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Sample records for water intake structurerequirements

  1. Energy penalty analysis of possible cooling water intake structurerequirements on existing coal-fired power plants.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J. A.; Littleton, D. J.; Gross, R. W.; Smith, D. N.; Parsons, E.L., Jr.; Shelton, W. W.; Feeley, T. J.; McGurl, G. V.

    2006-11-27

    Section 316(b) of the Clean Water Act requires that cooling water intake structures must reflect the best technology available for minimizing adverse environmental impact. Many existing power plants in the United States utilize once-through cooling systems to condense steam. Once-through systems withdraw large volumes (often hundreds of millions of gallons per day) of water from surface water bodies. As the water is withdrawn, fish and other aquatic organisms can be trapped against the screens or other parts of the intake structure (impingement) or if small enough, can pass through the intake structure and be transported through the cooling system to the condenser (entrainment). Both of these processes can injure or kill the organisms. EPA adopted 316(b) regulations for new facilities (Phase I) on December 18, 2001. Under the final rule, most new facilities could be expected to install recirculating cooling systems, primarily wet cooling towers. The EPA Administrator signed proposed 316(b) regulations for existing facilities (Phase II) on February 28, 2002. The lead option in this proposal would allow most existing facilities to achieve compliance without requiring them to convert once-through cooling systems to recirculating systems. However, one of the alternate options being proposed would require recirculating cooling in selected plants. EPA is considering various options to determine best technology available. Among the options under consideration are wet-cooling towers and dry-cooling towers. Both types of towers are considered to be part of recirculating cooling systems, in which the cooling water is continuously recycled from the condenser, where it absorbs heat by cooling and condensing steam, to the tower, where it rejects heat to the atmosphere before returning to the condenser. Some water is lost to evaporation (wet tower only) and other water is removed from the recirculating system as a blow down stream to control the building up of suspended and

  2. Safe Drinking Water Information System (SDWIS) Surface Water Intakes

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This is a point feature dataset showing the locations of surface water intakes. These intake locations are part of the safe drinking water information system...

  3. Daily water and beverages intake in Slovenia

    OpenAIRE

    Aleš Petrovič; Ivanka Gale; Aleksandra Žalar

    2011-01-01

    Background: The purpose of our study on water and beverages consumption was to obtain data on the total daily intake and distribution of different types of beverages and the association of their consumption with some biological and socio-demographic characteristics of the Slovene population. Methods: Previously, a survey was performed on food intake habits of the adult population of Slovenia, which was carried out on a representative population sample in the form of a personal interview wi...

  4. 40 CFR 401.14 - Cooling water intake structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Cooling water intake structures. 401.14... AND STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS § 401.14 Cooling water intake structures. The location, design, construction and capacity of cooling water intake structures of any point source for which a standard is...

  5. Comparison water intake sheep under of the voluntary feed and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    captive conditions. F. Vorster. Jonkershoek Nature Conservation Station, Private Bag 5014,. Stellenbosch 7599, Republic of South Africa. R.C. Bigalke .... The average dry-matter intake. Table 3 Volume of water drunk by springbok and two breeds of sheep (ml H:!O/g DM intake/d). Ration. Animal species. A. B. C. D. Average ...

  6. Does eating slowly influence appetite and energy intake when water intake is controlled?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Ana M; Kresge, Daniel L; Teixeira, Pedro J; Baptista, Fátima; Melanson, Kathleen J

    2012-11-21

    Slow eating has been associated with enhanced satiation, but also with increased water intake. Therefore, the role of water ingestion in regard to eating rate needs to be discerned. This study examined the influence of eating rate on appetite regulation and energy intake when water intake is controlled. In a randomized design, slow and fast eating rates were compared on two occasions, in 30 women (22.7±1.2 y; BMI=22.4±0.4 kg/m²) who consumed an ad libitum mixed-macronutrient lunch with water (300 mL). Satiation was examined as the main outcome by measuring energy intake during meals. At designated times, subjects rated hunger, satiety, desire-to-eat, thirst, and meal palatability on visual analogue scales. Paired t-tests were used to compare hypothesis-driven outcomes. Appetite ratings were compared across time points and conditions by repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) using a within-subject model. Energy intake and appetite ratings did not differ between conditions at meal completion. However, subjects rated less hunger and tended to rate lower desire-to-eat and greater satiety at 1 hour following the slow condition. Results tend to support a role of slow eating on decreased hunger and higher inter-meal satiety when water intake is controlled. However, the lack of significant differences in energy intake under these conditions indicates that water intake may account for the effects of eating rate on appetite regulation.

  7. Water intake and consumption in sheep differing in growth potential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water intake and consumption in sheep differing in growth potential and adaptability. S.J. Schoeman* and J.A. Visser. Department of Animal and Wildlife Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, 0002 Republic of South Africa. Received I0 February 1995; accepted 18 July 1995. Water intake, efficiency and consumption of ...

  8. Water intake and consumption in sheep differing in growth potential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water intake, efficiency and consumption of 30 growing individually fed Blackhead Persian, Dorper and South African Mutton Merino (Mutton Merino) ewe lambs were investigated.A veraged aily water intakes were2.2,4.6 and 5.4 litre for the BlackheadP ersian,D orper and Mutton Menno, respectively.T he BlackheadP ...

  9. Optimal water intake for the elderly: prevention of hypotremia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Siregar

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim The prevalence of hyponatremia in the elderly is quite high due to the rising of ADH and ANP concentrations which are part of eight physiologic changes. The complications are quite specific, among others, increased risk of bone fracture, declining of conciousness, and convulsion. The frequent cause of hyponatremia is high water intake. To achieve the optimal water intake designated as the highest water intake that did not cause hyponatremia and hypovolemia.Methods A study was conducted on 31 healthy elderly subjects, selected from 107 persons using simple random sampling and exclusion criteria. By block randomisation were classified into five water-intake groups (1000-2500 mL.Results In this study, it could be proved that 1000 mL was the optimal. It was also unraveled that the ADH levels had a role in determining the water intake volume that did not cause hyponatremia and NT-proBNP concentrations did not correlate with spot urine sodium.Conclusion The optimal water intake for the elderly is 1000 mL per day. (Med J Indones 2009; 18: 18-24Keywords: Hyponatremia, healthy elderly, water intake

  10. The impact of water intake on energy intake and weight status: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Daniels, Melissa C.; Popkin, Barry M.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of consuming water with meals rather than drinking no beverage or various other beverages remains under-studied. This systematic review of English language studies compared the effects of drinking water and various beverage alternatives on energy intake and/or weight status. We collected relevant clinical trials, epidemiologic, and intervention studies and summarized findings across the literature. Using clinical trials, average differences in total energy intake at test meals (ΔT...

  11. Power plant intakes performance in low flow water bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser M. Shawky

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to study the hot water recirculation at the power plants intakes due to the discharge from the plant cooling system into a low flow receiving water body. To achieve this objective, a 3Dnumerical model was employed to study the effect of the main parameters in this phenomena such as the plant intake length (L, the distance between the plant intake and outfall (S, the water depth under the intake skimmer wall (h and the water depth just upstream the intake (D on the recirculation of hot water to the plant intake. Eight scenarios were tested and two mathematical formulas accounting for the effect of these parameters on the hot water concentration at the plant intake were deduced. Physical model tests were carried out to verify the accuracy of the two deduced formulas. The study results indicated that the measured thermal concentrations in the physical model tests coincide with those calculated by the two above-mentioned mathematical formulas.

  12. Does eating slowly influence appetite and energy intake when water intake is controlled?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrade Ana M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Slow eating has been associated with enhanced satiation, but also with increased water intake. Therefore, the role of water ingestion in regard to eating rate needs to be discerned. This study examined the influence of eating rate on appetite regulation and energy intake when water intake is controlled. Methods In a randomized design, slow and fast eating rates were compared on two occasions, in 30 women (22.7±1.2y; BMI=22.4±0.4kg/m2 who consumed an ad libitum mixed-macronutrient lunch with water (300 mL. Satiation was examined as the main outcome by measuring energy intake during meals. At designated times, subjects rated hunger, satiety, desire-to-eat, thirst, and meal palatability on visual analogue scales. Paired t-tests were used to compare hypothesis-driven outcomes. Appetite ratings were compared across time points and conditions by repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA using a within-subject model. Results Energy intake and appetite ratings did not differ between conditions at meal completion. However, subjects rated less hunger and tended to rate lower desire-to-eat and greater satiety at 1 hour following the slow condition. Conclusions Results tend to support a role of slow eating on decreased hunger and higher inter-meal satiety when water intake is controlled. However, the lack of significant differences in energy intake under these conditions indicates that water intake may account for the effects of eating rate on appetite regulation.

  13. Total Water Intake from Beverages and Foods Is Associated with Energy Intake and Eating Behaviors in Korean Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Won Lee

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Water is essential for the proper functioning of the body. Even though a recommendation exists for adequate water intake for Koreans, studies identifying actual water intake from all beverages and foods consumed daily in the Korean population are limited. Thus, we estimated total water intake from both beverages and foods and its association with energy intake and eating behaviors in Korean adults. We used a nationally representative sample of 25,122 Korean adults aged ≥19 years, from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–2012. We performed multiple regression analyses, adjusting for sociodemographic and health-related variables to investigate the contribution of overall energy and dietary intakes and eating behaviors to total water intake. The mean total water intake excluding plain water was 1071 g (398 g from beverages and 673 g from foods and the estimated plain water intake was 1.3 L. Among Korean adults, 82% consumed beverages (excluding plain water and these beverages contributed to 10% of daily energy intake and 32% of total water intake from beverages and foods. For every 100 kcal/day in energy intake, water intake consumed through beverages and foods increased by 18 g and 31 g, respectively. Water intake from beverages and foods was positively associated with energy from fat and dietary calcium, but inversely associated with energy density and energy from carbohydrates. When there was a 5% increase in energy intake from snacks and eating outside the home, there was an increase in water intake from beverages of 13 g and 2 g, respectively. Increased daily energy intake, the number of eating episodes, and energy intake from snacks and eating outside the home predicted higher water intake from beverages and foods. Our results provide evidence suggesting that various factors, including sociodemographic status, dietary intakes, and eating behaviors, could be important contributors to the water intake of Korean

  14. Total Water Intake from Beverages and Foods Is Associated with Energy Intake and Eating Behaviors in Korean Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung Won; Shin, Dayeon; Song, Won O

    2016-10-04

    Water is essential for the proper functioning of the body. Even though a recommendation exists for adequate water intake for Koreans, studies identifying actual water intake from all beverages and foods consumed daily in the Korean population are limited. Thus, we estimated total water intake from both beverages and foods and its association with energy intake and eating behaviors in Korean adults. We used a nationally representative sample of 25,122 Korean adults aged ≥19 years, from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2012. We performed multiple regression analyses, adjusting for sociodemographic and health-related variables to investigate the contribution of overall energy and dietary intakes and eating behaviors to total water intake. The mean total water intake excluding plain water was 1071 g (398 g from beverages and 673 g from foods) and the estimated plain water intake was 1.3 L. Among Korean adults, 82% consumed beverages (excluding plain water) and these beverages contributed to 10% of daily energy intake and 32% of total water intake from beverages and foods. For every 100 kcal/day in energy intake, water intake consumed through beverages and foods increased by 18 g and 31 g, respectively. Water intake from beverages and foods was positively associated with energy from fat and dietary calcium, but inversely associated with energy density and energy from carbohydrates. When there was a 5% increase in energy intake from snacks and eating outside the home, there was an increase in water intake from beverages of 13 g and 2 g, respectively. Increased daily energy intake, the number of eating episodes, and energy intake from snacks and eating outside the home predicted higher water intake from beverages and foods. Our results provide evidence suggesting that various factors, including sociodemographic status, dietary intakes, and eating behaviors, could be important contributors to the water intake of Korean adults. Findings

  15. Perceptions of Tap Water and School Water Fountains and Association with Intake of Plain Water and Sugar-Sweetened Beverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onufrak, Stephen J.; Park, Sohyun; Sharkey, Joseph R.; Merlo, Caitlin; Dean, Wesley R.; Sherry, Bettylou

    2014-01-01

    Background: Little is known regarding youth perceptions of tap water and school water fountains and how these relate to water and sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake. Methods: We used national 2010 YouthStyles data to assess perceptions of tap water and school water fountains and associations with water and SSB intake. Results: Nearly 1 in 5…

  16. Water Intake by Soil, Experiments for High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969

    Presented are a variety of surface run-off experiments for high school students. The experiments are analogies to basic concepts about water intake, as related to water delivery, soil properties and management, floods, and conservation measures. The materials needed to perform the experiments are easily obtainable. The experiments are followed by…

  17. COMPUTER MODELING OF HYDRODYNAMIC PARAMETERS AT BOUNDARIES OF WATER INTAKE AREA WITH FILTERING INTAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boronina Lyudmila Vladimirovna

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Improvement of water intake technologies are of great importance. These technologies are required to provide high quality water intake and treatment; they must be sufficiently simple and reliable, and they must be easily adjustable to particular local conditions. A mathematical model of a water supply area near the filtering water intake is proposed. On its basis, a software package designated for the calculation of parameters of the supply area along with its graphical representation is developed. To improve the efficiency of water treatment plants, the authors propose a new method of their integration into the landscape by taking account of velocity distributions in the water supply area within the water reservoir where the plant installation is planned. In the proposed relationship, the filtration rate and the scattering rate at the outlet of the supply area are taken into account, and they assure more precise projections of the inlet velocity. In the present study, assessment of accuracy of the mathematical model involving the scattering of a turbulent flow has been done. The assessment procedure is based on verification of the mean values equality hypothesis and on comparison with the experimental data. The results and conclusions obtained by means of the method developed by the authors have been verified through comparison of deviations of specific values calculated through the employment of similar algorithms in MathCAD, Maple and PLUMBING. The method of the water supply area analysis, with the turbulent scattering area having been taken into account, and the software package enable to numerically estimate the efficiency of the pre-purification process by tailoring a number of parameters of the filtering component of the water intake to the river hydrodynamic properties. Therefore, the method and the software package provide a new tool for better design, installation and operation of water treatment plants with respect to filtration and

  18. Dietary reference intakes for water, potassium, sodium, chloride, and sulfate

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Institute of Medicine (U.S.). Panel on Dietary Reference Intakes for Electrolytes and Water

    2005-01-01

    ... intake to the risk of high blood pressure and hypertension as well as other diseases and the amounts of water from beverages and foods needed to maintain hydration. In addition, since requirements for sulfur can be met by inorganic sulfate in the diets of animals, a review of the role in inorganic sulfur in the form of sulfate is included. The gro...

  19. Hydrogeochemical characteristics of water intakes from groundwater sources in Seversk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmalov, A. I.; Dutova, E. M.; Vologdina, I. V.; Pokrovsky, D. S.; Pokrovskiy, V. D.; Kuzevanov, K. K.

    2016-09-01

    The article describes the hydrogeochemical environment behavior analysis of groundwater intake which, in its turn. provides the utility and drinking water supply for Seversk. The reasons for temporary changes of the hydrogeochemical aquifer indicators in the producing areas have been highlighted. The main factor could be upset hydrodynamic conditions during long-term operation. Changed hydrogeochemical indicators have been revealed not only during the technological water treatment process but also during water transportation to consumers. Chemical composition water changes are related to secondary mineral and sludge formation on technological equipment. Precipitation is a polymineral mixture predominantly a ferrous phase. whereas phosphate and carbonate phases are secondary. Clay minerals are also found.

  20. Occurrence of perfluorooctanoate and perfluorooctanesulfonate in the Korean water system: Implication to water intake exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung-Kyu, E-mail: skkim89@gmail.com [School of Earth and Environmental Sciences (BK-21), Seoul National University, Kwanak-gu Shilim-dong, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kho, Young Lim [School of Human and Environmental Sciences, Eulji University (Korea, Republic of); Shoeib, Mahiba [Environment Canada, Science and Technology Branch, Ontario (Canada); Kim, Kyoung-Soo, E-mail: skysil99@empal.com [Center for Chemical Safety Management, Chonbuk National University, 664-141 ga Dukjin-dong Duckjin-gu, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyung-Ryul [School of Earth and Environmental Sciences (BK-21), Seoul National University, Kwanak-gu Shilim-dong, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jong-Eun [Department of Environmental Engineering, Chonbuk National University (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Yong-Seung [Environmental Policy Division, Korea Environment Institute, Eunpyung-ku, Bulkwang-dong 613-2, Seoul 122-706 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) measured in surface running waters indicated the existence of different emission sources in eight main city basins. The tap water reflected the contamination pattern and levels in their corresponding source water basins. The daily intakes through tap water consumption ranged from <0.01 to 0.73 ng kg{sup -1} d{sup -1} for perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and <0.01 to 0.08 ng kg{sup -1} d{sup -1} for perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS). Tap water intake-derived exposure accounted for 8.6%-101% (for PFOA) and while <10% (for PFOS) of total daily exposure, which was estimated from Korean serum concentrations using a pharmacokinetic model. Our findings indicate that tap water intake could be an important contributor to PFOA exposure in Korean populations; accordingly, additional efforts are necessary to improve the removal efficiency of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in the water purification process. However, more fundamentally the aim would be to reduce the discharge of PFCs from potential sources within the basin. - Highlights: > Tap waters reflected the source-water contamination caused by local emission source. > Tap water intake-derived exposure was significant for PFOA while not for PFOS. > For PFOA, human exposure was strongly associated with ambient water contamination. > Efforts are necessary to improve PFOA removal efficiency and reduce its discharge. - Tap water intake accounted for a significant portion of total PFOA exposure for Korean citizens living along the river contaminated by the highest PFOA in this study.

  1. Evaluation of seasonality on total water intake, water loss and water balance in the general population in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malisova, O; Bountziouka, V; Panagiotakos, D Β; Zampelas, A; Kapsokefalou, M

    2013-07-01

    Water balance is achieved when water intake from solid and fluid foods and drinking water meets water losses, mainly in sweat, urine and faeces. Seasonality, particularly in Mediterranean countries that have a hot summer, may affect water loss and consequently water balance. Water balance has not been estimated before on a population level and the effect of seasonality has not been evaluated. The present study aimed to compare water balance, intake and loss in summer and winter in a sample of the general population in Greece. The Water Balance Questionnaire (WBQ) was used to evaluate water balance, estimating water intake and loss in summer (n = 480) and in winter (n = 412) on a stratified sample of the general population in Athens, Greece. In winter, mean (SD) water balance was -63 (1478) mL/day(-1) , mean (SD)water intake was 2892 (987) mL/day(-1) and mean (quartile range) water loss was 2637 (1810-3922) mL/day(-1) . In summer, mean (SD) water balance was -58 (2150) mL/day(-1) , mean (SD) water intake was 3875 (1373) mL/day(-1) and mean (quartile range) water loss was 3635 (2365-5258) mL/day(-1) . Water balance did not differ between summer and winter (P = 0.96); however, the data distribution was different; in summer, approximately 8% more participants were falling in the low and high water balance categories. Differences in water intake from different sources were identified (P Water balance in summer and winter was not different. However, water intake and loss were approximately 40% higher in summer than in winter. More people were falling in the low and high water balance categories in summer when comparing the distribution on water balance in winter. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  2. Construction of water intake facilities from partially drying up watercourses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov Evgeniy Vladimirovich

    Full Text Available Partially ephemeral streams are complex objects that can still be used for water supply or irrigation of agricultural land. The problem of such streams is poorly studied, because the influence of various environmental factors complicates carrying out any experiments. Also it is not possible to make their full classification due to their very strong variability not only on a particular geographical belt, but also within separate areas of the river. All this undoubtedly complicates the task of the designers when designing the system. Creation of laboratory models, allowing us to evaluate the possibilities of a spring use for the purpose of water supply, is very promising. These watercourses have a large amount of suspended sediments, so it is not possible to use the standard scheme of water using of the coastal and fluvial water intake structures. It is proposed to organize the fight with the sediments in the flow chart of primary clarifiers, which will perform the function of settling suspensions, to facilitate the work of water treatment facilities. Also the creation of artificial prop is useful in order to achieve the required level of water in a watercourse for water organization. If under the bottom of the river there is underground water, and the permeability of the soil is good, it is possible to arrange the withdrawal of water through infiltration intakes, by setting the filter under the bottom of the watercourse with its connection to filter, from which the water will climb to submersible pumps. Additional filtration through the soil of the river bottom allows not using the scheme sumps, which significantly reduces the cost of epy incoming water treatment.

  3. Analysis of water intake and dry matter intake using different lactation curve models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, E; Stamer, E; Spilke, J; Thaller, G; Krieter, J

    2009-08-01

    The objective was to evaluate 6 different lactation curve models for daily water and dry matter intake. Data originated from the Futterkamp dairy research farm of the Chamber of Agriculture of Schleswig-Holstein in Germany. A data set of about 23,000 observations from 193 Holstein cows was used. Average daily water and dry matter intake were 82.3 and 19.8 kg, respectively. The basic linear mixed model included the fixed effects of parity and test-day within feeding group. Additionally, 6 different functions were tested for the fixed effect of lactation curve and the individual (random) effect of cow-lactation curve. Furthermore, the autocorrelation between repeated measures was modeled with the spatial (power) covariance structure. Model fit was evaluated by the likelihood ratio test, Akaike's and Bayesian information criteria, and the analysis of mean residual at different days in milk. The Ali and Schaeffer function was best suited for modeling the fixed lactation curve for both traits. A Legendre polynomial of order 4 delivered the best model fit for the random effect of cow-lactation. Applying the error covariance structure led to a significantly better model fit and indicated that repeated measures were autocorrelated. Generally, the best information criteria values were yielded by the most complex model using the Ali and Schaeffer function and Legendre polynomial of order 4 to model the average lactation and cow-specific lactation curves, respectively, with inclusion of the spatial (power) error covariance structure. This model is recommended for the analysis of water and dry matter intake including missing observations to obtain estimation of correct statistical inference and valid variance components.

  4. Numerical simulation of free water surface in pump intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, L. J.; Nohmi, M.

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is to verify the volume of fluid (VOF) method for simulating the free water surface flow in pump intake. With the increasing computer power, VOF method has been becoming a more flexible and accurate choice to replace the conventional fixed water surface method, because it does not require assumptions on the nature of air-water interface. Two examples are presented in this paper. The first example is presented for simulating the growth of air-entrained vortices. LES (Large Eddy Simulation) model, instead of RANS (Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes) turbulence model, is used to capture the peak of circular velocity around the vortex core. Numerical result shows good agreement with the benchmark experiment carried by the Turbomachinery Society of Japan. The second example predicts the flow rate distribution in the pump intake consisting of one opened and two closed channels. VOF result is compared with the conventional fixed water surface method assuming free-slip boundary condition on the fluid interface. The difference of flow pattern in the opened channel indicates that numerical flow field is affected remarkably by the setup of boundary condition at air-water interface.

  5. Fluoride Intake through Consumption of Tap Water and Bottled Water in Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman van Oyen

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available There is a tendency to align higher levels of fluoride in natural mineral water with the existing higher levels in tap water. Treatment of natural mineral waters could harm the preservation of their natural character. In this study fluoride intake through bottled and tap water consumption in the Belgian adult population was assessed, taking into account regional differences. A deterministic approach was used whereby consumption quantities of tap water and different brands of bottled water were linked with their respective fluoride concentrations. Data from the national food consumption survey (2004 were used and the Nusser methodology was applied to obtain usual intake estimates. Mean intake of fluoride through total water consumption in Flanders was 1.4±0.7 mg/day (97.5th percentile: 3.1 mg/day, while in the Walloon region it was on average 0.9±0.6 mg/day (97.5th percentile: 2.4 mg/day. The probability of exceeding the UL of 7 mg per day via a normal diet was estimated to be low. Consequently, there is no need to revise the existing norms, but higher fluoride concentrations should be more clearly indicated on the labels. Reliable data about total dietary fluoride intake in children, including intake of fluoride via tooth paste and food supplements, are needed.

  6. Procedure for developing biological input for the design, location, or modification of water-intake structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, D.A.; McKenzie, D.H.

    1981-12-01

    To minimize adverse impact on aquatic ecosystems resulting from the operation of water intake structures, design engineers must have relevant information on the behavior, physiology and ecology of local fish and shellfish. Identification of stimulus/response relationships and the environmental factors that influence them is the first step in incorporating biological information in the design, location or modification of water intake structures. A procedure is presented in this document for providing biological input to engineers who are designing, locating or modifying a water intake structure. The authors discuss sources of stimuli at water intakes, historical approaches in assessing potential/actual impact and review biological information needed for intake design.

  7. Drinking Water Sources with Surface Intakes from LDHH source data, Geographic NAD83, LOSCO (1999) [drinking_water_surface_intakes_LDHH_1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is a point dataset for 87 public drinking water sources with surface intakes. It was derived from a larger statewide general drinking water source dataset...

  8. Water balance and ad libitum water intake in football players during a training session

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Diego Hernández-Camacho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is known that hydration plays a crucial performance in sports performance. But a great number of studies assessing hydration during football practice have shown that many players have a dehydration state prior to this sport and that most players are not able to replace water loss by sweating with ad libitum water intake. Objectives: To analyze ad libitum water consumption, water balance, thirst sensation and rate of perceived exertion on a sample of young football players during a training session. Material and Methods: A total of 57 players from three teams in the youth category voluntary participated in this study. Weight was collected at the beginning and at the end of training; thirst sensation, rate of perceived exertion and quantification of ingested water were assessed. We used descriptive statistics, correlational and ratio analysis. Results: Mean global intake of players studied was 844.74±351.95mL and an average loss of body water 1274.56±385.82mL. Average rate of dehydration of the initial weight was 0.63%. Average score of 2.81±1.32 on the scale of thirst sensation was obtained. Discussion and conclusions: Rate of loss of body water similar to previous studies is obtained. The players were not able to replace water loss by drinking liquid ad libitum, so the intake of an amount previously scheduled could become helpful.

  9. Hyponatremia caused by excessive intake of water as a form of child abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min A Joo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte disorder that requires careful management. Water intoxication with hyponatremia is rare condition that originated from overhydration. Water intoxication, also known as dilutional hyponatremia, develops only because the intake of water exceeds the kidney's ability to eliminate water. Causes of this water intoxication include psychiatric disorder, forced water intake as a form of child abuse and iatrogenic infusion of excessive hypotonic fluid. We experienced and reported a case of symptomatic hyponatremia by forced water intake as a form of child abuse.

  10. MDMA Impairs Response to Water Intake in Healthy Volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Baggott

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyponatremia is a serious complication of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA use. We investigated potential mechanisms in two double-blind, placebo-controlled studies. In Study 1, healthy drug-experienced volunteers received MDMA or placebo alone and in combination with the alpha-1 adrenergic inverse agonist prazosin, used as a positive control to release antidiuretic hormone (ADH. In Study 2, volunteers received MDMA or placebo followed by standardized water intake. MDMA lowered serum sodium but did not increase ADH or copeptin, although the control prazosin did increase ADH. Water loading reduced serum sodium more after MDMA than after placebo. There was a trend for women to have lower baseline serum sodium than men, but there were no significant interactions with drug condition. Combining studies, MDMA potentiated the ability of water to lower serum sodium. Thus, hyponatremia appears to be a significant risk when hypotonic fluids are consumed during MDMA use. Clinical trials and events where MDMA use is common should anticipate and mitigate this risk.

  11. Contribution of tap water to chlorate and perchlorate intake: a market basket study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asami, Mari; Yoshida, Nobue; Kosaka, Koji; Ohno, Koichi; Matsui, Yoshihiko

    2013-10-01

    The contributions of water to total levels of chlorate and perchlorate intake were determined using food and water samples from a market basket study from 10 locations in Japan between 2008 and 2009. Foods were categorized into 13 groups and analyzed along with tap water. The average total chlorate intake was 333 (min. 193-max. 486) μg/day for samples cooked with tap water. The contribution of tap water to total chlorate intake was as high as 47%-58%, although total chlorate intake was less than 32% of the tolerable daily intake, 1500 μg/day for body weight of 50 kg. For perchlorate, daily intake from water was 0.7 (0.1-4.4) μg/day, which is not high compared to the average total intake of 14 (2.5-84) μg/day, while the reference dose (RfD) is 35 μg/day and the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (PMTDI) is 500 μg/day for body weight of 50 kg. The highest intake of perchlorate was 84 μg/day, where concentrations in foods were high, but not in water. The contribution of water to total perchlorate intake ranged from 0.5% to 22%, while the ratio of highest daily intake to RfD was 240% and that to PMTDI was 17%. Eight baby formulas were also tested--total chlorate and perchlorate intakes were 147 (42-332) μg/day and 1.11 (0.05-4.5) μg/day, respectively, for an ingestion volume of 1 L/day if prepared with tap water. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Water intake in dairy goats – the effect of different types of roughages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Ehrlenbruch

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to investigate which type of roughage might influence the water intake in dairy goats. Eight goats were kept individually in single pens with one water bucket, with separated feeding table in order to register the drinking water intake, feed intake and milk yield for each goat. In experimental period 1 (3 days, four of the goats were fed hay and the remaining goats were fed silage, and vice versa in experimental period 2 (3 days. The goats drank more (P<0.0001 when they were eating hay compared to silage. Total water intake was higher (P<0.001 when they consumed silage than hay. The intake of silage was higher (P<0.0001 than for hay, but the opposite for dry matter intake. In conclusion, roughage type had an effect on water intake, with higher drinking water intake when fed hay than silage, but the opposite was true for total water intake.

  13. Water intakes and dietary sources of a nationally representative sample of Irish adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, L; Walton, J; Flynn, A

    2014-12-01

    Despite evidence that even mild dehydration is associated with various morbidities, water intake estimates in free-living populations are lacking. The present study aimed to estimate water intakes and dietary sources in a nationally representative sample of the Irish adult population. A 4-day semi-weighed food record was used to collect dietary intake data from 1500 free-living adults aged 18-90 years in the Irish National Adult Nutrition Survey (NANS) (2008-2010) from which water intake was estimated. To enable fluid intake estimation, additional questions on how water and milk were consumed were incorporated. Total water intake was calculated as drinking water plus water from other beverages and food moisture. The mean (SD) daily total water intake for Irish adults was 2.31 (0.92) L day(-1) [males 2.52 (1.00) L day(-1) ; females 2.09 (0.79) L day(-1)]. Intakes were lowest in elderly adults, as well as in those with less education, a lower social class, less energy expenditure and a higher body mass index and body fat percentage. In total, 67% of water came from beverages and 33% came from food moisture. Alcoholic beverages and teas individually contributed to total water intake in amounts similar to the drinking water contribution. These data may be used as a foundation for further research in the area of the effect of under consumption of water on health outcomes to guide public health messages regarding adequate water intakes. © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  14. Guidance manual for the input of biological information to water-intake-structure design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, D.A.; Simmons, M.A.; McKenzie, D.H.

    1981-12-01

    This manual is intended to provide guidance to the biologist who is asked to provide biological input during the construction or subsequent alteration of a water intake structure. Examples of the types of biological information that might be included in intake design are presented. Procedures for quantifying biological information and defining specific tasks that will generate quantifiable data are discussed. Procedures described apply both to new and modified water intake structures.

  15. Lower Colorado River GRP Public Water System Intakes, Nevada, 2012, Nevada Division of Environmental Protection Bureau of Safe Drinking Water

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Public Water System wells, springs an intake locations are collected and maintained by NDEP Bureau of Safe Drinking Water (BSDW). The data is kept in the Safe...

  16. Replacing sweetened caloric beverages with drinking water is associated with lower energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stookey, Jodi D; Constant, Florence; Gardner, Christopher D; Popkin, Barry M

    2007-12-01

    Reduced intake of sweetened caloric beverages (SCBs) is recommended to lower total energy intake. Replacing SCBs with non-caloric diet beverages does not automatically lower energy intake, however. Compensatory increases in other food or beverages reportedly negate benefits of diet beverages. The purpose of this study was to evaluate drinking water as an alternative to SCBs. Secondary analysis of data from the Stanford A TO Z intervention evaluated change in beverage pattern and total energy intake in 118 overweight women (25 to 50 years) who regularly consumed SCBs (>12 ounces/d) at baseline. At baseline and 2, 6, and 12 months, mean daily beverage intake (SCBs, drinking water, non-caloric diet beverages, and nutritious caloric beverages), food composition (macronutrient, water, and fiber content), and total energy intake were estimated using three 24-hour diet recalls. Beverage intake was expressed in relative terms (percentage of beverages). In fixed effects models that controlled for total beverage intake, non-caloric and nutritious caloric beverage intake (percentage of beverages), food composition, and energy expenditure [metabolic equivalent (MET)], replacing SCBs with drinking water was associated with significant decreases in total energy intake that were sustained over time. The caloric deficit attributable to replacing SCBs with water was not negated by compensatory increases in other food or beverages. Replacing all SCBs with drinking water was associated with a predicted mean decrease in total energy of 200 kcal/d over 12 months. The results suggest that replacing SCBs with drinking water can help lower total energy intake in overweight consumers of SCBs motivated to diet.

  17. Increased salt consumption induces body water conservation and decreases fluid intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakova, Natalia; Kitada, Kento; Lerchl, Kathrin; Dahlmann, Anke; Birukov, Anna; Daub, Steffen; Kopp, Christoph; Pedchenko, Tetyana; Zhang, Yahua; Beck, Luis; Johannes, Bernd; Marton, Adriana; Müller, Dominik N; Rauh, Manfred; Luft, Friedrich C; Titze, Jens

    2017-05-01

    The idea that increasing salt intake increases drinking and urine volume is widely accepted. We tested the hypothesis that an increase in salt intake of 6 g/d would change fluid balance in men living under ultra-long-term controlled conditions. Over the course of 2 separate space flight simulation studies of 105 and 205 days' duration, we exposed 10 healthy men to 3 salt intake levels (12, 9, or 6 g/d). All other nutrients were maintained constant. We studied the effect of salt-driven changes in mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid urinary excretion on day-to-day osmolyte and water balance. A 6-g/d increase in salt intake increased urine osmolyte excretion, but reduced free-water clearance, indicating endogenous free water accrual by urine concentration. The resulting endogenous water surplus reduced fluid intake at the 12-g/d salt intake level. Across all 3 levels of salt intake, half-weekly and weekly rhythmical mineralocorticoid release promoted free water reabsorption via the renal concentration mechanism. Mineralocorticoid-coupled increases in free water reabsorption were counterbalanced by rhythmical glucocorticoid release, with excretion of endogenous osmolyte and water surplus by relative urine dilution. A 6-g/d increase in salt intake decreased the level of rhythmical mineralocorticoid release and elevated rhythmical glucocorticoid release. The projected effect of salt-driven hormone rhythm modulation corresponded well with the measured decrease in water intake and an increase in urine volume with surplus osmolyte excretion. Humans regulate osmolyte and water balance by rhythmical mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid release, endogenous accrual of surplus body water, and precise surplus excretion. Federal Ministry for Economics and Technology/DLR; the Interdisciplinary Centre for Clinical Research; the NIH; the American Heart Association (AHA); the Renal Research Institute; and the TOYOBO Biotechnology Foundation. Food products were donated by APETITO

  18. Intake of water and different beverages in adults across 13 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guelinckx, I; Ferreira-Pêgo, C; Moreno, L A; Kavouras, S A; Gandy, J; Martinez, H; Bardosono, S; Abdollahi, M; Nasseri, E; Jarosz, A; Ma, G; Carmuega, E; Babio, N; Salas-Salvadó, J

    2015-06-01

    To describe the intake of water and all other fluids and to evaluate the proportion of adults exceeding the World Health Organisation (WHO) recommendations on energy intake from free sugar, solely from fluids. A total of 16,276 adults (46 % men, mean age 39.8 years) were recruited in 13 countries from 3 continents. A 24-h fluid-specific record over 7 days was used for fluid assessment. In Spain, France, Turkey, Iran, Indonesia and China, fluid intake was characterised by a high contribution of water (47-78 %) to total fluid intake (TFI), with a mean water intake between 0.76 and 1.78 L/day, and a mean energy intake from fluids from 182 to 428 kcal/day. Between 11 and 49 % of adults exceeded the free sugar WHO recommendations, considering solely fluids. In Germany, UK, Poland and Japan, the largest contributors to TFI were hot beverages (28-50 %) and water (18-32 %). Mean energy intake from fluids ranged from 415 to 817 kcal/day, and 48-62 % of adults exceeded free sugar WHO recommendations. In Mexico, Brazil and Argentina, the contribution of juices and regular sugar beverages (28-41 %) was as important as the water contribution to TFI (17-39 %). Mean energy intake from fluids ranged 565-694 kcal/day, and 60-66 % of the adults exceeded the free sugar WHO recommendation. The highest volumes recorded in most of the countries were for water, mean energy intake from fluids was up to 694 kcal/day, and 66 % of adults exceeded the free sugar WHO recommendation solely by fluids. Actions to create an environment in favour of water consumption and reduce sugar intake from fluids therefore are warranted.

  19. Multifactorial control of water and saline intake: role of a2-adrenoceptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. De-Luca Jr.

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Water and saline intake is controlled by several mechanisms activated during dehydration. Some mechanisms, such as the production of angiotensin II and unloading of cardiovascular receptors, activate both behaviors, while others, such as the increase in blood osmolality or sodium concentration, activate water, but inhibit saline intake. Aldosterone probably activates only saline intake. Clonidine, an a2-adrenergic agonist, inhibits water and saline intake induced by these mechanisms. One model to describe the interactions between these multiple mechanisms is a wire-block diagram, where the brain circuit that controls each intake is represented by a summing point of its respective inhibiting and activating factors. The a2-adrenoceptors constitute an inhibitory factor common to both summing points

  20. Effect of water source on intake and urine concentration in healthy cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, David C

    2010-06-01

    Increasing water intake and decreasing urine concentration are recommended for cats with urolithiasis and with idiopathic cystitis. Fountains are advocated to encourage drinking; however, effects on drinking of fountains have not been reported in cats living in pet owners homes. Thirteen healthy cats were assigned to have 24-h water intake and urine osmolality and specific gravity measured when water was offered from a bowl or fountain. One cat developed excessive barbering, vomiting, and refusal to drink water offered from the fountain. For the remaining 12 cats, intake was slightly greater from the fountain. However, urine osmolality was not significantly different. In this study, a fountain failed to substantially increase water intake and dilute urine in cats. A similar study including a greater period of time and additional cats may clarify the results of this study. Copyright 2009 ISFM and AAFP. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Exposure assessment of metal intakes from drinking water relative to those from total diet in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Koichi; Ishikawa, Kohei; Kurosawa, Yuki; Matsui, Yoshihiko; Matsushita, Taku; Magara, Yasumoto

    2010-01-01

    Daily intakes of 17 metals (boron, aluminium, chromium, manganese, nickel, copper, zinc, arsenic, selenium, molybdenum, cadmium, antimony, lead, uranium, magnesium, calcium, and iron) via drinking water and total diet were investigated in six cities in Japan. The daily metal intakes were estimated and compared with tolerable daily intake (TDI) values proposed by the WHO or Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives for toxic metals and with recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) or adequate intake (AI) values proposed for essential metals by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. Among the 13 toxic metals, mean dietary intakes of 10 (except arsenic, selenium, and molybdenum) were less than 50% of TDI, suggesting that for these 10 metals the allocation of intake to drinking water in establishing guidelines or standards could possibly be increased from the normal allocation of 10-20% of TDI. For the 13 toxic metals, the contribution of drinking water to TDI was 2% or less in all six cities. Mean dietary intakes of the essential elements magnesium, calcium, and iron were less than the RDA or AI values. Drinking water did not contribute much to essential metal intake, accounting for less than 10% of RDA or AI.

  2. Assessment of nutrient and water intake among adolescents from sports federations in the Federal District, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Eliene F; Da Costa, Teresa H M; Nogueira, Julia A D; Vivaldi, Lúcio J

    2008-06-01

    Adolescents aged 11-14 years (n 326), belonging to organized sports federations in the Federal District, Brazil were interviewed. Subjects (n 107) provided four non-consecutive days of food consumption and 219 subjects provided two non-consecutive days of intake. The objective was to assess their nutrient and water intake according to dietary reference intake values and their energy and macronutrient intake by sex and sports groups they were engaged in: endurance, strength-skill or mixed, according to the guidelines established by the American College of Sport Medicine (ACSM). Dietary data were corrected for intra-individual variation. Total energy expenditure was higher among endurance athletes (P guidelines established by the ACSM for all sports groups. All male sport groups fulfilled the intake levels of carbohydrate per kg body weight but only females engaged in endurance sports fulfilled carbohydrate guidelines. Intakes of micronutrients with low prevalence of adequate intake were: vitamins B1, E and folate, magnesium and phosphorus. Few adolescents ( guidelines of macronutrient intake for their sports and to improve their intake of micronutrients and water. Special attention should be given to female adolescent athletes.

  3. Effects of central imidazolinergic and alpha2-adrenergic activation on water intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugawara A.M.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-adrenergic ligands that bind to imidazoline receptors (I-R, a selective ligand that binds to alpha2-adrenoceptors (alpha2-AR and mixed ligands that bind to both receptors were tested for their action on water intake behavior of 24-h water-deprived rats. All drugs were injected into the third cerebral ventricle. Except for agmatine (80 nmol, mixed ligands binding to I-R/alpha2-AR such as guanabenz (40 nmol and UK 14304 (20 nmol inhibited water intake by 65% and up to 95%, respectively. The selective non-imidazoline alpha2-AR agonist, alpha-methylnoradrenaline, produced inhibition of water intake similar to that obtained with guanabenz, but at higher doses (80 nmol. The non-adrenergic I-R ligands histamine (160 nmol, mixed histaminergic and imidazoline ligand and imidazole-4-acetic acid (80 nmol, imidazoline ligand did not alter water intake. The results show that selective, non-imidazoline alpha2-AR activation suppresses water intake, and suggest that the action on imidazoline sites by non-adrenergic ligands is not sufficient to inhibit water intake.

  4. Assessing Intake of Water and Sugar-Sweetened Beverages in Adolescents: its Relationship with Weight Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihalache Laura

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. The aim of the study is to evaluate fluid intake during adolescence and correlate it with weight status. Material and methods. We assessed fluid intake using a validated questionnaire in a group of 106 adolescent students (22 boys - 20.8%, aged 15-19 years. Weight status was evaluated with the BMI-for-age values,using growth normograms. Results. There were no statistically significant differences in the frequency of water intake between sexes (p>0.05. Water intake at least 3 times a day was declared by 72.16% of normal weight students and in 66% of overweight and obese, the difference being statistically significant (p=0.003. Boys consumed larger amounts of water (p=0.042 than girls. Intake of 100% natural fruit juice was significantly higher in boys compared to girls (p=0.002. A significantly higher percentage of normal weight adolescents consumed≤500 mL/day non-carbonated (p=0.004 and carbonated (p<0.001 sugar-sweetened beverages compared to the overweight or obese, who consumed ≥500 mL/day. Conclusions. The quantitative and qualitative assessment of fluid intake among adolescents is a mandatory step in the assessment of calorie and nutritional intake. Promoting low-calorie fluid intake in this age group, along with the principles of healthy eating, could contribute to achieving an optimal weight status.

  5. Increased water intake to reduce headache: Learning from a critical appraisal

    OpenAIRE

    Price, A.; Burls, A

    2015-01-01

    Clinical Bottom Line\\ud Water intake is a cost effective, non-invasive and low-risk intervention to reduce or prevent headache pain. Rationale: Chronic mild dehydration may trigger headache. Increased water intake could help. A small trial shows modest benefit; however, a larger methodologically sound randomized controlled trial is needed to confirm efficacy.\\ud \\ud Critically Appraised Paper\\ud Spigt, M., Weerkamp, N., Troost, J., van Schayck, C. P., & Knottnerus, J. A. (2012). ‘A randomized...

  6. 76 FR 43230 - National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System-Cooling Water Intake Structures at Existing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-20

    ... Water Intake Structures at Existing Facilities and Phase I Facilities AGENCY: Environmental Protection... proposed requirements under section 316(b) of the Clean Water Act for all existing power generating....gov . Mail: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; EPA Docket Center ] (EPA/DC) Water Docket, MC 28221T...

  7. Occurrence of Waterborne Pathogens and Escherichia coli at Offshore Drinking Water Intakes in Lake Ontario

    OpenAIRE

    Edge, T. A.; Khan, I. U. H.; Bouchard, R.; Guo, J.; Hill, S.; Locas, A.; Moore, L.; Neumann, N.; Nowak, E.; Payment, P.; Yang, R.; Yerubandi, R.; Watson, S.

    2013-01-01

    The occurrence of waterborne pathogens was investigated at three drinking water intakes located about 2 km offshore in Lake Ontario. Water sampling was conducted over 3 years for Campylobacter spp., Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia spp., cultivable enteric viruses, and water quality parameters. All pathogens were detected in the offshore source water for each water treatment plant (WTP1 to WTP3), although at relatively low frequencies and concentrations. Giardia was the most common pathogen, occ...

  8. Energy, macronutrient and water intake during a mountain ultramarathon event: The influence of distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Sonia; Aguilo, Antoni; Rodas, Lluis; Lozano, Leticia; Moreno, Carlos; Tauler, Pedro

    2018-02-01

    Adequate dietary strategies are essential for the successful participation in ultra-endurance races. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the energy and water intakes of participants during three different mountain ultra-endurance runs. The study took place at the "Ultra Mallorca Serra de Tramuntana" (Mallorca, Spain), an ultra-endurance mountain event with runners participating either in a 44-km (Marathon, n = 51), a 67-km (Trail, n = 109) or a 112-km (Ultra, n = 53) run competition. Participants in the study answered a questionnaire focused on the nutritional intake within an hour after finishing the competition. Mean energy intake during the competitions was 183 kcal · h¯1, with an average carbohydrate intake of 31 g · h¯1 (52.1% of participants consumed less than 30 g · h¯1). No significant differences between competitions were found in these parameters. However, a higher percentage of energy from lipids in participants in the Trail and the Ultra was found (P = 0.034). Furthermore, significant differences were observed in water intake per hour of competition (P = 0.039), with the lowest value for the intake during the Ultra competition. In conclusion, the majority of the participants in the study present low carbohydrate intakes. However, fluid intake seems to be adequate. Different distances did not significantly influence the participants' nutritional strategies.

  9. Subsurface intakes for seawater reverse osmosis facilities: Capacity limitation, water quality improvement, and economics

    KAUST Repository

    Missimer, Thomas M.

    2013-08-01

    The use of subsurface intake systems for seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination plants significantly improves raw water quality, reduces chemical usage and environmental impacts, decreases the carbon footprint, and reduces cost of treated water to consumers. These intakes include wells (vertical, angle, and radial type) and galleries, which can be located either on the beach or in the seabed. Subsurface intakes act both as intakes and as part of the pretreatment system by providing filtration and active biological treatment of the raw seawater. Recent investigations of the improvement in water quality made by subsurface intakes show lowering of the silt density index by 75 to 90%, removal of nearly all algae, removal of over 90% of bacteria, reduction in the concentrations of TOC and DOC, and virtual elimination of biopolymers and polysaccharides that cause organic biofouling of membranes. Economic analyses show that overall SWRO operating costs can be reduced by 5 to 30% by using subsurface intake systems. Although capital costs can be slightly to significantly higher compared to open-ocean intake system costs, a preliminary life-cycle cost analysis shows significant cost saving over operating periods of 10 to 30. years. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  10. Drinking Water Intake Is Associated with Higher Diet Quality among French Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazan, Rozenn; Sondey, Juliette; Maillot, Matthieu; Guelinckx, Isabelle; Lluch, Anne

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the association between drinking water intake and diet quality, and to analyse the adherence of French men and women to the European Food Safety Authority 2010 Adequate Intake (EFSA AI). A representative sample of French adults (≥18) from the Individual and National Survey on Food Consumption (INCA2) was classified, by sex, into small, medium, and large drinking water consumers. Diet quality was assessed with several nutritional indices (mean adequacy ratio (MAR), mean excess ratio (MER), probability of adequate intakes (PANDiet), and solid energy density (SED)). Of the total sample, 72% of men and 46% of women were below the EFSA AI. This percentage of non-adherence decreased from the small to the large drinking water consumers (from 95% to 34% in men and from 81% to 9% in women). For both sexes, drinking water intake was associated with higher diet quality (greater MAR and PANDiet). This association remained significant independently of socio-economic status for women only. Low drinking water consumers did not compensate with other sources (beverages and food moisture) and a high drinking water intake was not a guarantee for reaching the EFSA AI, meaning that increasing consumption of water should be encouraged in France. PMID:27809236

  11. Drinking Water Intake Is Associated with Higher Diet Quality among French Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozenn Gazan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the association between drinking water intake and diet quality, and to analyse the adherence of French men and women to the European Food Safety Authority 2010 Adequate Intake (EFSA AI. A representative sample of French adults (≥18 from the Individual and National Survey on Food Consumption (INCA2 was classified, by sex, into small, medium, and large drinking water consumers. Diet quality was assessed with several nutritional indices (mean adequacy ratio (MAR, mean excess ratio (MER, probability of adequate intakes (PANDiet, and solid energy density (SED. Of the total sample, 72% of men and 46% of women were below the EFSA AI. This percentage of non-adherence decreased from the small to the large drinking water consumers (from 95% to 34% in men and from 81% to 9% in women. For both sexes, drinking water intake was associated with higher diet quality (greater MAR and PANDiet. This association remained significant independently of socio-economic status for women only. Low drinking water consumers did not compensate with other sources (beverages and food moisture and a high drinking water intake was not a guarantee for reaching the EFSA AI, meaning that increasing consumption of water should be encouraged in France.

  12. Absorption and retention of nickel from drinking water in relation to food intake and nickel sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, G D; Søderberg, U; Jørgensen, Poul Jørgen

    1999-01-01

    Two studies were performed to examine the influence of fasting and food intake on the absorption and retention of nickel added to drinking water and to determine if nickel sensitization played any role in this regard. First, eight nonallergic male volunteers fasted overnight before being given...... nickel in drinking water (12 micrograms Ni/kg) and, at different time intervals, standardized 1400-kJ portions of scrambled eggs. When nickel was ingested in water 30 min or 1 h prior to the meal, peak nickel concentrations in serum occurred 1 h after the water intake, and the peak was 13-fold higher...... than the one seen 1 h after simultaneous intake of nickel-containing water and scrambled eggs. In the latter case, a smaller, delayed peak occurred 3 h after the meal. Median urinary nickel excretion half-times varied between 19.9 and 26.7 h. Within 3 days, the amount of nickel excreted corresponded...

  13. Water intake behavior of broiler chickens exposed to heat stress and drinking from bell or and nipple drinkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LDG Bruno

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aspects involved in broiler water intake are not well known, despite the importance of water in animal nutrition and physiology. Water intake behavior should be taken into account when deciding on different types of drinkers. Bell and nipple drinkers are the most commonly used in commercial broiler production. Broilers were housed in cages equipped with two different drinker types and raised at two different environmental temperatures (25 and 34 ºC to evaluate water intake behavior and volume. Broiler water intake behavior was influenced by drinker type. Birds visited bell drinkers less often, but presented higher total water intake per visit to the drinker as compared to those drinking from nipple drinkers. The results of this study suggest that both broilers drinking behavior and water intake volume should be taken into account when deciding on drinker type to equip broiler houses.

  14. Factors associated with low water intake among South Korean adolescents - Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Haeng-Shin; Park, Sohyun; Kim, Mi-Hyun

    2014-02-01

    Water is essential for life and plain water instead of sugar-sweetened beverages is one approach for decreasing energy intake. Due to limited data on characteristics associated with water intake among Korean adolescents, this study examined associations of demographic and behavioral characteristics with plain water intake by using nationally representative sample of South Korean adolescents. The data (2007-2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) for 1,288 high school-aged adolescents (15-18 years) were used. Multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (OR) for factors associated with low water intake (coffee drinks, fruits, vegetables, and sodium and eating out were not significantly associated with low or very low water intake. These findings may be used to target intervention efforts to increase plain water intake as part of a healty lifestyle.

  15. Water Intake in a Sample of Greek Adults Evaluated with the Water Balance Questionnaire (WBQ and a Seven-Day Diary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelais Athanasatou

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Awareness on the importance of hydration in health has created an unequivocal need to enrich knowledge on water intake of the general population and on the contribution of beverages to total water intake. We evaluated in the past water intake in a sample of Greek adults using two approaches. In study A, volunteers completed the Water Balance Questionnaire (WBQ, a food frequency questionnaire, designed to evaluate water intake (n = 1092; 48.1% males; 43 ± 18 years. In study B, a different population of volunteers recorded water, beverage, and food intake in seven-day diaries (n = 178; 51.1% males; 37 ± 12 years. Herein, data were reanalyzed with the objective to reveal the contribution of beverages in total water intake with these different methodologies. Beverage recording was grouped in the following categories: Hot beverages; milk; fruit and vegetable juices; caloric soft drinks; diet soft drinks; alcoholic drinks; other beverages; and water. Total water intake and water intake from beverages was 3254 (SE 43 mL/day and 2551 (SE 39 mL/day in study A; and 2349 (SE 59 mL/day and 1832 (SE 56 mL/day in study B. In both studies water had the highest contribution to total water intake, approximately 50% of total water intake, followed by hot beverages (10% of total water intake and milk (5% of total water intake. These two approaches contribute information on water intake in Greece and highlight the contribution of different beverages; moreover, they point out differences in results obtained from different methodologies attributed to limitations in their use.

  16. Water Intake in a Sample of Greek Adults Evaluated with the Water Balance Questionnaire (WBQ) and a Seven-Day Diary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasatou, Adelais; Malisova, Olga; Kandyliari, Aikaterini; Kapsokefalou, Maria

    2016-09-10

    Awareness on the importance of hydration in health has created an unequivocal need to enrich knowledge on water intake of the general population and on the contribution of beverages to total water intake. We evaluated in the past water intake in a sample of Greek adults using two approaches. In study A, volunteers completed the Water Balance Questionnaire (WBQ), a food frequency questionnaire, designed to evaluate water intake (n = 1092; 48.1% males; 43 ± 18 years). In study B, a different population of volunteers recorded water, beverage, and food intake in seven-day diaries (n = 178; 51.1% males; 37 ± 12 years). Herein, data were reanalyzed with the objective to reveal the contribution of beverages in total water intake with these different methodologies. Beverage recording was grouped in the following categories: Hot beverages; milk; fruit and vegetable juices; caloric soft drinks; diet soft drinks; alcoholic drinks; other beverages; and water. Total water intake and water intake from beverages was 3254 (SE 43) mL/day and 2551 (SE 39) mL/day in study A; and 2349 (SE 59) mL/day and 1832 (SE 56) mL/day in study B. In both studies water had the highest contribution to total water intake, approximately 50% of total water intake, followed by hot beverages (10% of total water intake) and milk (5% of total water intake). These two approaches contribute information on water intake in Greece and highlight the contribution of different beverages; moreover, they point out differences in results obtained from different methodologies attributed to limitations in their use.

  17. Surface Water Intakes, US EPA Region 9, 2013, SDWIS

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EPAâ??s Safe Drinking Water Information System (SDWIS) databases store information about drinking water. The federal version (SDWIS/FED) stores the information EPA...

  18. Turbidity in extreme western Lake Superior. [contamination of Duluth, Minnesota water intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydor, M.

    1975-01-01

    Data were obtained from ERTS images for western Lake Superior for 1972-74. Data examination showed that for easterly winds the turbidity originating along the Wisconsin shore and the resuspension areas are transported northward then out along a N.E. path where it disperses, and often, for large storms, contaminates the Duluth water intake. Contaminants such as dredging fines anywhere along these paths would likewise find their way to the intake areas in concentrations comparable to the relative red clay concentration.

  19. Seasonal changes of total body water and water intake in Shetland ponies measured by an isotope dilution technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkmann, L; Gerken, M; Riek, A

    2013-08-01

    Water is an essential nutrient necessary to support life, and adequate water supply is crucial for animal survival and productivity. The present study was designed to determine seasonal changes in the water metabolism of horses under outdoor conditions. Total body water (TBW) and total water intake (TWI) of 10 adult Shetland pony mares were estimated at monthly intervals for 14 mo by using the deuterium dilution technique. During the last 4 mo, 5 ponies were fed restrictively to simulate natural feed shortage in winter, and 5 ponies served as controls. The TBW (kg) was closely related to body mass [TBW (kg) = -2.86 + 0.67 × body mass (kg); P 0°C. Therefore, removing TWI values measured at Ta water intake revealed that ponies had 1.7 to 5.1 times greater total water intakes when other sources of water such as feed and metabolic water were included. The TWI was highly influenced by environmental conditions and metabolic rate. Contrary to expectation, water supply during the cold seasons might be more critical than under summer conditions when water content of grass is high to allow for the compensation of limited availability of drinking water.

  20. [Water intake and its influencing factors of children and adolescents in Shanghai].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhengyuan; Shi, Aizhen; Chen, Yiqiong; Cheng, Wei; Song, Jun; Zhu, Zhenni; Zou, Shurong; Ma, Guansheng

    2014-01-01

    To describe the total drinking water intake and its influencing factors among children and adolescents in Shanghai, and to accumulate basis for developing adequate water intakes for children and adolescents in China. A total of 1454 children and adolescents aged 8-17 years from two districts of Shanghai was selected by using stratified random sampling method. The information on amounts and types of daily drinking water was recorded by subjects for seven consecutive days using a quantitative measurement. Total drinking water was the sum of plain water and beverages. The median of total drinking water of subjects was 1014 ml/d, and the median of plain water and beverages was 580 and 339 ml/d, respectively. The consumption of total drinking water, plain water, and beverages in boys was significantly higher than that in girls, was increasing with aging and in urban was significantly higher than that in suburbs (P beverages (P < 0.05). The total drinking water of children and adolescents in Shanghai was less. To establish adequate intake of water, the comprehensive effect of gender, age, BMI and region when should be considered.

  1. Effect of water restriction on drinking behaviour and water intake in German black-head mutton sheep and Boer goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ramamneh, D; Riek, A; Gerken, M

    2012-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate and compare the physiological responses of sheep and goats to water restriction using the deuterium dilution technique (D2O) to predict the total water intake (TWI) in both species. In two consecutive trials, 10 non-lactating Boer goats and 10 non-lactating German black-head mutton ewes were each randomly allocated into a treatment and a control group. In the control groups (n = 5, for each species), water was offered ad libitum, whereas the treatment groups (n = 5, for each species) received water 3 h/day on experimental days 8 to 14 and 6 h every 2 days on experimental days 15 to 22. The respiratory rate, rectal temperature, body mass and drinking behaviour were also recorded. The TWI was estimated by D2O for each animal. Water restriction for 21 h/day or 42 h/2 days had no significant (P > 0.05) effect on water intake (WI), feed intake, WI to dry matter intake ratio or body mass in both species. The absence of differences between species in their WIs was also confirmed using D2O. However, sheep had higher respiratory rates and rectal temperatures than goats in both control and treatment groups. Both species showed the ability to tolerate a moderate water shortage by activating several physiological mechanisms and behavioural strategies.

  2. Contribution of Water from Food and Fluids to Total Water Intake: Analysis of a French and UK Population Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Guelinckx

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Little has been published on the contribution of food moisture (FM to total water intake (TWI; therefore, the European Food Safety Authority assumed FM to contribute 20%–30% to TWI. The aim of the present analysis was to estimate and compare TWI, the percentage of water from FM and from fluids in population samples of France and UK. Data from 2 national nutrition surveys (Enquête Comportements et Consommations Alimentaires en France (CCAF 2013 and the National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS 2008/2009–2011/2012 were analyzed for TWI and the contribution of water from FM and fluids. Children and adults TWI were significantly lower in France than in the UK. The contribution of water from foods was lower in the UK than in France (27% vs. 36%. As TWI increased, the proportion of water from fluids increased, suggesting that low drinkers did not compensate by increasing intake of water-rich foods. In addition, 80%–90% of the variance in TWI was explained by differences in water intake from fluids. More data on the contribution of FM to TWI is needed to develop more robust dietary recommendations on TWI and guidance on fluid intake for the general public.

  3. Contribution of Water from Food and Fluids to Total Water Intake: Analysis of a French and UK Population Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guelinckx, Isabelle; Tavoularis, Gabriel; König, Jürgen; Morin, Clémentine; Gharbi, Hakam; Gandy, Joan

    2016-01-01

    Little has been published on the contribution of food moisture (FM) to total water intake (TWI); therefore, the European Food Safety Authority assumed FM to contribute 20%–30% to TWI. The aim of the present analysis was to estimate and compare TWI, the percentage of water from FM and from fluids in population samples of France and UK. Data from 2 national nutrition surveys (Enquête Comportements et Consommations Alimentaires en France (CCAF) 2013 and the National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) 2008/2009–2011/2012) were analyzed for TWI and the contribution of water from FM and fluids. Children and adults TWI were significantly lower in France than in the UK. The contribution of water from foods was lower in the UK than in France (27% vs. 36%). As TWI increased, the proportion of water from fluids increased, suggesting that low drinkers did not compensate by increasing intake of water-rich foods. In addition, 80%–90% of the variance in TWI was explained by differences in water intake from fluids. More data on the contribution of FM to TWI is needed to develop more robust dietary recommendations on TWI and guidance on fluid intake for the general public. PMID:27754402

  4. water intake, feed consumption and milk production of intensively ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    do not eat as much food as those animals that have access to water ad libitum. This results in poor growth, reproduction and lactation (Book and Carpenter, 1990). Consumption of water is a key point in animal feeding particularly in the arid regions where seasonal variation has been observed to have a detrimental effect on.

  5. A novel method for managing water and electrolyte balance after transsphenoidal surgery: preliminary study of moderate water intake restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Kazuhito; Nagatani, Tetsuya; Okumura, Eriko; Wakabayashi, Toshihiko

    2014-02-01

    Hyponatremia is a common and potentially serious complication of transsphenoidal surgery (TSS). Since September 2009, we have implemented moderate water intake restriction (water intake plus antidiuretic hormone (arginine vasopressin [AVP]) replacement therapy in patients with diabetes insipidus (DI) for reducing the incidence of delayed hyponatremia after TSS. Patients treated from September 2005 to August 2009 were allowed to drink water freely after surgery (the control group), while patients treated from September 2009 to June 2012 were restricted to less than 2500 mL water per day (the water restriction group). To reduce the occurrence of hypernatremia, AVP replacement therapy was provided immediately after the development of DI. We retrospectively analyzed the incidence of hyponatremia, DI, and hypernatremia in patients following TSS. Hyponatremia incidence was significantly lower in the water restriction group (P = 0.017); however, there were no significant differences in DI incidence and hypernatremia incidence between the 2 groups. Under DI control with AVP replacement therapy, the water restriction group showed no significant difference in the daily self-rated thirst level for the patients with and without DI. Moderate water intake restriction in addition to AVP replacement therapy significantly decreases the incidence of hyponatremia without patient discomfort (extreme thirst) and other complications. However, further studies are required to determine the most effective amount of water and the optimal duration of postoperative water restriction.

  6. An Assessment of Subsurface Intake Systems: Planning and Impact on Feed Water Quality for SWRO Facilities

    KAUST Repository

    Dehwah, Abdullah

    2017-12-01

    Subsurface intake systems are known to improve the feed water quality for SWRO plants. However, a little is known about the feasibility of implementation in coastal settings, the degree of water quality improvements provided by these systems, and the internal mechanisms of potential fouling compounds removal within subsurface intake systems. A new method was developed to assess the feasibility of using different subsurface intake systems in coastal areas and was applied to Red Sea coastline of Saudi Arabia. The methodology demonstrated that five specific coastal environments could support well intake systems use for small-capacity SWRO plants, whereas large-capacity SWRO facilities could use seabed gallery intake systems. It was also found that seabed intake system could run with no operational constraints based on the high evaporation rates and associated diurnal salinity changes along the coast line. Performance of well intake systems in several SWRO facilities along the Red Sea coast showed that the concentrations of organic compounds were reduced in the feed water, similar or better than traditional pretreatment methodologies. Nearly all algae, up to 99% of bacteria, between 84 and 100% of the biopolymer fraction of NOM, and a high percentage of TEP were removed during transport through the aquifer. These organics cause membrane biofouling and using well intakes showed a 50-75% lower need to clean the SWRO membranes compared to conventional open-ocean intakes. An assessment of the effectiveness of seabed gallery intake systems was conducted through a long-term bench-scale column experiment. The simulation of the active layer (upper 1 m) showed that it is highly effective at producing feed water quality improvements and acts totally different compared to slow sand filtration systems treating freshwater. No development of a “schmutzdecke” layer occurred and treatment was not limited to the top 10 cm, but throughout the full column thickness. Algae and

  7. Occurrence of waterborne pathogens and Escherichia coli at offshore drinking water intakes in lake Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edge, T A; Khan, I U H; Bouchard, R; Guo, J; Hill, S; Locas, A; Moore, L; Neumann, N; Nowak, E; Payment, P; Yang, R; Yerubandi, R; Watson, S

    2013-10-01

    The occurrence of waterborne pathogens was investigated at three drinking water intakes located about 2 km offshore in Lake Ontario. Water sampling was conducted over 3 years for Campylobacter spp., Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia spp., cultivable enteric viruses, and water quality parameters. All pathogens were detected in the offshore source water for each water treatment plant (WTP1 to WTP3), although at relatively low frequencies and concentrations. Giardia was the most common pathogen, occurring in 36% of water samples from the influent of WTP1 (n = 46), and with a maximum concentration of 0.70 cysts/liter in this influent. Cryptosporidium occurred as frequently as 15% in the WTP2 influent (n = 35), with a maximum concentration of 0.40 oocysts/liter in the WTP1 influent. The human Bacteroidales HF183 DNA marker was most common in the WTP1 influent (19%), and this was the only WTP where the Cryptosporidium hominis genotype was detected. No water quality parameter was predictive of pathogen occurrence across all three WTP influents. Escherichia coli was often below detection when pathogens were detected, and spikes in E. coli concentrations often did not coincide with pathogen occurrence. After summer rain events, river plumes had E. coli concentrations as high as 222 CFU/100 ml in surface waters 2 km offshore, without impacting drinking water intakes below the thermocline on the lake bottom. At times, prechlorination to control mussels at offshore intake cribs compromised the use of E. coli for "raw" water quality assessment, particularly for chlorine-resistant Cryptosporidium. E. coli measured by standard methods did not reliably predict pathogen occurrence at drinking water intakes in offshore ecosystems.

