified through a comprehensive literature search, scanning citations and online requests for papers. Studies in all languages which investigated the incidence of Down's syndrome in areas with different levels of fluoride in their water supplies were included. Study inclusion and quality was assessed independently by 2 reviewers. A qualitative analysis was conducted. Results Six studies were included. All were ecological in design and scored poorly on the validity assessment. The estimates of the crude relative risk ranged from 0.84 to 3.0. Four studies showed no significant associations between the incidence of Down's syndrome and water fluoride level and two studies by the same author found a significant (p Conclusions The evidence of an association between water fluoride level and Down's syndrome incidence is inconclusive.

  6. Mechanical analyses on the digital behaviour of the Tokay gecko (Gekko gecko) based on a multi-level directional adhesion model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xuan; Wang, Xiaojie; Mei, Tao; Sun, Shaoming

    2015-07-08

    This paper proposes a multi-level hierarchical model for the Tokay gecko (Gekko gecko) adhesive system and analyses the digital behaviour of the G. gecko under macro/meso-level scale. The model describes the structures of G. gecko's adhesive system from the nano-level spatulae to the sub-millimetre-level lamella. The G. gecko's seta is modelled using inextensible fibril based on Euler's elastica theorem. Considering the side contact of the spatular pads of the seta on the flat and rigid substrate, the directional adhesion behaviour of the seta has been investigated. The lamella-induced attachment and detachment have been modelled to simulate the active digital hyperextension (DH) and the digital gripping (DG) phenomena. The results suggest that a tiny angular displacement within 0.25° of the lamellar proximal end is necessary in which a fast transition from attachment to detachment or vice versa is induced. The active DH helps release the torque to induce setal non-sliding detachment, while the DG helps apply torque to make the setal adhesion stable. The lamella plays a key role in saving energy during detachment to adapt to its habitat and provides another adhesive function which differs from the friction-dependent setal adhesion system controlled by the dynamic of G. gecko's body.

  7. Low-level arsenic in drinking water and risk of incident myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monrad, Maria; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Sørensen, Mette

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have shown that intake of drinking water with high levels of arsenic (>100μg/L) is associated with risk for cardiovascular diseases, but studies on lower levels of arsenic show inconsistent results. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the relati......BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have shown that intake of drinking water with high levels of arsenic (>100μg/L) is associated with risk for cardiovascular diseases, but studies on lower levels of arsenic show inconsistent results. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate...... the relationship between exposure to low level arsenic in drinking water and risk of myocardial infarction in Denmark. METHODS: From the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort of 57,053 people aged 50-64 years at enrolment in 1993-1997, we identified 2707 cases of incident myocardial infarction from enrolment...... 1973 to 2012 was estimated for all cohort members. Poisson regression was used to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRRs) for myocardial infarction after adjustment for lifestyle factors and educational level. RESULTS: Arsenic levels in drinking water at baseline addresses ranged from 0.03 to 25.34μg...

  8. Low-level arsenic exposure via drinking water consumption and female fecundity - A preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susko, Michele L; Bloom, Michael S; Neamtiu, Iulia A; Appleton, Allison A; Surdu, Simona; Pop, Cristian; Fitzgerald, Edward F; Anastasiu, Doru; Gurzau, Eugen S

    2017-04-01

    High level arsenic exposure is associated with reproductive toxicity in experimental and observational studies; however, few data exist to assess risks at low levels. Even less data are available to evaluate the impact of low level arsenic exposure on human fecundity. Our aim in this pilot study was a preliminary evaluation of associations between low level drinking water arsenic contamination and female fecundity. This retrospective study was conducted among women previously recruited to a hospital-based case-control study of spontaneous pregnancy loss in Timiṣ County, Romania. Women (n=94) with planned pregnancies of 5-20 weeks gestation completed a comprehensive physician-administered study questionnaire and reported the number of menstrual cycles attempting to conceive as the time to pregnancy (TTP). Drinking water samples were collected from residential drinking water sources and we determined arsenic levels using hydride generation-atomic absorption spectrometry (HG-AAS). Multivariable Cox-proportional hazards regression with Efron approximation was employed to evaluate TTP as a function of drinking water arsenic concentrations among planned pregnancies, adjusted for covariates. There was no main effect for drinking water arsenic exposure, yet the conditional probability for pregnancy was modestly lower among arsenic exposed women with longer TTPs, relative to women with shorter TTPs, and relative to unexposed women. For example, 1µg/L average drinking water arsenic conferred 5%, 8%, and 10% lower likelihoods for pregnancy in the 6th, 9th, and 12th cycles, respectively (P=0.01). While preliminary, our results suggest that low level arsenic contamination in residential drinking water sources may further impair fecundity among women with longer waiting times; however, this hypothesis requires confirmation by a future, more definitive study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. How Trace Element Levels of Public Drinking Water Affect Body Composition in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Ihsan; Nalbantcilar, Mahmut Tahir; Tosun, Kezban; Nazik, Aydan

    2017-02-01

    Since waterborne minerals appear in ionic form and are readily absorbed by the gastrointestinal tract, drinking water could be a crucial source of mineral intake. However, no comprehensive research has yet determined how trace elements in drinking water relate to body composition. We aimed to assess the relationship between clinically important trace elements in public drinking water and body composition in average, overweight and obese individuals in Turkey. The study's population consisted of 423 participants: 143 overweight, 138 obese and 142 healthy control individuals, grouped according to clinical cutoff points of body mass index (BMI). We measured levels of lithium (Li), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), silicon (Si), tin (Sn), strontium (Sr), boron (B), aluminium (Al), barium (Ba) and rubidium (Rb) in samples from wells of municipal water by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. We gauged all the participants' body composition measurements with a BC-418 body composition analyser. In all the participants, body weight values showed significant positive correlations with Ni levels in drinking water, as did BMI values with Al levels and percentage of obesity with Ni, Si and B levels. In particular, Ni levels showed significant positive correlations with the basal metabolic rate, activity calories, and total activity of participants. Giving findings showing correlations between obesity-related parameters and Al, Si, B and Ni content in drinking water, we hope that these associations will be clarified with further studies including cellular, experimental and clinical studies. Hence, medical practitioners must be aware of trace element levels in drinking water for overweight and obese patients.

