WorldWideScience

Sample records for water layer stability

  1. Uptake Fluoride from Water by Starch Stabilized Layered Double Hydroxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiming Liu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel starch stabilized Mg/Al layered Double hydroxides (S-LDHs was prepared in a facile approach and its fluoride ion removal performance was developed. Characterization of S-LDHs was employed by using X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, and particle size distribution. The adsorption property was studied through the assessment of the adsorption isotherms, kinetic models, thermal dynamics, and pH influence. The result shows that a low loading of starch of 10 mg onto layered double hydroxides (LDHs could obviously improve the fluoride removal rate. The S-LDHs had three times higher the adsorption capacity to fluoride than that of Mg/Al LDHs to fluoride. The particle size was smaller and the particle size distribution was narrower for S-LDHs than that for Mg/Al LDHs. The Langmuir adsorption isotherm model and pseudo-second-order kinetic model fitted well with the experimental data. In thermodynamic parameters, the enthalpy (ΔH0 value was 35.63 kJ·mol−1 and the entropy (ΔS0 value was 0.0806 kJ·mol−1K−1. The values of ΔG0 were negative, implying the adsorption process is spontaneous. S-LDHs reveals stable adsorption property in a wide pH range from 3 to 9. The mechanism for fluoride adsorption on S-LDHs included surface adsorption and interaction ion exchange.

  2. Hydraulic modelling for analysis of the hot water layer stability in research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Rogerio; Yanagihara, Jurandir Itizo

    1995-01-01

    Pool reactors are research reactors, which allow easy access to the core and are simple to operate. Reactors of this kind operating at power levels higher than about one megawatt need a hot water layer at the surface of the pool, in order to keep surface activity below acceptable levels and enable free access to the upper part of the reactor. This work presents similitude criteria derived by dimensional analysis and by non dimensioning the basic equations to analyze this layer's stability in a reduced scale model. The flow in the reactor is complex. It is impossible to consider all the phenomena with a single similitude criterion. The best would be to construct several models considering all the similitude criteria and then combine the results. Economical reasons and available time in the majority of the cases are a restrain to this procedure. Then, the most important criteria to the considered phenomenon must be chosen in order to give the best results. This work identifies three similitude criteria that were considered important to analyze the pool reactor's hot water layer stability. (author)

  3. Stability and bandgaps of layered perovskites for one- and two-photon water splitting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castelli, Ivano Eligio; García Lastra, Juan Maria; Hüser, Falco

    2013-01-01

    in the Ruddlesden–Popper phase of the layered perovskite structure. Based on screening criteria for the stability, bandgaps and band edge positions, we suggest 20 new materials for the light harvesting photo-electrode of a one-photon water splitting device and 5 anode materials for a two-photon device with silicon...... as photo-cathode. In addition, we explore a simple rule relating the bandgap of the perovskite to the number of octahedra in the layered structure and the B-metal ion. Finally, the quality of the GLLB-SC potential used to obtain the bandgaps, including the derivative discontinuity, is validated against G0W......0@LDA gaps for 20 previously identified oxides and oxynitrides in the cubic perovskite structure....

  4. Vortex stability in a multi-layer quasi-geostrophic model: application to Mediterranean Water eddies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carton, Xavier; Ménesguen, Claire; Meunier, Thomas [Laboratoire de Physique des Oceans, UBO/IFREMER/CNRS/IRD, Brest (France); Sokolovskiy, Mikhail [Institute of Water Problems of the RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Aguiar, Ana, E-mail: xcarton@univ-brest.fr [Instituto Dom Luiz, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2014-12-01

    The stability of circular vortices to normal mode perturbations is studied in a multi-layer quasi-geostrophic model. The stratification is fitted on the Gulf of Cadiz where many Mediterranean Water (MW) eddies are generated. Observations of MW eddies are used to determine the parameters of the reference experiment; sensitivity tests are conducted around this basic case. The objective of the study is two-fold: (a) determine the growth rates and nonlinear evolutions of unstable perturbations for different three-dimensional (3D) velocity structures of the vortices, (b) check if the different structure of our idealized vortices, mimicking MW cyclones and anticyclones, can induce different stability properties in a model that conserves parity symmetry, and apply these results to observed MW eddies. The linear stability analysis reveals that, among many 3D distributions of velocity, the observed eddies are close to maximal stability, with instability time scales longer than 100 days (these time scales would be less than 10 days for vertically more sheared eddies). The elliptical deformation is most unstable for realistic eddies (the antisymmetric one dominates for small eddies and the triangular one for large eddies); the antisymmetric mode is stronger for cyclones than for anticyclones. Nonlinear evolutions of eddies with radii of about 30 km, and elliptically perturbed, lead to their re-organization into 3D tripoles; smaller eddies are stable and larger eddies break into 3D dipoles. Horizontally more sheared eddies are more unstable and sustain more asymmetric instabilities. In summary, few differences were found between cyclone and anticyclone stability, except for strong horizontal velocity shears. (paper)

  5. Vortex stability in a multi-layer quasi-geostrophic model: application to Mediterranean Water eddies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carton, Xavier; Ménesguen, Claire; Meunier, Thomas; Sokolovskiy, Mikhail; Aguiar, Ana

    2014-01-01

    The stability of circular vortices to normal mode perturbations is studied in a multi-layer quasi-geostrophic model. The stratification is fitted on the Gulf of Cadiz where many Mediterranean Water (MW) eddies are generated. Observations of MW eddies are used to determine the parameters of the reference experiment; sensitivity tests are conducted around this basic case. The objective of the study is two-fold: (a) determine the growth rates and nonlinear evolutions of unstable perturbations for different three-dimensional (3D) velocity structures of the vortices, (b) check if the different structure of our idealized vortices, mimicking MW cyclones and anticyclones, can induce different stability properties in a model that conserves parity symmetry, and apply these results to observed MW eddies. The linear stability analysis reveals that, among many 3D distributions of velocity, the observed eddies are close to maximal stability, with instability time scales longer than 100 days (these time scales would be less than 10 days for vertically more sheared eddies). The elliptical deformation is most unstable for realistic eddies (the antisymmetric one dominates for small eddies and the triangular one for large eddies); the antisymmetric mode is stronger for cyclones than for anticyclones. Nonlinear evolutions of eddies with radii of about 30 km, and elliptically perturbed, lead to their re-organization into 3D tripoles; smaller eddies are stable and larger eddies break into 3D dipoles. Horizontally more sheared eddies are more unstable and sustain more asymmetric instabilities. In summary, few differences were found between cyclone and anticyclone stability, except for strong horizontal velocity shears. (paper)

  6. Stability of mixing layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Christopher; Krothapalli, A

    1993-01-01

    The research program for the first year of this project (see the original research proposal) consists of developing an explicit marching scheme for solving the parabolized stability equations (PSE). Performing mathematical analysis of the computational algorithm including numerical stability analysis and the determination of the proper boundary conditions needed at the boundary of the computation domain are implicit in the task. Before one can solve the parabolized stability equations for high-speed mixing layers, the mean flow must first be found. In the past, instability analysis of high-speed mixing layer has mostly been performed on mean flow profiles calculated by the boundary layer equations. In carrying out this project, it is believed that the boundary layer equations might not give an accurate enough nonparallel, nonlinear mean flow needed for parabolized stability analysis. A more accurate mean flow can, however, be found by solving the parabolized Navier-Stokes equations. The advantage of the parabolized Navier-Stokes equations is that its accuracy is consistent with the PSE method. Furthermore, the method of solution is similar. Hence, the major part of the effort of the work of this year has been devoted to the development of an explicit numerical marching scheme for the solution of the Parabolized Navier-Stokes equation as applied to the high-seed mixing layer problem.

  7. Effect of layer-by-layer coatings and localization of antioxidant on oxidative stability of a model encapsulated bioactive compound in oil-in-water emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yuanjie; Nitin, N

    2015-11-01

    Oxidation of encapsulated bioactives in emulsions is one of the key challenges that limit shelf-life of many emulsion containing products. This study seeks to quantify the role of layer-by-layer coatings and localization of antioxidant molecules at the emulsion interface in influencing oxidation of the encapsulated bioactives. Oxidative barrier properties of the emulsions were simulated by measuring the rate of reaction of peroxyl radicals generated in the aqueous phase with the encapsulated radical sensitive dye in the lipid core of the emulsions. The results of peroxyl radical permeation were compared to the stability of encapsulated retinol (model bioactive) in emulsions. To evaluate the role of layer-by-layer coatings in influencing oxidative barrier properties, radical permeation rates and retinol stability were evaluated in emulsion formulations of SDS emulsion and SDS emulsion with one or two layers of polymers (ϵ-polylysine and dextran sulfate) coated at the interface. To localize antioxidant molecules to the interface, gallic acid (GA) was chemically conjugated with ϵ-polylysine and subsequently deposited on SDS emulsion based on electrostatic interactions. Emulsion formulations with localized GA molecules at the interface were compared with SDS emulsion with GA molecules in the bulk aqueous phase. The results of this study demonstrate the advantage of localization of antioxidant at the interface and the limited impact of short chain polymer coatings at the interface of emulsions in reducing permeation of radicals and oxidation of a model encapsulated bioactive in oil-in-water emulsions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Mechanical properties of protein adsorption layers at the air/water and oil/water interface: a comparison in light of the thermodynamical stability of proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitropoulos, Varvara; Mütze, Annekathrin; Fischer, Peter

    2014-04-01

    Over the last decades numerous studies on the interfacial rheological response of protein adsorption layers have been published. The comparison of these studies and the retrieval of a common parameter to compare protein interfacial activity are hampered by the fact that different boundary conditions (e.g. physico-chemical, instrumental, interfacial) were used. In the present work we review previous studies and attempt a unifying approach for the comparison between bulk protein properties and their adsorption films. Among many common food grade proteins we chose bovine serum albumin, β-lactoglobulin and lysozyme for their difference in thermodynamic stability and studied their adsorption at the air/water and limonene/water interface. In order to achieve this we have i) systematically analyzed protein adsorption kinetics in terms of surface pressure rise using a drop profile analysis tensiometer and ii) we addressed the interfacial layer properties under shear stress using an interfacial shear rheometer under the same experimental conditions. We could show that thermodynamically less stable proteins adsorb generally faster and yield films with higher shear rheological properties at air/water interface. The same proteins showed an analog behavior when adsorbing at the limonene/water interface but at slower rates. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Boosting water oxidation layer-by-layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo-Acosta, Jonnathan C; Scanlon, Micheál D; Méndez, Manuel A; Amstutz, Véronique; Vrubel, Heron; Opallo, Marcin; Girault, Hubert H

    2016-04-07

    Electrocatalysis of water oxidation was achieved using fluorinated tin oxide (FTO) electrodes modified with layer-by-layer deposited films consisting of bilayers of negatively charged citrate-stabilized IrO2 NPs and positively charged poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) polymer. The IrO2 NP surface coverage can be fine-tuned by controlling the number of bilayers. The IrO2 NP films were amorphous, with the NPs therein being well-dispersed and retaining their as-synthesized shape and sizes. UV/vis spectroscopic and spectro-electrochemical studies confirmed that the total surface coverage and electrochemically addressable surface coverage of IrO2 NPs increased linearly with the number of bilayers up to 10 bilayers. The voltammetry of the modified electrode was that of hydrous iridium oxide films (HIROFs) with an observed super-Nernstian pH response of the Ir(III)/Ir(IV) and Ir(IV)-Ir(IV)/Ir(IV)-Ir(V) redox transitions and Nernstian shift of the oxygen evolution onset potential. The overpotential of the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) was essentially pH independent, varying only from 0.22 V to 0.28 V (at a current density of 0.1 mA cm(-2)), moving from acidic to alkaline conditions. Bulk electrolysis experiments revealed that the IrO2/PDDA films were stable and adherent under acidic and neutral conditions but degraded in alkaline solutions. Oxygen was evolved with Faradaic efficiencies approaching 100% under acidic (pH 1) and neutral (pH 7) conditions, and 88% in alkaline solutions (pH 13). This layer-by-layer approach forms the basis of future large-scale OER electrode development using ink-jet printing technology.

  10. Supramolecularly assembled water layers stabilized by sebacic anions in complexes of Zn(II) and Co(II)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Two three-dimensional supramolecular water architectures,[Zn(phen)3]2 ·[Zn(C10H16O4)·(H2O)3]·(C10H16O4)2·20H2O(1) and [Co(phen)3]2 ·[Co(H2O)6]·(C10H16O4)3·30H2O(2)[phen=1,10-Phenanthroline,C10H16O4=sebacic dianion],have been synthesized and characterized by IR,elemental analysis,thermogravimetric analysis,and single-crystal X-ray diffractions.The two structures both contain extensive hydrogen bonding between water molecules as well as between water molecules and sebacic anions.The water molecules and sebacic acid O atoms assembled 2D supramolecular corrugated sheets with different morphology in the two complexes.

  11. Stabilized vortices in layered Kerr media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montesinos, Gaspar D.; Perez-Garcia, Victor M.; Michinel, Humberto; Salgueiro, Jose R.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the possibility of stabilizing beams with angular momentum propagating in Kerr media against filamentation and collapse. Very long propagation distances can be achieved by combining the choice of an appropriate layered medium with alternating focusing and defocusing nonlinearities with the presence of an incoherent guiding beam which is itself stabilized in this medium. The applicability of the results to the field of matter waves is also discussed

  12. Compressible stability of growing boundary layers using parabolized stability equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chau-Lyan; Malik, Mujeeb R.; Erlebacher, Gordon; Hussaini, M. Y.

    1991-01-01

    The parabolized stability equation (PSE) approach is employed to study linear and nonlinear compressible stability with an eye to providing a capability for boundary-layer transition prediction in both 'quiet' and 'disturbed' environments. The governing compressible stability equations are solved by a rational parabolizing approximation in the streamwise direction. Nonparallel flow effects are studied for both the first- and second-mode disturbances. For oblique waves of the first-mode type, the departure from the parallel results is more pronounced as compared to that for the two-dimensional waves. Results for the Mach 4.5 case show that flow nonparallelism has more influence on the first mode than on the second. The disturbance growth rate is shown to be a strong function of the wall-normal distance due to either flow nonparallelism or nonlinear interactions. The subharmonic and fundamental types of breakdown are found to be similar to the ones in incompressible boundary layers.

  13. Stability of spatially developing boundary layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Rama

    1993-07-01

    A new formulation of the stability of boundary-layer flows in pressure gradients is presented, taking into account the spatial development of the flow. The formulation assumes that disturbance wavelength and eigenfunction vary downstream no more rapidly than the boundary-layer thickness, and includes all terms of O(1) and O(R(exp -1)) in the boundary-layer Reynolds number R. Although containing the Orr-Sommerfeld operator, the present approach does not yield the Orr-Sommerfeld equation in any rational limit. In Blasius flow, the present stability equation is consistent with that of Bertolotti et al. (1992) to terms of O(R(exp -1)). For the Falkner-Skan similarity solutions neutral boundaries are computed without the necessity of having to march in space. Results show that the effects of spatial growth are striking in flows subjected to adverse pressure gradients.

  14. Effects of bulk colloidal stability on adsorption layers of poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride)/sodium dodecyl sulfate at the air-water interface studied by neutron reflectometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Richard A; Yanez Arteta, Marianna; Angus-Smyth, Anna; Nylander, Tommy; Varga, Imre

    2011-12-29

    We show for the oppositely charged system poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride)/sodium dodecyl sulfate that the cliff edge peak in its surface tension isotherm results from the comprehensive precipitation of bulk complexes into sediment, leaving a supernatant that is virtually transparent and a depleted adsorption layer at the air/water interface. The aggregation and settling processes take about 3 days to reach completion and occur at bulk compositions around charge neutrality of the complexes which lack long-term colloidal stability. We demonstrate excellent quantitative agreement between the measured surface tension values and a peak calculated from the surface excess of surfactant in the precipitation region measured by neutron reflectometry, using the approximation that there is no polymer left in the liquid phase. The nonequilibrium nature of the system is emphasized by the production of very different interfacial properties from equivalent aged samples that are handled differently. We go on to outline our perspective on the "true equilibrium" state of this intriguing system and conclude with a comment on its practical relevance given that the interfacial properties can be so readily influenced by the handling of kinetically trapped bulk aggregates. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  15. An analysis for crack layer stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehanobish, K.; Botsis, J.; Moet, A.; Chudnovsky, A.

    1986-01-01

    The problem of uncontrolled crack propagation and crack arrest is considered with respect to crack layer (CL) translational stability. CL propagation is determined by the difference between the energy release rate and the amount of energy required for material transformation, and necessary and sufficient conditions for CL instability are derived. CL propagation in polystyrene is studied for two cases. For the case of remotely applied fixed load fatigue, the sufficient condition of instability is shown to be met before the necessary condition, and the necessary condition controls the stability. For the fixed displacement case, neither of the instability conditions are met, and CL propagation remains stable, resulting in crack arrest.

  16. Stability of nanocrystalline electrochemically deposited layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantleon, Karen; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2009-01-01

    have different microstructure and properties compared to bulk materials and the thermodynamic non-equilibrium state of as-deposited layers frequently results in changes of the microstructure as a function of time and/or temperature. The evolving microstructure affects the functionality and reliability......The technological demand for manufacturing components with complex geometries of micrometer or sub-micrometer dimensions and ambitions for ongoing miniaturization have attracted particular attention to electrochemical deposition methods. Thin layers of electrochemically deposited metals and alloys...... of electrodeposited components, which can be beneficial, as for the electrical conductivity of copper interconnect lines, or detrimental, as for reduced strength of nickel in MEMS applications. The present work reports on in-situ studies of the microstructure stability of as-deposited nanocrystalline Cu-, Ag- and Ni...

  17. Breakwater stability with damaged single layer armour units

    OpenAIRE

    De Rover, R.; Verhagen, H.J.; Van den Berge, A.; Reedijk, B.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of single layer interlocking armour unit breakage on the hydraulic armour layer stability and potential damage progression is addressed in this paper. A 2-dimensional scale model of a rubble mound breakwater with an armour layer consisting of Xbloc armour units was tested. The residual armour layer stability with broken units was determined. The armour unit displacement and damage progression was assessed. According to the test series breakage of the single layer armour units has a...

  18. Reassessment of problems affecting stabilized layers in roads in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Paige-Green, P

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available of stabilization problems. It is concluded that, although there is indubitable proven field and laboratory evidence for carbonation of stabilized layers, there is no solid scientific evidence for the occurrence of the “water driven reactions” in soil stabilization...

  19. Influence of Core Permeability on Accropode Armour Layer Stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Christensen, M.; Jensen, T.

    1998-01-01

    Hedar and van der Meer studied the influence of core permeability on the stability of two layer rock armour. In both cases a significant influence was found. However, it is to be expected that for single layer armour there will be an even larger influence on the core permeability. This is because...... the dissipation of wave energy in single layer armour will e smaller than in double layer armour, thus giving room for larger flow velocities in and over armour layer On this background a laboratory stud of single layer Accropode stability was undertaken at Aalborg University in 1995. The test results as well...

  20. Hydraulic Stability of Single-Layer Dolos and Accropode Armour Layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, M.; Burcharth, H. F.

    1995-01-01

    A new design for Dolos breakwater armour layers is presented: Dolos armour units are placed in a selected geometric pattern in a single layer. A series of model tests have been performed in order to determine the stability of such single-layer Dolos armour layers. The test results are presented...... and compared to the stability formula for the traditional double-layer, randomly placed Dolos armour layer design presented by Burcharth (1992). The results of a series of stability tests performed with Accropode® armour layers is presented and compared to the test results obtained with single-layer Dolos...... armour layers. Run-up and reflection are presented for both single-layer Dolos armour and Accropode armour....

  1. Water-stabilized plasma generators

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrabovský, Milan

    1998-01-01

    Roč. 70, č. 6 (1998), s. 1157-1162 ISSN 0033-4545 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/95/0592; GA ČR GV106/96/K245 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2043910 Keywords : thermal plasma, plasma torch, water-stabilized plasma Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.677, year: 1998

  2. Breakwater stability with damaged single layer armour units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Rover, R.; Verhagen, H.J.; Van den Berge, A.; Reedijk, B.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of single layer interlocking armour unit breakage on the hydraulic armour layer stability and potential damage progression is addressed in this paper. A 2-dimensional scale model of a rubble mound breakwater with an armour layer consisting of Xbloc armour units was tested. The residual

  3. Experimental research on the stability of armour and secondary layer in a single layered Tetrapod breakwater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, W.; Verhagen, H.J.; Olthof, J.

    2004-01-01

    Physical model tests were done on an armour of Tetrapods, placed in a single layer. The objective of the investigations was to study the stability of the secondary layer, and to see if the material of this secondary layer could be washed out through the single layer of Tetrapods. It was concluded

  4. Stability of Armour Units in Flow Through a Layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.; C. Thompson, Alex

    1984-01-01

    As part of a program to study the hydraulics of wave attack on rubble mound breakwaters tests were made on model armour units in a steady flow through a layer laid on a slope. The flow angle has little effect on stability for dolosse or rock layers. The head drop at failure across each type...... of layer is similar but the dolosse layer is more permeable and fails as a whole. There was no viscous scale effect. These results and earlier tests in oscillating flow suggest a 'reservoir' effect is important in the stability in steep waves....

  5. Stabilization of Leidenfrost vapour layer by textured superhydrophobic surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev

    2012-09-12

    In 1756, Leidenfrost observed that water drops skittered on a sufficiently hot skillet, owing to levitation by an evaporative vapour film. Such films are stable only when the hot surface is above a critical temperature, and are a central phenomenon in boiling. In this so-called Leidenfrost regime, the low thermal conductivity of the vapour layer inhibits heat transfer between the hot surface and the liquid. When the temperature of the cooling surface drops below the critical temperature, the vapour film collapses and the system enters a nucleate-boiling regime, which can result in vapour explosions that are particularly detrimental in certain contexts, such as in nuclear power plants. The presence of these vapour films can also reduce liquid-solid drag. Here we show how vapour film collapse can be completely suppressed at textured superhydrophobic surfaces. At a smooth hydrophobic surface, the vapour film still collapses on cooling, albeit at a reduced critical temperature, and the system switches explosively to nucleate boiling. In contrast, at textured, superhydrophobic surfaces, the vapour layer gradually relaxes until the surface is completely cooled, without exhibiting a nucleate-boiling phase. This result demonstrates that topological texture on superhydrophobic materials is critical in stabilizing the vapour layer and thus in controlling-by heat transfer-the liquid-gas phase transition at hot surfaces. This concept can potentially be applied to control other phase transitions, such as ice or frost formation, and to the design of low-drag surfaces at which the vapour phase is stabilized in the grooves of textures without heating. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  6. Stabilization of Leidenfrost vapour layer by textured superhydrophobic surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev; Patankar, Neelesh A.; Marston, Jeremy; Chan, Derek Y C; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T

    2012-01-01

    In 1756, Leidenfrost observed that water drops skittered on a sufficiently hot skillet, owing to levitation by an evaporative vapour film. Such films are stable only when the hot surface is above a critical temperature, and are a central phenomenon in boiling. In this so-called Leidenfrost regime, the low thermal conductivity of the vapour layer inhibits heat transfer between the hot surface and the liquid. When the temperature of the cooling surface drops below the critical temperature, the vapour film collapses and the system enters a nucleate-boiling regime, which can result in vapour explosions that are particularly detrimental in certain contexts, such as in nuclear power plants. The presence of these vapour films can also reduce liquid-solid drag. Here we show how vapour film collapse can be completely suppressed at textured superhydrophobic surfaces. At a smooth hydrophobic surface, the vapour film still collapses on cooling, albeit at a reduced critical temperature, and the system switches explosively to nucleate boiling. In contrast, at textured, superhydrophobic surfaces, the vapour layer gradually relaxes until the surface is completely cooled, without exhibiting a nucleate-boiling phase. This result demonstrates that topological texture on superhydrophobic materials is critical in stabilizing the vapour layer and thus in controlling-by heat transfer-the liquid-gas phase transition at hot surfaces. This concept can potentially be applied to control other phase transitions, such as ice or frost formation, and to the design of low-drag surfaces at which the vapour phase is stabilized in the grooves of textures without heating. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  7. Equilibrium stability of strained epitaxial layers on a rigid substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granato, E.; Kosterlitz, J.M.; Ying, S.C.

    1987-07-01

    A simple theory of the equilibrium stability of an strained epitaxial layer on a rigid substrate is presented. We generalise the Frankvan der Merwe model of a single layer and consider N layers of adsorbate on a substrate. Continuum elasticity theory is used to describe each layer, but the coupling between layers is treated ina discrete fashion. Our method interpolates between a few layers and the thick film limit of standard dislocation theory, and in this limit the standard results are obtained. In addition, we developed a variational approach which agrees well with our exact calculations. The advantage of our method over previous ores is that it allows to perform stability analyses of arbitrary superlattice configurations. (author) [pt

  8. Carbonation of lime and cement stabilized layers in road construction

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Netterberg, F

    1984-04-01

    Full Text Available The problem of deterioration of lime, lime-slag and cement stabilized pavement layers during curing, before sealing and in service is partly ascribed to carbonation of the stabilizer during curing and subsequent exposure to the atmosphere before...

  9. Theoretical bases on thermal stability of layered metallic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadyrzhanov, K.K.; Rusakov, V.S.; Turkebaev, T.Eh.; Zhankadamova, A.M.; Ensebaeva, M.Z.

    2003-01-01

    The paper is dedicated to implementation of the theoretical bases for layered metallic systems thermal stabilization. The theory is based on the stabilization mechanism expense of the intermediate two-phase field formation. As parameters of calculated model are coefficients of mutual diffusion and inclusions sizes of generated phases in two-phase fields. The stabilization time dependence for beryllium-iron (Be (1.1 μm)-Fe(5.5 μm)) layered system from iron and beryllium diffusion coefficients, and inclusions sizes is shown as an example. Conclusion about possible mechanisms change at transition from microscopic consideration to the nano-crystal physics level is given

  10. Real cause of detrimental carbonation in chemically stabilized layers and possible solutions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Botha, PB

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available to determine the other reaction that may take place in the material. KEYWORDS CARBONATION/ CHEMICAL REACTIONS/ WATER CURING/ NEW TESTING PROTOCOL 1 INTRODUCTION This paper deals with the problems related to the “curing” of the stabilized layers... than CO2 driven. In actually fact the so-called “detrimental carbonation” chemical reaction cannot even take place without free water being available. The water is normally supplied by the specified curing 2 technique to keep the layer moist...

  11. On the Stability of Three-Dimensional Boundary Layers. Part 1; Linear and Nonlinear Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, Erik; Balakumar, Ponnampalam

    1999-01-01

    The primary stability of incompressible three-dimensional boundary layers is investigated using the Parabolized Stability Equations (PSE). We compute the evolution of stationary and traveling disturbances in the linear and nonlinear region prior to transition. As model problems, we choose Swept Hiemenz Flow and the DLR Transition Experiment. The primary stability results for Swept Hiemenz Flow agree very well with computations by Malik et al. For the DLR Experiment, the mean flow profiles are obtained by solving the boundary layer equations for the measured pressure distribution. Both linear and nonlinear results show very good agreement with the experiment.

  12. Shear layer flame stabilization sensitivities in a swirling flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Foley

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A variety of different flame configurations and heat release distributions exist in high swirl, annular flows, due to the existence of inner and outer shear layers as well a vortex breakdown bubble. Each of these different configurations, in turn, has different thermoacoustic sensitivities and influences on combustor emissions, nozzle durability, and liner heating. This paper presents findings on the sensitivities of the outer shear layer- stabilized flames to a range of parameters, including equivalence ratio, bulkhead temperature, flow velocity, and preheat temperature. There is significant hysteresis for flame attachment/detachment from the outer shear layer and this hysteresis is also described. Results are also correlated with extinction stretch rate calculations based on detailed kinetic simulations. In addition, we show that the bulkhead temperature near the flame attachment point has significant impact on outer shear layer detachment. This indicates that understanding the heat transfer between the edge flame stabilized in the shear layer and the nozzle hardware is needed in order to predict shear layer flame stabilization limits. Moreover, it shows that simulations cannot simply assume adiabatic boundary conditions if they are to capture these transitions. We also show that the reference temperature for correlating these transitions is quite different for attachment and local blow off. Finally, these results highlight the deficiencies in current understanding of the influence of fluid mechanic parameters (e.g. velocity, swirl number on shear layer flame attachment. For example, they show that the seemingly simple matter of scaling flame transition points with changes in flow velocities is not understood.

  13. Effects of shock on hypersonic boundary layer stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinna, F.; Rambaud, P.

    2013-06-01

    The design of hypersonic vehicles requires the estimate of the laminar to turbulent transition location for an accurate sizing of the thermal protection system. Linear stability theory is a fast scientific way to study the problem. Recent improvements in computational capabilities allow computing the flow around a full vehicle instead of using only simplified boundary layer equations. In this paper, the effect of the shock is studied on a mean flow provided by steady Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) computations and simplified boundary layer calculations.

  14. Stability conditions of stationary rupture of liquid layers on an immiscible fluid surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viviani, A. [Seconda Univ. di Napoli, Aversa (Italy). Facolta di Ingegneria; Kostarev, K.; Shmyrov, A.; Zuev, A. [Inst. of Continuous Media Mechanics, Perm (Russian Federation)

    2009-07-01

    The stationary equilibrium shape of a 3-phase liquids-gas system was investigated. The system consisted of a horizontal liquid layer with an upper free boundary placed on the immiscible fluid interface. The study investigated the stability conditions of rupture of the liquid layer surface. The dependence of rupture parameters on the experimental cuvette diameter and layer thickness was investigated, as well as the difference in the values of surface tension of the examined fluids. The 2-layer system of horizontal fluid layers was formed in a glass cylindrical cuvette. The liquid substrate was tetrachloride carbon (CCI{sub 4}), while upper layers included water, glycerine, ethyleneglycol, and aqueous solutions of 1,4-butanediol C{sub 4}H{sub 10}O{sub 2} and isopropanol C{sub 3H8L}. Initially, the surface of the substrate fluid was overlaid with a horizontal liquid layer. The rupture was formed by subjecting the layer surface to short-time actions of a narrow directional air jet. After rupture formation, the layer thickness increased gradually. The measurements demonstrated that the rupture diameter depends on the initial thickness of the upper layer as well as the diameter of the cuvette, and the difference in the values of the surface tension of the examined fluids. Analysis of the experimental relationships indicated that the critical thickness of the breaking layer is a constant value for any specific pairs of fluids. 4 refs., 7 figs.

  15. Stability of water on Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, D. W. G.; Moore, S. R.

    2004-11-01

    In order to try to quantify some of the factors determining the evaporation rate of water on Mars, we have been measuring evaporation rates under simulated martian conditions in a large planetary environmental chamber. All of our experiments have been performed at 5.25 Torr (7 mb) total pressure, but we have varied the temperature of the water surface, atmosphere and walls of the chamber (the walls we assume to be somewhat analogous to surrounding surfaces on Mars). We have also monitored the partial pressure of water vapor in the atmosphere to investigate its effect on evaporation rate. Most importantly, we have attempted to model the effect of advection - physical removal of the water vapor by wind or other forms of atmospheric motion - by (1) placing a bag of dry ice in the chamber and (2) by installing a copper cold finger with circulating methanol/dry ice slurry next to the sample and pumping as necessary to maintain 5.25 Torr. As might be expected, the situation is complicated and not readily described theoretically, but several conclusions seem to be emerging. Evaporation rates under nonadvective conditions are 1.2 mm/h and decrease only by about 30% as water vapor builds up in the atmosphere to as much as 40 vol %. Wall temperature and water surface temperature do not appear to affect evaporation rates significantly, but a 20 C increase in atmospheric temperature causes a 40% increase in evaporation rate. The evaporation rate increases by a factor of two in the presence of advection and under advective conditions is not affected significantly by changes in water, air, or wall temperature, or water vapor pressure. These results suggest that atmospheric motion may be the dominant factor in determining water evaporation on Mars.

  16. Nonlinear Stability and Structure of Compressible Reacting Mixing Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, M. J.; Mansour, N. N.; Reynolds, W. C.

    2000-01-01

    The parabolized stability equations (PSE) are used to investigate issues of nonlinear flow development and mixing in compressible reacting shear layers. Particular interest is placed on investigating the change in flow structure that occurs when compressibility and heat release are added to the flow. These conditions allow the 'outer' instability modes- one associated with each of the fast and slow streams-to dominate over the 'central', Kelvin-Helmholtz mode that unaccompanied in incompressible nonreacting mixing layers. Analysis of scalar probability density functions in flows with dominant outer modes demonstrates the ineffective, one-sided nature of mixing that accompany these flow structures. Colayer conditions, where two modes have equal growth rate and the mixing layer is formed by two sets of vortices, offer some opportunity for mixing enhancement. Their extent, however, is found to be limited in the mixing layer's parameter space. Extensive validation of the PSE technique also provides a unique perspective on central- mode vortex pairing, further supporting the view that pairing is primarily governed perspective sheds insight on how linear stability theory is able to provide such an accurate prediction of experimentally-observed, fully nonlinear flow phenomenon.

  17. Stability of hypersonic boundary-layer flows with chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Helen L.; Stuckert, Gregory K.; Haynes, Timothy S.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of nonequilibrium chemistry and three dimensionality on the stability characteristics of hypersonic flows are discussed. In two-dimensional (2-D) and axisymmetric flows, the inclusion of chemistry causes a shift of the second mode of Mack to lower frequencies. This is found to be due to the increase in size of the region of relative supersonic flow because of the lower speeds of sound in the relatively cooler boundary layers. Although this shift in frequency is present in both the equilibrium and nonequilibrium air results, the equilibrium approximation predicts modes which are not observed in the nonequilibrium calculations (for the flight conditions considered). These modes are superpositions of incoming and outgoing unstable disturbances which travel supersonically relative to the boundary-layer edge velocity. Such solutions are possible because of the finite shock stand-off distance. Their corresponding wall-normal profiles exhibit an oscillatory behavior in the inviscid region between the boundary-layer edge and the bow shock. For the examination of three-dimensional (3-D) effects, a rotating cone is used as a model of a swept wing. An increase of stagnation temperature is found to be only slightly stabilizing. The correlation of transition location (N = 9) with parameters describing the crossflow profile is discussed. Transition location does not correlate with the traditional crossflow Reynolds number. A new parameter that appears to correlate for boundary-layer flow was found. A verification with experiments on a yawed cone is provided.

  18. FEBEX bentonite colloid stability in ground water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seher, H.; Schaefer, T.; Geckeis, H. [Inst. fuer Nukleare Entsorgung (INE), Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)]. e-mail: holger.seher@ine.fzk .de; Fanghaenel, T. [Ruprecht-Karls-Univ. Heidelberg, Physikalisch-Chemisches In st., D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2007-06-15

    Coagulation experiments are accomplished to identify the geochemical conditions for the stability of Febex bentonite colloids in granite ground water. The experiments are carried out by varying pH, ionic strength and type of electrolyte. The dynamic light scattering technique (photon correlation spectroscopy) is used to measure the size evolution of the colloids with time. Agglomeration rates are higher in MgCl{sub 2} and CaCl{sub 2} than in NaCl solution. Relative agglomeration rates follow approximately the Schulze-Hardy rule. Increasing agglomeration rates at pH>8 are observed in experiments with MgCl{sub 2} and CaCl{sub 2} which are, however, caused by coprecipitation phenomena. Bentonite colloid stability fields derived from the colloid agglomeration experiments predict low colloid stabilization in granite ground water taken from Aespoe, Sweden, and relatively high colloid stability in Grimsel ground water (Switzerland)

  19. Stability analysis of a boundary layer over a hump using parabolized stability equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, B; Park, D H; Park, S O, E-mail: sopark@kaist.ac.kr [Division of Aerospace Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Gusong-dong, Yusong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    Parabolized stability equations (PSEs) were used to investigate the stability of boundary layer flows over a small hump. The applicability of PSEs to flows with a small separation bubble was examined by comparing the result with DNS data. It was found that PSEs can efficiently track the disturbance waves with an acceptable accuracy in spite of a small separation bubble. A typical evolution scenario of Tollmien-Schlichting (TS) wave is presented. The adverse pressure gradient and the flow separation due to the hump have a strong effect on the amplification of the disturbances. The effect of hump width and height is also examined. When the width of the hump is reduced, the amplification factor is increased. The height of the hump is found to obviously influence the stability only when it is greater than the critical layer thickness.

  20. Stability analysis of a boundary layer over a hump using parabolized stability equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, B; Park, D H; Park, S O

    2011-01-01

    Parabolized stability equations (PSEs) were used to investigate the stability of boundary layer flows over a small hump. The applicability of PSEs to flows with a small separation bubble was examined by comparing the result with DNS data. It was found that PSEs can efficiently track the disturbance waves with an acceptable accuracy in spite of a small separation bubble. A typical evolution scenario of Tollmien-Schlichting (TS) wave is presented. The adverse pressure gradient and the flow separation due to the hump have a strong effect on the amplification of the disturbances. The effect of hump width and height is also examined. When the width of the hump is reduced, the amplification factor is increased. The height of the hump is found to obviously influence the stability only when it is greater than the critical layer thickness.

  1. Diblock Copolymer/Layered Silicate Nanocomposite Thin Film Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limary, Ratchana; Green, Peter

    2000-03-01

    The stability of thin film symmetric diblock copolymers blended with layered silicate nanocomposites were examined using a combination of optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Two cases were examined PS-b-PMMA (polystyrene-b-polymethylacrylate) blended with montmorillonite stoichiometrically loaded with alkyl ammonium ions, OLS(S), and PS-b-PMMA blended with montmorillonite loaded with excess alkyl ammonium ions, OLS(E). XRD spectra show an increase in the gallery spacing of the OLSs, indicating that the copolymer chains have intercalated the layered silicates. AFM images reveal a distinct difference between the two nanocomposite thin films: regions in the vicinity of OLS(S) aggregates were depleted of material, while in the vicinity of OLS(E) aggregates, dewetting of the substrate occurred. We show that the stability of the copolymer/OLS nanocomposite films is determined by the enthalpic driving force associated with intercalation of the copolymer chains into the galleries of the modified OLS layers and by the substrate/organic modifier interactions.

  2. AC over-current characteristics of YBCO coated conductor with copper stabilizer layer considering insulation layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, H.-I.; Kim, M.-J.; Kim, Y.-J.; Lee, D.-H.; Han, B.-S.; Song, S.-S.

    2010-01-01

    Compared with the first-generation BSCCO wire, the YBCO thin-film wire boasts low material costs and high J c and superior magnetic-field properties, among other strengths. Meanwhile, the previous BSCCO wire material for superconducting cables has been researched on considerably with regard to its post-wire quenching characteristics during the application of an alternating over-current. In this regard, the promising YBCO thin-film wire has yet to be further researched on. Moreover, still lacking is research on the YBCO thin-film wire with insulating layers, which is essential in the manufacture of superconducting cables, along with the testing of the application of an alternating over-current to the wire. In this study, YBCO thin-film wires with copper-stabilizing layers were used in testing alternating over-current application according to the presence or absence of insulating layers and to the thickness of such layers, to examine the post-quenching wire resistance increase and quenching trends. The YBCO thin-film wire with copper-stabilizing layers has a critical temperature of 90 K and a critical current of 85 A rms . Moreover, its current application cycle is 5.5 cycles, and its applied currents are 354, 517, 712, and 915 A peak . These figures enabled the YBCO thin-film wires with copper-stabilizing layers to reach 90, 180, 250, and 300 K, respectively, in this study. These temperatures serve as a relative reference to examine the post-quenching wire properties following the application of an alternating over-current.

  3. Effect of nose bluntness on boundary layer stability and transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, M. R.; Spall, R. E.; Chang, C.-L.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of nose bluntness on boundary layer instability is studied theoretically for a Mach 8 flow past a 7 degree semivertex cone. The basic flow is computed by solving the parabolized Navier-Stokes equations. Linear stability analysis of the basic flow reveals that, with small amount of bluntness, the critical Reynolds number for the onset of instability increases by an order of magnitude compared to the sharp cone value. The computed second mode frequencies are also in reasonable agreement with the experimental results. The results are used to explain the effect of unit Reynolds number on transition present in the quiet aeroballistic range data.

  4. Stability of people exposed to water flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Martínez-Gomariz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Our cities are formed by several elements which are exposed to floods of a magnitude according to the importance of the rainfall event and the design of the urban drainage system. The most important components in the cities are the pedestrians who develop various activities during rain events. Focusing on pedestrians, the research on their stability when they are exposed to water flows provides the necessary knowledge to understand and manage the associated hazard for them. In this research, several experiments with humans were carried out in order to determine the stability limits to pedestrians crossing through a water flow in a real scale platform. The results obtained and by comparing those with human stability criteria proposed by other authors and guidelines provide a more restrictive criterion.

  5. Characteristics of water infiltration in layered water repellent soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrophobic soil can influence soil water infiltration, but information regarding the impacts of different levels of hydrophobicity within a layered soil profile is limited. An infiltration study was conducted to determine the effects of different levels of hydrophobicity and the position of the hyd...

  6. Computational Study of Hypersonic Boundary Layer Stability on Cones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronvall, Joel Edwin

    Due to the complex nature of boundary layer laminar-turbulent transition in hypersonic flows and the resultant effect on the design of re-entry vehicles, there remains considerable interest in developing a deeper understanding of the underlying physics. To that end, the use of experimental observations and computational analysis in a complementary manner will provide the greatest insights. It is the intent of this work to provide such an analysis for two ongoing experimental investigations. The first focuses on the hypersonic boundary layer transition experiments for a slender cone that are being conducted at JAXA's free-piston shock tunnel HIEST facility. Of particular interest are the measurements of disturbance frequencies associated with transition at high enthalpies. The computational analysis provided for these cases included two-dimensional CFD mean flow solutions for use in boundary layer stability analyses. The disturbances in the boundary layer were calculated using the linear parabolized stability equations. Estimates for transition locations, comparisons of measured disturbance frequencies and computed frequencies, and a determination of the type of disturbances present were made. It was found that for the cases where the disturbances were measured at locations where the flow was still laminar but nearly transitional, that the highly amplified disturbances showed reasonable agreement with the computations. Additionally, an investigation of the effects of finite-rate chemistry and vibrational excitation on flows over cones was conducted for a set of theoretical operational conditions at the HIEST facility. The second study focuses on transition in three-dimensional hypersonic boundary layers, and for this the cone at angle of attack experiments being conducted at the Boeing/AFOSR Mach-6 quiet tunnel at Purdue University were examined. Specifically, the effect of surface roughness on the development of the stationary crossflow instability are investigated

  7. Stability and erosion of melt layers formed during plasma disruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassanein, A.M.

    1989-01-01

    Melting and vaporization of metallic reactor components such as the first wall and the limiter/divertor may be expected in fusion reactors due to the high energy deposition resulting from plasma instabilities occuring during both normal and off-normal operating conditions. Off-normal operating conditions result from plasma disruptions where the plasma losses confinement and dumps its energy on parts of reactor components. High heat flux may also result during normal operating conditions due to fluctuations in plasma edge conditions. Of particular significance is the stability and erosion of the resulting melt layer which directly impacts the total expected lifetime of the reactor. The loss of the melt layer during the disruption could have a serious impact on the required safe and economic operation of the reactor. A model is developed to describe the behavior of the melt layer during the time evolution of the disruption. The analysis is done parametrically for a range of disruption times, energy densities and various acting forces

  8. Experimental investigation of convective stability in a superposed fluid and porous layer when heated from below

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Falin; Chen, C. F.

    1989-01-01

    Experiments have been carried out in a horizontal superposed fluid and porous layer contained in a test box 24 cm x 12 cm x 4 cm high. The porous layer consisted of 3 mm diameter glass beads, and the fluids used were water, 60 and 90 percent glycerin-water solutions, and 100 percent glycerin. The depth ratio d, which is the ratio of the thickness of the fluid layer to that of the porous layer, varied from 0 to 1.0. Fluids of increasingly higher viscosity were used for cases with larger d in order to keep the temperature difference across the tank within reasonable limits. The size of the convection cells was inferred from temperature measurements made with embedded thermocouples and from temperature distributions at the top of the layer by use of liquid crystal film. The experimental results showed: (1) a precipitous decrease in the critical Rayleigh number as the depth of the fluid layer was increased from zero, and (2) an eightfold decrease in the critical wavelength between d = 0.1 and 0.2. Both of these results were predicted by the linear stability theory reported earlier (Chen and Chen, 1988).

  9. Ionically Paired Layer-by-Layer Hydrogels: Water and Polyelectrolyte Uptake Controlled by Deposition Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Selin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite intense recent interest in weakly bound nonlinear (“exponential” multilayers, the underlying structure-property relationships of these films are still poorly understood. This study explores the effect of time used for deposition of individual layers of nonlinearly growing layer-by-layer (LbL films composed of poly(methacrylic acid (PMAA and quaternized poly-2-(dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (QPC on film internal structure, swelling, and stability in salt solution, as well as the rate of penetration of invading polyelectrolyte chains. Thicknesses of dry and swollen films were measured by spectroscopic ellipsometry, film internal structure—by neutron reflectometry (NR, and degree of PMAA ionization—by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. The results suggest that longer deposition times resulted in thicker films with higher degrees of swelling (up to swelling ratio as high as 4 compared to dry film thickness and stronger film intermixing. The stronger intermixed films were more swollen in water, exhibited lower stability in salt solutions, and supported a faster penetration rate of invading polyelectrolyte chains. These results can be useful in designing polyelectrolyte nanoassemblies for biomedical applications, such as drug delivery coatings for medical implants or tissue engineering matrices.

  10. Shallow-water vortex equilibria and their stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plotka, H; Dritschel, D G, E-mail: hanna@mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk, E-mail: dgd@mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk [School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St. Andrews KY16 9SS (United Kingdom)

    2011-12-22

    We first describe the equilibrium form and stability of steadily-rotating simply-connected vortex patches in the single-layer quasi-geostrophic model of geophysical fluid dynamics. This model, valid for rotating shallow-water flow in the limit of small Rossby and Froude numbers, has an intrinsic length scale L{sub D} called the 'Rossby deformation length' relating the strength of stratification to that of the background rotation rate. Specifically, L{sub D} = c/f where c={radical}gH is a characteristic gravity-wave speed, g is gravity (or 'reduced' gravity in a two-layer context where one layer is infinitely deep), H is the mean active layer depth, and f is the Coriolis frequency (here constant). We next introduce ageostrophic effects by using the full shallow-water model to generate what we call 'quasi-equilibria'. These equilibria are not strictly steady, but radiate such weak gravity waves that they are steady for all practical purposes. Through an artificial ramping procedure, we ramp up the potential vorticity anomaly of the fluid particles in our quasi-geostrophic equilibria to obtain shallow-water quasi-equilibria at finite Rossby number. We show a few examples of these states in this paper.

  11. Boundary layer transition observations on a body of revolution with surface heating and cooling in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakeri, V. H.

    1980-04-01

    Boundary layer flow visualization in water with surface heat transfer was carried out on a body of revolution which had the predicted possibility of laminar separation under isothermal conditions. Flow visualization was by in-line holographic technique. Boundary layer stabilization, including elimination of laminar separation, was observed to take place on surface heating. Conversely, boundary layer destabilization was observed on surface cooling. These findings are consistent with the theoretical predictions of Wazzan et al. (1970).

  12. Influence of the density of placement on the stability of armour layers on breakwaters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Bosch, A.; D' Angremond, K.; Verhagen, H.J.; Olthof, J.

    2002-01-01

    Studies on the stability of the amour layer (d’Angremond et. al. [1999] revealed the importance of density of placement. The current research focuses on the influence of the density of placement on the stability of cubes in a double armour layer and tetrapods and rocks in a single armour layer. The

  13. Three-dimensional boundary layer stability and transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, M. R.; Li, F.

    1992-01-01

    Nonparallel and nonlinear stability of a three-dimensional boundary layer, subject to crossflow instability, is investigated using parabolized stability equations (PSEs). Both traveling and stationary disturbances are considered and nonparallel effect on crossflow instability is found to be destabilizing. Our linear PSE results for stationary disturbances agree well with the results from direct solution of Navier-Stokes equations obtained by Spalart (1989). Nonlinear calculations have been carried out for stationary vortices and the computed wall vorticity pattern results in streamwise streaks which resemble remarkably well with the surface oil-flow visualizations in swept-wing experiments. Other features of the stationary vortex development (half-mushroom structure, inflected velocity profiles, vortex doubling, etc.) are also captured in our nonlinear calculations. Nonlinear interaction of the stationary amplitude of the stationary vortex is large as compared to the traveling mode, and the stationary vortex dominates most of the downstream development. When the two modes have the same initial amplitude, the traveling mode dominates the downstream development owing to its higher growth rate, and there is a tendency for the stationary mode to be suppressed. The effect of nonlinear wave development on the skin-friction coefficient is also computed.

  14. Non-parallel stability of compressible boundary layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chau-Lyan; Malik, Mujeeb R.

    1993-01-01

    Linear and nonlinear stability of compressible growing boundary layers is studied using parabolized stability equations (PSE). Linear PSE calculations are performed for Mach 1.6 and 4.5 plate-plate flow, and the results are compared with the predictions of the multiple-scales approach. In general, the nonparallel effect appears to be less significant for oblique waves near the lower neutral branch but it progressively becomes important at higher Reynolds numbers near the upper branch. In contrast, the nonparallel effect is more pronounced near the lower branch for two-dimensional first-mode waves. The PSE and multiple-scales results agree for the first mode waves, but in the first-second mode transition region, the latter approach tends to break down. Comparison with the first (oblique) and second mode growth rate data from Kendall's (1967) experiment shows good agreement; however, the peak second mode growth rate is over-predicted. Similar conclusions are drawn for the second mode experiment of Stetson et al. (1983) for Mach 8 flow past a sharp cone. We conjecture that the lower experimental growth rate is due to nonlinear saturation and provide supporting calculations.

  15. Air, aqueous and thermal stabilities of Ce3+ ions in cerium oxide nanoparticle layers with substrates

    KAUST Repository

    Naganuma, Tamaki

    2014-01-01

    Abundant oxygen vacancies coexisting with Ce3+ ions in fluorite cerium oxide nanoparticles (CNPs) have the potential to enhance catalytic ability, but the ratio of unstable Ce3+ ions in CNPs is typically low. Our recent work, however, demonstrated that the abundant Ce3+ ions created in cerium oxide nanoparticle layers (CNPLs) by Ar ion irradiation were stable in air at room temperature. Ce valence states in CNPs correlate with the catalytic ability that involves redox reactions between Ce3+ and Ce4+ ions in given application environments (e.g. high temperature in carbon monoxide gas conversion and immersion conditions in biomedical applications). To better understand the mechanism by which Ce3+ ions achieve stability in CNPLs, we examined (i) extra-long air-stability, (ii) thermal stability up to 500 °C, and (iii) aqueous stability of Ce 3+ ions in water, buffer solution and cell culture medium. It is noteworthy that air-stability of Ce3+ ions in CNPLs persisted for more than 1 year. Thermal stability results showed that oxidation of Ce 3+ to Ce4+ occurred at 350 °C in air. Highly concentrated Ce3+ ions in ultra-thin CNPLs slowly oxidized in water within 1 day, but stability was improved in the cell culture medium. Ce 3+ stability of CNPLs immersed in the medium was associated with phosphorus adsorption on the Ce3+ sites. This study also illuminates the potential interaction mechanisms of stable Ce3+ ions in CNPLs. These findings could be utilized to understand catalytic mechanisms of CNPs with abundant oxygen vacancies in their application environments. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2014.

  16. Reaction of PFCs in water stabilized plasma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mastný, L.; Horníček, J.; Živný, Oldřich; Brožek, Vlastimil; Sember, Viktor

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 1 (2017), s. 161 ISSN 1336-7242. [Zjazd chemikov /69./. 11.09.2017-15.09.2017, Horný Smokovec] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GC17-10246J Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Water stabilized plasma * tetrafluoromethane * corrosion resistance * boron nitride * titanium nitride Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics)

  17. Kapitza Resistance between Few-Layer Graphene and Water: Liquid Layering Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexeev, Dmitry; Chen, Jie; Walther, Jens Honore

    2015-01-01

    difference in the phonon mean free path between the FLG and water. Remarkably, RK is strongly dependent on the layering of water adjacent to the FLG, exhibiting an inverse proportionality relationship to the peak density of the first water layer, which is consistent with better acoustic phonon matching...... between FLG and water. These findings suggest novel ways to engineer the thermal transport properties of solid−liquidinterfaces by controlling and regulating the liquid layering at the interface....

  18. Relevance, Realization and stability of a cold layer at the plasma edge for fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-09-01

    The workshop was dedicated to the realization and stability of a cold layer at the plasma edge for fusion reactors. The subjects of the communications presented were: impurity transport, and control, plasma boundary layers, power balance, radiation control and modifications, limiter discharges, tokamak density limit, Asdex divertor discharges, thermal stability of a radiating diverted plasma, plasma stability, auxiliary heating in Textor, detached plasma in Tore Supra, poloidal divertor tokamak, radiation cooling, neutral-particle transport, plasma scrape-off layer, edge turbulence

  19. Testing water pollution in a two layer aquifer

    OpenAIRE

    García León, Manuel; Lin Ye, Jue

    2011-01-01

    Water bodies around urban areas may be polluted with chemical elements from urban or industrial activities. We study the case of underground water pollution. This is a serious problem, since under- ground water is high qualified drinkable water in a world where this natural resource is increasingly reduced. This study is focused on a two-layer aquifer. If the superficial layer is contaminated, the deeper layer could be spoiled as well. This contribution checks the equality of the mean or c...

  20. High stability of few layer graphene nanoplatelets in various solvents

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, X; Zhou, Jian; Lubineau, Gilles

    2017-01-01

    Dispersion of few-layer graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) in liquid media is a crucial step for various applications. Here, we highlight a simple, nondestructive method for preparing stable aqueous colloidal solutions with GNP powder quickly dispersed in 5 wt.% sodium–hypochlorite- (NaClO) and sodium-bromide- (NaBr) salted solvent by bath sonication. This method makes it possible to easily prepare a highly concentrated colloidal solution (1 mgcenterdotml−1) of GNPs that can easily be re-dispersed in water (treated GNPs). The aqueous suspension we prepared remained stable for longer than a few weeks. We made similar tests with various solvents and dispersibility appeared to decrease with decreasing polarity. High-concentration suspensions using our facile dispersion method could be of particular interest to the large community using graphene for a diversity of applications.

  1. High stability of few layer graphene nanoplatelets in various solvents

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, X

    2017-04-25

    Dispersion of few-layer graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) in liquid media is a crucial step for various applications. Here, we highlight a simple, nondestructive method for preparing stable aqueous colloidal solutions with GNP powder quickly dispersed in 5 wt.% sodium–hypochlorite- (NaClO) and sodium-bromide- (NaBr) salted solvent by bath sonication. This method makes it possible to easily prepare a highly concentrated colloidal solution (1 mgcenterdotml−1) of GNPs that can easily be re-dispersed in water (treated GNPs). The aqueous suspension we prepared remained stable for longer than a few weeks. We made similar tests with various solvents and dispersibility appeared to decrease with decreasing polarity. High-concentration suspensions using our facile dispersion method could be of particular interest to the large community using graphene for a diversity of applications.

  2. Experimental analysis of drainage and water storage of litter layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara-Escobar, A.; Gonzalez-Sosa, E.; Ramos-Salinas, M.; Hernandez-Delgado, G. D.

    2007-06-01

    Leaf litter overlying forested floors are important for erosion control and slope stability, but also reduces pasture growth in silvopastoral systems. Little information exists regarding the value of percolation and storage capacity parameters for litter layers. These estimates are needed for modelling better management practices for leaf litter. Therefore, this work measured the effect of four rainfall intensities: 9.8, 30.2, 40.4 and 70.9 mm h-1 on the hydrological response of layers of three materials: recently senesced poplar leaves, fresh grass and woodchips. Maximum storage (Cmax), defined as the detention of water immediately before rainfall cessation, increased with rainfall intensity. The magnitude of the increment was 0.2 mm between the lowest and highest rainfall intensities. Mean values of Cmax were: 1.27, 1.51, 1.67 and 1.65 mm for poplar leaves; 0.63 0.77, 0.73 and 0.76 for fresh grass and; 1.64, 2.23, 2.21 and 2.16 for woodchips. Drainage parameters were: 9.9, 8.8 and 2.2 mm-1 for poplar, grass and woodchips layers. An underlying soil matrix influenced the drainage flow from poplar leaf layers producing pseudo-Hortonian overland flow, but this occurred only when the rainfall intensity was 40.4 and 70.9 mm h-1 and accounted for 0.4 and 0.8‰ of total drainage. On the other hand, the presence of a poplar leaf layer had a damping effect on the drainage rate from the underlying soil matrix, particularly at intermediate rainfall intensities: 30.2 or 40.4 mm h-1.

  3. Leidenfrost vapour layer moderation of the drag crisis and trajectories of superhydrophobic and hydrophilic spheres falling in water

    KAUST Repository

    Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev; Chan, Derek Y C; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the dynamic effects of a Leidenfrost vapour layer sustained on the surface of heated steel spheres during free fall in water. We find that a stable vapour layer sustained on the textured superhydrophobic surface of spheres falling through 95 °C water can reduce the hydrodynamic drag by up to 75% and stabilize the sphere trajectory for the Reynolds number between 104 and 106, spanning the drag crisis in the absence of the vapour layer. For hydrophilic spheres under the same conditions, the transition to drag reduction and trajectory stability occurs abruptly at a temperature different from the static Leidenfrost point. The observed drag reduction effects are attributed to the disruption of the viscous boundary layer by the vapour layer whose thickness depends on the water temperature. Both the drag reduction and the trajectory stabilization effects are expected to have significant implications for development of sustainable vapour layer based technologies. © the Partner Organisations 2014.

  4. H2O on Pt(111): structure and stability of the first wetting layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Standop, Sebastian; Michely, Thomas; Busse, Carsten; Morgenstern, Markus

    2012-01-01

    We study the structure and stability of the first water layer on Pt(111) by variable-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy. We find that a high Pt step edge density considerably increases the long-range order of the equilibrium √(37)×√(37)R25.3°- and √(39)×√(39)R16.1°-superstructures, presumably due to the capability of step edges to trap residual adsorbates from the surface. Passivating the step edges with CO or preparing a flat metal surface leads to the formation of disordered structures, which still show the same structural elements as the ordered ones. Coadsorption of Xe and CO proves that the water layer covers the metal surface completely. Moreover, we determine the two-dimensional crystal structure of Xe on top of the chemisorbed water layer which exhibits an Xe-Xe distance close to the one in bulk Xe and a rotation angle of 90° between the close-packed directions of Xe and the close-packed directions of the underlying water layer. CO is shown to replace H 2 O on the Pt(111) surface as has been deduced previously. In addition, we demonstrate that tunneling of electrons into the antibonding state or from the bonding state of H 2 O leads to dissociation of the molecules and a corresponding reordering of the adlayer into a √3×√3R30°-structure. Finally, a so far not understood restructuring of the adlayer by an increased tunneling current has been observed. (paper)

  5. Kink stability of a field-reversed ion layer in a background plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, A.; Sudan, R.N.; Rosenbluth, M.N.; Engquist, M.G.

    1986-01-01

    By means of the two-fluid energy principle, the kink stability boundary of a field-reversed ion layer of arbitrary thickness immersed in a dense low-temperature background plasma is investigated theoretically. This system is found to have a stability window against kinks. The dependence of the kink stability regime on the equilibrium properties of the system is also shown. In the thin layer limit, a comparison is made between the previous theories and the present theory

  6. Stability of boundary layer flow based on energy gradient theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Hua-Shu; Xu, Wenqian; Khoo, Boo Cheong

    2018-05-01

    The flow of the laminar boundary layer on a flat plate is studied with the simulation of Navier-Stokes equations. The mechanisms of flow instability at external edge of the boundary layer and near the wall are analyzed using the energy gradient theory. The simulation results show that there is an overshoot on the velocity profile at the external edge of the boundary layer. At this overshoot, the energy gradient function is very large which results in instability according to the energy gradient theory. It is found that the transverse gradient of the total mechanical energy is responsible for the instability at the external edge of the boundary layer, which induces the entrainment of external flow into the boundary layer. Within the boundary layer, there is a maximum of the energy gradient function near the wall, which leads to intensive flow instability near the wall and contributes to the generation of turbulence.

  7. Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes/diamond double-layered structure for improved field electron emission stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, L., E-mail: qiaoqin.yang@mail.usask.ca; Yang, Q.; Zhang, C.; Li, Y.S.

    2013-12-31

    A double-layered nanostructure consisting of a layer of vertically aligned Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) and a layer of diamond beneath has been synthesized on silicon substrate by Hot Filament Chemical Vapor Deposition. The synthesis was achieved by first depositing a layer of diamond on silicon and then depositing a top layer of vertically aligned CNTs by applying a negative bias on the substrate holder. The growth of CNTs was catalyzed by a thin layer of spin-coated iron nitride. The surface morphology and structure of the CNTs/diamond double-layered structure were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscope, Energy Dispersive X-ray spectrum, and Raman Spectroscopy. Their field electron emission (FEE) properties were measured by KEITHLEY 237 high voltage measurement unit, showing much higher FEE current stability than single layered CNTs. - Highlights: • A new double-layered nanostructure consisting of a layer of vertically aligned CNTs and a layer of diamond beneath has been synthesized by hot filament chemical vapor deposition. • This double-layered structure exhibits superior field electron emission stability. • The improvement of emission stability is due to the combination of the unique properties of diamond and CNTs.

  8. Theoretical analysis of turbulent transport through the diffuse boundary layer in the dynamic stabilization of superimposed miscible liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerhauser, H.

    1980-02-01

    Two superimposed miscible liquids are separated by a diffuse boundary layer providing a steady transition of density. If the heavy fluid is on top of the light one, Rayleigh-Taylor-instabilities develop and cause a rapid interchange and eventually an intermixing. This process can be subjected to dynamic stabilization by enforcing vertical oscillations upon the whole system. However, since only part of the unstable mode spectrum is completely stabilized, the remaining weakly unstable modes lead to turbulent transport processes through the boundary layer ('anomalous diffusion'), so that only a quasistationary equilibrium is achieved. In the present paper, previous experimental results on the dynamic stabilization of water superimposed by an aqueous ZnJ-solution are theoretically interpreted, and the observed spatial structure as well as the time development of the density profiles are explained. There exists an analogy between these phenomena and turbulent transport processes in tokamak discharges such as the sawtooth oscillations of internal disruptions. (orig.) [de

  9. Water transport and desalination through double-layer graphyne membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhavan, Mojdeh; Schofield, Jeremy; Jalili, Seifollah

    2018-05-16

    Non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of water-salt solutions driven through single and double-layer graphyne membranes by a pressure difference created by rigid pistons are carried out to determine the relative performance of the membranes as filters in a reverse osmosis desalination process. It is found that the flow rate of water through a graphyne-4 membrane is twice that of a graphyne-3 membrane for both single and double-layer membranes. Although the addition of a second layer to a single-layer membrane reduces the membrane permeability, the double-layer graphyne membranes are still two or three orders of magnitude more permeable than commercial reverse osmosis membranes. The minimum reduction in flow rate for double-layer membranes occurs at a layer spacing of 0.35 nm with an AA stacking configuration, while at a spacing of 0.6 nm the flow rate is close to zero due to a high free energy barrier for permeation. This is caused by the difference in the environments on either side of the membrane sheets and the formation of a compact two-dimensional layer of water molecules in the interlayer space which slows down water permeation. The distribution of residence times of water molecules in the interlayer region suggests that at the critical layer spacing of 0.6 nm, a cross-over occurs in the mechanism of water flow from the collective movement of hydrogen-bonded water sheets to the permeation of individual water molecules. All membranes are demonstrated to have a high salt rejection fraction and the double-layered graphyne-4 membranes can further increase the salt rejection by trapping ions that have passed through the first membrane from the feed solution in the interlayer space.

  10. Structure and stability of triglyceride monolayers on water and mica surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zdravkova, A.N.; van der Eerden, J.P.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    The structure and the stability of tripalmitin (PPP), tristearin (SSS), and triarachidin (AAA) monolayers at the air-water interface are investigated with the Langmuir method. The Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) layers obtained by deposition on mica were investigated with atomic force microscopy (AFM). Our

  11. Stability characteristics of compressible boundary layers over thermo-mechanically compliant walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettenrieder, Fabian; Bodony, Daniel

    2017-11-01

    Transition prediction at hypersonic flight conditions continues to be a challenge and results in conservative safety factors that increase vehicle weight. The weight and thus cost reduction of the outer skin panels promises significant impact; however, fluid-structure interaction due to unsteady perturbations in the laminar boundary layer regime has not been systematically studied at conditions relevant for reusable, hypersonic flight. In this talk, we develop and apply convective and global stability analyses for compressible boundary layers over thermo-mechanically compliant panels. This compliance is shown to change the convective stability of the boundary layer modes, with both stabilization and destabilization observed. Finite panel lengths are shown to affect the global stability properties of the boundary layer.

  12. On the stability of boundary layers in gas mantle systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohlsson, D.

    1978-10-01

    In this thesis a systematic investigation of the stability properties of the partially ionized boundary regions of gas mantle systems for a large class of dissipative magneto-hydrodynamic modes is presented. In the partially ionized boundary regions of gas mantle systems several strong stabilizing mechanisms arise due to coupling between various dissipative effects in certain parameter regions. The presence of neutral gas strongly enhances the stabilizing effects in a dual fashion. First in an indirect way by cooling the edge region and second in a direct way by enhancing viscous and heat conduction effects. It has, however, to be pointed out that exceptions from this general picture may be found. The stabilizing influence of neutral gas on a large class of electrostatic as well as electromagnetic modes in the boundary regions of gas blanket systems is contrary to what has been found in low density weakly ionized plasmas. In these latter cases presence of neutral gas has even been found to be responsible for the onset of entirely new classes of instabilities. Thus there is no universal stabilizing or destabilizing effect associated with plasma-neutral gas interaction effects. (author)

  13. The study of stress-strain state of stabilized layered soil foundations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokolov Mikhail V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Herein presented are the results of modeling and analysis of stress-strain state of layered inhomogeneous foundation soil when it is stabilised by injection to different depths. Produced qualitative and quantitative analysis of the components of the field of isolines of stresses, strains, stress concentration and the difference between the strain at the boundary of different elastic horizontal layers. Recommendations are given for the location of stabilised zones in relation to the border of different elastic layers. In particular, it found that stabilization of soil within the weak layer is inappropriate, since it practically provides no increase in the stability of the soil foundation, and when performing stabilisation of soil foundations, it is recommended to place the lower border of the stabilisation zone below the border of a stronger layer, at this the distribution of stresses and strains occurs more evenly, and load-bearing capacity of this layer is used to the maximum.