  8. [Fluoride intake through consumption of water from municipal network in the INMA-Gipuzkoa cohort].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Zabala, Ana; Santa-Marina, Loreto; Otazua, Mónica; Ayerdi, Mikel; Galarza, Ane; Gallastegi, Mara; Ulibarrena, Enrique; Molinuevo, Amaia; Anabitarte, Asier; Ibarluzea, Jesús

    2017-05-22

    To estimate fluoride intake through consumption of water from the municipal network in pregnant women and their children from the INMA-Gipuzkoa cohort and to compare these intakes with recommended levels. In Euskadi (Spain), fluoridation of drinking water is compulsory in water supplies for more than 30,000 inhabitants. 575 pregnant women (recruitment, 2006-2008) and 424 4-year-old children (follow-up, 2010-2012) have been included. Fluoride levels in drinking water were obtained from the water consumption information system of the Basque Country (EKUIS). Water consumption habits and socioeconomic variables were obtained by questionnaire. 74.9% and 87.7% of women and children consumed water from the municipal network. Average fluoride levels in fluoridated water were 0.805 (SD: 0.194) mg/L during baseline recruitment and 0.843 (SD: 0.080) mg/L during follow up, at 4 years old of the children. Average and 95th percentile of fluoride intake were 0.015 and 0.026mg/kg per day in women and 0.033 and 0.059mg/kg per day in children. Considering only fluoride provided by drinking water, 8.71% of children living in fluoridated areas exceeded intake level recommended by the European Food Safety Authority, consisting in 0.05mg/kg per day. The results show that ingested levels of fluoride through consumption of municipal water can exceed the recommended levels in children and encourages further studies that will help in fluoridation policies of drinking water in the future. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Beverage consumption habits "24/7" among British adults: association with total water intake and energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Sigrid; Shirreffs, Susan M

    2013-01-10

    Various recommendations exist for total water intake (TWI), yet it is seldom reported in dietary surveys. Few studies have examined how real-life consumption patterns, including beverage type, variety and timing relate to TWI and energy intake (EI). We analysed weighed dietary records from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey of 1724 British adults aged 19-64 years (2000/2001) to investigate beverage consumption patterns over 24 hrs and 7 days and associations with TWI and EI. TWI was calculated from the nutrient composition of each item of food and drink and compared with reference values. Mean TWI was 2.53 L (SD 0.86) for men and 2.03 L (SD 0.71) for women, close to the European Food Safety Authority "adequate Intake" (AI) of 2.5 L and 2 L, respectively. However, for 33% of men and 23% of women TWI was below AI and TWI:EI ratio was milk) and 2100 hrs (mainly alcohol). Total beverage consumption was higher at weekends, especially among men. Overall, beverages supplied 16% of EI (men 17%, women 14%), alcoholic drinks contributed 9% (men) and 5% (women), milk 5-6%, caloric soft drinks 2%, and fruit juice 1%.In multi-variable regression (adjusted for sex, age, body weight, smoking, dieting, activity level and mis-reporting), replacing 100 g of caloric beverages (milk, fruit juice, caloric soft drinks and alcohol) with 100 g non-caloric drinks (diet soft drinks, hot beverages and water) was associated with a reduction in EI of 15 kcal, or 34 kcal if food energy were unchanged. Using within-person data (deviations from 7-day mean) each 100 g change in caloric beverages was associated with 29 kcal change in EI or 35 kcal if food energy were constant. By comparison the calculated energy content of caloric drinks consumed was 47 kcal/100 g. TWI and beverage consumption are closely related, and some individuals appeared to have low TWI. Compensation for energy from beverages may occur but is partial. A better understanding of interactions between drinking and eating

  10. Central administration of obestatin fails to show inhibitory effects on food and water intake in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dijck, Annemie; Annemie, Van Dijck; Van Dam, Debby; Debby, Van Dam; Vergote, Valentijn; Valentijn, Vergote; De Spiegeleer, Bart; Bart, De Spiegeleer; Luyten, Walter; Walter, Luyten; Schoofs, Liliane; Liliane, Schoofs; De Deyn, Peter Paul; Peter Paul, De Deyn

    2009-08-07

    Obestatin is a ghrelin-associated peptide hormone with presumed anorexigenic and inhibitory effect on gastric propulsive motility activity. Recent literature, however, discloses much contestation over satiety and gastrointestinal motility-related functionalities of obestatin. In addition, antidipsinogenic effects in rodents by obestatin were recently reported. The present study was set up to bring more clarity into the contested effects of obestatin on food and water intake. Additionally, the stability of obestatin in brain tissue homogenate was investigated. The in vitro incubation of obestatin in brain homogenates revealed disappearance half-life times of 19 min for crude brain homogenate to 27 min for brain membrane homogenate. For the behavioural studies, male C57Bl/6 mice were intracerebroventricularly treated with 0.2 nmol murine amidated obestatin or vehicle at the age of 3 months. An additional group of mice was treated with 0.3 nmol of corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) as a positive control of suppression of food intake. Food and water intake were studied over a period of 5 h in metabolic cages. Under our experimental conditions, no suppressive effects of obestatin on food or water intake were observed, whereas CRF evoked a significant suppression of food intake, which proves the internal validity of the study design.

  11. The appetite suppressant d-fenfluramine reduces water intake, but not food intake, in activity-based anorexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillebrand, J J G; Heinsbroek, A C M; Kas, M J H; Adan, R A H

    2006-02-01

    Biochemical, genetic and imaging studies support the involvement of the serotonin (5-HT) system in anorexia nervosa. Activity-based anorexia (ABA) is considered an animal model of anorexia nervosa, and combines scheduled feeding with voluntary running wheel activity (RWA). We investigated the effect of d-fenfluramine (d-FEN) treatment on development and propagation of ABA. d-FEN is an appetite suppressant and acts on 5-HT(2C) receptors that are located on pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus. Since stimulation activation of the melanocortin system stimulates ABA, we hypothesized that d-FEN treatment enhances the development and propagation of ABA. Rats were exposed to the ABA model and chronically infused with d-FEN. Unexpectedly, d-FEN-treated ABA rats did not reduce food intake or increase wheel running as compared with vehicle-treated ABA rats. Furthermore d-FEN treatment did not affect body weight loss, hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis activation, or starvation-induced hypothermia in ABA rats. POMC mRNA levels in d-FEN-treated rats were not different from vehicle-treated rats after one week of exposure to the ABA paradigm. However, d-FEN-treated ABA rats showed hypodypsia and increased plasma osmolality and arginine-vasopressin expression levels in the hypothalamus. We conclude that d-FEN treatment does not enhance ABA under the experimental conditions of this study, but strongly reduces water intake in ABA rats.

  12. [Total drinking water intake and sources of children and adolescent in one district of Shenzhen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Songming; Hu, Xiaoqi; Zhang, Qian; Wang, Xiaojun; Liu, Ailing; Pan, Hui; He, Shuang; Ma, Guansheng

    2013-05-01

    To describe total drinking water intake among primary and middle school students in one district of Shenzhen and to provide scientific evidence for adequate intakes of drinking water for different people in China. A total of 816 students from three primary and middle schools of Shenzhen was selected using three-stage random sampling method. The information on amounts and types of daily drinking water was recorded by subjects for seven consecutive days using a 24 hours measurement. The amounts and types of daily drinking water among different ages and between boys and girls were analyzed. The average total drinking water of subjects was (1225+/-557) ml/d, and the consumption of total drinking water in boys ((1303+/-639) ml/d) was significantly higher than that in girls ((1134+/-478) ml/d, Pwater of secondary school students ((1389+/-541) ml/d) and high school student ((1318+/-641) ml/d) was no statistically difference, but was higher than primary school students ((1097+/-525) ml/d, Pwater and beverages of the subjects was (818+/-541) ml/d and (407+/-294) ml/d respectively. Major of fluid intake comes from drinking water in children and adolescenct of Shenzhen. The knowledge of drinking water of primary school students is need to comprehensive enough.

  13. Water Intake and Hydration Indices in Healthy European Adults: The European Hydration Research Study (EHRS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malisova, Olga; Athanasatou, Adelais; Pepa, Alex; Husemann, Marlien; Domnik, Kirsten; Braun, Hans; Mora-Rodriguez, Ricardo; Ortega, Juan F.; Fernandez-Elias, Valentin E.; Kapsokefalou, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Hydration status is linked with health, wellness, and performance. We evaluated hydration status, water intake, and urine output for seven consecutive days in healthy adults. Volunteers living in Spain, Germany, or Greece (n = 573, 39 ± 12 years (51.1% males), 25.0 ± 4.6 kg/m2 BMI) participated in an eight-day study protocol. Total water intake was estimated from seven-day food and drink diaries. Hydration status was measured in urine samples collected over 24 h for seven days and in blood samples collected in fasting state on the mornings of days 1 and 8. Total daily water intake was 2.75 ± 1.01 L, water from beverages 2.10 ± 0.91 L, water from foods 0.66 ± 0.29 L. Urine parameters were: 24 h volume 1.65 ± 0.70 L, 24 h osmolality 631 ± 221 mOsmol/kg Η2Ο, 24 h specific gravity 1.017 ± 0.005, 24 h excretion of sodium 166.9 ± 54.7 mEq, 24 h excretion of potassium 72.4 ± 24.6 mEq, color chart 4.2 ± 1.4. Predictors for urine osmolality were age, country, gender, and BMI. Blood indices were: haemoglobin concentration 14.7 ± 1.7 g/dL, hematocrit 43% ± 4% and serum osmolality 294 ± 9 mOsmol/kg Η2Ο. Daily water intake was higher in summer (2.8 ± 1.02 L) than in winter (2.6 ± 0.98 L) (p = 0.019). Water intake was associated negatively with urine specific gravity, urine color, and urine sodium and potassium concentrations (p hydration level. PMID:27058557

  14. Factors associated with low water intake among US high school students - National Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Study, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sohyun; Blanck, Heidi M; Sherry, Bettylou; Brener, Nancy; O'Toole, Terrence

    2012-09-01

    Drinking plain water instead of sugar-sweetened beverages is one approach for reducing energy intake. Only a few studies have examined characteristics associated with plain water intake among US youth. The purpose of our cross-sectional study was to examine associations of demographic characteristics, weight status, dietary habits, and other behavior-related factors with plain water intake among a nationally representative sample of US high school students. The 2010 National Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Study data for 11,049 students in grades 9 through 12 were used. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs for variables associated with low water intake (water water intake were age ≤15 years (OR 1.1), consuming milk (OR 1.5), nondiet soda ≥1 time/day (OR 1.6), other sugar-sweetened beverages ≥1 time/day (OR 1.4), fruits and 100% fruit juice active ≥60 minutes/day on water intake (OR 0.7). The findings of these significant associations of low water intake with poor diet quality, frequent fast-food restaurant use, and physical inactivity may be used to tailor intervention efforts to increase plain water intake as a substitute for sugar-sweetened beverages and to promote healthy lifestyles. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Increasing water intake by 2 liters reduces crystallization risk indexes in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de La Guéronnière, Viviane; Le Bellego, Laurent; Jimenez, Inmaculada Buendia; Dohein, Oriane; Tack, Ivan; Daudon, Michel

    2011-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of drinking 2 additional litres of water/day on several urinary risk factors for lithiasis in healthy subjects, through measurement of crystallization risk indices (Tiselius CRI). 48 healthy subjects, aged 25 to 50 were studied for urinary parameters including CRI in the laboratory ward, for 24 hours. After this first period, they were randomized either to a 2L/d additional water intake (treated group) or usual fluid consumption (control group) for a 6 days period, which ended by a second measurement period in the laboratory ward for 24 hours. Total additional water intake was actually 1.3L/d on average in treated subjects, because subjects decreased other usual sources of fluid intake. In 24 hour urine, Tiselius CRI varied differently among treated subjects and controls between the 2 periods; male controls subjects experienced much higher values (above 2 in average in first morning urine sample) in the second period (p = 0.05). Of interest, in a transversal analysis, we observed a positive relation between BMI or waist circumference on the one hand, and with 24 hour urea excretion or osmotic load on the other hand. These results show a beneficial effect of a final 1.3L additional water intake on Tiselius CRI in healthy subjects.

  16. Water Intake and Risk of Hyponatraemia in Prader-Willi Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akefeldt, A.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Methods: Unusual water intake and drinking behaviour has occasionally been observed in individuals with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). The aim of this study is to explore whether this observation is a part of the PWS phenotype and what the consequences may be. The parents of 51 individuals with PWS (age range 2-40 years) were asked by…

  17. Effects of sun-dried Opuntia ficus-indica on feed and water intake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of incremental levels (0, 24 and 36%) of sun-dried and coarsely ground Opuntia cladodes in balanced diets on feed and water intake and excretion of urine and faeces were investigated. Nine Dorper wethers (mean live weight 45.3 ± 1.9 kg) were stratified according to body weight in three treatment groups and a ...

  18. Effect of soft and moderately hard water intake on meat quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Fifty-six (56) days experiment was conducted to evaluate the “Effect of soft and moderately hard water intake on meat quality characteristics of broiler chickens”. Three hundred (300) day old broiler chickens of Hubbard breed were used. The chickens were randomly allotted to two (2) treatment groups. Group one are ...

  19. Role of the Hypothalamus in the Regulation of Food and Water Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Sebastian P.

    1975-01-01

    Article considered the thesis that the fiber systems that course throught the hypothalamus may play a more important role in the etiology of the dysfunctions in food and water intake that are seen after hypothalamic lessions and stimulation than the widely accepted model of hypothalamic regulation implies. (Author/RK)

  20. Effect of preexercise soup ingestion on water intake and fluid balance during exercise in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannsen, Neil M; Sullivan, Zebblin M; Warnke, Nicole R; Smiley-Oyen, Ann L; King, Douglas S; Sharp, Rick L

    2013-06-01

    To determine whether chicken noodle soup before exercise increases ad libitum water intake, fluid balance, and physical and cognitive performance compared with water. Nine trained men (age 25 ± 3 yr, VO2peak 54.2 ± 5.1 ml · kg-1 · min-1; M ± SD) performed cycle exercise in the heat (wet bulb globe temperature = 25.9 ± 0.4 °C) for 90 min at 50% VO2peak, 45 min after ingesting 355 ml of either commercially available bottled water (WATER) or chicken noodle soup (SOUP). The same bottled water was allowed ad libitum throughout both trials. Participants then completed a time trial to finish a given amount of work (10 min at 90% VO2peak; n = 8). Cognitive performance was evaluated by the Stroop color-word task before, every 30 min during, and immediately after the time trial. Ad libitum water intake throughout steady-state exercise was greater in SOUP than with WATER (1,435 ± 593 vs. 1,163 ± 427 g, respectively; p water retention in SOUP than in WATER (87.7% ± 7.6% vs. 74.9% ± 21.7%, respectively; p = .09), possibly due to a change in free water clearance (-0.32 ± 1.22 vs. 0.51 ± 1.06 ml/min, respectively; p = .07). Fluid balance tended to be improved with SOUP (-106 ± 603 vs. -478 ± 594 g, p = .05). Likewise, change in plasma volume tended to be reduced in SOUP compared with WATER (p = .06). Only mild dehydration was achieved (water intake and may alter kidney function.

  1. Drinking water intake in the U.S.: What We Eat In America, NHANES 2005-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goals of this study were to describe plain drinking water intake patterns of the U.S. population and determine whether total, tap, and bottled water intakes differ by gender, race/ethnicity, income, and activity level. Twenty-four-hour dietary recall data from 16,566 individuals age 2 years an...

  2. Effects of changes in water intake on mood of high and low drinkers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Pross

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of a change in water intake on mood and sensation in 22 habitual high-volume (HIGH; 2-4 L/d and 30 low-volume (LOW; <1.2 L/d drinkers who were asked to respectively decrease and increase their daily water intake. METHOD: During baseline HIGH consumed 2.5 L and LOW 1 L of water/day. During 3 controlled intervention days HIGH's water intake was restricted to 1 L/day whereas LOW's was increased to 2.5 L water/day. Several mood scales (Bond & Lader Visual Analog Scale (VAS, Profile of Mood States, Karolinska Sleepiness Scale, Thirst & Emotional VAS were administered at different time points during the study. ANOVA including intervention, time point and intervention by time point as fixed effects on mean values (i.e.; baseline data vs. mean of 3 intervention days for each mood scale was performed. RESULTS: At baseline HIGH and LOW were comparable in mood state, except for thirst scores (estimate = 17.16, p<0.001 and POMS depression-dejection scores (estimate = 0.55, p<0.05 which were both higher in the HIGH vs. LOW. In HIGH the restricted water intake resulted in a significant increase in thirst (p<0.001 and a decrease in contentedness (p<0.05, calmness (p<0.01, positive emotions (p<0.05 and vigor/activity (p<0.001. In LOW, increased water consumption resulted in a significant decrease in fatigue/inertia (p<0.001, confusion/bewilderment (p = 0.05 and thirst (p<0.001 and a trend to lower sleepiness (p = 0.07 compared to baseline. CONCLUSION: Increasing water intake has beneficial effects in LOW, especially sleep/wake feelings, whereas decreasing water intake has detrimental effects on HIGH's mood. These deleterious effects in HIGH were observed in some sleep/wake moods as well as calmness, satisfaction and positive emotions.

  3. A prospective study of water intake and subsequent risk of all-cause mortality in a national cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Ashima K; Graubard, Barry I

    2017-01-01

    Water, an essential nutrient, is believed to be related to a variety of health outcomes. Published studies have examined the association of fluid or beverage intake with risk of mortality from coronary diseases, diabetes, or cancer, but few studies have examined the association of total water intake with all-cause mortality. We examined prospective risk of mortality from all causes in relation to intakes of total water and each of the 3 water sources. We used public-domain, mortality-linked water intake data from the NHANES conducted in 1988-1994 and 1999-2004 for this prospective cohort study (n = 12,660 women and 12,050 men; aged ≥25 y). Mortality follow-up was completed through 31 December 2011. We used sex-specific Cox proportional hazards regression methods that were appropriate for complex surveys to examine the independent associations of plain water, beverage water, water in foods, and total water with multiple covariate-adjusted risk of mortality from all causes. Over a median of 11.4 y of follow-up, 3504 men and 3032 women died of any cause in this cohort. In men, neither total water intake nor each of the individual water source variables (plain water, water in beverages, and water in foods) was independently related with risk of all-cause mortality. In women, risk of mortality increased slightly in the highest quartile of total or plain water intake but did not approach the Bonferroni-corrected level of significance of P < 0.002. There was no survival advantage in association with higher total or plain water intake in men or women in this national cohort. The slight increase in risk of mortality noted in women with higher total and plain water intakes may be spurious and requires further investigation. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  4. Beverage Consumption Habits among the European Population: Association with Total Water and Energy Intakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissensohn, Mariela; Sánchez-Villegas, Almudena; Galan, Pilar; Turrini, Aida; Arnault, Nathalie; Mistura, Lorenza; Ortiz-Andrellucchi, Adriana; Szabo de Edelenyi, Fabien; D’Addezio, Laura; Serra-Majem, Lluis

    2017-01-01

    Background: Fluid and water intake have received limited attention in epidemiological studies. The aim of this study was to compare the average daily consumption of foods and beverages in adults of selective samples of the European Union (EU) population in order to understand the contribution of these to the total water intake (TWI), evaluate if the EU adult population consumes adequate amounts of total water (TW) according to the current guidelines, and to illustrate the real water intake in Europe. Methods: Three national European dietary surveys have been selected: Spain used the Anthropometry, Intake, and Energy Balance Study (ANIBES) population database, Italy analyzed data from the Italian National Food Consumption Survey (INRAN-SCAI 2005-06), and French data came from the NutriNet-Santé database. Mean daily consumption was used to compare between individuals. TWI was compared with European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference values for adult men and women. Results: On average, in Spain, TWI was 1.7 L (SE 22.9) for men and 1.6 L (SE 19.4) for women; Italy recorded 1.7 L (SE 16.9) for men and 1.7 L (SE 14.1) for women; and France recorded 2.3 L (SE 4.7) for men and 2.1 L (SE 2.4) for women. With the exception of women in France, neither men nor women consumed sufficient amounts of water according to EFSA reference values. Conclusions: This study highlights the need to formulate appropriate health and nutrition policies to increase TWI in the EU population. The future of beverage intake assessment requires the use of new instruments, techniques, and the application of the new available technologies. PMID:28406441

  5. Beverage Consumption Habits among the European Population: Association with Total Water and Energy Intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissensohn, Mariela; Sánchez-Villegas, Almudena; Galan, Pilar; Turrini, Aida; Arnault, Nathalie; Mistura, Lorenza; Ortiz-Andrellucchi, Adriana; Edelenyi, Fabien Szabo de; D'Addezio, Laura; Serra-Majem, Lluis

    2017-04-13

    Fluid and water intake have received limited attention in epidemiological studies. The aim of this study was to compare the average daily consumption of foods and beverages in adults of selective samples of the European Union (EU) population in order to understand the contribution of these to the total water intake (TWI), evaluate if the EU adult population consumes adequate amounts of total water (TW) according to the current guidelines, and to illustrate the real water intake in Europe. Three national European dietary surveys have been selected: Spain used the Anthropometry, Intake, and Energy Balance Study (ANIBES) population database, Italy analyzed data from the Italian National Food Consumption Survey (INRAN-SCAI 2005-06), and French data came from the NutriNet-Santé database. Mean daily consumption was used to compare between individuals. TWI was compared with European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference values for adult men and women. On average, in Spain, TWI was 1.7 L (SE 22.9) for men and 1.6 L (SE 19.4) for women; Italy recorded 1.7 L (SE 16.9) for men and 1.7 L (SE 14.1) for women; and France recorded 2.3 L (SE 4.7) for men and 2.1 L (SE 2.4) for women. With the exception of women in France, neither men nor women consumed sufficient amounts of water according to EFSA reference values. This study highlights the need to formulate appropriate health and nutrition policies to increase TWI in the EU population. The future of beverage intake assessment requires the use of new instruments, techniques, and the application of the new available technologies.

  6. Central muscarinic receptor subtypes involved in pilocarpine-induced salivation, hypertension and water intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borella, T L; De Luca, L A; Colombari, D S A; Menani, J V

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose: Recent evidence has suggested that pilocarpine (ACh receptor agonist) injected peripherally may act centrally producing salivation and hypertension. In this study, we investigated the effects of specific M1 (pirenzepine), M2/M4 (methoctramine), M1/M3 (4-DAMP) and M4 (tropicamide) muscarinic receptor subtype antagonists injected into the lateral cerebral ventricle (LV) on salivation, water intake and pressor responses to peripheral pilocarpine. Experimental approach: Male Holtzman rats with stainless steel cannulae implanted in the LV were used. Salivation was measured in rats anaesthetized with ketamine (100 mg per kg body weight) and arterial pressure was recorded in unanaesthetized rats. Key results: Salivation induced by i.p. pilocarpine (4 μmol per kg body weight) was reduced only by 4-DAMP (25–250 nmol) injected into the LV, not by pirenzepine, methoctramine or tropicamide at the dose of 500 nmol. Pirenzepine (0.1 and 1 nmol) and 4-DAMP (5 and 10 nmol) injected into the LV reduced i.p. pilocarpine-induced water intake, whereas metoctramine (50 nmol) produced nonspecific effects on ingestive behaviours. Injection of pirenzepine (100 nmol) or 4-DAMP (25 and 50 nmol) into the LV reduced i.v. pilocarpine-induced pressor responses. Tropicamide (500 nmol) injected into the LV had no effect on pilocarpine-induced salivation, pressor responses or water intake. Conclusions and implications: The results suggest that central M3 receptors are involved in peripheral pilocarpine-induced salivation and M1 receptors in water intake and pressor responses. The involvement of M3 receptors in water intake and pressor responses is not clear because 4-DAMP blocks both M1 and M3 receptors. PMID:18820713

  7. Effect of increased water intake on plasma copeptin in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemetais, Guillaume; Melander, Olle; Vecchio, Mariacristina; Bottin, Jeanne H; Enhörning, Sofia; Perrier, Erica T

    2017-06-03

    Inter-individual variation in median plasma copeptin is associated with incident type 2 diabetes mellitus, progression of chronic kidney disease, and cardiovascular events. In this study, we examined whether 24-h urine osmolality was associated with plasma copeptin and whether increasing daily water intake could impact circulating plasma copeptin. This trial was a prospective study conducted at a single investigating center. Eighty-two healthy adults (age 23.6 ± 2.9 years, BMI 22.2 ± 1.5 kg/m2, 50% female) were stratified based upon habitual daily fluid intake volumes: arm A (50-80% of EFSA dietary reference values), arm B (81-120%), and arm C (121-200%). Following a baseline visit, arms A and B increased their water intake to match arm C for a period of 6 consecutive weeks. At baseline, plasma copeptin was positively and significantly associated with 24-h urine osmolality (p = 0.002) and 24-h urine specific gravity (p = 0.003) but not with plasma osmolality (p = 0.18), 24-h urine creatinine (p = 0.09), and total fluid intake (p = 0.52). Over the 6-week follow-up, copeptin decreased significantly from 5.18 (3.3;7.4) to 3.90 (2.7;5.7) pmol/L (p = 0.012), while urine osmolality and urine specific gravity decreased from 591 ± 206 to 364 ± 117 mOsm/kg (p copeptin were positively associated with 24-h urine concentration in healthy young subjects with various fluid intakes. Moreover, this study shows, for the first time, that increased water intake over 6 weeks results in an attenuation of circulating copeptin. NCT02044679.

  8. Accidental intake of tritiated water: a report of two cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lloyd, D.C.; Edwards, A.A.; Prosser, J.S.; Auf der Maur, A.; Etzweiler, A.; Weickhardt, U.; Goessi, U.; Geiger, L.; Noelpp, U.; Roesler, H.

    1986-01-01

    The accidental inhalation by two people of tritiated water is described. One person incorporated approximately 35 GBq (1 Ci) and was treated by forced diuresis. Her committed effective dose equivalent was approx. 0.4 Sv. The diuresis procedure and physiological monitoring of the patient is described. The other person incorporated only about 1 GBq (0.03 Ci) and accelerated his excretion of tritium by extra drinking. The clearance rates of tritium-in-urine are presented for both subjects and are used to estimate committed effective dose equivalents. These are compared with values from cytogenetic dosimetry derived from repeated blood sampling.

  9. Central serotonergic and adrenergic/imidazoline inhibitory mechanisms on sodium and water intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira Margatho, Lisandra; Pereira Barbosa, Silas; Antonio De Luca, Laurival; Vanderlei Menani, José

    2002-11-22

    Recent studies have shown the existence of two important inhibitory mechanisms for the control of NACL and water intake: one mechanism involves serotonin in the lateral parabrachial nucleus (LPBN) and the other depends on alpha(2)-adrenergic/imidazoline receptors probably in the forebrain areas. In the present study we investigated if alpha(2)-adrenergic/imidazoline and serotonergic inhibitory mechanisms interact to control NaCl and water intake. Male Holtzman rats with cannulas implanted simultaneously into the lateral ventricle (LV) and bilaterally into the LPBN were used. The ingestion of 0.3 M NaCl and water was induced by treatment with the diuretic furosemide (10 mg/kg of body weight)+the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor captopril (5 mg/kg) injected subcutaneously 1 h before the access of rats to water and 0.3 M NaCl. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of the alpha(2)-adrenergic/imidazoline agonist clonidine (20 nmol/1 microl) almost abolished water (1.6+/-1.2, vs. vehicle: 7.5+/-2.2 ml/2 h) and 0.3 M NaCl intake (0.5+/-0.3, vs. vehicle: 2.2+/-0.8 ml/2 h). Similar effects were produced by bilateral injections of the 5HT(2a/2c) serotonergic agonist 2,5-dimetoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI, 5 microg/0.2 microl each site) into the LPBN on water (3.6+/-0.9 ml/2 h) and 0.3 M NaCl intake (0.4+/-0.2 ml/2 h). Injection of the alpha(2)-adrenergic/imidazoline antagonist idazoxan (320 nmol) i.c.v. completely blocked the effects of clonidine on water (8.4+/-1.5 ml/2 h) and NaCl intake (4.0+/-1.2 ml/2 h), but did not change the effects of LPBN injections of DOI on water (4.2+/-1.0 ml/2 h) and NaCl intake (0.7+/-0.2 ml/2 h). Bilateral injections of methysergide (4 microg/0.2 microl each site) into the LPBN increased 0.3 M NaCl intake (6.4+/-1.9 ml/2 h), not water intake. The inhibitory effect of i.c.v. clonidine on water and 0.3 M NaCl was still present after injections of methysergide into the LPBN (1.5+/-0.8 and 1.7+/-1.4 ml/2 h, respectively). The results show

  10. Beverage consumption habits “24/7” among British adults: association with total water intake and energy intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Various recommendations exist for total water intake (TWI), yet it is seldom reported in dietary surveys. Few studies have examined how real-life consumption patterns, including beverage type, variety and timing relate to TWI and energy intake (EI). Methods We analysed weighed dietary records from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey of 1724 British adults aged 19–64 years (2000/2001) to investigate beverage consumption patterns over 24 hrs and 7 days and associations with TWI and EI. TWI was calculated from the nutrient composition of each item of food and drink and compared with reference values. Results Mean TWI was 2.53 L (SD 0.86) for men and 2.03 L (SD 0.71) for women, close to the European Food Safety Authority “adequate Intake” (AI) of 2.5 L and 2 L, respectively. However, for 33% of men and 23% of women TWI was below AI and TWI:EI ratio was Beverages accounted for 75% of TWI. Beverage variety was correlated with TWI (r 0.34) and more weakly with EI (r 0.16). Beverage consumption peaked at 0800 hrs (mainly hot beverages/ milk) and 2100 hrs (mainly alcohol). Total beverage consumption was higher at weekends, especially among men. Overall, beverages supplied 16% of EI (men 17%, women 14%), alcoholic drinks contributed 9% (men) and 5% (women), milk 5-6%, caloric soft drinks 2%, and fruit juice 1%. In multi-variable regression (adjusted for sex, age, body weight, smoking, dieting, activity level and mis-reporting), replacing 100 g of caloric beverages (milk, fruit juice, caloric soft drinks and alcohol) with 100 g non-caloric drinks (diet soft drinks, hot beverages and water) was associated with a reduction in EI of 15 kcal, or 34 kcal if food energy were unchanged. Using within-person data (deviations from 7-day mean) each 100 g change in caloric beverages was associated with 29 kcal change in EI or 35 kcal if food energy were constant. By comparison the calculated energy content of caloric drinks consumed was

  11. Beverage consumption habits “24/7” among British adults: association with total water intake and energy intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibson Sigrid

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Various recommendations exist for total water intake (TWI, yet it is seldom reported in dietary surveys. Few studies have examined how real-life consumption patterns, including beverage type, variety and timing relate to TWI and energy intake (EI. Methods We analysed weighed dietary records from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey of 1724 British adults aged 19–64 years (2000/2001 to investigate beverage consumption patterns over 24 hrs and 7 days and associations with TWI and EI. TWI was calculated from the nutrient composition of each item of food and drink and compared with reference values. Results Mean TWI was 2.53 L (SD 0.86 for men and 2.03 L (SD 0.71 for women, close to the European Food Safety Authority “adequate Intake” (AI of 2.5 L and 2 L, respectively. However, for 33% of men and 23% of women TWI was below AI and TWI:EI ratio was In multi-variable regression (adjusted for sex, age, body weight, smoking, dieting, activity level and mis-reporting, replacing 100 g of caloric beverages (milk, fruit juice, caloric soft drinks and alcohol with 100 g non-caloric drinks (diet soft drinks, hot beverages and water was associated with a reduction in EI of 15 kcal, or 34 kcal if food energy were unchanged. Using within-person data (deviations from 7-day mean each 100 g change in caloric beverages was associated with 29 kcal change in EI or 35 kcal if food energy were constant. By comparison the calculated energy content of caloric drinks consumed was 47 kcal/100 g. Conclusions TWI and beverage consumption are closely related, and some individuals appeared to have low TWI. Compensation for energy from beverages may occur but is partial. A better understanding of interactions between drinking and eating habits and their impact on water and energy balance would give a firmer basis to dietary recommendations.

  12. Binational Arsenic Exposure Survey: Methodology and Estimated Arsenic Intake from Drinking Water and Urinary Arsenic Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin B. Harris

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Binational Arsenic Exposure Survey (BAsES was designed to evaluate probable arsenic exposures in selected areas of southern Arizona and northern Mexico, two regions with known elevated levels of arsenic in groundwater reserves. This paper describes the methodology of BAsES and the relationship between estimated arsenic intake from beverages and arsenic output in urine. Households from eight communities were selected for their varying groundwater arsenic concentrations in Arizona, USA and Sonora, Mexico. Adults responded to questionnaires and provided dietary information. A first morning urine void and water from all household drinking sources were collected. Associations between urinary arsenic concentration (total, organic, inorganic and estimated level of arsenic consumed from water and other beverages were evaluated through crude associations and by random effects models. Median estimated total arsenic intake from beverages among participants from Arizona communities ranged from 1.7 to 14.1 µg/day compared to 0.6 to 3.4 µg/day among those from Mexico communities. In contrast, median urinary inorganic arsenic concentrations were greatest among participants from Hermosillo, Mexico (6.2 µg/L whereas a high of 2.0 µg/L was found among participants from Ajo, Arizona. Estimated arsenic intake from drinking water was associated with urinary total arsenic concentration (p < 0.001, urinary inorganic arsenic concentration (p < 0.001, and urinary sum of species (p < 0.001. Urinary arsenic concentrations increased between 7% and 12% for each one percent increase in arsenic consumed from drinking water. Variability in arsenic intake from beverages and urinary arsenic output yielded counter intuitive results. Estimated intake of arsenic from all beverages was greatest among Arizonans yet participants in Mexico had higher urinary total and inorganic arsenic concentrations. Other contributors to urinary arsenic concentrations should be evaluated.

  13. Water Intake by Outdoor Temperature Among Children Aged 1-10 Years: Implications for Community Water Fluoridation in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán-Aguilar, Eugenio D; Barker, Laurie; Sohn, Woosung; Wei, Liang

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. water fluoridation recommendations, which have been in place since 1962, were based in part on findings from the 1950s that children's water intake increased with outdoor temperature. We examined whether or not water intake is associated with outdoor temperature. Using linked data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2004 and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, we examined reported 24-hour total and plain water intake in milliliters per kilogram of body weight per day of children aged 1-10 years by maximum outdoor temperature on the day of reported water intake, unadjusted and adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, and poverty status. We applied linear regression methods that were used in previously reported analyses of data from NHANES 1988-1994 and from the 1950s. We found that total water intake was not associated with temperature. Plain water intake was weakly associated with temperature in unadjusted (coefficient 5 0.2, p=0.015) and adjusted (coefficient 5 0.2, p=0.013) linear regression models. However, these models explained little of the individual variation in plain water intake (unadjusted: R(2)=0.005; adjusted: R(2)=0.023). Optimal fluoride concentration in drinking water to prevent caries need not be based on outdoor temperature, given the lack of association between total water intake and outdoor temperature, the weak association between plain water intake and outdoor temperature, and the minimal amount of individual variance in plain water intake explained by outdoor temperature. These findings support the change in the U.S. Public Health Service recommendation for fluoride concentration in drinking water for the prevention of dental caries from temperature-related concentrations to a single concentration that is not related to outdoor temperature.

  14. Water Intake by Outdoor Temperature Among Children Aged 1–10 Years: Implications for Community Water Fluoridation in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán-Aguilar, Eugenio D.; Sohn, Woosung; Wei, Liang

    2015-01-01

    Objective The U.S. water fluoridation recommendations, which have been in place since 1962, were based in part on findings from the 1950s that children's water intake increased with outdoor temperature. We examined whether or not water intake is associated with outdoor temperature. Methods Using linked data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999–2004 and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, we examined reported 24-hour total and plain water intake in milliliters per kilogram of body weight per day of children aged 1–10 years by maximum outdoor temperature on the day of reported water intake, unadjusted and adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, and poverty status. We applied linear regression methods that were used in previously reported analyses of data from NHANES 1988–1994 and from the 1950s. Results We found that total water intake was not associated with temperature. Plain water intake was weakly associated with temperature in unadjusted (coefficient 5 0.2, p=0.015) and adjusted (coefficient 5 0.2, p=0.013) linear regression models. However, these models explained little of the individual variation in plain water intake (unadjusted: R2=0.005; adjusted: R2=0.023). Conclusion Optimal fluoride concentration in drinking water to prevent caries need not be based on outdoor temperature, given the lack of association between total water intake and outdoor temperature, the weak association between plain water intake and outdoor temperature, and the minimal amount of individual variance in plain water intake explained by outdoor temperature. These findings support the change in the U.S. Public Health Service recommendation for fluoride concentration in drinking water for the prevention of dental caries from temperature-related concentrations to a single concentration that is not related to outdoor temperature. PMID:26346578

  15. The Relationship of Perceptions of Tap Water Safety with Intake of Sugar Sweetened Beverages and Plain Water among U.S. Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onufrak, Stephen J; Park, Sohyun; Sharkey, Joseph R; Sherry, Bettylou

    2015-01-01

    Objective Research is limited on whether mistrust of tap water discourages plain water intake and leads to greater intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB). The objective of this study is to examine demographic differences in perceptions of tap water safety and determine if these perceptions are associated with intake of SSB and plain water Design The study examined perceptions of tap water safety and their cross-sectional association with intake of SSB and plain water. Racial/ethnic differences in the associations of tap water perceptions with SSB and plain water intake were also examined. Setting Nationally weighted data from 2010 HealthStyles Survey (n=4184) Subjects United States adults ≥18 years Results Overall, 13.0% of participants disagreed that their local tap water was safe to drink and 26.4% of participants agreed that bottled water was safer than tap water. Both mistrust of tap water safety and favoring bottled water differed by region, age, race/ethnicity, income, and education. The associations of tap water mistrust on intake of SSB and plain water were modified by race/ethnicity (pwater was safe to drink were more likely to report low intake of plain water. The odds of consuming ≥1 SSB/day among Hispanics who mistrusted their local tap water was twice that of Hispanics who did not (OR = 2.0; 95% CI: 1.2, 3.3). Conclusions Public health efforts to promote healthy beverages should recognize the potential impact of tap water perceptions on water and SSB intake among minority populations. PMID:23098620

  16. Potential foraging decisions by a desert ungulate to balance water and nutrient intake in a water-stressed environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedir, Jay V.; Cain, James W.; Krausman, Paul R.; Allen, Jamison D.; Duff, Glenn C.; Morgart, John R.

    2016-01-01

    Arid climates have unpredictable precipitation patterns, and wildlife managers often provide supplemental water to help desert ungulates endure the hottest, driest periods. When surface water is unavailable, the only source of water for ungulates comes from the forage they consume, and they must make resourceful foraging decisions to meet their requirements. We compared two desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni) populations in Arizona, USA: a treatment population with supplemental water removed during treatment, and a control population. We examined whether sheep altered their seasonal diets without supplemental water. We calculated water and nutrient intake and metabolic water production from dry matter intake and forage moisture and nitrogen content, to determine whether sheep could meet their seasonal daily water and nutrient requirements solely from forage. Diets of sheep were higher in protein (all seasons) and moisture (autumn and winter) during treatment compared to pretreatment. During treatment, sheep diet composition was similar between the treatment and control populations, which suggests, under the climatic conditions of this study, water removal did not influence sheep diets. We estimated that under drought conditions, without any surface water available (although small ephemeral potholes would contain water after rains), female and male sheep would be unable to meet their daily water requirements in all seasons, except winter, when reproductive females had a nitrogen deficit. We determined that sheep could achieve water and nutrient balances in all seasons by shifting their total diet proportions by 8–55% from lower to higher moisture and nitrogen forage species. We elucidate how seasonal forage quality and foraging decisions by desert ungulates allow them to cope with their xeric and uncertain environment, and suggest that, with the forage conditions observed in our study area during this study period, providing supplemental water during

  17. Potential Foraging Decisions by a Desert Ungulate to Balance Water and Nutrient Intake in a Water-Stressed Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedir, Jay V; Cain, James W; Krausman, Paul R; Allen, Jamison D; Duff, Glenn C; Morgart, John R

    2016-01-01

    Arid climates have unpredictable precipitation patterns, and wildlife managers often provide supplemental water to help desert ungulates endure the hottest, driest periods. When surface water is unavailable, the only source of water for ungulates comes from the forage they consume, and they must make resourceful foraging decisions to meet their requirements. We compared two desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni) populations in Arizona, USA: a treatment population with supplemental water removed during treatment, and a control population. We examined whether sheep altered their seasonal diets without supplemental water. We calculated water and nutrient intake and metabolic water production from dry matter intake and forage moisture and nitrogen content, to determine whether sheep could meet their seasonal daily water and nutrient requirements solely from forage. Diets of sheep were higher in protein (all seasons) and moisture (autumn and winter) during treatment compared to pretreatment. During treatment, sheep diet composition was similar between the treatment and control populations, which suggests, under the climatic conditions of this study, water removal did not influence sheep diets. We estimated that under drought conditions, without any surface water available (although small ephemeral potholes would contain water after rains), female and male sheep would be unable to meet their daily water requirements in all seasons, except winter, when reproductive females had a nitrogen deficit. We determined that sheep could achieve water and nutrient balances in all seasons by shifting their total diet proportions by 8-55% from lower to higher moisture and nitrogen forage species. We elucidate how seasonal forage quality and foraging decisions by desert ungulates allow them to cope with their xeric and uncertain environment, and suggest that, with the forage conditions observed in our study area during this study period, providing supplemental water during

  18. Accuracy of daily fluid intake measurements using a "smart" water bottle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borofsky, Michael S; Dauw, Casey A; York, Nadya; Terry, Colin; Lingeman, James E

    2017-10-04

    High fluid intake is an effective preventative strategy against recurrent kidney stones but is known to be challenging to achieve. Recently, a smart water bottle (Hidrate Spark™, Minneapolis, MN) was developed as a non-invasive fluid intake monitoring system. This device could help patients who form stones from low urine volume achieve sustainable improvements in hydration, but has yet to be validated in a clinical setting. Hidrate Spark™ uses capacitive touch sensing via an internal sensor. It calculates volume measurements by detecting changes in water level and sends data wirelessly to users' smartphones through an application. A pilot study was conducted to assess accuracy of measured fluid intake over 24 h periods when used in a real life setting. Subjects were provided smart bottles and given short tutorials on their use. Accuracy was determined by comparing 24-h fluid intake measurements calculated through the smart bottle via sensor to standard volume measurements calculated by the patient from hand over the same 24 h period. Eight subjects performed sixty-two 24-h measurements (range 4-14). Mean hand measurement was 57.2 oz/1692 mL (21-96 oz/621-2839 mL). Corresponding mean smart bottle measurement underestimated true fluid intake by 0.5 ozs. (95% CI -1.9, 0.9). Percent difference between hand and smart bottle measurements was 0.0% (95% CI - 3%, 3%). Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), calculated to assess consistency between hand measures and bottle measures, was 0.97 (0.95, 0.98) indicating an extremely high consistency between measures. 24-h fluid intake measurements from a novel fluid monitoring system (Hidrate Spark™) are accurate to within 3%. Such technology may be useful as a behavioral aide and/or research tool particularly among recurrent stone formers with low urinary volume.

  19. Physical activity, food intake, and body weight regulation: insights from doubly labeled water studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerterp, Klaas R

    2010-03-01

    Body weight and energy balance can be maintained by adapting energy intake to changes in energy expenditure and vice versa, whereas short-term changes in energy expenditure are mainly caused by physical activity. This review investigates whether physical activity is affected by over- and undereating, whether intake is affected by an increase or a decrease in physical activity, and whether being overweight affects physical activity. The available evidence is based largely on studies that quantified physical activity with doubly labeled water. Overeating does not affect physical activity, while undereating decreases habitual or voluntary physical activity. Thus, it is easier to gain weight than to lose weight. An exercise-induced increase in energy requirement is typically compensated by increased energy intake, while a change to a more sedentary routine does not induce an equivalent reduction of intake and generally results in weight gain. Overweight and obese subjects tend to have similar activity energy expenditures to lean people despite being more sedentary. There are two ways in which the general population trend towards increasing body weight can be reversed: reduce intake or increase physical activity. The results of the present literature review indicate that eating less is the most effective method for preventing weight gain, despite the potential for a negative effect on physical activity when a negative energy balance is reached.

  20. Gastrointestinal and renal responses to variable water intake in whitebellied sunbirds and New Holland honeyeaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purchase, Cromwell; Napier, Kathryn R; Nicolson, Susan W; McWhorter, Todd J; Fleming, Patricia A

    2013-05-01

    Nectarivores face a constant challenge in terms of water balance, experiencing water loading or dehydration when switching between food plants or between feeding and fasting. To understand how whitebellied sunbirds and New Holland honeyeaters meet the challenges of varying preformed water load, we used the elimination of intramuscular-injected [(14)C]-l-glucose and (3)H2O to quantify intestinal and renal water handling on diets varying in sugar concentration. Both sunbirds and honeyeaters showed significant modulation of intestinal water absorption, allowing excess water to be shunted through the intestine when on dilute diets. Despite reducing their fractional water absorption, both species showed linear increases in water flux and fractional body water turnover as water intake increased (both afternoon and morning), suggesting that the modulation of fractional water absorption was not sufficient to completely offset dietary water loads. In both species, glomerular filtration rate was independent of water gain (but was higher for the afternoon), as was renal fractional water reabsorption (measured in the afternoon). During the natural overnight fast, both sunbirds and honeyeaters arrested whole kidney function. Evaporative water loss in sunbirds was variable but correlated with water gain. Both sunbirds and honeyeaters appear to modulate intestinal water absorption as an important component of water regulation to help deal with massive preformed water loads. Shutting down glomerular filtration rate during the overnight fast is another way of saving energy for osmoregulatory function. Birds maintain osmotic balance on diets varying markedly in preformed water load by varying both intestinal water absorption and excretion through the intestine and kidneys.

  1. Habitual total water intake and dimensions of mood in healthy young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Colleen X; Johnson, Evan C; McKenzie, Amy L; Guelinckx, Isabelle; Graverholt, Gitte; Casa, Douglas J; Maresh, Carl M; Armstrong, Lawrence E

    2015-09-01

    Acute negative and positive mood states have been linked with the development of undesirable and desirable health outcomes, respectively. Numerous factors acutely influence mood state, including exercise, caffeine ingestion, and macronutrient intake, but the influence of habitual total water intake remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to observe relationships between habitual water intake and mood. One hundred twenty healthy females (mean ± SD; age = 20 ± 2 y, BMI = 22.9 ± 3.5 kg⋅m(-2) ) recorded all food and fluids consumed for 5 consecutive days. Investigators utilized dietary analysis software to determine Total Water Intake (TWI; total water content in foods and fluids), caffeine, and macronutrient consumption (i.e. protein, carbohydrate, fat). On days 3 and 4, participants completed the Profile of Mood State (POMS) questionnaire, which examined tension, depression, anger, vigor, and confusion, plus an aggregate measure of Total Mood Disturbance (TMD). For comparison of mood, data were separated into three even groups (n = 40 each) based on TWI: low (LOW; 1.51 ± 0.27 L/d), moderate (MOD; 2.25 ± 0.19 L/d), and high (HIGH; 3.13 ± 0.54 L/d). Regression analysis was performed to determine continuous relationships between measured variables. Group differences (p MOD = 7.2 ± 5.4, HIGH = 4.4 ± 2.9), depression (LOW = 4.5 ± 5.9, HIGH = 1.7 ± 2.3), confusion (MOD = 5.9 ± 3.4, HIGH = 4.0 ± 2.1), and TMD (LOW=19.0 ± 21.8, HIGH=8.2 ± 14.2). After accounting for other mood influencers, TWI predicted TMD (r(2) = 0.104; p = 0.050). The above relationships suggest the amount of water a woman consumes is associated with mood state. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Acute effect of oral water intake during exercise on post-exercise hypotension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, M Y; Kajimoto, C; Yamada, M; Miura, A; Hayashi, N; Koga, S; Fukuba, Y

    2012-11-01

    Post-exercise hypotension (PEH) is a sustained reduction in mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) after prolonged exercise. As water drinking is known to elicit a large acute pressor response, we aimed to explore the effect of drinking water during exercise on PEH. Ten normotensive male volunteers performed the control protocol: 30 min supine rest, 60 min cycling exercise in moderate intensity, and 60 min supine rest recovery. In the water drinking protocol, the same procedure was followed but with water intake during exercise to compensate for exercise-induced body weight lost. Heart rate, MAP, cardiac output and blood flow in the brachial artery were measured pre- and post-exercise. The total vascular conductance (TVC) and the vascular conductance (VC) in the brachial artery were calculated pre- and post-exercise, and the relative change in plasma volume (ΔPV) was also measured. Body weight loss during exercise was 0.65 ± 0.24 kg in the control. ΔPV was not different during recovery in either protocol. MAP in the control was significantly reduced during the latter half of the recovery compared with baseline. In contrast, MAP in the water drinking showed no reduction during recovery, and was significantly higher than in the control. TVC and VC in the brachial artery were lower in the water drinking, in which vasoconstriction was relatively exaggerated. Prevention of dehydration after exercise by oral water intake, or oral water intake per se has a role in maintaining post-exercise MAP and it may be related to reduction in TVC.

  3. Water incorporated into a food but not served with a food decreases energy intake in lean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolls, B J; Bell, E A; Thorwart, M L

    1999-10-01

    Previous research showed that decreasing the energy density (kJ/g) of foods by adding water to them can lead to reductions in energy intake. Few studies have examined how water consumed as a beverage affects food intake. This study examined the effects of water, both served with a food and incorporated into a food, on satiety. In a within-subjects design, 24 lean women consumed breakfast, lunch, and dinner in our laboratory 1 d/wk for 4 wk. Subjects received 1 of 3 isoenergetic (1128 kJ) preloads 17 min before lunch on 3 d and no preload on 1 d. The preloads consisted of 1) chicken rice casserole, 2) chicken rice casserole served with a glass of water (356 g), and 3) chicken rice soup. The soup contained the same ingredients (type and amount) as the casserole that was served with water. Decreasing the energy density of and increasing the volume of the preload by adding water to it significantly increased fullness and reduced hunger and subsequent energy intake at lunch. The equivalent amount of water served as a beverage with a food did not affect satiety. Energy intake at lunch was 1209 +/- 125 kJ after the soup compared with 1657 +/- 148 and 1639 +/- 148 kJ after the casserole with and without water, respectively. Subjects did not compensate at dinner for this reduction in lunch intake. Consuming foods with a high water content more effectively reduced subsequent energy intake than did drinking water with food.

  4. Review of water intake screening options for coastal water users with recommendations for Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, D.L.

    1979-05-01

    The large volumes of water withdrawn at both the warm and cold water intakes of an OTEC plant must be screened to remove organisms and debris which could clog the heat exchangers. The recent literature on screening technology is reviewed. In addition, various screen manufacturers and coastal facilities which use large volumes of seawater were visited to determine the operating experience with present screen technology. Static screens (particularly the Johnson Division, UOP profile wire screen and the Royce Equipment Company carrousel screen) have the potential advantage for OTEC for operating in a completely submerged state and of being cheaper to operate and maintain than traveling screens. However, there is no operational history with these static screens for large intake systems. The most promising traveling screen options for OTEC are the dual flow screens. They offer more screening surface and less head loss than through flow screens of similar size. They also have been operated in seawater for large intake systems. More detailed designs of potential OTEC plants, particurlarly screen wells, conduit and surge tank construction and head losses need to be determined before the best alternative intake screen can be selected. 38 references.

  5. Plain Water and Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption in Relation to Energy and Nutrient Intake at Full-Service Restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Ruopeng

    2016-05-04

    Drinking plain water, such as tap or bottled water, provides hydration and satiety without adding calories. We examined plain water and sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption in relation to energy and nutrient intake at full-service restaurants. Data came from the 2005-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, comprising a nationally-representative sample of 2900 adults who reported full-service restaurant consumption in 24-h dietary recalls. Linear regressions were performed to examine the differences in daily energy and nutrient intake at full-service restaurants by plain water and SSB consumption status, adjusting for individual characteristics and sampling design. Over 18% of U.S. adults had full-service restaurant consumption on any given day. Among full-service restaurant consumers, 16.7% consumed SSBs, 2.6% consumed plain water but no SSBs, and the remaining 80.7% consumed neither beverage at the restaurant. Compared to onsite SSB consumption, plain water but no SSB consumption was associated with reduced daily total energy intake at full-service restaurants by 443.4 kcal, added sugar intake by 58.2 g, saturated fat intake by 4.4 g, and sodium intake by 616.8 mg, respectively. Replacing SSBs with plain water consumption could be an effective strategy to balance energy/nutrient intake and prevent overconsumption at full-service restaurant setting.

  6. Plain Water and Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption in Relation to Energy and Nutrient Intake at Full-Service Restaurants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruopeng An

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Drinking plain water, such as tap or bottled water, provides hydration and satiety without adding calories. We examined plain water and sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB consumption in relation to energy and nutrient intake at full-service restaurants. Methods: Data came from the 2005–2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, comprising a nationally-representative sample of 2900 adults who reported full-service restaurant consumption in 24-h dietary recalls. Linear regressions were performed to examine the differences in daily energy and nutrient intake at full-service restaurants by plain water and SSB consumption status, adjusting for individual characteristics and sampling design. Results: Over 18% of U.S. adults had full-service restaurant consumption on any given day. Among full-service restaurant consumers, 16.7% consumed SSBs, 2.6% consumed plain water but no SSBs, and the remaining 80.7% consumed neither beverage at the restaurant. Compared to onsite SSB consumption, plain water but no SSB consumption was associated with reduced daily total energy intake at full-service restaurants by 443.4 kcal, added sugar intake by 58.2 g, saturated fat intake by 4.4 g, and sodium intake by 616.8 mg, respectively. Conclusion: Replacing SSBs with plain water consumption could be an effective strategy to balance energy/nutrient intake and prevent overconsumption at full-service restaurant setting.

  7. Milk intake and carbon dioxide production of piglets determined with the doubly labelled water technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theil, P K; Kristensen, N B; Jørgensen, H; Labouriau, R; Jakobsen, K

    2007-07-01

    The present study was undertaken to study different methodological aspects of quantifying CO2 production and milk intake of suckling piglets using the doubly labelled water (DLW) technique. In total, 37 piglets were enriched intraperitoneally with DLW to study equilibration time of 18O (n = 3), to validate the estimation of milk intake and CO2 production (n = 10) of piglets fed milk replacer and to quantify milk intake and CO2 production of piglets nursed ordinarily by sows (n = 24). Enrichment of 18O in expired air was analysed without any sample preparation, whereas enrichment of 18O in serum was analysed after a minimum step of sample preparation, which included pipetting of the sample, blowing gaseous CO2 into the vial for 3 s and equilibrating for 24 h. The 18O enrichment of CO2 in expired air was constant within 30-40 min of intraperitoneal injection, suggesting that DLW was equilibrated within the body water by that time. For piglets fed milk replacer, the estimation of the daily CO2 production by the DLW method (64.0 ± 2.7 l CO2/day) was in agreement with that obtained by respiration trials (64.7 ± 1.8 l CO2/day). Furthermore, the intake of milk replacer (891 ± 63 g/day) determined by deuterium oxide (D2O) dilution was similar in magnitude to that found by weighing the milk disappearance (910 ± 58 g/day). The milk intake of piglets fed milk replacer was comparable with that of sucking piglets, but sucking piglets had a remarkably higher CO2 production than artificially reared piglets, which likely was caused by a higher intake of milk solids and a higher activity level. For sucking piglets, the daily CO2 production increased curvilinearly with increasing live weight (LW) in kg: piglet CO2 production (l/day) = 25.75 × LW - 1.01 × LW2. In conclusion, 18O equilibrates fast within the body water pool when administered intraperitoneally, and the accuracy of assessing milk intake and rate of CO2 production using the DLW technique is promising. Assessment of

  8. Water Intake and Hydration Indices in Healthy European Adults: The European Hydration Research Study (EHRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Malisova

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Hydration status is linked with health, wellness, and performance. We evaluated hydration status, water intake, and urine output for seven consecutive days in healthy adults. Volunteers living in Spain, Germany, or Greece (n = 573, 39 ± 12 years (51.1% males, 25.0 ± 4.6 kg/m2 BMI participated in an eight-day study protocol. Total water intake was estimated from seven-day food and drink diaries. Hydration status was measured in urine samples collected over 24 h for seven days and in blood samples collected in fasting state on the mornings of days 1 and 8. Total daily water intake was 2.75 ± 1.01 L, water from beverages 2.10 ± 0.91 L, water from foods 0.66 ± 0.29 L. Urine parameters were: 24 h volume 1.65 ± 0.70 L, 24 h osmolality 631 ± 221 mOsmol/kg Η2Ο, 24 h specific gravity 1.017 ± 0.005, 24 h excretion of sodium 166.9 ± 54.7 mEq, 24 h excretion of potassium 72.4 ± 24.6 mEq, color chart 4.2 ± 1.4. Predictors for urine osmolality were age, country, gender, and BMI. Blood indices were: haemoglobin concentration 14.7 ± 1.7 g/dL, hematocrit 43% ± 4% and serum osmolality 294 ± 9 mOsmol/kg Η2Ο. Daily water intake was higher in summer (2.8 ± 1.02 L than in winter (2.6 ± 0.98 L (p = 0.019. Water intake was associated negatively with urine specific gravity, urine color, and urine sodium and potassium concentrations (p < 0.01. Applying urine osmolality cut-offs, approximately 60% of participants were euhydrated and 20% hyperhydrated or dehydrated. Most participants were euhydrated, but a substantial number of people (40% deviated from a normal hydration level.

  9. Central lead administration inhibits water intake and sodium appetite in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.J. De-Castro-e-Silva

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available We have demonstrated that acute third ventricle injections of lead acetate (PbAc exert a powerful antidipsogenic effect and induce a significant increase in renal sodium excretion. In the present study we confirm the antidipsogenic effect of lead and demonstrate that central administration of this metal, in minute amounts, significantly reduces salt intake both during dehydration and after central angiotensinergic stimulation. Adult male Wistar rats had the third ventricle cannulated seven days before the experiments. During this period they had free access to distilled water and hypertonic saline solution (1.5%. After a 24-h period of fluid deprivation, experimental animals received third ventricle injections of PbAc (0.3, N = 8 and 3.0 nmol/rat, N = 14 while controls received sodium acetate (NaAc; 3.0 nmol/rat, N = 10. Rats treated with PbAc at the highest dose showed a significant reduction (P<0.05 both in water and hypertonic saline intake when compared to controls. When the effect of lead administration on angiotensin II-induced water and salt intake was studied, normohydrated animals received third ventricle injections of angiotensin II (9.6 nmol/rat after pretreatment with 3.0 nmol/rat of PbAc (experimental group, N = 10 or NaAc (controls, N = 8. The group pretreated with PbAc presented a significant reduction (P<0.05 in both water and salt intake compared to controls. Thus, this study confirms the antidipsogenic effect of central lead injections and demonstrates that the presence of lead in the brain exerts a significant inhibition of sodium appetite.

  10. Modeling Possible Cooling-Water Intake System Impacts on Ohio River Fish Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Perry, Elgin; Seegert, Greg; Vondruska, Joe; Lohner, Timothy; Lewis, Randy

    2002-01-01

    To assess the possible impacts caused by cooling-water intake system entrainment and impingement losses, populations of six target fish species near power plants on the Ohio River were modeled. A Leslie matrix model was constructed to allow an evaluation of bluegill, freshwater drum, emerald shiner, gizzard shad, sauger, and white bass populations within five river pools. Site-specific information on fish abundance and length-frequency distribution was obtained from long-term Ohio River Ecolo...

  11. Factors associated with low drinking water intake among adolescents: the Florida Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey, 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sohyun; Sherry, Bettylou; O'Toole, Terrence; Huang, Youjie

    2011-08-01

    There is limited information on which characteristics are associated with water intake among adolescents. This cross-sectional study examined the association between demographic, dietary, and behavioral factors and low water intake as the outcome measure. Analyses were based on the 2007 Florida Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey using a representative sample of 4,292 students in grades six through eight in 86 Florida public middle schools. Multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals for factors associated with low water intake (water per day). About 64% of students had low water intake. Factors significantly associated with low water intake were Hispanic ethnicity and non-Hispanic other (vs non-Hispanic white; ORs 0.79 and 0.76, respectively), drinking no 100% juice, drinking it milk and drinking milk/day (vs drinking ≥2 glasses/day; ORs 1.42 and 1.41, respectively), drinking water intake was frequent consumption of snacks/sodas while watching television/movies. Although study findings should be corroborated in other states and in a nationally representative sample, they may be useful in targeting adolescents for increased water consumption. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Oral intake of hydrogen-rich water ameliorated chlorpyrifos-induced neurotoxicity in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Tingting; Zhao, Ling; Liu, Mengyu; Xie, Fei; Ma, Xuemei, E-mail: xmma@bjut.edu.cn; Zhao, Pengxiang; Liu, Yunqi; Li, Jiala; Wang, Minglian; Yang, Zhaona; Zhang, Yutong

    2014-10-01

    Chronic exposure to low-levels of organophosphate (OP) compounds, such as chlorpyrifos (CPF), induces oxidative stress and could be related to neurological disorders. Hydrogen has been identified as a novel antioxidant which could selectively scavenge hydroxyl radicals. We explore whether intake of hydrogen-rich water (HRW) can protect Wistar rats from CPF-induced neurotoxicity. Rats were gavaged daily with 6.75 mg/kg body weight (1/20 LD{sub 50}) of CPF and given HRW by oral intake. Nissl staining and electron microscopy results indicated that HRW intake had protective effects on the CPF-induced damage of hippocampal neurons and neuronal mitochondria. Immunostaining results showed that the increased glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression in astrocytes induced by CPF exposure can be ameliorated by HRW intake. Moreover, HRW intake also attenuated CPF-induced oxidative stress as evidenced by enhanced level of MDA, accompanied by an increase in GSH level and SOD and CAT activity. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity tests showed significant decrease in brain AChE activity after CPF exposure, and this effect can be ameliorated by HRW intake. An in vitro study demonstrated that AChE activity was more intense in HRW than in normal water with or without chlorpyrifos-oxon (CPO), the metabolically-activated form of CPF. These observations suggest that HRW intake can protect rats from CPF-induced neurotoxicity, and the protective effects of hydrogen may be mediated by regulating the oxidant and antioxidant status of rats. Furthermore, this work defines a novel mechanism of biological activity of hydrogen by directly increasing the AChE activity. - Highlights: • Hydrogen molecules protect rats from CPF-induced damage of hippocampal neurons. • The increased GFAP expression induced by CPF can also be ameliorated by hydrogen. • Hydrogen molecules attenuated the increase in CPF-induced oxidative stress. • Hydrogen molecules attenuated AChE inhibition in vivo

  13. Absorption and retention of nickel from drinking water in relation to food intake and nickel sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, G D; Søderberg, U; Jørgensen, P J; Templeton, D M; Rasmussen, S N; Andersen, K E; Grandjean, P

    1999-01-01

    Two studies were performed to examine the influence of fasting and food intake on the absorption and retention of nickel added to drinking water and to determine if nickel sensitization played any role in this regard. First, eight nonallergic male volunteers fasted overnight before being given nickel in drinking water (12 micrograms Ni/kg) and, at different time intervals, standardized 1400-kJ portions of scrambled eggs. When nickel was ingested in water 30 min or 1 h prior to the meal, peak nickel concentrations in serum occurred 1 h after the water intake, and the peak was 13-fold higher than the one seen 1 h after simultaneous intake of nickel-containing water and scrambled eggs. In the latter case, a smaller, delayed peak occurred 3 h after the meal. Median urinary nickel excretion half-times varied between 19.9 and 26.7 h. Within 3 days, the amount of nickel excreted corresponded to 2.5% of the nickel ingested when it was mixed into the scrambled eggs. Increasing amounts were excreted as the interval between the water and the meal increased, with 25.8% of the administered dose being excreted when the eggs were served 4 h prior to the nickel-containing drinking water. In the second experiment, a stable nickel isotope, 61Ni, was given in drinking water to 20 nickel-sensitized women and 20 age-matched controls, both groups having vesicular hand eczema of the pompholyx type. Nine of 20 nickel allergic eczema patients experienced aggravation of hand eczema after nickel administration, and three also developed a maculopapular exanthema. No exacerbation was seen in the control group. The course of nickel absorption and excretion in the allergic groups did not differ and was similar to the pattern seen in the first study, although the absorption in the women was less. A sex-related difference in gastric emptying rates may play a role. Thus, food intake and gastric emptying are of substantial significance for the bioavailability of nickel from aqueous solutions

  14. Effect of intake manifold water injection on a natural gas spark ignition engine: an experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arruga, H.; Scholl, F.; Kettner, M.; Amad, O. I.; Klaissle, M.; Giménez, B.

    2017-10-01

    Design and development of gas CHP (combined heat and power) engines are strongly influenced by the progressively more severe European NOx emissions normative. Water injection represents a promising approach to reduce these emissions while attaining high engine efficiency. In this work, the effect of intake manifold water injection on combustion parameters and performance of a single-cylinder naturally aspirated natural gas spark ignition engine is presented. First, the most appropriate injector was selected, using a spray test bed. Subsequently, engine experiments at constant indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) and engine speed were conducted with water-fuel ratios of 0.1 to 0.3. IMEP was kept constant at about 6.3 bar by adjusting both air-fuel ratio and spark timing. A NOx reduction of 0.2 g/kWhi (15 %) for a constant ISFC of about 204 g/kWhi was achieved. In the low NOx regime, water injection allows for an improvement of the NOx-ISFC trade-off, while leading to poor fuel consumption at same NOx in the high efficiency regime. Furthermore, water injection implies a reduction of intake mixture temperature, lengthened burning delay and combustion duration and a moderate increase of combustion instability.

  15. Post-ingestive signals and satiation of water and sodium intake of male rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Eric G.; de Kloet, Annette D.; Sakai, Randall R.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the role of post-ingestive signals in the satiation of thirst or salt appetite. Post-ingestive signals, defined as those arising from the passage of fluid into the duodenum and proximal jejunum, were manipulated by implanting rats with gastric fistulas. After recovery, rats were water deprived and the following day gastric fistulas were opened (sham-drinking) or closed (control). Deprivation-induced thirst significantly increased water intake with sham-drinking rats consuming four-fold more than controls after 120 min access. Subsequently, rats were given sodium deficient chow for 48 h and the next day were administered furosemide and urine was collected. Twenty-four hours later, gastric fistulas were manipulated and rats were given water and 0.5 M NaCl and intakes were measured. After 120 min of access, rats were sacrificed and plasma sodium (pNa) and plasma-renin-activity (PRA) were measured. Furosemide resulted in a loss of 2.2 mEq of sodium in urine and sham-drinking rats consumed significantly more water and 0.5 M NaCl when compared to controls. At 120 min sham-drinking rats consumed 7.5 mEq of sodium nearly twice that of controls but had significantly lower pNa and significantly increased PRA. Interestingly, the ratio of water to 0.5 M NaCl intake was similar in both groups, with each making a mixture of ≈ 0.25 M NaCl. The results suggest that post-ingestive signals are necessary for the satiation of thirst and salt appetite. PMID:20138075

  16. Water and fluid intake in the prevention and treatment of functional constipation in children and adolescents: is there evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boilesen, Sabine Nunes; Tahan, Soraia; Dias, Francine Canova; Melli, Lígia Cristina Fonseca Lahoz; de Morais, Mauro Batista

    To study the evidence on the role of water and fluid intake in the prevention and treatment of functional intestinal constipation in children and adolescents. A search was carried out in the Medline database (between 1966 and 2016) for all published articles containing the following words: constipation, water, and fluids, published in Portuguese, English, and Spanish. All original articles that assessed children and adolescents were selected by title and abstract. The references of these articles were also evaluated. A total of 1040 articles were retrieved. Of these, 24 were selected for reading. The study included 11 articles that assessed children and adolescents. The articles were divided into two categories, those that evaluated water and fluid intake as a risk factor for intestinal constipation and those that evaluated their role in the treatment of intestinal constipation. Five articles were included in the first category. The criteria for assessing fluid intake and bowel rhythm were different in each study. Three studies demonstrated an association between low fluid intake and intestinal constipation. Regarding treatment, five articles with heterogeneous methodologies were found. None of them clearly identified the favorable role of fluid intake in the treatment of intestinal constipation. There are few articles on the association between fluid intake and intestinal constipation. Epidemiological evidence indicates an association between lower fluid intake and intestinal constipation. Further clinical trials and epidemiological studies that consider the international recommendations for fluid intake by children and adolescents are required. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  17. Water and fluid intake in the prevention and treatment of functional constipation in children and adolescents: is there evidence?,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Nunes Boilesen

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To study the evidence on the role of water and fluid intake in the prevention and treatment of functional intestinal constipation in children and adolescents. Source of data: A search was carried out in the Medline database (between 1966 and 2016 for all published articles containing the following words: constipation, water, and fluids, published in Portuguese, English, and Spanish. All original articles that assessed children and adolescents were selected by title and abstract. The references of these articles were also evaluated. Synthesis of data: A total of 1040 articles were retrieved. Of these, 24 were selected for reading. The study included 11 articles that assessed children and adolescents. The articles were divided into two categories, those that evaluated water and fluid intake as a risk factor for intestinal constipation and those that evaluated their role in the treatment of intestinal constipation. Five articles were included in the first category. The criteria for assessing fluid intake and bowel rhythm were different in each study. Three studies demonstrated an association between low fluid intake and intestinal constipation. Regarding treatment, five articles with heterogeneous methodologies were found. None of them clearly identified the favorable role of fluid intake in the treatment of intestinal constipation. Conclusion: There are few articles on the association between fluid intake and intestinal constipation. Epidemiological evidence indicates an association between lower fluid intake and intestinal constipation. Further clinical trials and epidemiological studies that consider the international recommendations for fluid intake by children and adolescents are required.