  10. Does drinking water influence hospital-admitted sialolithiasis on an epidemiological level in Denmark?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrøder, Stine; Homøe, Preben; Wagner, Niels; Vataire, Anne-Lise; Lundager Madsen, Hans Erik; Bardow, Allan

    2015-05-03

    Sialolithiasis, or salivary stones, is not a rare disease of the major salivary glands. However, the aetiology and incidence remain largely unknown. Since sialoliths are comprised mainly of calcium phosphate salts, we hypothesise that drinking water calcium levels and other elements in drinking water could play a role in sialolithiasis. Owing to substantial intermunicipality differences in drinking water composition, Denmark constitutes a unique environment for testing such relations. An epidemiological study based on patient data extracted from the National Patient Registry and drinking water data from the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland retrieved as weighted data on all major drinking water constituents for each of the 3364 waterworks in Denmark. All patient cases with International Statistical Classification of Diseases 10th Revision (ICD-10) codes for sialolithiasis registered between the years 2000 and 2010 were included in the study (n=3014) and related to the drinking water composition on a municipality level (n=98). Multiple regression analysis using iterative search and testing among all demographic and drinking water variables with sialolithiasis incidence as the outcome in search of possible relations among the variables tested. The nationwide incidence of hospital-admitted sialolithiasis was 5.5 cases per 100,000 citizens per year in Denmark. Strong relations were found between the incidence of sialolithiasis and the drinking water concentration of calcium, magnesium and hydrogen carbonate, however, in separate models (p<0.001). Analyses also confirmed correlations between drinking water calcium and magnesium and their concentration in saliva whereas this was not the case for hydrogen carbonate. Differences in drinking water calcium and magnesium may play a role in the incidence of sialolithiasis. These findings are of interest because many countries have started large-scale desalination programmes of drinking water. Published by the BMJ

  11. THE EFFECT OF RESERVOIR WATER LEVEL FLUCTUATION TO THE SEEPAGE ON EARTH DAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sudardja

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The modeling of earth dam was carried out in a drainage and seepage tank to analyze the seepage resulting from water level fluctuation in the upstream of the dam. The dam models were made of the mixture of Mt. Merapi sand deposit with the soil of sandy-silt from Wonosari area. The variations of sand content in the mixture were 100%; 90% and 80% and the upstream slope inclinations were 1:1; 1:1.5 and 1:2. The result showed that the dams with more sandy-silt in the mixture have smaller seepage and the dams with steeper upstream slope have greater seepage. During rapid rising of water level, the dams with steeper upstream slope have a high rising rate of upstream water level and higher height of downstream slope failure. Moreover, during rapid drawdown, the dams with gentler upstream slope have a smaller rate of upstream drawdown and lower height of upstream slope failure. The dams with more sandy-silt in the mixture have a higher value of rising rate and drawdown of upstream water level but lower height of downstream and upstream slope failure. In the dam management, continuous monitoring of the seepage resulting from reservoir water level fluctuation is required to avoid dam failure. Keywords: Earth dam, rapid rising, rapid drawdown, seepage, slope failure.

  12. The combined effect of water status and crop level on Tempranillo wine volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaverano, Inmaculada; Valdés, Esperanza; Moreno, Daniel; Gamero, Esther; Mancha, Luis; Vilanova, Mar

    2017-03-01

    The effect of water status and crop level on the volatile composition of Tempranillo wine was investigated over two growing seasons (2010-2011) in Extremadura (Spain). Three water status treatments (T0, Rainfed control; T1, Early regulated deficit irrigation; T2, Late regulated deficit irrigation) were combined with two crop levels treatments (TH, cluster thinning; C, control). Crop level treatment had a higher effect on individual volatiles analyzed in Tempranillo wine than water status. The combinations of water status and crop level treatments showed effects on all families of compounds with the exception of acetates and volatile fatty acids. Alcohols, C6 compounds and phenol volatiles produced the highest concentrations at the lower level of available water and when cluster thinning was applied (T0-TH). However, ethyl ester and lactones showed higher concentrations in regulated deficit irrigation (T1 and T2) and when cluster thinning was not applied. The combined effect of rainfed and cluster-thinning treatments (T0-TH) increased the majority of individual aromatic compounds quantified in Tempranillo wines and also showed the highest total odor activity value. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Hydration level is an internal variable for computing motivation to obtain water rewards in monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamimoto, Takafumi; Yamada, Hiroshi; Hori, Yukiko; Suhara, Tetsuya

    2012-05-01

    In the process of motivation to engage in a behavior, valuation of the expected outcome is comprised of not only external variables (i.e., incentives) but also internal variables (i.e., drive). However, the exact neural mechanism that integrates these variables for the computation of motivational value remains unclear. Besides, the signal of physiological needs, which serves as the primary internal variable for this computation, remains to be identified. Concerning fluid rewards, the osmolality level, one of the physiological indices for the level of thirst, may be an internal variable for valuation, since an increase in the osmolality level induces drinking behavior. Here, to examine the relationship between osmolality and the motivational value of a water reward, we repeatedly measured the blood osmolality level, while 2 monkeys continuously performed an instrumental task until they spontaneously stopped. We found that, as the total amount of water earned increased, the osmolality level progressively decreased (i.e., the hydration level increased) in an individual-dependent manner. There was a significant negative correlation between the error rate of the task (the proportion of trials with low motivation) and the osmolality level. We also found that the increase in the error rate with reward accumulation can be well explained by a formula describing the changes in the osmolality level. These results provide a biologically supported computational formula for the motivational value of a water reward that depends on the hydration level, enabling us to identify the neural mechanism that integrates internal and external variables.