  14. Effect of a cathode buffer layer on the stability of organic solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Danbei; Zeng, Wenjin; Chen, Shilin; Su, Xiaodan; Wang, Jin; Zhang, Hongmei

    2015-01-01

    We present the effect of a cathode buffer layer on the performance and stability of organic photovoltaics (OPVs) based on a blend of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). Six kinds of cathode buffer layers, i.e. lithium fluoride, sodium chloride, NaCl/Mg, tris-(8-hydroxy-quinoline) aluminum, bathocuproine and 1,3,5-tris(2-N-phenylbenzimidazolyl)benzene, were inserted between the photoactive layer and an Al cathode, which played a dominant role in the device’s performance. Devices with the cathode buffer layers above exhibited improved performance. The degradation of these devices with encapsulation was further investigated in an inert atmosphere. The results indicated that devices with inorganic cathode buffer layers exhibited better stability than those with organic cathode buffer layers. (paper)

  15. Stability analysis of natural convection in superposed fluid and porous layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, S.C.; Goyeau, B.; Gobin, D.; Cotta, R.M.

    2005-01-01

    A linear stability analysis of the onset of thermal natural convection in superposed fluid and porous layers is called out. The resulting eigenvalue problem is solved using a integral transformation technique. The effect of the variation of the Darcy number on the stability of the system is analyzed. (authors)

  16. Stability analysis of natural convection in superposed fluid and porous layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirata, S.C.; Goyeau, B.; Gobin, D. [Paris-11 Univ. - Paris-6, FAST - UMR CNRS 7608, 91 - Orsay (France); Cotta, R.M. [Rio de Janeiro Univ. (LTTC/PEM/EE/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    A linear stability analysis of the onset of thermal natural convection in superposed fluid and porous layers is called out. The resulting eigenvalue problem is solved using a integral transformation technique. The effect of the variation of the Darcy number on the stability of the system is analyzed. (authors)

  17. Improvement of temperature-stability in a quantum well laser with asymmetric barrier layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhukov, Alexey E.; Kryzhanovskaya, Natalia V.; Zubov, Fedor I.

    2012-01-01

    We fabricated and tested a quantum well laser with asymmetric barrier layers. Such a laser has been proposed earlier to suppress bipolar carrier population in the optical confinement layer and thus to improve temperature-stability of the threshold current. As compared to the conventional reference...

  18. Design and construction control guidance for chemically stabilized pavement base layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    A laboratory and field study was conducted related to chemically stabilized pavement layers, which is also : referred to as soil-cement. Soil-cement practices within MDOT related to Class 9C soils used for base layers : were evaluated in this report....

  19. Biological stability of drinking water : Controlling factors, methods, and challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prest, E.I.E.D.; Hammes, F.; Van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.; Vrouwenvelder, J.S.

    2016-01-01

    Biological stability of drinking water refers to the concept of providing consumers with drinking water of same microbial quality at the tap as produced at the water treatment facility. However, uncontrolled growth of bacteria can occur during distribution in water mains and premise plumbing, and

  20. Electrodeposited Ag-Stabilization Layer for High Temperature Superconducting Coated Conductors: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, R. N.; Mann, J.; Qiao, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Selvamanickam, V.

    2010-11-01

    We developed a non-aqueous based electrodepostion process of Ag-stabilization layer on YBCO superconductor tapes. The non-aqueous electroplating solution is non-reactive to the HTS layer thus does not detoriate the critical current capability of the superconductor layer when plated directly on the HTS tape. The superconducting current capabilities of these tapes were measured by non-contact magnetic measurements.

  1. Stability monitoring of a boiling water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagen, T.H.J.J. van der; Hoogenboom, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    Stability monitoring is of great importance for optimal plant performance. Decay ratios for several operating conditions show that the Dodewaard BWR is very stable and that pressure lowering, power increase and flux peaking lead to a higher decay ratio (worse stability). 1 fig., 1 tab., 1 ref

  2. Stability of Drinking Water Distribution Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Tobias; Kallesøe, Carsten Skovmose; Sloth, Christoffer

    2016-01-01

    We strive to prove stability of a hydraulic network, where the pressure at the end user is controlled with PI control. The non-polynomial model is represented by numerous polynomial systems defined on sub-sets of R^n. The sub-sets are defined by compact basic semi-algebraic sets. The stability...

  3. Stabilization of the hypersonic boundary layer by finite-amplitude streaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jie; Fu, Song; Hanifi, Ardeshir

    2016-02-01

    Stabilization of two-dimensional disturbances in hypersonic boundary layer flows by finite-amplitude streaks is investigated using nonlinear parabolized stability equations. The boundary-layer flows at Mach numbers 4.5 and 6.0 are studied in which both first and second modes are supported. The streaks considered here are driven either by the so-called optimal perturbations (Klebanoff-type) or the centrifugal instability (Görtler-type). When the streak amplitude is in an appropriate range, i.e., large enough to modulate the laminar boundary layer but low enough to not trigger secondary instability, both first and second modes can effectively be suppressed.

  4. Metal ion-specific thermal stability of bacterial S-Layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drobot, Bjoern; Raff, Johannes [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Div. Biogeochemistry; Fahmy, Karim [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Div. Biophysics

    2016-07-01

    Many bacteria are covered by a surface layer (S-layer), i.e., a para-crystalline two-dimensional array of proteins which control cell shape, act as molecular sieves and have potential applications as radionuclide-binding material for bioremediation of polluted areas. Knowledge and control of the metal-dependent stability of the purified proteins is required for their technical application. Here, we have explored by differential scanning calorimetry the thermal stability of the S-layer protein slp-B53 from Lysinibacillus sphaericus, a Gram-positive bacterium isolated from a uranium mining waste pile [1].

  5. Effect of dielectric layers on device stability of pentacene-based field-effect transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Chong-an; Yu, Gui; Liu, Yunqi; Guo, Yunlong; Sun, Xiangnan; Zheng, Jian; Wen, Yugeng; Wang, Ying; Wu, Weiping; Zhu, Daoben

    2009-09-07

    We report stable organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) based on pentacene. It was found that device stability strongly depends on the dielectric layer. Pentacene thin-film transistors based on the bare or polystyrene-modified SiO(2) gate dielectrics exhibit excellent electrical stabilities. In contrast, the devices with the octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS)-treated SiO(2) dielectric layer showed the worst stabilities. The effects of the different dielectrics on the device stabilities were investigated. We found that the surface energy of the gate dielectric plays a crucial role in determining the stability of the pentacene thin film, device performance and degradation of electrical properties. Pentacene aggregation, phase transfer and film morphology are also important factors that influence the device stability of pentacene devices. As a result of the surface energy mismatch between the dielectric layer and organic semiconductor, the electronic performance was degraded. Moreover, when pentacene was deposited on the OTS-treated SiO(2) dielectric layer with very low surface energy, pentacene aggregation occurred and resulted in a dramatic decrease of device performance. These results demonstrated that the stable OFETs could be obtained by using pentacene as a semiconductor layer.

  6. Spatial Atmospheric Pressure Atomic Layer Deposition of Tin Oxide as an Impermeable Electron Extraction Layer for Perovskite Solar Cells with Enhanced Thermal Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Lukas; Brinkmann, Kai O; Malerczyk, Jessica; Rogalla, Detlef; Becker, Tim; Theirich, Detlef; Shutsko, Ivan; Görrn, Patrick; Riedl, Thomas

    2018-02-14

    Despite the notable success of hybrid halide perovskite-based solar cells, their long-term stability is still a key-issue. Aside from optimizing the photoactive perovskite, the cell design states a powerful lever to improve stability under various stress conditions. Dedicated electrically conductive diffusion barriers inside the cell stack, that counteract the ingress of moisture and prevent the migration of corrosive halogen species, can substantially improve ambient and thermal stability. Although atomic layer deposition (ALD) is excellently suited to prepare such functional layers, ALD suffers from the requirement of vacuum and only allows for a very limited throughput. Here, we demonstrate for the first time spatial ALD-grown SnO x at atmospheric pressure as impermeable electron extraction layers for perovskite solar cells. We achieve optical transmittance and electrical conductivity similar to those in SnO x grown by conventional vacuum-based ALD. A low deposition temperature of 80 °C and a high substrate speed of 2.4 m min -1 yield SnO x layers with a low water vapor transmission rate of ∼10 -4 gm -2 day -1 (at 60 °C/60% RH). Thereby, in perovskite solar cells, dense hybrid Al:ZnO/SnO x electron extraction layers are created that are the key for stable cell characteristics beyond 1000 h in ambient air and over 3000 h at 60 °C. Most notably, our work of introducing spatial ALD at atmospheric pressure paves the way to the future roll-to-roll manufacturing of stable perovskite solar cells.

  7. Experimental and computational analysis of the hot water layer for the radiological protection in swimming pool reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Rogerio.

    1995-01-01

    Pool reactors are research reactors, which allow easy access to the core and rare simple to operate. Reactors of this kind operating at power levels higher than about one megawatt need a hot water layer at the surface of the pool, in order to keep surface activity below acceptable levels and enable free access to the upper part of the reactor. An experimental apparatus was constructed to study the hot water layer stability. Thermocouples were used to measure the temperature field. A numerical analysis was conducted simultaneously. Regarding experimental results, representative temperature contour lines of the hot water layer were plotted. The temperature field was determined in the numerical analysis and temperature contour lines corresponding to those of the experimental results were plotted. The hot water layer kept stable for experimental and numerical results. Good agreement between the results for the hot water layer position and thickness has been obtained. (author). 21 refs., 40 figs., 15 tabs

  8. Hydrodynamic theory of convective transport across a dynamically stabilized diffuse boundary layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerhauser, H.

    1983-09-01

    The diffuse boundary layer between miscible liquids is subject to Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities if the heavy fluid is supported by the light one. The resulting rapid interchange of the liquids can be suppressed by enforcing vertical oscillations on the whole system. This dynamic stabilization is incomplete and produces some peculiar novel transport phenomena such as decay off the density profile into several steps, periodic peeling of density sheets of the boundary layer and the appearance of steady vortex flow. The theory presented in this paper identifies the basic mechanism as formation of convective cells leading to enhanced diffusion, and explains previous experimental results with water and ZnJ 2 -solutions. A nonlinear treatment of the stationary convective flow problem gives the saturation amplitude of the ground mode and provides an upper bound for the maximum convective transport. The hydrodynamic model can be used for visualizing similar transport processes in the plasma of toroidal confinement devices such as sawtooth oscillations in soft disruptions of tokamak discharges and anomalous diffusion by excitation of convective cells. The latter process is investigated here in some detail, leading to the result that the maximum possible transport is of the order of Bohm diffusion. (orig.)

  9. A stability identification system for boiling water nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belblidia, L.A.; Chevrier, A.

    1994-01-01

    Boiling water reactors are subject to instabilities under low-flow, high-power operating conditions. These instabilities are a safety concern and it is therefore important to determine stability margins. This paper describes a method to estimate a measure of stability margin, called the decay ratio, from autoregressive modelling of time series data. A phenomenological model of a boiling water reactor with known stability characteristics is used to generate time series to validate the program. The program is then applied to signals from local power range monitors from the cycle 7 stability tests at the Leibstadt plant. (author) 7 figs., 2 tabs., 12 refs

  10. Oxide layer stability in lead-bismuth at high temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, F. J.; Soler, L.; Hernández, F.; Gómez-Briceño, D.

    2004-11-01

    Materials protection by 'in situ' oxidation has been studied in stagnant lead-bismuth, with different oxygen levels (H 2/H 2O ratios of 0.3 and 0.03), at temperatures from 535 °C to 600 °C and times from 100 to 3000 h. The materials tested were the martensitic steels F82Hmod, EM10 and T91 and the austenitic stainless steels, AISI 316L and AISI 304L. The results obtained point to the existence of an apparent threshold temperature above which corrosion occurs and the formation of a protective and stable oxide layer is not possible. This threshold temperature depends on material composition, oxygen concentration in the liquid lead-bismuth and time. The threshold temperature is higher for the austenitic steels, especially for the AISI 304L, and it increases with the oxygen concentration in the lead-bismuth. The oxide layer formed disappear with time and, after 3000 h all the materials, except AISI 304L, suffer corrosion, more severe for the martensitic steels and at the highest temperature tested.

  11. Power distribution effects on boiling water reactor stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damiano, B.; March-Leuba, J.

    1989-01-01

    The work presented in this paper deals with the effects of spatial power distributions on the stability of boiling water reactors (BWRs). It is shown that a conservative power distribution exists for which the stability is minimal. These results are relevant because they imply that bounding stability calculations are possible and, thus, a worst-possible scenario may be defined for a particular BWR geometry. These bounding calculations may, then, be used to determine the maximum expected limit-cycle peak powers

  12. Sensitivity of boundary-layer stability to base-state distortions at high Mach numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Junho; Zaki, Tamer

    2017-11-01

    The stability diagram of high-speed boundary layers has been established by evaluating the linear instability modes of the similarity profile, over wide ranges of Reynolds and Mach numbers. In real flows, however, the base state can deviate from the similarity profile. Both the base velocity and temperature can be distorted, for example due to roughness and thermal wall treatments. We review the stability problem of high-speed boundary layer, and derive a new formulation of the sensitivity to base-state distortion using forward and adjoint parabolized stability equations. The new formulation provides qualitative and quantitative interpretations on change in growth rate due to modifications of mean-flow and mean-temperature in heated high-speed boundary layers, and establishes the foundation for future control strategies. This work has been funded by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR) Grant: FA9550-16-1-0103.

  13. Stability of sp{sup 2}-carbon single layer nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourgeois, L N; Bursill, L A [University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1997-12-31

    Full text: Sp{sup 2}-hybridised carbon is quite versatile in its ability to build atomic structures. Although graphite is the most common and best known sp{sup 2}-carbon compound, recent discoveries of the C{sub 60} molecule and the related nanotubes have shown that networks of three-fold coordinated carbon atoms may result in a wide range of geometries. This has led to the postulation that structures such as the negatively curved schwarzites and tori may also be synthesized. In particular, theoretical calculations have shown the cohesive energy of schwarzites to be higher than that of C{sub 60}. Presented here is an analytical model describing the energetics of the most common sp{sup 2}-carbon single nanostructures as well as the hypothetical P-schwarzite. An expression for the energy with respect to a flat graphite sheet is written as the sum of a strain energy term (arising from curving of the carbon network) and a dangling bond energy term (not negligible in an inert environment). The relative stability of carbon spheres, tubes, planes and minimal surfaces is then investigated as a function of the dangling bond energy. In an inert atmosphere (large dangling bond energy), the cylinder appears to be the most stable geometry up to a certain size (about 40 atoms only). Above this number of atoms, the sphere is found to be energetically favoured. In a reactive environment, flat sheets are found to have the lowest energy, as expected. The other structures appeared to be always less stable than tubes, spheres and planes. However, small proportions of negatively curved sheets may occur at high temperatures. These results are compared with known experimental facts

  14. Selective and reactive hydration of nitriles to amides in water using silver nanoparticles stabilized by organic ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, Koji; Kawakami, Hayato; Narushima, Takashi; Yonezawa, Tetsu

    2015-01-01

    Water-dispersible silver nanoparticles stabilized by silver–carbon covalent bonds were prepared. They exhibited high catalytic activities for the selective hydration of nitriles to amides in water. The activation of a nitrile group by the functional groups of the substrates and the hydrophobic layer on the nanoparticles influenced the catalyzed reaction were confirmed. Alkyl nitriles could also be selectively hydrated

  15. Influence of armour porosity on the hydraulic stability of cube armour layers

    OpenAIRE

    Medina Folgado, Josep Ramón; Molines Llodra, Jorge; GÓMEZ MARTÍN, MARÍA ESTHER

    2014-01-01

    Armour placement and packing density directly affect construction costs and hydraulic performance of mound breakwaters. In this paper, the literature concerning the influence of armour porosity on the hydraulic stability of single- and double-layer armours is discussed. Qualitative and quantitative estimations for the influence of armour porosity and packing density on the hydraulic stability are given for the most common concrete armour units. The analysis focuses on specific 2D hydraulic st...

  16. Stability, structural and electronic properties of benzene molecule adsorbed on free standing Au layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katoch, Neha, E-mail: nehakatoch2@gmail.com; Kapoor, Pooja; Sharma, Munish; Ahluwalia, P. K. [Physics Department, Himachal Pradesh University, Shimla, Himachal Pradesh, India 171005 (India); Kumar, Ashok [Center for Physical Sciences, School of Basic and Applied Sciences, Central University of Punjab, Bathinda, India, 151001 (India)

    2016-05-23

    We report stability and electronic properties of benzene molecule adsorbed on the Au atomic layer within the framework of density function theory (DFT). Horizontal configuration of benzene on the top site of Au monolayer prefers energetically over other studied configurations. On the adsorption of benzene, the ballistic conductance of Au monolayer is found to decrease from 4G{sub 0} to 2G{sub 0} suggesting its applications for the fabrications of organic sensor devices based on the Au atomic layers.

  17. Biological stability of drinking water: controlling factors, methods and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle ePrest

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Biological stability of drinking water refers to the concept of providing consumers with drinking water of same microbial quality at the tap as produced at the water treatment facility. However, uncontrolled growth of bacteria can occur during distribution in water mains and premise plumbing, and can lead to hygienic (e.g. development of opportunistic pathogens, aesthetic (e.g. deterioration of taste, odour, colour or operational (e.g. fouling or biocorrosion of pipes problems. Drinking water contains diverse microorganisms competing for limited available nutrients for growth. Bacterial growth and interactions are regulated by factors such as (i type and concentration of available organic and inorganic nutrients, (ii type and concentration of residual disinfectant, (iii presence of predators such as protozoa and invertebrates, (iv environmental conditions such as water temperature, and (v spatial location of microorganisms (bulk water, sediment or biofilm. Water treatment and distribution conditions in water mains and premise plumbing affect each of these factors and shape bacterial community characteristics (abundance, composition, viability in distribution systems. Improved understanding of bacterial interactions in distribution systems and of environmental conditions impact is needed for better control of bacterial communities during drinking water production and distribution. This article reviews (i existing knowledge on biological stability controlling factors and (ii how these factors are affected by drinking water production and distribution conditions. In addition, (iii the concept of biological stability is discussed in light of experience with well-established and new analytical methods, enabling high throughput analysis and in-depth characterization of bacterial communities in drinking water. We discuss how knowledge gained from novel techniques will improve design and monitoring of water treatment and distribution systems in order to

  18. Biological Stability of Drinking Water: Controlling Factors, Methods, and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prest, Emmanuelle I.; Hammes, Frederik; van Loosdrecht, Mark C. M.; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S.

    2016-01-01

    Biological stability of drinking water refers to the concept of providing consumers with drinking water of same microbial quality at the tap as produced at the water treatment facility. However, uncontrolled growth of bacteria can occur during distribution in water mains and premise plumbing, and can lead to hygienic (e.g., development of opportunistic pathogens), aesthetic (e.g., deterioration of taste, odor, color) or operational (e.g., fouling or biocorrosion of pipes) problems. Drinking water contains diverse microorganisms competing for limited available nutrients for growth. Bacterial growth and interactions are regulated by factors, such as (i) type and concentration of available organic and inorganic nutrients, (ii) type and concentration of residual disinfectant, (iii) presence of predators, such as protozoa and invertebrates, (iv) environmental conditions, such as water temperature, and (v) spatial location of microorganisms (bulk water, sediment, or biofilm). Water treatment and distribution conditions in water mains and premise plumbing affect each of these factors and shape bacterial community characteristics (abundance, composition, viability) in distribution systems. Improved understanding of bacterial interactions in distribution systems and of environmental conditions impact is needed for better control of bacterial communities during drinking water production and distribution. This article reviews (i) existing knowledge on biological stability controlling factors and (ii) how these factors are affected by drinking water production and distribution conditions. In addition, (iii) the concept of biological stability is discussed in light of experience with well-established and new analytical methods, enabling high throughput analysis and in-depth characterization of bacterial communities in drinking water. We discussed, how knowledge gained from novel techniques will improve design and monitoring of water treatment and distribution systems in order

  19. Biological Stability of Drinking Water: Controlling Factors, Methods, and Challenges

    KAUST Repository

    Prest, Emmanuelle I.

    2016-02-01

    Biological stability of drinking water refers to the concept of providing consumers with drinking water of same microbial quality at the tap as produced at the water treatment facility. However, uncontrolled growth of bacteria can occur during distribution in water mains and premise plumbing, and can lead to hygienic (e.g., development of opportunistic pathogens), aesthetic (e.g., deterioration of taste, odor, color) or operational (e.g., fouling or biocorrosion of pipes) problems. Drinking water contains diverse microorganisms competing for limited available nutrients for growth. Bacterial growth and interactions are regulated by factors, such as (i) type and concentration of available organic and inorganic nutrients, (ii) type and concentration of residual disinfectant, (iii) presence of predators, such as protozoa and invertebrates, (iv) environmental conditions, such as water temperature, and (v) spatial location of microorganisms (bulk water, sediment, or biofilm). Water treatment and distribution conditions in water mains and premise plumbing affect each of these factors and shape bacterial community characteristics (abundance, composition, viability) in distribution systems. Improved understanding of bacterial interactions in distribution systems and of environmental conditions impact is needed for better control of bacterial communities during drinking water production and distribution. This article reviews (i) existing knowledge on biological stability controlling factors and (ii) how these factors are affected by drinking water production and distribution conditions. In addition, (iii) the concept of biological stability is discussed in light of experience with well-established and new analytical methods, enabling high throughput analysis and in-depth characterization of bacterial communities in drinking water. We discussed, how knowledge gained from novel techniques will improve design and monitoring of water treatment and distribution systems in order

  20. Hydraulic loading, stability and water quality of Nakivubo wetland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nakivubo wetland, which has performed tertiary water treatment for Kampala city for the past 40 years, is ecologically stressed by agricultural and infrastructural developments. Field studies were carried out to assess the hydraulic loading, pollution profile, stability and water quality of this wetland. The upper and lower ...

  1. Formulation and stability of topical water in oil emulsion containing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To formulate the water in oil (W/O) emulsion of corn silk (CS) extract and to evaluate its stability at various storage conditions. Methods: Ethanol CS extract was prepared using maceration (cold) technique. A 4 % CS emulsion was prepared using varying concentrations of liquid paraffin, ABIL EM90 and water.

  2. Structure and stability of spiro-cyclic water clusters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Abstract. The structure and stability of spiro-cyclic water clusters containing up to 32 water molecules have been ... due to its importance in various real life systems. 1–8. High level ... It is well-known from the crystal structure data- base that the ...

  3. Stabilities of protonated water-ammonia clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundén, A. E. K.; Støchkel, K.; Hvelplund, P.; Brøndsted Nielsen, S.; Dynefors, B.; Hansen, K.

    2018-05-01

    Branching ratios of water and ammonia evaporation have been measured for spontaneous evaporation from protonated mixed clusters H+(H2O)n(NH3)m in the size range 0 ≤ n ≤ 11 and 0 ≤ m ≤ 7. Mixed clusters evaporate water except for clusters containing six or more ammonia molecules, indicating the formation of a stable core of one ammonium ion surrounded by four ammonia molecules and a second shell consisting predominantly of water. We relate evaporative branching ratios to free energy differences between the products of competing channels and determine the free energy differences for clusters with up to seven ammonia molecules. Clusters containing up to five ammonia molecules show a very strong scaling of these free energy differences.

  4. Atmospheric stability inside containments with a heated layer of liquid on the floor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vate, J.F. van de [Netherlands Energy Research Foundation, Petten (Netherlands)

    1977-01-01

    The study of atmospheric stability inside containments with a heated layer of liquid comprised derivation of the boundary condition for stable atmospheric stratifications and the experimental validation of the boundary condition for stable atmospheric stratification. This report includes description of the model for stirred aerosol deposition and the calculation results for maximum aerodynamic diameter of a confined aerosol remaining just well-stirred.

  5. The Effects of Radiation on the Linear Stability of a horizontal layer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of radiation on the onset of Rayleigh-Benard convection is studied in the case of a radiating Newtonian fluid in a fluid-saturated horizontal porous layer heated from below. The radiative heat transfer is treated using the differential approximation for optically thin limiting case. The linear stability theory is employed ...

  6. Morocco: Modelling Stability in Turbulent Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Milosch

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Morocco and Egypt both experienced similar socioeconomic challenges in the last decade, but the Moroccan monarchy has been able to address those challenges without prompting civil conflict or anti-government rebellions.  This presents an interpretive problem for the political science literature that views socioeconomic trends as being primary indicators of political instability. This case study proposes a more nuanced, multidisciplinary approach to the analysis of Morocco’s political culture by mapping findings in historical and anthropological research on to a political process framework in order to explain the Moroccan regime’s stability in terms of its religious legitimacy. It concludes with an assessment of how this knowledge can be used by countries outside the Middle East North Africa region (MENA to better partner with MENA countries in developing stable political cultures.

  7. Diverse and tunable electronic structures of single-layer metal phosphorus trichalcogenides for photocatalytic water splitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jian; Li, Xi-Bo; Wang, Da; Liu, Li-Min; Lau, Woon-Ming; Peng, Ping

    2014-01-01

    The family of bulk metal phosphorus trichalcogenides (APX 3 , A = M II , M 0.5 I M 0.5 III ; X = S, Se; M I , M II , and M III represent Group-I, Group-II, and Group-III metals, respectively) has attracted great attentions because such materials not only own magnetic and ferroelectric properties, but also exhibit excellent properties in hydrogen storage and lithium battery because of the layered structures. Many layered materials have been exfoliated into two-dimensional (2D) materials, and they show distinct electronic properties compared with their bulks. Here we present a systematical study of single-layer metal phosphorus trichalcogenides by density functional theory calculations. The results show that the single layer metal phosphorus trichalcogenides have very low formation energies, which indicates that the exfoliation of single layer APX 3 should not be difficult. The family of single layer metal phosphorus trichalcogenides exhibits a large range of band gaps from 1.77 to 3.94 eV, and the electronic structures are greatly affected by the metal or the chalcogenide atoms. The calculated band edges of metal phosphorus trichalcogenides further reveal that single-layer ZnPSe 3 , CdPSe 3 , Ag 0.5 Sc 0.5 PSe 3 , and Ag 0.5 In 0.5 PX 3 (X = S and Se) have both suitable band gaps for visible-light driving and sufficient over-potentials for water splitting. More fascinatingly, single-layer Ag 0.5 Sc 0.5 PSe 3 is a direct band gap semiconductor, and the calculated optical absorption further convinces that such materials own outstanding properties for light absorption. Such results demonstrate that the single layer metal phosphorus trichalcogenides own high stability, versatile electronic properties, and high optical absorption, thus such materials have great chances to be high efficient photocatalysts for water-splitting

  8. Stability Analysis of Hypersonic Boundary Layer over a Cone at Small Angle of Attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Ji

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available An investigation on the stability of hypersonic boundary layer over a cone at small angle of attack has been performed. After obtaining the steady base flow, linear stability theory (LST analysis has been made with local parallel assumption. The growth rates of the first mode and second mode waves at different streamwise locations and different azimuthal angles are obtained. The results show that the boundary layer stability was greatly influenced by small angles of attack. The maximum growth rate of the most unstable wave on the leeward is larger than that on the windward. Moreover, dominating second mode wave starts earlier on the leeward than that on the windward. The LST result also shows that there is a “valley” region around 120°~150° meridian in the maximum growth rates curve.

  9. A study on water infiltration barriers with compacted layered soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umeda, Y.; Komori, K.; Fujiwara, A.

    1993-01-01

    In shallow-ground disposal of low-level radioactive wastes, water movements due to natural processes in the soil covering the disposal facility must be properly controlled. A capillary barrier with compacted layered soils can provide an effective means of controlling water movement in the soil covering placed on a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. An experiment was performed to determine the effectiveness of a full-scale fill as a capillary barrier. The fill used in the experiment was constructed of compacted layers of clay, fine sand, and gravel. Man-made rain was caused to fall on the surfaces of the fill to observe the infiltration of rainwater into the fill and to measure the amount of water drained from within. The experiment established the effectiveness of the capillary barrier

  10. Simple single-emitting layer hybrid white organic light emitting with high color stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, C.; Lu, Z. H.

    2017-10-01

    Simultaneously achieving a high efficiency and color quality at luminance levels required for solid-state lighting has been difficult for white organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). Single-emitting layer (SEL) white OLEDs, in particular, exhibit a significant tradeoff between efficiency and color stability. Furthermore, despite the simplicity of SEL white OLEDs being its main advantage, the reported device structures are often complicated by the use of multiple blocking layers. In this paper, we report a highly simplified three-layered white OLED that achieves a low turn-on voltage of 2.7 V, an external quantum efficiency of 18.9% and power efficiency of 30 lm/W at 1000 cd/cm2. This simple white OLED also shows good color quality with a color rendering index of 75, CIE coordinates (0.42, 0.46), and little color shifting at high luminance. The device consists of a SEL sandwiched between a hole transport layer and an electron transport layer. The SEL comprises a thermally activated delayer fluorescent molecule having dual functions as a blue emitter and as a host for other lower energy emitters. The improved color stability and efficiency in such a simple device structure is explained as due to the elimination of significant energy barriers at various organic-organic interfaces in the traditional devices having multiple blocking layers.

  11. Hydrophobic Polystyrene Passivation Layer for Simultaneously Improved Efficiency and Stability in Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Minghua; Yan, Xiaoqin; Kang, Zhuo; Huan, Yahuan; Li, Yong; Zhang, Ruxiao; Zhang, Yue

    2018-06-06

    The major restraint for the commercialization of the high-performance hybrid metal halide perovskite solar cells is the long-term stability, especially at the infirm interface between the perovskite film and organic charge-transfer layer. Recently, engineering the interface between the perovskite and spiro-OMeTAD becomes an effective strategy to simultaneously improve the efficiency and stability in the perovskite solar cells. In this work, we demonstrated that introducing an interfacial polystyrene layer between the perovskite film and spiro-OMeTAD layer can effectively improve the perovskite solar cells photovoltaic performance. The inserted polystyrene layer can passivate the interface traps and defects effectively and decrease the nonradiative recombination, leading to enhanced photoluminescence intensity and carrier lifetime, without compromising the carrier extraction and transfer. Under the optimized condition, the perovskite solar cells with the polystyrene layer achieve an enhanced average power efficiency of about 19.61% (20.46% of the best efficiency) from about 17.63% with negligible current density-voltage hysteresis. Moreover, the optimized perovskite solar cells with the hydrophobic polystyrene layer can maintain about 85% initial efficiency after 2 months storage in open air conditions without encapsulation.

  12. Properties, ageing behavior and stability of bipolar films containing nano-layers of allylamine and acrylic acid plasma polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Gaelle; Asadian, Mahtab; Declercq, Heidi; Morent, Rino; De Geyter, Nathalie

    2018-06-01

    In this work, a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) has been used for the deposition of bipolar films containing alternating nano-layers of plasma polymerized allylamine (PPAam) and acrylic acid (PPAac). Various films were obtained by varying the single-layer thickness of each plasma polymer while maintaining a constant total film thickness and two kinds of films were fabricated via different depositing sequences (PPAam/Aac and PPAac/Aam). Films properties, ageing in air and stability in water over a 7 days period were investigated. Results showed that, COO- and NH3+ polar entities, generated from the interaction of PPAam and PPAac, are present in the bipolar films. Concerning the films stability, the different reaction mechanisms involved in the formation of each kind of films resulted in a higher amount of polar groups in the PPAam/Aac films; this conferred these films a higher stability than PPAac/Aam. Concerning the films ageing behavior, all prepared samples underwent some kind of ageing which was found to be dependent on the deposition sequence. Results also showed that bipolar coatings exhibited better cell-material interactions compared to PPAam and PPAac films; with a better cell viability observed on PPAam/Aac coatings after 1 and 7 days culture.

  13. Biological stability in drinking water distribution systems : A novel approach for systematic microbial water quality monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prest, E.I.E.D.

    2015-01-01

    Challenges to achieve biological stability in drinking water distribution systems Drinking water is distributed from the treatment facility to consumers through extended man-made piping systems. The World Health Organization drinking water guidelines (2006) stated that “Water entering the

  14. Perovskite solar cells with CuSCN hole extraction layers yield stabilized efficiencies greater than 20%

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Neha; Dar, M. Ibrahim; Hinderhofer, Alexander; Pellet, Norman; Schreiber, Frank; Zakeeruddin, Shaik Mohammed; Grätzel, Michael

    2017-11-01

    Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) with efficiencies greater than 20% have been realized only with expensive organic hole-transporting materials. We demonstrate PSCs that achieve stabilized efficiencies exceeding 20% with copper(I) thiocyanate (CuSCN) as the hole extraction layer. A fast solvent removal method enabled the creation of compact, highly conformal CuSCN layers that facilitate rapid carrier extraction and collection. The PSCs showed high thermal stability under long-term heating, although their operational stability was poor. This instability originated from potential-induced degradation of the CuSCN/Au contact. The addition of a conductive reduced graphene oxide spacer layer between CuSCN and gold allowed PSCs to retain >95% of their initial efficiency after aging at a maximum power point for 1000 hours under full solar intensity at 60°C. Under both continuous full-sun illumination and thermal stress, CuSCN-based devices surpassed the stability of spiro-OMeTAD-based PSCs.

  15. Problems experiences with the construction of cement and lime stabilized layers and working solutions for these problems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Botha, PB

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Stabilized layers are used extensively in South-Africa in the construction of roads. The layers are usually stabilized with hydrated road lime, cement, slag, fly-ash, bitumen emulsion, foamed asphalt or a combination of several of these agents...

  16. Multi-Layer Self-Nanoemulsifying Pellets: an Innovative Drug Delivery System for the Poorly Water-Soluble Drug Cinnarizine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahba, Ahmad Abdul-Wahhab; Ahmed, Abid Riaz; Alanazi, Fars Kaed; Mohsin, Kazi; Abdel-Rahman, Sayed Ibrahim

    2018-04-25

    Beside their solubility limitations, some poorly water-soluble drugs undergo extensive degradation in aqueous and/or lipid-based formulations. Multi-layer self-nanoemulsifying pellets (ML-SNEP) introduce an innovative delivery system based on isolating the drug from the self-nanoemulsifying layer to enhance drug aqueous solubility and minimize degradation. In the current study, various batches of cinnarizine (CN) ML-SNEP were prepared using fluid bed coating and involved a drug-free self-nanoemulsifying layer, protective layer, drug layer, moisture-sealing layer, and/or an anti-adherent layer. Each layer was optimized based on coating outcomes such as coating recovery and mono-pellets%. The optimized ML-SNEP were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), in vitro dissolution, and stability studies. The optimized ML-SNEP were free-flowing, well separated with high coating recovery. SEM showed multiple well-defined coating layers. The acidic polyvinylpyrrolidone:CN (4:1) solution presented excellent drug-layering outcomes. DSC and XRD confirmed CN transformation into amorphous state within the drug layer. The isolation between CN and self-nanoemulsifying layer did not adversely affect drug dissolution. CN was able to spontaneously migrate into the micelles arising from the drug-free self-nanoemulsifying layer. ML-SNEP showed superior dissolution compared to Stugeron® tablets at pH 1.2 and 6.8. Particularly, on shifting to pH 6.8, ML-SNEP maintained > 84% CN in solution while Stugeron® tablets showed significant CN precipitation leaving only 7% CN in solution. Furthermore, ML-SNEP (comprising Kollicoat® Smartseal 30D) showed robust stability and maintained > 97% intact CN within the accelerated storage conditions. Accordingly, ML-SNEP offer a novel delivery system that combines both enhanced solubilization and stabilization of unstable poorly soluble drugs.

  17. Equilibrium and stability properties of relativistic electron rings and E-layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhm, H.

    1976-01-01

    Equilibrium and stability properties of magnetically confined partially-neutralized thin electron ring and E-layer are investigated using the Vlasov-Maxwell equations. The analysis is carried out within the context of the assumption that the minor dimensions (a,b) of the system are much less than the collisionless skin depth (c/antiω/sub p/). The equilibrium configuration of the E-layer is assumed to be an infinitely long, azimuthally symmetric hollow electron beam which is aligned parallel to a uniform axial magnetic field. On the other hand, the electron ring is located at the midplane of an externally imposed mirror field which acts to confine the ring both axially and radially. The equilibrium properties of the E-layer and electron ring are obtained self-consistently for several choices of equilibrium electron distribution function. The negative-mass instability analysis is carried out for the relativistic E-layer equilibrium in which all of the electrons have the same transverse energy and a spread in canonical angular momentum, assuming a fixed ion background. The ion resonance instability properties are investigated for a relativistic nonneutral E-layer aligned parallel to a uniform magnetic field and located between two ground coaxial cylindrical conductors. The stability properties of a nonrelativistic electron ring is investigated within the framework of the linearized Vlasov-Poisson equations. The dispersion relation is obtained for the self-consistent electron distribution function in which all electrons have the same value of energy an the same value of canonical angular momentum. The positive ions in the electron ring are assumed to form an immobile partially neutralizing background. The stability criteria as well as the instability growth rates are derived and discussed including the effect of geometrical configuration of the system. Equilibrium space-charge effects play a significant role in stability behavior

  18. Effects of Nose Bluntness on Hypersonic Boundary-Layer Receptivity and Stability Over Cones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Kursat; Balakumar, Ponnampalam; Kandil, Osama A.

    2011-01-01

    The receptivity to freestream acoustic disturbances and the stability properties of hypersonic boundary layers are numerically investigated for boundary-layer flows over a 5 straight cone at a freestream Mach number of 6.0. To compute the shock and the interaction of the shock with the instability waves, the Navier-Stokes equations in axisymmetric coordinates were solved. In the governing equations, inviscid and viscous flux vectors are discretized using a fifth-order accurate weighted-essentially-non-oscillatory scheme. A third-order accurate total-variation-diminishing Runge-Kutta scheme is employed for time integration. After the mean flow field is computed, disturbances are introduced at the upstream end of the computational domain. The appearance of instability waves near the nose region and the receptivity of the boundary layer with respect to slow mode acoustic waves are investigated. Computations confirm the stabilizing effect of nose bluntness and the role of the entropy layer in the delay of boundary-layer transition. The current solutions, compared with experimental observations and other computational results, exhibit good agreement.

  19. Thermal stability of double-ceramic-layer thermal barrier coatings with various coating thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Hui; Zhong Xinghua; Li Jiayan; Zhang Yanfei; Meng Jian; Cao Xueqiang

    2006-01-01

    Double-ceramic-layer (DCL) coatings with various thickness ratios composed of YSZ (6-8 wt.% Y 2 O 3 + ZrO 2 ) and lanthanum zirconate (LZ, La 2 Zr 2 O 7 ) were produced by the atmospheric plasma spraying. Chemical stability of LZ in contact with YSZ in DCL coatings was investigated by calcining powder blends at different temperatures. No obvious reaction was observed when the calcination temperature was lower than 1250 deg. C, implying that LZ and YSZ had good chemical applicability for producing DCL coating. The thermal cycling test indicate that the cycling lives of the DCL coatings are strongly dependent on the thickness ratio of LZ and YSZ, and the coatings with YSZ thickness between 150 and 200 μm have even longer lives than the single-layer YSZ coating. When the YSZ layer is thinner than 100 μm, the DCL coatings failed in the LZ layer close to the interface of YSZ layer and LZ layer. For the coatings with the YSZ thickness above 150 μm, the failure mainly occurs at the interface of the YSZ layer and the bond coat

  20. Photocatalytic Water Treatment on TiO2 Thin Layers.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šolcová, Olga; Spáčilová, L.; Maléterová, Ywetta; Morozová, Magdalena; Ezechiáš, Martin; Křesinová, Zdena

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 25 (2016), s. 11631-11638 ISSN 1944-3994. [International Conference on Protection and Restoration of the Environment /12./. Skiathos Island, 29.06.2014-03.07.2014] R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01020804 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : water purification * endocrine disruptor * photocatalytic * TiO2 layers Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering; EE - Microbiology, Virology (MBU-M) Impact factor: 1.631, year: 2016

  1. Liquid water transport mechanism in the gas diffusion layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, P.; Wu, C.W. [State Key Laboratory of Structure Analysis for Industrial Equipment, Department of Engineering Mechanics, Faculty of Vehicle Engineering and Mechanics, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2010-03-01

    We developed an equivalent capillary model of a microscale fiber-fence structure to study the microscale evolution and transport of liquid in a porous media and to reveal the basic principles of water transport in gas diffusion layer (GDL). Analytical solutions using the model show that a positive hydraulic pressure is needed to drive the liquid water to penetrate through the porous GDL even consisting of the hydrophilic fibers. Several possible contributions for the water configuration, such as capillary pressure, gravity, vapor condensation, wettability and microstructures of the GDL, are discussed using the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). It is found that the distribution manners of the fibers and the spatial mixed-wettability in the GDL also play an important role in the transport of liquid water. (author)

  2. Experiences in stability testing of boiling water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    March-Leuba, J.; Otaduy, P.J.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to summarize experiences with boiling water reactor (BWR) stability testing using noise analysis techniques. These techniques have been studied over an extended period of time, but it has been only recently that they have been well established and generally accepted. This paper contains first a review of the problem of BWR neutronic stability, focusing on its physical causes and its effects on reactor operation. The paper also describes the main techniques used to quantify, from noise measurements, the reactor's stability in terms of a decay ratio. Finally, the main results and experiences obtained from the stability tests performed at the Dresden and the Browns Ferry reactors using noise analysis techniques are summarized

  3. Behavior of tungsten carbide in water stabilized plasma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brožek, Vlastimil; Matějíček, Jiří; Neufuss, Karel

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 4 (2007), s. 213-220 ISSN 1335-8987 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA104/05/0540 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : water stabilized plasma * tungsten carbide * tungsten hemicarbide * decarburization Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics

  4. Stability of stearic acid monolayers on artificial sea water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brzozowska, A.M.; Duits, Michael H.G.; Mugele, Friedrich Gunther

    2012-01-01

    We studied the formation and stability of stearic acid (SA) based films on aqueous sub-phases via Langmuir trough and imaging ellipsometry experiments. The aqueous phase was based on Artificial Sea Water (ASW), a multicomponent salt solution with a total molarity of 0.53. The composition of this

  5. Preparation of silica stabilized biological templates for the production of metal and layered nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culver, James N; Royston, Elizabeth; Brown, Adam; Harris, Michael

    2013-02-26

    The present invention relates to a system and method providing for increased silica growth on a bio-template, wherein the bio-template is pretreated with aniline to produce a uniform silica attractive surface and yielding a significant silica layers of at least 10 nm, and more preferably at least 20 nm in thickness, thereby providing for a high degree of stability to the bio-template.

  6. Correlation between mechanical behavior of protein films at the air/water interface and intrinsic stability of protein molecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, A.H.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.; Bos, M.A.; Vliet, T. van

    2005-01-01

    The relation between mechanical film properties of various adsorbed protein layers at the air/water interface and intrinsic stability of the corresponding proteins is discussed. Mechanical film properties were determined by surface deformation in shear and dilation. In shear, fracture stress, σf,

  7. Prediction of unsaturated flow and water backfill during infiltration in layered soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Guotao; Zhu, Jianting

    2018-02-01

    We develop a new analytical infiltration model to determine water flow dynamics around layer interfaces during infiltration process in layered soils. The model mainly involves the analytical solutions to quadratic equations to determine the flux rates around the interfaces. Active water content profile behind the wetting front is developed based on the solution of steady state flow to dynamically update active parameters in sharp wetting front infiltration equations and to predict unsaturated flow in coarse layers before the front reaches an impeding fine layer. The effect of water backfill to saturate the coarse layers after the wetting front encounters the impeding fine layer is analytically expressed based on the active water content profiles. Comparison to the numerical solutions of the Richards equation shows that the new model can well capture water dynamics in relation to the arrangement of soil layers. The steady state active water content profile can be used to predict the saturation state of all layers when the wetting front first passes through these layers during the unsteady infiltration process. Water backfill effect may occur when the unsaturated wetting front encounters a fine layer underlying a coarse layer. Sensitivity analysis shows that saturated hydraulic conductivity is the parameter dictating the occurrence of unsaturated flow and water backfill and can be used to represent the coarseness of soil layers. Water backfill effect occurs in coarse layers between upper and lower fine layers when the lower layer is not significantly coarser than the upper layer.

  8. Ultra-thin fluoropolymer buffer layer as an anode stabilizer of organic light emitting devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Nam Chul; Lee, Jaeho; Song, Myung-Won; Ahn, Nari; Kim, Mu-Hyun; Lee, Songtaek; Chin, Byung Doo

    2007-01-01

    We have investigated the effect of thin fluoro-acrylic polymer as an anode stabilizer on the lifetime of an organic light emitting device (OLED). Surface chemical properties of commercial fluoropolymer, FC-722 (Fluorad(TM) of 3M), on indium-tin oxide (ITO) were characterized by x-ray photoemission spectroscopy. An OLED with 1 nm thick fluoropolymeric film showed identical brightness and efficiency behaviour and improved operational stability compared with the reference device with UV-O 3 treated ITO. The improvement in the lifetime was accompanied by the suppression of the voltage increase at the initial stage of constant-current driving, which can be attributed to the action of the FC-722 layer by smoothing the ITO surface. Fluoropolymer coating, therefore, improves the lifetime of the small molecular OLED by the simple and reliable anode-stabilizing process

  9. Importance of interlayer H bonding structure to the stability of layered minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conroy, Michele; Soltis, Jennifer A.; Wittman, Rick S.; Smith, Frances N.; Chatterjee, Sayandev; Zhang, Xin; Ilton, Eugene S.; Buck, Edgar C.

    2017-10-16

    The exact atomic structures of layered minerals have been difficult to characterize because the layers often possess out-of-plane hydrogen atoms that cannot be detected by many analytical techniques. However, the ordering of these bonds are thought to play a fundamental role in the structural stability and solubility of layered minerals. We report a new strategy of using the intense radiation field of a focused electron beam to probe the effect of differences in hydrogen bonding networks on mineral solubility while simultaneously imaging the dissolution behavior in real time via liquid cell electron microscopy. We show the loss in hydrogens from interlayers of boehmite (γ-AlOOH) resulted in 2D nanosheets exfoliating from the bulk that subsequently and rapidly dissolved. However gibbsite (γ-Al(OH)3), with its higher concentration of OH terminating groups, was more accommodating to the deprotonation and stable under the beam.

  10. Correlation between active layer thickness and ambient gas stability in IGZO thin-film transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Xu; Mao, Bao-Hua; Wang, Sui-Dong; Lin, Meng-Fang; Shimizu, Maki; Mitoma, Nobuhiko; Kizu, Takio; Ou-Yang, Wei; Tsukagoshi, Kazuhito; Nabatame, Toshihide; Liu, Zhi

    2017-01-01

    Decreasing the active layer thickness has been recently reported as an alternative way to achieve fully depleted oxide thin-film transistors for the realization of low-voltage operations. However, the correlation between the active layer thickness and device resistivity to environmental changes is still unclear, which is important for the optimized design of oxide thin-film transistors. In this work, the ambient gas stability of IGZO thin-film transistors is found to be strongly correlated to the IGZO thickness. The TFT with the thinnest IGZO layer shows the highest intrinsic electron mobility in a vacuum, which is greatly reduced after exposure to O 2 /air. The device with a thick IGZO layer shows similar electron mobility in O 2 /air, whereas the mobility variation measured in the vacuum is absent. The thickness dependent ambient gas stability is attributed to a high-mobility region in the IGZO surface vicinity with less sputtering-induced damage, which will become electron depleted in O 2 /air due to the electron transfer to adsorbed gas molecules. The O 2 adsorption and deduced IGZO surface band bending is demonstrated by the ambient-pressure x-ray photoemission spectroscopy results. (paper)

  11. Biochar impact on water infiltration and water quality through a compacted subsoil layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soils in the SE USA Coastal Plain region frequently have a compacted subsoil layer (E horizon), which is a barrier for water infiltration. Four different biochars were evaluated to increase water infiltration through a compacted horizon from a Norfolk soil (fine-loamy, kaolinitic...

  12. Experimental investigation of the stability of the floating water bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montazeri Namin, Reza; Azizpour Lindi, Shiva; Amjadi, Ahmad; Jafari, Nima; Irajizad, Peyman

    2013-09-01

    When a high voltage is applied between two beakers filled with deionized water, a floating bridge of water is formed in between exceeding the length of 2 cm when the beakers are pulled apart. Currently two theories regarding the stability of the floating water bridge exist, one suggesting that the tension caused by electric field in the dielectric medium is holding the bridge and the other suggesting surface tension to be responsible for the vertical equilibrium. We construct experiments in which the electric field and the geometry of the bridge are measured and compared with predictions of theories of the floating water bridge stability. We use a numerical simulation for estimation of the electric field. Our results indicate that the two forces of dielectric and surface tensions hold the bridge against gravity simultaneously and, having the same order of magnitude, neither of the two forces are negligible. In bridges with larger diameters, the effect of dielectric tension is slightly more in the vertical equilibrium than surface tension. Results show that the stability can be explained by macroscopic forces, regardless of the microscopic changes in the water structure.

  13. Long-term stability of a one-dimensional current-driven double layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hori, N.; Yamamoto, T.

    1988-01-01

    Long-term (>an electron transit time over the system) stability of a one-dimensional current-driven double layer is studied by numerical experiments using particles. In these experiments, the potential difference across the system is self-consistently determined by the space charge distributions inside the system. Each boundary of the system supplies a nondrifting half-Maxwellian plasma. The current density is increased by increasing the number density of the source plasma at the injection (right) boundary. A double layer can be developed by injection of a sufficiently high current density. For a fixed level of current injection, plasmas carrying no current with various densities (n/sup ts/ 0 ) are loaded on the left side of the system. Whether or not the generated double layer can maintain its potential drop for a long period depends on the density (n/sup ts/ 0 ) relative to the initial density (n/sup */ 0 ) near the injection boundary: (1) the double layer is found to grow when n/sup ts/ 0 = n/sup */ 0 ; (2) the steady double layer is seen for a long period when n/sup ts/ 0 approx. >n/sup */ 0 ; (3) the double layer is found to decay when n/sup ts/ 0 is even higher than n/sup */ 0 . A new concept of the current polarizability P/sub c/ = J/n/sup number/ is introduced for understanding these results, where J is the current density flowing through the double layer and n/sup number/ is the plasma density at the injection front, i.e., the low-potential edge of the double layer

  14. Effects of a layer of vegetative ash layer on wettable and water repellent soil hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodí, Merche B.; Doerr, Stefan H.; Cerdà, Artemi; Mataix-Solera, Jorge

    2010-05-01

    Following a wildfire, a layer of vegetative ash often covers the ground until it is dissolved or redistributed by wind and water erosion. Much of the existing literature suggests that the ash layer temporally reduces infiltration by clogging soil pores or by forming a surface crust (Mallik et al., 1984; Onda et al., 2008). However, an increasing number of field-based studies have found that, at least in the short term, ash increases infiltration by storing rainfall and protecting the underlying soil from sealing (Cerdà and Doerr, 2008; Woods and Balfour, 2008). On the other hand, after a fire the soil may have produced, enhanced or reduced its water repellency (Doerr et al., 2000). Very few studies have been taken into account the interaction of the ash and the repellent soil. The layer of ash may have similar role as a litter layer in delaying runoff and reducing erosion by storing water. In order to examine this interaction, it was been made a series of experiments using a laboratory rainfall simulation. It has been assessed the effects of an ash layer i) on a wettable and water repellent soil (WDPT > 7200s), ii) with different ash thicknesses (bare soil and 5 mm, 15 mm and 30 mm of ash), iii) preceding and following the first rain after a fire when the ground is still wetted and after being partially dried. Three replicates were done, being a total of 40 simulations. The ash used was collected from a Wildfire in Teruel (Spain) during summer of 2009. The simulations were conducted in metal boxes of 30x30 cm and filled with 3 cm of soil. The slope of the box was set at 10° (17%) and the intensity applied was 78-84 mm h-1during 40 minutes. The splash detachment was determined also using four splash cups. Overland flow and subsurface drainage was collected at 1-minute intervals and the former stored every 5 min to allow determination of sediment concentrations, yield and erosion rates. Each sample was examined at the end in terms of water repellency, infiltration

  15. Stability analysis of a heated channel cooled by supercritical water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magni, M. C.; Delmastro, D. F; Marcel, C. P

    2009-01-01

    A simple model to study thermal-hydraulic stability of a heated cannel under supercritical conditions is presented. Single cannel stability analysis for the SCWR (Supercritical Water Cooled Reactor) design was performed. The drastic change of fluid density in the reactor core of a SCWR may induce DWO (Density Wave Oscillations) similar to those observed in BWRs. Due to the similarities between subcritical and supercritical systems we may treat the supercritical fluid as a pseudo two-phase system. Thus, we may extend the modeling approach often used for boiling flow stability analysis to supercritical pressure operation conditions. The model developed in this work take into account three regions: a heavy fluid region, similar to an incompressible liquid; a zone where a heavy fluid and a light fluid coexist, similar to two-phase mixture; and a light fluid region which behaves like superheated steam. It was used the homogeneous equilibrium model (HEM) for the pseudo boiling zone, and the ideal gas model for the pseudo superheated steam zone. System stability maps were obtained using linear stability analysis in the frequency domain. Two possible instability mechanisms are observed: DWO and excursive Ledinegg instabilities. Also, a sensitivity analysis showed that frictions in pseudo superheated steam zone, together with acceleration effect, are the most destabilizing effects. On the other hand, frictions in pseudo liquid zone are the most important stabilizing effect. [es

  16. Novel water filtration of saline water in the outermost layer of mangrove roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kiwoong; Seo, Eunseok; Chang, Suk-Kyu; Park, Tae Jung; Lee, Sang Joon

    2016-02-05

    The scarcity of fresh water is a global challenge faced at present. Several desalination methods have been suggested to secure fresh water from sea water. However, conventional methods suffer from technical limitations, such as high power consumption, expensive operating costs, and limited system durability. In this study, we examined the feasibility of using halophytes as a novel technology of desalinating high-concentration saline water for long periods. This study investigated the biophysical characteristics of sea water filtration in the roots of the mangrove Rhizophora stylosa from a plant hydrodynamic point of view. R. stylosa can grow even in saline water, and the salt level in its roots is regulated within a certain threshold value through filtration. The root possesses a hierarchical, triple layered pore structure in the epidermis, and most Na(+) ions are filtered at the first sublayer of the outermost layer. The high blockage of Na(+) ions is attributed to the high surface zeta potential of the first layer. The second layer, which is composed of macroporous structures, also facilitates Na(+) ion filtration. This study provides insights into the mechanism underlying water filtration through halophyte roots and serves as a basis for the development of a novel bio-inspired desalination method.

  17. Stability of niclosamide in water under local conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Hindi, A.M.; Sidra, M.S.

    1986-01-01

    The stability of 14 C-labelled niclosamide was studied in distilled water at two different pH values and in canal water. 2 mg/1 niclosamide solutions were exposed to direct atmospheric conditions. The activity was followed by radioassay and the concentration of niclosamide was determined by GLC. The total activity was found to decrease to 46.0% in weakly acidic solution (pH 6.5), 45% in neutral solution (pH 7.0) and 16.7% in filtered canal water after three weeks. GLC analysis showed that niclosamide concentration had dropped to 0.05, 0.06 and 0.03 mg/1 in weakly acidic, neutral medium and canal water after the same period. GLC analysis as compared to radioassay indicated the presence of increasing amounts of degradation product(s), in the chloroform extracts of water with time, which were not detected by GLC

  18. Villous motility and unstirred water layers in canine intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mailman, D.; Womack, W.A.; Kvietys, P.R.; Granger, D.N.

    1990-01-01

    The possibility that villous motility reduces the mucosal unstirred water layer by mechanical stirring was examined. The frequency of contraction of villi was measured by using videomicroscopic techniques while a segment of anesthetized canine jejunum or ileum with its nerve and blood supply intact was maintained in a sealed chamber through which Tyrode solution was perfused. Radioisotopically labeled inulin, H 2 O, and butyric and lauric acid were used to measure net and/or unidirectional fluxes from the chamber. The unidirectional absorptive transport of H 2 O and butyric acid but not lauric acid by jejunal segments was significantly correlated with flow through the chamber. Plasma volume expansion increased villous motility but decreased the absorption of H 2 O and lauric acid. Absorption of butyric acid from the ileum was little different than from the jejunum although the degree of villous motility was less and net water absorption was greater from the ileum. Absorption of butyric acid into dead tissue indicated that passive diffusion into the tissue accounted for between 7 and 25%, depending on flow rate, of the absorption in intact tissue and that nonspecific binding was low. It was concluded that villous motility did not stir the unstirred water layers and was not directly associated with altered transport

  19. Nonlinear fluid dynamics of nanoscale hydration water layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhe, Wonho; Kim, Bongsu; Kim, Qhwan; An, Sangmin

    In nature, the hydration water layer (HWL) ubiquitously exists in ambient conditions or aqueous solutions, where water molecules are tightly bound to ions or hydrophilic surfaces. It plays an important role in various mechanisms such as biological processes, abiotic materials, colloidal interaction, and friction. The HWL, for example, can be easily formed between biomaterials since most biomaterials are covered by hydrophilic molecules such as lipid bilayers, and this HWL is expected to be significant to biological and physiological functions. Here (1) we present the general stress tensor of the hydration water layer. The hydration stress tensor provided the platform form for holistic understanding of the dynamic behaviors of the confined HWL including tapping and shear dynamics which are until now individually studied. And, (2) through fast shear velocity ( 1mm/s) experiments, the elastic turbulence caused by elastic property of the HWL is indirectly observed. Our results may contribute to a deeper study of systems where the HWL plays an important role such as biomolecules, colloidal particles, and the MEMS. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea(NRF) Grant funded by the Korea government(MSIP) (2016R1A3B1908660).

  20. Water stability of soil aggregates in different systems of Chernozem tillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslava Bartlová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of various agrotechnical measures on macrostructural changes in the ploughing layer and subsoil were studied within the period of 2008–2010. Soil macrostructure was evaluated on the base of water stability of soil aggregates. Altogether three variants of soil tillage were established, viz. ploughing to the depth of 0.22 m (Variant 1, deep soil loosening to the depth of 0.35–0.40 m (Variant 2, and shallow tillage to the depth of 0.15 m (Variant 3. Experiments were established on a field with Modal Chernozem in the locality Hrušovany nad Jevišovkou (maize-growing region, altitude of 210 m, average annual sum of precipitation 461 mm. In the first experimental year, winter rape was the cultivated crop and it was followed by winter wheat, maize and spring wheat in subsequent years. The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of different methods of tillage on water stability of soil aggregates and on yields of individual crops. An overall analysis of results revealed a positive effect of cultivation without ploughing on water stability of soil aggregates. In the variant with ploughing was found out a statistically significant decrease of this stability. At the same time it was also found out that both minimum tillage and deep soil loosening showed a positive effect on yields of crops under study (above all of maize and winter wheat.

  1. Global stability analysis of axisymmetric boundary layer over a circular cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhoraniya, Ramesh; Vinod, Narayanan

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents a linear global stability analysis of the incompressible axisymmetric boundary layer on a circular cylinder. The base flow is parallel to the axis of the cylinder at inflow boundary. The pressure gradient is zero in the streamwise direction. The base flow velocity profile is fully non-parallel and non-similar in nature. The boundary layer grows continuously in the spatial directions. Linearized Navier-Stokes (LNS) equations are derived for the disturbance flow quantities in the cylindrical polar coordinates. The LNS equations along with homogeneous boundary conditions forms a generalized eigenvalues problem. Since the base flow is axisymmetric, the disturbances are periodic in azimuthal direction. Chebyshev spectral collocation method and Arnoldi's iterative algorithm is used for the solution of the general eigenvalues problem. The global temporal modes are computed for the range of Reynolds numbers and different azimuthal wave numbers. The largest imaginary part of the computed eigenmodes is negative, and hence, the flow is temporally stable. The spatial structure of the eigenmodes shows that the disturbance amplitudes grow in size and magnitude while they are moving towards downstream. The global modes of axisymmetric boundary layer are more stable than that of 2D flat-plate boundary layer at low Reynolds number. However, at higher Reynolds number they approach 2D flat-plate boundary layer. Thus, the damping effect of transverse curvature is significant at low Reynolds number. The wave-like nature of the disturbance amplitudes is found in the streamwise direction for the least stable eigenmodes.

  2. White top-emitting OLEDs using organic colour-conversion layers for improved colour-stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwab, Tobias; Hofmann, Simone; Thomschke, Michael; Luessem, Bjoern; Leo, Karl [Institut fuer Angewandte Photophysik, Technische Universitaet Dresden (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    In contrast to white organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) using several vertical stacked emitters, the principle of down-conversion gives the chance to achieve white light with a simplified layer structure and enhanced colour stability by preventing a colour shift over lifetime due to differential aging of dyes. We investigate an approach where the conversion material is integrated into a top-emitting OLED structure in a way, that only electrons can pass this layer. This assures optical excitation and avoids unwanted electrical recombination inside the conversion layer. The emission spectra, CIE-coordinates, efficiencies, and IV-characteristics depending on the conversion layer thickness have been determined and were compared to the non-emitting host-material with similar optical properties. Lifetime measurements show that these OLEDs have almost no colour change over an investigated period up to 2200 hours. It is shown that the external quantum efficiency of the OLED does not necessarily decrease with an increased conversion layer thickness, even if the photoluminescence quantum yield of these materials is below unity. This indicates that the efficiency is improved by out-coupling of isotropic re-emitted wave-guided modes.

  3. The alginate layer for improving doxorubicin release and radiolabeling stability of chitosan hydrogels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Jeong Il; Lee, Chang Moon; Jeong, Hwan Seok; Hwang, Hyo Sook; Lim, Seok Tae; Sohn, Myung Hee; Jeong, Hwan Jeong [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Therapeutic Medicine Research Center, Cyclotron Research Center, Institute for Medical Science, Biomedical Research Institute, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Chang Moon [Dept. of Biomedical Engineering, Chonnam National University, Yeosu (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Chitosan hydrogels (CSH) formed through ionic interaction with an anionic molecule are suitable as a drug carrier and a tissue engineering scaffold. However, the initial burst release of drugs from the CSH due to rapid swelling after immersing in a biofluid limits their wide application as a drug delivery carrier. In this study, alginate layering on the surface of the doxorubicin (Dox)-loaded and I-131-labeled CSH (DI-CSH) was performed. The effect of the alginate layering on drug release behavior and radiolabeling stability was investigated. Chitosan was chemically modified using a chelator for I-131 labeling. After labeling of I-131 and mixing of Dox, the chitosan solution was dropped into tripolyphosphate (TPP) solution using an electrospinning system to prepare spherical microhydrogels. The DI-CSH were immersed into alginate solution for 30 min to form the crosslinking layer on their surface. The formation of alginate layer on the DI-CSH was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and zeta potential analysis. In order to investigate the effect of alginate layer, studies of in vitro Dox release from the hydrogels were performed in phosphate buffered in saline (PBS, pH 7.4) at 37 °C for 12 days. The radiolabeling stability of the hydrogels was evaluated using ITLC under different experimental condition (human serum, normal saline, and PBS) at 37 °C for 12 days. Formatting the alginate-crosslinked layer on the CSH surface did not change the spherical morphology and the mean diameter (150 ± 10 μm). FT-IR spectra and zeta potential values indicate that alginate layer was formed successfully on the surface of the DI-CSH. In in vitro Dox release studies, the total percentage of the released Dox from the DI-CSH for 12 days were 60.9 ± 0.8, 67.3 ± 1.4, and 71.8 ± 2.5 % for 0.25, 0.50, and 1.00 mg Dox used to load into the hydrogels, respectively. On the other hand, after formatting alginate layer, the percentage of the

  4. ON STABILITY OF THE OIL DISPLACEMENT FRONT UNDER CONDITIONS OF THERMOGAS IMPACT ON THE OIL BEARING LAYER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Dobrego

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The method of thermogas impact on the oil bearing layer is a perspective one to improve oil recovery. It is now under experimental implementation in Belarus. Stability of the thermal front and that of the oil displacement is a point of principle for the given technology. The article offers solution based on the method of small perturbations for the problem of the oil-displacement front stability under thermogas impact on the oil layer. The perturbation growth increment is shown to be quite different from that of the gas filtration combustion. Being determined by the perturbation wave number (or wave length, by difference in speed of the blowing filtration and that of the heat development front, by the ratios of densities, filtration coefficients, compressibility of the displacement agent and the displaced oil mass, and by other parameters. The author analyses the main parameters influencing the stability of the front. Recommendations are given on possible methods and procedures improving stability of the displacement front (neutralizing perturbation growth. The mechanisms of suppression or compensation of the front perturbation growth are as follows: the crude oil viscosity reduction and increase of that of the displacement agent, the displacement agent compressibility increase, increase of the thermogas impact heat-front width in the first instance at the expense of the temperature growth and alteration in the chemism (low temperature catalysts utilization, etc., reduction in speed of the front propagation and/or correspondingly of the displacement agent feed. Utilization of the gas or water-gas displacement agent as well as the agent impregnation with hydrophobic gases provides a relatively better stability of the front as compared to that employing water based compounds. Analytical data and derived recommendations are offered for utilization within the framework of general techniques and procedures of the thermogas impact process management

  5. Double-Layer Structured CO2 Adsorbent Functionalized with Modified Polyethyleneimine for High Physical and Chemical Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Sunbin; Jung, Hyunchul; Kim, Sung Hyun; Lee, Ki Bong

    2018-06-18

    CO 2 capture using polyethyleneimine (PEI)-impregnated silica adsorbents has been receiving a lot of attention. However, the absence of physical stability (evaporation and leaching of amine) and chemical stability (urea formation) of the PEI-impregnated silica adsorbent has been generally established. Therefore, in this study, a double-layer impregnated structure, developed using modified PEI, is newly proposed to enhance the physical and chemical stabilities of the adsorbent. Epoxy-modified PEI and diepoxide-cross-linked PEI were impregnated via a dry impregnation method in the first and second layers, respectively. The physical stability of the double-layer structured adsorbent was noticeably enhanced when compared to the conventional adsorbents with a single layer. In addition to the enhanced physical stability, the result of simulated temperature swing adsorption cycles revealed that the double-layer structured adsorbent presented a high potential working capacity (3.5 mmol/g) and less urea formation under CO 2 -rich regeneration conditions. The enhanced physical and chemical stabilities as well as the high CO 2 working capacity of the double-layer structured adsorbent were mainly attributed to the second layer consisting of diepoxide-cross-linked PEI.