  18. Impact of drought on U.S. steam electric power plant cooling water intakes and related water resource management issues.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimmell, T. A.; Veil, J. A.; Environmental Science Division

    2009-04-03

    This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements their overall research effort by evaluating water availability at power plants under drought conditions. While there are a number of competing demands on water uses, particularly during drought conditions, this report focuses solely on impacts to the U.S. steam electric power plant fleet. Included are both fossil-fuel and nuclear power plants. One plant examined also uses biomass as a fuel. The purpose of this project is to estimate the impact on generation capacity of a drop in water level at U.S. steam electric power plants due to climatic or other conditions. While, as indicated above, the temperature of the water can impact decisions to halt or curtail power plant operations, this report specifically examines impacts as a result of a drop in water levels below power plant submerged cooling water intakes. Impacts due to the combined effects of excessive temperatures of the returned cooling water and elevated temperatures of receiving waters (due to high ambient temperatures associated with drought) may be examined in a subsequent study. For this study, the sources of cooling water used by the U.S. steam electric power plant fleet were examined. This effort entailed development of a database of power plants and cooling water intake locations and depths for those plants that use surface water as a source of cooling water. Development of the database and its general characteristics are described in Chapter 2 of this report. Examination of the database gives an indication of how low water levels can drop before cooling water intakes cease to function. Water level drops are evaluated against a number of different power plant characteristics, such as the nature of the water source (river vs. lake or reservoir

  19. The effect of passive immunization against ghrelin on feed and water intake in turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizcarra, J A; Wright, H; Vizcarra, A

    2012-09-01

    Five-week-old turkeys were used to evaluate the effect of passive immunization against ghrelin on feed and water intake and animal behavior. In experiment 1, females were reared using normal feeding and lighting management recommended by the industry. At 5 wk of age (d 0 of experiment 1), birds (n = 40) were individually caged (0.65 × 0.4 × 0.4 m) with free access to feed and water. Feed and water intake were measured 3 times a day (0800, 1200, and 1700 h) by recording the weight of feed or water offered minus any unconsumed feed or water remaining. After 3 d of adaptation to the cages (d 3), birds were stratified by BW and feed consumption and randomly assigned to a 2 × 5 factorial arrangement of treatment. Starting on d 3, turkeys were given intravenous (iv) injections (0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, or 8.0 mL) of pooled undiluted plasma obtained from pigs that were previously actively immunized against ghrelin or iv injections (0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, or 8.0 mL) of pooled undiluted plasma, obtained from nonimmunized pigs (control). In experiment 2, the 2 highest doses (i.e., 4.0 and 8.0 mL; n = 4/treatment) were repeated in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement as described in experiment 1. A laptop computer with a built-in color camera and appropriate software was used to record birds for 9 consecutive hours, starting 4 h before treatments were applied. Video clips were saved and a human observer watched and annotated bird behavior associated with feeding, drinking, and standing. Passively immunized birds increased feed consumption (P = 0.04) compared with control animals. Water intake was not affected by treatments. There was a tendency for immunized birds to increase the number of pecks per hour and the amount of time devoted for feeding. Our data suggest that in turkeys, the effect of immunization against ghrelin on feed intake is the opposite of that observed in mammalian species.

  20. [Water intake of adults in four cities of China in summer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Hu, Xiao-qi; Zou, Shu-rong; Zuo, Jiao-lei; Liu, Zhen-hua; Pan, Qian; Liu, Cai-xia; Pan, Hui; Ma, Guan-sheng

    2011-08-01

    To investigate total drinking water intake of adults in the four cities of China in summer. A total of 1483 adults aged 18 - 60 yrs from Beijing, Shanghai, Chengdu and Guangzhou were selected using multiple-stage random sampling method. The information of amounts and types of daily drinking water was recorded by subjects for seven consecutive days using a quantitative measurement. The amounts and types of daily drinking water among different cities and between men and women or urban and rural was analyzed. The median of daily total drinking water of subjects was 1488 ml, with significant difference among the four cities (1579, 1793, 1150, 1467 ml in Beijing, Shanghai, Chengdu and Guangzhou city, respectively, χ(2) = 154.31, P = 0.000). The median of daily drinking water was significantly higher in men (1679 ml) than women (1370 ml) (Z = 8.34, P = 0.000), but no significant difference was found between urban (1514 ml) and rural (1466 ml) daily drinking water median (Z = -0.81, P = 0.420). The median of daily consumption of plain water, tea and beverages were 786, 109, 186 ml, respectively. Among four cities, the highest consumption of plain water was in subjects of Guangzhou (917 ml), while the highest tea consumption in Shanghai (257 ml) and the highest beverages consumption in Shanghai (323 ml) and Beijing (264 ml). Consumption of tea in men (229 ml) was significantly higher than that in women (57 ml) (Z = 7.52, P = 0.000). Subjects in urban (693 ml) had lower consumption of plain water than those in rural (914 ml). The proportion was 32.4% (480/1483) for subjects with water drinking less than 1200 ml per day. The daily consumption of total drinking water, including plain water, tea and beverages is different in adults among different cities and is different in gender and regions. It is nearly 1/3 of subjects with daily total drinking water less than current Chinese recommended water intake (1200 ml).

  1. Changes in Escherichia coli to Cryptosporidium ratios for various fecal pollution sources and drinking water intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalancette, Cindy; Papineau, Isabelle; Payment, Pierre; Dorner, Sarah; Servais, Pierre; Barbeau, Benoit; Di Giovanni, George D; Prévost, Michèle

    2014-05-15

    Assessing the presence of human pathogenic Cryptosporidium oocysts in surface water remains a significant water treatment and public health challenge. Most drinking water suppliers rely on fecal indicators, such as the well-established Escherichia coli (E. coli), to avoid costly Cryptosporidium assays. However, the use of E. coli has significant limitations in predicting the concentration, the removal and the transport of Cryptosporidium. This study presents a meta-analysis of E. coli to Cryptosporidium concentration paired ratios to compare their complex relationships in eight municipal wastewater sources, five agricultural fecal pollution sources and at 13 drinking water intakes (DWI) to a risk threshold based on US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) regulations. Ratios lower than the USEPA risk threshold suggested higher concentrations of oocysts in relation to E. coli concentrations, revealing an underestimed risk for Cryptosporidium based on E. coli measurements. In raw sewage (RS), high ratios proved E. coli (or fecal coliforms) concentrations were a conservative indicator of Cryptosporidium concentrations, which was also typically true for secondary treated wastewater (TWW). Removals of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and parasites were quantified in WWTPs and their differences are put forward as a plausible explanation of the sporadic ratio shift. Ratios measured from agricultural runoff surface water were typically lower than the USEPA risk threshold and within the range of risk misinterpretation. Indeed, heavy precipitation events in the agricultural watershed led to high oocyst concentrations but not to E. coli or enterococci concentrations. More importantly, ratios established in variously impacted DWI from 13 Canadian drinking water plants were found to be related to dominant fecal pollution sources, namely municipal sewage. In most cases, when DWIs were mainly influenced by municipal sewage, E. coli or fecal coliforms concentrations agreed with

  2. Effects of straw treatment and nitrogen supplementation on digestibility, intake and physiological responses of water intake as well as urine and faecal characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, E; Khorvash, M; Ghorbani, G R; Elmamouz, F

    2014-02-01

    This study investigates the effects of feeding diet based on untreated (UT) or ensiled alkali-treated (ET) barley straw with either urea or casein supplementation, on feed intake, digestibility, ruminal pH, water intake and faecal and urinary characteristics. Four sheep fitted with ruminal cannulas were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Barley straw was treated by the dry (spraying) method in pH adjusted of hydrogen peroxide (pH 11.5), ensiled for 6 weeks and included at 65% of the diet dry matter (DM). The results showed that straw pH reduced from 11.58 to 8.60 after 6 weeks of ensilage. The ET diet increased average DM digestibility and intake by 19% and 43% respectively. Total water intake was similar across treatments, while the water/DM intake ratio was 23% higher with the UT diet than with the ET one. Ruminal (6.73 vs. 6.84) and faecal (8.67 vs. 9.05) pH decreased but urinary pH (6.14 vs. 8.13) increased as a result of feeding animals on the ET diet compared with the UT diet. Compared with the UT diet, the ET one decreased faecal fibre (12%), moisture (32%) and water holding capacity, while it increased faecal ash (10%) and density (20%). The volume of urine excreted by the sheep fed with the ET diet increased by 67%, but their urine specific gravity (SG) decreased. No significant effects were observed for the dietary N supplementation and interactions between straw type × N supplementation with regard to any of the measured characteristics except for DM intake, which reduced due to the casein supplementation in the ET diet. These results indicate that the alkali treatment and ensilage of barley straw increased digestibility, intake, faecal consistency and urinary pH and dilution but decreased straw alkalinity as well as ruminal and faecal pH. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Body mass, energy intake, and water consumption of rats and humans during space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, C. E.; Miller, M. M.; Baer, L. A.; Moran, M. M.; Steele, M. K.; Stein, T. P.

    2002-01-01

    Alteration of metabolism has been suggested as a major limiting factor to long-term space flight. In humans and primates, a negative energy balance has been reported. The metabolic response of rats to space flight has been suggested to result in a negative energy balance. We hypothesized that rats flown in space would maintain energy balance as indicated by maintenance of caloric intake and body mass gain. Further, the metabolism of the rat would be similar to that of laboratory-reared animals. We studied the results from 15 space flights lasting 4 to 19 d. There was no difference in average body weight (206 +/- 13.9 versus 206 +/- 14.8 g), body weight gain (5.8 +/- 0.48 versus 5.9 +/- 0.56 g/d), caloric intake (309 +/- 21.0 versus 309 +/- 20.1 kcal/kg of body mass per day), or water intake (200 +/- 8.6 versus 199 +/- 9.3 mL/kg of body mass per day) between flight and ground control animals. Compared with standard laboratory animals of similar body mass, no differences were noted. The observations suggested that the negative balance observed in humans and non-human primates may be due to other factors in the space-flight environment.

  4. Ecosystem impacts of Alpine water intakes for hydropower: the challenge of sediment management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbud, Chrystelle; Lane, Stuart

    2016-04-01

    Natural Alpine flow regimes are strongly modified by anthropogenic activities, notably water abstraction or impoundment for hydroelectric power production, which impacts upon both river discharge and sediment transfer systems, and in turn upon flora and fauna downstream. These kinds of impacts are well studied where rivers are regulated by dams, with sediment retained in the associated reservoirs although occasional flushing may be required (a frequency typically of many years). Such impacts may be managed by environmental flows or e-flows, whose restoration value has been shown in a number of research publications. However, there has been less attention in relation to the e-flows needed at water intakes which in Alpine environments may be associated with serious sediment-related problems. Water intakes have a very smaller sediment storage capacity than dams and thus may need to be flushed of accumulated sediment more regularly. In an Alpine setting, because rates of erosion are naturally higher, sediment is flushed in 'purges' with a frequency that may even be sub-daily at certain times of the year. Purges feed the river with solid material, but as the means of transporting it, the water, is being abstracted, sediment transport capacity is reduced. In theory, this does not eliminate sediment connectivity, but rather reduces it: the sediment is still delivered, but it can only be transported for a reduced duration; and the results may be profound hydrogeomorphic and ecosystem impacts, including downstream aggradation. In this study, we present results from a combined study of fluvial geomorphology, hydrology and ecosystem impacts of flow abstraction at water intakes. Using hydrodynamic modelling, we show that because the duration of remobilisation of purges and the peak discharge are much shorter than under natural flows, this causes the formation of a zone of sediment aggradation that moves progressively downstream as a sediment wave, leading to sedimentation

  5. Adrenoceptors of the medial septal area modulate water intake and renal excretory function induced by central administration of angiotensin II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad W.A.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the role of alpha-adrenergic antagonists and clonidine injected into the medial septal area (MSA on water intake and the decrease in Na+, K+ and urine elicited by ANGII injection into the third ventricle (3rdV. Male Holtzman rats with stainless steel cannulas implanted into the 3rdV and MSA were used. ANGII (12 nmol/µl increased water intake (12.5 ± 1.7 ml/120 min. Clonidine (20 nmol/µl injected into the MSA reduced the ANGII-induced water intake (2.9 ± 0.5 ml/120 min. Pretreatment with 80 nmol/µl yohimbine or prazosin into the MSA also reduced the ANGII-induced water intake (3.0 ± 0.4 and 3.1 ± 0.2 ml/120 min, respectively. Yohimbine + prazosin + clonidine injected into the MSA abolished the ANGII-induced water intake (0.2 ± 0.1 and 0.2 ± 0.1 ml/120 min, respectively. ANGII reduced Na+ (23 ± 7 µEq/120 min, K+ (27 ± 3 µEq/120 min and urine volume (4.3 ± 0.9 ml/120 min. Clonidine increased the parameters above. Clonidine injected into the MSA abolished the inhibitory effect of ANGII on urinary sodium. Yohimbine injected into the MSA also abolished the inhibitory effects of ANGII. Yohimbine + clonidine attenuated the inhibitory effects of ANGII. Prazosin injected into the MSA did not cause changes in ANGII responses. Prazosin + clonidine attenuated the inhibitory effects of ANGII. The results showed that MSA injections of alpha1- and alpha2-antagonists decreased ANGII-induced water intake, and abolished the Na+, K+ and urine decrease induced by ANGII into the 3rdV. These findings suggest the involvement of septal alpha1- and alpha2-adrenergic receptors in water intake and electrolyte and urine excretion induced by central ANGII.

  6. Selection for eight-week body weight in two randombred chicken populations under altered water to feed ratios. 2. Feed intake, water intake, and abdominal fat levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, H L; Baik, D H

    1994-10-01

    Four experiments were conducted to investigate feed and water intake, feed efficiency, and abdominal fat levels of six lines of chickens developed from two randombred control populations following selection for high 8-wk BW under high (1.6%), low (.2%), and normal (.4%) dietary salt selection environments. The Athens-Canadian Randombreds (AC) and Athens Randombreds (ARB) served as base populations for development of the six lines. Progeny from these lines were evaluated in the first, fifth, sixth, and seventh generations in Experiments 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. In Experiment 1, abdominal fat levels were shown to be inversely related to dietary salt level. The lowest abdominal fat level was observed in birds fed the 1.6% salt diet and the highest abdominal fat level in birds fed the .2% salt diet. Birds receiving the normal (.4%) salt diet had intermediate abdominal fat levels. In Experiments 2, 3, and 4, selected lines were exposed to different dietary salt levels to measure both line and dietary salt response patterns. Significant (P selection under different salt environments.

  7. Iodine Intake in Somalia Is Excessive and Associated with the Source of Household Drinking Water123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassim, Ismail A. R.; Moloney, Grainne; Busili, Ahono; Nur, Abukar Yusuf; Paron, Paolo; Jooste, Pieter; Gadain, Hussein; Seal, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Few data on iodine status in Somalia are available, but it is assumed that deficiency is a public health problem due to the limited access to iodized salt. We aimed to describe the iodine status of the population of Somalia and to investigate possible determinants of iodine status. A national 2-stage, stratified household cluster survey was conducted in 2009 in the Northwest, Northeast, and South Central Zones of Somalia. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was determined in samples from women (aged 15–45 y) and children (aged 6–11 y), and examination for visible goiter was performed in the Northwest and South Central strata. A 24-h household food-frequency questionnaire was conducted, and salt samples were tested for iodization. The median UICs for nonpregnant women and children were 329 and 416 μg/L, respectively, indicating excessive iodine intake (>300 μg/L). The prevalence of visible goiter was iodine status. Variations could not be explained by food consumption or salt iodization but were associated with the main source of household drinking water, with consumers of borehole water having a higher UIC (569 vs. 385 μg/L; P Iodine intake in Somalia is among the highest in the world and excessive according to WHO criteria. Further work is required to investigate the geochemistry and safety of groundwater sources in Somalia and the impact on human nutrition and health. PMID:24500936

  8. Voluntary water intake during and following moderate exercise in the cold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mears, Stephen A; Shirreffs, Susan M

    2014-02-01

    Exercising in cold environments results in water losses, yet examination of resultant voluntary water intake has focused on warm conditions. The purpose of the study was to assess voluntary water intake during and following exercise in a cold compared with a warm environment. Ten healthy males (22 ± 2 years, 67.8 ± 7.0 kg, 1.77 ± 0.06 m, VO₂peak 60.5 ± 8.9 ml·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹) completed two trials (7-8 days). In each trial subjects sat for 30 min before cycling at 70% VO₂peak (162 ± 27W) for 60 min in 25.0 ± 0.1 °C, 50.8 ± 1.5% relative humidity (RH; warm) or 0.4 ± 1.0 °C, 68.8 ± 7.5% RH (cold). Subjects then sat for 120 min at 22.2 ± 1.2 °C, 50.5 ± 8.0% RH. Ad libitum drinking was allowed during the exercise and recovery periods. Urine volume, body mass, serum osmolality, and sensations of thirst were measured at baseline, postexercise and after 60 and 120 min of the recovery period. Sweat loss was greater in the warm trial (0.96 ± 0.18 l v 0.48 ± 0.15 l; p cold) v 1.03 ± 0.26% (warm)). More water was consumed throughout the duration of the warm trial (0.81 ± 0.42 l v 0.50 ± 0.49 l; p = .001). Cumulative urine output was greater in the cold trial (0.81 ± 0.46 v 0.54 ± 0.31 l; p = .036). Postexercise serum osmolality was higher compared with baseline in the cold (292 ± 2 v 287 ± 3 mOsm.kg⁻¹, p .05). Ad libitum water intake adjusted so that similar body mass losses occurred in both trials. In the cold there appeared to a blunted thirst response.

  9. Plain water intake of Korean adults according to life style, anthropometric and dietary characteristic: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 2008-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jihye; Yang, Yoon Jung

    2014-10-01

    The objective of the study was to provide useful insights into plain water intake of Korean adults according to life style, anthropometric, and dietary characteristics. The data from the 2008-2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used. The subjects were 14,428 aged 20-64 years. Water intake was estimated by asking the question "How much water do you usually consume per day?". Dietary intake was estimated by 24-hour dietary recall. A qualitative food frequency questionnaire including 63 food items was also administered. The mean plain water intake for men and women were 6.3 cup/day and 4.6 cup/day, respectively. Plain water intake increased as lean body mass, waist circumference, and body mass index levels increased, except for percentage of body fat. As energy and alcohol intakes increased, plain water intake increased. As total weight of food intake and total volume of food intake increased, plain water intake increased. Plain water intake increased as consumption of vegetables increased. Plain water intake increased as frequencies of green tea, alcoholic drink, and all beverages were increased in men. Plain water intake increased with increased frequencies of green tea, milk, soy milk, and alcoholic drink and decreased frequencies of coffee and soda in women. Our results suggest that persons who had a higher waist circumference or lean body mass and women with higher BMI consumed more plain water. The persons eating high quality diet, or the persons who had more vegetables, green tea, milk, soy milk, or alcoholic drink consumed more plain water.

  10. Water intake and post-exercise cognitive performance: an observational study of long-distance walkers and runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benefer, Martin D; Corfe, Bernard M; Russell, Jean M; Short, Richard; Barker, Margo E

    2013-03-01

    The impact of diet on endurance performance and cognitive function has been extensively researched in controlled settings, but there are limited observational data in field situations. This study examines relationships between nutrient intake and cognitive function following endurance exercise amongst a group of 33 recreational runners and walkers. All participants (mean age of 43.2 years) took part in a long-distance walking event and completed diet diaries to estimate nutrient intake across three-time periods (previous day, breakfast and during the event). Anthropometric measurements were recorded. Cognitive tests, covering word recall, ruler drop and trail making tests (TMT) A and B were conducted pre- and post-exercise. Participants rated their exercise level on a validated scale. Nutrient intake data were summarised using principal components analysis to identify a nutrient intake pattern loaded towards water intake across all time periods. Regression analysis was used to ascertain relationships between water intake component scores and post-exercise cognitive function, controlling for anthropometric measures and exercise metrics (distance, duration and pace). Participants rated their exercise as 'hard-heavy' (score 14.4, ±3.2). Scores on the water intake factor were associated with significantly faster TMT A (p = 0.001) and TMT B (p = 0.005) completion times, and a tendency for improved short-term memory (p = 0.090). Water intake scores were not associated with simple reaction time (assessed via the ruler drop test). These data are congruent with experimental research demonstrating a benefit of hydration on cognitive function. Further field research to confirm this relationship, supported with precise measures of body weight, is needed.

  11. Effects of oral intake of water in patients with oropharyngeal dysphagia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chivers Leonie

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dysphagia is associated with numerous medical conditions and the major intervention to avoid aspiration in people with dysphagia involves modifying the diet to thickened fluids. This is associated with issues related to patient quality of life and in many cases non-compliance leading to dehydration. Given these concerns and in the absence of conclusive scientific evidence, we designed a study, to further investigate the effects of oral intake of water in people with dysphagia. Methods We monitored lung related complications, hydration levels and assessed quality of life in two groups of people with dysphagia. The control group was allowed only thickened fluids and patients in the intervention group were allowed access to water for a period of five days. Results Our findings indicate a significantly increased risk in the development lung complications in patients given access to water (6/42; 14.3% compared to the control group (0/34; no cases. We have further defined patients at highest risk, namely those with degenerative neurologic dysfunction who are immobile or have low mobility. Our results indicate increased total fluid intake in the patients allowed access to water, and the quality of life surveys, albeit from a limited number of patients (24% of patients, suggest the dissatisfaction of patients to diets composed of only thickened fluids. Conclusions On the basis of these findings we recommend that acute patients, patients with severe neurological dysfunction and immobility should be strongly encouraged to adhere to a thickened fluid or modified solid consistency diet. We recommend that subacute patients with relatively good mobility should have choice after being well-informed of the relative risk. Trial registration Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register (ANZCTR: ACTRN12608000107325

  12. A Physiological Stimulating Factor of Water Intake during and after Dry Forage Feeding in Large-type Goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Thang, Tran; Sunagawa, Katsunori; Nagamine, Itsuki; Kishi, Tetsuya; Ogura, Go

    2012-01-01

    When ruminants consume dry forage, they also drink large volumes of water. The objective of this study was to clarify which factor produced when feed boluses enter the rumen is mainly responsible for the marked increase in water intake in the second hour of the 2 h feeding period in large-type goats fed on dry forage for 2 h twice daily. Six large-type male esophageal- and ruminal-fistulated goats (crossbred Japanese Saanen/Nubian, aged 2 to 6 years, weighing 85.1±4.89 kg) were used in two experiments. In experiment 1, the water deprivation (WD) control and the water availability (WA) treatment were conducted to compare changes in water intake during and after dry forage feeding. In experiment 2, a normal feeding conditions (NFC) control and a feed bolus removal (FBR) treatment were carried out to investigate whether decrease in circulating plasma volume or increase in plasma osmolality is mainly responsible for the marked increase in water intake in the second hour of the 2 h feeding period. The results of experiment 1 showed that in the WA treatment, small amounts of water were consumed during the first hour of feeding while the majority of water intake was observed during the second hour of the 2 h feeding period. Therefore, the amounts of water consumed in the second hour of the 2 h feeding period accounted for 82.8% of the total water intake. The results of experiment 2 indicated that in comparison with the NFC control, decrease in plasma volume in the FBR treatment, which was indicated by increase in hematocrit and plasma total protein concentrations, was higher (pforage feeding in large-type goats. PMID:25049591

  13. Water Consumption in European Children: Associations with Intake of Fruit Juices, Soft Drinks and Related Parenting Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantziki, Krystallia; Renders, Carry M; Seidell, Jaap C

    2017-05-31

    Background : High intake of fruit juices and soft drinks contributes to excessive weight gain and obesity in children. Furthermore, parenting practices play an important role in the development of children's dietary habits. The way parents play this role in the development of their children's choices of beverages is still unclear. Objectives : To study the associations: (1) of both fruit juices and soft drinks consumption with water consumption of children and (2) The associations between parenting practices towards fruit juices and soft drinks and water consumption of children. Design : Cross-sectional data from 6 to 8 year old children from seven European communities ( n = 1187) were collected. Associations among fruit juices, soft drinks, the respective parenting practices and the child's water consumption were assessed by parental questionnaires. Results : The consumption of water was inversely associated with that of soft drinks but not with the consumption of fruit juices. The child's water intake was favorably influenced when stricter parenting practices towards soft drinks were adopted (e.g., less parental allowance, low home availability and high parental self-efficacy in managing intake). There was less influence observed of parenting practices towards fruit juices. Fruit juices were consumed more often than soft drinks. Conclusions : Low consumption of soft drinks-and not of fruit juices-was associated with high water consumption in children in the current study. Moreover, parenting practices towards both fruit juices and soft drinks were associated with the water intake of the children, irrespective of their socio-economic status.

  14. Hydration and nutrition knowledge in adolescent swimmers. Does water intake affect urine hydration markers after swimming?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesare Altavilla

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Little data exists regarding nutritional knowledge and hydration in adolescent swimmers. The aim of this study was to assess the level of nutrition and hydration knowledge and to describe the fluid balance in adolescent swimmers during training. A study was carried out with a cross-sectional descriptive part and a longitudinal part with repeated measurements over five swimming sessions. Eighty-six adolescent swimmers completed a questionnaire to assess their sport nutrition and hydration knowledge. Fluid balance and urine hydration markers were studied during training. Swimmers showed a limited nutrition knowledge (33.26 % ± SD 12.59 and meagre hydration knowledge (28.61 % ± SD 28.59. Females showed lower scores than male swimmers in nutrition and hydration knowledge. Based on urine specific gravity, swimmers started the training close to the euhydrated threshold (1.019 g/mL ± SD 0.008. Although urine specific gravity and urine colour were reduced after the training, there were minimal changes in body mass (-0.12 Kg ± SD 0.31. Sweat loss (2.67 g/min ± SD 3.23 and the net changes in the fluid balance (-0.22 % ± SD 0.59 were low. The poor knowledge in nutrition and hydration encountered in the swimmers can justify the development of a strategy to incorporate nutritional education programmes for this group. Body water deficit from swimming activity seems to be easily replaced with the water intake to maintain hydration. After the training, the urine of swimmers was diluted regardless of their water intake. Dilution of urine did not reflect real hydration state in swimming.

  15. Ichthyoplankton entrainment study at the SRS Savannah River water intakes for Westinghouse Savannah River Company

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paller, M. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States))

    1992-03-26

    Cooling water for L and K Reactors and makeup water for Par Pond is pumped from the Savannah River at the 1G, 3G, and 5G pump houses. Ichthyoplankton (drifting fish larvae and eggs) from the river are entrained into the reactor cooling systems with the river water and passed through the reactor's heat exchangers where temperatures may reach 70[degrees]C during full power operation. Ichthyoplankton mortality under such conditions is assumed to be 100 percent. The number of ichthyoplankton entrained into the cooling system depends on a variety of variables, including time of year, density and distribution of ichthyoplankton in the river, discharge levels in the river, and the volume of water withdrawn by the pumps. Entrainment at the 1 G pump house, which is immediately downstream from the confluence of Upper Three Runs Creek and the Savannah River, is also influenced by discharge rates and ichthyoplankton densities in Upper Three Runs Creek. Because of the anticipated restart of several SRS reactors and the growing concern surrounding striped bass and American shad stocks in the Savannah River, the Department of Energy requested that the Environmental Sciences Section (ESS) of the Savannah River Laboratory sample ichthyoplankton at the SRS Savannah River intakes. Dams Moore, Inc., under a contract with Westinghouse Savannah River Company performed the sampling and data analysis for the ESS.

  16. Estimating Inorganic Arsenic Exposure from U.S. Rice and Total Water Intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantha, Madhavi; Yeary, Edward; Trent, John; Creed, Patricia A; Kubachka, Kevin; Hanley, Traci; Shockey, Nohora; Heitkemper, Douglas; Caruso, Joseph; Xue, Jianping; Rice, Glenn; Wymer, Larry; Creed, John T

    2017-05-30

    Among nonoccupationally exposed U.S. residents, drinking water and diet are considered primary exposure pathways for inorganic arsenic (iAs). In drinking water, iAs is the primary form of arsenic (As), while dietary As speciation techniques are used to differentiate iAs from less toxic arsenicals in food matrices. Our goal was to estimate the distribution of iAs exposure rates from drinking water intakes and rice consumption in the U.S. population and ethnic- and age-based subpopulations. The distribution of iAs in drinking water was estimated by population, weighting the iAs concentrations for each drinking water utility in the Second Six-Year Review data set. To estimate the distribution of iAs concentrations in rice ingested by U.S. consumers, 54 grain-specific, production-weighted composites of rice obtained from U.S. mills were extracted and speciated using both a quantitative dilute nitric acid extraction and speciation (DNAS) and an in vitro gastrointestinal assay to provide an upper bound and bioaccessible estimates, respectively. Daily drinking water intake and rice consumption rate distributions were developed using data from the What We Eat in America (WWEIA) study. Using these data sets, the Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation (SHEDS) model estimated mean iAs exposures from drinking water and rice were 4.2 μg/day and 1.4 μg/day, respectively, for the entire U.S. population. The Tribal, Asian, and Pacific population exhibited the highest mean daily exposure of iAs from cooked rice (2.8 μg/day); the mean exposure rate for children between ages 1 and 2 years in this population is 0.104 μg/kg body weight (BW)/day. An average consumer drinking 1.5 L of water daily that contains between 2 and 3 ng iAs/mL is exposed to approximately the same amount of iAs as a mean Tribal, Asian, and Pacific consumer is exposed to from rice. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP418. Among nonoccupationally exposed U.S. residents, drinking water and diet are considered

  17. Subsurface intake systems: Green choice for improving feed water quality at SWRO desalination plants, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehwah, Abdullah H A; Missimer, Thomas M

    2016-01-01

    An investigation of three seawater reverse osmosis facilities located along the shoreline of the Red Sea of Saudi Arabia that use well intake systems showed that the pumping-induced flow of raw seawater through a coastal aquifer significantly improves feed water quality. A comparison between the surface seawater and the discharge from the wells shows that turbidity, algae, bacteria, total organic carbon, most fractions of natural organic matter (NOM), and particulate and colloidal transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) have significant reductions in concentration. Nearly all of the algae, up to 99% of the bacteria, between 84 and 100% of the biopolymer fraction of NOM, and a high percentage of the TEP were removed during transport. The data suggest that the flowpath length and hydraulic retention time in the aquifer play the most important roles in removal of the organic matter. Since the collective concentrations of bacteria, biopolymers, and TEP in the intake seawater play important roles in the biofouling of SWRO membranes, the observed reductions suggest that the desalination facilities that use well intakes systems will have a potentially lower fouling rate compared to open-ocean intake systems. Furthermore, well intake system intakes also reduce the need for chemical usage during complex pretreatment systems required for operation of SWRO facilities using open-ocean intakes and reduce environmental impacts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Subsurface intake systems: Green choice for improving feed water quality at SWRO desalination plants, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Dehwah, Abdullah

    2015-10-25

    An investigation of three seawater reverse osmosis facilities located along the shoreline of the Red Sea of Saudi Arabia that use well intake systems showed that the pumping-induced flow of raw seawater through a coastal aquifer significantly improves feed water quality. A comparison between the surface seawater and the discharge from the wells shows that turbidity, algae, bacteria, total organic carbon, most fractions of natural organic matter (NOM), and particulate and colloidal transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) have significant reductions in concentration. Nearly all of the algae, up to 99% of the bacteria, between 84 and 100% of the biopolymer fraction of NOM, and a high percentage of the TEP were removed during transport. The data suggest that the flowpath length and hydraulic retention time in the aquifer play the most important roles in removal of the organic matter. Since the collective concentrations of bacteria, biopolymers, and TEP in the intake seawater play important roles in the biofouling of SWRO membranes, the observed reductions suggest that the desalination facilities that use well intakes systems will have a potentially lower fouling rate compared to open-ocean intake systems. Furthermore, well intake system intakes also reduce the need for chemical usage during complex pretreatment systems required for operation of SWRO facilities using open-ocean intakes and reduce environmental impacts.

  19. Beverage Consumption Habits and Association with Total Water and Energy Intakes in the Spanish Population: Findings of the ANIBES Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissensohn, Mariela; Sánchez-Villegas, Almudena; Ortega, Rosa M.; Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier; Gil, Ángel; González-Gross, Marcela; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; Serra-Majem, Lluis

    2016-01-01

    Background: Inadequate hydration is a public health issue that imposes a significant economic burden. In Spain, data of total water intake (TWI) are scarce. There is a clear need for a national study that quantifies water and beverage intakes and explores associations between the types of beverages and energy intakes. Methods: The Anthropometry, Intake and Energy Balance Study ANIBES is a national survey of diet and nutrition conducted among a representative sample of 2285 healthy participants aged 9–75 years in Spain. Food and beverage intakes were assessed in a food diary over three days. Day and time of beverage consumption were also recorded. Results: On average, TWI was 1.7 L (SE 21.2) for men and 1.6 L (SE 18.9) for women. More than 75% of participants had inadequate TWI, according to European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) recommendations. Mean total energy intake (EI) was 1810 kcal/day (SE 11.1), of which 12% was provided by beverages. Water was the most consumed beverage, followed by milk. The contribution of alcoholic drinks to the EI was near 3%. For caloric soft drinks, a relatively low contribution to the EI was obtained, only 2%. Of eight different types of beverages, the variety score was positively correlated with TWI (r = 0.39) and EI (r = 0.23), suggesting that beverage variety is an indicator of higher consumption of food and drinks. Conclusions: The present study demonstrates that well-conducted surveys such as the ANIBES study have the potential to yield rich contextual value data that can emphasize the need to undertake appropriate health and nutrition policies to increase the total water intake at the population level promoting a healthy Mediterranean hydration pattern. PMID:27104564

  20. Beverage Consumption Habits and Association with Total Water and Energy Intakes in the Spanish Population: Findings of the ANIBES Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissensohn, Mariela; Sánchez-Villegas, Almudena; Ortega, Rosa M; Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier; Gil, Ángel; González-Gross, Marcela; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; Serra-Majem, Lluis

    2016-04-20

    Inadequate hydration is a public health issue that imposes a significant economic burden. In Spain, data of total water intake (TWI) are scarce. There is a clear need for a national study that quantifies water and beverage intakes and explores associations between the types of beverages and energy intakes. The Anthropometry, Intake and Energy Balance Study ANIBES is a national survey of diet and nutrition conducted among a representative sample of 2285 healthy participants aged 9-75 years in Spain. Food and beverage intakes were assessed in a food diary over three days. Day and time of beverage consumption were also recorded. On average, TWI was 1.7 L (SE 21.2) for men and 1.6 L (SE 18.9) for women. More than 75% of participants had inadequate TWI, according to European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) recommendations. Mean total energy intake (EI) was 1810 kcal/day (SE 11.1), of which 12% was provided by beverages. Water was the most consumed beverage, followed by milk. The contribution of alcoholic drinks to the EI was near 3%. For caloric soft drinks, a relatively low contribution to the EI was obtained, only 2%. Of eight different types of beverages, the variety score was positively correlated with TWI (r = 0.39) and EI (r = 0.23), suggesting that beverage variety is an indicator of higher consumption of food and drinks. The present study demonstrates that well-conducted surveys such as the ANIBES study have the potential to yield rich contextual value data that can emphasize the need to undertake appropriate health and nutrition policies to increase the total water intake at the population level promoting a healthy Mediterranean hydration pattern.

  1. Beverage Consumption Habits and Association with Total Water and Energy Intakes in the Spanish Population: Findings of the ANIBES Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela Nissensohn

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Inadequate hydration is a public health issue that imposes a significant economic burden. In Spain, data of total water intake (TWI are scarce. There is a clear need for a national study that quantifies water and beverage intakes and explores associations between the types of beverages and energy intakes. Methods: The Anthropometry, Intake and Energy Balance Study ANIBES is a national survey of diet and nutrition conducted among a representative sample of 2285 healthy participants aged 9–75 years in Spain. Food and beverage intakes were assessed in a food diary over three days. Day and time of beverage consumption were also recorded. Results: On average, TWI was 1.7 L (SE 21.2 for men and 1.6 L (SE 18.9 for women. More than 75% of participants had inadequate TWI, according to European Food Safety Authority (EFSA recommendations. Mean total energy intake (EI was 1810 kcal/day (SE 11.1, of which 12% was provided by beverages. Water was the most consumed beverage, followed by milk. The contribution of alcoholic drinks to the EI was near 3%. For caloric soft drinks, a relatively low contribution to the EI was obtained, only 2%. Of eight different types of beverages, the variety score was positively correlated with TWI (r = 0.39 and EI (r = 0.23, suggesting that beverage variety is an indicator of higher consumption of food and drinks. Conclusions: The present study demonstrates that well-conducted surveys such as the ANIBES study have the potential to yield rich contextual value data that can emphasize the need to undertake appropriate health and nutrition policies to increase the total water intake at the population level promoting a healthy Mediterranean hydration pattern.

  2. Selective increase of dark phase water intake in neuropeptide-Y Y2 and Y4 receptor knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wultsch, Thomas; Painsipp, Evelin; Donner, Sabine; Sperk, Günther; Herzog, Herbert; Peskar, Bernhard A; Holzer, Peter

    2006-04-03

    Neuropeptide-Y (NPY) is involved in the regulation of ingestive behaviour and energy homeostasis. Since deletion of the NPY Y2 and Y4 receptor gene increases and decreases food intake, respectively, we examined whether water intake during the light and dark phases is altered in Y2 and Y4 receptor knockout mice. The water consumption of mice staying in their home cages was measured by weighing the water bottles at the beginning and end of the light phase during 4 consecutive days. Control, Y2 and Y4 receptor knockout mice did not differ in their water intake during the light phase. However, during the dark phase Y2 and Y4 receptor knockout mice drank significantly more (46-63%, PNPY acting via Y2 and Y4 receptors plays a distinctive role in the regulation of nocturnal water consumption. While beta-adrenoceptors and angiotensin AT1 receptors do not seem to be involved, water intake in Y2 and Y4 receptor knockout mice may be enhanced because presynaptic autoinhibition of NPY release and inhibition of orexin neurons in the central nervous system are prevented.

  3. Case Study of Remaining Service Life Assessment of a Cooling Water Intake Concrete Structure in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sigit Darmawan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the assessment of remaining service life of a cooling water intake concrete structure (CWICS subjected to corrosion due to chloride attacks. Field and laboratory tests were performed to determine the current existing condition of the structure. Both destructive and nondestructive tests were employed to obtain the parameter needed for the assessment. Based on the current condition and test results, structural analysis was carried out and the remaining safety factor of CWICS was determined. From the analysis, it was found that most concrete elements of CWICS had safety factor greater than unity and might fulfil its intended service life up to the year 2033. However, fewer elements require immediate strengthening to extend their service life.

  4. Educational intervention on water intake improves hydration status and enhances exercise performance in athletic youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavouras, S A; Arnaoutis, G; Makrillos, M; Garagouni, C; Nikolaou, E; Chira, O; Ellinikaki, E; Sidossis, L S

    2012-10-01

    We aimed to evaluate whether an intervention program emphasizing in increased fluid intake can improve exercise performance in children exercising in the heat. Ninety-two young athletes participated in the study (age: 13.8 ± 0.4 years, weight: 54.9 ± 1.5 kg). Thirty-one (boys: 13, girls: 18) children served as the control group (CON) and 61 (boys: 30, girls: 31) as the intervention (INT). Volunteers had free access to fluids. Hydration was assessed on the basis of first morning urine. A series of field tests were used to evaluate exercise performance. All tests occurred outdoors in the morning (mean ambient temperature=28°C). After baseline testing, INT attended a lecture on hydration, and urine color charts were mounted in all bathrooms. Additionally, water accessibility was facilitated in training, dining and resting areas. Hydration status was improved significantly in the INT [USG: pre=1.031 ± 0.09, post=1.023 ± 0.012, P0.05; urine osmolality (mOsm/kg water) 970 ± 38 vs 961 ± 38, P>0.05]. Performance in an endurance run was improved significantly only in INT (time for 600 m: pre=189 ± 5 s, post=167 ± 4 s, Phydration status by ad libitum consumption of water can enhance performance in young children exercising in the heat. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  5. Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate. Chapter 4 - Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Reprint- ed with permission, from Heller et al. (1999). Copyright 1999 by the American Association of Public Health Dentistry . 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40...rate and skin blood flow in full term infants nursed in a warm environment before and after feeding cold water. Acta Paediatr 86:1085–1089. Ahlman K...Acta Paediatr 89:550– 552. Commonwealth of Massachusetts. 1988. The Report of the Investigation of Attorney General James M. Shannon of the Class 12

  6. Assessment of spatial variation in drinking water iodine and its implications for dietary intake: A new conceptual model for Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voutchkova, Denitza Dimitrova, E-mail: ddv@geo.au.dk [Department of Geoscience, Aarhus University, Høegh-Guldbergs Gade 2, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), Lyseng Allé 1, DK-8270 Højbjerg (Denmark); Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), Øster Voldgade 10, DK-1350 Copenhagen K (Denmark); Ernstsen, Vibeke [Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), Øster Voldgade 10, DK-1350 Copenhagen K (Denmark); Hansen, Birgitte; Sørensen, Brian Lyngby [Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), Lyseng Allé 1, DK-8270 Højbjerg (Denmark); Zhang, Chaosheng [GIS Centre and School of Geography and Archaeology, National University of Ireland, Galway (Ireland); Kristiansen, Søren Munch [Department of Geoscience, Aarhus University, Høegh-Guldbergs Gade 2, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)

    2014-09-15

    Iodine is essential for human health. Many countries have therefore introduced universal salt iodising (USI) programmes to ensure adequate intake for the populations. However, little attention has been paid to subnational differences in iodine intake from drinking water caused by naturally occurring spatial variations. To address this issue, we here present the results of a Danish nationwide study of spatial trends of iodine in drinking water and the relevance of these trends for human dietary iodine intake. The data consist of treated drinking water samples from 144 waterworks, representing approx. 45% of the groundwater abstraction for drinking water supply in Denmark. The samples were analysed for iodide, iodate, total iodine (TI) and other major and trace elements. The spatial patterns were investigated with Local Moran's I. TI ranges from < 0.2 to 126 μg L{sup −1} (mean 14.4 μg L{sup −1}, median 11.9 μg L{sup −1}). Six speciation combinations were found. Half of the samples (n = 71) contain organic iodine; all species were detected in approx. 27% of all samples. The complex spatial variation is attributed both to the geology and the groundwater treatment. TI > 40 μg L{sup −1} originates from postglacial marine and glacial meltwater sand and from Campanian–Maastrichtian chalk aquifers. The estimated drinking water contribution to human intake varies from 0% to > 100% of the WHO recommended daily iodine intake for adults and from 0% to approx. 50% for adolescents. The paper presents a new conceptual model based on the observed clustering of high or low drinking-water iodine concentrations, delimiting zones with potentially deficient, excessive or optimal iodine status. Our findings suggest that the present coarse-scale nationwide programme for monitoring the population's iodine status may not offer a sufficiently accurate picture. Local variations in drinking-water iodine should be mapped and incorporated into future adjustment of the

  7. Enhanced water and salt intake in transgenic mice with brain-restricted overexpression of angiotensin (AT1) receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazartigues, Eric; Sinnayah, Puspha; Augoyard, Ginette; Gharib, Claude; Johnson, Alan Kim; Davisson, Robin L

    2008-11-01

    To address the relative contribution of central and peripheral angiotensin II (ANG II) type 1A receptors (AT(1A)) to blood pressure and volume homeostasis, we generated a transgenic mouse model [neuron-specific enolase (NSE)-AT(1A)] with brain-restricted overexpression of AT(1A) receptors. These mice are normotensive at baseline but have dramatically enhanced pressor and bradycardic responses to intracerebroventricular ANG II or activation of endogenous ANG II production. Here our goal was to examine the water and sodium intake in this model under basal conditions and in response to increased ANG II levels. Baseline water and NaCl (0.3 M) intakes were significantly elevated in NSE-AT(1A) compared with nontransgenic littermates, and bolus intracerebroventricular injections of ANG II (200 ng in 200 nl) caused further enhanced water intake in NSE-AT(1A). Activation of endogenous ANG II production by sodium depletion (10 days low-sodium diet followed by furosemide, 1 mg sc) enhanced NaCl intake in NSE-AT(1A) mice compared with wild types. Fos immunohistochemistry, used to assess neuronal activation, demonstrated sodium depletion-enhanced activity in the anteroventral third ventricle region of the brain in NSE-AT(1A) mice compared with control animals. The results show that brain-selective overexpression of AT(1A) receptors results in enhanced salt appetite and altered water intake. This model provides a new tool for studying the mechanisms of brain AT(1A)-dependent water and salt consumption.

  8. Using doubly labeled water to validate associations between sugar-sweetened beverage intake and body mass among White and African-American adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emond, J A; Patterson, R E; Jardack, P M; Arab, L

    2014-04-01

    Evidence is mixed regarding sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake and adiposity among adults, perhaps because of reporting bias. The objective of this study is to determine the impact of reporting bias on any associations between increased SSB intake and overweight/obesity. Beverage intake and overweight/obese status (body mass index ≥ 25 kg m(-2)) were examined among adults from a dietary assessment and doubly labeled water study (n=250). Four web-based, 24-h recalls assessed dietary intake. SSB intake was categorized as no intake, 1-99 kcals per day and >99 kcals per day. Logistic regression models adjusted for total caloric intake, age, race, education and diet quality compared SSB intake with overweight/obese status. To investigate dietary self-reporting bias, analyses were replicated in a subset of 'true reporters': those with self-reported total caloric intake within 25% of total energy expenditure per doubly labeled water assessments (n=108). One-half of participants were overweight/obese; more overweight/obese participants consumed SSB than normal-weight participants (69% vs 47%; PWhite participants (48%) consumed SSB compared with African-American participants (68%; P=0.002). Compared with no intake, SSB intake up to the median intake doubled the risk of being overweight/obese (odds ratio: 2.1, 95% confidence interval: 1.0-4.3; P=0.046) and SSB intake over the median more than doubled the risk (odds ratio: 2.6, 95% confidence interval: 1.2-6.0; P=0.018). When limited to true reporters, SSB intake significantly increased the risk of being overweight/obese by nearly fourfold. Underreporting of SSB intake may be attenuating true associations of SSB intake and the risk of being overweight/obese.

  9. Characteristics of Beverage Consumption Habits among a Large Sample of French Adults: Associations with Total Water and Energy Intakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien Szabo de Edelenyi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adequate hydration is a key factor for correct functioning of both cognitive and physical processes. In France, public health recommendations about adequate total water intake (TWI only state that fluid intake should be sufficient, with particular attention paid to hydration for seniors, especially during heatwave periods. The objective of this study was to calculate the total amount of water coming from food and beverages and to analyse characteristics of consumption in participants from a large French national cohort. Methods: TWI, as well as contribution of food and beverages to TWI was assessed among 94,939 adult participants in the Nutrinet-Santé cohort (78% women, mean age 42.9 (SE 0.04 using three 24-h dietary records at baseline. Statistical differences in water intakes across age groups, seasons and day of the week were assessed. Results: The mean TWI was 2.3 L (Standard Error SE 4.7 for men and 2.1 L (SE 2.4 for women. A majority of the sample did comply with the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA adequate intake recommendation, especially women. Mean total energy intake (EI was 1884 kcal/day (SE 1.5 (2250 kcal/day (SE 3.6 for men and 1783 kcal/day (SE 1.5 for women. The contribution to the total EI from beverages was 8.3%. Water was the most consumed beverage, followed by hot beverages. The variety score, defined as the number of different categories of beverages consumed during the three 24-h records out of a maximum of 8, was positively correlated with TWI (r = 0.4; and with EI (r = 0.2, suggesting that beverage variety is an indicator of higher consumption of food and drinks. We found differences in beverage consumptions and water intakes according to age and seasonality. Conclusions: The present study gives an overview of the water intake characteristics in a large population of French adults. TWI was found to be globally in line with public health recommendations.

  10. Characteristics of Beverage Consumption Habits among a Large Sample of French Adults: Associations with Total Water and Energy Intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo de Edelenyi, Fabien; Druesne-Pecollo, Nathalie; Arnault, Nathalie; González, Rebeca; Buscail, Camille; Galan, Pilar

    2016-10-11

    Adequate hydration is a key factor for correct functioning of both cognitive and physical processes. In France, public health recommendations about adequate total water intake (TWI) only state that fluid intake should be sufficient, with particular attention paid to hydration for seniors, especially during heatwave periods. The objective of this study was to calculate the total amount of water coming from food and beverages and to analyse characteristics of consumption in participants from a large French national cohort. TWI, as well as contribution of food and beverages to TWI was assessed among 94,939 adult participants in the Nutrinet-Santé cohort (78% women, mean age 42.9 (SE 0.04)) using three 24-h dietary records at baseline. Statistical differences in water intakes across age groups, seasons and day of the week were assessed. The mean TWI was 2.3 L (Standard Error SE 4.7) for men and 2.1 L (SE 2.4) for women. A majority of the sample did comply with the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) adequate intake recommendation, especially women. Mean total energy intake (EI) was 1884 kcal/day (SE 1.5) (2250 kcal/day (SE 3.6) for men and 1783 kcal/day (SE 1.5) for women). The contribution to the total EI from beverages was 8.3%. Water was the most consumed beverage, followed by hot beverages. The variety score, defined as the number of different categories of beverages consumed during the three 24-h records out of a maximum of 8, was positively correlated with TWI (r = 0.4); and with EI (r = 0.2), suggesting that beverage variety is an indicator of higher consumption of food and drinks. We found differences in beverage consumptions and water intakes according to age and seasonality. The present study gives an overview of the water intake characteristics in a large population of French adults. TWI was found to be globally in line with public health recommendations.

  11. Water Consumption in European Children: Associations with Intake of Fruit Juices, Soft Drinks and Related Parenting Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystallia Mantziki

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: High intake of fruit juices and soft drinks contributes to excessive weight gain and obesity in children. Furthermore, parenting practices play an important role in the development of children’s dietary habits. The way parents play this role in the development of their children’s choices of beverages is still unclear. Objectives: To study the associations: (1 of both fruit juices and soft drinks consumption with water consumption of children and (2 The associations between parenting practices towards fruit juices and soft drinks and water consumption of children. Design: Cross-sectional data from 6 to 8 year old children from seven European communities (n = 1187 were collected. Associations among fruit juices, soft drinks, the respective parenting practices and the child’s water consumption were assessed by parental questionnaires. Results: The consumption of water was inversely associated with that of soft drinks but not with the consumption of fruit juices. The child’s water intake was favorably influenced when stricter parenting practices towards soft drinks were adopted (e.g., less parental allowance, low home availability and high parental self-efficacy in managing intake. There was less influence observed of parenting practices towards fruit juices. Fruit juices were consumed more often than soft drinks. Conclusions: Low consumption of soft drinks—and not of fruit juices—was associated with high water consumption in children in the current study. Moreover, parenting practices towards both fruit juices and soft drinks were associated with the water intake of the children, irrespective of their socio-economic status.

  12. Short-term exposure to bisphenol A affects water and salt intakes differently in male and ovariectomised female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuñez, Paula; Arguelles, Juan; Perillan, Carmen

    2018-01-01

    Thirst and sodium appetite are motivational states that lead to the search for and ingestion of water and sodium, thus contributing to maintenance of hydromineral balance. Oestrogens affect fluid intake and sodium preference. Bisphenol A (BPA) is an environmental endocrine-disrupting substance with oestrogenic activity. Whether there are sex differences in the ingestive effects of BPA is unknown. Therefore, the aim of the present work was to determine the effect of short-term treatment of low doses of BPA on thirst and sodium appetite in adult male and ovariectomised Wistar rats. Rats were subcutaneously injected with either vehicle or 10, 50, 100, or 500 μg/kg/day BPA for a week. Two-bottle tests (water and 2.7% NaCl solution) were conducted in the animals' home cages with and without 24 h water deprivation. BPA reduced water and 2.7% NaCl intakes in a sex-dependent-manner. Fluid intakes displayed inverted U-shaped dose-response curves, with different dose dependencies in spontaneously drinker rats than after 24 h water deprivation dehydration. Future studies on the role of BPA in sex-dependent body fluid homeostasis should elucidate the effects of BPA on the neuroendocrine controls of thirst and salt appetite. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Early ethanol and water intake: choice mechanism and total fluid regulation operate in parallel in male alcohol preferring (P) and both Wistar and Sprague Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarov, Alexey V; Woodward, Donald J

    2014-01-17

    The goal of this study was to clarify similar and distinctly different parameters of fluid intake during early phases of ethanol and water choice drinking in alcohol preferring P-rat vs. non-selected Wistar and Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Precision information on the drinking amounts and timing is needed to analyze micro-behavioral components of the acquisition of ethanol intake and to enable a search for its causal activity patterns within individual CNS circuits. The experiment followed the standard ethanol-drinking test used in P-rat selective breeding, with access to water, then 10% ethanol (10E) as sole fluids, and next to ethanol/water choice. The novelty of the present approach was to eliminate confounding prandial elevations of fluid intake, by time-separating daily food from fluid access. P-rat higher initial intakes of water and 10E as sole fluids suggest adaptations to ethanol-induced dehydration in P vs. Wistar and SD rats. P-rat starting and overall ethanol intake during the choice period were the highest. The absolute extent of ethanol intake elevation during choice period was greatest in Wistar and their final intake levels approached those of P-rat, contrary to the hypothesis that selection would produce the strongest elevation of ethanol intake. The total daily fluid during ethanol/water choice period was strikingly similar between P, Wistar and SD rats. This supports the hypothesis for a universal system that gauges the overall intake volume by titrating and integrating ethanol and water drinking fluctuations, and indicates a stable daily level of total fluid as a main regulated parameter of fluid intake across the three lines in choice conditions. The present findings indicate that a stable daily level of total fluid comprises an independent physiological limit for daily ethanol intake. Ethanol drinking, in turn, stays under the ceiling of this limit, driven by a parallel mechanism of ethanol/water choice. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Water intake and digestive metabolism of broilers fed all-vegetable diets containing acidulated soybean soapstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SL Vieira

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to compare live performance and digestive metabolism of broiler chickens fed all-vegetable diets (All-Veg compared to a regular diet including animal by-products. Three feeds were formulated and provided to broilers according to the feeding program: pre-starter from 1 to 10 days, starter from 11 to 21 days, and grower from 21 to 35 days. All feeds had corn and soybean meal as major ingredients; however, two of them were all-vegetable diets having either Degummed Soybean Oil (DSO or Acidulated Soybean Soapstock (ASS as fat sources. The third diet included poultry by-product and poultry fat. A total number of 360 day-old broiler chicks were allocated to 1m² battery cages, 10 chicks in each, and 12 replicates per treatment. Live performance was similar between groups of birds receiving the different diets with the exception of weight gain, which was increased for birds fed the All-Veg diet with ASS. Birds fed All-Veg diets had increased water intake and produced more excreta with a concurrent reduced feed metabolizability at both ages, regardless of fat source. Metabolizable Energy was not different for the three diets.

  15. Protective Measures When Cleaning Bed of Shershnevsky Reservoir of Ground Deposits in Operating Conditions of Water Intaking Constructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkanova, I. A.; Denisov, S. E.; Knutarev, D. Yu

    2017-11-01

    The article sets the objective to develop protective measures when cleaning the bed of the Shershnevsky reservoir of ground deposits using a dredger in the operating conditions of water intaking constructions. As protective measures the authors considered the application of polymer screens made of Dornit geofabric to clean ground deposits using a dredger which allows one not to violate the existing process conditions of the water intaking constructions at the reservoir. The authors developed a structure of a protective polymer screen and the scheme to apply the screen for the conditions of cleaning the bed of the Shershnevsky reservoir of ground deposits using a dredger. The installation of the polymer screens prevents the distribution of turbid suspended solids along the water area of the water body in the course of cleaning. The protective screen to prevent turbid substances in the course of bed cleaning allows blocking the enclosed space from the water surface to the bottom of the water body. It ensures the excavation of ground deposits in a cycle closed from the external water environment with the exclusion of sediment spreading and damage to the water body’s ichthyofauna.

  16. Maryland Power Plant Cooling-Water Intake Regulations and their Application in Evaluation of Adverse Environmental Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard McLean

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Maryland’s cooling-water intake and discharge regulations, the Code of Maryland Regulations (COMAR 26.08.03, stem from Sections 316(a and (b of the Clean Water Act (CWA. COMAR 26.08.03.05 and litigative and administrative rulings stipulate that the location, design, construction, and capability of cooling-water intake structures must reflect the best technology available (BTA for minimizing adverse environmental impacts (AEIs, providing that the costs of implementing the BTA are not wholly disproportionate to the expected environmental benefits. Maryland law exempts facilities that withdraw less than 10 million gallons/day (MGD and less than 20% of stream or net flow by the intake. If not exempt, BTA must be installed if the cost of doing so is less than five times the value of fish impinged annually. Through site-specific studies and the use of a Spawning and Nursery Area of Consequence (SNAC model applied to Representative Important Species, several power plants were evaluated to determine if they have had an adverse effect on spawning and nursery areas of consequence. Examples of application of the Maryland law to a number of power plants in the state are presented, together with the outcome of their evaluation.

  17. Lesions of the commissural subnucleus of the nucleus of the solitary tract increase isoproterenol-induced water intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.T. Blanch

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS is the primary site of the cardiovascular afferent information about arterial blood pressure and volume. The NTS projects to areas in the central nervous system involved in cardiovascular regulation and hydroelectrolyte balance, such as the anteroventral third ventricle region and the lateral parabrachial nucleus. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of electrolytic lesion of the commissural NTS on water and 0.3 M NaCl intake and the cardiovascular responses to subcutaneous injection of isoproterenol. Male Holtzman rats weighing 280 to 320 g were submitted to sham lesion or electrolytic lesion of the commissural NTS (N = 6-15/group. The sham-lesioned rats had the electrode placed along the same coordinates, except that no current was passed. Water intake induced by subcutaneous isoproterenol (30 µg/kg body weight significantly increased in chronic (15 days commissural NTS-lesioned rats (to 2.4 ± 0.2 vs sham: 1.9 ± 0.2 mL 100 g body weight-1 60 min-1. Isoproterenol did not induce any sodium intake in sham or in commissural NTS-lesioned rats. The isoproterenol-induced hypotension (sham: -27 ± 4 vs commissural NTS-lesioned rats: -22 ± 4 mmHg/20 min and tachycardia (sham: 168 ± 10 vs commissural NTS: 144 ± 24 bpm/20 min were not different between groups. The present results suggest that the commissural NTS is part of an inhibitory neural pathway involved in the control of water intake induced by subcutaneous isoproterenol, and that the overdrinking observed in lesioned rats is not the result of a cardiovascular imbalance in these animals.

  18. Effects of supplementing glycerol and soybean oil in drinking water on feed and water intake, energy balance, and production performance of periparturient dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, V R; Odongo, N E; Cant, J P; Swanson, K C; McBride, B W

    2009-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of supplementing glycerol and soybean oil in drinking water on feed and water intake, calculated energy balance, and production performance of periparturient dairy cows. Ninety multiparous Holstein dairy cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: 1) no nutrients supplemented in the drinking water (control); 2) 20 g/L of glycerin supplemented in the drinking water (glycerol); and 3) 10 g/L of soybean oil supplemented in the drinking water (SBO). The trial lasted from 7 d prepartum to 7 d postpartum. Cows were offered a close-up and milking cow TMR for ad libitum intake, pre- and postpartum, respectively. The dry matter intake of cows supplemented with glycerol and SBO was lower than for the control cows throughout the experimental period but not different from each other. Water intake for the control cows was greater than the average for the glycerol and SBO cows prepartum, and greater than for SBO cows but similar to that of glycerol cows postpartum. Glycerol cows consumed more water than SBO cows. There were no differences in energy intake and energy balance of the cows pre- and postpartum. Serum triacylglycerol concentration for glycerol cows was lower than for the control and SBO cows prepartum and was lower than for the SBO cows postpartum. There were no differences in the serum nonesterified fatty acids and glucose concentrations throughout the experiment. There were no differences in the serum beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentrations at parturition, but serum BHBA concentration of the glycerol cows was greater than for control and SBO cows during the prepartum period. However, during the postpartum period, serum BHBA concentrations of the control cows were greater than for glycerol and SBO cows. There were no differences in calf birth weights or milk yield and composition. Although the glucogenic property of glycerol supplemented in the drinking water at 20 g/L may not have been sufficient to

  19. Modeling Possible Cooling-Water Intake System Impacts on Ohio River Fish Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elgin Perry

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available To assess the possible impacts caused by cooling-water intake system entrainment and impingement losses, populations of six target fish species near power plants on the Ohio River were modeled. A Leslie matrix model was constructed to allow an evaluation of bluegill, freshwater drum, emerald shiner, gizzard shad, sauger, and white bass populations within five river pools. Site-specific information on fish abundance and length-frequency distribution was obtained from long-term Ohio River Ecological Research Program and Ohio River Sanitation Commission (ORSANCO electrofishing monitoring programs. Entrainment and impingement data were obtained from 316(b demonstrations previously completed at eight Ohio River power plants. The model was first run under a scenario representative of current conditions, which included fish losses due to entrainment and impingement. The model was then rerun with these losses added back into the populations, representative of what would happen if all entrainment and impingement losses were eliminated. The model was run to represent a 50-year time period, which is a typical life span for an Ohio River coal-fired power plant. Percent changes between populations modeled with and without entrainment and impingement losses in each pool were compared to the mean interannual coefficient of variation (CV, a measure of normal fish population variability. In 6 of the 22 scenarios of fish species and river pools that were evaluated (6 species × 5 river pools, minus 8 species/river pool combinations that could not be evaluated due to insufficient fish data, the projected fish population change was greater than the expected variability of the existing fish population, indicating a possible adverse environmental impact. Given the number of other variables affecting fish populations and the conservative modeling approach, which assumed 100% mortality for all entrained fish and eggs, it was concluded that the likelihood of impact was

  20. Modeling possible cooling-water intake system impacts on Ohio River fish populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Elgin; Seegert, Greg; Vondruska, Joe; Lohner, Timothy; Lewis, Randy

    2002-04-26

    To assess the possible impacts caused by cooling-water intake system entrainment and impingement losses, populations of six target fish species near power plants on the Ohio River were modeled. A Leslie matrix model was constructed to allow an evaluation of bluegill, freshwater drum, emerald shiner, gizzard shad, sauger, and white bass populations within five river pools. Site-specific information on fish abundance and length-frequency distribution was obtained from long-term Ohio River Ecological Research Program and Ohio River Sanitation Commission (ORSANCO) electrofishing monitoring programs. Entrainment and impingement data were obtained from 316(b) demonstrations previously completed at eight Ohio River power plants. The model was first run under a scenario representative of current conditions, which included fish losses due to entrainment and impingement. The model was then rerun with these losses added back into the populations, representative of what would happen if all entrainment and impingement losses were eliminated. The model was run to represent a 50-year time period, which is a typical life span for an Ohio River coal-fired power plant. Percent changes between populations modeled with and without entrainment and impingement losses in each pool were compared to the mean interannual coefficient of variation (CV), a measure of normal fish population variability. In 6 of the 22 scenarios of fish species and river pools that were evaluated (6 species x 5 river pools, minus 8 species/river pool combinations that could not be evaluated due to insufficient fish data), the projected fish population change was greater than the expected variability of the existing fish population, indicating a possible adverse environmental impact. Given the number of other variables affecting fish populations and the conservative modeling approach, which assumed 100% mortality for all entrained fish and eggs, it was concluded that the likelihood of impact was by no means

  1. An eddy-covariance system with an innovative vortex intake for measuring carbon dioxide and water fluxes of ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jingyong; Zha, Tianshan; Jia, Xin; Sargent, Steve; Burgon, Rex; Bourque, Charles P.-A.; Zhou, Xinhua; Liu, Peng; Bai, Yujie; Wu, Yajuan

    2017-03-01

    Closed-path eddy-covariance (EC) systems are used to monitor exchanges of trace gases (e.g., carbon dioxide [CO2], water vapor [H2O], nitrous oxide and methane) between the atmosphere and biosphere. Traditional EC-intake systems are equipped with inline filters to prevent airborne dust particulate from contaminating the optical windows of the sample cell which causes measurement degradation. The inline filter should have a fine pore size (1 to 20 µm is common) to adequately protect the optics and a large filtration surface area to extend the time before it clogs. However, the filter must also have minimal internal volume to preserve good frequency response. This paper reports test results of the field performance of an EC system (EC155, Campbell Scientific, Inc., Logan Utah, USA) with a prototype vortex intake replacing the inline filter of a traditional EC system. The vortex-intake design is based on fluid dynamics theory. An air sample is drawn into the vortex chamber, where it spins in a vortex flow. The initially homogenous flow is separated when particle momentum forces heavier particles to the periphery of the chamber, leaving a much cleaner airstream at the center. Clean air (75 % of total flow) is drawn from the center of the vortex chamber, through a tube, to the sample cell where it is exposed to the optical windows of the gas analyzer. The remaining 25 % of the flow carries the heavier dust particles away through a separate bypass tube. An EC155 system measured CO2 and H2O fluxes in two urban-forest ecosystems in the megalopolis of Beijing, China. These sites present a challenge for EC measurements because of the generally poor air quality which has high concentrations of suspended particulate. The closed-path EC system with vortex intake significantly reduced maintenance requirements by preserving optical signal strength and sample-cell pressure within acceptable ranges for much longer periods. The system with vortex intake also maintained an excellent

  2. Drinking water to reduce alcohol craving? A randomized controlled study on the impact of ghrelin in mediating the effects of forced water intake in alcohol addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopmann, Anne; Lippmann, Katharina; Schuster, Rilana; Reinhard, Iris; Bach, Patrick; Weil, Georg; Rietschel, Marcella; Witt, Stephanie H; Wiedemann, Klaus; Kiefer, Falk

    2017-11-01

    Recent data suggest that ghrelin is involved in the pathophysiology of alcohol use disorders, affecting alcohol self-administration and craving. Gastric ghrelin secretion is reduced by stomach distension. We now tested the hypothesis whether the clinically well-known effects of high-volume water intake on craving reduction in alcoholism is mediated by acute changes in ghrelin secretion. In this randomized human laboratory study, we included 23 alcohol-dependent male inpatient subjects who underwent alcohol cue exposure. Participants of the intervention group drank 1000ml of mineral water within 10min directly thereafter, compared to the participants of the control group who did not. Craving and plasma concentrations of acetylated ghrelin were measured ten times during the 120min following the alcohol cue exposure session. In the intervention group, a significant decrease in acetylated ghrelin in plasma compared to the control group was observed. This decrease was correlated to a reduction in patients' subjective level of craving. In the control group, no decrease of acetylated ghrelin in plasma and no association between alcohol craving and changes in plasma concentrations of acetylated ghrelin were observed. Our results present new evidence that the modulation in the ghrelin system by oral water intake mediates the effects of volume intake with craving reduction in alcohol use disorders. Hence, in addition to pharmacological interventions with ghrelin antagonists, the reduction of physiological ghrelin secretion might be a target for future interventions in the treatment of alcohol craving. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [Risk factors contributing to insufficient water intake in elderly living in nursing homes and long-term care units: a review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presse, Nancy; Ferland, Guylaine

    2010-01-01

    Elderly living in nursing homes and long-term care units are well-known to be vulnerable to dehydration. Insufficient water intake contributes to suboptimal hydration status and leads to decreased quality of life and global health status. Based on published studies, 32 to 96% of nursing home residents had insufficient water intake and more than 50% drank less than 1.5L per day. Risk factors contributing to decreased water intake in nursing home residents can be divided into two categories, depending whether they apply to the individuals per se (individual factors) or their social and institutional environment (environmental factors). Water intake is associated with meals and medication administration frequency. Diminished thirst sensation, intentional fluid restriction, dysphagia and functional dependency are individual factors recognized as most contributing to decreased water intake. Lack of familial support and insufficient staff are also important since they can contribute to decreased patients' assistance. Dietitians can play a fundamental role in preventing suboptimal hydration status by identifying risk factors that are known to compromise individual's water intake and by implementing corrective measures.