  14. Water stress, CO2 and photoperiod influence hormone levels in wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Rubin; Carman, John G.; Salisbury, Frank B.; Campbell, W. F. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    'Super Dwarf' wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plants have been grown from seed to maturity in the Mir space station where they were periodically exposed, because of microgravity and other constraints, to water deficit, waterlogging, high CO2 levels, and low light intensities. The plants produced many tillers, but none of them produced viable seed. Studies have been initiated to determine why the plants responded in these ways. In the present study, effects of the listed stresses on abscisic acid (ABA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and isopentenyl adenosine ([9R]iP) levels in roots and leaves of plants grown under otherwise near optimal conditions on earth were measured. Hormones were extracted, purified by HPLC, and quantified by noncompetitive indirect ELISA. In response to water deficit, ABA levels increased in roots and leaves, IAA levels decreased in roots and leaves, and [9R]iP levels increased in leaves but decreased in roots. In response to waterlogging, ABA, IAA and [9R]iP levels briefly increased in roots and leaves and then decreased. When portions of the root system were exposed to waterlogging and/or water deficit, ABA levels in leaves increased while [9R]iP and IAA levels decreased. These responses were correlated with the percentage of the root system stressed. At a low photosynthetic photon flux (100 micromoles m-2 s-1), plants grown in continuous light had higher leaf ABA levels than plants grown using an 18 or 21 h photoperiod.

  15. A hydro-economic model for water level fluctuations: combining limnology with economics for sustainable development of hydropower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Philipp Emanuel; Schillinger, Sebastian; Weigt, Hannes; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Water level fluctuations in lakes lead to shoreline displacement. The seasonality of flooding or beaching of the littoral area affects nutrient cycling, redox gradients in sediments, and life cycles of aquatic organisms. Despite the ecological importance of water level fluctuations, we still lack a method that assesses water levels in the context of hydropower operations. Water levels in reservoirs are influenced by the operator of a hydropower plant, who discharges water through the turbines or stores water in the reservoir, in a fashion that maximizes profit. This rationale governs the seasonal operation scheme and hence determines the water levels within the boundaries of the reservoir's water balance. For progress towards a sustainable development of hydropower, the benefits of this form of electricity generation have to be weighed against the possible detrimental effects of the anthropogenic water level fluctuations. We developed a hydro-economic model that combines an economic optimization function with hydrological estimators of the water balance of a reservoir. Applying this model allowed us to accurately predict water level fluctuations in a reservoir. The hydro-economic model also allowed for scenario calculation of how water levels change with climate change scenarios and with a change in operating scheme of the reservoir (increase in turbine capacity). Further model development will enable the consideration of a variety of additional parameters, such as water withdrawal for irrigation, drinking water supply, or altered energy policies. This advances our ability to sustainably manage water resources that must meet both economic and environmental demands.

  16. A Hydro-Economic Model for Water Level Fluctuations: Combining Limnology with Economics for Sustainable Development of Hydropower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Philipp Emanuel; Schillinger, Sebastian; Weigt, Hannes; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Water level fluctuations in lakes lead to shoreline displacement. The seasonality of flooding or beaching of the littoral area affects nutrient cycling, redox gradients in sediments, and life cycles of aquatic organisms. Despite the ecological importance of water level fluctuations, we still lack a method that assesses water levels in the context of hydropower operations. Water levels in reservoirs are influenced by the operator of a hydropower plant, who discharges water through the turbines or stores water in the reservoir, in a fashion that maximizes profit. This rationale governs the seasonal operation scheme and hence determines the water levels within the boundaries of the reservoir's water balance. For progress towards a sustainable development of hydropower, the benefits of this form of electricity generation have to be weighed against the possible detrimental effects of the anthropogenic water level fluctuations. We developed a hydro-economic model that combines an economic optimization function with hydrological estimators of the water balance of a reservoir. Applying this model allowed us to accurately predict water level fluctuations in a reservoir. The hydro-economic model also allowed for scenario calculation of how water levels change with climate change scenarios and with a change in operating scheme of the reservoir (increase in turbine capacity). Further model development will enable the consideration of a variety of additional parameters, such as water withdrawal for irrigation, drinking water supply, or altered energy policies. This advances our ability to sustainably manage water resources that must meet both economic and environmental demands. PMID:25526619

  17. A hydro-economic model for water level fluctuations: combining limnology with economics for sustainable development of hydropower.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Emanuel Hirsch

    Full Text Available Water level fluctuations in lakes lead to shoreline displacement. The seasonality of flooding or beaching of the littoral area affects nutrient cycling, redox gradients in sediments, and life cycles of aquatic organisms. Despite the ecological importance of water level fluctuations, we still lack a method that assesses water levels in the context of hydropower operations. Water levels in reservoirs are influenced by the operator of a hydropower plant, who discharges water through the turbines or stores water in the reservoir, in a fashion that maximizes profit. This rationale governs the seasonal operation scheme and hence determines the water levels within the boundaries of the reservoir's water balance. For progress towards a sustainable development of hydropower, the benefits of this form of electricity generation have to be weighed against the possible detrimental effects of the anthropogenic water level fluctuations. We developed a hydro-economic model that combines an economic optimization function with hydrological estimators of the water balance of a reservoir. Applying this model allowed us to accurately predict water level fluctuations in a reservoir. The hydro-economic model also allowed for scenario calculation of how water levels change with climate change scenarios and with a change in operating scheme of the reservoir (increase in turbine capacity. Further model development will enable the consideration of a variety of additional parameters, such as water withdrawal for irrigation, drinking water supply, or altered energy policies. This advances our ability to sustainably manage water resources that must meet both economic and environmental demands.

  18. Non-renewable water use on the globe and its implication to sea level change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oki, T.; Pokhrel, Y. N.; Hanasaki, N.; Koirala, S.; Kanae, S.

    2012-12-01

    The real hydrological cycles on the Earth are not natural anymore. Global hydrological model simulations of the water cycle and available water resources should have an ability to consider the effects of human interventions on hydrological cycles. Anthropogenic activity modules, such as reservoir operation, crop growth and water demand in croplands, and environmental flows, were incorporated into a land surface model to form a new model, MAT-HI. Total terrestrial water storages (TWS) in large river basins were estimated using the new model by off-line simulation, and compared with the TWS observed by GRACE for 2002-2007. MAT-HI was further coupled with a module representing the ground water level fluctuations, and consists a new land surface scheme HiGW-MAT (Human Intervention and Ground Water coupled MATSIRO). HiGW-MAT is also associated with a scheme tracing the origin and flow path with the consideration on the sources of water withdrawal from stream flow, medium-size reservoirs and nonrenewable groundwater in addition to precipitation to croplands which enabled the assessment of the origin of water producing major crops. Areas highly dependent on nonrenewable groundwater are detected in the Pakistan, Bangladesh, Western part of India, north and western parts of China, some regions in the Arabian Peninsula, and the western part of the United States through Mexico. Cumulative nonrenewable groundwater withdrawals estimated by the model are corresponding fairly well with the country statistics of total groundwater withdrawals. Ground water table depletions in large aquifers in US estimated by HiGW-MAT were compared with in-situ observational data, and the correspondences are very good. Mean global exploitation of ground water for 2000 estimated by HiGW-MAT is 360 km3/y as an excess of ground water withdrawal over natural recharge into aquifer. This unsustainable groundwater use, together with artificial reservoir water impoundment, climate-driven changes in

  19. Association between Longevity and Element Levels in Food and Drinking Water of Typical Chinese Longevity Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Z; Liu, Y; Li, Y; Song, W; Yu, J; Li, H; Wang, W

    2016-01-01

    To carrying out an integrated analysis on regional environment and human health in China and to detect the association between longevity and daily element intake from food and drinking water. Cross-sectional study. All the 18 cities and counties in Hainan Province. The distribution of elderly population and longevity indexes at a county level in Hainan Province were investigated. Quality of food and drinking water in Hainan was evaluated by comparing the chemical elements with National Standards. In addition, the association between element concentrations in food and water and longevity was examined using spearman's rank correlation. The proportion of elderly people is higher in the northern part of the province compared with southern counties. Food contributes a greater proportion of daily element intake than drinking water. Compared with the National Standards, reaching rates for elements were over 85% for both food and drinking water. There was a positive correlation between daily intake of Cu, Se, and Zn from food and water and aging and longevity indexes, and a negative correlation between Pb intake and these indexes. The quality of food and water in Hainan Province are good and that, compared with water, food is a more important source of trace elements. An appropriate supply of Cu, Se, and Zn is important, whereas excessive intake of Pb should be avoided. The findings also provide basic data to support further studies on regional variations in longevity and their relationship to diet and drinking water.

  20. Modeling and experimental examination of water level effects on radon exhalation from fragmented uranium ore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yong-Jun; Dai, Xin-Tao; Ding, De-Xin; Zhao, Ya-Li

    2016-12-01

    In this study, a one-dimensional steady-state mathematical model of radon transport in fragmented uranium ore was established according to Fick's law and radon transfer theory in an air-water interface. The model was utilized to obtain an analytical solution for radon concentration in the air-water, two-phase system under steady state conditions, as well as a corresponding radon exhalation rate calculation formula. We also designed a one-dimensional experimental apparatus for simulating radon diffusion migration in the uranium ore with various water levels to verify the mathematical model. The predicted results were in close agreement with the measured results, suggesting that the proposed model can be readily used to determine radon concentrations and exhalation rates in fragmented uranium ore with varying water levels. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Modeling Caspian Sea water level oscillations under different scenarios of increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshan GholamReza

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The rapid rise of Caspian Sea water level (about 2.25 meters since 1978 has caused much concern to all five surrounding countries, primarily because flooding has destroyed or damaged buildings and other engineering structures, roads, beaches and farm lands in the coastal zone. Given that climate, and more specifically climate change, is a primary factor influencing oscillations in Caspian Sea water levels, the effect of different climate change scenarios on future Caspian Sea levels was simulated. Variations in environmental parameters such as temperature, precipitation, evaporation, atmospheric carbon dioxide and water level oscillations of the Caspian sea and surrounding regions, are considered for both past (1951-2006 and future (2025-2100 time frames. The output of the UKHADGEM general circulation model and five alternative scenarios including A1CAI, BIASF, BIMES WRE450 and WRE750 were extracted using the MAGICC SCENGEN Model software (version 5.3. The results suggest that the mean temperature of the Caspian Sea region (Bandar-E-Anzali monitoring site has increased by ca. 0.17°C per decade under the impacts of atmospheric carbon dioxide changes (r=0.21. The Caspian Sea water level has increased by ca. +36cm per decade (r=0.82 between the years 1951-2006. Mean results from all modeled scenarios indicate that the temperature will increase by ca. 3.64°C and precipitation will decrease by ca. 10% (182 mm over the Caspian Sea, whilst in the Volga river basin, temperatures are projected to increase by ca. 4.78°C and precipitation increase by ca. 12% (58 mm by the year 2100. Finally, statistical modeling of the Caspian Sea water levels project future water level increases of between 86 cm and 163 cm by the years 2075 and 2100, respectively.

  2. Water security at local government level. What do people think it means in eThekwini?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Meissner, Richard

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Government Level What do People Think it Means in eThekwini? By Richard Meissner and Elliot Moyo Integrated Water Assessment Group Natural Resources and the Environment Council for Scientific and Industrial Research Presented at the CSIR to the Inanda... Community and Catchment Management Forums, Durban, 20 December 2017 Outline • Setting the scene • Water security: What do People Think it Means? • To end • Category A municipality (Local Government Municipal Structures Act [No. 117 of 1998]) - High...

  3. Measuring water level in rivers and lakes from lightweight Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandini, Filippo; Jakobsen, Jakob; Olesen, Daniel; Reyna-Gutierrez, Jose Antonio; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter

    2017-05-01

    The assessment of hydrologic dynamics in rivers, lakes, reservoirs and wetlands requires measurements of water level, its temporal and spatial derivatives, and the extent and dynamics of open water surfaces. Motivated by the declining number of ground-based measurement stations, research efforts have been devoted to the retrieval of these hydraulic properties from spaceborne platforms in the past few decades. However, due to coarse spatial and temporal resolutions, spaceborne missions have several limitations when assessing the water level of terrestrial surface water bodies and determining complex water dynamics. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) can fill the gap between spaceborne and ground-based observations, and provide high spatial resolution and dense temporal coverage data, in quick turn-around time, using flexible payload design. This study focused on categorizing and testing sensors, which comply with the weight constraint of small UAVs (around 1.5 kg), capable of measuring the range to water surface. Subtracting the measured range from the vertical position retrieved by the onboard Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receiver, we can determine the water level (orthometric height). Three different ranging payloads, which consisted of a radar, a sonar and an in-house developed camera-based laser distance sensor (CLDS), have been evaluated in terms of accuracy, precision, maximum ranging distance and beam divergence. After numerous flights, the relative accuracy of the overall system was estimated. A ranging accuracy better than 0.5% of the range and a maximum ranging distance of 60 m were achieved with the radar. The CLDS showed the lowest beam divergence, which is required to avoid contamination of the signal from interfering surroundings for narrow fields of view. With the GNSS system delivering a relative vertical accuracy better than 3-5 cm, water level can be retrieved with an overall accuracy better than 5-7 cm.

  4. Potential of ENVISAT radar altimetry for water level monitoring in the Pantanal wetland

    OpenAIRE

    Denise Dettmering; Christian Schwatke; Eva Boergens; Florian Seitz

    2016-01-01

    Wetlands are important ecosystems playing an essential role for continental water regulation and the hydrologic cycle. Moreover, they are sensitive to climate changes as well as anthropogenic influences, such as land-use or dams. However, the monitoring of these regions is challenging as they are normally located in remote areas without in situ measurement stations. Radar altimetry provides important measurements for monitoring and analyzing water level variations in wetlands and flooded area...

  5. Trends in health complaints from 2002 to 2010 in 34 countries and their association with health behaviours and social context factors at individual and macro-level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottová-Jordan, Veronika; Smith, Otto R F; Augustine, Lilly; Gobina, Inese; Rathmann, Katharina; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Mazur, Joanna; Välimaa, Raili; Cavallo, Franco; Jericek Klanscek, Helena; Vollebergh, Wilma; Meilstrup, Charlotte; Richter, Matthias; Moor, Irene; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike

    2015-04-01

    This article describes trends and stability over time in health complaints in adolescents from 2002 to 2010 and investigates associations between health complaints, behavioural and social contextual factors at individual level and economic factors at macro-level. Comprising N = 510 876 11-, 13- and 15-year-old children and adolescents in Europe, North America and Israel, data came from three survey cycles of the international Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study. Age- and gender-adjusted trends in health complaints were examined in each country by means of linear regression. By using the country as the random effects variable, we tested to what extent individual and contextual variables were associated with health complaints. Significant associations are stronger for individual level determinants (e.g. being bullied, smoking) than for determinants at macro-level (e.g. GDP, Gini), as can be seen by the small effect sizes (less than 5% for different trends). Health complaints are fairly stable over time in most countries, and no clear international trend in health complaints can be observed between 2002 and 2010. The most prominent stable determinants were being female, being bullied, school pressure and smoking. Factors associated with health complaints are more related to the proximal environment than to distal macro-level factors. This points towards intensifying targeted interventions, (e.g. for bullying) and also targeting specific risk groups. The comparably small effect size at country-level indicates that country-level factors have an impact on health and should not be ignored. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  6. Measurement of water potential in low-level waste management. [Shallow Land Burial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, T. L.; Gee, G. W.; Kirkham, R. R.; Gibson, D. D.

    1982-08-01

    The measurement of soil water is important to the shallow land burial of low-level waste. Soil water flow is the principle mechanism of radionuclide transport, allows the establishment of stabilizing vegetation and also governs the dissolution and release rates of the waste. This report focuses on the measurement of soil water potential and provides an evaluation of several field instruments that are available for use to monitor waste burial sites located in arid region soils. The theoretical concept of water potential is introduced and its relationship to water content and soil water flow is discussed. Next, four major areas of soils research are presented in terms of their dependence on the water potential concept. There are four basic types of sensors used to measure soil water potential. These are: (1) tensiometers; (2) soil psychrometers; (3) electrical resistance blocks; and (4) heat dissipation probes. Tensiometers are designed to measure the soil water potential directly by measuring the soil water pressure. Monitoring efforts at burial sites require measurements of soil water over long time periods. They also require measurements at key locations such as waste-soil interfaces and within any barrier system installed. Electrical resistance blocks are well suited for these types of measurements. The measurement of soil water potential can be a difficult task. There are several sensors commercially available; however, each has its own limitations. It is important to carefully select the appropriate sensor for the job. The accuracy, range, calibration, and stability of the sensor must be carefully considered. This study suggests that for waste management activities, the choice of sensor will be the tensiometer for precise soil characterization studies and the electrical resistance block for long term monitoring programs. (DMC)

  7. A comparative study of the phosphate levels in some surface and ground water bodies of Swaziland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O. Fadiran

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The levels of total phosphate in selected surface water and groundwater bodies from Manzini and Lubombo regions of Swaziland were determined using UV spectroscopic method. Samples were collected from three rivers (upstream and downstream of each, three industrial effluents, one reservoir, one pond, one tap water and fifteen boreholes. Mean phosphate levels in the tap water and reservoir varied between 0.08-0.09 mg/L while for the river samples, the range was 0.11-0.37 and for the industrial discharge, it was 0.11-1.60 mg/L PO4–P. For the ground water systems it ranged between 0.10-0.49 mg/L PO4–P. The mean phosphate levels in all the analyzed surface and groundwater samples were below the recommended maximum contaminant level (MCL by SWSC (Swaziland Water Service Corporation – i.e. 1.0 mg/L for drinking water; 2.0 mg/L for rivers and industrial effluents, and the South African criterion of 1.0 mg/L PO4–P, for sewage effluents being discharged into receiving waters. However, pooled mean values for all the sites were higher than the USEPA criterion of 0.03 mg/L maximum for uncontaminated lakes. Dominant factors considered to have influenced the levels of phosphates in both the surface and groundwater samples analyzed include industrial activities (where present, agricultural activities (including livestock, population density, location (urban, suburban or rural, soil/rock type in the vicinity of the sampling point, climate and rainfall pattern of the area or region concerned.

  8. Water Phase Change Heat Exchanger System Level Analysis for Low Lunar Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Moses; Ungar, Eugene; Sheth, Rubik; Hansen, Scott

    2016-01-01

    In low Lunar orbit (LLO) the thermal environment is cyclic - extremely cold in the eclipse and as warm as room temperature near the subsolar point. Phase change material heat exchangers (PCHXs) are the best option for long term missions in these environments. The Orion spacecraft will use a n-pentadecane wax PCHX for its envisioned mission to LLO. Using water as a PCM material is attractive because its higher heat of fusion and greater density result in a lighter, more compact PCHX. To assess the use of a water PCHX for a human spacecraft in a circular LLO, a system level analysis was performed for the Orion spacecraft. Three cases were evaluated: 1) A one-to-one replacement of the wax PCHX on the internal thermal control loop with a water PCHX (including the appropriate control modifications), 2) reducing the radiator return setpoint temperature below Orion's value to enhance PCHX freezing, and 3) placing the water PCM on the external loop. The model showed that the water PCHX could not be used as a drop-in replacement for the wax PCHX. It did not freeze fully during the eclipse owing to its low freezing point. To obtain equivalent performance, 40% more radiator area than the Orion baseline was required. The study shows that, although water PCHXs are attractive at a component level, system level effects mean that they are not the best choice for LLO.

  9. Hydrological forecast of maximal water level in Lepenica river basin and flood control measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanović Ana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Lepenica river basin territory has became axis of economic and urban development of Šumadija district. However, considering Lepenica River with its tributaries, and their disordered river regime, there is insufficient of water for water supply and irrigation, while on the other hand, this area is suffering big flood and torrent damages (especially Kragujevac basin. The paper presents flood problems in the river basin, maximum water level forecasts, and flood control measures carried out until now. Some of the potential solutions, aiming to achieve the effective flood control, are suggested as well.

  10. Measuring water level in rivers and lakes from lightweight Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandini, Filippo; Jakobsen, Jakob; Olesen, Daniel Haugård

    2017-01-01

    complex water dynamics. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) can fill the gap between spaceborne and ground-based observations, and provide high spatial resolution and dense temporal coverage data, in quick turn-around time, using flexible payload design. This study focused on categorizing and testing sensors......, which comply with the weight constraint of small UAVs (around 1.5 kg), capable of measuring the range to water surface. Subtracting the measured range from the vertical position retrieved by the onboard Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receiver, we can determine the water level (orthometric...

  11. Real-time Observational Water Level Data Stream Online Filtering Method with Hydrological Changes Semantic Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DING Yulin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Irregular environmental changes and occasional instrument malfunctions have made noises and exceptions in observational data prominence. Therefore, before processing real-time water level data online, data cleaning is urgently needed to ensure data quality. Since traditional data filtering methods didn't take the data change pattern into consideration, these methods have encountered some severe problems, including the poor adaptability of filter model, the low estimation precision and prohibitively high calculation cost. To overcome these shortcomings, this paper presents a hydrological change semantics constrained online Kalman filtering method: creating dynamic semantic mapping between real-time data changing pattern and the rules of spatial-temporal hydrological process evolution; implementing the change semantic constrained Kalman filtering method to support the adaptive parameter optimization. Observational water level data streams of different precipitation scenarios are selected for testing. Experimental results prove that by means of this method, more accurate and reliable water level information can be available.

  12. Does drinking water influence hospital-admitted sialolithiasis on an epidemiological level in Denmark?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrøder, Stine; Homøe, Preben; Wagner, Niels; Vataire, Anne-Lise; Lundager Madsen, Hans Erik; Bardow, Allan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Sialolithiasis, or salivary stones, is not a rare disease of the major salivary glands. However, the aetiology and incidence remain largely unknown. Since sialoliths are comprised mainly of calcium phosphate salts, we hypothesise that drinking water calcium levels and other elements in drinking water could play a role in sialolithiasis. Owing to substantial intermunicipality differences in drinking water composition, Denmark constitutes a unique environment for testing such relations. Design An epidemiological study based on patient data extracted from the National Patient Registry and drinking water data from the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland retrieved as weighted data on all major drinking water constituents for each of the 3364 waterworks in Denmark. All patient cases with International Statistical Classification of Diseases 10th Revision (ICD-10) codes for sialolithiasis registered between the years 2000 and 2010 were included in the study (n=3014) and related to the drinking water composition on a municipality level (n=98). Primary and secondary outcome measures Multiple regression analysis using iterative search and testing among all demographic and drinking water variables with sialolithiasis incidence as the outcome in search of possible relations among the variables tested. Results The nationwide incidence of hospital-admitted sialolithiasis was 5.5 cases per 100 000 citizens per year in Denmark. Strong relations were found between the incidence of sialolithiasis and the drinking water concentration of calcium, magnesium and hydrogen carbonate, however, in separate models (pwater calcium and magnesium and their concentration in saliva whereas this was not the case for hydrogen carbonate. Conclusions Differences in drinking water calcium and magnesium may play a role in the incidence of sialolithiasis. These findings are of interest because many countries have started large-scale desalination programmes of drinking water. PMID

  13. Evaluating Reliability Index and Determining the Allocation Levels of Water Resources in Water User Association of Alborz Scheme

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    S.F. Hashemi

    2017-01-01

    region. In order to evaluate the water allocation, the reliability index must also be defined which stands as the oldest and most practical criterion for water resource systems analysis serving as the indicator which identifies and analyzes the system status for failure or non-failure condition. In some studies, to determine the reliability index, the entire month in which the system was successful in providing the required water divided by the entire system operation duration. Accordingly, the system can be considered as reliable if the deficiency in not more than 20% in simulation, that is, the probability of 80% can be used to provide the water supply level over four years out of five years. The application of the given method will be used in evaluating the demand balance simulation. Results and Discussion: The results of estimating the reliability index showed that the water users association with the highest priority in terms of location priority have approximately a reliability index of 70%, representing considerable shortages and deficiency making inevitable use of other resources (BMC1, HATKI1, B3-1-1, TMC1 and RaiskolaWUAs among which Raiskola had the highest priority relative to other WUAs, with about 91 percent, and was successful in providing the required water. WUAs with lower location priority adjacent to Siahrood River have been successful in approximately 75 percent of their water supply. The WUAs with the lowest priority (HATKI3, TMC3 and BMC3 had the lowest reliability index of about 50% meaning they were successful in meeting the water supply for only 50%. The C24-1 WUAs was 100 percent successful in its water supply which could be also noticeable among other WUAs. In order to assess the success of the system to meet the demand of WUAs, the Alborz network functionality was investigated. The major water utilization from river channels and the release of Alborz Dam were analyzed based on the statistical normal distribution function governing the However

  14. Levels of water-soluble vitamins in methanogenic and non-methanogenic bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leigh, J.A.

    1983-03-01

    The levels of seven water-soluble vitamins in Methanobacterium thermoautotropicum, Methanococcus voltae, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtillis, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron were compared by using a vitamin-requiring Leuconostoc strain. Both methanogens contained levels of folic acid and pantothenic acid which were approximately two orders of magnitude lower than levels in the nonmethanogens. Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum contained levels of thiamine, biotin, nicotinic acid, and pyridoxine which were approximately one order of magnitude lower than levels in the nonmethanogens. The thiamine level in Methanococcus voltae was approximately one order of magnitude lower than levels in the nonmethanogens. Only the levels of riboflavin (and nicotinic acid and pyridoxine in Methanococcus voltae) were approximately equal in the methanogens and nonmethanogens. Folic acid may have been present in extracts of methanogens merely as a precursor, by-product, or hydrolysis product of methanopterin.

  15. Water level dynamics in wetlands and nesting success of Black Terns in Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, A.T.; Servello, F.A.

    2005-01-01

    The Black Tern (Chlidonias niger) nests in freshwater wetlands that are prone to water level fluctuations, and nest losses to flooding are common. We examined temporal patterns in water levels at six sites with Black Tern colonies in Maine and determined probabilities of flood events and associated nest loss at Douglas Pond, the location of the largest breeding colony. Daily precipitation data from weather stations and water flow data from a flow gauge below Douglas Pond were obtained for 1960-1999. Information on nest losses from three floods at Douglas Pond in 1997-1999 were used to characterize small (6% nest loss), medium (56% nest loss) and large (94% nest loss) flood events, and we calculated probabilities of these three levels of flooding occurring at Douglas Pond using historic water levels data. Water levels generally decreased gradually during the nesting season at colony sites, except at Douglas Pond where water levels fluctuated substantially in response to rain events. Annual probabilities of small, medium, and large flood events were 68%, 35%, and 13% for nests initiated during 23 May-12 July, with similar probabilities for early (23 May-12 June) and late (13 June-12 July) periods. An index of potential nest loss indicated that medium floods at Douglas Pond had the greatest potential effect on nest success because they occurred relatively frequently and inundated large proportions of nests. Nest losses at other colonies were estimated to be approximately 30% of those at Douglas Pond. Nest losses to flooding appear to be common for the Black Tern in Maine and related to spring precipitation patterns, but ultimate effects on breeding productivity are uncertain.

  16. Urinary excretion levels of water-soluble vitamins in pregnant and lactating women in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Katsumi; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Sasaki, Satoshi; Sano, Mitsue; Suzuki, Kahoru; Hiratsuka, Chiaki; Aoki, Asami; Nagai, Chiharu

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that the urinary excretion levels of water-soluble vitamins can be used as biomarkers for the nutritional status of these vitamins. To determine changes in the urinary excretion levels of water-soluble vitamins during pregnant and lactating stages, we surveyed and compared levels of nine water-soluble vitamins in control (non-pregnant and non-lactating women), pregnant and lactating women. Control women (n=37), women in the 2nd (16-27 wk, n=24) and 3rd trimester of pregnancy (over 28 wk, n=32), and early- (0-5 mo, n=54) and late-stage lactating (6-11 mo, n=49) women took part in the survey. The mean age of subjects was ~30 y, and mean height was ~160 cm. A single 24-h urine sample was collected 1 d after the completion of a validated, self-administered comprehensive diet history questionnaire to measure water-soluble vitamins or metabolites. The average intake of each water-soluble vitamin was ≍ the estimated average requirement value and adequate intake for the Japanese Dietary Reference Intakes in all life stages, except for vitamin B6 and folate intakes during pregnancy. No change was observed in the urinary excretion levels of vitamin B2, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, biotin or vitamin C among stages. Urine nicotinamide and folate levels were higher in pregnant women than in control women. Urine excretion level of vitamin B1 decreased during lactation and that of pantothenic acid decreased during pregnancy and lactation. These results provide valuable information for setting the Dietary Reference Intakes of water-soluble vitamins for pregnant and lactating women.

  17. Groundwater-level trends and implications for sustainable water use in the Kabul Basin, Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Thomas J.; Chornack, Michael P.; Taher, Mohammad R.

    2013-01-01

    The Kabul Basin, which includes the city of Kabul, Afghanistan, with a population of approximately 4 million, has several Afghan, United States, and international military installations that depend on groundwater resources for a potable water supply. This study examined groundwater levels in the Kabul Basin from 2004 to 2012. Groundwater levels have increased slightly in rural areas of the Kabul Basin as a result of normal precipitation after the drought of the early 2000s. However, groundwater levels have decreased in the city of Kabul due to increasing water use in an area with limited recharge. The rate of groundwater-level decrease in the city is greater for the 2008–2012 period (1.5 meters per year (m/yr) on average) than for the 2004–2008 period (0–0.7 m/yr on average). The analysis, which is corroborated by groundwater-flow modeling and a non-governmental organization decision-support model, identified groundwater-level decreases and associated implications for groundwater sustainability in the city of Kabul. Military installations in the city of Kabul (the Central Kabul subbasin) are likely to face water management challenges resulting from long-term groundwater sustainability concerns, such as the potential drying of shallow water-supply wells. Installations in the northern part of the Kabul Basin may have fewer issues with long-term water sustainability. Groundwater-level monitoring and groundwater-flow simulation can be valuable tools for assessing groundwater management options to improve the sustainability of water resources in the Kabul Basin.

  18. Seasonal variations in the level of heavy metals in the water of minor rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. L. Sukhodolska

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the level of heavy metals (Zn, Mn, Fe, Pb, Co, Ni, Cd and characteristics of their transportation through the water of minor rivers in Rivne region, Ukraine. The levels of Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, Ni, Co in the waters of these fisheries exceeded the maximum permissible concentration limit in different months. We found that the concentration of Pb and Cd did not exceed the permissible concentration limit in the waters of the fisheries during the year of research, while the level of other metals exceeded the permissible levels by 1.1 to 151.0 times. This research confirms that the surface waters of Rivne region are characterized by high concentrations of iron, manganese, zinc, and nickel. The level of iron exceeded the maximum permissible concentration limit by 1.1 to 5.0 times, the level of zinc by 1.5 to 15.0 times, that of manganese by1.3 to 6.7 times and the nickel level by 1.3 to 151.0 times in the fishery waters. In principle, the increase in the level of heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, Ni, Co is connected with the lithological composition of reservoirs in the water-collecting areas of the investigated rivers, and besides with the significant influence of the anthropogenic load (fuel combustion, aqueous wastes of factory units, agricultural effluent, etc., and with the increase in aquatic vegetation, pH balance, temperature change and so on. The appearance of iron-manganese compounds can be explained by natural causes such as reformation of the source minerals into secondary minerals in the conditions of pH level recession in water, which causes the release of these molecular entities; leaching of iron from the iron-manganese septarian nodules, a substantial amount of which is contained in the illuvial horizon. The increase in the level of zinc and nickel in the river water is connected with the leaching of these elements from subsurface rocks, soil and forest leaf litter. Atmospheric condensation is a significant source of the

  19. Effects of decreased ground-water withdrawal on ground-water levels and chloride concentrations in Camden County, Georgia, and ground-water levels in Nassau County, Florida, from September 2001 to May 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Michael F.; McFadden, Keith W.; Leeth, David C.

    2005-01-01

    During October 2002, the Durango Paper Company formerly Gillman Paper Company) in St. Marys, Georgia, shut down paper-mill operations; the shutdown resulted in decreased ground-water withdrawal in Camden County by 35.6 million gallons per day. The decrease in withdrawal resulted in water-level rise in wells completed in the Floridan aquifer system and the overlying surficial and Brunswick aquifer systems; many wells in the St. Marys area flowed for the first time since the mill began operations during 1941. Pumping at the mill resulted in the development of a cone of depression that coalesced with a larger adjacent cone of depression at Fernandina Beach, Florida. Since closure of the mill, the cone at St. Marys is no longer present, although the cone still exists at Fernandina Beach, Florida. Historical water-level data from the production wells at the mill indicate that the pumping water level ranged from 68 to 235 feet (ft) below North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD 88) and averaged about 114 ft when the mill was operating. Since the shutdown, it is estimated that water levels at the mill have risen about 140 ft and are now at about 30 ft above NAVD 88. The water-level rise in wells in outlying areas in Camden County was less pronounced and ranged from about 5 to 10 ft above NAVD 88. Because of the regional upward water-level trend in the Upper Floridan aquifer that started during 19992000 in most of the coastal area, combined with a steeper upward trend beginning during October 2002, it was not possible to determine if the 510 ft rise in water levels in wells away from St. Marys was due to the mill closure. In addition to water-level rise of 2226 ft in the Floridan aquifer system, water-level rises in the overlying surficial and Brunswick aquifer systems at St. Marys after the shutdown indicate upward leakage of water. Water levels had stabilized in the confined surficial and Upper and Lower Floridan aquifers by AprilMay 2003; however, the water level in

  20. Water in micro- and nanofluidics systems described using the water potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijkel, Jan C.T.; van den Berg, Albert

    2005-01-01

    This Tutorial Review shows the behaviour of water in micro- and nanofluidic systems. The chemical potential of water (‘water potential’) conveniently describes the energy level of the water at different locations in and around the system, both in the liquid and gaseous state. Since water moves from