  6. Stability of an unsupported multi-layer surfactant laden liquid curtain under gravity

    KAUST Repository

    Henry, D.

    2015-11-07

    The industrial process of curtain coating has long been an important method in coating applications, by which a thin liquid curtain is formed to impinge upon a moving substrate, due to its highly lucrative advantage of being able to coat multiple layers simultaneously. We investigate the linear stability of an unsupported two-layer liquid curtain, which has insoluble surfactants in both liquids, which are widely used in industry to increase the stability of the curtain. We formulate the governing equations, simplified by making a thin film approximation, from which we obtain equations describing the steady-state profiles. We then examine the response of the curtain to small perturbations about this steady state to identify conditions under which the curtain is unstable, finding the addition of surfactants stabilizes the curtain. Our results are then compared to experimental data, showing a favourable trend and thereby extending the works of Brown (J Fluid Mech 10:297–305, 1960) and Dyson et al. (J Eng Math 64:237–250, 2009).

  7. Use of segmented constrained layer damping treatment for improved helicopter aeromechanical stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiang; Chattopadhyay, Aditi; Gu, Haozhong; Liu, Qiang; Chattopadhyay, Aditi; Zhou, Xu

    2000-08-01

    The use of a special type of smart material, known as segmented constrained layer (SCL) damping, is investigated for improved rotor aeromechanical stability. The rotor blade load-carrying member is modeled using a composite box beam with arbitrary wall thickness. The SCLs are bonded to the upper and lower surfaces of the box beam to provide passive damping. A finite-element model based on a hybrid displacement theory is used to accurately capture the transverse shear effects in the composite primary structure and the viscoelastic and the piezoelectric layers within the SCL. Detailed numerical studies are presented to assess the influence of the number of actuators and their locations for improved aeromechanical stability. Ground and air resonance analysis models are implemented in the rotor blade built around the composite box beam with segmented SCLs. A classic ground resonance model and an air resonance model are used in the rotor-body coupled stability analysis. The Pitt dynamic inflow model is used in the air resonance analysis under hover condition. Results indicate that the surface bonded SCLs significantly increase rotor lead-lag regressive modal damping in the coupled rotor-body system.

  8. Deposition of yttria stabilized zirconia layer for solid oxide fuel cell by chemical vapor infiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John, John T.; Dubey, Vivekanand; Kain, Vivekanand; Dey, Gautham Kumar; Prakash, Deep

    2011-01-01

    Free energy associated with a chemical reaction can be converted into electricity, if we can split the reaction into an anodic reaction and a cathodic reaction and carry out the reactions in an electrochemical cell using electrodes that will catalyze the reactions. We also have to use a suitable electrolyte, that serves to isolate the chemical species in the two compartments from getting mixed directly but allow an ion produced in one of the reactions to proceed to the other side and complete the reaction. For this reason cracks and porosity are not tolerated in the electrolyte. First generation solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) uses yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) as the electrolyte. In spite of the fact that several solid electrolytes with higher conductivities at lower temperature are being investigated and developed, 8 mol% yttria stabilized zirconia (8YSZ) is considered to be the most favored electrolyte for the SOFC today. The electrolyte should be present as a thin, impervious layer of uniform thickness with good adherence, chemical and mechanical stability, in between the porous cathode and anode. Efforts to produce the 8YSZ coatings on porous lanthanum strontium manganite tubes by electrochemical vapor deposition (ECVD) have met with unexpected difficulties such as impurity pick up and chemical and mechanical instability of the LSM tubes in the ECVD environment. It was also difficult to keep the chemical composition of the YSZ coating at exactly 8 mol% Yttria in zirconia and to control the coating thickness in tight control. These problems were overcome by a two step deposition process where a YSZ layer of required thickness was produced by electrophoretic coating from an acetyl acetone bath at a voltage of 30-300V DC and sintered at 1300 deg C. The resulting porous YSZ layer was made impervious by chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) by the reaction between a mixture of vapors of YCl 3 and ZrCl 4 and steam at 1300 deg C as in the case of ECVD for a short

  9. Vertical transport of water in the Martian boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zent, Aaron P.; Haberle, R. M.; Houben, Howard C.

    1993-01-01

    We are continuing our examination of the transport of H2O through the martian boundary layer, and we have written a one-dimensional numerical model of the exchange of H2O between the atmosphere and subsurface of Mars through the planetary boundary layer (PBL). Our goal is to explore the mechanisms of H2O exchange, and to elucidate the role played by the regolith in the local H2O budget. The atmospheric model includes effects of Coriolis, pressure gradient, and frictional forces for momentum, as well as radiation, sensible heat flux, and advection for heat. The model differs from Flasar and Goody by use of appropriate Viking-based physical constants and inclusion of the radiative effects of atmospheric dust. We specify the pressure gradient force or compute it from a simple slope model. The subsurface model accounts for conduction of heat and diffusion of H2O through a porous adsorbing medium in response to diurnal forcing. The model is initialized with depth-independent H2O concentrations (2 kg M(exp -3)) in the regolith, and a dry atmosphere. The model terminates when the atmospheric H2O column abundance stabilizes at 0.1 percent per sol.

  10. Molecular layer deposition of APTES on silicon nanowire biosensors: Surface characterization, stability and pH response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Yuchen; Huang, Jie; Zang, Pengyuan; Kim, Jiyoung; Hu, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Abstract: We report the use of molecular layer deposition (MLD) for depositing 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) on a silicon dioxide surface. The APTES monolayer was characterized using spectroscopic ellipsometry, contact angle goniometry, and atomic force microscopy. Effects of reaction time of repeating pulses and simultaneous feeding of water vapor with APTES were tested. The results indicate that the synergistic effects of water vapor and reaction time are significant for the formation of a stable monolayer. Additionally, increasing the number of repeating pulses improved the APTES surface coverage but led to saturation after 10 pulses. In comparing MLD with solution-phase deposition, the APTES surface coverage and the surface quality were nearly equivalent. The hydrolytic stability of the resulting films was also studied. The results confirmed that the hydrolysis process was necessary for MLD to obtain stable surface chemistry. Furthermore, we compared the pH sensing results of Si nanowire field effect transistors (Si NWFETs) modified by both the MLD and solution methods. The highly repeatable pH sensing results reflected the stability of APTES monolayers. The results also showed an improved pH response of the sensor prepared by MLD compared to the one prepared by the solution treatment, which indicated higher surface coverage of APTES

  11. Molecular layer deposition of APTES on silicon nanowire biosensors: Surface characterization, stability and pH response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yuchen; Huang, Jie; Zang, Pengyuan; Kim, Jiyoung; Hu, Walter

    2014-12-01

    We report the use of molecular layer deposition (MLD) for depositing 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) on a silicon dioxide surface. The APTES monolayer was characterized using spectroscopic ellipsometry, contact angle goniometry, and atomic force microscopy. Effects of reaction time of repeating pulses and simultaneous feeding of water vapor with APTES were tested. The results indicate that the synergistic effects of water vapor and reaction time are significant for the formation of a stable monolayer. Additionally, increasing the number of repeating pulses improved the APTES surface coverage but led to saturation after 10 pulses. In comparing MLD with solution-phase deposition, the APTES surface coverage and the surface quality were nearly equivalent. The hydrolytic stability of the resulting films was also studied. The results confirmed that the hydrolysis process was necessary for MLD to obtain stable surface chemistry. Furthermore, we compared the pH sensing results of Si nanowire field effect transistors (Si NWFETs) modified by both the MLD and solution methods. The highly repeatable pH sensing results reflected the stability of APTES monolayers. The results also showed an improved pH response of the sensor prepared by MLD compared to the one prepared by the solution treatment, which indicated higher surface coverage of APTES.

  12. Stability and performance improvement of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell stack by laser perforation of gas diffusion layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerteisen, Dietmar; Sadeler, Christian [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Department of Energy Technology, Heidenhofstrasse 2, 79110 Freiburg (Germany)

    2010-08-15

    The performance and stability of a hydrogen-driven polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell stack (6-cell PEFC stack) are investigated with regard to pore flooding within the gas diffusion layers (GDLs). Two short stacks with various GDLs (Toray TGP-H-060 untreated and laser-perforated) were characterized at different operating conditions by several characterization techniques such as constant current load, polarization curve, chronoamperometry and chronovoltammetry. The experimental results reveal that the perforation of the cathode GDLs improves the water transport in the porous media and thus the performance as well as the stability of the operating stack in medium and high current density range. A reduced pore flooding is verified when using the customized laser-perforated GDLs. The GDL perforation has a huge potential to balance the inhomogeneous in-plane saturation conditions between the inlet and outlet area of the cell and to compensate to a certain degree the effects of temperature distribution within a stack regarding the water management. (author)

  13. Stability and performance improvement of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell stack by laser perforation of gas diffusion layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerteisen, Dietmar; Sadeler, Christian

    The performance and stability of a hydrogen-driven polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell stack (6-cell PEFC stack) are investigated with regard to pore flooding within the gas diffusion layers (GDLs). Two short stacks with various GDLs (Toray TGP-H-060 untreated and laser-perforated) were characterized at different operating conditions by several characterization techniques such as constant current load, polarization curve, chronoamperometry and chronovoltammetry. The experimental results reveal that the perforation of the cathode GDLs improves the water transport in the porous media and thus the performance as well as the stability of the operating stack in medium and high current density range. A reduced pore flooding is verified when using the customized laser-perforated GDLs. The GDL perforation has a huge potential to balance the inhomogeneous in-plane saturation conditions between the inlet and outlet area of the cell and to compensate to a certain degree the effects of temperature distribution within a stack regarding the water management.

  14. Dynamic Stabilization of Metal Oxide–Water Interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McBriarty, Martin E.; von Rudorff, Guido Falk; Stubbs, Joanne E.; Eng, Peter J.; Blumberger, Jochen; Rosso, Kevin M.

    2017-02-08

    The interaction of water with metal oxide surfaces plays a crucial role in the catalytic and geochemical behavior of metal oxides. In a vast majority of studies, the interfacial structure is assumed to arise from a relatively static lowest energy configuration of atoms, even at room temperature. Using hematite (α-Fe2O3) as a model oxide, we show through a direct comparison of in situ synchrotron X-ray scattering with density functional theory-based molecular dynamics simulations that the structure of the (1102) termination is dynamically stabilized by picosecond water exchange. Simulations show frequent exchanges between terminal aquo groups and adsorbed water in locations and with partial residence times consistent with experimentally determined atomic sites and fractional occupancies. Frequent water exchange occurs even for an ultrathin adsorbed water film persisting on the surface under a dry atmosphere. The resulting time-averaged interfacial structure consists of a ridged lateral arrangement of adsorbed water molecules hydrogen bonded to terminal aquo groups. Surface pKa prediction based on bond valence analysis suggests that water exchange will influence the proton-transfer reactions underlying the acid/base reactivity at the interface. Our findings provide important new insights for understanding complex interfacial chemical processes at metal oxide–water interfaces.

  15. Local environmental conditions and the stability of protective layers on steel surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, J P [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark); Bursik, A

    1996-12-01

    Local environmental conditions determine whether the protective layers on steel surfaces are stable. With unfavorable local environmental conditions, the protective layers may be subject to damage. Taking the cation conductivity of all plant cycle streams <0.2 {mu}S/cm for granted, an adequate feed-water and - if applicable - boiler water conditioning is required to prevent such damage. Even if the mentioned conditions are met in a bulk, the local environmental conditions may be inadequate. The reasons for this may be the disregarding of interactions among material, design, and chemistry. The paper presents many possible mechanisms of protective layer damage that are directly influenced or exacerbated by plant cycle chemistry. Two items are discussed in more detail: First, the application of all volatile treatment for boiler water conditioning of drum boiler systems operating at low pressures and, second, the chemistry in the transition zone water/steam in the low pressure turbine. The latter is of major interest for the understanding and prevention of corrosion due to high concentration of impurities in the aqueous liquid phases. This is a typical example showing that local environmental conditions may fundamentally differ from the overall bulk chemistry. (au) 19 refs.

  16. Role of specific cations and water entropy on the stability of branched DNA motif structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascal, Tod A; Goddard, William A; Maiti, Prabal K; Vaidehi, Nagarajan

    2012-10-11

    DNA three-way junctions (TWJs) are important intermediates in various cellular processes and are the simplest of a family of branched nucleic acids being considered as scaffolds for biomolecular nanotechnology. Branched nucleic acids are stabilized by divalent cations such as Mg(2+), presumably due to condensation and neutralization of the negatively charged DNA backbone. However, electrostatic screening effects point to more complex solvation dynamics and a large role of interfacial waters in thermodynamic stability. Here, we report extensive computer simulations in explicit water and salt on a model TWJ and use free energy calculations to quantify the role of ionic character and strength on stability. We find that enthalpic stabilization of the first and second hydration shells by Mg(2+) accounts for 1/3 and all of the free energy gain in 50% and pure MgCl(2) solutions, respectively. The more distorted DNA molecule is actually destabilized in pure MgCl(2) compared to pure NaCl. Notably, the first shell, interfacial waters have very low translational and rotational entropy (i.e., mobility) compared to the bulk, an entropic loss that is overcompensated by increased enthalpy from additional electrostatic interactions with Mg(2+). In contrast, the second hydration shell has anomalously high entropy as it is trapped between an immobile and bulklike layer. The nonmonotonic entropic signature and long-range perturbations of the hydration shells to Mg(2+) may have implications in the molecular recognition of these motifs. For example, we find that low salt stabilizes the parallel configuration of the three-way junction, whereas at normal salt we find antiparallel configurations deduced from the NMR. We use the 2PT analysis to follow the thermodynamics of this transition and find that the free energy barrier is dominated by entropic effects that result from the decreased surface area of the antiparallel form which has a smaller number of low entropy waters in the first

  17. Thermal stability of Dion-Jacobson mixed-metal-niobate double-layered perovskites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermann, Andrew T.; Wiley, John B.

    2009-01-01

    The thermal stability and decomposition pathways of six Dion-Jacobson-related double-layered perovskites, ALaNb 2 O 7 (A = H, Li, Na, Ag) and (ACl)LaNb 2 O 7 (A = Fe, Cu), are investigated. These compounds are made by low temperature ( 2 O 7 . All the compounds are low temperature phases with some of them exhibiting decomposition exotherms consistent with metastability. Decomposition temperatures and reactions pathways vary with the identity of A with most decompositions resulting in the formation of a niobate (containing A) and LaNbO 4 . Results from differential scanning calorimetry and high temperature X-ray powder diffraction studies are presented and structural parameters pertinent to compound stability discussed

  18. Numerical simulations and linear stability analysis of a boundary layer developed on wavy surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siconolfi, Lorenzo; Camarri, Simone; Fransson, Jens H. M.

    2015-11-01

    The development of passive methods leading to a laminar to turbulent transition delay in a boundary layer (BL) is a topic of great interest both for applications and academic research. In literature it has been shown that a proper and stable spanwise velocity modulation can reduce the growth rate of Tollmien-Schlichting (TS) waves and delay transition. In this study, we investigate numerically the possibility of obtaining a stabilizing effect of the TS waves through the use of a spanwise sinusoidal modulation of a flat plate. This type of control has been already successfully investigated experimentally. An extensive set of direct numerical simulations is carried out to study the evolution of a BL flow developed on wavy surfaces with different geometric characteristics, and the results will be presented here. Moreover, since this configuration is characterized by a slowly-varying flow field in streamwise direction, a local stability analysis is applied to define the neutral stability curves for the BL flow controlled by this type of wall modifications. These results give the possibility of investigating this control strategy and understanding the effect of the free parameters on the stabilization mechanism.

  19. Growth and micro structural studies on Yittria Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) and Strontium Titanate (STO) buffer layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivas, S.; Bhatnagar, A.K. [Univ. of Hyderabad (India); Pinto, R. [Solid State Electronics Group, Bombay (India)] [and others

    1994-12-31

    Microstructure of Yittria Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) and Strontium Titanate (STO) of radio frequency magnetron sputtered buffer layers was studied at various sputtering conditions on Si<100>, Sapphire and LaAlO{sub 3} <100> substrates. The effect of substrate temperatures upto 800 C and sputtering gas pressures in the range of 50 mTorr. of growth conditions was studied. The buffer layers of YSZ and STO showed a strong tendency for columnar structure with variation growth conditions. The buffer layers of YSZ and STO showed orientation. The tendency for columnar growth was observed above 15 mTorr sputtering gas pressure and at high substrate temperatures. Post annealing of these films in oxygen atmosphere reduced the oxygen deficiency and strain generated during growth of the films. Strong c-axis oriented superconducting YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 9}O{sub 7-x} (YBCO) thin films were obtained on these buffer layers using pulsed laser ablation technique. YBCO films deposited on multilayers of YSZ and STO were shown to have better superconducting properties.

  20. Conduction and stability of holmium titanium oxide thin films grown by atomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castán, H., E-mail: helena@ele.uva.es [Department of Electronic, University of Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); García, H.; Dueñas, S.; Bailón, L. [Department of Electronic, University of Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Miranda, E. [Departament d' Enginyería Electrònica, Universitat Autónoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Kukli, K. [Department of Chemistry, University of Helsinki, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, EE-50411,Tartu (Estonia); Kemell, M.; Ritala, M.; Leskelä, M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Helsinki, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland)

    2015-09-30

    Holmium titanium oxide (HoTiO{sub x}) thin films of variable chemical composition grown by atomic layer deposition are studied in order to assess their suitability as dielectric materials in metal–insulator–metal electronic devices. The correlation between thermal and electrical stabilities as well as the potential usefulness of HoTiO{sub x} as a resistive switching oxide are also explored. It is shown that the layer thickness and the relative holmium content play important roles in the switching behavior of the devices. Cycled current–voltage measurements showed that the resistive switching is bipolar with a resistance window of up to five orders of magnitude. In addition, it is demonstrated that the post-breakdown current–voltage characteristics in HoTiO{sub x} are well described by a power-law model in a wide voltage and current range which extends from the soft to the hard breakdown regimes. - Highlights: • Gate and memory suitabilities of atomic layer deposited holmium titanium oxide. • Holmium titanium oxide exhibits resistive switching. • Layer thickness and holmium content influence the resistive switching. • Low and high resistance regimes follow a power-law model. • The power-law model can be extended to the hard breakdown regime.

  1. Investigation on flow stability of supercritical water cooled systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, X.; Kuang, B.

    2006-01-01

    Research activities are ongoing worldwide to develop nuclear power plants with supercritical water cooled reactor (SCWR) with the purpose to achieve a high thermal efficiency and to improve their economical competitiveness. However, the strong variation of the thermal-physical properties of water in the vicinity of the pseudo-critical line results in challenging tasks in various fields, e.g. thermal-hydraulic design of a SCWR. One of the challenging tasks is to understand and to predict the dynamic behavior of supercritical water cooled systems. Although many thermal-hydraulic research activities were carried out worldwide in the past as well as in the near present, studies on dynamic behavior and flow stability of SC water cooled systems are scare. Due to the strong density variation, flow stability is expected to be one of the key items which need to be taken into account in the design of a SCWR. In the present work, the dynamic behavior and flow stability of SC water cooled systems are investigated using both numerical and theoretical approaches. For this purpose a new computer code SASC was developed, which can be applied to analysis the dynamic behavior of systems cooled by supercritical fluids. In addition, based on the assumptions of a simplified system, a theoretical model was derived for the prediction of the onset of flow instability. A comparison was made between the results obtained using the theoretical model and those from the SASC code. A good agreement was achieved. This gives the first evidence of the reliability of both the SASC code and the theoretical model

  2. Energetic basis of catalytic activity of layered nanophase calcium manganese oxides for water oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkner, Nancy; Nayeri, Sara; Pashaei, Babak; Najafpour, Mohammad Mahdi; Casey, William H; Navrotsky, Alexandra

    2013-05-28

    Previous measurements show that calcium manganese oxide nanoparticles are better water oxidation catalysts than binary manganese oxides (Mn3O4, Mn2O3, and MnO2). The probable reasons for such enhancement involve a combination of factors: The calcium manganese oxide materials have a layered structure with considerable thermodynamic stability and a high surface area, their low surface energy suggests relatively loose binding of H2O on the internal and external surfaces, and they possess mixed-valent manganese with internal oxidation enthalpy independent of the Mn(3+)/Mn(4+) ratio and much smaller in magnitude than the Mn2O3-MnO2 couple. These factors enhance catalytic ability by providing easy access for solutes and water to active sites and facile electron transfer between manganese in different oxidation states.

  3. Low cost fuel cell diffusion layer configured for optimized anode water management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owejan, Jon P; Nicotera, Paul D; Mench, Matthew M; Evans, Robert E

    2013-08-27

    A fuel cell comprises a cathode gas diffusion layer, a cathode catalyst layer, an anode gas diffusion layer, an anode catalyst layer and an electrolyte. The diffusion resistance of the anode gas diffusion layer when operated with anode fuel is higher than the diffusion resistance of the cathode gas diffusion layer. The anode gas diffusion layer may comprise filler particles having in-plane platelet geometries and be made of lower cost materials and manufacturing processes than currently available commercial carbon fiber substrates. The diffusion resistance difference between the anode gas diffusion layer and the cathode gas diffusion layer may allow for passive water balance control.

  4. Radiolytic stability of gibbsite and boehmite with adsorbed water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huestis, Patricia; Pearce, Carolyn I.; Zhang, X.; N' Diaye, Alpha T.; Rosso, Kevin M.; LaVerne, Jay A.

    2018-04-01

    Aluminum oxyhydroxide (boehmite, AlOOH) and aluminum hydroxide (gibbsite, Al(OH)3) powders with adsorbed water were irradiated with -rays and 5 MeV He ions (α-particles) in order to determine overall radiation stability and chemical modification to the surface. No variation in overall phase or crystallinity due to radiolysis was observed with X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy for doses up to 2 MGy with -rays and 175 MGy with α-particles. Temperature programed desorption (TPD) of the water from the surface to the gas phase indicated that the water was chemisorbed and strongly bound. Water adsorption sites are of similar energy for both gibbsite and boehmite. Observation of the water adsorbed on the surface of gibbsite and boehmite with diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) showed broad peaks at 3100-3600 cm-1 due to OH stretching that slowly decreased on heating to 500oC, which corresponds well with the water vapor evolution observed with TPD. Both materials were found to be amorphous following heating to 500oC. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) indicated surface reduction of Al(III) to Al metal on radiolysis with α-particles. Complete loss of chemisorbed water and the formation of bulk O atoms was observed following radiolysis with α-particles.

  5. Artificial neural networks versus conventional methods for boiling water reactor stability monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagen, T.H.J.J. van der

    1995-01-01

    The application of an artificial neural network (ANN) for boiling water reactor (BWR) stability monitoring was studied. A three-layer perceptron was trained on synthetic autocorrelation functions to estimate the decay ratio and the resonance frequency from measured neutron noise. Training of the ANN was improved by adding noise to the training patterns and by applying nonconventional error definitions in the generalized delta rule. The performance of the developed ANN was compared with those of conventional stability monitoring techniques. Explicit care was taken for generating unbiased test data. It is found that the trained ANN is capable of monitoring the stability of the Dodewaard BWR for four specific cases. By comparing properties such as the false alarm ratio, the alarm failure ratio, and the average time to alarm, it is shown that it performs worse than model-based methods in stability monitoring of exact second-order systems but that it is more robust (better resistant to corruptions of the input data and to deviations of the system at issue from an exact second-order system) than other methods. The latter explains its good performance on the Dodewaard BWR and is promising for the application of an ANN for stability monitoring of other reactors and for other operating conditions

  6. Transient Growth Analysis of Compressible Boundary Layers with Parabolized Stability Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, Pedro; Choudhari, Meelan M.; Li, Fei; Chang, Chau-Lyan

    2016-01-01

    The linear form of parabolized linear stability equations (PSE) is used in a variational approach to extend the previous body of results for the optimal, non-modal disturbance growth in boundary layer flows. This methodology includes the non-parallel effects associated with the spatial development of boundary layer flows. As noted in literature, the optimal initial disturbances correspond to steady counter-rotating stream-wise vortices, which subsequently lead to the formation of stream-wise-elongated structures, i.e., streaks, via a lift-up effect. The parameter space for optimal growth is extended to the hypersonic Mach number regime without any high enthalpy effects, and the effect of wall cooling is studied with particular emphasis on the role of the initial disturbance location and the value of the span-wise wavenumber that leads to the maximum energy growth up to a specified location. Unlike previous predictions that used a basic state obtained from a self-similar solution to the boundary layer equations, mean flow solutions based on the full Navier-Stokes (NS) equations are used in select cases to help account for the viscous-inviscid interaction near the leading edge of the plate and also for the weak shock wave emanating from that region. These differences in the base flow lead to an increasing reduction with Mach number in the magnitude of optimal growth relative to the predictions based on self-similar mean-flow approximation. Finally, the maximum optimal energy gain for the favorable pressure gradient boundary layer near a planar stagnation point is found to be substantially weaker than that in a zero pressure gradient Blasius boundary layer.

  7. Stability study of cermet-supported solid oxide fuel cells with bi-layered electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xinge; Gazzarri, Javier; Robertson, Mark; Deces-Petit, Cyrille [National Research Council, Institute for Fuel Cell Innovation, 4250 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Kesler, Olivera [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto, 5 King' s College Road, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2008-12-01

    Performance and stability of five cermet-supported button-type solid oxide fuel cells featuring a bi-layered electrolyte (SSZ/SDC), an SSC cathode, and a Ni-SSZ anode, were analyzed using polarization curves, impedance spectroscopy, and post-mortem SEM observation. The cell performance degradation at 650 C in H{sub 2}/air both with and without DC bias conditions was manifested primarily as an increase in polarization resistance, approximately at a rate of 2.3 m{omega} cm{sup 2} h{sup -1} at OCV, suggesting a decrease in electrochemical kinetics as the main phenomenon responsible for the performance decay. In addition, the initial series resistance was about ten times higher than the calculated resistance corresponding to the electrolyte, reflecting a possible inter-reaction between the electrolyte layers that occurred during the sintering stage. In situ and ex situ sintered cathodes showed no obvious difference in cell performance or decay rate. The stability of the cells with and without electrical load was also investigated and no significant influence of DC bias was recorded. Based on the experimental results presented, we preliminarily attribute the performance degradation to electrochemical and microstructural degradation of the cathode. (author)

  8. Stability study of cermet-supported solid oxide fuel cells with bi-layered electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinge; Gazzarri, Javier; Robertson, Mark; Decès-Petit, Cyrille; Kesler, Olivera

    Performance and stability of five cermet-supported button-type solid oxide fuel cells featuring a bi-layered electrolyte (SSZ/SDC), an SSC cathode, and a Ni-SSZ anode, were analyzed using polarization curves, impedance spectroscopy, and post-mortem SEM observation. The cell performance degradation at 650 °C in H 2/air both with and without DC bias conditions was manifested primarily as an increase in polarization resistance, approximately at a rate of 2.3 mΩ cm 2 h -1 at OCV, suggesting a decrease in electrochemical kinetics as the main phenomenon responsible for the performance decay. In addition, the initial series resistance was about ten times higher than the calculated resistance corresponding to the electrolyte, reflecting a possible inter-reaction between the electrolyte layers that occurred during the sintering stage. In situ and ex situ sintered cathodes showed no obvious difference in cell performance or decay rate. The stability of the cells with and without electrical load was also investigated and no significant influence of DC bias was recorded. Based on the experimental results presented, we preliminarily attribute the performance degradation to electrochemical and microstructural degradation of the cathode.

  9. Enhancement of efficiency and stability of phosphorescent OLEDs based on heterostructured light-emitting layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chin, Byung Doo, E-mail: bdchin@dankook.ac.kr [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering and Center for Photofunctional Energy Materials, Dankook University, Jukjeon-dong, Suji-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 448-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-03-23

    The light-emitting efficiency and stability of a phosphorescent organic light-emitting device (OLED), whose emission characteristics are strongly dominated not only by the energy transfer but also by the charge carrier trapping influenced by heterostructured emissive layers, are studied. The variation of the material combination of the heterostructured emitter, both for mixed and double layer configuration, affects the charge injection behaviour, luminous efficiency and stability. Both double and mixed emitter configurations yield low-voltage and high-efficiency behaviour (51 lm W{sup -1} at 1000 cd m{sup -2}; 30 lm W{sup -1} at 10 000 cd m{sup -2}). Such an improvement in power efficiency at elevated brightness is sufficiently universal, while the enhancement of device half-lifetime is rather sensitive to the circumstantial layout of heterostructural emitters. With an optimal mixture of hole-transport type and electron-transport type, a half-lifetime of more than 2500 h at 4000 cd m{sup -2} is obtained, which is 8 times the half-lifetime of control devices with a single emitter structure. The origin and criterion for enhancement of efficiency and lifetime are discussed in terms of the carrier transport behaviour with a specific device architecture.

  10. Logisnet: A tool for multimethod, multiple soil layers slope stability analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legorreta Paulin, G.; Bursik, M.

    2009-05-01

    Shallow landslides and slope failures have been studied from several points of view (inventory, heuristic, statistic, and deterministic). In particular, numerous methods embedded in Geographic Information Systems (GIS) applications have been developed to assess slope stability. However, little work has been done on the systematic comparison of different techniques and the incorporation of vertical contrasts of geotechnical properties in multiple soil layers. In this research, stability is modeled by using LOGISNET, an acronym for Multiple Logistic Regression, Geographic Information System, and Neural Network. The main purpose of LOGISNET is to provide government planners and decision makers a tool to assess landslide susceptibility. The system is fully operational for models handling an enhanced cartographic-hydrologic model (SINMAP) and multiple logistic regression. The enhanced implementation of SINMAP was tested at regional scale in the Highway 101 corridor in Del Norte County, California, and its susceptibility map was found to have improved factor of safety estimates based on comparison with landslide inventory maps. The enhanced SINMAP and multiple logistic regression subsystems have functions that allow the user to include vertical variation in geotechnical properties through summation of forces in specific soil layers acting on failure planes for a local or regional-scale mapping. The working group of LOGISNET foresees the development of an integrated tool system to handle and support the prognostic studies of slope instability, and communicate the results to the public through maps.

  11. Estimating amplitude ratios in boundary layer stability theory: a comparison between two approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Rama; Narasimha, R.

    2001-07-01

    We first demonstrate that, if the contributions of higher-order mean flow are ignored, the parabolized stability equations (Bertolotti et al. 1992) and the ‘full’ non-parallel equation of Govindarajan & Narasimha (1995, hereafter GN95) are both equivalent to order R[minus sign]1 in the local Reynolds number R to Gaster's (1974) equation for the stability of spatially developing boundary layers. It is therefore of some concern that a detailed comparison between Gaster (1974) and GN95 reveals a small difference in the computed amplitude ratios. Although this difference is not significant in practical terms in Blasius flow, it is traced here to the approximation, in Gaster's method, of neglecting the change in eigenfunction shape due to flow non-parallelism. This approximation is not justified in the critical and the wall layers, where the neglected term is respectively O(R[minus sign]2/3) and O(R[minus sign]1) compared to the largest term. The excellent agreement of GN95 with exact numerical simulations, on the other hand, suggests that the effect of change in eigenfunction is accurately taken into account in that paper.

  12. The effect of a zinc–tin-oxide layer used as an etch-stopper layer on the bias stress stability of solution-processed indium–gallium–zinc-oxide thin-film transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chul Ho; Rim, You Seung; Kim, Hyun Jae

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the bias stress stability of solution-processed indium–gallium–zinc-oxide thin-film transistors (IGZO TFTs) using zinc–tin-oxide (ZTO) as the etch-stopper layer, the so-called dual-active-layered ZTO/IGZO TFT (DALZI TFT). The DALZI TFT can use a low-cost back-channel-etch structure because of the high chemical stability of the upper ZTO layer. The DALZI TFT exhibited only a threshold voltage shift of −1.86 V under negative bias illumination stress (NBIS) conditions (stress time = 1000 s), while the unpassivated IGZO TFT suffered from a threshold voltage shift of −19.59 V under NBIS conditions (stress time = 1000 s). The superior bias stress stability of the DALZI TFT is attributed not only to the densification effect by the multi-stacking process but also to the lower sensitivity to ambient gases (e.g., oxygen and water vapour) due to the low oxygen vacancy in the upper ZTO layer. (paper)

  13. Structural characterization of the phospholipid stabilizer layer at the solid-liquid interface of dispersed triglyceride nanocrystals with small-angle x-ray and neutron scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmiele, Martin; Schindler, Torben; Unruh, Tobias; Busch, Sebastian; Morhenn, Humphrey; Westermann, Martin; Steiniger, Frank; Radulescu, Aurel; Lindner, Peter; Schweins, Ralf; Boesecke, Peter

    2013-06-01

    Dispersions of crystalline nanoparticles with at least one sufficiently large unit cell dimension can give rise to Bragg reflections in the small-angle scattering range. If the nanocrystals possess only a small number of unit cells along these particular crystallographic directions, the corresponding Bragg reflections will be broadened. In a previous study of phospholipid stabilized dispersions of β-tripalmitin platelets [Unruh, J. Appl. Crystallogr.JACGAR0021-889810.1107/S0021889807044378 40, 1008 (2007)], the x-ray powder pattern simulation analysis (XPPSA) was developed. The XPPSA method facilitates the interpretation of the rather complicated small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) curves of such dispersions of nanocrystals. The XPPSA method yields the distribution function of the platelet thicknesses and facilitates a structural characterization of the phospholipid stabilizer layer at the solid-liquid interface between the nanocrystals and the dispersion medium from the shape of the broadened 001 Bragg reflection. In this contribution an improved and extended version of the XPPSA method is presented. The SAXS and small-angle neutron scattering patterns of dilute phospholipid stabilized tripalmitin dispersions can be reproduced on the basis of a consistent simulation model for the particles and their phospholipid stabilizer layer on an absolute scale. The results indicate a surprisingly flat arrangement of the phospholipid molecules in the stabilizer layer with a total thickness of only 12 Å. The stabilizer layer can be modeled by an inner shell for the fatty acid chains and an outer shell including the head groups and additional water. The experiments support a dense packing of the phospholipid molecules on the nanocrystal surfaces rather than isolated phospholipid domains.

  14. Effect of plate permeability on nonlinear stability of the asymptotic suction boundary layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedin, Håkan; Cherubini, Stefania; Bottaro, Alessandro

    2015-07-01

    The nonlinear stability of the asymptotic suction boundary layer is studied numerically, searching for finite-amplitude solutions that bifurcate from the laminar flow state. By changing the boundary conditions for disturbances at the plate from the classical no-slip condition to more physically sound ones, the stability characteristics of the flow may change radically, both for the linearized as well as the nonlinear problem. The wall boundary condition takes into account the permeability K̂ of the plate; for very low permeability, it is acceptable to impose the classical boundary condition (K̂=0). This leads to a Reynolds number of approximately Re(c)=54400 for the onset of linearly unstable waves, and close to Re(g)=3200 for the emergence of nonlinear solutions [F. A. Milinazzo and P. G. Saffman, J. Fluid Mech. 160, 281 (1985); J. H. M. Fransson, Ph.D. thesis, Royal Institute of Technology, KTH, Sweden, 2003]. However, for larger values of the plate's permeability, the lower limit for the existence of linear and nonlinear solutions shifts to significantly lower Reynolds numbers. For the largest permeability studied here, the limit values of the Reynolds numbers reduce down to Re(c)=796 and Re(g)=294. For all cases studied, the solutions bifurcate subcritically toward lower Re, and this leads to the conjecture that they may be involved in the very first stages of a transition scenario similar to the classical route of the Blasius boundary layer initiated by Tollmien-Schlichting (TS) waves. The stability of these nonlinear solutions is also investigated, showing a low-frequency main unstable mode whose growth rate decreases with increasing permeability and with the Reynolds number, following a power law Re(-ρ), where the value of ρ depends on the permeability coefficient K̂. The nonlinear dynamics of the flow in the vicinity of the computed finite-amplitude solutions is finally investigated by direct numerical simulations, providing a viable scenario for

  15. Stabilization of ideal plasma resistive wall modes in cylindrical geometry: The effect of resistive layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finn, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    A cylindrical model with finite beta having an external resonant ideal magnetohydrodynamic instability has been constructed. This resonant mode has a mode rational surface, where the safety factor q equals m/n, within the plasma. In this model, the perturbed radial magnetic field for the ideal mode is nonzero between the mode rational surface and the wall, even though it must vanish at the mode rational surface. This property of the mode is in common with the toroidal external kink. Results are presented showing that in the parameter range for which this ideal mode is stable with a conducting wall but unstable with the wall at infinity, a resistive wall mode persists. However, in the presence of plasma resistivity in a resistive layer about the mode rational surface, this resistive wall mode can be stabilized by a plasma rotation frequency of order a nominal resistive instability growth rate. Furthermore, the stabilization occurs in a large gap in wall position or beta. It is also shown that for the ideal resonant mode, as well as resistive plasma modes and nonresonant ideal plasma modes, there is a maximum value of plasma rotation above which there is no stability gap. Discussions are presented suggesting that these properties may hold for the toroidal external kink. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  16. Improved helicopter aeromechanical stability analysis using segmented constrained layer damping and hybrid optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiang; Chattopadhyay, Aditi

    2000-06-01

    Aeromechanical stability plays a critical role in helicopter design and lead-lag damping is crucial to this design. In this paper, the use of segmented constrained damping layer (SCL) treatment and composite tailoring is investigated for improved rotor aeromechanical stability using formal optimization technique. The principal load-carrying member in the rotor blade is represented by a composite box beam, of arbitrary thickness, with surface bonded SCLs. A comprehensive theory is used to model the smart box beam. A ground resonance analysis model and an air resonance analysis model are implemented in the rotor blade built around the composite box beam with SCLs. The Pitt-Peters dynamic inflow model is used in air resonance analysis under hover condition. A hybrid optimization technique is used to investigate the optimum design of the composite box beam with surface bonded SCLs for improved damping characteristics. Parameters such as stacking sequence of the composite laminates and placement of SCLs are used as design variables. Detailed numerical studies are presented for aeromechanical stability analysis. It is shown that optimum blade design yields significant increase in rotor lead-lag regressive modal damping compared to the initial system.

  17. Adhesion and thermal stability enhancement of IZO films by adding a primer layer on polycarbonate substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xuan; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Yan, Yue; Zhong, Yanli; Li, Lei; Zhang, Guanli [Beijing Institute of Aeronautical Materials (BIAM), Haidian District, Beijing, 100095 (China)

    2015-04-01

    A silicone-based primer layer was developed to improve the adhesion and thermal stability of amorphous transparent indium zinc oxide (IZO) films on polycarbonate (PC). The IZO films deposited by direct current magnetron sputtering at room temperature on primer-treated and untreated PCs were evaluated ex situ in terms of surface morphology, adhesion, optical, and electrical properties during annealing at 120 C in air. Nano-scratch tests indicated the adhesion of IZO films on primer-treated substrates was superior to that on untreated PCs. This superior adhesion can be attributed to the strong Si-O-Si inorganic bonds abundant in the primer layer and better matches of the primer layer in the terms of thermal expansion to the IZO. Moreover, the electrical resistivity of IZO films prepared on primer-treated PCs remained stable during the annealing treatment, whereas those of IZO films on untreated PCs presented a continuously increasing trend, which was attributed to the decrease in carrier concentration that resulted from oxygen adsorption. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. Layering of confined water between two graphene sheets and its liquid–liquid transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Xuyan; Duan Yunrui; Wang Long; Liu Sida; Li Tao; Li Yifan; Li Hui

    2017-01-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are performed to explore the layering structure and liquid–liquid transition of liquid water confined between two graphene sheets with a varied distance at different pressures. Both the size of nanoslit and pressure could cause the layering and liquid–liquid transition of the confined water. With increase of pressure and the nanoslit’s size, the confined water could have a more obvious layering. In addition, the neighboring water molecules firstly form chain structure, then will transform into square structure, and finally become triangle with increase of pressure. These results throw light on layering and liquid–liquid transition of water confined between two graphene sheets. (paper)

  19. Feasibility of suspension spraying of yttria-stabilized zirconia with water-stabilized plasma torch

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mušálek, Radek; Bertolissi, Gabriele; Medřický, J.; Kotlan, Jiří; Pala, Zdeněk; Curry, N.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 268, April (2015), s. 58-62 ISSN 0257-8972. [Rencontres Internationales de la Projection Thermique/6./. Limoges, 11.12.2013-13.12.2013] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GPP108/12/P552 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Thermal spray coating * Suspension spray ing * Thermal barrier coating * Water-stabilized plasma * High enthalpy plasma Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials Impact factor: 2.139, year: 2015 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S025789721400680X

  20. Mixed layers of sodium caseinate + dextran sulfate: influence of order of addition to oil-water interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourdain, Laureline S; Schmitt, Christophe; Leser, Martin E; Murray, Brent S; Dickinson, Eric

    2009-09-01

    We report on the interfacial properties of electrostatic complexes of protein (sodium caseinate) with a highly sulfated polysaccharide (dextran sulfate). Two routes were investigated for preparation of adsorbed layers at the n-tetradecane-water interface at pH = 6. Bilayers were made by the layer-by-layer deposition technique whereby polysaccharide was added to a previously established protein-stabilized interface. Mixed layers were made by the conventional one-step method in which soluble protein-polysaccharide complexes were adsorbed directly at the interface. Protein + polysaccharide systems gave a slower decay of interfacial tension and stronger dilatational viscoelastic properties than the protein alone, but there was no significant difference in dilatational properties between mixed layers and bilayers. Conversely, shear rheology experiments exhibited significant differences between the two kinds of interfacial layers, with the mixed system giving much stronger interfacial films than the bilayer system, i.e., shear viscosities and moduli at least an order of magnitude higher. The film shear viscoelasticity was further enhanced by acidification of the biopolymer mixture to pH = 2 prior to interface formation. Taken together, these measurements provide insight into the origin of previously reported differences in stability properties of oil-in-water emulsions made by the bilayer and mixed layer approaches. Addition of a proteolytic enzyme (trypsin) to both types of interfaces led to a significant increase in the elastic modulus of the film, suggesting that the enzyme was adsorbed at the interface via complexation with dextran sulfate. Overall, this study has confirmed the potential of shear rheology as a highly sensitive probe of associative electrostatic interactions and interfacial structure in mixed biopolymer layers.

  1. Stabilization of Hypersonic Boundary Layers by Linear and Nonlinear Optimal Perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, Pedro; Choudhari, Meelan M.; Li, Fei

    2017-01-01

    The effect of stationary, finite-amplitude, linear and nonlinear optimal perturbations on the modal disturbance growth in a Mach 6 axisymmetric flow over a 7 deg. half-angle cone with 0:126 mm nose radius and 0:305 m length is investigated. The freestream parameters (M = 6, Re(exp 1) = 18 x 10(exp. 6) /m) are selected to match the flow conditions of a previous experiment in the VKI H3 hypersonic tunnel. Plane-marching parabolized stability equations are used in conjunction with a partial-differential equation based planar eigenvalue analysis to characterize the boundary layer instability in the presence of azimuthally periodic streaks. The streaks are observed to stabilize nominally planar Mack mode instabilities, although oblique Mack mode and first-mode disturbances are destabilized. Experimentally measured transition onset in the absence of any streaks correlates with an amplification factor of N = 6 for the planar Mack modes. For high enough streak amplitudes, the transition threshold of N = 6 is not reached by the Mack mode instabilities within the length of the cone; however, subharmonic first-mode instabilities, which are destabilized by the presence of the streaks, do reach N = 6 near the end of the cone. The highest stabilization is observed at streak amplitudes of approximately 20 percent of the freestream velocity. Because the use of initial disturbance profiles based on linear optimal growth theory may yield suboptimal control in the context of nonlinear streaks, the computational predictions are extended to nonlinear optimal growth theory. Results show that by using nonlinearly optimal perturbation leads to slightly enhanced stabilization of plane Mack mode disturbances as well as reduced destabilization of subharmonic first-mode disturbances.

  2. The effect of viscoelasticity on the stability of a pulmonary airway liquid layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, David; Fujioka, Hideki; Grotberg, James B.

    2010-01-01

    The lungs consist of a network of bifurcating airways that are lined with a thin liquid film. This film is a bilayer consisting of a mucus layer on top of a periciliary fluid layer. Mucus is a non-Newtonian fluid possessing viscoelastic characteristics. Surface tension induces flows within the layer, which may cause the lung's airways to close due to liquid plug formation if the liquid film is sufficiently thick. The stability of the liquid layer is also influenced by the viscoelastic nature of the liquid, which is modeled using the Oldroyd-B constitutive equation or as a Jeffreys fluid. To examine the role of mucus alone, a single layer of a viscoelastic fluid is considered. A system of nonlinear evolution equations is derived using lubrication theory for the film thickness and the film flow rate. A uniform film is initially perturbed and a normal mode analysis is carried out that shows that the growth rate g for a viscoelastic layer is larger than for a Newtonian fluid with the same viscosity. Closure occurs if the minimum core radius, Rmin(t), reaches zero within one breath. Solutions of the nonlinear evolution equations reveal that Rmin normally decreases to zero faster with increasing relaxation time parameter, the Weissenberg number We. For small values of the dimensionless film thickness parameter ɛ, the closure time, tc, increases slightly with We, while for moderate values of ɛ, ranging from 14% to 18% of the tube radius, tc decreases rapidly with We provided the solvent viscosity is sufficiently small. Viscoelasticity was found to have little effect for ɛ >0.18, indicating the strong influence of surface tension. The film thickness parameter ɛ and the Weissenberg number We also have a significant effect on the maximum shear stress on tube wall, max(τw), and thus, potentially, an impact on cell damage. Max(τw) increases with ɛ for fixed We, and it decreases with increasing We for small We provided the solvent viscosity parameter is sufficiently

  3. Stability analysis on natural circulation boiling water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metz, Peter

    1999-05-01

    The purpose of the study is a stability analysis of the simplified boiling water reactor concept. A fluid dynamics code, DYNOS, was developed and successfully validated against FRIGG and DESIRE data and a stability benchmark on the Ringhals 1 forced circulation BWR. Three simplified desings were considered in the analysis: The SWRIOOO by Siemens and the SBWR and ESBWR from the General Electric Co. For all three design operational characteristics, i.e. power versus flow rate maps, were calculated. The effects which different geometric and operational parameters, such as the riser height, inlet subcooling etc., have on the characteristics have been investigated. Dynamic simulations on the three simplified design revealed the geysering and the natural circulation oscillations modes only. They were, however, only encountered at pressure below 0.6 MPa. Stability maps for all tree simplified BWRs were calculated and plotted. The study concluded that a fast pressurisation of the reactor vessel is necessary to eliminate the possibility of geysering or natural circulation oscillations mode instability. (au) 26 tabs., 88 ills.

  4. Stability analysis on natural circulation boiling water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metz, Peter

    1999-05-01

    The purpose of the study is a stability analysis of the simplified boiling water reactor concept. A fluid dynamics code, DYNOS, was developed and successfully validated against FRIGG and DESIRE data and a stability benchmark on the Ringhals 1 forced circulation BWR. Three simplified desings were considered in the analysis: The SWRIOOO by Siemens and the SBWR and ESBWR from the General Electric Co. For all three design operational characteristics, i.e. power versus flow rate maps, were calculated. The effects which different geometric and operational parameters, such as the riser height, inlet subcooling etc., have on the characteristics have been investigated. Dynamic simulations on the three simplified design revealed the geysering and the natural circulation oscillations modes only. They were, however, only encountered at pressure below 0.6 MPa. Stability maps for all tree simplified BWRs were calculated and plotted. The study concluded that a fast pressurisation of the reactor vessel is necessary to eliminate the possibility of geysering or natural circulation oscillations mode instability. (au)

  5. Dynamic Stabilization of Metal Oxide–Water Interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McBriarty, Martin E.; von Rudorff, Guido Falk; Stubbs, Joanne; Eng, Peter; Blumberger, Jochen; Rosso, Kevin M.

    2017-02-08

    Metal oxide growth, dissolution, and redox reactivity depend on the structure and dynamics at the interface with aqueous solution. We present the most definitive analysis to date of the hydrated naturally abundant r-cut (11$\\bar{0}$2) termination of the iron oxide hematite (α-Fe2O3). In situ synchrotron X-ray scattering analysis reveals a ridged lateral arrangement of adsorbed water molecules hydrogen bonded to terminal aquo groups. Large-scale hybrid-functional density functional theory-based molecular dynamics (DFT-MD) simulations show how this structure is dynamically stabilized by picosecond exchange between aquo groups and adsorbed water, even under nominally dry conditions. Surface pKa prediction based on bond valence analysis suggests that water exchange may influence the proton transfer reactions associated with acid/base reactivity at the interface. Our findings rectify inconsistencies between existing models and may be extended to resolving more complex electrochemical phenomena at metal oxide-water interfaces.

  6. Thermal stability of atomic layer deposition Al2O3 film on HgCdTe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, P.; Sun, C. H.; Zhang, Y.; Chen, X.; He, K.; Chen, Y. Y.; Ye, Z. H.

    2015-06-01

    Thermal stability of Atomic Layer Deposition Al2O3 film on HgCdTe was investigated by Al2O3 film post-deposition annealing treatment and Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor device low-temperature baking treatment. The effectiveness of Al2O3 film was evaluated by measuring the minority carrier lifetime and capacitance versus voltage characteristics. After annealing treatment, the minority carrier lifetime of the HgCdTe sample presented a slight decrease. Furthermore, the fixed charge density and the slow charge density decreased significantly in the annealed MIS device. After baking treatment, the fixed charge density and the slow charge density of the unannealed and annealed MIS devices decreased and increased, respectively.

  7. A balanced water layer concept for subglacial hydrology in large-scale ice sheet models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Goeller

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available There is currently no doubt about the existence of a widespread hydrological network under the Antarctic Ice Sheet, which lubricates the ice base and thus leads to increased ice velocities. Consequently, ice models should incorporate basal hydrology to obtain meaningful results for future ice dynamics and their contribution to global sea level rise. Here, we introduce the balanced water layer concept, covering two prominent subglacial hydrological features for ice sheet modeling on a continental scale: the evolution of subglacial lakes and balance water fluxes. We couple it to the thermomechanical ice-flow model RIMBAY and apply it to a synthetic model domain. In our experiments we demonstrate the dynamic generation of subglacial lakes and their impact on the velocity field of the overlaying ice sheet, resulting in a negative ice mass balance. Furthermore, we introduce an elementary parametrization of the water flux–basal sliding coupling and reveal the predominance of the ice loss through the resulting ice streams against the stabilizing influence of less hydrologically active areas. We point out that established balance flux schemes quantify these effects only partially as their ability to store subglacial water is lacking.

  8. A balanced water layer concept for subglacial hydrology in large scale ice sheet models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goeller, S.; Thoma, M.; Grosfeld, K.; Miller, H.

    2012-12-01

    There is currently no doubt about the existence of a wide-spread hydrological network under the Antarctic ice sheet, which lubricates the ice base and thus leads to increased ice velocities. Consequently, ice models should incorporate basal hydrology to obtain meaningful results for future ice dynamics and their contribution to global sea level rise. Here, we introduce the balanced water layer concept, covering two prominent subglacial hydrological features for ice sheet modeling on a continental scale: the evolution of subglacial lakes and balance water fluxes. We couple it to the thermomechanical ice-flow model RIMBAY and apply it to a synthetic model domain inspired by the Gamburtsev Mountains, Antarctica. In our experiments we demonstrate the dynamic generation of subglacial lakes and their impact on the velocity field of the overlaying ice sheet, resulting in a negative ice mass balance. Furthermore, we introduce an elementary parametrization of the water flux-basal sliding coupling and reveal the predominance of the ice loss through the resulting ice streams against the stabilizing influence of less hydrologically active areas. We point out, that established balance flux schemes quantify these effects only partially as their ability to store subglacial water is lacking.

  9. Electric field stabilization of viscous liquid layers coating the underside of a surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Thomas G.; Cimpeanu, Radu; Papageorgiou, Demetrios T.; Petropoulos, Peter G.

    2017-05-01

    We investigate the electrostatic stabilization of a viscous thin film wetting the underside of a horizontal surface in the presence of an electric field applied parallel to the surface. The model includes the effect of bounding solid dielectric regions above and below the liquid-air system that are typically found in experiments. The competition between gravitational forces, surface tension, and the nonlocal effect of the applied electric field is captured analytically in the form of a nonlinear evolution equation. A semispectral solution strategy is employed to resolve the dynamics of the resulting partial differential equation. Furthermore, we conduct direct numerical simulations (DNS) of the Navier-Stokes equations using the volume-of-fluid methodology and assess the accuracy of the obtained solutions in the long-wave (thin-film) regime when varying the electric field strength from zero up to the point when complete stabilization occurs. We employ DNS to examine the limitations of the asymptotically derived behavior as the liquid layer thickness increases and find excellent agreement even beyond the regime of strict applicability of the asymptotic solution. Finally, the asymptotic and computational approaches are utilized to identify robust and efficient active control mechanisms allowing the manipulation of the fluid interface in light of engineering applications at small scales, such as mixing.

  10. Development and validation of a thin-layer chromatography method for stability studies of naproxen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Hernandez, Yaslenis; Suarez Perez, Yania; Garcia Pulpeiro, Oscar; Rodriguez Borges, Tania

    2011-01-01

    The validation of an analytical method was carried out to be applied to the stability studies of the future formulations of naproxen suppositories for infant and adult use. The factors which mostly influenced in the naproxen stability were determined, the major degradation occurred in oxidizing acid medium and by action of light. The possible formation of esters between the free carboxyl group present in naproxen and the glyceryl monoestereate present in the base was identified as one of the degradation paths in the new formulation. The results were satisfactory. A thin-layer chromatography-based method was developed as well as the best chromatographic conditions were selected. GF 254 silica gel plates and ultraviolet developer at 254 nm were employed. Three solvent systems were evaluated of which A made up of glacial acetic: tetrahydrofurane:toluene (3:9:90 v/v/v)allowed adequate resolution between the analyte and the possible degradation products, with detection limit of 1 μg. The use of the suggested method was restricted to the identification of possible degradation products just for qualitative purposes and not as final test. The method proved to be sensitive and selective enough to be applied for the stated objective, according to the validation results

  11. Stabilizing nanostructured solid oxide fuel cell cathode with atomic layer deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yunhui; Palacio, Diego; Song, Xueyan; Patel, Rajankumar L; Liang, Xinhua; Zhao, Xuan; Goodenough, John B; Huang, Kevin

    2013-09-11

    We demonstrate that the highly active but unstable nanostructured intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cell cathode, La0.6Sr0.4CoO3-δ (LSCo), can retain its high oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity with exceptional stability for 4000 h at 700 °C by overcoating its surfaces with a conformal layer of nanoscale ZrO2 films through atomic layer deposition (ALD). The benefits from the presence of the nanoscale ALD-ZrO2 overcoats are remarkable: a factor of 19 and 18 reduction in polarization area-specific resistance and degradation rate over the pristine sample, respectively. The unique multifunctionality of the ALD-derived nanoscaled ZrO2 overcoats, that is, possessing porosity for O2 access to LSCo, conducting both electrons and oxide-ions, confining thermal growth of LSCo nanoparticles, and suppressing surface Sr-segregation is deemed the key enabler for the observed stable and active nanostructured cathode.

  12. Finite difference method for inner-layer equations in the resistive MagnetoHydroDynamic stability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokuda, Shinji; Watanabe, Tomoko.

    1996-08-01

    The matching problem in resistive MagnetoHydroDynamic stability analysis by the asymptotic matching method has been reformulated as an initial-boundary value problem for the inner-layer equations describing the plasma dynamics in the thin layer around a rational surface. The third boundary conditions at boundaries of a finite interval are imposed on the inner layer equations in the formulation instead of asymptotic conditions at infinities. The finite difference method for this problem has been applied to model equations whose solutions are known in a closed form. It has been shown that the initial value problem and the associated eigenvalue problem for the model equations can be solved by the finite difference method with numerical stability. The formulation presented here enables the asymptotic matching method to be a practical method for the resistive MHD stability analysis. (author)

  13. Unstirred Water Layers and the Kinetics of Organic Cation Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibayama, Takahiro; Morales, Mark; Zhang, Xiaohong; Martinez, Lucy; Berteloot, Alfred; Secomb, Timothy W.; Wright, Stephen H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Unstirred water layers (UWLs) present an unavoidable complication in the measurement of transport kinetics in cultured cells and the high rates of transport achieved by overexpressing heterologous transporters exacerbate the UWL effect. This study examined the correlation between measured Jmax and Kt values and the effect of manipulating UWL thickness or transport Jmax on the accuracy of experimentally determined kinetics of the multidrug transporters, OCT2 and MATE1. Methods Transport of TEA and MPP was measured in CHO cells that stably expressed human OCT2 or MATE1. UWL thickness was manipulated by vigorous reciprocal shaking. Several methods were used to manipulate maximal transport rates. Results Vigorous stirring stimulated uptake of OCT2-mediated transport by decreasing apparent Kt (Ktapp) values. Systematic reduction in transport rates was correlated with reduction in Ktapp values. The slope of these relationships indicated a 1500 µm UWL in multiwell plates. Reducing the influence of UWLs (by decreasing either their thickness or the Jmax of substrate transport) reduced Ktapp by 2-fold to >10-fold. Conclusions Failure to take into account the presence of UWLs in experiments using cultured cells to measure transport kinetics can result in significant underestimates of the affinity of multidrug transporters for substrates. PMID:25791216

  14. Stabilization of antioxidant gallate in layered double hydroxide by exfoliation and reassembling reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansy, Kanakappan Mickel; Lee, Ji-Hee; Piao, Huiyan; Choi, Goeun; Choy, Jin-Ho

    2018-06-01

    As for the stabilization of chemically sensitive bioactive molecule in this study, gallic acid (GA) with antioxidant property was intercalated into interlayer space of layered double hydroxide (LDH), which was realized by exfoliation and reassembling reaction. At first, the pristine nitrate-type Zn2Al-LDH in solid state was synthesized via co-precipitation followed by the hydrothermal treatment at 80 °C for 6 h, and then exfoliated in formamide to form a colloidal solution of exfoliated LDH nanosheets, and finally reassembled in the presence of GA to prepare GA intercalated LDH (GA-LDH) desired, where the pH was adjusted to 8.0 in order to deprotonate GA to form gallate anion. According to the XRD analysis, GA-LDH showed well-developed (00l) diffraction peaks with a basal spacing of 1.15 nm, which was estimated to be larger than that of the pristine LDH (0.88 nm), indicating that gallate molecules were incorporated into LDH layers with perpendicular orientation. From the FT-IR spectra it was found that gallic acid was completely deprotonated into gallate, and stabilized in between LDH lattices via electrostatic interaction. The content of GA in GA-LDH was determined to be around 23 wt% by UV-vis spectroscopic study, which was also confirmed by HPLC analysis. According to the in-vitro release of GA out of GA-LDH in PBS solution (pH 7.4) at 4 °C, GA was sustainably released from GA-LDH nanohybrid up to 86% within 72 h. The antioxidant property of GA-LDH was almost the same with that of intact GA which was examined by DPPH. The photostability of GA-LDH under UV light irradiation was immensely enhanced compared to intact GA. It is, therefore, concluded that the present GA-LDH nanohybrid can be considered as an excellent antioxidant material with high chemical- and photo-stabilities, and controlled release property.

  15. Photocatalytic property and structural stability of CuAl-based layered double hydroxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv, Ming; Liu, Haiqiang

    2015-01-01

    Three types of CuMAl layered double hydroxides (LDHs, M=Mg, Zn, Ni) were successfully synthesized by coprecipitation. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and UV–Vis diffuse reflectance spectrum (UV–vis) were used to confirm the formation of as-synthesized solids with good crystal structure. The photocatalytic activity of those LDH materials for CO 2 reduction under visible light was investigated. The experimental results show that CuNiAl-LDHs with narrowest band gap and largest surface areas behave highest efficiency for methanol generation under visible light compared with CuMgAl-LDHs and CuZnAl-LDHs. The CuNiAL-LDH showed high yield for methanol production i.e. 0.210 mmol/g h, which was high efficient. In addition, the influence of the different M 2+ on the structures and stability of the CuMAl-LDHs was also investigated by analyzing the geometric parameters, electronic arrangement, charge populations, hydrogen-bonding, and binding energies by density functional theory (DFT) analysis. The theoretical calculation results show that the chemical stability of LDH materials followed the order of CuMgAl-LDHs>CuZnAl-LDHs>CuNiAl-LDHs, which is just opposite with the photocatalytic activity and band gaps of three materials. - Graphical abstract: The host–guest calculation models and XRD patterns of CuMAl-LDHs: CuMgAl-LDHs (a), CuZnAl-LDHs (b) and CuNiAl-LDHs (c). - Highlights: • Three types of CuMAl layered double hydroxides (LDHs, M=Mg, Zn, Ni) has been synthesized. • CuMgNi shows narrower band gap and more excellent textural properties than other LDHs. • The band gap: CuMgAlstability and lowest photocatalytic activity, while CuNiAl just opposite

  16. Boundary layer stability on a yawed spinning body of revolution and its effect on the magnus force and moment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, I. D.; Morton, J. B.

    1972-01-01

    The parameters are established which are important to the stability of a boundary layer flow over a yawed spinning cylinder in a uniform stream. It is shown that transition occurs asymmetrically in general and this asymmetry can be important for the prediction of aerodynamic forces and moments (e.g., the Magnus effect). Instability of the steady-state boundary layer flow is determined using small disturbance theory. Although the approach is strictly valid only for the calculation of the conditions for stability in the small, experimental data indicate that in many problems, it provides a good estimate for the transition to turbulence.

  17. Biochars impact on water infiltration and water quality through a compacted subsoil layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Jeff; Sigua, Gilbert; Watts, Don; Cantrell, Keri; Shumaker, Paul; Szogi, Ariel; Johnson, Mark G; Spokas, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    Soils in the SE USA Coastal Plain region frequently have a compacted subsoil layer (E horizon), which is a barrier for water infiltration. Four different biochars were evaluated to increase water infiltration through a compacted horizon from a Norfolk soil (fine-loamy, kaolinitic, thermic, Typic Kandiudult). In addition, we also evaluated biochars effect on water quality. Biochars were produced by pyrolysis at 500 °C from pine chips (Pinus taeda), poultry litter (Gallus domesticus) feedstocks, and as blends (50:50 and 80:20) of pine chip:poultry litter. Prior to pyrolysis, the feedstocks were pelletized and sieved to >2-mm pellets. Each biochar was mixed with the subsoil at 20 g/kg (w/w) and the mixture was placed in columns. The columns were leached four times with Milli-Q water over 128 d of incubation. Except for the biochar produced from poultry litter, all other applied biochars resulted in significant water infiltration increases (0.157-0.219 mL min(-1); pwater infiltration in each treatment were influenced by additional water leaching. Leachates were enriched in PO4, SO4, Cl, Na, and K after addition of poultry litter biochar, however, their concentrations declined in pine chip blended biochar treatments and after multiple leaching. Adding biochars (except 100% poultry litter biochar) to a compacted subsoil layer can initially improve water infiltration, but, additional leaching revealed that the effect remained only for the 50:50 pine chip:poultry litter blended biochar while it declined in other biochar treatments. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Carbon-layer-protected cuprous oxide nanowire arrays for efficient water reduction

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhonghai

    2013-02-26

    In this work, we propose a solution-based carbon precursor coating and subsequent carbonization strategy to form a thin protective carbon layer on unstable semiconductor nanostructures as a solution to the commonly occurring photocorrosion problem of many semiconductors. A proof-of-concept is provided by using glucose as the carbon precursor to form a protective carbon coating onto cuprous oxide (Cu2O) nanowire arrays which were synthesized from copper mesh. The carbon-layer-protected Cu2O nanowire arrays exhibited remarkably improved photostability as well as considerably enhanced photocurrent density. The Cu2O nanowire arrays coated with a carbon layer of 20 nm thickness were found to give an optimal water splitting performance, producing a photocurrent density of -3.95 mA cm-2 and an optimal photocathode efficiency of 0.56% under illumination of AM 1.5G (100 mW cm-2). This is the highest value ever reported for a Cu 2O-based electrode coated with a metal/co-catalyst-free protective layer. The photostability, measured as the percentage of the photocurrent density at the end of 20 min measurement period relative to that at the beginning of the measurement, improved from 12.6% on the bare, nonprotected Cu2O nanowire arrays to 80.7% on the continuous carbon coating protected ones, more than a 6-fold increase. We believe that the facile strategy presented in this work is a general approach that can address the stability issue of many nonstable photoelectrodes and thus has the potential to make a meaningful contribution in the general field of energy conversion. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  19. N-type organic electrochemical transistors with stability in water

    KAUST Repository

    Giovannitti, Alexander

    2016-10-07

    Organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) are receiving significant attention due to their ability to efficiently transduce biological signals. A major limitation of this technology is that only p-type materials have been reported, which precludes the development of complementary circuits, and limits sensor technologies. Here, we report the first ever n-type OECT, with relatively balanced ambipolar charge transport characteristics based on a polymer that supports both hole and electron transport along its backbone when doped through an aqueous electrolyte and in the presence of oxygen. This new semiconducting polymer is designed specifically to facilitate ion transport and promote electrochemical doping. Stability measurements in water show no degradation when tested for 2 h under continuous cycling. This demonstration opens the possibility to develop complementary circuits based on OECTs and to improve the sophistication of bioelectronic devices.

  20. N-type organic electrochemical transistors with stability in water

    KAUST Repository

    Giovannitti, Alexander; Nielsen, Christian B.; Sbircea, Dan-Tiberiu; Inal, Sahika; Donahue, Mary; Niazi, Muhammad Rizwan; Hanifi, David A.; Amassian, Aram; Malliaras, George G.; Rivnay, Jonathan; McCulloch, Iain

    2016-01-01

    Organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) are receiving significant attention due to their ability to efficiently transduce biological signals. A major limitation of this technology is that only p-type materials have been reported, which precludes the development of complementary circuits, and limits sensor technologies. Here, we report the first ever n-type OECT, with relatively balanced ambipolar charge transport characteristics based on a polymer that supports both hole and electron transport along its backbone when doped through an aqueous electrolyte and in the presence of oxygen. This new semiconducting polymer is designed specifically to facilitate ion transport and promote electrochemical doping. Stability measurements in water show no degradation when tested for 2 h under continuous cycling. This demonstration opens the possibility to develop complementary circuits based on OECTs and to improve the sophistication of bioelectronic devices.