  4. Nutrient intake, acid base status and weight gain in water buffalo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The impact of different dietary levels of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) on nutrient intake, acid-base status, nitrogen balance and weight gain was examined in growing male buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves exposed to hot summer conditions. In a complete randomized block design 60 animals of similar age and weight ...

  5. Nutrient intake, acid base status and weight gain in water buffalo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2492989

    Abstract. The impact of different dietary levels of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) on nutrient intake, acid-base status, nitrogen balance and weight gain was examined in growing male buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves exposed to hot summer conditions. In a complete randomized block design 60 animals of similar age and.

  6. Changes in water and beverage intake and long-term weight changes: results from three prospective cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, A; Malik, V S; Hao, T; Willett, W C; Mozaffarian, D; Hu, F B

    2013-10-01

    To examine the long-term relationship between changes in water and beverage intake and weight change. Prospective cohort studies of 50013 women aged 40-64 years in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS, 1986-2006), 52987 women aged 27-44 years in the NHS II (1991-2007) and 21988 men aged 40-64 years in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986-2006) without obesity and chronic diseases at baseline. We assessed the association of weight change within each 4-year interval, with changes in beverage intakes and other lifestyle behaviors during the same period. Multivariate linear regression with robust variance and accounting for within-person repeated measures were used to evaluate the association. Results across the three cohorts were pooled by an inverse-variance-weighted meta-analysis. Participants gained an average of 1.45 kg (5th to 95th percentile: -1.87 to 5.46) within each 4-year period. After controlling for age, baseline body mass index and changes in other lifestyle behaviors (diet, smoking habits, exercise, alcohol, sleep duration, TV watching), each 1 cup per day increment of water intake was inversely associated with weight gain within each 4-year period (-0.13 kg; 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.17 to -0.08). The associations for other beverages were: sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) (0.36 kg; 95% CI: 0.24-0.48), fruit juice (0.22 kg; 95% CI: 0.15-0.28), coffee (-0.14 kg; 95% CI: -0.19 to -0.09), tea (-0.03 kg; 95% CI: -0.05 to -0.01), diet beverages (-0.10 kg; 95% CI: -0.14 to -0.06), low-fat milk (0.02 kg; 95% CI: -0.04 to 0.09) and whole milk (0.02 kg; 95% CI: -0.06 to 0.10). We estimated that replacement of 1 serving per day of SSBs by 1 cup per day of water was associated with 0.49 kg (95% CI: 0.32-0.65) less weight gain over each 4-year period, and the replacement estimate of fruit juices by water was 0.35 kg (95% CI: 0.23-0.46). Substitution of SSBs or fruit juices by other beverages (coffee, tea, diet beverages, low-fat and whole milk) were all

  7. A Mobile Phone Based Method to Assess Energy and Food Intake in Young Children: A Validation Study against the Doubly Labelled Water Method and 24 h Dietary Recalls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Delisle Nyström

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile phones are becoming important instruments for assessing diet and energy intake. We developed the Tool for Energy Balance in Children (TECH, which uses a mobile phone to assess energy and food intake in pre-school children. The aims of this study were: (a to compare energy intake (EI using TECH with total energy expenditure (TEE measured via doubly labelled water (DLW; and (b to compare intakes of fruits, vegetables, fruit juice, sweetened beverages, candy, ice cream, and bakery products using TECH with intakes acquired by 24 h dietary recalls. Participants were 39 healthy, Swedish children (5.5 ± 0.5 years within the ongoing Mobile-based Intervention Intended to Stop Obesity in Preschoolers (MINISTOP obesity prevention trial. Energy and food intakes were assessed during four days using TECH and 24 h telephone dietary recalls. Mean EI (TECH was not statistically different from TEE (DLW (5820 ± 820 kJ/24 h and 6040 ± 680kJ/24 h, respectively. No significant differences in the average food intakes using TECH and 24 h dietary recalls were found. All food intakes were correlated between TECH and the 24 h dietary recalls (ρ = 0.665–0.896, p < 0.001. In conclusion, TECH accurately estimated the average intakes of energy and selected foods and thus has the potential to be a useful tool for dietary studies in pre-school children, for example obesity prevention trials.

  8. Inhibition of dehydration-induced water intake by glucocorticoids is associated with activation of hypothalamic natriuretic peptide receptor-A in rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Liu

    Full Text Available Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP provides a potent defense mechanism against volume overload in mammals. Its primary receptor, natriuretic peptide receptor-A (NPR-A, is localized mostly in the kidney, but also is found in hypothalamic areas involved in body fluid volume regulation. Acute glucocorticoid administration produces potent diuresis and natriuresis, possibly by acting in the renal natriuretic peptide system. However, chronic glucocorticoid administration attenuates renal water and sodium excretion. The precise mechanism underlying this paradoxical phenomenon is unclear. We assume that chronic glucocorticoid administration may activate natriuretic peptide system in hypothalamus, and cause volume depletion by inhibiting dehydration-induced water intake. Volume depletion, in turn, compromises renal water excretion. To test this postulation, we determined the effect of dexamethasone on dehydration-induced water intake and assessed the expression of NPR-A in the hypothalamus. The rats were deprived of water for 24 hours to have dehydrated status. Prior to free access to water, the water-deprived rats were pretreated with dexamethasone or vehicle. Urinary volume and water intake were monitored. We found that dexamethasone pretreatment not only produced potent diuresis, but dramatically inhibited the dehydration-induced water intake. Western blotting analysis showed the expression of NPR-A in the hypothalamus was dramatically upregulated by dexamethasone. Consequently, cyclic guanosine monophosphate (the second messenger for the ANP content in the hypothalamus was remarkably increased. The inhibitory effect of dexamethasone on water intake presented in a time- and dose-dependent manner, which emerged at least after 18-hour dexamethasone pretreatment. This effect was glucocorticoid receptor (GR mediated and was abolished by GR antagonist RU486. These results indicated a possible physiologic role for glucocorticoids in the hypothalamic control of

  9. SWRO feed water quality improvement using subsurface intakes in Oman, Spain, Turks and Caicos Islands, and Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Rachman, Rinaldi

    2014-10-01

    Water quality sampling and analysis conducted at four global locations, along the shorelines of the Arabian Sea, the Red Sea, the Mediterranean Sea, and the Caribbean Sea, demonstrated that subsurface intakes (wells) provide a robust degree of feed water treatment close to that provided by energy-intensive, conventional pretreatment systems. SDI values were reduced in virtually all cases to below 3. In vertical wells, from 70 to 100% of the TEP and 50% of the TOC and DOC found in natural seawater were removed in the aquifer. Reduction in the concentration of the organic fractions was selective based on molecular weight with the biopolymers nearly fully removed. Humic substances, building blocks, and light organic substances were removed at lesser percentages. Site geology was not the predominant factor affecting the removal efficiency, but the length of the flow path from the sea to the wells and the hydraulic retention time appear to be most significant. A comparison between vertical wells, a tunnel intake system, and a horizontal drain system at Alicante, Spain, demonstrated that the vertical wells performed best followed by the tunnel system, and the horizontal drain system which showed a breakthrough of algae and a very high organic carbon concentration. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  10. Water intake, faecal output and intestinal motility in horses moved from pasture to a stabled management regime with controlled exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, S; Horner, J; Orton, E; Green, M; McMullen, S; Mobasheri, A; Freeman, S L

    2015-01-01

    Reasons for performing study A change in management from pasture to stabling is a risk factor for equine colic. Objectives To investigate the effect of a management change from pasture with no controlled exercise to stabling with light exercise on aspects of gastrointestinal function related to large colon impaction. The hypothesis was that drinking water intake, faecal output, faecal water content and large intestinal motility would be altered by a transition from a pastured to a stabled regime. Study design Within-subject management intervention trial involving changes in feeding and exercise using noninvasive techniques. Methods Seven normal horses were evaluated in a within-subjects study design. Horses were monitored while at pasture 24 h/day, and for 14 days following a transition to a stabling regime with light controlled exercise. Drinking water intake, faecal output and faecal dry matter were measured. Motility of the caecum, sternal flexure and left colon (contractions/min) were measured twice daily by transcutaneous ultrasound. Mean values were pooled for the pastured regime and used as a reference for comparison with stabled data (Days 1–14 post stabling) for multilevel statistical analysis. Results Drinking water intake was significantly increased (mean ± s.d. pasture 2.4 ± 1.8 vs. stabled 6.4 ± 0.6 l/100 kg bwt/day), total faecal output was significantly decreased (pasture 4.62 ± 1.69 vs. stabled 1.81 ± 0.5 kg/100 kg bwt/day) and faecal dry matter content was significantly increased (pasture 18.7 ± 2.28 vs. stabled 27.2 ± 1.93% DM/day) on all days post stabling compared with measurements taken at pasture (P<0.05). Motility was significantly decreased in all regions of the large colon collectively on Day 2 post stabling (-0.76 contractions/min), and in the left colon only on Day 4 (-0.62 contractions/min; P<0.05). Conclusions There were significant changes in large intestinal motility patterns and parameters relating to gastrointestinal water

  11. Effects of voluntarily-ingested buprenorphine on plasma corticosterone levels, body weight, water intake, and behaviour in permanently catheterised rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldkuhl, Renée; Hau, Jann; Abelson, Klas

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the peri- and postoperative effect of pre-emptive analgesia through voluntary ingestion of buprenorphine in Nutella, in male Sprague-Dawley rats. An arterial catheter was inserted and the rats were connected to an automated blood sampling device (AccuSampler). Blood samples...... were drawn up to 18 h after surgery and the plasma concentrations of corticosterone were quantified. Postoperative changes in water intake and body weight were recorded, and the behaviour of the rats was analysed during two 30-min periods. Pre-emptive oral buprenorphine treatment reduced the plasma...... corticosterone levels in the postoperative period, compared to controls treated with local anaesthetics. Buprenorphine-treated rats consumed more water and maintained body weight better. Behavioural observations indicated that buprenorphine changed the behaviour in non-operated rats but there was no difference...

  12. Hydration, Fluid Intake, and Related Urine Biomarkers among Male College Students in Cangzhou, China: A Cross-Sectional Study—Applications for Assessing Fluid Intake and Adequate Water Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Na; Du, Songming; Tang, Zhenchuang; Zheng, Mengqi; Yan, Ruixia; Zhu, Yitang; Ma, Guansheng

    2017-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the associations between fluid intake and urine biomarkers and to determine daily total fluid intake for assessing hydration status for male college students. A total of 68 male college students aged 18–25 years recruited from Cangzhou, China completed a 7-day cross-sectional study. From day 1 to day 7; all subjects were asked to complete a self-administered 7-day 24-h fluid intake record. The foods eaten by subjects were weighed and 24-h urine was collected for three consecutive days on the last three consecutive days. On the sixth day, urine osmolality, specific gravity (USG), pH, and concentrations of potassium, sodium, and chloride was determined. Subjects were divided into optimal hydration, middle hydration, and hypohydration groups according to their 24-h urine osmolality. Strong relationships were found between daily total fluid intake and 24-h urine biomarkers, especially for 24-h urine volume (r = 0.76; p hydration was 2582 mL, while the daily total fluid intake for assessing hypohydration was 2502 mL. Differences in fluid intake and urine biomarkers were found among male college students with different hydration status. A strong relationship existed between urine biomarkers and fluid intake. A PLS model identified that key variables for assessing daily total fluid intake were 24-h urine volume and osmolality. It was feasibility to use total fluid intake to judge hydration status. PMID:28492493

  13. A novel Eulerian approach for modelling cyanobacteria movement: Thin layer formation and recurrent risk to drinking water intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndong, Mouhamed; Bird, David; Nguyen Quang, Tri; Kahawita, René; Hamilton, David; de Boutray, Marie Laure; Prévost, Michèle; Dorner, Sarah

    2017-12-15

    Toxic cyanobacteria (CB) blooms are being reported in an increasing number of water bodies worldwide. As drinking water (DW) treatment can be disrupted by CB, in addition to long term management plans, short term operational decision-making tools are needed that enable an understanding of the temporal variability of CB movement in relation to drinking water intakes. In this paper, we propose a novel conservative model based on a Eulerian framework and compare results with data from CB blooms in Missisquoi Bay (Québec, Canada). The hydrodynamic model considered the effects of wind and light intensity, demonstrated that current understanding of cell buoyancy in relation to light intensity in full-scale systems is incomplete and some factors are yet to be fully characterized. Factors affecting CB buoyancy play a major role in the formation of a thin surface layer that could be of ecological importance with regards to cell concentrations and toxin production. Depending on velocities, wind contributes either to the accumulation or to the dispersion of CB. Lake recirculation effects have a tendency to create zones of low CB concentrations in a water body. Monitoring efforts and future research should focus on short-term variations of CB throughout the water column and the characterization of factors other than light intensity that affect cell buoyancy. These factors are critical for understanding the risk of breakthrough into treatment plants as well as the formation of surface scums and subsequent toxin production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Hydration, Fluid Intake, and Related Urine Biomarkers among Male College Students in Cangzhou, China: A Cross-Sectional Study—Applications for Assessing Fluid Intake and Adequate Water Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Zhang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to assess the associations between fluid intake and urine biomarkers and to determine daily total fluid intake for assessing hydration status for male college students. A total of 68 male college students aged 18–25 years recruited from Cangzhou, China completed a 7-day cross-sectional study. From day 1 to day 7; all subjects were asked to complete a self-administered 7-day 24-h fluid intake record. The foods eaten by subjects were weighed and 24-h urine was collected for three consecutive days on the last three consecutive days. On the sixth day, urine osmolality, specific gravity (USG, pH, and concentrations of potassium, sodium, and chloride was determined. Subjects were divided into optimal hydration, middle hydration, and hypohydration groups according to their 24-h urine osmolality. Strong relationships were found between daily total fluid intake and 24-h urine biomarkers, especially for 24-h urine volume (r = 0.76; p < 0.0001 and osmolality (r = 0.76; p < 0.0001. The percentage of the variances in daily total fluid intake (R2 explained by PLS (partial least squares model with seven urinary biomarkers was 68.9%; two urine biomarkers—24-h urine volume and osmolality—were identified as possible key predictors. The daily total fluid intake for assessing optimal hydration was 2582 mL, while the daily total fluid intake for assessing hypohydration was 2502 mL. Differences in fluid intake and urine biomarkers were found among male college students with different hydration status. A strong relationship existed between urine biomarkers and fluid intake. A PLS model identified that key variables for assessing daily total fluid intake were 24-h urine volume and osmolality. It was feasibility to use total fluid intake to judge hydration status.

  15. College Cafeteria Signage Increases Water Intake but Water Position on the Soda Dispenser Encourages More Soda Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montuclard, Astrid Linn; Park-Mroch, Jennifer; O'Shea, Amy M J; Wansink, Brian; Irvin, Jill; Laroche, Helena H

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the effects of improved water location visibility and water dispenser position on the soda dispenser on undergraduate students' beverage choices. Two focus groups with pilot intervention surveys before and after, adding a small sign above the soda dispensers' water button for 6 weeks in a large US university's all-you-can-eat, prepaid dining hall (measured with chi-square tests and logistic and ordinal logistic regression). Focus groups included 15 students. Survey participants included 357 students before and 301 after the intervention. After the intervention, more students reported ever having drunk water with the meal (66.4% to 77.0%; P = .003) and water consumption frequency increased (P = .005). Postintervention, the odds of drinking water increased by 1.57. Preference for other drinks was the main reason for not drinking water. A total of 59% of students had ever changed their preference from water to soda. The clear indication of the water's location increased students' reported water consumption. Further investigation is needed into how a non-independent water dispenser influences students' beverage choice. Clearly labeled, independent water dispensers are recommended. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. All rights reserved.

  16. Prenatal nitrate intake from drinking water and selected birth defects in offspring of participants in the national birth defects prevention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brender, Jean D; Weyer, Peter J; Romitti, Paul A; Mohanty, Binayak P; Shinde, Mayura U; Vuong, Ann M; Sharkey, Joseph R; Dwivedi, Dipankar; Horel, Scott A; Kantamneni, Jiji; Huber, John C; Zheng, Qi; Werler, Martha M; Kelley, Katherine E; Griesenbeck, John S; Zhan, F Benjamin; Langlois, Peter H; Suarez, Lucina; Canfield, Mark A

    2013-09-01

    Previous studies of prenatal exposure to drinking-water nitrate and birth defects in offspring have not accounted for water consumption patterns or potential interaction with nitrosatable drugs. We examined the relation between prenatal exposure to drinking-water nitrate and selected birth defects, accounting for maternal water consumption patterns and nitrosatable drug exposure. With data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, we linked addresses of 3,300 case mothers and 1,121 control mothers from the Iowa and Texas sites to public water supplies and respective nitrate measurements. We assigned nitrate levels for bottled water from collection of representative samples and standard laboratory testing. Daily nitrate consumption was estimated from self-reported water consumption at home and work. With the lowest tertile of nitrate intake around conception as the referent group, mothers of babies with spina bifida were 2.0 times more likely (95% CI: 1.3, 3.2) to ingest ≥ 5 mg nitrate daily from drinking water (vs. water nitrate intake did not increase associations between prenatal nitrosatable drug use and birth defects. Higher water nitrate intake was associated with several birth defects in offspring, but did not strengthen associations between nitrosatable drugs and birth defects.

  17. Ichthyoplankton entrainment study at the SRS Savannah River water intakes for Westinghouse Savannah River Company. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paller, M. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1992-03-26

    Cooling water for L and K Reactors and makeup water for Par Pond is pumped from the Savannah River at the 1G, 3G, and 5G pump houses. Ichthyoplankton (drifting fish larvae and eggs) from the river are entrained into the reactor cooling systems with the river water and passed through the reactor`s heat exchangers where temperatures may reach 70{degrees}C during full power operation. Ichthyoplankton mortality under such conditions is assumed to be 100 percent. The number of ichthyoplankton entrained into the cooling system depends on a variety of variables, including time of year, density and distribution of ichthyoplankton in the river, discharge levels in the river, and the volume of water withdrawn by the pumps. Entrainment at the 1 G pump house, which is immediately downstream from the confluence of Upper Three Runs Creek and the Savannah River, is also influenced by discharge rates and ichthyoplankton densities in Upper Three Runs Creek. Because of the anticipated restart of several SRS reactors and the growing concern surrounding striped bass and American shad stocks in the Savannah River, the Department of Energy requested that the Environmental Sciences Section (ESS) of the Savannah River Laboratory sample ichthyoplankton at the SRS Savannah River intakes. Dams & Moore, Inc., under a contract with Westinghouse Savannah River Company performed the sampling and data analysis for the ESS.

  18. Racial/Ethnic and Socioeconomic Disparities in Hydration Status Among US Adults and the Role of Tap Water and Other Beverage Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Carolyn J; Gortmaker, Steven L; Long, Michael W; Cradock, Angie L; Kenney, Erica L

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate whether differences in tap water and other beverage intake explain differences in inadequate hydration among US adults by race/ethnicity and income. We estimated the prevalence of inadequate hydration (urine osmolality ≥ 800 mOsm/kg) by race/ethnicity and income of 8258 participants aged 20 to 74 years in the 2009 to 2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Using multivariable regression models, we estimated associations between demographic variables, tap water intake, and inadequate hydration. The prevalence of inadequate hydration among US adults was 29.5%. Non-Hispanic Blacks (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.44; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.17, 1.76) and Hispanics (AOR = 1.42; 95% CI = 1.21, 1.67) had a higher risk of inadequate hydration than did non-Hispanic Whites. Lower-income adults had a higher risk of inadequate hydration than did higher-income adults (AOR = 1.23; 95% CI = 1.04, 1.45). Differences in tap water intake partially attenuated racial/ethnic differences in hydration status. Differences in total beverage and other fluid intake further attenuated sociodemographic disparities. Racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities in inadequate hydration among US adults are related to differences in tap water and other beverage intake. Policy action is needed to ensure equitable access to healthy beverages.

  19. Energy intake in short bowel syndrome: assessment by 24-h dietary recalls compared with the doubly labelled water method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassini, Priscila G; Das, Sai Krupa; Pfrimer, Karina; Suen, Vivian M M; Sérgio Marchini, Júlio; Ferriolli, Eduardo

    2018-01-01

    Short bowel syndrome (SBS) represents a serious intestinal absorption disorder, and patients may be prone to severe malnutrition. Dietetic therapy is critically important both for immediate prognosis and successful long-term rehabilitation. To maintain energy balance, an accurate assessment of energy intake is required. Our objective was to compare energy intake (EI) assessed by 24-h dietary recalls (EIrecall), a standard clinical assessment, with the total energy expenditure measured by the doubly labelled water (TEEdlw) method in SBS patients and matched controls. A total of twenty-two participants (eleven each in the SBS and control groups (CG), six female and five male) were evaluated; CG were matched to SBS patients on the basis of age, BMI and sex. TEE was measured by DLW and compared with EI determined by four 24-h dietary recalls using the USDA Automated Multiple-Pass Method. Bland-Altman plots and paired Student's t test were used to compare EIrecall with TEEdlw (Penergy needs in SBS patients and affect nutritional status in the long term.

  20. Washing Habits and Machine with Intake of hot and cold Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bente Lis; Nørgaard, Jørgen

    1997-01-01

    with slightly adapted washing habits, or 17% of normal today. If the heat is supplied from combined heat and power production as in the actual experiment, CO2-emission is reduced by 81%. With hot water from oil or gas heaters the reduction will be slightly lower, while with solar hot water it will be larger.......Domestic washing machines typically spend around 80% of the electricity on heating water. Most of this can be replaced by more appropriate heat sources like district heat from combined heat and power production, or gas heating system. In recent years some washing machine manufacturers have marketed...... machines which can take in both hot and cold water and mix it to the temperature wanted. Such one machine has been tested in daily household use over 5 months, with habits of very few hot water washes. The result is an electricity consumption corresponding to 67 kWh per year for an average household...

  1. Effect of Ventilated Caging on Water Intake and Loss in 4 Strains of Laboratory Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaus, Mackenzie L; Bergdall, Valerie K; Davis, Ian C; Hickman-Davis, Judy M

    2016-01-01

    Food availability, temperature, humidity, strain, and caging type all affect water consumption by mice. Measurement of transepidermal water loss (TEWL) is a new technique for the quantification of water turnover in mice. To understand water turnover in common strains of adult mice, male and female SCID, SKH, C57BL/6, and FVB mice were housed in same-sex groups of 5 animals in static cages or IVC. Body weight, TEWL, urine osmolality, and water consumption of mice and intracage temperature and humidity were measured every 48 h for comparison. Static cages were monitored for 7 d and IVC for 14 d before cage change. Female SCID, FVB, and C57 mice drank less water than did their male counterparts. Male and female SCID, SKH, and FVB mice in IVC drank less water and had higher urine osmolality than did those in static cages. In SCID and SKH mice, TEWL paralleled water consumption. C57 mice in static cages drank less water, had lower urine osmolality, and had less TEWL than did those in IVC. Temperature and humidity within the cage was higher than the macroenvironmental levels for all housing conditions, mouse strains, and sexes. Temperatures within IVC ranged from 76.6 to 81.4 °F compared with 69±0.4 °F in the room. Humidity within IVC ranged from 68% to 79% compared with 27.o%±2.7% within the room. These data demonstrate that mouse strain and housing conditions significantly influence water balance and indicate that macroenvironmental measurements do not always reflect the intracage environment.

  2. [Effects of Rhodiola rosea on body weight and intake of sucrose and water in depressive rats induced by chronic mild stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiao-Ge; Zeng, Yuan-Shan; Tang, Jiu-Yu; Qin, Ya-Jing; Chen, Sui-Jun; Zhong, Zhi-Qiang

    2008-09-01

    To explore the effects of Rhodiola rosea on the body weight and the intake of sucrose and water in depressive rats induced by chronic mild stress.dz A total of 70 male SD rats were divided into seven groups, including normal control group (treated with 0.5% sodium carboxymethycellulose), untreated group, negative control group (treated with 0.5% sodium carboxymethycellulose), positive control group (treated with fluoxetine), low-, medium- and high-dose Rhodiola rosea group (treated with 1.5, 3, 6 g/kg Rhodiola rosea respectively). Except for rats in normal control group, the other sixty rats endured chronic stress for 4 weeks to establish the depression model. After that, rats were administered Rhodiola rosea for 3 weeks. During the whole experiment, the body weight, and sucrose intake, tap water intake of all rats were examined once a week. After the termination of the stress regime, compared with the normal control group, the body weight and 1% sucrose intake in depressive rats were decreased. After 3-week Rhodiola rosea treatment, the body weight and 1% sucrose intake increased in rats of the low-dose Rhodiola rosea group and recovered to the level of the normal control group. Low-dose Rhodiola rosea can increase the body weight and sucrose intake of depressive rats, making them recover to normal status.

  3. Satellite Remote Sensing of Drinking Water Intakes in Lake Erie for Cyanobacteria Population Using Two MODIS-Based Indicators as a Potential Tool for Toxin Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The growth of toxic Cyanobacterium, Microcystis aeruginosa, and the production of toxins, microcystins, pose serious concerns for the ecological health of lakes, such as western Lake Erie. The toxins are also significant health hazards and could contaminate tap water when sufficient and effective water treatment fails. In this study, water from the intakes of two water treatment plants along Lake Erie (Toledo and Painesville were collected and examined for microcystins concentration (μg/L and M. aeruginosa abundance (gene copies/mL in concert with the performance of satellite-based cyanobacteria bloom indicators, chlorophyll-a and Cyanobacteria Index, a spectral shape index for monitoring the severity of cyanobacterial blooms from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS from May to October in 2013. Good correlations were observed between toxic M. aeruginosa, microcystins, and MODIS-retrieved bloom indicators for the Toledo water plant intake, where blooms were much more severe with higher chlorophyll-a, phycocyanin and microcystins, but not for the Painesville water plant intake in central Lake Erie where the blooms were less severe. The Spearman's correlation (0.815 suggested a high correlation between the level of microcystins and MODIS-retrieved chlorophyll-a concentration for the Toledo intake point in western Lake Erie. Both total and toxic Microcystis abundance showed a significant positive correlation with MODIS-retrieved chlorophyll-a for the Toledo water intake, as well as the two locations combined. This finding demonstrates the potential utility of satellite remote sensing for detection and monitoring of cyanobacterial blooms, and the method's potential use as an early warning system as a means of preventing human exposure to bloom-impacted waters.

  4. Effect of dietary crude protein and energy content on nitrogen utilisation, water intake and urinary output in growing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. VALAJA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A digestibility and balance trial was carried out with four intact castrated male pigs (live weight 33-82 kg to study the effects of dietary crude protein and energy content on nutrient digestibility, nitrogen metabolism, water intake and urinary output. In a 4 ´ 4 Latin square design, four barley-oats-soya bean meal based diets were arranged 2 ´ 2 factorially. The corresponding factors were dietary crude protein (CP content: high (180 g/kg CP or low protein diet (140 g/kg CP supplemented with free lysine, methionine and threonineLowering dietary CP content (mean values of 189 to 152 g/kg dry matter, respectively by supplementation of free amino acids decreased urinary nitrogen (N excretion by 6.9 g/day (32% (P

  5. Effects of Satureja khuzistanica essential oils in drinking water on mortality, production performance, water intake, and organ weights in broiler chickens reared under heat stress condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravinia, H.

    2015-11-01

    An experiment was conducted to examine the effects on mortality, production performance, water intake (WI), and organ weight of Satureja khuzistanica essential oil (SkEO) using 720 1-day-old Arian broiler chicks in a 42-day trial. Experimental treatments were addition of 0 (control-), 200, 300, 400, and 500 mg/L SkEO or 500 mg/L polysorbate 80 (control+) into drinking water. The birds were kept under natural ambient temperatures 4 to 6 °C above standard recommendation from days 22 to 42 of age. Addition of SkEO into drinking water at 200 and 500 mg/L decreased weight gain ( P 0.05). Supplementation of drinking water with 200, 300, 400, and 500 mg/L SkEO resulted in a 0.47, 4.40, 8.60, and 12.93 % decrease in WI, respectively, from days 1 to 42 of age. The calculated European broiler index was greater for the birds received 400 mg/L of SkEO in their drinking water compared with that of the other birds ( P broiler chickens improves economic efficiency possibly by promoting digestion process, creating miniscule improvement in FCR and lowered mortality rate.

  6. The influence of season and air temperature on water intake by food groups in a sample of free-living Japanese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Y; Asakura, K; Sasaki, S; Hirota, N; Notsu, A; Todoriki, H; Miura, A; Fukui, M; Date, C

    2015-08-01

    To examine the influence of season and climate (air temperature and humidity) on water intake by the food group in a sample of free-living Japanese adults. Four-nonconsecutive-day, semi-weighed dietary records were collected from each of the four seasons in a single 12-month period (16 days in total). The influence of season and climate on individual water intake by the food group was analyzed using a mixed linear model. Participants were 242 healthy adults (121 women aged 30-69 years and 121 men aged 30-76 years) from four areas in Japan. For women and men together, the mean total water intake was 2230 g/day (highest in summer: 2331 g/day; lowest in winter: 2134 g/day). Fifty-one percent of water was derived from foods and the rest from beverages. In a mixed linear model adjusted for sex, age and body mass index, intake of water from foods decreased by 3.1 g/day and that from beverages increased by 8.4 g/day, with an increase in the mean outdoor air temperature on the survey day of 1 °C (both P air temperature, whereas that from foods was inversely associated with air temperature.

  7. Effects of water addition to total mixed ration on water intake, nutrient digestibility, wool cortisol and blood indices in Corriedale ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejad, Jalil Ghassemi; Kim, Byong-Wan; Lee, Bae-Hun; Kim, Ji-Yung; Sung, Kyung-Il

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of adding water to total mixed ration (TMR) on fresh water intake, nutrient digestibility, wool cortisol, and blood indices in Corriedale ewes under hot and humid conditions. Nine non-pregnant Corriedale ewes (ave. body weight = 41±3.5 kg) were individually fed diets based on maintenance requirements in metabolic crates. Ewes were assigned to three treatment groups according to a triplicate 3×3 Latin Square design for 3 periods of 21 days duration each (9 ewes per treatment, 27 replications). Treatments were TMR (crude protein [CP] = 16.1, total digestible nutrients = 69.1%) moisture levels for 40%, 50%, and 60%. No differences were found in body weight gain among all treatment groups (p>0.05). Nitrogen balance including digestible N, retained N, and urinary and fecal N showed no change among the treatment groups (p>0.05). Fresh water intake was the lower in 50% TMR moisture group than in the other groups (p0.05). No significant difference was observed for serum protein, blood urea nitrogen, glucose, and triglyceride among the treatment groups (p>0.05). Wool and blood cortisol were not different among the treatment groups (p>0.05). Blood hematology including red blood cell, white blood cells, hemoglobin, hematocrit, basophils, and eosinophils were not different among the treatment groups (p>0.05). It is concluded that TMR moisture at 40%, 50%, and 60% had no effects on N balance parameters, and nutrient digestibilities except for the ether extract under hot and humid conditions. Additionally there were no effects on stress conditions include wool cortisol, as well as blood cortisol levels of ewes.

  8. Effects of water addition to total mixed ration on water intake, nutrient digestibility, wool cortisol and blood indices in Corriedale ewes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalil Ghassemi Nejad

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective The objective of this study was to determine the effect of adding water to total mixed ration (TMR on fresh water intake, nutrient digestibility, wool cortisol, and blood indices in Corriedale ewes under hot and humid conditions. Methods Nine non-pregnant Corriedale ewes (ave. body weight = 41±3.5 kg were individually fed diets based on maintenance requirements in metabolic crates. Ewes were assigned to three treatment groups according to a triplicate 3×3 Latin Square design for 3 periods of 21 days duration each (9 ewes per treatment, 27 replications. Treatments were TMR (crude protein [CP] = 16.1, total digestible nutrients = 69.1% moisture levels for 40%, 50%, and 60%. Results No differences were found in body weight gain among all treatment groups (p>0.05. Nitrogen balance including digestible N, retained N, and urinary and fecal N showed no change among the treatment groups (p>0.05. Fresh water intake was the lower in 50% TMR moisture group than in the other groups (p0.05. No significant difference was observed for serum protein, blood urea nitrogen, glucose, and triglyceride among the treatment groups (p>0.05. Wool and blood cortisol were not different among the treatment groups (p>0.05. Blood hematology including red blood cell, white blood cells, hemoglobin, hematocrit, basophils, and eosinophils were not different among the treatment groups (p>0.05. Conclusion It is concluded that TMR moisture at 40%, 50%, and 60% had no effects on N balance parameters, and nutrient digestibilities except for the ether extract under hot and humid conditions. Additionally there were no effects on stress conditions include wool cortisol, as well as blood cortisol levels of ewes.

  9. Role of angiotensin II and vasopressin receptors within the supraoptic nucleus in water and sodium intake induced by the injection of angiotensin II into the medial septal area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antunes V.R.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigated the effects of the injection into the supraoptic nucleus (SON of non-peptide AT1- and AT2-angiotensin II (ANG II receptor antagonists, DuP753 and PD123319, as well as of the arginine-vasopressin (AVP receptor antagonist d(CH25-Tyr(Me-AVP, on water and 3% NaCl intake induced by the injection of ANG II into the medial septal area (MSA. The effects on water or 3% NaCl intake were assessed in 30-h water-deprived or in 20-h water-deprived furosemide-treated adult male rats, respectively. The drugs were injected in 0.5 ml over 30-60 s. Controls were injected with a similar volume of 0.15 M NaCl. Antagonists were injected at doses of 20, 80 and 180 nmol. Water and sodium intake was measured over a 2-h period. Previous administration of the AT1 receptor antagonist DuP753 into the SON decreased water (65%, N = 10, P<0.01 and sodium intake (81%, N = 8, P<0.01 induced by the injection of ANG II (10 nmol into the MSA. Neither of these responses was significantly changed by injection of the AT2-receptor antagonist PD123319 into the SON. On the other hand, while there was a decrease in water intake (45%, N = 9, P<0.01, ANG II-induced sodium intake was significantly increased (70%, N = 8, P<0.01 following injection of the V1-type vasopressin antagonist d(CH25-Tyr(Me-AVP into the SON. These results suggest that both AT1 and V1 receptors within the SON may be involved in water and sodium intake induced by the activation of ANG II receptors within the MSA. Furthermore, they do not support the involvement of MSA AT2 receptors in the mediation of these responses.

  10. Urine colour change as an indicator of change in daily water intake: a quantitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrier, Erica T; Johnson, Evan C; McKenzie, Amy L; Ellis, Lindsay A; Armstrong, Lawrence E

    2016-08-01

    Urine colour (U Col) is simple to measure, differs between low-volume and high-volume drinkers, and is responsive to changes in daily total fluid intake (TFI). However, to date, no study has quantified the relationship between a change in TFI and the resultant change in U Col. This analysis aimed to determine the change in TFI needed to adjust 24-h U Col by 2 shades on an 8-colour scale, and to evaluate whether starting U Col altered the relationship between the change in TFI and change in U Col. We performed a pooled analysis on data from 238 healthy American and European adults (50 % male; age, 28 (sd 6) years; BMI 22.9 (sd 2.6) kg/m(2)), and evaluated the change in TFI, urine volume (U Vol), and specific gravity (U SG) associated with a change in U Col of 2 shades. The mean [95 % CI] change in TFI and U Vol associated with a decrease in U Col by 2 shades (lighter) was 1110 [914;1306] and 1011 [851;1172] mL/day, respectively, while increasing U Col by 2 shades (darker) required a reduction in TFI and U Vol of -1114 [-885;-1343] and -977 [-787;-1166] mL/day. The change in U Col was accompanied by changes in U SG (lighter urine: -.008 [-.007;-.010]; darker urine: +.008 [.006;.009]). Starting U Col did not significantly impact the TFI change required to modify U Col by 2 shades. Our results suggest a quantifiable relationship between a change in daily TFI and the resultant change in U Col, providing individuals with a practical means for evaluating and adjusting hydration behaviours.

  11. Hydrogen-Rich Water Intake Accelerates Oral Palatal Wound Healing via Activation of the Nrf2/Antioxidant Defense Pathways in a Rat Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orihuela-Campos, Rita Cristina; Fukui, Makoto; Ito, Hiro-O

    2016-01-01

    The wound healing process attempts to restore the integrity and function of the injured tissue. Additionally, proinflammatory cytokines, growth factors, and oxidative stress play important roles in wound healing. The aim of this study was to determine whether hydrogen-rich water intake induces the activation of the Nrf2/antioxidant defense pathway in rat palatal tissue, thereby reducing systemic oxidative stress and proinflammatory cytokine levels and promoting healing-associated genes. A circular excisional wound was created in the oral palatal region, and the wound healing process was observed. The rats were divided into two experimental groups in which either hydrogen-rich water or distilled water was consumed. In the drinking hydrogen-rich water, the palatal wound healing process was accelerated compared to that in the control group. As molecular hydrogen upregulated the Nrf2 pathway, systemic oxidative stresses were decreased by the activation of antioxidant activity. Furthermore, hydrogen-rich water intake reduced proinflammatory cytokine levels and promoted the expression of healing-associated factors in rat palatal tissue. In conclusion, hydrogen-rich water intake exhibited multiple beneficial effects through activation of the Nrf2/antioxidant defense pathway. The results of this study support the hypothesis that oral administration of hydrogen-rich water benefits the wound healing process by decreasing oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. PMID:26798423

  12. Hydrogen-Rich Water Intake Accelerates Oral Palatal Wound Healing via Activation of the Nrf2/Antioxidant Defense Pathways in a Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naofumi Tamaki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The wound healing process attempts to restore the integrity and function of the injured tissue. Additionally, proinflammatory cytokines, growth factors, and oxidative stress play important roles in wound healing. The aim of this study was to determine whether hydrogen-rich water intake induces the activation of the Nrf2/antioxidant defense pathway in rat palatal tissue, thereby reducing systemic oxidative stress and proinflammatory cytokine levels and promoting healing-associated genes. A circular excisional wound was created in the oral palatal region, and the wound healing process was observed. The rats were divided into two experimental groups in which either hydrogen-rich water or distilled water was consumed. In the drinking hydrogen-rich water, the palatal wound healing process was accelerated compared to that in the control group. As molecular hydrogen upregulated the Nrf2 pathway, systemic oxidative stresses were decreased by the activation of antioxidant activity. Furthermore, hydrogen-rich water intake reduced proinflammatory cytokine levels and promoted the expression of healing-associated factors in rat palatal tissue. In conclusion, hydrogen-rich water intake exhibited multiple beneficial effects through activation of the Nrf2/antioxidant defense pathway. The results of this study support the hypothesis that oral administration of hydrogen-rich water benefits the wound healing process by decreasing oxidative stress and inflammatory responses.

  13. Effects of feeding perennial ryegrass with an elevated concentration of water-soluble carbohydrates on intake, rumen function and performance of dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taweel, H.Z.; Tas, B.M.; Smit, H.J.; Elgersma, A.; Dijkstra, J.; Tamminga, S.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated effects of feeding perennial ryegrass with an elevated concentration of water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) on dry matter intake (DMI), rumen function, milk production and composition of dairy cows. Twelve Holstein-Friesian dairy cows in mid lactation were stall-fed with fresh

  14. Effects of level of brackish water on feed intake, digestion, heat energy, and blood constituents of growing Boer and Spanish goat wethers 1

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Y Tsukahara; R Puchala; T Sahlu; A L Goetsch

    2016-01-01

      Twenty Boer (6.1 mo old and 21.3 kg) and 20 Spanish (6.6 mo old and 19.7 kg) goat wethers were used to determine effects of brackish water on feed intake, digestion, heat energy, and blood constituents...

  15. Seabed gallery intakes: Investigation of the water pretreatment effectiveness of the active layer using a long-term column experiment

    KAUST Repository

    Dehwah, Abdullah

    2017-05-11

    Seabed gallery intake systems used for seawater reverse osmosis facilities employ the same principle of water treatment as slow sand filtration in freshwater systems. An investigation concerning the effectiveness of the active layer (top layer) in improving raw water quality was conducted by using a long-term bench-scale columns experiment. Two different media types, silica and carbonate sand, were tested in 1 m columns to evaluate the effectiveness of media type in terms of algae, bacteria, Natural Organic Matter (NOM) and Transparent Exopolymer Particles (TEP) removal over a period of 620 days. Nearly all algae in the silica sand column, 87% (σ = 0.04) of the bacteria, 59% (σ = 0.11) of the biopolymer fraction of NOM, 59% (σ = 0.16) of particulate and 32% (σ = 0.25) of colloidal TEP were removed during the last 330 days of the experiment. Total removal was observed in the carbonate sand column for algal concentration, while the bacterial removal was lower at 74% (σ = 0.08). Removal of biopolymers, particulate and colloidal TEP were higher in the carbonate column during the last 330 days with 72% (σ = 0.15), 66% (σ = 0.08) and 36% (σ = 0.12) removed for these organics respectively. Removal of these key organics through the 1 m thick column, representing the active layer, will likely reduce the rate of biofouling, reduce chemical usage and minimize operating cost in SWRO systems. The data show that the media will require several months at the beginning of operation to reach equilibrium so that high organic removal rates can be achieved. No development of a “schmutzdecke” layer occurred. The experimental results suggest that unlike freshwater slow sand filtration wherein most water treatment occurs in the upper 10 cm, in seawater systems treatment occurs throughout the full active layer depth of 1 m. The results of this study will help in designing and operating seabed gallery intake systems in varied geological conditions.

  16. Hypovolemia stimulates intraoral intake of water and NaCl solution in intact rats but not in chronic decerebrate rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Francis W; Stricker, Edward M

    2003-11-01

    This experiment tested the hypothesis that afferent signals from cardiac baroreceptors to the caudal brain stem are integrated by hindbrain systems to control ingestive behavior in response to plasma volume deficits in rats. A supracollicular transection was made which should not interfere with the neural signal of volume depletion to the hindbrain. Decerebrate (n=5) and control rats (n=7) were given subcutaneous injections of 30% polyethylene glycol (PEG) to induce hypovolemia or of isotonic saline as a control. Four hours after the injection, either water or 0.1 M NaCl was administered through an intraoral cannula, and intakes were measured. Decerebrate rats did not ingest significantly more water or saline after PEG treatment than after the control treatment, whereas control rats ingested both fluids in significantly larger volumes after PEG treatment. In another test using the same animals, heart rate was monitored after intravenous injections of phenylephrine (to raise blood pressure) and nitroprusside (to lower it). Similar reflexive changes in heart rate were observed in control and decerebrate rats, showing that baroreflex function was not impaired by decerebration. These results indicate that baroafferent signals are processed at multiple levels of the neuraxis, with hindbrain systems mediating autonomic cardiovascular reflexes in response to changes in blood pressure, and midbrain or forebrain systems mediating behavioral responses associated with thirst.

  17. Short term tolvaptan increases water intake and effectively decreases urinary calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate, and uric acid supersaturations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheungpasitporn, Wisit; Erickson, Stephen B.; Rule, Andrew D.; Enders, Felicity; Lieske, John C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Many patients cannot effectively increase water intake and urine volume to prevent urinary stones. Tolvaptan, a V2 receptor antagonist, blocks water reabsorption in the collecting duct and should reduce urinary supersaturation (SS) of stone forming solutes, but this has never been proven. Materials and Methods We conducted a double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study in 21 adult calcium urinary stone formers stratified as majority calcium oxalate(CaOx, n=10) or calcium phosphate(CaP, n=11). Patients received tolvaptan 45 mg/day or placebo for 1 week, followed by a washout week and crossover to tolvaptan or placebo for week 3. A 24h urines was collected at the end of weeks 1 and 3. Results Tolvaptan vs. placebo decreased urinary osmolality (204±96 vs 529±213 mOsm/kg, P0.05 for all interactions). Conclusions Tolvaptan increases urine volume and decreases urinary SS in calcium stone formers. Further study is needed to determine if long term use of V2 receptor antagonists results in fewer stone events. PMID:26598423

  18. A hydrodynamics-based approach to evaluating the risk of waterborne pathogens entering drinking water intakes in a large, stratified lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyer, Andrea B; Schladow, S Geoffrey; Rueda, Francisco J

    2015-10-15

    Pathogen contamination of drinking water lakes and reservoirs is a severe threat to human health worldwide. A major source of pathogens in surface sources of drinking waters is from body-contact recreation in the water body. However, dispersion pathways of human waterborne pathogens from recreational beaches, where body-contact recreation is known to occur to drinking water intakes, and the associated risk of pathogens entering the drinking water supply remain largely undocumented. A high spatial resolution, three-dimensional hydrodynamic and particle tracking modeling approach has been developed to analyze the risk and mechanisms presented by pathogen dispersion. The pathogen model represents the processes of particle release, transport and survival. Here survival is a function of both water temperature and cumulative exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Pathogen transport is simulated using a novel and computationally efficient technique of tracking particle trajectories backwards, from a drinking water intake toward their source areas. The model has been applied to a large, alpine lake - Lake Tahoe, CA-NV (USA). The dispersion model results reveal that for this particular lake (1) the risk of human waterborne pathogens to enter drinking water intakes is low, but significant; (2) this risk is strongly related to the depth of the thermocline in relation to the depth of the intake; (3) the risk increases with the seasonal deepening of the surface mixed layer; and (4) the risk increases at night when the surface mixed layer deepens through convective mixing and inactivation by UV radiation is eliminated. While these risk factors will quantitatively vary in different lakes, these same mechanisms will govern the process of transport of pathogens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [EFFECTS OF VOLUNTARY INTAKE OF FLUIDS (WATER AND SPORTS DRINK) IN AMATEUR MOUNTAIN RUNNERS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebot, Vicente; Drehmer, Eraci; Elvira, Laura; Sales, Sonia; Sanchís, Carlos; Esquius, Laura; Pablos, Ana

    2015-11-01

    21 K and 1 000 m ascent trail-running races can be dangerous if an appropriate liquid replacement isn't maintained. know trail-runners level of dehydration and assess the differences between ad libitum water (CcA) and sport drink (CcB) hydration after a trail running race. 18 subjects, mean age 31.9 (±2.8) and %MG 10.53 (±2.8), completed CcA or CcB. CcA and CcB effects on Weight (P), Fat Mass (MG), Glucose (GL), Lactate (LT), Systolic (TAS) and Diastolic Arterial Tension (TAD), Heart Rate (PPM) and Tympanic Temperature (Tª) were assessed. All measurements were taken at the start (T1) and the finish (T2) of each race. A Friedman ANOVA test was used to calculate the effect of CcA and CcB on each variable. Differences between race time (TC), % bodyweight loss (%PP) and liquid ingestion (LI) were assessed with a Wilcoxon test. All statistical analysis were conducted with SPSS version 20.0 (IBM, Somers, NY, USA). mean %PP was 2.967 (± 0.969) and 2.883 (± 0.730) for CcA and CcB respectively. No significant differences were found between %PP and LI (p > .05) between races. Significant changes were found in P, %MG, GL, L, TAS and PPM between T1 and T2 in CcA condition. While only significant changes in P and PPM were stabilised between T1 and T2 in CcB condition. neither water or sport drink ingestion avoid trail-runners to reach a dehydrated state. However, dehydration effects seems to be more serious when only water is ingested. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  20. Influence of water salinity on genes implicated in somatic growth, lipid metabolism and food intake in Pejerrey (Odontesthes bonariensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertucci, Juan Ignacio; Tovar, Mario Oswaldo; Blanco, Ayelén Melisa; Gómez-Requeni, Pedro; Unniappan, Suraj; Canosa, Luis Fabián

    2017-08-01

    Pejerrey, Odontesthes bonariensis, is an euryhaline fish of commercial importance in Argentina. This work aimed to determine if water salinity affects the expression of genes involved in somatic growth (gh; ghr-I; ghr-II; igf-I), lipid metabolism (Δ6-desaturase) and food intake (nucb2/nesfatin-1). First, we identified the full-length cDNA sequences of Δ6-desaturase (involved in lipid metabolism) and nesfatin-1 (an anorexigen). Then, pejerrey juveniles were reared during 8weeks in three different water salinity conditions: 2.5g/L (S2.5), 15g/L (S15) and 30g/L (S30) of NaCl. Brain, pituitary, liver and muscle samples were collected in order to analyze mRNA expression. The expression of gh and ghr-II mRNAs increased in the pituitary of fish reared at S2.5 and S30 compared with the S15 group. The expression of ghr-I was higher in the liver of S30 group compared to S2.5 and S15. Igf-I mRNA expression in liver increased with the increment of water salinity, while it decreased in the muscle of S15 and S30 groups. Δ6-desaturase expression increased in S2.5 group compared to S15 in both liver and muscle. S30 caused a decrease in the Δ6-desaturase expression in liver compared to S15. The S30 treatment produced an increase in nucb2/nesfatin-1 mRNA expression in the brain and liver compared to S2.5 and S15. The changes in gene expression observed could help pejerrey perform better during salinity challenges. The S30 condition would likely promote pejerrey somatic growth in the long term. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Nitrate in drinking water and vegetables: intake and risk assessment in rural and urban areas of Nagpur and Bhandara districts of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taneja, Pinky; Labhasetwar, Pawan; Nagarnaik, Pranav

    2017-06-06

    The study focuses on the estimation of health risk from nitrate present in the drinking water and vegetables in Nagpur and Bhandara districts in the state of Maharashtra, India. Drinking water samples from 77 locations from the rural as well as urban areas and 22 varieties of vegetable were collected and analyzed for the presence of nitrate for a period of 1 year (two seasons). The daily intake of nitrate from these water and vegetable samples was then computed and compared with standard acceptable intake levels to assess the associated health risk. The mean nitrate concentration of 59 drinking water samples exceeded the Bureau of Indian Standards limit of 45 mg/L in drinking water. The rural and urban areas were found to have mean nitrate concentration in drinking water as 45.69 ± 2.08 and 22.53 ± 1.97 mg/L, respectively. The estimated daily intake of drinking water samples from 55 study sites had nitrate concentration far below the safety margin indicating serious health risk. The sanitation survey conducted in 12 households reported contaminated source with positive E. coli count in 20 samples as the major factor of health risk. The average nitrate concentration was maximum in beetroot (1349.38 mg/kg) followed by spinach (1288.75 mg/kg) and amaranthus (1007.64 mg/kg). Among the samples, four varieties of the vegetables exceeded the acceptable daily intake (ADI) with an assumption of 0.5 kg consumption of vegetables for an average of a 60-kg individual. Therefore, irrigation of these locally grown vegetables should be monitored periodically for nitrogen accumulation by the crop above the ADI limit. The application of nitrogenous fertilizers should also be minimized in the rural areas to help protect the nitrate contamination in groundwater sources.

  2. Coping with Salt Water Habitats: Metabolic and Oxidative Responses to Salt Intake in the Rufous-Collared Sparrow

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    Pablo Sabat

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Many physiological adjustments occur in response to salt intake in several marine taxa, which manifest at different scales from changes in the concentration of individual molecules to physical traits of whole organisms. Little is known about the influence of salinity on the distribution, physiological performance, and ecology of passerines; specifically, the impact of drinking water salinity on the oxidative status of birds has been largely ignored. In this study, we evaluated whether experimental variations in the salt intake of a widely-distributed passerine (Zontotrichia capensis could generate differences in basal (BMR and maximum metabolic rates (Msum, as well as affect metabolic enzyme activity and oxidative status. We measured rates of energy expenditure of birds after 30-d acclimation to drink salt (SW or tap (fresh water (TW and assessed changes in the activity of mitochondrial enzymes (cytochrome c oxidase and citrate synthase in skeletal muscle, heart, and kidney. Finally, we evaluated the oxidative status of bird tissues by means of total antioxidant capacity (TAC and superoxide dismutase activities and lipid oxidative damage (Malondialdehyde, MDA. The results revealed a significant increase in BMR but not Msum, which resulted in a reduction in factorial aerobic scope in SW- vs. TW-acclimated birds. These changes were paralleled with increased kidney and intestine masses and catabolic activities in tissues, especially in pectoralis muscle. We also found that TAC and MDA concentrations were ~120 and ~400% higher, respectively in the liver of animals acclimated to the SW- vs. TW-treatment. Our study is the first to document changes in the oxidative status in birds that persistently drink saltwater, and shows that they undergo several physiological adjustments that range that range in scale from biochemical capacities (e.g., TAC and MDA to whole organism traits (e.g., metabolic rates. We propose that the physiological changes observed

  3. Elimination of urine in response to water intake is consistent in well-hydrated individuals

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    Catalina Capitán Jiménez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A simple method has been recently proposed to assess acute hydration status in humans; however, several questions remain regarding its reliability, validity, and practicality. Objective: Establish reliability of a simple method to assess euhydration, that is, to analyze whether this method can be used as a consistent indicator of a person´s hydration status. In addition, the study sought to assess the effect exercise has on urine volume when euhydration is maintained and a standardized volume of water is ingested.Methods: Five healthy physically active men and five healthy physically active women, 22.5 ± 2.3 years of age (mean ± standard deviation reported to the laboratory after fasting for 10 hours or more on three occasions, each one week apart. During the two identical resting euhydration conditions (EuA and EuB, participants remained seated for 45 minutes. During the exercise condition (EuExer, participants exercised intermittently in an environmental chamber (average temperature and relative humidity = 32 ± 3°C and 65 ± 7%, respectively for a period of 45 minutes and drank water to offset loss due to sweating. The order of treatments was randomized. Upon finishing the treatment period, they ingested a volume of water equivalent to 1.43% body mass (BM within 30 minutes. Urine was collected and measured henceforth every 30 minutes for 3 hours.Results: Urine volume eliminated during EuExer (1205 ± 399.5 ml was not different from EuB (1072.2±413.1 ml or EuA (1068 ± 382.87 ml (p-value = 0.44. Both resting conditions were practically identical (p-value = 0.98 and presented a strong intraclass correlation (r = 0.849, p-value = 0.001. Conclusions: This method, besides simple, proved to be consistent in all conditions; therefore, it can be used with the certainty that measurements are valid and reliable.

  4. Comparison of beverage consumption in adult populations from three different countries: do the international reference values allow establishing the adequacy of water and beverage intakes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissensohn, Mariela; Fuentes Lugo, Daniel; Serra-Majem, Lluis

    2016-07-13

    Recommendations of adequate total water intake (aTWI) have been proposed by the European Food Safety Agency (EFSA) and the Institute of Medicine (IOM)of the United States of America. However, there are differences in the approach used to support them: IOM recommendation is based on average intakes observed in NHANES III (Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) and EFSA recommendation on a combination of observed intakes from 13 different European countries. Despite these recommendations of aTWI, the currently available scientifi c evidence is not sufficient to establish a cut-off value that would prevent disease, reduce the risk for chronic diseases or improve health status. To compare the average daily consumption of fluids (water and other beverages) in selective samples of population from Mexico, US and Spain, evaluating the quantity of fluid intake and understanding the contribution of each fluid type to the total fl uid intake. We also aim to determine if they reached adequate intake (AI) values, as defi ned by three different criteria: IOM, EFSA and water density. Three studies were compared: from Mexico, the National Health and Nutrition Survey conducted in 2012 (NHNS 2012); from US, the NHANES III 2005-2010 and from Spain the ANIBES study leaded in 2013. Different categories of beverages were used to establish the pattern of energy intake for each country. Only adult population was selected. TWI of each study was compared with EFSA and IOM AI recommendations, as well as applying the criterion of water density (mL/kcal). The American study obtained the higher value of total kcal/day from food and beverages (2,437 ± 13). Furthermore, the percentage of daily energy intake coming from beverages was, for American adults, 21%. Mexico was slightly behind with 19% and Spain ANIBES study registered only 12%. ANIBES showed signifi cantly low AI values for the overall population, but even more alarming in the case of males. Only 12% of men, in

  5. Characteristics of GHG flux from water-air interface along a reclaimed water intake area of the Chaobai River in Shunyi, Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Baonan; He, Jiangtao; Wang, Jian; Li, Jie; Wang, Fei

    2018-01-01

    To understand greenhouse gas (GHG) flux in reclaimed water intake area impact on urban climate, 'static chamber' method was used to investigate the spatio-diurnal variations and the influence factors of GHG fluxes at water-air interface from Jian River to Chaobai River. Results showed that the average fluxes of CO2 from the Jian River and the Chaobai River were 73.46 mg(m2·h)-1 and -64.75 mg(m2·h)-1, respectively. CO2 was emitted the most in the Jian River, but it was absorbed from the atmosphere in the Chaobai River. Unary linear regression analyses demonstrated that Chlorophyll a (Chl a) and pH variation controlled the carbon source and sink from the Jian River to the Chaobai River. The diurnal variation of CO2 fluxes was higher at night than in the daytime in the Jian River, and it was the inverse in the Chaobai River, which highly correlated with dissociative CO2 and HCO3- transformation to CO32-. The average fluxes of CH4 from the Jian River and Chaobai River were 0.973 mg(m2·h)-1 and 5.556 mg(m2·h)-1, respectively, which increased along the water flow direction. Unary and multiple linear regression analyses demonstrated that Chl a and total organic carbon (TOC) controlled the increase of CH4 along the flow direction. The diurnal variation of CH4 fluxes was slightly higher in the daytime than at night due to the effect of water temperature.

  6. Reported Energy Intake Accuracy Compared to Doubly Labeled Water and Usability of the Mobile Food Record among Community Dwelling Adults

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    Carol J. Boushey

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The mobile Food Record (mFR is an image-based dietary assessment method for mobile devices. The study primary aim was to test the accuracy of the mFR by comparing reported energy intake (rEI to total energy expenditure (TEE using the doubly labeled water (DLW method. Usability of the mFR was assessed by questionnaires before and after the study. Participants were 45 community dwelling men and women, 21–65 years. They were provided pack-out meals and snacks and encouraged to supplement with usual foods and beverages not provided. After being dosed with DLW, participants were instructed to record all eating occasions over a 7.5 days period using the mFR. Three trained analysts estimated rEI from the images sent to a secure server. rEI and TEE correlated significantly (Spearman correlation coefficient of 0.58, p < 0.0001. The mean percentage of underreporting below the lower 95% confidence interval of the ratio of rEI to TEE was 12% for men (standard deviation (SD ± 11% and 10% for women (SD ± 10%. The results demonstrate the accuracy of the mFR is comparable to traditional dietary records and other image-based methods. No systematic biases could be found. The mFR was received well by the participants and usability was rated as easy.

  7. Fluoride intake from meals served in daycare centres in municipalities with different fluoride concentrations in the water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliari Tiano, Ana Valéria; Moimaz, Suzely Adas Saliba; Saliba, Orlando; Saliba, Nemre Adas; Sumida, Dóris Hissako

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was (1) to determine the fluoride content in the meals served to children aged up to 36 months in daycare centres of two municipalities with different levels of fluoride in the water supply, (2) to calculate the mean fluoride ingested daily by the children when consuming those meals and (3) to analyse the contribution of this consumption to the development of dental fluorosis. Samples of the meals served to the children were collected during a whole week. The fluoride content of the samples of solid foods and milk was analysed using an ion-specific electrode combined with reference electrode after diffusion facilitated by hexamethyldisiloxane. Samples of beverages were buffered with an equal volume of total ionic strength adjustment buffer and analysed using a combined electrode. The results were compared using the Mann-Whitney test. Mean fluoride contents of the meals were of 0.204 +/- 0.179 and 0.322 +/- 0.242 microg F/mL (P 0.05). The children were not exposed to dental fluorosis in the daycare centres. However, the risk cannot be ignored, considering the meals and the use of fluoridated dentifrices at home may also contribute to fluoride intake.

  8. Negative, Null and Beneficial Effects of Drinking Water on Energy Intake, Energy Expenditure, Fat Oxidation and Weight Change in Randomized Trials: A Qualitative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stookey, Jodi J D

    2016-01-02

    Drinking water has heterogeneous effects on energy intake (EI), energy expenditure (EE), fat oxidation (FO) and weight change in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving adults and/or children. The aim of this qualitative review of RCTs was to identify conditions associated with negative, null and beneficial effects of drinking water on EI, EE, FO and weight, to generate hypotheses about ways to optimize drinking water interventions for weight management. RCT conditions that are associated with negative or null effects of drinking water on EI, EE and/or FO in the short term are associated with negative or null effects on weight over the longer term. RCT conditions that are associated with lower EI, increased EE and/or increased FO in the short term are associated with less weight gain or greater weight loss over time. Drinking water instead of caloric beverages decreases EI when food intake is ad libitum. Drinking water increases EE in metabolically-inflexible, obese individuals. Drinking water increases FO when blood carbohydrate and/or insulin concentrations are not elevated and when it is consumed instead of caloric beverages or in volumes that alter hydration status. Further research is needed to confirm the observed associations and to determine if/what specific conditions optimize drinking water interventions for weight management.

  9. Urinary arsenic species, toenail arsenic, and arsenic intake estimates in a Michigan population with low levels of arsenic in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Núñez, Zorimar; Meliker, Jaymie R; Meeker, John D; Slotnick, Melissa J; Nriagu, Jerome O

    2012-01-01

    The large disparity between arsenic concentrations in drinking water and urine remains unexplained. This study aims to evaluate predictors of urinary arsenic in a population exposed to low concentrations (≤50 μg/l) of arsenic in drinking water. Urine and drinking water samples were collected from a subsample (n=343) of a population enrolled in a bladder cancer case-control study in southeastern Michigan. Total arsenic in water and arsenic species in urine were determined using ICP-MS: arsenobetaine (AsB), arsenite (As[III]), arsenate (As[V]), methylarsenic acid (MMA[V]), and dimethylarsenic acid (DMA[V]). The sum of As[III], As[V], MMA[V], and DMA[V] was denoted as SumAs. Dietary information was obtained through a self-reported food intake questionnaire. Log(10)-transformed drinking water arsenic concentration at home was a significant (Pwater were removed and further improved when analyses were applied to individuals who consumed amounts of home drinking water above the median volume (R(2)=0.40, Pwater was 0.42. Results show that arsenic exposure from drinking water consumption is an important determinant of urinary arsenic concentrations, even in a population exposed to relatively low levels of arsenic in drinking water, and suggest that seafood intake may influence urinary DMA[V] concentrations.

  10. Negative, Null and Beneficial Effects of Drinking Water on Energy Intake, Energy Expenditure, Fat Oxidation and Weight Change in Randomized Trials: A Qualitative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodi J. D. Stookey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Drinking water has heterogeneous effects on energy intake (EI, energy expenditure (EE, fat oxidation (FO and weight change in randomized controlled trials (RCTs involving adults and/or children. The aim of this qualitative review of RCTs was to identify conditions associated with negative, null and beneficial effects of drinking water on EI, EE, FO and weight, to generate hypotheses about ways to optimize drinking water interventions for weight management. RCT conditions that are associated with negative or null effects of drinking water on EI, EE and/or FO in the short term are associated with negative or null effects on weight over the longer term. RCT conditions that are associated with lower EI, increased EE and/or increased FO in the short term are associated with less weight gain or greater weight loss over time. Drinking water instead of caloric beverages decreases EI when food intake is ad libitum. Drinking water increases EE in metabolically-inflexible, obese individuals. Drinking water increases FO when blood carbohydrate and/or insulin concentrations are not elevated and when it is consumed instead of caloric beverages or in volumes that alter hydration status. Further research is needed to confirm the observed associations and to determine if/what specific conditions optimize drinking water interventions for weight management.

  11. Effect of increased water intake on plasma copeptin in patients with chronic kidney disease: results from a pilot randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sontrop, Jessica M; Huang, Shi-Han; Garg, Amit X; Moist, Louise; House, Andrew A; Gallo, Kerri; Clark, William F

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Increased water intake may have a beneficial effect on the kidney through suppression of plasma vasopressin. We examined the effect of increased water intake on plasma copeptin (a marker of vasopressin) over 6 weeks in patients with chronic kidney disease. Design Secondary analysis of a randomised controlled parallel-group pilot trial. Setting Canada, 2012–2013. Participants 28 patients with stage 3 chronic kidney disease randomised (2:1) to a hydration (n=17) or control group (n=11). Intervention The hydration group was coached to increase water intake by up to 1.5 L/day for 6 weeks. The control group was asked to maintain regular water intake. Measures and outcomes Participants provided blood and 24 h urine samples at baseline and 6 weeks. Change in plasma copeptin was compared within and between study groups. Results Participants were 64% male with a mean age of 62 years and an estimated glomerular filtration rate of 40 mL/min/1.73 m2. Between baseline and 6 weeks, 24 h urine volume increased by 0.7 L/day in the hydration group, rising from 2.3 to 3.0 L/day (p=0.01), while decreasing by 0.3 L/day among controls, from 2.0 to 1.7 L/day (p=0.07); between-group difference: 0.9 L/day (95% CI 0.37 to 1.46; p=0.002). In the hydration group, median copeptin decreased by 3.6 pmol/L, from 15.0 to 10.8 pmol/L (p=0.005), while remaining stable among controls at 19 pmol/L (p=0.76; p=0.19 for the between-group difference in median change); the between-group difference in mean change was 5.4 pmol/L (95% CI −1.2 to 12.0; p=0.11). Conclusions Adults with stage 3 chronic kidney disease can be successfully randomised to drink approximately 1 L more per day than controls. This increased water intake caused a significant decrease in plasma copeptin concentration. Our larger 12-month trial will examine whether increased water intake can slow renal decline in patients with chronic kidney disease. Trial registration number NCT

  12. Effect of increased water intake on plasma copeptin in patients with chronic kidney disease: results from a pilot randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sontrop, Jessica M; Huang, Shi-Han; Garg, Amit X; Moist, Louise; House, Andrew A; Gallo, Kerri; Clark, William F

    2015-11-24

    Increased water intake may have a beneficial effect on the kidney through suppression of plasma vasopressin. We examined the effect of increased water intake on plasma copeptin (a marker of vasopressin) over 6 weeks in patients with chronic kidney disease. Secondary analysis of a randomised controlled parallel-group pilot trial. Canada, 2012-2013. 28 patients with stage 3 chronic kidney disease randomised (2:1) to a hydration (n=17) or control group (n=11). The hydration group was coached to increase water intake by up to 1.5 L/day for 6 weeks. The control group was asked to maintain regular water intake. Participants provided blood and 24 h urine samples at baseline and 6 weeks. Change in plasma copeptin was compared within and between study groups. Participants were 64% male with a mean age of 62 years and an estimated glomerular filtration rate of 40 mL/min/1.73 m(2). Between baseline and 6 weeks, 24 h urine volume increased by 0.7 L/day in the hydration group, rising from 2.3 to 3.0 L/day (p=0.01), while decreasing by 0.3 L/day among controls, from 2.0 to 1.7 L/day (p=0.07); between-group difference: 0.9 L/day (95% CI 0.37 to 1.46; p=0.002). In the hydration group, median copeptin decreased by 3.6 pmol/L, from 15.0 to 10.8 pmol/L (p=0.005), while remaining stable among controls at 19 pmol/L (p=0.76; p=0.19 for the between-group difference in median change); the between-group difference in mean change was 5.4 pmol/L (95% CI -1.2 to 12.0; p=0.11). Adults with stage 3 chronic kidney disease can be successfully randomised to drink approximately 1 L more per day than controls. This increased water intake caused a significant decrease in plasma copeptin concentration. Our larger 12-month trial will examine whether increased water intake can slow renal decline in patients with chronic kidney disease. NCT01753466. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence

  13. Water swallow screening test for patients after surgery for head and neck cancer: early identification of dysphagia, aspiration and limitations of oral intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hey, Christiane; Lange, Benjamin P; Eberle, Silvia; Zaretsky, Yevgen; Sader, Robert; Stöver, Timo; Wagenblast, Jens

    2013-09-01

    Patients with head and neck cancer (HNC) are at high risk for oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD) following surgical therapy. Early identification of OD can improve outcomes and reduce economic burden. This study aimed to evaluate the validity of a water screening test using increasing volumes postsurgically for patients with HNC (N=80) regarding the early identification of OD in general, and whether there is a need for further instrumental diagnostics to investigate the presence of aspiration as well as to determine the limitations of oral intake as defined by fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing. OD in general was identified in 65%, with aspiration in 49%, silent aspiration in 21% and limitations of oral intake in 56%. Despite a good sensitivity, for aspiration of 100% and for limitations of oral intake of 97.8%, the presented water screening test did not satisfactorily predict either of these reference criteria due to its low positive likelihood ratio (aspiration=2.6; limitations of oral intake=3.1). However, it is an accurate tool for the early identification of OD in general, with a sensitivity of 96.2% and a positive likelihood ratio of 5.4 in patients after surgery for HNC.

  14. Effects of level of brackish water on feed intake, digestion, heat energy, and blood constituents of growing Boer and Spanish goat wethers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukahara, Y; Puchala, R; Sahlu, T; Goetsch, A L

    2016-09-01

    Twenty Boer (6.1 mo old and 21.3 kg) and 20 Spanish (6.6 mo old and 19.7 kg) goat wethers were used to determine effects of brackish water on feed intake, digestion, heat energy, and blood constituents. Brackish water had 6,900 mg/L total dissolved salts, 1,885 mg/L Na, 75 mg/L Mg, 1,854 mg/L chloride, 2,478 mg/L sulfate, and 9 mg/L boron. Water treatments were 100% tap water (control), 100% of a brackish water source (100-BR), 33% control and 67% brackish water (67-BR), and 67% control and 33% brackish water (33-BR). Water and a moderate-quality grass hay (8.5% CP and 68% NDF) were offered free choice. The experiment consisted of 14 d of adaptation, 5 d for metabolizability measures, and 2 d for determining gas exchange and heat energy. There were no interactions ( > 0.05) between breed and water treatment. Water intake (931, 942, 949, and 886 g/d [SE 59.1] for the control, 33-BR, 67-BR, and 100-BR, respectively) and DM intake (525, 556, 571, and 527 g/d [SE 31.0] for the control, 33-BR, 67-BR, and 100-BR, respectively) were similar among treatments ( = 0.876 and = 0.667, respectively). Urinary water was greater for brackish water treatments than for the control ( = 0.003; 211, 317, 319, and 285 g/d [SE 25.6] for the control, 33-BR, 67-BR, and 100-BR, respectively) and fecal water content was similar among treatments ( = 0.530; 247, 251, 276, and 257 g/d [SE 19.0] for the control, 33-BR, 67-BR, and 100-BR, respectively), implying less water loss by other means such as evaporation when brackish water was consumed. Total tract OM digestibility was lower ( = 0.049) for treatments with brackish water than for treatments without brackish water (64.2, 61.5, 58.6, and 59.3% [SE 1.86] for the control, 33-BR, 67-BR, and 100-BR, respectively), although ME intake was similar among treatments ( = 0.940; 4.61, 4.57, 4.60, and 4.31 MJ/d [SE 0.394] for the control, 33-BR, 67-BR, and 100-BR, respectively). Daily heat energy in kilojoules per kilogram BW was less with brackish

  15. The effect of intake of water on the final values of body composition parameters in active athletes using two different bioimpedance analyzers

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    Petr Kutáč

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background:The method of bioelectrical impedance (BIA is frequently used to estimate body composition in sports. The total body water (TBW is the basic variable that BIA measures. That implies the degree of sensitivity of BIA to the hydration of the organism, which is also demonstrated by the principles of measurement that primarily relate to the hydration of the organism. It is difficult to provide standard hydration of the organism of subjects prior to measurements when taking the measurements in the field. Objective:The objective of the study is to assess the changes in the final values of the selected body composition parameters in soccer players caused by intake of water, using two devices commonly used in the field. Methods:The research was performed in a group of 33 soccer players (mean age 20.30 ± 1.18 years. The measurements were taken using Tanita BC 418 MA (frequency 50 kHz and Nutriguard-M (frequency 100 kHz. To evaluate the effect of water intake, we took two measurements before and after the intake of 500 ml of water. The parameters measured by Tanita BC 418 MA were body weight (BW, total body water (TBW, body fat (BF, fat free mass (FFM. Nutriguard-M was used to measure total body water (TBW, intra and extracellular water (ICW and ECW, body fat (BF, fat free mass (FFM, intra and extracellular mass (BCM and ECM. The differences in the means (M1 and M2 of the monitored parameters were evaluated using the Paired Samples t-test. In statistically significant differences in the mean, the practical significance was also verified using the effect of size (Cohen's d. Results:The Tanita device showed statistically significant differences after the intake of 500 ml in parameters BW (+0.42 kg, BF (+0.39 kg, +0.53% and TBW (-0.38%. As for the Nutriguard device, statistically significant differences were found in parameters TBW (+0.77 kg, ICW (+0.83 kg, FFM (+1.05 kg, BCM (+0.79 kg and ECM/BCM (-0.01. Conclusion

  16. The accuracy of the Goldberg method for classifying misreporters of energy intake on a food frequency questionnaire and 24-hour recalls: Comparison with doubly labeled water

    OpenAIRE

    Tooze, Janet A.; Krebs-Smith, Susan M.; Troiano, Richard P.; Subar, Amy F

    2011-01-01

    Background/Objectives Adults often misreport dietary intake; the magnitude varies by the methods used to assess diet and classify participants. The objective was to quantify the accuracy of the Goldberg method for categorizing misreporters on a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and two 24-hour recalls (24HR). Subjects/Methods We compared the Goldberg method, which uses an equation to predict total energy expenditure (TEE), to a criterion method that uses doubly labeled water (DLW), in a stud...

  17. Differential effects of relaxin-3 and a selective relaxin-3 receptor agonist on food and water intake and hypothalamic neuronal activity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ávila, Camila; Chometton, Sandrine; Lenglos, Christophe; Calvez, Juliane; Gundlach, Andrew L; Timofeeva, Elena

    2018-01-15

    The neuropeptide relaxin-3 (RLN3) binds with high affinity to its cognate receptor, relaxin-family peptide receptor 3 (RXFP3), and with lower affinity to RXFP1, the cognate receptor for relaxin. Intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of RLN3 in rats strongly increases food and water intake and alters the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and gonadal (HPG) axes, but the relative involvement of RXFP3 and RXFP1 in these effects is not known. Therefore, the effects of icv administration of equimolar (1.1 nmol) amounts of RLN3 and the RXFP3-selective agonist RXFP3-A2 on food and water intake, plasma levels of corticosterone, testosterone, and oxytocin and c-fos mRNA expression in key hypothalamic regions in male rats were compared. Food intake was increased by both RLN3 and RXFP3-A2, but the orexigenic effects of RXFP3-A2 were significantly stronger than RLN3, 30 and 60min after injection. Water intake and plasma corticosterone and testosterone levels were significantly increased by RLN3, but not by RXFP3-A2. Conversely, RXFP3-A2 but not RLN3 decreased oxytocin plasma levels. RLN3, but not RXFP3-A2, increased c-fos mRNA levels in the parvocellular (PVNp) and magnocellular (PVNm) paraventricular and supraoptic (SON) hypothalamic nuclei, in the ventral medial preoptic area (MPAv), and in the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT). A significant increase in c-fos mRNA expression was induced in the perifornical lateral hypothalamic area (LHApf) by RLN3 and RXFP3-A2. These results suggest that RXFP1 is involved in the RLN3 stimulation of water intake and activation of the HPA and HPG axes. The reduced food intake stimulation by RLN3 compared to RXFP3-A2 may relate to activation of both orexigenic and anorexigenic circuits by RLN3. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of dietary water intake on urinary output, specific gravity and relative supersaturation for calcium oxalate and struvite in the cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Catherine M F; Hawthorne, Amanda; Colyer, Alison; Stevenson, Abigail E

    2011-10-01

    It has been reported that daily fluid intake influences urinary dilution, and consequently the risk of urolithiasis in human subjects and dogs. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of dietary moisture on urinary parameters in healthy adult cats by comparing nutritionally standardised diets, varying only in moisture content. A total of six cats were fed a complete dry food (6.3 % moisture) hydrated to 25.4, 53.2 and 73.3 % moisture for 3 weeks in a randomised block cross-over design. Urinary specific gravity (SG), urine volume, water drunk and total fluid intake were measured daily; relative supersaturation (RSS) for calcium oxalate (CaOx) and struvite was calculated using the SUPERSAT computer program. Cats fed the 73.3 % moisture diet produced urine with a significantly lower SG (P cats fed the diet with 73.3 % moisture and significantly lower than the 6.3 % moisture diet (CaOx RSS 2.29 (sem 0.21)). The effect of diet on struvite RSS was less clear, with no significant difference between treatment groups. Total fluid intake was significantly increased (P Cats fed the 73.3 % moisture diet had a higher total daily fluid intake resulting in a more dilute urine with a lower risk of CaOx when compared with the lower-moisture diets.

  19. On-ice sweat rate, voluntary fluid intake, and sodium balance during practice in male junior ice hockey players drinking water or a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Matthew S; Logan, Heather M; Spriet, Lawrence L

    2010-06-01

    This study evaluated the repeatability of hydration and sweat measurements taken during on-ice hockey practices with players drinking only water, and determined whether having only a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution (CES) to drink during practices decreased fluid intake or affected other hydration and (or) sweat measures. All testing was conducted on elite players of an Ontario Hockey League team (+/-SE; mean age, 17.6 +/- 0.3 years; mean height, 182.9 +/- 1.4 cm; mean body mass, 83.0 +/- 1.7 kg). Players were studied 3 times over the course of 6 weekly on-ice practices (+/-SE; mean playing time, 1.58 +/- 0.07 h; mean temperature, 11.4 +/- 0.8 degrees C; mean relative humidity, 52% +/- 3%). There was strong repeatability of the measured hydration and sweat parameters between 2 similar on-ice practices when players drank only water. Limiting the players to drinking only a CES (as opposed to water) did not decrease fluid intake during practice (+/-SE; mean CES intake, 0.72 +/- 0.07 L.h-1 vs. mean water intake, 0.82 +/- 0.08 L.h-1) or affect sweat rate (1.5 +/- 0.1 L.h-1 vs. 1.5 +/- 0.1 L.h-1), sweat sodium concentration (72.4 +/- 5.6 mmol.L-1 vs. 73.0 +/- 4.4 mmol.L-1), or percent body mass loss (1.1% +/- 0.2% vs. 0.9% +/- 0.2%). Drinking a CES also improved sodium balance (-2.1 +/- 0.2 g.h-1 vs. -2.6 +/- 0.3 g.h-1) and provided the players with a significant carbohydrate (43 +/- 4 g.h-1 vs. 0 +/- 0 g.h-1) during practice. In summary, a single field sweat test during similar on-ice hockey practices in male junior hockey players is sufficient to evaluate fluid and electrolyte balance. Also, a CES does not affect voluntary fluid intake during practice, compared with water, in these players. The CES provided some salt to offset the salt lost in sweat, and carbohydrate, which may help maintain physical and mental performance in the later stages of practice.

  20. Prenatal Nitrate Intake from Drinking Water and Selected Birth Defects in Offspring of Participants in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyer, Peter J.; Romitti, Paul A.; Mohanty, Binayak P.; Shinde, Mayura U.; Vuong, Ann M.; Sharkey, Joseph R.; Dwivedi, Dipankar; Horel, Scott A.; Kantamneni, Jiji; Huber, John C.; Zheng, Qi; Werler, Martha M.; Kelley, Katherine E.; Griesenbeck, John S.; Zhan, F. Benjamin; Langlois, Peter H.; Suarez, Lucina; Canfield, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Previous studies of prenatal exposure to drinking-water nitrate and birth defects in offspring have not accounted for water consumption patterns or potential interaction with nitrosatable drugs. Objectives: We examined the relation between prenatal exposure to drinking-water nitrate and selected birth defects, accounting for maternal water consumption patterns and nitrosatable drug exposure. Methods: With data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, we linked addresses of 3,300 case mothers and 1,121 control mothers from the Iowa and Texas sites to public water supplies and respective nitrate measurements. We assigned nitrate levels for bottled water from collection of representative samples and standard laboratory testing. Daily nitrate consumption was estimated from self-reported water consumption at home and work. Results: With the lowest tertile of nitrate intake around conception as the referent group, mothers of babies with spina bifida were 2.0 times more likely (95% CI: 1.3, 3.2) to ingest ≥ 5 mg nitrate daily from drinking water (vs. Weyer PJ, Romitti PA, Mohanty BP, Shinde MU, Vuong AM, Sharkey JR, Dwivedi D, Horel SA, Kantamneni J, Huber JC Jr., Zheng Q, Werler MM, Kelley KE, Griesenbeck JS, Zhan FB, Langlois PH, Suarez L, Canfield MA, and the National Birth Defects Prevention Study. 2013. Prenatal nitrate intake from drinking water and selected birth defects in offspring of participants in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study. Environ Health Perspect 121:1083–1089; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1206249 PMID:23771435

  1. Central angiotensin II stimulates cutaneous water intake behavior via an angiotensin II type-1 receptor pathway in the Japanese tree frog Hyla japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maejima, Sho; Konno, Norifumi; Matsuda, Kouhei; Uchiyama, Minoru

    2010-08-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) stimulates oral water intake by causing thirst in all terrestrial vertebrates except anurans. Anuran amphibians do not drink orally but absorb water osmotically through ventral skin. In this study, we examined the role of Ang II on the regulation of water-absorption behavior in the Japanese tree frog (Hyla japonica). In fully hydrated frogs, intracerebroventricular (ICV) and intralymphatic sac (ILS) injection of Ang II significantly extended the residence time of water in a dose-dependent manner. Ang II-dependent water uptake was inhibited by ICV pretreatment with an angiotensin II type-1 (AT(1)) receptor antagonist but not a type-2 (AT(2)) receptor antagonist. These results suggest that Ang II stimulates water-absorption behavior in the tree frog via an AT(1)-like but not AT(2)-like receptor. We then cloned and characterized cDNA of the tree frog AT(1) receptor from the brain. The tree frog AT(1) receptor cDNA encodes a 361 amino acid residue protein, which is 87% identical to the toad (Bufo marinus) AT(1) receptor and exhibits the functional characteristics of an Ang II receptor. AT(1) receptor mRNAs were found to be present in a number of tissues including brain (especially in the diencephalon), lung, large intestine, kidney and ventral pelvic skin. When tree frogs were exposed to dehydrating conditions, AT(1) receptor mRNA significantly increased in the diencephalon and the rhombencephalon. These data suggest that central Ang II may control water intake behavior via an AT(1) receptor on the diencephalon and rhombencephalon in anuran amphibians and may have implications for water consumption in vertebrates. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Daily self-monitoring of body weight, step count, fruit/vegetable intake, and water consumption: a feasible and effective long-term weight loss maintenance approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akers, Jeremy D; Cornett, Rachel A; Savla, Jyoti S; Davy, Kevin P; Davy, Brenda M

    2012-05-01

    Maintenance of weight loss remains a challenge for most individuals. Thus, practical and effective weight-loss maintenance (WTLM) strategies are needed. A two-group 12-month WTLM intervention trial was conducted from June 2007 to February 2010 to determine the feasibility and effectiveness of a WTLM intervention for older adults using daily self-monitoring of body weight, step count, fruit/vegetable (F/V) intake, and water consumption. Forty weight-reduced individuals (mean weight lost=6.7±0.6 kg; body mass index [calculated as kg/m²] 29.2±1.1), age 63±1 years, who had previously participated in a 12-week randomized controlled weight-loss intervention trial, were instructed to record daily body weight, step count, and F/V intake (WEV [defined as weight, exercise, and F/V]). Experimental group (WEV+) participants were also instructed to consume 16 fl oz of water before each main meal (ie, three times daily), and to record daily water intake. Outcome measures included weight change, diet/physical activity behaviors, theoretical constructs related to health behaviors, and other clinical measures. Statistical analyses included growth curve analyses and repeated measures analysis of variance. Over 12 months, there was a linear decrease in weight (β=-0.32, Pweight for each participant determined that weight loss was greater over the study period in the WEV+ group than in the WEV group, corresponding to weight changes of -0.67 kg and 1.00 kg, respectively, and an 87% greater weight loss (β=-0.01, Pweight, physical activity, and F/V consumption is a feasible and effective approach for maintaining weight loss for 12 months, and daily self-monitoring of increased water consumption may provide additional WTLM benefits. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Arsenic contamination in groundwater and its effects on adolescent intelligence and social competence in Bangladesh with special reference to daily drinking/cooking water intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Mst Nasrin; Inaoka, Tsukasa; Fujimura, Miho; Watanabe, Chiho; Shimizu, Hana; Tasmin, Saira; Tasnim, Sayra; Sultana, Nayar

    2014-03-01

    The present study aims to investigate the relationship between arsenic (As) exposure and intelligence quotient (IQ) or social competence (SC) of Bangladeshi adolescents (aged 14 or 15 years) in Sonargaon thana. Information about socioeconomic status (SES) was collected as confounding factors. To evaluate the relative contribution of As sources to total As intake, the As concentrations in urine and drinking/cooking water, and the amount of water added in cooking, were assessed on site using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The results confirmed that As exposure was essential to lower adolescent IQ or SC because they were negatively associated with As exposure after controlling for SES (particularly household income). Except for cooking water, the amount of drinking water varied with season and appeared to be the major As source because the As concentration in water was generally correlated with the As concentration in urine, and they were related to lower IQ or SC (even after controlling for SES). The FFQ survey revealed that rice was consumed the most frequently (more than once daily), followed by daal (bean) soup and nonleafy vegetables, but fish, meat, and eggs were consumed approximately once a week. Water intake per meal from cooked rice was estimated to be 616 mL/person, followed by bean soup (258 mL/person) and cooked vegetables (82 mL/person). Our results suggest that water used for cooking might be an important source of As, and the cooking process can affect the amount of As in cooked food.

  4. Water Consumption in European Children : Associations with Intake of Fruit Juices, Soft Drinks and Related Parenting Practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mantziki, Krystallia; Renders, Carry M; Seidell, Jaap C

    2017-01-01

    Background: High intake of fruit juices and soft drinks contributes to excessive weight gain and obesity in children. Furthermore, parenting practices play an important role in the development of children's dietary habits. The way parents play this role in the development of their children's choices

  5. Natural mineral bottled waters available on the Polish market as a source of minerals for the consumers. Part 2: The intake of sodium and potassium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gątarska, Anna; Ciborska, Joanna; Tońska, Elżbieta

    Natural mineral waters are purchased and consumed according to consumer preferences and possible recommendations. The choice of appropriate water should take into account not only the general level of mineralization but also the content of individual components, including electrolytes such as sodium and potassium. Sodium is necessary to ensure the proper physiological functions of the body. It is defined as a health risk factor only when its excessive intake occurs. Potassium acts antagonistically towards sodium and calcium ions, contributes to a reduction of the volume of extracellular fluids and at the same time reduces muscle tension and permeability of cell membranes. The demand for sodium and potassium is of particular importance in people expending significant physical effort, where an increased electrolyte supply is recommended. The aim of the study was to estimate the content of sodium and potassium in natural mineral waters available in the Polish market and to evaluate the intake of those components with the commercially available mineral waters by different groups of consumers at the assumed volume of their consumption. The research material consisted of natural mineral waters of forty various brands available on the Polish market. The examined products were either produced in Poland or originated in other European countries. Among the products under examination, about 30% of the waters were imported from Lithuania, Latvia, the Czech Republic, France, Italy and Germany. A sample for analyses consisted of two package units of the examined water from different production lots. Samples for research were collected at random. The study was conducted with the same samples in in which calcium and magnesium content was determined, which was the subject of the first part of the study. The content of sodium and potassium was determined using the emission technique (acetylene-air flame), with the use of atomic absorption spectrometer – ICE 3000 SERIES – THERMO

  6. Nutritional Status of Water-soluble Vitamins Did not Differ According to Intake Levels of Wheat and Wheat Alternatives and Rice and Rice Alternatives as a Staple Food in Pregnant Japanese Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Katsumi; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether the intake level of a staple food influences the nutritional status of water-soluble vitamins in pregnant Japanese women. Urinary excretion of water-soluble vitamins was used as a biomarker for nutritional assessment. Twenty-four-hour urine samples were collected and vitamin intake was surveyed using a validated self-administered comprehensive diet history questionnaire. Subjects were categorized into bottom, middle, and upper tertiles according to the percentage of total energy intake from wheat and wheat alternatives or rice and rice alternatives. The present study showed that the nutritional status of water-soluble vitamins did not differ with intake level of wheat and wheat alternatives or rice and rice alternatives as a staple food in pregnant Japanese women.

  7. Nutritional Status of Water-soluble Vitamins Did not Differ According to Intake Levels of Wheat and Wheat Alternatives and Rice and Rice Alternatives as a Staple Food in Pregnant Japanese Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsumi Shibata

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate whether the intake level of a staple food influences the nutritional status of water-soluble vitamins in pregnant Japanese women. Urinary excretion of water-soluble vitamins was used as a biomarker for nutritional assessment. Twenty-four-hour urine samples were collected and vitamin intake was surveyed using a validated self-administered comprehensive diet history questionnaire. Subjects were categorized into bottom, middle, and upper tertiles according to the percentage of total energy intake from wheat and wheat alternatives or rice and rice alternatives. The present study showed that the nutritional status of water-soluble vitamins did not differ with intake level of wheat and wheat alternatives or rice and rice alternatives as a staple food in pregnant Japanese women.

  8. Predicted intake of trace elements and minerals via household drinking water by 6-year-old children from Krakow, Poland. Part 5: Zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, H

    2010-03-01

    Zinc (Zn) exposure in pre-school children via household drinking water collected by a double sampling method (morning, evening) was evaluated in a sample of the Polish population. Zn concentration was measured by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Rural and suburban Krakow sites were non-distinguishable in respect of Zn concentrations. However, significantly lower Zn was found in urban as compared with non-urban sites [geometric mean (95% confidence interval) 0.14 (0.01-1.95) mg l(-1) versus 0.52 (0.03-10.2) mg l(-1), p children averaged between 2% and 9% of the recommended dietary allowance (RDA, 10 mg day(-1)) for urban and non-urban sites, respectively. Mean Zn intake prediction for the exceedance fraction was 64% of RDA. In conclusion, overnight contamination of drinking water from in-house pipelines was significant and common to all sites investigated. Secondly, drinking water can be considered a significant contributor to dietary Zn intake by children in non-urban sites and may shift the population borderline of deficiency.

  9. Risk Assessment of Fluoride Intake from Tea in the Republic of Ireland and its Implications for Public Health and Water Fluoridation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, Declan T.; Potter, William; Limeback, Hardy; Godfrey, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The Republic of Ireland (RoI) is the only European Country with a mandatory national legislation requiring artificial fluoridation of drinking water and has the highest per capita consumption of black tea in the world. Tea is a hyperaccumulator of fluoride and chronic fluoride intake is associated with multiple negative health outcomes. In this study, fifty four brands of the commercially available black tea bag products were purchased and the fluoride level in tea infusions tested by an ion-selective electrode method. The fluoride content in all brands tested ranged from 1.6 to 6.1 mg/L, with a mean value of 3.3 mg/L. According to our risk assessment it is evident that the general population in the RoI is at a high risk of chronic fluoride exposure and associated adverse health effects based on established reference values. We conclude that the culture of habitual tea drinking in the RoI indicates that the total cumulative dietary fluoride intake in the general population could readily exceed the levels known to cause chronic fluoride intoxication. Evidence suggests that excessive fluoride intake may be contributing to a wide range of adverse health effects. Therefore from a public health perspective, it would seem prudent and sensible that risk reduction measures be implemented to reduce the total body burden of fluoride in the population. PMID:26927146

  10. Effects of dietary fibers with high water-binding capacity and swelling capacity on gastrointestinal functions, food intake and body weight in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chengquan; Wei, Hongkui; Zhao, Xichen; Xu, Chuanhui; Peng, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of supplementation of dietary soluble fibers with high water-binding capacity (WBC) and swelling capacity (SC) on gastrointestinal tract mass, physicochemical properties of digesta, gastrointestinal mean retention time (MRT), body weight, and food intake in male rats. Methods: Thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to four equal groups and fed the control diet or diet containing 2% konjac flour (KF), pregelatinized waxy maize starch plus guar gum (PWMS+GG), andPWMS plus xanthan gum (PWMS+XG) for three weeks. Results: WBC and SC of diets followed the order of PWMS+GG > KF > PWMS + XG > control. PWMS+GG and KF groups had a lower average daily food intake than the control group, but all the groups showed no difference in final body weightand the weight gain rate. The high WBC and SC of the PWMS+GG and KF groupsled to an increase of WBC and SC in the stomach digesta, and a gain of the cecal digesta weight, due to increased cecal moisture content. Conclusion: The inclusion of the novel fiber, PWMS+GG, in the diet of male rats appears to facilitate the modulation of WBC and SC of stomach digesta and the reduction of food intake.

  11. Risk Assessment of Fluoride Intake from Tea in the Republic of Ireland and its Implications for Public Health and Water Fluoridation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, Declan T; Potter, William; Limeback, Hardy; Godfrey, Michael

    2016-02-26

    The Republic of Ireland (RoI) is the only European Country with a mandatory national legislation requiring artificial fluoridation of drinking water and has the highest per capita consumption of black tea in the world. Tea is a hyperaccumulator of fluoride and chronic fluoride intake is associated with multiple negative health outcomes. In this study, fifty four brands of the commercially available black tea bag products were purchased and the fluoride level in tea infusions tested by an ion-selective electrode method. The fluoride content in all brands tested ranged from 1.6 to 6.1 mg/L, with a mean value of 3.3 mg/L. According to our risk assessment it is evident that the general population in the RoI is at a high risk of chronic fluoride exposure and associated adverse health effects based on established reference values. We conclude that the culture of habitual tea drinking in the RoI indicates that the total cumulative dietary fluoride intake in the general population could readily exceed the levels known to cause chronic fluoride intoxication. Evidence suggests that excessive fluoride intake may be contributing to a wide range of adverse health effects. Therefore from a public health perspective, it would seem prudent and sensible that risk reduction measures be implemented to reduce the total body burden of fluoride in the population.

  12. Consumption of Low-Calorie Sweetened Beverages Compared to Water Is Associated with Reduced Intake of Carbohydrates and Sugar, with No Adverse Relationships to Glycemic Responses: Results from the 2001-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, Marge; Ratliff, Joseph C; Riedt, Claudia S; Fulgoni, Victor L

    2017-08-24

    Although the 2015 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee concluded that there was moderate evidence that substituting sugar-containing sweeteners with low-calorie sweeteners (LCS) reduces calorie intake and weight, dietary recommendations encourage substituting only water for sugar-sweetened beverages during weight management. This cross-sectional study evaluated the relation of water and no- and low-calorie sweetened beverage (LCSB) intake with nutrient intakes and prediabetes criteria using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001-2012 in 25,817 adults that were free of diabetes. Although linear trends were observed with both beverages, higher LCSB intake was associated with significantly lower consumption of carbohydrates (-9.1 g/day vs. -1.4 g/day), total sugars (-10.9 g/day vs. -2.2 g/day), and added sugars (-2.0 tsp eq vs. -0.8 tsp eq) than those associated with higher water intake. Higher intake of both beverages was significantly associated with lower insulin levels (p sugars and carbohydrate intake, with no adverse associations to measures of glycemic response.

  13. Effect of food preparation using naturally-contaminated groundwater from La Pampa, Argentina: Estimation of elemental dietary intake from rice and drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaafar, Maisarah; Marcilla, Andrea L; Felipe-Sotelo, Mónica; Ward, Neil I

    2018-04-25

    Water from La Pampa, Argentina, was used for washing and cooking rice to examine the in-situ impact of using naturally-contaminated water for food preparation on the elemental dietary intake. Whilst washing with the control tap water (28 μg/L As) reduced the concentration of As in rice by 23%, the use of different well waters (281-1144 μg/L) increased As levels significantly (48-227%) in comparison with the original concentration in the rice (0.056 µg/g). Cooking the rice at a low water-to-rice ratio (2:1) using modern methods increased the levels of As in the cooked samples by 2-3 orders of magnitude for both pre-washed and un-washed rice. Similar trends were observed for vanadium. Although the levels of manganese, iron, copper, zinc and molybdenum in rice were reduced during washing and cooking for most water samples, the molybdenum concentration in the cooked rice doubled (2.2-2.9 µg/g) when using water containing >1 mg/L Mo. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. An analysis of workers' tritium concentration in urine samples as a function of time after intake at Korean pressurised heavy water reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee Geun; Kong, Tae Young

    2012-12-01

    In general, internal exposure from tritium at pressurised heavy water reactors (PHWRs) accounts for ∼20-40 % of the total radiation dose. Tritium usually reaches the equilibrium concentration after a few hours inside the body and is then excreted from the body with an effective half-life in the order of 10 d. In this study, tritium metabolism was reviewed using its excretion rate in urine samples of workers at Korean PHWRs. The tritium concentration in workers' urine samples was also measured as a function of time after intake. On the basis of the monitoring results, changes in the tritium concentration inside the body were then analysed.

  15. Increasing water intake in pre-school children with unhealthy drinking habits: A year-long controlled longitudinal field experiment assessing the impact of information, water affordance, and social regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, Bradley; Lahlou, Saadi; Bottin, Jeanne H; Guelinckx, Isabelle; Boesen-Mariani, Sabine

    2017-09-01

    We investigated the effect of three interventions to increase the plain water consumption of children with unhealthy drinking habits, with an innovative approach combining the three layers of Installation Theory: embodied competences, affordances and social regulation. 334 preschool children and their carers were allocated to three interventions: Control (control): no intervention, Information (info): online coaching sessions on water health benefits aiming at modifying embodied competences (knowledge), Information + Water Affordance (info + w): the same plus home delivery of small bottles of water. After three months, half of the info and info + w subjects were allocated to Social Regulation (+social) (on-line discussion forum) or no further intervention (-social). Intake of plain water and all other fluid types of the children were recorded by the carers 6 times over a year using an online 7-day fluid-specific dietary record. Over 1 year, all groups significantly increased daily water consumption by 3.0-7.8 times (+118 to +222 mL). Info + w + social and Info-social generated the highest increase in plain water intake after one year compared to baseline, by 7.8 times (+216 mL) and 6.7 times (+222 mL) respectively; both significantly exceeded the control (3.0 times, +118 mL), whilst the effect of info + w-social (5.0 times, +158 mL) and info + social (5.3 times, +198 mL) did not differ from that of control. All groups saw a decrease of sweetened beverages intake, again with info + w + social generating the largest decrease (-27%; -172 mL). No changes in other fluids or total fluid intake were observed. Sustainable increased water consumption can be achieved in children with unhealthy drinking habits by influencing representations, changing material affordances, and providing social regulation. Combining the three provided the strongest effect as predicted by Installation Theory. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Hydrogen water intake via tube-feeding for patients with pressure ulcer and its reconstructive effects on normal human skin cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; Kato, Shinya; Matsuoka, Daigo; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Miwa, Nobuhiko

    2013-09-10

    Pressure ulcer (PU) is common in immobile elderly patients, and there are some research works to investigate a preventive and curative method, but not to find sufficient effectiveness. The aim of this study is to clarify the clinical effectiveness on wound healing in patients with PU by hydrogen-dissolved water (HW) intake via tube-feeding (TF). Furthermore, normal human dermal fibroblasts OUMS-36 and normal human epidermis-derived cell line HaCaT keratinocytes were examined in vitro to explore the mechanisms relating to whether hydrogen plays a role in wound-healing at the cellular level. Twenty-two severely hospitalized elderly Japanese patients with PU were recruited in the present study, and their ages ranged from 71.0 to 101.0 (86.7 ± 8.2) years old, 12 male and 10 female patients, all suffering from eating disorder and bedridden syndrome as the secondary results of various underlying diseases. All patients received routine care treatments for PU in combination with HW intake via TF for 600 mL per day, in place of partial moisture replenishment. On the other hand, HW was prepared with a hydrogen-bubbling apparatus which produces HW with 0.8-1.3 ppm of dissolved hydrogen concentration (DH) and -602 mV to -583 mV of oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), in contrast to reversed osmotic ultra-pure water (RW), as the reference, with DH of size represented statistically significant difference versus before HW intake (p size reduction and early recovery, which potently ensue from either type-I collagen construction in dermal fibroblasts or the promoted mitochondrial reducing ability and ROS repression in epidermal keratinocytes as shown by immunostain or NBT and WST-1 assays, respectively.

  17. Phthalate Intakes

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Compilation of literature-reported intake values of phthalates; specifically dibutyl phthalate (DBP), bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, and diisononyl phthalate (DiNP)....

  18. Consumption of Low-Calorie Sweetened Beverages Compared to Water Is Associated with Reduced Intake of Carbohydrates and Sugar, with No Adverse Relationships to Glycemic Responses: Results from the 2001–2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marge Leahy

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Although the 2015 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee concluded that there was moderate evidence that substituting sugar-containing sweeteners with low-calorie sweeteners (LCS reduces calorie intake and weight, dietary recommendations encourage substituting only water for sugar-sweetened beverages during weight management. This cross-sectional study evaluated the relation of water and no- and low-calorie sweetened beverage (LCSB intake with nutrient intakes and prediabetes criteria using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2001–2012 in 25,817 adults that were free of diabetes. Although linear trends were observed with both beverages, higher LCSB intake was associated with significantly lower consumption of carbohydrates (−9.1 g/day vs. −1.4 g/day, total sugars (−10.9 g/day vs. −2.2 g/day, and added sugars (−2.0 tsp eq vs. −0.8 tsp eq than those associated with higher water intake. Higher intake of both beverages was significantly associated with lower insulin levels (p < 0.01; however, higher intake of LCSB was also associated with lower hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c and lower homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR (p < 0.01. We observed lower odds ratios for elevated HbA1c (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.79, 95% CI 0.64–0.98, HOMA-IR (0.68, 0.53–0.87, and insulin levels (0.63, 0.49–0.80 in LCSB among the higher (2+ servings intake group compared to the lowest (<1 serving intake group. Contrary to conventional wisdom, LCSB consumption was associated with equal, if not better, dietary intake and glycemic response than water consumption. Although observational in nature, these results contribute to the growing body of evidence from human studies suggesting that in addition to water, LCSBs can also be sensible choices for reducing sugars and carbohydrate intake, with no adverse associations to measures of glycemic response.

  19. Prevention and Therapy of Type 2 Diabetes—What Is the Potential of Daily Water Intake and Its Mineral Nutrients?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Naumann

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We aim to present an overview of the possible influence of drinking water in general and mineral water in particular in improving glycemic parameters in persons with or without type 2 diabetes. We performed a literature search that produced 15 randomized controlled trials (RCTs on this topic with mainly small sample sizes. We also discuss relevant observational and animal studies as well as the effects of important supplements in mineral water such as hydrogencarbonate and magnesium. There is low evidence for the positive effects of water or mineral water in improving glycemic parameters in diabetic and non-diabetic persons, and the results are heterogenous, making it difficult to reach an unequivocal conclusion. Meta-analyses of prospective cohort studies and other observational studies, studies with animal models and interventional studies using hydrogencarbonate and magnesium supplements suggest a probable positive effect of drinking water and mineral water in particular on glycemic parameters, supporting the positive results found in some of the RCTs, especially those substituting diet beverages or caloric beverages with water, or those using bicarbonate and magnesium-rich water. Regarding the high prevalence, the associated suffering and the resulting health expenditures of type 2 diabetes, it is imperative to conduct larger and more rigorous trials to answer the question whether drinking water or mineral water can improve glycemic parameters in diabetic and non-diabetic persons.

  20. Effect of bromide in a surface water intake on the formation of brominated trihalomethanes at a public water system treatment plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    This project is a collaborative drinking water research study. EPA is evaluating water samples collected by PWS operators in order to investigate relationships between bromide in source water and the formation of brominated DBPs in finished drinking water. This study will includ...

  1. Intake of hot water-extracted apple protects against myocardial injury by inhibiting apoptosis in an ischemia/reperfusion rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi Young; Lim, Sun Ha; Lee, Jongwon

    2014-11-01

    Intakes of apple and its products are shown to reduce the risk of coronary heart disease by delaying occlusion of coronary arteries. In our previous study, we showed that apple pectin protected against myocardial injury by prohibiting apoptotic cascades in a rat model of ischemia/reperfusion. Thus, we hypothesized that water-extracted apple, into which apple pectin was released from the cell wall, might exhibit the same efficacy as apple pectin. To test this hypothesis, we fed rats either cold water- (400 mg kg(-1) d(-1)) or hot water-extracted apples (HWEA; 40, 100, and 400 mg kg(-1) d(-1)). Three days later, the rats were subjected to myocardial injuries by ligating the left anterior descending coronary artery (30 minutes), and subsequently, the heart (3 hours) reperfused by releasing the ligation. Only the rats that were supplemented with HWEA (400 mg kg(-1) d(-1)) showed significant reductions in infarct size, which was 28.5% smaller than that of the control group. This infarct size reduction could be partly attributed to the prevention of steps leading to apoptosis. These steps are manifested by a higher Bcl-2/Bax ratio, lower procaspase-3 conversion to caspase-3, and inhibition of DNA nick generation, which reflects the extent of apoptosis. The findings indicate that HWEA supplementation reduces myocardial injury by inhibiting apoptosis under ischemia/reperfusion conditions. In conclusion, this study suggests that apple intake, specifically boiled apple, might reduce the risk of coronary heart disease by inhibiting postocclusion steps, such as myocardial injury after artery occlusion, as well as preocclusion steps, such as atherosclerotic plaque formation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Data on daily fluoride intake based on drinking water consumption prepared by household desalinators working by reverse osmosis process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbasdehi, Vahid Noroozi; Dobaradaran, Sina; Esmaili, Abdolhamid; Mirahmadi, Roghayeh; Ghasemi, Fatemeh Faraji; Keshtkar, Mozhgan

    2016-09-01

    In this data article, we evaluated the daily fluoride contents in 20 household desalinators working by reverse osmosis (RO) process in Bushehr, Iran. The concentration levels of fluoride in inlet and outlet waters were determined by the standard SPADNS method using a spectrophotometer (M501 Single Beam Scanning UV/VIS, UK). The fluoride content in outlet waters were compared with EPA and WHO guidelines for drinking water.

  3. Data on daily fluoride intake based on drinking water consumption prepared by household desalinators working by reverse osmosis process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Noroozi Karbasdehi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this data article, we evaluated the daily fluoride contents in 20 household desalinators working by reverse osmosis (RO1 Reverse Osmosis. process in Bushehr, Iran. The concentration levels of fluoride in inlet and outlet waters were determined by the standard SPADNS method using a spectrophotometer (M501 Single Beam Scanning UV/VIS, UK. The fluoride content in outlet waters were compared with EPA and WHO guidelines for drinking water.

  4. Data on daily fluoride intake based on drinking water consumption prepared by household desalinators working by reverse osmosis process

    OpenAIRE

    Karbasdehi, Vahid Noroozi; Dobaradaran, Sina; Esmaili, Abdolhamid; Mirahmadi, Roghayeh; Ghasemi, Fatemeh Faraji; Keshtkar, Mozhgan

    2016-01-01

    In this data article, we evaluated the daily fluoride contents in 20 household desalinators working by reverse osmosis (RO)1 Reverse Osmosis. process in Bushehr, Iran. The concentration levels of fluoride in inlet and outlet waters were determined by the standard SPADNS method using a spectrophotometer (M501 Single Beam Scanning UV/VIS, UK). The fluoride content in outlet waters were compared with EPA and WHO guidelines for drinking water.

  5. The impact of elevated water nitrite concentration on physiology, growth and feed intake of African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell 1822)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roques, J.A.C.; Schram, E.; Spanings, T.; Schaik, van T.; Abbink, W.; Boerrigter, J.; Vries, de P.; Vis, van de J.W.; Flik, G.

    2015-01-01

    The nitrite threshold concentration in rearing water of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) was assessed. African catfish with an initial mean (SD) weight of 219.7 (57.8) g were exposed to an increasing range of water nitrite from 6 (Control) to 928 µM nitrite for 28 days. Mean (SD) plasma nitrite

  6. Fluoride concentration level in rural area in Poldasht city and daily fluoride intake based on drinking water consumption with temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Mohammadi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Long-term exposure to high level of fluoride can caused several adverse effects on human health including dental and skeletal fluorosis. We investigated all the drinking water source located in rural areas of Poldasht city, west Azerbaijan Province, North West Iran between 2014 and 2015. Fluoride concentration of water samples was measured by SPADNS method. We found that in the villages of Poldasht the average of fluoride concentration in drinking water sources (well, and the river was in the range mg/l 0.28–10.23. The average daily received per 2 l of drinking water is in the range mg/l 0.7–16.6 per day per person. Drinking water demands cause fluorosis in the villages around the area residents and based on the findings of this study writers are announced suggestions below in order to take care of the health of area residents.

  7. The impact of elevated water ammonia and nitrate concentrations on physiology, growth and feed intake of pikeperch (Sander lucioperca)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schram, E.; Roques, J.A.C.; van Kuijk, T.; Abbink, W.; van de Heul, J.; de Vries, P.; Bierman, S.; van de Vis, H.; Flik, G.

    2014-01-01

    The ammonia (NH3) and nitrate (NO3−) threshold concentrations in rearing water of juvenile pikeperch (Sander lucioperca) were assessed. Pikeperch with an initial mean (SD) weight of 17.7 (4.2) g were exposed to 0.9 (control), 3.6, 5.2, 7.1, 11.2 and 18.9 μM NH3 in the water for 42 days. Plasma NH4+

  8. [Daily intake of plain water and beverages of primary and middle school students in four cities of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    DU, Song-ming; Hu, Xiao-qi; Zhang, Qian; Wang, Xiao-jun; Pan, Hui; Gao, Jian-mei; Song, Jun; Gao, Chun-lin; He, Zhi-fan; Ma, Guan-sheng

    2013-03-01

    To describe the daily consumption of plain water and beverages of primary and middle school students in four cities of China. A total of 5914 students from Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou and Chengdu were selected using multiple-stage random sampling method, and 5868 students completed the study from September to October 2011. The information on amounts and types of drinking water was recorded using a 24 hour measurement for seven consecutive days. The amount of plain water and beverages was analyzed for subjects in different gender, grades and cities. The daily consumption of plain water of subjects was (744 ± 484) ml (68.3% of total drinking water) with statistically significant difference among the Guangzhou, Beijing, Shanghai and Chengdu ((869 ± 528), (818 ± 518), (702 ± 471), and (573 ± 333) ml; F = 113.74, P beverages was (345 ± 287) ml (31.7% of total drinking water) and the highest in Shanghai (424 ± 304) ml, then in Beijing (347 ± 303) ml and in Guangzhou (316 ± 267) ml, the lowest in Chengdu (293 ± 255) ml (F = 58.94, P beverages for students in urban areas (394 ± 301) ml was higher than that in rural areas (296 ± 264) ml (Z = -14.48, P 0.05). The consumption of beverages of high school students (356 ± 309) ml and middle school students (360 ± 301) ml were higher than primary school students (328 ± 263) ml (F = 8.37, P China was plain water. The amounts of consumption of plain water and beverages varied in different cities, urban and rural and levels of education.

  9. Documentation for the U.S. Geological Survey Public-Supply Database (PSDB): A database of permitted public-supply wells, surface-water intakes, and systems in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Curtis V.; Maupin, Molly A.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has developed a database containing information about wells, surface-water intakes, and distribution systems that are part of public water systems across the United States, its territories, and possessions. Programs of the USGS such as the National Water Census, the National Water Use Information Program, and the National Water-Quality Assessment Program all require a complete and current inventory of public water systems, the sources of water used by those systems, and the size of populations served by the systems across the Nation. Although the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Safe Drinking Water Information System (SDWIS) database already exists as the primary national Federal database for information on public water systems, the Public-Supply Database (PSDB) was developed to add value to SDWIS data with enhanced location and ancillary information, and to provide links to other databases, including the USGS’s National Water Information System (NWIS) database.

  10. An assessment of the relationship between excess fluoride intake from drinking water and essential hypertension in adults residing in fluoride endemic areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liyan; Gao, Yanhui; Liu, Hui; Zhang, Wei; Ding, Yunpeng; Li, Bingyun; Li, Mang; Sun, Dianjun

    2013-01-15

    In this study, the relationships between high water fluoride exposure and essential hypertension as well as plasma ET-1 levels were investigated. A total of 487 residents aged 40 to 75 were randomly recruited from eight villages in Zhaozhou County from Heilongjiang Province in China and were divided into 4 groups according to the concentrations of fluoride in their water. Consumption levels of drinking water fluoride for normal, mild, moderate, and high exposure groups were 0.84±0.26 mg/L, 1.55±0.22 mg/L, 2.49±0.30 mg/L, and 4.06±1.15 mg/L, respectively. The prevalence of hypertension in each group was 20.16%, 24.54%, 32.30%, and 49.23%, respectively. There were significant differences between all the groups; namely, with the increase in water fluoride concentrations, the risk of essential hypertension in adults grows in a concentration-dependent manner. Significant differences were observed in the plasma ET-1 levels between the different groups (Pwater fluoride concentrations (F(-)≥3.01 mg/L, OR(4/1)=2.84), age (OR(3/1)=2.63), and BMI (OR(2/1)=2.40, OR(3/1)=6.03) were closely associated with essential hypertension. In other words, the study not only confirmed the relationship between excess fluoride intake and essential hypertension in adults, but it also demonstrated that high levels of fluoride exposure in drinking water could increase plasma ET-1 levels in subjects living in fluoride endemic areas. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of increased intake of skimmed milk, casein, whey or water on body composition and leptin in overweight adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larnkjær, Anni; Arnberg, Karina; Michaelsen, Kim F.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUNDS: Dairy proteins may support muscle protein synthesis and improve satiety in adults. However, there are limited studies using exact measures of body composition, especially in adolescents. OBJECTIVES: This study investigates the effect of milk proteins and water on body composition...... and leptin in overweight adolescents. METHODS: Subjects (n = 193) aged 12-15 years were randomized to drink 1 L d(-1) of skimmed milk, whey, casein (all milk-based drinks 35 g protein L(-1) ) or water for 12 weeks. Twenty participants dropped out. A pre-test control group of 32 adolescents was examined 12...... weeks before start of intervention. Outcomes included leptin and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanning. The effects of the milk-based drinks on body composition and leptin were compared with baseline, pre-test control and water. RESULTS: Lean mass index (LMI) increased compared to baseline (all 95...

  12. Assessment of relationship on excess arsenic intake from drinking water and cognitive impairment in adults and elders in arsenicosis areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiayong; Gao, Yanhui; Liu, Hongxu; Sun, Jing; Liu, Yang; Wu, Junhua; Li, Dandan; Sun, Dianjun

    2017-04-01

    In this study, the relationships between high water arsenic exposure and cognitive impairment were investigated. A total of 483 residents aged 40 or older were randomly recruited and were divided into four groups according to the concentrations of arsenic in their water. Consumption levels (̄x¯±sd) of drinking water arsenic for normal, mild, moderate, and high exposure groups were 4±2μg/L, 25±11μg/L, 73±15μg/L, and 183±88μg/L, respectively. The average scores (̄x¯±sd) of the Chinese version Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) for females in each group were 21.49±3.14, 19.04±5.87, 16.18±8.14, and 15.82±7.78, and the average scores (̄x¯±sd) for males were 24.50±3.97, 23.16±4.45, 21.00±6.57, and 18.92±7.99, respectively. Significant differences among the average scores of MMSE for males or females in the four groups were found (parsenic ˃100 μg/L PR4/1=4.01). The findings of our research suggested a significant positive relationship between arsenic exposure from drinking water and cognitive impairment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Spatial analysis of health risk assessment with arsenic intake of drinking water in the LanYang plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C. F.; Liang, C. P.; Jang, C. S.; Chen, J. S.

    2016-12-01

    Groundwater is one of the most component water resources in Lanyang plain. The groundwater of the Lanyang Plain contains arsenic levels that exceed the current Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration (Taiwan EPA) limit of 10 μg/L. The arsenic of groundwater in some areas of the Lanyang Plain pose great menace for the safe use of groundwater resources. Therefore, poor water quality can adversely impact drinking water uses, leading to human health risks. This study analyzed the potential health risk associated with the ingestion of arsenic-affected groundwater in the arseniasis-endemic Lanyang plain. Geostatistical approach is widely used in spatial variability analysis and distributions of field data with uncertainty. The estimation of spatial distribution of the arsenic contaminant in groundwater is very important in the health risk assessment. This study used indicator kriging (IK) and ordinary kriging (OK) methods to explore the spatial variability of arsenic-polluted parameters. The estimated difference between IK and OK estimates was compared. The extent of arsenic pollution was spatially determined and the Target cancer risk (TR) and dose response were explored when the ingestion of arsenic in groundwater. Thus, a zonal management plan based on safe groundwater use is formulated. The research findings can provide a plan reference of regional water resources supplies for local government administrators and developing groundwater resources in the Lanyang Plain.

  14. The impact of elevated water nitrate concentration on physiology, growth and feed intake of African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell 1822)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schram, E.; Roques, J.A.C.; Abbink, W.; Vries, de P.; Bierman, S.M.; Vis, van de J.W.

    2014-01-01

    The nitrate threshold concentration in rearing water of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) was assessed. Female African catfish with an initial mean (SD) weight of 154.3 (7.5) g were exposed to 0.4 (Control), 1.5, 4.2, 9.7 and 27.0 mM nitrate for 42 days. Mean (SD) plasma concentrations of nitrate

  15. Ramjet Intakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Propulsion a vitesse elevee : Conception du moteur - integration et gestion thermique) 14. ABSTRACT Intake design for supersonic engines, in common...exhaust velocity to free stream velocity, with exhaust velocity calculated by assuming the captured air is expanded isentropicaly back to ambient ...2.1 [23] with the actual value probably determined by engine mass flow demand and therefore dependent on ambient temperature. The lowest

  16. The impact of elevated water ammonia concentration on physiology, growth and feed intake of African catfish (Clarius gariepinus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schram, E.; Roques, J.A.C.; Abbink, W.; Spanings, T.; Vries, de P.; Bierman, S.M.; Vis, van de J.W.

    2010-01-01

    The threshold concentration for NH3 in rearing water of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) was assessed. African catfish with an initial mean (SD) weight of 141.0 (24) g were exposed to five different Tamm [sum of NH3 and NH4+] concentrations: 0.37 (Control), 1.06, 2.12, 5.16 and 19.7 mM, which

  17. Estimation of Seasonal Risk Caused by the Intake of Lead, Mercury and Cadmium through Freshwater Fish Consumption from Urban Water Reservoirs in Arid Areas of Northern Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrna Nevárez

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Bioavailability and hence bioaccumulation of heavy metals in fish species depends on seasonal conditions causing different risks levels to human health during the lifetime. Mercury, cadmium and lead contents in fish from Chihuahua (Mexico water reservoirs have been investigated to assess contamination levels and safety for consumers. Muscle samples of fish were collected across the seasons. Lead and cadmium were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry, and mercury by cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. The highest concentrations of cadmium (0.235 mg/kg, mercury (0.744 mg/kg and lead (4.298 mg/kg exceeded the maximum levels set by European regulations and Codex Alimentarius. Lead concentrations found in fish from three water reservoirs also surpassed the limit of 1 mg/kg established by Mexican regulations. The provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI suggested by the World Health Organization for methyl mercury (1.6 µg/kg bw per week was exceeded in the spring season (1.94 µg/kg bw per week. This might put consumers at risk of mercury poisoning.

  18. Early changes of hypothalamic angiotensin II receptors expression in gestational protein-restricted offspring: effect on water intake, blood pressure and renal sodium handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Marcelo Cardoso; Scabora, José Eduardo; Lopes, Agnes; Mesquita, Flávia Fernandes; Torres, Daniele; Boer, Patrícia Aline; Gontijo, José Antonio Rocha

    2013-09-01

    The current study examines changes in the postnatal hypothalamic angiotensin receptors by maternal protein restriction (LP), and its impact on in uteri programming of hypertension in adult life. The data show that LP male pup body weight was significantly reduced when compared to that of control (NP) pups. Also, immunoblotting analysis demonstrated a significantly decreased expression of type 1 AngII receptors (AT1R) in the entire hypothalamic tissue extract of LP rats at 12 days of age compared to age-matched NP offspring. Conversely, the expression of the type 2 AngII (AT2R) receptors in 12-day- and 16-week-old LP hypothalamus was significantly increased. The current data show the influence of central AngII administration on water consumption in a concentration-dependent fashion, but also demonstrate that the water intake response to AngII was strikingly attenuated in 16-week-old LP. These results may be related to decreased brain arginine vasopressin (AVP) expression appearing in maternal protein-restricted offspring. The present investigation shows an early decrease in fractional urinary sodium excretion in maternal protein-restricted offspring. The decreased fractional sodium excretion was accompanied by a fall in proximal sodium excretion and occurred despite unchanged creatinine clearance. These effects were associated with a significant enhancement in arterial blood pressure in the LP group, but the precise mechanism of these phenomena remains unknown.

  19. Relative fluid novelty differentially alters the time course of limited-access ethanol and water intake in selectively bred high-alcohol-preferring mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linsenbardt, David N; Boehm, Stephen L

    2015-04-01

    The influence of previous alcohol (ethanol [EtOH])-drinking experience on increasing the rate and amount of future EtOH consumption might be a genetically regulated phenomenon critical to the development and maintenance of repeated excessive EtOH abuse. We have recently found evidence supporting this view, wherein inbred C57BL/6J (B6) mice develop progressive increases in the rate of binge EtOH consumption over repeated drinking-in-the-dark (DID) EtOH access sessions (i.e., "front loading"). The primary goal of this study was to evaluate identical parameters in high-alcohol-preferring (HAP) mice to determine whether similar temporal alterations in limited-access EtOH drinking develop in a population selected for high EtOH preference/intake under continuous (24-hour) access conditions. Using specialized volumetric drinking devices, HAP mice received 14 daily 2-hour DID EtOH or water access sessions. A subset of these mice was then given 1 day access to the opposite assigned fluid on day 15. Home cage locomotor activity was recorded concomitantly on each day of these studies. The possibility of behavioral/metabolic tolerance was evaluated on day 16 using experimenter-administered EtOH. The amount of EtOH consumed within the first 15 minutes of access increased markedly over days. However, in contrast to previous observations in B6 mice, EtOH front loading was also observed on day 15 in mice that only had previous DID experience with water. Furthermore, a decrease in the amount of water consumed within the first 15 minutes of access compared to animals given repeated water access was observed on day 15 in mice with 14 previous days of EtOH access. These data further illustrate the complexity and importance of the temporal aspects of limited-access EtOH consumption and suggest that previous procedural/fluid experience in HAP mice selectively alters the time course of EtOH and water consumption. Copyright © 2015 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  20. Fat, sugar and water intakes among families from the IDEFICS intervention and control groups: first observations from I.Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvidsson, L; Bogl, L-H; Eiben, G; Hebestreit, A; Nagy, P; Tornaritis, M; Moreno, L A; Siani, A; Veidebaum, T; De Henauw, S; Lissner, L

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate differences in diets of families in intervention versus control communities 5 years after the Identification and Prevention of Dietary- and Lifestyle-Induced Health Effects in Children and Infants intervention ended. Altogether, 4,691 families from the I.Family study with at least one participating parent and one child are included in this analysis. Diet quality indicators, defined as propensities to consume fat, sugar, water and fruit and vegetables, are calculated from a 59-item food frequency questionnaire. Multilevel linear models with random intercepts for study centre are used to determine whether mean diet indicators, calculated at the family level, differed as a function of previous exposure to the intervention. Families in the intervention communities reported a significantly lower sugar propensity (19.8% vs. 20.7% of total food items, p control communities, while fat and fruit and vegetables propensities were similar. No significant diet differences between intervention and control children were present at the Identification and Prevention of Dietary- and Lifestyle-Induced Health Effects in Children and Infants baseline. This result indicates better diet quality in intervention families, which was not present in children when their diets were assessed before the intervention, and gives some cause for optimism regarding the sustainability of some aspects of the diet intervention. © 2015 World Obesity.

  1. The accuracy of the Goldberg method for classifying misreporters of energy intake on a food frequency questionnaire and 24-hour recalls: Comparison with doubly labeled water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooze, Janet A.; Krebs-Smith, Susan M.; Troiano, Richard P.; Subar, Amy F.

    2011-01-01

    Background/Objectives Adults often misreport dietary intake; the magnitude varies by the methods used to assess diet and classify participants. The objective was to quantify the accuracy of the Goldberg method for categorizing misreporters on a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and two 24-hour recalls (24HR). Subjects/Methods We compared the Goldberg method, which uses an equation to predict total energy expenditure (TEE), to a criterion method that uses doubly labeled water (DLW), in a study of 451 men and women. Underreporting was classified using recommended cutpoints and calculated values. Sensitivity and specificity, positive and negative predictive value (PPV and NPV), and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) were calculated. Predictive models of underreporting were contrasted for the Goldberg and DLW methods. Results AUC were 0.974 and 0.972 on the FFQ, and 0.961 and 0.938 on the 24HR for men and women, respectively. The sensitivity of the Goldberg method was higher for the FFQ (92%) than the 24HR (50%); specificity was higher for the 24HR (99%) than the FFQ (88%); PPV was high for the 24HR (92%) and FFQ (88%). Simulation studies indicate attenuation in odds ratio estimates and reduction of power in predictive models. Conclusions Although use of the Goldberg method may lead to bias and reduction in power in predictive models of underreporting, the method has high predictive value for both the FFQ and the 24HR. Thus, in the absence of objective measures of TEE or physical activity, the Goldberg method is a reasonable approach to characterizing underreporting. PMID:22127332

  2. Exposure to lead from intake of coffee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Max; Sloth, Jens Jørgen; Rasmussen, Rie Romme

    Food and beverages is one of the primary sources of intake of and exposure to lead, with beverages accounting for almost 50%. Previous studies from Denmark have estimated that the intake of lead from coffee is very high and may contribute to up to 20% of the total lead intake from food and bevera......Food and beverages is one of the primary sources of intake of and exposure to lead, with beverages accounting for almost 50%. Previous studies from Denmark have estimated that the intake of lead from coffee is very high and may contribute to up to 20% of the total lead intake from food...... and beverages. This estimate is, however, based on older, non-published data. In the current project extensive chemical analyses of coffee beans, drinking water and ready-to-drink coffee have been performed. The results hereof have been compared to calculations of the total intake of lead from food...... and beverages. The results show that the intake of lead from coffee is considerably lower than previously estimated and account for 4.2% and 3.3% of the total lead intake from food and beverages for Danish men and women, respectively. It can generally be concluded that the intake of lead from coffee is low...

  3. Agricultural Drainage Well Intakes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Locations of surface intakes for registered agriculture drainage wells according to the database maintained by IDALS. Surface intakes were located from their...

  4. Water and sodium intake habits and status of ultra-endurance runners during a multi-stage ultra-marathon conducted in a hot ambient environment: an observational field based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa Ricardo JS

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anecdotal evidence suggests ultra-runners may not be consuming sufficient water through foods and fluids to maintenance euhydration, and present sub-optimal sodium intakes, throughout multi-stage ultra-marathon (MSUM competitions in the heat. Subsequently, the aims were primarily to assess water and sodium intake habits of recreational ultra-runners during a five stage 225 km semi self-sufficient MSUM conducted in a hot ambient environment (Tmax range: 32°C to 40°C; simultaneously to monitor serum sodium concentration, and hydration status using multiple hydration assessment techniques. Methods Total daily, pre-stage, during running, and post-stage water and sodium ingestion of ultra-endurance runners (UER, n = 74 and control (CON, n = 12 through foods and fluids were recorded on Stages 1 to 4 by trained dietetic researchers using dietary recall interview technique, and analysed through dietary analysis software. Body mass (BM, hydration status, and serum sodium concentration were determined pre- and post-Stages 1 to 5. Results Water (overall mean (SD: total daily 7.7 (1.5 L/day, during running 732 (183 ml/h and sodium (total daily 3.9 (1.3 g/day, during running 270 (151 mg/L ingestion did not differ between stages in UER (p vs. CON. Exercise-induced BM loss was 2.4 (1.2% (p p > 0.05 vs. CON pre-stage. Asymptomatic hyponatraemia (n = 8 UER, corresponding to 42% of sampled participants. Pre- and post-stage urine colour, urine osmolality and urine/plasma osmolality ratio increased (p p  Conclusion Water intake habits of ultra-runners during MSUM conducted in hot ambient conditions appear to be sufficient to maintain baseline euhydration levels. However, fluid over-consumption behaviours were evident along competition, irrespective of running speed and gender. Normonatraemia was observed in the majority of ultra-runners throughout MSUM, despite sodium ingestion under benchmark recommendations.

  5. Water and sodium intake habits and status of ultra-endurance runners during a multi-stage ultra-marathon conducted in a hot ambient environment: an observational field based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Anecdotal evidence suggests ultra-runners may not be consuming sufficient water through foods and fluids to maintenance euhydration, and present sub-optimal sodium intakes, throughout multi-stage ultra-marathon (MSUM) competitions in the heat. Subsequently, the aims were primarily to assess water and sodium intake habits of recreational ultra-runners during a five stage 225 km semi self-sufficient MSUM conducted in a hot ambient environment (Tmax range: 32°C to 40°C); simultaneously to monitor serum sodium concentration, and hydration status using multiple hydration assessment techniques. Methods Total daily, pre-stage, during running, and post-stage water and sodium ingestion of ultra-endurance runners (UER, n = 74) and control (CON, n = 12) through foods and fluids were recorded on Stages 1 to 4 by trained dietetic researchers using dietary recall interview technique, and analysed through dietary analysis software. Body mass (BM), hydration status, and serum sodium concentration were determined pre- and post-Stages 1 to 5. Results Water (overall mean (SD): total daily 7.7 (1.5) L/day, during running 732 (183) ml/h) and sodium (total daily 3.9 (1.3) g/day, during running 270 (151) mg/L) ingestion did not differ between stages in UER (p  0.05 vs. CON pre-stage). Asymptomatic hyponatraemia (runners during MSUM conducted in hot ambient conditions appear to be sufficient to maintain baseline euhydration levels. However, fluid over-consumption behaviours were evident along competition, irrespective of running speed and gender. Normonatraemia was observed in the majority of ultra-runners throughout MSUM, despite sodium ingestion under benchmark recommendations. PMID:23320854

  6. Nutritional intake of elite football referees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Vitor Hugo; Gonçalves, Liliana; Meneses, Tiago; Moreira, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    There is a paucity of dietary data in football referees. In this study, 23 elite main and assistant referees (34.4 ± 5.6 years) completed a 7-day dietary record during the competitive season. No nutritional intake differences were observed between main and assistant referees. Referees' mean daily energy intake (DEI) was 2819 ± 279 kcal. The intake of proteins (1.7 ± 0.2 g · kg(-1)), carbohydrates (4.1 ± 0.8 g · kg(-1)) and fats (1.4 ± 0.2 g · kg(-1)) represented, respectively, 18.4 ± 1.5%, 44.4 ± 4.4% and 34.6 ± 4.1% of the DEI. Carbohydrate intakes before, during and after exercise were 66 ± 42, 7 ± 15 and 120 ± 62 g. Daily carbohydrate, fibre, polyunsaturated fat and water intakes were below recommendations, while fat, saturated fat, cholesterol and sodium intakes were above recommended values. The prevalence of inadequate intake was high for vitamin E (96%), folate (74%), vitamin A (61%), vitamin C (39%), magnesium (26%) and calcium (22%). Carbohydrate intake before, during and after exercise were far from achieving the minimum recommended values. Most referees demonstrated a negligent behaviour of hydration during exercise. Referees would benefit from dietary education in order to optimise performance and health.

  7. Preprandial ghrelin is not affected by macronutrient intake, energy intake or energy expenditure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumpler William V

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ghrelin, a peptide secreted by endocrine cells in the gastrointestinal tract, is a hormone purported to have a significant effect on food intake and energy balance in humans. The influence of factors related to energy balance on ghrelin, such as daily energy expenditure, energy intake, and macronutrient intake, have not been reported. Secondly, the effect of ghrelin on food intake has not been quantified under free-living conditions over a prolonged period of time. To investigate these effects, 12 men were provided with an ad libitum cafeteria-style diet for 16 weeks. The macronutrient composition of the diets were covertly modified with drinks containing 2.1 MJ of predominantly carbohydrate (Hi-CHO, protein (Hi-PRO, or fat (Hi-FAT. Total energy expenditure was measured for seven days on two separate occasions (doubly labeled water and physical activity logs. Results Preprandial ghrelin concentrations were not affected by macronutrient intake, energy expenditure or energy intake (all P > 0.05. In turn, daily energy intake was significantly influenced by energy expenditure, but not ghrelin. Conclusion Preprandial ghrelin does not appear to be influenced by macronutrient composition, energy intake, or energy expenditure. Similarly, ghrelin does not appear to affect acute or chronic energy intake under free-living conditions.