  1. The effect of small streamwise velocity distortion on the boundary layer flow over a thin flat plate with application to boundary layer stability theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, M. E.; Leib, S. J.; Cowley, S. J.

    1990-01-01

    Researchers show how an initially linear spanwise disturbance in the free stream velocity field is amplified by leading edge bluntness effects and ultimately leads to a small amplitude but linear spanwise motion far downstream from the edge. This spanwise motion is imposed on the boundary layer flow and ultimately causes an order-one change in its profile shape. The modified profiles are highly unstable and can support Tollmein-Schlichting wave growth well upstream of the theoretical lower branch of the neutral stability curve for a Blasius boundary layer.

  2. Models and Stability Analysis of Boiling Water Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorning, John

    2002-01-01

    We have studied the nuclear-coupled thermal-hydraulic stability of boiling water reactors (BWRs) using a model that includes: space-time modal neutron kinetics based on spatial w-modes; single- and two-phase flow in parallel boiling channels; fuel rod heat conduction dynamics; and a simple model of the recirculation loop. The BR model is represented by a set of time-dependent nonlinear ordinary differential equations, and is studied as a dynamical system using the modern bifurcation theory and nonlinear dynamical systems analysis. We first determine the stability boundary (SB) - or Hopf bifurcation set- in the most relevant parameter plane, the inlet-subcooling-number/external-pressure-drop plane, for a fixed control rod induced external reactivity equal to the 100% rod line value; then we transform the SB to the practical power-flow map used by BWR operating engineers and regulatory agencies. Using this SB, we show that the normal operating point at 100% power is very stable, that stability of points on the 100% rod line decreases as the flow rate is reduced, and that operating points in the low-flow/high-power region are least stable. We also determine the SB that results when the modal kinetics is replaced by simple point reactor kinetics, and we thereby show that the first harmonic mode does not have a significant effect on the SB. However, we later show that it nevertheless has a significant effect on stability because it affects the basin of attraction of stable operating points. Using numerical simulations we show that, in the important low-flow/high-power region, the Hopf bifurcation that occurs as the SB is crossed is subcritical; hence, growing oscillations can result following small finite perturbations of stable steady-states on the 100% rod line at points in the low-flow/high-power region. Numerical simulations are also performed to calculate the decay ratios (DRs) and frequencies of oscillations for various points on the 100% rod line. It is

  3. Models and Stability Analysis of Boiling Water Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Dorning

    2002-04-15

    We have studied the nuclear-coupled thermal-hydraulic stability of boiling water reactors (BWRs) using a model that includes: space-time modal neutron kinetics based on spatial w-modes; single- and two-phase flow in parallel boiling channels; fuel rod heat conduction dynamics; and a simple model of the recirculation loop. The BR model is represented by a set of time-dependent nonlinear ordinary differential equations, and is studied as a dynamical system using the modern bifurcation theory and nonlinear dynamical systems analysis. We first determine the stability boundary (SB) - or Hopf bifurcation set- in the most relevant parameter plane, the inlet-subcooling-number/external-pressure-drop plane, for a fixed control rod induced external reactivity equal to the 100% rod line value; then we transform the SB to the practical power-flow map used by BWR operating engineers and regulatory agencies. Using this SB, we show that the normal operating point at 100% power is very stable, that stability of points on the 100% rod line decreases as the flow rate is reduced, and that operating points in the low-flow/high-power region are least stable. We also determine the SB that results when the modal kinetics is replaced by simple point reactor kinetics, and we thereby show that the first harmonic mode does not have a significant effect on the SB. However, we later show that it nevertheless has a significant effect on stability because it affects the basin of attraction of stable operating points. Using numerical simulations we show that, in the important low-flow/high-power region, the Hopf bifurcation that occurs as the SB is crossed is subcritical; hence, growing oscillations can result following small finite perturbations of stable steady-states on the 100% rod line at points in the low-flow/high-power region. Numerical simulations are also performed to calculate the decay ratios (DRs) and frequencies of oscillations for various points on the 100% rod line. It is

  4. Ground penetrating radar water content mapping of golf course green sand layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information on the spatial distribution of water content across the sand layer component of a golf course green can be important to golf course superintendents for evaluating drainage effectiveness and scheduling irrigation. To estimate the bulk water content of the sand layer at point locations ac...

  5. Protein adsorption at the electrified air-water interface: implications on foam stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Kathrin; Rumpel, Armin; Walter, Johannes; Dombrowski, Jannika; Kulozik, Ulrich; Braunschweig, Björn; Peukert, Wolfgang

    2012-05-22

    The surface chemistry of ions, water molecules, and proteins as well as their ability to form stable networks in foams can influence and control macroscopic properties such as taste and texture of dairy products considerably. Despite the significant relevance of protein adsorption at liquid interfaces, a molecular level understanding on the arrangement of proteins at interfaces and their interactions has been elusive. Therefore, we have addressed the adsorption of the model protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) at the air-water interface with vibrational sum-frequency generation (SFG) and ellipsometry. SFG provides specific information on the composition and average orientation of molecules at interfaces, while complementary information on the thickness of the adsorbed layer can be obtained with ellipsometry. Adsorption of charged BSA proteins at the water surface leads to an electrified interface, pH dependent charging, and electric field-induced polar ordering of interfacial H(2)O and BSA. Varying the bulk pH of protein solutions changes the intensities of the protein related vibrational bands substantially, while dramatic changes in vibrational bands of interfacial H(2)O are simultaneously observed. These observations have allowed us to determine the isoelectric point of BSA directly at the electrolyte-air interface for the first time. BSA covered air-water interfaces with a pH near the isoelectric point form an amorphous network of possibly agglomerated BSA proteins. Finally, we provide a direct correlation of the molecular structure of BSA interfaces with foam stability and new information on the link between microscopic properties of BSA at water surfaces and macroscopic properties such as the stability of protein foams.

  6. Metal–organic layers stabilize earth-abundant metal–terpyridine diradical complexes for catalytic C–H activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Zekai; Thacker, Nathan C.; Sawano, Takahiro; Drake, Tasha; Ji, Pengfei; Lan, Guangxu; Cao, Lingyun; Liu, Shubin; Wang, Cheng; Lin, Wenbin (UNC); (UC); (Xiamen)

    2017-10-30

    Metal–organic layers stabilize FeIIor CoII-terpyridine diradical complexes to catalyze alkylazide Csp3–H amination and benzylic C–H borylation, respectively.

  7. The stability of second sound waves in a rotating Darcy–Brinkman porous layer in local thermal non-equilibrium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eltayeb, I A; Elbashir, T B A, E-mail: ieltayeb@squ.edu.om, E-mail: elbashir@squ.edu.om [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, College of Science, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat 123 (Oman)

    2017-08-15

    The linear and nonlinear stabilities of second sound waves in a rotating porous Darcy–Brinkman layer in local thermal non-equilibrium are studied when the heat flux in the solid obeys the Cattaneo law. The simultaneous action of the Brinkman effect (effective viscosity) and rotation is shown to destabilise the layer, as compared to either of them acting alone, for both stationary and overstable modes. The effective viscosity tends to favour overstable modes while rotation tends to favour stationary convection. Rapid rotation invokes a negative viscosity effect that suppresses the stabilising effect of porosity so that the stability characteristics resemble those of the classical rotating Benard layer. A formal weakly nonlinear analysis yields evolution equations of the Landau–Stuart type governing the slow time development of the amplitudes of the unstable waves. The equilibrium points of the evolution equations are analysed and the overall development of the amplitudes is examined. Both overstable and stationary modes can exhibit supercritical stability; supercritical instability, subcritical instability and stability are not possible. The dependence of the supercritical stability on the relative values of the six dimensionless parameters representing thermal non-equilibrium, rotation, porosity, relaxation time, thermal diffusivities and Brinkman effect is illustrated as regions in regime diagrams in the parameter space. The dependence of the heat transfer and the mean heat flux on the parameters of the problem is also discussed. (paper)

  8. Role of water repellency in aggregate stability of cultivated soils under simulated raindrop impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kořenková, Lucia; Matúš, Peter

    2015-07-01

    Soil aggregate stability (AS) is an important indicator of soil physical quality. For the purpose of this research it was hypothesized that particular properties such as water repellency (WR) influence soil aggregation and AS. Directly after sampling, WR was detected for three soils, after a week of air-drying two of these soils still showed some resistance to penetration by a water drop placed on the surface (WDPT test). The study examines AS of air-dried texturally different aggregates of size 0.25-0.5 mm taken from surface layers (5-15 cm depth) of six agriculturally used soils. The procedure involves exposure of soil aggregates to direct impact of water drops. Results showed that soil AS increases in order: cutanic Luvisol (siltic) Chernozem < calcic mollic Fluvisol < mollic grumic Vertisol (pellic) < mollic Fluvisol (calcaric) < gleyic Fluvisol (eutric). Gradual increase in AS can be explained by the increase in soil organic matter content and its hydrophobic properties. Although WR has been most commonly observed in soils under forests and grass cover, the results confirmed that cultivated soils may also create water-stable aggregates, especially in the case when their organic matter induces WR under particular moisture conditions.

  9. Pore-Network Modeling of Water and Vapor Transport in the Micro Porous Layer and Gas Diffusion Layer of a Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, C.; Hassanizadeh, S.M.; van Oosterhout, L.M.

    2016-01-01

    In the cathode side of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC), a micro porous layer (MPL) added between the catalyst layer (CL) and the gas diffusion layer (GDL) plays an important role in water management. In this work, by using both quasi-static and dynamic pore-network models, water and vapor

  10. Modeling boundary-layer transition in DNS and LES using Parabolized Stability Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-Duran, Adrian; Hack, M. J. Philipp; Moin, Parviz

    2016-11-01

    The modeling of the laminar region and the prediction of the point of transition remain key challenges in the numerical simulation of boundary layers. The issue is of particular relevance for wall-modeled large eddy simulations which require 10 to 100 times higher grid resolution in the thin laminar region than in the turbulent regime. Our study examines the potential of the nonlinear parabolized stability equations (PSE) to provide an accurate, yet computationally efficient treatment of the growth of disturbances in the pre-transitional flow regime. The PSE captures the nonlinear interactions that eventually induce breakdown to turbulence, and can as such identify the onset of transition without relying on empirical correlations. Since the local PSE solution at the point of transition is the solution of the Navier-Stokes equations, it provides a natural inflow condition for large eddy and direct simulations by avoiding unphysical transients. We show that in a classical H-type transition scenario, a combined PSE/DNS approach can reproduce the skin-friction distribution obtained in reference direct numerical simulations. The computational cost in the laminar region is reduced by several orders of magnitude. Funded by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research.

  11. Study of the mechanical stability of the ATLAS Insertable B-Layer

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    During the commissioning and alignment of the ATLAS Insertable B-Layer (IBL) using cosmic-ray data, a mechanical distortion of the IBL was observed. This distortion is caused by a difference in the coefficients of thermal expansion of the IBL stave components. The results of a preliminary study of the mechanical stability of the IBL are presented in this note. The qualitative properties of the distortion are confirmed using a 3D finite element analysis. Using cosmic-ray data collected in March 2015, the magnitude of the distortion is found to depend linearly on the operating temperature of the IBL, with a gradient of $\\sim10~{\\rm \\mu m/K}$. The peak-to-peak temperature variation of the IBL staves is measured to be less than 0.2 K during the same cosmic-ray run. The expected bias to the transverse impact parameter $(d_{0})$ of charged tracks under a temperature variation of 0.2 K is evaluated to be $\\sim 1~{\\rm \\mu m}$ using $Z\\rightarrow{\\mu^+\\mu^-}$ events from a Mote Carlo simulation of proton-proton collis...

  12. Assessment of Stability and Energy Dissipation Performances of an Antifer Layer Protected Caisson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sedat Kabdaşlı

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study intends to assess the stability and energy dissipation performances of a breakwater configuration (APC protected by an antifer layer. For comparison, an ordinary caisson (OC, which was 5% wider and 10% heavier, was also investigated. Physical models were implemented and tested under regular and irregular waves; and resulting linear and angular displacements were directly measured via a photogrammetric method. Additionally, wave forces and resulting horizontal displacements were estimated both from recorded pressure data and from individual incident waves by modified Goda method. To calculate the horizontal displacement, the estimated wave force time series were directly double-integrated, whilst the theoretical method proposed by Shimosako et al. (1994 were used on the individual force values. Although OC was tested under shorter durations and had a more favorable superstructure in terms of resisting forces, the results indicated that APC was significantly more stable. Energy dissipation performance of the tested configurations were quantified in terms of spectral averaged and phase resolved reflection coefficients, whereas antifer damage ratio was measured on a block-count basis. Results indicated that the APC configuration had an enhanced performance of dissipating the wave energy; moreover, the dissipated energy directly links to antifer damage ratio.

  13. Thermal stability of atomic layer deposited WCxNy electrodes for metal oxide semiconductor devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zonensain, Oren; Fadida, Sivan; Fisher, Ilanit; Gao, Juwen; Danek, Michal; Eizenberg, Moshe

    2018-01-01

    This study is a thorough investigation of the chemical, structural, and electrical stability of W based organo-metallic films, grown by atomic layer deposition, for future use as gate electrodes in advanced metal oxide semiconductor structures. In an earlier work, we have shown that high effective work-function (4.7 eV) was produced by nitrogen enriched films (WCxNy) dominated by W-N chemical bonding, and low effective work-function (4.2 eV) was produced by hydrogen plasma resulting in WCx films dominated by W-C chemical bonding. In the current work, we observe, using x-ray diffraction analysis, phase transformation of the tungsten carbide and tungsten nitride phases after 900 °C annealing to the cubic tungsten phase. Nitrogen diffusion is also observed and is analyzed with time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy. After this 900 °C anneal, WCxNy effective work function tunability is lost and effective work-function values of 4.7-4.8 eV are measured, similar to stable effective work function values measured for PVD TiN up to 900 °C anneal. All the observed changes after annealing are discussed and correlated to the observed change in the effective work function.

  14. Stability studies of plasma modification effects of polylactide and polycaprolactone surface layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraczewski, Krzysztof, E-mail: kmm@ukw.edu.pl [Kazimierz Wielki University, Chodkiewicza 30, 85-064 Bydgoszcz (Poland); Stepczyńska, Magdalena [Kazimierz Wielki University, Chodkiewicza 30, 85-064 Bydgoszcz (Poland); Malinowski, Rafał [Institute for Engineering of Polymer Materials and Dyes, Marii Skłodowskiej-Curie 55, 87‐100 Toruń (Poland); Rytlewski, Piotr; Jagodziński, Bartłomiej; Żenkiewicz, Marian [Kazimierz Wielki University, Chodkiewicza 30, 85-064 Bydgoszcz (Poland)

    2016-07-30

    Highlights: • Plasma modification affects surface roughness, wettability and surface energy. • Polylactide and polycaprolactone aging causes decay of the modification effects. • Changes in the surface characteristic and wettability deterioration were observed. • The decay occurs due to migration of low molecular weight molecules to the surface. • Plasma modification effect lasts longer in the case of polycaprolactone. - Abstract: The article presents results of research on the stability of oxygen plasma modification effects of polylactide and polycaprolactone surface layers. The modified samples were aged for three, six or nine weeks. The studies were carried out using scanning electron microscopy, goniometry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Studies have shown that the plasma modification has significant impact on the geometric structure and chemical composition of the surface, wettability and surface energy of tested polymers. The modification effects are not permanent. It has been observed that over time the effects of plasma modification fade. Studies have shown that modifying effect lasts longer in the case of polycaprolactone.

  15. The Stability of New Single-Layer Combined Lattice Shell Based on Aluminum Alloy Honeycomb Panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caiqi Zhao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a new type of single-layer combined lattice shell (NSCLS; which is based on aluminum alloy honeycomb panels. Six models with initial geometric defect were designed and precision made using numerical control equipment. The stability of these models was tested. The results showed that the stable bearing capacity of NSCLS was approximately 16% higher than that of a lattice shell with the same span without a reinforcing plate. At the same time; the properties of the NSCLS were sensitive to defects. When defects were present; its stable bearing capacity was decreased by 12.3% when compared with the defect-free model. The model with random defects following a truncated Gaussian distribution could be used to simulate the distribution of defects in the NSCLS. The average difference between the results of the nonlinear analysis and the experimental results was 5.7%. By calculating and analyzing nearly 20,000 NSCLS; the suggested values of initial geometric defect were presented. The results of this paper could provide a theoretical basis for making and revising the design codes for this new combined lattice shell structure.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of Zn-doped MgAl-layered double hydroxide nanoparticles as PVC heat stabilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Gongling; Yang, Mei; Li, Zhiwen; Lin, Kaifeng; Jin, Quan; Xing, Chaojian; Hu, Zhudong; Wang, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Zn-doped MgAl-layered double hydroxides (LDHs) with M 2+ /M 3+ = 2 and different molar ratios of Mg/Zn have been synthesized by modified homogeneous co-precipitation method and characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, Transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectrum and thermogravimetry, and differential thermal analysis techniques. The thermal stabilizing effects of different LDHs on PVC were studied by Congo red test and thermal aging test. All of the nanoparticles show plate-like morphology and the average diameter of particles is around 90 nm. Results show that the introduction of Zn increased the average bond length and area of the layers of LDHs, therefore enhanced the adsorption ability on HCl gas which was generated during degradation of PVC to improve the thermal stability of PVC. LDHs with molar ratio of Mg/Zn = 1.0 shows the best thermal stabilizing effect on PVC

  17. Synthesis and characterization of Zn-doped MgAl-layered double hydroxide nanoparticles as PVC heat stabilizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Gongling; Yang, Mei [Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Complex Systems, Institute of Process Engineering (China); Li, Zhiwen; Lin, Kaifeng [Harbin Institute of Technology, Academy of Fundamental Interdisciplinary Sciences (China); Jin, Quan; Xing, Chaojian; Hu, Zhudong [Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Complex Systems, Institute of Process Engineering (China); Wang, Dan, E-mail: danwang@mail.ipe.ac.cn [Harbin Institute of Technology, Academy of Fundamental Interdisciplinary Sciences (China)

    2013-09-15

    Zn-doped MgAl-layered double hydroxides (LDHs) with M{sup 2+}/M{sup 3+} = 2 and different molar ratios of Mg/Zn have been synthesized by modified homogeneous co-precipitation method and characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, Transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectrum and thermogravimetry, and differential thermal analysis techniques. The thermal stabilizing effects of different LDHs on PVC were studied by Congo red test and thermal aging test. All of the nanoparticles show plate-like morphology and the average diameter of particles is around 90 nm. Results show that the introduction of Zn increased the average bond length and area of the layers of LDHs, therefore enhanced the adsorption ability on HCl gas which was generated during degradation of PVC to improve the thermal stability of PVC. LDHs with molar ratio of Mg/Zn = 1.0 shows the best thermal stabilizing effect on PVC.

  18. Stabilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad H. Al-Malack

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Fuel oil flyash (FFA produced in power and water desalination plants firing crude oils in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is being disposed in landfills, which increases the burden on the environment, therefore, FFA utilization must be encouraged. In the current research, the effect of adding FFA on the engineering properties of two indigenous soils, namely sand and marl, was investigated. FFA was added at concentrations of 5%, 10% and 15% to both soils with and without the addition of Portland cement. Mixtures of the stabilized soils were thoroughly evaluated using compaction, California Bearing Ratio (CBR, unconfined compressive strength (USC and durability tests. Results of these tests indicated that stabilized sand mixtures could not attain the ACI strength requirements. However, marl was found to satisfy the ACI strength requirement when only 5% of FFA was added together with 5% of cement. When the FFA was increased to 10% and 15%, the mixture’s strength was found to decrease to values below the ACI requirements. Results of the Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedure (TCLP, which was performed on samples that passed the ACI requirements, indicated that FFA must be cautiously used in soil stabilization.

  19. First-principles analysis of phase stability in layered-layered composite cathodes for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iddir, Hakim; Benedek, Roy; Voltage Fade Team

    2014-03-01

    The atomic order in layered-layered composites with composition xLi2MnO3 .(1-x)LiCoO2 is investigated with first-principles calculations at the GGA +U level. This material, and others in its class, are often regarded as solid solutions, however, only a minute solubility of Li2MnO3 in a LiCoO2 host is predicted. Calculations of Co-vacancy formation and migration energies in LiCoO2 are presented, to elucidate the rate of vacancy-mediated ordering in the transition-metal-layer, and thus determine whether low vacancy mobility could result in slow equilibration. The Co-vacancy formation energy can be predicted only to within a range, because of uncertainty in the chemical potentials. Predicted migration energies, however, are approximately 1 eV, small enough to be consistent with rapid ordering in the transition metal layer, and therefore separated Li2MnO3 and LiCoO2 phases. The relatively small (of the order of a few nm) Li2MnO3 domain sizes observed with TEM in some xLi2MnO3 .(1-x)LiMO2 composites may result from other factors, such as coherency strain, which perhaps block further domain coarsening in these materials. Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231.

  20. Fabrication, characterization and antimicrobial activities of thymol-loaded zein nanoparticles stabilized by sodium caseinate-chitosan hydrochloride double layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaqiong; Niu, Yuge; Luo, Yangchao; Ge, Mei; Yang, Tian; Yu, Liangli Lucy; Wang, Qin

    2014-01-01

    Thymol-loaded zein nanoparticles stabilized with sodium caseinate (SC) and chitosan hydrochloride (CHC) were prepared and characterized. The SC stabilized nanoparticles had well-defined size range and negatively charged surface. Due to the presence of SC, the stabilized zein nanoparticles showed a shift of isoelectric point from 6.18 to 5.05, and had a desirable redispersibility in water at neutral pH after lyophilization. Coating with CHC onto the SC stabilized zein nanoparticles resulted in increased particle size, reversal of zeta potential value from negative to positive, and improved encapsulation efficiency. Both thymol-loaded zein nanoparticles and SC stabilized zein nanoparticles had a spherical shape and smooth surface, while the surfaces of CHC-SC stabilized zein nanoparticles seemed rough and had some clumps. Encapsulated thymol was more effective in suppressing gram-positive bacterium than un-encapsulated thymol for a longer time period. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Incompressible boundary-layer stability analysis of LFC experimental data for sub-critical Mach numbers. M.S. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, S. A.

    1986-01-01

    An incompressible boundary-layer stability analysis of Laminar Flow Control (LFC) experimental data was completed and the results are presented. This analysis was undertaken for three reasons: to study laminar boundary-layer stability on a modern swept LFC airfoil; to calculate incompressible design limits of linear stability theory as applied to a modern airfoil at high subsonic speeds; and to verify the use of linear stability theory as a design tool. The experimental data were taken from the slotted LFC experiment recently completed in the NASA Langley 8-Foot Transonic Pressure Tunnel. Linear stability theory was applied and the results were compared with transition data to arrive at correlated n-factors. Results of the analysis showed that for the configuration and cases studied, Tollmien-Schlichting (TS) amplification was the dominating disturbance influencing transition. For these cases, incompressible linear stability theory correlated with an n-factor for TS waves of approximately 10 at transition. The n-factor method correlated rather consistently to this value despite a number of non-ideal conditions which indicates the method is useful as a design tool for advanced laminar flow airfoils.

  2. Experimental research of "microcable in a microconduct" system stability to effect of freezing water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreev, Vladimir A.; Burdin, Vladimir A.; Nikulina, Tatiana G.; Alekhin, Ivan N.; Gavryushin, Sergey A.; Nikulin, Aleksey G.; Praporshchikov, Denis E.

    2011-12-01

    Results of experimental researches of "optical microcable in a microduct" system stability to effect of freezing water are presented. It is shown this system is steadier to water freezing in comparison to lighten optical cable in protective polymer tube.

  3. Layered tin monoselenide as advanced photothermal conversion materials for efficient solar energy-driven water evaporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jiandong; Zheng, Zhaoqiang; Yang, Guowei

    2018-02-08

    Solar energy-driven water evaporation lays a solid foundation for important photothermal applications such as sterilization, seawater desalination, and electricity generation. Due to the strong light-matter coupling, broad absorption wavelength range, and prominent quantum confinement effect, layered tin monoselenide (SnSe) holds a great potential to effectively harness solar irradiation and convert it to heat energy. In this study, SnSe is successfully deposited on a centimeter-scale nickel foam using a facile one-step pulsed-laser deposition approach. Importantly, the maximum evaporation rate of SnSe-coated nickel foam (SnSe@NF) reaches 0.85 kg m -2 h -1 , which is even 21% larger than that obtained with the commercial super blue coating (0.7 kg m -2 h -1 ) under the same condition. A systematic analysis reveals that its good photothermal conversion capability is attributed to the synergetic effect of multi-scattering-induced light trapping and the optimal trade-off between light absorption and phonon emission. Finally, the SnSe@NF device is further used for seawater evaporation, demonstrating a comparable evaporation rate (0.8 kg m -2 h -1 ) to that of fresh water and good stability over many cycles of usage. In summary, the current contribution depicts a facile one-step scenario for the economical and efficient solar-enabled SnSe@NF evaporation devices. More importantly, an in-depth analysis of the photothermal conversion mechanism underneath the layered materials depicts a fundamental paradigm for the design and application of photothermal devices based on them in the future.

  4. Assessment of rock mechanical properties and seismic slope stability in variably weathered layered basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, William; Clark, Marin; Zekkos, Dimitrios; Von Voigtlander, Jennifer; Bateman, Julie; Lowe, Katherine; Hirose, Mitsuhito; Anderson, Suzanne; Anderson, Robert; Lynch, Jerome

    2016-04-01

    A field and laboratory experimental study was conducted to assess the influence of weathering on the mechanical properties of basalts in the region of the Kohala volcano on the island of Hawaii. Through the systematic characterization of the weathering profiles developed in different precipitation regimes, we aim to explain the regional pattern of stability of slopes in layered basalts that were observed during the 2006 Mw 6.7 Kiholo Bay earthquake. While deeper weathering profiles on the wet side of the island might be expected to promote more and larger landslides, the distribution of landslides during the Kiholo Bay earthquake did not follow this anticipated trend. Landslide frequency (defined as number of landslides divided by total area) was similar on the steepest slopes (> 50-60) for both the dry and the wet side of the study area suggesting relatively strong ground materials irrespective of weathering. The study location is ideally suited to investigate the role of precipitation, and more broadly of climate, on the mechanical properties of the local rock units because the presence of the Kohala volcano produces a significant precipitation gradient on what are essentially identical basaltic flows. Mean annual precipitation (MAP) varies by more than an order of magnitude, from 200 mm/year on the western side of the volcano to 4000 mm/year in the eastern side. We will present results of measured shear wave velocities using a seismic surface wave methodology. These results were paired with laboratory testing on selected basalt specimens that document the sample-scale shear wave velocity and unconfined compressive strength of the basaltic rocks. Shear wave velocity and unconfined strength of the rocks are correlated and are both significantly lower in weathered rocks near the ground surface than at depth. This weathering-related reduction in shear wave velocity extends to greater depths in areas of high precipitation compared to areas of lower precipitation

  5. Interfacial bonding stabilizes rhodium and rhodium oxide nanoparticles on layered Nb oxide and Ta oxide supports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strayer, Megan E; Binz, Jason M; Tanase, Mihaela; Shahri, Seyed Mehdi Kamali; Sharma, Renu; Rioux, Robert M; Mallouk, Thomas E

    2014-04-16

    Metal nanoparticles are commonly supported on metal oxides, but their utility as catalysts is limited by coarsening at high temperatures. Rhodium oxide and rhodium metal nanoparticles on niobate and tantalate supports are anomalously stable. To understand this, the nanoparticle-support interaction was studied by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), environmental transmission electron microscopy (ETEM), and synchrotron X-ray absorption and scattering techniques. Nanosheets derived from the layered oxides KCa2Nb3O10, K4Nb6O17, and RbTaO3 were compared as supports to nanosheets of Na-TSM, a synthetic fluoromica (Na0.66Mg2.68(Si3.98Al0.02)O10.02F1.96), and α-Zr(HPO4)2·H2O. High surface area SiO2 and γ-Al2O3 supports were also used for comparison in the ITC experiments. A Born-Haber cycle analysis of ITC data revealed an exothermic interaction between Rh(OH)3 nanoparticles and the layered niobate and tantalate supports, with ΔH values in the range -32 kJ·mol(-1) Rh to -37 kJ·mol(-1) Rh. In contrast, the interaction enthalpy was positive with SiO2 and γ-Al2O3 supports. The strong interfacial bonding in the former case led to "reverse" ripening of micrometer-size Rh(OH)3, which dispersed as 0.5 to 2 nm particles on the niobate and tantalate supports. In contrast, particles grown on Na-TSM and α-Zr(HPO4)2·H2O nanosheets were larger and had a broad size distribution. ETEM, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and pair distribution function analyses were used to study the growth of supported nanoparticles under oxidizing and reducing conditions, as well as the transformation from Rh(OH)3 to Rh nanoparticles. Interfacial covalent bonding, possibly strengthened by d-electron acid/base interactions, appear to stabilize Rh(OH)3, Rh2O3, and Rh nanoparticles on niobate and tantalate supports.

  6. Evaluation of RSG-GAS purification system and pool warm water layer supplier performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudiyono; Suhadi; Diah-Erlina-Lestari

    2005-01-01

    Function of RSG-GAS purification system and warm water supplier (KBE 02) are to pick up dissolve activation result and another dirts of warm water layer. To keep quality of water at the decided level. The system is equipped by heater to supply warm water layer on the reactor pool surface the distribution is to reduce radiation level in the operation hall area a speciality on the reactor pool surface. Line KBE 02 tomord beam tube headitty system supplies water necessary to be shielding to beam tube in use off time. Of the RSG-GAS purification system and pool warm water layer performance date can be shown north of water is always in good condition. To require the dechded requirement. Resin live time is two years and then months

  7. Experimental Investigation of the Hot Water Layer Effect on Upward Flow Open Pool Reactor Operability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou Elmaaty, T.

    2014-01-01

    The open pool reactor offers a high degree of reliability in the handling and manoeuvring, the replacement of reactor internal components and the suing of vertical irradiation channels. The protection of both the operators and the reactor hall environment against radiation hazards is considered a matter of interest. So, a hot water layer is implemented above many of the research reactors main pool, especially those whose flow direction is upward flow. An experimental work was carried out to ensure the operability of the upward flow open pool research reactor with / without the hot water layer. The performed experiment showed that, the hot water layer is produced an inverse buoyant force make the water to diffuse downward against the ordinary natural circulation from the reactor core. An upward flow - open pool research reactor (with a power greater than 20 M watt) could not wok without a hot water layer. The high temperature of the hot water layer surface could release a considerable amount of water vapour into the reactor hall, so a heat and mass transfer model is built based on the measured hot water layer surface temperature to calculate the amount of released water vapour during the reactor operating period. The effects of many parameters like the ambient air temperature, the reactor hall relative humidity and the speed of the pushed air layer above the top pool end on the evaporation rate is studied. The current study showed that, the hot water layer system is considered an efficient shielding system against Gamma radiation for open pool upward flow reactor and that system should be operated before the reactor start up by a suitable period of time. While, the heat and mass transfer model results showed that, the amount of the released water vapour is increased as a result of both the increase in hot water layer surface temperature and the increase in air layer speed. As the increase in hot water layer surface temperature could produce a good operability

  8. Experimental Investigation of the Hot Water Layer Effect on Upward Flow Open Pool Reactor Operability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou Elmaaty, T.

    2015-01-01

    The open pool reactor offers a high degree of reliability in the handling and manoeuvring, the replacement of reactor internal components and the swing of vertical irradiation channels. The protection of both the operators and the reactor hall environment against radiation hazards is considered a matter of interest. So, a hot water layer implemented above many of the research reactors main pool, especially those whose flow direction is upward flow. An experimental work was carried out to ensure the operability of the upward flow open pool research reactor with / without the hot water layer. The performed experiment showed that, the hot water layer produced an inverse buoyant force making the water to diffuse downward against the ordinary natural circulation from the reactor core. An upward flow-open pool research reactor (with a power greater than 20 Mw) could not wok without a hot water layer. The high temperature of the hot water layer surface could release a considerable amount of water vapour into the reactor hall, so a heat and mass transfer model is built based on the measured hot water layer surface temperature to calculate the amount of released water vapour during the reactor operating period. The effects of many parameters like the ambient air temperature, the reactor hall relative humidity and the speed of the pushed air layer above the top pool end on the evaporation rate is studied. The current study showed that, the hot water layer system is considered an efficient shielding system against gamma radiation for open pool upward flow reactor and that system should be operated before the reactor start up by a suitable period of time. While, the heat and mass transfer model results showed that, the amount of the released water vapour is increased as a result of both the increase in hot water layer surface temperature and the increase in air layer speed. As the increase in hot water layer surface temperature could produce a good operability conditions from

  9. Improved Gate Dielectric Deposition and Enhanced Electrical Stability for Single-Layer MoS2 MOSFET with an AlN Interfacial Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Qingkai; Li, Baikui; Hua, Mengyuan; Zhang, Zhaofu; Lan, Feifei; Xu, Yongkuan; Yan, Ruyue; Chen, Kevin J

    2016-06-09

    Transistors based on MoS2 and other TMDs have been widely studied. The dangling-bond free surface of MoS2 has made the deposition of high-quality high-k dielectrics on MoS2 a challenge. The resulted transistors often suffer from the threshold voltage instability induced by the high density traps near MoS2/dielectric interface or inside the gate dielectric, which is detrimental for the practical applications of MoS2 metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET). In this work, by using AlN deposited by plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) as an interfacial layer, top-gate dielectrics as thin as 6 nm for single-layer MoS2 transistors are demonstrated. The AlN interfacial layer not only promotes the conformal deposition of high-quality Al2O3 on the dangling-bond free MoS2, but also greatly enhances the electrical stability of the MoS2 transistors. Very small hysteresis (ΔVth) is observed even at large gate biases and high temperatures. The transistor also exhibits a low level of flicker noise, which clearly originates from the Hooge mobility fluctuation instead of the carrier number fluctuation. The observed superior electrical stability of MoS2 transistor is attributed to the low border trap density of the AlN interfacial layer, as well as the small gate leakage and high dielectric strength of AlN/Al2O3 dielectric stack.

  10. Water Transfer Characteristics during Methane Hydrate Formation Processes in Layered Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousheng Deng

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Gas hydrate formation processes in porous media are always accompanied by water transfer. To study the transfer characteristics comprehensively, two kinds of layered media consisting of coarse sand and loess were used to form methane hydrate in them. An apparatus with three PF-meter sensors detecting water content and temperature changes in media during the formation processes was applied to study the water transfer characteristics. It was experimentally observed that the hydrate formation configurations in different layered media were similar; however, the water transfer characteristics and water conversion ratios were different.

  11. Methane oxidation and methane fluxes in the ocean surface layer and deep anoxic waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, B. B.; Kilpatrick, K. A.; Novelli, P. C.; Scranton, M. I.

    1987-01-01

    Measured biological oxidation rates of methane in near-surface waters of the Cariaco Basin are compared with the diffusional fluxes computed from concentration gradients of methane in the surface layer. Methane fluxes and oxidation rates were investigated in surface waters, at the oxic/anoxic interface, and in deep anoxic waters. It is shown that the surface-waters oxidation of methane is a mechanism which modulates the flux of methane from marine waters to the atmosphere.

  12. The stability of the water column in french ponds (limousin region by the calculation of the wedderburn number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TOUCHART L.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Oxygenation and biological life in lakes, reservoirs and ponds depend on the stability of the water column and on the rhythms of stratification and mixing periods. Slight thermal stratification in ponds often is regarded as the same as instability in shallow lakes. Nevertheless fetch in ponds is very short, what reduces the mixing. Wedderburn number (quotient of the buoyancy by the mixing is used to quantify the stability in shallow water bodies. We calculate it for some ponds in French region Limousin, due to original hourly water temperature measurements in all depths and wind data of Météofrance stations. First results show that very high values (above 10 are frequent in summer and spring period (during 41% of the total time of 2 336 hours from May to July in three ponds. That is why we may consider Limousin ponds as stable stratified bodies of water despite their shallowness. Continuous measurements allow to calculate the diurnal cycle and other time scales of the Wedderburn number, with periods of weakening, when air temperatures and surface water temperatures decrease, wind speed increases and when the wind blows in the same direction with the length of the pond. The most complex variable is the depth of the thermocline; a light increase of the breeze thickens the upper warm layer and strengthens the stability, but an important increase of the wind tends to destroy the stratification.

  13. High-efficiency/CRI/color stability warm white organic light-emitting diodes by incorporating ultrathin phosphorescence layers in a blue fluorescence layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Yanqin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available By incorporating ultrathin (80, low correlated color temperature of <3600 K, and high color stability at a wide voltage range of 5 V–9 V. These hybrid WOLEDs also reveal high forward-viewing external quantum efficiencies (EQE of 17.82%–19.34%, which are close to the theoretical value of 20%, indicating an almost complete exciton harvesting. In addition, the electroluminescence spectra of the hybrid WOLEDs can be easily improved by only changing the incorporating sequence of the ultrathin phosphorescence layers without device efficiency loss. For example, the hybrid WOLED with an incorporation sequence of ultrathin red/yellow/green phosphorescence layers exhibits an ultra-high CRI of 96 and a high EQE of 19.34%. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first WOLED with good tradeoff among device efficiency, CRI, and color stability. The introduction of ultrathin (<0.1 nm phosphorescence layers can also greatly reduce the consumption of phosphorescent emitters as well as simplify device structures and fabrication process, thus leading to low cost. Such a finding is very meaningful for the potential commercialization of hybrid WOLEDs.

  14. 46 CFR 178.340 - Stability standards for pontoon vessels on protected waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stability standards for pontoon vessels on protected waters. 178.340 Section 178.340 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL....340 Stability standards for pontoon vessels on protected waters. (a) The portion of the deck...

  15. Identifying the effects of parameter uncertainty on the reliability of modeling the stability of overhanging, multi-layered, river banks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadi, A.; Amiri-Tokaldany, E.; Davoudi, M. H.; Darby, S. E.

    2011-11-01

    Composite river banks consist of a basal layer of non-cohesive material overlain by a cohesive layer of fine-grained material. In such banks, fluvial erosion of the lower, non-cohesive, layer typically occurs at a much higher rate than erosion of the upper part of the bank. Consequently, such banks normally develop a cantilevered bank profile, with bank retreat of the upper part of the bank taking place predominantly by the failure of these cantilevers. To predict the undesirable impacts of this type of bank retreat, a number of bank stability models have been presented in the literature. These models typically express bank stability by defining a factor of safety as the ratio of resisting and driving forces acting on the incipient failure block. These forces are affected by a range of controlling factors that include such aspects as the overhanging block geometry, and the geotechnical properties of the bank materials. In this paper, we introduce a new bank stability relation (for shear-type cantilever failures) that considers the hydrological status of cantilevered riverbanks, while beam-type failures are analyzed using a previously proposed relation. We employ these stability models to evaluate the effects of parameter uncertainty on the reliability of riverbank stability modeling of overhanging banks. This is achieved by employing a simple model of overhanging failure with respect to shear and beam failure mechanisms in a series of sensitivity tests and Monte Carlo analyses to identify, for each model parameter, the range of values that induce significant changes in the simulated factor of safety. The results show that care is required in parameterising (i) the geometrical shape of the overhanging-block and (ii) the bank material cohesion and unit weight, as predictions of bank stability are sensitive to variations of these factors.

  16. Study on the integration of layered water injection technology and subdivision adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yancui

    2018-06-01

    With oil many infillings, thin and poor reservoir exploitation changes gradually to low permeability, thin and poor reservoir development characteristics of multiple layers thickness, low permeability, in the actual development process, the General Department of oil layers of encryption perforation long thin and poor mining, interlayer contradiction more prominent, by conventional layered water injection that can alleviate the contradiction between layers to a certain extent, by the injection interval and other factors can not fundamentally solve the problem, leading to the potential well area key strata or layers is difficult to determine, the layering test and slicing technology is difficult to adapt to the need of tap water control block. This paper through numerical simulation using the conceptual model and the actual block, it has a great influence on the low permeability reservoir of different stratified water permeability combination of permeability technology and application limits, profit and loss balance principle, low oil prices on the lower series of subdivision technical and economic limit, so the reservoir subdivision reorganization, narrow wells mining, reduce the interference between layers, from the maximum fundamental improvement of layered water injection efficiency. At the same time, in order to meet the needs of reservoir subdivision adjustment, subdividing distance with water, a small interlayer wells subdivision technology for further research in the pickup, solved using two ordinary bridge eccentric water regulator with injection of two layers, by throwing exercise distance limit card from the larger problem, the water distribution card size from 7.0m to 1.0m, and the testing efficiency is improved, and provide technical support for further subdivision water injection wells.

  17. Remarks on boiling water reactor stability analysis. Pt. 2. Stability monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, Carsten; Hennig, Dieter; Hurtado, Antonio [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Chair of Hydrogen and Nuclear Energy; Schuster, Roland [Kernkraftwerk Brunsbuettel GmbH und Co. oHG, Brunsbuettel (Germany); Lukas, Bernard [EnBW Kernkraft GmbH, Philippsburg (Germany). Kernkraftwerk Philippsburg; Aguirre, Carlos [Kernkraftwerk Leibstadt AG, Aargau (Switzerland)

    2012-12-15

    In part 1 of this article we explained the partly relative complex solution manifold of the differential equations describing the stability behaviour of a BWR, in particular the coexistence of different types of solutions, such as the coexistence of unstable limit cycles and stable fixed points are of interest from the operational safety point of view. The part 2 is devoted to the surveillance of the stability behaviour. We summarize some stability monitoring methods and suggest to support stability tests by RAM-ROM analyses in order to reveal in advance the stability 'landscape' of the BWR in a parameter region high sensitive for appearing of linear unstable states. The analysis of an especial stability test, performed at NPP Leibstadt (KKL), makes it clear that the measurement results can only be interpreted by application of bifurcation analysis. (orig.)

  18. Enhanced stability of thin film transistors with double-stacked amorphous IWO/IWO:N channel layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Dong; Pi, Shubin; Yang, Jianwen; Tiwari, Nidhi; Ren, Jinhua; Zhang, Qun; Liu, Po-Tsun; Shieh, Han-Ping

    2018-06-01

    In this work, bottom-gate top-contact thin film transistors with double-stacked amorphous IWO/IWO:N channel layer were fabricated. Herein, amorphous IWO and N-doped IWO were deposited as front and back channel layers, respectively, by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering. The electrical characteristics of the bi-layer-channel thin film transistors (TFTs) were examined and compared with those of single-layer-channel (i.e., amorphous IWO or IWO:N) TFTs. It was demonstrated to exhibit a high mobility of 27.2 cm2 V‑1 s‑1 and an on/off current ratio of 107. Compared to the single peers, bi-layer a-IWO/IWO:N TFTs showed smaller hysteresis and higher stability under negative bias stress and negative bias temperature stress. The enhanced performance could be attributed to its unique double-stacked channel configuration, which successfully combined the merits of the TFTs with IWO and IWO:N channels. The underlying IWO thin film provided percolation paths for electron transport, meanwhile, the top IWO:N layer reduced the bulk trap densities. In addition, the IWO channel/gate insulator interface had reduced defects, and IWO:N back channel surface was insensitive to the ambient atmosphere. Overall, the proposed bi-layer a-IWO/IWO:N TFTs show potential for practical applications due to its possibly long-term serviceability.

  19. Microstructure and thermal stability of nickel layers electrodeposited from an additive-free sulphamate-based electrolyte

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anette Alsted; Møller, Per; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2006-01-01

    and scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction; the Vickers hardness was measured in cross sections. The present is meant as a reference for forthcoming articles on the investigation of various strengthening mechanisms on the microstructure, hardness and thermal stability of Ni (alloys) electrodeposits.......The influences of the current density and the temperature on the microstructure and hardness of Ni layers electrodeposited from an additive-free sulphamate bath were investigated. The microstructure and thermal stability of the electrodeposits was investigated with a combination of transmission...

  20. Comparison of Homogenous and Multi-layered Berm Breakwaters with Respect to Overtopping and Front Slope Stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Skals, K. T.; Burcharth, Hans F.

    2009-01-01

    A model test study was conducted to study overtopping and front slope stability of homogenous and multi-layered berm breakwaters. The two breakwater types are compared and cons and pros are listed. The study shows that the optimum number of stone classes might be significantly lower than what has...... previously been used in the Icelandic type of berm breakwater because it seems that the number of stone classes in the berm can be reduced from five to two without significantly influencing overtopping and stability performance. Moreover, the new results are compared to the design formulae established...

  1. Stability analysis of supercritical-pressure light water-cooled reactor in constant pressure operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suhwan, JI; Shirahama, H.; Koshizuka, S.; Oka, Y.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the thermal-hydraulic and the thermal-nuclear coupled stabilities of a supercritical pressure light water-cooled reactor. A stability analysis code at supercritical pressure is developed. Using this code, stabilities of full and partial-power reactor operating at supercritical pressure are investigated by the frequency-domain analysis. Two types of SCRs are analyzed; a supercritical light water reactor (SCLWR) and a supercritical water-cooled fast reactor (SCFR). The same stability criteria as Boiling Water Reactor are applied. The thermal-hydraulic stability of SCLWR and SCFR satisfies the criteria with a reasonable orifice loss coefficient. The decay ratio of the thermal-nuclear coupled stability in SCFR is almost zero because of a small coolant density coefficient of the fast reactor. The evaluated decay ratio of the thermal-nuclear coupled stability is 3,41 ∼ 10 -V at 100% power in SCFR and 0,028 at 100% power in SCLWR. The sensitivity is investigated. It is found that the thermal-hydraulic stability is sensitive to the mass flow rate strongly and the thermal-nuclear coupled stability to the coolant density coefficient. The bottom power peak distribution makes the thermal-nuclear stability worse and the thermal-nuclear stability better. (author)

  2. Biological Stability of Drinking Water: Controlling Factors, Methods, and Challenges

    KAUST Repository

    Prest, Emmanuelle I.; Hammes, Frederik; van Loosdrecht, Mark C. M.; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S.

    2016-01-01

    -depth characterization of bacterial communities in drinking water. We discussed, how knowledge gained from novel techniques will improve design and monitoring of water treatment and distribution systems in order to maintain good drinking water microbial quality up

  3. 2D water layer enclathrated between Mn(II)-Ni(CN)4 coordination frameworks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, Ambarish; Bhowmick, Indrani; Sheldrick, William S.; Jana, Atish Dipankar; Ali, Mahammed

    2009-01-01

    A [Ni(CN) 4 ] 2- based two-dimensional Mn(II) coordination polymer {Mn(H 2 O) 2 [NiCN] 4 .4H 2 O}, in which the coordination layers are stacked on top of each other sandwiching 2D water layer of boat-shaped hexagonal water clusters has been synthesized. The complex exhibits high thermal decomposition temperature and reversible water absorption, which were clearly demonstrated by thermal and PXRD studies on the parent and rehydrated complex after dehydration. - Abstract: A coordination polymer, {Mn(H 2 O) 2 [NiCN] 4 .4H 2 O} n , showed that the coordination layers are stacked on top of each other sandwiching 2D ice layer of boat-shaped hexagonal water clusters . Display Omitted

  4. The role of PEG conformation in mixed layers: from protein corona substrate to steric stabilization avoiding protein adsorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Comenge

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Although nanoparticles (NPs have been traditionally modified with a single ligand layer, mixture of ligands might help to combine different functionalities and to further engineer the NP surface. A detailed study of the competition between an alkanethiol (11-mercaptoundecanoic acid and SH-PEG for the surface of AuNPs and the resultant behaviors of this model nanoconjugate is presented here. As a result, the physicochemical properties of these conjugates can be progressively tuned by controlling the composition and especially the conformation of the mixed monolayer. This has implications in the physiological stability. The controlled changes on the SH-PEG conformation rather than its concentration induce a change in the stabilization mechanism from electrostatic repulsion to steric hindrance, which changes the biological fate of NPs. Importantly, the adsorption of proteins on the conjugates can be tailored by tuning the composition and conformation of the mixed layer.

  5. Effects of Wood Roughness, Light Pigments, and Water Repellent on the Color Stability of Painted Spruce Subjected to Natural and Accelerated Weathering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Reinprecht

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the color stability of painted Norway spruce (Picea abies samples subjected to natural and accelerated weathering, using Duncan’s tests and correlation analyses. The following effects were studied: (1 the different initial roughness of the wood; (2 use of transparent or lightly-pigmented top-coat layers; and (3 the presence of the final water-repellent layer. Natural weathering at a 45° slope in an industrial zone lasted 104 weeks, whereas accelerated weathering in Xenotest with 0.55 W/m2 UV irradiation at 340 nm and sprayed water lasted 12 weeks. The color stability of painted spruce, measured in a CIE-L*a*b* system, was not, in the majority of cases, significantly affected by the initial roughness of the wood, the type of top-coat (WoodCare UV or PerlColor layer, or presence of the final water repellent (AquaStop layer. The light pine or larch pigments in the top-coat layers had positive color stabilizing effects. In their presence, the darkening (-L* and total color differences (E* of the painted samples dropped ca. 2.5 times during exterior weathering and ca. 5 times during Xenotest weathering. Samples painted with transparent coatings turned a reddish shade (+a* during the Xenotest, while those exposed to the exterior absorbed dirt and became more blue (-b*.

  6. Synthesis of Poly(cinnam-4'-yl methyl methacrylate) derivatives and their thermal stability as photoalignment layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Woo; Kim, Hak Won; Kim, Hong Doo

    2001-01-01

    Photocyclizable poly(cinnam-4'-yl methyl methacrylate) derivatives bearing methoxy benzene (PMCMMA), anthracene (PACMMA), and coumarin (PCCMMMA) have been synthesized via Heck type reaction. Three different types of polymers are photoreactable using linearly polarized UV light and applicable as liquid crystal alignment layer. Anthracene and coumarin containing polymers (PACMMA, PCCMMA) have better thermal stability than PMCMMA. This observation may be attributed to the glass transition temperature elevation due to the bulky size and another photocrosslinking site provided by anthracene or coumarin group

  7. The impact of lipid composition on the stability of the tear fluid lipid layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulovesi, P.; Telenius, J.; Koivuniemi, A.

    2012-01-01

    The tear fluid protects the corneal epithelium from drying and pathogens and it also provides nutrients to these cells. Tear fluid is composed of an aqueous layer as well as a lipid layer that resides at the air-tear interface. The function of the lipid layer is to lower the surface tension of th......-neutral lipid ratio. The results provide a plausible rationale for the development of dry eye syndrome in blepharitis patients.......The tear fluid protects the corneal epithelium from drying and pathogens and it also provides nutrients to these cells. Tear fluid is composed of an aqueous layer as well as a lipid layer that resides at the air-tear interface. The function of the lipid layer is to lower the surface tension...

  8. Effect of interfacial layer on water flow in nanochannels: Lattice Boltzmann simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Yakang [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, China University of Petroleum, Qingdao, Shandong 266580 (China); College of Science, China University of Petroleum, Qingdao 266580, Shandong (China); Liu, Xuefeng, E-mail: liuxf@upc.edu.cn [College of Science, China University of Petroleum, Qingdao 266580, Shandong (China); Liu, Zilong [College of Science, China University of Petroleum, Qingdao 266580, Shandong (China); Lu, Shuangfang [Institute of Unconventional Oil & Gas and New Energy, China University of Petroleum, Qingdao 266580, Shandong (China); Xue, Qingzhong, E-mail: xueqingzhong@tsinghua.org.cn [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, China University of Petroleum, Qingdao, Shandong 266580 (China); College of Science, China University of Petroleum, Qingdao 266580, Shandong (China); National Production Equipment Research Center, Dongying 257064, Shandong (China)

    2016-04-15

    A novel interfacial model was proposed to understand water flow mechanism in nanochannels. Based on our pore-throat nanochannel model, the effect of interfacial layer on water flow in nanochannels was quantitatively studied using Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). It is found that both the permeability of nanochannel and water velocity in the nanochannel dramatically decrease with increasing the thickness of interfacial layer. The permeability of nanochannel with pore radius of 10 nm decreases by about three orders of magnitude when the thickness of interfacial layer is changed from 0 nm to 3 nm gradually. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that the cross-section shape has a great effect on the water flow inside nanochannel and the effect of interfacial layer on the permeability of nanochannel has a close relationship with cross-section shape when the pore size is smaller than 12 nm. Besides, both pore-throat ratio and throat length can greatly affect water flow in nanochannels, and the influence of interfacial layer on water flow in nanochannels becomes more evident with increasing pore-throat ratio and throat length. Our theoretical results provide a simple and effective method to study the flow phenomena in nano-porous media, particularly to quantitatively study the interfacial layer effect in nano-porous media.

  9. Physical and oxidative stability of fish oil-in-water emulsions stabilized with beta-lactoglobulin and pectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsuda, Marly S; McClements, D J; Miglioranza, Lucia H S; Decker, Eric A

    2008-07-23

    The oxidation of fatty acids can be inhibited by engineering the surface of oil-in-water emulsion droplets to decrease interactions between aqueous phase prooxidants and lipids. The objective of this research was to evaluate whether emulsions stabilized by a multilayer emulsifier systems consisting of beta-lactoglobulin and citrus or sugar beet pectin could produce fish oil-in-water emulsions that had good physical and oxidative stability. Sugar beet pectin was compared to citrus pectin because the sugar beet pectin contains the known antioxidant, ferulic acid. A primary Menhaden oil-in-water emulsion was prepared with beta-lactoglobulin upon which the pectins were electrostatically deposited at pH 3.5. Emulsions prepared with 1% oil, 0.05% beta-lactoglobulin, and 0.06% pectins were physically stable for up to 16 days. As determined by monitoring lipid hydroperoxide and headspace propanal formation, emulsions prepared with the multilayer system of beta-lactoglobulin and citrus pectin were more stable than emulsions stabilized with beta-lactoglobulin alone. Emulsions prepared with the multilayer system of beta-lactoglobulin and sugar beet pectin were less stable than emulsions stabilized with beta-lactoglobulin alone despite the presence of ferulic acid in the sugar beet pectin. The lower oxidative stability of the emulsions with the sugar beet pectin could be due to its higher iron and copper concentrations which would produce oxidative stress that would overcome the antioxidant capacity of ferulic acid. These data suggest that the oxidative stability of oil-in-water emulsions containing omega-3 fatty acids could be improved by the use of multilayer emulsion systems containing pectins with low metal concentrations.

  10. Spinel-structured surface layers for facile Li ion transport and improved chemical stability of lithium manganese oxide spinel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hae Ri [Center for Energy Convergence Research, Korea Institute of Science Technology, Hwarang-ro 14-gil 5, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Korea University, 145, Anam-ro, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Hyo Ree; Lee, Boeun; Cho, Byung Won [Center for Energy Convergence Research, Korea Institute of Science Technology, Hwarang-ro 14-gil 5, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kwan-Young [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Korea University, 145, Anam-ro, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Si Hyoung, E-mail: sho74@kist.re.kr [Center for Energy Convergence Research, Korea Institute of Science Technology, Hwarang-ro 14-gil 5, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    Graphical abstract: Strategically-designed spinel-structured nano-scale surface layer, LiM{sub x}Mn{sup IV}{sub 1−x}O{sub 4}, featuring a high Li{sup +} ion conductivity and a good chemical stability was applied on Al-doped LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel for the drastic improvement of the electrochemical performance at the elevated temperature as a promising cathode material for lithium rechargeable batteries. - Highlights: • Spinel-structured surface layer with a high Li-ion conductivity and a good chemical stability was prepared. • Simple wet process was developed to apply nano-scale surface layer on aluminum doped lithium manganese oxide spinel. • The properties of nano-scale surface layer were characterized by analytical tools including GITT, HR-TEM and XAS. • Materials with surface coating layer exhibit an excellent electrochemical performance at the elevated temperature. - Abstract: Li-ion conducting spinel-structured oxide layer with a manganese oxidation state close to being tetravalent was prepared on aluminum-doped lithium manganese oxide spinel for improving the electrochemical performances at the elevated temperatures. This nanoscale surface layer provides a good ionic conduction path for lithium ion transport to the core and also serves as an excellent chemical barrier for protecting the high-capacity core material from manganese dissolution into the electrolyte. In this work, a simple wet process was employed to prepare thin LiAlMnO{sub 4} and LiMg{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4} layers on the surface of LiAl{sub 0.1}Mn{sub 1.9}O{sub 4}. X-ray absorption studies revealed an oxidation state close to tetravalent manganese on the surface layer of coated materials. Materials with these surface coating layers exhibited excellent capacity retentions superior to the bare material, without undermining the lithium ion transport characteristics and the high rate performances.

  11. Thermal stability and high temperature polymorphism of topochemically-prepared Dion–Jacobson triple-layered perovskites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guertin, Stephen L.; Josepha, Elisha A.; Montasserasadi, Dariush; Wiley, John B., E-mail: jwiley@uno.edu

    2015-10-25

    The thermal stability of six Dion–Jacobson-related triple layered perovskites, ACa{sub 2}Nb{sub 3}O{sub 10} (A = H, NH{sub 4}, Li, Na, K, CuCl), was explored to 1000 °C. Each compound was produced topochemically by low-temperature (<500 °C) ion exchange from RbCa{sub 2}Nb{sub 3}O{sub 10}. The thermal behavior of the series was examined by variable temperature X-ray powder diffraction experiments in tandem with thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. Five of the species were found to be low temperature/metastable phases, decomposing below 900 °C, where the stability of the series decreased with decreasing interlayer cation size. The compounds, A = Li, Na, K, exhibited high temperature polymorphism, with a completely reversible transition evident for KCa{sub 2}Nb{sub 3}O{sub 10}. - Highlights: • Thermal stability of topochemically prepared triple-layered perovskites studied. • Clear correlation seen between stability and identity of interlayer cation. • Several in ACa{sub 2}Nb{sub 3}O{sub 10} series (A = Li, Na, K) exhibit high temperature polymorphism.

  12. Stability and dewetting kinetics of thin gold films on Ti, TiOx and ZnO adhesion layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, Brian T.; Cheung, Jeffrey; Ihlefeld, Jon F.; Jones, Jacob L.; Nagarajan, Valanoor

    2013-01-01

    We present an in situ high-temperature confocal laser microscopy study on the thermal stability of 40 nm thick gold thin films grown on 40 nm Ti, TiO x and ZnO adhesion layers on (0 0 1) Si. In situ observation of the dewetting process was performed over a wide range of set temperatures (400–800 °C) and ramp rates (10–50 °C min −1 ) for each gold/adhesion layer combination. We found that significant dewetting and subsequent formation of gold islands occurs only at and above 700 °C for all adhesion layers. The dewetting is driven to equilibrium for gold/ZnO compared to gold/Ti and gold/TiO x as confirmed by ex situ X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy characterization. Quantification of the in situ data through stretched exponential kinetic models reveals an underlying apparent activation energy of the dewetting process. This energy barrier for dewetting is higher for gold/Ti and gold/TiO x compared to gold/ZnO, thus confirming the ex situ observations. We rationalize that these apparent activation energies correspond to the underlying thermal stability of each gold/adhesion layer system

  13. Stability of low-carrier-density topological-insulator Bi2Se3 thin films and effect of capping layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salehi, Maryam; Brahlek, Matthew; Koirala, Nikesh; Moon, Jisoo; Oh, Seongshik; Wu, Liang; Armitage, N. P.

    2015-01-01

    Although over the past number of years there have been many advances in the materials aspects of topological insulators (TIs), one of the ongoing challenges with these materials is the protection of them against aging. In particular, the recent development of low-carrier-density bulk-insulating Bi 2 Se 3 thin films and their sensitivity to air demands reliable capping layers to stabilize their electronic properties. Here, we study the stability of the low-carrier-density Bi 2 Se 3 thin films in air with and without various capping layers using DC and THz probes. Without any capping layers, the carrier density increases by ∼150% over a week and by ∼280% over 9 months. In situ-deposited Se and ex situ-deposited poly(methyl methacrylate) suppress the aging effect to ∼27% and ∼88%, respectively, over 9 months. The combination of effective capping layers and low-carrier-density TI films will open up new opportunities in topological insulators

  14. Surface potential of methyl isobutyl carbinol adsorption layer at the air/water interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Chi M; Nakahara, Hiromichi; Shibata, Osamu; Moroi, Yoshikiyo; Le, Thu N; Ang, Ha M

    2012-01-26

    The surface potential (ΔV) and surface tension (γ) of MIBC (methyl isobutyl carbinol) were measured on the subphase of pure water and electrolyte solutions (NaCl at 0.02 and 2 M). In contrast to ionic surfactants, it was found that surface potential gradually increased with MIBC concentration. The ΔV curves were strongly influenced by the presence of NaCl. The available model in literature, in which surface potential is linearly proportional to surface excess, failed to describe the experimental data. Consequently, a new model, employing a partial charge of alcohol adsorption layer, was proposed. The new model predicted the experimental data consistently for MIBC in different NaCl solutions. However, the model required additional information for ionic impurity to predict adsorption in the absence of electrolyte. Such inclusion of impurities is, however, unnecessary for industrial applications. The modeling results successfully quantify the influence of electrolytes on surface potential of MIBC, which is critical for froth stability.

  15. Boiling water reactor stability revisited: The effects of flashing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadigaroglu, G. [Institute of Energy Technology, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, ETH, ETH-Zentrum, CLT-C1, CH-8092 Zurich (Switzerland)]. E-mail: yadi@ethz.ch; Askari, B. [Institute of Energy Technology, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, ETH, ETH-Zentrum, CLT-C1, CH-8092 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2005-05-01

    There are numerous investigations of two-phase flow stability with particular emphasis to BWR stability; these have become increasingly sophisticated and complete over the years. The basic features of a new development and frequency-domain code capable of considering all the channels (bundles) in a BWR, flashing of the coolant at low pressure, full coupling with 3D, two-group neutronics, etc. are described. The basic thermal-hydraulic model is used to study the effects of flashing on stability in a BWR-like channel. The behavior of the channel is highly dynamic. Contrary to what could have been intuitively guessed, the effect of flashing is stabilizing; the reasons and mechanisms leading to this are discussed.

  16. Boiling water reactor stability revisited: The effects of flashing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadigaroglu, G.; Askari, B.

    2005-01-01

    There are numerous investigations of two-phase flow stability with particular emphasis to BWR stability; these have become increasingly sophisticated and complete over the years. The basic features of a new development and frequency-domain code capable of considering all the channels (bundles) in a BWR, flashing of the coolant at low pressure, full coupling with 3D, two-group neutronics, etc. are described. The basic thermal-hydraulic model is used to study the effects of flashing on stability in a BWR-like channel. The behavior of the channel is highly dynamic. Contrary to what could have been intuitively guessed, the effect of flashing is stabilizing; the reasons and mechanisms leading to this are discussed

  17. Stability of CoP x Electrocatalysts in Continuous and Interrupted Acidic Electrolysis of Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goryachev, Andrey; Gao, Lu; Zhang, Yue; Rohling, Roderigh Y; Vervuurt, René H J; Bol, Ageeth A; Hofmann, Jan P; Hensen, Emiel J M

    2018-04-11

    Cobalt phosphides are an emerging earth-abundant alternative to platinum-group-metal-based electrocatalysts for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). Yet, their stability is inferior to platinum and compromises the large-scale applicability of CoP x in water electrolyzers. In the present study, we employed flat, thin CoP x electrodes prepared through the thermal phosphidation (PH 3 ) of Co 3 O 4 films made by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition to evaluate their stability in acidic water electrolysis by using a multi-technique approach. The films were found to be composed of two phases: CoP in the bulk and a P-rich surface CoP x (P/Co>1). Their performance was evaluated in the HER and the exchange current density was determined to be j 0 =-8.9 ⋅ 10 -5  A/cm 2 . The apparent activation energy of HER on CoP x ( E a =81±15 kJ/mol) was determined for the first time. Dissolution of the material in 0.5 M H 2 SO 4 was observed, regardless of the constantly applied cathodic potential, pointing towards a chemical instead of an electrochemical origin of the observed cathodic instability. The current density and HER faradaic efficiency (FE) were found to be stable during chronoamperometric treatment, as the chemical composition of the HER-active phase remained unchanged. On the contrary, a dynamic potential change performed in a repeated way facilitated dissolution of the film, yielding its complete degradation within 5 h. There, the FE was also found to be changing. An oxidative route of CoP x dissolution has also been proposed.

  18. Using Protection Layers for a 2-Photon Water Splitting Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seger, Brian; Mei, Bastian Timo; Frydendal, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    The 2-photon tandem device for photocatalytic water splitting has been theoretically shown to provide a higher efficiency than a single photon device(1). This increased efficiency can be achieved by having one material optimized to absorb high energy photons (large bandgap) and another material...... optimized to absorb low energy photons (small bandgap). To a large degree this approach has been hindered by corrosion issues. In this talk I will first discuss how our computational screening of 2,400 materials showed that very few materials can efficiently absorb light without corroding in water splitting...

  19. Water structure near single and multi-layer nanoscopic hydrophobic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    We have performed a series of molecular dynamics simulations of water containing two nano- scopic hydrophobic ..... the simulation for l00 ps for equilibration during which ... was further run for a production phase of 100–200 ps depending on ...

  20. Stability monitoring of a natural-circulation-cooled boiling water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagen, T.H.J.J. van der.

    1989-01-01

    Methods for monitoring the stability of a boiling water reactor (BWR) are discussed. Surveillance of BWR stability is of importance as problems were encountered in several large reactors. Moreover, surveying stability allows plant owners to operate at high power with acceptable stability margins. The results of experiments performed on the Dodewaard BWR (the Netherlands) are reported. This type reactor is cooled by natural circulation, a cooling principle that is also being considered for new reactor designs. The stability of this reactor was studied both with deterministic methods and by noise analysis. Three types of stability are distinguished and were investigated separately: reactor-kinetic stability, thermal-hydraulic stability and total-plant stability. It is shown that the Dodewaard reactor has very large stability margins. A simple yet reliable stability criterion is introduced. It can be derived on-line from thhe noise signal of ex-vessel neutron detectors during normal operation. The sensitivity of neutron detectors to in-core flux perturbations - reflected in the field-of-view of the detector - was calculated in order to insure proper stability surveillance. A novel technique is presented which enables the determination of variations of the in-core coolant velocity by noise correlation. The velocity measured was interpreted on the basis of experiments performed on the air/water flow in a model of a BWR coolant channel. It appeared from this analysis that the velocity measured was much higher than the volume-averaged water and air velocities and the volumetric flux. The applicability of the above-mentioned technique to monitoring of local channel-flow stability was tested. It was observed that stability effects on the coolant velocity are masked by other effects originating from the local flow pattern. Experimental and theoretical studies show a shorter effective fuel time constant in a BWR than was assumed. (author). 118 refs.; 73 figs.; 21 tabs

  1. A Microfluidic Method to Assess Emulsion Stability in Crude-Oil/Water Separators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krebs, T.; Schroën, C.G.P.H.; Boom, R.M.