  8. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... www.girlshealth.gov/ Home Nutrition Nutrition basics Water Water Did you know that water makes up more ... to drink more water Other drinks How much water do you need? top Water is very important, ...

  9. The influence of the hot water extract from shiitake medicinal mushroom, Lentinus edodes (higher Basidiomycetes) on the food intake, life span, and age-related locomotor activity of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matjuskova, Natalya; Azena, Elena; Serstnova, Ksenija; Muiznieks, Indrikis

    2014-01-01

    Shiitake medicinal mushroom, Lentinus edodes, is among the most widely cultivated edible mushrooms in the world and is a well-studied source of nutrients and biologically active compounds. We have studied the influence of the dietary supplement of the polysaccharides containing a hot water extract of the mushroom L. edodes on the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster in terms of food intake, body weight, life span, and age-related locomotor activity. L. edodes extract, when added to the D. melanogaster feeding substrate at a 0.003-0.030% concentration (calculated for the dry weight of the polysaccharide fraction) did not influence food intake or body weight of the flies. It increased the life span and locomotor activities of male flies but was associated with early mortality and decreased locomotor activity of female flies. We conclude that the observed anti-aging effects of L. edodes extracts in the male D. melanogaster are not the result of dietary restriction. We propose that D. melanogaster is a suitable model organism for researching the molecular basis of the anti-aging effect of the shiitake mushroom extracts and sex linkage of these effects.

  10. [The relationship between within-day drinking occasion and intake amount of water of primary and middle school students in four cities of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-jun; Hu, Xiao-qi; DU, Song-ming; Pan, Hui; Zhang, Qian; Yan, Le; Wang, Zheng-yuan; Nie, Shao-ping; Yang, Jian-bo; Ma, Guan-sheng

    2013-03-01

    To investigate the number of drinking occasions per day and average amount consumed per drinking occasion of primary and middle school students in four cities of China, and understand the relationship among drinking occasion, average amount consumed per drinking occasion and total drinking water. A total of 5914 primary and middle school students from Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou and Chengdu were selected using multiple-stage random sampling method, and 5868 students completed the study from September to October in 2011. The detailed information of amounts and types of daily drinking water was recorded by subjects using a 24 hours measurement for seven consecutive days. Analysis of the relationship among drinking occasion, average amount consumed per drinking occasion and total drinking water was carried out. The daily total drinking water of subjects was (1089 ± 540) ml; the daily number of drinking occasions was (4.7 ± 1.8) times, with 79.1% (4639/5868) of subjects reporting 6 or less drinking occasions. The amount consumed per drinking occasion was (239 ± 96) ml, plain water (231 ± 112) ml, and beverages (237 ± 112) ml. The number of drinking occasions of subjects was positively correlated with total drinking water (r = 0.614, P China, but the average amount of beverages consumed per drinking occasion was relatively more. With the increasing of drinking occasion, the average amount consumed per drinking occasion decreased, but total drinking water increased.

  11. Osmoregulatory responses to dietary protein and water intake in the granivorous Zonotrichia capensis (Passerine, Emberizidae Respuestas osmorregulatorias a la proteína dietaria y al consumo de agua en el granívoro Zonotrichia capensis (Paseriformes, Emberizidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PATRICIA ALDEA

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available We studied the osmoregulatory responses of the granivore Zonotrichia capensis, acclimated to high- and low-protein diets as well as two levels of water intake. We tested whether Z. capensis has the ability to modify the proportion of nitrogenous waste in the excreta when protein intake and water intake varies. After 21 days of acclimation, plasma osmolality was not significantly affected by dietary treatment; however, excreta osmolality was higher in the high-protein group compared to the low-protein group. Nitrogenous wastes in Z. capensis are excreted mainly in the form of uric acid. The proportion of kidney devoted to medullary tissue was 40 % higher in dehydrated birds than in hydrated birds. Excreta osmolality was higher in dehydrated birds, and in all cases higher than plasma concentration by more than 300 mOsm kg"¹. Our data do not support the hypothesis that Z. capensis can switch nitrogen excretion pathways. We hypothesize that the low water content of the seed-base diet, the comparatively low water intake, and the large difference between urine and plasma concentrations may minimize the retrograde flux of urine to the lower intestinal tract, thereby reducing the potential for post-renal urine modificationEstudiamos la respuesta osmorregulatoria del granívoro Zonotrichia capensis, aclimatado a dietas con alta y baja proteína como también a dos niveles de ingestión de agua. Evaluamos si Z. capensis tiene la capacidad de modificar la proporción de los desechos nitrogenados en la excreta cuando la ingestión de proteína y agua varía. Después de 21 días de aclimatación, la osmolalidad del plasma no fue afectada significativamente por el tratamiento dietario. Sin embargo, la osmolalidad de la excreta fue mayor en el grupo alta-proteína comparado con el grupo baja-proteína. Los desechos nitrogenados en Z. capensis son excretados mayoritariamente en forma de ácido úrico. La proporción del riñon ocupado por tejido medular fue

  12. Dietary intake of phytoestrogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker MI; SIR

    2004-01-01

    The dietary intake of phytoestrogens supposedly influences a variety of diseases, both in terms of beneficial and adverse effects. This report describes current knowledge on dietary intakes of phytoestrogens in Western countries, and briefly summarizes the evidence for health effects. The

  13. Fluid intake of adults in four Chinese cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Guansheng; Zhang, Qian; Liu, Ailing; Zuo, Jiaolei; Zhang, Wanfang; Zou, Shurong; Li, Xiaohui; Lu, Lixin; Pan, Hui; Hu, Xiaoqi

    2012-11-01

    To investigate the fluid intake and knowledge on water and health in Chinese adults, and to provide a scientific basis for the development of adequate water intake values for people in China. A total of 1,483 adults aged 18-60 years were selected from four provincial capital cities using a multiple-stage random sampling method. The information on the amounts and types of daily fluid intake was collected using a 24-h fluid intake record for 7 consecutive days. Trained interviewers used a questionnaire to assess knowledge on water. The median of daily total fluid intake was 1,488 mL, with a wide range from 86 mL to 7,036 mL. Significant differences were found for fluid intake among the four cities. The medians of daily intakes of plain water, tea, and beverages were 786 mL, 109 mL, and 186 mL, respectively. Approximately 32% of the subjects drank less water than the amount recommended by the Chinese Nutrition Society (1,200 mL/day) and 71.6% of participants lacked knowledge of these recommendations. Moreover, 48.3% of them drank water only when they felt thirsty. © 2012 International Life Sciences Institute.

  14. Effect of Types of Concentrate Supplement on Feed Intake and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The animals were allocated to four treatments consisting of Basal diet (Panicum maximum) alone, Basal + Soybean meal (GSM), Basal + Groundnut cake GGC) and Basal + Palm kernel cake (GPC). Daily intakes of grass, supplement and water intake as well as weekly liveweight changes were recorded in a 12 week ...

  15. Effect of using the Matrix Values for NSP-degrading enzymes on performance, water intake, litter moisture and jejunal digesta viscosity of broilers fed barley-based diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Adel Moftakharzadeh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have evaluated the effect of three multi-enzymes nutrient matrix values and compared the results with that fed barley and the corn diets without enzyme. In entire period, addition of all enzymes to the barley-based diet significantly (p 0.05. Litter moisture and water to feed ratio at 15, 25, and 33 days of age significantly decreased by addition of all enzymes (p < 0.05. In conclusion, considering nutrient matrix values for all used enzymes improved performance of broilers and can be used in formulating diets commercial broiler diets based on barley.

  16. FAT EMULSION COMPOSITION ALTERS INTAKE AND THE EFFECTS OF BACLOFEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y; Wilt, DC; Wojnicki, FHE; Babbs, RK; Coupland, JN; Corwin, RLC

    2011-01-01

    Thickened oil-in-water emulsions are useful model foods in rat studies due to their high acceptance and similarity to foods consumed by humans. Previous work from this laboratory used oil-in-water emulsions thickened with a biopolymer blend containing starch. Intake and effects of baclofen, a GABA-B agonist that decreases fat intake and drug self-administration, were reported, but the contribution of starch was not assessed. In the present study, intake and effects of baclofen were assessed in rats using emulsions prepared with two fat types (32% vegetable shortening, 32% corn oil) and thickened with three biopolymer blends. One biopolymer blend contained starch and the other two did not. Daily 1-h intake of the vegetable shortening emulsion containing starch was significantly greater than the other emulsions. When starch was added to the emulsions originally containing no starch, intake significantly increased. Baclofen generally reduced intake of all emulsions regardless of starch content and stimulated intake of chow. However, effects were more often significant for vegetable shortening emulsions. This report: 1) demonstrates that products used to prepare thickened oil-in-water emulsions have significant effects on rat ingestive behavior, and 2) confirms the ability of baclofen to reduce consumption of fatty foods, while simultaneously stimulating intake of chow. PMID:21855586

  17. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... environment and your health: Green living Sun Water Health effects of water pollution How to protect yourself from water pollution Air Chemicals Noise Quizzes Links to more information girlshealth glossary girlshealth. ...

  18. A metered intake of milk following exercise and thermal dehydration restores whole-body net fluid balance better than a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution or water in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seery, Suzanne; Jakeman, Philip

    2016-09-01

    Appropriate rehydration and nutrient intake in recovery is a key component of exercise performance. This study investigated whether the recovery of body net fluid balance (NFB) following exercise and thermal dehydration to -2 % of body mass (BM) was enhanced by a metered rate of ingestion of milk (M) compared with a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution (CE) or water (W). In randomised order, seven active men (aged 26·2 (sd 6·1) years) undertook exercise and thermal dehydration to -2 % of BM on three occasions. A metered replacement volume of M, CE or W equivalent to 150 % of the BM loss was then consumed within 2-3 h. NFB was subsequently measured for 5 h from commencement of rehydration. A higher overall NFB in M than CE (P=0·001) and W (P=0·006) was observed, with no difference between CE and W (P=0·69). After 5 h, NFB in M remained positive (+117 (sd 122) ml) compared with basal, and it was greater than W (-539 (sd 390) ml, P=0·011) but not CE (-381 (sd 460) ml, P=0·077, d=1·6). Plasma osmolality (Posm) and K remained elevated above basal in M compared with CE and W. The change in Posm was associated with circulating pre-provasopressin (r s 0·348, Pfluid ingestion acts in synergy with the nutrient composition of M in the restoration of NFB following exercise and thermal dehydration.

  19. Energy Intake from Restaurants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Lisa M.; Nguyen, Binh T.; Han, Euna

    2012-01-01

    Background Eating food away from home and restaurant consumption have increased over the past few decades. Purpose To examine recent changes in calories from fast-food and full-service restaurant consumption and to assess characteristics associated with consumption. Methods Analyses of 24-hour dietary recalls from children, adolescents, and adults using nationally representative data from the 2003–2004 through 2007–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, including analysis by gender, ethnicity, income and location of consumption. Multivariate regression analyses of associations between demographic and socioeconomic characteristics and consumption prevalence and average daily caloric intake from fast-food and full-service restaurants. Results In 2007–2008, 33%, 41% and 36% of children, adolescents and adults, respectively, consumed foods and/or beverages from fast-food restaurant sources and 12%, 18% and 27% consumed from full-service restaurants. Their respective mean caloric intake from fast food was 191 kcal, 404 kcal, and 315 kcal, down by 25% (p≤0.05), 3% and 9% from 2003–2004; and among consumers, intake was 576 kcal, 988 kcal, and 877 kcal, respectively, down by 12% (p≤0.05), 2% and 7%. There were no changes in daily calories consumed from full-service restaurants. Consumption prevalence and average daily caloric intake from fast-food (adults only) and full-service restaurants (all age groups) were higher when consumed away from home versus at home. There were some demographic and socioeconomic associations with the likelihood of fast-food consumption, but characteristics were generally not associated with the extent of caloric intake among those who consumed from fast-food or from full-service restaurants. Conclusions In 2007–2008, fast-food and full-service restaurant consumption remained prevalent and a source of substantial energy intake. PMID:23079172

  20. FAT EMULSION COMPOSITION ALTERS INTAKE AND THE EFFECTS OF BACLOFEN

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Y; Wilt, DC; Wojnicki, FHE; Babbs, RK; Coupland, JN; Corwin, RLC

    2011-01-01

    Thickened oil-in-water emulsions are useful model foods in rat studies due to their high acceptance and similarity to foods consumed by humans. Previous work from this laboratory used oil-in-water emulsions thickened with a biopolymer blend containing starch. Intake and effects of baclofen, a GABA-B agonist that decreases fat intake and drug self-administration, were reported, but the contribution of starch was not assessed. In the present study, intake and effects of baclofen were assessed i...

  1. Monitoring downstream migrations of Eriocheir sinensis H. Milne Edwards, 1853 (Crustacea: Brachyura: Grapsoidea: Varunidae in the River Thames using capture data from a water abstraction intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Morritt

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The International Union for Conservation of Nature has cited Eriocheir sinensis as one of the world’s worst 100 invasive species. Outsidetheir native range, this alien species has had adverse impacts, both ecologically and economically, on river catchments. Understanding thelife cycle of the Chinese mitten crab, especially details of the migration period, is important for the potential control of this exotic species.The mitten crab has been reported from the River Thames, London, England and in this watershed the population continues to increase innumbers, disperse in a westerly direction and reports of a downstream migration date back to 1996. Recently, regular collections from arubbish screen at a River Thames water abstraction point were used to monitor the migration of adult crabs over three years (2008–2010.Details of size, sex and condition of the crabs were recorded as were data on the abstracted flow. The main migration period runs fromAugust to early November with peak numbers of crabs recorded in September/early October. In all years the sex ratio of captured crabs washeavily skewed towards males, which were significantly larger than females. Furthermore there is some evidence that female crabs movelater in the migration period than males and that peaks in numbers of both male and female crabs are associated with full moon periods; peaknumbers demonstrating significant lunar periodicity. In addition there is a weak association between crab numbers and abstraction flow rate.The key findings are used to recommend the timing of any future control measures that might be designed to reduce the population of thisinvasive species in the River Thames. These recommendations could also be applied to other river catchments where the species isproblematic.

  2. Effect of Low-fat Milk Consumption Compared to Apple Juice and Water on the Energy Intake Among 10-12-Year-Old Obese Boys: A Three-way Cross-over Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaz Mehrabani

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: One serving of low-fat milk might affect the energy intake in a short-term period. The possible effect of frequent consumption of dairy products on long-term energy intake among children is needed to be examined.

  3. Dietary intake of the water-soluble vitamins B1, B2, B6, B12 and C in 10 countries in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, A; Halkjaer, J; van Gils, C H; Buijsse, B; Verhagen, H; Jenab, M; Boutron-Ruault, M C; Ericson, U; Ocké, M C; Peeters, P H M; Touvier, M; Niravong, M; Waaseth, M; Skeie, G; Khaw, K T; Travis, R; Ferrari, P; Sanchez, M J; Agudo, A; Overvad, K; Linseisen, J; Weikert, C; Sacerdote, C; Evangelista, A; Zylis, D; Tsiotas, K; Manjer, J; van Guelpen, B; Riboli, E; Slimani, N; Bingham, S

    2009-11-01

    To describe the intake of vitamins thiamine (B1), riboflavin (B2), B6 (pyridoxine), B12 (cobalamine) and C (ascorbic acid) and their food sources among 27 centres in 10 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Between 1995 and 2000, 36 034 persons aged between 35 and 74 years were administered a standardized 24-h dietary recall using a computerized interview software programme (EPIC-SOFT). Intakes of the four B vitamins and vitamin C were estimated using the standardized EPIC Nutrient Database (ENDB). Mean intakes were adjusted for age and weighted by season and day of recall. Intake of B vitamins did not vary considerably between centres, except in the UK health-conscious cohort, in which substantially higher intakes of thiamine and lower intakes of vitamin B12 were reported compared with other centres. Overall, meat was the most important contributor to the B vitamins in all centres except in the UK health-conscious group. Vitamin C showed a clear geographical gradient, with higher intakes in the southern centres as compared with the northern ones; this was more pronounced in men than in women. Vegetables and fruits were major contributors to vitamin C in all centres, but juices and potatoes were also important sources in the northern centres. This study showed no major differences across centres in the mean intakes of B vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, B6, B12), whereas a tendency towards a north-south gradient was observed for vitamin C.

  4. Free Surface Water Tunnel (FSWT)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description: The Free Surface Water Tunnel consists of the intake plenum, the test section and the exit plenum. The intake plenum starts with a perforated pipe that...

  5. THE IMPACTS OF FASTING PERIODS ON FOOD INTAKE, GROWTH RATE, COMPENSATORY GROWTH, AND EFFICIENCY OF FEED UTILIZATION IN BLUE TILAPIA (Oreochromis aureus REARED IN BRACKISH WATER PONDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priadi Setyawan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Blue tilapia (Oreochromis aureus has known as euryhaline species refers to wide range of salinity tolerance. The pure population or hybrid with other strain of tilapia can be a good candidate in marginal coastal land use. Tilapia is the most important aquaculture species in Indonesia. Refers to FAO 2010, Indonesia is the third biggest of tilapia production after China and Egypt. One of the main problems in aquaculture is their feed as the major cost in fish farming. Various techniques had carried out to reduce of feed cost such as improving fish quality, sex reversal and feed management. This research aimed to determine of compensatory growth in tilapia as one technique in feed management. Fry obtained from natural spawning in freshwater pond. Acclimatization in 20 ppt made in aquarium for 4 days after one month reared in hapas. Fish reared in 2 m x 1 m hapas with five treatments and three replications. This research had conducted at brackish water pond in Yogyakarta. The treatments is A: one day fasting and six days feeding (1/6, B: 2/5, C: 3/4, D: 4/3 and E is control. Results showed that the biggest of average weight gain is treatment of E (68.36 g followed by A (66.38 g, B (62.44 g, C (43.56 g, and D (27.30 g respectively. One-way ANOVAs analysis with 95% of interval confidences continued with Tukey’s Pairwaise comparison showed that nothing significant different between E, A, and B. The biggest of daily growth rate and specific growth rate is E (0.75 g/day and 4.68 %bw/day followed by A (0.73 g/day and 4.65 %bw/day; B (0.69 g/day and 4.58 %bw/day; C (0.48 g/day and 4.18% bw/day and D (0.29 g/day and 3.65% bw/day respectively. Survival rate of A is 73.00% followed by E. 72.00%, C. 71.00%, D. 69.69%, and B. 67.00% respectively. Feed conversion ratio of D is 0.83 followed by C (0.87, B (0.98, A (1.16, and E (1.41. Food efficiency ratio of D is 127.06% followed by C (118.75%, B (106.09%, A (88.87%, and E (73.38%. These

  6. Ghrelin reduces hypertonic saline intake under a variety of natriorexigenic conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Mietlicki, Elizabeth G.; Daniels, Derek

    2011-01-01

    Ghrelin is a gut peptide that has been studied extensively for its role in food intake and energy balance. More recent studies show that ghrelin reduces water intake in rats and some non-mammalian species. Despite the importance of the regulation of NaCl intake in body fluid homeostasis, the effects of ghrelin on saline intake have not been investigated. Accordingly, we tested the effect of ghrelin on water and 1.8% NaCl intake in two-bottle test conditions under five stimuli that increase hy...

  7. Peptides and Food Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobrino Crespo, Carmen; Perianes Cachero, Aránzazu; Puebla Jiménez, Lilian; Barrios, Vicente; Arilla Ferreiro, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms for controlling food intake involve mainly an interplay between gut, brain, and adipose tissue (AT), among the major organs. Parasympathetic, sympathetic, and other systems are required for communication between the brain satiety center, gut, and AT. These neuronal circuits include a variety of peptides and hormones, being ghrelin the only orexigenic molecule known, whereas the plethora of other factors are inhibitors of appetite, suggesting its physiological relevance in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. Nutrients generated by food digestion have been proposed to activate G-protein-coupled receptors on the luminal side of enteroendocrine cells, e.g., the L-cells. This stimulates the release of gut hormones into the circulation such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), oxyntomodulin, pancreatic polypeptides, peptide tyrosine tyrosine, and cholecystokinin, which inhibit appetite. Ghrelin is a peptide secreted from the stomach and, in contrast to other gut hormones, plasma levels decrease after a meal and potently stimulate food intake. Other circulating factors such as insulin and leptin relay information regarding long-term energy stores. Both hormones circulate at proportional levels to body fat content, enter the CNS proportionally to their plasma levels, and reduce food intake. Circulating hormones can influence the activity of the arcuate nucleus (ARC) neurons of the hypothalamus, after passing across the median eminence. Circulating factors such as gut hormones may also influence the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS) through the adjacent circumventricular organ. On the other hand, gastrointestinal vagal afferents converge in the NTS of the brainstem. Neural projections from the NTS, in turn, carry signals to the hypothalamus. The ARC acts as an integrative center, with two major subpopulations of neurons influencing appetite, one of them coexpressing neuropeptide Y and agouti-related protein (AgRP) that increases food

  8. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopold, Luna Bergere; Baldwin, Helene L.

    1962-01-01

    What do you use water for?If someone asked you this question you would probably think right away of water for drinking. Then you would think of water for bathing, brushing teeth, flushing the toilet. Your list would get longer as you thought of water for cooking, washing the dishes, running the garbage grinder. Water for lawn watering, for play pools, for swimming pools, for washing the car and the dog. Water for washing machines and for air conditioning. You can hardly do without water for fun and pleasure—water for swimming, boating, fishing, water-skiing, and skin diving. In school or the public library, you need water to wash your hands, or to have a drink. If your home or school bursts into flames, quantities of water are needed to put it out.In fact, life to Americans is unthinkable without large supplies of fresh, clean water. If you give the matter a little thought, you will realize that people in many countries, even in our own, may suffer from disease and dirt simply because their homes are not equipped with running water. Imagine your own town if for some reason - an explosion, perhaps - water service were cut off for a week or several weeks. You would have to drive or walk to a neighboring town and bring water back in pails. Certainly if people had to carry water themselves they might not be inclined to bathe very often; washing clothes would be a real chore.Nothing can live without water. The earth is covered by water over three-fourths of its surface - water as a liquid in rivers, lakes and oceans, and water as ice and snow on the tops of high mountains and in the polar regions. Only one-quarter of our bodies is bone and muscle; the other three-fourths is made of water. We need water to live, and so do plants and animals. People and animals can live a long time without food, but without water they die in a few days. Without water, everything would die, and the world would turn into a huge desert.

  9. Intake Factors and Intake Processes in Adult Language Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaravadivelu, B.

    1994-01-01

    Synthesizing theoretical and empirical insights from second-language acquisition, cognitive psychology, information processing, schema theory, and parallel distributed processing, this paper proposes an interactive framework of intake processes. It identifies intake factors and intake processes and argues that these factors and processes…

  10. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the tap as described). 3. In all situations, drink or cook only with water that comes out of the tap cold. Water that comes out of the tap warm or hot can contain much higher levels of lead. Boiling ...

  11. Caffeine intake and fecundability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Kold; Henriksen, T B; Hjollund, N H

    1998-01-01

    caffeine and smoking is biologically plausible, and the lack of effect among smokers may be due to faster metabolism of caffeine. Our findings suggest that especially nonsmoking women who wish to achieve a pregnancy might benefit from a reduced caffeine intake.......Fecundability has been defined as the ability to achieve a recognized pregnancy. Several studies on caffeine and fecundability have been conducted but have been inconclusive. This may be explained partly by lack of stratification by smoking. Furthermore, few researchers have tried to separate...... the effect of caffeine from different sources (coffee, tea, cola, and chocolate). Clearly, the relationship between caffeine and fecundability needs further research, given the high prevalence of caffeine intake among women of childbearing age. We examined the independent and combined effects of smoking...

  12. Get the Facts: Drinking Water and Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Related Links CDC Food Safety Adolescent and School Health BAM! Body and Mind Get the Facts: Drinking ...

  13. Ghrelin reduces hypertonic saline intake under a variety of natriorexigenic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mietlicki, Elizabeth G.; Daniels, Derek

    2011-01-01

    Ghrelin is a gut peptide that has been studied extensively for its role in food intake and energy balance. More recent studies show that ghrelin reduces water intake in rats and some non-mammalian species. Despite the importance of the regulation of NaCl intake in body fluid homeostasis, the effects of ghrelin on saline intake have not been investigated. Accordingly, we tested the effect of ghrelin on water and 1.8% NaCl intake in two-bottle test conditions under five stimuli that increase hypertonic saline intake: central angiotensin II administration, 24 h fluid deprivation, water deprivation followed by partial rehydration, dietary sodium deficiency, and polyethylene glycol administration combined with dietary sodium deficiency. We found that ghrelin attenuated saline intake stimulated by angiotensin II, by water deprivation followed by partial rehydration, and by dietary sodium deficiency. We did not detect an effect of ghrelin on saline intake after 24 h fluid deprivation without partial rehydration or after the combination of polyethylene glycol and dietary sodium deficiency. The finding that ghrelin reduced hypertonic saline intake under some, but not all, natriorexigenic conditions mirrors the previously published findings that in one-bottle tests of drinking, ghrelin reduces water intake under only some conditions. The results provide evidence for a new role for ghrelin in the regulation of body fluid homeostasis. PMID:21784787

  14. Ghrelin reduces hypertonic saline intake in a variety of natriorexigenic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mietlicki, Elizabeth G; Daniels, Derek

    2011-10-01

    Ghrelin is a gut peptide that has been studied extensively for its role in food intake and energy balance. More recent studies show that ghrelin reduces water intake in rats and some non-mammalian species. Despite the importance of the regulation of NaCl intake in body fluid homeostasis, the effects of ghrelin on saline intake have not been investigated. Accordingly, we tested the effect of ghrelin on water and 1.8% NaCl intake in two-bottle test conditions with the following five stimuli that increase hypertonic saline intake: central angiotensin II administration; 24 h fluid deprivation; water deprivation followed by partial rehydration; dietary sodium deficiency; and polyethylene glycol administration combined with dietary sodium deficiency. We found that ghrelin attenuated saline intake stimulated by angiotensin II, by water deprivation followed by partial rehydration and by dietary sodium deficiency. We did not detect an effect of ghrelin on saline intake after 24 h fluid deprivation without partial rehydration or after the combination of polyethylene glycol and dietary sodium deficiency. The finding that ghrelin reduced hypertonic saline intake in some, but not all, natriorexigenic conditions mirrors the previously published findings that in one-bottle tests of drinking, ghrelin reduces water intake in only some conditions. The results provide evidence for a new role for ghrelin in the regulation of body fluid homeostasis.

  15. Slimming starters. Intake of a diet-congruent food reduces meal intake in active dieters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckland, Nicola J; Finlayson, Graham; Hetherington, Marion M

    2013-12-01

    Dietary restraint is known to break down in the face of tempting foods. Previous research suggests exposure to cues associated with slimming such as images or odours act as prompts to restrict intake of a tempting snack in dieters. The effects of consuming diet-congruent foods on subsequent intake of a meal have not yet been investigated. Thus, using a repeated measures design 26 female participants (dieters or non-dieters) consumed a diet-congruent (100 kcal salad), hedonic (100 kcal garlic bread) or neutral (0 kcal water) preload. A lexical decision task measured the salience of diet and hedonic thoughts and participants were then offered pizza as a main meal. Appetite sensations were measured throughout the study. Compared to the hedonic and neutral preload, a diet-congruent preload reduced dieters' entire meal intake by 21%. In contrast, non-dieters consumed 9% more in the hedonic preload condition compared to the neutral preload, yet showed no differences between the diet-congruent and other conditions. Salad lowered participants desire to eat and increased fullness compared to garlic bread and water preloads. Dieters were also less hungry after the salad compared to the garlic bread and water preloads. Consuming a diet-congruent first course may prompt lower intake at a meal, in part due to facilitating resolve to refrain from overeating a tempting second course. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Elite premenarcheal rhythmic gymnasts demonstrate energy and dietary intake deficiencies during periods of intense training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michopoulou, Eleni; Avloniti, Alexandra; Kambas, Antonios; Leontsini, Diamanda; Michalopoulou, Maria; Tournis, Symeon; Fatouros, Ioannis G

    2011-11-01

    This study determined dietary intake and energy balance of elite premenarcheal rhythmic gymnasts during their preseason training. Forty rhythmic gymnasts and 40 sedentary age-matched females (10-12 yrs) participated in the study. Anthropometric profile and skeletal ages were determined. Dietary intake and physical activity were assessed to estimate daily energy intake, daily energy expenditure, and resting metabolic rate. Groups demonstrated comparable height, bone age, pubertal development, resting metabolic rate. Gymnasts had lower body mass, BMI, body fat than age-matched controls. Although groups demonstrated comparable daily energy intake, gymnasts exhibited a higher daily energy expenditure resulting in a daily energy deficit. Gymnasts also had higher carbohydrate intake but lower fat and calcium intake. Both groups were below the recommended dietary allowances for fiber, water, calcium, phosphorus and vitamin intake. Gymnasts may need to raise their daily energy intake to avoid the energy deficit during periods of intense training.

  17. Estimated Dietary Intake of Nitrite and Nitrate in Swedish Children

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This study examined the intake of nitrate and nitrite in Swedish children. Daily intake estimates were based on a nationwide food consumption survey (4-day food diary) and nitrite/nitrate content in vegetables, fruit, cured meat and water. The mean intake of nitrite from cured meat among 2259 children studied was 0.013, 0.010 and 0.007 mg kg-1 body weight day-1 in age groups 4, 8-9 and 11-12, respectively. Among these age groups, three individuals (0.1% of the studied chil...

  18. 76 FR 2579 - Safety Zone; Lake Mead Intake Construction, Lake Mead, Boulder City, NV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-14

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Lake Mead Intake Construction, Lake Mead... establishing a safety zone on the navigable waters of Lake Mead in support of the construction project for Lake... blasting operations for the placement of a water intake pipe in Lake Mead during the first 6 months of 2011...

  19. Water and feed utilization relationship in West African Dwarf (Forest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There was no significant difference in the average water intake between the groups but feed intake was significantly different between the groups (P<0.05). Feed efficiency was very similar· between the groups; Dry Matter (DM) intake to water intake ratios were 0.21 and 0.27 respectively while mean daily liveweight gains ...

  20. Nitrogen and phosphorus intake by phytoplankton in the Xiamen Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Cai; Li, Hui; He, Qing; Xu, Kuncan; Wu, Shengsan; Zhang, Yuanbiao; Chen, Jinmin; Chen, Baohong; Lin, Libin; Lu, Meiluan; Chen, Weifen; Tang, Rongkun; Ji, Weidong

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a time series experiment examining the nitrogen and phosphorus intake of natural phytoplankton communities by a microcosms approach. Seawater samples containing natural phytoplankton communities were collected from waters around Baozhu Islet in inner Xiamen Bay and around Qingyu Islet in the outer bay. The goal was to elucidate the relationship between phytoplankton population enhancement, the biological removal of nitrogen and phosphorus from the seawater, and the phytoplankton nitrogen and phosphorus intake ratio based on nitrogen and phosphorus removal from seawater by phytoplankton, to provide a basis for detecting prewarning conditions for red tide and the assessment of red tide events. Two key results were obtained: 1. During the experiment, the nitrogen and phosphorus seawater concentrations in samples from these two sites were negatively and closely correlated to the logarithm of the phytoplankton cell concentration and to the value of the apparent oxygen increment. The ratio of the intake coefficients was 3.5:1 for phosphorus and 1.1:1 for nitrogen for the phytoplankton between these samples from around Baozhu Islet and Qingyu Islet, respectively. This indicates that the intake capabilities of phytoplankton for nitrogen in the two waters are essentially identical. However, for phosphorus, the capability was much higher in the Baozhu Islet waters than the Qingyu Islet waters. In other words, the phytoplankton in Qingyu Islet waters produced more biomass while consuming the same amount of phosphorus as the other waters; 2. The phytoplankton nitrogen and phosphorus intake ratio from the Baozhu Islet and Qingyu Islet waters was 20:1 and 36:1, respectively. The latter waters had a significantly higher ratio than the former and both were higher than the Redfield Ratio. These results indicate that nitrogen and phosphorus intake ratios by phytoplankton can vary significantly from region to region.

  1. Sodium intake and cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Martin; Mente, Andrew; Yusuf, Salim

    2015-03-13

    Sodium is an essential nutrient. Increasing sodium intake is associated with increasing blood pressure, whereas low sodium intake results in increased renin and aldosterone levels. Randomized controlled trials have reported reductions in blood pressure with reductions in sodium intake, to levels of sodium intake 6-month duration). It is assumed that the blood pressure-lowering effects of reducing sodium intake to low levels will result in large reductions in cardiovascular disease globally. However, current evidence from prospective cohort studies suggests a J-shaped association between sodium intake and cardiovascular events, based on studies from >300 000 people, and suggests that the lowest risk of cardiovascular events and death occurs in populations consuming an average sodium intake range (3-5 g/d). The increased risk of cardiovascular events associated with higher sodium intake (>5 g/d) is most prominent in those with hypertension. A major deficit in the field is the absence of large randomized controlled trials to provide definitive evidence on optimal sodium intake for preventing cardiovascular events. Pending such trials, current evidence would suggest a recommendation for moderate sodium intake in the general population (3-5 g/d), with targeting the lower end of the moderate range among those with hypertension. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Peptides and Food Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Sobrino Crespo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Nutrients created by the digestion of food are proposed to active G protein coupled receptors on the luminal side of enteroendocrine cells e.g. the L-cell. This stimulates the release of gut hormones. Hormones released from the gut and adipose tissue play an important rol in the regulation of food intake and energy expenditure (1.Many circulating signals, including gut hormones, can influence the activity of the arcuate nucleus (ARC neurons directly, after passing across the median eminence. The ARC is adjacent to the median eminence, a circumventricular organ with fenestrated capillaries and hence an incomplete blood-brain barrier (2. The ARC of the hypothalamus is believed to play a crucial role in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. The ARC contains two populations of neurons with opposing effect on food intake (3. Medially located orexigenic neurons (i.e those stimulating appetite express neuropeptide Y (NPY and agouti-related protein (AgRP (4-5. Anorexigenic neurons (i.e. those inhibiting appetite in the lateral ARC express alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH derived from pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC and cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART (6. The balance between activities of these neuronal circuits is critical to body weight regulation.In contrast, other peripheral signals influence the hypothalamus indirectly via afferent neuronal pathway and brainstem circuits. In this context gastrointestinal’s vagal afferents are activated by mechanoreceptors and chemoreceptors, and converge in the nucleus of the tractus solitaries (NTS of the brainstem. Neuronal projections from the NTS, in turn, carry signals to the hypotalamus (1, 7. Gut hormones also alter the activity of the ascending vagal pathway from the gut to the brainstem. In the cases of ghrelin and Peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY, there are evidences for both to have a direct action on the arcuate nucleus and an action via the vagus nerve a

  3. Assessing Dietary Intake in Childhood Cancer Survivors: Food Frequency Questionnaire Versus 24-Hour Diet Recalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fang Fang; Roberts, Susan B; Must, Aviva; Wong, William W; Gilhooly, Cheryl H; Kelly, Michael J; Parsons, Susan K; Saltzman, Edward

    2015-10-01

    Cancer diagnosis and treatment may influence dietary intake. The validity of using self-reported methods to quantify dietary intake has not been evaluated in childhood cancer survivors. We validated total energy intake (EI) reported from Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and repeated 24-hour diet recalls (24HRs) against total energy expenditure (TEE) measured using the doubly labeled water method in 16 childhood cancer survivors. Dietary underreporting, assessed by (EI-TEE)/TEE × 100%, was 22% for FFQ and 1% for repeated 24HRs. FFQ significantly underestimates dietary intake and should not be used to assess the absolute intake of foods and nutrients in childhood cancer survivors.

  4. Water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available , and of the remaining 2,5 percent, some 70 percent is frozen in the polar caps and around 30 percent is present as soil moisture or in underground aquifers. Less than 1 percent is thus accessible for direct use by humans, animals and plants. Consequently... be serviced with harvested water and/or grey water. Conserve and reuse cooling tower water by using efficient systems and strategies. Avoid ?once-through systems? commonly used for evaporation coolers, ice makers, hydraulic equipment, and air compressors...

  5. Fluoride intake from drinking water and dentifrice by children living in a tropical area of Brazil Ingestão de flúor pela água e creme dental por crianças residentes de uma área de clima tropical do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Maria F. Omena

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess fluoride (F- intake from water and toothpaste by children aged 18 to 36 months and to monitor the F- concentrations in the drinking water system in a tropical city of Brazil. METHODS: Children (n=58 aged 18-36 months, all lifetime residents of Penedo, state of Alagoas, Brazil, participated in this study. Water F- analyses were carried out in 7 different occasions at least a week apart. For 2 days all the water drunk by each child was accounted for. Fluoride intake from water for each child was estimated using the mean F- concentration of water in 7 different occasions. Fluoride intake from toothpaste was estimated by subtracting the recovered post-brushing F- from the original amount placed in the toothbrush. The F- intake from water and toothpaste was estimated by dividing the total amount of F- ingested by the weight of each child. RESULTS: The mean F- concentration in the drinking water was 0.94 ppm (mean range 0.78-1.1 ppm, which is above the 0.7 ppm recommended for this area of Brazil. Mean total F- intake from water and toothpaste was 0.128 mg F-/Kg Body Weight/day. The daily means of F- intake from water and toothpaste were 0.021 and 0.107 mg F-/Kg Body Weight, respectively. Ninety six percent of children showed F- intake above 0.07 mg F-/Kg Body Weight/day. CONCLUSIONS: Children in Penedo are at risk for developing dental fluorosis due to high F- intake from fluoridated toothpastes. Water fluoridation showed low contribution to the total F- intake. However, high water F- concentrations in the water indicate the need of surveillance of the artificial water fluoridation system.OBJETIVOS: determinar a ingestão de flúor (F- pela água e creme dental em crianças de 18 a 36 meses de idade que moram em uma cidade de clima tropical no Brasil e monitorar as concentrações de F- no sistema de água potável. MATERIAIS MÉTODOS: participaram deste estudo crianças (n=58, 18-36 meses, todas residentes vitalícias de Penedo

  6. Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sanmuga Priya

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Phytoremediation through aquatic macrophytes treatment system (AMATS for the removal of pollutants and contaminants from various natural sources is a well established environmental protection technique. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes, a worst invasive aquatic weed has been utilised for various research activities over the last few decades. The biosorption capacity of the water hyacinth in minimising various contaminants present in the industrial wastewater is well studied. The present review quotes the literatures related to the biosorption capacity of the water hyacinth in reducing the concentration of dyestuffs, heavy metals and minimising certain other physiochemical parameters like TSS (total suspended solids, TDS (total dissolved solids, COD (chemical oxygen demand and BOD (biological oxygen demand in textile wastewater. Sorption kinetics through various models, factors influencing the biosorption capacity, and role of physical and chemical modifications in the water hyacinth are also discussed.

  7. [Dietary reference intakes of phosphorus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uenishi, Kazuhiro

    2012-10-01

    Phosphorus (P) exists at the all organs and plays important physiological roles in the body. A wide range of food contains P, which is absorbed at a higher level (60-70%) and its insufficiency and deficiency are rarely found. P is used as food additives in many processed food, where risk of overconsumption could be an issue. P has less evidence in terms of nutrition. P has the adequate intake and the tolerable upper intake level, for risk reduction of health disorders associated with excess intake, at the Dietary Reference Intakes for Japanese (2010 edition).

  8. Primary liquid intake and urinary stone disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuster, J; Finlayson, B; Scheaffer, R L; Sierakowski, R; Zoltek, J; Dzegede, S

    1985-01-01

    This investigation indicates that there are important associations between urinary stone disease and a person's primary liquid intake. Based on data collected from 2295 caucasian male patients from two geographical regions, the Carolinas (both North and South) and the Rockies (including Colorado, Idaho, Nevada, Montana, Utah and Wyoming) an important (p less than 0.01) positive association was found between urinary stone disease and soda (carbonated beverage) consumption within both geographical regions. It was also found that negative associations exist between urinary stone disease and both beer consumption and coffee consumption in the Rockies and that no important associations exist between urinary stone disease and any of milk, water, or tea, when these beverages represent a person's primary liquid intake. Moreover, soda can be viewed almost synonymously as sugared cola, since few subjects had diet sodas or sugared non-cola soda as primary fluid. No cause/effect relationships are implied in this paper.

  9. Concentración de trihalometanos y de ácidos haloacéticos en el agua de consumo y estimación de su ingesta durante el embarazo en la cohorte INMA-Guipúzcoa (España Trihalomethane and haloacetic acid concentrations in drinking water and their estimated intake during pregnancy in the INMA cohort (Guipúzcoa, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loreto Santa Marina

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Describir la concentración de trihalometanos (THM y ácidos haloacéticos (AHA del agua de consumo, valorar su variación espacio-temporal y estimar las ingestas individuales en el embarazo. Métodos: En los años 2006-2008 se analizó el agua en 33 puntos representativos de las redes de abastecimiento de los 25 municipios del área de estudio. Los hábitos de consumo de agua se obtuvieron mediante cuestionario. Resultados: La media (desviación estándar fue de 16,9µg/l (7,9 para el total de THM y de 10,9µg/l (4,9 para la suma de las concentraciones de cinco: monocloroacético, dicloroacético, tricloroacético, monobromoacético y dibromoacético (AHA5. Las concentraciones fueron menores en las aguas de manantial, sólo cloradas, que en las de embalse, sometidas a tratamiento completo de potabilización: 8,8µg/l frente a 19,1µg/l (pObjectives: To report trihalomethane (THM and haloacetic acid (HAA concentrations in drinking water, assess variations in these concentrations depending on source and over time, and estimate individual intake during pregnancy. Methods: Water taken from 33 representative points of the water supply network of the 25 municipalities in the study area was analyzed from 2006-2008. Water drinking habits were recorded using a questionnaire. Results: Mean total THM concentrations were 16.9µg/L (standard deviation, 7.9, while the mean value for the sum of concentrations of five HAA (monochloroacetic, dichloroacetic, tricholoroacetic, monobromoacetic, and dicromoacetic acids was 10.9µg/L (standard deviation, 4.9. Concentrations were lower in spring waters, which were only chlorinated, compared with dam waters, which were subject to a complete purification treatment: 8.8µg/L vs 19.1µg/L (p<0.01 and 8.2µg/L vs 11.7µg/L (p<0.01. Concentrations significantly increased with the number of deposits in the network and with their rechlorination and were higher in the summer and fall. Mean intakes of total THM and

  10. Exercise attenuates oral intake of amphetamine in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanarek, R B; Marks-Kaufman, R; D'Anci, K E; Przypek, J

    1995-08-01

    The effects of wheel running on oral intake of amphetamine were examined in six male Sprague-Dawley rats given a 0.075-mg/ml amphetamine sulfate solution as their sole source of liquid, six rats given a 0.15-mg/ml amphetamine solution, and four rats given water as their sole source of liquid. All animals were housed in Wahmann running wheels and adjoining cages, and had ad lib access to ground Purina Chow. For the first 7 days of the experiment, the doors to the running wheels were closed; the wheels were then opened for 6 days. This cycle was repeated a second time. Animals drinking the 0.15-mg/ml amphetamine solution consumed significantly less food and gained less weight than animals in the other two groups. Although there was no difference in food intake between rats drinking water and rats drinking the 0.075-mg/ml amphetamine solution, rats in the water group gained significantly more weight than rats in the 0.075-mg/ml amphetamine group. With respect to drug intake, rats consumed significantly less amphetamine when running in the wheels than when access to the wheels was prohibited. Access to running wheels did not alter water intake. These latter results suggest that drug intake can be reduced by the provision of an alternate behavior.

  11. Dietary intake of the water-soluble vitamins B1, B2, B6, B12 and C in 10 countries in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olsen, A.; Halkjaer, J.; van Gils, C. H.; Buijsse, B.; Verhagen, H.; Jenab, M.; Boutron-Ruault, M. C.; Ericson, U.; Ocke, M. C.; Peeters, P. H. M.; Touvier, M.; Niravong, M.; Waaseth, M.; Skeie, G.; Khaw, K. T.; Travis, R.; Ferrari, P.; Sanchez, M. J.; Agudo, A.; Overvad, K.; Linseisen, J.; Weikert, C.; Sacerdote, C.; Evangelista, A.; Zylis, D.; Tsiotas, K.; Manjer, J.; van Guelpen, B.; Riboli, E.; Slimani, N.; Bingham, S.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the intake of vitamins thiamine (B1), riboflavin (B2), B6 (pyridoxine), B12 (cobalamine) and C (ascorbic acid) and their food sources among 27 centres in 10 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Methods:

  12. Fluids Intake and Beverage Consumption Pattern among University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Ghaemmaghami

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Insufficient and inappropriate daily fluid intake in a long period may have adverseeffect on human's health. Therefore, the present study evaluated the amounts and sources of fluidsconsumed by university students to determine whether these amounts and sources of fluid wereenough and appropriate.Methods: In this descriptive study, 245 (142 females and 103 males volunteer students of TabrizUniversity of Medical Sciences in 2009 were recruited. Food and fluid intake of subjects were assessedby 24-hour recall method of 3 days (two week days and one week- end included. Dietaryintake of subjects was analyzed by Nutritionist III software program. The mean total fluid intake(drinking fluid values merged with data on the water content of foods and the rate of metabolicwater were figured out. Comparisons of the results with recommended dietary values were madeusing student's t-test.. Data of dietary intakes for two under-reporter female subjects were notincluded in the statistical analysis.Results: Daily total mean of fluid intake for girls (1598±40ml and boys (1861±59ml reflect thesum of beverages (Girls, 818±29ml; boys, 1147±57ml and food water (Girls, 780±47ml; boys,714±86m. The most consumed beverage for girls and boys were water (40% and tea (49%respectively. Daily mean intake of milk for girls and boys were 106.31±10ml (13% and57.30±11ml (5%, respectively.Conclusion: The mean daily fluid intake of subjects, specially water, and milk was lower than recommendedvalues. Therefore, there is an urgent need for tailored nutrition intervention targetingthe young adults to improve their beverage choices.

  13. Ingestão de flúor por crianças pela água e dentifrício Fluoride intake by children from water and dentifrice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ynara Bosco de Oliveira Lima

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a dose total de flúor proporcionada por dieta (líquidos e sólidos e escovação com dentifrícios fluoretados a crianças na idade crítica para o desenvolvimento da fluorose dental em uma região de água fluoretada. MÉTODOS: Para realização de um estudo-piloto, foram selecionadas 39 crianças (20 a 30 meses de idade de uma creche de Piracicaba, SP, Brasil. Elas bebiam água fluoretada de abastecimento e comiam alimentos preparados com ela. Foi feita a coleta da dieta-duplicada e dos produtos da escovação por dois dias seguidos, em quatro períodos do ano. A concentração de flúor nas amostras foi determinada utilizando-se eletrodo específico. Foi realizada análise de variância (Anova com nível de 5% de significância. RESULTADOS: A dose total média encontrada foi de 0,090 mg F/dia/kg, tendo a dieta contribuído com 45%, e o dentifrício, com 55%. CONCLUSÕES: Aceitando-se o limite de 0,07 mg F/kg para exposição sistêmica ao flúor, conclui-se que as crianças estão expostas a uma dose total de risco em termos de fluorose dental clinicamente aceitável. Entre as várias medidas de precaução que poderiam ser tomadas para diminuir a ingestão de flúor, a redução da quantidade de dentifrício utilizada para escovar os dentes foi considerada a mais apropriada, contemplando risco/benefício para a saúde pública.OBJECTIVE: To determine the total fluoride dose to which children were exposed during the critical age of developing dental fluorosis, in an optimally fluoridated region, having diet (liquids and solids and dentifrice as fluoride sources. METHODS: For the pilot study, 39 children (aged 20 to 30 months were selected from a day care center in Piracicaba, Brazil. They drank and ate food prepared with fluoridated water. To determine the total dose of fluoride exposure, duplicate-plate samples and products from tooth brushing were collected for two consecutive days, in four periods of the year

  14. New Reference Values for Energy Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The reference values for energy intake of the German, Austrian and Swiss nutrition societies for children, adolescents and adults are derived using the factorial method. For adults, a mean BMI of 22 kg/m(2) is taken as a basis given the current mean body size for adults residing in Germany (taken from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults, DEGS1). The determination of the energy expenditure for infants is based on data obtained using the doubly labelled water (DLW) method. The energy storage in growing tissue will be added for the purpose of deriving reference values for this age group. For pregnant women, given an increase in body weight of 12 kg during pregnancy, guiding values for additional energy intake in the second trimester of 250 kcal/day and in the third trimester of 500 kcal/day are indicated using DLW data sets and taking energy storage in growing tissue into account. In case of overweight prior to pregnancy as well as in the case of reduced physical activity during pregnancy, the additional requirement is lower. For women exclusively breastfeeding during the first 4-6 months, the guiding value for additional energy intake is quoted as 500 kcal/day. 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Dietary Salt Intake and Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Over the past century, salt has been the subject of intense scientific research related to blood pressure elevation and cardiovascular mortalities. Moderate reduction of dietary salt intake is generally an effective measure to reduce blood pressure. However, recently some in the academic society and lay media dispute the benefits of salt restriction, pointing to inconsistent outcomes noted in some observational studies. A reduction in dietary salt from the current intake of 9-12 g/day to the recommended level of less than 5-6 g/day will have major beneficial effects on cardiovascular health along with major healthcare cost savings around the world. The World Health Organization (WHO) strongly recommended to reduce dietary salt intake as one of the top priority actions to tackle the global non-communicable disease crisis and has urged member nations to take action to reduce population wide dietary salt intake to decrease the number of deaths from hypertension, cardiovascular disease and stroke. However, some scientists still advocate the possibility of increased risk of CVD morbidity and mortality at extremes of low salt intake. Future research may inform the optimal sodium reduction strategies and intake targets for general populations. Until then, we have to continue to build consensus around the greatest benefits of salt reduction for CVD prevention, and dietary salt intake reduction strategies must remain at the top of the public health agenda. PMID:25061468

  16. Fluoride intake in children living in a high-fluoride area in Ethiopia - intake through beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malde, M K; Zerihun, L; Julshamn, K; Bjorvatn, K

    2003-01-01

    The present study was conducted in Wonji Shoa, a sugar estate in the Ethiopian Rift Valley. Drinking water in the area is provided either by the Awash River or by high-fluoride ground water wells. Defluoridation plants have been installed, but are not in regular use, and fluorosis, dental as well as skeletal, is endemic. The aim of this study was to assess daily fluoride intake from drinking water and beverages in children from neighbouring villages with varying fluoride concentration in the drinking water. Thirty families were selected from two of the plantation villages (A and K). The criterion for being included in the project was the presence in the household of at least one child, fully weaned and below the age of 5 years. For sampling of beverages, the duplicate portion technique was used. The fluoride concentration in the beverage samples was determined using standard methods, using a fluoride ion-selective electrode. Ten of the selected households in Village A fetched water from the Awash River (1.8 mg F-/L) while five relied upon water from a local well (2.1 mg F-/L). All 15 households in Village K used water from a local well with fluoride concentration of 14.4 mg/L. The mean daily fluoride intake from drinking water and beverages during the four days, varied from 1.2 to 1.5 mg and 5.9 to 8.8 mg in Village A and K, respectively. Low variety in types of beverages consumed was reported both during the study period and through the questionnaire. Only local water was used for beverage preparation. Children who consumed milk had a reduced fluoride intake. Tea, which was part of the children's diet, was not found to be a main source of fluoride. A2n effective defluoridation of the drinking water or a change of water source would seem to be the only options for avoidance of dental and possibly skeletal fluorosis.

  17. Effect of vortex formation on sediment transport at dual pipe intakes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vortex formation and subsequent sediment transport into the intake due to sea water withdrawal is one of the problems in coastal engineering. The effect of vortex formation on rate of sediment transport at coastal dual pipe intakes was investigated using a scaled physical model. Experiments were performed on dual pipe ...

  18. A premeal snack of raisins decreases mealtime food intake more than grapes in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Barkha P; Luhovyy, Bohdan; Mollard, Rebecca; Painter, James E; Anderson, G Harvey

    2013-04-01

    The effect of a premeal snack of grapes, raisins, or a mix of almonds and raisins, compared with a water control, on food intake (FI) was examined in 8- to 11-year-old normal-weight (15th to 85th percentile) children. Children randomly received 1 of 4 ad libitum (Experiment 1: 13 boys, 13 girls) or fixed-calorie (150 kcal; Experiment 2: 13 boys, 13 girls) treatments, followed by an ad libitum pizza meal 30 min later. Appetite was measured throughout the study, and FI was measured at 30 min. The ad libitum consumption (Experiment 1) of raisins reduced pizza intake (p snack (15%). Cumulative energy intake (in kcal: snack + pizza) was lower after water and raisins than after either grapes or the mixed snack (p snack (Experiment 2), raisins reduced pizza intake, compared with water (∼11%, p = 0.005), and resulted in a cumulative intake similar to water; however, both grapes and the mixed snack resulted in higher cumulative intakes (p snacks (p snack (p snack of raisins, but not grapes or a mix of raisins and almonds, reduces meal-time energy intake and does not lead to increased cumulative energy intake in children.

  19. Dietary Intake of Competitive Bodybuilders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spendlove, Jessica; Mitchell, Lachlan; Gifford, Janelle; Hackett, Daniel; Slater, Gary; Cobley, Stephen; O'Connor, Helen

    2015-07-01

    Competitive bodybuilders are well known for extreme physique traits and extremes in diet and training manipulation to optimize lean mass and achieve a low body fat. Although many of the dietary dogmas in bodybuilding lack scientific scrutiny, a number, including timing and dosing of high biological value proteins across the day, have more recently been confirmed as effective by empirical research studies. A more comprehensive understanding of the dietary intakes of bodybuilders has the potential to uncover other dietary approaches, deserving of scientific investigation, with application to the wider sporting, and potential health contexts, where manipulation of physique traits is desired. Our objective was to conduct a systematic review of dietary intake practices of competitive bodybuilders, evaluate the quality and currency of the existing literature, and identify research gaps to inform future studies. A systematic search of electronic databases was conducted from the earliest record until March 2014. The search combined permutations of the terms 'bodybuilding', 'dietary intake', and 'dietary supplement'. Included studies needed to report quantitative data (energy and macronutrients at a minimum) on habitual dietary intake of competitive bodybuilders. The 18 manuscripts meeting eligibility criteria reported on 385 participants (n = 62 women). Most studies were published in the 1980-1990s, with three published in the past 5 years. Study methodological quality was evaluated as poor. Energy intake ranged from 10 to 24 MJ/day for men and from 4 to 14 MJ/day for women. Protein intake ranged from 1.9 to 4.3 g/kg for men and from 0.8 to 2.8 g/kg for women. Intake of carbohydrate and fat was 6 months from competition) or immediate post-competition period and lowest during competition preparation (≤6 months from competition) or competition week. The most commonly reported dietary supplements were protein powders/liquids and amino acids. The studies failed to provide

  20. Protein leverage and energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosby, A K; Conigrave, A D; Raubenheimer, D; Simpson, S J

    2014-03-01

    Increased energy intakes are contributing to overweight and obesity. Growing evidence supports the role of protein appetite in driving excess intake when dietary protein is diluted (the protein leverage hypothesis). Understanding the interactions between dietary macronutrient balance and nutrient-specific appetite systems will be required for designing dietary interventions that work with, rather than against, basic regulatory physiology. Data were collected from 38 published experimental trials measuring ad libitum intake in subjects confined to menus differing in macronutrient composition. Collectively, these trials encompassed considerable variation in percent protein (spanning 8-54% of total energy), carbohydrate (1.6-72%) and fat (11-66%). The data provide an opportunity to describe the individual and interactive effects of dietary protein, carbohydrate and fat on the control of total energy intake. Percent dietary protein was negatively associated with total energy intake (F = 6.9, P leverage in lean, overweight and obese humans. A better appreciation of the targets and regulatory priorities for protein, carbohydrate and fat intake will inform the design of effective and health-promoting weight loss diets, food labelling policies, food production systems and regulatory frameworks. © 2013 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2013 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  1. Food intake of university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greyce Luci BERNARDO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This narrative literature review aimed to analyze the results of studies on the food intake of university students. A literature search was conducted in July 2014 and updated in July 2016 in the Scopus, MedLine/PubMed, and SciELO databases, using descriptors related to university students and food intake in English and Portuguese. Overall, 37 studies that analyzed university students’ food intake were included in this review, eight of which were conducted in Brazil. The results demonstrated that most university students have unhealthy eating behaviors, such as high intake of fast foods, snacks, sweets, soft drinks, and alcoholic beverages, and low intake of fruits, vegetables, fish, whole grains, and legumes. Undergraduate students of health sciences, such as nursing, nutrition, and medicine, did not have healthier diets. University students’ food intake was characterized as unhealthy, regardless of undergraduate program or sex, especially among students who left the parents’ home and became responsible for their own food. Therefore, there is a need of developing public policies that promote healthy eating habits among students, such as interventions to change their eating habits and increase their access to healthy foods at the university environment.

  2. Postpartum Nutrient Intakes and Beverage Patterns of American Indian Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa A. Marshall

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: American Indian (AI children are at risk for chronic diseases associated with marginal early nutrition environments. We describe nutrient intakes and beverage patterns of AI women during the early postnatal period to identify nutritional adequacy and beverage habits. Methods: 24 hour recalls and beverage frequency questionnaires were administered to AI mothers (n = 239 from a Northern Plains Tribal community 1 month postpartum. 24 hour recalls were analyzed using Nutritionist PRO(R software, and intakes were compared to Estimated Average Requirements (EAR. Results: The percentage of AI women reporting nutrient intakes below the EAR was 97% for vitamin D, 96% for vitamin E, 69% for vitamin A, 55% for vitamin C, 73% for calcium and 79% for magnesium. Median (25th, 75th percentile beverage intakes reported by beverage consumers were 8.0(4.0, 16.0 oz milk, 8.0(3.4, 16.0 oz 100% juice, 8.0(4.0, 16.0 oz juice drinks, 18.6(7.4, 28.0 oz regular pop, 9.1(4.6, 18.3oz sports drinks, 12.0(5.1, 22.0oz sugared flavored water and 48.0(24.0, 96.0 oz water. Conclusions: The low nutrient and high sugared beverage intakes increased risk of chronic malnutrition. The nutritional environment predisposes AI children to chronic diseases including obesity and dental caries through early metabolic programming and later modeling behaviors.

  3. Estimated Daily Average Per Capita Water Ingestion by Child and Adult Age Categories Based on USDA's 1994-96 and 1998 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (Journal Article)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current water ingestion estimates are important for the assessment of risk to human populations of exposure to water-borne pollutants. This paper reports mean and percentile estimates of the distributions of daily average per capita water ingestion for 12 age range groups. The a...

  4. 33 CFR 165.T11-281 - Safety Zone; Lake Mead Intake Construction; Lake Mead, Boulder City, NV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety Zone; Lake Mead Intake Construction; Lake Mead, Boulder City, NV. 165.T11-281 Section 165.T11-281 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Coast Guard District § 165.T11-281 Safety Zone; Lake Mead Intake Construction; Lake Mead, Boulder City...

  5. Effect of naltrexone on food intake and body weight in Syrian hamsters depends on metabolic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Juli E; Corp, Eric S

    2003-01-01

    Opioids are a family of neuropeptides involved in the control of food intake and regulation of body weight. In general, nonselective opioid antagonists have inhibited food intake in a variety of paradigms in rodent species. Syrian hamsters may be an exception to the general findings. In a previous report, we showed that systemic administration of an opioid antagonist, naltrexone, for 2 days increased body weight in female Syrian hamsters. To confirm the extent of these finding we designed the present experiment testing the effect of a chronic 6-day infusion of naltrexone on food intake, water intake, and body weight in freely feeding male hamsters. In addition, we examined the effect of acute administration of naltrexone on food intake in both ad-libitum-fed and food-deprived hamsters. We found that chronic systemic administration of naltrexone caused a significant increase in food intake and body weight. Second, acute administration of naltrexone decreased food intake after a 48-h fast but had no effect in ad-libitum-fed hamsters. Water consumption was not altered in any experimental paradigm. Our results suggest that opioid circuits in Syrian hamsters may function tonically to suppress food intake and body weight when Syrian hamsters are in positive energy balance. Paradoxically, opioids may enhance food intake after a sustained fast.

  6. Dietary intake of seven B vitamins based on a total diet study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Toshiaki; Suemura, Kyoko; Taniguchi, Ayumi; Ebara, Shuhei; Kimura, Sachiko; Fukui, Toru

    2010-01-01

    The present study estimated the dietary intake of seven B vitamins using a total diet study (TDS) in Japan. The daily intake of vitamins estimated by TDS was calculated based on the mean contents of vitamins in 18 food groups, and the amount of food intake in the Nation Health and Nutrition Survey in Japan, 2006. The estimated daily intake of these vitamins for all ages was 22.8 mg NE/d for niacin, 7.4 µg/d for vitamin B(12), 146 µg/d for folic acid, 4.52 mg/d for pantothenic acid, 1.06 mg/d for riboflavin, and 1.44 mg/d for pyridoxine. The estimated daily intake of the vitamins of niacin, vitamin B(12) and pyridoxine exceeded the dietary reference values for adults aged 18-29 y. The estimated daily intake of these vitamins by TDS was higher than the daily intake reported in the National Health and Nutrition Survey in Japan, 2006. There was a strongly positive correlation between the intake levels estimated by TDS and those reported in the National Health and Nutrition Survey. This suggests that TDS is an effective dietary survey for estimating the dietary intake of water-soluble vitamins. Therefore, when being determined by TDS, the estimated daily intake of biotin was 51.0 µg/d for all ages.

  7. Food intake and nutrition in children 1-4 years of age in Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuanalo de la Cerda, Heriberto E; Ochoa Estrada, Ernesto; Tuz Poot, Felipe R; Datta Banik, Sudip

    2014-01-01

    The National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 (ENSANUT in Spanish) reported high rates of under-nutrition in children of Yucatan. Is food intake the main cause of under-nutrition in children of the state of Yucatan, Mexico? Identify the primary causes of under-nutrition in pre-school children in Yucatan. A sample of 111 children (59 girls and 52 boys) aged 1-4 years representing Yucatan was taken from a database of ENSANUT 2006 and another national survey, a federal poverty mitigation programme for the state of Yucatan, Mexico entitled "Oportunidades". A human ecology approach together with life history theory was used to analyse anthropometric indices and food intake data from the ENSANUT 2006 and "Oportunidades". Height and weight were significantly correlated to age and total food intake. No correlations were found between age and anthropometric indices or food intake rates. The children in the sample had adequate protein intake but deficient energy intake. No correlation was identified between nutritional status and food intake rates. Pre-schoolers with higher weight-for-height values achieved greater height-for-age. These relationships can be explained by life history theory in that energy intake was used either for maintenance (combating and recovering from infections) or growth. The poor relationship between food intake rates and nutritional status is probably explained by the interaction between high disease incidence and insufficient energy intake. These conditions are endemic in Yucatan due to widespread poor housing, water and sanitation conditions.

  8. Pattern of Energy and Protein Intake among Stunted Children Aged 3–5 Years in Jatinangor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Laurus

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: A child’s optimal growth can be indicated by many factors, among them is body height, therefore stunting is one of the evidences of undergrowth. Nutrition, on the other hand, is one of variables affecting growth. This study aimed to examine the nutrition intake, in the form of energy, carbohydrate, protein, and fat in stunted children aged 3–5 years in Jatinangor. Methods: This cross sectional study was carried out in September to October 2014 using the random sampling method. Dietary data from 70 stunted children aged 3–5 years in pre–school and kindegarten located in 9 urban areas in Jatinangor were collected through 3x24 Recall and Food Frequency Questionaire and analyzed. Results: Mean energy intake was 1113.6 kcal and mean carbohydrate intake was 137.4 grams. Mean protein intake was 38.4 gram and mean fat intake was 38.2 gram. Types of food highly consumed as the source of carbohydrate were white rice and biscuit, and as the source of protein were meatball, sausage, and egg. Highest consumed vegetables, fruits and snack were water spinach, cabbage, watermelon, banana, and milk respectively. Conclusions: Mean energy intake, mean carbohydrate intake, and mean fat intake are all below the recommended dietary allowance (RDA 2013 with individual value of mean energy intake is below RDA 2013 for all subjects. Mean protein intake is slightly above RDA 2013.

  9. Easily constructed, economical seawater intake and supply system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouck, G.R.

    1981-01-01

    A water intake system was designed and installed in Admiralty Inlet, Puget Sound, Washington. The dual system consisted of polyvinylchloride (PVC) pipes, a concrete pit and pumps located on shore at zero tide; and cables attached laterally to the pipelines and terminally between a shoreward anchor and to a seaward intake sled held in place with an 1800 kg Dansforth anchor. The overall construction costs were much lower than those for concrete-lined ductile iron pipe. Nearly three years after its construction, this system has withstood tides and storms without apparent adverse effect. Its application to lakes or rivers is equally possible.

  10. [Patients with hyperlipidemia: inappropriate nutritional intake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecerf, Jean-Michel; Hottin, Delphine Mastin

    2004-10-23

    Gather knowledge on nutritional supplementation in patients with hyperlipidemia. In an observational study on patients with hyperlipidemia, nutritional intake was assessed using a 7-day dietary questionnaire, provided on the first visit to a lipid clinic. 291 patients (201 men and 90 women) were studied. Calorie intake and proportion of energetic nutrients revealed low carbohydrate intake, low intake of dietary fibres, and excessive lipid and saturated fatty acid intakes. Patients with isolated hypercholesterolemia had nutritional intake very similar to the daily allowances recommended in France. Men with type III hyperlipidemia had the highest calorie intake and those with type IV dyslipidemia had the highest alcohol intake. Triglycerides increased with total energy intake and with fat intake (%). Body mass index was inversely correlated to carbohydrate intake. The duration of dyslipidemia was related to low vitamin C and B9 intake. The existence of risk factors (type 2 diabetes, hypertension, smoking or inactivity) was associated with less well-balanced diet and low protective micronutrient status. In the case of atherosclerosis, vitamin B9, C, E and beta-carotene intake was insufficient. Interactions existed between nutrient intake with correlations between fibres, vitamin B9, C and beta-carotene, suggesting that nutritional education should favour foodstuffs that provide them simultaneously. Nutritional intake in patients with hyperlipidemia is often far from that recommended and does not greatly differ from that in large non-selected populations. It can be considered as inappropriate because of the metabolic and cardiovascular risks in these patients. Adapted nutritional management is crucial.

  11. Does stress induce salt intake?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Susan J; Turner, Anne I; Nowson, Caryl A

    2010-06-01

    Psychological stress is a common feature of modern day societies, and contributes to the global burden of disease. It was proposed by Henry over 20 years ago that the salt intake of a society reflects the level of stress, and that stress, through its effect on increasing salt intake, is an important factor in the development of hypertension. This review evaluates the evidence from animal and human studies to determine if stress does induce a salt appetite and increase salt consumption in human subjects. Findings from animal studies suggest that stress may drive salt intake, with evidence for a potential mechanism via the sympatho-adrenal medullary system and/or the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis. In contrast, in the few laboratory studies conducted in human subjects, none has found that acute stress affects salt intake. However, one study demonstrated that life stress (chronic stress) was associated with increased consumption of snack foods, which included, but not specifically, highly salty snacks. Studies investigating the influence of chronic stress on eating behaviours are required, including consumption of salty foods. From the available evidence, we can conclude that in free-living, Na-replete individuals, consuming Na in excess of physiological requirements, stress is unlikely to be a major contributor to salt intake.

  12. Long lasting cadmium intake is associated with reduction of insulin receptors in rat adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficková, M; Eybl, V; Kotyzová, D; Micková, V; Möstbök, S; Brtko, J

    2003-12-01

    The effects of chronic cadmium exposure on adipose tissue have not been extensively reported. In adult Wistar male rats we investigated in vivo effect of 6 weeks lasting cadmium intake in drinking tap water (CdCl2 9,7 mg/l). Insulin receptors in isolated adipocytes from epididymal fat and glucose transporter protein GLUT4 content in fat tissue plasma membranes were determined. Control and Cd treated rats had similar water intake with subsequent heavy augmentation of Cd content in liver of experimental animals. In comparison with controls, Cd intake did not influence body mass increment and fat cell size, but significantly increased serum glycemia and moderately elevated insulinemia. Cadmium intake significantly reduced (approximately 50%) both, total insulin receptors number and density of the receptors in fat cells. No differences in the content of GLUT4 in crude plasma membranes of adipose tissue were observed. Diminished insulin receptors in adipocytes could account for diabetogenic effect of long lasting cadmium intake.

  13. Metabolomics investigation of whey intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanstrup, Jan

    interest since it has been shown that it is possible to achieve greater weight loss on a high protein diet as oppose to a high carbohydrate diet. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that specifically milk-derived whey proteins have certain biological properties that might be beneficial in the treatment...... syndrome are complex disorders and are not caused by a high-calorie diet and low exercise level alone. The specific nature of the nutrients, independent of their caloric value, also play a role. The question is which. In the quest to answer this question the qualitative intake of protein is of special...... and prevention of the metabolic syndrome related to obesity and diabetes. In this thesis the effects of whey intake on the human metabolome was investigated using a metabolomics approach. We demonstrated that intake of whey causes a decreased rate of gastric emptying compared to other protein sources...

  14. Numerical visualization of air intake induced by free surface vortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young Kyu; Dey, Mohan Kumar; Choi, Yoon Hwan; Lee, Yeon Won

    2017-12-01

    Free surface vortex control is vital in a pump sump system because the air absorbed by free surface vortex induces noise, vibration, and cavitation corrosion on the pumping system. In this study, the change of free surface vortex and air absorption in a pump intake has been investigated by the Volume of Fraction (VOF) method with steady multiphase flow model in order to represent the behavior of the free surface vortex exactly. The homogeneous free surface model is used to apply interactions of air and water. The results show that air intake by the free surface vortex motion can be visualized using the iso-surface of air volume fraction. The vortices make an air column from the free surface to the pump intake. Also, it was found that the free surface vortex can be controlled by installing curtain walls.

  15. Opportunities for Intervention Strategies for Weight Management: Global Actions on Fluid Intake Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Lafontan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Water is an essential nutrient for all physiological functions and particularly important for thermoregulation. About 60% of our body weight is made of water. Under standard conditions (18-20 °C and moderate activity, water balance is regulated within 0.2 % of body weight over a 24-hour period. Water requirement varies between individuals and according to environmental conditions. Concerning considerations related to obesity, the health impact of fluid intake is commonly overlooked. Fluid intake advices are missing in most of food pyramids offered to the public, and water requirements and hydration challenges remain often neglected. The purpose of this paper is to emphasize and discuss the role of water consumption in the context of other important public health measures for weight management. Attention will be focused on fluid intake patterns and hydration-related questions in the context of global interventions and/or physical activity programs settled in weight management protocols.

  16. Dietary Sodium Intake in Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provenzano, Laura Ferreira; Stark, Sue; Steenkiste, Ann; Piraino, Beth; Sevick, Mary Ann

    2014-07-01

    Patients with type 2 diabetes have an increased risk for cardiovascular and chronic kidney disease. Superimposed hypertension further increases the risk and is associated with increased dietary sodium intake. There are few data available on dietary sodium intake in type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to quantify dietary sodium intake in a cohort of self-referred patients with type 2 diabetes and to identify sociodemographic characteristics associated with it. Sodium intake in this cohort was far greater than current recommendations. Increased awareness of sodium intake in this population might lead to target interventions to reduce sodium intake and potentially improve long-term outcomes.

  17. Reducing sodium intake from meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruusunen, Marita; Puolanne, Eero

    2005-07-01

    Sodium intake exceeds the nutritional recommendations in many industrialized countries. Excessive intake of sodium has been linked to hypertension and consequently to increased risk of stroke and premature death from cardiovascular diseases. The main source of sodium in the diet is sodium chloride. It has been established that the consumption of more than 6g NaCl/day/person is associated with an age-increase in blood pressure. Therefore, it has been recommended that the total amount of dietary salt should be maintained at about 5-6g/day. Genetically salt susceptible individuals and hypertensives would particularly benefit from low-sodium diets, the salt content of which should range between 1 and 3g/day. In industrialized countries, meat products and meat meals at home and in catering comprise one of the major sources of sodium, in the form of sodium chloride. Sodium chloride affects the flavour, texture and shelf life of meat products. The salt intake derived from meat dishes can be lowered by, whenever possible, adding the salt, not during preparation, but at the table. In most cases, salt contents of over 2% can be markedly lowered without substantial sensory deterioration or technological problems causing economical losses. Salt contents down to 1.4% NaCl in cooked sausages and 1.75% in lean meat products are enough to produce a heat stable gel with acceptable perceived saltiness as well as firmness, water-binding and fat retention. A particular problem with low-salt meat products is, however, that not only the perceived saltiness, but also the intensity of the characteristic flavour decreases. Increased meat protein content (i.e. lean meat content) in meat products reduces perceived saltiness. The required salt content for acceptable gel strength depends on the formulation of the product. When phosphates are added or the fat content is high, lower salt additions provide a more stable gel than in non-phosphate and in low-fat products. Small differences in salt

  18. Fontes de lipídeos na dieta de búfalas lactantes: consumo, digestibilidade e N-uréico plasmático Effects of dietary fat sources on intake, nutrient digestibility and plasma urea nitrogen for lactating water buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Lopes Oliveira

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Os efeitos da suplementação de fontes lipídicas sobre o consumo, a digestibilidade dos nutrientes e o N-uréico plasmático foram avaliados em 12 búfalas lactantes, em três quadrados latinos simultâneos, cada um com quatro animais, quatro períodos e quatro dietas contendo uma das fontes de lípideo estudadas (sem lipídeo adicional; grão de soja; óleo de soja ou caroço de algodão. O período experimental foi de 84 dias, com quatro períodos de 21 dias, divididos em 14 dias para a adaptação e 7 para coleta. A dieta foi fornecida à vontade, duas vezes ao dia, na forma de mistura completa. Nos dias de coleta de cada período, os alimentos fornecidos e as sobras foram pesados e amostrados para análise bromatológica. Amostras de fezes foram coletadas diretamente no reto dos animais para estimativa da produção de matéria seca fecal, utilizando-se a fibra em detergente neutro indigestível como indicador, e para o cálculo de digestibilidade aparente. Os consumos de matéria seca, proteína bruta, fibra em detergente neutro e fibra em detergente ácido foram semelhantes entre as dietas. Os consumos de extrato etéreo e nutrientes digestíveis totais (NDT foram maiores para a dieta com óleo de soja. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade de matéria seca, proteína bruta e carboidratos não-fibrosos e as concentrações de N-uréico plasmático foram semelhantes entre as dietas. A utilização das fontes de lipídeos nas dietas de búfalas em lactação não influenciou o consumo e coeficiente de digestibilidade da matéria seca. Entretanto, as digestibilidades do extrato etéreo da dieta com grão de soja e das frações fibrosas da dieta com caroço de algodão foram as mais baixas.The effects of fat sources on intake, nutrient digestibility and plasma urea nitrogen were evaluated in lactating water buffalo. Twelve females were randomly distributed into four treatments: without additional lipid, soybean grain, soybean oil and

  19. Job strain and alcohol intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heikkilä, Katriina; Nyberg, Solja T; Fransson, Eleonor I

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between work-related stress and alcohol intake is uncertain. In order to add to the thus far inconsistent evidence from relatively small studies, we conducted individual-participant meta-analyses of the association between work-related stress (operationalised as self-reported job...

  20. Effects of artificial sweeteners on body weight, food and drink intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyák, Eva; Gombos, K; Hajnal, B; Bonyár-Müller, K; Szabó, Sz; Gubicskó-Kisbenedek, A; Marton, K; Ember, I

    2010-12-01

    Artificial sweeteners are widely used all over the world. They may assist in weight management, prevention of dental caries, control of blood glucose of diabetics, and also can be used to replace sugar in foods. In the animal experimentation mice were given oral doses of water solutions of table top artificial sweeteners (saccharin, cyclamate based, acesulfame-K based, and aspartame) the amount of maximum Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) ad libitum. The controls received only tap water with the same drinking conditions as the treated groups. The mice were fed chow ad libitum.We measured food intake and body weight once a week, water and solutions of artificial sweeteners intake twice a week. The data were analysed by statistical methods (T-probe, regression analysis).Consumption of sweeteners resulted in significantly increased body weight; however, the food intake did not change.These results question the effect of non-caloric artificial sweeteners on weight-maintenance or body weight decrease.

  1. [Hungarian Diet and Nutritional Status Survey -- the OTAP2009 study. III. Vitamin intake of the Hungarian population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugasi, Andrea; Bakacs, Márta; Zentai, Andrea; Kovács, Viktória Anna; Martos, Eva

    2012-07-15

    For the healthy status the adequate intake of vitamins is essential. The Hungarian Diet and Nutritional Status Survey - joining to the European Health Interview Survey - studied the dietary habits of the Hungarian population. This work presents the vitamins intake. The intake of all water soluble vitamins, vitamin E and D were significantly higher in men than in women. Favourable phenomena were the increased β-carotene and vitamin C intakes in men and women compared to the earlier data. Intakes of vitamin C, B1-, B2-, B6- and B12, and niacin meet the recommendations. Crucially low intakes of vitamin D and folate were calculated in both genders, particularly in the elders, mainly in case of vitamin D. Imperfect intakes of panthotenic acid and biotin were also observed. For maintaining the adequate vitamin supply and for prevention of vitamin deficiency, diversified nutrition, information of the population on the basic principles of healthy nutrition and availability of healthy food are essential.

  2. Evaluation of Drinks Contribution to Energy Intake in Summer and Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malisova, Olga; Bountziouka, Vassiliki; Zampelas, Antonis; Kapsokefalou, Maria

    2015-01-01

    All drinks hydrate and most also provide nutrients and energy. Our objective was to evaluate the contribution of drinks to total energy intake in summer and winter. Data were obtained using the Water Balance Questionnaire (WBQ) from a sample of the general population in Athens, Greece (n = 984), 473 individuals (42 ± 18 years) in summer and 511 individuals (38 ± 20 years) in winter stratified by sex and age. The WBQ embeds a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire of 58 foods and the Short International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Data were analyzed for the contribution of drinks to total energy intake. In winter, total energy intake was 2082 ± 892 kcal/day; energy intake from drinks was 479 ± 286 kcal/day and energy expenditure 1860 ± 390 kcal/day. In summer, total energy intake was 1890 ± 894 kcal/day, energy intake from drinks 492 ± 499 kcal/day and energy expenditure 1830 ± 491 kcal/day. Energy intake from drinks in summer was higher than in winter (p energy from drinks. Fruit juice and sugar-sweetened drinks, including soft drinks and fruit juice based drinks, were consumed less frequently contributing up to 25% of drink energy intake. Drinks contribute approximately 1/4 of total energy intake depending on the energy content of the drink and frequency of consumption. Coffee, dairy and alcoholic drinks were the main energy contributors. PMID:25988765

  3. Evaluation of drinks contribution to energy intake in summer and winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malisova, Olga; Bountziouka, Vassiliki; Zampelas, Antonis; Kapsokefalou, Maria

    2015-05-15

    All drinks hydrate and most also provide nutrients and energy. Our objective was to evaluate the contribution of drinks to total energy intake in summer and winter. Data were obtained using the Water Balance Questionnaire (WBQ) from a sample of the general population in Athens, Greece (n = 984), 473 individuals (42 ± 18 years) in summer and 511 individuals (38 ± 20 years) in winter stratified by sex and age. The WBQ embeds a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire of 58 foods and the Short International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Data were analyzed for the contribution of drinks to total energy intake. In winter, total energy intake was 2082 ± 892 kcal/day; energy intake from drinks was 479 ± 286 kcal/day and energy expenditure 1860 ± 390 kcal/day. In summer, total energy intake was 1890 ± 894 kcal/day, energy intake from drinks 492 ± 499 kcal/day and energy expenditure 1830 ± 491 kcal/day. Energy intake from drinks in summer was higher than in winter (p drinks, milk, chocolate milk and alcoholic drinks contributed approximately 75% of energy from drinks. Fruit juice and sugar-sweetened drinks, including soft drinks and fruit juice based drinks, were consumed less frequently contributing up to 25% of drink energy intake. Drinks contribute approximately 1/4 of total energy intake depending on the energy content of the drink and frequency of consumption. Coffee, dairy and alcoholic drinks were the main energy contributors.

  4. Water futures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mattias Borg

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the potential construction of a water reservoir in Peru’s Cordillera Blanca. Proposed by a peasant group, it would have served important productive purposes but have its intake within the perimeter of a national park. Thus, different notions about water and landscape emerge...... in the encounters between place-based practices and state-sponsored conservation efforts. Empirically tracing the efforts to construct the reservoir, the analytical focus of the article is on how different ways of knowing water within a particular landscape conjure and collide in the process. It is argued...... that the movement of water extends itself beyond the physical properties of the reservoir and irrigation channels as these are produced in encounters between different notions of the role of water in the landscape....

  5. Detecting beer intake by unique metabolite patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gürdeniz, Gözde; Jensen, Morten Georg; Meier, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of health related effects of beer intake is hampered by the lack of accurate tools for assessing intakes (biomarkers). Therefore, we identified plasma and urine metabolites associated with recent beer intake by untargeted metabolomics and established a characteristic metabolite pattern...

  6. Refinement of arsenic attributable health risks in rural Pakistan using population specific dietary intake values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasheed, Hifza; Slack, Rebecca; Kay, Paul; Gong, Yun Yun

    2017-02-01

    Previous risk assessment studies have often utilised generic consumption or intake values when evaluating ingestion exposure pathways. If these values do not accurately reflect the country or scenario in question, the resulting risk assessment will not provide a meaningful representation of cancer risks in that particular country/scenario. This study sought to determine water and food intake parameters for one region in South Asia, rural Pakistan, and assess the role population specific intake parameters play in cancer risk assessment. A questionnaire was developed to collect data on sociodemographic features and 24-h water and food consumption patterns from a rural community. The impact of dietary differences on cancer susceptibility linked to arsenic exposure was evaluated by calculating cancer risks using the data collected in the current study against standard water and food intake levels for the USA, Europe and Asia. A probabilistic cancer risk was performed for each set of intake values of this study. Average daily total water intake based on drinking direct plain water and indirect water from food and beverages was found to be 3.5Lday-1 (95% CI: 3.38, 3.57) exceeding the US Environmental Protection Agency's default (2.5Lday-1) and World Health Organization's recommended intake value (2Lday-1). Average daily rice intake (469gday-1) was found to be lower than in India and Bangladesh whereas wheat intake (402gday-1) was higher than intake reported for USA, Europe and Asian sub-regions. Consequently, arsenic-associated cumulative cancer risks determined for daily water intake was found to be 17 chances in children of 3-6years (95% CI: 0.0014, 0.0017), 14 in children of age 6-16years (95% CI: 0.001, 0.0011) and 6 in adults of 16-67years (95% CI: 0.0006, 0.0006) in a population size of 10,000. This is higher than the risks estimated using the US Environmental Protection Agency and World Health Organization's default recommended water intake levels. Rice intake

  7. Estimates of Water Ingestion for Women in Pregnant, Lactating and Non-Pregnant and Non-Lactating Child Bearing Age Groups Based on USDA's 1994-96, 1998 Continuing Survey of Food Intake by Individuals (Journal Article)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Women in the child bearing age of 15 to 44 years and, in particular, pregnant and lactating women in this age cohort are considered a sensitive subpopulation when assessing risk from ingestion of contaminated water because ingested contaminants may pose a risk not only to the mot...

  8. Interaction of mealtime ad libitum beverage and food intake with meal advancement in healthy young men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Khoury, Dalia; Panahi, Shirin; Luhovyy, Bohdan L; Douglas Goff, H; Harvey Anderson, G

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the interaction of beverage and food intake with meal advancement in healthy adults. In a randomized controlled study, 29 men and women consumed to satiation, over 20 min, a pizza meal with one of the five beverages including water, 1% milk, orange juice, regular cola and diet cola. Mealtime food and fluid intake were measured, within each of three 7-min phases of the meal. A progressive decline occurred from phase 1 to 3 in fluid intake and food intake, averaging 59 mL and 268 kcal (P food (mL/kcal) increased (P Beverage type was not a factor. All beverages resulted in similar fluid volume intake compared to water. However, caloric beverages led to higher mealtime total energy intake compared to water (P food (r = 0.16; P food intake (r = 0.23; Pfood intakes interact, unaffected by beverage characteristics, to increase the ratio of fluid to food intake with meal progression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Cardiometabolic Effects of Cheese Intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorning, Tanja Kongerslev

    of cheese-matrix may influence the HDL-cholesterol response, while the ripening duration may affect the level of free fatty acids and insulin in the blood. Furthermore the results showed that a diet with saturated fat in cheese or meat caused a higher HDL-cholesterol, but not LDL-cholesterol, compared......In several countries, the dietary guidelines for preventing CVD focus on reducing the intake of saturated fat. A high cheese intake in particular may however not be associated with CVD risk, despite a high content of saturated fat. This could be due to a reduced digestibility of fat in cheese....... The aim of this PhD thesis was to investigate how the fat content of the cheese-matrix and the cheese ripening duration affect cardiometabolic risk markers and fecal fat excretion. The thesis is based on three intervention studies, two in pigs and one in humans. The results suggested that fat content...

  10. Habits of fluid and electrolytes intake in elite athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzija Pašalić

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dehydration develops when the body fluid losses exceed fluid intake. It may occur during exercise, heat stress, restricted fluid intake, or any combination of these. Marginal dehydration (loss of > 2% body weight can compromise aerobic exercise performance, particularly in hot weather conditions, and may disturb fluid and electrolyte balance. The aim of the study was to determine the quantity, type and dynamic of fluid intake during athletic performance in endurance sports (football and basketball in two age categories: juniors (under the age of 18 and seniors (over the age of 18.Methods: Research included 100 athletes playing in Premier League in Bosnia-Herzegovina. We formed groups by sport type (football and basketball and age (<18 and ≥18 years. Questionnaire with questions about the fluid intake habits was used for data collection.    Results: There were 53 football players and 47 basketball players. All the participants were male. Average age of the participants was 19.3 ± 4.58. Habit of weighing before and after training was present in less than 44% of players among all the groups. Seniors were more frequently measuring their weight compared to junior players (p=0.01. Basketball players and players younger than 18 years were most frequently taking more than 2L of water per day. Most of the players, regardless of sport type or age group were not taking at least ½ L of isotonic fluid before the training. Signs of dehydration were more frequently observed in players under 18 years old, with most frequent sign being dry throat and sudden fatigue.Conclusion: Water and electrolytes intake before, during and after training of the athletes were inadequate regardless of type of sports and the age of athletes.

  11. Fish intake in pregnancy and child growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stratakis, N.; Roumeliotaki, T.; Oken, E.

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Maternal fish intake in pregnancy has been shown to influence fetal growth. The extent to which fish intake affects childhood growth and obesity remains unclear. OBJECTIVE To examine whether fish intake in pregnancy is associated with offspring growth and the risk of childhood overweight...... among boys (aOR, 1.11 [95%CI, 0.92-1.34]; P = .02 for interaction). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE High maternal fish intake during pregnancy was associated with increased risk of rapid growth in infancy and childhood obesity. Our findings are in line with the fish intake limit proposed by the US Food...

  12. Dietary intake and nutritional status of young vegans and omnivores in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Christel L; Johansson, Gunnar K

    2002-07-01

    Adolescents sometimes become vegetarian for ethical rather than health reasons. This may result in health problems caused by lack of interest in and knowledge of nutrition. We compared the dietary intake and nutritional status of young Swedish vegans and omnivores. The dietary intakes of 30 vegans (15 males and 15 females; mean age: 17.5 +/- 1.0 y) and 30 sex-, age-, and height-matched omnivores were assessed with the use of a diet-history interview and validated by the doubly labeled water method and by measuring nitrogen, sodium, and potassium excretion in urine. Iron status and serum vitamin B-12 and folate concentrations were measured in blood samples. The diet-history method underestimated energy intake by 13% and potassium intake by 7% compared with the doubly labeled water method and 24-h urine excretion, respectively. Reported dietary nitrogen and sodium intakes agreed with the 24-h urinary excretion measure. Vegans had higher intakes of vegetables, legumes, and dietary supplements and lower intakes of cake and cookies and candy and chocolate than did omnivores. Vegans had dietary intakes lower than the average requirements of riboflavin, vitamin B-12, vitamin D, calcium, and selenium. Intakes of calcium and selenium remained low even with the inclusion of dietary supplements. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of low iron status among vegans (20%) and omnivores (23%). Two vegans with low intakes of vitamin B-12 had low serum concentrations. The dietary habits of the vegans varied considerably and did not comply with the average requirements for some essential nutrients.

  13. Are Reductions in Population Sodium Intake Achievable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L. Levings

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The vast majority of Americans consume too much sodium, primarily from packaged and restaurant foods. The evidence linking sodium intake with direct health outcomes indicates a positive relationship between higher levels of sodium intake and cardiovascular disease risk, consistent with the relationship between sodium intake and blood pressure. Despite communication and educational efforts focused on lowering sodium intake over the last three decades data suggest average US sodium intake has remained remarkably elevated, leading some to argue that current sodium guidelines are unattainable. The IOM in 2010 recommended gradual reductions in the sodium content of packaged and restaurant foods as a primary strategy to reduce US sodium intake, and research since that time suggests gradual, downward shifts in mean population sodium intake are achievable and can move the population toward current sodium intake guidelines. The current paper reviews recent evidence indicating: (1 significant reductions in mean population sodium intake can be achieved with gradual sodium reduction in the food supply, (2 gradual sodium reduction in certain cases can be achieved without a noticeable change in taste or consumption of specific products, and (3 lowering mean population sodium intake can move us toward meeting the current individual guidelines for sodium intake.

  14. Dental fluorosis in populations from Chiang Mai, Thailand with different fluoride exposures - paper 2: the ability of fluorescence imaging to detect differences in fluorosis prevalence and severity for different fluoride intakes from water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrady, Michael G; Ellwood, Roger P; Srisilapanan, Patcharawan; Korwanich, Narumanas; Taylor, Andrew; Goodwin, Michaela; Pretty, Iain A

    2012-08-21

    To assess the ability of fluorescence imaging to detect a dose response relationship between fluorosis severity and different levels of fluoride in water supplies compared to remote photographic scoring in selected populations participating in an observational, epidemiological survey in Chiang Mai, Thailand. Subjects were male and female lifetime residents aged 8-13 years. For each child the fluoride content of cooking water samples (CWS) was assessed to create categorical intervals of water fluoride concentration. Fluorescence images were taken of the maxillary central incisors and analyzed for dental fluorosis using two different software techniques. Output metrics for the fluorescence imaging techniques were compared to TF scores from blinded photographic scores obtained from the survey. Data from 553 subjects were available. Both software analysis techniques demonstrated significant correlations with the photographic scores. The metrics for area effected by fluorosis and the overall fluorescence loss had the strongest association with the photographic TF score (Spearman's rho 0.664 and 0.652 respectively). Both software techniques performed well for comparison of repeat fluorescence images with ICC values of 0.95 and 0.85 respectively. This study supports the potential use of fluorescence imaging for the objective quantification of dental fluorosis. Fluorescence imaging was able to discriminate between populations with different fluoride exposures on a comparable level to remote photographic scoring with acceptable levels of repeatability.

  15. The intake of carotenoids in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Torben; Jakobsen, Jette; Andersen, N. L.

    2000-01-01

    To estimate the intake of carotenoids in the Danish population Danish fruits and vegetables were screened with an HPLC method consisting of extraction with ethanol:tetrahydrofuran, separation by reversed phase HPLC with the mobile phase acetonitril:methanol:dichlormethan, triethylamin, BHT...... and detection at 450 nm. Food intakes were estimated by the national dietary surveys (1995) from 7 days' food registration (n = 1837 adults), which allows the whole diet to be described by the mean intake and intake distribution of 207 raw or semiprepared foods. By multiplication with the mean content...... in the foods the mean intake and intake distribution of the carotenoids were calculated. Carrots and tomatoes have both high contents of carotenoids (8,450 mu g/100 g alpha- + beta-carotene and 4,790 mu g/100 g lycopene, respectively) and high intakes (19 and 15 g/day, respectively) and were responsible for 47...

  16. Associations between fluorosis of permanent incisors and fluoride intake from infant formula, other dietary sources and dentifrice during early childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Steven M.; Broffitt, Barbara; Marshall, Teresa A.; Eichenberger-Gilmore, Julie M.; Warren, John J.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The authors describe associations between dental fluorosis and fluoride intakes, with an emphasis on intake from fluoride in infant formula. Methods The authors administered periodic questionnaires to parents to assess early fluoride intake sources from beverages, selected foods, dentifrice and supplements. They assessed relationships between fluorosis of the permanent maxillary incisors and fluoride intake from beverages and other sources, both for individual time points and cumulatively using area-under-the-curve (AUC) estimates. The authors determined effects associated with fluoride in reconstituted powdered infant formulas, along with risks associated with intake of fluoride from dentifrice and other sources. Results Considering only fluoride intake from age 3 to 9 months, the authors found that participants with fluorosis (97 percent of which was mild) had significantly greater cumulative fluoride intake (AUC) from reconstituted powdered infant formula, other beverages with added water or a combination of these than did those without fluorosis. For participants aged 16 to 36 months, participants with fluorosis had significantly higher fluoride intake from water by itself, dentifrice or a combination of these than did those without fluorosis. In a model combining both the 3- to 9-month and 16- to 36-months age groups, the significant variables were fluoride intake from reconstituted powder concentrate formula (by participants aged 3–9 months), other beverages with added water (also by participants aged 3–9 months) and dentifrice (by participants aged 16–36 months). Conclusions Greater fluoride intakes from reconstituted powdered formulas (when participants were aged 3–9 months) and other water-added beverages (when participants were aged 3–9 months) increased fluorosis risk as did higher dentifrice intake by participants when aged 16 to 36 months. Clinical Implications Results suggest that prevalence of mild dental fluorosis could be

  17. Caffeine intake enhances the benefits of sodium glucose transporter 2 inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Yoshitaka; Tanaka, Muhei; Yamazaki, Masahiro; Nakano, Koji; Ushigome, Emi; Okada, Hiroshi; Oda, Yohei; Nakamura, Naoto; Fukui, Michiaki

    2016-10-01

    The effect of sodium glucose transporter 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors is dependent on the glomerular filtration rate. It has been reported that caffeine intake increases glomerular filtration rate. However, the effect of caffeine intake on urinary glucose excretion in patients who take SGLT-2 inhibitors is unclear. Six patients with type 2 diabetes took part in a randomized, open-label, crossover pilot study. The patients took SGLT-2 inhibitors (ipragliflozin) for 9 days. On day 3, 6 and 9, the patients were assigned to one of three studies: Water 500, patients drank 500 mL of water in 3 h; Water 1500, patients drank 1500 mL of water in 3 h; and Caffeine 500, patients drank 500 mL of water with 400 mg of caffeine in 3 h. In all of the studies, the patients' urine was collected over a 6-h period. In addition, we enrolled 60 patients with type 2 diabetes who newly took SGLT-2 inhibitors in a 3-month follow-up cohort study to investigate the effect of caffeine intake on glucose control. Caffeine intake was evaluated using questionnaires. The 6-h median (interquartile range) urinary glucose excretion was 9.5 (8.5-9.7) g in Water 500, 12.2 (10.3-27.2) g in Water 1500 and 15.7 (11.4-21.4) g in Caffeine 500 (p = 0.005 vs Water 500). In the cohort study, multiple regression analysis demonstrated that log (caffeine intake) was associated with a change in HbA 1c (β = -0.299, p = 0.043) after adjusting for covariates. Caffeine intake enhanced the effect of SGLT-2 inhibitors. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Food reinforcement, energy intake, and macronutrient choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Leonard H; Carr, Katelyn A; Lin, Henry; Fletcher, Kelly D

    2011-07-01

    Food is a powerful reinforcer that motivates people to eat. The relative reinforcing value of food (RRV(food)) is associated with obesity and energy intake and interacts with impulsivity to predict energy intake. How RRV(food) is related to macronutrient choice in ad libitum eating tasks in humans has not been studied; however, animal research suggests that sugar or simple carbohydrates may be a determinant of reward value in food. This study assessed which macronutrients are associated with food reinforcement. Two hundred seventy-three adults with various body mass indexes were assessed for RRV(food), the relative reinforcing value of reading, food hedonics, energy intake in an ad libitum taste test, and usual energy intake derived from repeated 24-h dietary recalls. Multiple regression was used to assess the relation between predictors of total energy and energy associated with macronutrient intake after control for age, sex, income, education, minority status, and other macronutrient intakes. The results showed that the relative proportion of responding for food compared with reading (RRV(prop)) was positively related to body mass index, laboratory-measured energy intake, and usual energy intake. In addition, RRV(prop) was a predictor of sugar intake but not of total carbohydrate, fat, or protein intake. These results are consistent with basic animal research showing that sugar is related to food reward and with the hypothesis that food reward processes are more strongly related to eating than are food hedonics. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00962117.

  19. Assessment of calcium intake by adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Franco de Oliveira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the daily calcium intake of adolescents in schools from Chapecó, Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil, to check if calcium intake is in accordance with the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI, and to investigate variables associated with daily calcium intake.METHODS: Cross-sectional study approved by the Institutional Review Board and developed in 2010. Students of the 8th grade completed questionnaires with personal data and questions about the calcium-rich foods intake frequency. In order to compare students with adequate (1300mg or inadequate intake of calcium/day (<1300mg, parametric and nonparametric tests were used.RESULTS: A total of 214 students with a mean age of 14.3±1.0 years were enrolled. The median daily calcium intake was 540mg (interquartile range - IQ: 312-829mg and only 25 students (11.7% had calcium intake within the recommendations of the DRI for age. Soft drink consumption ≥3 times/week was associated with a lower intake of calcium.CONCLUSIONS: Few students ingested adequate levels of calcium for the age group. It is necessary to develop a program to encourage a greater intake of calcium-rich foods in adolescence.

  20. Dietary polyphenol intake in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zamora-Ros, Raul; Knaze, Viktoria; Rothwell, Joseph A

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Polyphenols are plant secondary metabolites with a large variability in their chemical structure and dietary occurrence that have been associated with some protective effects against several chronic diseases. To date, limited data exist on intake of polyphenols in populations......, followed by non-Mediterranean (non-MED) and MED countries. The main polyphenol contributors were phenolic acids (52.5-56.9 %), except in men from MED countries and in the UK health-conscious group where they were flavonoids (49.1-61.7 %). Coffee, tea, and fruits were the most important food sources...

  1. [Hungarian Diet and Nutritional Status Survey - The OTAP2014 study. V. Vitamin intake of the Hungarian population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiberné Molnár, Erzsébet; Nagy-Lőrincz, Zsuzsanna; Nagy, Barbara; Bakacs, Márta; Kis, Orsolya; Sarkadi Nagy, Eszter; Martos, Éva

    2017-08-01

    The Hungarian Diet and Nutritional Status Survey was implemented on a sub-sample of the European Health Interview Survey. In this paper, the authors present the data on the vitamin intake of the Hungarian population. The survey represents the vitamin intake of the Hungarian non-institutionalised adult population of 18 years and older. There are significant differences between men's and women's vitamin intake. The intake of all water-soluble vitamins except for vitamin C is higher in men than in women, and the difference between the genders regarding the intake of vitamin E and D is significant. The intake of vitamin B 1, B 2 , B 6 , B 12 , niacin and vitamin C is in line with the recommendations, however, there is an unfavourable decrease in the intake of vitamin A and β-carotene in the case of men compared to the previous survey. Vitamin D and folic acid intakes are critically low, particularly in the elderly, and mainly in case of vitamin D. The population's intake of panthotenic acid and biotin did not reach the recommendations. In order to reach the dietary reference intakes and to prevent deficiencies, it is necessary to inform the population and to make healthy food choices available. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(33): 1302-1313.

  2. Facilitation of sodium intake by combining noradrenaline into the lateral parabrachial nucleus with prazosin peripherally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparini, S; Gomide, J M C; Andrade-Franzé, G M F; Totola, L T; De Luca, L A; Colombari, D S A; De Paula, P M; Moreira, T S; Menani, J V

    2013-10-01

    Injections of noradrenaline into the lateral parabrachial nucleus (LPBN) increase arterial pressure and 1.8% NaCl intake and decrease water intake in rats treated with the diuretic furosemide (FURO) combined with a low dose of the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor captopril (CAP). In the present study, we investigated the influence of the pressor response elicited by noradrenaline injected into the LPBN on FURO+CAP-induced water and 1.8% NaCl intake. Male Holtzman rats with bilateral stainless steel guide-cannulas implanted into LPBN were used. Bilateral injections of noradrenaline (40 nmol/0.2 μl) into the LPBN increased FURO+CAP-induced 1.8% NaCl intake (12.2±3.5, vs., saline: 4.2±0.8 ml/180 min), reduced water intake and strongly increased arterial pressure (50±7, vs. saline: 1±1 mmHg). The blockade of the α1 adrenoceptors with the prazosin injected intraperitoneally abolished the pressor response and increased 1.8% NaCl and water intake in rats treated with FURO+CAP combined with noradrenaline injected into the LPBN. The deactivation of baro and perhaps volume receptors due to the cardiovascular effects of prazosin is a mechanism that may facilitate water and NaCl intake in rats treated with FURO+CAP combined with noradrenaline injected into the LPBN. Therefore, the activation of α2 adrenoceptors with noradrenaline injected into the LPBN, at least in dose tested, may not completely remove the inhibitory signals produced by the activation of the cardiovascular receptors, particularly the signals that result from the extra activation of these receptors with the increase of arterial pressure. © 2013.

  3. Phenotypic Characterization of Human Monocytes following Macronutrient Intake in Healthy Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awad Alshahrani

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThree subsets of human monocytes in circulation have been identified and their characterization is still ill-defined. Although glucose and lipid intakes have been demonstrated to exert pro-inflammatory effects on mononuclear cells (MNCs of healthy subjects, characterization of monocytes phenotypes following macronutrient (glucose, protein, and lipid intake in humans remains to be determined.MethodsThirty-six healthy, normal weight volunteers were recruited in the study. Subjects were randomly assigned into three groups, each group consisting of 12 participants. Each group drank equal calories (300 kcal of either glucose or lipids or whey proteins. Each subject served as his own control by drinking 300 mL of water 1 week before or after the caloric intake. Baseline blood samples were drawn at 0, 1, 2, and 3-h intervals post caloric or water intakes. MNCs were isolated, and the expression levels of different cluster of differentiation (CD markers (CD86, CD11c, CD169, CD206, CD163, CD36, CD68, CD11b, CD16, and CD14 and IL-6 were measured by RT-qPCR.ResultsEquicaloric intake of either glucose or lipids or whey proteins resulted in different monocyte phenotypes as demonstrated by changes in the expression levels of CD and polarization markers. Whey proteins intake resulted in significant mRNA upregulation in MNCs of CD68 and CD11b at 1, 2, and 3 h post intake while mRNA of IL-6 was significantly inhibited at 1 h. Lipids intake, on the other hand, resulted in mRNA upregulation of CD11b at 2 and 3 h and CD206 at 1, 2, and 3 h. There were no significant changes in the other CD markers measured (CD86, CD163, CD169, CD36, CD16, and CD14 following either whey proteins or lipids intakes. Glucose intake did not alter mRNA expression of any marker tested except CD206 at 3 h.ConclusionMacronutrient intake alters the expression levels of polarization markers in MNCs of human subjects. A distinct population of different monocytes

  4. Insufficient vitamin D intakes among pregnant women.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGowan, C A

    2011-09-01

    Vitamin D has an important role in pregnancy in promoting fetal skeletal health. Maternal dietary intake is a key factor influencing both maternal and fetal status. There are limited data available on food groups contributing to vitamin D intake in pregnancy. The aim of this study was to determine dietary intakes of vitamin D throughout pregnancy in 64 women and to determine the main food groups contributing to vitamin D intake. Results showed that median dietary intakes of vitamin D ranged from 1.9-2.1 μg\\/d during pregnancy, and were 80% below the current recommendation. The principal food groups contributing to vitamin D intake were meat, egg and breakfast cereal groups. Oily fish, the best dietary source of vitamin D, was consumed by <25% of women. These data call for more education; they question the role of vitamin D supplementation and highlight the contribution of other food groups more frequently consumed, namely, breakfast cereals, meat and eggs.

  5. Nomenclature, characteristics, and dietary intakes of sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Teresa A

    2015-01-01

    The World Health Organization has recommended a reduction in free sugars intake throughout one's life span to decrease the burden of noncommunicable diseases, including caries and obesity. The author defines sugars' nomenclature, describes sugars' roles in food, and identifies current sugars intake. The oral health care practitioner can identify added sugars intake and provide guidance to patients to decrease their intake of added sugars while improving nutrient intake and reducing caries risk. Intake of added sugars increases the burden of chronic diseases in the United States. The oral health care practitioner is in a position to provide dietary guidance to patients to reduce both oral and systemic diseases. Copyright © 2015 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Mapping low intake of micronutrients across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mensink, G. B. M.; Fletcher, R.; Gurinovic, M.

    2013-01-01

    . The impact of dietary supplement intake as well as inclusion of apparently low energy reporters on the estimates was evaluated. Except for vitamin D, the present study suggests that the current intakes of vitamins from foods lead to low risk of low intakes in all age and sex groups. For current minerals......Achieving an understanding of the extent of micronutrient adequacy across Europe is a major challenge. The main objective of the present study was to collect and evaluate the prevalence of low micronutrient intakes of different European countries by comparing recent nationally representative......, the study suggests that the risk of low intakes is likely to appear more often in specific age groups. In spite of the limitations of the data, the present study provides valuable new information about micronutrient intakes across Europe and the likelihood of inadequacy country by country....

  7. Responses of Tswana goats to various lengths of water deprivation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this trial was to determine the water intake of Tswana goats and investigate the effects of short term water deprivation in summer or winter (6000 ml water offered either once every 72 h, 48 h, 24 h or ad libitum) on feed intake, dry matter digestibility, growth rate and health. Goats were fed a diet comprising 60% ...

  8. Responses of Tswana goats to various lengths of water deprivation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    Botswana is a semi-arid country with low and erratic rainfall, and the scarcity of surface water limits the use of pastures and determines the availability of drinking water for animals. In addition to this, water intake is known to influence feed intake and digestibility. Goats are important ruminants in Botswana. The country has a ...

  9. Excessive iodine intake and thyroid dysfunction among lactating Saharawi women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aakre, Inger; Bjøro, Trine; Norheim, Ingrid; Strand, Tor A; Barikmo, Ingrid; Henjum, Sigrun

    2015-01-01

    Excessive iodine intake may lead to thyroid dysfunction, which may be particularly harmful during pregnancy and lactation. The main objective was to describe iodine status and the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction among lactating women in areas with high iodine (HI) and very high iodine (VHI) concentrations in drinking water. A cross-sectional survey was performed among 111 lactating women in the Saharawi refugee camps, Algeria. Breast milk iodine concentration (BMIC), urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and the iodine concentration in the most commonly consumed foods/drinks were measured. A 24-h dietary recall was used to estimate iodine intake. Thyroid hormones and antibodies were measured in serum. Median UIC, BMIC and iodine intake across both areas was 350 μg/L, 479 μg/L and 407 μg/day, respectively. In multiple regression analyses, we discovered that being from VHI area was associated with higher UIC and BMIC. BMIC was also positively associated with iodine intake. Thyroid dysfunction and/or positive thyroid antibodies were found in 33.3% of the women, of which 18.9% had hypothyroidism and 8.1% had hyperthyroidism and 6.3% had positive antibodies with normal thyroid function. Elevated thyroid antibodies were in total found in 17.1%. We found no difference in distribution of thyroid dysfunction or positive antibodies between HI and VHI areas. BMI, BMIC and elevated thyroglobulin (Tg) predicted abnormal thyroid function tests. The high prevalence of thyroid dysfunction may be caused by excessive iodine intake over several years. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Breeding for feed intake capacity in pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Eissen, J.

    2000-01-01

    This thesis deals with feed intake capacity of pigs. By selection, breeding organizations try to achieve genetic improvement in production and reproduction efficiency. Future genetic improvement may become constrained by a limited feed intake capacity of growing pigs and lactating sows, respectively. The aim of this thesis is to study the actual feed intake capacity of growing pigs and lactating sows in relation to their potential for production and reproduction in order to get a bet...

  11. An assessment of Walk-over-Weighing to estimate short-term individual forage intake in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-García, E; Golini, P de Oliveira; Hassoun, P; Bocquier, F; Hazard, D; González, L A; Ingham, A B; Bishop-Hurley, G J; Greenwood, P L

    2017-10-26

    The main limitation for determining feed efficiency of freely grazing ruminants is measurement of daily individual feed intake. This paper describes an investigation that assessed a method for estimating intake of forage based on changes in BW of ewes. A total of 24 dry and non-pregnant Romane ewes (12 hoggets, HOG; mean±SD 51.8±2.8 kg BW; body condition score (BCS) 2.6±0.2; and 12 adults, ADU; 60.4±8.5 kg BW; BCS 2.7±0.8) were selected for the study and moved from their rangeland system to a confined pen with controlled conditions and equipped with individual automatic feeders. The experiment lasted for 28 days (21 days adaptation and 7 days feed intake measurement). Ewes were fed hay and trained to use the electronic feeders (one feeding station per ewe) in which actual daily intake (H intake24) was measured. The pens were designed to maximize movement of trained ewes through an automated Walk-over-Weighing device, by using water and mineral salts as attractants. Total individual intake of hay measured in the automatic feeder at each meal (H intake) was compared with indirect estimates of feed intake determined using differences in the BW of the ewes (∆BW) before and 1 h following morning and afternoon feeding at fixed times. The BW, BCS, H intake, H intake24, as well as plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), glucose and insulin profiles were determined. The BW was higher in ADU v. HOG but BCS was not affected by parity. The H intake24 was affected by day of experiment as a consequence of reduced availability and intake of water on one day. Plasma glucose, NEFA and insulin were not affected by parity or day of experiment. The H Intake was and ∆BW tended to be higher in the morning in HOG, whereas H intake was and ∆BW tended to be higher in ADU at the afternoon meal. Irrespective of parity or feeding time, there was very strong correlation (r 2=0.93) between H intake and ∆BW. This relationship confirms that our indirect method of estimating

  12. Consumo, digestibilidade aparente de nutrientes e balanços de nitrogênio e hídrico de ovinos alimentados com silagens de cultivares de capim-búfel Intake, apparent digestibility of nutrients and nitrogen and water balances of sheep fed with buffel grass cultivars silages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Souza

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se no presente estudo determinar o consumo, digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca e nutrientes, além dos balanços de nitrogênio (BN e hídrico (BH, de ovinos alimentados com silagens de capim-búfel. As silagens das cultivares de capim-búfel avaliadas foram Tanzânia, Buchuma e Biloela. Utilizaram-se 21 ovinos, machos, castrados, mestiços Santa Inês x Sem Padrão de Raça Definido, com peso corporal médio inicial de 31,8±3,16kg, mantidos em gaiolas metabólicas. Foi utilizado um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com sete repetições. Não foram observadas diferenças nos consumos de MS em g/dia (919,2 e porcentagem do peso corporal (2,9. De modo geral, os coeficientes de digestibilidade da matéria seca variaram de 37,7% a 60,0%. Os BN e BH foram positivos, sendo observados maiores valores de BN para os ovinos alimentados com silagens de capim-búfel dos cultivares Tanzânia (5,1g/dia e Biloela (3,9g/dia, e maiores BH para os animais alimentados com silagens de capim-búfel dos cultivares Buchuma (1,38kg/animal/dia e Biloela (1,42kg/animal/dia. Os cultivares de capim-búfel Tanzânia, Buchuma e Biloela apresentaram bom valor nutritivo, sendo que o capim-búfel na forma de silagem promoveu 60% do consumo total de água diário do animal.The objective of this present experiment was to determine intake and apparent digestibility of dry matter and nutrients, nitrogen (NB and water balances (WB of sheep fed with buffel grass silages. The buffel grass cultivars used were Tanzania, Buchuma and Biloela. 21 male, castrated, crossbred Santa Ines x Non defined genotype sheep, with initial body weight of 31.8±3.16kg were used, kept in metabolic cages. The experimental design was completely randomized with seven replicates. No differences were observed in dry matter intake in g/day (919.2 and % of body weight (2.9. In general, digestibility coefficients of dry matter varied from 37.7% to 60.0%. The NB and WB were positive, with

  13. Mineral intake independent from gastric irritation or pica by cell-dehydrated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constancio, Juliana; Pereira-Derderian, Daniela T B; Menani, José V; De Luca, Laurival A

    2011-10-24

    Gavage of 2 M NaCl (IG 2 M NaCl), a procedure to induce cell-dehydration-and water and 0.15 M NaCl intake in a two-bottle choice test-is also a potential gastric irritant. In this study, we assessed whether mineral intake induced by IG 2 M NaCl is associated with gastric irritation or production of pica in the rat. We first determined the amount of mineral solution (0.15 M NaCl, 0.15 M NaHCO3, 0.01 M KCl and 0.05 mM CaCl2) and water ingested in response to IG 2 M NaCl in a five-bottle test. Then, we used mineral solutions (0.01 M KCl and 0.15 M NaHCO3), whose intakes were significantly increased compared to controls, and water in three-bottle tests to test the gastric irritation hypothesis. The IG 2 M NaCl induced KCl and NaHCO3 intake that was not inhibited by gavage with gastric protectors Al(OH)3 or NaHCO3. IG 2 M NaCl or gavage of 0.6 N acetic acid induced mild irritation, hyperemia, of the glandular part of the stomach. A gavage of 50% ethanol induced strong irritation seen as pinpoint ulcerations. Neither ethanol nor acetic acid induced any fluid intake. Neither IG 2 M NaCl nor acetic acid induced kaolin intake, a marker of pica in laboratory rats. Ethanol did induce kaolin intake. These results suggest that IG 2 M NaCl induced a mineral fluid intake not selective for sodium and independent from gastric irritation or pica. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Under-reporting of energy intake affects estimates of nutrient intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirmiran, Parvin; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2006-01-01

    Under-reporting of energy intake is a common problem in nutritional epidemiological studies. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of under-reporting of energy intake on the estimates of nutrient intakes. In this cross-sectional study, 901 subjects aged >16 y were randomly selected from participants of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. Dietary intake was assessed by means of two 24-hour dietary recalls. Basal metabolic rate (BMR) was determined according to age, sex and weight. The ratio of energy intake (EI) to BMR was calculated. Under-reporting of energy intake was defined as EI:BMRintake as EI:BMR = 1.35-2.39. To obtain energy-adjusted amounts of macro- and micronutrients, the residual method was used. Under-reporting of energy intake was revealed in 31% of the subjects and was more common among females (40%) than males (19%, P intakes of macro- and micronutrients (except for B12 in females and B6 and zinc in both genders) were lower in under-reporters, but following adjustment, no significant differences were seen. The results have revealed that under-reporting of energy intake affects the estimates of nutrient intakes; thus in studies aimed at determining the association between a certain chronic disease and a nutrient intake, we suggest adjustments be made for energy intake.

  15. Children's Daily Fruit and Vegetable Intake: Associations with Maternal Intake and Child Weight Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Paige; Moore, Renee H.; Kral, Tanja V. E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate associations between children's and their mothers' fruit and vegetable (FV) intake and children's FV intake and weight status. Methods: Mothers (n = 39) residing in Philadelphia, PA completed a subsection of the Diet History Questionnaire assessing their FV intake. Mothers also completed this questionnaire to estimate FV…

  16. INCREASED FAT INTAKE MAY STABILIZED CKD PROGRESSION IN LOW-FAT INTAKE PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Yu Chang

    2012-06-01

    Inadequate calories intake will induce excessive protein catabolism, which can cause accumulation of uremic toxins and acceleration of renal failure. Increasing fats intake is an easy way to achieve adequate calories acquirement and may stabilize the progression of CKD especially in low-fat intake patients.

  17. Effect of piano-key shape inlet on critical submergence at a vertical pipe intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shemshi, R.; Kabiri-Samani, A.

    2012-11-01

    Intake vortices are the result of angular momentum conservation at the flow constriction, where angular velocity increases with a decrease in the cross sectional area. The common solution for avoiding air-entrainment and swirl is to provide sufficient submergence to the intake. If the required approach flow conditions can not be met to avoid swirl and air entrainment, other approaches for preventing vortices at water intakes are considered. There are several means of avoiding air-entrainment, where the most cost-effective option is often determined by a physical model study. Among the most economical and common measures of reducing the effect of air-entrainment and swirl strength, is the optimized shape of inlet for instance by installing a Piano-Key inlet over the pipe intake. If Piano-Key inlet is used, then, its' optimum geometry should be studied experimentally. Since there is not any realized guidance for the use of Piano-Key inlets in pipe intakes, hence, a comprehensive set of model experiments have been carried out using Piano-Key inlets with different dimensions, with respect to the vertical pipe intakes, and four different pipe diameters of (D=) 75, 100, 125 and 150 mm. Results showed that by employing a Piano-Key inlet over the vertical pipe intake, the critical submergence reduces significantly. Fianally, according to the results, the effect of Piano-Key inlet geometry on critical submergence were evaluated in the form of realized relationships which would be of practical interest for design engineers.

  18. Impact of food choice on sodium intake patterns from multiple NHANES surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zefeng; Gao, Zhifeng; McFadden, Brandon

    2017-02-01

    To examine how the food consumption from various food groups would impact American adults' sodium intake and whether this impact structurally changes over time, data were obtained from six-cycle National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2010. Foods were categorized by the first two digits of the USDA food code. Regression models were employed to investigate the associations between the consumption of each food group and sodium intake, and whether there were changes in the associations in consecutive six cycles. Results show that the calorie consumption of oils, beverages and water, fruit juices, fruits, lamb, fruit products, and sugars and sweets had no significant impact on individuals' sodium intake, while calorie consumption of tomatoes, fish, dark-green vegetables, and crackers contributes the most to sodium intake. The contribution to sodium intake of most food groups does not change significantly over time, with the exception of salad dressing whose contribution to sodium intake increased in four consecutive years when compared to that of 1999-2000. The sodium amount contributed by one calorie consumption (sodium density) of most food was above the daily recommendation level, 1.2 mg per calorie per day. Lowering individuals' sodium intake involves either guiding individuals to consume more fruit related products or decreasing the amount of sodium in most food groups at the production or food preparation stages. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. 2-Deoxy-D-glucose, but not mercaptoacetate, increases food intake in decerebrate rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Rebecca A; Ritter, Sue

    2009-08-01

    We examined food intake in chronically maintained decerebrate rats in response to two antimetabolic drugs known to stimulate food intake, 2-mercaptoacetate (MA) and 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG). MA reduces fatty acid oxidation, and 2DG reduces glucose utilization. Because previous work has shown that insulin-induced hypoglycemia increases food intake in decerebrate rats, we predicted that 2DG would have this same effect. MA-induced feeding requires vagal sensory neurons that terminate in the hindbrain. Cholecystokinin-induced suppression of feeding, which likewise requires vagal sensory neurons, has been shown to suppress food intake in decerebrate rats. Therefore, we predicted that MA's effects on feeding would also persist in decerebrate rats. In our experiments, the test diet (40% milk, diluted with water) was infused intraorally through a chronic cheek fistula. We found that sham controls consumed 258% and 230% of their baseline milk intake in response to 2DG and MA, respectively. Decerebrates consumed 239% of their baseline milk intake in response to 2DG, but did not increase their intake in response to MA. Because decerebration separates the hindbrain from the forebrain, these results indicate that 2DG-induced glucoprivation is capable of acting within the hindbrain to activate fundamental reflex circuitry for consummatory feeding responses, as shown previously for hypoglycemia. In contrast, MA affects food consumption only after forebrain processing of MA-induced vagal afferent signals and in the presence of intact ascending and descending neural pathways.

  20. Impact of fruit juice and beverage portion size on snack intake in preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Erin M; Poole, Seletha A; Raynor, Hollie A

    2015-12-01

    It has been recommended that beverages other than 100% fruit juice, such as water, be served at meals and snacks for preschool-aged children to reduce excessive energy intake. Using a 2 × 2 × 2 design (between-subjects factor of order and within-subjects factors of beverage type and size), 26 children (3.9 ± 0.6 years of age, 50% female, 73% white, and 88.5% non-Hispanic or Latino) completed four, 20-min snack sessions consisting of 200 g of applesauce, 60 g of graham crackers, and either 6 oz. (approximately 180 g) or 12 oz. (approximately 360 g) of 100% berry fruit juice or water, to examine the influence of 100% fruit juice and the portion size of the provided fruit juice, on beverage, food, and overall snack intake. Mixed-factor analyses of covariance revealed a significant (p snack energy intake, with more overall energy consumed when juice was provided (175.4 ± 50.0 kcal vs. 104.8 ± 62.8 kcal, p snack increased beverage and/or food intake, and serving 100% juice led to greater overall snack energy intake. Future research should examine the role of 100% fruit juice, and beverage portion size, in contributing to excessive daily energy intake in preschool-aged children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Black Tea Source, Production, and Consumption: Assessment of Health Risks of Fluoride Intake in New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Declan T. Waugh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In countries with fluoridation of public water, it is imperative to determine other dietary sources of fluoride intake to reduce the public health risk of chronic exposure. New Zealand has one of the highest per capita consumption rates of black tea internationally and is one of the few countries to artificially fluoridate public water; yet no information is available to consumers on the fluoride levels in tea products. In this study, we determined the contribution of black tea as a source of dietary fluoride intake by measuring the fluoride content in 18 brands of commercially available products in New Zealand. Fluoride concentrations were measured by potentiometric method with a fluoride ion-selective electrode and the contribution of black tea to Adequate Intake (AI and Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL was calculated for a range of consumption scenarios. We examined factors that influence the fluoride content in manufactured tea and tea infusions, as well as temporal changes in fluoride exposure from black tea. We review the international evidence regarding chronic fluoride intake and its association with chronic pain, arthritic disease, and musculoskeletal disorders and provide insights into possible association between fluoride intake and the high prevalence of these disorders in New Zealand.

  2. Water in nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ávila Rosas Héctor

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available While no solid, structured studies were found to support specific recommendations of water consumption, the main problem seems to be the excessive intake of sugary beverages. The recommended figure of 1-1.5 mL of water per kcal of energy intake is a reference value that must consider weather, physical activity, and dietary varia- tions. At ages up to six months, all water must come from maternal milk, of which an intake of 100-190 mL/kg/day is recommended; at ages 6-12 months, 800-1000 mL/day, considering milk and a gradual introduction of water. Children aged 2-3 years old must have 1,300 mL/day, and those aged 4-8 years old, 1,600 mL/day. Females aged 9-13 years old must consume 1,900 mL/day while the water intake of males must be 2,100 mL/day. For those aged 14 years old or more, adult recommendations apply.

  3. Breeding for feed intake capacity in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eissen, J.

    2000-01-01

    This thesis deals with feed intake capacity of pigs. By selection, breeding organizations try to achieve genetic improvement in production and reproduction efficiency. Future genetic improvement may become constrained by a limited feed intake capacity of growing pigs and lactating sows,

  4. Nutritional supplement intake knowledge among university active ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study is to examine the nutritional supplement intake knowledge among university athletes. Fifty-one university athletes volunteered to participate in this survey study. Results showed the nutritional supplement intake was significantly higher compared to the knowledge that they have about the ...

  5. Sleep and energy intake in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, A; McDonald, L; van Jaarsveld, C H M; Llewellyn, C; Fildes, A; Schrempft, S; Wardle, J

    2014-07-01

    Shorter sleep is associated with higher weight in children, but little is known about the mechanisms. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that shorter sleep was associated with higher energy intake in early childhood. Participants were 1303 families from the Gemini twin birth cohort. Sleep duration was measured using the Brief Infant Sleep Questionnaire when the children were 16 months old. Total energy intake (kcal per day) and grams per day of fat, carbohydrate and protein were derived from 3-day diet diaries completed by parents when children were 21 months old. Shorter nighttime sleep was associated with higher total energy intake (P for linear trend=0.005). Children sleeping sleeping 11-sleep duration for children of this age). Differences in energy intake were maintained after adjustment for confounders. As a percentage of total energy intake, there were no significant differences in macronutrient intake by sleep duration. The association between sleep and weight was not significant at this age (P=0.13). This study provides the first evidence that shorter nighttime sleep duration has a linear association with higher energy intake early in life. That the effect is observed before emergence of associations between sleep and weight indicates that differences in energy intake may be a mechanism through which sleep influences weight gain.

  6. PREDICTING VOLUNTARY INTAKE ON MEDIUM QUALITY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hediction, voluntary intake, roughages, model). (Sleutelwoorde: ... fibre kinetics. By dividing voluntary feed intake into the fraction that is fermented in the rumen and the fraction which flows from the rumen, the basic model provides a logical way in ... Casein was infused per rumen to supply ammonia and amino acids to ...

  7. Reducing dietary sodium intake: the Canadian context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Susan I

    2010-02-01

    Sodium is a required nutrient; Adequate Intakes for adults range from 1200 to 1500 mg*day(-1), depending on age. The Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) for sodium is 2300 mg*day(-1) for adults, based on the relationship between sodium intake and increased blood pressure. Elevated blood pressure, which is prevalent among Canadians, is, in turn, a major risk factor for stroke, cardiovascular disease, and renal disease. Sodium intake is not the only determinant of blood pressure; other modifiable risk factors include relative mass, physical activity, overall dietary quality, and alcohol consumption. However, because >90% of adult Canadian men and two thirds of Canadian women have sodium intakes above the UL, Health Canada's Working Group on Dietary Sodium Reduction has been charged with developing, implementing, and overseeing a strategy to reduce Canadians' sodium intakes. It is estimated that approximately 75% of dietary sodium is added during food processing; in addition to taste and palatability, sodium also has functional roles in food manufacturing and preservation, although the amounts used often exceed those required. Because of the central role of processed foods in sodium intake, the strategy proposed by Health Canada's Working Group includes voluntary reduction of sodium in processed foods and foods sold in food service establishments. It will also include an education and awareness campaign, and research and surveillance. Initiatives to reduce sodium in other parts of the world have demonstrated that it will be challenging to reduce sodium intake to the recommended range and will likely require many years to accomplish.

  8. Complementary Feeding Practices And Nutrient Intake From ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Complementary Feeding Practices And Nutrient Intake From Habitual Complementary Foods Of Infants And Children Aged 6-18 Months Old In Lusaka, Zambia. ... Compared with the recommended daily allowance (RDA) at 6-8, 9-11 and 12-18 months of age, the daily nutrient intakes were 88%, 121% and 94% for energy ...

  9. Vitamin Intake from Food Supplements in a German Cohort - Is there a Risk of Excessive Intake?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willers, Janina; Heinemann, Michaela; Bitterlich, Norman; Hahn, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Food supplements, if not properly used, may lead to potentially harmful nutrient intake. The purpose of this survey was to examine vitamin intake from food supplements. Taking into account the intake from food, as obtained from the National Nutrition Survey, it was determined whether the tolerable upper intake levels (ULs) were exceeded via supplements alone, or in combination with food. Data from 1070 supplement users (18-93 years) was available. The dietary and supplemental vitamin intakes of three groups were analyzed: average intake (50th percentile food+50th percentile supplements), middle-high intake (50th+95th) and high intake (95th+95th). Vitamin C (53%), vitamin E (45%) and B vitamins (37-45%) were consumed most frequently. Few subjects (n=7) reached or exceeded the ULs through supplements alone. The UL for vitamin A and folate was reached by a few men in the middle-high group, and by a few men and women in the high intake group. Otherwise, even in the high intake group, the recommended vitamin D intake of 20 µg/day (in case of insufficient endogenous synthesis) could not be achieved. The use of food supplements was not associated with excessive vitamin intake in this survey, except in a small number of cases. Vitamin A intake above the UL was the result of high dietary intake which also included the intake of β-carotene, rather than the result of overconsumption of food supplements. Diets mainly included folate from natural sources, which has no associated risk.

  10. The effect of taste familiarity on intake and taste reactivity in infant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Cenzano, Elena; Chotro, M Gabriela

    2010-03-01

    With infant rats, unlike with adults, increased intake of a taste after mere exposure to this stimulus is not consistently found; this has sometimes been interpreted as a failure by the immature subject to recognize tastes as familiar. We studied the effect of preexposure to a tastant, measuring taste reactivity and intake in 14-day-old rats. Familiarity increased hedonic response to sucrose, but also increased aversive response to quinine and ethanol. With the sucrose-quinine compound, familiarity increased both the hedonic and the aversive reaction to the stimulus. In no case was a differential reactivity to water observed. Significant increased intake after familiarization was only found with quinine or the sucrose-quinine compound. Results indicate that in infant rats, and with the present parameters, taste familiarity enhances responsiveness to these stimuli, an effect not always accompanied by detectable changes in intake.

  11. Alcohol intake in prairie voles is influenced by the drinking level of a peer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anacker, Allison M J; Loftis, Jennifer M; Ryabinin, Andrey E

    2011-10-01

    Peer interactions can have important effects on alcohol-drinking levels, in some cases increasing use, and in other cases preventing it. In a previous study, we have established the prairie vole as a model animal for the effects of social relationships on alcohol intake and have observed a correlation of alcohol intake between individual voles housed together as pairs. Here, we investigated this correlated drinking behavior, hypothesizing that 1 animal alters its alcohol intake to match the drinking of its partner. Adult prairie voles were tested for baseline drinking levels with continuous access to 10% alcohol and water for 4 days. In Experiment 1, high alcohol drinkers (>9 g/kg/d) were paired with low alcohol drinkers (effect does not extend to saccharin, a naturally rewarding sweet substance. This behavior can be used to model the peer pressure that can often affect alcohol intake in humans. Copyright © 2011 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  12. Peculiarities of construction of water intake structures in the countries of oceania ОСОБЕННОСТИ СТРОИТЕЛЬСТВА ВОДОЗАБОРНЫХ СООРУЖЕНИЙ В СТРАНАХ ОКЕАНИИ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov Evgeniy Vladimirovich

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The problem of potable water supply is becoming increasingly relevant. This problem is particularly important in the countries of Oceania, where neither surface, nor subterranean water is unavailable due to the harsh terrain and climate. Therefore, construction of marine water intake structures is the only solution. Peculiarities of construction of water intake facilities and their operation in the environment of the Pacific Ocean are considered by the author. The author provides his layout solutions of water intake structures. The author has given up the idea of a water intake facility capable of taking water from the channels because the sand brought by the waves from the bottom may inflow into the water inlet structure. Besides, channels drain in the low tide period; therefore, water intake facilities remain idle.Also, high aggressiveness of the sea water constitutes another problem. The sea water may damage any water intake structure, as some of their elements are made of reinforced concrete, while others are made of steel. Steel corrosion resistance may be improved by alloying additives (chromium, Nickel, copper, etc., or, alternatively, by a zinc and aluminum coating which must be 120—250 microns thick.Проблема обеспечения населения качественной питьевой водой приобретает все большую актуальность. Особенно остро это ощущается в странах Океании, где из-за сложного рельефа и климатических условий отсутствуют как поверхностные, так и подземные воды. Поэтому строительство морских водозаборов является единственным выходом из ситуации. Рассмотрены особенности строительства водозаборных сооружений и

  13. A study of fluid intake from beverages in a sample of healthy French children, adolescents and adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellisle, F; Thornton, S N; Hébel, P; Denizeau, M; Tahiri, M

    2010-01-01

    Background/Objectives: To assess the intake of fluid in healthy French children, adolescents, adults and seniors, considering amounts, types of beverages, time and place of consumption. Subjects/Methods: Data regarding fluid intake were extracted and analyzed from the National Intake Survey, which was conducted in quota samples of the French population (Comportement et Consommations Alimentaires en France study). Seven-day questionnaires were administered to free-living individuals in 2002–2003. A total of 566 children (aged 6–11 years), 333 adolescents (aged 12–19 years), 831 adults (aged 20–54 years) and 443 seniors (aged ⩾55 years) were included in this study. Results: The average total intake of fluid was 1–1.3 l per day depending on age groups. Water accounted for about one-half of daily fluid intake. The contribution of other types of beverages varied with age (for example, dairy drinks in children and adolescents; alcoholic drinks in adults and seniors). Intake of sodas (including regular and light) was highest in adolescents (169 ml a day). Beverages were mainly consumed at home during meals. Conclusions: This is the first description of fluid intake in French children, adolescents, adults and seniors, considering amounts, types of beverages, time and place of intake. It shows that water is the main source of fluid in all age groups. Selection of various types of beverages is different according to age. PMID:20160751

  14. Calcium Intake in the Moroccan Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebbar El-houcine

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Calcium intakes of elderly people are often below the recommendations which are 1200 mg/day. The advancing age may be accompanied by a loss of capacity to absorb additional calcium in case of deficiency. The aim of our work is to evaluate the calcium intake in the Moroccan elderly. Methods: The version translated into Arabic dialect Fardellone questionnaire is tested on a sample of 159 subjects aged over 60 years. Results: The study population includes 87 women (55%, 72 men (45%. The mean calcium intake was respectively 3078 mg by week (that means 440 mg/day. The assessment of calcium intake showed a deficiency and the average consumption of calcium per day is significantly lower than the recommended daily amount for this population. The comparison of both gender found a deficit higher among women than among men. Conclusion: Evaluation of the calcium intake is an essential tool for better management of metabolic bone diseases.

  15. Metabolomics to Explore Impact of Dairy Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hong; Clausen, Morten R.; Dalsgaard, Trine K.; Bertram, Hanne C.

    2015-01-01

    Dairy products are an important component in the Western diet and represent a valuable source of nutrients for humans. However, a reliable dairy intake assessment in nutrition research is crucial to correctly elucidate the link between dairy intake and human health. Metabolomics is considered a potential tool for assessment of dietary intake instead of traditional methods, such as food frequency questionnaires, food records, and 24-h recalls. Metabolomics has been successfully applied to discriminate between consumption of different dairy products under different experimental conditions. Moreover, potential metabolites related to dairy intake were identified, although these metabolites need to be further validated in other intervention studies before they can be used as valid biomarkers of dairy consumption. Therefore, this review provides an overview of metabolomics for assessment of dairy intake in order to better clarify the role of dairy products in human nutrition and health. PMID:26091233

  16. Metabolomics to Explore Impact of Dairy Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hong; Clausen, Morten R; Dalsgaard, Trine K; Bertram, Hanne C

    2015-06-17

    Dairy products are an important component in the Western diet and represent a valuable source of nutrients for humans. However, a reliable dairy intake assessment in nutrition research is crucial to correctly elucidate the link between dairy intake and human health. Metabolomics is considered a potential tool for assessment of dietary intake instead of traditional methods, such as food frequency questionnaires, food records, and 24-h recalls. Metabolomics has been successfully applied to discriminate between consumption of different dairy products under different experimental conditions. Moreover, potential metabolites related to dairy intake were identified, although these metabolites need to be further validated in other intervention studies before they can be used as valid biomarkers of dairy consumption. Therefore, this review provides an overview of metabolomics for assessment of dairy intake in order to better clarify the role of dairy products in human nutrition and health.

  17. Dietary Phosphorus Intake and the Kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Alex R; Anderson, Cheryl

    2017-08-21

    Although phosphorus is an essential nutrient required for multiple physiological functions, recent research raises concerns that high phosphorus intake could have detrimental effects on health. Phosphorus is abundant in the food supply of developed countries, occurring naturally in protein-rich foods and as an additive in processed foods. High phosphorus intake can cause vascular and renal calcification, renal tubular injury, and premature death in multiple animal models. Small studies in human suggest that high phosphorus intake may result in positive phosphorus balance and correlate with renal calcification and albuminuria. Although serum phosphorus is strongly associated with cardiovascular disease, progression of kidney disease, and death, limited data exist linking high phosphorus intake directly to adverse clinical outcomes. Further prospective studies are needed to determine whether phosphorus intake is a modifiable risk factor for kidney disease.

  18. Dietary Phosphorus Intake and the Kidney

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Alex R.; Anderson, Cheryl

    2017-01-01

    Although phosphorus is an essential nutrient required for multiple physiological functions, recent research raises concerns that high phosphorus intake could have detrimental effects on health. Phosphorus is abundant in the food supply of developed countries, occurring naturally in protein-rich foods and as an additive in processed foods. High phosphorus intake can cause vascular and renal calcification, renal tubular injury, and premature death in multiple animal models. Small studies in human suggest that high phosphorus intake may result in positive phosphorus balance and correlate with renal calcification and albuminuria. Although serum phosphorus is strongly associated with cardiovascular disease, progression of kidney disease, and death, limited data exist linking high phosphorus intake directly to adverse clinical outcomes. Further prospective studies are needed to determine whether phosphorus intake is a modifiable risk factor for kidney disease. PMID:28613982

  19. Metabolomics to Explore Impact of Dairy Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zheng

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dairy products are an important component in the Western diet and represent a valuable source of nutrients for humans. However, a reliable dairy intake assessment in nutrition research is crucial to correctly elucidate the link between dairy intake and human health. Metabolomics is considered a potential tool for assessment of dietary intake instead of traditional methods, such as food frequency questionnaires, food records, and 24-h recalls. Metabolomics has been successfully applied to discriminate between consumption of different dairy products under different experimental conditions. Moreover, potential metabolites related to dairy intake were identified, although these metabolites need to be further validated in other intervention studies before they can be used as valid biomarkers of dairy consumption. Therefore, this review provides an overview of metabolomics for assessment of dairy intake in order to better clarify the role of dairy products in human nutrition and health.

  20. Evaluation of Drinks Contribution to Energy Intake in Summer and Winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Malisova

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available All drinks hydrate and most also provide nutrients and energy. Our objective was to evaluate the contribution of drinks to total energy intake in summer and winter. Data were obtained using the Water Balance Questionnaire (WBQ from a sample of the general population in Athens, Greece (n = 984, 473 individuals (42 ± 18 years in summer and 511 individuals (38 ± 20 years in winter stratified by sex and age. The WBQ embeds a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire of 58 foods and the Short International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Data were analyzed for the contribution of drinks to total energy intake. In winter, total energy intake was 2082 ± 892 kcal/day; energy intake from drinks was 479 ± 286 kcal/day and energy expenditure 1860 ± 390 kcal/day. In summer, total energy intake was 1890 ± 894 kcal/day, energy intake from drinks 492 ± 499 kcal/day and energy expenditure 1830 ± 491 kcal/day. Energy intake from drinks in summer was higher than in winter (p < 0.001 and in men higher than in women in both seasons (p < 0.001 in summer, p = 0.02 in winter. Coffee, coffee drinks, milk, chocolate milk and alcoholic drinks contributed approximately 75% of energy from drinks. Fruit juice and sugar-sweetened drinks, including soft drinks and fruit juice based drinks, were consumed less frequently contributing up to 25% of drink energy intake. Drinks contribute approximately 1/4 of total energy intake depending on the energy content of the drink and frequency of consumption. Coffee, dairy and alcoholic drinks were the main energy contributors.

  1. Effect of Excess Iodide Intake on Salivary Glands in a Swiss Albino Mice Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Romina Ross

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Iodine is an important micronutrient required for nutrition. Excess iodine has adverse effects on thyroid, but there is not enough information regarding its effect on salivary glands. In addition to food and iodized salt, skin disinfectants and maternal nutritional supplements contain iodide, so its intake could be excessive during pregnancy, lactation, and infancy. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of excess iodide ingestion on salivary glands during mating, gestation, lactation, and postweaning period in mouse. During assay, mice were allocated into groups: control and treatment groups (received distilled water with NaI 1 mg/mL. Water intake, glandular weight, and histology were analyzed. Treatment groups showed an increase in glandular weight and a significantly (p < 0.05 higher water intake than control groups. Lymphocyte infiltration was observed in animals of treatment groups, while there was no infiltration in glandular sections of control groups. Results demonstrated that a negative relationship could exist between iodide excess and salivary glands. This work is novel evidence that high levels of iodide intake could induce mononuclear infiltration in salivary glands. These results should be considered, especially in pregnant/lactating women, to whom a higher iodine intake is usually recommended.

  2. Nitrogen nutrition of tomato plant alters leafminer dietary intake dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coqueret, Victoire; Le Bot, Jacques; Larbat, Romain; Desneux, Nicolas; Robin, Christophe; Adamowicz, Stéphane

    2017-05-01

    The leafminer Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) is a major pest of the tomato crop and its development rate is known to decline when nitrogen availability for crop growth is limited. Because N limitation reduces plant primary metabolism but enhances secondary metabolism, one can infer that the slow larval development arises from lower leaf nutritive value and/or higher plant defence. As an attempt to study the first alternative, we examined the tomato-T. absoluta interaction in terms of resource supply by leaves and intake by larvae. Tomato plants were raised under controlled conditions on N-sufficient vs. N-limited complete nutrient solutions. Plants were kept healthy or artificially inoculated with larvae for seven days. Serial harvests were taken and the N, C, dry mass and water contents were determined in roots, stems and leaves. Leaf and mine areas were also measured and the N, C, dry mass and water surface densities were calculated in order to characterize the diet of the larvae. The infestation of a specific leaf lessened its local biomass by 8-26%, but this effect was undetectable at the whole plant scale. Infestation markedly increased resource density per unit leaf area (water, dry mass, C and N) suggesting that the insect induced changes in leaf composition. Nitrogen limitation lessened whole plant growth (by 50%) and infested leaflet growth (by 32-44%). It produced opposite effects on specific resource density per unit area, increasing that of dry mass and C while decreasing water and N. These changes were ineffective on insect mining activity, but slowed down larval development. Under N limitation, T. absoluta consumed less water and N but more dry mass and C. The resulting consequences were a 50-70% increase of C:N stoichiometry in their diet and the doubling of faeces excretion. The observed limitation of larval development is therefore consistent with a trophic explanation caused by low N and/or water intakes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  3. Harmonized Cross-Sectional Surveys Focused on Fluid Intake in Children, Adolescents and Adults: The Liq.In7 Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Homero; Guelinckx, Isabelle; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Gandy, Joan; Kavouras, Stavros A; Moreno, Luis A

    2016-01-01

    To assess the intake of water and all other beverages in children, adolescents and adults. Three thousand six hundred eleven children (8 ± 2 years), 8,109 adolescents (13 ± 2 years) and 16,276 adults (40 ± 14 years) (47% men) were recruited in 15 cross-sectional surveys (liquid intake across 7 days, Liq.In7 study) and completed a 7-day fluid-specific record to assess total fluid intake (TFI), where TFI was defined as the sum of drinking water and other type of beverages. The median TFI was 1.2, 1.2 and 1.8 liters/day in children, adolescents and adults respectively, with important differences observed between countries. Only 39% of children, 25% of adolescents and 51% of adults met the European Food Safety Authority adequate intake (AI) recommendations of water from fluids. In the surveys of Spain, France, Belgium, Germany, Turkey, Iran, Indonesia and China, water was the major contributor (47-78%) to TFI. In the adult surveys of UK, Poland, Japan and Argentina, hot beverages were the highest contributor to TFI. The fluid intake of children and adolescents in Mexico, Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay was characterized by a contribution of juices and sweet beverages that was as important as the contribution of water to TFI. Given that a relatively high proportion of subjects, especially children and adolescents, failed to meet the recommended AI of water from fluids and that water intake was not the highest contributor to TFI in all countries, undertaking actions to increase water intake are warranted. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. The effect of unrestricted oral carbohydrate intake on labor progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranmer, Joan E; Hodnett, Ellen D; Hannah, Mary E; Stevens, Bonnie J

    2005-01-01

    To determine if unrestricted oral carbohydrate intake during labor reduced the incidence of dystocia in low-risk nulliparous women. A randomized clinical trial at a university-affiliated hospital in southeastern Ontario. Low-risk nulliparous women were randomized between 30 and 40 weeks gestation to either an intervention or usual care group. Women in the intervention group received, prenatally, guidelines about food and fluid intake during labor and were encouraged to eat and drink as they pleased during labor. Women in the usual care group received no prelabor information and were restricted to ice chips and water during labor in the hospital. The incidence of dystocia, defined as a cervical dilatation rate of less than 0.5 cm/hr for a period of 4 hrs after a cervical dilatation of 3 cm. Three hundred twenty-eight women were randomized to the intervention (n = 163) or usual care (n = 165) groups. Women in the intervention group reported a significantly different pattern of oral intake during early labor in the hospital (chi(2) = 40.7, p Eating and drinking early in labor had no significant impact on the incidence of dystocia and/or adverse maternal or neonatal outcomes.

  5. Perfluorinated alkylated acids in groundwater and drinking water: Identification, origin and mobility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eschauzier, C.; Raat, K.J.; Stuyfzand, P.J.; de Voogt, P.

    2013-01-01

    Human exposure to perfluorinated alkylated acids (PFAA) occurs primarily via the dietary intake and drinking water can contribute significantly to the overall PFAA intake. Drinking water is produced from surface water and groundwater. Waste water treatment plants have been identified as the main

  6. Perfluorinated alkylated acids in groundwater and drinking water: identification, origin and mobility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eschauzier, C.; Raat, K.J.; Stuijfzand, P.J.; de Voogt, P.

    2013-01-01

    Human exposure to perfluorinated alkylated acids (PFAA) occurs primarily via the dietary intake and drinking water can contribute significantly to the overall PFAA intake. Drinking water is produced from surface water and groundwater. Waste water treatment plants have been identified as the main

  7. Design and Optimization of Supersonic Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, Ved; Radhakrishnan, Jayakrishnan

    2017-08-01

    The ideal supersonic intake was designed using the Theta-Beta-Mach relations and a CAD modelling software. After the design was done the optimization part was carried out. Initially the easy method of cowl deflection angle variation was used to get the optimum results at a particular angle and then the pressure recovery was maximized using the intake bleed technique. The bleed technique was optimized by fixing the best location of bleed according to the shock reflections in the intake and then maximizing the results analyzing the problem for various bleed diameter values. The mesh resolution for all the analyses was taken constant along with the turbulence model and solution methods. The analyses were carried out completely considering the free flow exit condition in the intake and the back pressure condition was not taken into account due to time constraints. Therefore, the pressure recovery or the efficiency of the intake is judged solely on the minimum velocity achieved in the intake. This value was used to maximize the intake too.

  8. Suboptimal Micronutrient Intake among Children in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Kaganov

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Adequate dietary intake of micronutrients is not necessarily achieved even in resource-rich areas of the world wherein overeating is a public health concern. In Europe, population-based data suggests substantial variability in micronutrient intake among children. Two independent surveys of micronutrient consumption among European children were evaluated. Stratified by age, the data regarding micronutrient intake were evaluated in the context of daily requirements, which are typically estimated in the absence of reliable absolute values derived from prospective studies. The proportion of children living in Europe whose intake of at least some vitamins and trace elements are at or below the estimated average requirements is substantial. The most common deficiencies across age groups included vitamin D, vitamin E, and iodine. Specific deficiencies were not uniform across countries or by age or gender.  Micronutrient intake appears to be more strongly influenced by factors other than access to food. Substantial portions of European children may be at risk of reversible health risks from inadequate intake of micronutrients. Despite the growing health threat posed by excess intake of calories, adequate exposure to vitamins, trace elements, and other micronutrients may deserve attention in public health initiatives to optimize growth and development in the European pediatric population.

  9. Optimal protein intake in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Robert R; Miller, Sharon L; Miller, Kevin B

    2008-10-01

    The recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for protein, as promulgated by the Food and Nutrition Board of the United States National Academy of Science, is 0.8 g protein/kg body weight/day for adults, regardless of age. This value represents the minimum amount of protein required to avoid progressive loss of lean body mass in most individuals. There is an evidence that the RDA for elderly may be greater than 0.8 g/kg/day. Evidence indicates that protein intake greater than the RDA can improve muscle mass, strength and function in elderly. In addition, other factors, including immune status, wound healing, blood pressure and bone health may be improved by increasing protein intake above the RDA. Furthermore, the RDA does not address the recommended intake of protein in the context of a balanced diet. Concerns about potential detrimental effects of increased protein intake on bone health, renal function, neurological function and cardiovascular function are generally unfounded. In fact, many of these factors are improved in elderly ingesting elevated quantities of protein. It appears that an intake of 1.5 g protein/kg/day, or about 15-20% of total caloric intake, is a reasonable target for elderly individuals wishing to optimize protein intake in terms of health and function.

  10. Dietary intake of Senegalese adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coomes Margerie

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this work is to identify major food sources and dietary constituents of Senegalese adults. We conducted a cross-sectional study, using a single 24-hour dietary recall interview. Foods were classified into food groups based on similarities in nutrient content or use. Food groups included foods consumed individually, or as part of food mixtures such as stews, soups, or sandwiches. Median consumption (amount/day of each food was determined and examined by relevant subgroups. Participants were 50 healthy Senegalese men, aged 20-62 years recruited at the Hôpital Général de Grand Yoff in Dakar, Senegal and from Sendou village, a rural area outside Dakar. A total of 90 foods and beverages were identified and classified into 11 groups. Sixty-five percent of foods identified could be classified as meats, grains, or fruits/vegetables. Fruits and vegetables comprised 42% (38/90 of all foods; meats 12% (11/90; and grains 11% (10/90. Sauces (6%, 5/90, sweets (4%, 4/90, and desserts (4%, 4/90 were also reported. The most common fruits/vegetables reported were potato, carrot, mango, and lettuce; commonly reported grains were bread and rice; and commonly reported meats were fish, beef, and ox. There were no differences in reported daily intake of each food by age, ethnicity, education, or residence. Most foods reported were traditional to the Senegalese diet, despite the increasing availability of Western foods in Senegal.

  11. Does personality affect dietary intake?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunn, Trevor E; Nowson, Caryl A; Worsley, Anthony; Torres, Susan J

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this review is to evaluate the evidence for an association between the Big Five dimensions of personality, dietary intake, and compliance to dietary recommendations. Poor diet is a known risk factor for overweight and obesity and associated chronic lifestyle diseases and it has been proposed that personality may be linked to dietary choices. Findings from cross-sectional surveys from different countries and cultures show a positive association between Openness and consumption of fruits and vegetables and between Conscientiousness and healthy eating. Although no evidence has been found that personality dimensions are associated with adherence to dietary recommendations over time, Conscientiousness is associated with a number of prosocial and health-promoting behaviors that include avoiding alcohol-related harm, binge-drinking, and smoking, and adherence to medication regimens. With emerging evidence of an association between higher Conscientiousness and lower obesity risk, the hypothesis that higher Conscientiousness may predict adoption of healthy dietary and other lifestyle recommendations appears to be supported. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Dietary intake of Senegalese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Cheryl Am; Bellamy, Scarlett; Figures, Mindy; Zeigler-Johnson, Charnita; Jalloh, Mohamed; Spangler, Elaine; Coomes, Margerie; Gueye, Serigne; Rebbeck, Timothy R

    2010-02-18

    The aim of this work is to identify major food sources and dietary constituents of Senegalese adults. We conducted a cross-sectional study, using a single 24-hour dietary recall interview. Foods were classified into food groups based on similarities in nutrient content or use. Food groups included foods consumed individually, or as part of food mixtures such as stews, soups, or sandwiches. Median consumption (amount/day) of each food was determined and examined by relevant subgroups. Participants were 50 healthy Senegalese men, aged 20-62 years recruited at the Hôpital Général de Grand Yoff in Dakar, Senegal and from Sendou village, a rural area outside Dakar. A total of 90 foods and beverages were identified and classified into 11 groups. Sixty-five percent of foods identified could be classified as meats, grains, or fruits/vegetables. Fruits and vegetables comprised 42% (38/90) of all foods; meats 12% (11/90); and grains 11% (10/90). Sauces (6%, 5/90), sweets (4%, 4/90), and desserts (4%, 4/90) were also reported. The most common fruits/vegetables reported were potato, carrot, mango, and lettuce; commonly reported grains were bread and rice; and commonly reported meats were fish, beef, and ox. There were no differences in reported daily intake of each food by age, ethnicity, education, or residence. Most foods reported were traditional to the Senegalese diet, despite the increasing availability of Western foods in Senegal.

  13. Flavonoid intake and incident hypertension in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajous, Martin; Rossignol, Emilie; Fagherazzi, Guy; Perquier, Florence; Scalbert, Augustin; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine

    2016-04-01

    Intake of flavonoid-containing food has been shown to have a beneficial effect on blood pressure in short-term randomized trials. There are limited data on total flavonoid and flavonoid-subclass consumption over a long period of time and the corresponding incidence of hypertension. We aimed to evaluate the relation between flavonoid subclasses and total flavonoid intakes and incidence of hypertension. In a prospective cohort of 40,574 disease-free French women who responded to a validated dietary questionnaire, we observed 9350 incident cases of hypertension between 1993 and 2008. Cases were identified through self-reports of diagnosed or treated hypertension. Multivariate Cox regression models were adjusted for age, family history of hypertension, body mass index, physical activity, smoking, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, hormone therapy, and alcohol, caffeine, magnesium, potassium, omega-3 (n-3), and processed meat intakes. Women in the highest quintile of flavonol intake had a 10% lower rate of hypertension than women in the lowest quintile (HR: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.84, 0.97;P-trend = 0.031). Similarly, there was a 9% lower rate for women in the highest category of intake than for women in the lowest category of intake for both anthocyanins and proanthocyanidin polymers [HRs: 0.91 (95% CI: 0.84, 0.97;P-trend = 0.0075) and 0.91 (95% CI: 0.85, 0.97;P-trend = 0.0051), respectively]. An inverse association for total flavonoid intake was observed with a similar magnitude. In this large prospective cohort of French middle-aged women, participants with greater flavonol, anthocyanin, and polymeric flavonoid intakes and greater total flavonoid intake were less likely to develop hypertension. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  14. Quantitative Genetics of Food Intake in Drosophila melanogaster: e0138129

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Megan E Garlapow; Wen Huang; Michael T Yarboro; Kara R Peterson; Trudy F C Mackay

    2015-01-01

    .... To gain insights in evolutionarily conserved genetic principles that regulate food intake, we took advantage of a model system, Drosophila melanogaster, in which food intake, environmental conditions...

  15. Quantitative Genetics of Food Intake in Drosophila melanogaster

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garlapow, Megan E; Huang, Wen; Yarboro, Michael T; Peterson, Kara R; Mackay, Trudy F C

    2015-01-01

    .... To gain insights in evolutionarily conserved genetic principles that regulate food intake, we took advantage of a model system, Drosophila melanogaster, in which food intake, environmental conditions...

  16. Lead (Pb) in Drinking Water

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2008-10-01

    Inadequate hydration has been linked to many factors that may impact on children\\'s education and health. Teachers play an important role in the education and behaviour of children. Previous research has demonstrated low water intake amongst children and negative teachers\\' attitudes to water in the classroom. The present study aimed to explore teachers\\' knowledge about water and the perceived barriers to allowing children access to water during lesson time.

  17. Residual feed intake in beef cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Arthur, J P.F.; Herd, R.M.

    2008-01-01

    Providing feed is a major input cost in beef production, hence improvements in the efficiency of feed utilisation will reduce the cost of production. Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of feed efficiency, and is defined as the difference between an animal's actual feed intake and its expected feed intake based on its size and growth. It is independent of the level of production, and the lower the value the more efficient the animal is. This paper examines the current state of knowledge o...

  18. Water intake and consumption in sheep differing in growth potential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Animal and Wildlife Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, 0002 Republic of South Africa. Received I0 February 1995; ... tively under heat stress conditions (Degen & Shkolnik, 1978;. Silanikove, 1987). However, little is ..... metabolism of cows and progeny on fertilized and unfertilized tropical pastures. Aust.

  19. Central injection of a synthetic chicken partial leptin peptide does not affect food intake in chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Wil; Yi, Jiaqing; Cline, Mark A; Gilbert, Elizabeth R

    2017-08-24

    Leptin is an adipose tissue-derived hormone in mammals that plays an important role in whole body energy balance via its inhibitory effects on food intake mediated through the hypothalamus. Chicken leptin has a low sequence homology to mammalian leptin and its role in appetite regulation is not reported; hence the objective of this study was to determine effects of central injection of chicken leptin on food and water intake and associated behaviors in chicks. Chicks were intracerebroventricularly injected with 0 (vehicle), 0.3, 1.0, or 3.0 nmol of a synthetic chicken leptin partial peptide and food and water intake were monitored. There were no effects observed and a second experiment was conducted to evaluate food and water intake at higher doses; after injection of 0, 2.5, 5.0, or 10.0 nmol leptin. Again, there were no effects on food or water intake. In the third experiment, behaviors were analyzed during the first 30 min post-injection of vehicle or 10 nmol leptin. At 5 min post-injection, vehicle-injected chicks spent more time sitting than leptin-injected chicks. A wide dose range was evaluated however, the absence of an effect on food intake or behavior suggests that the chicken leptin peptide that was tested does not mediate effects on appetite in the brain and that chicken leptin likely has a different physiological role in birds than in mammals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Chocolate intake and diabetes risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, James A

    2015-02-01

    In-vitro and rodent studies, and short-term human trials suggest that compounds in chocolate can enhance insulin sensitivity. Also, a recent prospective Japanese epidemiological analysis found that long-term chocolate consumption was inversely associated with diabetes risk. The objective of the present analysis was to test the epidemiological association between long-term chocolate consumption and diabetes risk in a U.S. cohort. Multivariable prospective Cox Regression analysis with time-dependent covariates was used to examine data from 7802 participants in the prospective Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Cohort. The data included 861 new diabetes cases during 98,543 person-years of follow up (mean = 13.3 years). Compared to participants who ate 1 oz of chocolate less often than monthly, those who ate it 1-4 times/month, 2-6 times/week and ≥ 1 time/day had relative risks of being diagnosed with diabetes that were lower by 13% (95% confidence interval: -2%, 25%), 34% (18%, 47%) and 18% (-10%, 38%). These relative risks applied to participants without evidence of preexisting serious chronic disease that included diabetes, heart attacks, stroke or cancer. In conclusion, the risk of diabetes decreased as the frequency of chocolate intake increased, up to 2-6 servings (1 oz) per week. Consuming ≥ 1 serving per day did not yield significantly lower relative risk. These results suggest that consuming moderate amount of chocolate may reduce the risk of diabetes. Further research is required to confirm and explore these findings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  1. Coffee intake, cardiovascular disease and allcause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordestgaard, Ask Tybjærg; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne

    2016-01-01

    Background: Coffee has been associated with modestly lower risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in meta-analyses; however, it is unclear whether these are causal associations. We tested first whether coffee intake is associated with cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality...... observationally; second, whether genetic variations previously associated with caffeine intake are associated with coffee intake; and third, whether the genetic variations are associated with cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. Methods: First, we used multivariable adjusted Cox proportional hazard...... regression models evaluated with restricted cubic splines to examine observational associations in 95 366 White Danes. Second, we estimated mean coffee intake according to five genetic variations near the AHR (rs4410790; rs6968865) and CYP1A1/2 genes (rs2470893; rs2472297; rs2472299). Third, we used sex...

  2. Oxytocin reduces caloric intake in men

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lawson, Elizabeth A; Marengi, Dean A; DeSanti, Rebecca L; Holmes, Tara M; Schoenfeld, David A; Tolley, Christiane J

    2015-01-01

    .... Oxytocin effects on nutrition and metabolism in humans are not well defined. It was hypothesized that oxytocin would reduce caloric intake and appetite and alter levels of appetite-regulating hormones...

  3. Using metabolomics to evaluate food intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manach, Claudine; Brennan, Lorraine; Dragsted, Lars Ove

    2015-01-01

    Improving dietary assessment is essential for modern nutritional epidemiology. This chapter discusses the potential of metabolomics for the identification of new biomarkers of intake and presents the first candidate biomarkers discovered using this approach. It then describes the challenges...

  4. Changing micronutrient intake through (voluntary) behaviour change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Birger Boutrup; Lähteenmäki, Liisa; Grunert, Klaus G

    2012-01-01

    change. The behaviours affecting folate intake were recognised and categorised. Behaviour change mechanisms from “rational model of man”, behavioural economics, health psychology and social psychology were identified and aligned against folate-related behaviours. The folate example demonstrated...

  5. Intake of calorically sweetened beverages and obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, N J; Heitmann, B L

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity has increased in the past 30 years, and at the same time a steep increase in consumption of soft drinks has been seen. This paper reviews the literature for studies on associations between intake of calorically sweetened beverages and obesity, relative to adjustment...... for energy intake. Conclusions from previous reviews have been inconsistent, but some included many cross-sectional studies or studies supported by sugar industry. A literature search was performed for prospective and experimental studies using Medline and Scirus. Fourteen prospective and five experimental...... not find effects. Eight prospective studies adjusted for energy intake. Seven of these studies reported associations that were essentially similar before and after energy adjustment. In conclusion, a high intake of calorically sweetened beverages can be regarded as a determinant for obesity. However...

  6. Nutritional intake during a simulated adventure race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimberg, Ioná Zalcman; Crispim, Cebele Aparecida; Juzwiak, Claudia Ridel; Antunes, Hanna Karen Moreira; Edwards, Ben; Waterhouse, Jim; Tufik, Sérgio; de Mello, Marco Túlio

    2008-04-01

    The objective of the study was to describe the food intake of adventure racers during a competition simulated in the laboratory. Ten male athletes with international experience in adventure races took part in the study. The experiment lasted 67 hr (total distance covered 477.3 km), but 3 athletes did not finish the race. Food intake was recorded throughout the simulation. Athletes' total energy expenditure was greater than their total energy intake (24,516 vs. 14,738 kcal), and the athletes obtained significantly more energy from food than from supplements. Carbohydrate intake was below the recommendation of 0.5-1.0 g x kg(-1) x hr(-1). These results indicate that guidelines for multiday adventure races are needed.

  7. (H2O)-H-2 turnover method as a means to detect bias in estimations of intake of nonbreast milk liquids in breast-fed infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haisma, H; Coward, WA; Albernaz, E; Barros, A; Victora, CG; Wright, A; Visser, GH

    Objective: Firstly, to compare food, and macronutrient intake as obtained from a single 24-h recall and a frequency questionnaire (FQ) covering a 14-day period in breast-fed infants aged 4 months of age. Secondly, nonbreast milk water intake (NB-WI, ml/day) was used as an estimation of energy and

  8. Water consumption in pediatrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez Weber Miguel Ángel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Special considerations must be taken to calculate water require- ments of newborns and breastfeeding children; however, all their water needs should be covered with breast milk or breast-milk substitute formula. There is a need for 100 mL of water per 100 kcal consumed, or of 1,800 mL per square meter body surface area. From the age of six months, it is advisable to start providing 30 to 60 mL of water per day, with progressive increase; before that age, any other liquid must be avoided. Inadequate preparation of a substitute formula may cause hydric intoxication, or infections if the water used is contaminated. The increase in obesity and overweight is the result of increased intake of sugary beverages in children. This increased intake can also be linked to diabetes and other physiological and cognitive problems. Mexican children and teenagers have increased their caloric intake from sugary beverages in 126% between 1999 and 2006. As one of many healthy habits that children must acquire from home, is the avoi- dance of sugary beverages and the acknowledgment of water as a preferred hydration source.

  9. Alcohol dependence induced in rats by semivoluntary intermittent intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macieira M.S.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present experiment was to assess ethyl alcohol (ETOH dependence brought about by a semivoluntary intermittent intake regimen in rats. Male Wistar rats weighing 150-250 g at the onset of the experiment were assigned to the following groups: 0% ETOH (N = 11, 5% ETOH (N = 20, 20% ETOH (N = 20 and 40% ETOH (N = 18. ETOH solutions were offered at the end of the day and overnight from Monday to Friday, and throughout weekends, for 90 days. The concentration of the ETOH solutions was increased in a stepwise fashion allowing the rats to get used to the taste of alcohol. Reposition of pure water was permitted during 1-h water drinking periods in the morning. Daily volume intake (± SEM averaged 25.4 ± 0.4 ml (0% ETOH, 23.8 ± 0.6 ml (5% ETOH, 17.6 ± 0.7 ml (20% ETOH and 17.5 ± 0.6 ml (40% ETOH. ETOH consumption differed significantly (P<0.05 among groups, averaging 4.4 ± 0.2 g kg-1 day-1 (5% ETOH, 10.3 ± 0.3 g kg-1 day-1 (20% ETOH and 26 ± 1.2 g kg-1 day-1 (40% ETOH. Furthermore, ETOH detection in plasma 10-12 h after offering the solution indicated that its consumption in the 40% ETOH group was sufficient to override its metabolism. Overt signs of ETOH dependence, such as increased thirst, hyperactivity, puffing, hair ruffling and startle responsiveness as well as reduced drowsiness, were significantly increased in the 20% and 40% ETOH groups compared to the 0% and 5% groups. Accordingly, the model described here proved to be a useful tool for the evaluation of subtle or moderate behavioral and physical consequences of long-term ETOH intake

  10. 75 FR 13232 - Safety Zone; Lake Mead Intake Construction, Lake Mead, Boulder City, NV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Lake Mead Intake Construction, Lake Mead... establishing a safety zone on the navigable waters of Lake Mead in support of the construction project for Lake... Pipe from Lake Mead throughout 2010. This safety zone is necessary to ensure non-authorized personnel...

  11. Revision of dietary reference intakes for energy in preschool-age children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) for energy aim to balance energy expenditure at a level of physical activity consistent with health and support adequate growth in children. DRIs were derived from total energy expenditure (TEE) measured by using the doubly labeled water (DLW) method; however, the dat...

  12. The impact of a nutrition programme on the dietary intake patterns of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-10-06

    Oct 6, 2010 ... meat, vegetables and milk at dinner time, although, unfortunately, only for a few children.1 Research .... The questions covered aspects of drinking water from a reliable source, daily requirements, as well ...... of staple foods can make a significant contribution to micronutrient intake of South African adults.

  13. Dietary intake of Croatian lactating women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greta Krešić

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional inadequacies during lactation may affect the well-being of both the mother and the infant. For this reason, breast-feeding women usually pay attention to their dietary practice during the breast-feeding period. The aim of this study was to examine changes in dietary intake of Croatian lactating women during six months postpartum. The study sample consisted of 83 lactating women whose diet records were collected at three measurements rounds: at 1 ± 0.25, 3 ± 0.25 and 6 ± 0.25 months postpartum. The mothers´ diets were investigated using two consecutive 24-hour dietary recalls. Energy and nutrient intakes were estimated using a nutritional database. The obtained results have shown that the diet of Croatian lactating women is hypocaloric (65.73 – 79.52 % DRI, p < 0.001 and deficient in magnesium, zinc, vitamins A, B1, B6, D and folate. Also evident was a moderate imbalance in the distribution of energy percentages from macronutrients. During six months postpartum, lactating women continuously decreased food intake resulting in a gradual decrease in energy intake (p < 0.001 and in the intake of all micronutrients. However, during six months postpartum, lactating women increased the share of total fat in energy intake (p = 0.006 and the share of saturated fatty acids (p = 0.048, while the share of monounsaturated fatty acids in total energy intake decreased (p = 0.004. It could be concluded that it is worthwhile to further study the nutritional status of Croatian lactating women during this vulnerable period especially regarding their micronutrients intake in order to achieve the recommended dietary requirements.

  14. Food intake in patients on hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inaiana Marques Filizola Vaz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the intake of energy and nutrients by individuals on hemodialysis, following especific recommendations for this population and according to Food Guide for the Brazilian Population. Methods: A cross-sectional study, 118 adult patients, considered stable from, ten dialysis centers in Goiânia, Goiás. Dietary intake was estimated by six 24-hour recalls, and classified as adequate or inadequate, according to specific recommendations for individuals undergoing dialysis and that recommended for a healthy diet. A descriptive analysis was performed. Results: Average dietary intake of 2022.40 ± 283.70 kcal/day; 31.18 kcal/kg/day; 55.03 ± 4.20% carbohydrate; 30.23 ± 3.71% lipid, 1.18 ± 0.23 g protein/kg/day. Important prevalences of inadequacy were observed for the intake of calories (39.0%, protein (39.0% and other nutrients such as retinol (94.9%, saturated fat (87.3%, cholesterol (61,9%, iron (61.0%, potassium (60.2% and zinc (45.0%. Patients had a low intake of fruit food group (1.22 ± 0.89 servings and vegetables (1.76 ± 1.01 servings, dairy products (0.57 ± 0.43 servings and high intake of food group of oils and fats (3.45 ± 0.95 servings, sugars and sweets (1.55 ± 0.77 servings. Conclusion: Observed food consumption imbalance, characterized by excess of oils and fats, especially saturated oils and cholesterol, sugars and sweets, parallel to low intake of fruits and vegetables and dairy products. A considerable percentage of patients did not intake the minimum recommended of calories, protein, retinol, iron, zinc and potassium.

  15. Misreporting of Dietary Intake Affects Estimated Nutrient Intakes in Low-Income Spanish-Speaking Women

    OpenAIRE

    Banna, JC; Fialkowski, MK; Townsend, MS

    2014-01-01

    © 2015 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Misreporting of dietary intake affects the validity of data collected and conclusions drawn in studies exploring diet and health outcomes. One consequence of misreporting is biological implausibility. Little is known regarding how accounting for biological implausibility of reported intake affects nutrient intake estimates in Hispanics, a rapidly growing demographic in the United States. Our study explores the effect of accounting for plausibility on...

  16. Energy intake and sources of energy intake in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocké, M C; Larrañaga, N; Grioni, S; van den Berg, S W; Ferrari, P; Salvini, S; Benetou, V; Linseisen, J; Wirfält, E; Rinaldi, S; Jenab, M; Halkjaer, J; Jakobsen, M U; Niravong, M; Clavel-Chapelon, F; Kaaks, R; Bergmann, M; Moutsiou, E; Trichopoulou, A; Lauria, C; Sacerdote, C; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Peeters, P H M; Hjartåker, A; Parr, C L; Tormo, M J; Sanchez, M J; Manjer, J; Hellstrom, V; Mulligan, A; Spencer, E A; Riboli, E; Bingham, S; Slimani, N

    2009-11-01

    To describe energy intake and its macronutrient and food sources among 27 regions in 10 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Between 1995 and 2000, 36 034 subjects aged 35-74 years were administered a standardized 24-h dietary recall. Intakes of macronutrients (g/day) and energy (kcal/day) were estimated using standardized national nutrient databases. Mean intakes were weighted by season and day of the week and were adjusted for age, height and weight, after stratification by gender. Extreme low- and high-energy reporters were identified using Goldberg's cutoff points (ratio of energy intake and estimated basal metabolic rate 2.72), and their effects on macronutrient and energy intakes were studied. Low-energy reporting was more prevalent in women than in men. The exclusion of extreme-energy reporters substantially lowered the EPIC-wide range in mean energy intake from 2196-2877 to 2309-2866 kcal among men. For women, these ranges were 1659-2070 and 1873-2108 kcal. There was no north-south gradient in energy intake or in the prevalence of low-energy reporting. In most centres, cereals and cereal products were the largest contributors to energy intake. The food groups meat, dairy products and fats and oils were also important energy sources. In many centres, the highest mean energy intakes were observed on Saturdays. These data highlight and quantify the variations and similarities in energy intake and sources of energy intake among 10 European countries. The prevalence of low-energy reporting indicates that the study of energy intake is hampered by the problem of underreporting.

  17. Ingested water equilibrates isotopically with the body water pool of a shorebird with unrivaled water fluxes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, G.H.; Dekinga, A; Achterkamp, B.; Piersma, T.

    2000-01-01

    We investigated the applicability of H-2 to measure the amount of body water (TBW) and water fluxes in relation to diet type and level of food intake in a mollusk-eating shorebird, the Red Knot (Calidris canutus). Six birds were exposed to eight experimental indoor conditions. Average fractional H-2

  18. Central and peripheral control of food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, M M I

    2017-01-01

    The maintenance of the body weight at a stable level is a major determinant in keeping the higher animals and mammals survive. Th e body weight depends on the balance between the energy intake and energy expenditure. Increased food intake over the energy expenditure of prolonged time period results in an obesity. Th e obesity has become an important worldwide health problem, even at low levels. The obesity has an evil effect on the health and is associated with a shorter life expectancy. A complex of central and peripheral physiological signals is involved in the control of the food intake. Centrally, the food intake is controlled by the hypothalamus, the brainstem, and endocannabinoids and peripherally by the satiety and adiposity signals. Comprehension of the signals that control food intake and energy balance may open a new therapeutic approaches directed against the obesity and its associated complications, as is the insulin resistance and others. In conclusion, the present review summarizes the current knowledge about the complex system of the peripheral and central regulatory mechanisms of food intake and their potential therapeutic implications in the treatment of obesity.

  19. Detecting Beer Intake by Unique Metabolite Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürdeniz, Gözde; Jensen, Morten Georg; Meier, Sebastian; Bech, Lene; Lund, Erik; Dragsted, Lars Ove

    2016-12-02

    Evaluation of the health related effects of beer intake is hampered by the lack of accurate tools for assessing intakes (biomarkers). Therefore, we identified plasma and urine metabolites associated with recent beer intake by untargeted metabolomics and established a characteristic metabolite pattern representing raw materials and beer production as a qualitative biomarker of beer intake. In a randomized, crossover, single-blinded meal study (MSt1), 18 participants were given, one at a time, four different test beverages: strong, regular, and nonalcoholic beers and a soft drink. Four participants were assigned to have two additional beers (MSt2). In addition to plasma and urine samples, test beverages, wort, and hops extract were analyzed by UPLC-QTOF. A unique metabolite pattern reflecting beer metabolome, including metabolites derived from beer raw material (i.e., N-methyl tyramine sulfate and the sum of iso-α-acids and tricyclohumols) and the production process (i.e., pyro-glutamyl proline and 2-ethyl malate), was selected to establish a compliance biomarker model for detection of beer intake based on MSt1. The model predicted the MSt2 samples collected before and up to 12 h after beer intake correctly (AUC = 1). A biomarker model including four metabolites representing both beer raw materials and production steps provided a specific and accurate tool for measurement of beer consumption.

  20. Central and peripheral control of food intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdalla M. M. I.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The maintenance of the body weight at a stable level is a major determinant in keeping the higher animals and mammals survive. Th e body weight depends on the balance between the energy intake and energy expenditure. Increased food intake over the energy expenditure of prolonged time period results in an obesity. Th e obesity has become an important worldwide health problem, even at low levels. The obesity has an evil effect on the health and is associated with a shorter life expectancy. A complex of central and peripheral physiological signals is involved in the control of the food intake. Centrally, the food intake is controlled by the hypothalamus, the brainstem, and endocannabinoids and peripherally by the satiety and adiposity signals. Comprehension of the signals that control food intake and energy balance may open a new therapeutic approaches directed against the obesity and its associated complications, as is the insulin resistance and others. In conclusion, the present review summarizes the current knowledge about the complex system of the peripheral and central regulatory mechanisms of food intake and their potential therapeutic implications in the treatment of obesity.

  1. Energy expenditure and intake during Special Operations Forces field training in a jungle and glacial environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Caleb D; Simonson, Andrew J; Darnell, Matthew E; DeLany, James P; Wohleber, Meleesa F; Connaboy, Christopher

    2017-11-16

    The purpose of this study was to identify and compare energy requirements specific to Special Operations Forces in field training, in both cool and hot environments. Three separate training sessions were evaluated, two in a hot environment (n=21) and one in a cool environment (n=8). Total energy expenditure was calculated using doubly-labeled water. Dietary intake was assessed via self-report at the end of each training mission day, and macronutrient intakes were calculated. Across the three missions, mean energy expenditure (4,618 ± 1,350 kcal/day) exceeded mean energy intake (2,429 ± 838 kcal/day) by an average of 2,200 kcal/day. Macronutrient intakes (carbohydrates (g/kg/day) = 3.2 ± 1.2, protein (g/kg/day) = 1.3 ± 0.7, fat (g/kg/day) = 1.2 ± 0.7) showed inadequate carbohydrate and possibly protein intake across the study period, compared to common recommendations. Total energy expenditures were found to be similar between hot (4,664 ± 1,399 kcal/day) and cool (4,549 ± 1,221 kcal/day) environments. However, energy intake was found to be higher in the cool (3,001 ± 900 kcal/day) compared to hot (2,200 ± 711 kcal/day) environments. Based on the identified energy deficit, high variation in energy expenditures, and poor macronutrient intake, a greater attention to feeding practices during similar training scenarios for Special Operations Forces is needed to help maintain performance and health. The differences in environmental heat stress between the two climates/environments had no observed effect on energy expenditures, but may have influenced intakes.

  2. Validity of energy intake estimated by digital photography + recall in overweight and obese young adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptomey, Lauren T.; Willis, Erik A.; Honas, Jeffery J.; Mayo, Matthew S.; Washburn, Richard A.; Herrmann, Stephen D.; Sullivan, Debra K.; Donnelly, Joseph E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent reports have questioned the adequacy of self-report measures of dietary intake as the basis for scientific conclusions regarding the associations of dietary intake and health, and reports have recommended the development and evaluation of better methods for the assessment of dietary intake in free-living individuals. We developed a procedure that utilized pre- and post-meal digital photographs in combination with dietary recalls (DP+R) to assess energy intake during ad libitum eating in a cafeteria setting. Objective To compare mean daily energy intake of overweight and obese young adults assessed by a DP+R method with mean total daily energy expenditure assessed by doubly labelled water (TDEEDLW). Methods Energy intake was assessed using the DP+R method in 91 overweight and obese young adults (age = 22.9±3.2 yrs., BMI=31.2 ± 5.6 kg·m2, female = 49%) over 7-days of ad libitum eating in a University cafeteria. Foods consumed outside the cafeteria (i.e., snacks, non-cafeteria meals) were assessed using multiple-pass recall procedures using food models and standardized, neutral probing questions. TDEEDLW was assessed in all participants over the 14-day period. Results The mean energy intakes estimated by DP+R and TDEEDLW were not significantly different (DP+R = 2912 ± 661 kcal/d; TDEEDLW = 2849 ± 748 kcal/d, p = 0.42). The DP+R method overestimated TDEEDLW by 63 ± 750 kcal/d (6.8 ± 28%). Conclusion Results suggest that the DP+R method provides estimates of energy intake comparable to those obtained by TDEEDLW. PMID:26122282

  3. Timing of fluoride intake and dental fluorosis on late-erupting permanent teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagavatula, Pradeep; Levy, Steven M; Broffitt, Barbara; Weber-Gasparoni, Karin; Warren, John J

    2016-02-01

    Very few studies have examined the relationship between timing of fluoride intake and development of dental fluorosis on late-erupting permanent teeth using period-specific fluoride intake information. This study examined this relationship using longitudinal fluoride intake information from the Iowa Fluoride Study. Participants' fluoride exposure and intake (birth to 10 years of age) from water, beverages, selected food products, dietary fluoride supplements, and fluoride toothpaste was collected using questionnaires sent to parents at 3- and 4- month intervals from birth to 48 months of age and every 6 months thereafter. Three trained and calibrated examiners used the Fluorosis Risk Index (FRI) categories to assess 16 late-erupting teeth among 465 study participants. A tooth was defined as having definitive fluorosis if any of the zones on that tooth had an FRI score of 2 or 3. Participants with questionable fluorosis were excluded from analyses. Descriptive and logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the importance of fluoride intake during different time periods. Most dental fluorosis in the study population was mild, with only four subjects (1%) having severe fluorosis (FRI Score 3). The overall prevalence of dental fluorosis was 27.8%. Logistic regression analyses showed that fluoride intake from each of the individual years from age 2 to 8 plays an important role in determining the risk of dental fluorosis for most late-erupting permanent teeth. The strongest association for fluorosis on the late-erupting permanent teeth was with fluoride intake during the sixth year of life. Late-erupting teeth may be susceptible to fluorosis for an extended period from about age 2 to 8. Although not as visually prominent as the maxillary central incisors, some of the late-erupting teeth are esthetically important and this should be taken into consideration when making recommendations about dosing of fluoride intake. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by

  4. Reconstruction of Long-Lived Radionuclide Intakes for Techa Riverside Residents: Cesium-137

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolstykh, E. I.; Degteva, M. O.; Peremyslova, L. M.; Shagina, N. B.; Vorobiova, M. I.; Anspaugh, L. R.; Napier, Bruce A.

    2013-05-01

    Radioactive contamination of the Techa River (Southern Urals, Russia) occurred from 1949–1956 due to routine and accidental releases of liquid radioactive wastes from the Mayak Production Association. The long-lived radionuclides in the releases were 90Sr and 137Cs. Contamination of the components of the Techa River system resulted in chronic external and internal exposure of about 30,000 residents of riverside villages. Data on radionuclide intake with diet are used to estimate internal dose in the Techa River Dosimetry System (TRDS), which was elaborated for the assessment of radiogenic risk for Techa Riverside residents. The 90Sri ntake function was recently improved taking into account the recently available archival data on radionuclide releases and in-depth analysis of the extensive data on 90Sr measurements in Techa Riverside residents. The main purpose of this paper is to evaluate the dietary intake of 137Cs by Techa Riverside residents. The 137Cs intake with river water used for drinking was reconstructed on the basis of the 90Sr intake-function and the concentration ratio 137Cs/90Sr in river water. Intake via 137Cs transfer from floodplain soil to grass and cows’ milk was evaluated for the first time. As a result, the maximal 137Cs intake level was indicated near the site of releases in upper-Techa River settlements (8,000–9,000 kBq). For villages located on the lower Techa River the 137Cs intake was significantly less (down to 300 kBq). Cows’ milk was the main source of 137Cs in diet in the upper-Techa.

  5. Effects of perivagal administration of capsaicin on post-surgical food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafra, Maria A; Molina, Filomena; Puerto, Amadeo

    2003-08-29

    The vagus nerve has been related to the short-term control of food intake. This involvement has previously been explored by examining the food intake of animals after recovery from a vagotomy or immediately after the intervention, among other methods. In the present work, a study was conducted on the impact of the perivagal application of capsaicin (a specific neurotoxic treatment that destroys most of the vagal afferent pathways) on the intake of water and solid (experiment 1) or liquid (experiment 2) food presented after the surgery The results of experiment 1 showed that lesioned animals consume significantly larger amounts of food and water compared with controls at 6, 12, and 24 h (but not at 48 or 72 h) after the surgical intervention. Likewise, experiment 2 revealed a greater intake of liquid food by capsaicin-treated animals at the first post-surgical sessions. These data are discussed in terms of the role played by vagal afferent fibers in the control of short-term food intake.

  6. Control of fluid intake by estrogens in the female rat: role of the hypothalamus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica eSantollo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Body fluid homeostasis is maintained by a complex network of central and peripheral systems that regulate blood pressure, fluid and electrolyte excretion, and fluid intake. The behavioral components, which include well regulated water and saline intake, are influenced by a number of hormones and neuropeptides. Since the early 1970s, it has been known that the ovarian estrogens play an important role in regulating fluid intake in females by decreasing water and saline intake under a variety of hypovolemic conditions. Behavioral, electrophysiological, gene and protein expression studies have identified nuclei in the hypothalamus, along with nearby forebrain structures such as the subfornical organ, as sites of action involved in mediating these effects of estrogens and, importantly, all of these brain areas are rich with estrogen receptors. This review will discuss the multiple estrogen receptor (ER subtypes, found both in the cell nucleus and associated with the plasma membrane, that provide diversity in the mechanism through which estrogens can induce behavioral changes in fluid intake. We then focus on the relevant brain structures, hypothesized circuits, and various peptides, such as angiotensin, oxytocin, and vasopressin, implicated in the anti-dipsogenic and anti-natriorexigenic actions of the estrogens.

  7. Lower Colorado River GRP Public Water System Wells, Nevada, 2012, Nevada Division of Environmental Protection Bureau of Safe Drinking Water

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Public Water System wells, springs an intake locations are collected and maintained by NDEP Bureau of Safe Drinking Water (BSDW). The data is kept in the Safe...

  8. Lower Colorado River GRP Public Water System Springs, Nevada, 2012, Nevada Division of Environmental Protection Bureau of Safe Drinking Water

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Public Water System wells, springs an intake locations are collected and maintained by NDEP Bureau of Safe Drinking Water (BSDW). The data is kept in the Safe...

  9. Body weight reducing effect of oral boric acid intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aysan, Erhan; Sahin, Fikrettin; Telci, Dilek; Yalvac, Mehmet Emir; Emre, Sinem Hocaoglu; Karaca, Cetin; Muslumanoglu, Mahmut

    2011-01-01

    Boric acid is widely used in biology, but its body weight reducing effect is not researched. Twenty mice were divided into two equal groups. Control group mice drank standard tap water, but study group mice drank 0.28mg/250ml boric acid added tap water over five days. Total body weight changes, major organ histopathology, blood biochemistry, urine and feces analyses were compared. Study group mice lost body weight mean 28.1% but in control group no weight loss and also weight gained mean 0.09% (pboric acid intake cause serious body weight reduction. Blood and urine analyses support high glucose, lipid and middle protein catabolisms, but the mechanism is unclear.

  10. The Potential Impacts of OTEC Intakes on Aquatic Organisms at an OTEC Site under Development on Kauai, HI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oney, Stephen K. [OTE Corporation; Hogan, Timothy [Alden Research Laboratory; Steinbeck, John [Tenera Environmental

    2013-08-31

    Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) is a marine renewable energy technology with the potential to contribute significantly to the baseload power needs of tropical island communities and remote U.S. military installations. As with other renewable energy technologies, however, there are potential challenges to its commercialization: technological, financial, social, and environmental. Given the large volumes of seawater required to drive the electricity-producing cycle, there is potential for the intakes to negatively impact the marine resources of the source waterbody through the impingement and entrainment of marine organisms. The goal of this project was to identify feasible warm water intake designs for a land-based OTEC facility proposed for development in Port Allen, Kauai and to characterize the populations of ichthyoplankton near the proposed warm water intake location that could be at risk of entrainment. The specific objectives of this project were to: • Complete a site-specific assessment of available and feasible warm water intake technologies to determine the best intake designs for minimizing impacts to aquatic organisms at the proposed land-based OTEC site in Port Allen, Kauai. • Complete a field sampling program to collect biological data to characterize the baseline populations of ichthyoplankton near the sites being considered for the warm water intake at the proposed land-based OTEC site in Port Allen, Kauai. Various intake design options are presented with the focus on providing adequate environmental protection to the local ichthyoplankton population while providing an economically viable intake option to the OTEC developer. Further definition by NOAA and other environmental regulators is required to further refine the designs presented to meet all US regulations for future OTEC development.

  11. A new mobile phone-based tool for assessing energy and certain food intakes in young children: a validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksson, Hanna; Bonn, Stephanie E; Bergström, Anna; Bälter, Katarina; Bälter, Olle; Delisle, Christine; Forsum, Elisabet; Löf, Marie

    2015-04-24

    Childhood obesity is an increasing health problem globally. Obesity may be established already at pre-school age. Further research in this area requires accurate and easy-to-use methods for assessing the intake of energy and foods. Traditional methods have limited accuracy, and place large demands on the study participants and researchers. Mobile phones offer possibilities for methodological advancements in this area since they are readily available, enable instant digitalization of collected data, and also contain a camera to photograph pre- and post-meal food items. We have recently developed a new tool for assessing energy and food intake in children using mobile phones called the Tool for Energy Balance in Children (TECH). The main aims of our study are to (1) compare energy intake by means of TECH with total energy expenditure (TEE) measured using a criterion method, the doubly labeled water (DLW) method, and (2) to compare intakes of fruits and berries, vegetables, juice, and sweetened beverages assessed by means of TECH with intakes obtained using a Web-based food frequency questionnaire (KidMeal-Q) in 3 year olds. In this study, 30 Swedish 3 year olds were included. Energy intake using TECH was compared to TEE measured using the DLW method. Intakes of vegetables, fruits and berries, juice, as well as sweetened beverages were assessed using TECH and compared to the corresponding intakes assessed using KidMeal-Q. Wilcoxon matched pairs test, Spearman rank order correlations, and the Bland-Altman procedure were applied. The mean energy intake, assessed by TECH, was 5400 kJ/24h (SD 1500). This value was not significantly different (P=.23) from TEE (5070 kJ/24h, SD 600). However, the limits of agreement (2 standard deviations) in the Bland-Altman plot for energy intake estimated using TECH compared to TEE were wide (2990 kJ/24h), and TECH overestimated high and underestimated low energy intakes. The Bland-Altman plots for foods showed similar patterns. The mean

  12. New Reference Values for Vitamin C Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The German, Austrian, and Swiss nutrition societies are the editors of the 'reference values for nutrient intake'. They have revised the reference values for the intake of vitamin C and published them in February 2015. The average vitamin C requirement in healthy adults is considered to be the vitamin C amount that compensates for the metabolic losses of vitamin C, and ensures a fasting ascorbate plasma level of 50 µmol/l. Based on the present data from studies with non-smoking men, metabolic losses of 50 mg/day are assumed, as well as an absorption rate of 80% and an urinary excretion of 25% of the vitamin C intake. Taking this into account, the calculated average requirement in men is 91 mg/day. Considering a coefficient of variation of 10%, a reference value (recommended intake) of 110 mg/day for men is derived. The vitamin C requirement in women as well as in children and adolescents is extrapolated from the requirement in men and in relation to their body weight. This results in a recommended intake of about 95 mg/day for adult women. Because the requirement in pregnant and lactating women is increased, higher recommended intakes are derived for them, 105 mg/day for pregnant women from the fourth month on and 125 mg/day for lactating women, respectively. For boys and girls at the age of 1 to under 15 years, there are increasing recommended intake values from 20 to 85 mg/day. For male and female adolescents, at the age of 15 to under 19 years, the recommended intake is 105 and 90 mg, respectively. As smokers have higher metabolic losses and lower plasma levels of vitamin C than non-smokers (turnover is 40% higher), the reference value for vitamin C intake is set to 135 mg/day for female smokers and 155 mg/day for male smokers. For infants in their first year of life, the reference value (estimated value) is set to 20 mg vitamin C/ day, based upon the lowest observed vitamin C intake for infants in the United Kingdom and the United States, that obviously meets

  13. Effects of enzyme Additive on Nutrient intake, Digestibility and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of enzyme Additive on Nutrient intake, Digestibility and Rumen metabolites of yearling Cattle fed Grass-hay based diet. ... Nigerian Journal of Animal Science ... There were no significant differences among other levels of inclusion for total dry matter intake, Crude protein intake and Acid Detergent Fibre intake.

  14. Mapping to assess feasibility of using subsurface intakes for SWRO, Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Dehwah, Abdullah

    2013-11-19

    Use of subsurface intakes for seawater reverse osmosis desalination (SWRO) systems is known to improve raw water quality, reduce use of chemicals, improve operational reliability, and reduce the life cycle cost of desalination. A key issue in planning for the development of a SWRO facility that would potentially use a subsurface intake is the characterization of the coastal and nearshore geology of a region to ascertain the types of subsurface intakes that could be used and their respective costs. It is the purpose of this research to document a new methodology that can be used for planning and assessment of the feasibility of using subsurface intake systems for SWRO facilities at any location in the world. The Red Sea shoreline and nearshore area of Saudi Arabia were mapped and sediments were sampled from the Yemen border north of the Jordan border, a distance of about 1,950 km. Seventeen different coastal environments were defined, mapped, and correlated to the feasibility of using various types of subsurface intake systems. Six environments were found to have favorable characteristics for development of large-scale subsurface intakes. The most favorable of these coastal environments includes: (1) beaches and nearshore areas containing carbonate or siliciclastic sands with minimum mud concentrations and environmentally sensitive bottom community biota or fauna (A1, A2, and A3), limestone rocky shorelines with an offshore carbonate or siliciclastic sand bottom underlain by soft limestone and a barren area lying between the shoreline and the offshore reef (B1, B5), and wadi sediments on the beach (mixture of pebbles, gravel, and sand) with a corresponding nearshore area containing either siliciclastic sand and/or a marine hard ground (soft limestone or sandstone) (C2). It was found that seabed galleries were the subsurface intake type with the highest feasibility for development of large-capacity intakes. The geological characteristics of the offshore sea bottom

  15. Eating styles and energy intake in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anschutz, Doeschka J; Van Strien, Tatjana; Van De Ven, Monique O M; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2009-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the relations between restrained, emotional, and external eating and total energy intake, and total fat and carbohydrate intake controlling for body mass index and physical activity. The sample consisted of 475 female students. Energy intake was measured over a 1-month period using the self-report Food Frequency Questionnaire and eating styles were assessed with the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire. Structural equation modelling was used to analyze the data. The results showed that restrained eating was consistently negatively related to energy intake and fat and carbohydrate intake, whereas external eating was positively related to all dependent variables. Emotional eating was not related to energy intake or fat and carbohydrate intake. Thus, restrained eaters seem to restrict their energy intake, while external eating was found to be associated with higher levels of energy intake, especially of fat intake.

  16. Resistant starch intakes in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Mary M; Douglass, Judith Spungen; Birkett, Anne

    2008-01-01

    Dietary fiber represents a broad class of undigested carbohydrate components. The components vary in chemical and physical nature and in their physiological outcomes. Resistant starch is starch that escapes digestion in the small intestine and that may be fermented in the large intestine. The purpose of this study was to estimate consumption of resistant starch by the US population and to identify key sources of dietary resistant starch. A database of resistant starch concentrations in foods was developed from the publicly available literature. These concentrations were linked to foods reported in 24-hour dietary recalls from participants in the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys and estimates of resistant starch intakes were generated. The study population included 18,305 nonbreastfeeding individuals in the United States. The dietary intake of resistant starch was determined for 10 US subpopulations defined by age, sex, and race/ethnicity. Three estimates of resistant starch intake were made for each person based on the minimum, mean, and maximum concentrations of resistant starch in the foods consumed. Americans aged 1 year and older were estimated to consume approximately 4.9 g resistant starch per day based on mean resistant starch concentrations (range 2.8 to 7.9 g resistant starch per day). Breads, cooked cereals/pastas, and vegetables (other than legumes) contributed 21%, 19%, and 19% of total resistant starch intake, respectively, and were top sources of resistant starch. Findings from this study suggest that the estimated intake of resistant starch by Americans is approximately 3 to 8 g per person per day. These estimates of resistant starch intake provide a valuable reference for researchers and food and nutrition professionals and will allow for more accurate estimates of total intakes of carbohydrate compounds that escape digestion in the small intestine.

  17. Feasibility of using a subsurface intake for SWRO facility, south of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Almashharawi, Samir

    2014-07-25

    The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is the largest producer of desalinated water with about 13% of the global desalination capacity. Most of these desalination plants use the open-ocean intakes to deliver raw seawater to the desalination facility. Recently, some of the private desalination plants have shifted to subsurface intake systems, either wells or galleries, in order to obtain better water quality with a minimal environmental impact (e.g. minimal entrainment and impingement). The use of these intake types has improved the raw seawater quality extracted from the Red Sea and Arabian Gulf, providing better protection for the membrane component by eliminating/reducing algae, bacteria and organic matter concentrations from the seawater source. One of these desalination plants is located south of Jeddah city which is the second largest city in Saudi Arabia. The plant shifted from an open-ocean intake to beach wells to improve the water quality at the site. Currently, the plant employs 10 vertical wells to extract enough water to produce 10,000 m3/d of product water via the reverse osmosis process. Studies show that quality of seawater significantly improved after shifting to the well system. The use of a larger capacity well system or a seabed gallery intake was investigated at this site for a proposed additional 20,000 m3/d future expansion of the facility. More than 60 sediment samples were collected from the seabed along five different transects in an area of 25,000 m2, starting from shoreline and moving seaward. Grain size analyses, hydraulic conductivity and mud percentage were analyzed in order to determine the characteristic of marine sediments at the studied site. The marine bottom at the selected site contains carbonate sediments which have a high potential of reducing the natural organic matter concentration in the raw seawater. In this study, the laboratory measurements showed that this site has low mud content and moderately high hydraulic conductivity, which

  18. 40 CFR 230.50 - Municipal and private water supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Municipal and private water supplies... Potential Effects on Human Use Characteristics § 230.50 Municipal and private water supplies. (a) Municipal and private water supplies consist of surface water or ground water which is directed to the intake of...

  19. Reorganization of a hospital catering system increases food intake in patients with inadequate intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freil, M; Nielsen, MA; Blitz, B

    2006-01-01

    Background : Low food intake is a frequent problem in undernourished hospital patients. Objective: To study whether a reorganization of a hospital catering system enabling patients to choose their evening meal individually, in combination with an increase in the energy density of the food....... Conclusions: Reorganization of a hospital catering system can increase energy and protein intake and reduce waste substantially....

  20. Dietary intake of antioxidant vitamins in healthy adults in relation to current recommended intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabłonowska-Lietz, Beata; Jarosz, Agnieszka; Nowicka, Graiyna

    2013-01-01

    The health benefits arising from antioxidant vitamins A, C and E are well recognised and their recommended dietary intake for the general population have been established. However, there is still a need for assessing antioxidant vitamin intake in different population groups. To assess intake of antioxidant vitamins: A, C, E and beta-carotene, and to identify their major sources in the diets of healthy subjects. The study group consisted of 182 adults; both men and women from polish population. Antioxidant vitamin dietary intake was assessed by individual 3-day records. Data were analysed using updated "Polish Food Composition Tables" and 'Dieta 5' Software. The average daily intake of antioxidant vitamins was: 1076 mg for vitamin A (including 46% of retinol and 55% of beta-carotene), 107 mg for vitamin C and 9 mg for vitamin E. Higher dietary intake of these vitamins was observed in men compared to women. The average intake ofantioxidant vitamins was found to be in recommended range, however, significant differences were observed between the lowest and the highest intake. They were related to differences in the consumption of food products recognized as major sources of vitamins A, C, E and beta-carotene in study population.

  1. Fiber intake modulates the association of alcohol intake with breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romieu, Isabelle; Ferrari, Pietro; Chajès, Veronique; de Batlle, Jordi; Biessy, Carine; Scoccianti, Chiara; Dossus, Laure; Christine Boutron, Marie; Bastide, Nadia; Overvad, Kim; Olsen, Anja; Tjønneland, Anne; Kaaks, Rudolf; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Palli, Domenico; Sieri, Sabina; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Panico, Salvatore; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; van Gils, Carla H.; Peeters, Petra H.; Lund, Eiliv; Skeie, Guri; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Ramón Quirós, J.; Chirlaque, María Dolores; Ardanaz, Eva; Sánchez, María José; Duell, Eric J.; Amiano Etxezarreta, Pilar; Borgquist, Signe; Hallmans, Göran; Johansson, Ingegerd; Maria Nilsson, Lena; Khaw, Kay Tee; Wareham, Nick; Key, Timothy J.; Travis, Ruth C.; Murphy, Neil; Wark, Petra A.; Riboli, Elio

    2017-01-01

    Alcohol intake has been related to an increased risk of breast cancer (BC) while dietary fiber intake has been inversely associated to BC risk. A beneficial effect of fibers on ethanol carcinogenesis through their impact on estrogen levels is still controversial. We investigated the role of dietary

  2. The preference for water nipples vs. water bowls in dairy goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersen Inger L

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have reported that the design of the water dispensers can influence the water intake in farm animals. Horses and dairy cows seem to prefer to drink from an open surface whereas sheep and pigs apparently prefer water nipples, probably because of the worse water quality in water bowls. The aim of the present study was to examine the preference of dairy goats for water nipples or water bowls. Methods In each of the two experiments (exp. 1, dry goats, exp. 2 lactating goats, 42 dairy goats were allotted into 6 groups of 7 goats. In period 1, the goats had access to a water nipple. In period 2, they had access to a water bowl and in period 3 (preference test they had access to both a water nipple and a water bowl. Water usage and wastage was recorded and water intake (water usage - water wastage was calculated for each group for the two last days of each period. In experiment 2, water samples from each dispenser were analyzed for heterotrophy germs at 22°C, Escherichia coli and turbidity. Results Water usage was higher from water nipples than from water bowls both in experiment 1 (dry goats and experiment 2 (lactating goats. There was however, no difference in water intake from water nipples and water bowls. In the preference test (period 3, the water intake tended to be higher from the water nipple than from the water bowl both for the dry goats (exp. 1 and lactating goats (exp. 2. Especially for the dry goats, the differences between groups were large. Turbidity and heterotrophy germs were much higher in the samples from the water bowls than from the water nipples. Water wastage from the water bowls was negligible compared to the water nipples. From the water nipples the water wastage was 30% and 23% of water usage for the dry and lactating goats respectively. Conclusions We conclude that type of water dispenser (nipple or bowl was probably of minor importance for water intake in goats, but water bowls had a

  3. Less-Restrictive Food Intake During Labor in Low-Risk Singleton Pregnancies: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciardulli, Andrea; Saccone, Gabriele; Anastasio, Hannah; Berghella, Vincenzo

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate benefits and harms of food intake during labor. Electronic databases such as MEDLINE and ClinicalTrials.gov were searched from their inception until October 2016. We included randomized trials comparing a policy of less-restrictive food intake with a policy of more restrictive food intake during labor. The primary outcome was the mean duration of labor. Meta-analysis was performed using the random-effects model of