    2011-01-01

    The control of emulsion stability and droplet size is of crucial importance for oil production, especially for the processes of crude/oil water separation and cleanup of produced water. To recover pure oil and water, coalescence between droplets needs to take place, the extent of which will depend

  2. Tomographic Imaging of Water Injection and Withdrawal in PEMFC Gas Diffusion Layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGill U; Gostick, J. T.; Gunterman, H. P.; Weber, A. Z.; Newman, J. S.; Kienitz, B. L.; MacDowell, A. A.

    2010-06-25

    X-ray computed tomography was used to visualize the water configurations inside gas diffusion layers for various applied capillary pressures, corresponding to both water invasion and withdrawal. A specialized sample holder was developed to allow capillary pressure control on the small-scale samples required. Tests were performed on GDL specimens with and without hydrophobic treatments.

  3. STABILITY: AN INVESTIGATION OF AS(III)/AS(V) STABILITY IN IRON RICH DRINKING WATER MATRICES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenic in drinking water is predominantly inorganic arsenic. The two oxidation states of inorganic arsenic are As(III)(pKa=9.3) and As(V)(pKa2=6.9). The distribution of As(III) and AS(V) in a water is dependent on the redox potential of the water. The actual distribution can ...

  4. Modification of gas diffusion layers properties to improve water management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Tomas

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper we report an approach to improve water management of commercial GDLs by introducing hydrophobicity patterns. Specifically, line and grid patterns have been created in the MPL side by laser radiation. For an in-depth investigation of these modified GDLs the current density distribution was monitored during fuel cell operation. Additionally, the physical properties of these materials were investigated by a number of ex situ methods such as Fourier transform infrared microscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and water vapor sorption. Furthermore, a comparison of the physical properties of the patterned GDLs with chemically modified GDLs (treated in H2SO4 and H2O2 is provided. Our results show a clearly improved homogeneity of current density distribution of the patterned GDLs compared to untreated GDLs. This observation is likely due to a reduced local hydrophobicity which facilitates water diffusion along the flow field of the fuel cell. However, performance of the fuel cell was not affected by the MPL irradiation. Graphical Abstract

  5. Layered titanium disilicide stabilized by oxide coating for highly reversible lithium insertion and extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Sa; Simpson, Zachary I; Yang, Xiaogang; Wang, Dunwei

    2012-09-25

    The discovery of new materials has played an important role in battery technology development. Among the newly discovered materials, those with layered structures are often of particular interest because many have been found to permit highly repeatable ionic insertion and extraction. Examples include graphite and LiCoO(2) as anode and cathode materials, respectively. Here we report C49 titanium disilicide (TiSi(2)) as a new layered anode material, within which lithium ions can react with the Si-only layers. This result is enabled by the strategy of coating a thin (lithium-ion storage capacity of TiSi(2) is a result of its layered structure is expected to have major fundamental and practical implications.

  6. Atmospheric stability in CFD &NDASH; Representation of the diurnal cycle in the atmospheric boundary layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koblitz, Tilman; Bechmann, Andreas; Sogachev, Andrey

    2012-01-01

    For wind resource assessment, the wind industry is increasingly relying on Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) models that focus primarily on modeling the airflow in a neutrally stratified surface layer. So far, physical processes that are specific to the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL), for exam......For wind resource assessment, the wind industry is increasingly relying on Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) models that focus primarily on modeling the airflow in a neutrally stratified surface layer. So far, physical processes that are specific to the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL......), for example the Coriolis force, buoyancy forces and heat transport, are mostly ignored in state-of-the-art CFD models. In order to decrease the uncertainty of wind resource assessment, especially in complex terrain, the effect of thermal stratification on the ABL should be included in such models. The present...

  7. A Comparison of Homogeneous and Multi-layered Berm Breakwaters with Respect to Overtopping and Stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Skals, Kasper; Burcharth, Hans F.

    2008-01-01

    The paper deals with homogeneous and multi-layer berm breakwaters designed to maximize the utilization of the quarry material. Two wide stone classes are typically used for berm breakwaters with a homogeneous berm.......The paper deals with homogeneous and multi-layer berm breakwaters designed to maximize the utilization of the quarry material. Two wide stone classes are typically used for berm breakwaters with a homogeneous berm....

  8. The study of stability, combustion characteristics and performance of water in diesel emulsion fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syafiq Zulkifli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A single cylinder diesel engine study of water in diesel emulsions was conducted to investigate the stability effect of emulsion fuel on three different fuel blends and the water emulsification effect on the engine performance. Emulsified fuels contained 2% of surfactant including Span 80 Tween 80 and tested 10 HLB number. The blends also varied of 5%, 10% and 15% of water in diesel ratios namely as BSW5, BSW10 and BSW15. The fuel blends performance was tested using a single cylinder, direct injection diesel engine, operating at 1860 rpm. The results on stability reveal that high shear homogenizer yields more stability on emulsion fuel than mechanical stirrer and ultrasonic water bath. The engine performance results show that the ignition delay and peak pressure increase with the increment of water percentage up to 15%. However, the results indicate the increment of water percentage is also shows a significant decrease in engine power.

  9. Convective and global stability analysis of a Mach 5.8 boundary layer grazing a compliant surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettenrieder, Fabian; Bodony, Daniel

    2016-11-01

    Boundary layer transition on high-speed vehicles is expected to be affected by unsteady surface compliance. The stability properties of a Mach 5.8 zero-pressure-gradient laminar boundary layer grazing a nominally-flat thermo-mechanically compliant panel is considered. The linearized compressible Navier-Stokes equations describe small amplitude disturbances in the fluid while the panel deformations are described by the Kirchhoff-Love plate equation and its thermal state by the transient heat equation. Compatibility conditions that couple disturbances in the fluid to those in the solid yield simple algebraic and robin boundary conditions for the velocity and thermal states, respectively. A local convective stability analysis shows that the panel can modify both the first and second Mack modes when, for metallic-like panels, the panel thickness exceeds the lengthscale δ99 Rex- 0 . 5 . A global stability analysis, which permits finite panel lengths with clamped-clamped boundary conditions, shows a rich eigenvalue spectrum with several branches. Unstable modes are found with streamwise-growing panel deformations leading to Mach wave-type radiation. Stable global modes are also found and have distinctly different panel modes but similar radiation patterns. Air Force Office of Scientific Research.

  10. Solution processed transition metal oxide anode buffer layers for efficiency and stability enhancement of polymer solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameen, M. Yoosuf; Shamjid, P.; Abhijith, T.; Reddy, V. S.

    2018-01-01

    Polymer solar cells were fabricated with solution-processed transition metal oxides, MoO3 and V2O5 as anode buffer layers (ABLs). The optimized device with V2O5 ABL exhibited considerably higher power conversion efficiency (PCE) compared to the devices based on MoO3 and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) ABLs. The space charge limited current measurements and impedance spectroscopy results of hole-only devices revealed that V2O5 provided a very low charge transfer resistance and high hole mobility, facilitating efficient hole transfer from the active layer to the ITO anode. More importantly, incorporation of V2O5 as ABL resulted in substantial improvement in device stability compared to MoO3 and PEDOT:PSS based devices. Unencapsulated PEDOT:PSS-based devices stored at a relative humidity of 45% have shown complete failure within 96 h. Whereas, MoO3 and V2O5 based devices stored in similar conditions retained 22% and 80% of their initial PCEs after 96 h. Significantly higher stability of the V2O5-based device is ascribed to the reduction in degradation of the anode/active layer interface, as evident from the electrical measurements.

  11. Impact of a silver layer on the membrane of tap water filters on the microbiological quality of filtered water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruderek Juliane

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacteria in the hospital's drinking water system represent a risk for the acquisition of a nosocomial infection in the severely immunocompromised host. Terminal tap water filters may be used to prevent nosocomial Legionnaires' disease. We present data from water samples using an improved kind of tap water filters. Methods In a blinded study on an intermediate care unit of the thoracic surgery department, a modified type of the Germlyser water filter (Aqua-Free Membrane Technology with a newly-introduced silver layer on the filtration membrane was compared to its preceding type without such a layer on 15 water outlets. We determined growth of Legionella, other pathogenic bacteria, and the total heterotrophic plate count in unfiltered water and filtered water samples after filter usage intervals of 1 through 4 weeks. Results A total of 299 water samples were tested. Twenty-nine of the 60 unfiltered water samples contained Legionella of various serogroups (baseline value. In contrast, all samples filtered by the original water filter and all but one of the water samples filtered by the modified filter type remained Legionella-free. No other pathogenic bacteria were detected in any filtered sample. The total plate count in water samples increased during use of both kinds of filters over time. However, for the first 7 days of use, there were significantly fewer water samples containing >100 CFU per mL when using the new filter device compared with the older filters or taps with no filter. No advantage was seen thereafter. Conclusion The use of this type of terminal water filter is an appropriate method to protect immunocompromised patients from water-borne pathogens such as Legionella.

  12. Biodiversity links above and below the marine sediment-water interface that may influence community stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Austen, M.C.; Lambshead, P.J.D.; Hutchings, P.; Boucher, G.; Snelgrove, P.V.R.; Heip, C.H.R.; King, G.; Koike, I.; Smith, C.

    2002-01-01

    Linkages across the sediment-water interface (SWI) between biodiversity and community stability appear to exist but are very poorly studied. Processes by which changes in biodiversity could affect stability on the other side of the SWI include carbon transfer during feeding, decomposition of organic

  13. ZVI (Fe0 Desalination: Stability of Product Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David D. J. Antia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A batch-operated ZVI (zero valent iron desalination reactor will be able to partially desalinate water. This water can be stored in an impoundment, reservoir or tank, prior to use for irrigation. Commercial development of this technology requires assurance that the partially-desalinated product water will not resalinate, while it is in storage. This study has used direct ion analyses to confirm that the product water from a gas-pressured ZVI desalination reactor maintains a stable salinity in storage over a period of 1–2.5 years. Two-point-three-litre samples of the feed water (2–10.68 g (Na+ + Cl−·L−1 and product water (0.1–5.02 g (Na+ + Cl−·L−1 from 21 trials were placed in storage at ambient (non-isothermal temperatures (which fluctuated between −10 and 25 °C, for a period of 1–2.5 years. The ion concentrations (Na+ and Cl− of the stored feed water and product water were then reanalysed. The ion analyses of the stored water samples demonstrated: (i that the product water salinity (Na+ and Cl− remains unchanged in storage; and (ii the Na:Cl molar ratios can be lower in the product water than the feed water. The significance of the results is discussed in terms of the various potential desalination routes. These trial data are supplemented with the results from 122 trials to demonstrate that: (i reactivity does not decline with successive batches; (ii the process is catalytic; and (iii the process involves a number of steps.

  14. Gravity-driven membrane filtration as pretreatment for seawater reverse osmosis: linking biofouling layer morphology with flux stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhondi, Ebrahim; Wu, Bing; Sun, Shuyang; Marxer, Brigit; Lim, Weikang; Gu, Jun; Liu, Linbo; Burkhardt, Michael; McDougald, Diane; Pronk, Wouter; Fane, Anthony G

    2015-03-01

    In this study gravity-driven membrane (GDM) ultrafiltration is investigated for the pretreatment of seawater before reverse osmosis (RO). The impacts of temperature (21 ± 1 and 29 ± 1 °C) and hydrostatic pressure (40 and 100 mbar) on dynamic flux development and biofouling layer structure were studied. The data suggested pore constriction fouling was predominant at the early stage of filtration, during which the hydrostatic pressure and temperature had negligible effects on permeate flux. With extended filtration time, cake layer fouling played a major role, during which higher hydrostatic pressure and temperature improved permeate flux. The permeate flux stabilized in a range of 3.6 L/m(2) h (21 ± 1 °C, 40 mbar) to 7.3 L/m(2) h (29 ± 1 °C, 100 mbar) after slight fluctuations and remained constant for the duration of the experiments (almost 3 months). An increase in biofouling layer thickness and a variable biofouling layer structure were observed over time by optical coherence tomography and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The presence of eukaryotic organisms in the biofouling layer was observed by light microscopy and the microbial community structure of the biofouling layer was analyzed by sequences of 16S rRNA genes. The magnitude of permeate flux was associated with the combined effect of the biofouling layer thickness and structure. Changes in the biofouling layer structure were attributed to (1) the movement and predation behaviour of the eukaryotic organisms which increased the heterogeneous nature of the biofouling layer; (2) the bacterial debris generated by eukaryotic predation activity which reduced porosity; (3) significant shifts of the dominant bacterial species over time that may have influenced the biofouling layer structure. As expected, most of the particles and colloids in the feed seawater were removed by the GDM process, which led to a lower RO fouling potential. However, the dissolved organic carbon in the

  15. Theory of lidar method for measurement of the modulation transfer function of water layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolin, Lev S

    2013-01-10

    We develop a method to evaluate the modulation transfer function (MTF) of a water layer from the characteristics of lidar signal backscattered by water volume. We propose several designs of a lidar system for remote measurement of the MTF and the procedure to determine optical properties of water using the measured MTF. We discuss a laser system for sea-bottom imaging that accounts for the influence of water slab on the image structure and allows for correction of image distortions caused by light scattering in water. © 2013 Optical Society of America

  16. Application of linearized model to the stability analysis of the pressurized water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Haipeng; Huang Xiaojin; Zhang Liangju

    2008-01-01

    A Linear Time-Invariant model of the Pressurized Water Reactor is formulated through the linearization of the nonlinear model. The model simulation results show that the linearized model agrees well with the nonlinear model under small perturbation. Based upon the Lyapunov's First Method, the linearized model is applied to the stability analysis of the Pressurized Water Reactor. The calculation results show that the methodology of linearization to stability analysis is conveniently feasible. (authors)

  17. Performance on Water Stability of Cement-Foamed Asphalt Cold Recycled Mixture

    OpenAIRE

    Li Junxiao; Fu Wei; Zang Hechao

    2018-01-01

    Through designing the mixture proportion of foamed asphalt cold in-place recycled mixture combined with the water stability experiment, it shows that the addition of cement can obviously improve foamed asphalt mixture’s water stability and the best cement admixture is between 1% ~ 2%; Using digital imaging microscope and SEM technology, the mechanism of increasing on the intensity of foamed asphalt mixture resulted by adding cement was analyzed. It revealed that the cement hydration products ...

  18. Influence of Saharan dust outbreaks and atmospheric stability upon vertical profiles of size-segregated aerosols and water vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez, Joaquín; Pastor, Carlos; Castañer, Ramón; Nicolás, José; Crespo, Javier; Carratalá, Adoración

    2010-01-01

    Vertical profiles of aerosols and meteorological parameters were obtained using a hot air balloon and motorized paraglider. They were studied under anticyclonic conditions in four different contexts. Three flights occurred near sunrise, and one took place in the central hours of the day. The effects of North African dust intrusions were analyzed, whose entrance to the study area took place above the Stable Boundary Layer (SBL) in flight 1 and below it in flight 2. These flights have been compared with a non-intrusion situation (flight 3). A fourth flight characterized the profiles in the central hours of the day with a well-formed Convective Boundary Layer (CBL). With respect to the particle number distribution, the results show that not all sizes increase within the presence of an intrusion; during the first flight the smallest particles were not affected. The particle sizes affected in the second flight fell within the 0.35-2.5 μm interval. Under situations of convective dynamics, the reduction percentage of the particle number concentration reduces with increasing altitude, independently of their size, with respect to stability conditions. The negative vertical gradient for aerosols and water vapor, characteristic of a highly stable SBL (flight 3) becomes a constant profile within a CBL (flight 4). There are two situations that seem to alter the negative vertical gradient of the water vapor mixing ratio within the SBL: the presence of an intrusion and the possible stratification of the SBL based on different degrees of stability.

  19. Stability indicating high performance thin-layer chromatographic method for simultaneous estimation of pantoprazole sodium and itopride hydrochloride in combined dosage form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Bageshwar

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A specific, precise and stability indicating high-performance thin-layer chromatographic method for simultaneous estimation of pantoprazole sodium and itopride hydrochloride in pharmaceutical formulations was developed and validated. The method employed TLC aluminium plates precoated with silica gel 60F254 as the stationary phase. The solvent system consisted of methanol:water:ammonium acetate; 4.0:1.0:0.5 (v/v/v. This system was found to give compact and dense spots for both itopride hydrochloride (Rf value of 0.55±0.02 and pantoprazole sodium (Rf value of 0.85±0.04. Densitometric analysis of both drugs was carried out in the reflectance–absorbance mode at 289 nm. The linear regression analysis data for the calibration plots showed a good linear relationship with R2=0.9988±0.0012 in the concentration range of 100–400 ng for pantoprazole sodium. Also, the linear regression analysis data for the calibration plots showed a good linear relationship with R2=0.9990±0.0008 in the concentration range of 200–1200 ng for itopride hydrochloride. The method was validated for specificity, precision, robustness and recovery. Statistical analysis proves that the method is repeatable and selective for the estimation of both the said drugs. As the method could effectively separate the drug from its degradation products, it can be employed as a stability indicating method. Keywords: Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD, Itopride hydrochloride, Pantoprazole sodium, High performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC, Stability indicating, Forced degradation

  20. Soil-Water Characteristic Curves of Red Clay treated by Ionic Soil Stabilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, D.; Xiang, W.

    2009-12-01

    The relationship of red clay particle with water is an important factor to produce geological disaster and environmental damage. In order to reduce the role of adsorbed water of red clay in WuHan, Ionic Soil Stabilizer (ISS) was used to treat the red clay. Soil Moisture Equipment made in U.S.A was used to measure soil-water characteristic curve of red clay both in natural and stabilized conditions in the suction range of 0-500kPa. The SWCC results were used to interpret the red clay behavior due to stabilizer treatment. In addition, relationship were compared between the basic soil and stabilizer properties such as water content, dry density, liquid limit, plastic limit, moisture absorption rate and stabilizer dosages. The analysis showed that the particle density and specific surface area increase, the dehydration rate slows and the thickness of water film thins after treatment with Ionic Soil Stabilizer. After treatment with the ISS, the geological disasters caused by the adsorbed water of red clay can be effectively inhibited.

  1. Implications of a wavepacket formulation for the nonlinear parabolized stability equations to hypersonic boundary layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehl, Joseph

    2016-11-01

    The parabolized stability equations (PSE) have been developed as an efficient and powerful tool for studying the stability of advection-dominated laminar flows. In this work, a new "wavepacket" formulation of the PSE is presented. This method accounts for the influence of finite-bandwidth-frequency distributions on nonlinear stability calculations. The methodology is motivated by convolution integrals and is found to appropriately represent nonlinear energy transfer between primary modes and harmonics, in particular nonlinear feedback, via a "nonlinear coupling coefficient." It is found that traditional discrete mode formulations overestimate nonlinear feedback by approximately 70%. This results in smaller maximum disturbance amplitudes than those observed experimentally. The new formulation corrects this overestimation, accounts for the generation of side lobes responsible for spectral broadening and results in disturbance saturation amplitudes consistent with experiment. A Mach 6 flared-cone example is presented. Support from the AFOSR Young Investigator Program via Grant FA9550-15-1-0129 is gratefully acknowledges.

  2. FUD - SALA. Stabilization of unbound layers on a road section; FUD - SALA. Provstraecka med stabilisering av obundna lager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svedberg, Bo; Ekdahl, Peter; Macsik, Josef; Maijala, Aino; Lahtinen, Pentti; Hermansson, Aake; Knutsson, Sven; Edeskaer, Tommy

    2008-06-15

    Stabilization of unbound layers is a method that enables the properties of road structures to be improved, for example the layer modulus of the sub base, by addition of binders. Traditional binders are cement, Merit 5000 (fine ground slag cement), lime and bitumen. The method is commonly in practice in Europe and has been also used occasionally for public roads in Sweden. Today there are examples where fly ashes (bio and coal based) have been used as binders in smaller roads for example in the counties of Uppsala, Soedermanland and also for other paved areas for heavy vehicles in the county of Vaestmanland and in Finland. These examples have mainly been carried out using an empirical approach. The objective of the project is to develop two applications as a base for full scale demonstration. One of them is a paved road and the other one is a private road with gravel as wearing course. The binders used are cement, Merit and fly-ash. Two sections of a road were used a reference. The work indicates that stabilization of unbound layers will improve the bearing capacity of the road construction significantly although the total depth of the structure is reduced. The design of the road structure was carried out in a conservative manner as there were no basis for a precise determination of the layer modulus. The developed applications are not frost lifting although their insulating properties are low and about the same as fine grained silt. The durability against frost and thaw cycles has been assessed and is expected to be acceptable. The fly ashes used will need addition of cement and Merit to perform well in frost and thaw tests. Applying both applications will result in a reduced depth of the structure and the sub-base layers can nearly be excluded. Life cycle cost calculations indicate that the cost of investment for a road construction using a stabilized layer are slightly higher than the cost of investment for the reference construction. This is probably due to the

  3. Contact angles of wetting and water stability of soil structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholodov, V. A.; Yaroslavtseva, N. V.; Yashin, M. A.; Frid, A. S.; Lazarev, V. I.; Tyugai, Z. N.; Milanovskiy, E. Yu.

    2015-06-01

    From the soddy-podzolic soils and typical chernozems of different texture and land use, dry 3-1 mm aggregates were isolated and sieved in water. As a result, water-stable aggregates and water-unstable particles composing dry 3-1 mm aggregates were obtained. These preparations were ground, and contact angles of wetting were determined by the static sessile drop method. The angles varied from 11° to 85°. In most cases, the values of the angles for the water-stable aggregates significantly exceeded those for the water-unstable components. In terms of carbon content in structural units, there was no correlation between these parameters. When analyzing the soil varieties separately, the significant positive correlation between the carbon content and contact angle of aggregates was revealed only for the loamy-clayey typical chernozem. Based on the multivariate analysis of variance, the value of contact wetting angle was shown to be determined by the structural units belonging to water-stable or water-unstable components of macroaggregates and by the land use type. In addition, along with these parameters, the texture has an indirect effect.

  4. Improvement of water resistance and dimensional stability of wood through titanium dioxide coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qingfeng Sun; Haipeng Yu; Yixing Liu; Jian Li; Yun Lu; John F. Hunt

    2010-01-01

    Moisture absorption and dimensional distortion are the major drawbacks of wood utilization as building material. In this study, poplar wood coated with a thin layer of titanium dioxide (TiO2) was prepared by the cosolvent-controlled hydrothermal method. Subsequently, its moisture absorption and dimensional stability were examined. Scanning...

  5. Stabilization of Aley river water content by forest stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. Paramonov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aley river basin is one of the most developed territories in West Siberia. Initially, the development here was related to the development of ore mining in the Altai. Currently it is associated mainly with the agricultural orientation of economic development. The intensive involvement of basin lands into the economic turnover for the last 100 years contributed to the formation of a number of environmental problems, such as water and wind erosion, loss of soil fertility and salinization, and desertification of the territory. Besides, the decrease of Aley river water content due to natural and anthropogenic reasons was observed. A specific feature of water management in Aley river basin is a significant amount of water resources used for irrigation purposes and agricultural water supply. To ensure the economic and drinking water supply, two reservoirs and a number of ponds have been constructed and operate in the basin. Forest ecosystems of the basin are considered from the viewpoint of preservation and restoration of small rivers. The ability of forest to accumulate solid precipitation and intercept them during the snowmelt for a longer time reduces the surface drainage and promotes transfer into the subsurface flow, significantly influencing the water content of permanent watercourses, is shown. The state of protective forest plantations in Aley river basin is analyzed. Aley river tributaries are compared by area, the length of water flow, and forest coverage of the basin. It is proposed to regulate the runoff through drastic actions on the increase of forest cover in the plain and especially in the mountainous parts of the basin. Measures to increase the forest cover within water protection zones, afforestation of temporary and permanent river basins, and the protection of agricultural soil fertility are worked out.

  6. Improvement of Electrical Characteristics and Stability of Amorphous Indium Gallium Zinc Oxide Thin Film Transistors Using Nitrocellulose Passivation Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Kwan Yup; Tak, Young Jun; Kim, Won-Gi; Hong, Seonghwan; Kim, Hyun Jae

    2017-04-19

    In this research, nitrocellulose is proposed as a new material for the passivation layers of amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide thin film transistors (a-IGZO TFTs). The a-IGZO TFTs with nitrocellulose passivation layers (NC-PVLs) demonstrate improved electrical characteristics and stability. The a-IGZO TFTs with NC-PVLs exhibit improvements in field-effect mobility (μ FE ) from 11.72 ± 1.14 to 20.68 ± 1.94 cm 2 /(V s), threshold voltage (V th ) from 1.85 ± 1.19 to 0.56 ± 0.35 V, and on/off current ratio (I on/off ) from (5.31 ± 2.19) × 10 7 to (4.79 ± 1.54) × 10 8 compared to a-IGZO TFTs without PVLs, respectively. The V th shifts of a-IGZO TFTs without PVLs, with poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) PVLs, and with NC-PVLs under positive bias stress (PBS) test for 10,000 s represented 5.08, 3.94, and 2.35 V, respectively. These improvements were induced by nitrogen diffusion from NC-PVLs to a-IGZO TFTs. The lone-pair electrons of diffused nitrogen attract weakly bonded oxygen serving as defect sites in a-IGZO TFTs. Consequently, the electrical characteristics are improved by an increase of carrier concentration in a-IGZO TFTs, and a decrease of defects in the back channel layer. Also, NC-PVLs have an excellent property as a barrier against ambient gases. Therefore, the NC-PVL is a promising passivation layer for next-generation display devices that simultaneously can improve electrical characteristics and stability against ambient gases.

  7. Preparation and Application of Water-in-Oil Emulsions Stabilized by Modified Graphene Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoma Fei

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A series of alkyl chain modified graphene oxides (AmGO with different alkyl chain length and content was fabricated using a reducing reaction between graphene oxide (GO and alkyl amine. Then AmGO was used as a graphene-based particle emulsifier to stabilize Pickering emulsion. Compared with the emulsion stabilized by GO, which was oil-in-water type, all the emulsions stabilized by AmGO were water-in-oil type. The effects of alkyl chain length and alkyl chain content on the emulsion properties of AmGO were investigated. The emulsions stabilized by AmGO showed good stability within a wide range of pH (from pH = 1 to pH = 13 and salt concentrations (from 0.1 to 1000 mM. In addition, the application of water-in-oil emulsions stabilized by AmGO was investigated. AmGO/polyaniline nanocomposite (AmGO/PANi was prepared through an emulsion approach, and its supercapacitor performance was investigated. This research broadens the application of AmGO as a water-in-oil type emulsion stabilizer and in preparing graphene-based functional materials.

  8. Effects of temperature distribution on boundary layer stability for a circular cone at Mach 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigney, Jeffrey M.

    A CFD analysis was conducted on a circular cone at 3 degrees angle of attack at Mach 10 using US3D and STABL 3D to determine the effect of wall temperature on the stability characteristics that lead to laminar-to-turbulent transition. Wall temperature distributions were manipulated while all other flow inputs and geometric qualities were held constant. Laminar-to-turbulent transition was analyzed for isothermal and adiabatic wall conditions, a simulated short-duration wind tunnel case, and several hot-nose temperature distributions. For this study, stability characteristics include maximum N-factor growth and the corresponding frequency range, disturbance spatial amplification rate and the corresponding modal frequency, and stability neutral point location. STABL 3D analysis indicates that temperature distributions typical of those in short-duration hypersonic wind tunnels do not result in any significant difference on the stability characteristics, as compared to an isothermal wall boundary condition. Hypothetical distributions of much greater temperatures at and past the nose tip do show a trend of dampening of second-mode disturbances, most notably on the leeward ray. The most pronounced differences existed between the isothermal and adiabatic cases.

  9. Air, aqueous and thermal stabilities of Ce3+ ions in cerium oxide nanoparticle layers with substrates

    KAUST Repository

    Naganuma, Tamaki; Traversa, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    in given application environments (e.g. high temperature in carbon monoxide gas conversion and immersion conditions in biomedical applications). To better understand the mechanism by which Ce3+ ions achieve stability in CNPLs, we examined (i) extra-long air

  10. Thermal stability of electrodeposited Ni and Ni-Co layers; an EBSD-study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anette Alsted; Gholinia, A.; Trimby, P.W.

    2004-01-01

    The influence of heat treatment on the microstructure and the microtexture of electrodeposited Ni and Ni-Co layers was investigated with Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD) with high resolution. Samples were annealed for 1 hour at 523 K and 673 K, the temperature region wherein...

  11. Effect of Cholesterol on the Stability and Lubrication Efficiency of Phosphatidylcholine Surface Layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorkin, Raya; Kampf, Nir; Klein, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    The lubrication properties of saturated PC lipid vesicles containing high cholesterol content under high loads were examined by detailed surface force balance measurements of normal and shear forces between two surface-attached lipid layers. Forces between two opposing mica surfaces bearing

  12. Radiological performance of hot water layer system in open pool type reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr Abdelhady

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the calculated dose rate carried out by using MicroShield code to show the importance of hot water layer system (HWL in 22 MW open pool type reactor from the radiation protection safety point of view. The paper presents the dose rate profiles over the pool surface in normal and abnormal operations of HWL system. The results show that, in case of losing the hot water layer effect, the radiation dose rate profiles over the pool surface will increase from values lower than the worker permissible dose limits to values very higher than the permissible dose limits.

  13. Radiological performance of hot water layer system in open pool type reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Amr Abdelhady

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents the calculated dose rate carried out by using MicroShield code to show the importance of hot water layer system (HWL) in 22 MW open pool type reactor from the radiation protection safety point of view. The paper presents the dose rate profiles over the pool surface in normal and abnormal operations of HWL system. The results show that, in case of losing the hot water layer effect, the radiation dose rate profiles over the pool surface will increase from values lower than th...

  14. Physical stability, microstructure and micro-rheological properties of water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) emulsions stabilized by porcine gelatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qiaomei; Qiu, Shuang; Zhang, Hongwei; Cheng, Yongqiang; Yin, Lijun

    2018-07-01

    Water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) emulsions could be utilized for fat-reduced food formulation and delivery of bioactive nutrients. However, due to thermodynamic instability, it is difficult to prepare stable double emulsions. The purpose of this study was to improve the stability of W/O/W double emulsions containing 2.0 M MgCl 2 by adding porcine gelatin in the inner water phase. The impact of gelatin on the physical stability, microstructure and micro-rheological properties of W/O/W emulsions was investigated. It was found that, when the concentration of porcine gelatin exceeded 4.0 wt%, the stability of emulsions was improved, due to increased viscoelasticity of emulsion droplets. When MgCl 2 concentration increased to 2.0 M, the particle size of emulsions increased, due to the osmotic pressure gradient, and the presence of gelatin further increased the droplet size. Confocal microscopy results showed that the presence of gelatin could improve the stability of W/O/W emulsions against coalescence。. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Understanding the role of pore size homogeneity in the water transport through graphene layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jiaye; Zhao, Yunzhen; Fang, Chang

    2018-06-01

    Graphene is a versatile 2D material and attracts an increasing amount of attention from a broad scientific community, including novel nanofluidic devices. In this work, we use molecular dynamics simulations to study the pressure driven water transport through graphene layers, focusing on the pore size homogeneity, realized by the arrangement of two pore sizes. For a given layer number, we find that water flux exhibits an excellent linear behavior with pressure, in agreement with the prediction of the Hagen–Poiseuille equation. Interestingly, the flux for concentrated pore size distribution is around two times larger than that of a uniform distribution. More surprisingly, under a given pressure, the water flux changes in an opposite way for these two distributions, where the flux ratio almost increases linearly with the layer number. For the largest layer number, more distributions suggest the same conclusion that higher water flux can be attained for more concentrated pore size distributions. Similar differences for the water translocation time and occupancy are also identified. The major reason for these results should clearly be due to the hydrogen bond and density profile distributions. Our results are helpful to delineate the exquisite role of pore size homogeneity, and should have great implications for the design of high flux nanofluidic devices and inversely the detection of pore structures.

  16. Quantitative characterization of water transport and flooding in the diffusion layers of polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casalegno, A.; Colombo, L.; Galbiati, S.; Marchesi, R. [Department of Energy, Politecnico di Milano, via Lambruschini 4, 20156 Milano (Italy)

    2010-07-01

    Optimization of water management in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) and in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC) is a very important factor for the achievement of high performances and long lifetime. A good hydration of the electrolyte membrane is essential for high proton conductivity; on the contrary water in excess may lead to electrode flooding and severe reduction in performances. Many studies on water transport across the gas diffusion layer (GDL) have been carried out to improve these components; anyway efforts in this field are affected by lack of effective experimental methods. The present work reports an experimental investigation with the purpose to determine the global coefficient of water transport across different diffusion layers under real operating conditions. An appropriate and accurate experimental apparatus has been designed and built to test the single GDL under a wide range of operating conditions. Data analysis has allowed quantification of both the water vapor transport across different diffusion layers, and the effects of micro-porous layers; furthermore flooding onset and its consequences on the mass transport coefficient have been characterized by means of suitably defined parameters. (author)

  17. Water desalination with a single-layer MoS2 nanopore

    OpenAIRE

    Heiranian, Mohammad; Farimani, Amir Barati; Aluru, Narayana R.

    2015-01-01

    Efficient desalination of water continues to be a problem facing the society. Advances in nanotechnology have led to the development of a variety of nanoporous membranes for water purification. Here we show, by performing molecular dynamics simulations, that a nanopore in a single-layer molybdenum disulfide can effectively reject ions and allow transport of water at a high rate. More than 88% of ions are rejected by membranes having pore areas ranging from 20 to 60??2. Water flux is found to ...

  18. Distinguishing oil and water layers in a cracked porous medium using pulsed neutron logging data based on Hudson's crack theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xueang; Yang, Zhichao; Tang, Bin; Wang, Renbo; Wei, Xiong

    2018-05-01

    During geophysical surveys, water layers may interfere with the detection of oil layers. In order to distinguish between oil and water layers in porous cracked media, research on the properties of the cracks, the oil and water layers, and their relation to pulsed neutron logging characteristics is essential. Using Hudson's crack theory, we simulated oil and water layers in a cracked porous medium with different crack parameters corresponding to the well log responses. We found that, in a cracked medium with medium-angle (40°-50°) cracks, the thermal neutron count peak value is higher and more sensitive than those in low-angle and high-angle crack environments; in addition, the thermal neutron density distribution shows more minimum values than in other cases. Further, the thermal neutron count and the rate of change for the oil layer are greater than those of the water layer, and the time spectrum count peak value for the water layer in middle-high-angle (40°-70°) cracked environments is higher than that of the oil layer. The thermal neutron density distribution sensitivity is higher in the water layer with a range of small crack angles (0°-30°) than in the oil layer with the same range of angles. In comparing the thermal neutron density distribution, thermal neutron count peak, thermal neutron density distribution sensitivity, and time spectrum maximum in the oil and water layers, we find that neutrons in medium-angle (40°-50°) cracked reservoirs are more sensitive to deceleration and absorption than those in water layers; neutrons in approximately horizontal (0°-30°) cracked water layers are more sensitive to deceleration than those in reservoirs. These results can guide future work in the cracked media neutron logging field.

  19. Supercritical water natural circulation flow stability experiment research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Dongliang; Zhou, Tao; Li, Bing [North China Electric Power Univ., Beijing (China). School of Nuclear Science and Engineering; North China Electric Power Univ., Beijing (China). Inst. of Nuclear Thermalhydraulic Safety and Standardization; North China Electric Power Univ., Beijing (China). Beijing Key Lab. of Passive Safety Technology for Nuclear Energy; Huang, Yanping [Nuclear Power Institute of China, Chengdu (China). Science and Technology on Reactor System Design Technology Lab.

    2017-12-15

    The Thermal hydraulic characteristics of supercritical water natural circulation plays an important role in the safety of the Generation-IV supercritical water-cooled reactors. Hence it is crucial to conduct the natural circulation heat transfer experiment of supercritical water. The heat transfer characteristics have been studied under different system pressures in the natural circulation systems. Results show that the fluctuations in the subcritical flow rate (for natural circulation) is relatively small, as compared to the supercritical flow rate. By increasing the heating power, it is observed that the amplitude (and time period) of the fluctuation tends to become larger for the natural circulation of supercritical water. This tends to show the presence of flow instability in the supercritical water. It is possible to observe the flow instability phenomenon when the system pressure is suddenly reduced from the supercritical pressure state to the subcritical state. At the test outlet section, the temperature is prone to increase suddenly, whereas the blocking effect may be observed in the inlet section of the experiment.

  20. Concurrent temporal stability of the apparent electrical conductivity and soil water content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowledge of spatio-temporal soil water content (SWC) variability within agricultural fields is useful to improve crop management. Spatial patterns of soil water contents can be characterized using the temporal stability analysis, however high density sampling is required. Soil apparent electrical c...

  1. High-order non-uniform grid schemes for numerical simulation of hypersonic boundary-layer stability and transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Xiaolin; Tatineni, Mahidhar

    2003-01-01

    The direct numerical simulation of receptivity, instability and transition of hypersonic boundary layers requires high-order accurate schemes because lower-order schemes do not have an adequate accuracy level to compute the large range of time and length scales in such flow fields. The main limiting factor in the application of high-order schemes to practical boundary-layer flow problems is the numerical instability of high-order boundary closure schemes on the wall. This paper presents a family of high-order non-uniform grid finite difference schemes with stable boundary closures for the direct numerical simulation of hypersonic boundary-layer transition. By using an appropriate grid stretching, and clustering grid points near the boundary, high-order schemes with stable boundary closures can be obtained. The order of the schemes ranges from first-order at the lowest, to the global spectral collocation method at the highest. The accuracy and stability of the new high-order numerical schemes is tested by numerical simulations of the linear wave equation and two-dimensional incompressible flat plate boundary layer flows. The high-order non-uniform-grid schemes (up to the 11th-order) are subsequently applied for the simulation of the receptivity of a hypersonic boundary layer to free stream disturbances over a blunt leading edge. The steady and unsteady results show that the new high-order schemes are stable and are able to produce high accuracy for computations of the nonlinear two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations for the wall bounded supersonic flow

  2. Novel layered polyaniline-poly(hydroquinone)/graphene film as supercapacitor electrode with enhanced rate performance and cycling stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Lijun; Zhang, Gaini; Lei, Ji; Wang, Yan; Hu, Dengwei

    2018-02-15

    It is a challenge to fabricate polyaniline (PANI) materials with high rate performance and excellent stability. Herein a new special supercapacitor electrode material of polyaniline-poly(hydroquinone)/graphene (PANI-PHQ/RGO) film with layered structure was prepared by chemical oxidative polymerization of aniline and hydroquinone (H 2 Q) in the presence of RGO hydrogel film. The synergistic effect and loose layered structure of the composite film facilitate fast diffusion and transportation of electrolyte ions through unimpeded channels during rapid charge-discharge process, resulting in high rate capability and stable cycling performance. As a result, the PANI-PHQ/RGO-61 film electrode exhibited 356 F g -1 at a current density of 0.5 A g -1 and high capacitance retention of 83% from 0.5 to 30 A g -1 . Moreover, it presented an excellent cycling stability with 94% of capacitance retention in comparison with 60% of pure PANI electrode and an outstanding Coulombic efficiency of 99% after 1000 cycles of galvanostatic charge-discharge. These superior electrocapacitive properties make it one of promising candidates for electrochemical energy storage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Study on lithium/air secondary batteries - Stability of NASICON-type lithium ion conducting glass-ceramics with water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, Satoshi; Imanishi, Nobuyuki; Zhang, Tao; Xie, Jian; Hirano, Atsushi; Takeda, Yasuo; Yamamoto, Osamu [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Mie University, 1577 Kurimamachiya-cho, Tsu, Mie 514-8507 (Japan)

    2009-04-01

    The water stability of the fast lithium ion conducting glass-ceramic electrolyte, Li{sub 1+x+y}Al{sub x}Ti{sub 2-x}Si{sub y}P{sub 3-y}O{sub 12} (LATP), has been examined in distilled water, and aqueous solutions of LiNO{sub 3}, LiCl, LiOH, and HCl. This glass-ceramics are stable in aqueous LiNO{sub 3} and aqueous LiCl, and unstable in aqueous 0.1 M HCl and 1 M LiOH. In distilled water, the electrical conductivity slightly increases as a function of immersion time in water. The Li-Al/Li{sub 3-x}PO{sub 4-y}N{sub y}/LATP/aqueous 1 M LiCl/Pt cell, where lithium phosphors oxynitrides Li{sub 3-x}PO{sub 4-y}N{sub y} (LiPON) are used to protect the direct reaction of Li and LATP, shows a stable open circuit voltage (OCV) of 3.64 V at 25 C, and no cell resistance change for 1 week. Lithium phosphors oxynitride is effectively used as a protective layer to suppress the reaction between the LATP and Li metal. The water-stable Li/LiPON/LATP system can be used in Li/air secondary batteries with the air electrode containing water. (author)

  4. The Mars water cycle at other epochs: History of the polar caps and layered terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakosky, Bruce M.; Henderson, Bradley G.; Mellon, Michael T.

    1992-01-01

    The atmospheric water cycle at the present epoch involves summertime sublimation of water from the north polar cap, transport of water through the atmosphere, and condensation on one or both winter CO2 caps. Exchange with the regolith is important seasonally, but the water content of the atmosphere appears to be controlled by the polar caps. The net annual transport through the atmosphere, integrated over long timescales, must be the driving force behind the long-term evolution of the polar caps; clearly, this feeds back into the evolution of the layered terrain. We have investigated the behavior of the seasonal water cycle and the net integrated behavior at the pole for the last 10 exp 7 years. Our model of the water cycle includes the solar input, CO2 condensation and sublimation, and summertime water sublimation through the seasonal cycles, and incorporates the long-term variations in the orbital elements describing the Martian orbit.

  5. High-stability transparent amorphous oxide TFT with a silicon-doped back-channel layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyoung-Rae; Park, Jea-Gun [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    We significantly reduced various electrical instabilities of amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide thin-film transistors (TFTs) by using the co-deposition of silicon on an a-IGZO back channel. This process showed improved stability of the threshold voltage (V{sub th}) under high temperature and humidity and negative gate-bias illumination stress (NBIS) without any reduction of IDS. The enhanced stability was achieved with silicon, which has higher metal-oxide bonding strengths than gallium does. Additionally, SiO{sub x} distributed on the a-IGZO surface reduced the adsorption and the desorption of H{sub 2}O and O{sub 2}. This process is applicable to the TFT manufacturing process with a variable sputtering target.

  6. Ionization of water clusters by fast Highly Charged Ions: Stability, fragmentation, energetics and charge mobility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legendre, S; Maisonny, R; Capron, M; Bernigaud, V; Cassimi, A; Gervais, B; Grandin, J-P; Huber, B A; Manil, B; Rousseau, P; Tarisien, M; Adoui, L; Lopez-Tarifa, P; AlcamI, M; MartIn, F; Politis, M-F; Penhoat, M A Herve du; Vuilleumier, R; Gaigeot, M-P; Tavernelli, I

    2009-01-01

    We study dissociative ionization of water clusters by impact of fast Ni ions. Cold Target Recoil Ion Momentum Spectroscopy (COLTRIMS) is used to obtain information about stability, energetics and charge mobility of the ionized clusters. An unusual stability of the (H 2 O) 4 H ''+ ion is observed, which could be the signature of the so called ''Eigen'' structure in gas phase water clusters. High charge mobility, responsible for the formation of protonated water clusters that dominate the mass spectrum, is evidenced. These results are supported by CPMD and TDDFT simulations, which also reveal the mechanisms of such mobility.

  7. Stability of horizontal viscous fluid layers in a vertical arbitrary time periodic electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandopadhyay, Aditya; Hardt, Steffen

    2017-12-01

    The stability of a horizontal interface between two viscous fluids, one of which is conducting and the other is dielectric, acted upon by a vertical time-periodic electric field is considered theoretically. The two fluids are bounded by electrodes separated by a finite distance. For an applied ac electric field, the unstable interface deforms in a time periodic manner, owing to the time dependent Maxwell stress, and is characterized by the oscillation frequency which may or may not be the same as the frequency of the ac electric field. The stability curve, which relates the critical voltage, manifested through the Mason number—the ratio of normal electric stress and viscous stress, and the instability wavenumber at the onset of the instability, is obtained by means of the Floquet theory for a general arbitrary time periodic electric field. The limit of vanishing viscosities is shown to be in excellent agreement with the marginal stability curves predicted by means of a Mathieu equation. The influence of finite viscosity and electrode separation is discussed in relation to the ideal case of inviscid fluids. The methodology to obtain the marginal stability curves developed here is applicable to any arbitrary but time periodic signal, as demonstrated for the case of a signal with two different frequencies, and four different frequencies with a dc offset. The mode coupling in the interfacial normal stress leads to appearance of harmonic and subharmonic modes, characterized by the frequency of the oscillating interface at an integral or half-integral multiple of the applied frequency, respectively. This is in contrast to the application of a voltage with a single frequency which always leads to a harmonic mode oscillation of the interface. Whether a harmonic or subharmonic mode is the most unstable one depends on details of the excitation signal.

  8. Geostrophic tripolar vortices in a two-layer fluid: Linear stability and nonlinear evolution of equilibria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinaud, J. N.; Sokolovskiy, M. A.; Carton, X.

    2017-03-01

    We investigate equilibrium solutions for tripolar vortices in a two-layer quasi-geostrophic flow. Two of the vortices are like-signed and lie in one layer. An opposite-signed vortex lies in the other layer. The families of equilibria can be spanned by the distance (called separation) between the two like-signed vortices. Two equilibrium configurations are possible when the opposite-signed vortex lies between the two other vortices. In the first configuration (called ordinary roundabout), the opposite signed vortex is equidistant to the two other vortices. In the second configuration (eccentric roundabouts), the distances are unequal. We determine the equilibria numerically and describe their characteristics for various internal deformation radii. The two branches of equilibria can co-exist and intersect for small deformation radii. Then, the eccentric roundabouts are stable while unstable ordinary roundabouts can be found. Indeed, ordinary roundabouts exist at smaller separations than eccentric roundabouts do, thus inducing stronger vortex interactions. However, for larger deformation radii, eccentric roundabouts can also be unstable. Then, the two branches of equilibria do not cross. The branch of eccentric roundabouts only exists for large separations. Near the end of the branch of eccentric roundabouts (at the smallest separation), one of the like-signed vortices exhibits a sharp inner corner where instabilities can be triggered. Finally, we investigate the nonlinear evolution of a few selected cases of tripoles.

  9. Effect of Mo Ion Implantation on Stability of Nanocrystalline Copper Surface Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XI Yang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The surface of pure copper was modified using the surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT method, and molybdenum ions were implanted in the nanosurface using a metal vapor vacuum arc (MEVVA. The results of the SMAT were observed by optical microscopy (OM, X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. An obvious nanocrystalline layer and a deformation region exist on the surface. The size of the nanocrystalline layer was characterized using atomic force microscopy (AFM. The results indicate remarkable suppression on grain size, the nanocrystalline layer grows to 163nm after annealing and reduces to only 72nm due to the Mo ion implantation. In addition, the hardness of the topmost surface of the material is 3.5 times that of the SMATed copper, which is about 7 times of the value of the matrix. The above improvements most likely result from the dispersion of the Mo ions and the reactions of the crystal defects due to the SMAT and ion implantation.

  10. Boundary layer stability and Arctic climate change: a feedback study using EC-Earth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bintanja, R.; Linden, E.C. van der; Hazeleger, W. [Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI), De Bilt (Netherlands)

    2012-12-15

    Amplified Arctic warming is one of the key features of climate change. It is evident in observations as well as in climate model simulations. Usually referred to as Arctic amplification, it is generally recognized that the surface albedo feedback governs the response. However, a number of feedback mechanisms play a role in AA, of which those related to the prevalent near-surface inversion have received relatively little attention. Here we investigate the role of the near-surface thermal inversion, which is caused by radiative surface cooling in autumn and winter, on Arctic warming. We employ idealized climate change experiments using the climate model EC-Earth together with ERA-Interim reanalysis data to show that boundary-layer mixing governs the efficiency by which the surface warming signal is 'diluted' to higher levels. Reduced vertical mixing, as in the stably stratified inversion layer in Arctic winter, thus amplifies surface warming. Modelling results suggest that both shortwave - through the (seasonal) interaction with the sea ice feedback - and longwave feedbacks are affected by boundary-layer mixing, both in the Arctic and globally, with the effect on the shortwave feedback dominating. The amplifying effect will decrease, however, with climate warming because the surface inversion becomes progressively weaker. We estimate that the reduced Arctic inversion has slowed down global warming by about 5% over the past 2 decades, and we anticipate that it will continue to do so with ongoing Arctic warming. (orig.)

  11. Engineering the lipid layer of lipid-PLGA hybrid nanoparticles for enhanced in vitro cellular uptake and improved stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yun; Hoerle, Reece; Ehrich, Marion; Zhang, Chenming

    2015-12-01

    Lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles (NPs), consisting of a polymeric core and a lipid shell, have been intensively examined as delivery systems for cancer drugs, imaging agents, and vaccines. For applications in vaccine particularly, the hybrid NPs need to be able to protect the enclosed antigens during circulation, easily be up-taken by dendritic cells, and possess good stability for prolonged storage. However, the influence of lipid composition on the performance of hybrid NPs has not been well studied. In this study, we demonstrate that higher concentrations of cholesterol in the lipid layer enable slower and more controlled antigen release from lipid-poly(lactide-co-glycolide) acid (lipid-PLGA) NPs in human serum and phosphate buffered saline (PBS). Higher concentrations of cholesterol also promoted in vitro cellular uptake of hybrid NPs, improved the stability of the lipid layer, and protected the integrity of the hybrid structure during long-term storage. However, stabilized hybrid structures of high cholesterol content tended to fuse with each other during storage, resulting in significant size increase and lowered cellular uptake. Additional experiments demonstrated that PEGylation of NPs could effectively minimize fusion-caused size increase after long term storage, leading to improved cellular uptake, although excessive PEGylation will not be beneficial and led to reduced improvement. This paper reports the engineering of the lipid layer that encloses a polymeric nanoparticle, which can be used as a carrier for drug and vaccine molecules for targeted delivery. We demonstrated that the concentration of cholesterol is critical for the stability and uptake of the hybrid nanoparticles by dendritic cells, a targeted cell for the delivery of immune effector molecules. However, we found that hybrid nanoparticles with high cholesterol concentration tend to fuse during storage resulting in larger particles with decreased cellular uptake. This problem is

  12. Tracking atmospheric boundary layer dynamics with water vapor D-excess observations

    KAUST Repository

    Parkes, Stephen

    2015-04-01

    Stable isotope water vapor observations present a history of hydrological processes that have impacted on an air mass. Consequently, there is scope to improve our knowledge of how different processes impact on humidity budgets by determining the isotopic end members of these processes and combining them with in-situ water vapor measurements. These in-situ datasets are still rare and cover a limited geographical expanse, so expanding the available data can improve our ability to define isotopic end members and knowledge about atmospheric humidity dynamics. Using data collected from an intensive field campaign across a semi-arid grassland site in eastern Australia, we combine multiple methods including in-situ stable isotope observations to study humidity dynamics associated with the growth and decay of the atmospheric boundary layer and the stable nocturnal boundary layer. The deuterium-excess (D-excess) in water vapor is traditionally thought to reflect the sea surface temperature and relative humidity at the point of evaporation over the oceans. However, a number of recent studies suggest that land-atmosphere interactions are also important in setting the D-excess of water vapor. These studies have shown a highly robust diurnal cycle for the D-excess over a range of sites that could be exploited to better understand variations in atmospheric humidity associated with boundary layer dynamics. In this study we use surface radon concentrations as a tracer of surface layer dynamics and combine these with the D-excess observations. The radon concentrations showed an overall trend that was inversely proportional to the D-excess, with early morning entrainment of air from the residual layer of the previous day both diluting the radon concentration and increasing the D-excess, followed by accumulation of radon at the surface and a decrease in the D-excess as the stable nocturnal layer developed in the late afternoon and early evening. The stable nocturnal boundary layer

  13. Existence and Stability of the Periodic Solution with an Interior Transitional Layer in the Problem with a Weak Linear Advection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay N. Nefedov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, we study a singularly perturbed periodic in time problem for the parabolic reaction-advection-diffusion equation with a weak linear advection. The case of the reactive term in the form of a cubic nonlinearity is considered. On the basis of already known results, a more general formulation of the problem is investigated, with weaker sufficient conditions for the existence of a solution with an internal transition layer to be provided than in previous studies. For convenience, the known results are given, which ensure the fulfillment of the existence theorem of the contrast structure. The justification for the existence of a solution with an internal transition layer is based on the use of an asymptotic method of differential inequalities based on the modification of the terms of the constructed asymptotic expansion. Further, sufficient conditions are established to fulfill these requirements, and they have simple and concise formulations in the form of the algebraic equation w(x0,t = 0 and the condition wx(x0,t < 0, which is essentially a condition of simplicity of the root x0(t and ensuring the stability of the solution found. The function w is a function of the known functions appearing in the reactive and advective terms of the original problem. The equation w(x0,t = 0 is a problem for finding the zero approximation x0(t to determine the localization region of the inner transition layer. In addition, the asymptotic Lyapunov stability of the found periodic solution is investigated, based on the application of the so-called compressible barrier method. The main result of the paper is formulated as a theorem. 

  14. Experimental study of hot water layer in a model in scale of the Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomaz, Gabriel Caio Queiroz

    2017-01-01

    The Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB) is a 30 MW open pool research reactor planned to be constructed in Brazil. Such type of reactor is built inside a deep pool of purified and demineralized water, providing radiological protection still keeping the core accessible for maintenance and refueling. However, dissolved ions become activated in the pool water due to the core neutron flux, releasing radiation in the reactor room when the activated elements reach the top. Thus high power open pool reactors, as RMB, have an auxiliary thermal-hydraulic circuit that creates a Hot Water Layer (HWL) on the pool’s top, keeping the activated water under the HWL and mitigating the dose rate to which the operators are exposed to. The Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN) built a 1/10 scale experimental bench of the RMB’s pool for the HWL investigation. This work presents the results of the pool’s heating due to the reactor startup in the HWL stability. (author)

  15. Thermodynamical effects accompanied freezing of two water layers separated by sea ice sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogorodsky, Petr; Marchenko, Aleksey

    2014-05-01

    The process of melt pond freezing is very important for generation of sea ice cover thermodynamic and mass balance during winterperiod. However, due to significant difficulties of field measurements the available data of model estimations still have no instrumental confirmation. In May 2009 the authors carried out laboratory experiment on freezing of limited water volume in the University Centre in Svalbard ice tank. In the course of experiment fresh water layer of 27.5 cm thickness at freezing point poured on the 24 cm sea ice layer was cooled during 50 hours at the temperature -10º C and then once again during 60 hours at -20º C. For revealing process typical characteristics the data of continuous measurements of temperature and salinity in different phases were compared with data of numerical computations obtained with thermodynamic model which was formulated in the frames of 1-D equation system (infinite extension of water freezing layer) and adapted to laboratory conditions. The known surprise of the experiment became proximity of calculated and measured estimates of process dynamics that confirmed the adequacy of the problem mathematical statement (excluding probably process finale stage). This effect can be explained by formation of cracks on the upper layer of ice at sharp decreases of air temperature, which temporary compensated hydrostatic pressure growth during freezing of closed water volume. Another compensated mechanism can be migration of brine through the lower layer of ice under influence of vertical pressure gradient and also rejection of gas dissolved in water which increased its compressibility. During 110 hours cooling thickness of water layer between ice layers reduced approximately to 2 cm. According to computations this layer is not chilled completely but keeps as thin brine interlayer within ice body whose thickness (about units of mm) is determined by temperature fluctuations of cooled surface. Nevertheless, despite good coincidence of

  16. The Role of Water in the Stability of Cratonic Keels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peslier, Anne H.; Woodland, Alan B.; Bell, David R.; Lazarov, Marina

    2011-01-01

    Cratons are typically underlain by large, deep, and old lithospheric keels (to greater than 200 km depth, greater than 2.5 Ga old) projecting into the asthenosphere (e.g., Jordan, 1978; Richardson et al., 1984). This has mystified Earth scientists as the dynamic and relatively hot asthenosphere should have eroded away these keels over time (e.g., Sleep, 2003; O'Neill et al., 2008; Karato, 2010). Three key factors have been invoked to explain cratonic root survival: 1) Low density makes the cratonic mantle buoyant (e.g., Poudjom Djomani et al., 2001). 2) Low temperatures (e.g., Pollack, 1986; Boyd, 1987), and 3) low water contents (e.g., Pollack, 1986), would make cratonic roots mechanically strong. Here we address the mechanism of the longevity of continental mantle lithosphere by focusing on the water parameter. Although nominally anhydrous , olivine, pyroxene and garnet can accommodate trace amounts of water in the form of H bonded to structural O in mineral defects (e.g., Bell and Rossman, 1992). Olivine softens by orders of magnitude if water (1-1000 ppm H2O) is added to its structure (e.g., Mackwell et al., 1985). Our recent work has placed constraints on the distribution of water measured in peridotite minerals in the cratonic root beneath the Kaapvaal in southern Africa (Peslier et al., 2010). At P greater than 5 GPa, the water contents of pyroxene remain relatively constant while those of olivine systematically decrease from 50 to less than 10 ppm H2O at 6.4 GPa. We hypothesized that at P greater than 6.4 GPa, i.e. at the bottom of the cratonic lithosphere, olivines are essentially dry (greater than 10 ppm H2O). As olivine likely controls the rheology of the mantle, we calculated that the dry olivines could be responsible for a contrast in viscosity between cratonic lithosphere and surrounding asthenosphere large enough to explain the resistance of cratonic root to asthenospheric delamination.

  17. Effects of Forward- and Backward-Facing Steps on the Crossflow Receptivity and Stability in Supersonic Boundary Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakumar, P.; King, Rudolph A.; Eppink, Jenna L.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of forward- and backward-facing steps on the receptivity and stability of three-dimensional supersonic boundary layers over a swept wing with a blunt leading edge are numerically investigated for a freestream Mach number of 3 and a sweep angle of 30 degrees. The flow fields are obtained by solving the full Navier-Stokes equations. The evolution of instability waves generated by surface roughness is simulated with and without the forward- and backward-facing steps. The separation bubble lengths are about 5-10 step heights for the forward-facing step and are about 10 for the backward-facing step. The linear stability calculations show very strong instability in the separated region with a large frequency domain. The simulation results show that the presence of backward-facing steps decreases the amplitude of the stationary crossflow vortices with longer spanwise wavelengths by about fifty percent and the presence of forward-facing steps does not modify the amplitudes noticeably across the steps. The waves with the shorter wavelengths grow substantially downstream of the step in agreement with the linear stability prediction.

  18. Improved performance and stability of field-effect transistors with polymeric residue-free graphene channel transferred by gold layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Mi; Trung, Tran Quang; Jung, Jin-Heak; Kim, Bo-Yeong; Lee, Nae-Eung

    2014-03-07

    One of the most significant issues that occurs when applying chemical-vapor deposited (CVD) graphene (Gr) to various high-performance device applications is the result of polymeric residues. Polymeric residues remain on the Gr surface during Gr polymer support transfer to an arbitrary substrate, and these residues degrade CVD Gr electrical properties. In this paper, we propose that a thin layer of gold be used as a CVD Gr transfer layer, instead of a polymer support layer, to enable a polymer residue-free transfer. Comparative investigation of the surface morphological and qualitative analysis of residues on Gr surfaces and Gr field-effect transistors (GFETs) using two transfer methods demonstrates that gold-transferred Gr, with uniform, smooth, and clean surfaces, enable GFETs to perform better than Gr transferred by the polymer, polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). In GFETs fabricated by the gold transfer method, field-effect carrier mobility was greatly enhanced and the position of the Dirac point was significantly reduced compared to GFETs fabricated by the PMMA transfer method. In addition, compared to the PMMA-transferred GFETs, the gold-transferred GFETs showed greatly increased stability with smaller hysteresis and higher resistance to gate bias stress effects. These results suggest that the gold transfer method for Gr provides significant improvements in GFET performance and reliability by minimizing the polymeric residues and defects on Gr.

  19. Synthesis and thermal stability studies of a series of metastable Dion–Jacobson double-layered neodymium-niobate perovskites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Josepha, Elisha A.; Farooq, Sara; Mitchell, Cinnamon M.; Wiley, John B., E-mail: jwiley@uno.edu

    2014-08-15

    The Dion–Jacobson double-layered perovskite, RbNdNb{sub 2}O{sub 7}, is used as a precursor to synthesize the series ANdNb{sub 2}O{sub 7} (A=H, Li, Na, K, NH{sub 4}, Ag), and (MCl)NdNb{sub 2}O{sub 7} (M=Mn, Fe, Cu) through ion-exchange reactions ≤400 °C. Thermal stability studies indicated that most of these compounds are metastable. A combination of X-ray powder diffraction and differential thermal analysis were used to determine various low temperature decomposition pathways; these pathways were very dependent on the interlayer species. Overall the ANdNb{sub 2}O{sub 7} series was found to be less stable than the corresponding lanthanides, ALaNb{sub 2}O{sub 7}. - Graphical abstract: A new series of topochemically-prepared metastable neodymium-containing layered perovskites are studied. - Highlights: • A series of new layered neodymium containing perovskites were synthesized by ion exchange. • Products were studied by variable temperature X-ray diffraction and thermal analysis. • Most of the series are metastable showing exothermic transitions on decomposition. • The Nd compounds are less stable due to the smaller size of the Nd relative to La.

  20. Antifoaming materials in G.S. (Girlder sulfide) heavy water plants. Thermical stability. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delfino, C.A.

    1986-01-01

    In Girlder sulfide (G.S.) heavy water plants hydrogen sulfide-water systems are inherentely foaming, so the adding of antifoaming materials is of great importance. These may be of high volatility, pyrolizable or chemically unstable in plant operation conditions (water and hydrogen sulfide at 2 MPa, up to 230 deg C). About twenty commercial surfactants were studied from the point of view of their thermical stability. (Author) [es

  1. Nano-silver in drinking water and drinking water sources: stability and influences on disinfection by-product formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugulea, A-M; Bérubé, D; Giddings, M; Lemieux, F; Hnatiw, J; Priem, J; Avramescu, M-L

    2014-10-01

    Nano-silver is increasingly used in consumer products from washing machines and refrigerators to devices marketed for the disinfection of drinking water or recreational water. The nano-silver in these products may be released, ending up in surface water bodies which may be used as drinking water sources. Little information is available about the stability of the nano-silver in sources of drinking water, its fate during drinking water disinfection processes, and its interaction with disinfection agents and disinfection by-products (DBPs). This study aims to investigate the stability of nano-silver in drinking water sources and in the finished drinking water when chlorine and chloramines are used for disinfection and to observe changes in the composition of DBPs formed when nano-silver is present in the source water. A dispersion of nano-silver particles (10 nm; PVP-coated) was used to spike untreated Ottawa River water, treated Ottawa River water, organic-free water, and a groundwater at concentrations of 5 mg/L. The diluted dispersions were kept under stirred and non-stirred conditions for up to 9 months and analyzed weekly using UV absorption to assess the stability of the nano-silver particles. In a separate experiment, Ottawa River water containing nano-silver particles (at 0.1 and 1 mg/L concentration, respectively) was disinfected by adding sodium hypochlorite (a chlorinating agent) in sufficient amounts to maintain a free chlorine residual of approximately 0.4 mg/L after 24 h. The disinfected drinking water was then quenched with ascorbic acid and analyzed for 34 neutral DBPs (trihalomethanes, haloacetonitriles, haloacetaldehydes, 1,1 dichloro-2-propanone, 1,1,1 trichloro-2-propanone, chloropicrin, and cyanogen chloride). The results were compared to the profile of DBPs obtained under the same conditions in the absence of nano-silver and in the presence of an equivalent concentration of Ag(+) ions (as AgNO3). The stability of the nano-silver dispersions in

  2. Low-dielectric layer increases nanosecond electric discharges in distilled water

    KAUST Repository

    Hamdan, Ahmad; Cha, Min

    2016-01-01

    decreasing of the energy consumption are the main goals of today’s research. Here we present an experimental study of nanosecond discharge in distilled water covered by a layer of dielectric material. We demonstrate through this paper that the discharge

  3. Biochar impact on improving root growth and water retention capacity in Norfolk hard setting subsoil layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Norfolk soil series is a well-drained soil used commonly for agricultural production in the Eastern Carolinas. Certain profile features such as a hard setting subsoil layer with high bulk density, low water holding capacity and meager soil fertility characteristics makes this soil less producti...

  4. Central-Upwind Schemes for Two-Layer Shallow Water Equations

    KAUST Repository

    Kurganov, Alexander; Petrova, Guergana

    2009-01-01

    We derive a second-order semidiscrete central-upwind scheme for one- and two-dimensional systems of two-layer shallow water equations. We prove that the presented scheme is well-balanced in the sense that stationary steady-state solutions

  5. Effect of cooling water on stability of NLC linac components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F. Le Pimpec et al.

    2003-02-11

    Vertical vibration of linac components (accelerating structures, girders and quadrupoles) in the NLC has been studied experimentally and analytically. Effects such as structural resonances and vibration caused by cooling water both in accelerating structures and quadrupoles have been considered. Experimental data has been compared with analytical predictions and simulations using ANSYS. A design, incorporating the proper decoupling of structure vibrations from the linac quadrupoles, is being pursued.

  6. Effect of Cooling Water on Stability of NLC Linac Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Pimpec, Frederic

    2002-11-01

    Vertical vibration of linac components (accelerating structures, girders and quadrupoles) in the NLC has been studied experimentally and analytically. Effects such as structural resonances and vibration caused by cooling water both in accelerating structures and quadrupoles have been considered. Experimental data has been compared with analytical predictions and simulations using ANSYS. A design, incorporating the proper decoupling of structure vibrations from the linac quadrupoles, is being pursued.

  7. Use of stabilized bottom ash for bound layers of road pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toraldo, Emanuele; Saponaro, Sabrina; Careghini, Alessandro; Mariani, Edoardo

    2013-05-30

    This paper reports about the lab scale results obtained by using stabilized bottom ash (SBA) from an Italian municipal solid waste incinerator as aggregates in cement-bound mixes and asphalt concretes for road pavements. The investigation focused on SBA content. From the road construction point of view, performance related to compaction, volumetric and mechanical properties were assessed. The environmental aspects were investigated performing leaching tests. The results suggested that SBA satisfied the environmental Italian law for reuse of non-hazardous waste but affected significantly the stress-strain behavior of the final products. Therefore a maximum percentage of 10% was suggested. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Performance Evaluation of a Hot Water Layer using a Numerical Simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jong Hark; Chae, Hee Taek; Kim, Heon Il; Jun, Byung Jin; Park, Cheol

    2009-01-01

    Most of all research reactors are immerged in the deep water pool to be a ultimate heat sink. At the neighbor of the reactor, some radio-active matters, such as Na-24, Ar-41, Mg-27, Al-28 and etc, may be generated by the neutron irradiation. Those radio-active isotopes may rise up to the pool water surface through the natural convection flow, which can make the radioactivity in the reactor hall rise high enough to concern about the health of people working in the reactor hall. When the irradiation test facilities are loaded or unloaded during a normal operation, the highly radio-activated primary coolant may flow out through the irradiation test holes on the top of the reactor. This also may be a main hazard source to make the working environment of the reactor hall bad. Making a hot water layer 1.5 ∼ 2.0 m thick at the top of reactor pool would be a good measure to resolve that problem. The hot water layer is formed by a thermal stratification of pool water, which can effectively suppress the ascending of the radio-active matters and primary coolant flowing out from the IR holes. In this study a performance evaluation of the hot water layer is conducted by a computational fluid dynamics technique. According to the results of the prediction the hot water layer is formed well about 1.5 m thick, and can suppress the flows containing radioactive matters ascending from the neighbor of the reactor

  9. Stability indicating high performance thin-layer chromatographic method for simultaneous estimation of pantoprazole sodium and itopride hydrochloride in combined dosage form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bageshwar, Deepak; Khanvilkar, Vineeta; Kadam, Vilasrao

    2011-11-01

    A specific, precise and stability indicating high-performance thin-layer chromatographic method for simultaneous estimation of pantoprazole sodium and itopride hydrochloride in pharmaceutical formulations was developed and validated. The method employed TLC aluminium plates precoated with silica gel 60F 254 as the stationary phase. The solvent system consisted of methanol:water:ammonium acetate; 4.0:1.0:0.5 (v/v/v). This system was found to give compact and dense spots for both itopride hydrochloride ( R f value of 0.55±0.02) and pantoprazole sodium ( R f value of 0.85±0.04). Densitometric analysis of both drugs was carried out in the reflectance-absorbance mode at 289 nm. The linear regression analysis data for the calibration plots showed a good linear relationship with R 2 =0.9988±0.0012 in the concentration range of 100-400 ng for pantoprazole sodium. Also, the linear regression analysis data for the calibration plots showed a good linear relationship with R 2 =0.9990±0.0008 in the concentration range of 200-1200 ng for itopride hydrochloride. The method was validated for specificity, precision, robustness and recovery. Statistical analysis proves that the method is repeatable and selective for the estimation of both the said drugs. As the method could effectively separate the drug from its degradation products, it can be employed as a stability indicating method.

  10. Water desalination with a single-layer MoS2 nanopore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiranian, Mohammad; Farimani, Amir Barati; Aluru, Narayana R.

    2015-10-01

    Efficient desalination of water continues to be a problem facing the society. Advances in nanotechnology have led to the development of a variety of nanoporous membranes for water purification. Here we show, by performing molecular dynamics simulations, that a nanopore in a single-layer molybdenum disulfide can effectively reject ions and allow transport of water at a high rate. More than 88% of ions are rejected by membranes having pore areas ranging from 20 to 60 Å2. Water flux is found to be two to five orders of magnitude greater than that of other known nanoporous membranes. Pore chemistry is shown to play a significant role in modulating the water flux. Pores with only molybdenum atoms on their edges lead to higher fluxes, which are ~70% greater than that of graphene nanopores. These observations are explained by permeation coefficients, energy barriers, water density and velocity distributions in the pores.

  11. MHD STABILITY OF INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM PHASE TRANSITION LAYERS. I. MAGNETIC FIELD ORTHOGONAL TO FRONT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, Jennifer M.; Zweibel, Ellen G.

    2009-01-01

    We consider the scenario of a magnetic field orthogonal to a front separating two media of different temperatures and densities, such as cold and warm neutral interstellar gas, in a two-dimensional plane-parallel geometry. A linear stability analysis is performed to assess the behavior of both evaporation and condensation fronts when subject to incompressible, corrugational perturbations with wavelengths larger than the thickness of the front. We discuss the behavior of fronts in both super-Alfvenic and sub-Alfvenic flows. Since the propagation speed of fronts is slow in the interstellar medium (ISM), it is the sub-Alfvenic regime that is relevant, and magnetic fields are a significant influence on front dynamics. In this case, we find that evaporation fronts, which are unstable in the hydrodynamic regime, are stabilized. Condensation fronts are unstable, but for parameters typical of the neutral ISM the growth rates are so slow that steady-state fronts are effectively stable. However, the instability may become important if condensation proceeds at a sufficiently fast rate. This paper is the first in a series exploring the linear and nonlinear effects of magnetic field strength and orientation on the corrugational instability, with the ultimate goal of addressing outstanding questions about small-scale ISM structure.

  12. Stabilization of aqueous nanoscale zerovalent iron dispersions by anionic polyelectrolytes: adsorbed anionic polyelectrolyte layer properties and their effect on aggregation and sedimentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phenrat, Tanapon; Saleh, Navid; Sirk, Kevin; Kim, Hye-Jin; Tilton, Robert D.; Lowry, Gregory V.

    2008-01-01

    Nanoscale zerovalent iron (NZVI) particles are 5-40 nm sized Fe 0 /Fe-oxide particles that rapidly transform many environmental contaminants to benign products and are a promising in situ remediation agent. Rapid aggregation and limited mobility in water-saturated porous media limits the ability to deliver NZVI dispersions in the subsurface. This study prepares stable NZVI dispersions through physisorption of commercially available anionic polyelectrolytes, characterizes the adsorbed polymer layer, and correlates the polymer coating properties with the ability to prevent rapid aggregation and sedimentation of NZVI dispersions. Poly(styrene sulfonate) with molecular weights of 70 k and 1,000 k g/mol (PSS70K and PSS1M), carboxymethyl cellulose with molecular weights of 90 k and 700 k g/mol (CMC90K and CMC700K), and polyaspartate with molecular weights of 2.5 k and 10 k g/mol (PAP2.5K and 10K) were compared. Particle size distributions were determined by dynamic light scattering during aggregation. The order of effectiveness to prevent rapid aggregation and stabilize the dispersions was PSS70K(83%) > ∼PAP10K(82%) > PAP2.5K(72%) > CMC700K(52%), where stability is defined operationally as the volume percent of particles that do not aggregate after 1 h. CMC90K and PSS1M could not stabilize RNIP relative to bare RNIP. A similar trend was observed for their ability to prevent sedimentation, with 40, 34, 32, 20, and 5 wt%, of the PSS70K, PAP10K, PAP2.5K, CMC700K, and CMC90K modified NZVI remaining suspended after 7 h of quiescent settling, respectively. The stable fractions with respect to both aggregation and sedimentation correlate well with the adsorbed polyelectrolyte mass and thickness of the adsorbed polyelectrolyte layers as determined by Oshima's soft particle theory. A fraction of the particles cannot be stabilized by any modifier and rapidly agglomerates to micron sized aggregates, as is also observed for unmodified NZVI. This non-dispersible fraction is

  13. Dendrimer ligands-capped CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskite nanocrystals with delayed halide exchange and record stability against both moisture and water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yiren; Xu, Shuhong; Shao, Haibao; Jiang, Han; Cui, Yiping; Wang, Chunlei

    2018-06-01

    CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskite nanocrystals (NCs) suffer from poor stability because of their high sensitivity to environmental moisture and water. To solve this problem, previous works mainly focus on embedding perovskite NCs into water-resistant matrix to form large composites (size of microns or larger). As an alternative solution without serious changing of NC size, enhancing the stability of perovskite NCs themselves by ligand engineering is rarely reported. In this work, we used hyperbranched polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers with two different generations (G0 and G4) to synthesize CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskite NCs with high photoluminescence (PL) quantum yields (QY) above 70% and a new record stability. A novel dendrimers generation-dependent stability of perovskite NCs was observed. The water-resistance time is 18 h (27 h) for perovskite NCs capped by G0 (G4) generation of PAMAM, which is 7 times (11 times) longer than that of traditional oleic acid-capped NCs. Similar PAMAM generation-related stability is also observed in moisture-resistance tests. The stability time against moisture is 500 h (800 h) for G0 (G4) generation of PAMAM-capped perovskite NCs, which is a new record stability time against moisture for CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskite NCs. In addition, our results also indicate that PAMAM ligands outside perovskite NCs can dramatically slow down the speed of halide exchange. Even for the mixture of perovskite NCs with two different halide composition, the original luminescence properties of PAMAM-capped perovskite NCs can retain after mixing. In view of slow halide exchange speed, excellent water and moisture stability, PAMAM dendrimers-capped perovskite NCs and their mixture are available as color conversion single layer in fabrication of light-emitting diodes (LED).

  14. Dendrimer ligands-capped CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskite nanocrystals with delayed halide exchange and record stability against both moisture and water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yiren; Xu, Shuhong; Shao, Haibao; Jiang, Han; Cui, Yiping; Wang, Chunlei

    2018-06-08

    CH 3 NH 3 PbBr 3 perovskite nanocrystals (NCs) suffer from poor stability because of their high sensitivity to environmental moisture and water. To solve this problem, previous works mainly focus on embedding perovskite NCs into water-resistant matrix to form large composites (size of microns or larger). As an alternative solution without serious changing of NC size, enhancing the stability of perovskite NCs themselves by ligand engineering is rarely reported. In this work, we used hyperbranched polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers with two different generations (G0 and G4) to synthesize CH 3 NH 3 PbBr 3 perovskite NCs with high photoluminescence (PL) quantum yields (QY) above 70% and a new record stability. A novel dendrimers generation-dependent stability of perovskite NCs was observed. The water-resistance time is 18 h (27 h) for perovskite NCs capped by G0 (G4) generation of PAMAM, which is 7 times (11 times) longer than that of traditional oleic acid-capped NCs. Similar PAMAM generation-related stability is also observed in moisture-resistance tests. The stability time against moisture is 500 h (800 h) for G0 (G4) generation of PAMAM-capped perovskite NCs, which is a new record stability time against moisture for CH 3 NH 3 PbBr 3 perovskite NCs. In addition, our results also indicate that PAMAM ligands outside perovskite NCs can dramatically slow down the speed of halide exchange. Even for the mixture of perovskite NCs with two different halide composition, the original luminescence properties of PAMAM-capped perovskite NCs can retain after mixing. In view of slow halide exchange speed, excellent water and moisture stability, PAMAM dendrimers-capped perovskite NCs and their mixture are available as color conversion single layer in fabrication of light-emitting diodes (LED).

  15. Thermodynamic stability and kinetic dissolution of perovskite in natural waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesbitt, H.W.; Bancroft, G.M.; Fyfe, W.S.; Karkhanis, S.; Melling, P.; Nishijima, A.

    1981-01-01

    Ringwood and coworkers have recently proposed using titanates and zirconates as hosts for nuclear waste in the Synroc B process. Three minerals are used as hosts: perovskite (CaTiO 3 ), Ba-hollandite (BaAl 2 Ti 6 O 16 ), and zirconolite (CaZrTi 2 O 7 ). The Synroc philosophy relies heavily on geological and geochemical observations in selecting stable host minerals. Although it has been recognized that the Synroc minerals are not thermodynamically compatible with siliceous rocks, the minerals are considered to be thermodynamically stable in the presence of water, and it has been reported that these minerals are kinetically stable under high-temperature (up to 900 0 C) hydrothermal conditions. Detailed thermodynamic calculations and leach tests have been performed which demonstrate: first, that perovskite is thermodynamically unstable in all known natural waters; and second, that pervoskite leaches at a significant rate even at 100 0 C. Hydrothermal leach tests have been made on natural and synthetic perovskite and perovskite analogues between 100 0 C and 300 0 C. Weight losses and solution concentrations were monitored. The results reported previously in the literature also show that perovskite is kinetically unstable in the presence of common silicates. Our results show that perovskite may be no more stable than siliceous glasses, such as rhyolite, which have been studied previously. Geologic evidence from common alkaline rocks also indicates that hollandite and zirconolite probably will not survive in common rock matrices

  16. Modeling Nitrogen Decrease in Water Lettuce Ponds from Waste Stabilization Ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putri, Gitta Agnes; Sunarsih

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents about the dynamic modeling of the Water Lettuce ponds as a form of improvement from the Water Hyacinth ponds. The purpose of this paper is to predict nitrogen decrease and nitrogen transformation in Water Lettuce ponds integrated with Waste Stabilization Ponds. The model consists of 4 mass balances, namely Dissolved Organic Nitrogen (DON), Particulate Organic Nitrogen (PON), ammonium (NH4+), Nitrate and Nitrite (NOx). The process of nitrogen transformation which considered in a Water Lettuce ponds, namely hydrolysis, mineralization, nitrification, denitrification, plant and bacterial uptake processes. Numerical simulations are performed by giving the values of parameters and the initial values of nitrogen compounds based on a review of previous studies. Numerical results show that the rate of change in the concentration of nitrogen compounds in the integration ponds of waste stabilization and water lettuce decreases and reaches stable at different times.

  17. Performance on Water Stability of Cement-Foamed Asphalt Cold Recycled Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Junxiao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Through designing the mixture proportion of foamed asphalt cold in-place recycled mixture combined with the water stability experiment, it shows that the addition of cement can obviously improve foamed asphalt mixture’s water stability and the best cement admixture is between 1% ~ 2%; Using digital imaging microscope and SEM technology, the mechanism of increasing on the intensity of foamed asphalt mixture resulted by adding cement was analyzed. It revealed that the cement hydration products contained in the foamed asphalt mixture hydrolyzed into space mesh structure and wrapped up the aggregate particle, this is the main reason that the cement can enhance the mixture’s intensity as well as the water stability. This research provides reference for cement admixture’s formulation in the designing of foamed asphalt cold in-place recycled mixture.

  18. Stability of alginate-titanium dioxide based photocatalyst beads for water treatment application under UV irradiation

    OpenAIRE

    WENG HOONG LAM

    2017-01-01

    Immobilizing TiO2 photocatalyst in alginate beads has been considered to be a green approach for the separation and recycling of the photocatalyst in UV water treatment. However, the feasibility of using alginate beads in industry is largely dependent on their photo-stability during operation. This study aimed to provide a better understanding on the degradation of alginate/TiO2 beads under UV irradiation and to improve beads stability. The beads stability can be improved by increasing the al...

  19. Physical Stability of Oil in Water Emulsions in the Presence of Gamma Irradiated Gum Tragacanth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meybodi, Neda Mollakhalili; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin; Farhoodi, Mehdi

    2017-01-01

    Gum tragacanth (GT) exuded from an Iranian Astragalus species was γ-irradiated at 0, 0.75, 1.5, 3, 5, 7, 10 kGy and used to stabilize a model oil in water emulsion system. Stability and physicochemical properties of emulsion samples were investigated with respect to the effect of irradiation...... treatment on functional properties of gum tragacanth. Particle size distribution, interfacial tension, zeta potential, steady shear and oscillatory rheological measurements were used to characterize and evaluate the emulsion samples and obtain more information about the possible stability mechanism...

  20. Stabilizing local boundary conditions for two-dimensional shallow water equations

    KAUST Repository

    Dia, Ben Mansour

    2018-03-27

    In this article, we present a sub-critical two-dimensional shallow water flow regulation. From the energy estimate of a set of one-dimensional boundary stabilization problems, we obtain a set of polynomial equations with respect to the boundary values as a requirement for the energy decrease. Using the Riemann invariant analysis, we build stabilizing local boundary conditions that guarantee the stability of the hydrodynamical state around a given steady state. Numerical results for the controller applied to the nonlinear problem demonstrate the performance of the method.

  1. Development of Low-Toxicity Wastewater Stabilization for Spacecraft Water Recovery Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Niklas; Mitchell, Julie; Pickering, Karen; Carrier, Chris; Vega, Letty; Muirhead, Dean

    2014-01-01

    Wastewater stabilization was an essential component of the spacecraft water cycle. The purpose of stabilizing wastewater was two-fold. First, stabilization prevents the breakdown of urea into ammonia, a toxic gas at high concentrations. Second, it prevents the growth of microorganisms, thereby mitigating hardware and water quality issues due to due biofilm and planktonic growth. Current stabilization techniques involve oxidizers and strong acids (pH=2) such as chromic and sulfuric acid, which are highly toxic and pose a risk to crew health. The purpose of this effort was to explore less toxic stabilization techniques, such as food-grade and commercial care preservatives. Additionally, certain preservatives were tested in the presence of a low-toxicity organic acid. Triplicate 300-mL volumes of urine were dosed with a predetermined quantity of stabilizer and stored for two weeks. During that time, pH, total organic carbon (TOC), ammonia, and turbidity were monitored. Those preservatives that showed the lowest visible microbial growth and stable pH were further tested in a six-month stability study. The results of the six-month study are also included in this paper.

  2. Mathematical modelling of water and gas transport in layered soil covers for coal ash deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, A; Lindgren, M [Kemakta Consultants Co, Stockholm (SE)

    1990-12-17

    In the present work the dry deposition alternative is investigated. In particular the design of soil covers is treated theoretically using mathematical models. The soil cover should primarily act as a barrier against infiltrating water. This is done by having soil cover materials with low permeabilities and sloping covers thereby diverting the infiltrating water in the lateral direction. An important design aspect is that overflow should be avoided since this may cause erosional problems. Thus the design of the cover should allow for lateral water flow within the cover. In the present work we use the computer code TRUST for calculating the flow rates and the moisture contents in two layer covers (till on top of clay) for varying conditions. The calculations so far show that the hydraulic conductivity of the clay layer should be smaller than 10{sup -8} m/s. However, for the simulated longer covers (50 m) a lower hydraulic conductivity gives overflow indicating that better lateral drainage must be provided for. This can be done by increasing the thickness or hydraulic conductivity of the till layer. Simulations for different slopes give little impact, while the hydraulic conductivity of the clay layer is of major importance. Gas transport through the soil cover may be of importance if the waste contains pyrite. In the presence of oxygen and water, pyrite is oxidized producing sulphuric acid. The lowered pH will accelerate the leaching of several heavy metals. The transport rate of gas through a porous material is very sensitive to the water content, decreasing rapidly with increasing water content. In the present work a model, where the unsaturated conditions are accounted for, is outlined. A previously developed method for calculating oxygen transport and oxidation rate of pyrite in connection with mine wastes is generalized from 1D to 2D. A sample calculation illustrates the feasibility of the method. (au) (43 refs.).

  3. Effect of Cation Ordering on the Performance and Chemical Stability of Layered Double Perovskite Cathodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Bernuy-Lopez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of A-site cation ordering on the cathode performance and chemical stability of A-site cation ordered LaBaCo2O5+δ and disordered La0.5Ba0.5CoO3−δ materials are reported. Symmetric half-cells with a proton-conducting BaZr0.9Y0.1O3−δ electrolyte were prepared by ceramic processing, and good chemical compatibility of the materials was demonstrated. Both A-site ordered LaBaCo2O5+δ and A-site disordered La0.5Ba0.5CoO3−δ yield excellent cathode performance with Area Specific Resistances as low as 7.4 and 11.5 Ω·cm2 at 400 °C and 0.16 and 0.32 Ω·cm2 at 600 °C in 3% humidified synthetic air respectively. The oxygen vacancy concentration, electrical conductivity, basicity of cations and crystal structure were evaluated to rationalize the electrochemical performance of the two materials. The combination of high-basicity elements and high electrical conductivity as well as sufficient oxygen vacancy concentration explains the excellent performance of both LaBaCo2O5+δ and La0.5Ba0.5CoO3−δ materials at high temperatures. At lower temperatures, oxygen-deficiency in both materials is greatly reduced, leading to decreased performance despite the high basicity and electrical conductivity. A-site cation ordering leads to a higher oxygen vacancy concentration, which explains the better performance of LaBaCo2O5+δ. Finally, the more pronounced oxygen deficiency of the cation ordered polymorph and the lower chemical stability at reducing conditions were confirmed by coulometric titration.

  4. Boiling water reactor stability analysis in the time domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borkowski, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    Boiling water nuclear reactors may experience density wave instabilities. These instabilities cause the density, and consequently the mass flow rate, to oscillate in the shrouded fuel bundles. This effect causes the nuclear power generation to oscillate due to the tight coupling of flow to power, especially under gravity-driven circulation. In order to predict the amplitude of the power oscillation, a time domain transient analysis tool may be employed. The modeling tool must have sufficient hydrodynamic detail to model natural circulation in two-phase flow as well as the coupled nuclear feedback. TRAC/BF1 is a modeling code with such capabilities. A dynamic system model has been developed for a typical boiling water reactor. Using this tool it has been demonstrated that density waxes may be modeled in this fashion and that their resultant hydrodynamic and nuclear behavior correspond well to simple theory. Several cases have been analyzed using this model, the goal being to determine the coupling between the channel hydrodynamics and the nuclear power. From that study it has been concluded that two-phase friction controls the extent of the oscillation and that the existing conventional methodologies of implementing two-phase friction into analysis codes of this type can lead to significant deviation in results from case to case. It has also been determined that higher dimensional nuclear feedback models reduce the extent of the oscillation. It has also been confirmed from a nonlinear dynamic standpoint that the birth of this oscillation may be described as a Hopf Bifurcation

  5. Synthesis and thermal stability studies of a series of metastable Dion-Jacobson double-layered neodymium-niobate perovskites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josepha, Elisha A.; Farooq, Sara; Mitchell, Cinnamon M.; Wiley, John B.

    2014-08-01

    The Dion-Jacobson double-layered perovskite, RbNdNb2O7, is used as a precursor to synthesize the series ANdNb2O7 (A=H, Li, Na, K, NH4, Ag), and (MCl)NdNb2O7 (M=Mn, Fe, Cu) through ion-exchange reactions ≤400 °C. Thermal stability studies indicated that most of these compounds are metastable. A combination of X-ray powder diffraction and differential thermal analysis were used to determine various low temperature decomposition pathways; these pathways were very dependent on the interlayer species. Overall the ANdNb2O7 series was found to be less stable than the corresponding lanthanides, ALaNb2O7.

  6. Application of "The Water Layer Model" to self-compacting mortar with different size distributions of fine aggregate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Midorikawa, T.; Pelova, G.I.; Walraven, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    Self-Compacting Concrete is a relatively new type of concrete. Up to now only a few models have been developed to explain its physical behaviour, like the Water Layer Model and the Excess Paste Model. In this paper, the difference between the Water Layer Model and the Excess Paste Model is

  7. Dihydrogen phosphate-water tape and layers vs dihydrogen phosphate layers tuned by hydrophobic isomeric pyridine-diamine functionalized molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jing; Liu, Tong-Peng; Huo, Li-Hua; Deng, Zhao-Peng; Gao, Shan

    2017-01-01

    Assembly of six isomeric pyridine-diamine-based molecules, N,N‧-bis(pyridin-4-ylmethyl)ethane-1,2-diamine (M1), N,N‧-bis(pyridin-3-ylmethyl)ethane-1,2-diamine (M2), N,N‧-bis(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)ethane-1,2-diamine (M3), N,N‧-bis(pyridin-4-ylmethyl)propane-1,3-diamine (M4), N,N‧-bis(pyridin-3-ylmethyl)propane-1,2-diamine (M5), and N,N‧-bis(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)propane-1,3-diamine (M6), with phosphoric acid (H3PO4) in different ratio (1:2 and 1:4), leads to the formation of nine salts, H2M12+·2H2PO4-·4H2O (1), H2M22+·2H2PO4-·2H2O (2), H2M32+·2H2PO4-·2H2O (3), H4M14+·4H2PO4- (4), H4M24+·4H2PO4- (5), H4M34+·4H2PO4- (6), H2M42+·2H2PO4-·3H2O (7), 2H2M52+·4H2PO4-·2H3PO4 (8), and H2M62+·2H2PO4- (9), which have been characterized by elemental analysis, IR, TG, PL, powder and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Structural analyses indicate that hydrogen-bonding patterns of H2PO4- anions, conformation of protonated cations can effectively influence the supramolecular architectures through diverse non-covalent interactions. Hydrous salts 1-3 and 7 present 2D and 3D host-guest supramolecular networks, in which the connection of H2PO4- anions and water molecules generates diverse tape and layer motifs. H2PO4- anions in anhydrous salts 4-6 interconnect with each other through hydrogen bonds to form two types of layers, which are joined by discrete H4M4+ cations into 3D inorganic-organic hybrid supramolecular networks. Salts 8-9 also present 2D and 3D host-guest supramolecular networks where the interconnection of H2PO4- anions and its combination with H3PO4 molecules leads to diverse layers. Luminescent analyses indicate that salts 1-9 exhibit violet and blue emission maximum in the range of 390-467 nm at room temperature.

  8. Conductometric method for determining water stability and nutrient leaching of extruded fish feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banjac Vojislav V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Water stability of eight samples of extruded salmon feeds was first determined by applying two gravimetric methods developed by the authors: gravimetric static and wet sieving method. Then, the conductometric method, primarily developed for investigation of nutrient leaching of feed into the water by the authors, was used for each sample. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of the conductometric measurement as a technique for determining water stability of extruded fish feed. In order to find any correlation between the results of two gravimetric tests and conductometric method, correlation analysis was employed. The results of static and wet sieving method were expressed as water stability index, which was expressed as the percent of remained dry matter of sample after being disintegrated in the water. The results of conductometric method were shown as conductivity curves for each sample, giving the insight in rate of nutrient leaching during the time. The obtained values of water conductivity showed no significant (p < 0.05 correlation with the results of static water method, while there was a negative significant (p < 0.05 correlation with the results of wet sieving method during first four hours of pellets soaking in water. The highest correlation coefficients were obtained within the first hour of conductivity measurement, demonstrating that proposed conductometric method had a potential to be applied as a rapid and simple method for determination and relative comparison of salmon feed water stability.[ Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. III46012 and Grant no. TR31011

  9. Hydraulic Properties of Porous Media Saturated with Nanoparticle-Stabilized Air-Water Foam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianglei Zheng

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The foam generated by the mixture of air and water has a much higher viscosity and lower mobility than those of pure water or gas that constitutes the air-water foam. The possibility of using the air-water foam as a flow barrier for the purpose of groundwater and soil remediation is explored in this paper. A nanoparticle-stabilized air-water foam was fabricated by vigorously stirring the nano-fluid in pressurized condition. The foam bubble size distribution was analyzed with a microscope. The viscosities of foams generated with the solutions with several nanoparticle concentrations were measured as a function of time. The breakthrough pressure of foam-saturated microfluidic chips and sand columns were obtained. The hydraulic conductivity of a foam-filled sand column was measured after foam breakthrough. The results show that: (1 bubble coalescence and the Ostwald ripening are believed to be the reason of bubble size distribution change; (2 the viscosity of nanoparticle-stabilized foam and the breakthrough pressures decreased with time once the foam was generated; (3 the hydraulic conductivity of the foam-filled sand column was almost two orders of magnitude lower than that of a water-saturated sand column even after the foam-breakthrough. Based on the results in this study, the nanoparticle-stabilized air-water foam could be injected into contaminated soils to generate vertical barriers for temporary hydraulic conductivity reduction.

  10. Confined methane-water interfacial layers and thickness measurements using in situ Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, Bruno; Liu, Yukun; Rizkin, Benjamin; Hartman, Ryan L

    2017-11-07

    Gas-liquid interfaces broadly impact our planet, yet confined interfaces behave differently than unconfined ones. We report the role of tangential fluid motion in confined methane-water interfaces. The interfaces are created using microfluidics and investigated by in situ 1D, 2D and 3D Raman spectroscopy. The apparent CH 4 and H 2 O concentrations are reported for Reynolds numbers (Re), ranging from 0.17 to 8.55. Remarkably, the interfaces are comprised of distinct layers of thicknesses varying from 23 to 57 μm. We found that rarefaction, mixture, thin film, and shockwave layers together form the interfaces. The results indicate that the mixture layer thickness (δ) increases with Re (δ ∝ Re), and traditional transport theory for unconfined interfaces does not explain the confined interfaces. A comparison of our results with thin film theory of air-water interfaces (from mass transfer experiments in capillary microfluidics) supports that the hydrophobicity of CH 4 could decrease the strength of water-water interactions, resulting in larger interfacial thicknesses. Our findings help explain molecular transport in confined gas-liquid interfaces, which are common in a broad range of societal applications.

  11. Nanoscopic characterization of the water vapor-salt interfacial layer reveals a unique biphasic adsorption process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liu; He, Jianfeng; Shen, Yi; Li, Xiaowei; Sun, Jielin; Czajkowsky, Daniel M.; Shao, Zhifeng

    2016-08-01

    Our quantitative understanding of water adsorption onto salt surfaces under ambient conditions is presently quite poor owing to the difficulties in directly characterizing this interfacial layer under these conditions. Here we determine the thickness of the interfacial layer on NaCl at different relative humidities (RH) based on a novel application of atomic force spectroscopy and capillary condensation theory. In particular, we take advantage of the microsecond-timescale of the capillary condensation process to directly resolve the magnitude of its contribution in the tip-sample interaction, from which the interfacial water thickness is determined. Further, to correlate this thickness with salt dissolution, we also measure surface conductance under similar conditions. We find that below 30% RH, there is essentially only the deposition of water molecules onto this surface, typical of conventional adsorption onto solid surfaces. However, above 30% RH, adsorption is simultaneous with the dissolution of ions, unlike conventional adsorption, leading to a rapid increase of surface conductance. Thus, water adsorption on NaCl is an unconventional biphasic process in which the interfacial layer not only exhibits quantitative differences in thickness but also qualitative differences in composition.

  12. The role of adsorbed water on the friction of a layer of submicron particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammis, Charles G.; Lockner, David A.; Reches, Ze’ev

    2011-01-01

    Anomalously low values of friction observed in layers of submicron particles deformed in simple shear at high slip velocities are explained as the consequence of a one nanometer thick layer of water adsorbed on the particles. The observed transition from normal friction with an apparent coefficient near μ = 0.6 at low slip speeds to a coefficient near μ = 0.3 at higher slip speeds is attributed to competition between the time required to extrude the water layer from between neighboring particles in a force chain and the average lifetime of the chain. At low slip speeds the time required for extrusion is less than the average lifetime of a chain so the particles make contact and lock. As slip speed increases, the average lifetime of a chain decreases until it is less than the extrusion time and the particles in a force chain never come into direct contact. If the adsorbed water layer enables the otherwise rough particles to rotate, the coefficient of friction will drop to μ = 0.3, appropriate for rotating spheres. At the highest slip speeds particle temperatures rise above 100°C, the water layer vaporizes, the particles contact and lock, and the coefficient of friction rises to μ = 0.6. The observed onset of weakening at slip speeds near 0.001 m/s is consistent with the measured viscosity of a 1 nm thick layer of adsorbed water, with a minimum particle radius of approximately 20 nm, and with reasonable assumptions about the distribution of force chains guided by experimental observation. The reduction of friction and the range of velocities over which it occurs decrease with increasing normal stress, as predicted by the model. Moreover, the analysis predicts that this high-speed weakening mechanism should operate only for particles with radii smaller than approximately 1 μm. For larger particles the slip speed required for weakening is so large that frictional heating will evaporate the adsorbed water and weakening will not occur.

  13. PEMFC catalyst layers: the role of micropores and mesopores on water sorption and fuel cell activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soboleva, Tatyana; Malek, Kourosh; Xie, Zhong; Navessin, Titichai; Holdcroft, Steven

    2011-06-01

    The effects of carbon microstructure and ionomer loading on water vapor sorption and retention in catalyst layers (CLs) of PEM fuel cells are investigated using dynamic vapor sorption. Catalyst layers based on Ketjen Black and Vulcan XC-72 carbon blacks, which possess distinctly different surface areas, pore volumes, and microporosities, are studied. It is found that pores <20 nm diameter facilitate water uptake by capillary condensation in the intermediate range of relative humidities. A broad pore size distribution (PSD) is found to enhance water retention in Ketjen Black-based CLs whereas the narrower mesoporous PSD of Vulcan CLs is shown to have an enhanced water repelling action. Water vapor sorption and retention properties of CLs are correlated to electrochemical properties and fuel cell performance. Water sorption enhances electrochemical properties such as the electrochemically active surface area (ESA), double layer capacitance and proton conductivity, particularly when the ionomer content is very low. The hydrophilic properties of a CL on the anode and the cathode are adjusted by choosing the PSD of carbon and the ionomer content. It is shown that a reduction of ionomer content on either cathode or anode of an MEA does not necessarily have a significant detrimental effect on the MEA performance compared to the standard 30 wt % ionomer MEA. Under operation in air and high relative humidity, a cathode with a narrow pore size distribution and low ionomer content is shown to be beneficial due to its low water retention properties. In dry operating conditions, adequate ionomer content on the cathode is crucial, whereas it can be reduced on the anode without a significant impact on fuel cell performance. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  14. Modeling boundary-layer transition in direct and large-eddy simulations using parabolized stability equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-Durán, A.; Hack, M. J. P.; Moin, P.

    2018-02-01

    We examine the potential of the nonlinear parabolized stability equations (PSE) to provide an accurate yet computationally efficient treatment of the growth of disturbances in H-type transition to turbulence. The PSE capture the nonlinear interactions that eventually induce breakdown to turbulence and can as such identify the onset of transition without relying on empirical correlations. Since the local PSE solution at the onset of transition is a close approximation of the Navier-Stokes equations, it provides a natural inflow condition for direct numerical simulations (DNS) and large-eddy simulations (LES) by avoiding nonphysical transients. We show that a combined PSE-DNS approach, where the pretransitional region is modeled by the PSE, can reproduce the skin-friction distribution and downstream turbulent statistics from a DNS of the full domain. When the PSE are used in conjunction with wall-resolved and wall-modeled LES, the computational cost in both the laminar and turbulent regions is reduced by several orders of magnitude compared to DNS.

  15. Stability of exact solutions describing two-layer flows with evaporation at the interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bekezhanova, V B [Institute of Computational Modelling SB RAS, Akademgorodok, 50/44, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 (Russian Federation); Goncharova, O N, E-mail: bekezhanova@mail.ru, E-mail: gon@math.asu.ru [Altai State University, Lenina 61, Barnaul, 656049 (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    A new exact solution of the equations of free convection has been constructed in the framework of the Oberbeck–Boussinesq approximation of the Navier–Stokes equations. The solution describes the joint flow of an evaporating viscous heat-conducting liquid and gas-vapor mixture in a horizontal channel. In the gas phase the Dufour and Soret effects are taken into account. The consideration of the exact solution allows one to describe different classes of flows depending on the values of the problem parameters and boundary conditions for the vapor concentration. A classification of solutions and results of the solution analysis are presented. The effects of the external disturbing influences (of the liquid flow rates and longitudinal gradients of temperature on the channel walls) on the stability characteristics have been numerically studied for the system HFE7100-nitrogen in the common case, when the longitudinal temperature gradients on the boundaries of the channel are not equal. In the system both monotonic and oscillatory modes can be formed, which damp or grow depending on the values of the initial perturbations, flow rates and temperature gradients. Hydrodynamic perturbations are most dangerous under large gas flow rates. The increasing oscillatory perturbations are developed due to the thermocapillary effect under large longitudinal gradients of temperature. The typical forms of the disturbances are shown. (paper)

  16. The Effect of Ultrasonic Treatment on Thermal Stability of the Cured Epoxy/Layered Silicate Nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Y. Yuhana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of ultrasonic treatment on thermal stability of binary systems containing epoxy and organic chemically modified montmorillonite (Cloisite 30B was studied. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD analysis were utilized. The mixing of epoxy and Cloisite 30B nanocomposites was performed by mechanical stirring, followed by 1 or 3-hour ultrasonic treatment, and polyetheramine as the curing agent. Both XRD and TEM analyses confirmed that the intercalation of Cloisite 30B was achieved. The d0 spacings for silicate in cured sample prepared at 1- and 3-hour duration of ultrasonic treatment were about 21 and 18 Å, respectively. This shows that shorter duration or ultrasonic treatment may be preferable to achieve higher d0 spacing of clay. This may be attributed to the increase in viscosity as homopolymerization process occurred, which restricts silicate dispersion. The 1-hour sonicated samples seem to be more thermally stable during the glass transition, but less stable during thermal decomposition process.

  17. Influences on the white emission and stability of single layer electroluminescent devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tekin, Emine

    2013-01-01

    A detailed survey about the influences on the white emission color of polyfluorene based polymer light emitting diodes (PLEDs) is reported. First, the effect of active layer thickness was studied. Subsequently keeping the polymer thickness at optimum level, PLEDs were fabricated varying polymer concentrations. All fabricated devices were fully characterized in terms of luminance, current–voltage characteristics, efficiencies, electroluminescent spectra, and CIE color coordinates. It was found that at higher polymer concentrations, electroluminescence spectra shifted to the bathochromic region so that the resulting color becomes warm white. Furthermore, the accelerated lifetimes of the PLEDs were measured and the results are discussed in terms of polymer inter-chain interactions. Consequently, the 8 mg/ml was found to be the optimum level not only for the device performances but also for the device lifetime. Highlights: • Influences on the white color emission of the polymer OLEDs were investigated. • White emission purity was found to be affected by the polymer concentration. • Lifetimes of the white emitting devices depend on the inter-chain interactions

  18. Effect of various intermediate ceramic layers on the interfacial stability of zirconia core and veneering ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hyung-In; Yeo, In-Sung; Yi, Yang-Jin; Kim, Sung-Hun; Lee, Jai-Bong; Han, Jung-Suk

    2015-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to evaluate the effects of intermediate ceramics on the adhesion between the zirconia core and veneer ceramics. The polished surfaces of fully sintered Y-TZP blocks received three different treatments: (1) connector (C), (2) liner (L) or (3) wash layer (W). All the treated zirconia blocks were veneered with either (a) fluorapatite glass-ceramic (E) or (b) feldspathic porcelain (V) and divided into four groups (CE, CV, LE and WV). For the control group, the testing surfaces of metal blocks were veneered with feldspathic porcelain (VM). A half of the samples in each group (n = 21) were exposed to thermocycling, while the other half of the specimens were stored at room temperature under dry conditions. All specimens were subjected to the shear test and the failed surfaces were microscopically examined. The elemental distribution at the zirconia core/veneer interface was analyzed. The specimens in Groups CE and CV exhibited significantly greater mean bond strength values than those in Groups LE and WV, respectively (p ceramic substances into the zirconia surface. A glass-ceramic based connector is significantly more favorable to core/veneer adhesion than the other intermediate ceramics evaluated in the study. However, thermal cycling affected the bond strength at the core/veneer interface differently according to the intermediate ceramics.

  19. White OLED with high stability and low driving voltage based on a novel buffer layer MoOx

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Xueyin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Jiading, Shanghai 201800 (China); Zhang Zhilin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Jiading, Shanghai 201800 (China); Cao Jin [Key Laboratory of Advanced Display and System Application, Ministry of Education, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Khan, M A [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Jiading, Shanghai 201800 (China); Khizar-ul-Haq [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Jiading, Shanghai 201800 (China); Zhu Wenqing [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Jiading, Shanghai 201800 (China)

    2007-09-21

    White organic light emitting diodes (WOLEDs) with copper phthalocyanine (CuPc), 4,4',4-prime-tris(N-3-methylphenyl-N-phenyl-amino) triphenylamine (m-MTDATA), tungsten oxide (WO{sub 3}) and molybdenum oxide (MoOx) as buffer layers have been investigated. The MoOx based device shows superior performance with low driving voltage, high power efficiency and much longer lifetime than those with other buffer layers. For the Cell using MoOx as buffer layer and 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (Bphen) as electron transporting layer (ETL), at the luminance of 1000 cd m{sup -2}, the driving voltage is 4.9 V, which is 4.2 V, 2 V and 0.7 V lower than that of the devices using CuPc (Cell-CuPc), m-MTDATA (Cell-m-MTDATA) and WO{sub 3} (Cell-WO{sub 3}) as buffer layers, respectively. Its power efficiency is 7.67 Lm W{sup -1}, which is 2.37 times higher than that of Cell-CuPc and a little higher than that of Cell-m-MTDATA. The projected half-life under the initial luminance of 100 cd m{sup -2} is 55 260 h, which is more than 4.6 times longer than that of Cell-m-MTDATA and Cell-CuPc. The superior performance of Cell-MoOx is attributed to its high hole injection ability and the stable interface between MoOx and organic material. The work function of MoOx has been measured by the contact potential difference method. The J-V curves of 'hole-only' devices indicate that a small hole injection barrier between MoOx/N,'-bis(naphthalene-1-y1)-N, N'-bis(phenyl)-benzidine (NPB) leads to a strong hole injection, resulting in a low driving voltage and a high stability.

  20. A novel strategy for high-stability lithium sulfur batteries by in situ formation of polysulfide adsorptive-blocking layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Liming; Li, Gaoran; Liu, Binhong; Li, Zhoupeng; Zheng, Junsheng; Zheng, Jim P.

    2017-07-01

    Lithium sulfur (Lisbnd S) batteries are one of the most promising energy storage devices owing to their high energy and power density. However, the shuttle effect as a key barrier hinders its practical application by resulting in low coulombic efficiency and poor cycling performance. Herein, a novel design of in situ formed polysulfide adsorptive-blocking layer (PAL) on the cathode surface was developed to tame the polysulfide shuttling and promote the cycling stability for Lisbnd S batteries. The PAL is consisted of La2S3, which is capable to chemically adsorb polysulfide via the strong interaction of Lasbnd S bond and Ssbnd S bond, and build an effective barrier against sulfur escaping. Moreover, the La2S3 is capable to suppress the crystallization of Li2S and promote the ion transfer, which contributes to the reduced internal resistance of batteries. Furthermore, the by-product LiNO3 simultaneously forms a stable anode solid and electrolyte interface to further inhibit the polysulfide shuttle. By this simple and convenient method, the resultant Lisbnd S batteries achieved exceptional cycling stability with an ultralow decay rate of 0.055% since the 10th cycle.

  1. Potential Carbon Transport: Linking Soil Aggregate Stability and Sediment Enrichment for Updating the Soil Active Layer within Intensely Managed Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacha, K.; Papanicolaou, T.; Abban, B. K.; Wilson, C. G.

    2014-12-01

    Currently, many biogeochemical models lack the mechanistic capacity to accurately simulate soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics, especially within intensely managed landscapes (IMLs) such as those found in the U.S. Midwest. These modeling limitations originate by not accounting for downslope connectivity of flowpathways initiated and governed by landscape processes and hydrologic forcing, which induce dynamic updates to the soil active layer (generally top 20-30cm of soil) with various sediment size fractions and aggregates being transported and deposited along the downslope. These hydro-geomorphic processes, often amplified in IMLs by tillage events and seasonal canopy, can greatly impact biogeochemical cycles (e.g., enhanced mineralization during aggregate breakdown) and in turn, have huge implications/uncertainty when determining SOC budgets. In this study, some of these limitations were addressed through a new concept, Potential Carbon Transport (PCT), a term which quantifies a maximum amount of material available for transport at various positions of the landscape, which was used to further refine a coupled modeling framework focused on SOC redistribution through downslope/lateral connectivity. Specifically, the size fractions slaked from large and small aggregates during raindrop-induced aggregate stability tests were used in conjunction with rainfall-simulated sediment enrichment ratio (ER) experiments to quantify the PCT under various management practices, soil types and landscape positions. Field samples used in determining aggregate stability and the ER experiments were collected/performed within the historic Clear Creek Watershed, home of the IML Critical Zone Observatory, located in Southeastern Iowa.

  2. Improvement of the long term stability in the high temperature solid oxide fuel cell using functional layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueckner, B.; Guenther, C.; Ruckdaeschel, R. [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    In the planar Siemens design of the solid oxide fuel cell a metallic interconnector is used to seperate the ceramic single cells. A disadvantage of the metallic bipolar plate which consists of a chromium alloy is the formation of high volatile Cr-oxides and hydroxides at the surface at the cathode side. The reaction products evaporate and are reduced at the cathode/electrolyte interface to form new crystalline phases. This process gives rise to long term cell degradation. Protective coatings might be successful in preventing the chromium oxide evaporation. The required properties of the protective layers are (I) high electrical conductivity, (II) similar coefficients of thermal expansion to the bipolar plate (III), chemical compatibility to the bipolar plate and cathode material, (IV) a low diffusion coefficient of Cr and (V) chemical stability up to 1223K under oxygen atmosphere. Furthermore, during operation at 1223K an electrical contact between the metallic plate and the electrodes has to be maintained. This problem could be solved using ceramic layer between the metallic plate and the single cells.

  3. Uncertainty of the Soil–Water Characteristic Curve and Its Effects on Slope Seepage and Stability Analysis under Conditions of Rainfall Using the Markov Chain Monte Carlo Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiping Liu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available It is important to determine the soil–water characteristic curve (SWCC for analyzing slope seepage and stability under the conditions of rainfall. However, SWCCs exhibit high uncertainty because of complex influencing factors, which has not been previously considered in slope seepage and stability analysis under conditions of rainfall. This study aimed to evaluate the uncertainty of the SWCC and its effects on the seepage and stability analysis of an unsaturated soil slope under conditions of rainfall. The SWCC model parameters were treated as random variables. An uncertainty evaluation of the parameters was conducted based on the Bayesian approach and the Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC method. Observed data from granite residual soil were used to test the uncertainty of the SWCC. Then, different confidence intervals for the model parameters of the SWCC were constructed. The slope seepage and stability analysis under conditions of rainfall with the SWCC of different confidence intervals was investigated using finite element software (SEEP/W and SLOPE/W. The results demonstrated that SWCC uncertainty had significant effects on slope seepage and stability. In general, the larger the percentile value, the greater the reduction of negative pore-water pressure in the soil layer and the lower the safety factor of the slope. Uncertainties in the model parameters of the SWCC can lead to obvious errors in predicted pore-water pressure profiles and the estimated safety factor of the slope under conditions of rainfall.

  4. Central-Upwind Schemes for Two-Layer Shallow Water Equations

    KAUST Repository

    Kurganov, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    We derive a second-order semidiscrete central-upwind scheme for one- and two-dimensional systems of two-layer shallow water equations. We prove that the presented scheme is well-balanced in the sense that stationary steady-state solutions are exactly preserved by the scheme and positivity preserving; that is, the depth of each fluid layer is guaranteed to be nonnegative. We also propose a new technique for the treatment of the nonconservative products describing the momentum exchange between the layers. The performance of the proposed method is illustrated on a number of numerical examples, in which we successfully capture (quasi) steady-state solutions and propagating interfaces. © 2009 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  5. Fluorescent layers for characterization of sectioning microscopy with coverslipuncorrected and water immersion objectives

    KAUST Repository

    Antonini, Andrea; Liberale, Carlo; Fellin, Tommaso

    2014-01-01

    We describe a new method to generate thin (thickness > 200 nm) and ultrathin (thickness < 200 nm) fluorescent layers to be used for microscope optical characterization. These layers are obtained by ultramicrotomy sectioning of fluorescent acrylic slides. This technique generates sub-resolution sheets with high fluorescence emission and uniform thickness, permitting to determine the z-response of different optical sectioning systems. Compared to the state of the art, the here proposed technique allows shorter and easier manufacturing procedure. Moreover, these fluorescent layers can be employed without protective coverslips, allowing the use of the Sectioned Imaging Property (SIP)-chart characterization method with coverslip-uncorrected objectives, water immersion objectives and micro-endoscopes. © 2014 Optical Society of America.

  6. Foaming and adsorption behavior of bovine and camel proteins mixed layers at the air/water interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajnaf, Roua; Picart-Palmade, Laetitia; Attia, Hamadi; Marchesseau, Sylvie; Ayadi, M A

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this work was to examine foaming and interfacial behavior of three milk protein mixtures, bovine α-lactalbumin-β-casein (M1), camel α-lactalbumin-β-casein (M2) and β-lactoglobulin-β-casein (M3), alone and in binary mixtures, at the air/water interface in order to better understand the foaming properties of bovine and camel milks. Different mixture ratios (100:0; 75:25; 50:50; 25:75; 0:100) were used during foaming tests and interfacial protein interactions were studied with a pendant drop tensiometer. Experimental results evidenced that the greatest foam was obtained with a higher β-casein amount in all camel and bovine mixtures. Good correlation was observed with the adsorption and the interfacial rheological properties of camel and bovine protein mixtures. The proteins adsorbed layers are mainly affected by the presence of β-casein molecules, which are probably the most abundant protein at interface and the most efficient in reducing the interfacial properties. In contrast of, the globular proteins, α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin that are involved in the protein layer composition, but could not compact well at the interface to ensure foams creation and stabilization because of their rigid molecular structure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Stabilization of the O p2x2 phase on Cu(001) sheltered by wrinkled BN over-layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Sung; Ma, Chuanxu; Li, An-Ping; Yoon, Mina

    The 2 √3x √3R45°phase of oxygen (O) on the Cu(001) surface has been observed in scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) measurements. Although the p2x2 phase of O on the Cu(001) surface has been proposed theoretically to be the most stable in O-lean conditions, it has not been observed in experiments for a long time. Recently, the O p2x2 phase has been found in STM on the Cu(001) surface with an overlying BN monolayer. In this theoretical study, we investigate what the role of BN over-layer is to stabilize the O p2x2 phase on the Cu(001) surface. The BN over-layer is lattice-matched with the Cu(001) surface and the BN mono-layer sheet is periodically wrinkled along the BN arm-chair direction and along the [100] or [010] direction on the Cu(001) surface. The interlayer space between the Cu(001) surface and the bulge of the wrinkled BN sheet is found to play as a preferential shelter for O to be adsorbed, and the boundary of the BN inner wall along the [010] or [100] direction makes the p2x2 phase more favorable against the 45°-tilted 2 √3x √3R45°phase of O on the Cu(001) surface. This was supported by Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, which is a DOE Office of Science User Facility, and the Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, maaged by UT-Battelle, LLC, for the U. S. DOE.

  8. Effect of enzyme location on activity and stability of trypsin and urease immobilized on porous membranes by using layer-by-layer self-assembly of polyelectrolyte

    OpenAIRE

    Guedidi, Sadika; Yürekli, Yılmaz; Deratani, André; Déjardin, Philippe; Innocent, Christophe; Altınkaya, Sacide; Roudesli, Sadok; Yemenicioğlu, Ahmet

    2010-01-01

    The layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly of polyelectrolyte is one of the simplest ways to immobilize enzyme on membrane. In this paper, the immobilization of trypsin (TRY) and urease (URE) on polyacrylonitrile based membranes using the LbL assembly technique was presented. The studied systems consisted in bilayered assemblies with the enzyme layer as the outer layer and trilayered assemblies with the enzyme layer as the inner sandwiched layer. The membrane pore size was chosen so that the smal...

  9. Stability of finite difference numerical simulations of acoustic logging-while-drilling with different perfectly matched layer schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hua; Tao, Guo; Shang, Xue-Feng; Fang, Xin-Ding; Burns, Daniel R.

    2013-12-01

    In acoustic logging-while-drilling (ALWD) finite difference in time domain (FDTD) simulations, large drill collar occupies, most of the fluid-filled borehole and divides the borehole fluid into two thin fluid columns (radius ˜27 mm). Fine grids and large computational models are required to model the thin fluid region between the tool and the formation. As a result, small time step and more iterations are needed, which increases the cumulative numerical error. Furthermore, due to high impedance contrast between the drill collar and fluid in the borehole (the difference is >30 times), the stability and efficiency of the perfectly matched layer (PML) scheme is critical to simulate complicated wave modes accurately. In this paper, we compared four different PML implementations in a staggered grid finite difference in time domain (FDTD) in the ALWD simulation, including field-splitting PML (SPML), multiaxial PML(MPML), non-splitting PML (NPML), and complex frequency-shifted PML (CFS-PML). The comparison indicated that NPML and CFS-PML can absorb the guided wave reflection from the computational boundaries more efficiently than SPML and M-PML. For large simulation time, SPML, M-PML, and NPML are numerically unstable. However, the stability of M-PML can be improved further to some extent. Based on the analysis, we proposed that the CFS-PML method is used in FDTD to eliminate the numerical instability and to improve the efficiency of absorption in the PML layers for LWD modeling. The optimal values of CFS-PML parameters in the LWD simulation were investigated based on thousands of 3D simulations. For typical LWD cases, the best maximum value of the quadratic damping profile was obtained using one d 0. The optimal parameter space for the maximum value of the linear frequency-shifted factor ( α 0) and the scaling factor ( β 0) depended on the thickness of the PML layer. For typical formations, if the PML thickness is 10 grid points, the global error can be reduced to <1

  10. Ellipsometry measurements of thickness of oxide and water layers on spherical and flat silicon surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenny, M.J.; Netterfield, R.; Wielunski, L.S.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Ellipsometry has been used to measure the thickness of oxide layers on single crystal silicon surfaces, both flat and spherical and also to measure the extent of adsorption of moisture on the surface as a function of partial water vapour pressure. The measurements form part of an international collaborative project to make a precise determination of the Avogadro constant (ΔN A /N A -8 ) which will then be used to obtain an absolute definition of the kilogram, rather than one in terms of an artefact. Typically the native oxide layer on a cleaned silicon wafer is about 2 nm thick. On a polished sphere this oxide layer is typically 8 to 10 nm thick, the increased thickness being attributed to parameters related to the polishing process. Ellipsometry measurements on an 89 mm diameter polished silicon sphere at both VUW and CSIRO indicated a SiO 2 layer at 7 to 10 nm thick. It was observed that this thickness varied regularly. The crystal orientation of the sphere was determined using electron patterns generated from an electron microscope and the oxide layer was then measured through 180 arcs of great circles along (110) and (100) planes. It was observed that the thickness varied systematically with orientation. The minimum thickness was 7.4 nm at the axis (softest direction in silicon) and the greatest thickness was 9.5 nm at the axis (hardest direction in silicon). This is similar to an orientation dependent cubic pattern which has been observed to be superimposed on polished silicon spheres. At VUW, the sphere was placed in an evacuated bell jar and the ellipsometry signal was observed as the water vapour pressure was progressively increased up to saturation. The amount of water vapour adsorbed at saturation was one or two monolayers, indicating that the sphere does not wet

  11. Interfacial micromorphological differences in hybrid layer formation between water- and solvent-based dentin bonding systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregoire, Geneviève L; Akon, Bernadette A; Millas, Arlette

    2002-06-01

    Many dentin bonding systems of different compositions, and in particular containing different solvents, have been introduced to the market. Their effect on the quality of the interface requires clarification by means of comparative trials. This study investigated micromorphological differences in hybrid layer formation with a variety of commercially available water- or solvent-based dentin bonding products and their recommended compomers. Five bonding systems were used on groups of 10 teeth each as follows: group I, acetone-based system used with 36% phosphoric acid; group II, a different acetone-based system containing nano-sized particles for filler loading and used with a non-rinsing conditioner containing maleic acid; group III, the acetone-based system of group II used with 36% phosphoric acid (the only difference in the treatment for groups II and III was the acid etching system); group IV, a mixed-solvent-based system (water/ethanol) used with 37% phosphoric acid; and group V, a water-based system used with 37% phosphoric acid. Each bonding system was covered with the recommended compomer. Class I occlusal preparations were made in extracted teeth and restored with one of the above systems. Five specimens of each group were studied with optical microscopy after staining. Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the interface of the bonding system/dentin of the other 5 teeth in each group. The optical microscopy measurements were made with a 10 x 10 reticle. A micron mark with scale was used for the scanning electron microscope. All measurements were made in microm. The following criteria were used to define a good interface: absence of voids between the different parts of the interface, uniformity of the hybrid layer, good opening of the tubuli orifices, and tag adherence to the tubuli walls. Morphological differences were found at the interface depending on dentin treatment and adhesive composition. The acetone-containing systems were associated

  12. Drag crisis moderation by thin air layers sustained on superhydrophobic spheres falling in water

    KAUST Repository

    Jetly, Aditya

    2018-01-22

    We investigate the effect of thin air layers naturally sustained on superhydrophobic surfaces on the terminal velocity and drag force of metallic spheres free falling in water. The surface of 20 mm to 60 mm steel or tungsten-carbide spheres is rendered superhydrophobic by a simple coating process that uses commercially available hydrophobic agent. By comparing the free fall of unmodified spheres and superhydrophobic spheres in a 2.5 meters tall water tank, It is demonstrated that even a very thin air layer (~ 1 – 2 μm) that covers the freshly dipped superhydrophobic sphere, can reduce the drag force on the spheres by up to 80 %, at Reynolds numbers 105 - 3×105 , owing to an early drag crisis transition. This study complements prior investigations on the drag reduction efficiency of model gas layers sustained on heated metal spheres falling in liquid by the Leidenfrost effect. The drag reduction effects are expected to have significant implication for the development of sustainable air-layer-based energy saving technologies.

  13. Stability enhancement of P3HT:PCBM polymer solar cells using thermally evaporated MoO3 anode buffer layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameen, M. Yoosuf; Shamjid, P.; Abhijith, T.; Radhakrishnan, Thulasi; Reddy, V. S.

    2018-02-01

    Polymer solar cells have been fabricated with thermally evaporated MoO3 as anode buffer layer (ABL). The stability of MoO3 and PEDOT:PSS based devices was examined under different test conditions. The MoO3 based device exhibited a slightly better efficiency and significantly higher stability compared to PEDOT:PSS based device. At a relative humidity of 45% the unencapsulated PEDOT:PSS based device degraded completely within 96 h. On the other hand, MoO3 based device retained more than 60% of its initial efficiency after 96 h. The reason behind stability enhancement was investigated by measuring time-evolution of reflectance and hole-current. Experimental results revealed that the stability enhancement for MoO3 based device originates from the reduction in degradation of anode/active layer interface.

  14. Thin layer settling - a promising method for purifying industrial waste waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perevalov, V G; Kolokhmatova, N M; Malkina, I I; Smyslov, A I

    1979-01-01

    Proposed for removing oil and suspended substances from waste waters is a thin layer, tubular settler, whose elements are made from polyethylene pipes. The operational effectiveness of the settler on the average is 90-95%, the duration of the purification is 10-11 min, which is 1/12 of that in the most common and contemporary oil traps. The volume of the settler structure with this productivity may be reduced by 12 times.

  15. Discrimination of Different Water Layers with TerraSAR X Images in "La Albufera de Valencia"

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Fernández, M. A.; Miguelsanz Muñoz, P.

    2009-04-01

    To analyze the capabilities of TerraSAR X Strip Map images in order to discriminate different water layers in the "Parque de la Albufera de Valencia", Spain, a test project was carried out. This place is a rice crop area under European and National Agro environmental regulation which obliges to preserve the habitat and to keep the rice plots flooded out of crop season, from October to January

  16. A real-time BWR [boiling water reactor] stability measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    March-Leuba, J.; King, W.T.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the characteristics of a portable, real-time system used for nonperturbational measurements of stability in boiling water reactors. The algorithm used in this system estimates the closed-loop asymptotic decay ratio using only the naturally occurring neutron noise and it is based on the univariate autoregressive methodology

  17. Steady state and linear stability analysis of a supercritical water natural circulation loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Manish; Pilkhwal, D.S.; Vijayan, P.K.; Saha, D.; Sinha, R.K.

    2010-01-01

    Supercritical water (SCW) has excellent heat transfer characteristics as a coolant for nuclear reactors. Besides it results in high thermal efficiency of the plant. However, the flow can experience instabilities in supercritical water reactors, as the density change is very large for the supercritical fluids. A computer code SUCLIN using supercritical water properties has been developed to carry out the steady state and linear stability analysis of a SCW natural circulation loop. The conservation equations of mass, momentum and energy have been linearized by imposing small perturbation in flow rate, enthalpy, pressure and specific volume. The equations have been solved analytically to generate the characteristic equation. The roots of the equation determine the stability of the system. The code has been qualitatively assessed with published results and has been extensively used for studying the effect of diameter, height, heater inlet temperature, pressure and local loss coefficients on steady state and stability behavior of a Supercritical Water Natural Circulation Loop (SCWNCL). The present paper describes the linear stability analysis model and the results obtained in detail.

  18. Analysis of water cooled reactors stability; Analiza stabilnosti reaktorskih sistema hladjenih vodom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinkovic, P; Pesic, M [Boris Kidric Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Vinca, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1980-07-01

    A model for stability analysis of non-boiling water cooled nuclear system is developed. The model is based on linear reactor kinetics and space averaged heat transfer in reactor and heat-exchanger. The transfer functions are defined and the analysis was applied to nuclear reactor RA at 'Boris Kidric' Institute - Vinca. (author)

  19. Stabilizing local boundary conditions for two-dimensional shallow water equations

    KAUST Repository

    Dia, Ben Mansour; Oppelstrup, Jesper

    2018-01-01

    In this article, we present a sub-critical two-dimensional shallow water flow regulation. From the energy estimate of a set of one-dimensional boundary stabilization problems, we obtain a set of polynomial equations with respect to the boundary

  20. Calculated Pourbaix Diagrams of Cubic Perovskites for Water Splitting: Stability Against Corrosion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castelli, Ivano Eligio; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel

    2014-01-01

    We use density functional theory calculations to investigate the stability of cubic perovskites for photo-electrochemical water splitting taking both materials in their bulk crystal structure and dissolved phases into account. The method is validated through a detailed comparison of the calculated...

  1. On the Resonant Behavior of a Weakly Compressible Water Layer During Tsunamigenic Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecioni, Claudia; Bellotti, Giorgio

    2018-01-01

    Tsunamigenic earthquakes trigger pressure waves in the ocean, given the weak compressibility of the sea water. For particular conditions, a resonant behavior of the water layer can occur, which influences the energy transfer from the sea-bed motion to the ocean. In this paper, the resonance conditions are explained and analyzed, focusing on the hydro-acoustic waves in the proximity of the earthquake area. A preliminary estimation of the generation parameters (sea-bed rising time, velocity) is given, by means of parametric numerical simulations for simplified conditions. The results confirm the importance of measuring, modeling, and interpreting such waves for tsunami early detection and warning.

  2. Effects of convective ice evaporation on interannual variability of tropical tropopause layer water vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Hao; Dessler, Andrew E.; Yu, Wandi

    2018-04-01

    Water vapor interannual variability in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) is investigated using satellite observations and model simulations. We break down the influences of the Brewer-Dobson circulation (BDC), the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO), and the tropospheric temperature (ΔT) on TTL water vapor as a function of latitude and longitude using a two-dimensional multivariate linear regression. This allows us to examine the spatial distribution of the impact of each process on TTL water vapor. In agreement with expectations, we find that the impacts from the BDC and QBO act on TTL water vapor by changing TTL temperature. For ΔT, we find that TTL temperatures alone cannot explain the influence. We hypothesize a moistening role for the evaporation of convective ice from increased deep convection as the troposphere warms. Tests using a chemistry-climate model, the Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry Climate Model (GEOSCCM), support this hypothesis.

  3. Neutron radiography for the study of water uptake in painting canvases and preparation layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boon, J.J. [Swiss Institute for Art Research (SIK-ISEA), Zurich (Switzerland); FOM Institute AMOLF, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hendrickx, R.; Ferreira, E.S.B. [Swiss Institute for Art Research (SIK-ISEA), Zurich (Switzerland); Eijkel, G.; Cerjak, I. [FOM Institute AMOLF, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kaestner, A. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Neutron Imaging and Activation Group, Laboratory for Neutron Scattering and Imaging, Villigen (Switzerland)

    2015-11-15

    Easel paintings on canvas are subjected to alteration mechanisms triggered or accelerated by moisture. For the study of the spatial distribution and kinetics of such interactions, a moisture exposure chamber was designed and built to perform neutron radiography experiments. Multilayered sized and primed canvas samples were prepared for time-resolved experiments in the ICON cold neutron beamline. The first results show that the set-up gives a good contrast and sufficient resolution to visualise the water uptake in the layers of canvas, size and priming. The results allow, for the first time, real-time visualisation of the interaction of water vapour with such layered systems. This offers important new opportunities for relevant, spatially and time-resolved material behaviour studies and opens the way towards numerical modelling of the process. These first results show that cellulose fibres and glue sizing have a much stronger water uptake than the chalk-glue ground. Additionally, it shows that the uptake rate is not uniform throughout the thickness of the sized canvas. With prolonged moisture exposure, a higher amount of water is accumulating at the lower edge of the canvas weave suggesting a decrease in permeability in the sized canvas with increased water content. (orig.)

  4. The Mars water cycle at other epochs: Recent history of the polar caps and layered terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakosky, Bruce M.; Henderson, Bradley G.; Mellon, Michael T.

    1992-01-01

    The Martian polar caps and layered terrain presumably evolves by the deposition and removal of small amounts of water and dust each year, the current cap attributes therefore represent the incremental transport during a single year as integrated over long periods of time. The role was studied of condensation and sublimation of water ice in this process by examining the seasonal water cycle during the last 10(exp 7) yr. In the model, axial obliquity, eccentricity, and L sub s of perihelion vary according to dynamical models. At each epoch, the seasonal variations in temperature are calculated at the two poles, keeping track of the seasonal CO2 cap and the summertime sublimation of water vapor into the atmosphere; net exchange of water between the two caps is calculated based on the difference in the summertime sublimation between the two caps (or on the sublimation from one cap if the other is covered with CO2 frost all year). Results from the model can help to explain (1) the apparent inconsistency between the timescales inferred for layer formation and the much older crater retention age of the cap and (2) the difference in sizes of the two residual caps, with the south being smaller than the north.

  5. Yttria-stabilized zirkonia / gadolinium zirconate double-layer plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coating systems (TBCs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakan, Emine

    2015-07-01

    Thermal barrier coating (TBC) research and development is driven by the desirability of further increasing the maximum inlet temperature in a gas turbine engine. A number of new top coat ceramic materials have been proposed during the last decades due to limited temperature capability (1200 C) of the state-of-the-art yttria-stabilized zirconia (7 wt. % Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-ZrO{sub 2}, YSZ) at long term operation. Zirconate pyrochlores of the large lanthanides((Gd → La){sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7}) have been particularly attractive due to their higher temperature phase stability than that of the YSZ. Nonetheless, the issues related with the implementation of pyrochlores such as low fracture toughness and formation of deleterious interphases with thermally grown oxide (TGO, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) were reported. The implication was the requirement of an interlayer between the pyrochlores and TGO, which introduced double-layer systems to the TBC literature. Furthermore, processability issues of pyrochlores associated with the different evaporation rates of lanthanide oxides and zirconia resulting in unfavorable composition variations in the coatings were addressed in different studies. After all, although the material properties are available, there is a paucity of data in the literature concerning the properties of the coatings made of pyrochlores. From the processability point of view the most reported pyrochlore is La{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7}. Hence, the goal of this research was to investigate plasma-sprayed Gd{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} (GZO) coatings and YSZ/GZO double-layer TBC systems. Three main topics were examined based on processing, performance and properties: (i) the plasma spray processing of the GZO and its impact on the microstructural and compositional properties of the GZO coatings; (ii) the cycling lifetime of the YSZ/GZO double-layer systems under thermal gradient at a surface temperature of 1400 C; (iii) the properties of the GZO and YSZ coatings such as

  6. Yttria-stabilized zirkonia / gadolinium zirconate double-layer plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coating systems (TBCs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakan, Emine

    2015-01-01

    Thermal barrier coating (TBC) research and development is driven by the desirability of further increasing the maximum inlet temperature in a gas turbine engine. A number of new top coat ceramic materials have been proposed during the last decades due to limited temperature capability (1200 C) of the state-of-the-art yttria-stabilized zirconia (7 wt. % Y 2 O 3 -ZrO 2 , YSZ) at long term operation. Zirconate pyrochlores of the large lanthanides((Gd → La) 2 Zr 2 O 7 ) have been particularly attractive due to their higher temperature phase stability than that of the YSZ. Nonetheless, the issues related with the implementation of pyrochlores such as low fracture toughness and formation of deleterious interphases with thermally grown oxide (TGO, Al 2 O 3 ) were reported. The implication was the requirement of an interlayer between the pyrochlores and TGO, which introduced double-layer systems to the TBC literature. Furthermore, processability issues of pyrochlores associated with the different evaporation rates of lanthanide oxides and zirconia resulting in unfavorable composition variations in the coatings were addressed in different studies. After all, although the material properties are available, there is a paucity of data in the literature concerning the properties of the coatings made of pyrochlores. From the processability point of view the most reported pyrochlore is La 2 Zr 2 O 7 . Hence, the goal of this research was to investigate plasma-sprayed Gd 2 Zr 2 O 7 (GZO) coatings and YSZ/GZO double-layer TBC systems. Three main topics were examined based on processing, performance and properties: (i) the plasma spray processing of the GZO and its impact on the microstructural and compositional properties of the GZO coatings; (ii) the cycling lifetime of the YSZ/GZO double-layer systems under thermal gradient at a surface temperature of 1400 C; (iii) the properties of the GZO and YSZ coatings such as thermal conductivity, coefficient of thermal expansion as well

  7. Application of slightly acidic electrolyzed water for inactivating microbes in a layer breeding house.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, X X; Li, B M; Wang, C Y; Zhang, Q; Cao, W

    2013-10-01

    Lots of microorganisms exist in layer houses can cause bird diseases and worker health concerns. Spraying chemical disinfectants is an effective way to decontaminate pathogenic microorganisms in the air and on surfaces in poultry houses. Slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW, pH 5.0-6.5) is an ideal, environmentally friendly broad-spectrum disinfectant to prevent and control bacterial or viral infection in layer farms. The purpose of this work was to investigate the cleaning effectiveness of SAEW for inactivating the microbes in layer houses. The effect of SAEW was evaluated by solid materials and surface disinfection in a hen house. Results indicate that SAEW with an available chlorine concentration of 250 mg/L, pH value of 6.19, and oxygen reduction potential of 974 mV inactivated 100% of bacteria and fungi in solid materials (dusts, feces, feather, and feed), which is more efficient than common chemical disinfectant such as benzalkonium chloride solution (1:1,000 vol/vol) and povidone-iodine solution (1:1,000 vol/vol). Also, it significantly reduced the microbes on the equipment or facility surfaces (P < 0.05), including floor, wall, feed trough, and water pipe surfaces. Moreover, SAEW effectively decreased the survival rates of Salmonella and Escherichia coli by 21 and 16 percentage points. In addition, spraying the target with tap water before disinfection plays an important role in spray disinfection.

  8. Chemical and morphological modifications of single layer graphene submitted to annealing in water vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolim, Guilherme Koszeniewski; Corrêa, Silma Alberton; Galves, Lauren Aranha; Lopes, João Marcelo J.; Soares, Gabriel Vieira; Radtke, Cláudio

    2018-01-01

    Modifications of single layer graphene transferred to SiO2/Si substrates resulting from annealing in water vapor were investigated. Near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy evidenced graphene puckering between 400 and 500 °C. Synchrotron radiation based X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed variation of sp2 and sp3C bonding configurations specially in this same temperature range. Moreover, oxygen related functionalities are formed as a result of water vapor annealing. Based on these results and complementary Raman and nuclear reaction analysis, one distinguishes three different regimes of water interaction with graphene concerning modifications of the graphene layer. In the low temperature range (200-400 °C), no prominent modification of graphene itself is observed. At higher temperatures (400-500 °C), to accommodate newly formed oxygen functionalities, the flat and continuous sp2 bonding network of graphene is disrupted, giving rise to a puckered layer. For 600 °C and above, shrinking of graphene domains and a higher doping level take place.

  9. Water-rock interactions and the pH stability of groundwater from Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebinger, M.H.

    1992-01-01

    Titrations of acidic solutions in waters from the tuff and carbonate aquifers at Yucca Mountain were simulated using the geochemical codes PHREEQE and EQ3/6. The simulations tested pH stability of the waters in the presence of different minerals and in their absence. Two acidic solutions, 10 -4 HCl and 10 -4 M UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 , were titrated in to the water. Little pH and/or compositional change resulted in the groundwater when the HCl solution was titrated, but significant pH and CO 2 fugacity changes were observed when UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 was titrated. Water interactions with alkali feldspar, quartz or cristobalite, and Ca-smectite buffered the pH and compositional changes in the carbonate water and decreased the magnitude of pH and compositional changes when small volumes of UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 added to the tuffaceous waters

  10. Layer-by-layer cell membrane assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matosevic, Sandro; Paegel, Brian M.

    2013-11-01

    Eukaryotic subcellular membrane systems, such as the nuclear envelope or endoplasmic reticulum, present a rich array of architecturally and compositionally complex supramolecular targets that are as yet inaccessible. Here we describe layer-by-layer phospholipid membrane assembly on microfluidic droplets, a route to structures with defined compositional asymmetry and lamellarity. Starting with phospholipid-stabilized water-in-oil droplets trapped in a static droplet array, lipid monolayer deposition proceeds as oil/water-phase boundaries pass over the droplets. Unilamellar vesicles assembled layer-by-layer support functional insertion both of purified and of in situ expressed membrane proteins. Synthesis and chemical probing of asymmetric unilamellar and double-bilayer vesicles demonstrate the programmability of both membrane lamellarity and lipid-leaflet composition during assembly. The immobilized vesicle arrays are a pragmatic experimental platform for biophysical studies of membranes and their associated proteins, particularly complexes that assemble and function in multilamellar contexts in vivo.

  11. The role of interfacial water layer in atmospherically relevant charge separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Indrani

    Charge separation at interfaces is important in various atmospheric processes, such as thunderstorms, lightning, and sand storms. It also plays a key role in several industrial processes, including ink-jet printing and electrostatic separation. Surprisingly, little is known about the underlying physics of these charging phenomena. Since thin films of water are ubiquitous, they may play a role in these charge separation processes. This talk will focus on the experimental investigation of the role of a water adlayer in interfacial charging, with relevance to meteorologically important phenomena, such as atmospheric charging due to wave actions on oceans and sand storms. An ocean wave generates thousands of bubbles, which upon bursting produce numerous large jet droplets and small film droplets that are charged. In the 1960s, Blanchard showed that the jet droplets are positively charged. However, the charge on the film droplets was not known. We designed an experiment to exclusively measure the charge on film droplets generated by bubble bursting on pure water and aqueous salt solution surfaces. We measured their charge to be negative and proposed a model where a slight excess of hydroxide ions in the interfacial water layer is responsible for generating these negatively charged droplets. The findings from this research led to a better understanding of the ionic disposition at the air-water interface. Sand particles in a wind-blown sand layer, or 'saltation' layer, become charged due to collisions, so much so, that it can cause lightning. Silica, being hydrophilic, is coated with a water layer even under low-humidity conditions. To investigate the importance of this water adlayer in charging the silica surfaces, we performed experiments to measure the charge on silica surfaces due to contact and collision processes. In case of contact charging, the maximum charge separation occurred at an optimum relative humidity. On the contrary, in collisional charging process, no

  12. Impact of alginate concentration on the stability of agglomerates made of TiO{sub 2} engineered nanoparticles: Water hardness and pH effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loosli, Frédéric, E-mail: frederic.loosli@unige.ch [University of Geneva, Section des Sciences de la Terre et de l’Environnement, Group of Environmental Physical Chemistry, F.-A. Forel Institute (Switzerland); Coustumer, Philippe Le, E-mail: philippe.le-coustumer@u-bordeaux1.fr [Université Bordeaux 3, EA 4592 Géoressources & Environnement, ENSEGID (France); Stoll, Serge, E-mail: serge.stoll@unige.ch [University of Geneva, Section des Sciences de la Terre et de l’Environnement, Group of Environmental Physical Chemistry, F.-A. Forel Institute (Switzerland)

    2015-01-15

    The stability of engineered nanoparticles in natural aquatic systems is of high interest for environmental risk assessment since an already important quantity of these reactive species is entering aquatic systems. In the present study, an important issue is addressed by investigating (i) the influence of divalent cations and water hardness (Mg{sup 2+} and Ca{sup 2+}) in agglomerate formation and (ii) alginate concentration effect on the stability TiO{sub 2} agglomerates formed in environmental freshwater conditions (pH and total hardness) representative of Lake Geneva, France/Switzerland. Our results indicate that the presence of alginate at typical natural organic matter concentration strongly modifies the stability of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticle agglomerates by inducing their partial disagglomeration. Significant TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles redispersion and formation of small fragments are expected to be induced by alginate adsorbed layer formed at the nanoparticle surfaces within the agglomerates.Graphical Abstract.

  13. Changes in soil aggregate stability under different irrigation doses of waste water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morugán, Alicia; García-Orenes, Fuensanta; Mataix-Solera, Jorge; Arcenegui, Victoria; Bárcenas, Gema

    2010-05-01

    Freshwater availability and soil degradation are two of the most important environmental problems in the Mediterranean area acerbated by incorrect agricultural use of irrigation in which organic matter is not correctly managed, the use of low quality water for irrigation, and the inefficiency of dose irrigation. For these reasons strategies for saving water and for the restoration of the mean properties of soil are necessary. The use of treated waste water for the irrigation of agricultural land could be a good solution to these problems, as it reduces the utilization of fresh water and could potentially improve key soil properties. In this work we have been studying, for more than three years, the effects on soil properties of different doses of irrigation with waste water. Here we show the results on aggregate stability. The study is located in an agricultural area at Biar (Alicante, SE of Spain), with a crop of grape (Vitis labrusca). Three types of waters are being used in the irrigation of the soil: fresh water (control) (TC), and treated waste water from secondary (T2) and tertiary treatment (T3). Three different doses of irrigation have been applied to fit the efficiency of the irrigation to the crop and soil type: D10 (10 L m-2 every week during 17 months), D50 (50 L m-2 every fifteen days during 14 moths) and D30 (30 L m-2 every week during 6 months up to present day). The results showed a clear decrease of aggregate stability during the period we used the second dose (D50) independent of the type of water used. That dose of irrigation and frequency produced strong wetting and drying cycles (WD) in the soil, and this is suspected to be the main factor responsible for the results. When we changed the dose of irrigation to D30, reducing the quantity per event and increasing the frequency, the soil aggregate stability started to improve. This dose avoids strong drying periods between irrigation events and the aggregate stability is confirmed to be slowly

  14. Bifurcation analysis of the simplified models of boiling water reactor and identification of global stability boundary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, Vikas; Singh, Suneet, E-mail: suneet.singh@iitb.ac.in

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • Non-linear stability analysis of nuclear reactor is carried out. • Global and local stability boundaries are drawn in the parameter space. • Globally stable, bi-stable, and unstable regions have been demarcated. • The identification of the regions is verified by numerical simulations. - Abstract: Nonlinear stability study of the neutron coupled thermal hydraulics instability has been carried out by several researchers for boiling water reactors (BWRs). The focus of these studies has been to identify subcritical and supercritical Hopf bifurcations. Supercritical Hopf bifurcation are soft or safe due to the fact that stable limit cycles arise in linearly unstable region; linear and global stability boundaries are same for this bifurcation. It is well known that the subcritical bifurcations can be considered as hard or dangerous due to the fact that unstable limit cycles (nonlinear phenomena) exist in the (linearly) stable region. The linear stability leads to a stable equilibrium in such regions, only for infinitesimally small perturbations. However, finite perturbations lead to instability due to the presence of unstable limit cycles. Therefore, it is evident that the linear stability analysis is not sufficient to understand the exact stability characteristics of BWRs. However, the effect of these bifurcations on the stability boundaries has been rarely discussed. In the present work, the identification of global stability boundary is demonstrated using simplified models. Here, five different models with different thermal hydraulics feedback have been investigated. In comparison to the earlier works, current models also include the impact of adding the rate of change in temperature on void reactivity as well as effect of void reactivity on rate of change of temperature. Using the bifurcation analysis of these models the globally stable region in the parameter space has been identified. The globally stable region has only stable solutions and

  15. Bifurcation analysis of the simplified models of boiling water reactor and identification of global stability boundary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, Vikas; Singh, Suneet

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Non-linear stability analysis of nuclear reactor is carried out. • Global and local stability boundaries are drawn in the parameter space. • Globally stable, bi-stable, and unstable regions have been demarcated. • The identification of the regions is verified by numerical simulations. - Abstract: Nonlinear stability study of the neutron coupled thermal hydraulics instability has been carried out by several researchers for boiling water reactors (BWRs). The focus of these studies has been to identify subcritical and supercritical Hopf bifurcations. Supercritical Hopf bifurcation are soft or safe due to the fact that stable limit cycles arise in linearly unstable region; linear and global stability boundaries are same for this bifurcation. It is well known that the subcritical bifurcations can be considered as hard or dangerous due to the fact that unstable limit cycles (nonlinear phenomena) exist in the (linearly) stable region. The linear stability leads to a stable equilibrium in such regions, only for infinitesimally small perturbations. However, finite perturbations lead to instability due to the presence of unstable limit cycles. Therefore, it is evident that the linear stability analysis is not sufficient to understand the exact stability characteristics of BWRs. However, the effect of these bifurcations on the stability boundaries has been rarely discussed. In the present work, the identification of global stability boundary is demonstrated using simplified models. Here, five different models with different thermal hydraulics feedback have been investigated. In comparison to the earlier works, current models also include the impact of adding the rate of change in temperature on void reactivity as well as effect of void reactivity on rate of change of temperature. Using the bifurcation analysis of these models the globally stable region in the parameter space has been identified. The globally stable region has only stable solutions and

  16. Development of Nanoparticle-Stabilized Foams to Improve Performance of Water-less Hydraulic Fracturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prodanovic, Masa [The University of Texas at Austin; Johnston, Keith P. [The University of Texas at Austin

    2017-12-29

    We have successfully created ultra dry carbon-dioxide-in-water and nitrogen-in-water foams (with water content down to 2-5% range), that are remarkably stable at high temperatures (up to 120 deg, C) and pressures (up to 3000psi) and viscous enough (100-200 cP tunable range) to carry proppant. Two generations of these ultra-dry foams have been developed; they are stabilized either with a synergy of surfactants and nanoparticle, or just with viscoelastic surfactants that viscosify the aqueous phase. Not only does this reduce water utilization and disposal, but it minimizes fluid blocking of hydrocarbon production. Further, the most recent development shows successful use of environmentally friendly surfactants at high temperature and pressure. We pay special attention to the role of nanoparticles in stabilization of the foams, specifically for high salinity brines. The preliminary numerical simulation for which shows they open wider fractures with shorter half-length and require less clean-up due to minimal water use. We also tested the stability and sand carrying properties of these foams at high pressure, room temperature conditions in sapphire cell. We performed on a preliminary numerical investigation of applicability for improved oil recovery applications. The applicability was evaluated by running multiphase flow injection simulations in a case-study oil reservoir. The results of this research thus expand the options available to operators for hydraulic fracturing and can simplify the design and field implementation of foamed fracturing fluids.

  17. In situ metrology to characterize water vapor delivery during atomic layer deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmido, Tariq; Kimes, William A.; Sperling, Brent A.; Hodges, Joseph T.; Maslar, James E.

    2016-01-01

    Water is often employed as the oxygen source in metal oxide atomic layer deposition (ALD) processes. It has been reported that variations in the amount of water delivered during metal oxide ALD can impact the oxide film properties. Hence, one contribution to optimizing metal oxide ALD processes would be to identify methods to better control water dose. The development of rapid, quantitative techniques for in situ water vapor measurements during ALD processes would be beneficial to achieve this goal. In this report, the performance of an in situ tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) scheme for performing rapid, quantitative water partial pressure measurements in a representative quarter-inch ALD delivery line is described. This implementation of TDLAS, which utilizes a near-infrared distributed-feedback diode laser and wavelength modulation spectroscopy, provides measurements of water partial pressure on a timescale comparable to or shorter than the timescale of the gas dynamics in typical ALD systems. Depending on the degree of signal averaging, this TDLAS system was capable of measuring the water partial pressure with a detection limit in the range of ∼0.80 to ∼0.08 Pa. The utility of this TDLAS scheme was demonstrated by using it to identify characteristics of a representative water delivery system that otherwise would have been difficult to predict. Those characteristics include (1) the magnitude and time dependence of the pressure transient that can occur during water injection, and (2) the dependence of the steady-state water partial pressure on the carrier gas flow rate and the setting of the water ampoule flow restriction.

  18. Bioinspired, roughness-induced, water and oil super-philic and super-phobic coatings prepared by adaptable layer-by-layer technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Philip S.; Bhushan, Bharat

    2015-01-01

    Coatings with specific surface wetting properties are of interest for anti-fouling, anti-fogging, anti-icing, self-cleaning, anti-smudge, and oil-water separation applications. Many previous bioinspired surfaces are of limited use due to a lack of mechanical durability. Here, a layer-by-layer technique is utilized to create coatings with four combinations of water and oil repellency and affinity. An adapted layer-by-layer approach is tailored to yield specific surface properties, resulting in a durable, functional coating. This technique provides necessary flexibility to improve substrate adhesion combined with desirable surface chemistry. Polyelectrolyte binder, SiO2 nanoparticles, and silane or fluorosurfactant layers are deposited, combining surface roughness and necessary chemistry to result in four different coatings: superhydrophilic/superoleophilic, superhydrophobic/superoleophilic, superhydrophobic/superoleophobic, and superhydrophilic/superoleophobic. The superoleophobic coatings display hexadecane contact angles >150° with tilt angles superhydrophobic coatings display water contact angles >160° with tilt angles hydrophobic properties, whilst others mix and match oil and water repellency and affinity. Coating durability was examined through the use of micro/macrowear experiments. These coatings display transparency acceptable for some applications. Fabrication via this novel combination of techniques results in durable, functional coatings displaying improved performance compared to existing work where either durability or functionality is compromised. PMID:26353971

  19. Stabilization of arsenic and chromium polluted soils using water treatment residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sanne Skov

    water and can be used as a soil amendment to decrease the mobility of CCA in contaminated soil. Stabilization with Fe-WTR was tested at the Collstrop site in Hillerød, Denmark. The site has been polluted with a wide range of wood impregnation agents including CCA during 40 years of wood impregnating...... of contaminants. Arsenic, chromium and copper cannot be degraded and existing methods for cleaning the soil are rarely used as they are expensive and technically demanding. Chemical stabilization of polluted soil is an alternative method for soil remediation, especially metal contamination, and consists in adding...... or other sorbents. Iron water treatment residues mainly consist of ferrihydrite, an oxidized iron oxy-hydroxide with a high reactivity and a large specific surface area with a high capacity for adsorption. Iron water treatment residues (Fe-WTR) are a by-product from treatment of groundwater to drinking...

  20. Role of water balance in the long-term stability of hazardous waste site cover treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, F.J.; Rodgers, J.C.; Trujillo, G.

    1986-01-01

    After the 30-year post-closure maintenance period at hazardous waste landfills, long-term stability must be assured without continued intervention. Understanding water balance in the established vegetative cover system is central to predicting such stability. A Los Alamos National Laboratory research project has established a series of experimental cover treatment plots on a closed waste disposal site which will permit the determination of the effects of such critical parameters as soil cover design, leaf area index, and rooting characteristics on water balance under varied conditions. Data from these experiments are being analyzed by water balance modeling and other means. The results show consistent differences in soil moisture storage between soil profiles and between vegetation cover treatments

  1. Unlocking annual firn layer water equivalents from ground-penetrating radar data on an Alpine glacier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Sold

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The spatial representation of accumulation measurements is a major limitation for current glacier mass balance monitoring approaches. Here, we present a method for estimating annual accumulation rates on a temperate Alpine glacier based on the interpretation of internal reflection horizons (IRHs in helicopter-borne ground-penetrating radar (GPR data. For each individual GPR measurement, the signal travel time is combined with a simple model for firn densification and refreezing of meltwater. The model is calibrated at locations where GPR repeat measurements are available in two subsequent years and the densification can be tracked over time. Two 10.5 m long firn cores provide a reference for the density and chronology of firn layers. Thereby, IRHs correspond to density maxima, but not exclusively to former summer glacier surfaces. Along GPR profile sections from across the accumulation area we obtain the water equivalent (w.e. of several annual firn layers. Because deeper IRHs could be tracked over shorter distances, the total length of analysed profile sections varies from 7.3 km for the uppermost accumulation layer (2011 to 0.1 km for the deepest (i.e. oldest layer (2006. According to model results, refreezing accounts for 10% of the density increase over time and depth, and for 2% of the water equivalent. The strongest limitation to our method is the dependence on layer chronology assumptions. We show that GPR can be used not only to complement existing mass balance monitoring programmes on temperate glaciers but also to retrospectively extend newly initiated time series.

  2. Comparative water quality assessment between a young and a stabilized hydroelectric reservoir in Aliakmon River, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samiotis, Georgios; Trikoilidou, Eleni; Tsikritzis, Lazaros; Amanatidou, Elisavet

    2018-03-20

    In this work, a comparative study on the water quality characteristics of two in-line water reservoirs (artificial lakes) in Aliakmon River (Western Macedonia, Greece) is performed. Polyfytos Reservoir and Ilarion Reservoir were created in 1975 and 2012 respectively, in order to serve the homonymous hydroelectric stations. In young artificial lakes, severe deterioration of water quality may occur; thus, the monitoring and assessment of their water quality characteristics and their statistical interpretation are of great importance. In order to evaluate any temporal or spatial variations and to characterize water quality of these two in-line water reservoirs, water quality data from measurements conducted from 2012 to 2015 were statistically processed and interpreted by using a modified National Sanitation Foundation water quality index (WQI). The water physicochemical characteristics of the two reservoirs were found to be generally within the legislation limits, with relatively small temporal and spatial variations. Although Polyfytos Reservoir showed no significant deviations of its water quality, Ilarion Reservoir exhibited deviations in total Kjeldahl nitrogen, nitrite nitrogen, total suspended solids, and turbidity due to the inundated vegetation decomposition. The conducted measurements and the use of the modified NSFWQI revealed that during the inundation period of Ilarion Reservoir, its water quality was "moderate" and that the deviations were softened through time, leading to "good" water quality during its maturation period. Three years since the creation of Ilarion Reservoir, water quality does not match that of Aliakmon River (feeding water) or that of the stabilized reservoir (Polyfytos Reservoir), whose quality is characterized as "high." The use of a WQI, such as the proposed modified NSFWQI, for evaluating water quality of each sampling site and of an entire water system proved to be a rapid and relatively accurate assessment tool.

  3. Revegetation in abandoned quarries with landfill stabilized waste and gravels: water dynamics and plant growth – a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.-L. Zhang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Large amounts of quarry wastes are produced during quarrying. Though quarry wastes are commonly used in pavement construction and concrete production, in situ utilization during ecological restoration of abandoned quarries has the advantage of simplicity. In this paper, rock fragments 2–3 cm in size were mixed with landfill stabilized waste (LSW in different proportions (LSW : gravel, RL, which was called LGM. The water content, runoff and plant growth under natural precipitation were monitored for 2 years using a runoff plot experiment. LGM with a low fraction of LSW was compacted to different degrees to achieve an appropriate porosity; water dynamics and plant growth of compacted LGM were studied in a field experiment. The results showed the following: (1 LGM can be used during restoration in abandoned quarries as growing material for plants. (2 RL had a significant effect on the infiltration and water-holding capacity of LGM and thus influenced the retention of precipitation, water condition and plant growth. LGM with RL ranging from 8:1 to 3:7 was suitable for plant growth, and the target species grew best when RL was 5:5. (3 Compaction significantly enhanced water content of LGM with a low RL of 2:8, but leaf water content of plants was lower or unchanged in the more compacted plots. Moderate compaction was beneficial to the survival and growth of Robinia pseudoacacia L. Platycladus orientalis (L. Franco and Medicago sativa L. were not significantly affected by compaction, and they grew better under a high degree of compaction, which was disadvantageous for the uppermost layer of vegetation.

  4. Revegetation in abandoned quarries with landfill stabilized waste and gravels: water dynamics and plant growth - a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng-liang; Feng, Jing-jing; Rong, Li-ming; Zhao, Ting-ning

    2017-11-01

    Large amounts of quarry wastes are produced during quarrying. Though quarry wastes are commonly used in pavement construction and concrete production, in situ utilization during ecological restoration of abandoned quarries has the advantage of simplicity. In this paper, rock fragments 2-3 cm in size were mixed with landfill stabilized waste (LSW) in different proportions (LSW : gravel, RL), which was called LGM. The water content, runoff and plant growth under natural precipitation were monitored for 2 years using a runoff plot experiment. LGM with a low fraction of LSW was compacted to different degrees to achieve an appropriate porosity; water dynamics and plant growth of compacted LGM were studied in a field experiment. The results showed the following: (1) LGM can be used during restoration in abandoned quarries as growing material for plants. (2) RL had a significant effect on the infiltration and water-holding capacity of LGM and thus influenced the retention of precipitation, water condition and plant growth. LGM with RL ranging from 8:1 to 3:7 was suitable for plant growth, and the target species grew best when RL was 5:5. (3) Compaction significantly enhanced water content of LGM with a low RL of 2:8, but leaf water content of plants was lower or unchanged in the more compacted plots. Moderate compaction was beneficial to the survival and growth of Robinia pseudoacacia L. Platycladus orientalis (L.) Franco and Medicago sativa L. were not significantly affected by compaction, and they grew better under a high degree of compaction, which was disadvantageous for the uppermost layer of vegetation.

  5. Tradeoffs between water requirements and yield stability in annual vs. perennial crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vico, Giulia; Brunsell, Nathaniel A.

    2018-02-01

    Population growth and changes in climate and diets will likely further increase the pressure on agriculture and water resources globally. Currently, staple crops are obtained from annuals plants. A shift towards perennial crops may enhance many ecosystem services, but at the cost of higher water requirements and lower yields. It is still unclear when the advantages of perennial crops overcome their disadvantages and perennial crops are thus a sustainable solution. Here we combine a probabilistic description of the soil water balance and crop development with an extensive dataset of traits of congeneric annuals and perennials to identify the conditions for which perennial crops are more viable than annual ones with reference to yield, yield stability, and effective use of water. We show that the larger and more developed roots of perennial crops allow a better exploitation of soil water resources and a reduction of yield variability with respect to annual species, but their yields remain lower when considering grain crops. Furthermore, perennial crops have higher and more variable irrigation requirements and lower water productivity. These results are important to understand the potential consequences for yield, its stability, and water resource use of a shift from annual to perennial crops and, more generally, if perennial crops may be more resilient than annual crops in the face of climatic fluctuations.

  6. Molecular dynamics simulation of heat transfer through a water layer between two platinum slabs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iype, E; Arlemark, E J; Nedea, S V; Rindt, C C M; Zondag, H A

    2012-01-01

    Heat transfer through micro channels is being investigated due to its importance in micro channel cooling applications. Molecular dynamics simulation is regarded as a potential tool for studying such microscopic phenomena in detail. However, the applicability of molecular dynamics method is limited due to scarcely known inter atomic interactions involved in complex fluids. In this study we use an empirical force field (ReaxFF), which is parameterized using accurate quantum chemical simulation results for water, to simulate heat transfer phenomena through a layer of water confined between two platinum slabs. The model for water seems to reproduce the macroscopic properties such as density, radial distribution function and diffusivity quite well. The heat transfer phenomena through a channel filled with water, which is confined by two platinum (100) surfaces are studied using ReaxFF. The model accurately predicts the formation of surface mono-layer. The heat transfer analysis shows temperature jumps near the walls which are creating significant heat transfer resistances. A low bulk density in the channel creates a multi-phase region with vapor transport in the region.

  7. The nepheloid bottom layer and water masses at the shelf break of the western Ross Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capello, Marco; Budillon, Giorgio; Cutroneo, Laura; Tucci, Sergio

    2009-06-01

    In the austral summers of 2000/2001 and 2002/2003 the Italian CLIMA Project carried out two oceanographic cruises along the northwestern margin of the Ross Sea, where the Antarctic Bottom Water forms. Here there is an interaction between the water masses on the sea floor of the outer shelf and slope with a consequent evolution of benthic nepheloid layers and an increase in total particulate matter. We observed three different situations: (a) the presence of triads (bottom structures characterized by a concomitant jump in turbidity, temperature, and salinity data) and high re-suspension phenomena related to the presence of the Circumpolar Deep Water and its mixing with cold, salty shelf waters associated with gravity currents; (b) the absence of triads with high re-suspension, implying that when the gravity currents are no longer active the benthic nepheloid layer may persist until the suspended particles settle to the sea floor, suggesting that the turbidity data can be used to study recent gravity current events; and (c) the absence of turbidity and sediment re-suspension phenomena supports the theory that a steady situation had been re-established and the current interaction no longer occurred or had finished sometime before.

  8. Stability studies of endocrine disrupting tributyltin and triphenyltin compounds in an artificial sea water model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotny, Ladislav; Sharaf, Leyla; Abdel-Hamid, Mohammed E; Brtko, Julius

    2018-01-01

    Triorganotins belong to toxic components present predominantly in antifouling paints for marine vessels. Tributyltin/triphenyltin at pico- or nanomolar concentrations in sea water are known to induce an irreversible sexual abnormality in females of over 190 marine species, an "imposex" phenomenon - the superimposition of male genitalia on a female. Moreover, trialkyltins and triaryltins function as potent nuclear retinoid X receptors (RXR) agonists. In mammals, triorganotin compounds induce immunosuppressive, metabolic, reproductive or developmental effects. Toxic effects of triorganotins warrant the need for monitoring of their long-lasting presence in the environment. This study brings novel data on the stability of two triorganotin compounds in artificial sea water model obtained by applying ultra-pressure liquid chromatography (UPLC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) methods. Stability of tributyltin and triphenyltin chlorides was studied for 180 days and the degradation kinetic parameters were obtained. Tributyltin chloride was the less stable with the degradation kinetic parameters Kdeg = 0.00014 day-1 and t1/2 = 4950 days (13.6 years). Kdeg of the more stable triphenyltin chloride was determined to be Kdeg = 0.00006 day-1 with t1/2 = 11550 days (31.6 years). Since similar stability data of triorganotin compounds were not published previously, we report high stability for both tested compounds, which indicates a significant environmental problem when these substances enter sea water and later coastal sediments.

  9. Rapid and controlled transformation of nitrate in water and brine by stabilized iron nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong Zhong; Zhao Dongye; Pan Gang

    2009-01-01

    Highly reactive zero-valent iron (ZVI) nanoparticles stabilized with carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) were tested for reduction of nitrate in fresh water and brine. Batch kinetic tests showed that the pseudo first-order rate constant (k obs ) with the stabilized nanoparticles was five times greater than that for non-stabilized counterparts. The stabilizer not only increased the specific surface area of the nanoparticles, but also increased the reactive particle surface. The allocation between the two reduction products, NH 4 + and N 2 , can be manipulated by varying the ZVI-to-nitrate molar ratio and/or applying a Cu-Pd bimetallic catalyst. Greater CMC-to-ZVI ratios lead to faster nitrate reduction. Application of a 0.05 M HEPES buffer increased the k obs value by 15 times compared to that without pH control. Although the presence of 6% NaCl decreased k obs by 30%, 100% nitrate was transformed within 2 h in the saline water. The technology provides a powerful alternative for treating water with concentrated nitrate such as ion exchange brine.

  10. Chitosan-Sodium Phytate Films with a Strong Water Barrier and Antimicrobial Properties Produced via One-Step-Consecutive-Stripping and Layer-by-Layer-Casting Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Xiong, Liu; Li, Man; Sun, Qingjie

    2018-06-20

    The pursuit of sustainable functional materials requires the development of materials based on renewable resources and efficient fabrication methods. Here, we first fabricated chitosan-sodium phytate films via one-step-stripping and layer-by-layer-casting technologies. The proposed film-fabrication methods are general, facile, environmentally benign, cost-effective, and easy to scale up. The resultant one-step-stripped film was thin (9 ± 1 μm), soft, transparent, and strong, whereas the thickness of the layer-by-layer-cast film was 70 ± 3 μm. FTIR analysis of the films indicated the formation of interactions between the phosphoric groups in sodium phytate and the amino groups in chitosan. More importantly, the water-vapor-permeability values of the one-step-stripped and cast films were 4-5 orders of magnitude lower than chitosan films reported before. Layer-by-layer-cast films in particular exhibited high tensile strength (49.21 ± 1.12 MPa) and were more than three times stronger than other polyelectrolyte multilayer films. Both types of films remained stable in an acidic environment. Furthermore, the layer-by-layer-assembled films presented greater antimicrobial activity than the stripped films. The developed chitosan-sodium phytate films can enhance several biomedical and environmental applications, such as packaging, drug delivery, diagnostics, microfluidics, and biosensing.

  11. Algae separation from urban landscape water using a high density microbubble layer enhanced by micro-flocculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuwen; Xu, Jingcheng; Liu, Jia; Wei, Qiaoling; Li, Guangming; Huang, Xiangfeng

    2014-01-01

    Eutrophication of raw water results in outbreaks of algae, which hinders conventional water treatment. In this study, high density microbubble layers combined with micro-flocculation was adopted to remove algae from urban landscape water, and the effects of pressure, hydraulic loading, microbubble layer height and flocculation dosage on the removal efficiency for algae were studied. The greatest removal efficiency for algae, chemical oxygen demand, nitrogen and phosphorus was obtained at 0.42 MPa with hydraulic loading at 5 m/h and a flocculation dosage of 4 mg/L using a microbubble layer with a height of 130 cm. Moreover, the size, clearance distance and concentration of microbubbles were found to be affected by pressure and the height of the microbubble layer. Based on the study, this method was an alternative for algae separation from urban landscape water and water purification.

  12. On Interlayer Stability and High-Cycle Simulator Performance of Diamond-Like Carbon Layers for Articulating Joint Replacements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Thorwarth

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Diamond like carbon (DLC coatings have been proven to be an excellent choice for wear reduction in many technical applications. However, for successful adaption to the orthopaedic field, layer performance, stability and adhesion in physiologically relevant setups are crucial and not consistently investigated. In vitro wear testing as well as adequate corrosion tests of interfaces and interlayers are of great importance to verify the long term stability of DLC coated load bearing implants in the human body. DLC coatings were deposited on articulating lumbar spinal disks made of CoCr28Mo6 biomedical implant alloy using a plasma-activated chemical vapor deposition (PACVD process. As an adhesion promoting interlayer, tantalum films were deposited by magnetron sputtering. Wear tests of coated and uncoated implants were performed in physiological solution up to a maximum of 101 million articulation cycles with an amplitude of ±2° and −3/+6° in successive intervals at a preload of 1200 N. The implants were characterized by gravimetry, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES and cross section scanning electron microscopy (SEM analysis. It is shown that DLC coated surfaces with uncontaminated tantalum interlayers perform very well and no corrosive or mechanical failure could be observed. This also holds true in tests featuring overload and third-body wear by cortical bone chips present in the bearing pairs. Regarding the interlayer tolerance towards interlayer contamination (oxygen, limits for initiation of potential failure modes were established. It was found that mechanical failure is the most critical aspect and this mode is hypothetically linked to the α-β tantalum phase switch induced by increasing oxygen levels as observed by X-ray diffraction (XRD. It is concluded that DLC coatings are a feasible candidate for near zero wear articulations on implants, potentially even surpassing the performance of ceramic vs

  13. Suspensions Plasma Spraying of Ceramics with Hybrid Water-Stabilized Plasma Technology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mušálek, Radek; Medřický, Jan; Tesař, T.; Kotlan, Jiří; Pala, Zdeněk; Lukáč, František; Chráska, Tomáš; Curry, N.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 26, 1-2 (2017), s. 37-46 ISSN 1059-9630. [ISTC 2016: International Thermal Spray Conference. Shanghai, 10.05.2016-12.05.2016] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-12145S Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : alumina * ceramics * dense * hybrid plasma torch * suspension plasma spraying * water-stabilized plasma * yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials OBOR OECD: Coating and films Impact factor: 1.488, year: 2016 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11666-016-0493-6

  14. Cleaning of conveyor belt materials using ultrasound in a thin layer of water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsson, L; Holck, A; Rud, I; Samah, D; Tierce, P; Favre, M; Kure, C F

    2013-08-01

    Cleaning of conveyor belts in the food industry is imperative for preventing the buildup of microorganisms that can contaminate food. New technologies for decreasing water and energy consumption of cleaning systems are desired. Ultrasound can be used for cleaning a wide range of materials. Most commonly, baths containing fairly large amounts of water are used. One possibility to reduce water consumption is to use ultrasonic cavitation in a thin water film on a flat surface, like a conveyor belt. In order to test this possibility, a model system was set up, consisting of an ultrasound transducer/probe with a 70-mm-diameter flat bottom, operating at 19.8 kHz, and contaminated conveyor belt materials in the form of coupons covered with a thin layer of water or water with detergent. Ultrasound was then applied on the water surface at different power levels (from 46 to 260 W), exposure times (10 and 20 s), and distances (2 to 20 mm). The model was used to test two different belt materials with various contamination types, such as biofilms formed by bacteria in carbohydrate- or protein-fat-based soils, dried microorganisms (bacteria, yeasts, and mold spores), and allergens. Ultrasound treatment increased the reduction of bacteria and yeast by 1 to 2 log CFU under the most favorable conditions compared with water or water-detergent controls. The effect was dependent on the type of belt material, the power applied, the exposure time, and the distance between the probe and the belt coupon. Generally, dried microorganisms were more easily removed than biofilms. The effect on mold spores was variable and appeared to be species and material dependent. Spiked allergens were also efficiently removed by using ultrasound. The results in this study pave the way for new cleaning designs for flat conveyor belts, with possibilities for savings of water, detergent, and energy consumption.

  15. Thermal analysis of mass concrete embedded with double-layer staggered heterogeneous cooling water pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jian; Hu Yu; Zuo Zheng; Jin Feng; Li Qingbin

    2012-01-01

    Removal of hydration heat from mass concrete during construction is important for the quality and safety of concrete structures. In this study, a three-dimensional finite element program for thermal analysis of mass concrete embedded with double-layer staggered heterogeneous cooling water pipes was developed based on the equivalent equation of heat conduction including the effect of cooling water pipes and hydration heat of concrete. The cooling function of the double-layer staggered heterogeneous cooling pipes in a concrete slab was derived from the principle of equivalent cooling. To improve the applicability and precision of the equivalent heat conduction equation under small flow, the cooling function was revised according to its monotonicity and empirical formulas of single-phase forced-convection heat transfer in tube flow. Considering heat hydration of concrete at later age, a double exponential function was proposed to fit the adiabatic temperature rise curve of concrete. Subsequently, the temperature variation of concrete was obtained, and the outlet temperature of cooling water was estimated through the energy conservation principle. Comparing calculated results with actual measured data from a monolith of an arch dam in China, the numerical model was proven to be effective in sufficiently simulating accurate temperature variations of mass concrete. - Highlights: ► Three-dimensional program is developed to model temperature history of mass concrete. ► Massive concrete is embedded with double-layer heterogeneous cooling pipes. ► Double exponential function is proposed to fit the adiabatic temperature rise curve. ► Outlet temperature of cooling water is estimated. ► A comparison is made between the calculated and measured data.

  16. Responses of plant available water and forest productivity to variably layered coarse textured soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Mingbin; Barbour, Lee; Elshorbagy, Amin; Si, Bing; Zettl, Julie

    2010-05-01

    Reforestation is a primary end use for reconstructed soils following oil sands mining in northern Alberta, Canada. Limited soil water conditions strongly restrict plant growth. Previous research has shown that layering of sandy soils can produce enhanced water availability for plant growth; however, the effect of gradation on these enhancements is not well defined. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of soil texture (gradation and layering) on plant available water and consequently on forest productivity for reclaimed coarse textured soils. A previously validated system dynamics (SD) model of soil moisture dynamics was coupled with ecophysiological and biogeochemical processes model, Biome-BGC-SD, to simulate forest dynamics for different soil profiles. These profiles included contrasting 50 cm textural layers of finer sand overlying coarser sand in which the sand layers had either a well graded or uniform soil texture. These profiles were compared to uniform profiles of the same sands. Three tree species of jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.), white spruce (Picea glauce Voss.), and trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) were simulated using a 50 year climatic data base from northern Alberta. Available water holding capacity (AWHC) was used to identify soil moisture regime, and leaf area index (LAI) and net primary production (NPP) were used as indices of forest productivity. Published physiological parameters were used in the Biome-BGC-SD model. Relative productivity was assessed by comparing model predictions to the measured above-ground biomass dynamics for the three tree species, and was then used to study the responses of forest leaf area index and potential productivity to AWHC on different soil profiles. Simulated results indicated soil layering could significantly increase AWHC in the 1-m profile for coarse textured soils. This enhanced AWHC could result in an increase in forest LAI and NPP. The increased extent varied with soil

  17. Influence of pH modifiers on the dissolution and stability of hydrochlorothiazide in the bi- and three-layer tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blatnik Sandra Urek

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available During the past few years, the studies of bi- and multi-layered tablets increased due to the consumption of several different drugs per day by a patient and requests for appropriate patient compliance. The demographic shift toward older population increases the use of combination therapy as polypharmacy. Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ, as a model drug, is most commonly used in the treatment of hypertension, congestive heart failure and as a diuretic. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of the local environment on dissolution and stability behaviour of HCTZ in fixed multilayered tablet combinations, which are commonly used in polypharmacy. For this purposes, three different systems were introduced: (i two conventional tablets (HCTZ and pH modifying placebo, (ii 2-layer tablets (HCTZ, pH modifying placebo and (iii 3-layer tablets (HCTZ, barrier and pH modifying placebo. Disintegration of tablets, dissolution of HCTZ from tablets and HCTZ related substances were monitored for all systems. Results showed that there was a significant difference between dissolution profiles of the conventional two-tablet system (HCTZ tablet and pH modifying tablet and the 2-layer and 3-layer tablets, which include the pH modifying layer. In the case of the conventional two-tablets system, 85 % of HCTZ was dissolved in less than 15 minutes. The dissolution profiles of HCTZ from 2-layered and 3-layered tablets showed a decrease in the dissolution rate. In addition, during the stability studies, it has been confirmed that the typical degradation product of HCTZ is formed, impurity B (4-amino-6-chloro-1,3-benzenedisulfonamide, which implies formation of formaldehyde as hydrolytic impurity not reported in the Ph. Eur. (16. Both impurities are particularly raised in 2-layered tablets with alkaline and neutral placebo layers. Stability of HCTZ was improved in the case of the 3-layer tablet, where the intermediate separation layer of glycerol monostearate was

  18. An analytical solution for the estimation of the critical available soil water fraction for a single layer water balance model under growing crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Brisson

    1998-01-01

    . The atmospheric demand together with the rooting depth appear as the most important factors. However, when assuming predictable climatic and crop evolution, compensation occurs between those two effects leading to a relative stability of F when the crop is fully developed. Though relying on well-known physical laws, the present approach remains in the framework of single layer models with the same limitations.

  19. LASE Measurements of Water Vapor, Aerosol, and Cloud Distributions in Saharan Air Layers and Tropical Disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Syed; Ferrare, Richard A.; Browell, Edward V.; Kooi, Susan A.; Dunion, Jason P.; Heymsfield, Gerry; Notari, Anthony; Butler, Carolyn F.; Burton, Sharon; Fenn, Marta; hide

    2010-01-01

    LASE (Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment) on-board the NASA DC-8 measured high resolution profiles of water vapor and aerosols, and cloud distributions in 14 flights over the eastern North Atlantic during the NAMMA (NASA African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses) field experiment. These measurements were used to study African easterly waves (AEWs), tropical cyclones (TCs), and the Saharan Air Layer(s) (SAL). Interactions between the SAL and tropical air were observed during the early stages of the TC development. These LASE measurements represent the first simultaneous water vapor and aerosol lidar measurements to study the SAL and its impact on AEWs and TCs. Examples of profile measurements of aerosol scattering ratios, aerosol extinction coefficients, aerosol optical thickness, water vapor mixing ratios, RH, and temperature are presented to illustrate their characteristics in SAL, convection, and clear air regions. LASE data suggest that the SAL suppresses low-altitude convection at the convection-SAL interface region. Mid-level convection associated with the AEW and transport are likely responsible for high water vapor content observed in the southern regions of the SAL on August 20, 2008. This interaction is responsible for the transfer of about 7 x 10(exp 15) J latent heat energy within a day to the SAL. Measurements of lidar extinction-to-backscatter ratios in the range 36+/-5 to 45+/-5 are within the range of measurements from other lidar measurements of dust. LASE aerosol extinction and water vapor profiles are validated by comparison with onboard in situ aerosol measurements and GPS dropsonde water vapor soundings, respectively.

  20. Using JPSS Retrievals to Implement a Multisensor, Synoptic, Layered Water Vapor Product for Forecasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsythe, J. M.; Jones, A. S.; Kidder, S. Q.; Fuell, K.; LeRoy, A.; Bikos, D.; Szoke, E.

    2015-12-01

    Forecasters have been using the NOAA operational blended total precipitable water (TPW) product, developed by the Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere (CIRA), since 2009. Blended TPW has a wide variety of uses related to heavy precipitation and flooding, such as measuring the amount of moisture in an atmospheric river originating in the tropics. But blended TPW conveys no information on the vertical distribution of moisture, which is relevant to a variety of forecast concerns. Vertical profile information is particularly lacking over the oceans for landfalling storms. A blended six-satellite, four-layer, layered water vapor product demonstrated by CIRA and the NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition Center (SPoRT) in allows forecasters to see the vertical distribution of water vapor in near real-time. National Weather Service (NWS) forecaster feedback indicated that this new, vertically-resolved view of water vapor has a substantial impact on forecasts. This product uses NOAA investments in polar orbiting satellite sounding retrievals from passive microwave radiances, in particular, the Microwave Integrated Retrieval System (MIRS). The product currently utilizes data from the NOAA-18 and -19 spacecraft, Metop-A and -B, and the Defense Meteorological Program (DMSP) F18 spacecraft. The sounding instruments onboard the Suomi-NPP and JPSS spacecraft will be cornerstone instruments in the future evolution of this product. Applications of the product to heavy rain cases will be presented and compared to commonly used data such as radiosondes and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) water vapor channel imagery. Research is currently beginning to implement advective blending, where model winds are used to move the water vapor profiles to a common time. Interactions with the NOAA Satellite Analysis Branch (SAB), National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) centers including the Ocean Prediction Center (OPC) and Weather

  1. Effects of Sweep Angle on the Boundary-Layer Stability Characteristics of an Untapered Wing at Low Speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boltz, Frederick W.; Kenyon, George C.; Allen, Clyde Q.

    1960-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the Ames 12-Foot Low-Turbulence Pressure Tunnel to determine the effects of sweep on the boundary-layer stability characteristics of an untapered variable-sweep wing having an NACA 64(2)A015 section normal to the leading edge. Pressure distribution and transition were measured on the wing at low speeds at sweep angles of 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 deg. and at angles of attack from -3 to 3 deg. The investigation also included flow-visualization studies on the surface at sweep angles from 0 to 50 deg. and total pressure surveys in the boundary layer at a sweep angle of 30 deg. for angles of attack from -12 to 0 deg. It was found that sweep caused premature transition on the wing under certain conditions. This effect resulted from the formation of vortices in the boundary layer when a critical combination of sweep angle, pressure gradient, and stream Reynolds number was attained. A useful parameter in indicating the combined effect of these flow variables on vortex formation and on beginning transition is the crossflow Reynolds number. The critical values of crossflow Reynolds number for vortex formation found in this investigation range from about 135 to 190 and are in good agreement with those reported in previous investigations. The values of crossflow Reynolds number for beginning transitions were found to be between 190 and 260. For each condition (i.e., development of vortices and initiation of transition at a given location) the lower values in the specified ranges were obtained with a light coating of flow-visualization material on the surface. A method is presented for the rapid computation of crossflow Reynolds number on any swept surface for which the pressure distribution is known. From calculations based on this method, it was found that the maximum values of crossflow Reynolds number are attained under conditions of a strong pressure gradient and at a sweep angle of about 50 deg. Due to the primary dependence on pressure

  2. Hammerhead ribozyme activity and oligonucleotide duplex stability in mixed solutions of water and organic compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-ichi Nakano

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nucleic acids are useful for biomedical targeting and sensing applications in which the molecular environment is different from that of a dilute aqueous solution. In this study, the influence of various types of mixed solutions of water and water-soluble organic compounds on RNA was investigated by measuring the catalytic activity of the hammerhead ribozyme and the thermodynamic stability of an oligonucleotide duplex. The compounds with a net neutral charge, such as poly(ethylene glycol, small primary alcohols, amide compounds, and aprotic solvent molecules, added at high concentrations changed the ribozyme-catalyzed RNA cleavage rate, with the magnitude of the effect dependent on the NaCl concentration. These compounds also changed the thermodynamic stability of RNA base pairs of an oligonucleotide duplex and its dependence on the NaCl concentration. Specific interactions with RNA molecules and reduced water activity could account for the inhibiting effects on the ribozyme catalysis and destabilizing effects on the duplex stability. The salt concentration dependence data correlated with the dielectric constant, but not with water activity, viscosity, and the size of organic compounds. This observation suggests the significance of the dielectric constant effects on the RNA reactions under molecular crowding conditions created by organic compounds.

  3. Surf Zone Hydrodynamics and its Utilization in Biotechnical Stabilization of Water Reservoir Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Pelikán

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The water reservoir banks are eroded mainly by two factors. The first one is wave action (i.e. wave abrasion affecting the bank in direction from the reservoir. The second one is the influence of water flowing downward over the bank surface in direction from land into the reservoir (e.g. rainfall. The determination of regular altitudinal emplacement of proper designed particular biotechnical stabilization elements is the most important factor on which the right functionality of whole construction depends. Surf zone hydrodynamics solves the wave and water level changes inside the region extending from the wave breaking point to the limit of wave up-rush. The paper is focused on the utilization of piece of knowledge from a part of sea coast hydrodynamics and new approach in its application in the conditions of inland water bodies when designing the biotechnical stabilization elements along the shorelines. The “reinforced grass carpets” as a type of biotechnical method of bank stabilization are presented in the paper; whether the growth of grass root system is dependent on presence or absence of geomats in the soil structure and proceeding of their establishment on the shorelines.

  4. Two-stream Stability Properties of the Return-Current Layer for Intense Ion Beam Propagation Through Background Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Startsev, Edward A.; Davidson, Ronald C.; Dorf, Mikhail

    2009-01-01

    When an ion beam with sharp edge propagates through a background plasma, its current is neutralized by the plasma return current everywhere except at the beam edge over a characteristic transverse distance Δx perpendicular ∼ (delta) pe , where (delta) pe = c/ω pe is the collisionless skin depth, and ω pe is the electron plasma frequency. Because the background plasma electrons neutralizing the ion beam current inside the beam are streaming relative to the background plasma electrons outside the beam, the background plasma can support a two-stream surface-mode excitation. Such surface modes have been studied previously assuming complete charge and current neutralization, and have been shown to be strongly unstable. In this paper we study the detailed stability properties of this two-stream surface mode for an electron flow velocity profile self-consistently driven by the ion beam. In particular, it is shown that the self-magnetic field generated inside the unneutralized current layer, which has not been taken into account previously, completely eliminates the instability

  5. Plant wide chemical water stability modelling with PHREEQC for drinking water treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Helm, A.W.C.; Kramer, O.J.I.; Hooft, J.F.M.; De Moel, P.J.

    2015-01-01

    In practice, drinking water technologists use simplified calculation methods for aquatic chemistry calculations. Recently, the database stimela.dat is developed especially for aquatic chemistry for drinking water treatment processes. The database is used in PHREEQC, the standard in geohydrology for

  6. Boundary Layer Flow and Heat Transfer of FMWCNT/Water Nanofluids over a Flat Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Safaei

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the heat transfer and flow of water/FMWCNT (functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotube nanofluids over a flat plate was investigated using a finite volume method. Simulations were performed for velocity ranging from 0.17 mm/s to 1.7 mm/s under laminar regime and nanotube concentrations up to 0.2%. The 2-D governing equations were solved using an in-house FORTRAN code. For a specific free stream velocity, the presented results showed that increasing the weight percentage of nanotubes increased the Nusselt number. However, an increase in the solid weight percentage had a negligible effect on the wall shear stress. The results also indicated that increasing the free stream velocity for all cases leads to thinner boundary layer thickness, while increasing the FMWCNT concentration causes an increase in the boundary layer thickness.

  7. Titanium-iridium oxide layer coating to suppress photocorrosion during photocatalytic water splitting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Yongwoo; Lee, Hyunjoo [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Yongwoo; Lee, Hyunjoo [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Photocatalysts with a small band gap energy have received a great deal of interest due their high solar conversion efficiencies. Cuprous oxide (Cu{sub 2}O) has attracted attention because of its small bandgap energy, a direct bandgap structure, its suitable band structure for water splitting, high absorption coefficient, non-toxicity, and its large abundance. However, it has poor stability due to the fickle oxidation states of copper. To enhance the stability and the production rate of hydrogen and oxygen, a TiIrOX overlayer was successfully formed on the Cu{sub 2}O under various synthesis conditions. The composition and oxidation state of the Ir species in the overlayer were optimized through the control of the Ir precursor and the amount of water. The Ir/Ti precursor molar ratio was linearly related to the surface Ir/Ti molar ratio. The addition of water converted the Ir precursor to IrO{sub 2}. The thickness of the overlayer was controlled by differing the synthesis times of the coating. Then, the largest amounts of hydrogen and oxygen were produced through the optimization of the TiIrOX overlayer with a higher IrO{sub 2} fraction and a thicker overlayer.

  8. Design and installation of a hot water layer system at the Tehran research reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirmohammadi Sayedeh Leila

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A hot water layer system (HWLS is a novel system for reducing radioactivity under research reactor containment. This system is particularly useful in pool-type research reactors or other light water reactors with an open pool surface. The main purpose of a HWLS is to provide more protection for operators and reactor personnel against undesired doses due to the radio- activity of the primary loop. This radioactivity originates mainly from the induced radioactivity contained within the cooling water or probable minute leaks of fuel elements. More importantly, the bothersome radioactivity is progressively proportional to reactor power and, thus, the HWLS is a partial solution for mitigating such problems when power upgrading is planned. Following a series of tests and checks for different parameters, a HWLS has been built and put into operation at the Tehran research reactor in 2009. It underwent a series of comprehensive tests for a period of 6 months. Within this time-frame, it was realized that the HWLS could provide a better protection for reactor personnel against prevailing radiation under containment. The system is especially suitable in cases of abnormality, e. g. the spread of fission products due to fuel failure, because it prevents the mixing of pollutants developed deep in the pool with the upper layer and thus mitigates widespread leakage of radioactivity.

  9. Potential effects of desalinated water quality on the operation stability of wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, Beni; Cochva, Malka; Lahav, Ori

    2009-03-15

    Desalinated water is expected to become the major source of drinking water in many places in the near future, and thus the major source of wastewater to arrive at wastewater treatment plants. The paper examines the effect of the alkalinity value with which the water is released from the desalination plant on the alkalinity value that would develop within the wastewater treatment process under various nitrification-denitrification operational scenarios. The main hypothesis was that the difference in the alkalinity value between tap water and domestic wastewater is almost exclusively a result of the hydrolysis of urea (NH(2)CONH(2), excreted in the human urine) to ammonia (NH(3)), regardless of the question what fraction of NH(3(aq)) is transformed to NH(4)(+). Results from a field study show that the ratio between the alkalinity added to tap water when raw wastewater is formed (in meq/l units) and the TAN (total ammonia nitrogen, mole/l) concentration in the raw wastewater is almost 1:1 in purely domestic sewage and close to 1:1 in domestic wastewater streams mixed with light industry wastewaters. Having established the relationship between TAN and total alkalinity in raw wastewater the paper examines three theoretical nitrification-denitrification treatment scenarios in the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). The conclusion is that if low-alkalinity desalinated water constitutes the major water source arriving at the WWTP, external alkalinity will have to be added in order to avoid pH drop and maintain process stability. The results lead to the conclusion that supplying desalinated water with a high alkalinity value (e.g. > or =100 mg/l as CaCO(3)) would likely prevent the need to add costly basic chemicals in the WWTP, while, in addition, it would improve the chemical and biological stability of the drinking water in the distribution system.

  10. Modulation and Stabilization of Silk Fibroin-Coated Oil-in-Water Emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong-Min Chen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to prepare and characterize stable oil-in-water emulsions containing droplets coated with silk fibroin. Silk fibroin, a native edible fibrous protein originating from silkworm cocoons, was used to prepare 10 % (by mass corn oil-in-water emulsions at ambient temperature (pH=7.0, 10 mM phosphate buffer. Emulsions with relatively small mean particle diameter (d32=0.47 μm and extremely good creaming stability (>7 days could be produced at silk fibroin concentration of 1 % (by mass. The influence of pH (2–8, thermal processing (60–90 °C, 20 min, and concentration of salt (c(NaCl=0–250 mM on the properties and stability of the emulsions was analyzed using ζ-potential, particle size, and creaming stability measurements. The isoelectric point of droplets stabilized with silk fibroin was pH~4. The emulsions were stable to droplet flocculation and creaming at any pH except intermediate value (pH=4.0 when stored at room temperature, which was attributed to their relatively low ζ-potential. Their ζ-potential went from around 25 to –35 mV as the pH was increased from 2 to 8. The emulsions were also stable to thermal treatment (60 and 90 °C for 20 min, pH=3 and 7, with a slight decrease in the magnitude of ζ-potential at temperatures exceeding 60 °C. The emulsions were unstable to aggregation and creaming even at relatively low salt concentrations (c(NaCl=0–250 mM, pH=3 and 7 as a result of electrostatic screening effects. These results suggest that bulk oil stabilized with silk fibroin has improved physical stability and may provide a new way of creating functional oil products and delivery systems.

  11. Numerical simulation of the free surface and water inflow of a slope, considering the nonlinear flow properties of gravel layers: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bin; Yang, Tianhong; Xu, Zenghe; Liu, Honglei; Shi, Wenhao; Yang, Xin

    2018-02-01

    Groundwater is an important factor of slope stability, and 90% of slope failures are related to the influence of groundwater. In the past, free surface calculations and the prediction of water inflow were based on Darcy's law. However, Darcy's law for steady fluid flow is a special case of non-Darcy flow, and many types of non-Darcy flows occur in practical engineering applications. In this paper, based on the experimental results of laboratory water seepage tests, the seepage state of each soil layer in the open-pit slope of the Yanshan Iron Mine, China, were determined, and the seepage parameters were obtained. The seepage behaviour in the silt layer, fine sand layer, silty clay layer and gravelly clay layer followed the traditional Darcy law, while the gravel layers showed clear nonlinear characteristics. The permeability increases exponentially and the non-Darcy coefficient decreases exponentially with an increase in porosity, and the relation among the permeability, the porosity and the non-Darcy coefficient is investigated. A coupled mathematical model is established for two flow fields, on the basis of Darcy flow in the low-permeability layers and Forchheimer flow in the high-permeability layers. In addition, the effect of the seepage in the slope on the transition from Darcy flow to Forchheimer flow was considered. Then, a numerical simulation was conducted by using finite-element software (FELAC 2.2). The results indicate that the free surface calculated by the Darcy-Forchheimer model is in good agreement with the in situ measurements; however, there is an evident deviation of the simulation results from the measured data when the Darcy model is used. Through a parameter sensitivity analysis of the gravel layers, it can be found that the height of the overflow point and the water inflow calculated by the Darcy-Forchheimer model are consistently less than those of the Darcy model, and the discrepancy between these two models increases as the permeability

  12. Analytical and numerical stability analysis of Soret-driven convection in a horizontal porous layer: the effect of conducting bounding plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouattara, B; Khouzam, A; Mojtabi, A [Universite de Toulouse (France); INPT, UPS (France); IMFT (Institut de Mecanique des Fluides de Toulouse), Allee Camille Soula, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Charrier-Mojtabi, M C, E-mail: bouattar@imft.fr, E-mail: akhouzam@imft.fr, E-mail: mojtabi@imft.fr, E-mail: cmojtabi@cict.fr [PHASE, EA 810, UFR PCA, Universite Paul Sabatier, 118 route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse cedex (France)

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of conducting boundaries on the onset of convection in a binary fluid-saturated porous layer. The isotropic saturated porous layer is bounded by two impermeable but thermally conducting plates, subjected to a constant heat flux. These plates have identical conductivity. Moreover, the conductivity of the plates is generally different from the porous layer conductivity. The overall layer is of large extent in both horizontal directions. The problem is governed by seven dimensionless parameters, namely the normalized porosity of the medium {epsilon}, the ratio of plates over the porous layer thickness {delta} and their relative thermal conductivities ratio d, the separation ratio {delta}, the Lewis number Le and thermal Rayleigh number Ra. In this work, an analytical and numerical stability analysis is performed. The equilibrium solution is found to lose its stability via a stationary bifurcation or a Hopf bifurcation depending on the values of the dimensionless parameters. For the long-wavelength mode, the critical Rayleigh number is obtained as Ra{sub cs}=12(1+2d{delta} )/[1+{psi} (2d{delta}Le+Le+1)] and k{sub cs}=0 for {psi}> {psi} {sub uni}> 0. This work extends an earlier paper by Mojtabi and Rees (2011 Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 54 293-301) who considered a configuration where the porous layer is saturated by a pure fluid.

  13. Structure of mixed β-lactoglobulin/pectin adsorbed layers at air/water interfaces; a spectroscopy study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ganzevles, R.A.; Fokkink, R.; Vliet, T. van; Cohen Stuart, M.A.; Jongh, H.H.J. de

    2008-01-01

    Based on earlier reported surface rheological behaviour two factors appeared to be important for the functional behaviour of mixed protein/polysaccharide adsorbed layers at air/water interfaces: (1) protein/polysaccharide mixing ratio and (2) formation history of the layers. In this study complexes

  14. Structure of mixed Beta-lactoglobulin/pectin adsorbed layers at air/water interfaces; a spectroscopy study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ganzevles, R.A.; Fokkink, R.G.; Vliet, van T.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.; Jongh, de H.H.J.

    2008-01-01

    Based on earlier reported surface rheological behaviour two factors appeared to be important for the functional behaviour of mixed protein/polysaccharide adsorbed layers at air/water interfaces: (1) protein/polysaccharide mixing ratio and (2) formation history of the layers. In this study complexes

  15. Effect of sediment-water interface 'boundary layer' on exposure of nodules and their abundance: a study from seabed photos

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sharma, R.

    affects nodule abundance estimates based on photos. A model showing variable burial (or exposure) depending upon the thickness of the Sediment-Water Interface Boundary (SWIB) layer is presented. Standard relationships can be established between nodule...

  16. Anti-fouling and high water permeable forward osmosis membrane fabricated via layer by layer assembly of chitosan/graphene oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Hasan; Rastgar, Masoud; Shakeri, Alireza

    2017-08-01

    To date, forward osmosis (FO) has received considerable attention due to its potential application in seawater desalination. FO does not require external hydraulic pressure and consequently is believed to have a low fouling propensity. Despite the numerous privileges of FO process, a major challenge ahead for its development is the lack of high performance membranes. In this study, we fabricated a novel highly-efficient FO membrane using layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly of positive chitosan (CS) and negative graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets via electrostatic interaction on a porous support layer. The support layer was prepared by blending hydrophilic sulfonated polyethersulfone (SPES) into polyethersulfone (PES) matrix using wet phase inversion process. Various characterization techniques were used to confirm successful fabrication of LbL membrane. The number of layers formed on the SPES-PES support layer was easily adjusted by repeating the CS and GO deposition cycles. Thin film composite (TFC) membrane was also prepared by the same SPES-PES support layer and polyamide (PA) active layer to compare membranes performances. The water permeability and salt rejection of the fabricated membranes were obtained by two kinds of draw solutions (including Na2SO4 and sucrose) under two different membrane orientations. The results showed that membrane coated by a CS/GO bilayers had water flux of 2-4 orders of magnitude higher than the TFC one. By increasing the number of CS/GO bilayers, the selectivity of the LbL membrane was improved. The novel fabricated LbL membrane showed better fouling resistance than the TFC one in the feed solution containing 200 ppm of sodium alginate as a foulant model.

  17. Water-in-oil Pickering emulsions stabilized by stearoylated microcrystalline cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Bo; Liu, Huan; Liu, Peiwen; Peng, Xinwen; Zhang, Kai

    2018-03-01

    Hydrophobic particles with static water contact angles larger than 90° are more like to stabilize W/O Pickering emulsions. In particular, high internal phase Pickering emulsions (HIPEs) are of great interest for diverse applications. However, W/O HIPEs have rarely been realized using sustainable biopolymers. Herein, we used stearoylated microcrystalline cellulose (SMCC) to stabilize W/O Pickering emulsions and especially, W/O HIPEs. Moreover, these W/O HIPEs can be further used as platforms for the preparation of porous materials, such as porous foams. Stearoylated microcrystalline cellulose (SMCC) was prepared by modifying MCC with stearoyl chloride under heterogeneous conditions. Using SMCC as emulsifiers, W/O medium and high internal phase Pickering emulsions (MIPEs and HIPEs) with various organic solvents as continuous phases were prepared using one-step and two-step methods, respectively. Polystyrene (PS) foams were prepared after polymerization of oil phase using HIPEs as templates and their oil/water separation capacity were studied. SMCC could efficiently stabilize W/O Pickering emulsions and HIPEs could only be prepared via the two-step method. The internal phase volume fraction of the SMCC-stabilized HIPEs reached as high as 89%. Diverse internal phase volume fractions led to distinct inner structures of foams with closed or open cells. These macroporous polystyrene (PS) foams demonstrated great potential for the effective absorption of organic solvents from underwater. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Stability numerical analysis of soil cave in karst area to drawdown of underground water level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Yizheng; Xiao, Rencheng; Deng, Zongwei

    2018-05-01

    With the underground water level falling, the reliable estimates of the stability and deformation characteristics of soil caves in karst region area are required for analysis used for engineering design. Aimed at this goal, combined with practical engineering and field geotechnical test, detail analysis on vertical maximum displacement of top, vertical maximum displacement of surface, maximum principal stress and maximum shear stress were conducted by finite element software, with an emphasis on two varying factors: the size and the depth of soil cave. The calculations on the soil cave show that, its stability of soil cave is affected by both the size and depth, and only when extending a certain limit, the collapse occurred along with the falling of underground water; Additionally, its maximum shear stress is in arch toes, and its deformation curve trend of maximum displacement is similar to the maximum shear stress, which further verified that the collapse of soil cave was mainly due to shear-failure.

  19. Significance analysis of the leachate level in a solid waste landfill in a coastal zone using total water balance and slope stability alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Ja-Kong; Do, Nam-Young [Korea Advanced Institute of Science & Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-31

    The K site near Seoul began landfilling in 1992. The landfilled wastes include municipal solid waste (66.4%), construction residues (20.4%), water and wastewater sludges (trace levels), and hazardous waste (trace levels). The water content of the municipal solid waste is very high (47.3%); as a result, the leachate level (average E.L.) of the landfill, the design value of which is 7.0 m, was measured at 10.3 m in January 1995 and is increasing. The increase of leachate level in the landfill site causes a problem with slope stability. The leachate level at each disposal stage divided by the intermediate cover layer was calculated with the HELP (Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance) model and calibrated with the data measured from February 1993 to June 1995. Also, the hydraulic conductivities of the waste layer and the intermediate cover layer in each stage were calibrated continuously with HELP model analysis. To verify these results, the total water balance in the landfill site was calculated using the infiltration rate calculated from HELP modeling. The leachate level was E.L. 10.0 m, which was close to the measured leachate level. To estimate the change of the leachate level in the future, the total water balances with different leachate discharge rates of 3,000, 3,500, and 5,000 m{sup 3}/day were analyzed. When the leachate discharge rate was 5,000 ton/day and the initial water content was decreased below 25%, the average leachate level was 10.8 m. This result satisfies the safety factor requirements (=1.3) for landfill slope stability. 4 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Simulation of electronic circuit sensitivity towards humidity using electrochemical data on water layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joshy, Salil; Verdingovas, Vadimas; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl

    2015-01-01

    Climatic conditions like temperature and humidity have direct influence on the operation of electronic circuits. The effects of temperature on the operation of electronic circuits have been widely investigated, while the effect of humidity and solder flux residues are not well understood including...... the effect on circuit and PCBA (printed circuit board assembly) layout design. This paper elucidates a methodology for analyzing the sensitivity of an electronic circuit based on parasitic circuit analysis using data on electrical property of the water layer formed under humid as well as contaminated...

  1. Electric Double Layer at Metal Oxide Surfaces: Static Properties of the Cassiterite-Water Interface

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vlček, Lukáš; Zhang, Z.; Machesky, M.L.; Fenter, P.; Rosenqvist, J.; Wesolowski, D.J.; Anovitz, L. M.; Předota, Milan; Cummings, P.T.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 9 (2007), s. 4925-4937 ISSN 0743-7463 Grant - others:OBES(US) DE-AC05-00OR22727; OBES(US) DE-AC02-05CH11231; OBES(US) DE-AC02-06CH11357 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Source of funding: N - neverejné zdroje ; N - neverejné zdroje ; N - neverejné zdroje Keywords : electric double layer * cassiterite * water Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.009, year: 2007

  2. Standard Test Method for Preparing Aircraft Cleaning Compounds, Liquid Type, Water Base, for Storage Stability Testing

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2002-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of the stability in storage, of liquid, water-base chemical cleaning compounds, used to clean the exterior surfaces of aircraft. 1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  3. On Stability of Natural-circulation-cooled Boiling Water Reactors during Start-up (Experimental Results)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manera, A.; Van der Hagen, T.H.J.J.

    2002-01-01

    The characteristics of flashing-induced instabilities, which are of importance during the start-up phase of natural-circulation Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs), are studied. Experiments at typical start-up conditions (low power and low pressure) are carried out on a steam/water natural circulation loop. The mechanism of flashing-induced instability is analyzed in detail and it is found that non-equilibrium between phases and enthalpy transport plays an important role in the instability process. Pressure and steam volume in the steam dome are found to have a stabilizing effect. The main characteristics of the instabilities have been analyzed. (authors)

  4. Oil-in-Water Emulsions Stabilized by Saponified Epoxidized Soybean Oil-Grafted Hydroxyethyl Cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xujuan; Li, Qiaoguang; Liu, He; Shang, Shibin; Shen, Minggui; Song, Jie

    2017-05-03

    An oil-in-water emulsion stabilized by saponified epoxidized soybean oil-grafted hydroxyethyl cellulose (H-ESO-HEC) was investigated. By using an ultrasonic method, oil-in-water emulsions were prepared by blending 50 wt % soybean oil and 50 wt % H-ESO-HEC aqueous suspensions. The influence of H-ESO-HEC concentrations on the properties of oil-in-water emulsions was examined. The H-ESO-HEC concentrations in the aqueous phase varied from 0.02 to 0.40 wt %. When the H-ESO-HEC concentration was 0.4 wt %, the emulsion remained stable for >80 days. The mean droplet sizes of the emulsions decreased by increasing the H-ESO-HEC concentration and extending the ultrasonic time. The adsorption amounts of H-ESO-HEC at the oil-water interface increased when the H-ESO-HEC concentrations in the aqueous phase increased. The rheological property revealed that the apparent viscosity of the H-ESO-HEC-stabilized oil-in-water emulsions increased when the H-ESO-HEC concentrations increased. Steady flow curves indicated an interfacial film formation in the emulsions. The evolution of G', G″, and tan η indicated the predominantly elastic behaviors of all the emulsions.

  5. TDR water content inverse profiling in layered soils during infiltration and evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, R.; Guida, A.

    2009-04-01

    During the last three decades, time domain reflectometry (TDR) has become one of the most commonly used tools for soil water content measurements either in laboratory or in the field. Indeed, TDR provides easy and cheap water content estimations with relatively small disturbance to the investigated soil. TDR measurements of soil water content are based on the strong correlation between relative dielectric permittivity of wet soil and its volumetric water content. Several expressions of the relationship between relative dielectric permittivity and volumetric water content have been proposed, empirically stated (Topp et al., 1980) as well as based on semi-analytical approach to dielectric mixing models (Roth et al., 1990; Whalley, 1993). So far, TDR field applications suffered the limitation due to the capability of the technique of estimating only the mean water content in the volume investigated by the probe. Whereas the knowledge of non homogeneous vertical water content profiles was needed, it was necessary to install either several vertical probes of different length or several horizontal probes placed in the soil at different depths, in both cases strongly increasing soil disturbance as well as the complexity of the measurements. Several studies have been recently dedicated to the development of inversion methods aimed to extract more information from TDR waveforms, in order to estimate non homogeneous moisture profiles along the axis of the metallic probe used for TDR measurements. A common feature of all these methods is that electromagnetic transient through the wet soil along the probe is mathematically modelled, assuming that the unknown soil water content distribution corresponds to the best agreement between simulated and measured waveforms. In some cases the soil is modelled as a series of small layers with different dielectric properties, and the waveform is obtained as the result of the superposition of multiple reflections arising from impedance

  6. Magnetic stability under magnetic cycling of MgO-based magnetic tunneling junctions with an exchange-biased synthetic antiferromagnetic pinned layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Hao

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the magnetic stability and endurance of MgO-based magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs with an exchange-biased synthetic antiferromagnetic (SAF pinned layer. When a uniaxially cycling switching field is applied along the easy axis of the free magnetic layer, the magnetoresistance varies only by 1.7% logarithmically with the number of cycles, while no such change appears in the case of a rotating field. This observation is consistent with the effect of the formation and motion of domain walls in the free layer, which create significant stray fields within the pinned hard layer. Unlike in previous studies, the decay we observed only occurs during the first few starting cycles (<20, at which point there is no further variance in all performance parameters up to 107 cycles. Exchange-biased SAF structure is ideally suited for solid-state magnetic sensors and magnetic memory devices.

  7. Thermal stability study of the insulator layer in NiFe/CoFe/Al2O3/Co spin-dependent tunnel junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, C.C.; Ho, C.H.; Huang, R.-T.; Chen, F.-R.; Kai, J.J.; Chen, L.-C.; Lin, M.-T.; Yao, Y.D.

    2002-01-01

    Spin-dependent tunnel junction, NiFe/CoFe/Al 2 O 3 /Co//Si, was fabricated to investigate the thermal stability induced diffusion behaviors. The interfacial diffusion causes the degradation of the ratio of the TMR, the enhancement of the switching field of the two magnetic electrodes, the thickness decrease of the insulator layer, and the increase of the interfacial roughness. The outward diffusion of oxygen from the insulator layer is faster than that of aluminum for samples annealed below 400 deg. C. The degradation of the ratio of TMR is attributed to the disturbance of the spin polarization in the magnetic layers, and the increase of the pinholes and spin-flip effect in the insulator layer. The relative roughness between the two interfaces of the insulator induces the surface magnetic dipoles, and hence, increases the switching field of the ferromagnetic electrodes

  8. The electric double layer at a metal electrode in pure water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüesch, Peter; Christen, Thomas

    2004-03-01

    Pure water is a weak electrolyte that dissociates into hydronium ions and hydroxide ions. In contact with a charged electrode a double layer forms for which neither experimental nor theoretical studies exist, in contrast to electrolytes containing extrinsic ions like acids, bases, and solute salts. Starting from a self-consistent solution of the one-dimensional modified Poisson-Boltzmann equation, which takes into account activity coefficients of point-like ions, we explore the properties of the electric double layer by successive incorporation of various correction terms like finite ion size, polarization, image charge, and field dissociation. We also discuss the effect of the usual approximation of an average potential as required for the one-dimensional Poisson-Boltzmann equation, and conclude that the one-dimensional approximation underestimates the ion density. We calculate the electric potential, the ion distributions, the pH-values, the ion-size corrected activity coefficients, and the dissociation constants close to the electric double layer and compare the results for the various model corrections.

  9. Photovoltaic performance and stability of fullerene/cerium oxide double electron transport layer superior to single one in p-i-n perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Zhou; Li, Shu-Hui; Wu, Bao-Shan; Wang, Xin; Wang, Lu-Yao; Wang, Tan; Liu, Hao-Ran; Zhang, Mei-Lin; Yun, Da-Qin; Deng, Lin-Long; Xie, Su-Yuan; Huang, Rong-Bin; Zheng, Lan-Sun

    2018-06-01

    Interface engineering that involves in the metal cathodes and the electron transport layers (ETLs) facilitates the simultaneous improvement of device performances and stability in perovskite solar cells (PSCs). Herein, low-temperature solution-processed cerium oxide (CeOx) films are prepared by a facile sol-gel method and employed as the interface layers between [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM) and an Ag back contact to form PC61BM/CeOx double ETLs. The introduction of CeOx enables electron extraction to the Ag electrode and protects the underlying perovskite layer and thus improves the device performance and stability of the p-i-n PSCs. The p-i-n PSCs with double PC61BM/CeOx ETLs demonstrate a maximum power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 17.35%, which is superior to those of the devices with either PC61BM or CeOx single ETLs. Moreover, PC61BM/CeOx devices exhibit excellent stability in light soaking, which is mainly due to the chemically stable CeOx interlayer. The results indicate that CeOx is a promising interface modification layer for stable high-efficiency PSCs.

  10. The role of Soil Water Retention Curve in slope stability analysis in unsaturated and heterogeneous soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antinoro, Chiara; Arnone, Elisa; Noto, Leonardo V.

    2015-04-01

    The mechanisms of rainwater infiltration causing slope instability had been analyzed and reviewed in many scientific works. Rainwater infiltration into unsaturated soil increases the degree of saturation, hence affecting the shear strength properties and thus the probability of slope failure. It has been widely proved that the shear strength properties change with the soil water suction in unsaturated soils; therefore, the accuracy to predict the relationship between soil water content and soil water suction, parameterized by the soil-water characteristic curve, has significant effects on the slope stability analysis. The aim of this study is to investigate how the characterization of SWRC of differently structured unsaturated soils affects the slope stability on a simple infinite slope. In particular, the unimodal and bimodal distributions of the soil pore size were compared. Samples of 40 soils, highly different in terms of structure and texture, were collected and used to calibrate two bimodal SWRCs, i.e. Ross and Smettem (1993) and Dexter et al., (2008). The traditional unimodal van Genuchten (1980) model was also applied for comparison. Slope stability analysis was conducted in terms of Factor of Safety (FS) by applying the infinite slope model for unsaturated soils. In the used formulation, the contribution of the suction effect is tuned by a parameter 'chi' in a rate proportional to the saturation conditions. Different parameterizations of this term were also compared and analyzed. Results indicated that all three SWRC models showed good overall performance in fitting the sperimental SWRCs. Both the RS and DE models described adequately the water retention data for soils with a bimodal behavior confirmed from the analysis of pore size distribution, but the best performance was obtained by DE model confirmed. In terms of FS, the tree models showed very similar results as soil moisture approached to the saturated condition; however, within the residual zone

  11. Enhancing the water stability of Al-MIL-101-NH2 via postsynthetic modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, Thomas; Siegel, Renée; Reimer, Nele; Milius, Wolfgang; Stock, Norbert; Senker, Jürgen

    2015-01-02

    The resistance of metal-organic frameworks towards water is a very critical issue concerning their practical use. Recently, it was shown for microporous MOFs that the water stability could be increased by introducing hydrophobic pendant groups. Here, we demonstrate a remarkable stabilisation of the mesoporous MOF Al-MIL-101-NH2 by postsynthetic modification with phenyl isocyanate. In this process 86 % of the amino groups were converted into phenylurea units. As a consequence, the long-term stability of Al-MIL-101-URPh in liquid water could be extended beyond a week. In water saturated atmospheres Al-MIL-101-URPh decomposed at least 12-times slower than the unfunctionalised analogue. To study the underlying processes both materials were characterised by Ar, N2 and H2 O sorption measurements, powder X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric and chemical analysis as well as solid-state NMR and IR spectroscopy. Postsynthetic modification decreased the BET equivalent surface area from 3363 to 1555 m(2)  g(-1) for Al-MIL-101-URPh and reduced the mean diameters of the mesopores by 0.6 nm without degrading the structure significantly and reducing thermal stability. In spite of similar water uptake capacities, the relative humidity-dependent uptake of Al-MIL-101-URPh is slowed and occurs at higher relative humidity values. In combination with (1) H-(27) Al D-HMQC NMR spectroscopy experiments this favours a shielding mechanism of the Al clusters by the pendant phenyl groups and rules out pore blocking. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Study of shifting of recombination zone in multi-emissive layer organic light emitting devices and its effect on color stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyagi, Priyanka; Srivastava, Ritu; Kumar, Arunandan; Tuli, Suneet; Kamalasanan, M.N.

    2013-01-01

    Color stability in multi-emissive layer organic light emitting devices (Me-OLEDs) has been investigated. Me-OLEDs were based on multiple emitters with a common host CBP doped with three dopants, BCzVBi, Ir(ppy) 3 and Ir(btp) 2 acac for blue, green and red emission. A major variation in CIE coordinates were found from (0.312, 0.294) to (0.236, 0.267) with increase in voltage from 6 to 9 V. This coordinate shift in Me-OLEDs has been attributed to the shifting of recombination zone with increase in voltage. In order to support our experimental observation, the EL spectrum of Me-OLEDs has been expressed as a linear combination of EL intensities of OLEDs with its individual constituting layers as emitters. In this way, the contribution of each layer in the EL spectrum of Me-OLEDs has been evaluated at each voltage. It has been observed from these calculations that the contribution of red emitter decreases from 47% to 33.33% and blue emitter increases from 38% to 51.67% with the increase in voltage from 6 to 9 V. This supports our hypothesis of shifting of recombination zone with the change in voltage. This shifting has been attributed to the field dependency of electron mobility in CBP. Me-OLED with CBP layers between the emitters was fabricated to improve the color stability. Significant improvement in color stability was achieved without changes in current efficiency in Me-OLED with interlayers. Highlights: ► Me-OLEDs have been fabricated by using three primary colors (RGB). ► CIE coordinates of these Me-OLEDs were voltage dependent. ► Analytical fitting has been performed to study the shifting of recombination zone. ► CBP interlayers have been introduced to improve the color stability. ► Color stability has been improved without any change in current efficiency

  13. Water-stability of soil aggregates in relation to selected properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mbagwu, J.S.C.; Bazzoffi, P.; Unamba Oparah, I.

    1995-03-01

    The stability of soil aggregates in water is an important soil physical property for evaluating the potential of agricultural soils to erode and elucidating the mechanisms of soil erosion. In this study we used aggregates from 15 surface soil samples in Italy to evaluate the influence of intrinsic soil physical, chemical and mineralogical properties on aggregates stability (AS). The aim was to develop a model for predicting AS from a subset of these soil properties. The index of stability used is the mean-weight diameter of water-stable aggregates (MWD). The model developed with soil physical properties alone explained just 42% of variance in MWD and predicted AS in only 20% of test soils. The model developed with mineralogical properties alone explained 70% of variance in MWD and predicted AS in 60% of the test soils. The chemical properties - based model explained 90% of variance in MWD and predicted AS in 80% of the test soils. The best-fit model was developed with soil properties from the physical, chemical and mineralogical subsets. It explained 98% of variance in MWD and predicted AS in 100% of the test soils. This model shows that the most important soil properties which influence the AS of these soils include ratio of total sand to clay, concentrations of iron oxide, magnesium oxide, organic matter, silica/alumina ratio, chlorite, feldspar and muscovite. This indicates that fairly good estimates of the relative stability of these aggregates in water and hence of their potential to erode, requires a knowledge of the physico-chemical and mineralogical properties. (author). 40 refs, 4 tabs

  14. Topology and stability of a water-soybean-oil swirling flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrión, Luis; Herrada, Miguel A.; Shtern, Vladimir N.

    2017-02-01

    This paper reveals and explains the flow topology and instability hidden in an experimental study by Tsai et al. [Tsai et al., Phys. Rev. E 92, 031002(R) (2015)], 10.1103/PhysRevE.92.031002. Water and soybean oil fill a sealed vertical cylindrical container. The rotating top disk induces the meridional circulation and swirl of both fluids. The experiment shows a flattop interface shape and vortex breakdown in the oil flow developing as the rotation strength R eo increases. Our numerical study shows that vortex breakdown occurs in the water flow at R eo=300 and in the oil flow at R eo=941 . As R eo increases, the vortex breakdown cell occupies most of the water domain and approaches the interface at R eo around 600. The rest of the (countercirculating) water separates from the axis as the vortex breakdown cells in the oil and water meet at the interface-axis intersection. This topological transformation of water flow significantly contributes to the development of the flattop shape. It is also shown that the steady axisymmetric flow suffers from shear-layer instability, which emerges in the water domain at R eo=810 .

  15. Stabilization of heavy oil-water emulsions using a bio/chemical emulsifier mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farahbakhsh, A.; Taghizadeh, M.; Movagharnejad, K. [Chemical Engineering Department, Babol University of Technology, Babol (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Yakhchali, B. [National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-11-15

    In this study, the viscosity reduction of heavy oil has been investigated through the formation of oil-water emulsion using a bio/chemical emulsifier mixture. Four bioemulsifiers from indigenous Rhodococcus ergthropolis and Bacillus licheniformis strains were used to stabilize a highly-viscous oil-in-water emulsion. The Taguchi method with an L{sub 9} orthogonal array design was used to investigate the effect of various control factors on the formation of the oil/water emulsions. An emulsion with lowest viscosity was formed using ACO4 strain. The substantial stability of the oil-in-water emulsion allows the heavy oil to be transported practically over long distances or remain stationary for a considerable period of time prior to utilization. As the result of Taguchi analysis, the temperature and concentration of the emulsifier had a significant influence on viscosity reduction of the emulsion. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. Accounting for pore water pressure and confined aquifers in assessing the stability of slopes: a Limit Equilibrium analysis carried out through the Minimum Lithostatic Deviation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausilia Paparo, Maria; Tinti, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    The model we introduce is an implementation of the Minimum Lithostatic Deviation (MLD) method, developed by Tinti and Manucci (Tinti and Manucci 2006; 2008), that makes use of the limit equilibrium (LE) theory to estimate the stability of a slope. The main purpose here is to analyse the role of a confined aquifer on the value of the Safety Factor (F), the parameter that in the LE is used to determine if a slope is stable or unstable. The classical LE methods treat unconfined aquifers by including the water pore pressure in the Mohr-Coulomb failure formula: since the water decreases the friction shear strength, the soil above the sliding surface turns out to be more prone to instability. In case of a confined aquifer, however, due to a presence of impermeable layers, the water is not free to flow into the matrix of the overlying soil. We consider here the assumption of a permeable soil sliding over an impermeable layer, which is an occurrence that is found in several known landslide cases (e.g. Person, 2008; Strout and Tjeltja, 2008; Morgan et al., 2010 for offshore slides; and Palladino and Peck, 1972; Miller and Sias, 1998; Jiao et al. 2005; Paparo et al., 2013 for slopes in proximity of artificial or natural water basins) where clay beds form the potential sliding surface: the water, confined below, pushes along these layers and acts on the sliding body as an external bottom load. We modify the MLD method equations in order to take into account the load due to a confined aquifer and apply the new model to the Vajont case, where many have hypothesised the contribution of a confined aquifer to the failure. Our calculations show that the rain load i) infiltrating directly into the soil body and ii) penetrating into the confined aquifer below the clay layers, in addition with the lowering of the reservoir level, were key factors of destabilization of the Mt Toc flank and caused the disastrous landslide.

  17. A gas production system from methane hydrate layers by hot water injection and BHP control with radial horizontal wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamakawa, T.; Ono, S.; Iwamoto, A.; Sugai, Y.; Sasaki, K. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2010-07-01

    Reservoir characterization of methane hydrate (MH) bearing turbidite channel in the eastern Nankai Trough, in Japan has been performed to develop a gas production strategy. This paper proposed a gas production system from methane hydrate (MH) sediment layers by combining the hot water injection method and bottom hole pressure control at the production well using radial horizontal wells. Numerical simulations of the cylindrical homogeneous MH layer model were performed in order to evaluate gas production characteristics by the depressurization method with bottom hole pressure control. In addition, the effects of numerical block modeling and averaging physical properties of MH layers were presented. According to numerical simulations, combining the existing production system with hot water injection and bottom hole pressure control results in an outward expansion of the hot water chamber from the center of the MH layer with continuous gas production. 10 refs., 15 figs.

  18. A Study on Distribution Measurement and Mechanism of Deformation due to Water Loss of Overburden Layer in Vertical Shaft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunde Piao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on FBG fiber Bragg grating technology and BOTDA distributed optical fiber sensing technology, this study uses fine sand to simulate overburden layer in vertical shaft model equipment. It studies the placing technique and test method for optical fiber sensors in the overburden layer, combined with MODFLOW software to simulate the change of the water head value when the overburden layer is losing water, and obtains the deformation features of overburden layer. The results show, at the beginning of water loss, the vertical deformation increases due to larger hydraulic pressure drop, while the deformation decreases gradually and tends to be stable with the hydraulic pressure drop reducing. The circumferential deformation is closely related to such factors as the distance between each drainage outlet, the variations of water head value, and the method of drainage. The monitoring result based on optical fiber sensing technology is consistent with the characteristics of water loss in overburden layer simulated by MODFLOW software, which shows that the optical fiber sensing technology applied to monitor shaft overburden layer is feasible.

  19. Fissures in rock under water pressure, implications on stability : 3 unusual cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helwig, P.C. [Helwig Hydrotechnique Ltd., St. John' s, NL (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    The presence of water in rock joints has important implications on the stability of rock foundations. Appropriate analyses are needed to assess the stability of dam foundations, abutments and rock walls. This paper presented 3 case studies in which the freezing of seepage flows in rock joints and transient pressure in rock walls were investigated: (1) an assessment of the effects of freezing water in rock joints at the Paradise River arch dam in Newfoundland; (2) stability of rock walls in the unlined power tunnel of the Cat Arm hydroelectric development in Newfoundland due to transient pressures; and (3) assessing the influence of fluctuating water pressures in a stilling basin excavated in rock. After an investigation of the Paradise River canyon walls, a drainage system comprised of peripheral drain holes was drilled into the foundation and walls at regular intervals to intercept seepage flows and to relieve uplift water pressures. However, no special treatment was found for the potential freezing of water in the joints of the dam walls and foundation. The Cat Arm tunnel was used to study the depth at which significant transient pressures can be used to assess rock stability. Rock properties, typical fracture apertures and spacing were assumed and joint deformability was taken into account. An axisymmetric solution was obtained by considering the continuity and flow through an annular element of the rock wall. A finite difference method was used to solve the resulting nonlinear differential equation. In the final case study, blast-damaged rock was undermining the toe of a spillway. A cut-off wall was constructed as a series of drilled, cast-in-place concrete caisson piles. Criteria for the design included extending the cut-off wall to a depth beyond the effects of fluctuating surface pressures. Depth was assessed by considering the transient behaviour of water penetrating a sub-vertical joint subject exposed to fluctuating pressures. Results of the calculations

  20. Increasing the stability of DNA nanostructure templates by atomic layer deposition of Al2O3 and its application in imprinting lithography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyojeong Kim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a method to increase the stability of DNA nanostructure templates through conformal coating with a nanometer-thin protective inorganic oxide layer created using atomic layer deposition (ALD. DNA nanotubes and origami triangles were coated with ca. 2 nm to ca. 20 nm of Al2O3. Nanoscale features of the DNA nanostructures were preserved after the ALD coating and the patterns are resistive to UV/O3 oxidation. The ALD-coated DNA templates were used for a direct pattern transfer to poly(L-lactic acid films.

  1. Soil and surface layer type affect non-rainfall water inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agam, Nurit; Berliner, Pedro; Jiang, Anxia

    2017-04-01

    Non-rainfall water inputs (NRWIs), which include fog deposition, dew formation, and direct water vapor adsorption by the soil, play a vital role in arid and semiarid regions. Environmental conditions, namely radiation, air temperature, air humidity, and wind speed, largely affect the water cycle driven by NRWIs. The substrate type (soil type and the existence/absence of a crust layer) may as well play a major role. Our objective was to quantify the effects of soil type (loess vs. sand) and surface layer (bare vs. crusted) on the gain and posterior evaporation of NRWIs in the Negev Highlands throughout the dry summer season. Four undisturbed soil samples (20 cm diameter and 50 cm depth) were excavated and simultaneously introduced into a PVC tube. Two samples were obtained in the Negev's Boker plain (loess soil) and two in the Nizzana sand dunes in the Western Negev. On one sample from each site the crust was removed while on the remaining one the natural crust was left in place. The samples were brought to the research site at the Jacob Bluestein Institutes for Desert Research, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Israel (31˚08' N, 34˚53' E, 400 meter above the sea level) where they were exposed to the same environmental conditions. The four samples in their PVC tubes were placed on top of scales and the samples mass was continuously monitored. Soil temperatures were monitored at depths of 1, 2, 3, 5 and10 cm in each microlysimeter (ML) using Copper-Constantan thermocouples. The results of particle size distribution indicated that the crust of the loess soil is probably a physical crust, i.e., a crust that forms due to raindroplets impact; while the crust on the sand soil is biological. On most days, the loess soils adsorbed more water than their corresponding sand soil samples. For both soils, the samples for which the crust was removed adsorbed more water than the samples for which it was intact. The difference in daily water adsorption amount between crusted

  2. Impact of Rain Water Infiltration on the Stability of Earth Slopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Farooq Ahmed

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Slope failure occurs very often in natural and man-made slopes which are subjected to frequent changes in ground water level, rapid drawdown, rainfall and earthquakes. The current study discusses the significance of water infiltration, pore water pressure and degree of saturation that affect the stability of earth slopes. Rainwater infiltration not only mechanically reduces the shear strength of a slope material, but also chemically alters the mineral composition of the soil matrix. It results in the alteration of macro structures which in turn decreases the factor of safety. A few case studies are discussed in this paper to quantitatively observe the variation in factor of safety (FOS of various earth slopes by changing the degree of saturation. The results showed that most of the earth slopes get failed or become critical when the degree of saturation approaches to 50 % or more.

  3. Pore water pressures and slope stability: a joint geophysical and geotechnical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrone, Angela; Lapenna, Vincenzo; Vassallo, Roberto; Maio, Caterina Di

    2008-01-01

    Slope stability is influenced by many factors, among which are subsoil structure and pore water pressure distribution. This paper presents a multi-disciplinary approach for the determination of these two factors and for the construction of a reliable model of the subsoil for the slope stability analysis. The case of a clay slope located in the Southern Apennines (Italy) is presented and discussed. Geophysical imaging (2D electrical resistivity tomography—ERT), in situ geotechnical monitoring (measurements of pore pressures and horizontal displacements) and laboratory geotechnical tests (for the determination of index, hydraulic and mechanical properties of soils) have been carried out. The comparison and the integration between ERT images and direct observations of the material extracted from boreholes have allowed us to reconstruct the subsoil stratigraphy with continuity. Thus, a reliable 2D model of the subsoil has been obtained, with well-defined boundaries on which it has been possible to apply appropriate hydraulic conditions. This geotechnical model has been used for studying the pore water pressure distribution and for analysing how the hydraulic boundary conditions—among which rain events—influence the slope stability. Our findings demonstrate the powerful skill of the ERT, if integrated with borehole data, to generate an accurate subsoil model. It is also evident that geophysical imaging can be a source of ambiguity and misjudgement if interpreted without a comparison with geotechnical data

  4. Water-in-Oil Microemulsions for Protein Delivery: Loading Optimization and Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perinelli, Diego R; Cespi, Marco; Pucciarelli, Stefania; Vincenzetti, Silvia; Casettari, Luca; Lam, Jenny K W; Logrippo, Serena; Canala, Elisa; Soliman, Mahmoud E; Bonacucina, Giulia; Palmieri, Giovanni F

    2017-01-01

    Microemulsions are attractive delivery systems for therapeutic proteins and peptides due to their ability to enhance bioavailability. Although different proteins and peptides have been successfully delivered through such ternary systems, no information can be found about protein loading and the formulation stability when such microemulsions are prepared with pharmaceuticallyapproved oils and surfactants. The aim of this work was to optimise a ternary system consisting of water/ ethyl oleate/Span® 80-Tween® 80 and to determine its protein loading capacity and stability, using bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a model of biomolecule. The optimization was carried out using a Central Composite Design and all the prepared formulations were characterised through dynamic light scattering, rheology, optical and polarized microscopy. Subsequently, the maximum loading capacity was determined and the stability of the final microemulsion with the highest content of protein was followed over six months. To investigate the structural features of the protein, BSA was recovered from the microemulsion and analysed through fluorescence spectroscopy. After incorporation of the protein in the microemulsion, a decrease of its aqueous solubility was observed. However, the formulation remained stable over six months and the native-like state of the recovered protein was demonstrated by fluorescence spectroscopy Conclusion: This study demonstrated the feasibility of preparing microemulsions with the highest content of protein and their long-term stability. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  5. Effect of dispersing and stabilizing additives on rheological characteristics of the upgraded brown coal water mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umar, Datin Fatia; Muta'alim; Usui, Hiromoto; Komoda, Yoshiyuki

    2009-01-01

    Upgraded brown coal water mixture (UBCWM) preparation by using an Indonesian upgraded coal produced by upgraded brown coal (UBC) process, was carried out to study the effect of dispersing and stabilizing additives on rheological behavior of the UBCWM. Three kinds of anionic dispersing additives, naphthalene sulfonic formaldehyde condensate (NSF), poly (meth) acrylate (PMA) and poly styrene sulfonic acid (PSS) and three kinds of stabilizing additives, carboxyl methyl cellulose (CMC), rhansam gum (S-194) and gellan gum (S-60) were used in this study. Results indicate that the addition of NSF 0.3 wt.% together with S-194 0.01 wt.% is effective in preparing UBCWM with good slurryability and stability, based on its rheological characteristics with the apparent viscosity at shear rate of 100 s - 1 and yield stress at zero point of shear rate. The rheological behavior of all of the UBCWM that prepared, exhibits non-Newtonian Bingham plastic. From the economical point of view, the price of S-194 is expensive. On the other hand, CMC is cheap and abundant. Therefore, the addition of CMC 0.01 wt.% together with NSF 0.3 wt.% is also effective in preparing UBCWM with good fluidity and stability. (author)

  6. Surface profile gradient in amorphous Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} semi conductive layers regulates nanoscale electric current stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cefalas, A.C., E-mail: ccefalas@eie.gr [National Hellenic Research Foundation, Theoretical and Physical Chemistry Institute, 48 Vassileos Constantinou Avenue, Athens 11635 (Greece); Kollia, Z.; Spyropoulos-Antonakakis, N.; Gavriil, V. [National Hellenic Research Foundation, Theoretical and Physical Chemistry Institute, 48 Vassileos Constantinou Avenue, Athens 11635 (Greece); Christofilos, D.; Kourouklis, G. [Physics Division, School of Technology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki 54124 (Greece); Semashko, V.V.; Pavlov, V. [Kazan Federal University, Institute of Physics, 18 Kremljovskaja str., Kazan 420008 (Russian Federation); Sarantopoulou, E. [National Hellenic Research Foundation, Theoretical and Physical Chemistry Institute, 48 Vassileos Constantinou Avenue, Athens 11635 (Greece); Kazan Federal University, Institute of Physics, 18 Kremljovskaja str., Kazan 420008 (Russian Federation)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • The work links the surface morphology of amorphous semiconductors with both their electric-thermal properties and current stability at the nanoscale (<1 μm). • Measured high correlation value between surface morphological spatial gradient and conductive electron energy spatial gradient or thermal gradient. • Unidirectional current stability is associated with asymmetric nanodomains along nanosize conductive paths. • Bidirectional current stability is inherent with either long conductive paths or nanosize conductive paths along symmetric nanodomains. • Conclusion: Surface design improves current stability across nanoelectonic junctions. - Abstract: A link between the morphological characteristics and the electric properties of amorphous layers is established by means of atomic, conductive, electrostatic force and thermal scanning microscopy. Using amorphous Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} (a-Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}) semiconductive layer, it is found that surface profile gradients (morphological gradient), are highly correlated to both the electron energy gradient of trapped electrons in interactive Coulombic sites and the thermal gradient along conductive paths and thus thermal and electric properties are correlated with surface morphology at the nanoscale. Furthermore, morphological and electron energy gradients along opposite conductive paths of electrons intrinsically impose a current stability anisotropy. For either long conductive paths (L > 1 μm) or along symmetric nanodomains, current stability for both positive and negative currents i is demonstrated. On the contrary, for short conductive paths along non-symmetric nanodomains, the set of independent variables (L, i) is spanned by two current stability/intability loci. One locus specifies a stable state for negative currents, while the other locus also describes a stable state for positive currents.

  7. Electrochemical study of RuO2 and/or TiO2 pyrolytic films on titanium in the range of voltage corresponding to water stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barral, Gerard

    1988-01-01

    This research thesis can be considered as a preliminary part of the investigation of electrocatalytic properties of ruthenium and titanium dioxides. It proposes a presentation of electrochemical properties of interfaces between these oxides and the aqueous electrolyte in a voltage range corresponding to thermodynamic stabilities of water and dioxides. After a bibliographical study of methods of preparation of these materials and on the influence of the preparation mode on their physical characteristics and transient electrochemical behaviours, the author reports a detailed study of the hydrogen atom electro-sorption reaction. He discusses the variation of the main electrostatic characteristics of the space charge layer of various semiconducting phases with respect to the initial electric potential between the ends of this layer. He reports the experimental study of electrodes with porous ruthenium and / or titanium dioxides formed by pyrolysis or co-pyrolysis of chlorides of these metals [fr

  8. Pressure-dependent synthesis of high-quality few-layer graphene by plasma-enhanced arc discharge and their thermal stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Singh, Rajesh Kumar; Dubey, Pawan Kumar; Kumar, Pradip; Tiwari, Radhey Shyam; Oh, Il-Kwon

    2013-01-01

    In this article, a simple and cost-effective method to produce high-quality few-layer graphene (FLG) sheets (∼4 layers) have been achieved by the direct current arc discharge under argon atmosphere, using pure graphite rods as the electrodes. Ar was used as a buffer gas with pure graphite rods as anode and cathode electrodes. We explored the suitable conditions for producing FLG by changing the Ar gas pressure inside the arcing chamber. This method has several advantages over the previous methods to produce graphene for research applications. No toxic and hazardous intercalant was used for producing FLG in this process. The optimum Ar pressure was 500 Torr, for producing minimum number of FLG and this also shows the good thermal stability. The FLG product so obtained has been characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning and electron microscopy, Raman and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Thermal stabilities of FLG were determined by thermal gravimetric analysis

  9. Flexible ITO-free organic solar cells applying aqueous solution-processed V2O5 hole transport layer: An outdoor stability study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Anderson S. Lima

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Solution processable semiconductor oxides have opened a new paradigm for the enhancement of the lifetime of thin film solar cells. Their fabrication by low-cost and environmentally friendly solution-processable methods makes them ideal barrier (hole and electron transport layers. In this work, we fabricate flexible ITO-free organic solar cells (OPV by printing methods applying an aqueous solution-processed V2O5 as the hole transport layer (HTL and compared them to devices applying PEDOT:PSS. The transparent conducting electrode was PET/Ag/PEDOT/ZnO, and the OPV configuration was PET/Ag/PEDOT/ZnO/P3HT:PC60BM/HTL/Ag. Outdoor stability analyses carried out for more than 900 h revealed higher stability for devices fabricated with the aqueous solution-processed V2O5.

  10. Few-layer antimonene decorated microfiber: ultra-short pulse generation and all-optical thresholding with enhanced long term stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yufeng; Liang, Zhiming; Jiang, Xiantao; Chen, Yunxiang; Li, Zhongjun; Lu, Lu; Ge, Yanqi; Wang, Ke; Zheng, Jilin; Lu, Shunbin; Ji, Jianhua; Zhang, Han

    2017-12-01

    Antimonene, a new type of mono/few-layer two-dimensional (2D) mono-elemental material purely consisting of antimony similar as graphene and phosphorene, has been theoretically predicted with excellent optical response and enhanced stability. Herein, we experimentally investigated the broadband nonlinear optical response of highly stable few-layer antimonene (FLA) by performing an open-aperture Z-scan laser measurement. Thanks to the direct bandgap and resonant absorption at the telecommunication band, we demonstrated the feasibility of FLA-decorated microfiber not only as an optical saturable absorber for ultrafast photonics operation, but also as a stable all-optical pulse thresholder that can effectively suppress the transmission noise, boost the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and reshape the deteriorated input signal. Our findings, as the first prototypic device of absorption of antimonene, might facilitate the development of antimonene-based optical communication technologies towards high stability and practical applications in the future.

  11. Zwitterionization of glycine in water environment: Stabilization mechanism and NMR spectral signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde, Danillo; da Costa Ludwig, Zélia Maria; da Costa, Célia Regina; Ludwig, Valdemir; Georg, Herbert C.

    2018-01-01

    At physiological conditions, myriads of biomolecules (e.g., amino acids, peptides, and proteins) exist predominantly in the zwitterionic structural form and their biological functions will result in these conditions. However these geometrical structures are inaccessible energetically in the gas phase, and at this point, stabilization of amino-acids in physiological conditions is still under debate. In this paper, the electronic properties of a glycine molecule in the liquid environment were studied by performing a relaxation of the glycine geometry in liquid water using the free energy gradient method combined with a sequential quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics approach. A series of Monte Carlo Metropolis simulations of the glycine molecule embedded in liquid water, followed by only a quantum mechanical calculation in each of them were carried out. Both the local and global liquid environments were emphasized to obtain nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) parameters for the glycine molecule in liquid water. The results of the equilibrium structure in solution and the systematic study of the hydrogen bonds were used to discard the direct proton transfer from the carboxyl group to the ammonium group of the glycine molecule in water solution. The calculations of the Density Functional Theory (DFT) were performed to study the polarization of the solvent in the parameters of nuclear magnetic resonance of the glycine molecule in liquid water. DFT calculations predicted isotropic chemical changes on the H, C, N, and O atoms of glycine in liquid water solution which agree with the available experimental data.

  12. Study of Water-Oil Emulsion Breaking by Stabilized Solution Consisting of Anionic Surface Acting Agent - Soda Ash - Polymer (ASP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulichkov, S. V.; Avtomonov, E. G.; Andreeva, L. V.; Solomennik, S. F.; Nikitina, A. V.

    2018-01-01

    The paper provides a laboratory research of breaking natural water-oil emulsions: - by non-stabilized ASP; by stabilized ASP; by mixture of stabilized and non-stabilized ASP in different proportions and production of refinery water of the required quality with the use of IronGuard 2495 as flocculant. Oil-in-water emulsion is stable. Classic methods are not suitable for residual water treatment: sediment gravity flow; filtration; centrifuge test. Microemulsion formed after ASP application has low boundary tension and high pH. It contributes to transfer of oil phase into a water one, forming oil-in-water emulsion. Alkaline condition has adverse effect on demulsifying ability of agents, flocculation and boundary tension. For breaking of water-oil emulsion at EBU before the interchanger water or water-oil emulsion from the wells that were not APS-treated in ratio of 1:9 shall be delivered. Residual water after EBU must be prepared in water tanks by dilution in great volume.

  13. Assimilable organic carbon (AOC) variation in reclaimed water: Insight on biological stability evaluation and control for sustainable water reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhuo; Yu, Tong; Ngo, Huu Hao; Lu, Yun; Li, Guoqiang; Wu, Qianyuan; Li, Kuixiao; Bai, Yu; Liu, Shuming; Hu, Hong-Ying

    2018-04-01

    This review highlights the importance of conducting biological stability evaluation due to water reuse progression. Specifically, assimilable organic carbon (AOC) has been identified as a practical indicator for microbial occurrence and regrowth which ultimately influence biological stability. Newly modified AOC bioassays aimed for reclaimed water are introduced. Since elevated AOC levels are often detected after tertiary treatment, the review emphasizes that actions can be taken to either limit AOC levels prior to disinfection or conduct post-treatment (e.g. biological filtration) as a supplement to chemical oxidation based approaches (e.g. ozonation and chlorine disinfection). During subsequent distribution and storage, microbial community and possible microbial regrowth caused by complex interactions are discussed. It is suggested that microbial surveillance, AOC threshold values, real-time field applications and surrogate parameters could provide additional information. This review can be used to formulate regulatory plans and strategies, and to aid in deriving relevant control, management and operational guidance. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A Simple Approach to Enhance the Water Stability of a Metal-Organic Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Yung-Han; Kuo, Yu-Ching; Lirio, Stephen; Wang, Kun-Yun; Lin, Chia-Her; Huang, Hsi-Ya

    2017-01-01

    A facile method to improve the feasibility of water-unstable metal-organic frameworks in an aqueous environment has been developed that involves imbedding in a polymer monolith. The effect of compartment type during polymerization plays a significant role in maintaining the crystalline structure and thermal stability of the MOFs, which was confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), respectively. The MOF-polymer composite prepared in a narrow compartment (column, ID 0.8 mm) has better thermal and chemical stability than that prepared in a broad compartment (vial, ID 7 mm). The developed MOF-polymer composite was applied as an adsorbent in solid-phase microextraction of nine non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and could be used for extraction more than 30 times, demonstrating that the proposed approach has potential for industrial applications. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Oil-in-water emulsions stabilised by cellulose ethers: stability, structure and in vitro digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borreani, Jennifer; Espert, María; Salvador, Ana; Sanz, Teresa; Quiles, Amparo; Hernando, Isabel

    2017-04-19

    The effect of cellulose ethers in oil-in-water emulsions on stability during storage and on texture, microstructure and lipid digestibility during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion was investigated. All the cellulose ether emulsions showed good physical and oxidative stability during storage. In particular, the methylcellulose with high methoxyl substituents (HMC) made it possible to obtain emulsions with high consistency which remained almost unchanged during gastric digestion, and thus could enhance fullness and satiety perceptions at gastric level. Moreover, the HMC emulsion slowed down lipid digestion to a greater extent than a conventional protein emulsion or the emulsions stabilised by the other cellulose ethers. Therefore, HMC emulsions could be used in weight management to increase satiation capacity and decrease lipid digestion.

  16. Single layers and multilayers of GaN and AlN in square-octagon structure: Stability, electronic properties, and functionalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürbüz, E.; Cahangirov, S.; Durgun, E.; Ciraci, S.

    2017-11-01

    Further to planar single-layer hexagonal structures, GaN and AlN can also form free-standing, single-layer structures constructed from squares and octagons. We performed an extensive analysis of dynamical and thermal stability of these structures in terms of ab initio finite-temperature molecular dynamics and phonon calculations together with the analysis of Raman and infrared active modes. These single-layer square-octagon structures of GaN and AlN display directional mechanical properties and have wide, indirect fundamental band gaps, which are smaller than their hexagonal counterparts. These density functional theory band gaps, however, increase and become wider upon correction. Under uniaxial and biaxial tensile strain, the fundamental band gaps decrease and can be closed. The electronic and magnetic properties of these single-layer structures can be modified by adsorption of various adatoms, or by creating neutral cation-anion vacancies. The single-layer structures attain magnetic moment by selected adatoms and neutral vacancies. In particular, localized gap states are strongly dependent on the type of vacancy. The energetics, binding, and resulting electronic structure of bilayer, trilayer, and three-dimensional (3D) layered structures constructed by stacking the single layers are affected by vertical chemical bonds between adjacent layers. In addition to van der Waals interaction, these weak vertical bonds induce buckling in planar geometry and enhance their binding, leading to the formation of stable 3D layered structures. In this respect, these multilayers are intermediate between van der Waals solids and wurtzite crystals, offering a wide range of tunability.

  17. Determining water sources in the boundary layer from tall tower profiles of water vapor and surface water isotope ratios after a snowstorm in Colorado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Noone

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The D/H isotope ratio is used to attribute boundary layer humidity changes to the set of contributing fluxes for a case following a snowstorm in which a snow pack of about 10 cm vanished. Profiles of H2O and CO2 mixing ratio, D/H isotope ratio, and several thermodynamic properties were measured from the surface to 300 m every 15 min during four winter days near Boulder, Colorado. Coeval analysis of the D/H ratios and CO2 concentrations find these two variables to be complementary with the former being sensitive to daytime surface fluxes and the latter particularly indicative of nocturnal surface sources. Together they capture evidence for strong vertical mixing during the day, weaker mixing by turbulent bursts and low level jets within the nocturnal stable boundary layer during the night, and frost formation in the morning. The profiles are generally not well described with a gradient mixing line analysis because D/H ratios of the end members (i.e., surface fluxes and the free troposphere evolve throughout the day which leads to large uncertainties in the estimate of the D/H ratio of surface water flux. A mass balance model is constructed for the snow pack, and constrained with observations to provide an optimal estimate of the partitioning of the surface water flux into contributions from sublimation, evaporation of melt water in the snow and evaporation from ponds. Results show that while vapor measurements are important in constraining surface fluxes, measurements of the source reservoirs (soil water, snow pack and standing liquid offer stronger constraint on the surface water balance. Measurements of surface water are therefore essential in developing observational programs that seek to use isotopic data for flux attribution.

  18. Removal of bacteria and viruses from waters using layered double hydroxide nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Jin et al

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We have identified synthetic layered double hydroxides (LDH nanocomposites as an effective group of material for removing bacteria and viruses from water. In this study, LDH nanocomposites were synthesized and tested for removing biological contaminants. LDH was used to remove MS2 and X174 (indicator viruses, and Escherichia coli (an indicator bacterium from synthetic groundwater and to remove mixed communities of heterotrophic bacteria from raw river water. Our results indicate that LDH composed of magnesium–aluminium or zinc–aluminium has a viral and bacterial adsorption efficiency ≥99% at viral concentrations between 5.9×106 and 9.1×106 plaque forming units (pfu/L and bacterial concentrations between 1.6×1010 and 2.6×1010 colony forming units (cfu/L when exposed to LDH in a slurry suspension system. Adsorption densities of viruses and bacteria to LDH in suspension ranged from 1.4×1010 to 2.1×1010 pfu/kg LDH and 3.2×1013–5.2×1013 cfu/kg LDH, respectively. We also tested the efficiency of LDH in removing heterotrophic bacteria from raw river water. While removal efficiencies were still high (87–99%, the adsorption capacities of the two kinds of LDH were 4–5 orders of magnitude lower than when exposed to synthetic groundwater, depending on if the LDH was in suspension or a packed column, respectively.

  19. Single-layer group IV-V and group V-IV-III-VI semiconductors: Structural stability, electronic structures, optical properties, and photocatalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jia-He; Zhang, Hong; Cheng, Xin-Lu; Miyamoto, Yoshiyuki

    2017-07-01

    Recently, single-layer group III monochalcogenides have attracted both theoretical and experimental interest at their potential applications in photonic devices, electronic devices, and solar energy conversion. Excited by this, we theoretically design two kinds of highly stable single-layer group IV-V (IV =Si ,Ge , and Sn; V =N and P) and group V-IV-III-VI (IV =Si ,Ge , and Sn; V =N and P; III =Al ,Ga , and In; VI =O and S) compounds with the same structures with single-layer group III monochalcogenides via first-principles simulations. By using accurate hybrid functional and quasiparticle methods, we show the single-layer group IV-V and group V-IV-III-VI are indirect bandgap semiconductors with their bandgaps and band edge positions conforming to the criteria of photocatalysts for water splitting. By applying a biaxial strain on single-layer group IV-V, single-layer group IV nitrides show a potential on mechanical sensors due to their bandgaps showing an almost linear response for strain. Furthermore, our calculations show that both single-layer group IV-V and group V-IV-III-VI have absorption from the visible light region to far-ultraviolet region, especially for single-layer SiN-AlO and SnN-InO, which have strong absorption in the visible light region, resulting in excellent potential for solar energy conversion and visible light photocatalytic water splitting. Our research provides valuable insight for finding more potential functional two-dimensional semiconductors applied in optoelectronics, solar energy conversion, and photocatalytic water splitting.

  20. The Effect of Oxygen Partial Pressure during Active Layer Deposition on Bias Stability of a-InGaZnO TFTs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Xiao-Ming; Zhu Hong-Bo; Wang Yong-Jin; Wu Chen-Fei; Lu Hai; Ren Fang-Fang

    2015-01-01

    The effect of oxygen partial pressure (P_O_2) during the channel layer deposition on bias stability of amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide (a-IGZO) thin film transistors (TFTs) is investigated. As P_O_2 increases from 10% to 30%, it is found that the device shows enhanced bias stress stability with significantly reduced threshold voltage drift under positive gate bias stress. Based on the x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurement, the concentration of oxygen vacancies (O_V) within the a-IGZO layer is suppressed by increasing P_O_2. Meanwhile, the low-frequency noise analysis indicates that the average trap density near the channel/dielectric interface continuously drops with increasing P_O_2. Therefore, the improved interface quality with increasing P_O_2 during the channel layer deposition can be attributed to the reduction of interface O_V-related defects, which agrees with the enhanced bias stress stability of the a-IGZO TFTs. (paper)

  1. Enhanced Column Filtration for Arsenic Removal from Water: Polymer-Templated Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Immobilized on Sand via Layer-by-Layer Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Calvin Chia-Hung

    Arsenic is ubiquitous in water sources around the world and is highly toxic. While precipitation and membrane filtration techniques are successfully implemented in developed cities, they are unsuitable for rural and low-resource settings lacking centralized facilities. This thesis presents the use of ultra-small iron oxide (Fe2O3) nanoparticles functionalized on sand granules for use as a house-hold scale adsorption filter. Water-stable alpha-Fe2O3 (hematite) nanoparticles (arsenic adsorption, with 147 +/- 2 mg As(III) per g Fe2O3 and 91 +/- 10 mg As(V) per g Fe2O3. The platform was also used to synthesize iron-based composites, including magnetite (Fe 3O4) and Fe-Cu oxide nanoparticles. For use as a column filter, Fe2O3-PAA nanoparticles were functionalized on sand granules using a layer-by-layer deposition method, with the nanoparticles embedded in the negative layer. The removal of As(III) by the Fe2O 3-PAA functionalized column was described by reversible 1st order kinetics where the forward and reverse rate constants were 0.31 hr -1 and 0.097 hr-1, respectively. Implemented as a passive water filter with 30 x 30 x 50 cm3 dimensions, the filter has an expected lifetime in the order of many years. By controlling the flow rate of the column depending on contamination levels, the filter effectively removes arsenic down to the safety limit of 0.01 mg/L. In a parallel project, the layer-by-layer deposition of Poly(diallydimethyl ammonium chloride) (PDDA) and poly(sodium 5-styrenesulfonate) (PSS) was exploited for a highly practical synthesis of discrete gradient surfaces. By independently controlling the concentration of NaCl in PDDA and PSS deposition solutions, a 2-dimensional matrix of surfaces was created in 96-well microtiter plates. Distinct non-monotonic dye adsorption patterns on the gradient surfaces was observed. Practical knowledge from this project was also used to enhance the nanoparticle surface functionalization described above. In all, a practical

  2. Investigation of 3D Shock-Boundary Layer Interaction: A Combined Approach using Experiments, Numerical Simulations and Stability Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-02

    layer , the non-reflecting boundary condition suggested by Poinsot and Lele is adopted.38 On the flat – plate surface, the no-penetration (v = 0) and the no...Introduction Shock-wave boundary layer interactions (SBLIs) occur in most supersonic flight applications and have been the subject of many studies...generator plate is emulated to create an oblique shock that impinges on the boundary layer causing separation. This is similar to the experimental

  3. Poly(methyl methacrylate)/layered zinc sulfide nanocomposites: Preparation, characterization and the improvements in thermal stability, flame retardant and optical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Biao; Zhou, Keqing; Jiang, Saihua [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Shi, Yongqian [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Suzhou Key Laboratory of Urban Public Safety, Suzhou Institute for Advanced Study, University of Science and Technology of China, 166 Ren’ai Road, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China); Wang, Bibo [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Gui, Zhou, E-mail: zgui@ustc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Hu, Yuan, E-mail: yuanhu@ustc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Suzhou Key Laboratory of Urban Public Safety, Suzhou Institute for Advanced Study, University of Science and Technology of China, 166 Ren’ai Road, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Layered zinc sulfide (LZnS) was synthesized successfully via hydrothermal method. • We prepare PMMA/LZnS nanocomposites by in situ bulk polymerization of MMA. • PMMA/LZnS nanocomposites were investigated by TGA, DSC, MCC, UV–vis and PL test. • The thermal stability, flame retardant and optical properties of PMMA are improved. - Abstract: Layered zinc sulfide (LZnS) was synthesized successfully via hydrothermal method and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)/layered zinc sulfide nanocomposites were obtained by in situ bulk polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA). X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to characterize the as-synthesized layered zinc sulfide and PMMA/layered zinc sulfide nanocomposites. Microscale combustion calorimeter (MCC), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were used to test the thermal properties of the composites. Ultraviolet visible (UV–vis) transmittance spectra and photoluminence (PL) spectra were obtained to investigate the optical properties of the composites. From the results, the thermal degradation temperature is increased by 20–50 °C, the peak of heat release rate (pHRR) and total heat release (THR) are both decreased by above 30%, and the photoluminence intensity is enhanced with the increasing loading of layered zinc sulfide.

  4. Poly(methyl methacrylate)/layered zinc sulfide nanocomposites: Preparation, characterization and the improvements in thermal stability, flame retardant and optical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Biao; Zhou, Keqing; Jiang, Saihua; Shi, Yongqian; Wang, Bibo; Gui, Zhou; Hu, Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Layered zinc sulfide (LZnS) was synthesized successfully via hydrothermal method. • We prepare PMMA/LZnS nanocomposites by in situ bulk polymerization of MMA. • PMMA/LZnS nanocomposites were investigated by TGA, DSC, MCC, UV–vis and PL test. • The thermal stability, flame retardant and optical properties of PMMA are improved. - Abstract: Layered zinc sulfide (LZnS) was synthesized successfully via hydrothermal method and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)/layered zinc sulfide nanocomposites were obtained by in situ bulk polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA). X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to characterize the as-synthesized layered zinc sulfide and PMMA/layered zinc sulfide nanocomposites. Microscale combustion calorimeter (MCC), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were used to test the thermal properties of the composites. Ultraviolet visible (UV–vis) transmittance spectra and photoluminence (PL) spectra were obtained to investigate the optical properties of the composites. From the results, the thermal degradation temperature is increased by 20–50 °C, the peak of heat release rate (pHRR) and total heat release (THR) are both decreased by above 30%, and the photoluminence intensity is enhanced with the increasing loading of layered zinc sulfide

  5. Elucidating the mechanical effects of pore water pressure increase on the stability of unsaturated soil slopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscarnera, G.

    2012-12-01

    The increase of the pore water pressure due to rain infiltration can be a dominant component in the activation of slope failures. This paper shows an application of the theory of material stability to the triggering analysis of this important class of natural hazards. The goal is to identify the mechanisms through which the process of suction removal promotes the initiation of mechanical instabilities. The interplay between increase in pore water pressure, and failure mechanisms is investigated at material point level. In order to account for multiple failure mechanisms, the second-order work criterion is used and different stability indices are devised. The paper shows that the theory of material stability can assess the risk of shear failure and static liquefaction in both saturated and unsaturated contexts. It is shown that the combined use of an enhanced definition of second-order work for unsaturated porous media and a hydro-mechanical constitutive framework enables to retrieve bifurcation conditions for water-infiltration processes in unsaturated deposits. This finding discloses the importance of the coupling terms that incorporate the interaction between the solid skeleton and the pore fluids. As a consequence, these theoretical results suggest that some material properties that are not directly associated with the shearing resistance (e.g., the potential for wetting compaction) can play an important role in the initiation of slope failures. According to the proposed interpretation, the process of pore pressure increase can be understood as a trigger of uncontrolled strains, which at material point level are reflected by the onset of bifurcation conditions.

  6. The Enhanced Catalytic Performance and Stability of Rh/γ-Al2O3 Catalyst Synthesized by Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD for Methane Dry Reforming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunlin Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Rh/γ-Al2O3 catalysts were synthesized by both incipient wetness impregnation (IWI and atomic layer deposition (ALD. The TEM images of the two catalysts showed that the catalyst from ALD had smaller particle size, and narrower size distribution. The surface chemical states of both catalysts were investigated by both XPS and X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES, and the catalyst from IWI had higher concentration of Rh3+ than that from ALD. The catalytic performance of both catalysts was tested in the dry reforming of methane reaction. The catalyst from ALD showed a higher conversion and selectivity than that from IWI. The stability testing results indicated that the catalyst from ALD showed similar stability to that from IWI at 500 °C, but higher stability at 800 °C.

  7. The Enhanced Catalytic Performance and Stability of Rh/γ-Al₂O₃ Catalyst Synthesized by Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) for Methane Dry Reforming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yunlin; Jiang, Jing; Zhu, Chaosheng; Li, Lili; Li, Quanliang; Ding, Yongjie; Yang, Weijie

    2018-01-22

    Rh/γ-Al₂O₃ catalysts were synthesized by both incipient wetness impregnation (IWI) and atomic layer deposition (ALD). The TEM images of the two catalysts showed that the catalyst from ALD had smaller particle size, and narrower size distribution. The surface chemical states of both catalysts were investigated by both XPS and X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES), and the catalyst from IWI had higher concentration of Rh 3+ than that from ALD. The catalytic performance of both catalysts was tested in the dry reforming of methane reaction. The catalyst from ALD showed a higher conversion and selectivity than that from IWI. The stability testing results indicated that the catalyst from ALD showed similar stability to that from IWI at 500 °C, but higher stability at 800 °C.

  8. Development of gas diffusion layer using water based carbon slurry for proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, J.F.; Liu, X.; Adame, A.; Villacorta, R. [Fuel Cell Research Laboratory, Engineering Technology Department, Arizona State University, Mesa, AZ 85212 (United States); Wertz, J. [Hollingsworth and Vose Co., A.K. Nicholson Research Lab, 219 Townsend Road, West Groton, MA 01472 (United States); Ahmad, R.; Thommes, M. [Quantachrome Instruments, 1900 Corporate Drive, Boynton Beach, FL 33426 (United States); Kannan, A.M., E-mail: amk@asu.ed [Fuel Cell Research Laboratory, Engineering Technology Department, Arizona State University, Mesa, AZ 85212 (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The micro-porous layer of gas diffusion layers (GDLs) was fabricated with the carbon slurry dispersed in water containing sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), by wire rod coating process. The aqueous carbon slurry with micelle-encapsulation was highly consistent and stable without losing any homogeneity even after adding polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) binder for hundreds of hours. The surface morphology, contact angle and pore size distribution of the GDLs were examined using SEM, Goniometer and Hg Porosimeter, respectively. GDLs fabricated with various SDS concentrations were assembled into MEAs and evaluated in a single cell PEMFC under diverse operating relative humidity (RH) conditions using H{sub 2}/O{sub 2} and H{sub 2}/air as reactants. The peak power density of the single cell using the GDLs with optimum SDS concentration was 1400 and 500 mW cm{sup -2} with H{sub 2}/O{sub 2} and H{sub 2}/air at 90% RH, respectively. GDLs were also fabricated with isopropyl alcohol (IPA) based carbon slurry for fuel cell performance comparison. It was found that the composition of the carbon slurry, specifically SDS concentration played a critical role in controlling the pore diameter as well as the corresponding pore volumes of the GDLs.

  9. A note on relative equilibria in a rotating shallow water layer

    KAUST Repository

    Ait Abderrahmane, Hamid

    2013-05-08

    Relative equilibria of two and three satellite vortices in a rotating shallow water layer have been recorded via particle image velocimetry (PIV) and their autorotation speed was estimated. This study shows that these equilibria retain the fundamental characteristics of Kelvin\\'s equilibria, and could be adequately described by the classical idealized point vortex theory. The same conclusion can also be inferred using the experimental dataset of Bergmann et al. (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 679, 2011, pp. 415-431; J. Fluid Mech., vol. 691, 2012, pp. 605-606) if the assigned field\\'s contribution to pattern rotation is included. © 2013 Cambridge University Press.

  10. Liquid water breakthrough location distances on a gas diffusion layer of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Junliang; Froning, Dieter; Reimer, Uwe; Lehnert, Werner

    2018-06-01

    The lattice Boltzmann method is adopted to simulate the three dimensional dynamic process of liquid water breaking through the gas diffusion layer (GDL) in the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell. 22 micro-structures of Toray GDL are built based on a stochastic geometry model. It is found that more than one breakthrough locations are formed randomly on the GDL surface. Breakthrough location distance (BLD) are analyzed statistically in two ways. The distribution is evaluated statistically by the Lilliefors test. It is concluded that the BLD can be described by the normal distribution with certain statistic characteristics. Information of the shortest neighbor breakthrough location distance can be the input modeling setups on the cell-scale simulations in the field of fuel cell simulation.

  11. Effect of water layer at the SiO2/graphene interface on pentacene morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhikara, Manisha; Pavlica, Egon; Matković, Aleksandar; Gajić, Radoš; Bratina, Gvido

    2014-10-07

    Atomic force microscopy has been used to examine early stages of pentacene growth on exfoliated single-layer graphene transferred to SiO2 substrates. We have observed 2D growth with mean height of 1.5 ± 0.2 nm on as-transferred graphene. Three-dimensional islands of pentacene with an average height of 11 ± 2 nm were observed on graphene that was annealed at 350 °C prior to pentacene growth. Compellingly similar 3D morphology has been observed on graphene transferred onto SiO2 that was treated with hexamethyldisilazane prior to the transfer of graphene. On multilayer graphene we have observed 2D growth, regardless of the treatment of SiO2. We interpret this behavior of pentacene molecules in terms of the influence of the dipolar field that emerges from the water monolayer at the graphene/SiO2 interface on the surface energy of graphene.

  12. Quality of Irrigation Water Affects Soil Functionality and Bacterial Community Stability in Response to Heat Disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenk, Sammy; Hadar, Yitzhak; Minz, Dror

    2018-02-15

    Anthropogenic activities alter the structure and function of a bacterial community. Furthermore, bacterial communities structured by the conditions the anthropogenic activities present may consequently reduce their stability in response to an unpredicted acute disturbance. The present mesocosm-scale study exposed soil bacterial communities to different irrigation water types, including freshwater, fertilized freshwater, treated wastewater, and artificial wastewater, and evaluated their response to a disturbance caused by heat. These effectors may be considered deterministic and stochastic forces common in agricultural operations of arid and semiarid regions. Bacterial communities under conditions of high mineral and organic carbon availability (artificial wastewater) differed from the native bacterial community and showed a proteobacterial dominance. These bacterial communities had a lower resistance to the heat treatment disturbance than soils under conditions of low resource availability (high-quality treated wastewater or freshwater). The latter soil bacterial communities showed a higher abundance of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) classified as Bacilli These results were elucidated by soil under conditions of high resource availability, which lost higher degrees of functional potential and had a greater bacterial community composition change. However, the functional resilience, after the disturbance ended, was higher under a condition of high resource availability despite the bacterial community composition shift and the decrease in species richness. The functional resilience was directly connected to the high growth rates of certain Bacteroidetes and proteobacterial groups. A high stability was found in samples that supported the coexistence of both resistant OTUs and fast-growing OTUs. IMPORTANCE This report presents the results of a study employing a hypothesis-based experimental approach to reveal the forces involved in determining the stability of a

  13. Investigation of boiling water reactor stability and limit-cycle amplitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damiano, B.; March-Leuba, J.A.; Euler, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    Galerkin's method has been applied to a boiling water reactor (BWR) dynamics model consisting of the point kinetics equations, which describe the neutronics, and a feedback transfer function, which describes the thermal hydraulics. The result is a low-order approximate solution describing BWR behavior during small-amplitude limit-cycle oscillations. The approximate solution has been used to obtain a stability condition, show that the average reactor power must increase during limit-cycle oscillations, and qualitatively determine how changes in transfer function values affect the limit-cycle amplitude. 6 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs