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Sample records for water intake structurerequirements

  1. Water intake fish diversion apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taft, E.P. III; Cook, T.C.

    1995-01-01

    A fish diversion apparatus uses a plane screen to divert fish for variety of types of water intakes in order to protect fish from injury and death. The apparatus permits selection of a relatively small screen angle, for example ten degrees, to minimize fish injury. The apparatus permits selection of a high water velocity, for example ten feet per second, to maximize power generation efficiency. The apparatus is especially suitable retrofit to existing water intakes. The apparatus is modular to allow use plural modules in parallel to adjust for water flow conditions. The apparatus has a floor, two opposite side walls, and a roof which define a water flow passage and a plane screen within the passage. The screen is oriented to divert fish into a fish bypass which carries fish to a safe discharge location. The dimensions of the floor, walls, and roof are selected to define the dimensions of the passage and to permit selection of the screen angle. The floor is bi-level with a level upstream of the screen and a level beneath screen selected to provide a uniform flow distribution through the screen. The apparatus may include separation walls to provide a water flow channel between the apparatus and the water intake. Lead walls may be used to adjust water flow conditions into the apparatus. The apparatus features stoplog guides near its upstream and downstream ends to permit the water flow passage to be dewatered. 3 figs

  2. Johnson screen for cooling water intakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, L.E.

    1978-01-01

    Johnson surface-water screens provide an alternative to vertical traveling screens for power plant cooling water intakes. In this paper, flow field modeling is discussed, and a series of case studies is presented. The hydraulic information obtained is discussed as it applies to the exclusion of biota and debris from cooling water intake systems

  3. Get the Facts: Drinking Water and Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Obesity About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Related Links CDC Food Safety Adolescent and School Health BAM! Body and Mind Get the Facts: Drinking Water and Intake Recommend ...

  4. Water intaking facility of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, Kazuhito; Iwata, Nobukatsu; Ochiai, Kanehiro.

    1994-01-01

    In a water intaking facility of a nuclear power plant, a dam is disposed at a position near a sea shore for preventing sea water introduced in open conduit from flowing to the outer sea upon ebbing of tsunamis. The upper end of the dam is set lower than the lower end of a water-intake pipe of a sea water pump of an ordinary system. A water-intake pipe is disposed to such a length that a sea water pump of an emergency system continues to suck the sea water when the water level of the introduced sea water is lowered than the upper end of the dam during the ebb tide. In addition, a means for stopping the operation of the sea water pump of the ordinary system upon starting of the ebb is disposed. Upon reactor scram for occurrence of earthquakes and the like, either the sea water pump in the ordinary system or the seawater pump in the emergency system operates to ensure required amount of sea water for cooling the reactor. In addition, even if the level of the sea water is lowered than the upper end of the dam, since the sea water pump in the emergency system continues to suck sea water, unnecessary suction for sea water by the ordinary sea water pumps can be eliminated. (N.H.)

  5. Salt water intrusion on Uznam Island - 'Wydrzany' water intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kochaniec, M.

    1999-01-01

    Aquifers of Uznam Island have high risk of saline water intrusion due to geographical and geological location. Hydrogeological and geophysical researchers were taken up in order to evaluate changes in intrusion of saline water into aquifer of Uznam Island. Water intake named 'Wydrzany' was built in south part of island in 1973. Since 1975 geophysical research has shown intrusion of salt water from reservoirs and bedrock due to withdrawn of water. In 1997 geoelectrical researches evaluated changes which have taken place since 1975 in saline water intrusion into aquifers of Uznam Island. The last research result showed that intrusion front moved 1100 m to the centre of island in comparison with situation in 1975. (author)

  6. Water intake and consumption in sheep differing in growth potential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (water intake&g weight gain) than the Dorper and Mutton Merino, respectively. By means of ... To avoid obesity they were exercised ... Body weights, weight gain, means for cumulative feed and ..... water loss, may provide a logical explanation.

  7. Drinking water intake by infants living in rural Quebec (Canada).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levallois, Patrick; Gingras, Suzanne; Caron, Madeleine; Phaneuf, Denise

    2008-07-01

    Drinking water is a potential source of toxic contaminant and it is well known that water intake on a body weight basis decreases rapidly with increasing age. Nevertheless, few studies have been conducted on water intake of very young infants who might be particularly sensitive to some toxic chemicals. The objective of this study was to describe the mean and distribution of total water intake of 2-month old infants living in agricultural areas. Mothers (n=642) of 8 to 9 week old infants were interviewed by phone to evaluate their feeding practice, including juice and cereal intake. There were 393 infants (61%) who drank some quantity of water and 278 (43%) consumed formula reconstituted with water. For formula-fed infants, the 10, 50 and 90th percentiles of daily water intake were 79, 112, and 179 ml/kg respectively. These values are much higher than the intake recommended by US EPA for infants under one year (US EPA, 1997). This study demonstrates the importance of considering water distribution intake in very young infants who may be particularly susceptible to water contaminants.

  8. Total Water Intake from Beverages and Foods Is Associated with Energy Intake and Eating Behaviors in Korean Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kyung Won; Shin, Dayeon; Song, Won O.

    2016-01-01

    Water is essential for the proper functioning of the body. Even though a recommendation exists for adequate water intake for Koreans, studies identifying actual water intake from all beverages and foods consumed daily in the Korean population are limited. Thus, we estimated total water intake from both beverages and foods and its association with energy intake and eating behaviors in Korean adults. We used a nationally representative sample of 25,122 Korean adults aged ≥19 years, from the Kor...

  9. Does eating slowly influence appetite and energy intake when water intake is controlled?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrade Ana M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Slow eating has been associated with enhanced satiation, but also with increased water intake. Therefore, the role of water ingestion in regard to eating rate needs to be discerned. This study examined the influence of eating rate on appetite regulation and energy intake when water intake is controlled. Methods In a randomized design, slow and fast eating rates were compared on two occasions, in 30 women (22.7±1.2y; BMI=22.4±0.4kg/m2 who consumed an ad libitum mixed-macronutrient lunch with water (300 mL. Satiation was examined as the main outcome by measuring energy intake during meals. At designated times, subjects rated hunger, satiety, desire-to-eat, thirst, and meal palatability on visual analogue scales. Paired t-tests were used to compare hypothesis-driven outcomes. Appetite ratings were compared across time points and conditions by repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA using a within-subject model. Results Energy intake and appetite ratings did not differ between conditions at meal completion. However, subjects rated less hunger and tended to rate lower desire-to-eat and greater satiety at 1 hour following the slow condition. Conclusions Results tend to support a role of slow eating on decreased hunger and higher inter-meal satiety when water intake is controlled. However, the lack of significant differences in energy intake under these conditions indicates that water intake may account for the effects of eating rate on appetite regulation.

  10. Dietary reference intakes for water, potassium, sodium, chloride, and sulfate

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Institute of Medicine (U.S.). Panel on Dietary Reference Intakes for Electrolytes and Water

    2005-01-01

    .... This new report, the sixth in a series of reports presenting dietary reference values for the intakes of nutrients by Americans and Canadians, establishes nutrient recommendations on water, potassium...

  11. A fuzzy recommendation system for daily water intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Dai

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Water is one of the most important constituents of the human body. Daily consumption of water is thus necessary to protect human health. Daily water consumption is related to several factors such as age, ambient temperature, and degree of physical activity. These factors are generally difficult to express with exact numerical values. The main objective of this article is to build a daily water intake recommendation system using fuzzy methods. This system will use age, physical activity, and ambient temperature as the input factors and daily water intake values as the output factor. The reasoning mechanism of the fuzzy system can calculate the recommended value of daily water intake. Finally, the system will compare the actual recommended values with our system to determine the usefulness. The experimental results show that this recommendation system is effective in actual application.

  12. Beverage Consumption Habits in Italian Population: Association with Total Water Intake and Energy Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenza Mistura

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to investigate total water intake (TWI from water, beverages and foods among Italian adults and the elderly. Methods: Data of 2607 adults and the elderly, aged 18–75 years from the last national food consumption survey, INRAN-SCAI 2005-06, were used to evaluate the TWI. The INRAN-SCAI 2005-06 survey was conducted on a representative sample of 3323 individuals aged 0.1 to 97.7 years. A 3-day semi-structured diary was used for participants to record the consumption of all foods, beverages and nutritional supplements. Results: On average, TWI was 1.8 L for men and 1.7 L for women. More than 75% of women and 90% of men did not comply with the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA Adequate Intake. The contribution of beverages to the total energy intake (EI was 6% for the total sample. Water was the most consumed beverage, followed by alcoholic beverages for men and hot beverages for women. Conclusion: According to the present results, adults and elderly Italians do not reach the adequate intake for water as suggested by the EFSA and by the national reference level of nutrient and energy intake. Data on water consumption should also be analyzed in single socio-demographic groups in order to identify sub-groups of the population that need more attention and to plan more targeted interventions.

  13. Total Water Intake from Beverages and Foods Is Associated with Energy Intake and Eating Behaviors in Korean Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Won Lee

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Water is essential for the proper functioning of the body. Even though a recommendation exists for adequate water intake for Koreans, studies identifying actual water intake from all beverages and foods consumed daily in the Korean population are limited. Thus, we estimated total water intake from both beverages and foods and its association with energy intake and eating behaviors in Korean adults. We used a nationally representative sample of 25,122 Korean adults aged ≥19 years, from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–2012. We performed multiple regression analyses, adjusting for sociodemographic and health-related variables to investigate the contribution of overall energy and dietary intakes and eating behaviors to total water intake. The mean total water intake excluding plain water was 1071 g (398 g from beverages and 673 g from foods and the estimated plain water intake was 1.3 L. Among Korean adults, 82% consumed beverages (excluding plain water and these beverages contributed to 10% of daily energy intake and 32% of total water intake from beverages and foods. For every 100 kcal/day in energy intake, water intake consumed through beverages and foods increased by 18 g and 31 g, respectively. Water intake from beverages and foods was positively associated with energy from fat and dietary calcium, but inversely associated with energy density and energy from carbohydrates. When there was a 5% increase in energy intake from snacks and eating outside the home, there was an increase in water intake from beverages of 13 g and 2 g, respectively. Increased daily energy intake, the number of eating episodes, and energy intake from snacks and eating outside the home predicted higher water intake from beverages and foods. Our results provide evidence suggesting that various factors, including sociodemographic status, dietary intakes, and eating behaviors, could be important contributors to the water intake of Korean

  14. Total Water Intake from Beverages and Foods Is Associated with Energy Intake and Eating Behaviors in Korean Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung Won; Shin, Dayeon; Song, Won O.

    2016-01-01

    Water is essential for the proper functioning of the body. Even though a recommendation exists for adequate water intake for Koreans, studies identifying actual water intake from all beverages and foods consumed daily in the Korean population are limited. Thus, we estimated total water intake from both beverages and foods and its association with energy intake and eating behaviors in Korean adults. We used a nationally representative sample of 25,122 Korean adults aged ≥19 years, from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–2012. We performed multiple regression analyses, adjusting for sociodemographic and health-related variables to investigate the contribution of overall energy and dietary intakes and eating behaviors to total water intake. The mean total water intake excluding plain water was 1071 g (398 g from beverages and 673 g from foods) and the estimated plain water intake was 1.3 L. Among Korean adults, 82% consumed beverages (excluding plain water) and these beverages contributed to 10% of daily energy intake and 32% of total water intake from beverages and foods. For every 100 kcal/day in energy intake, water intake consumed through beverages and foods increased by 18 g and 31 g, respectively. Water intake from beverages and foods was positively associated with energy from fat and dietary calcium, but inversely associated with energy density and energy from carbohydrates. When there was a 5% increase in energy intake from snacks and eating outside the home, there was an increase in water intake from beverages of 13 g and 2 g, respectively. Increased daily energy intake, the number of eating episodes, and energy intake from snacks and eating outside the home predicted higher water intake from beverages and foods. Our results provide evidence suggesting that various factors, including sociodemographic status, dietary intakes, and eating behaviors, could be important contributors to the water intake of Korean adults. Findings

  15. Total Water Intake from Beverages and Foods Is Associated with Energy Intake and Eating Behaviors in Korean Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung Won; Shin, Dayeon; Song, Won O

    2016-10-04

    Water is essential for the proper functioning of the body. Even though a recommendation exists for adequate water intake for Koreans, studies identifying actual water intake from all beverages and foods consumed daily in the Korean population are limited. Thus, we estimated total water intake from both beverages and foods and its association with energy intake and eating behaviors in Korean adults. We used a nationally representative sample of 25,122 Korean adults aged ≥19 years, from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2012. We performed multiple regression analyses, adjusting for sociodemographic and health-related variables to investigate the contribution of overall energy and dietary intakes and eating behaviors to total water intake. The mean total water intake excluding plain water was 1071 g (398 g from beverages and 673 g from foods) and the estimated plain water intake was 1.3 L. Among Korean adults, 82% consumed beverages (excluding plain water) and these beverages contributed to 10% of daily energy intake and 32% of total water intake from beverages and foods. For every 100 kcal/day in energy intake, water intake consumed through beverages and foods increased by 18 g and 31 g, respectively. Water intake from beverages and foods was positively associated with energy from fat and dietary calcium, but inversely associated with energy density and energy from carbohydrates. When there was a 5% increase in energy intake from snacks and eating outside the home, there was an increase in water intake from beverages of 13 g and 2 g, respectively. Increased daily energy intake, the number of eating episodes, and energy intake from snacks and eating outside the home predicted higher water intake from beverages and foods. Our results provide evidence suggesting that various factors, including sociodemographic status, dietary intakes, and eating behaviors, could be important contributors to the water intake of Korean adults. Findings

  16. New water intake systems for thermal and nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishchuk, T.B.; Samodel'nikov, B.T.

    1989-01-01

    Problems arising during design of water intake and spillway structures for the auxiliary water supply system of thermal and nuclear power plants connected with the provision of their reliable operation and with the effect on the temperature condition of reservoirs and their ecology are investigated. Design providing for the connection of intake channel and catch drain for a through (transition) channel and supplying a water transition flow by ejecting water outputs is suggested. The variant considered is effective for seas, lakes and reservoirs with adverse conditions for natural cooling and it is suitable for regions with seismicity up to 5-6 balls

  17. Perceptions of Tap Water and School Water Fountains and Association with Intake of Plain Water and Sugar-Sweetened Beverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onufrak, Stephen J.; Park, Sohyun; Sharkey, Joseph R.; Merlo, Caitlin; Dean, Wesley R.; Sherry, Bettylou

    2014-01-01

    Background: Little is known regarding youth perceptions of tap water and school water fountains and how these relate to water and sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake. Methods: We used national 2010 YouthStyles data to assess perceptions of tap water and school water fountains and associations with water and SSB intake. Results: Nearly 1 in 5…

  18. A fuzzy recommendation system for daily water intake

    OpenAIRE

    Bin Dai; Rung-Ching Chen; Shun-Zhi Zhu; Chung-Yi Huang

    2016-01-01

    Water is one of the most important constituents of the human body. Daily consumption of water is thus necessary to protect human health. Daily water consumption is related to several factors such as age, ambient temperature, and degree of physical activity. These factors are generally difficult to express with exact numerical values. The main objective of this article is to build a daily water intake recommendation system using fuzzy methods. This system will use age, physical activity, and a...

  19. Water Intake by Soil, Experiments for High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969

    Presented are a variety of surface run-off experiments for high school students. The experiments are analogies to basic concepts about water intake, as related to water delivery, soil properties and management, floods, and conservation measures. The materials needed to perform the experiments are easily obtainable. The experiments are followed by…

  20. COMPUTER MODELING OF HYDRODYNAMIC PARAMETERS AT BOUNDARIES OF WATER INTAKE AREA WITH FILTERING INTAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boronina Lyudmila Vladimirovna

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Improvement of water intake technologies are of great importance. These technologies are required to provide high quality water intake and treatment; they must be sufficiently simple and reliable, and they must be easily adjustable to particular local conditions. A mathematical model of a water supply area near the filtering water intake is proposed. On its basis, a software package designated for the calculation of parameters of the supply area along with its graphical representation is developed. To improve the efficiency of water treatment plants, the authors propose a new method of their integration into the landscape by taking account of velocity distributions in the water supply area within the water reservoir where the plant installation is planned. In the proposed relationship, the filtration rate and the scattering rate at the outlet of the supply area are taken into account, and they assure more precise projections of the inlet velocity. In the present study, assessment of accuracy of the mathematical model involving the scattering of a turbulent flow has been done. The assessment procedure is based on verification of the mean values equality hypothesis and on comparison with the experimental data. The results and conclusions obtained by means of the method developed by the authors have been verified through comparison of deviations of specific values calculated through the employment of similar algorithms in MathCAD, Maple and PLUMBING. The method of the water supply area analysis, with the turbulent scattering area having been taken into account, and the software package enable to numerically estimate the efficiency of the pre-purification process by tailoring a number of parameters of the filtering component of the water intake to the river hydrodynamic properties. Therefore, the method and the software package provide a new tool for better design, installation and operation of water treatment plants with respect to filtration and

  1. Dietary reference intakes for water, potassium, sodium, chloride, and sulfate

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Institute of Medicine (U.S.). Panel on Dietary Reference Intakes for Electrolytes and Water

    2005-01-01

    ... intake to the risk of high blood pressure and hypertension as well as other diseases and the amounts of water from beverages and foods needed to maintain hydration. In addition, since requirements for sulfur can be met by inorganic sulfate in the diets of animals, a review of the role in inorganic sulfur in the form of sulfate is included. The gro...

  2. Impingement studies at the 100-N reactor water intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Page, T.L.; Neitzel, D.A.; Gray, R.H.

    1977-09-01

    Fish impingement and traveling screen passage were studied at the 100-N reactor water intake structure, Columbia River mile 380, from late April to August 1977. Species and numbers of fish affected were determined and compared to those at the adjacent Hanford Generating Project (HGP). Fish protection procedures previously developed for HGP were evaluated for application at 100-N

  3. Calculation of committed dose equivalent from intake of tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, D.V.

    1978-08-01

    A new computerized method of calculating the committed dose equivalent from the intake of tritiated water at Harwell is described in this report. The computer program has been designed to deal with a variety of intake patterns and urine sampling schemes, as well as to produce committed dose equivalents corresponding to any periods for which individual monitoring for external radiation is undertaken. Details of retrospective doses are added semi-automatically to the Radiation Dose Records and committed dose equivalents are retained on a separate file. (author)

  4. Increasing water intake influences hunger and food preference, but does not reliably suppress energy intake in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Naomi J; Belous, Ilona V; Temple, Jennifer L

    2018-04-17

    Increasing water intake is often purported to reduce energy intake, and is recommended as a weight loss strategy. The few experimental studies that have been conducted to verify these claims have examined the impact of a single pre-load of water before a meal. Although correlational data indicate a relationship between hydration, energy intake, and weight status, there is very little experimental research in this area. The current studies examined the hypothesis that elevated hydration, through increased water intake, would suppress energy intake. In Experiment 1, participants (n = 49) were asked to consume either one, two, or three 500 ml bottles of water throughout the morning before a lunch buffet in the laboratory. When participants categorized as normal weight drank three bottles of water they consumed less energy at lunch, but there was no effect on participants categorized as overweight or obese. In addition, increased water intake suppressed liking of food items in all participants and hunger in females. A follow-up study (n = 45) was conducted to test if four bottles of water throughout the morning would result in a similar energy suppression in participants categorized as overweight or obese. Surprisingly, in the second experiment, there was no effect of water intake on energy intake at lunch in any of the conditions. There was, however, a similar suppression of hunger and food liking. In conclusion, increasing water intake throughout the morning only suppressed energy intake in individuals categorized as normal weight under certain circumstances, and had no effect on individuals categorized as overweight/obese. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Fasting conditions: Influence of water intake on clinical chemistry analytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benozzi, Silvia F; Unger, Gisela; Campion, Amparo; Pennacchiotti, Graciela L

    2018-02-15

    Currently available recommendations regarding fasting requirements before phlebotomy do not specify any maximum water intake volume permitted during the fasting period. The aim was to study the effects of 300 mL water intake 1 h before phlebotomy on specific analytes. Blood was collected from 20 women (median age (min-max): 24 (22 - 50) years) in basal state (T 0 ) and 1 h after 300 mL water intake (T 1 ). Glucose, total proteins (TP), urea, creatinine, cystatin C, total bilirubin (BT), total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides (Tg), uric acid (UA), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), aspartate-aminotransferase (AST), alanine-aminotransferase and lactate-dehydrogenase (LD) were studied. Results were analyzed using Wilcoxon test. Mean difference (%) was calculated for each analyte and was further compared with reference change value (RCV). Only mean differences (%) higher than RCV were considered clinically significant. Significant differences (median T 0 vs median T 1 , P) were observed for TP (73 vs 74 g/L, 0.001); urea (4.08 vs 4.16 mmol/L, 0.010); BT (12 vs 13 µmol/L, 0.021); total cholesterol (4.9 vs 4.9 mmol/L, 0.042); Tg (1.05 vs 1.06 mmol/L, 0.002); UA (260 vs 270 µmol/L, 0.006); GGT (12 vs 12 U/L, 0.046); AST (22 vs 24 U/L, 0.001); and LD (364 vs 386 U/L, 0.001). Although the differences observed were statistically significant, they were not indicative of clinically significant changes. A water intake of 300 mL 1 h prior to phlebotomy does not interfere with the analytes studied in the present work.

  6. Evaluation of seasonality on total water intake, water loss and water balance in the general population in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malisova, O; Bountziouka, V; Panagiotakos, D Β; Zampelas, A; Kapsokefalou, M

    2013-07-01

    Water balance is achieved when water intake from solid and fluid foods and drinking water meets water losses, mainly in sweat, urine and faeces. Seasonality, particularly in Mediterranean countries that have a hot summer, may affect water loss and consequently water balance. Water balance has not been estimated before on a population level and the effect of seasonality has not been evaluated. The present study aimed to compare water balance, intake and loss in summer and winter in a sample of the general population in Greece. The Water Balance Questionnaire (WBQ) was used to evaluate water balance, estimating water intake and loss in summer (n = 480) and in winter (n = 412) on a stratified sample of the general population in Athens, Greece. In winter, mean (SD) water balance was -63 (1478) mL/day(-1) , mean (SD)water intake was 2892 (987) mL/day(-1) and mean (quartile range) water loss was 2637 (1810-3922) mL/day(-1) . In summer, mean (SD) water balance was -58 (2150) mL/day(-1) , mean (SD) water intake was 3875 (1373) mL/day(-1) and mean (quartile range) water loss was 3635 (2365-5258) mL/day(-1) . Water balance did not differ between summer and winter (P = 0.96); however, the data distribution was different; in summer, approximately 8% more participants were falling in the low and high water balance categories. Differences in water intake from different sources were identified (P balance in summer and winter was not different. However, water intake and loss were approximately 40% higher in summer than in winter. More people were falling in the low and high water balance categories in summer when comparing the distribution on water balance in winter. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  7. Construction of water intake facilities from partially drying up watercourses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov Evgeniy Vladimirovich

    Full Text Available Partially ephemeral streams are complex objects that can still be used for water supply or irrigation of agricultural land. The problem of such streams is poorly studied, because the influence of various environmental factors complicates carrying out any experiments. Also it is not possible to make their full classification due to their very strong variability not only on a particular geographical belt, but also within separate areas of the river. All this undoubtedly complicates the task of the designers when designing the system. Creation of laboratory models, allowing us to evaluate the possibilities of a spring use for the purpose of water supply, is very promising. These watercourses have a large amount of suspended sediments, so it is not possible to use the standard scheme of water using of the coastal and fluvial water intake structures. It is proposed to organize the fight with the sediments in the flow chart of primary clarifiers, which will perform the function of settling suspensions, to facilitate the work of water treatment facilities. Also the creation of artificial prop is useful in order to achieve the required level of water in a watercourse for water organization. If under the bottom of the river there is underground water, and the permeability of the soil is good, it is possible to arrange the withdrawal of water through infiltration intakes, by setting the filter under the bottom of the watercourse with its connection to filter, from which the water will climb to submersible pumps. Additional filtration through the soil of the river bottom allows not using the scheme sumps, which significantly reduces the cost of epy incoming water treatment.

  8. A new approach on anti-vortex devices at water intakes including a submerged water jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahershamsi, Ahmad; Rahimzadeh, Hassan; Monshizadeh, Morteza; Sarkardeh, Hamed

    2018-04-01

    A new approach on anti-vortex methods as hydraulic-based anti-vortex was investigated experimentally in the present study. In the investigated method, a submerged water jet is used as the anti-vortex mechanism. The added jet acts as a source of external momentum. This leads to change the intake-induced hydrodynamic pattern in the near-field of the intake structure, which can prevent formation of undesirable intake vortices. The experiments were carried out on a horizontal pipe intake. By performing 570 test cases in two different categories, including the inclined jet with respect to the axis of the intake, and the inclined jet with respect to the water surface, the effects of the jet inclination angle on the anti-vortex performance were investigated. It was found that the inclined jet with respect to the water surface is the best alternative to consider as the water jet injection pattern. Results showed that using the inclined jet with respect to the water surface can simply reduce the amounts of the expected water jet momentum more than 50% compared to that of the similar condition of the horizontal injection pattern. Moreover, it was concluded that the intake critical submergence can easily be minimized using the inclined jet with respect to the water surface.

  9. Fluoride Intake through Consumption of Tap Water and Bottled Water in Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman van Oyen

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available There is a tendency to align higher levels of fluoride in natural mineral water with the existing higher levels in tap water. Treatment of natural mineral waters could harm the preservation of their natural character. In this study fluoride intake through bottled and tap water consumption in the Belgian adult population was assessed, taking into account regional differences. A deterministic approach was used whereby consumption quantities of tap water and different brands of bottled water were linked with their respective fluoride concentrations. Data from the national food consumption survey (2004 were used and the Nusser methodology was applied to obtain usual intake estimates. Mean intake of fluoride through total water consumption in Flanders was 1.4±0.7 mg/day (97.5th percentile: 3.1 mg/day, while in the Walloon region it was on average 0.9±0.6 mg/day (97.5th percentile: 2.4 mg/day. The probability of exceeding the UL of 7 mg per day via a normal diet was estimated to be low. Consequently, there is no need to revise the existing norms, but higher fluoride concentrations should be more clearly indicated on the labels. Reliable data about total dietary fluoride intake in children, including intake of fluoride via tooth paste and food supplements, are needed.

  10. Procedure for developing biological input for the design, location, or modification of water-intake structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, D.A.; McKenzie, D.H.

    1981-12-01

    To minimize adverse impact on aquatic ecosystems resulting from the operation of water intake structures, design engineers must have relevant information on the behavior, physiology and ecology of local fish and shellfish. Identification of stimulus/response relationships and the environmental factors that influence them is the first step in incorporating biological information in the design, location or modification of water intake structures. A procedure is presented in this document for providing biological input to engineers who are designing, locating or modifying a water intake structure. The authors discuss sources of stimuli at water intakes, historical approaches in assessing potential/actual impact and review biological information needed for intake design.

  11. Drinking Water Sources with Surface Intakes from LDHH source data, Geographic NAD83, LOSCO (1999) [drinking_water_surface_intakes_LDHH_1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is a point dataset for 87 public drinking water sources with surface intakes. It was derived from a larger statewide general drinking water source dataset...

  12. Selective intake of down-pit water and separating potable water from water-bearing seams at the Rydultowy mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musiolik, H; Sikora, A; Murek, R

    1987-06-01

    Discusses problems of pit water selection. Describes the method of water intake, down-pit transport, pumping the separated potable water and its treatment at the Rydultowy mine. Stresses the usefulness of pit water selection in view of the existing shortage of potable water. Geologic and mining conditions at the mine are described along with the amount of water influx into the mine. Advantages arising from mine water utilization are outlined.

  13. Water intake and fish protection sytems for thermal and nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuz'min, D.O.; Lukashevich, V.S.

    1986-01-01

    Various designs of water intake and fish protection systems for TPP and NPP are considered. Water intake systems are divided into shore and outside shore types. There are two main modifications of the latter - opened and closed. The closed systems are more complex for construction and maintenance, but their negative influence on environment is considerably weaker. In disigning of water intake systems basic efforts are directed at optimization of a water intake device disposition, development of reliable repellents for fish, as well as devices for fish catch and return from the water intake region. A special attention is paid to the problem of preventing their icing. The conclusion of expedience of introducing into the water purification system reliable, soft mechanical barriers for fish equipped with means affecting its behaviour and preventing contacts of fish and water intake system elements was drawn

  14. Processes at Water Intake from Mountain Rivers into Hydropower and Irrigation Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Vatin Nikolai; Lavrov Nikolai; Loginov Gennadi

    2016-01-01

    In paper, researches of riverbed and hydraulic processes at the water intake from mountain rivers are observed. Classification of designs of the mountain water intake structures, based on continuity signs is offered. Perfecting of base designs of water intake structures of a mountain-foothill zone and means of their hydraulic automation is carried out. The technological, theoretical and experimental substantiation of parameters of basic elements of these designs with a glance of hydromorphome...

  15. Hyponatremia caused by excessive intake of water as a form of child abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min A Joo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte disorder that requires careful management. Water intoxication with hyponatremia is rare condition that originated from overhydration. Water intoxication, also known as dilutional hyponatremia, develops only because the intake of water exceeds the kidney's ability to eliminate water. Causes of this water intoxication include psychiatric disorder, forced water intake as a form of child abuse and iatrogenic infusion of excessive hypotonic fluid. We experienced and reported a case of symptomatic hyponatremia by forced water intake as a form of child abuse.

  16. Water balance and ad libitum water intake in football players during a training session

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Diego Hernández-Camacho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is known that hydration plays a crucial performance in sports performance. But a great number of studies assessing hydration during football practice have shown that many players have a dehydration state prior to this sport and that most players are not able to replace water loss by sweating with ad libitum water intake. Objectives: To analyze ad libitum water consumption, water balance, thirst sensation and rate of perceived exertion on a sample of young football players during a training session. Material and Methods: A total of 57 players from three teams in the youth category voluntary participated in this study. Weight was collected at the beginning and at the end of training; thirst sensation, rate of perceived exertion and quantification of ingested water were assessed. We used descriptive statistics, correlational and ratio analysis. Results: Mean global intake of players studied was 844.74±351.95mL and an average loss of body water 1274.56±385.82mL. Average rate of dehydration of the initial weight was 0.63%. Average score of 2.81±1.32 on the scale of thirst sensation was obtained. Discussion and conclusions: Rate of loss of body water similar to previous studies is obtained. The players were not able to replace water loss by drinking liquid ad libitum, so the intake of an amount previously scheduled could become helpful.

  17. Effect of drinking water temperature on water intake and performance of dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huuskonen, A; Tuomisto, L; Kauppinen, R

    2011-05-01

    Very limited information is available on the effects of drinking water temperature on dairy calves. Therefore, the present experiment was designed to study the effects on performance, health, and water consumption of dairy calves offered drinking water either warm (16 to 18 °C) or cold (6 to 8 °C). The calves (60 calves/treatment) were housed in an insulated barn in pens (3.0 × 3.5m; 5 calves in each) providing 2.1m(2)/calf. During the experimental period (20 to 195 d of age), the calves had free access to water from an open water bowl (depth 80 mm, diameter 220 mm, 2-L capacity, 1 bowl/pen). During the preweaning period (20 to 75 d of age), all calves received milk replacer (7.5L/calf daily) and had free access to commercial starter, grass silage, and hay. During the postweaning period (75 to 195 d), the weaned calves had free access to grass silage and hay and were given 3 kg/d (air-dry basis) of a commercial concentrate mixture. During the preweaning period, the water intake of the calves offered warm water was 47% higher than that of the calves offered cold water. Water intake in both treatments increased rapidly during weaning and for a few days following weaning. At 180 to 195 d of age, the calves consumed approximately 18 to 20 L of water daily. Calves offered warm water drank 7 and 8% more water during the postweaning period and overall during the experimental period, respectively, compared with those offered cold water. No treatment differences were observed in dry matter or energy intakes, body weight gains, or feed conversion rates. Furthermore, total serum IgG concentrations of the calves did not differ during the preweaning or postweaning periods. Dairy calves consumed more warm than cold water, but the increase in water intake did not influence feed intake, body weight gain, or health parameters. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Is It Safe to Reduce Water Intake in the Overactive Bladder Population? A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Lauren N; Markowitz, Melissa A; Parameshwar, Pooja S; Hannemann, Alex J; Ogawa, Shellee L; Anger, Jennifer T; Eilber, Karyn S

    2018-03-01

    Overactive bladder imposes a significant socioeconomic burden on the health care system. It is a commonly held belief that increased fluid intake (8 glasses of water per day) is beneficial for health. However, increased fluid intake exacerbates overactive bladder symptoms. Thus, it is imperative that clinicians appropriately educate patients for whom increased water intake may be detrimental (women with overactive bladder), in contrast to patients with comorbidities that necessitate increased water intake (nephrolithiasis). We systematically reviewed the literature to determine the potential health advantages of increased water intake and identify specific subpopulations that need increased hydration. We systematically reviewed published articles from 1972 through 2017 on PubMed® and the Cochrane Library. The data were reviewed independently by 2 individuals. Studies were included if they explored water intake in relation to the risk of a particular disease. Level 1 evidence supported increased fluid intake in patients with nephrolithiasis. There was no available evidence to support increased fluid intake in patients with cardiovascular disease, constipation, venous thromboembolism, headaches, cognitive function or bladder cancer. Dehydration may exacerbate some conditions, specifically chronic constipation and headache intensity. Increased fluid intake may have a role in preventing stroke recurrence but not in preventing primary stroke. The available reviewed literature suggests no benefit to drinking 8 glasses of water per day in patients without nephrolithiasis. Also, excess fluid intake can exacerbate symptoms of overactive bladder. Copyright © 2018 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. An Assessment of Subsurface Intake Systems: Planning and Impact on Feed Water Quality for SWRO Facilities

    KAUST Repository

    Dehwah, Abdullah

    2017-01-01

    Subsurface intake systems are known to improve the feed water quality for SWRO plants. However, a little is known about the feasibility of implementation in coastal settings, the degree of water quality improvements provided by these systems

  20. Processes at Water Intake from Mountain Rivers into Hydropower and Irrigation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vatin Nikolai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In paper, researches of riverbed and hydraulic processes at the water intake from mountain rivers are observed. Classification of designs of the mountain water intake structures, based on continuity signs is offered. Perfecting of base designs of water intake structures of a mountain-foothill zone and means of their hydraulic automation is carried out. The technological, theoretical and experimental substantiation of parameters of basic elements of these designs with a glance of hydromorphometric characteristics of the mountain rivers is given. Complex hydraulic researches of kinematic characteristics and carrying ability of a two-phase stream on water intake structures are executed. Bases of a technique of engineering calculation of the offered designs of water intake structures and the recommendation of their designing and maintenance in various hydrological regimes are developed.

  1. Lower Colorado River GRP Public Water System Intakes, Nevada, 2012, Nevada Division of Environmental Protection Bureau of Safe Drinking Water

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Public Water System wells, springs an intake locations are collected and maintained by NDEP Bureau of Safe Drinking Water (BSDW). The data is kept in the Safe...

  2. Increased salt consumption induces body water conservation and decreases fluid intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakova, Natalia; Kitada, Kento; Lerchl, Kathrin; Dahlmann, Anke; Birukov, Anna; Daub, Steffen; Kopp, Christoph; Pedchenko, Tetyana; Zhang, Yahua; Beck, Luis; Johannes, Bernd; Marton, Adriana; Müller, Dominik N; Rauh, Manfred; Luft, Friedrich C; Titze, Jens

    2017-05-01

    The idea that increasing salt intake increases drinking and urine volume is widely accepted. We tested the hypothesis that an increase in salt intake of 6 g/d would change fluid balance in men living under ultra-long-term controlled conditions. Over the course of 2 separate space flight simulation studies of 105 and 205 days' duration, we exposed 10 healthy men to 3 salt intake levels (12, 9, or 6 g/d). All other nutrients were maintained constant. We studied the effect of salt-driven changes in mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid urinary excretion on day-to-day osmolyte and water balance. A 6-g/d increase in salt intake increased urine osmolyte excretion, but reduced free-water clearance, indicating endogenous free water accrual by urine concentration. The resulting endogenous water surplus reduced fluid intake at the 12-g/d salt intake level. Across all 3 levels of salt intake, half-weekly and weekly rhythmical mineralocorticoid release promoted free water reabsorption via the renal concentration mechanism. Mineralocorticoid-coupled increases in free water reabsorption were counterbalanced by rhythmical glucocorticoid release, with excretion of endogenous osmolyte and water surplus by relative urine dilution. A 6-g/d increase in salt intake decreased the level of rhythmical mineralocorticoid release and elevated rhythmical glucocorticoid release. The projected effect of salt-driven hormone rhythm modulation corresponded well with the measured decrease in water intake and an increase in urine volume with surplus osmolyte excretion. Humans regulate osmolyte and water balance by rhythmical mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid release, endogenous accrual of surplus body water, and precise surplus excretion. Federal Ministry for Economics and Technology/DLR; the Interdisciplinary Centre for Clinical Research; the NIH; the American Heart Association (AHA); the Renal Research Institute; and the TOYOBO Biotechnology Foundation. Food products were donated by APETITO

  3. Assessment of nutrient and water intake among adolescents from sports federations in the Federal District, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Eliene F; Da Costa, Teresa H M; Nogueira, Julia A D; Vivaldi, Lúcio J

    2008-06-01

    Adolescents aged 11-14 years (n 326), belonging to organized sports federations in the Federal District, Brazil were interviewed. Subjects (n 107) provided four non-consecutive days of food consumption and 219 subjects provided two non-consecutive days of intake. The objective was to assess their nutrient and water intake according to dietary reference intake values and their energy and macronutrient intake by sex and sports groups they were engaged in: endurance, strength-skill or mixed, according to the guidelines established by the American College of Sport Medicine (ACSM). Dietary data were corrected for intra-individual variation. Total energy expenditure was higher among endurance athletes (P sports. Total energy intake was only significantly higher among endurance-engaged females (P = 0.05). Protein intake of males was above the guidelines established by the ACSM for all sports groups. All male sport groups fulfilled the intake levels of carbohydrate per kg body weight but only females engaged in endurance sports fulfilled carbohydrate guidelines. Intakes of micronutrients with low prevalence of adequate intake were: vitamins B1, E and folate, magnesium and phosphorus. Few adolescents ( sports and to improve their intake of micronutrients and water. Special attention should be given to female adolescent athletes.

  4. Multifactorial control of water and saline intake: role of a2-adrenoceptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. De-Luca Jr.

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Water and saline intake is controlled by several mechanisms activated during dehydration. Some mechanisms, such as the production of angiotensin II and unloading of cardiovascular receptors, activate both behaviors, while others, such as the increase in blood osmolality or sodium concentration, activate water, but inhibit saline intake. Aldosterone probably activates only saline intake. Clonidine, an a2-adrenergic agonist, inhibits water and saline intake induced by these mechanisms. One model to describe the interactions between these multiple mechanisms is a wire-block diagram, where the brain circuit that controls each intake is represented by a summing point of its respective inhibiting and activating factors. The a2-adrenoceptors constitute an inhibitory factor common to both summing points

  5. Comparison of trace metals in intake and discharge waters of power plants using clean techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvito, D.T.; Allen, H.E.

    1995-01-01

    In order to determine the impact to receiving waters of trace metals potentially discharged from a once-through, non-contact cooling water system from a power plant, a study was conducted utilizing clean sampling and analytical techniques for a series of metals. Once-through, non-contact cooling water at power plants is frequently discharged back to the fresh or saline waterbody utilized for its intake water. This water is used to cool plant condensers. Intake and discharge data were collected and evaluated using paired t-tests. Study results indicate that there is no measurable contribution of metals from non-contact cooling water from this power plant

  6. Effects of central imidazolinergic and alpha2-adrenergic activation on water intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugawara A.M.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-adrenergic ligands that bind to imidazoline receptors (I-R, a selective ligand that binds to alpha2-adrenoceptors (alpha2-AR and mixed ligands that bind to both receptors were tested for their action on water intake behavior of 24-h water-deprived rats. All drugs were injected into the third cerebral ventricle. Except for agmatine (80 nmol, mixed ligands binding to I-R/alpha2-AR such as guanabenz (40 nmol and UK 14304 (20 nmol inhibited water intake by 65% and up to 95%, respectively. The selective non-imidazoline alpha2-AR agonist, alpha-methylnoradrenaline, produced inhibition of water intake similar to that obtained with guanabenz, but at higher doses (80 nmol. The non-adrenergic I-R ligands histamine (160 nmol, mixed histaminergic and imidazoline ligand and imidazole-4-acetic acid (80 nmol, imidazoline ligand did not alter water intake. The results show that selective, non-imidazoline alpha2-AR activation suppresses water intake, and suggest that the action on imidazoline sites by non-adrenergic ligands is not sufficient to inhibit water intake.

  7. Increasing daily water intake and fluid adherence in children receiving treatment for retentive encopresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhl, Elizabeth S; Hoodin, Flora; Rice, Jennifer; Felt, Barbara T; Rausch, Joseph R; Patton, Susana R

    2010-11-01

    To examine the efficacy of an enhanced intervention (EI) compared to standard care (SC) in increasing daily water intake and fluid goal adherence in children seeking treatment for retentive encopresis. Changes in beverage intake patterns and fluid adherence were examined by comparing 7-week diet diary data collected during participation in the EI to achieved data for families who had previously completed the SC. Compared to children in SC (n = 19), children in the EI (n = 18) demonstrated a significantly greater increase in daily water intake from baseline to the conclusion of treatment ( p ≤ .001), and were four and six times more likely to meet fluid targets in Phases 1 (Weeks 3-4) and 2 (Weeks 5-6) of fluid intervention, respectively (both p ≤ .001). Enhanced education and behavioral strategies were efficacious in increasing children's intake of water and improving fluid adherence. Future research should replicate the findings in a prospective randomized clinical trial to discern their effectiveness.

  8. Assessment of water intake from food and beverages by elderly in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drywień, Małgorzata E; Galon, Katarzyna

    Fluid intake in elderly is more important than in younger individuals, because compromised homeostatic mechanisms such as loss of the thirst sensation can result in dehydration. The aim of the present study was the assessment of water intake from food and beverages by free-living elderly in Poland. The study was conducted on 138 volunteers (women and men) at the age of 60 to 90, recruited from Warsaw and Płock Universities of the Third Age and different informal groups from the same cities. Food and beverages consumption data were collected using the method of records for 3 days, including two weekdays and one week-end day, in the period April – June 2012. Average values of total water intake in the present study indicated that women meets of the European Food Safety Agency recommendations (2000 mL/day), but men did not (less about 200 mL/day than the recommended 2500 mL/day). Taking into account the criterion of water per energy intake (mL/kcal) 51% of women and 75% of men did not meet the recommendation. Continuation of the careers and/or participation in Universities of the Third Age contributed to less intake of water from beverages, what in turn affected the total water intake. The elderly leading an active life (working, studying) may be a risk group vulnerable to dehydration, so monitoring is needed.

  9. Subsurface intakes for seawater reverse osmosis facilities: Capacity limitation, water quality improvement, and economics

    KAUST Repository

    Missimer, Thomas M.

    2013-08-01

    The use of subsurface intake systems for seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination plants significantly improves raw water quality, reduces chemical usage and environmental impacts, decreases the carbon footprint, and reduces cost of treated water to consumers. These intakes include wells (vertical, angle, and radial type) and galleries, which can be located either on the beach or in the seabed. Subsurface intakes act both as intakes and as part of the pretreatment system by providing filtration and active biological treatment of the raw seawater. Recent investigations of the improvement in water quality made by subsurface intakes show lowering of the silt density index by 75 to 90%, removal of nearly all algae, removal of over 90% of bacteria, reduction in the concentrations of TOC and DOC, and virtual elimination of biopolymers and polysaccharides that cause organic biofouling of membranes. Economic analyses show that overall SWRO operating costs can be reduced by 5 to 30% by using subsurface intake systems. Although capital costs can be slightly to significantly higher compared to open-ocean intake system costs, a preliminary life-cycle cost analysis shows significant cost saving over operating periods of 10 to 30. years. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  10. Applications of labelled water in animal nutrition and physiology. I. Measurement of individual intakes of grazing animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, D.E.

    1982-01-01

    Methods for measuring individual animal intakes of food or liquid labelled with tritium or deuterium are reviewed. The errors associated with these techniques have been measured and the methods for estimating individual food, water or milk intakes are discussed. (author)

  11. Stochastic study on entrainment of floating particles with intake of cooling water of a power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadoyu, Masatake; Wada, Akira

    1979-01-01

    The mortality of ichthyoplanktons, contained in the sea water passing through the cooling water systems of a power plant, may be associated with rising temperature and mechanical effect. In this study, the range and the rate of entrainment of the organisms like ichthyoplanktons floating in the sea caused by the intake of cooling water were stochastically investigated by simulating the average current as well as the flow caused by the intake of water and by taking into consideration random velocity fluctuation without these flows, using a mathematical model. An intake was set along the straight coastline in semi-infinite sea, and the rate of inflow of particles into the intake was simulated by a mathematical model. In the numerical simulation, the average flow as coastal current component and the flow caused by the intake of water were obtained with the hydrodynamic equations of motion and continuity, and the rate of entrainment of floating particles was examined by giving turbulence to the particles in the sea and by calculating the position of each particle every moment. The results are as follows; 1) The range of entrainment of floating particles by the intake of cooling water and its probability were obtained in consideration of the flow rate of cooling water, coast current velocity and diffusion coefficient as parameters. 2) The extent of inflow of floating particles considerably varied with tidal amplitude, diffusion coefficient and the flow rate of cooling water in the sea where the coastal flow has clear periodicity. 3) The extent of entrainment was considerably influenced by the steady current velocity, the velocity distribution in offshore direction and the intake volume in the sea where periodicity is not observed. (Nakai, Y.)

  12. Intake of water and different beverages in adults across 13 countries

    OpenAIRE

    Guelinckx, I.; Ferreira-P?go, C.; Moreno, L. A.; Kavouras, S. A.; Gandy, J.; Martinez, H.; Bardosono, S.; Abdollahi, M.; Nasseri, E.; Jarosz, A.; Ma, G.; Carmuega, E.; Babio, N.; Salas-Salvad?, J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To describe the intake of water and all other fluids and to evaluate the proportion of adults exceeding the World Health Organisation (WHO) recommendations on energy intake from free sugar, solely from fluids. Methods A total of 16,276 adults (46?% men, mean age 39.8?years) were recruited in 13 countries from 3 continents. A 24-h fluid-specific record over 7?days was used for fluid assessment. Results In Spain, France, Turkey, Iran, Indonesia and China, fluid intake was characterised ...

  13. Turbidity in extreme western Lake Superior. [contamination of Duluth, Minnesota water intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydor, M.

    1975-01-01

    Data were obtained from ERTS images for western Lake Superior for 1972-74. Data examination showed that for easterly winds the turbidity originating along the Wisconsin shore and the resuspension areas are transported northward then out along a N.E. path where it disperses, and often, for large storms, contaminates the Duluth water intake. Contaminants such as dredging fines anywhere along these paths would likewise find their way to the intake areas in concentrations comparable to the relative red clay concentration.

  14. Dose contribution from metabolized organically bound tritium after chronic tritiated water intakes in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivedi, A.; Lamothe, E.; Galeriu, D.

    2001-01-01

    Our earlier study of acute tritiated water intakes in humans has demonstrated that the dose contribution from metabolized organically bound tritium is less than 10% of the body water dose. To further demonstrate that the dose contribution from the organically bound tritium per unit intake of tritiated water is the same, regardless of whether the intake is acute (all at once) or chronic (spread over time), urine samples from six male radiation workers with chronic tritiated water intakes were collected and analyzed for tritium. These workers have a well-documented dose history and a well-controlled tritium bioassay database, providing assurance that their tritium intakes were in the form of tritiated water. Each month for a full calendar year, urine samples were collected from each exposed worker. The monthly concentration of tritium-in-urine for each exposed worker was no lower than 104 Bq L -1 but no higher than 105 Bq L -1 . These urine samples were analyzed for tritiated water and organically bound tritium to determine the ratio of these tritiated species in urine. The average ratio of tritiated water to organically bound tritium in urine for each exposed worker was 330-129 (range, 297-589). In calculating the dose to these workers, we assumed that, under steady-state conditions, the ratio of the specific activity of tritium ( 3 H activity per gH) in the organic matter and water fractions of urine is representative of the ratio of the specific activity of tritium in the organic matter and water fractions of soft tissue. A mathematical model was developed and used to estimate the dose increase from the metabolized organically bound tritium based on the ratio of tritiated water to organically bound tritium in urine. The resulting average dose from the organically bound tritium was 6.9-3.1% (range, 4.7-9.9%) of the body water dose for the six male workers, and agrees well with the value obtained from our acute tritiated water intakes study in humans. The observed

  15. Surface Water Intakes, US EPA Region 9, 2013, SDWIS

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EPAâ??s Safe Drinking Water Information System (SDWIS) databases store information about drinking water. The federal version (SDWIS/FED) stores the information EPA...

  16. Water Intake in a Sample of Greek Adults Evaluated with the Water Balance Questionnaire (WBQ and a Seven-Day Diary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelais Athanasatou

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Awareness on the importance of hydration in health has created an unequivocal need to enrich knowledge on water intake of the general population and on the contribution of beverages to total water intake. We evaluated in the past water intake in a sample of Greek adults using two approaches. In study A, volunteers completed the Water Balance Questionnaire (WBQ, a food frequency questionnaire, designed to evaluate water intake (n = 1092; 48.1% males; 43 ± 18 years. In study B, a different population of volunteers recorded water, beverage, and food intake in seven-day diaries (n = 178; 51.1% males; 37 ± 12 years. Herein, data were reanalyzed with the objective to reveal the contribution of beverages in total water intake with these different methodologies. Beverage recording was grouped in the following categories: Hot beverages; milk; fruit and vegetable juices; caloric soft drinks; diet soft drinks; alcoholic drinks; other beverages; and water. Total water intake and water intake from beverages was 3254 (SE 43 mL/day and 2551 (SE 39 mL/day in study A; and 2349 (SE 59 mL/day and 1832 (SE 56 mL/day in study B. In both studies water had the highest contribution to total water intake, approximately 50% of total water intake, followed by hot beverages (10% of total water intake and milk (5% of total water intake. These two approaches contribute information on water intake in Greece and highlight the contribution of different beverages; moreover, they point out differences in results obtained from different methodologies attributed to limitations in their use.

  17. Dose contribution from metabolized organically bound tritium after acute tritiated water intakes in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivedi, A.; Galeriu, D.; Richardson, R.B.

    1997-01-01

    Urine samples from eight male radiation workers who had an unplanned acute tritiated water intake were measured for tritium-in-urine up to 300 d post-exposure. During the first month or so post-exposure, these individuals increased their fluid intakes to accelerate the turnover rate of tritium in the body for dose mitigation. Their daily fluid intakes reverted to normal levels in the latter period of the study. A non-linear regressional analysis of the tritium-in-urine data showed that the average biological half-life of tritium in body water, with standard deviation, was 63 ± 1.0 d (range, 5.0-8.1 d) and 8.4 ± 2.0 d (range, 6.2-12.8 d) during the respective periods of increased fluid intake and the later period of normal fluid intake. A longer term component of tritium excretion was also observed with average biological half-life of 74 ± 18 d (range, 58-104 d), indicating the incorporation of tritium, and its retention, in the organic fractions of the body. A mathematical model was developed and used to estimate the dose increase from the metabolized organically bound tritium on the basis of the kinetics of tritium-in-urine. The model accounts for a change in the rates of urinary excretion caused by variable fluid intakes. The average dose to the body, for the eight male workers, due to the metabolized organically bound tritium was estimated to be 6.2 ± 1.3% (range, 3.5% to 8.9%) of the committed effective dose due to tritium in the body water. This value for the dose increase from organically bound tritium is in the range of the current recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection, i.e., organically bound tritium incorporated into the body contributes about 10% of the dose to the body water following tritiated water intakes. (author)

  18. Optimization of surveillance methods of water radionuclide intake by man

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pakulo, A.G. (Institut Biofiziki, Moscow (USSR))

    1984-11-01

    A method has been suggested to test and sample prepared food stuffs, when studying and analyzing the intake of radionuclides from aqueous food chains to people. The method is characterized by the following advantages: a possibility to establish to a greater accuracy the amount of consumed products, as compared with inquiry method; a possibility to determine the actual radionuclide contents in prepared food without introduction of correcting coefficients for isotope translocation to the ration during culinary treatment of raw food stuff. Different ways of preparation are known to affect differently the degree of isotope translocaton to the ration. The above-mentioned method under certain conditions seems to be handy while excluding preliminary treatment of samples.

  19. Contribution of Water from Food and Fluids to Total Water Intake: Analysis of a French and UK Population Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guelinckx, Isabelle; Tavoularis, Gabriel; König, Jürgen; Morin, Clémentine; Gharbi, Hakam; Gandy, Joan

    2016-10-14

    Little has been published on the contribution of food moisture (FM) to total water intake (TWI); therefore, the European Food Safety Authority assumed FM to contribute 20%-30% to TWI. The aim of the present analysis was to estimate and compare TWI, the percentage of water from FM and from fluids in population samples of France and UK. Data from 2 national nutrition surveys (Enquête Comportements et Consommations Alimentaires en France (CCAF) 2013 and the National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) 2008/2009-2011/2012) were analyzed for TWI and the contribution of water from FM and fluids. Children and adults TWI were significantly lower in France than in the UK. The contribution of water from foods was lower in the UK than in France (27% vs. 36%). As TWI increased, the proportion of water from fluids increased, suggesting that low drinkers did not compensate by increasing intake of water-rich foods. In addition, 80%-90% of the variance in TWI was explained by differences in water intake from fluids. More data on the contribution of FM to TWI is needed to develop more robust dietary recommendations on TWI and guidance on fluid intake for the general public.

  20. A test to enhance the excretion of tritium in man by excessive water intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takada, K.; Fukuda, H.; Hattori, T.; Akaishi, J.

    1981-01-01

    A worker who accidentally inhaled tritium water vapour at a heavy-water-moderated reactor was recommended to drink an excessive amount of water to enhance the excretion of incorporated tritium. The change in biological half-life of tritium in the body was studied by measuring the tritium in urine, saliva and exhaled water. The results obtained in the present test showed that if the intake of excessive water is performed under no special control the expected shortening of tritium half-life is not necessarily achieved. When severe incorporation of tritium occurs, greater amounts of water than those in the present test must be taken. (U.K.)

  1. Role of Spiritual Sentiments in Improving the Compliance of Water Intake in Patients with Urolithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Liaqat; Ali, Saima; Hussain, Syed Awlad; Haider, Fayyaz; Ali, Shehla

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the compliance for water intake and rate of recurrence between spiritually motivated and non-motivated patients of renal tract stone disease. It is a multi centric prospective cohort study, conducted in Department of Urology, Institute of Kidney Diseases and Peshawar Medical College, from January 10, 2009 to December 2012. A total of 180 patients with comparable demographic, IQ, EQ and BMI after achieving complete stone clearance were divided into two equal groups. Both groups were instructed to increase the water intake timetable according to AUA guidelines. Group 'A' comprising of 90 patients who were identified as spiritually motivated patients based on questioner of FICA 12 is also instructed that increasing the water intake is mentioned in contemporary Islamic medicine. No spiritual instruction was given to Group B. The instructed guidelines and practice for amount and timing of water intake were recalled from participants at the end of 6 and 12 months. The data were recorded on structured proforma and was analyzed using SPSS version 17. The mean age of the patient in Group A was 37.5 years (18-70 years), while in Group B it was 34 years (18-65 years). Urolithiasis affected predominantly male gender in both groups. Sixty-five patients (72.2 %) in Group A have significant compliance (p < 0.001) for water intake over Group B (46 %). The spiritually motivated Group A has significantly reduced rate of recurrence of stones in 23 patients versus 37 in Group B. The spiritually motivated patients had significantly better compliance for water intake and reduced rate of recurrence versus non-motivated individuals in urolithiasis.

  2. Iodine Intake Estimation from the Consumption of Instant Noodles, Drinking Water and Household Salt in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutrisna, Aang; Knowles, Jacky; Basuni, Abas; Menon, Ravi; Sugihantono, Anung

    2018-03-08

    The objective of this study was to assess the contribution of iodine intake from iodised household salt, iodised salt in instant noodles, and iodine in ground water in five regions of Indonesia. Secondary data analysis was performed using the 2013 Primary Health Research Survey, the 2014 Total Diet Study, and data from food industry research. Iodine intake was estimated among 2719 children, 10-12 years of age (SAC), 13,233 women of reproductive age (WRA), and 578 pregnant women (PW). Combined estimated iodine intake from the three stated sources met 78%, 70%, and 41% of iodine requirements for SAC, WRA and PW, respectively. Household salt iodine contributed about half of the iodine requirements for SAC (49%) and WRA (48%) and a quarter for PW (28%). The following variations were found: for population group, the percentage of estimated dietary iodine requirements met by instant noodle consumption was significantly higher among SAC; for region, estimated iodine intake was significantly higher from ground water for WRA in Java, and from household salt for SAC and WRA in Kalimantan and Java; and for household socio-economic status (SES), iodine intake from household salt was significantly higher in the highest SES households. Enforcement of clear implementing regulations for iodisation of household and food industry salt will promote optimal iodine intake among all population groups with different diets.

  3. Iodine Intake Estimation from the Consumption of Instant Noodles, Drinking Water and Household Salt in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aang Sutrisna

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the contribution of iodine intake from iodised household salt, iodised salt in instant noodles, and iodine in ground water in five regions of Indonesia. Secondary data analysis was performed using the 2013 Primary Health Research Survey, the 2014 Total Diet Study, and data from food industry research. Iodine intake was estimated among 2719 children, 10–12 years of age (SAC, 13,233 women of reproductive age (WRA, and 578 pregnant women (PW. Combined estimated iodine intake from the three stated sources met 78%, 70%, and 41% of iodine requirements for SAC, WRA and PW, respectively. Household salt iodine contributed about half of the iodine requirements for SAC (49% and WRA (48% and a quarter for PW (28%. The following variations were found: for population group, the percentage of estimated dietary iodine requirements met by instant noodle consumption was significantly higher among SAC; for region, estimated iodine intake was significantly higher from ground water for WRA in Java, and from household salt for SAC and WRA in Kalimantan and Java; and for household socio-economic status (SES, iodine intake from household salt was significantly higher in the highest SES households. Enforcement of clear implementing regulations for iodisation of household and food industry salt will promote optimal iodine intake among all population groups with different diets.

  4. Cooling water intake and discharge facilities for Ikata Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishihara, Hisashi; Iwabe, Masakazu

    1977-01-01

    Igata Nuclear Power Station is located at the root of Sadamisaki peninsula in the western part of Ehime Prefecture, Japan, and faces the Iyonada sea area in Seto Inland Sea. The most part of the shoreline forms the cliffs, and the bottom of the sea is rather steep, reaching 60 m depth at 300 m offshore. Considering warm water discharge measures in addition to the natural conditions of tide and current, temperature of sea water, water quality and wave data, it was decided that the deep layer intake system using bottom laid intake pipes and the submerged discharge system with caisson penetrable dike would be adopted for cooling water. The latter was first employed in Japan, and the submerged discharge system with caisson penetrable dike had been developed. The intake was designed to take sea water of about 38 m 3 per sec for each condenser unit at the depth of approximately 17 m with 4.8 m diameter and 116 m length pipes and its calculation details and construction are described. The discharge system was designed to provide a horseshoe-shaped discharge pond with inner diameter of approximately 50 m, surrounded by 17 concrete caissons, and to spout warm water discharge from eight openings of 1.58 m diameter, at the location of approximately 300 m eastward of the intake. Its hydraulic studies and model experiments and its construction are reported. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  5. The behavioural basis of fish exclusion from coastal power station cooling water intakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turnpenny, A.W.H.

    1988-08-01

    The first principles of fish behaviour in flow fields, and why fish enter water intakes are considered, together with how they can best be excluded. Possible solutions are discussed where fish exclusion is a priority but the ability of fish to detect intakes is likely to be poor due to high turbidity. These involve the use of sound, light or hydraulic stimuli. However, results are likely to be site-specific and field trials would be required. The fish-attractant properties of offshore intake structures are considered. Designers of many existing intake structures have unwittingly incorporated features which are now recognized as fish attractants, in particular, open steelwork superstructures and boulder rip-rap. Such features can be expected to add to the problem of fish ingress. (author)

  6. Dietary intake of energy, nutrients and water in elderly people living at home or in nursing home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelheart, S; Akner, G

    2015-03-01

    There is a lack of detailed information on dietary intake in elderly people at an individual level, which is crucial for improvement of nutritional support. The aim of this study was to investigate the dietary intake in elderly people in two types of living situations. Observational study, analysing prospective data. The dietary intake was studied in elderly people living at home or in nursing home, in different cities of Sweden. A total of 264 elderly people (mean age 84) participated in the observational study. Dietary intake was measured using weighed food records and food diaries, comparing females and males. The observed dietary intake was related to Recommended intake and Lower intake level. All dietary intake and patient characteristic variables showed large individual differences (ranges). We found no significant differences (p>0.05) between those living at home and nursing home residents regarding the average intake of energy, protein and water when expressed as total intake per kg of body weight. A very low daily intake of energy (<20 kcal/kg body weight/day) was observed in 16% of the participants. For vitamin D and iron, 19% and 15%, respectively, had intakes below the Lower intake level. There was no correlation between intake of energy, protein or water and resident characteristics such as age, autonomy, morbidity, nutritional state or cognition. The large individual differences (ranges) in energy, nutrients and water show that the use of mean values when analysing dietary intake data from elderly people is misleading. From a clinical perspective it is more important to consider the individual intake of energy, nutrients and water. Ageism is intrinsic in the realm of 'averageology'.

  7. An Assessment of Subsurface Intake Systems: Planning and Impact on Feed Water Quality for SWRO Facilities

    KAUST Repository

    Dehwah, Abdullah

    2017-12-01

    Subsurface intake systems are known to improve the feed water quality for SWRO plants. However, a little is known about the feasibility of implementation in coastal settings, the degree of water quality improvements provided by these systems, and the internal mechanisms of potential fouling compounds removal within subsurface intake systems. A new method was developed to assess the feasibility of using different subsurface intake systems in coastal areas and was applied to Red Sea coastline of Saudi Arabia. The methodology demonstrated that five specific coastal environments could support well intake systems use for small-capacity SWRO plants, whereas large-capacity SWRO facilities could use seabed gallery intake systems. It was also found that seabed intake system could run with no operational constraints based on the high evaporation rates and associated diurnal salinity changes along the coast line. Performance of well intake systems in several SWRO facilities along the Red Sea coast showed that the concentrations of organic compounds were reduced in the feed water, similar or better than traditional pretreatment methodologies. Nearly all algae, up to 99% of bacteria, between 84 and 100% of the biopolymer fraction of NOM, and a high percentage of TEP were removed during transport through the aquifer. These organics cause membrane biofouling and using well intakes showed a 50-75% lower need to clean the SWRO membranes compared to conventional open-ocean intakes. An assessment of the effectiveness of seabed gallery intake systems was conducted through a long-term bench-scale column experiment. The simulation of the active layer (upper 1 m) showed that it is highly effective at producing feed water quality improvements and acts totally different compared to slow sand filtration systems treating freshwater. No development of a “schmutzdecke” layer occurred and treatment was not limited to the top 10 cm, but throughout the full column thickness. Algae and

  8. Beverage consumption habits "24/7" among British adults: association with total water intake and energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Sigrid; Shirreffs, Susan M

    2013-01-10

    Various recommendations exist for total water intake (TWI), yet it is seldom reported in dietary surveys. Few studies have examined how real-life consumption patterns, including beverage type, variety and timing relate to TWI and energy intake (EI). We analysed weighed dietary records from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey of 1724 British adults aged 19-64 years (2000/2001) to investigate beverage consumption patterns over 24 hrs and 7 days and associations with TWI and EI. TWI was calculated from the nutrient composition of each item of food and drink and compared with reference values. Mean TWI was 2.53 L (SD 0.86) for men and 2.03 L (SD 0.71) for women, close to the European Food Safety Authority "adequate Intake" (AI) of 2.5 L and 2 L, respectively. However, for 33% of men and 23% of women TWI was below AI and TWI:EI ratio was Beverages accounted for 75% of TWI. Beverage variety was correlated with TWI (r 0.34) and more weakly with EI (r 0.16). Beverage consumption peaked at 0800 hrs (mainly hot beverages/ milk) and 2100 hrs (mainly alcohol). Total beverage consumption was higher at weekends, especially among men. Overall, beverages supplied 16% of EI (men 17%, women 14%), alcoholic drinks contributed 9% (men) and 5% (women), milk 5-6%, caloric soft drinks 2%, and fruit juice 1%.In multi-variable regression (adjusted for sex, age, body weight, smoking, dieting, activity level and mis-reporting), replacing 100 g of caloric beverages (milk, fruit juice, caloric soft drinks and alcohol) with 100 g non-caloric drinks (diet soft drinks, hot beverages and water) was associated with a reduction in EI of 15 kcal, or 34 kcal if food energy were unchanged. Using within-person data (deviations from 7-day mean) each 100 g change in caloric beverages was associated with 29 kcal change in EI or 35 kcal if food energy were constant. By comparison the calculated energy content of caloric drinks consumed was 47 kcal/100 g. TWI and beverage consumption are closely related

  9. [Fluoride intake through consumption of water from municipal network in the INMA-Gipuzkoa cohort].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Zabala, Ana; Santa-Marina, Loreto; Otazua, Mónica; Ayerdi, Mikel; Galarza, Ane; Gallastegi, Mara; Ulibarrena, Enrique; Molinuevo, Amaia; Anabitarte, Asier; Ibarluzea, Jesús

    2017-05-22

    To estimate fluoride intake through consumption of water from the municipal network in pregnant women and their children from the INMA-Gipuzkoa cohort and to compare these intakes with recommended levels. In Euskadi (Spain), fluoridation of drinking water is compulsory in water supplies for more than 30,000 inhabitants. 575 pregnant women (recruitment, 2006-2008) and 424 4-year-old children (follow-up, 2010-2012) have been included. Fluoride levels in drinking water were obtained from the water consumption information system of the Basque Country (EKUIS). Water consumption habits and socioeconomic variables were obtained by questionnaire. 74.9% and 87.7% of women and children consumed water from the municipal network. Average fluoride levels in fluoridated water were 0.805 (SD: 0.194) mg/L during baseline recruitment and 0.843 (SD: 0.080) mg/L during follow up, at 4 years old of the children. Average and 95th percentile of fluoride intake were 0.015 and 0.026mg/kg per day in women and 0.033 and 0.059mg/kg per day in children. Considering only fluoride provided by drinking water, 8.71% of children living in fluoridated areas exceeded intake level recommended by the European Food Safety Authority, consisting in 0.05mg/kg per day. The results show that ingested levels of fluoride through consumption of municipal water can exceed the recommended levels in children and encourages further studies that will help in fluoridation policies of drinking water in the future. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Safely Intake Number of Macridiscus sp. (Kerang Ceplos) from Tambak Lorok Waters, Semarang, Central Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meirenno Tielman, Eduard; Suprijanto, Jusup; Widowati, Ita

    2018-02-01

    The dynamics pollution that supposed to be derived from industrial activities around Tambak Lorok waters will affect the quality of waters, and also biota such as Macridiscus sp. mussels (Kerang Ceplos) that live and accumulate pollutants such as heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Al, Mn and Fe). However, Macridiscus sp. mussels which have been contaminated by heavy metals is usually sold for consumption by the people and if they consume it in excess, it will be toxic in the people’s body. So that, this study was to analyze Safely Intake Number of Macridiscus sp. from Tambak Lorok waters. This study used AAS (Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry) method to analyze the accumulation number of the pollutant (Pb, Cu, Al, Mn and Fe). Safely Intake Number calculation is used MWI (Maximal Weekly Intake) and MTI (Maximal Tolerable Intake) calculation method. The results of AAS showed that the highest numbers of pollutant was Al (reached 534,51 mg/kg in the body of Macridiscus sp. that taken in February, 2016) and has exceeded the safely intake number (MWI Al = 1 mg/kg, based on WHO/FAO) so that it’s MTI values was low (0,08 kg/week/person). It means that Macridiscus sp. was not safe to be consumed excessively at that time.

  11. The relationship of perceptions of tap water safety with intake of sugar-sweetened beverages and plain water among US adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onufrak, Stephen J; Park, Sohyun; Sharkey, Joseph R; Sherry, Bettylou

    2014-01-01

    Research is limited on whether mistrust of tap water discourages plain water intake and leads to a greater intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB). The objective of the present study was to examine demographic differences in perceptions of tap water safety and determine if these perceptions are associated with intake of SSB and plain water. The study examined perceptions of tap water safety and their cross-sectional association with intake of SSB and plain water. Racial/ethnic differences in the associations of tap water perceptions with SSB and plain water intake were also examined. Nationally weighted data from the 2010 HealthStyles Survey (n 4184). US adults aged ≥18 years. Overall, 13·0 % of participants disagreed that their local tap water was safe to drink and 26·4 % of participants agreed that bottled water was safer than tap water. Both mistrust of tap water safety and favouring bottled water differed by region, age, race/ethnicity, income and education. The associations of tap water mistrust with intake of SSB and plain water were modified by race/ethnicity (P beverages should recognize the potential impact of tap water perceptions on water and SSB intake among minority populations.

  12. [Total drinking water intake and sources of children and adolescent in one district of Shenzhen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Songming; Hu, Xiaoqi; Zhang, Qian; Wang, Xiaojun; Liu, Ailing; Pan, Hui; He, Shuang; Ma, Guansheng

    2013-05-01

    To describe total drinking water intake among primary and middle school students in one district of Shenzhen and to provide scientific evidence for adequate intakes of drinking water for different people in China. A total of 816 students from three primary and middle schools of Shenzhen was selected using three-stage random sampling method. The information on amounts and types of daily drinking water was recorded by subjects for seven consecutive days using a 24 hours measurement. The amounts and types of daily drinking water among different ages and between boys and girls were analyzed. The average total drinking water of subjects was (1225+/-557) ml/d, and the consumption of total drinking water in boys ((1303+/-639) ml/d) was significantly higher than that in girls ((1134+/-478) ml/d, Pwater of secondary school students ((1389+/-541) ml/d) and high school student ((1318+/-641) ml/d) was no statistically difference, but was higher than primary school students ((1097+/-525) ml/d, Pwater and beverages of the subjects was (818+/-541) ml/d and (407+/-294) ml/d respectively. Major of fluid intake comes from drinking water in children and adolescenct of Shenzhen. The knowledge of drinking water of primary school students is need to comprehensive enough.

  13. Daily tritium intakes by people living near a heavy-water research reactor facility: dosimetric significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivedi, A.; Cornett, R.J.; Galeriu, D.; Workman, W.; Brown, R.M.

    1997-02-01

    We have estimated the relative daily intakes of tritiated water (HTO) and organically bound tritium (OBT), and have measured HTO-in-urine, in an adult population residing in the town of Deep River, Ontario, near a heavy-water research reactor facility at Chalk River. The daily intake of elevated levels of atmospheric tritium has been estimated from its concentration in environmental and biological samples, and various food items from a local tritium-monitoring program. Where the available data were inadequate, we used estimates generated by an environmental tritium-transfer model. From these data and estimates, we calculated a total daily tritium intake of about 55 Bq. Of this amount, 2.5 Bq is obtained from OBT-in-diet. Inhalation of HTO-in-air (15 Bq d -1 ) and HTO-in-drinking water (15 Bq d -1 ) accounts for more than half of the HTO intake. Skin absorption of HTO from air and bathing or swimming (for 30 min d -1 ) accounts for another 9 Bq d -1 and 0.1 Bq d -1 , respectively. The remaining intake of HTO is from food as tissue-free water tritium. The International Commission on Radiological Protection's recommended two-compartment metabolic model for tritium predicts an equilibrium body burden of about 900 Bq from HTO (818 Bq) and OBT (83 Bq) in the body, which corresponds to an annual tritium dose of 0.41 μSv. The model-predicted urinary excretion of HTO (∼18 Bq L -1 ) agrees well with measured HTO-in-urine (range, 10-32 Bq L -1 ). The OBT dose contribution to the total tritium dose is about 16%. We conclude that for the people living near the Chalk River research reactor facility, the bulk of the tritium dose is due to HTO intake. (author)

  14. 76 FR 43230 - National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System-Cooling Water Intake Structures at Existing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-20

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 122 and 125 [EPA-HQ-OW-2008-0667, FRL-9441-8] RIN 2040-AE95 National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System--Cooling Water Intake Structures at Existing Facilities and Phase I Facilities AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule...

  15. Effect of water intake on the nitrogen balance of sheep fed a low or a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of water intake on the nitrogen balance of sheep fed a low or a medium protein diet. JG van der Walt, EA Boomker, A Meintjes, WA Schultheiss. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  16. 30 CFR 250.217 - What solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water intake information must...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... What solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water intake information must accompany the EP? The following solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water intake... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What solid and liquid wastes and discharges...

  17. 30 CFR 250.248 - What solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water intake information must...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... following solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water intake information must... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water intake information must accompany the DPP or DOCD? 250.248 Section 250.248...

  18. Effects of changes in water intake on mood of high and low drinkers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Pross

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of a change in water intake on mood and sensation in 22 habitual high-volume (HIGH; 2-4 L/d and 30 low-volume (LOW; <1.2 L/d drinkers who were asked to respectively decrease and increase their daily water intake. METHOD: During baseline HIGH consumed 2.5 L and LOW 1 L of water/day. During 3 controlled intervention days HIGH's water intake was restricted to 1 L/day whereas LOW's was increased to 2.5 L water/day. Several mood scales (Bond & Lader Visual Analog Scale (VAS, Profile of Mood States, Karolinska Sleepiness Scale, Thirst & Emotional VAS were administered at different time points during the study. ANOVA including intervention, time point and intervention by time point as fixed effects on mean values (i.e.; baseline data vs. mean of 3 intervention days for each mood scale was performed. RESULTS: At baseline HIGH and LOW were comparable in mood state, except for thirst scores (estimate = 17.16, p<0.001 and POMS depression-dejection scores (estimate = 0.55, p<0.05 which were both higher in the HIGH vs. LOW. In HIGH the restricted water intake resulted in a significant increase in thirst (p<0.001 and a decrease in contentedness (p<0.05, calmness (p<0.01, positive emotions (p<0.05 and vigor/activity (p<0.001. In LOW, increased water consumption resulted in a significant decrease in fatigue/inertia (p<0.001, confusion/bewilderment (p = 0.05 and thirst (p<0.001 and a trend to lower sleepiness (p = 0.07 compared to baseline. CONCLUSION: Increasing water intake has beneficial effects in LOW, especially sleep/wake feelings, whereas decreasing water intake has detrimental effects on HIGH's mood. These deleterious effects in HIGH were observed in some sleep/wake moods as well as calmness, satisfaction and positive emotions.

  19. Beverage consumption habits “24/7” among British adults: association with total water intake and energy intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibson Sigrid

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Various recommendations exist for total water intake (TWI, yet it is seldom reported in dietary surveys. Few studies have examined how real-life consumption patterns, including beverage type, variety and timing relate to TWI and energy intake (EI. Methods We analysed weighed dietary records from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey of 1724 British adults aged 19–64 years (2000/2001 to investigate beverage consumption patterns over 24 hrs and 7 days and associations with TWI and EI. TWI was calculated from the nutrient composition of each item of food and drink and compared with reference values. Results Mean TWI was 2.53 L (SD 0.86 for men and 2.03 L (SD 0.71 for women, close to the European Food Safety Authority “adequate Intake” (AI of 2.5 L and 2 L, respectively. However, for 33% of men and 23% of women TWI was below AI and TWI:EI ratio was In multi-variable regression (adjusted for sex, age, body weight, smoking, dieting, activity level and mis-reporting, replacing 100 g of caloric beverages (milk, fruit juice, caloric soft drinks and alcohol with 100 g non-caloric drinks (diet soft drinks, hot beverages and water was associated with a reduction in EI of 15 kcal, or 34 kcal if food energy were unchanged. Using within-person data (deviations from 7-day mean each 100 g change in caloric beverages was associated with 29 kcal change in EI or 35 kcal if food energy were constant. By comparison the calculated energy content of caloric drinks consumed was 47 kcal/100 g. Conclusions TWI and beverage consumption are closely related, and some individuals appeared to have low TWI. Compensation for energy from beverages may occur but is partial. A better understanding of interactions between drinking and eating habits and their impact on water and energy balance would give a firmer basis to dietary recommendations.

  20. Beverage consumption habits “24/7” among British adults: association with total water intake and energy intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Various recommendations exist for total water intake (TWI), yet it is seldom reported in dietary surveys. Few studies have examined how real-life consumption patterns, including beverage type, variety and timing relate to TWI and energy intake (EI). Methods We analysed weighed dietary records from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey of 1724 British adults aged 19–64 years (2000/2001) to investigate beverage consumption patterns over 24 hrs and 7 days and associations with TWI and EI. TWI was calculated from the nutrient composition of each item of food and drink and compared with reference values. Results Mean TWI was 2.53 L (SD 0.86) for men and 2.03 L (SD 0.71) for women, close to the European Food Safety Authority “adequate Intake” (AI) of 2.5 L and 2 L, respectively. However, for 33% of men and 23% of women TWI was below AI and TWI:EI ratio was Beverages accounted for 75% of TWI. Beverage variety was correlated with TWI (r 0.34) and more weakly with EI (r 0.16). Beverage consumption peaked at 0800 hrs (mainly hot beverages/ milk) and 2100 hrs (mainly alcohol). Total beverage consumption was higher at weekends, especially among men. Overall, beverages supplied 16% of EI (men 17%, women 14%), alcoholic drinks contributed 9% (men) and 5% (women), milk 5-6%, caloric soft drinks 2%, and fruit juice 1%. In multi-variable regression (adjusted for sex, age, body weight, smoking, dieting, activity level and mis-reporting), replacing 100 g of caloric beverages (milk, fruit juice, caloric soft drinks and alcohol) with 100 g non-caloric drinks (diet soft drinks, hot beverages and water) was associated with a reduction in EI of 15 kcal, or 34 kcal if food energy were unchanged. Using within-person data (deviations from 7-day mean) each 100 g change in caloric beverages was associated with 29 kcal change in EI or 35 kcal if food energy were constant. By comparison the calculated energy content of caloric drinks consumed was

  1. Effect of preexercise soup ingestion on water intake and fluid balance during exercise in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannsen, Neil M; Sullivan, Zebblin M; Warnke, Nicole R; Smiley-Oyen, Ann L; King, Douglas S; Sharp, Rick L

    2013-06-01

    To determine whether chicken noodle soup before exercise increases ad libitum water intake, fluid balance, and physical and cognitive performance compared with water. Nine trained men (age 25 ± 3 yr, VO2peak 54.2 ± 5.1 ml · kg-1 · min-1; M ± SD) performed cycle exercise in the heat (wet bulb globe temperature = 25.9 ± 0.4 °C) for 90 min at 50% VO2peak, 45 min after ingesting 355 ml of either commercially available bottled water (WATER) or chicken noodle soup (SOUP). The same bottled water was allowed ad libitum throughout both trials. Participants then completed a time trial to finish a given amount of work (10 min at 90% VO2peak; n = 8). Cognitive performance was evaluated by the Stroop color-word task before, every 30 min during, and immediately after the time trial. Ad libitum water intake throughout steady-state exercise was greater in SOUP than with WATER (1,435 ± 593 vs. 1,163 ± 427 g, respectively; p SOUP than in WATER (87.7% ± 7.6% vs. 74.9% ± 21.7%, respectively; p = .09), possibly due to a change in free water clearance (-0.32 ± 1.22 vs. 0.51 ± 1.06 ml/min, respectively; p = .07). Fluid balance tended to be improved with SOUP (-106 ± 603 vs. -478 ± 594 g, p = .05). Likewise, change in plasma volume tended to be reduced in SOUP compared with WATER (p = .06). Only mild dehydration was achieved (SOUP throughout the entire trial (treatment effect; p = .04). SOUP before exercise increased ad libitum water intake and may alter kidney function.

  2. Binational Arsenic Exposure Survey: Methodology and Estimated Arsenic Intake from Drinking Water and Urinary Arsenic Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin B. Harris

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Binational Arsenic Exposure Survey (BAsES was designed to evaluate probable arsenic exposures in selected areas of southern Arizona and northern Mexico, two regions with known elevated levels of arsenic in groundwater reserves. This paper describes the methodology of BAsES and the relationship between estimated arsenic intake from beverages and arsenic output in urine. Households from eight communities were selected for their varying groundwater arsenic concentrations in Arizona, USA and Sonora, Mexico. Adults responded to questionnaires and provided dietary information. A first morning urine void and water from all household drinking sources were collected. Associations between urinary arsenic concentration (total, organic, inorganic and estimated level of arsenic consumed from water and other beverages were evaluated through crude associations and by random effects models. Median estimated total arsenic intake from beverages among participants from Arizona communities ranged from 1.7 to 14.1 µg/day compared to 0.6 to 3.4 µg/day among those from Mexico communities. In contrast, median urinary inorganic arsenic concentrations were greatest among participants from Hermosillo, Mexico (6.2 µg/L whereas a high of 2.0 µg/L was found among participants from Ajo, Arizona. Estimated arsenic intake from drinking water was associated with urinary total arsenic concentration (p < 0.001, urinary inorganic arsenic concentration (p < 0.001, and urinary sum of species (p < 0.001. Urinary arsenic concentrations increased between 7% and 12% for each one percent increase in arsenic consumed from drinking water. Variability in arsenic intake from beverages and urinary arsenic output yielded counter intuitive results. Estimated intake of arsenic from all beverages was greatest among Arizonans yet participants in Mexico had higher urinary total and inorganic arsenic concentrations. Other contributors to urinary arsenic concentrations should be evaluated.

  3. Intake of 90Sr, 137Cs, 144Ce, 106Ru by fresh water organisms with food and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marciulioniene, D.P.; Dusauskiene-Duz, R.F.; Polikarpov, G.G.

    1978-01-01

    Investigations of the water basins of various areas of Lithuania were carried out in 1973-1975. The investigations were performed to determine the role of food and water in accumulation of 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 144 Ce, 106 --Ru under experimental conditions by fresh water organisms (molluscs, larvae, insects, fishes) as well as 90 Sr in mollusc and fish organisms under natural conditions. It was found that the intake of the above radionuclides in fresh water organisms with radioactive food was less active and in smaller quantities than that with water. The accumulation levels of the radionuclides in fresh water organisms resulted from the radioactive food, depended on the physical and chemical state of the radionuclides and on the concentration of isotopic and nonisotopic carriers in water, food and in the very organism. Dependence of the accumulation coefficient (AC) of different radionuclides in fresh water organisms on the AC value in food as well as on the diet type was not determined

  4. Development in cooling water intake and outfall systems for atomic or steam power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Akira

    1987-01-01

    The condenser cooling water channel, in its functional aspects, is an important structure for securing a stable supply of cooling water. In its design it is necessary to give a thorough-going study to a reduction of ranges affected by discharged warm water and minimizing the effect of discharged water on navigating ships, and in its functional aspects as a structure for power generation, avoiding the recirculation of discharged warm water as well as to maintaining the operation of power stations in case of abnormalities (concentration of dirts owing to typhoons and floods, outbreak of a large amount of jellyfishes, etc.), and all these aspects must be reflected in the design of cooling water channel systems. In this paper, the present situation relating to the design of cooling water intake and outfall systems in Japan is discussed. (author). 10 figs

  5. Potential Foraging Decisions by a Desert Ungulate to Balance Water and Nutrient Intake in a Water-Stressed Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedir, Jay V; Cain, James W; Krausman, Paul R; Allen, Jamison D; Duff, Glenn C; Morgart, John R

    2016-01-01

    Arid climates have unpredictable precipitation patterns, and wildlife managers often provide supplemental water to help desert ungulates endure the hottest, driest periods. When surface water is unavailable, the only source of water for ungulates comes from the forage they consume, and they must make resourceful foraging decisions to meet their requirements. We compared two desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni) populations in Arizona, USA: a treatment population with supplemental water removed during treatment, and a control population. We examined whether sheep altered their seasonal diets without supplemental water. We calculated water and nutrient intake and metabolic water production from dry matter intake and forage moisture and nitrogen content, to determine whether sheep could meet their seasonal daily water and nutrient requirements solely from forage. Diets of sheep were higher in protein (all seasons) and moisture (autumn and winter) during treatment compared to pretreatment. During treatment, sheep diet composition was similar between the treatment and control populations, which suggests, under the climatic conditions of this study, water removal did not influence sheep diets. We estimated that under drought conditions, without any surface water available (although small ephemeral potholes would contain water after rains), female and male sheep would be unable to meet their daily water requirements in all seasons, except winter, when reproductive females had a nitrogen deficit. We determined that sheep could achieve water and nutrient balances in all seasons by shifting their total diet proportions by 8-55% from lower to higher moisture and nitrogen forage species. We elucidate how seasonal forage quality and foraging decisions by desert ungulates allow them to cope with their xeric and uncertain environment, and suggest that, with the forage conditions observed in our study area during this study period, providing supplemental water during

  6. Potential Foraging Decisions by a Desert Ungulate to Balance Water and Nutrient Intake in a Water-Stressed Environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay V Gedir

    Full Text Available Arid climates have unpredictable precipitation patterns, and wildlife managers often provide supplemental water to help desert ungulates endure the hottest, driest periods. When surface water is unavailable, the only source of water for ungulates comes from the forage they consume, and they must make resourceful foraging decisions to meet their requirements. We compared two desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni populations in Arizona, USA: a treatment population with supplemental water removed during treatment, and a control population. We examined whether sheep altered their seasonal diets without supplemental water. We calculated water and nutrient intake and metabolic water production from dry matter intake and forage moisture and nitrogen content, to determine whether sheep could meet their seasonal daily water and nutrient requirements solely from forage. Diets of sheep were higher in protein (all seasons and moisture (autumn and winter during treatment compared to pretreatment. During treatment, sheep diet composition was similar between the treatment and control populations, which suggests, under the climatic conditions of this study, water removal did not influence sheep diets. We estimated that under drought conditions, without any surface water available (although small ephemeral potholes would contain water after rains, female and male sheep would be unable to meet their daily water requirements in all seasons, except winter, when reproductive females had a nitrogen deficit. We determined that sheep could achieve water and nutrient balances in all seasons by shifting their total diet proportions by 8-55% from lower to higher moisture and nitrogen forage species. We elucidate how seasonal forage quality and foraging decisions by desert ungulates allow them to cope with their xeric and uncertain environment, and suggest that, with the forage conditions observed in our study area during this study period, providing supplemental

  7. Potential foraging decisions by a desert ungulate to balance water and nutrient intake in a water-stressed environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedir, Jay V.; Cain, James W.; Krausman, Paul R.; Allen, Jamison D.; Duff, Glenn C.; Morgart, John R.

    2016-01-01

    Arid climates have unpredictable precipitation patterns, and wildlife managers often provide supplemental water to help desert ungulates endure the hottest, driest periods. When surface water is unavailable, the only source of water for ungulates comes from the forage they consume, and they must make resourceful foraging decisions to meet their requirements. We compared two desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni) populations in Arizona, USA: a treatment population with supplemental water removed during treatment, and a control population. We examined whether sheep altered their seasonal diets without supplemental water. We calculated water and nutrient intake and metabolic water production from dry matter intake and forage moisture and nitrogen content, to determine whether sheep could meet their seasonal daily water and nutrient requirements solely from forage. Diets of sheep were higher in protein (all seasons) and moisture (autumn and winter) during treatment compared to pretreatment. During treatment, sheep diet composition was similar between the treatment and control populations, which suggests, under the climatic conditions of this study, water removal did not influence sheep diets. We estimated that under drought conditions, without any surface water available (although small ephemeral potholes would contain water after rains), female and male sheep would be unable to meet their daily water requirements in all seasons, except winter, when reproductive females had a nitrogen deficit. We determined that sheep could achieve water and nutrient balances in all seasons by shifting their total diet proportions by 8–55% from lower to higher moisture and nitrogen forage species. We elucidate how seasonal forage quality and foraging decisions by desert ungulates allow them to cope with their xeric and uncertain environment, and suggest that, with the forage conditions observed in our study area during this study period, providing supplemental water during

  8. Estimating Inorganic Arsenic Exposure from U.S. Rice and Total Water Intakes

    OpenAIRE

    Mantha, Madhavi; Yeary, Edward; Trent, John; Creed, Patricia A.; Kubachka, Kevin; Hanley, Traci; Shockey, Nohora; Heitkemper, Douglas; Caruso, Joseph; Xue, Jianping; Rice, Glenn; Wymer, Larry; Creed, John T.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Among nonoccupationally exposed U.S. residents, drinking water and diet are considered primary exposure pathways for inorganic arsenic (iAs). In drinking water, iAs is the primary form of arsenic (As), while dietary As speciation techniques are used to differentiate iAs from less toxic arsenicals in food matrices. Objectives: Our goal was to estimate the distribution of iAs exposure rates from drinking water intakes and rice consumption in the U.S. population and ethnic- and age-b...

  9. Validation of energy intake estimated from a food frequency questionnaire: a doubly labelled water study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, L Frost; Tomten, H; Haggarty, P; Løvø, A; Hustvedt, B-E

    2003-02-01

    The validation of dietary assessment methods is critical in the evaluation of the relation between dietary intake and health. The aim of this study was to assess the validity of a food frequency questionnaire by comparing energy intake with energy expenditure measured with the doubly labelled water method. Total energy expenditure was measured with the doubly labelled water (DLW) method during a 10 day period. Furthermore, the subjects filled in the food frequency questionnaire about 18-35 days after the DLW phase of the study was completed. Twenty-one healthy, non-pregnant females volunteered to participate in the study; only 17 subjects completed the study. The group energy intake was on average 10% lower than the energy expenditure, but the difference was not statistically significant. However, there was a wide range in reporting accuracy: seven subjects were identified as acceptable reporters, eight as under-reporters and two were identified as over-reporters. The width of the 95% confidence limits of agreement in a Bland and Altman plot for energy intake and energy expenditure varied from -5 to 3 MJ. The data showed that there was substantial variability in the accuracy of the food frequency questionnaire at the individual level. Furthermore, the results showed that the questionnaire was more accurate for groups than individuals.

  10. Flow in water-intake pump bays: A guide for utility engineers. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ettema, R.

    1998-09-01

    This report is intended to serve as a guide for power-plant engineers facing problems with flow conditions in pump bays in water-intake structures, especially those located alongside rivers. The guide briefly introduces the typical prevailing flow field outside of a riverside water intake. That flow field often sets the inflow conditions for pump bays located within the water intake. The monograph then presents and discusses the main flow problems associated with pump bays. The problems usually revolve around the formation of troublesome vortices. A novel feature of this monograph is the use of numerical modeling to reveal diagnostically how the vortices form and their sensitivities to flow conditions, such as uniformity of approach flow entering the bay and water-surface elevation relative to pump-bell submergence. The modeling was carried out using a computer code developed specially for the present project. Pump-bay layouts are discussed next. The discussion begins with a summary of the main variables influencing bay flows. The numerical model is used to determine the sensitivities of the vortices to variations in the geometric parameters. The fixes include the use of flow-control vanes and suction scoops for ensuring satisfactory flow performance in severe flow conditions; notably flows with strong cross flow and shallow flows. The monograph ends with descriptions of modeling techniques. An extensive discussion is provided on the use of numerical model for illuminating bay flows. The model is used to show how fluid viscosity affects bay flow. The effect of fluid viscosity is an important consideration in hydraulic modeling of water intakes

  11. Contribution of Drinking Water Softeners to Daily Phosphate Intake in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Jereb

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The cumulative phosphate intake in a typical daily diet is high and, according to several studies, already exceeds recommended values. The exposure of the general population to phosphorus via drinking water is generally not known. One of the hidden sources of phosphorus in a daily diet is sodium polyphosphate, commonly used as a drinking water softener. In Slovenia, softening of drinking water is carried out exclusively within the internal (household drinking water supply systems to prevent the accumulation of limescale. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of sodium phosphates in the drinking water in Slovenia in different types of buildings, to determine residents’ awareness of the presence of chemical softeners in their drinking water, and to provide an exposure assessment on the phosphorus intake from drinking water. In the current study, the presence of phosphates in the samples of drinking water was determined using a spectrophotometric method with ammonium molybdate. In nearly half of the samples, the presence of phosphates as water softeners was confirmed. The measured concentrations varied substantially from 0.2 mg PO4/L to 24.6 mg PO4/L. Nearly 70% of the respondents were not familiar with the exact data on water softening in their buildings. It follows that concentrations of added phosphates should be controlled and the consumers should be informed of the added chemicals in their drinking water. The health risks of using sodium polyphosphate as a drinking water softener have not been sufficiently investigated and assessed. It is highly recommended that proper guidelines and regulations are developed and introduced to protect human health from adverse effects of chemicals in water intended for human consumption.

  12. Contribution of Drinking Water Softeners to Daily Phosphate Intake in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jereb, Gregor; Poljšak, Borut; Eržen, Ivan

    2017-10-06

    The cumulative phosphate intake in a typical daily diet is high and, according to several studies, already exceeds recommended values. The exposure of the general population to phosphorus via drinking water is generally not known. One of the hidden sources of phosphorus in a daily diet is sodium polyphosphate, commonly used as a drinking water softener. In Slovenia, softening of drinking water is carried out exclusively within the internal (household) drinking water supply systems to prevent the accumulation of limescale. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of sodium phosphates in the drinking water in Slovenia in different types of buildings, to determine residents' awareness of the presence of chemical softeners in their drinking water, and to provide an exposure assessment on the phosphorus intake from drinking water. In the current study, the presence of phosphates in the samples of drinking water was determined using a spectrophotometric method with ammonium molybdate. In nearly half of the samples, the presence of phosphates as water softeners was confirmed. The measured concentrations varied substantially from 0.2 mg PO4/L to 24.6 mg PO4/L. Nearly 70% of the respondents were not familiar with the exact data on water softening in their buildings. It follows that concentrations of added phosphates should be controlled and the consumers should be informed of the added chemicals in their drinking water. The health risks of using sodium polyphosphate as a drinking water softener have not been sufficiently investigated and assessed. It is highly recommended that proper guidelines and regulations are developed and introduced to protect human health from adverse effects of chemicals in water intended for human consumption.

  13. Gastrointestinal and renal responses to variable water intake in whitebellied sunbirds and New Holland honeyeaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purchase, Cromwell; Napier, Kathryn R; Nicolson, Susan W; McWhorter, Todd J; Fleming, Patricia A

    2013-05-01

    Nectarivores face a constant challenge in terms of water balance, experiencing water loading or dehydration when switching between food plants or between feeding and fasting. To understand how whitebellied sunbirds and New Holland honeyeaters meet the challenges of varying preformed water load, we used the elimination of intramuscular-injected [(14)C]-l-glucose and (3)H2O to quantify intestinal and renal water handling on diets varying in sugar concentration. Both sunbirds and honeyeaters showed significant modulation of intestinal water absorption, allowing excess water to be shunted through the intestine when on dilute diets. Despite reducing their fractional water absorption, both species showed linear increases in water flux and fractional body water turnover as water intake increased (both afternoon and morning), suggesting that the modulation of fractional water absorption was not sufficient to completely offset dietary water loads. In both species, glomerular filtration rate was independent of water gain (but was higher for the afternoon), as was renal fractional water reabsorption (measured in the afternoon). During the natural overnight fast, both sunbirds and honeyeaters arrested whole kidney function. Evaporative water loss in sunbirds was variable but correlated with water gain. Both sunbirds and honeyeaters appear to modulate intestinal water absorption as an important component of water regulation to help deal with massive preformed water loads. Shutting down glomerular filtration rate during the overnight fast is another way of saving energy for osmoregulatory function. Birds maintain osmotic balance on diets varying markedly in preformed water load by varying both intestinal water absorption and excretion through the intestine and kidneys.

  14. Water incorporated into a food but not served with a food decreases energy intake in lean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolls, B J; Bell, E A; Thorwart, M L

    1999-10-01

    Previous research showed that decreasing the energy density (kJ/g) of foods by adding water to them can lead to reductions in energy intake. Few studies have examined how water consumed as a beverage affects food intake. This study examined the effects of water, both served with a food and incorporated into a food, on satiety. In a within-subjects design, 24 lean women consumed breakfast, lunch, and dinner in our laboratory 1 d/wk for 4 wk. Subjects received 1 of 3 isoenergetic (1128 kJ) preloads 17 min before lunch on 3 d and no preload on 1 d. The preloads consisted of 1) chicken rice casserole, 2) chicken rice casserole served with a glass of water (356 g), and 3) chicken rice soup. The soup contained the same ingredients (type and amount) as the casserole that was served with water. Decreasing the energy density of and increasing the volume of the preload by adding water to it significantly increased fullness and reduced hunger and subsequent energy intake at lunch. The equivalent amount of water served as a beverage with a food did not affect satiety. Energy intake at lunch was 1209 +/- 125 kJ after the soup compared with 1657 +/- 148 and 1639 +/- 148 kJ after the casserole with and without water, respectively. Subjects did not compensate at dinner for this reduction in lunch intake. Consuming foods with a high water content more effectively reduced subsequent energy intake than did drinking water with food.

  15. Sugar-Sweetened Beverage and Water Intake in Relation to Diet Quality in U.S. Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Cindy W; DiMatteo, S Gemma; Gosliner, Wendi A; Ritchie, Lorrene D

    2018-03-01

    Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are a major contributor to children's added sugar consumption. This study examines whether children's SSB and water intakes are associated with diet quality and total energy intake. Using data on children aged 2-18 years from the 2009-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, linear regression models were used to analyze SSB and water intake in relation to Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010) scores and total energy intake. Generalized linear models were used to analyze SSB and water intake in relation to the HEI-2010 scores. Analyses were conducted including and excluding caloric contributions from SSBs and were conducted in 2016-2017. SSB intake was inversely associated with the HEI-2010 total scores (9.5-point lower score comparing more than two servings/day with zero servings/day, p-trendempty calories. Water intake was positively associated with most of the same HEI-2010 component scores. Children who consume SSBs have poorer diet quality and higher total energy intake than children who do not consume SSBs. Interventions for obesity and chronic disease should focus on replacing SSBs with water and improving other aspects of diet quality that correlate with SSB consumption. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Plain Water and Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption in Relation to Energy and Nutrient Intake at Full-Service Restaurants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruopeng An

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Drinking plain water, such as tap or bottled water, provides hydration and satiety without adding calories. We examined plain water and sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB consumption in relation to energy and nutrient intake at full-service restaurants. Methods: Data came from the 2005–2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, comprising a nationally-representative sample of 2900 adults who reported full-service restaurant consumption in 24-h dietary recalls. Linear regressions were performed to examine the differences in daily energy and nutrient intake at full-service restaurants by plain water and SSB consumption status, adjusting for individual characteristics and sampling design. Results: Over 18% of U.S. adults had full-service restaurant consumption on any given day. Among full-service restaurant consumers, 16.7% consumed SSBs, 2.6% consumed plain water but no SSBs, and the remaining 80.7% consumed neither beverage at the restaurant. Compared to onsite SSB consumption, plain water but no SSB consumption was associated with reduced daily total energy intake at full-service restaurants by 443.4 kcal, added sugar intake by 58.2 g, saturated fat intake by 4.4 g, and sodium intake by 616.8 mg, respectively. Conclusion: Replacing SSBs with plain water consumption could be an effective strategy to balance energy/nutrient intake and prevent overconsumption at full-service restaurant setting.

  17. Plain Water and Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption in Relation to Energy and Nutrient Intake at Full-Service Restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Ruopeng

    2016-05-04

    Drinking plain water, such as tap or bottled water, provides hydration and satiety without adding calories. We examined plain water and sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption in relation to energy and nutrient intake at full-service restaurants. Data came from the 2005-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, comprising a nationally-representative sample of 2900 adults who reported full-service restaurant consumption in 24-h dietary recalls. Linear regressions were performed to examine the differences in daily energy and nutrient intake at full-service restaurants by plain water and SSB consumption status, adjusting for individual characteristics and sampling design. Over 18% of U.S. adults had full-service restaurant consumption on any given day. Among full-service restaurant consumers, 16.7% consumed SSBs, 2.6% consumed plain water but no SSBs, and the remaining 80.7% consumed neither beverage at the restaurant. Compared to onsite SSB consumption, plain water but no SSB consumption was associated with reduced daily total energy intake at full-service restaurants by 443.4 kcal, added sugar intake by 58.2 g, saturated fat intake by 4.4 g, and sodium intake by 616.8 mg, respectively. Replacing SSBs with plain water consumption could be an effective strategy to balance energy/nutrient intake and prevent overconsumption at full-service restaurant setting.

  18. Drinking water intake and source patterns within a US-Mexico border population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regnier, Adam; Gurian, Patrick; Mena, Kristina D

    2015-01-01

    This study was undertaken to identify water intake and source patterns among a population that resides in a hot, arid region on the US-Mexico border. A cross-sectional community-based survey was conducted among households in the neighbouring cities of El Paso, TX, USA and Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, Mexico to obtain data on the quantity and source of water consumed. The study was also designed to identify factors that impact water consumption patterns, including gender, demographics, socio-economic status, cultural characteristics, health status, types of occupations and residences, available water sources and outdoor temperature, among many others. Of all factors studied, outdoor air temperature was found to have the strongest impact upon water intake quantity. Specifically, among the survey participants, when the outdoor air temperature exceeded 90 °F, water consumption increased by 28 %. Additionally, it was found that participants in this region consumed approximately 50 % more water than the values reported in previous studies.

  19. Relationship Between Urinary Concentrations of Nine Water-soluble Vitamins and their Vitamin Intakes in Japanese Adult Males

    OpenAIRE

    Shibata, Katsumi; Hirose, Junko; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu

    2014-01-01

    Excess water-soluble vitamins are thought to be eliminated in the urine. We have reported a strong relationship between water-soluble vitamin intake and urinary excretion in females. The relationship, however, is not well understood in males. In the present experiment, 10 Japanese male subjects were given a standard Japanese diet for the first week. The subjects remained on the same diet, and a synthesized water-soluble vitamin mixture containing one time the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) ...

  20. Water Intake and Hydration Indices in Healthy European Adults: The European Hydration Research Study (EHRS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malisova, Olga; Athanasatou, Adelais; Pepa, Alex; Husemann, Marlien; Domnik, Kirsten; Braun, Hans; Mora-Rodriguez, Ricardo; Ortega, Juan F; Fernandez-Elias, Valentin E; Kapsokefalou, Maria

    2016-04-06

    Hydration status is linked with health, wellness, and performance. We evaluated hydration status, water intake, and urine output for seven consecutive days in healthy adults. Volunteers living in Spain, Germany, or Greece (n = 573, 39 ± 12 years (51.1% males), 25.0 ± 4.6 kg/m² BMI) participated in an eight-day study protocol. Total water intake was estimated from seven-day food and drink diaries. Hydration status was measured in urine samples collected over 24 h for seven days and in blood samples collected in fasting state on the mornings of days 1 and 8. Total daily water intake was 2.75 ± 1.01 L, water from beverages 2.10 ± 0.91 L, water from foods 0.66 ± 0.29 L. Urine parameters were: 24 h volume 1.65 ± 0.70 L, 24 h osmolality 631 ± 221 mOsmol/kg Η2Ο, 24 h specific gravity 1.017 ± 0.005, 24 h excretion of sodium 166.9 ± 54.7 mEq, 24 h excretion of potassium 72.4 ± 24.6 mEq, color chart 4.2 ± 1.4. Predictors for urine osmolality were age, country, gender, and BMI. Blood indices were: haemoglobin concentration 14.7 ± 1.7 g/dL, hematocrit 43% ± 4% and serum osmolality 294 ± 9 mOsmol/kg Η2Ο. Daily water intake was higher in summer (2.8 ± 1.02 L) than in winter (2.6 ± 0.98 L) (p = 0.019). Water intake was associated negatively with urine specific gravity, urine color, and urine sodium and potassium concentrations (p < 0.01). Applying urine osmolality cut-offs, approximately 60% of participants were euhydrated and 20% hyperhydrated or dehydrated. Most participants were euhydrated, but a substantial number of people (40%) deviated from a normal hydration level.

  1. A new signal development process and sound system for diverting fish from water intakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinet, D.A.; Loeffelman, P.H.; van Hassel, J.H.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that American Electric Power Service Corporation has explored the feasibility of using a patented signal development process and underwater sound system to divert fish away from water intake areas. The effect of water intakes on fish is being closely scrutinized as hydropower projects are re-licensed. The overall goal of this four-year research project was to develop an underwater guidance system which is biologically effective, reliable and cost-effective compared to other proposed methods of diversion, such as physical screens. Because different fish species have various listening ranges, it was essential to the success of this experiment that the sound system have a great amount of flexibility. Assuming a fish's sounds are heard by the same kind of fish, it was necessary to develop a procedure and acquire instrumentation to properly analyze the sounds that the target fish species create to communicate and any artificial signals being generated for diversion

  2. Perfluorinated compounds: Levels, trophic web enrichments and human dietary intakes in transitional water ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renzi, Monia; Guerranti, Cristiana; Giovani, Andrea; Perra, Guido; Focardi, Silvano E.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • PFOA/S levels in a trophic web of a heavily human-stressed lagoon are measured. • High levels were found in mussels, clams and crabs. • The principal PFCs inflow sources for the ecosystem is the river. • Biota (i.e. macroalgae proliferation) contributes to redistribute pollutants in the lagoon. • Human daily dietary intakes are below maximum tolerable levels suggested by the EFSA. -- Abstract: The results of a study on levels of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), analyzed in terms of HPLC-ESI-MS in water, sediment, macrophyte, bivalve, crustacean and fish samples, are reported here. The aim of the research is to define, for the first time, PFOA/S levels in a heavily human-stressed transitional water ecosystem (Orbetello lagoon, Italy) and evaluate trophic web enrichments and human dietary intakes. The results obtained show that: (i) levels significantly higher than those reported in the literature were found in mussels, clams and crabs; (ii) the river is a significant pollution source; (iii) although absolute levels are relatively low, macroalgae proliferation contributes to redistribute pollutants from river-affected areas throughout the entire lagoon basin; (iv) to the best of our current knowledge, water-filtering species considered in this study are the most exposed to PFOA/S pollution; (v) human daily dietary intakes of PFOA/S through Slow Food-endorsed product consumption are below maximum tolerable levels suggested by the EFSA

  3. Influence of enhanced fluid intake on reduction of committed dose after acute intake of tritiated water vapour by occupational workers at Narora Atomic Power Station, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawar, S.K.; Mitra, S.R.; Chand, Lal

    2001-01-01

    The study of acute exposure cases of male radiation workers to tritiated water vapour (HTO) in Narora Atomic Power Station, using the bi-exponential function has provided direct practical evidence that the committed dose following an HTO exposure is directly proportional to effective half-life which in turn is inversely proportional to the fluid intake. Urine samples from these workers apparently in good health, were collected and measured for tritium concentration in urine up to maximum of 163 days after the exposure. They were advised to increase their fluid intakes to accelerate the elimination of tritium for dose mitigation. Their fluid intakes reverted to normal levels in the later stage of the post exposure period. The non-linear regression analysis of the data of tritium concentration in urine showed an effective half-life of 1.5 to 3.8 days during the period of enhanced fluid intake, 3.4 to 6.9 days during the period of normal and slightly above normal fluid intake and 23.6 to 52.3 days due to elimination of metabolized organically bound tritium. This increase in elimination rate due to enhanced fluid intake directly resulted in dose mitigation of 45.1 to 76.0 percent in different subjects. (author)

  4. Absorption and retention of nickel from drinking water in relation to food intake and nickel sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, G D; Søderberg, U; Jørgensen, Poul Jørgen

    1999-01-01

    nickel in drinking water (12 micrograms Ni/kg) and, at different time intervals, standardized 1400-kJ portions of scrambled eggs. When nickel was ingested in water 30 min or 1 h prior to the meal, peak nickel concentrations in serum occurred 1 h after the water intake, and the peak was 13-fold higher...... than the one seen 1 h after simultaneous intake of nickel-containing water and scrambled eggs. In the latter case, a smaller, delayed peak occurred 3 h after the meal. Median urinary nickel excretion half-times varied between 19.9 and 26.7 h. Within 3 days, the amount of nickel excreted corresponded...... to 2.5% of the nickel ingested when it was mixed into the scrambled eggs. Increasing amounts were excreted as the interval between the water and the meal increased, with 25.8% of the administered dose being excreted when the eggs were served 4 h prior to the nickel-containing drinking water...

  5. Oral intake of hydrogen-rich water ameliorated chlorpyrifos-induced neurotoxicity in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Tingting; Zhao, Ling; Liu, Mengyu; Xie, Fei; Ma, Xuemei, E-mail: xmma@bjut.edu.cn; Zhao, Pengxiang; Liu, Yunqi; Li, Jiala; Wang, Minglian; Yang, Zhaona; Zhang, Yutong

    2014-10-01

    Chronic exposure to low-levels of organophosphate (OP) compounds, such as chlorpyrifos (CPF), induces oxidative stress and could be related to neurological disorders. Hydrogen has been identified as a novel antioxidant which could selectively scavenge hydroxyl radicals. We explore whether intake of hydrogen-rich water (HRW) can protect Wistar rats from CPF-induced neurotoxicity. Rats were gavaged daily with 6.75 mg/kg body weight (1/20 LD{sub 50}) of CPF and given HRW by oral intake. Nissl staining and electron microscopy results indicated that HRW intake had protective effects on the CPF-induced damage of hippocampal neurons and neuronal mitochondria. Immunostaining results showed that the increased glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression in astrocytes induced by CPF exposure can be ameliorated by HRW intake. Moreover, HRW intake also attenuated CPF-induced oxidative stress as evidenced by enhanced level of MDA, accompanied by an increase in GSH level and SOD and CAT activity. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity tests showed significant decrease in brain AChE activity after CPF exposure, and this effect can be ameliorated by HRW intake. An in vitro study demonstrated that AChE activity was more intense in HRW than in normal water with or without chlorpyrifos-oxon (CPO), the metabolically-activated form of CPF. These observations suggest that HRW intake can protect rats from CPF-induced neurotoxicity, and the protective effects of hydrogen may be mediated by regulating the oxidant and antioxidant status of rats. Furthermore, this work defines a novel mechanism of biological activity of hydrogen by directly increasing the AChE activity. - Highlights: • Hydrogen molecules protect rats from CPF-induced damage of hippocampal neurons. • The increased GFAP expression induced by CPF can also be ameliorated by hydrogen. • Hydrogen molecules attenuated the increase in CPF-induced oxidative stress. • Hydrogen molecules attenuated AChE inhibition in vivo

  6. Oral intake of hydrogen-rich water ameliorated chlorpyrifos-induced neurotoxicity in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Tingting; Zhao, Ling; Liu, Mengyu; Xie, Fei; Ma, Xuemei; Zhao, Pengxiang; Liu, Yunqi; Li, Jiala; Wang, Minglian; Yang, Zhaona; Zhang, Yutong

    2014-01-01

    Chronic exposure to low-levels of organophosphate (OP) compounds, such as chlorpyrifos (CPF), induces oxidative stress and could be related to neurological disorders. Hydrogen has been identified as a novel antioxidant which could selectively scavenge hydroxyl radicals. We explore whether intake of hydrogen-rich water (HRW) can protect Wistar rats from CPF-induced neurotoxicity. Rats were gavaged daily with 6.75 mg/kg body weight (1/20 LD 50 ) of CPF and given HRW by oral intake. Nissl staining and electron microscopy results indicated that HRW intake had protective effects on the CPF-induced damage of hippocampal neurons and neuronal mitochondria. Immunostaining results showed that the increased glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression in astrocytes induced by CPF exposure can be ameliorated by HRW intake. Moreover, HRW intake also attenuated CPF-induced oxidative stress as evidenced by enhanced level of MDA, accompanied by an increase in GSH level and SOD and CAT activity. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity tests showed significant decrease in brain AChE activity after CPF exposure, and this effect can be ameliorated by HRW intake. An in vitro study demonstrated that AChE activity was more intense in HRW than in normal water with or without chlorpyrifos-oxon (CPO), the metabolically-activated form of CPF. These observations suggest that HRW intake can protect rats from CPF-induced neurotoxicity, and the protective effects of hydrogen may be mediated by regulating the oxidant and antioxidant status of rats. Furthermore, this work defines a novel mechanism of biological activity of hydrogen by directly increasing the AChE activity. - Highlights: • Hydrogen molecules protect rats from CPF-induced damage of hippocampal neurons. • The increased GFAP expression induced by CPF can also be ameliorated by hydrogen. • Hydrogen molecules attenuated the increase in CPF-induced oxidative stress. • Hydrogen molecules attenuated AChE inhibition in vivo and in

  7. Assessment of 226Ra age-dependent dose from water intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porntepkasemsan, Boonsom; Srisuksawad, Kanitha

    2008-01-01

    The radioactivity in canal and ground waters collected in a 2-year long observation from the vicinity of the Rare Earth Research and Development Center (RRDC), Phathumthani Province, Thailand, was measured in order to determine the concentration of 226 Ra and to estimate the age-dependent effective dose to humans due to consumption. 226 Ra activities in both canal and ground waters were well below the WHO guidance level for drinking water quality of 1 Bq L -1 . The highest 226 Ra effective doses per year were found for infants and teens. However, the observed levels of calculated 226 Ra effective doses for all age groups in both canal and ground waters show satisfactory low values (less than 15 μSv yr -1 ). These values are acceptable in accordance with the WHO recommended reference dose level of 100 μSv yr -1 from water intake of 2 L day -1

  8. Absorption and retention of nickel from drinking water in relation to food intake and nickel sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, G D; Søderberg, U; Jørgensen, P J; Templeton, D M; Rasmussen, S N; Andersen, K E; Grandjean, P

    1999-01-01

    Two studies were performed to examine the influence of fasting and food intake on the absorption and retention of nickel added to drinking water and to determine if nickel sensitization played any role in this regard. First, eight nonallergic male volunteers fasted overnight before being given nickel in drinking water (12 micrograms Ni/kg) and, at different time intervals, standardized 1400-kJ portions of scrambled eggs. When nickel was ingested in water 30 min or 1 h prior to the meal, peak nickel concentrations in serum occurred 1 h after the water intake, and the peak was 13-fold higher than the one seen 1 h after simultaneous intake of nickel-containing water and scrambled eggs. In the latter case, a smaller, delayed peak occurred 3 h after the meal. Median urinary nickel excretion half-times varied between 19.9 and 26.7 h. Within 3 days, the amount of nickel excreted corresponded to 2.5% of the nickel ingested when it was mixed into the scrambled eggs. Increasing amounts were excreted as the interval between the water and the meal increased, with 25.8% of the administered dose being excreted when the eggs were served 4 h prior to the nickel-containing drinking water. In the second experiment, a stable nickel isotope, 61Ni, was given in drinking water to 20 nickel-sensitized women and 20 age-matched controls, both groups having vesicular hand eczema of the pompholyx type. Nine of 20 nickel allergic eczema patients experienced aggravation of hand eczema after nickel administration, and three also developed a maculopapular exanthema. No exacerbation was seen in the control group. The course of nickel absorption and excretion in the allergic groups did not differ and was similar to the pattern seen in the first study, although the absorption in the women was less. A sex-related difference in gastric emptying rates may play a role. Thus, food intake and gastric emptying are of substantial significance for the bioavailability of nickel from aqueous solutions

  9. Technical note: Validation of an automated system for monitoring and restricting water intake in group-housed beef steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allwardt, K; Ahlberg, C; Broocks, A; Bruno, K; Taylor, A; Place, S; Richards, C; Krehbiel, C; Calvo-Lorenzo, M; DeSilva, U; VanOverbeke, D; Mateescu, R; Goad, C; Rolf, M M

    2017-09-01

    The Insentec Roughage Intake Control (RIC) system has been validated for the collection of water intake; however, this system has not been validated for water restriction. The objective of this validation was to evaluate the agreement between direct observations and automated intakes collected by the RIC system under both ad libitum and restricted water conditions. A total of 239 crossbred steers were used in a 3-d validation trial, which assessed intake values generated by the RIC electronic intake monitoring system for both ad libitum water intake ( = 122; BASE) and restricted water intake ( = 117; RES). Direct human observations were collected on 4 Insentec water bins for three 24-h periods and three 12-h periods for BASE and RES, respectively. An intake event was noted by the observer when the electronic identification of the animal was read by the transponder and the gate lowered, and starting and ending bin weights were recorded for each intake event. Data from direct observations across each validation period were compared to automated observations generated from the RIC system. Missing beginning or ending weight values for visual observations occasionally occurred due to the observer being unable to capture the value before the monitor changed when bin activity was high. To estimate the impact of these missing values, analyses denoted as OBS were completed with the incomplete record coded as missing data. These analyses were contrasted with analyses where observations with a single missing beginning or end weight (but not both) were assumed to be identical to that which was recorded by the Insentec system (OBS). Difference in mean total intake across BASE steers was 0.60 ± 2.06 kg OBS (0.54 ± 1.99 kg OBS) greater for system observations than visual observations. The comparison of mean total intake across the 3 RES validation days was 0.53 ± 2.30 kg OBS (0.13 ± 1.83 kg OBS) greater for system observations than direct observations. Day was not a

  10. Alternative Intake Station in Saguling Reservoir for The Needs of Raw Water in Bandung Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marselina Mariana

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Bandung Metropolitan Area (BMA region is the upper watershed of Citarum with an area of ± 2338 km2. The status carried by BMA as a National Strategic Area from the perspective of economic encourage the increasing migration flows to BMA. These circumstances lead to an imbalance between supply and demand, in which on the one hand, demand for clean water is increasing. The potency of Saguling Reservoir as an alternative of raw water of BMA region in terms of quantity in this research was determined based on the determination of mainstay discharge. In this study, the intake site selection 11 monitoring posts will be carried out by reviewing the concentration of all parameters in Government Regulation No. 82 Year 2001 on any division of discharge grade using 5-grade Makov Discrete method (very dry, dry, normal, wet and very wet. In addition, the calculation of the value of Water Quality Index (WQI was done at each monitoring station for each division of discharge grade that has been done. The series of data flow and concentration parameters used in this study start from the year 1999 to 2014. The allocation of raw water discharge calculation for Saguling Reservoir in order to fulfill the needs of raw water in Bandung Metropolitan Area is 46,92m3/second (R5 dry for irrigation raw water supply and 29,53 92 m3/second (R10 dry for drinking water supply. Based on the assessment of the concentration of measured parameters and determination of Water Quality Index, it can be found that around Muara Ciminyak location is the most qualified location to be used as drinking raw water intake for Bandung Metropolitan Area. Based on this study, it also notes that the determination of the concentration of pollutant parameters needs to be done on the each division of discharge grade occurred.

  11. Water and fluid intake in the prevention and treatment of functional constipation in children and adolescents: is there evidence?,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Nunes Boilesen

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To study the evidence on the role of water and fluid intake in the prevention and treatment of functional intestinal constipation in children and adolescents. Source of data: A search was carried out in the Medline database (between 1966 and 2016 for all published articles containing the following words: constipation, water, and fluids, published in Portuguese, English, and Spanish. All original articles that assessed children and adolescents were selected by title and abstract. The references of these articles were also evaluated. Synthesis of data: A total of 1040 articles were retrieved. Of these, 24 were selected for reading. The study included 11 articles that assessed children and adolescents. The articles were divided into two categories, those that evaluated water and fluid intake as a risk factor for intestinal constipation and those that evaluated their role in the treatment of intestinal constipation. Five articles were included in the first category. The criteria for assessing fluid intake and bowel rhythm were different in each study. Three studies demonstrated an association between low fluid intake and intestinal constipation. Regarding treatment, five articles with heterogeneous methodologies were found. None of them clearly identified the favorable role of fluid intake in the treatment of intestinal constipation. Conclusion: There are few articles on the association between fluid intake and intestinal constipation. Epidemiological evidence indicates an association between lower fluid intake and intestinal constipation. Further clinical trials and epidemiological studies that consider the international recommendations for fluid intake by children and adolescents are required.

  12. Age-dependent radiation dose due to intake of uranium through drinking water in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, S.K.; Mohapatra, S.; Chakrabarty, A.; Sumesh, C.G.; Tripathi, R.M.; Puranik, V.D.

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, an attempt has been made to estimate the content of uranium in drinking water in various states of India by laser fluorimetry. Depending upon the rate of water intake for the different age groups, the associated radiation dose was calculated. The concentration of uranium varied between 0.1 ± 0.01 and 19.6 ± 1.8 ppb which is much lower than the drinking water guideline value of 60 ppb. The total radiation dose due to ingestion of uranium through drinking water for various age groups is found to vary from 0.14 μSv/y to 48 μSv/y. (author)

  13. The effect of passive immunization against ghrelin on feed and water intake in turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizcarra, J A; Wright, H; Vizcarra, A

    2012-09-01

    Five-week-old turkeys were used to evaluate the effect of passive immunization against ghrelin on feed and water intake and animal behavior. In experiment 1, females were reared using normal feeding and lighting management recommended by the industry. At 5 wk of age (d 0 of experiment 1), birds (n = 40) were individually caged (0.65 × 0.4 × 0.4 m) with free access to feed and water. Feed and water intake were measured 3 times a day (0800, 1200, and 1700 h) by recording the weight of feed or water offered minus any unconsumed feed or water remaining. After 3 d of adaptation to the cages (d 3), birds were stratified by BW and feed consumption and randomly assigned to a 2 × 5 factorial arrangement of treatment. Starting on d 3, turkeys were given intravenous (iv) injections (0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, or 8.0 mL) of pooled undiluted plasma obtained from pigs that were previously actively immunized against ghrelin or iv injections (0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, or 8.0 mL) of pooled undiluted plasma, obtained from nonimmunized pigs (control). In experiment 2, the 2 highest doses (i.e., 4.0 and 8.0 mL; n = 4/treatment) were repeated in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement as described in experiment 1. A laptop computer with a built-in color camera and appropriate software was used to record birds for 9 consecutive hours, starting 4 h before treatments were applied. Video clips were saved and a human observer watched and annotated bird behavior associated with feeding, drinking, and standing. Passively immunized birds increased feed consumption (P = 0.04) compared with control animals. Water intake was not affected by treatments. There was a tendency for immunized birds to increase the number of pecks per hour and the amount of time devoted for feeding. Our data suggest that in turkeys, the effect of immunization against ghrelin on feed intake is the opposite of that observed in mammalian species.

  14. Impact of drought on U.S. steam electric power plant cooling water intakes and related water resource management issues.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimmell, T. A.; Veil, J. A.; Environmental Science Division

    2009-04-03

    This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements their overall research effort by evaluating water availability at power plants under drought conditions. While there are a number of competing demands on water uses, particularly during drought conditions, this report focuses solely on impacts to the U.S. steam electric power plant fleet. Included are both fossil-fuel and nuclear power plants. One plant examined also uses biomass as a fuel. The purpose of this project is to estimate the impact on generation capacity of a drop in water level at U.S. steam electric power plants due to climatic or other conditions. While, as indicated above, the temperature of the water can impact decisions to halt or curtail power plant operations, this report specifically examines impacts as a result of a drop in water levels below power plant submerged cooling water intakes. Impacts due to the combined effects of excessive temperatures of the returned cooling water and elevated temperatures of receiving waters (due to high ambient temperatures associated with drought) may be examined in a subsequent study. For this study, the sources of cooling water used by the U.S. steam electric power plant fleet were examined. This effort entailed development of a database of power plants and cooling water intake locations and depths for those plants that use surface water as a source of cooling water. Development of the database and its general characteristics are described in Chapter 2 of this report. Examination of the database gives an indication of how low water levels can drop before cooling water intakes cease to function. Water level drops are evaluated against a number of different power plant characteristics, such as the nature of the water source (river vs. lake or reservoir

  15. Intake of metals through drinking water pathway by the population around IREL, OSCOM, Orissa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, S.K.; Tripathi, R.M.; Raghunath, R.; Sagar, D.V.; Khan, A.H.; Puranik, V.D.

    2005-01-01

    Concentrations of elements like Pb, Cd, Cr, Co, Ni, Zn, Mg, Mn, Fe, Ca, Na and K were estimated in drinking water samples collected from different locations at and around Orissa Sands Complex (OSCOM), Indian Rare Earth Ltd. (IREL), Orissa. The estimation of these elements in drinking water samples was done by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) and differential pulse stripping voltammetry (DPSV). The levels of these elements were found to vary from 0.05 ppb to 133 ppm. The quality of the data was assured by analyzing standard reference materials (MAPER-W6 and W7) provided by United State of Department of Energy (USDOE). The level of lead in the drinking water varies from 0.05 ppb to 7 ppb, which is less than the WHO guideline value (10 ppb). The intake of all the elements through the drinking water pathway is only limited to 5-6 % of WHO tolerable daily intake (TDI). OSCOM, IREL carrying out mineral separation and thorium separation in the complex does not pose any potential effect on the surrounding environment. (author)

  16. Changes in Escherichia coli to Cryptosporidium ratios for various fecal pollution sources and drinking water intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalancette, Cindy; Papineau, Isabelle; Payment, Pierre; Dorner, Sarah; Servais, Pierre; Barbeau, Benoit; Di Giovanni, George D; Prévost, Michèle

    2014-05-15

    Assessing the presence of human pathogenic Cryptosporidium oocysts in surface water remains a significant water treatment and public health challenge. Most drinking water suppliers rely on fecal indicators, such as the well-established Escherichia coli (E. coli), to avoid costly Cryptosporidium assays. However, the use of E. coli has significant limitations in predicting the concentration, the removal and the transport of Cryptosporidium. This study presents a meta-analysis of E. coli to Cryptosporidium concentration paired ratios to compare their complex relationships in eight municipal wastewater sources, five agricultural fecal pollution sources and at 13 drinking water intakes (DWI) to a risk threshold based on US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) regulations. Ratios lower than the USEPA risk threshold suggested higher concentrations of oocysts in relation to E. coli concentrations, revealing an underestimed risk for Cryptosporidium based on E. coli measurements. In raw sewage (RS), high ratios proved E. coli (or fecal coliforms) concentrations were a conservative indicator of Cryptosporidium concentrations, which was also typically true for secondary treated wastewater (TWW). Removals of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and parasites were quantified in WWTPs and their differences are put forward as a plausible explanation of the sporadic ratio shift. Ratios measured from agricultural runoff surface water were typically lower than the USEPA risk threshold and within the range of risk misinterpretation. Indeed, heavy precipitation events in the agricultural watershed led to high oocyst concentrations but not to E. coli or enterococci concentrations. More importantly, ratios established in variously impacted DWI from 13 Canadian drinking water plants were found to be related to dominant fecal pollution sources, namely municipal sewage. In most cases, when DWIs were mainly influenced by municipal sewage, E. coli or fecal coliforms concentrations agreed with

  17. The Chronic Kidney Disease Water Intake Trial: Protocol of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William F. Clark

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: In observational studies, drinking more water associates with a slower rate of kidney function decline; whether the same is true in a randomized controlled trial is unknown. Objective: To examine the 1-year effect of a higher vs usual water intake on estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR in patients with chronic kidney disease. Design: Parallel-group randomized controlled trial. Setting: Nine centers in Ontario, Canada. Enrollment and randomization occurred between May 2013 and May 2016; follow-up for the primary outcome will continue until June 2017. Participants: Adults (n = 631 with stage 3 chronic kidney disease (eGFR 30-60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 and microalbuminuria. Intervention: The high water intake group was coached to increase their oral water intake by 1.0 to 1.5 L/day (depending on sex and weight, over and above usual consumed beverages, for a period of 1 year. The control group was coached to maintain their usual water intake during this time. Measures: Participants provided 24-hour urine samples at baseline and at 6 and 12 months after randomization; urine samples were analyzed for volume, creatinine, osmolality, and the albumin-to-creatinine ratio. Blood samples were obtained at baseline and at 3- to 6-month intervals after randomization, and analyzed for creatinine, copeptin, osmolality, and electrolytes. Other measures collected included health-related quality of life, blood pressure, body mass index, and diet. Primary outcome: The between-group change in eGFR from baseline (prerandomization to 12 months after randomization. Secondary outcomes: Change in plasma copeptin concentration, 24-hour urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio, measured creatinine clearance, estimated 5-year risk of kidney failure (using the 4-variable Kidney Failure Risk Equation, and health-related quality of life. Planned analysis: The primary analysis will follow an intention-to-treat approach. The between-group change in eGFR will be compared using

  18. Transfer of tritium into laying hen's meat and eggs at prolonged intake with atmospheric air, water and grass meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baigazinov, Zh А; Lukashenko, S N; Karatayev, S S; Panitski, А V; Mamyrbayeva, А S; Baigazy, S А; Kozhakhanov, T Ye; Subbotina, L F

    2017-11-01

    Following a continuous intake of tritium (T) by laying hens' over a 55 day period, an increase of НТО concentration both in eggs and meat was observed over the first 2 weeks for intakes via inhalation and ingestion of water and grass meal. After this time, equilibrium of the T in these products occurred. It was found that when the intake of HTO is from water, air and grass meal, the ratio of its activity concentration in muscular tissue to that in eggs does not exceed 1, 4, and 6 respectively. The ratio of ОBТ concentration to that of НТО in the meat of hens (ОBТ/HTO) when intakes were from water, air and grass meal were 0.08, 0.09 and 0.7, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Tender coconut water as alternative food to increase potassium intake among prehypertension adult female?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farapti Farapti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakLatar belakang: Hampir seluruh populasi di dunia mengonsumsi kalium lebih rendah dari rekomendasi yangdianjurkan. Air kelapa muda merupakan minuman khas yang tinggi kalium. Tujuan penelitian ini adalahuntuk menganalisis asupan kalium pada perempuan prahipertensi dan menentukan peningkatan asupankalium dengan pemberian air kelapa muda untuk menurunkan tekanan darah di antara subyek prahipertensi.Metode: Pada uji klinis paralel single blind dengan subyek sebanyak 32 guru perempuan dan karyawatiprahipertensi berusia 25-44 tahun di Surabaya bulan April – Juni 2013. Pemilihan subyek penelitian denganrandomisasi blok, 16 subyek tiap kelompok. Kelompok perlakuan (P mendapat air kelapa muda disertaipenyuluhan gizi, sedangkan kelompok kontrol (K mendapat air putih disertai penyuluhan gizi. Penilaianasupan kalium dengan food record 2x24 jam selama fase run in, minggu pertama, dan minggu kedua periodepenelitian. Food record dianalisis menggunakan nutrisurvey, dan kandungan kalium dalam air kelapa mudasegar dan air putih dianalisis dengan metode atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS.Hasil: Pada awal penelitian, rerata asupan kalium subyek 1420,28±405,54 mg/hari atau sekitar 30,22%± 8,63% dari angka kecukupan gizi (AKG. Selama perlakuan, didapatkan peningkatan asupan kaliumsebesar 2 kali lipat dan meningkat signifikan pada kelompok perlakuan, tetapi masih lebih rendah darirekomendasi AKG dan WHO.Kesimpulan: Pada perempuan prahipertensi, asupan kalium dikategorikan rendah, dan air kelapa mudasegar 300 ml dua kali sehari selama 14 hari berturut-turut dapat meningkatkan asupan kalium. (HealthScience Journal of Indonesia 2015;6:12-16Kata kunci: asupan kalium, air kelapa muda segar AbstractBackground: Most populations around the world consume less than the recommended intake of potassium.Tender coconut water (TCW is a typical drinks high in potassium. The study aimed to analyze potassiumintake in prehypertension subjects and to identify the

  20. Twenty-four-hour urinary water-soluble vitamin levels correlate with their intakes in free-living Japanese schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Tomiko; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Sasaki, Satoshi; Shibata, Katsumi

    2011-02-01

    To examine the association between 24 h urinary water-soluble vitamin levels and their intakes in free-living Japanese schoolchildren. All foods consumed for four consecutive days were recorded accurately by a weighed food record. A single 24 h urine sample was collected on the fourth day, and the urinary levels of water-soluble vitamins were measured. An elementary school in Inazawa City, Japan. A total of 114 healthy, free-living, Japanese elementary-school children aged 10-12 years. The urinary level of each water-soluble vitamin was correlated positively to its mean intake in the past 2-4 d (vitamin B1: r = 0·42, P vitamin B2: r = 0·43, P vitamin B6: r = 0·49, P vitamin C: r = 0·39, P vitamin B12 (r = 0·10, P = NS). Estimated mean intakes of water-soluble vitamins calculated using urinary levels and recovery rates were 97-102 % of their 3 d mean intake, except for vitamin B12 (79 %). The results show that urinary levels of water-soluble vitamins, except for vitamin B12, reflected their recent intakes in free-living Japanese schoolchildren and could be used as a potential biomarker to estimate mean vitamin intake.

  1. Body mass, energy intake, and water consumption of rats and humans during space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, C. E.; Miller, M. M.; Baer, L. A.; Moran, M. M.; Steele, M. K.; Stein, T. P.

    2002-01-01

    Alteration of metabolism has been suggested as a major limiting factor to long-term space flight. In humans and primates, a negative energy balance has been reported. The metabolic response of rats to space flight has been suggested to result in a negative energy balance. We hypothesized that rats flown in space would maintain energy balance as indicated by maintenance of caloric intake and body mass gain. Further, the metabolism of the rat would be similar to that of laboratory-reared animals. We studied the results from 15 space flights lasting 4 to 19 d. There was no difference in average body weight (206 +/- 13.9 versus 206 +/- 14.8 g), body weight gain (5.8 +/- 0.48 versus 5.9 +/- 0.56 g/d), caloric intake (309 +/- 21.0 versus 309 +/- 20.1 kcal/kg of body mass per day), or water intake (200 +/- 8.6 versus 199 +/- 9.3 mL/kg of body mass per day) between flight and ground control animals. Compared with standard laboratory animals of similar body mass, no differences were noted. The observations suggested that the negative balance observed in humans and non-human primates may be due to other factors in the space-flight environment.

  2. Sea-water intake tower works for Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station No. 2 Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satake, Norimoto; Sugaya, Yoshinobu; Sugimoto, Tadao

    1976-01-01

    It was determined to adopt tunnel system based on the conclusion of negotiation with local people, specifically fishermen, for the sea water intake arrangement in Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station. The main factors for determining the location of the intake tower included marine conditions such as waves and littoral sand drift, and the sea-bottom topographic features and geology of tunnel route, for which field examination, hydraulic experiments and the research and investigation on the method of construction were carried out. These results in the No.2 tower installation at the point 65 m to the east of the No.1 tower. The construction of the tower is described on the manufacture and conveyance of steel caisson, land works at Omaezaki and temporary assembly works on the sea. Then the details of tower installation and the works on site are reported. Fortunately the difficult sea works have been satisfactorily completed earlier than planned, without any accident. The construction facilities utilizing a pilot tunnel seem to have made the better achievement than expected. In spite of the results, the lifting up, off-shore conveyance, and installation of the intake tower caisson, a superheavy structure of weighting up to total 2900 ton, were critical works. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  3. Sea-water intake tower works for Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station No. 2 Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sataki, N; Sugaya, Y; Sugimoto, T [Chubu Electric Power Co. Inc., Nagoya (Japan)

    1976-01-01

    It was determined to adopt tunnel system based on the conclusion of negotiation with local people, specifically fishermen, for the sea water intake arrangement in Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station. The main factors for determining the location of the intake tower included marine conditions such as waves and littoral sand drift, and the sea-bottom topographic features and geology of tunnel route, for which field examination, hydraulic experiments and the research and investigation on the method of construction were carried out. These results in the No.2 tower installation at the point 65 m to the east of the No.1 tower. The construction of the tower is described on the manufacture and conveyance of steel caisson, land works at Omaezaki and temporary assembly works on the sea. Then the details of tower installation and the works on site are reported. Fortunately the difficult sea works have been satisfactorily completed earlier than planned, without any accident. The construction facilities utilizing a pilot tunnel seem to have made the better achievement than expected. In spite of the results, the lifting up, off-shore conveyance, and installation of the intake tower caisson, a superheavy structure of weighting up to total 2900 ton, were critical works.

  4. Refinery water (intake and effluent) quality: Update of 1970s with 1990s toxicity testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, P.M.; Paine, M.D.; Moran, T.; Kierstead, T.

    1994-01-01

    The quality of two separate refinery intake waters and effluents was investigated: Petro-Canada (Oakville) and Novacor (Corunna Operations). This study comprised eight different test organized and 22 different toxicity end points, was built on and complemented pioneering 1970s work at the Petro-Canada refinery, and was designed to (a) determine any changes in effluent quality, (b) determine any previously unsuspected effluent toxicity, and (c) determine any potential for chronic toxicity in the effluent. Although Petro-Canada has steadily reduced contaminants in its effluent since the earlier study, toxicity has not changed and no new toxic effects were identified. Effect thresholds for the most sensitive animal species (Daphnia pulex) were 1 to 10% effluent in both studies. The Novacor effluent had lesser effects on biota than the Petro-Canada effluent. Intake waters demonstrated toxicity in some tests. Chronic effects on invertebrates and fish in receiving waters are predicted not to occur in the Novacor effluent is diluted 10- to 20-fold and the Petro-Canada effluent is diluted 50- to 100-fold

  5. Increased water intake to reduce headache: learning from a critical appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Amy; Burls, Amanda

    2015-12-01

    Water intake is a cost effective, non-invasive and low-risk intervention to reduce or prevent headache pain. Chronic mild dehydration may trigger headache. Increased water intake could help. A small trial shows modest benefit; however, a larger methodologically sound randomized controlled trial is needed to confirm efficacy. Spigt, M., Weerkamp, N., Troost, J., van Schayck, C. P., & Knottnerus, J. A. (2012). 'A randomized trial on the effects of regular water intake in patients with recurrent headaches.' Family practice, 29(4), 370-5. Doi: 10.1093/fampra/cmr112 CLINICAL SCENARIO: Patients from primary care registered as 'headache', 'tension headache' and/or 'migraine' for more than one year who suffer at least two episodes of moderately intense headache or more than four mildly intense episodes of headache per month with a daily fluid intake of less than 2.5 litres per day. Patient/Problem = Headache > 1 year with 2 moderately intense or 4 mildly intense episodes per month Intervention = 1.5 litres water per day + stress control and sleep hygiene Comparison/Control = stress control and sleep hygiene Outcome = Reduce or eliminate headache Methodology = Therapy RCT Table 1: Final Search Terms TRIP Data Base: hits = 517 used filter Extended Primary research 4 found 1 paper applicable 'Water intake '[MeSH Terms] AND 'Headache '[All Fields]' Best match to PICO, (2012) RCT SELECTION CRITERION AND OVERALL RESULTS: 102 headache patients in16 primary care clinics were randomized into control (n = 50) and intervention groups (n = 52) Inclusion criteria = two > episodes of moderately intense headache or five > mildly intense headaches per month and total fluid intake > 2.5 litres per day, Follow-up @ 3 months. 79% intervention and 66% of controls completed RCT. Drinking more water resulted in a statistically significant improvement of 4.5 (confidence interval: 1.3-7.8) points on Migraine-Specific Quality of Life (MSQOL

  6. Measurement of pressure distributions and velocity fields of water jet intake flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Eun Ho; Yoon, Sang Youl; Kwon, Seong Hoon; Chun, Ho Hwan; Kim, Mun Chan; Kim, Kyung Chun

    2002-01-01

    Waterjet propulsion system can avoid cavitation problem which is being arised conventional propeller propulsion system. The main issue of designing waterjet system is the boundary layer separation at ramp and lib of water inlet. The flow characteristics are highly depended on Jet to Velocity Ratio(JVR) as well as the intake geometry. The present study is conducted in a wind tunnel to provide accurate pressure destribution at the inlet wall and velocity field of the inlet and exit planes. Particle image velocimetry technique is used to obtain detail velocity fields. Pressure distributions and velocity field are discussed with accelerating and deaccelerating flow zones and the effect of JVR

  7. Sampling designs and methods for estimating fish-impingement losses at cooling-water intakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murarka, I.P.; Bodeau, D.J.

    1977-01-01

    Several systems for estimating fish impingement at power plant cooling-water intakes are compared to determine the most statistically efficient sampling designs and methods. Compared to a simple random sampling scheme the stratified systematic random sampling scheme, the systematic random sampling scheme, and the stratified random sampling scheme yield higher efficiencies and better estimators for the parameters in two models of fish impingement as a time-series process. Mathematical results and illustrative examples of the applications of the sampling schemes to simulated and real data are given. Some sampling designs applicable to fish-impingement studies are presented in appendixes

  8. Adrenoceptors of the medial septal area modulate water intake and renal excretory function induced by central administration of angiotensin II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad W.A.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the role of alpha-adrenergic antagonists and clonidine injected into the medial septal area (MSA on water intake and the decrease in Na+, K+ and urine elicited by ANGII injection into the third ventricle (3rdV. Male Holtzman rats with stainless steel cannulas implanted into the 3rdV and MSA were used. ANGII (12 nmol/µl increased water intake (12.5 ± 1.7 ml/120 min. Clonidine (20 nmol/µl injected into the MSA reduced the ANGII-induced water intake (2.9 ± 0.5 ml/120 min. Pretreatment with 80 nmol/µl yohimbine or prazosin into the MSA also reduced the ANGII-induced water intake (3.0 ± 0.4 and 3.1 ± 0.2 ml/120 min, respectively. Yohimbine + prazosin + clonidine injected into the MSA abolished the ANGII-induced water intake (0.2 ± 0.1 and 0.2 ± 0.1 ml/120 min, respectively. ANGII reduced Na+ (23 ± 7 µEq/120 min, K+ (27 ± 3 µEq/120 min and urine volume (4.3 ± 0.9 ml/120 min. Clonidine increased the parameters above. Clonidine injected into the MSA abolished the inhibitory effect of ANGII on urinary sodium. Yohimbine injected into the MSA also abolished the inhibitory effects of ANGII. Yohimbine + clonidine attenuated the inhibitory effects of ANGII. Prazosin injected into the MSA did not cause changes in ANGII responses. Prazosin + clonidine attenuated the inhibitory effects of ANGII. The results showed that MSA injections of alpha1- and alpha2-antagonists decreased ANGII-induced water intake, and abolished the Na+, K+ and urine decrease induced by ANGII into the 3rdV. These findings suggest the involvement of septal alpha1- and alpha2-adrenergic receptors in water intake and electrolyte and urine excretion induced by central ANGII.

  9. Urinary water-soluble vitamins and their metabolite contents as nutritional markers for evaluating vitamin intakes in young Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Shibata, Katsumi

    2008-06-01

    Little information is available to estimate water-soluble vitamin intakes from urinary vitamins and their metabolite contents as possible nutritional markers. Determination of the relationships between the oral dose and urinary excretion of water-soluble vitamins in human subjects contributes to finding valid nutrition markers of water-soluble vitamin intakes. Six female Japanese college students were given a standard Japanese diet in the first week, the same diet with a synthesized water-soluble vitamin mixture as a diet with approximately onefold vitamin mixture based on Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) for Japanese in the second week, with a threefold vitamin mixture in the third week, and a sixfold mixture in the fourth week. Water-soluble vitamins and their metabolites were measured in the 24-h urine collected each week. All urinary vitamins and their metabolite levels except vitamin B(12) increased linearly in a dose-dependent manner, and highly correlated with vitamin intake (r=0.959 for vitamin B(1), r=0.927 for vitamin B(2), r=0.965 for vitamin B(6), r=0.957 for niacin, r=0.934 for pantothenic acid, r=0.907 for folic acid, r=0.962 for biotin, and r=0.952 for vitamin C). These results suggest that measuring urinary water-soluble vitamins and their metabolite levels can be used as good nutritional markers for assessing vitamin intakes.

  10. Water intake reverses dehydration associated impaired executive function in healthy young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachenfeld, Nina S; Leone, Cheryl A; Mitchell, Ellen S; Freese, Eric; Harkness, Laura

    2018-03-01

    Healthy women do not always consume Recommended Daily Levels of fluid intake ad libitum. We hypothesized that 1) women lose≥1.0% BW during daily activities, 2) that mild body water loss impairs memory and executive function, 3) water intake to recommended daily levels will improve cognitive function. We tested 12 women (26±5yr, 22.5±2.6kg/m 2 BMI). Session 1 was a control (CON) session, during which subjects monitored their food and fluid intake (diary) and activity (Fitbit®). The next two sessions were applied in balanced order: dehydration (DEH) session, where subjects minimized drinking, and a euhydration (EUH) session, where subjects drank Recommended Daily Levels of fluid for their age and sex, or 2500ml/24h. We compared emotion, sensory perception and cognition with computer based visual analog tests and computer based cognitive tasks (Cogstate) at 5PM, i.e. baseline (BL) on the evening prior to the session, and at 7AM, 12PM, and 5PM during the session. Urine specific gravity (USG) was similar at BL across conditions (CON 1.013±0.002, DEH 1.015±0.002, EUH 1.014±0.002) and increased with dehydration (CON 1.011±0.003, DEH 1.021±0.002, EUH 1.010±0.002, Pwater challenges did not impact Detection, Identification, One-Card Learning, but EUH improved visual and working memory (Groton Maze Learning Test) errors: CON 40.1±11.1, DEH 40.5±10.1, EUH 33.9±10.9, Pwater to the European Food Safety Authority and Institute of Medicine requirements of 2.5l/day for adult women. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Dose from organically bound tritium after an acute tritiated water intake in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trivedi, A; Richardson, R B; Galeriu, D [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON (Canada). Chalk River Nuclear Labs.

    1995-10-01

    We have analyzed the urinary excretion data from eight male workers following an acute intake of tritiated water (HTO) and assessed the dose contribution from organically bound tritium (OBT) in the body. The individuals affected increased their fluid intakes during the first month or more post-exposure, to accelerate the turnover of tritium in the body water for dose mitigation purposes. The volumes of cumulative 24 h urine samples were similar to Reference Man in the latter part of the study (100-300 d post-exposure). The workers` urine samples were analyzed for total tritium up to 300 d post-exposure. The results suggest that a measurement of the tritium activity per unit mass of organic matter in urine can provide an assessment of the specific activity of tritium in the organic fraction of the soft tissue, providing an equilibrium condition exists. A mathematical model is proposed to estimate the dose increase from the retained OBT by examining the kinetics of total tritium excretion in urine. The model accounts for the variable rates of fluid intake. The influence of measurement errors and the limited duration of the study (0-300 d post-exposure) on the OBT dose contribution was assessed through statistical analysis, while the role of direct OBT excretion in urine was estimated by using metabolic models. Based on the time series of tritium concentration in urine, the average dose increase to the workers from the metabolised OBT was calculated as 6.2 {+-} 1.3% of the HTO dose. 78 refs., 36 tabs., 11 figs.

  12. Dose from organically bound tritium after an acute tritiated water intake in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivedi, A.; Richardson, R.B.; Galeriu, D.

    1995-10-01

    We have analyzed the urinary excretion data from eight male workers following an acute intake of tritiated water (HTO) and assessed the dose contribution from organically bound tritium (OBT) in the body. The individuals affected increased their fluid intakes during the first month or more post-exposure, to accelerate the turnover of tritium in the body water for dose mitigation purposes. The volumes of cumulative 24 h urine samples were similar to Reference Man in the latter part of the study (100-300 d post-exposure). The workers' urine samples were analyzed for total tritium up to 300 d post-exposure. The results suggest that a measurement of the tritium activity per unit mass of organic matter in urine can provide an assessment of the specific activity of tritium in the organic fraction of the soft tissue, providing an equilibrium condition exists. A mathematical model is proposed to estimate the dose increase from the retained OBT by examining the kinetics of total tritium excretion in urine. The model accounts for the variable rates of fluid intake. The influence of measurement errors and the limited duration of the study (0-300 d post-exposure) on the OBT dose contribution was assessed through statistical analysis, while the role of direct OBT excretion in urine was estimated by using metabolic models. Based on the time series of tritium concentration in urine, the average dose increase to the workers from the metabolised OBT was calculated as 6.2 ± 1.3% of the HTO dose. 78 refs., 36 tabs., 11 figs

  13. Estimation of the total daily oral intake of NDMA attributable to drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fristachi, Anthony; Rice, Glenn

    2007-09-01

    Disinfection with chlorine and chloramine leads to the formation of many disinfection by-products including N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA). Because NDMA is a probable human carcinogen, public health officials are concerned with its occurrence in drinking water. The goal of this study was to estimate NDMA concentrations from exogenous (i.e., drinking water and food) and endogenous (i.e., formed in the human body) sources, calculate average daily doses for ingestion route exposures and estimate the proportional oral intake (POI) of NDMA attributable to the consumption of drinking water relative to other ingestion sources of NDMA. The POI is predicted to be 0.02% relative to exogenous and endogenous NDMA sources combined. When only exogenous sources are considered, the POI was predicted to be 2.7%. The exclusion of endogenously formed NDMA causes the POI to increase dramatically, reflecting its importance as a potentially major source of exposure and uncertainty in the model. Although concentrations of NDMA in foods are small and human exposure to NDMA from foods is quite low, the contribution from food is predicted to be high relative to that of drinking water. The mean concentration of NDMA in drinking water would need to increase from 2.1 x 10(-3) microg/L to 0.10 microg/L, a 47-fold increase, for the POI to reach 1%, relative to all sources of NDMA considered in our model, suggesting that drinking water consumption is most likely a minor source of NDMA exposure.

  14. The Physiological Suppressing Factors of Dry Forage Intake and the Cause of Water Intake Following Dry Forage Feeding in Goats — A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsunori Sunagawa

    2016-02-01

    feeding period most water consumption occurring in the second hour. The cause of this thirst sensation during the second hour of dry forage feeding period was not hypovolemia brought about by excessive salivation, but rather increases in plasma osmolality due to the ruminal absorption of salt from the consumed feed. This suggests the water intake following dry forage feeding is determined by the level of salt content in the feed.

  15. Earthquake countermeasure work on water intake structure based on post-construction shear reinforcement method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satou, Yoshihito; Wani, Masaaki; Wachi, Takamitsu

    2017-01-01

    Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station set up 'earthquake motion as the base for remodeling work' by referring to the strong earthquake fault model assumed by the 'Study meeting for Nankai Trough's mega thrust earthquake model' of the Cabinet Office. Based on this earthquake, it implemented seismic countermeasure work using ceramic fixing type post-construction shear reinforcement bars by targeting the Unit 4 water intake tank screen room. This construction work was carried out in a short period of about nine months due to a restriction in the drainage period of the water intake tank. Thanks to the improvement of process control, such as adoption of a two-shift (day and night) system, this work was completed. On the other hand, the quality of construction was secured by adopting a drilling machine with a resistance sensor at the time of drilling and plastic grout at the time of grout filling, as well as through quality inspection based on Construction Technology Review and Certification. (A.O.)

  16. Voluntary water intake during and following moderate exercise in the cold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mears, Stephen A; Shirreffs, Susan M

    2014-02-01

    Exercising in cold environments results in water losses, yet examination of resultant voluntary water intake has focused on warm conditions. The purpose of the study was to assess voluntary water intake during and following exercise in a cold compared with a warm environment. Ten healthy males (22 ± 2 years, 67.8 ± 7.0 kg, 1.77 ± 0.06 m, VO₂peak 60.5 ± 8.9 ml·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹) completed two trials (7-8 days). In each trial subjects sat for 30 min before cycling at 70% VO₂peak (162 ± 27W) for 60 min in 25.0 ± 0.1 °C, 50.8 ± 1.5% relative humidity (RH; warm) or 0.4 ± 1.0 °C, 68.8 ± 7.5% RH (cold). Subjects then sat for 120 min at 22.2 ± 1.2 °C, 50.5 ± 8.0% RH. Ad libitum drinking was allowed during the exercise and recovery periods. Urine volume, body mass, serum osmolality, and sensations of thirst were measured at baseline, postexercise and after 60 and 120 min of the recovery period. Sweat loss was greater in the warm trial (0.96 ± 0.18 l v 0.48 ± 0.15 l; p cold) v 1.03 ± 0.26% (warm)). More water was consumed throughout the duration of the warm trial (0.81 ± 0.42 l v 0.50 ± 0.49 l; p = .001). Cumulative urine output was greater in the cold trial (0.81 ± 0.46 v 0.54 ± 0.31 l; p = .036). Postexercise serum osmolality was higher compared with baseline in the cold (292 ± 2 v 287 ± 3 mOsm.kg⁻¹, p sensations were similar between trials (p > .05). Ad libitum water intake adjusted so that similar body mass losses occurred in both trials. In the cold there appeared to a blunted thirst response.

  17. A Physiological Stimulating Factor of Water Intake during and after Dry Forage Feeding in Large-type Goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Thang, Tran; Sunagawa, Katsunori; Nagamine, Itsuki; Kishi, Tetsuya; Ogura, Go

    2012-04-01

    When ruminants consume dry forage, they also drink large volumes of water. The objective of this study was to clarify which factor produced when feed boluses enter the rumen is mainly responsible for the marked increase in water intake in the second hour of the 2 h feeding period in large-type goats fed on dry forage for 2 h twice daily. Six large-type male esophageal- and ruminal-fistulated goats (crossbred Japanese Saanen/Nubian, aged 2 to 6 years, weighing 85.1±4.89 kg) were used in two experiments. In experiment 1, the water deprivation (WD) control and the water availability (WA) treatment were conducted to compare changes in water intake during and after dry forage feeding. In experiment 2, a normal feeding conditions (NFC) control and a feed bolus removal (FBR) treatment were carried out to investigate whether decrease in circulating plasma volume or increase in plasma osmolality is mainly responsible for the marked increase in water intake in the second hour of the 2 h feeding period. The results of experiment 1 showed that in the WA treatment, small amounts of water were consumed during the first hour of feeding while the majority of water intake was observed during the second hour of the 2 h feeding period. Therefore, the amounts of water consumed in the second hour of the 2 h feeding period accounted for 82.8% of the total water intake. The results of experiment 2 indicated that in comparison with the NFC control, decrease in plasma volume in the FBR treatment, which was indicated by increase in hematocrit and plasma total protein concentrations, was higher (pforage feeding in large-type goats.

  18. Water Consumption in European Children: Associations with Intake of Fruit Juices, Soft Drinks and Related Parenting Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantziki, Krystallia; Renders, Carry M; Seidell, Jaap C

    2017-05-31

    Background : High intake of fruit juices and soft drinks contributes to excessive weight gain and obesity in children. Furthermore, parenting practices play an important role in the development of children's dietary habits. The way parents play this role in the development of their children's choices of beverages is still unclear. Objectives : To study the associations: (1) of both fruit juices and soft drinks consumption with water consumption of children and (2) The associations between parenting practices towards fruit juices and soft drinks and water consumption of children. Design : Cross-sectional data from 6 to 8 year old children from seven European communities ( n = 1187) were collected. Associations among fruit juices, soft drinks, the respective parenting practices and the child's water consumption were assessed by parental questionnaires. Results : The consumption of water was inversely associated with that of soft drinks but not with the consumption of fruit juices. The child's water intake was favorably influenced when stricter parenting practices towards soft drinks were adopted (e.g., less parental allowance, low home availability and high parental self-efficacy in managing intake). There was less influence observed of parenting practices towards fruit juices. Fruit juices were consumed more often than soft drinks. Conclusions : Low consumption of soft drinks-and not of fruit juices-was associated with high water consumption in children in the current study. Moreover, parenting practices towards both fruit juices and soft drinks were associated with the water intake of the children, irrespective of their socio-economic status.

  19. Hydration and nutrition knowledge in adolescent swimmers. Does water intake affect urine hydration markers after swimming?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesare Altavilla

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Little data exists regarding nutritional knowledge and hydration in adolescent swimmers. The aim of this study was to assess the level of nutrition and hydration knowledge and to describe the fluid balance in adolescent swimmers during training. A study was carried out with a cross-sectional descriptive part and a longitudinal part with repeated measurements over five swimming sessions. Eighty-six adolescent swimmers completed a questionnaire to assess their sport nutrition and hydration knowledge. Fluid balance and urine hydration markers were studied during training. Swimmers showed a limited nutrition knowledge (33.26 % ± SD 12.59 and meagre hydration knowledge (28.61 % ± SD 28.59. Females showed lower scores than male swimmers in nutrition and hydration knowledge. Based on urine specific gravity, swimmers started the training close to the euhydrated threshold (1.019 g/mL ± SD 0.008. Although urine specific gravity and urine colour were reduced after the training, there were minimal changes in body mass (-0.12 Kg ± SD 0.31. Sweat loss (2.67 g/min ± SD 3.23 and the net changes in the fluid balance (-0.22 % ± SD 0.59 were low. The poor knowledge in nutrition and hydration encountered in the swimmers can justify the development of a strategy to incorporate nutritional education programmes for this group. Body water deficit from swimming activity seems to be easily replaced with the water intake to maintain hydration. After the training, the urine of swimmers was diluted regardless of their water intake. Dilution of urine did not reflect real hydration state in swimming.

  20. Effect of Increased Water Intake on Urinary DNA Adduct Levels and Mutagenicity in Smokers: A Randomized Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inmaculada Buendia Jimenez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The association between fluid intake and bladder cancer risk remains controversial. Very little is known about to which extent the amount of water intake influences the action of excreting toxics upon the urinary system. This proof of concept trial investigates the effect of water intake on mutagenesis in smokers, a high risk population for bladder cancer. Methods. Monocentric randomized controlled trial. Inclusion Criteria. Male subjects aged 2045–45 y/o, smokers, and small drinkers (24-hour urinary volume 700 mOsmol/kg. Outcomes. 4-ABP DNA adducts formation in exfoliated bladder cells in 24-hour urine collection and urinary mutagenicity in 24-hour urine. Test Group. Subjects consumed 1.5 L daily of the study product (EVIAN on top of their usual water intake for 50 days. Control Group. Subjects continued their usual lifestyle habits. Results. 65 subjects were randomized. Mean age was 30 y/o and mean cigarettes per day were 20. A slight decrease in adducts formation was observed between baseline and last visit but no statistically significant difference was demonstrated between the groups. Urinary mutagenicity significantly decreased. The study shows that increasing water intake decreases urinary mutagenicity. It is not confirmed by urinary adducts formation. Further research would be necessary.

  1. Estimating Inorganic Arsenic Exposure from U.S. Rice and Total Water Intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantha, Madhavi; Yeary, Edward; Trent, John; Creed, Patricia A; Kubachka, Kevin; Hanley, Traci; Shockey, Nohora; Heitkemper, Douglas; Caruso, Joseph; Xue, Jianping; Rice, Glenn; Wymer, Larry; Creed, John T

    2017-05-30

    Among nonoccupationally exposed U.S. residents, drinking water and diet are considered primary exposure pathways for inorganic arsenic (iAs). In drinking water, iAs is the primary form of arsenic (As), while dietary As speciation techniques are used to differentiate iAs from less toxic arsenicals in food matrices. Our goal was to estimate the distribution of iAs exposure rates from drinking water intakes and rice consumption in the U.S. population and ethnic- and age-based subpopulations. The distribution of iAs in drinking water was estimated by population, weighting the iAs concentrations for each drinking water utility in the Second Six-Year Review data set. To estimate the distribution of iAs concentrations in rice ingested by U.S. consumers, 54 grain-specific, production-weighted composites of rice obtained from U.S. mills were extracted and speciated using both a quantitative dilute nitric acid extraction and speciation (DNAS) and an in vitro gastrointestinal assay to provide an upper bound and bioaccessible estimates, respectively. Daily drinking water intake and rice consumption rate distributions were developed using data from the What We Eat in America (WWEIA) study. Using these data sets, the Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation (SHEDS) model estimated mean iAs exposures from drinking water and rice were 4.2 μg/day and 1.4 μg/day, respectively, for the entire U.S. population. The Tribal, Asian, and Pacific population exhibited the highest mean daily exposure of iAs from cooked rice (2.8 μg/day); the mean exposure rate for children between ages 1 and 2 years in this population is 0.104 μg/kg body weight (BW)/day. An average consumer drinking 1.5 L of water daily that contains between 2 and 3 ng iAs/mL is exposed to approximately the same amount of iAs as a mean Tribal, Asian, and Pacific consumer is exposed to from rice. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP418. Among nonoccupationally exposed U.S. residents, drinking water and diet are considered

  2. Ichthyoplankton entrainment study at the SRS Savannah River water intakes for Westinghouse Savannah River Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paller, M.

    1992-01-01

    Cooling water for L and K Reactors and makeup water for Par Pond is pumped from the Savannah River at the 1G, 3G, and 5G pump houses. Ichthyoplankton (drifting fish larvae and eggs) from the river are entrained into the reactor cooling systems with the river water and passed through the reactor's heat exchangers where temperatures may reach 70 degrees C during full power operation. Ichthyoplankton mortality under such conditions is assumed to be 100 percent. The number of ichthyoplankton entrained into the cooling system depends on a variety of variables, including time of year, density and distribution of ichthyoplankton in the river, discharge levels in the river, and the volume of water withdrawn by the pumps. Entrainment at the 1 G pump house, which is immediately downstream from the confluence of Upper Three Runs Creek and the Savannah River, is also influenced by discharge rates and ichthyoplankton densities in Upper Three Runs Creek. Because of the anticipated restart of several SRS reactors and the growing concern surrounding striped bass and American shad stocks in the Savannah River, the Department of Energy requested that the Environmental Sciences Section (ESS) of the Savannah River Laboratory sample ichthyoplankton at the SRS Savannah River intakes. Dams ampersand Moore, Inc., under a contract with Westinghouse Savannah River Company performed the sampling and data analysis for the ESS

  3. Subsurface intake systems: Green choice for improving feed water quality at SWRO desalination plants, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Dehwah, Abdullah

    2015-10-25

    An investigation of three seawater reverse osmosis facilities located along the shoreline of the Red Sea of Saudi Arabia that use well intake systems showed that the pumping-induced flow of raw seawater through a coastal aquifer significantly improves feed water quality. A comparison between the surface seawater and the discharge from the wells shows that turbidity, algae, bacteria, total organic carbon, most fractions of natural organic matter (NOM), and particulate and colloidal transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) have significant reductions in concentration. Nearly all of the algae, up to 99% of the bacteria, between 84 and 100% of the biopolymer fraction of NOM, and a high percentage of the TEP were removed during transport. The data suggest that the flowpath length and hydraulic retention time in the aquifer play the most important roles in removal of the organic matter. Since the collective concentrations of bacteria, biopolymers, and TEP in the intake seawater play important roles in the biofouling of SWRO membranes, the observed reductions suggest that the desalination facilities that use well intakes systems will have a potentially lower fouling rate compared to open-ocean intake systems. Furthermore, well intake system intakes also reduce the need for chemical usage during complex pretreatment systems required for operation of SWRO facilities using open-ocean intakes and reduce environmental impacts.

  4. Subsurface intake systems: Green choice for improving feed water quality at SWRO desalination plants, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Dehwah, Abdullah; Missimer, Thomas M.

    2015-01-01

    An investigation of three seawater reverse osmosis facilities located along the shoreline of the Red Sea of Saudi Arabia that use well intake systems showed that the pumping-induced flow of raw seawater through a coastal aquifer significantly improves feed water quality. A comparison between the surface seawater and the discharge from the wells shows that turbidity, algae, bacteria, total organic carbon, most fractions of natural organic matter (NOM), and particulate and colloidal transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) have significant reductions in concentration. Nearly all of the algae, up to 99% of the bacteria, between 84 and 100% of the biopolymer fraction of NOM, and a high percentage of the TEP were removed during transport. The data suggest that the flowpath length and hydraulic retention time in the aquifer play the most important roles in removal of the organic matter. Since the collective concentrations of bacteria, biopolymers, and TEP in the intake seawater play important roles in the biofouling of SWRO membranes, the observed reductions suggest that the desalination facilities that use well intakes systems will have a potentially lower fouling rate compared to open-ocean intake systems. Furthermore, well intake system intakes also reduce the need for chemical usage during complex pretreatment systems required for operation of SWRO facilities using open-ocean intakes and reduce environmental impacts.

  5. Beverage Consumption Habits and Association with Total Water and Energy Intakes in the Spanish Population: Findings of the ANIBES Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissensohn, Mariela; Sánchez-Villegas, Almudena; Ortega, Rosa M; Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier; Gil, Ángel; González-Gross, Marcela; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; Serra-Majem, Lluis

    2016-04-20

    Inadequate hydration is a public health issue that imposes a significant economic burden. In Spain, data of total water intake (TWI) are scarce. There is a clear need for a national study that quantifies water and beverage intakes and explores associations between the types of beverages and energy intakes. The Anthropometry, Intake and Energy Balance Study ANIBES is a national survey of diet and nutrition conducted among a representative sample of 2285 healthy participants aged 9-75 years in Spain. Food and beverage intakes were assessed in a food diary over three days. Day and time of beverage consumption were also recorded. On average, TWI was 1.7 L (SE 21.2) for men and 1.6 L (SE 18.9) for women. More than 75% of participants had inadequate TWI, according to European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) recommendations. Mean total energy intake (EI) was 1810 kcal/day (SE 11.1), of which 12% was provided by beverages. Water was the most consumed beverage, followed by milk. The contribution of alcoholic drinks to the EI was near 3%. For caloric soft drinks, a relatively low contribution to the EI was obtained, only 2%. Of eight different types of beverages, the variety score was positively correlated with TWI (r = 0.39) and EI (r = 0.23), suggesting that beverage variety is an indicator of higher consumption of food and drinks. The present study demonstrates that well-conducted surveys such as the ANIBES study have the potential to yield rich contextual value data that can emphasize the need to undertake appropriate health and nutrition policies to increase the total water intake at the population level promoting a healthy Mediterranean hydration pattern.

  6. Beverage Consumption Habits and Association with Total Water and Energy Intakes in the Spanish Population: Findings of the ANIBES Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissensohn, Mariela; Sánchez-Villegas, Almudena; Ortega, Rosa M.; Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier; Gil, Ángel; González-Gross, Marcela; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; Serra-Majem, Lluis

    2016-01-01

    Background: Inadequate hydration is a public health issue that imposes a significant economic burden. In Spain, data of total water intake (TWI) are scarce. There is a clear need for a national study that quantifies water and beverage intakes and explores associations between the types of beverages and energy intakes. Methods: The Anthropometry, Intake and Energy Balance Study ANIBES is a national survey of diet and nutrition conducted among a representative sample of 2285 healthy participants aged 9–75 years in Spain. Food and beverage intakes were assessed in a food diary over three days. Day and time of beverage consumption were also recorded. Results: On average, TWI was 1.7 L (SE 21.2) for men and 1.6 L (SE 18.9) for women. More than 75% of participants had inadequate TWI, according to European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) recommendations. Mean total energy intake (EI) was 1810 kcal/day (SE 11.1), of which 12% was provided by beverages. Water was the most consumed beverage, followed by milk. The contribution of alcoholic drinks to the EI was near 3%. For caloric soft drinks, a relatively low contribution to the EI was obtained, only 2%. Of eight different types of beverages, the variety score was positively correlated with TWI (r = 0.39) and EI (r = 0.23), suggesting that beverage variety is an indicator of higher consumption of food and drinks. Conclusions: The present study demonstrates that well-conducted surveys such as the ANIBES study have the potential to yield rich contextual value data that can emphasize the need to undertake appropriate health and nutrition policies to increase the total water intake at the population level promoting a healthy Mediterranean hydration pattern. PMID:27104564

  7. Beverage Consumption Habits and Association with Total Water and Energy Intakes in the Spanish Population: Findings of the ANIBES Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela Nissensohn

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Inadequate hydration is a public health issue that imposes a significant economic burden. In Spain, data of total water intake (TWI are scarce. There is a clear need for a national study that quantifies water and beverage intakes and explores associations between the types of beverages and energy intakes. Methods: The Anthropometry, Intake and Energy Balance Study ANIBES is a national survey of diet and nutrition conducted among a representative sample of 2285 healthy participants aged 9–75 years in Spain. Food and beverage intakes were assessed in a food diary over three days. Day and time of beverage consumption were also recorded. Results: On average, TWI was 1.7 L (SE 21.2 for men and 1.6 L (SE 18.9 for women. More than 75% of participants had inadequate TWI, according to European Food Safety Authority (EFSA recommendations. Mean total energy intake (EI was 1810 kcal/day (SE 11.1, of which 12% was provided by beverages. Water was the most consumed beverage, followed by milk. The contribution of alcoholic drinks to the EI was near 3%. For caloric soft drinks, a relatively low contribution to the EI was obtained, only 2%. Of eight different types of beverages, the variety score was positively correlated with TWI (r = 0.39 and EI (r = 0.23, suggesting that beverage variety is an indicator of higher consumption of food and drinks. Conclusions: The present study demonstrates that well-conducted surveys such as the ANIBES study have the potential to yield rich contextual value data that can emphasize the need to undertake appropriate health and nutrition policies to increase the total water intake at the population level promoting a healthy Mediterranean hydration pattern.

  8. Data on fluoride concentration level in villages of Asara (Alborz, Iran) and daily fluoride intake based on drinking water consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhavan, Giti; Dobaradaran, Sina; Borazjani, Jaleh Mohajeri

    2016-12-01

    In the present data article, fluoride concentration levels of drinking water (with spring or groundwater sources) in 10 villages of Asara area located in Alborz province were determined by the standard SPADNS method using a spectrophotometer (DR/2000 Spectrophotometer, USA). Daily fluoride intakes were also calculated based on daily drinking water consumption. The fluoride content were compared with EPA and WHO guidelines for drinking water.

  9. Nicotine intake and problem solving strategies are modified during a cognitively demanding water maze task in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesil, Tanseli; Kanit, Lutfiye; Pogun, Sakire

    2015-11-01

    Nicotine is the major addictive component in tobacco, and despite well-established adverse health effects of tobacco addiction, some smokers have difficulty quitting. The acute cognitive enhancement and/or the amelioration of the cognitive disruption during withdrawal that some smokers experience after smoking are among important factors that hinder quit attempts. The animal model presented in the current study is comparable to the human smoking condition although nicotine intake routes are different. Rats were exposed to a free choice of oral nicotine starting at adolescence, and given a water maze (WM) task as adults. This design allowed us to see if rats alter their nicotine intake during the WM task and if nicotine preference and intake modify abilities and strategies rats use for problem solving. Male and female rats were exposed to a free choice of oral nicotine/water for 24weeks, starting at five weeks of age. After this period, they were selected based on their nicotine intake and, together with control animals that received only water, were subjected to a place-learning task in the WM. Free-choice nicotine exposure continued during WM testing. Following acquisition, the probe trial presented the rats with a choice between using two different strategies for problem solving. Nicotine supported acquisition and rats increased their nicotine intake during WM testing; this effect was more pronounced in male rats with minimum nicotine preference and intake. Furthermore, nicotine modified the "female type" strategy in solving the place-learning task and nicotine treated female rats, unlike control females, behaved like males. The increase in nicotine intake during mental engagement, and the sexually dimorphic effect of nicotine on problem solving strategies that we have observed in rats, may suggest that implementing sex-specific smoking cessation approaches, especially under stressful and cognitively demanding conditions, may be useful in helping smokers quit

  10. Assessment of spatial variation in drinking water iodine and its implications for dietary intake: a new conceptual model for Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voutchkova, Denitza Dimitrova; Ernstsen, Vibeke; Hansen, Birgitte; Sørensen, Brian Lyngby; Zhang, Chaosheng; Kristiansen, Søren Munch

    2014-09-15

    Iodine is essential for human health. Many countries have therefore introduced universal salt iodising (USI) programmes to ensure adequate intake for the populations. However, little attention has been paid to subnational differences in iodine intake from drinking water caused by naturally occurring spatial variations. To address this issue, we here present the results of a Danish nationwide study of spatial trends of iodine in drinking water and the relevance of these trends for human dietary iodine intake. The data consist of treated drinking water samples from 144 waterworks, representing approx. 45% of the groundwater abstraction for drinking water supply in Denmark. The samples were analysed for iodide, iodate, total iodine (TI) and other major and trace elements. The spatial patterns were investigated with Local Moran's I. TI ranges from 40 μg L(-1) originates from postglacial marine and glacial meltwater sand and from Campanian-Maastrichtian chalk aquifers. The estimated drinking water contribution to human intake varies from 0% to >100% of the WHO recommended daily iodine intake for adults and from 0% to approx. 50% for adolescents. The paper presents a new conceptual model based on the observed clustering of high or low drinking-water iodine concentrations, delimiting zones with potentially deficient, excessive or optimal iodine status. Our findings suggest that the present coarse-scale nationwide programme for monitoring the population's iodine status may not offer a sufficiently accurate picture. Local variations in drinking-water iodine should be mapped and incorporated into future adjustment of the monitoring and/or the USI programmes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Application of large-scaled pre-cast components for the construction of water intake for a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topolnicki, M.

    1976-01-01

    Problem of the construction of water intake for a 4000 MW nuclear power plant located at the seashore is solved. The advantages of application of large-size pre-cast components are presented,. The constructional solutions and proposed technologies are described in detail. (A.S.)

  12. Assessment of spatial variation in drinking water iodine and its implications for dietary intake: A new conceptual model for Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voutchkova, Denitza Dimitrova, E-mail: ddv@geo.au.dk [Department of Geoscience, Aarhus University, Høegh-Guldbergs Gade 2, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), Lyseng Allé 1, DK-8270 Højbjerg (Denmark); Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), Øster Voldgade 10, DK-1350 Copenhagen K (Denmark); Ernstsen, Vibeke [Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), Øster Voldgade 10, DK-1350 Copenhagen K (Denmark); Hansen, Birgitte; Sørensen, Brian Lyngby [Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), Lyseng Allé 1, DK-8270 Højbjerg (Denmark); Zhang, Chaosheng [GIS Centre and School of Geography and Archaeology, National University of Ireland, Galway (Ireland); Kristiansen, Søren Munch [Department of Geoscience, Aarhus University, Høegh-Guldbergs Gade 2, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)

    2014-09-15

    Iodine is essential for human health. Many countries have therefore introduced universal salt iodising (USI) programmes to ensure adequate intake for the populations. However, little attention has been paid to subnational differences in iodine intake from drinking water caused by naturally occurring spatial variations. To address this issue, we here present the results of a Danish nationwide study of spatial trends of iodine in drinking water and the relevance of these trends for human dietary iodine intake. The data consist of treated drinking water samples from 144 waterworks, representing approx. 45% of the groundwater abstraction for drinking water supply in Denmark. The samples were analysed for iodide, iodate, total iodine (TI) and other major and trace elements. The spatial patterns were investigated with Local Moran's I. TI ranges from < 0.2 to 126 μg L{sup −1} (mean 14.4 μg L{sup −1}, median 11.9 μg L{sup −1}). Six speciation combinations were found. Half of the samples (n = 71) contain organic iodine; all species were detected in approx. 27% of all samples. The complex spatial variation is attributed both to the geology and the groundwater treatment. TI > 40 μg L{sup −1} originates from postglacial marine and glacial meltwater sand and from Campanian–Maastrichtian chalk aquifers. The estimated drinking water contribution to human intake varies from 0% to > 100% of the WHO recommended daily iodine intake for adults and from 0% to approx. 50% for adolescents. The paper presents a new conceptual model based on the observed clustering of high or low drinking-water iodine concentrations, delimiting zones with potentially deficient, excessive or optimal iodine status. Our findings suggest that the present coarse-scale nationwide programme for monitoring the population's iodine status may not offer a sufficiently accurate picture. Local variations in drinking-water iodine should be mapped and incorporated into future adjustment of the

  13. Assessment of spatial variation in drinking water iodine and its implications for dietary intake: A new conceptual model for Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voutchkova, Denitza Dimitrova; Ernstsen, Vibeke; Hansen, Birgitte; Sørensen, Brian Lyngby; Zhang, Chaosheng; Kristiansen, Søren Munch

    2014-01-01

    Iodine is essential for human health. Many countries have therefore introduced universal salt iodising (USI) programmes to ensure adequate intake for the populations. However, little attention has been paid to subnational differences in iodine intake from drinking water caused by naturally occurring spatial variations. To address this issue, we here present the results of a Danish nationwide study of spatial trends of iodine in drinking water and the relevance of these trends for human dietary iodine intake. The data consist of treated drinking water samples from 144 waterworks, representing approx. 45% of the groundwater abstraction for drinking water supply in Denmark. The samples were analysed for iodide, iodate, total iodine (TI) and other major and trace elements. The spatial patterns were investigated with Local Moran's I. TI ranges from < 0.2 to 126 μg L −1 (mean 14.4 μg L −1 , median 11.9 μg L −1 ). Six speciation combinations were found. Half of the samples (n = 71) contain organic iodine; all species were detected in approx. 27% of all samples. The complex spatial variation is attributed both to the geology and the groundwater treatment. TI > 40 μg L −1 originates from postglacial marine and glacial meltwater sand and from Campanian–Maastrichtian chalk aquifers. The estimated drinking water contribution to human intake varies from 0% to > 100% of the WHO recommended daily iodine intake for adults and from 0% to approx. 50% for adolescents. The paper presents a new conceptual model based on the observed clustering of high or low drinking-water iodine concentrations, delimiting zones with potentially deficient, excessive or optimal iodine status. Our findings suggest that the present coarse-scale nationwide programme for monitoring the population's iodine status may not offer a sufficiently accurate picture. Local variations in drinking-water iodine should be mapped and incorporated into future adjustment of the monitoring and/or the

  14. Caries prevalence and its association with brushing habits, water availability, and the intake of sugared beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guido, Joseph A; Martinez Mier, Esperanza A; Soto, Armando; Eggertsson, Hafsteinn; Sanders, Brian J; Jones, James E; Weddell, James A; Villanueva Cruz, Irma; Anton de la Concha, Jose Luis

    2011-11-01

    BACKGROUND. With Dental Caries being the most common disease amongst children in the world today, there is a need to fully understand risk factors that may be related to caries prevalence and how they could be best addressed. AIM. The aim of this study was to evaluate soda, juice, sugared-beverage intake, brushing habits, and community water source availability as they relate to the prevalence of both noncavitated and cavitated caries lesions in small rural villages in Mexico. DESIGN. The International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) was used in children from small, isolated, villages in Mexico. Risk factors were assessed via questionnaires. RESULTS. Caries prevalence in the villages was very high, ranging from 94.7% to 100% of the children studied. The mean number of surfaces with lesions per child (D1MFS + d1mfs) having scores ≥1 (noncavitated and cavitated) ranged from 15.4 ± 11.1 to 26.6 ± 15.2. Many of the children reported drinking beverages containing sugar. CONCLUSIONS. Drinking sugared beverages, poor oral hygiene habits, and lack of access to tap water were identified as risk factor for caries in this sample of residents of rural Mexico. © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry © 2011 BSPD, IAPD and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Characteristics of Beverage Consumption Habits among a Large Sample of French Adults: Associations with Total Water and Energy Intakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien Szabo de Edelenyi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adequate hydration is a key factor for correct functioning of both cognitive and physical processes. In France, public health recommendations about adequate total water intake (TWI only state that fluid intake should be sufficient, with particular attention paid to hydration for seniors, especially during heatwave periods. The objective of this study was to calculate the total amount of water coming from food and beverages and to analyse characteristics of consumption in participants from a large French national cohort. Methods: TWI, as well as contribution of food and beverages to TWI was assessed among 94,939 adult participants in the Nutrinet-Santé cohort (78% women, mean age 42.9 (SE 0.04 using three 24-h dietary records at baseline. Statistical differences in water intakes across age groups, seasons and day of the week were assessed. Results: The mean TWI was 2.3 L (Standard Error SE 4.7 for men and 2.1 L (SE 2.4 for women. A majority of the sample did comply with the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA adequate intake recommendation, especially women. Mean total energy intake (EI was 1884 kcal/day (SE 1.5 (2250 kcal/day (SE 3.6 for men and 1783 kcal/day (SE 1.5 for women. The contribution to the total EI from beverages was 8.3%. Water was the most consumed beverage, followed by hot beverages. The variety score, defined as the number of different categories of beverages consumed during the three 24-h records out of a maximum of 8, was positively correlated with TWI (r = 0.4; and with EI (r = 0.2, suggesting that beverage variety is an indicator of higher consumption of food and drinks. We found differences in beverage consumptions and water intakes according to age and seasonality. Conclusions: The present study gives an overview of the water intake characteristics in a large population of French adults. TWI was found to be globally in line with public health recommendations.

  16. Changes of physicochemical and microbiologicalparameters of infiltration water at Debina intake in Poznan, unique conditions - a flood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kołaska, Sylwia; Jeż-Walkowiak, Joanna; Dymaczewski, Zbysław

    2018-02-01

    The paper presents characteristics of Debina infiltration intake which provides water for Poznan and neighbouring communes. The evaluation of effectiveness of infiltration process has been done based on the quality parameters of river water and infiltration water. The analysed water quality parameters are as follows: temperature, iron, manganese, DOCKMnO4, TOC, turbidity, colour, dissolved oxygen, free carbon dioxide, conductivity, total hardness, carbonate hardness, pH, heavy metals, detergents and microorganisms. The paper also includes an assessment of the impact of flood conditions on the quality of infiltration water and operation of infiltration intake. In this part of the paper the following parameters were taken into account: iron, manganese, DOCKMnO4, TOC, turbidity, colour, dissolved oxygen, free carbon dioxide, conductivity, total hardness, the total number of microorganisms in 36°C (mesophilic), the total number of microorganisms in 22°C (psychrophilic), coli bacteria, Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli, Enterococci. Analysis of the effects of flood on infiltration process leads to the following conclusions: the deterioration of infiltration water quality was due to the deterioration of river water quality, substantial shortening of groundwater passage and partial disappearance of the aeration zone. The observed deterioration of infiltration water quality did not affect the treated water quality, produced at water treatment plant.

  17. Studies on the contribution of drinking water to the daily intake of some trace elements of importance in nutrition and radiation protection - a preliminary survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang, H.S.

    1998-01-01

    The data were obtained on the concentration of sixteen trace elements in drinking water collected from various parts of India, and from various sources such as river, lake, and well (including borewell). These data were then employed to determine the possible contribution of drinking water to the daily intake of the trace elements by Indian population. The study showed that for the elements Ca, K, Fe, Mn, Mo, As and Rb, their maximum contribution from drinking water, to their daily intake ranged between 3.2-10% of the total daily intake. For elements Na, Mg, Zn, I and Th, however, drinking water contributed up to 40% of the total intake. In the case of elements such as, Cu, Cr, U and Sr, the drinking water could in some cases become the main contributor of their daily intake. (author)

  18. Water Consumption in European Children: Associations with Intake of Fruit Juices, Soft Drinks and Related Parenting Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystallia Mantziki

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: High intake of fruit juices and soft drinks contributes to excessive weight gain and obesity in children. Furthermore, parenting practices play an important role in the development of children’s dietary habits. The way parents play this role in the development of their children’s choices of beverages is still unclear. Objectives: To study the associations: (1 of both fruit juices and soft drinks consumption with water consumption of children and (2 The associations between parenting practices towards fruit juices and soft drinks and water consumption of children. Design: Cross-sectional data from 6 to 8 year old children from seven European communities (n = 1187 were collected. Associations among fruit juices, soft drinks, the respective parenting practices and the child’s water consumption were assessed by parental questionnaires. Results: The consumption of water was inversely associated with that of soft drinks but not with the consumption of fruit juices. The child’s water intake was favorably influenced when stricter parenting practices towards soft drinks were adopted (e.g., less parental allowance, low home availability and high parental self-efficacy in managing intake. There was less influence observed of parenting practices towards fruit juices. Fruit juices were consumed more often than soft drinks. Conclusions: Low consumption of soft drinks—and not of fruit juices—was associated with high water consumption in children in the current study. Moreover, parenting practices towards both fruit juices and soft drinks were associated with the water intake of the children, irrespective of their socio-economic status.

  19. Impact of a Water Intervention on Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Intake Substitution by Water: A Clinical Trial in Overweight and Obese Mexican Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Cordero, Sonia; Popkin, Barry M

    2015-01-01

    Intense marketing for sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) along with the human innate preference for sweet taste contributes to the increase in consumption of SSB. It is important to understand the intricacies of dietary intake and global changes to the food supply to understand the complexities facing any intervention promoting water intake. We describe challenges to promote and achieve an increase in water intake and present key findings from a clinical trial examining the effects of substituting water for SSB on triglyceride levels, weight and other cardiometabolic factors in overweight/obese Mexican women. A randomized trial was conducted in Cuernavaca, Mexico selecting overweight/obese (BMI ≥25 and water and education provision (WEP) group (n = 120) or to the education provision (EP) group (n = 120). Repeated 24 h dietary recall questionnaires, anthropometry, and fasting blood levels were collected at baseline and 3, 6, and 9 months following the intervention. There was no effect of the intervention on triglyceride concentration or on any of the studied outcomes. Post-hoc analyses according to weight at baseline show that triglyceride concentration decreased in obese women. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome after the intervention was lower in obese women from the WEP group. Water intake was increased but insufficient to achieve complete substitution of SSB, without effects on triglyceride concentration. Post-hoc analyses suggested that interventions lowered triglyceride concentration. Further studies are needed. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Under-reporting of food intake is frequent among Brazilian free-living older persons: a doubly labelled water study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferriolli, Eduardo; Pfrimer, Karina; Moriguti, Julio C; Lima, Nereida K C; Moriguti, Eny K U; Formighieri, Paulo F; Scagliusi, Fernanda B; Marchini, Julio S

    2010-03-15

    The assessment of food intake is essential for the development of dietetic interventions. Accuracy is low when intake is assessed by questionnaires, the under-reporting of food intake being frequent. Most such studies, however, were performed in developed countries and there is little data about the older population of developing nations. This study aimed to verify the total energy expenditure (TEE) of independent older Brazilians living in an urban area, through the doubly labelled water (DLW) method and to compare it with the reported energy intake obtained through the application of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Initially, 100 volunteers aged from 60 to 75 years had their body composition determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Five volunteers of each quartile of body fat percentage had their energy expenditure determined by DLW. The mean age of the subjects included in this phase of the study was 66.4 +/- 3.5 years, and ten of the subjects were men. The mean TEE was 2565 +/- 614 and 2154 +/- 339 kcal.day(-1) for men and women, respectively. The Physical Activity Level (PAL) was 1.58 +/- 0.31 and 1.52 +/- 0.22, respectively. Under-reporting of food intake was highly prevalent, with a mean percentage of reported intake in relation to measured TEE of -17.7%. Thus, under-reporting of food intake is highly prevalent among Brazilian independent older persons. The DLW method is an important tool in nutritional studies and its use is to be recommended in developing countries. Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Relationship Between Urinary Concentrations of Nine Water-soluble Vitamins and their Vitamin Intakes in Japanese Adult Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Katsumi; Hirose, Junko; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu

    2014-01-01

    Excess water-soluble vitamins are thought to be eliminated in the urine. We have reported a strong relationship between water-soluble vitamin intake and urinary excretion in females. The relationship, however, is not well understood in males. In the present experiment, 10 Japanese male subjects were given a standard Japanese diet for the first week. The subjects remained on the same diet, and a synthesized water-soluble vitamin mixture containing one time the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) for Japanese was given for the second week, three times the DRIs for the third week, and six times the DRIs for the fourth week. Twenty-four-hour urine samples were collected each week. Urinary excretion levels for seven of the nine water-soluble vitamin levels, excluding vitamin B12 and folate, increased linearly and sharply in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that measuring urinary water-soluble vitamins can be good nutritional markers for assessing vitamin intakes in humans.

  2. Relationship between Urinary Concentrations of Nine Water-soluble Vitamins and their Vitamin Intakes in Japanese Adult Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsumi Shibata

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Excess water-soluble vitamins are thought to be eliminated in the urine. We have reported a strong relationship between water-soluble vitamin intake and urinary excretion in females. The relationship, however, is not well understood in males. In the present experiment, 10 Japanese male subjects were given a standard Japanese diet for the first week. The subjects remained on the same diet, and a synthesized water-soluble vitamin mixture containing one time the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs for Japanese was given for the second week, three times the DRIs for the third week, and six times the DRIs for the fourth week. Twenty-four-hour urine samples were collected each week. Urinary excretion levels for seven of the nine water-soluble vitamin levels, excluding vitamin B 12 and folate, increased linearly and sharply in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that measuring urinary water-soluble vitamins can be good nutritional markers for assessing vitamin intakes in humans.

  3. Early ethanol and water intake: choice mechanism and total fluid regulation operate in parallel in male alcohol preferring (P) and both Wistar and Sprague Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarov, Alexey V; Woodward, Donald J

    2014-01-17

    The goal of this study was to clarify similar and distinctly different parameters of fluid intake during early phases of ethanol and water choice drinking in alcohol preferring P-rat vs. non-selected Wistar and Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Precision information on the drinking amounts and timing is needed to analyze micro-behavioral components of the acquisition of ethanol intake and to enable a search for its causal activity patterns within individual CNS circuits. The experiment followed the standard ethanol-drinking test used in P-rat selective breeding, with access to water, then 10% ethanol (10E) as sole fluids, and next to ethanol/water choice. The novelty of the present approach was to eliminate confounding prandial elevations of fluid intake, by time-separating daily food from fluid access. P-rat higher initial intakes of water and 10E as sole fluids suggest adaptations to ethanol-induced dehydration in P vs. Wistar and SD rats. P-rat starting and overall ethanol intake during the choice period were the highest. The absolute extent of ethanol intake elevation during choice period was greatest in Wistar and their final intake levels approached those of P-rat, contrary to the hypothesis that selection would produce the strongest elevation of ethanol intake. The total daily fluid during ethanol/water choice period was strikingly similar between P, Wistar and SD rats. This supports the hypothesis for a universal system that gauges the overall intake volume by titrating and integrating ethanol and water drinking fluctuations, and indicates a stable daily level of total fluid as a main regulated parameter of fluid intake across the three lines in choice conditions. The present findings indicate that a stable daily level of total fluid comprises an independent physiological limit for daily ethanol intake. Ethanol drinking, in turn, stays under the ceiling of this limit, driven by a parallel mechanism of ethanol/water choice. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Water intake and digestive metabolism of broilers fed all-vegetable diets containing acidulated soybean soapstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SL Vieira

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to compare live performance and digestive metabolism of broiler chickens fed all-vegetable diets (All-Veg compared to a regular diet including animal by-products. Three feeds were formulated and provided to broilers according to the feeding program: pre-starter from 1 to 10 days, starter from 11 to 21 days, and grower from 21 to 35 days. All feeds had corn and soybean meal as major ingredients; however, two of them were all-vegetable diets having either Degummed Soybean Oil (DSO or Acidulated Soybean Soapstock (ASS as fat sources. The third diet included poultry by-product and poultry fat. A total number of 360 day-old broiler chicks were allocated to 1m² battery cages, 10 chicks in each, and 12 replicates per treatment. Live performance was similar between groups of birds receiving the different diets with the exception of weight gain, which was increased for birds fed the All-Veg diet with ASS. Birds fed All-Veg diets had increased water intake and produced more excreta with a concurrent reduced feed metabolizability at both ages, regardless of fat source. Metabolizable Energy was not different for the three diets.

  5. Supplement Analysis for the Watershed Management Program EIS (DOE/EIS-0265/SA-90) - Naches River Water Treatment Plant Intake Screening Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, Shannon C. [Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Portland, OR (United States)

    2002-09-26

    BPA is proposing to fund the upgrade of the intake structure for the City of Yakima’s Water Treatment Plant. The existing traveling water screen at the intake does not achieve the current fish screening criteria as defined by Washington State Law and as provided in guidance from the National Marine Fisheries Service. Permanent modifications to the intake system including installation of a fish screen and bypass system are necessary to eliminate mortality and take of ESA listed and non-listed salmonids, as well as resident fish at this location. This project will include: modifications to bypass the existing intake system; the construction of a new intake structure with approved fish screens; installation of a 48-inch diameter pipeline connecting the new intake to the existing intake structure; a reduced intake channel separating PacifiCorp Powerhouse return water/ Naches River water from the irrigation and Wapatox waste ditch return water; modifications to the auxiliary headgates; increased height on the upstream end of the channel wall; and a new outfall structure with plunge pool and upstream migrant barriers.

  6. Oesophageal fistula/tritium-labelled water technique for determining dry matter intake and saliva secretion rates of grazing herbivores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luick, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    Seven assumptions on which the use of tritium-labelled water and oesophageal fistula depend, for determining the dry matter intake and saliva secretion rates of grazing herbivores, were tested experimentally. It is concluded that many of the possible sources of error can be ignored, but that a correction is necessary for the saliva dry matter content when calculating the dry matter of ingested food from fistula samples. (author)

  7. Beverage and water intake of healthy adults in some European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissensohn, Mariela; Castro-Quezada, Itandehui; Serra-Majem, Lluis

    2013-11-01

    Nutritional surveys frequently collect some data of consumption of beverages; however, information from different sources and different methodologies raises issues of comparability. The main objective of this review was to examine the available techniques used for assessing beverage intake in European epidemiological studies and to describe the most frequent method applied to assess it. Information of beverage intake available from European surveys and nutritional epidemiological investigations was obtained from gray literature. Twelve articles were included and relevant data were extracted. The studies were carried out on healthy adults by different types of assessments. The most frequent tool used was a 7-d dietary record. Only Germany used a specific beverage assessment tool (Beverage Dietary History). From the limited data available and the diversity of the methodology used, the results show that consumption of beverages is different between countries. Current epidemiological studies in Europe focusing on beverage intake are scarce. Further research is needed to clarify the amount of beverage intake in European population.

  8. Characteristics of women who frequently under report their energy intake: a doubly labelled water study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scagliusi, F B; Ferriolli, E; Pfrimer, K; Laureano, C; Cunha, C S F; Gualano, B; Lourenço, B H; Lancha, A H

    2009-10-01

    We applied three dietary assessment methods and aimed at obtaining a set of physical, social and psychological variables that can discriminate those individuals who did not underreport ('never under-reporters'), those who underreported in one dietary assessment method ('occasional under-reporters') and those who underreported in two or three dietary assessment methods ('frequent under-reporters'). Sixty-five women aged 18-57 years were recruited for this study. Total energy expenditure was determined by doubly labelled water, and energy intake was estimated by three 24-h diet recalls, 3-day food records and a food frequency questionnaire. A multiple discriminant analysis was used to identify which of those variables better discriminated the three groups: body mass index (BMI), income, education, social desirability, nutritional knowledge, dietary restraint, physical activity practice, body dissatisfaction and binge-eating symptoms. Twenty-three participants were 'never under-reporters'. Twenty-four participants were 'occasional under-reporters' and 18 were 'frequent under-reporters'. Four variables entered the discriminant model: income, BMI, social desirability and body dissatisfaction. According to potency indices, income contributed the most to the total discriminant power, followed in decreasing order by social desirability score, BMI and body dissatisfaction. Income, social desirability and BMI were the characteristics that mainly separated the 'never under-reporters' from the under-reporters (occasional or frequent). Body dissatisfaction better discriminated the 'occasional under-reporters' from the 'frequent under-reporters'. 'Frequent under-reporters' have a greater BMI, social desirability score, body dissatisfaction score and lower income. These four variables seemed to be able to discriminate individuals who are more prone to systematic under reporting.

  9. Effects of repeated light-dark phase shifts on voluntary ethanol and water intake in male and female Fischer and Lewis rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenwasser, Alan M; Clark, James W; Fixaris, Michael C; Belanger, Gabriel V; Foster, James A

    2010-05-01

    Several lines of evidence implicate reciprocal interactions between excessive alcohol (ethanol) intake and dysregulation of circadian biological rhythms. Thus, chronic alcohol intake leads to widespread circadian disruption in both humans and experimental animals, while in turn, chronobiological disruption has been hypothesized to promote or sustain excessive alcohol intake. Nevertheless, the effects of circadian disruption on voluntary ethanol intake have not been investigated extensively, and prior studies have reported both increased and decreased ethanol intake in rats maintained under "shift-lag" lighting regimens mimicking those experienced by shift workers and transmeridian travelers. In the present study, male and female inbred Fischer and Lewis rats were housed in running wheel cages with continuous free-choice access to both water and 10% (vol/vol) ethanol solution and exposed to repeated 6-h phase advances of the daily light-dark (LD) cycle, whereas controls were kept under standard LD 12:12 conditions. Shift-lag lighting reduced overall ethanol and water intake, and reduced ethanol preference in Fischer rats. Although contrary to the hypothesis that circadian disruption would increase voluntary ethanol intake, these results are consistent with our previous report of reduced ethanol intake in selectively bred high-alcohol-drinking (HAD1) rats housed under a similar lighting regimen. We conclude that chronic circadian disruption is a form of chronobiological stressor that, like other stressors, can either increase or decrease ethanol intake, depending on a variety of poorly understood variables. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Geostatistical Characteristic of Space -Time Variation in Underground Water Selected Quality Parameters in Klodzko Water Intake Area (SW Part of Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namysłowska-Wilczyńska, Barbara

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents selected results of research connected with the development of a (3D) geostatistical hydrogeochemical model of the Klodzko Drainage Basin, dedicated to the spatial and time variation in the selected quality parameters of underground water in the Klodzko water intake area (SW part of Poland). The research covers the period 2011÷2012. Spatial analyses of the variation in various quality parameters, i.e, contents of: ammonium ion [gNH4+/m3], NO3- (nitrate ion) [gNO3/m3], PO4-3 (phosphate ion) [gPO4-3/m3], total organic carbon C (TOC) [gC/m3], pH redox potential and temperature C [degrees], were carried out on the basis of the chemical determinations of the quality parameters of underground water samples taken from the wells in the water intake area. Spatial and time variation in the quality parameters was analyzed on the basis of archival data (period 1977÷1999) for 22 (pump and siphon) wells with a depth ranging from 9.5 to 38.0 m b.g.l., later data obtained (November 2011) from tests of water taken from 14 existing wells. The wells were built in the years 1954÷1998. The water abstraction depth (difference between the terrain elevation and the dynamic water table level) is ranged from 276÷286 m a.s.l., with an average of 282.05 m a.s.l. Dynamic water table level is contained between 6.22 m÷16.44 m b.g.l., with a mean value of 9.64 m b.g.l. The latest data (January 2012) acquired from 3 new piezometers, with a depth of 9÷10m, which were made in other locations in the relevant area. Thematic databases, containing original data on coordinates X, Y (latitude, longitude) and Z (terrain elevation and time - years) and on regionalized variables, i.e. the underground water quality parameters in the Klodzko water intake area determined for different analytical configurations (22 wells, 14 wells, 14 wells + 3 piezometers), were created. Both archival data (acquired in the years 1977÷1999) and the latest data (collected in 2011÷2012) were analyzed

  11. Effects of the restriction of food and water intake on the distribution and retention of radioiodine in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Sentaro; Sato, Hiroshi; Kubota, Yoshihisa; Sun, Xuezhi; Dao Thi Bich Thuy; Chandrasekharan, N.V.

    2000-01-01

    The effects of the restriction of food and water intakes on gastrointestinal absorption, distribution to organs and excretion of 131 I were investigated in C3H/He mice. The animals were divided into four groups and administered orally 37 kBq carrier-free Na 131 I in 0.25 ml normal saline. One group of animals was given food and water ad libitum throughout the experimental period. Food and water to the remaining groups were restricted before and/or after the administration of 131 I. The animals in each group were sacrificed 4 h and 24 h after administration, and the activity of 131 I in thyroid, blood, liver, kidney, gastrointestinal tract, urine, feces, and carcass was measured. There was a significant increase in the retention of 131 I in the thyroid and the concentration of 131 I in the blood due to the restriction of food and water after the administration of 131 I. In contrast, a significant decrease in the urinary excretion was observed in these animals. In those animals, which fasted before administration only, the retention of 131 I in the thyroid and other organs were decreased. Therefore, for an accurate diagnosis and effective therapy with radioiodine as well as effective radiation protection, the intake of food and water should be taken into account. (author)

  12. Effect of water content in a canned food on voluntary food intake and body weight in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Alfreda; Fascetti, Andrea J; Villaverde, Cecilia; Wong, Raymond K; Ramsey, Jon J

    2011-07-01

    To determine whether water content in a canned food diet induces decreases in voluntary energy intake (EI) or body weight (BW) in cats fed ad libitum. 16 sexually intact male domestic shorthair cats. Maintenance EI was determined for 2 months in 10 weight-stable cats consuming a control diet (typical colony diet). Cats were allocated into 2 groups of equal BW and fed a canned diet (with-water [WW] diet) or a freeze-dried version of the canned diet (low-water [LW] diet) twice daily. Diets were identical in nutrient profile on a dry-matter basis. Each dietary treatment period of the crossover experiment lasted 3 weeks, with a 3-week washout period between diets. Body composition measurements were determined by use of deuterium oxide at the end of each dietary treatment. Daily food intake was measured for determination of dry-matter intake and EI. Six other cats were used in preference tests for the 3 diets. EI was significantly decreased for the WW diet (mean ± SD, 1,053.0 ± 274.9 kJ/d), compared with EI for the LW diet (1,413.8 ± 345.8 kJ/d). Cats had a significant decrease in BW during consumption of the WW diet. Body composition was unaltered by diet. In short-term preference tests, cats ate significantly more of the WW than the LW diet. Bulk water in the WW diet stimulated decreases in EI and BW in cats. The impact of water content on energy density and food consumption may help promote weight loss in cats.

  13. An easy-to-use semiquantitative food record validated for energy intake by using doubly labelled water technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koebnick, C; Wagner, K; Thielecke, F; Dieter, G; Höhne, A; Franke, A; Garcia, A L; Meyer, H; Hoffmann, I; Leitzmann, P; Trippo, U; Zunft, H J F

    2005-09-01

    Estimating dietary intake is important for both epidemiological and clinical studies, but often lacks accuracy. To investigate the accuracy and validity of energy intake estimated by an easy-to-use semiquantitative food record (EI(SQFR)) compared to total energy expenditure (TEE) estimated by doubly labelled water technique (EE(DLW)). TEE was measured in 29 nonobese subjects using the doubly labelled water method over a period of 14 days. Within this period, subjects reported their food consumption by a newly developed semiquantitative food record for 4 consecutive days. Energy intake was calculated using the German Food Code and Nutrition Data Base BLS II.3. A good correlation was observed between EI(SQFR) and EE(DLW) (r = 0.685, P 20% in nine subjects (31%). In five subjects (17%), an overestimation of EI(SQFR) was observed. The easy-to-use semiquantitative food record provided good estimates of EI in free-living and nonobese adults without prior detailed verbal instructions. The presented food record has limitations regarding accuracy at the individual level.

  14. The formation of the chemical composition of groundwater in South Prohibiny using the example of "Predgorny" water intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazukhina S. I.

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Researchers from Russia and foreign countries, studying medical and environmental contamination of drinking water, point to the relationship of public health with chemical composition of groundwater and anthropogenic inclusions. The aim of the work is to detect the change in chemical composition of natural waters formed within the Khibiny massif and its closest framing depending on the composition of rocks in the catchment area and on anthropogenic impact by means of physical and chemical modeling and modern precision methods of analysis. To achieve the goal the sampling has been taken at the "Predgorny" water intake (Koashva, the Kirovsk district. The complete hydrochemical analysis has shown the presence in waters of such elements as uranium, molybdenum, silver, barium, which supplemented the database of groundwater chemical composition. For the physical-chemical modeling, there have been made some samples of chemical analyzes of the most common rocks composing the southeastern part of the Khibiny massif as the main catchment area. The analysis of the obtained results has made it possible to separate the rock influence from anthropogenic, natural chemical composition of waters from filtered mined (anthropogenic. It has been shown that already in natural (pure waters the ratios of Ca/P and Ca/Sr can lead to bone diseases. It has been determined that the chemical composition of groundwater from the "Predgorny" water intake is affected by the chemical composition of rocks and surface waters containing oxygen, nitrogen nitrates, chlorine, which affect pH (reducing it, the migration patterns of aluminum, manganese, iron and other elements. In the bones of humans and animals, approximately 70 % falls on hydroxyl apatite Ca5(PO43OH. OH group can be replaced by F, Cl, O. Calcium can be isomorphically replaced by a number of elements: Sr, U, Ba, etc. that lead to diseases of bones and teeth. The research results can be useful in the fields of

  15. Estimation of Arsenic Intake from Drinking Water and Food (Raw and Cooked in a Rural Village of Northern Chile. Urine as a Biomarker of Recent Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Pablo Diaz

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate both the contribution of drinking water and food (raw and cooked to the total (t-As and inorganic (i-As arsenic intake and the exposure of inhabitants of Socaire, a rural village in Chile´s Antofagasta Region, by using urine as biomarker. The i-As intake from food and water was estimated using samples collected between November 2008 and September 2009. A 24-hour dietary recall questionnaire was given to 20 participants. Drinking water, food (raw and cooked and urine samples were collected directly from the homes where the interviewees lived. The percentage of i-As/t-As in the drinking water that contributed to the total intake was variable (26.8–92.9. Cereals and vegetables are the food groups that contain higher concentrations of i-As. All of the participants interviewed exceeded the reference intake FAO/OMS (149.8 µg∙i-As·day−1 by approximately nine times. The concentration of t-As in urine in each individual ranged from 78 to 459 ng·mL−1. Estimated As intake from drinking water and food was not associated with total urinary As concentration. The results show that both drinking water and food substantially contribute to i-As intake and an increased exposure risk to adult residents in contaminated areas.

  16. Estimation of Arsenic Intake from Drinking Water and Food (Raw and Cooked) in a Rural Village of Northern Chile. Urine as a Biomarker of Recent Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Oscar Pablo; Arcos, Rafael; Tapia, Yasna; Pastene, Rubén; Velez, Dínoraz; Devesa, Vicenta; Montoro, Rosa; Aguilera, Valeska; Becerra, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate both the contribution of drinking water and food (raw and cooked) to the total (t-As) and inorganic (i-As) arsenic intake and the exposure of inhabitants of Socaire, a rural village in Chile´s Antofagasta Region, by using urine as biomarker. The i-As intake from food and water was estimated using samples collected between November 2008 and September 2009. A 24-hour dietary recall questionnaire was given to 20 participants. Drinking water, food (raw and cooked) and urine samples were collected directly from the homes where the interviewees lived. The percentage of i-As/t-As in the drinking water that contributed to the total intake was variable (26.8–92.9). Cereals and vegetables are the food groups that contain higher concentrations of i-As. All of the participants interviewed exceeded the reference intake FAO/OMS (149.8 µg∙i-As·day−1) by approximately nine times. The concentration of t-As in urine in each individual ranged from 78 to 459 ng·mL−1. Estimated As intake from drinking water and food was not associated with total urinary As concentration. The results show that both drinking water and food substantially contribute to i-As intake and an increased exposure risk to adult residents in contaminated areas. PMID:26006131

  17. Drinking water to reduce alcohol craving? A randomized controlled study on the impact of ghrelin in mediating the effects of forced water intake in alcohol addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopmann, Anne; Lippmann, Katharina; Schuster, Rilana; Reinhard, Iris; Bach, Patrick; Weil, Georg; Rietschel, Marcella; Witt, Stephanie H; Wiedemann, Klaus; Kiefer, Falk

    2017-11-01

    Recent data suggest that ghrelin is involved in the pathophysiology of alcohol use disorders, affecting alcohol self-administration and craving. Gastric ghrelin secretion is reduced by stomach distension. We now tested the hypothesis whether the clinically well-known effects of high-volume water intake on craving reduction in alcoholism is mediated by acute changes in ghrelin secretion. In this randomized human laboratory study, we included 23 alcohol-dependent male inpatient subjects who underwent alcohol cue exposure. Participants of the intervention group drank 1000ml of mineral water within 10min directly thereafter, compared to the participants of the control group who did not. Craving and plasma concentrations of acetylated ghrelin were measured ten times during the 120min following the alcohol cue exposure session. In the intervention group, a significant decrease in acetylated ghrelin in plasma compared to the control group was observed. This decrease was correlated to a reduction in patients' subjective level of craving. In the control group, no decrease of acetylated ghrelin in plasma and no association between alcohol craving and changes in plasma concentrations of acetylated ghrelin were observed. Our results present new evidence that the modulation in the ghrelin system by oral water intake mediates the effects of volume intake with craving reduction in alcohol use disorders. Hence, in addition to pharmacological interventions with ghrelin antagonists, the reduction of physiological ghrelin secretion might be a target for future interventions in the treatment of alcohol craving. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Nutrient intake, acid base status and weight gain in water buffalo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The impact of different dietary levels of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) on nutrient intake, acid-base status, nitrogen balance and weight gain was examined in growing male buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves exposed to hot summer conditions. In a complete randomized block design 60 animals of similar age and weight ...

  19. Changes in water and beverage intake and long-term weight changes: results from three prospective cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, A; Malik, V S; Hao, T; Willett, W C; Mozaffarian, D; Hu, F B

    2013-10-01

    To examine the long-term relationship between changes in water and beverage intake and weight change. Prospective cohort studies of 50013 women aged 40-64 years in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS, 1986-2006), 52987 women aged 27-44 years in the NHS II (1991-2007) and 21988 men aged 40-64 years in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986-2006) without obesity and chronic diseases at baseline. We assessed the association of weight change within each 4-year interval, with changes in beverage intakes and other lifestyle behaviors during the same period. Multivariate linear regression with robust variance and accounting for within-person repeated measures were used to evaluate the association. Results across the three cohorts were pooled by an inverse-variance-weighted meta-analysis. Participants gained an average of 1.45 kg (5th to 95th percentile: -1.87 to 5.46) within each 4-year period. After controlling for age, baseline body mass index and changes in other lifestyle behaviors (diet, smoking habits, exercise, alcohol, sleep duration, TV watching), each 1 cup per day increment of water intake was inversely associated with weight gain within each 4-year period (-0.13 kg; 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.17 to -0.08). The associations for other beverages were: sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) (0.36 kg; 95% CI: 0.24-0.48), fruit juice (0.22 kg; 95% CI: 0.15-0.28), coffee (-0.14 kg; 95% CI: -0.19 to -0.09), tea (-0.03 kg; 95% CI: -0.05 to -0.01), diet beverages (-0.10 kg; 95% CI: -0.14 to -0.06), low-fat milk (0.02 kg; 95% CI: -0.04 to 0.09) and whole milk (0.02 kg; 95% CI: -0.06 to 0.10). We estimated that replacement of 1 serving per day of SSBs by 1 cup per day of water was associated with 0.49 kg (95% CI: 0.32-0.65) less weight gain over each 4-year period, and the replacement estimate of fruit juices by water was 0.35 kg (95% CI: 0.23-0.46). Substitution of SSBs or fruit juices by other beverages (coffee, tea, diet beverages, low-fat and whole milk) were all

  20. A Mobile Phone Based Method to Assess Energy and Food Intake in Young Children: A Validation Study against the Doubly Labelled Water Method and 24 h Dietary Recalls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Delisle Nyström

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile phones are becoming important instruments for assessing diet and energy intake. We developed the Tool for Energy Balance in Children (TECH, which uses a mobile phone to assess energy and food intake in pre-school children. The aims of this study were: (a to compare energy intake (EI using TECH with total energy expenditure (TEE measured via doubly labelled water (DLW; and (b to compare intakes of fruits, vegetables, fruit juice, sweetened beverages, candy, ice cream, and bakery products using TECH with intakes acquired by 24 h dietary recalls. Participants were 39 healthy, Swedish children (5.5 ± 0.5 years within the ongoing Mobile-based Intervention Intended to Stop Obesity in Preschoolers (MINISTOP obesity prevention trial. Energy and food intakes were assessed during four days using TECH and 24 h telephone dietary recalls. Mean EI (TECH was not statistically different from TEE (DLW (5820 ± 820 kJ/24 h and 6040 ± 680kJ/24 h, respectively. No significant differences in the average food intakes using TECH and 24 h dietary recalls were found. All food intakes were correlated between TECH and the 24 h dietary recalls (ρ = 0.665–0.896, p < 0.001. In conclusion, TECH accurately estimated the average intakes of energy and selected foods and thus has the potential to be a useful tool for dietary studies in pre-school children, for example obesity prevention trials.

  1. An approach for assessing potential sediment-bound contaminant threats near the intake of a drinking water treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fei; Anderson, William B; Huck, Peter M

    2013-01-01

    To assist in assessing a potential contaminated sediment threat near a drinking water intake in a large lake, a technique known as the fingerprint analysis of leachate contaminants (FALCON), was investigated and enhanced to help draw more statistically significant definitive conclusions. This represents the first application of this approach, originally developed by the USEPA to characterize and track leachate penetration in groundwater and contaminant migration from waste and landfill sites, in a large lake from the point-of-view of source water protection. FALCON provided valuable information regarding contaminated sediment characterization, source attribution, and transport within a surface water context without the need for knowledge of local hydrodynamic conditions, potentially reducing reliance on complicated hydrodynamic analysis. A t-test to evaluate the significance of correlations was shown to further enhance the FALCON procedure. In this study, the sensitivity of FALCON was found to be improved by using concentration data from both conserved organics and heavy metals in combination. Furthermore, data analysis indicated that it may be possible to indirectly assess the success of remediation efforts (and the corresponding need to plan for a treatment upgrade in the event of escalating contaminant concentrations) by examining the temporal change in correlation between the source and intake sediment fingerprints over time. This method has potential for widespread application in situations where conserved contaminants such as heavy metals and higher molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), are being or have previously been deposited in sediment somewhere in, or within range of, an intake protection zone. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparison of energy expenditure by the doubly labeled water technique with energy intake, heart rate, and activity recording in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, S.; Westerterp, K.R.; Brueck, K.

    1989-01-01

    Average daily energy expenditure determined by the doubly labeled water technique (dlwEE) was compared in six subjects (aged 20-30 y) over 2 wk under usual living conditions; average food energy intake and energy expenditure estimated from individual diary records of physical activity. In addition, energy expenditure was estimated from 24-h heart rate recordings carried out on two randomly chosen days of the 2-wk period. The group means of the dlwEE were 1.94 +/- 0.24 (means +/- SD) times larger than resting metabolic rate (= 1.94 met) and nearly identical to the average daily energy intake (1.93 +/- 0.23 met). Energy expenditure estimated from the diaries of activity and from the 24-h heart rate recording varied between 1.67 and 2.24 met depending on the calculation procedure. The dlwEE (1.94 +/- 0.24 met) is much higher than that recently determined for sedentary people (1.25 met) and thus explains that young students may achieve body weight balance with a relatively high daily food energy intake

  3. Inhibition of dehydration-induced water intake by glucocorticoids is associated with activation of hypothalamic natriuretic peptide receptor-A in rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Liu

    Full Text Available Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP provides a potent defense mechanism against volume overload in mammals. Its primary receptor, natriuretic peptide receptor-A (NPR-A, is localized mostly in the kidney, but also is found in hypothalamic areas involved in body fluid volume regulation. Acute glucocorticoid administration produces potent diuresis and natriuresis, possibly by acting in the renal natriuretic peptide system. However, chronic glucocorticoid administration attenuates renal water and sodium excretion. The precise mechanism underlying this paradoxical phenomenon is unclear. We assume that chronic glucocorticoid administration may activate natriuretic peptide system in hypothalamus, and cause volume depletion by inhibiting dehydration-induced water intake. Volume depletion, in turn, compromises renal water excretion. To test this postulation, we determined the effect of dexamethasone on dehydration-induced water intake and assessed the expression of NPR-A in the hypothalamus. The rats were deprived of water for 24 hours to have dehydrated status. Prior to free access to water, the water-deprived rats were pretreated with dexamethasone or vehicle. Urinary volume and water intake were monitored. We found that dexamethasone pretreatment not only produced potent diuresis, but dramatically inhibited the dehydration-induced water intake. Western blotting analysis showed the expression of NPR-A in the hypothalamus was dramatically upregulated by dexamethasone. Consequently, cyclic guanosine monophosphate (the second messenger for the ANP content in the hypothalamus was remarkably increased. The inhibitory effect of dexamethasone on water intake presented in a time- and dose-dependent manner, which emerged at least after 18-hour dexamethasone pretreatment. This effect was glucocorticoid receptor (GR mediated and was abolished by GR antagonist RU486. These results indicated a possible physiologic role for glucocorticoids in the hypothalamic control of

  4. Geostatistical analysis of space variation in underground water various quality parameters in Kłodzko water intake area (SW part of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namysłowska-Wilczyńska Barbara

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents selected results of research connected with the development of a (3D geostatistical hydrogeochemical model of the Kłodzko Drainage Basin, dedicated to the spatial variation in the different quality parameters of underground water in the water intake area (SW part of Poland. The research covers the period 2011-2012. Spatial analyses of the variation in various quality parameters, i.e., contents of: iron, manganese, ammonium ion, nitrate ion, phosphate ion, total organic carbon, pH redox potential and temperature, were carried out on the basis of the chemical determinations of the quality parameters of underground water samples taken from the wells in the water intake area. Spatial variation in the parameters was analyzed on the basis of data obtained (November 2011 from tests of water taken from 14 existing wells with a depth ranging from 9.5 to 38.0 m b.g.l. The latest data (January 2012 were obtained (gained from 3 new piezometers, made in other locations in the relevant area. A depth of these piezometers amounts to 9-10 m.

  5. Penetration of protective gloves as a route of intake for tritiated water and 125I-labelled sodium iodine solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, S.J.; Gilmore, A.

    1980-01-01

    Measurements have been made of the rate at which tritiated water and 125 I-labelled sodium iodide solution penetrate various types of protective gloves, both isotopes being in common use in this form in universities and similar establishments. Diffusion coefficients relating to the glove materials are also determined. The health physics aspects are discussed and it is concluded that intakes by workers through intact gloves are not likely to be of major significance and can easily be minimised by the correct use and choice of glove. (author)

  6. Under-reporting of food intake and body fatness in independent older people: a doubly labelled water study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfrimer, Karina; Vilela, Mariana; Resende, Cristina Maria; Scagliusi, Fernanda Baeza; Marchini, Julio Sergio; Lima, Nereida K C; Moriguti, Julio Cesar; Ferriolli, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    there are no accurate methods for the assessment of food intake in older populations, under-reporting of intake being highly prevalent. There is controversy about which dietary assessment method and what person's characteristics are associated with greater under-reporting rates. to assess the correlation between under-reporting of energy intake (EI) and different percentages of body fat in independent older people. cross-sectional study. area assisted by the Family Health Program of the Ribeirão Preto Medical School, University of São Paulo, Brazil. one hundred volunteers aged 60-70 years. all volunteers had their body composition assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. In second phase, 41 volunteers were evaluated, representing the four quartiles of fat percentage. Total energy expenditure (TEE) was measured by the doubly labelled water method, and EI was assessed by 24-h recalls and a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). TEE and EI values, EI-to-TEE ratios and EI-TEE values were compared. TEE was 2,220 ± 601 kcal, while the EI was 1,919 ± 602 kcal (24-h recall) and 2,119 ± 670 kcal (FFQ). The proportion of under-reporters was 31 and 40.5%, respectively. Under-reporting was more frequent in subjects with higher percentage of body fat and in females (P food intake. Older persons follow the same profile of under-reporting as younger adults. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Beverages containing low energy sweeteners do not differ from water in their effects on appetite, energy intake and food choices in healthy, non-obese French adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantino, Marc; Fantino, Agnès; Matray, Marie; Mistretta, Frédéric

    2018-06-01

    The usefulness of replacement of caloric sugars by low-calorie sweeteners (LCS) for weight management has been questioned on the grounds that the uncoupling of LCS sweet taste and dietary energy may confuse physiological mechanisms, leading potentially to higher energy and sugar intake. The aim of the present study was to determine whether LCS beverages compared to water, when consumed with meals, differ in their effects on energy and food intake in acute trials and after long-term habituation. Ad libitum food intake of 166 (80 women; 86 men) healthy non-obese adults (BMI between 19 and 28 kg/m2), infrequent consumers of LCS was measured in four 2-consecutive-day testing sessions (Day 1 in the laboratory, Day 2 free-living). During the first 3 sessions, held one-week apart, participants were required to drink either water or commercial non-carbonated LCS lemonade (330 ml) with their main meals (randomised cross-over design). On Day 1, motivational ratings were obtained using visual analogue scales and ad libitum food intakes (amounts and types of foods selected) were measured using the plate waste method. On Day 2, participants reported their ad libitum intakes using a food diary. After Session 3, participants were randomly assigned to the LCS habituation group or to the water control group. The habituation (660 ml LCS lemonade daily vs 660 ml water) lasted 5 weeks. The fourth and final test session measured food intakes and motivational ratings after habituation. Water and LCS beverage did not differ in their effects on total energy intake, macronutrient intakes or the selection of sweet foods and on motivational ratings. Similar results were obtained in both LCS-naïve and LCS-habituated individuals.

  8. A Mobile Phone Based Method to Assess Energy and Food Intake in Young Children: A Validation Study against the Doubly Labelled Water Method and 24 h Dietary Recalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delisle Nyström, Christine; Forsum, Elisabet; Henriksson, Hanna; Trolle-Lagerros, Ylva; Larsson, Christel; Maddison, Ralph; Timpka, Toomas; Löf, Marie

    2016-01-15

    Mobile phones are becoming important instruments for assessing diet and energy intake. We developed the Tool for Energy Balance in Children (TECH), which uses a mobile phone to assess energy and food intake in pre-school children. The aims of this study were: (a) to compare energy intake (EI) using TECH with total energy expenditure (TEE) measured via doubly labelled water (DLW); and (b) to compare intakes of fruits, vegetables, fruit juice, sweetened beverages, candy, ice cream, and bakery products using TECH with intakes acquired by 24 h dietary recalls. Participants were 39 healthy, Swedish children (5.5 ± 0.5 years) within the ongoing Mobile-based Intervention Intended to Stop Obesity in Preschoolers (MINISTOP) obesity prevention trial. Energy and food intakes were assessed during four days using TECH and 24 h telephone dietary recalls. Mean EI (TECH) was not statistically different from TEE (DLW) (5820 ± 820 kJ/24 h and 6040 ± 680 kJ/24 h, respectively). No significant differences in the average food intakes using TECH and 24 h dietary recalls were found. All food intakes were correlated between TECH and the 24 h dietary recalls (ρ = 0.665-0.896, p foods and thus has the potential to be a useful tool for dietary studies in pre-school children, for example obesity prevention trials.

  9. SWRO feed water quality improvement using subsurface intakes in Oman, Spain, Turks and Caicos Islands, and Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Rachman, Rinaldi

    2014-10-01

    Water quality sampling and analysis conducted at four global locations, along the shorelines of the Arabian Sea, the Red Sea, the Mediterranean Sea, and the Caribbean Sea, demonstrated that subsurface intakes (wells) provide a robust degree of feed water treatment close to that provided by energy-intensive, conventional pretreatment systems. SDI values were reduced in virtually all cases to below 3. In vertical wells, from 70 to 100% of the TEP and 50% of the TOC and DOC found in natural seawater were removed in the aquifer. Reduction in the concentration of the organic fractions was selective based on molecular weight with the biopolymers nearly fully removed. Humic substances, building blocks, and light organic substances were removed at lesser percentages. Site geology was not the predominant factor affecting the removal efficiency, but the length of the flow path from the sea to the wells and the hydraulic retention time appear to be most significant. A comparison between vertical wells, a tunnel intake system, and a horizontal drain system at Alicante, Spain, demonstrated that the vertical wells performed best followed by the tunnel system, and the horizontal drain system which showed a breakthrough of algae and a very high organic carbon concentration. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  10. Hydration, Fluid Intake, and Related Urine Biomarkers among Male College Students in Cangzhou, China: A Cross-Sectional Study—Applications for Assessing Fluid Intake and Adequate Water Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Zhang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to assess the associations between fluid intake and urine biomarkers and to determine daily total fluid intake for assessing hydration status for male college students. A total of 68 male college students aged 18–25 years recruited from Cangzhou, China completed a 7-day cross-sectional study. From day 1 to day 7; all subjects were asked to complete a self-administered 7-day 24-h fluid intake record. The foods eaten by subjects were weighed and 24-h urine was collected for three consecutive days on the last three consecutive days. On the sixth day, urine osmolality, specific gravity (USG, pH, and concentrations of potassium, sodium, and chloride was determined. Subjects were divided into optimal hydration, middle hydration, and hypohydration groups according to their 24-h urine osmolality. Strong relationships were found between daily total fluid intake and 24-h urine biomarkers, especially for 24-h urine volume (r = 0.76; p < 0.0001 and osmolality (r = 0.76; p < 0.0001. The percentage of the variances in daily total fluid intake (R2 explained by PLS (partial least squares model with seven urinary biomarkers was 68.9%; two urine biomarkers—24-h urine volume and osmolality—were identified as possible key predictors. The daily total fluid intake for assessing optimal hydration was 2582 mL, while the daily total fluid intake for assessing hypohydration was 2502 mL. Differences in fluid intake and urine biomarkers were found among male college students with different hydration status. A strong relationship existed between urine biomarkers and fluid intake. A PLS model identified that key variables for assessing daily total fluid intake were 24-h urine volume and osmolality. It was feasibility to use total fluid intake to judge hydration status.

  11. Development document for best technology available for the location, design, construction, and capacity of cooling water intake structures for minimizing adverse environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Train, R.E.; Breidenbach, A.W.; Hall, E.P.; Barnes, D.

    1976-04-01

    This document presents the findings of an extensive study of the available technology for the location, design construction and capacity of cooling water intake structures for minimizing adverse environmental impact, in compliance with and to implement Section 316(b) of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972

  12. A novel Eulerian approach for modelling cyanobacteria movement: Thin layer formation and recurrent risk to drinking water intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndong, Mouhamed; Bird, David; Nguyen Quang, Tri; Kahawita, René; Hamilton, David; de Boutray, Marie Laure; Prévost, Michèle; Dorner, Sarah

    2017-12-15

    Toxic cyanobacteria (CB) blooms are being reported in an increasing number of water bodies worldwide. As drinking water (DW) treatment can be disrupted by CB, in addition to long term management plans, short term operational decision-making tools are needed that enable an understanding of the temporal variability of CB movement in relation to drinking water intakes. In this paper, we propose a novel conservative model based on a Eulerian framework and compare results with data from CB blooms in Missisquoi Bay (Québec, Canada). The hydrodynamic model considered the effects of wind and light intensity, demonstrated that current understanding of cell buoyancy in relation to light intensity in full-scale systems is incomplete and some factors are yet to be fully characterized. Factors affecting CB buoyancy play a major role in the formation of a thin surface layer that could be of ecological importance with regards to cell concentrations and toxin production. Depending on velocities, wind contributes either to the accumulation or to the dispersion of CB. Lake recirculation effects have a tendency to create zones of low CB concentrations in a water body. Monitoring efforts and future research should focus on short-term variations of CB throughout the water column and the characterization of factors other than light intensity that affect cell buoyancy. These factors are critical for understanding the risk of breakthrough into treatment plants as well as the formation of surface scums and subsequent toxin production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The effects of ghrelin antagonists [D-Lys(3) ]-GHRP-6 or JMV2959 on ethanol, water, and food intake in C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Juan L; Ryabinin, Andrey E

    2014-09-01

    Alcohol use and abuse patterns have created a need for novel treatment models. Current research has turned its focus on reward pathways associated with intrinsic necessities, such as feeding. Theories suggest that drugs of abuse seize control of natural reward pathways and dysregulate normal function, leading to chronic addiction. One such pathway involving the hunger stimulating peptide, ghrelin, is the focus of our study. Male C57BL/6J mice were randomly assigned to groups and treated with vehicle or a ghrelin antagonist, either [D-Lys(3) ]-GHRP-6 (DLys) or JMV2959. Three experiments tested ghrelin antagonism using different doses; experiment 1 tested 12 mg/kg JMV2959; experiment 2 tested 15 mg/kg DLys; experiment 3 tested 9 mg/kg JMV2959. Using a 2-bottle choice 24-hour access paradigm, data were collected for ethanol intake, preference, water intake, and food intake at 4 and 24 hours after injection. Experiment 1 showed that 12 mg/kg of JMV2959 decreased ethanol, water, and food intake, without affecting preference. Experiment 2 showed that 15 mg/kg of DLys decreased ethanol intake, preference, and water intake only on the first day of treatment. Experiment 3 showed that 9 mg/kg of JMV2959 decreased only ethanol and food intake. No change was seen during deprivation, and JMV2959 was still effective at reducing ethanol intake upon reintroduction. Despite the change in food intake, there were no differences in body weight throughout the experiments. It should be noted that the majority of significant effects were only found 4 hours postinjection. The results show that compounds that block ghrelin receptor activity are effective at decreasing ethanol intake. However, DLys was only effective at reducing intake and preference on the first day, suggesting a quick tolerance and selectivity for ethanol. JMV2959 consistently reduced ethanol intake, but at the higher dose also reduced all other consummatory behaviors. Thus, ghrelin antagonists provide a viable potential

  14. College Cafeteria Signage Increases Water Intake but Water Position on the Soda Dispenser Encourages More Soda Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montuclard, Astrid Linn; Park-Mroch, Jennifer; O'Shea, Amy M J; Wansink, Brian; Irvin, Jill; Laroche, Helena H

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the effects of improved water location visibility and water dispenser position on the soda dispenser on undergraduate students' beverage choices. Two focus groups with pilot intervention surveys before and after, adding a small sign above the soda dispensers' water button for 6 weeks in a large US university's all-you-can-eat, prepaid dining hall (measured with chi-square tests and logistic and ordinal logistic regression). Focus groups included 15 students. Survey participants included 357 students before and 301 after the intervention. After the intervention, more students reported ever having drunk water with the meal (66.4% to 77.0%; P = .003) and water consumption frequency increased (P = .005). Postintervention, the odds of drinking water increased by 1.57. Preference for other drinks was the main reason for not drinking water. A total of 59% of students had ever changed their preference from water to soda. The clear indication of the water's location increased students' reported water consumption. Further investigation is needed into how a non-independent water dispenser influences students' beverage choice. Clearly labeled, independent water dispensers are recommended. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. All rights reserved.

  15. A comparison of water-diesel emulsion and timed injection of water into the intake manifold of a diesel engine for simultaneous control of NO and smoke emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanian, K.A.

    2011-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to compare the effects of water-diesel emulsion and water injection into the intake manifold on performance, combustion and emission characteristics of a DI diesel engine under similar operating conditions. The water to diesel ratio for the emulsion was 0.4:1 by mass. The same water-diesel ratio was maintained for water injection method in order to assess both potential benefits. All tests were done at the constant speed of 1500 rpm at different outputs. The static injection timing of 23 o BTDC was kept as constant for all experimental tests. In the first phase, experiments were carried out to asses the performance, combustion and emission characteristics of the engine using the water-diesel emulsion. The emulsion was prepared using the surfactant of HLB:7. The emulsion was injected using the conventional injection system during the compression stroke. The second phase of work was that water was injected into the intake manifold of the engine using an auxiliary injector during the suction stroke. An electronic control unit (ECU) was developed to control the injector operation such as start of injection and water injection duration with respect to the desired crank angle. The experimental result indicates the both methods (emulsion and injection) could reduce NO emission drastically in diesel engines. At full load, NO emission decreased drastically from 1034 ppm with base diesel to 645 ppm with emulsion and 643 ppm with injection. But, NO emission reduction is lesser with injection than emulsion at part loads. Smoke emission is lower with the emulsion (2.7 BSU) than with water injection (3.2 BSU) as compared to base diesel (3.6 BSU). However, CO and HC levels were higher with emulsion than water injection. As regards NO and smoke reduction, the emulsion was superior to injection at all loads. Peak pressure, ignition delay and maximum rate of pressure rise were lesser with water injection as compared to the emulsion. It is well demonstrated

  16. Water and fluid intake in the prevention and treatment of functional constipation in children and adolescents: is there evidence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Nunes Boilesen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the evidence on the role of water and fluid intake in the prevention and treatment of functional intestinal constipation in children and adolescents. Source of data: A search was carried out in the Medline database (between 1966 and 2016 for all published articles containing the following words: constipation, water, and fluids, published in Portuguese, English, and Spanish. All original articles that assessed children and adolescents were selected by title and abstract. The references of these articles were also evaluated. Synthesis of data: A total of 1040 articles were retrieved. Of these, 24 were selected for reading. The study included 11 articles that assessed children and adolescents. The articles were divided into two categories, those that evaluated water and fluid intake as a risk factor for intestinal constipation and those that evaluated their role in the treatment of intestinal constipation. Five articles were included in the first category. The criteria for assessing fluid intake and bowel rhythm were different in each study. Three studies demonstrated an association between low fluid intake and intestinal constipation. Regarding treatment, five articles with heterogeneous methodologies were found. None of them clearly identified the favorable role of fluid intake in the treatment of intestinal constipation. Conclusion: There are few articles on the association between fluid intake and intestinal constipation. Epidemiological evidence indicates an association between lower fluid intake and intestinal constipation. Further clinical trials and epidemiological studies that consider the international recommendations for fluid intake by children and adolescents are required. Resumo: Objetivo: Estudar as evidências sobre o papel do consumo de água e líquidos na prevenção e no tratamento da constipação intestinal funcional em crianças e adolescentes. Fontes de dados: Foi pesquisado na base de dados do Medline

  17. Voluntary intake of paracetamol-enriched drinking water and its influence on the success of embryo transfer in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischmann, Thea; Arras, Margarete; Sauer, Mareike; Saleh, Lanja; Rülicke, Thomas; Jirkof, Paulin

    2017-04-01

    Embryo transfer (ET) in mice is a key technique in biomedical research, and is carried out mostly via surgery by transferring founder embryos into pseudo-pregnant recipient females. To cover post-operative analgesic requirements in surrogate mothers, oral self-administration of painkillers has several advantages, but its effectiveness has also been criticized as voluntary ingestion of the drug can be uncertain. Additionally, concerns about potential negative side effects of analgesics on embryo viability and development have been raised. In this regard, we investigated the impact of orally administered analgesia by comparing the outcome of ET with and without paracetamol in the drinking water (3.5mg/ml) of surrogate mothers. Water intake increased significantly when paracetamol, as a sweet-tasting formulation (children's syrup), was added to the drinking water. Measurements of paracetamol concentrations in blood serum confirmed reasonable drug uptake. Success rate of ETs and the body weight of newborn offspring were not different whether paracetamol was administered for two days after surgery or not. In conclusion, paracetamol in drinking water was consumed voluntarily in substantial doses, without detectable side-effects, by freshly operated surrogate mothers, and can therefore be recommended as a feasible method for providing analgesic treatment for surgical ET in mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Prenatal nitrate intake from drinking water and selected birth defects in offspring of participants in the national birth defects prevention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brender, Jean D; Weyer, Peter J; Romitti, Paul A; Mohanty, Binayak P; Shinde, Mayura U; Vuong, Ann M; Sharkey, Joseph R; Dwivedi, Dipankar; Horel, Scott A; Kantamneni, Jiji; Huber, John C; Zheng, Qi; Werler, Martha M; Kelley, Katherine E; Griesenbeck, John S; Zhan, F Benjamin; Langlois, Peter H; Suarez, Lucina; Canfield, Mark A

    2013-09-01

    Previous studies of prenatal exposure to drinking-water nitrate and birth defects in offspring have not accounted for water consumption patterns or potential interaction with nitrosatable drugs. We examined the relation between prenatal exposure to drinking-water nitrate and selected birth defects, accounting for maternal water consumption patterns and nitrosatable drug exposure. With data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, we linked addresses of 3,300 case mothers and 1,121 control mothers from the Iowa and Texas sites to public water supplies and respective nitrate measurements. We assigned nitrate levels for bottled water from collection of representative samples and standard laboratory testing. Daily nitrate consumption was estimated from self-reported water consumption at home and work. With the lowest tertile of nitrate intake around conception as the referent group, mothers of babies with spina bifida were 2.0 times more likely (95% CI: 1.3, 3.2) to ingest ≥ 5 mg nitrate daily from drinking water (vs. nitrate daily (vs. water nitrate intake did not increase associations between prenatal nitrosatable drug use and birth defects. Higher water nitrate intake was associated with several birth defects in offspring, but did not strengthen associations between nitrosatable drugs and birth defects.

  19. Washing Habits and Machine with Intake of hot and cold Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bente Lis; Nørgaard, Jørgen

    1997-01-01

    with slightly adapted washing habits, or 17% of normal today. If the heat is supplied from combined heat and power production as in the actual experiment, CO2-emission is reduced by 81%. With hot water from oil or gas heaters the reduction will be slightly lower, while with solar hot water it will be larger.......Domestic washing machines typically spend around 80% of the electricity on heating water. Most of this can be replaced by more appropriate heat sources like district heat from combined heat and power production, or gas heating system. In recent years some washing machine manufacturers have marketed...... machines which can take in both hot and cold water and mix it to the temperature wanted. Such one machine has been tested in daily household use over 5 months, with habits of very few hot water washes. The result is an electricity consumption corresponding to 67 kWh per year for an average household...

  20. Effects of Satureja khuzistanica essential oils in drinking water on mortality, production performance, water intake, and organ weights in broiler chickens reared under heat stress condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravinia, H

    2015-11-01

    An experiment was conducted to examine the effects on mortality, production performance, water intake (WI), and organ weight of Satureja khuzistanica essential oil (SkEO) using 720 1-day-old Arian broiler chicks in a 42-day trial. Experimental treatments were addition of 0 (control(-)), 200, 300, 400, and 500 mg/L SkEO or 500 mg/L polysorbate 80 (control(+)) into drinking water. The birds were kept under natural ambient temperatures 4 to 6 °C above standard recommendation from days 22 to 42 of age. Addition of SkEO into drinking water at 200 and 500 mg/L decreased weight gain (P  0.05). Supplementation of drinking water with 200, 300, 400, and 500 mg/L SkEO resulted in a 0.47, 4.40, 8.60, and 12.93% decrease in WI, respectively, from days 1 to 42 of age. The calculated European broiler index was greater for the birds received 400 mg/L of SkEO in their drinking water compared with that of the other birds (P water for heat-stressed broiler chickens improves economic efficiency possibly by promoting digestion process, creating miniscule improvement in FCR and lowered mortality rate.

  1. Distribution of a pelagic tunicate, Salpa fusiformis in warm surface current of the eastern Korean waters and its impingement on cooling water intakes of Uljin nuclear power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Jinho; Choi, Hyun Woo; Lee, Woo Jin; Kim, Dongsung; Lee, Jae Hac

    2008-07-01

    Impingement of a large amount of gelatinous plankton, Salpa fusiformis on the seawater intake system-screens in a nuclear power plant at Uljin was firstly recorded on 18th June 2003. Whole amount of the clogged animals was estimated were presumptively at 295 tons and the shortage of cooling seawater supply by the animal clogging caused 38% of decrease in generation capability of the power plant. Zooplankton collection with a multiple towing net during the day and at night from 5 to 6 June 2003 included various gelatinous zooplanktons known to be warm water species such as salps and siphonophores. Comparatively larger species, Salpa fusiformis occupied 25.4% in individual density among the gelatinous plankton and showed surface distribution in the depth shallower than thermocline, performing little diel vertical migration. Temperature, salinity and satellite data also showed warm surface current predominated over the southern coastal region near the power plant in June. The results suggested that warm surface current occasionally extended into the neritic region may transfer S. fusiformis, to the waters off the power plant. The environmental factors and their relation to ecobiology of the large quantity of salpa population that are being sucked into the intake channel of the power plant are discussed.

  2. Iodine Intake in Somalia Is Excessive and Associated with the Source of Household Drinking Water123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassim, Ismail A. R.; Moloney, Grainne; Busili, Ahono; Nur, Abukar Yusuf; Paron, Paolo; Jooste, Pieter; Gadain, Hussein; Seal, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Few data on iodine status in Somalia are available, but it is assumed that deficiency is a public health problem due to the limited access to iodized salt. We aimed to describe the iodine status of the population of Somalia and to investigate possible determinants of iodine status. A national 2-stage, stratified household cluster survey was conducted in 2009 in the Northwest, Northeast, and South Central Zones of Somalia. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was determined in samples from women (aged 15–45 y) and children (aged 6–11 y), and examination for visible goiter was performed in the Northwest and South Central strata. A 24-h household food-frequency questionnaire was conducted, and salt samples were tested for iodization. The median UICs for nonpregnant women and children were 329 and 416 μg/L, respectively, indicating excessive iodine intake (>300 μg/L). The prevalence of visible goiter was Somalia is among the highest in the world and excessive according to WHO criteria. Further work is required to investigate the geochemistry and safety of groundwater sources in Somalia and the impact on human nutrition and health. PMID:24500936

  3. Iodine intake in Somalia is excessive and associated with the source of household drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassim, Ismail A R; Moloney, Grainne; Busili, Ahono; Nur, Abukar Yusuf; Paron, Paolo; Jooste, Pieter; Gadain, Hussein; Seal, Andrew J

    2014-03-01

    Few data on iodine status in Somalia are available, but it is assumed that deficiency is a public health problem due to the limited access to iodized salt. We aimed to describe the iodine status of the population of Somalia and to investigate possible determinants of iodine status. A national 2-stage, stratified household cluster survey was conducted in 2009 in the Northwest, Northeast, and South Central Zones of Somalia. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was determined in samples from women (aged 15-45 y) and children (aged 6-11 y), and examination for visible goiter was performed in the Northwest and South Central strata. A 24-h household food-frequency questionnaire was conducted, and salt samples were tested for iodization. The median UICs for nonpregnant women and children were 329 and 416 μg/L, respectively, indicating excessive iodine intake (>300 μg/L). The prevalence of visible goiter was Somalia is among the highest in the world and excessive according to WHO criteria. Further work is required to investigate the geochemistry and safety of groundwater sources in Somalia and the impact on human nutrition and health.

  4. Effects of water addition to total mixed ration on water intake, nutrient digestibility, wool cortisol and blood indices in Corriedale ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejad, Jalil Ghassemi; Kim, Byong-Wan; Lee, Bae-Hun; Kim, Ji-Yung; Sung, Kyung-Il

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of adding water to total mixed ration (TMR) on fresh water intake, nutrient digestibility, wool cortisol, and blood indices in Corriedale ewes under hot and humid conditions. Nine non-pregnant Corriedale ewes (ave. body weight = 41±3.5 kg) were individually fed diets based on maintenance requirements in metabolic crates. Ewes were assigned to three treatment groups according to a triplicate 3×3 Latin Square design for 3 periods of 21 days duration each (9 ewes per treatment, 27 replications). Treatments were TMR (crude protein [CP] = 16.1, total digestible nutrients = 69.1%) moisture levels for 40%, 50%, and 60%. No differences were found in body weight gain among all treatment groups (p>0.05). Nitrogen balance including digestible N, retained N, and urinary and fecal N showed no change among the treatment groups (p>0.05). Fresh water intake was the lower in 50% TMR moisture group than in the other groups (p0.05). No significant difference was observed for serum protein, blood urea nitrogen, glucose, and triglyceride among the treatment groups (p>0.05). Wool and blood cortisol were not different among the treatment groups (p>0.05). Blood hematology including red blood cell, white blood cells, hemoglobin, hematocrit, basophils, and eosinophils were not different among the treatment groups (p>0.05). It is concluded that TMR moisture at 40%, 50%, and 60% had no effects on N balance parameters, and nutrient digestibilities except for the ether extract under hot and humid conditions. Additionally there were no effects on stress conditions include wool cortisol, as well as blood cortisol levels of ewes.

  5. Effects of water addition to total mixed ration on water intake, nutrient digestibility, wool cortisol and blood indices in Corriedale ewes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalil Ghassemi Nejad

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective The objective of this study was to determine the effect of adding water to total mixed ration (TMR on fresh water intake, nutrient digestibility, wool cortisol, and blood indices in Corriedale ewes under hot and humid conditions. Methods Nine non-pregnant Corriedale ewes (ave. body weight = 41±3.5 kg were individually fed diets based on maintenance requirements in metabolic crates. Ewes were assigned to three treatment groups according to a triplicate 3×3 Latin Square design for 3 periods of 21 days duration each (9 ewes per treatment, 27 replications. Treatments were TMR (crude protein [CP] = 16.1, total digestible nutrients = 69.1% moisture levels for 40%, 50%, and 60%. Results No differences were found in body weight gain among all treatment groups (p>0.05. Nitrogen balance including digestible N, retained N, and urinary and fecal N showed no change among the treatment groups (p>0.05. Fresh water intake was the lower in 50% TMR moisture group than in the other groups (p0.05. No significant difference was observed for serum protein, blood urea nitrogen, glucose, and triglyceride among the treatment groups (p>0.05. Wool and blood cortisol were not different among the treatment groups (p>0.05. Blood hematology including red blood cell, white blood cells, hemoglobin, hematocrit, basophils, and eosinophils were not different among the treatment groups (p>0.05. Conclusion It is concluded that TMR moisture at 40%, 50%, and 60% had no effects on N balance parameters, and nutrient digestibilities except for the ether extract under hot and humid conditions. Additionally there were no effects on stress conditions include wool cortisol, as well as blood cortisol levels of ewes.

  6. Role of angiotensin II and vasopressin receptors within the supraoptic nucleus in water and sodium intake induced by the injection of angiotensin II into the medial septal area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antunes V.R.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigated the effects of the injection into the supraoptic nucleus (SON of non-peptide AT1- and AT2-angiotensin II (ANG II receptor antagonists, DuP753 and PD123319, as well as of the arginine-vasopressin (AVP receptor antagonist d(CH25-Tyr(Me-AVP, on water and 3% NaCl intake induced by the injection of ANG II into the medial septal area (MSA. The effects on water or 3% NaCl intake were assessed in 30-h water-deprived or in 20-h water-deprived furosemide-treated adult male rats, respectively. The drugs were injected in 0.5 ml over 30-60 s. Controls were injected with a similar volume of 0.15 M NaCl. Antagonists were injected at doses of 20, 80 and 180 nmol. Water and sodium intake was measured over a 2-h period. Previous administration of the AT1 receptor antagonist DuP753 into the SON decreased water (65%, N = 10, P<0.01 and sodium intake (81%, N = 8, P<0.01 induced by the injection of ANG II (10 nmol into the MSA. Neither of these responses was significantly changed by injection of the AT2-receptor antagonist PD123319 into the SON. On the other hand, while there was a decrease in water intake (45%, N = 9, P<0.01, ANG II-induced sodium intake was significantly increased (70%, N = 8, P<0.01 following injection of the V1-type vasopressin antagonist d(CH25-Tyr(Me-AVP into the SON. These results suggest that both AT1 and V1 receptors within the SON may be involved in water and sodium intake induced by the activation of ANG II receptors within the MSA. Furthermore, they do not support the involvement of MSA AT2 receptors in the mediation of these responses.

  7. Nutrient intake, acid base status and weight gain in water buffalo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2492989

    URL: http://www.sasas.co.za ... Introduction. A consistent supply of macro and micro nutrients to growing water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves is important to ... humid environmental conditions appears to be inappropriate. ... The experiment was conducted on five commercial feedlot farms in the district, Toba Tek Singh, in.

  8. Effect of chronic intake of arsenic-contaminated water on liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guha Mazumder, D.N.

    2005-01-01

    The hepatotoxic effect of arsenic when used in therapeutic dose has long been recognized. We described the nature and degree of liver involvement and its pathogenesis due to prolonged drinking of arsenic-contaminated water in West Bengal, India. From hospital-based studies on 248 cases of arsenicosis, hepatomegaly was found in 190 patients (76.6%). Non cirrhotic portal fibrosis was the predominant lesions in 63 out of 69 cases who underwent liver biopsy. The portal fibrosis was characterized by expansion of portal zones with streaky fibrosis, a few of which contained leash of vessels. However, portal hypertension was found in smaller number of cases. A cross-sectional epidemiological study was carried out on 7683 people residing in arsenic-affected districts of West Bengal. Out of these, 3467 and 4216 people consumed water-containing arsenic below and above 0.05 mg/l, respectively. Prevalence of hepatomegaly was significantly higher in arsenic-exposed people (10.2%) compared to controls (2.99%, P < 0.001). The incidence of hepatomegaly was found to have a linear relationship proportionate to increasing exposure of arsenic in drinking water in both sexes (P < 0.001). In an experimental study, BALB/C mice were given water contaminated with arsenic (3.2 mg/l) ad libitum for 15 months, the animals being sacrificed at 3-month intervals. We observed progressive reduction of hepatic glutathione and enzymes of anti-oxidative defense system associated with lipid peroxidation. Liver histology showed fatty infiltration at 12 months and hepatic fibrosis at 15 months. Our studies show that prolong drinking of arsenic-contaminated water is associated with hepatomegaly. Predominant lesion of hepatic fibrosis appears to be caused by arsenic induced oxystress

  9. Growing pigs' drinking behaviour: number of visits, duration, water intake and diurnal variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, H M-L; Dybkjær, L; Herskin, M S

    2014-11-01

    Individual drinking patterns are a potential tool for disease monitoring in pigs. However, to date, individual pig drinking behaviour has not been described, and effects of external factors have not been examined. The aim of this study was to perform detailed quantification of drinking behaviour of growing pigs and to examine effects of period of day and effects of competition for access to the drinking nipple on the drinking behaviour, amount of water used and water wastage. In all, 52 cross-bred castrated male pigs (live weight 20.5±1.7 kg; mean±s.d.) maintained as either 3 (N3) or 10 (N10) pigs per pen and water nipple (four groups/treatment) were used. All pigs were fitted with a transponder ear tag. A radio frequency identification reader recorded and time stamped visits at the nipple. In each pen, water flow was logged every second. The drinking behaviour was recorded for 4 consecutive days and analysed using a linear mixed model. Overall, the pigs spent 594 s at the nipple during 24 h distributed among 44 visits. During this period, 5 l of water were used, of which >30% was wasted. Social competition did not affect the drinking behaviour over 24 h, except for the proportion of interrupted visits where pigs, kept with recommended nipple availability (N10), showed an increased proportion of interrupted drinking bouts compared with pigs kept at very low level of competition (N3) (0.18±0.01 v. 0.11±0.01; Pbehavioural variables involved in drinking. This dynamic characteristic of drinking behaviour means that if individual drinking patterns are to be used as disease monitoring tools, it is important to consider effects of external factors and include data on period level to allow rapid detection of behavioural changes.

  10. Hydrogen-Rich Water Intake Accelerates Oral Palatal Wound Healing via Activation of the Nrf2/Antioxidant Defense Pathways in a Rat Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orihuela-Campos, Rita Cristina; Fukui, Makoto; Ito, Hiro-O

    2016-01-01

    The wound healing process attempts to restore the integrity and function of the injured tissue. Additionally, proinflammatory cytokines, growth factors, and oxidative stress play important roles in wound healing. The aim of this study was to determine whether hydrogen-rich water intake induces the activation of the Nrf2/antioxidant defense pathway in rat palatal tissue, thereby reducing systemic oxidative stress and proinflammatory cytokine levels and promoting healing-associated genes. A circular excisional wound was created in the oral palatal region, and the wound healing process was observed. The rats were divided into two experimental groups in which either hydrogen-rich water or distilled water was consumed. In the drinking hydrogen-rich water, the palatal wound healing process was accelerated compared to that in the control group. As molecular hydrogen upregulated the Nrf2 pathway, systemic oxidative stresses were decreased by the activation of antioxidant activity. Furthermore, hydrogen-rich water intake reduced proinflammatory cytokine levels and promoted the expression of healing-associated factors in rat palatal tissue. In conclusion, hydrogen-rich water intake exhibited multiple beneficial effects through activation of the Nrf2/antioxidant defense pathway. The results of this study support the hypothesis that oral administration of hydrogen-rich water benefits the wound healing process by decreasing oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. PMID:26798423

  11. Grazing behaviour, intake, rumen function and milk production of dairy cows offered Lolium perenne containing different levels of water-soluble carbohydrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taweel, H.Z.; Tas, B.M.; Smit, H.J.; Elgersma, A.; Dijkstra, J.; Tamminga, S.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess grazing behaviour, intake, rumen function, milk production and composition of dairy cows grazing perennial ryegrass varieties that were morphologically and chemically similar, but differed in their water-soluble carbohydrate (WSC) concentration. Eight multiparous

  12. Intake port

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendler, Edward Charles

    2005-02-01

    The volumetric efficiency and power of internal combustion engines is improved with an intake port having an intake nozzle, a venturi, and a surge chamber. The venturi is located almost halfway upstream the intake port between the intake valves and the intake plenum enabling the venturi throat diameter to be exceptionally small for providing an exceptionally high ram velocity and an exceptionally long and in turn high efficiency diffuser flowing into the surge chamber. The intake port includes an exceptionally large surge chamber volume for blow down of the intake air into the working cylinder of the engine.

  13. Seabed gallery intakes: Investigation of the water pretreatment effectiveness of the active layer using a long-term column experiment

    KAUST Repository

    Dehwah, Abdullah

    2017-05-11

    Seabed gallery intake systems used for seawater reverse osmosis facilities employ the same principle of water treatment as slow sand filtration in freshwater systems. An investigation concerning the effectiveness of the active layer (top layer) in improving raw water quality was conducted by using a long-term bench-scale columns experiment. Two different media types, silica and carbonate sand, were tested in 1 m columns to evaluate the effectiveness of media type in terms of algae, bacteria, Natural Organic Matter (NOM) and Transparent Exopolymer Particles (TEP) removal over a period of 620 days. Nearly all algae in the silica sand column, 87% (σ = 0.04) of the bacteria, 59% (σ = 0.11) of the biopolymer fraction of NOM, 59% (σ = 0.16) of particulate and 32% (σ = 0.25) of colloidal TEP were removed during the last 330 days of the experiment. Total removal was observed in the carbonate sand column for algal concentration, while the bacterial removal was lower at 74% (σ = 0.08). Removal of biopolymers, particulate and colloidal TEP were higher in the carbonate column during the last 330 days with 72% (σ = 0.15), 66% (σ = 0.08) and 36% (σ = 0.12) removed for these organics respectively. Removal of these key organics through the 1 m thick column, representing the active layer, will likely reduce the rate of biofouling, reduce chemical usage and minimize operating cost in SWRO systems. The data show that the media will require several months at the beginning of operation to reach equilibrium so that high organic removal rates can be achieved. No development of a “schmutzdecke” layer occurred. The experimental results suggest that unlike freshwater slow sand filtration wherein most water treatment occurs in the upper 10 cm, in seawater systems treatment occurs throughout the full active layer depth of 1 m. The results of this study will help in designing and operating seabed gallery intake systems in varied geological conditions.

  14. Misreporting of energy intake in the elderly using doubly labeled water to measure total energy expenditure and weight change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahar, Danit R; Yu, Binbing; Houston, Denise K; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Newman, Anne B; Sellmeyer, Deborah E; Tylavsky, Frances A; Lee, Jung Sun; Harris, Tamara B

    2010-02-01

    One of the major problems in dietary assessment is inaccuracy in reporting diet. To examine the association between self-reported energy intake (EI) by food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and energy expenditure (EE), measured by doubly labeled water (DLW), among older persons. EE was assessed in 298 high-functioning, community-dwelling older adults (70-79 years of age) over a 2-week period using DLW. Dietary intake was assessed using a Block FFQ. The ratio between reported EI and total energy expenditure (TEE) was calculated. Misreporting was defined as follows: participants with an EI/TEE ratio of reporters, while participants with an EI/TEE ratio >1.28 were categorized as high energy reporters. Participants with an EI/TEE ratio of 0.77-1.28 were categorized as "true" energy reporters. One-year percent weight change prior to EE visit was used as another validation indicator. Participants who were low energy reporters but lost >2% of their body weight were categorized as undereaters. Two hundred ninety-six participants provided both FFQ and DLW measurements. Forty-three percent of participants were low energy reporters; among them, almost 30% lost weight and, therefore, were categorized as undereaters. The undereaters consumed significantly fewer calories. No difference in the frequency of low energy reporting was detected between genders or racial groups. Underreporters had significantly higher body weight than "true" or high reporters. Undereaters tended to have higher body mass index than the underreporters. Undereating is prevalent in the elderly and may be falsely perceived as underreporting. It should be further addressed and characterized in future studies.

  15. Risk due assessment of the intake of uranium isotopes in mineral spring waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camargo, Iara M.C.; Mazzilli, Barbara

    1998-01-01

    To complement the data of a previous research concerning the evaluation of the lifetime risk of radiation-induced cancer due to the injection of 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 222 Rn in mineral spring waters from a natural highly radioactive region of Brazil. The study was performed to evaluate the lifetime risk of radiation-induced cancer due to the ingestion of 238 U and 234 U in the same spring waters. It is assumed that the risk coefficient for natural U isotopes is the same as for the 226 Ra-induced bone sarcomas and that the equilibrium for skeletal content is 25 times the daily ingestion of 226 Ra, but 11 times the daily ingestion of long-lived uranium isotopes. Waters samples were collected seasonally over a period of one year at all the spring sites used by the local population of Aguas da Prata, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. Concentrations ranging from 2.0 to 28.4 mBq/L and from 4.7 to 143 mBq/L were observed for 238 U and 234 U, respectively. Based upon the measured concentrations the lifetime risk due to the ingestion of uranium isotopes was estimated. A total of 0.3 uranium-induced cancers for 10 6 exposed persons was predicted, suggesting that chronic ingestion of uranium at the levels observed at these springs will result in an incremental increase of fatal cancers of 0.1%. (author)

  16. A Case Study on Hydrodynamic Modeling and Design Improvement Evaluation to Manage Debris and Sediment Interference at a Water Intake Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crissman, B. J.; Cunderlik, J. M.; Wong, R. P. L.; Pinero, A.

    2017-12-01

    Waterford 3 nuclear plant, located in Killona, Louisiana, provides approximately 10% of the state's electricity need. Located along the south bank of the Mississippi River, two miles upstream of the Bonnet Carre Spillway, the plant's single pass through cooling system continuously draws up to 1,000,000 gpm water from the river. On behalf of Entergy Louisiana, the project team evaluated options to improve the aging water intake structure with chronic debris and sediment entrainment issues. The highly complex and dynamic environment in the river coupled with regulatory constraints limited available improvement options: varying river stages allow debris to overflow the intake structure, but the maximum new wall height is restricted to minimize aesthetic intrusion and alteration to levee tie-back; bow waves push debris into the downstream intake wall, but the wall needs to maintain an opening to flush debris out from the intake structure; the river delivers significant sediment load, but any proposed intake structure cannot significantly alter existing bathymetry; EPA Clean Water Act Section 316(b) limited maximum velocity at the intake structure to 0.5 fps for entrainment prevention. To expedite alternative evaluation while providing sufficient data to inform management decision, instead of developing physical models, the project team developed a two-tier approach utilizing the TELEMAC hydrodynamic program to prepare screening analysis in 2D modeling and final evaluation in 3D modeling. The model was built upon the USACE ERDC ADH model, calibrated with river gauge data and peer reviewed by ERDC. TELEMAC, developed by EDF, provides novel features for modeling improvement options, including the recommended design concept, which is a hydraulically optimized intake geometry configured to maintain uniform intake flow while streamlining river flowline for debris and sediment deflection. The design includes submerged inlets with upstream and downstream walls to block

  17. Risk assessment of human intake Nickel from food, feed and water in Slovak Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Bobcek, Rastislav

    2011-01-01

    Nickel is a metal which is found in nature in the form of compounds with sulfur, arsenic and oxygen. Located in water and many foods (eg offal, soya, various fruits and vegetables, chocolate, cocoa, various kinds of nuts in foods in nickel cans ...). People receive food small amount of nickel, which is necessary for his health. It occurs in soil, air gets influence of volcanic activity. It is used in many alloys and chemical compounds. The main source of human exposure is contaminated food an...

  18. Predicted intake of trace elements and minerals via household drinking water by 6-year-old children from Krakow, Poland. Part 5: Zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, H

    2010-03-01

    Zinc (Zn) exposure in pre-school children via household drinking water collected by a double sampling method (morning, evening) was evaluated in a sample of the Polish population. Zn concentration was measured by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Rural and suburban Krakow sites were non-distinguishable in respect of Zn concentrations. However, significantly lower Zn was found in urban as compared with non-urban sites [geometric mean (95% confidence interval) 0.14 (0.01-1.95) mg l(-1) versus 0.52 (0.03-10.2) mg l(-1), p water standing overnight in pipelines were higher in all sites by 0.36 mg l(-1) on average, but observed really contaminations were higher. The Zn limit based on the taste and colour of drinking water (3 mg l(-1)) was exceeded in 1% and 10% of households from urban and non-urban sites, respectively. The Zn intake predictions for evening water samples for 6-year-old children averaged between 2% and 9% of the recommended dietary allowance (RDA, 10 mg day(-1)) for urban and non-urban sites, respectively. Mean Zn intake prediction for the exceedance fraction was 64% of RDA. In conclusion, overnight contamination of drinking water from in-house pipelines was significant and common to all sites investigated. Secondly, drinking water can be considered a significant contributor to dietary Zn intake by children in non-urban sites and may shift the population borderline of deficiency.

  19. The determination of effective doses from the intake of tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    To comply with the regulatory requirements relating to the dose from exposures to tritiated water (HTO), Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) licensees currently measure tritium concentration in urine to determine whole body dose. This approach has been based on the consideration that the time-integrated tritium concentration (which is proportional to accumulated dose) in any organ from urine concentrations are always conservative. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommends that the average soft tissue dose be used to determine effective dose equivalents for HTO exposures. The ICRP also recommends that only the retention in body water be considered when committed doses from HTO exposures are calculated; this recommendation is based on the consideration that the errors introduced by neglecting the long-lived tritium component (those tritium atoms retained in organic molecules of the body cells) are small (only of the order of 10% of the committed dose equivalent to the whole body). The AECB position is presented in the following regulatory policy statement

  20. Effect of lifetime intake of organically bound tritium and tritiated water on the oocytes of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietrzak-Flis, Z.; Wasilewska-Gomulka, M.

    1984-01-01

    Rats were continuously exposed to constant activity of tritium in drinking water (HTO group) or to tritium organically bound in food (T-food group) in the period from conception of F 1 generation through maturity. Female offspring were killed at the age of 21 and 71 days and the oocytes in their ovaries were counted. Mean dose rates absorbed in the ovaries were for the HTO groups 7.25+-0.37 and 14.73+-0.79 mGy/day and for the T-food group 4.84+-0.25 mGy/day. Reduction in the oocyte number in the ovaries of females exposed to tritiated food was bigger than in the ovaries of females exposed to tritiated water. The dependence of the survival of small oocytes on the dose rate and the corresponding total accumulated dose had an exponential character. The damaging effect of tritium was for the period from conception to 21 days of age bigger than from 21 to 71 days of age. Of all stages of oocyte development, the highest sensitivity to tritium irradiation was observed in small oocytes and oocytes with one complete layer of follicle cells. As a result, relative number of the growing and large oocytes increased. (orig.)

  1. Coping with Salt Water Habitats: Metabolic and Oxidative Responses to Salt Intake in the Rufous-Collared Sparrow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Sabat

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Many physiological adjustments occur in response to salt intake in several marine taxa, which manifest at different scales from changes in the concentration of individual molecules to physical traits of whole organisms. Little is known about the influence of salinity on the distribution, physiological performance, and ecology of passerines; specifically, the impact of drinking water salinity on the oxidative status of birds has been largely ignored. In this study, we evaluated whether experimental variations in the salt intake of a widely-distributed passerine (Zontotrichia capensis could generate differences in basal (BMR and maximum metabolic rates (Msum, as well as affect metabolic enzyme activity and oxidative status. We measured rates of energy expenditure of birds after 30-d acclimation to drink salt (SW or tap (fresh water (TW and assessed changes in the activity of mitochondrial enzymes (cytochrome c oxidase and citrate synthase in skeletal muscle, heart, and kidney. Finally, we evaluated the oxidative status of bird tissues by means of total antioxidant capacity (TAC and superoxide dismutase activities and lipid oxidative damage (Malondialdehyde, MDA. The results revealed a significant increase in BMR but not Msum, which resulted in a reduction in factorial aerobic scope in SW- vs. TW-acclimated birds. These changes were paralleled with increased kidney and intestine masses and catabolic activities in tissues, especially in pectoralis muscle. We also found that TAC and MDA concentrations were ~120 and ~400% higher, respectively in the liver of animals acclimated to the SW- vs. TW-treatment. Our study is the first to document changes in the oxidative status in birds that persistently drink saltwater, and shows that they undergo several physiological adjustments that range that range in scale from biochemical capacities (e.g., TAC and MDA to whole organism traits (e.g., metabolic rates. We propose that the physiological changes observed

  2. Nitrate in drinking water and vegetables: intake and risk assessment in rural and urban areas of Nagpur and Bhandara districts of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taneja, Pinky; Labhasetwar, Pawan; Nagarnaik, Pranav

    2017-06-06

    The study focuses on the estimation of health risk from nitrate present in the drinking water and vegetables in Nagpur and Bhandara districts in the state of Maharashtra, India. Drinking water samples from 77 locations from the rural as well as urban areas and 22 varieties of vegetable were collected and analyzed for the presence of nitrate for a period of 1 year (two seasons). The daily intake of nitrate from these water and vegetable samples was then computed and compared with standard acceptable intake levels to assess the associated health risk. The mean nitrate concentration of 59 drinking water samples exceeded the Bureau of Indian Standards limit of 45 mg/L in drinking water. The rural and urban areas were found to have mean nitrate concentration in drinking water as 45.69 ± 2.08 and 22.53 ± 1.97 mg/L, respectively. The estimated daily intake of drinking water samples from 55 study sites had nitrate concentration far below the safety margin indicating serious health risk. The sanitation survey conducted in 12 households reported contaminated source with positive E. coli count in 20 samples as the major factor of health risk. The average nitrate concentration was maximum in beetroot (1349.38 mg/kg) followed by spinach (1288.75 mg/kg) and amaranthus (1007.64 mg/kg). Among the samples, four varieties of the vegetables exceeded the acceptable daily intake (ADI) with an assumption of 0.5 kg consumption of vegetables for an average of a 60-kg individual. Therefore, irrigation of these locally grown vegetables should be monitored periodically for nitrogen accumulation by the crop above the ADI limit. The application of nitrogenous fertilizers should also be minimized in the rural areas to help protect the nitrate contamination in groundwater sources.

  3. Comparison of beverage consumption in adult populations from three different countries: do the international reference values allow establishing the adequacy of water and beverage intakes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissensohn, Mariela; Fuentes Lugo, Daniel; Serra-Majem, Lluis

    2016-07-13

    Recommendations of adequate total water intake (aTWI) have been proposed by the European Food Safety Agency (EFSA) and the Institute of Medicine (IOM)of the United States of America. However, there are differences in the approach used to support them: IOM recommendation is based on average intakes observed in NHANES III (Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) and EFSA recommendation on a combination of observed intakes from 13 different European countries. Despite these recommendations of aTWI, the currently available scientifi c evidence is not sufficient to establish a cut-off value that would prevent disease, reduce the risk for chronic diseases or improve health status. To compare the average daily consumption of fluids (water and other beverages) in selective samples of population from Mexico, US and Spain, evaluating the quantity of fluid intake and understanding the contribution of each fluid type to the total fl uid intake. We also aim to determine if they reached adequate intake (AI) values, as defi ned by three different criteria: IOM, EFSA and water density. Three studies were compared: from Mexico, the National Health and Nutrition Survey conducted in 2012 (NHNS 2012); from US, the NHANES III 2005-2010 and from Spain the ANIBES study leaded in 2013. Different categories of beverages were used to establish the pattern of energy intake for each country. Only adult population was selected. TWI of each study was compared with EFSA and IOM AI recommendations, as well as applying the criterion of water density (mL/kcal). The American study obtained the higher value of total kcal/day from food and beverages (2,437 ± 13). Furthermore, the percentage of daily energy intake coming from beverages was, for American adults, 21%. Mexico was slightly behind with 19% and Spain ANIBES study registered only 12%. ANIBES showed signifi cantly low AI values for the overall population, but even more alarming in the case of males. Only 12% of men, in

  4. Fish protection at water intakes using a new signal development process and sound system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loeffelman, P.H.; Klinect, D.A.; Van Hassel, J.H.

    1991-01-01

    American Electric Power Company, Inc., is exploring the feasibility of using a patented signal development process and sound system to guide aquatic animals with underwater sound. Sounds from animals such as chinook salmon, steelhead trout, striped bass, freshwater drum, largemouth bass, and gizzard shad can be used to synthesize a new signal to stimulate the animal in the most sensitive portion of its hearing range. AEP's field tests during its research demonstrate that adult chinook salmon, steelhead trout and warmwater fish, and steelhead trout and chinook salmon smolts can be repelled with a properly-tuned system. The signal development process and sound system is designed to be transportable and use animals at the site to incorporate site-specific factors known to affect underwater sound, e.g., bottom shape and type, water current, and temperature. This paper reports that, because the overall goal of this research was to determine the feasibility of using sound to divert fish, it was essential that the approach use a signal development process which could be customized to animals and site conditions at any hydropower plant site

  5. Increasing preload volume with water reduces rated appetite but not food intake in healthy men even with minimum delay between preload and test meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Richard W; French, Stephen J; Robinson, Tristan M; Yeomans, Martin R

    2003-02-01

    The role of gastric volume in the short-term control of eating in humans remains unclear, with some studies reporting that food volume alone can reduce appetite but others finding no such effect. A recent study in our laboratory, found effects of preload volume on subjective appetite (hunger, fullness) but not intake, and found effects of preload energy on intake but not appetite. That study used an interval of 30 min between serving preloads and the test meal, and the present study attempted to maximise the effects of the volume manipulation by removing the delay between the preload and test meal. We administered four soup-based preloads varying in volume (150 and 450 ml) using water, and energy density (1.4 and 4.2 kJ/ml) using maltodextrin, producing three energy levels (209, 629, 629 and 1886 kJ; repeated measures). These were followed immediately by an unlimited hot pasta lunch, during which food weight was monitored continuously by computer. Increasing soup volume at constant energy (629 kJ) reduced appetite ratings, but not intake. In contrast, increasing soup energy at constant volume (450 ml) reduced intake, without affecting appetite. The discrepancies between our results and other reported studies suggest that volume is more influential when intakes are large, or that there may be a threshold concentration for nutrients in the GI tract before volume alone is tangibly expressed in subsequent eating.

  6. Characteristics of GHG flux from water-air interface along a reclaimed water intake area of the Chaobai River in Shunyi, Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Baonan; He, Jiangtao; Wang, Jian; Li, Jie; Wang, Fei

    2018-01-01

    To understand greenhouse gas (GHG) flux in reclaimed water intake area impact on urban climate, 'static chamber' method was used to investigate the spatio-diurnal variations and the influence factors of GHG fluxes at water-air interface from Jian River to Chaobai River. Results showed that the average fluxes of CO2 from the Jian River and the Chaobai River were 73.46 mg(m2·h)-1 and -64.75 mg(m2·h)-1, respectively. CO2 was emitted the most in the Jian River, but it was absorbed from the atmosphere in the Chaobai River. Unary linear regression analyses demonstrated that Chlorophyll a (Chl a) and pH variation controlled the carbon source and sink from the Jian River to the Chaobai River. The diurnal variation of CO2 fluxes was higher at night than in the daytime in the Jian River, and it was the inverse in the Chaobai River, which highly correlated with dissociative CO2 and HCO3- transformation to CO32-. The average fluxes of CH4 from the Jian River and Chaobai River were 0.973 mg(m2·h)-1 and 5.556 mg(m2·h)-1, respectively, which increased along the water flow direction. Unary and multiple linear regression analyses demonstrated that Chl a and total organic carbon (TOC) controlled the increase of CH4 along the flow direction. The diurnal variation of CH4 fluxes was slightly higher in the daytime than at night due to the effect of water temperature.

  7. Negative, Null and Beneficial Effects of Drinking Water on Energy Intake, Energy Expenditure, Fat Oxidation and Weight Change in Randomized Trials: A Qualitative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodi J. D. Stookey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Drinking water has heterogeneous effects on energy intake (EI, energy expenditure (EE, fat oxidation (FO and weight change in randomized controlled trials (RCTs involving adults and/or children. The aim of this qualitative review of RCTs was to identify conditions associated with negative, null and beneficial effects of drinking water on EI, EE, FO and weight, to generate hypotheses about ways to optimize drinking water interventions for weight management. RCT conditions that are associated with negative or null effects of drinking water on EI, EE and/or FO in the short term are associated with negative or null effects on weight over the longer term. RCT conditions that are associated with lower EI, increased EE and/or increased FO in the short term are associated with less weight gain or greater weight loss over time. Drinking water instead of caloric beverages decreases EI when food intake is ad libitum. Drinking water increases EE in metabolically-inflexible, obese individuals. Drinking water increases FO when blood carbohydrate and/or insulin concentrations are not elevated and when it is consumed instead of caloric beverages or in volumes that alter hydration status. Further research is needed to confirm the observed associations and to determine if/what specific conditions optimize drinking water interventions for weight management.

  8. Urinary arsenic species, toenail arsenic, and arsenic intake estimates in a Michigan population with low levels of arsenic in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Núñez, Zorimar; Meliker, Jaymie R; Meeker, John D; Slotnick, Melissa J; Nriagu, Jerome O

    2012-01-01

    The large disparity between arsenic concentrations in drinking water and urine remains unexplained. This study aims to evaluate predictors of urinary arsenic in a population exposed to low concentrations (≤50 μg/l) of arsenic in drinking water. Urine and drinking water samples were collected from a subsample (n=343) of a population enrolled in a bladder cancer case-control study in southeastern Michigan. Total arsenic in water and arsenic species in urine were determined using ICP-MS: arsenobetaine (AsB), arsenite (As[III]), arsenate (As[V]), methylarsenic acid (MMA[V]), and dimethylarsenic acid (DMA[V]). The sum of As[III], As[V], MMA[V], and DMA[V] was denoted as SumAs. Dietary information was obtained through a self-reported food intake questionnaire. Log(10)-transformed drinking water arsenic concentration at home was a significant (Pwater were removed and further improved when analyses were applied to individuals who consumed amounts of home drinking water above the median volume (R(2)=0.40, Pwater was 0.42. Results show that arsenic exposure from drinking water consumption is an important determinant of urinary arsenic concentrations, even in a population exposed to relatively low levels of arsenic in drinking water, and suggest that seafood intake may influence urinary DMA[V] concentrations.

  9. Water swallow screening test for patients after surgery for head and neck cancer: early identification of dysphagia, aspiration and limitations of oral intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hey, Christiane; Lange, Benjamin P; Eberle, Silvia; Zaretsky, Yevgen; Sader, Robert; Stöver, Timo; Wagenblast, Jens

    2013-09-01

    Patients with head and neck cancer (HNC) are at high risk for oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD) following surgical therapy. Early identification of OD can improve outcomes and reduce economic burden. This study aimed to evaluate the validity of a water screening test using increasing volumes postsurgically for patients with HNC (N=80) regarding the early identification of OD in general, and whether there is a need for further instrumental diagnostics to investigate the presence of aspiration as well as to determine the limitations of oral intake as defined by fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing. OD in general was identified in 65%, with aspiration in 49%, silent aspiration in 21% and limitations of oral intake in 56%. Despite a good sensitivity, for aspiration of 100% and for limitations of oral intake of 97.8%, the presented water screening test did not satisfactorily predict either of these reference criteria due to its low positive likelihood ratio (aspiration=2.6; limitations of oral intake=3.1). However, it is an accurate tool for the early identification of OD in general, with a sensitivity of 96.2% and a positive likelihood ratio of 5.4 in patients after surgery for HNC.

  10. The effect of intake of water on the final values of body composition parameters in active athletes using two different bioimpedance analyzers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Kutáč

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background:The method of bioelectrical impedance (BIA is frequently used to estimate body composition in sports. The total body water (TBW is the basic variable that BIA measures. That implies the degree of sensitivity of BIA to the hydration of the organism, which is also demonstrated by the principles of measurement that primarily relate to the hydration of the organism. It is difficult to provide standard hydration of the organism of subjects prior to measurements when taking the measurements in the field. Objective:The objective of the study is to assess the changes in the final values of the selected body composition parameters in soccer players caused by intake of water, using two devices commonly used in the field. Methods:The research was performed in a group of 33 soccer players (mean age 20.30 ± 1.18 years. The measurements were taken using Tanita BC 418 MA (frequency 50 kHz and Nutriguard-M (frequency 100 kHz. To evaluate the effect of water intake, we took two measurements before and after the intake of 500 ml of water. The parameters measured by Tanita BC 418 MA were body weight (BW, total body water (TBW, body fat (BF, fat free mass (FFM. Nutriguard-M was used to measure total body water (TBW, intra and extracellular water (ICW and ECW, body fat (BF, fat free mass (FFM, intra and extracellular mass (BCM and ECM. The differences in the means (M1 and M2 of the monitored parameters were evaluated using the Paired Samples t-test. In statistically significant differences in the mean, the practical significance was also verified using the effect of size (Cohen's d. Results:The Tanita device showed statistically significant differences after the intake of 500 ml in parameters BW (+0.42 kg, BF (+0.39 kg, +0.53% and TBW (-0.38%. As for the Nutriguard device, statistically significant differences were found in parameters TBW (+0.77 kg, ICW (+0.83 kg, FFM (+1.05 kg, BCM (+0.79 kg and ECM/BCM (-0.01. Conclusion

  11. Weaning age of calves fed a high milk allowance by automated feeders: effects on feed, water, and energy intake, behavioral signs of hunger, and weight gains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Passillé, A M; Borderas, T F; Rushen, J

    2011-03-01

    Dairy calves are increasingly fed large volumes of milk, which reduces feeding motivation and improves weight gain. However, calves often show signs of hunger and lose weight when weaned off milk due to low starter intake. We examined whether delaying the age at weaning would reduce responses to weaning. Calves were raised in groups of 9 and fed milk, starter, hay, and water with automated feeders. In each group, 3 calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: (1) low-milk, early-weaned: fed 6 L/d of milk and weaned at 47 d of age; (2) high-milk early-weaned: fed 12 L/d of milk and weaned at 47 d; (3) high-milk later-weaned: fed 12 L/d of milk and weaned at 89 d of age. Milk, starter, and hay intakes were recorded daily and digestible energy (DE) intake estimated. Feeder visits were recorded. Before weaning, the high-milk calves drank more milk, ate less starter and hay, but had higher DE intakes, gained more weight, and made fewer visits to the milk feeder than the low-milk, early-weaned calves. During and immediately after weaning, the high-fed, early-weaned calves ate less starter and hay, had lower DE intakes, and gained less weight than the low-milk, early-weaned calves and lost their body weight advantage 7 d after weaning. During and immediately after weaning, the high-milk, later-weaned calves ate more starter and hay and had higher DE intakes, higher weight gains, and made fewer visits to the milk feeder than the high-milk, early-weaned calves. They were still heavier than the low-milk, early-weaned calves 18 d after weaning. Delaying the age at which calves are weaned off milk reduces the drop in energy intake and behavioral signs of hunger that result from weaning. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Water Consumption in European Children : Associations with Intake of Fruit Juices, Soft Drinks and Related Parenting Practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mantziki, Krystallia; Renders, Carry M; Seidell, Jaap C

    2017-01-01

    Background: High intake of fruit juices and soft drinks contributes to excessive weight gain and obesity in children. Furthermore, parenting practices play an important role in the development of children's dietary habits. The way parents play this role in the development of their children's choices

  13. Arsenic contamination in groundwater and its effects on adolescent intelligence and social competence in Bangladesh with special reference to daily drinking/cooking water intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Mst Nasrin; Inaoka, Tsukasa; Fujimura, Miho; Watanabe, Chiho; Shimizu, Hana; Tasmin, Saira; Tasnim, Sayra; Sultana, Nayar

    2014-03-01

    The present study aims to investigate the relationship between arsenic (As) exposure and intelligence quotient (IQ) or social competence (SC) of Bangladeshi adolescents (aged 14 or 15 years) in Sonargaon thana. Information about socioeconomic status (SES) was collected as confounding factors. To evaluate the relative contribution of As sources to total As intake, the As concentrations in urine and drinking/cooking water, and the amount of water added in cooking, were assessed on site using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The results confirmed that As exposure was essential to lower adolescent IQ or SC because they were negatively associated with As exposure after controlling for SES (particularly household income). Except for cooking water, the amount of drinking water varied with season and appeared to be the major As source because the As concentration in water was generally correlated with the As concentration in urine, and they were related to lower IQ or SC (even after controlling for SES). The FFQ survey revealed that rice was consumed the most frequently (more than once daily), followed by daal (bean) soup and nonleafy vegetables, but fish, meat, and eggs were consumed approximately once a week. Water intake per meal from cooked rice was estimated to be 616 mL/person, followed by bean soup (258 mL/person) and cooked vegetables (82 mL/person). Our results suggest that water used for cooking might be an important source of As, and the cooking process can affect the amount of As in cooked food.

  14. Natural mineral bottled waters available on the Polish market as a source of minerals for the consumers. Part 2: The intake of sodium and potassium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gątarska, Anna; Ciborska, Joanna; Tońska, Elżbieta

    Natural mineral waters are purchased and consumed according to consumer preferences and possible recommendations. The choice of appropriate water should take into account not only the general level of mineralization but also the content of individual components, including electrolytes such as sodium and potassium. Sodium is necessary to ensure the proper physiological functions of the body. It is defined as a health risk factor only when its excessive intake occurs. Potassium acts antagonistically towards sodium and calcium ions, contributes to a reduction of the volume of extracellular fluids and at the same time reduces muscle tension and permeability of cell membranes. The demand for sodium and potassium is of particular importance in people expending significant physical effort, where an increased electrolyte supply is recommended. The aim of the study was to estimate the content of sodium and potassium in natural mineral waters available in the Polish market and to evaluate the intake of those components with the commercially available mineral waters by different groups of consumers at the assumed volume of their consumption. The research material consisted of natural mineral waters of forty various brands available on the Polish market. The examined products were either produced in Poland or originated in other European countries. Among the products under examination, about 30% of the waters were imported from Lithuania, Latvia, the Czech Republic, France, Italy and Germany. A sample for analyses consisted of two package units of the examined water from different production lots. Samples for research were collected at random. The study was conducted with the same samples in in which calcium and magnesium content was determined, which was the subject of the first part of the study. The content of sodium and potassium was determined using the emission technique (acetylene-air flame), with the use of atomic absorption spectrometer – ICE 3000 SERIES – THERMO

  15. Influência do ambiente no consumo de água de bebida de vacas leiteiras Influence of the ambient conditions on water intake by dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Perissinotto

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi desenvolvido em uma fazenda comercial produtora de gado de leite, criadora de gado holandês, localizada no município de São Pedro, SP. O período de coleta de dados compreendeu seis dias não consecutivos, nos meses de outubro e novembro de 2001, englobando 6 vacas em lactação, alojadas em um sistema de freestall. O consumo médio de água das vacas foi medido por meio de hidrômetro acoplado aos bebedouros. A temperatura de globo negro, a umidade relativa do ar, temperatura do ambiente e a velocidade do vento, foram registradas a cada hora, no período das 8 às 18 h. O principal objetivo do trabalho foi quantificar o consumo de água das vacas leiteiras, além de determinar o horário de maior consumo, a freqüência de uso dos bebedouros e o tempo de permanência do animal no bebedouro, relacionando-os com os índices de conforto térmico e a produção de leite. Verificou-se que o comportamento dos animais foi alterado em dias termicamente mais estressantes, resultando em aumento no número de visitas e no tempo de permanência dos animais nos bebedouros assim como em aumento no tempo real de consumo de água pelos animais.The study was carried out with six Holstein cows, in mid-lactation, reared in a freestall barn of a commercial dairy farm located in São Pedro city, in the State of São Paulo. During the trial the ambient parameters were recorded hourly from 8:00 AM to 6:00 PM inside and outside the barn: black globe temperature, dry bulb temperature, relative humidity and air velocity. The freestall barn had water facility with enough water flow to supply all the animals ad libitum. An additional drinking water facility was at the exit of the milking parlor. Average water intake of each group was measured using hydrometer. The data was used to quantify the lactating cows' water intake, to determine the frequency of use, the time cows spent drinking water and relating it to the ambient temperature humidity

  16. Nutritional Status of Water-soluble Vitamins Did not Differ According to Intake Levels of Wheat and Wheat Alternatives and Rice and Rice Alternatives as a Staple Food in Pregnant Japanese Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsumi Shibata

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate whether the intake level of a staple food influences the nutritional status of water-soluble vitamins in pregnant Japanese women. Urinary excretion of water-soluble vitamins was used as a biomarker for nutritional assessment. Twenty-four-hour urine samples were collected and vitamin intake was surveyed using a validated self-administered comprehensive diet history questionnaire. Subjects were categorized into bottom, middle, and upper tertiles according to the percentage of total energy intake from wheat and wheat alternatives or rice and rice alternatives. The present study showed that the nutritional status of water-soluble vitamins did not differ with intake level of wheat and wheat alternatives or rice and rice alternatives as a staple food in pregnant Japanese women.

  17. Risk Assessment of Fluoride Intake from Tea in the Republic of Ireland and its Implications for Public Health and Water Fluoridation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, Declan T.; Potter, William; Limeback, Hardy; Godfrey, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The Republic of Ireland (RoI) is the only European Country with a mandatory national legislation requiring artificial fluoridation of drinking water and has the highest per capita consumption of black tea in the world. Tea is a hyperaccumulator of fluoride and chronic fluoride intake is associated with multiple negative health outcomes. In this study, fifty four brands of the commercially available black tea bag products were purchased and the fluoride level in tea infusions tested by an ion-selective electrode method. The fluoride content in all brands tested ranged from 1.6 to 6.1 mg/L, with a mean value of 3.3 mg/L. According to our risk assessment it is evident that the general population in the RoI is at a high risk of chronic fluoride exposure and associated adverse health effects based on established reference values. We conclude that the culture of habitual tea drinking in the RoI indicates that the total cumulative dietary fluoride intake in the general population could readily exceed the levels known to cause chronic fluoride intoxication. Evidence suggests that excessive fluoride intake may be contributing to a wide range of adverse health effects. Therefore from a public health perspective, it would seem prudent and sensible that risk reduction measures be implemented to reduce the total body burden of fluoride in the population. PMID:26927146

  18. An analysis of workers' tritium concentration in urine samples as a function of time after intake at Korean pressurised heavy water reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee Geun; Kong, Tae Young

    2012-12-01

    In general, internal exposure from tritium at pressurised heavy water reactors (PHWRs) accounts for ∼20-40 % of the total radiation dose. Tritium usually reaches the equilibrium concentration after a few hours inside the body and is then excreted from the body with an effective half-life in the order of 10 d. In this study, tritium metabolism was reviewed using its excretion rate in urine samples of workers at Korean PHWRs. The tritium concentration in workers' urine samples was also measured as a function of time after intake. On the basis of the monitoring results, changes in the tritium concentration inside the body were then analysed.

  19. Phthalate Intakes

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Compilation of literature-reported intake values of phthalates; specifically dibutyl phthalate (DBP), bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, and diisononyl phthalate (DiNP)....

  20. Lake Mead Intake No. 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Hurt

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available As a result of a sustained drought in the Southwestern United States, and in order to maintain existing water capacity in the Las Vegas Valley, the Southern Nevada Water Authority constructed a new deep-water intake (Intake No. 3 located in Lake Mead. The project included a 185 m deep shaft, 4.7 km tunnel under very difficult geological conditions, and marine works for a submerged intake. This paper presents the experience that was gained during the design and construction and the innovative solutions that were developed to handle the difficult conditions that were encountered during tunneling with a dual-mode slurry tunnel-boring machine (TBM in up to 15 bar (1 bar = 105 Pa pressure. Specific attention is given to the main challenges that were overcome during the TBM excavation, which included the mode of operation, face support pressures, pre-excavation grouting, and maintenance; to the construction of the intake, which involved deep underwater shaft excavation with blasting using shaped charges; to the construction of the innovative over 1200 t concrete-and-steel intake structure; to the placement of the intake structure in the underwater shaft; and to the docking and connection to an intake tunnel excavated by hybrid TBM. Keywords: Sub-aqueous tunneling, Tunnel-boring machine excavation, Water intakes

  1. Effect of water addition to a total mixed ration on feed temperature, feed intake, sorting behavior, and milk production of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felton, C A; DeVries, T J

    2010-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of water addition to a high-moisture total mixed ration (TMR) on feed temperature, feed intake, feed sorting behavior, and milk production of dairy cows. Twelve lactating Holstein cows (155.8+/-60.1 DIM), individually fed once daily at 1000 h, were exposed to 3 diets in a Latin square design with 28-d treatment periods. Diets had the same ingredient composition [30.9% corn silage, 30.3% alfalfa haylage, 21.2% high-moisture corn, and 17.6% protein supplement; dry matter (DM) basis] and differed only in DM concentration, which was reduced by the addition of water. Treatment diets averaged 56.3, 50.8, and 44.1% DM. The study was conducted between May and August when environmental temperature was 18.2+/-3.6 degrees C and ambient temperature in the barn was 24.4+/-3.3 degrees C. Dry matter intake (DMI) was monitored for each animal for the last 14 d of each treatment period. For the final 7 d of each period, milk production was monitored, feed temperature and ambient temperature and humidity were recorded (daily at 1000, 1300, and 1600 h), and fresh feed and orts were sampled for determination of sorting. For the final 4 d of each period, milk samples were taken for composition analysis. Samples taken for determining sorting were separated using a Penn State Particle Separator that had 3 screens (19, 8, and 1.18 mm) and a bottom pan, resulting in 4 fractions (long, medium, short, and fine). Sorting was calculated as the actual intake of each particle size fraction expressed as a percentage of the predicted intake of that fraction. Greater amounts of water added to the TMR resulted in greater increases in feed temperature in the hours after feed delivery, greater sorting against long particles, and decreased DMI, reducing the overall intake of starch and neutral detergent fiber. Milk production and composition were not affected by the addition of water to the TMR. Efficiency of production of milk was, however

  2. Consumption of Low-Calorie Sweetened Beverages Compared to Water Is Associated with Reduced Intake of Carbohydrates and Sugar, with No Adverse Relationships to Glycemic Responses: Results from the 2001–2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marge Leahy

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Although the 2015 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee concluded that there was moderate evidence that substituting sugar-containing sweeteners with low-calorie sweeteners (LCS reduces calorie intake and weight, dietary recommendations encourage substituting only water for sugar-sweetened beverages during weight management. This cross-sectional study evaluated the relation of water and no- and low-calorie sweetened beverage (LCSB intake with nutrient intakes and prediabetes criteria using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2001–2012 in 25,817 adults that were free of diabetes. Although linear trends were observed with both beverages, higher LCSB intake was associated with significantly lower consumption of carbohydrates (−9.1 g/day vs. −1.4 g/day, total sugars (−10.9 g/day vs. −2.2 g/day, and added sugars (−2.0 tsp eq vs. −0.8 tsp eq than those associated with higher water intake. Higher intake of both beverages was significantly associated with lower insulin levels (p < 0.01; however, higher intake of LCSB was also associated with lower hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c and lower homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR (p < 0.01. We observed lower odds ratios for elevated HbA1c (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.79, 95% CI 0.64–0.98, HOMA-IR (0.68, 0.53–0.87, and insulin levels (0.63, 0.49–0.80 in LCSB among the higher (2+ servings intake group compared to the lowest (<1 serving intake group. Contrary to conventional wisdom, LCSB consumption was associated with equal, if not better, dietary intake and glycemic response than water consumption. Although observational in nature, these results contribute to the growing body of evidence from human studies suggesting that in addition to water, LCSBs can also be sensible choices for reducing sugars and carbohydrate intake, with no adverse associations to measures of glycemic response.

  3. Determination of total vanadium and vanadium(V) in groundwater from Mt. Etna and estimate of daily intake of vanadium(V) through drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arena, Giovanni; Copat, Chiara; Dimartino, Angela; Grasso, Alfina; Fallico, Roberto; Sciacca, Salvatore; Fiore, Maria; Ferrante, Margherita

    2015-06-01

    Vanadium(V) can be found in natural waters in the form of V(IV) and V(V) species, which have different biological properties and toxicity. The purpose of this study was to determine the concentrations of total V and V(V) in groundwater from the area of Mt. Etna and to assess the estimated daily intake (EDI) of V(V) of adults and children through drinking water. Water was sampled monthly at 21 sites in 2011. Total vanadium was determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and speciation by ion chromatography-ICP-MS (IC-ICP-MS). The concentration of V(V) species ranged from 62.8 to 98.9% of total V, with significantly higher concentrations in samples from the S/SW slope of Mt. Etna. The annual mean concentrations of total V exceeded the Italian legal limit of 140 μg/L at four sites on the S/SW slope. In the absence of thresholds for V(V) intake, only the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has calculated a reference dose. Children's EDI of V(V) at the sites with the higher V concentrations exceeded EPA thresholds (9 μg/kg/day). In particular, we found in Camporotondo, Mascalucia, Ragalna and San Pietro Clarenza sites children's EDIs of 11, 9.3, 11 and 9.9, respectively. The EDI of V(V) was significantly higher than the literature range (0.09-0.34 μg/kg/day).

  4. Data on daily fluoride intake based on drinking water consumption prepared by household desalinators working by reverse osmosis process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbasdehi, Vahid Noroozi; Dobaradaran, Sina; Esmaili, Abdolhamid; Mirahmadi, Roghayeh; Ghasemi, Fatemeh Faraji; Keshtkar, Mozhgan

    2016-09-01

    In this data article, we evaluated the daily fluoride contents in 20 household desalinators working by reverse osmosis (RO) process in Bushehr, Iran. The concentration levels of fluoride in inlet and outlet waters were determined by the standard SPADNS method using a spectrophotometer (M501 Single Beam Scanning UV/VIS, UK). The fluoride content in outlet waters were compared with EPA and WHO guidelines for drinking water.

  5. Estimated intake of the sweeteners, acesulfame-K and aspartame, from soft drinks, soft drinks based on mineral waters and nectars for a group of Portuguese teenage students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lino, C M; Costa, I M; Pena, A; Ferreira, R; Cardoso, S M

    2008-11-01

    In a survey of levels of acesulfame-K and aspartame in soft drinks and in light nectars, the intake of these intense sweeteners was estimated for a group of teenage students. Acesulfame-K was detected in 72% of the soft drinks, with a mean concentration of 72 mg l(-1) and aspartame was found in 92% of the samples with a mean concentration of 89 mg l(-1). When data on the content of these sweeteners in soft drinks were analysed according to flavour, cola drinks had the highest mean levels for both sweeteners with 98 and 103 mg l(-1) for acesulfame-K and aspartame, respectively. For soft drinks based on mineral water, aspartame was found in 62% of the samples, with a mean concentration of 82 mg l(-1) and acesulfame-K was found in 77%, with a mean level of 48 mg l(-1). All samples of nectars contained acesulfame-K, with a mean concentration of 128 mg l(-1) and aspartame was detected in 80% of the samples with a mean concentration of 73 mg l(-1). A frequency questionnaire, designed to identify adolescents having high consumption of these drinks, was completed by a randomly selected sample of teenagers (n = 65) living in the city of Coimbra, in 2007. The estimated daily intakes (EDI) of acesulfame-K and aspartame for the average consumer were below the acceptable daily intakes (ADIs). For acesulfame-K, the EDI was 0.7 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1) for soft drinks, 0.2 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1) for soft drinks based on mineral waters, and 0.5 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1) for nectars, representing 8.0%, 2.2%, and 5.8% of the ADI, respectively. A similar situation was observed for aspartame. In this way, the EDI for soft drinks was 1.1 mg kg(-1) day(-1), representing only 2.9% of the ADI. In respect of nectars, the EDI was 0.2 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1), representing 0.5% of the ADI. Soft drinks based on mineral waters showed the lowest EDI values of 0.3 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1), accounting for 0.7% of the ADI.

  6. Fluoride concentration level in rural area in Poldasht city and daily fluoride intake based on drinking water consumption with temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Ali Akbar; Yousefi, Mahmood; Mahvi, Amir Hossein

    2017-08-01

    Long-term exposure to high level of fluoride can caused several adverse effects on human health including dental and skeletal fluorosis. We investigated all the drinking water source located in rural areas of Poldasht city, west Azerbaijan Province, North West Iran between 2014 and 2015. Fluoride concentration of water samples was measured by SPADNS method. We found that in the villages of Poldasht the average of fluoride concentration in drinking water sources (well, and the river) was in the range mg/l 0.28-10.23. The average daily received per 2 l of drinking water is in the range mg/l 0.7-16.6 per day per person. Drinking water demands cause fluorosis in the villages around the area residents and based on the findings of this study writers are announced suggestions below in order to take care of the health of area residents.

  7. A single administration of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin that produces reduced food and water intake induces long-lasting expression of corticotropin-releasing factor, arginine vasopressin, and proopiomelanocortin in rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Bo-Hyun; Hong, Chang Gwun; Kim, Soo-Young; Kim, Hyun-Ju; Shin, Seung Keon; Kang, Seungwoo; Lee, Kuem-Ju; Kim, Yong-Ku; Lee, Min-Soo; Shin, Kyung-Ho

    2008-01-01

    The mechanism by which a single administration of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) reduces food and water intake is unclear. We examined whether such a food and water intake-reducing single administration of TCDD induced changes in corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), arginine vasopressin (AVP), and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) expression in rat brain. To observe time-dependent changes in these neuropeptides, male Sprague-Dawley rats were given TCDD (50 μg/kg) and terminated 1, 2, 4, or 7 days later. In addition, to observe dose-dependent changes in feeding and neuropeptides, rats were also given a range of TCDD doses (12.5, 25, or 50 μg/kg) and terminated 14 days later. TCDD suppressed food and water intake over 14 days in a dose-dependent manner. TCDD treatment also increased CRF and POMC mRNA levels in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and arcuate nucleus, respectively, in a dose- and time-dependent manner. These increases were related to decreased food intake following TCDD administration. TCDD treatment increased AVP and CRF mRNA levels in the PVN, and these increases were related to decreased water intake. Interestingly, the increases in CRF, AVP and POMC expression were observed 7 to 14 days after TCDD administration. These results suggest that a single administration of TCDD induced long-lasting increases in CRF, AVP, and POMC mRNA levels in the hypothalamus and that these changes are related to reduced food and water intake 7 to 14 days after TCDD administration

  8. Documentation for the U.S. Geological Survey Public-Supply Database (PSDB): A database of permitted public-supply wells, surface-water intakes, and systems in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Curtis V.; Maupin, Molly A.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has developed a database containing information about wells, surface-water intakes, and distribution systems that are part of public water systems across the United States, its territories, and possessions. Programs of the USGS such as the National Water Census, the National Water Use Information Program, and the National Water-Quality Assessment Program all require a complete and current inventory of public water systems, the sources of water used by those systems, and the size of populations served by the systems across the Nation. Although the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Safe Drinking Water Information System (SDWIS) database already exists as the primary national Federal database for information on public water systems, the Public-Supply Database (PSDB) was developed to add value to SDWIS data with enhanced location and ancillary information, and to provide links to other databases, including the USGS’s National Water Information System (NWIS) database.

  9. Effect of increased intake of skimmed milk, casein, whey or water on body composition and leptin in overweight adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larnkjær, Anni; Arnberg, Karina; Michaelsen, Kim F.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUNDS: Dairy proteins may support muscle protein synthesis and improve satiety in adults. However, there are limited studies using exact measures of body composition, especially in adolescents. OBJECTIVES: This study investigates the effect of milk proteins and water on body composition...... and leptin in overweight adolescents. METHODS: Subjects (n = 193) aged 12-15 years were randomized to drink 1 L d(-1) of skimmed milk, whey, casein (all milk-based drinks 35 g protein L(-1) ) or water for 12 weeks. Twenty participants dropped out. A pre-test control group of 32 adolescents was examined 12...... weeks before start of intervention. Outcomes included leptin and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanning. The effects of the milk-based drinks on body composition and leptin were compared with baseline, pre-test control and water. RESULTS: Lean mass index (LMI) increased compared to baseline (all 95...

  10. SWRO feed water quality improvement using subsurface intakes in Oman, Spain, Turks and Caicos Islands, and Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Rachman, Rinaldi; Li, Sheng; Missimer, Thomas M.

    2014-01-01

    water treatment close to that provided by energy-intensive, conventional pretreatment systems. SDI values were reduced in virtually all cases to below 3. In vertical wells, from 70 to 100% of the TEP and 50% of the TOC and DOC found in natural seawater

  11. Seabed gallery intakes: Investigation of the water pretreatment effectiveness of the active layer using a long-term column experiment

    KAUST Repository

    Dehwah, Abdullah; Missimer, Thomas M.

    2017-01-01

    ) in improving raw water quality was conducted by using a long-term bench-scale columns experiment. Two different media types, silica and carbonate sand, were tested in 1 m columns to evaluate the effectiveness of media type in terms of algae, bacteria, Natural

  12. Spatial analysis of health risk assessment with arsenic intake of drinking water in the LanYang plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C. F.; Liang, C. P.; Jang, C. S.; Chen, J. S.

    2016-12-01

    Groundwater is one of the most component water resources in Lanyang plain. The groundwater of the Lanyang Plain contains arsenic levels that exceed the current Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration (Taiwan EPA) limit of 10 μg/L. The arsenic of groundwater in some areas of the Lanyang Plain pose great menace for the safe use of groundwater resources. Therefore, poor water quality can adversely impact drinking water uses, leading to human health risks. This study analyzed the potential health risk associated with the ingestion of arsenic-affected groundwater in the arseniasis-endemic Lanyang plain. Geostatistical approach is widely used in spatial variability analysis and distributions of field data with uncertainty. The estimation of spatial distribution of the arsenic contaminant in groundwater is very important in the health risk assessment. This study used indicator kriging (IK) and ordinary kriging (OK) methods to explore the spatial variability of arsenic-polluted parameters. The estimated difference between IK and OK estimates was compared. The extent of arsenic pollution was spatially determined and the Target cancer risk (TR) and dose response were explored when the ingestion of arsenic in groundwater. Thus, a zonal management plan based on safe groundwater use is formulated. The research findings can provide a plan reference of regional water resources supplies for local government administrators and developing groundwater resources in the Lanyang Plain.

  13. Hydrogen water intake via tube-feeding for patients with pressure ulcer and its reconstructive effects on normal human skin cells in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Pressure ulcer (PU) is common in immobile elderly patients, and there are some research works to investigate a preventive and curative method, but not to find sufficient effectiveness. The aim of this study is to clarify the clinical effectiveness on wound healing in patients with PU by hydrogen-dissolved water (HW) intake via tube-feeding (TF). Furthermore, normal human dermal fibroblasts OUMS-36 and normal human epidermis-derived cell line HaCaT keratinocytes were examined in vitro to explore the mechanisms relating to whether hydrogen plays a role in wound-healing at the cellular level. Methods Twenty-two severely hospitalized elderly Japanese patients with PU were recruited in the present study, and their ages ranged from 71.0 to 101.0 (86.7 ± 8.2) years old, 12 male and 10 female patients, all suffering from eating disorder and bedridden syndrome as the secondary results of various underlying diseases. All patients received routine care treatments for PU in combination with HW intake via TF for 600 mL per day, in place of partial moisture replenishment. On the other hand, HW was prepared with a hydrogen-bubbling apparatus which produces HW with 0.8-1.3 ppm of dissolved hydrogen concentration (DH) and −602 mV to −583 mV of oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), in contrast to reversed osmotic ultra-pure water (RW), as the reference, with DH of < 0.018 ppm and ORP of +184 mV for use in the in vitro experimental research. In in vitro experiments, OUMS-36 fibroblasts and HaCaT keratinocytes were respectively cultured in medium prepared with HW and/or RW. Immunostain was used for detecting type-I collagen reconstruction in OUMS-36 cells. And intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were quantified by NBT assay, and cell viability of HaCaT cells was examined by WST-1 assay, respectively. Results Twenty-two patients were retrospectively divided into an effective group (EG, n = 12) and a less effective group (LG, n = 10) according to

  14. Exposure of the endangered Milky stork population to cadmium and lead via food and water intake in Kuala Gula Bird Sanctuary, Perak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Faid; Ismail, Ahmad; Omar, Hishamuddin; Hussin, Mohamed Zakaria

    2017-01-01

    The Milky stork is listed as an endangered species endemic to the Southeast Asia region. In Malaysia, the population is currently being reintroduced back into the wild. However, the increase of anthropogenic activity throughout the coastal area might expose the population to hazardous chemicals such as heavy metals. This study highlights the contamination of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in the Milky stork's diet. Additionally, this is the first time an integrated exposure model being used to assess heavy metal exposure risk to the population. Lead level (5.5-7.98 mg kg -1 ) in particular was relatively high compared to Cd (0.08-0.33 mg kg -1 ). This was probably related to the different niches occupied by the species in the aquatic environment. The results further show that the predicted exposure doses (through intake of both food and water) for all metals are much lower than the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) values. The total exposure dose for Cd was 0.11 mg kg -1  d -1 with TDI value of 0.54 mg kg -1  d -1 while Pb total exposure dose was 0.31 mg kg -1  d -1 with TDI value of 0.64 mg kg -1  d -1 . Several possible factors that could lead to the observed pattern were discussed. In conclusion, there is an urgent need to improve the current habitat quality to protect the endangered species. The authors also emphasized on the protection of remaining Milky stork's habitats i.e. mudflats and mangroves and the creation of buffer zone to mitigate the negative impacts that may arise from pollution activity.

  15. The influence of Savannah River discharge and changing SRS cooling water requirements on the potential entrainment of ichthyoplankton at the SRS Savannah River intakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paller, M.H.

    1992-08-01

    Entrainment (i.e., withdrawal of fish larvae and eggs in cooling water) at the SRS Savannah River intakes is greatest when periods of high river water usage coincide with low river dischargeduring the spawning season. American shad and striped bass are the two species of greatest concern because of their recreational and/or commercial importance and because they produce drifting eggs and larvae vulnerable to entrainment. In the mid-reaches of the Savannah River, American shad and striped bass spawn primarily during April and May. An analysis of Savannah River discharge during April and May 1973--1989 indicated the potential for entrainment of 4--18% of the American shad and striped bass larvae and eggs that drifted past the SRS. This analysis assumed the concurrent operation of L-, K-, and P-Reactors. Additional scenarios investigated were: (1) shutting down L- and P-Reactors, and operating K-Reactor with a recycle cooling tower; and (2) shutting down L- and P-Reactors, eliminating minimum flows to Steel Creek, and operating K-Reactor with a recycle cooling tower. The former scenario reduced potential entrainment to 0.7--3.3%, and the latter scenario reduced potential entrainment to 0.20.8%. Thus, the currently favored scenario of operating K-Reactor with a cooling tower and not operating L- and P-Reactors represents a significant lessening of the impact of SRS operations

  16. Estimation of Seasonal Risk Caused by the Intake of Lead, Mercury and Cadmium through Freshwater Fish Consumption from Urban Water Reservoirs in Arid Areas of Northern Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrna Nevárez

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Bioavailability and hence bioaccumulation of heavy metals in fish species depends on seasonal conditions causing different risks levels to human health during the lifetime. Mercury, cadmium and lead contents in fish from Chihuahua (Mexico water reservoirs have been investigated to assess contamination levels and safety for consumers. Muscle samples of fish were collected across the seasons. Lead and cadmium were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry, and mercury by cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. The highest concentrations of cadmium (0.235 mg/kg, mercury (0.744 mg/kg and lead (4.298 mg/kg exceeded the maximum levels set by European regulations and Codex Alimentarius. Lead concentrations found in fish from three water reservoirs also surpassed the limit of 1 mg/kg established by Mexican regulations. The provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI suggested by the World Health Organization for methyl mercury (1.6 µg/kg bw per week was exceeded in the spring season (1.94 µg/kg bw per week. This might put consumers at risk of mercury poisoning.

  17. Feed intake and oxygen consumption in fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Subramanian, S.

    2013-01-01

    In fish, the voluntary feed intake is influenced by dietary, environmental and/or physiological factors. It is well known that under hypoxia the concentration of oxygen in the water (DO) determines the feed intake of fish. However at non-limiting water DO levels (normoxia), several other

  18. Risk assessment from intake of Naturally Occuring Radioactive Materials in some bottled drinking water on the Ghanaian market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portuphy, M. O.

    2015-07-01

    Activity concentrations of the Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORMs) in some bottled water brands were analyzed using gamma spectrometry. 40 K activity concentrations were in the range of 3.57-5.47Bq/L, the highest occurring in brand L9. Similarly 232 Th activity concentrations were in the range of 0.30-0.56 Bq/L with the highest occurring in brand L8. 226 Ra was identified in eleven brands with the remaining five below detection limit. The highest value (0.53Bq/L) occurred in brand L9. Comparison of the mean concentrations showed significant differences at (α=0.05) between the various brands of bottled water. Estimated committed effective doses were generally below 0.1mSv/a for all age groups with the exception of children <1yr. Estimated lifetime cancer and hereditary risk was done using the ICRP risk assessment methodology. Relationship between Activity concentrations and some physicochemical parameters were established using scatter graphs. The significant one was the conductivity parameter and how estimated activity concentrations tend to correlate (Jobbàgy et al, 2013). Trace elements and heavy metals were analysed using titrimetry, UV-VIS spectroscopy and atomic absorption spectroscopy. Their levels were below recommended and conventional levels. Conclusively bottled water brands analyzed were therefore radiologically safe. (au)

  19. Transport and transformation of pharmaceuticals and other contaminants of emerging concern from wastewater discharge through surface water to drinking water intake and treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ubiquitous presence of pharmaceuticals, hormones, and other contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) in surface-water resources have necessitated research that better elucidates pathways of transport and transformation for these compounds from their discharged wastewater, thro...

  20. Effects of diet and water supply on energy intake and water loss in a mygalomorph spider in a fluctuating environment of the central Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canals, M; Figueroa, D; Alfaro, C; Kawamoto, T; Torres-Contreras, H; Sabat, P; Veloso, C

    2011-11-01

    The metabolic and water evaporation strategies in spiders may be part of a set of physiological adaptations to tolerate low or unpredictable food availability, buffering spiders against environmental fluctuations such as those of the high mountains of the central Andes. The aim of this study is to analyze experimentally the variations in metabolic rate and the rate of evaporative water with food and/or water restriction in a high mountain mygalomorph spider population (Paraphysa sp.). We found that the low metabolism of this spider was not affected by water restriction, but its metabolism was depressed after 3 weeks of food deprivation. The spider did not show seasonal metabolic changes but it presented seasonal changes in the rate of evaporative water loss at high temperatures. Females with egg sacs reduced their metabolic rate and evaporative water at high temperatures. These findings constitute a set of possible adaptations to a highly fluctuating Mediterranean environment, which is completely covered with snow for many months and then progresses rapidly to a very dry climate with high temperatures. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Coffee intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelis, Marilyn C

    2012-01-01

    Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world. Its widespread popularity and availability has fostered public health concerns of the potential health consequences of regular coffee consumption. Epidemiological studies of coffee intake and certain health outcomes have been inconsistent. The precise component of coffee potentially contributing to development of these conditions also remains unclear. One step toward addressing the challenges in studying the impact coffee has on health is a better understanding of the factors contributing to its consumption and physiological effects. This chapter focuses on those factors that are genetically determined and briefly summarizes progress in applying this knowledge to epidemiological studies of coffee and disease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Radioimmunoassay of iodine metabolism state in euthyroid and nodular goiter under conditions of moderately increased intake of fluorine with drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidora, V.D.; Mazurik, M.F.; Shlyakhta, A.I.; Kuznetsov, A.A.

    1987-01-01

    A reliable decrease of triiodotyronine in blood cerum in the region with moderately increased intake of fluorine with drinking water (1.2-3.1 mg/l) is detected. This results in increase of euthyroid goiter among population by 14-16 times, of nodular - by 6 times. In the studied area there is indirect dependence between function of thyroid gland and degree of its hyperplasia, i.e., the larger is the gland, the weaker is its ability to produce hormones. The practical significance of detected dependence lies in the fact, that in surgical removal of the nodes (malignant cases are excluded) not only morphological but functional criteria as well of the gland increase should be taken account of. Such approach to nodular goiter therapy promotes sufficient reduction of postoperative hypothyrosis. These peculiarities of the ratio between the thyroid gland hyperplasia degree and its function under conditions of studied area must be taken account of when selecting methods of conservative treatment of patients with euthyroid goiter

  3. Simultaneous measurement of milk intake and total energy expenditure in mixed-fed infants: Methodological approach and prediction of total body water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, J.C.K.; Davies, P.S.W.; Coward, W.A.

    2000-01-01

    Evaluation of the energy metabolism that underlies the new WHO breast-fed growth reference requires simultaneous measurements of milk volume intake (MVI) and total energy expenditure (TEE) by stable isotope methodologies. In young infants, such data is collected without difficulty using the dose-to-the-infant method. In older infants, where breast-milk is supplemented with non-milk foods, MVI must be measured by dosing the mother instead of the infant. This procedure would interfere with a simple measurement of infant TEE using the standard dose-to-the-infant method. Theoretically, this difficulty can be resolved by dosing the mother with deuterium and the infant with 18-oxygen, and using curve-peeling methods to calculate the infant deuterium kinetics. We propose to ascertain whether such an approach is viable in practice, such that MVI, TEE and body composition could all be measured simultaneously in mixed-fed infants. Where MVI in older infants is measured on its own, there is a need to predict infant body water in order to estimate the deuterium dilution space. Using a database of 234 infants aged 1.5 to 12 months, we provide new predictive equations by which such values may be obtained. (author)

  4. The intake of water containing a mix of pollutants at environmentally relevant concentrations leads to defensive response deficit in male C57Bl/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Joyce Moreira; Rabelo, Letícia Martins; de Faria, Denise Braga Gomes; Guimarães, Abraão Tiago Batista; da Silva, Wellington Alves Mizael; Rocha, Thiago Lopes; Estrela, Fernanda Neves; Chagas, Thales Quintão; de Oliveira Mendes, Bruna; Malafaia, Guilherme

    2018-07-01

    Previous studies have individually confirmed the toxic effects from different pollutants on mammals. However, effects resulting from the exposure of these animals to multi-pollutant mixes have not been studied so far. Thus, the aim of the current study is to assess the effect from the chronic exposure (105days) of C57Bl/6J mice to a mix of pollutants on their response to potential predators. In order to do so, the following groups were formed: "control", "Mix 1× [compounds from 15 pollutants identified in surface waters at environmentally relevant concentration (ERC)]", "Mix 10×" and "Mix 25×" (concentrations 10 and 25 times higher than the ERC). From the 100th experimental day on, the animals were subjected to tests in order to investigate whether they showed locomotor, visual, olfactory and auditory changes, since these abilities are essential to their anti-predatory behavior. Next, the animals' behavior towards potential predators (Felis catus and Pantherophis guttatus) was assessed. The herein collected data did not show defensive response from any of the experimental groups to the predatory stimulus provided by P. guttatus. However, the control animals, only, presented anti-predatory behavior when F. catus was introduced in the apparatus, fact that suggests defensive response deficit resulting from the treatments. Thus, the current study is pioneer in showing that the chronic intake of water containing a mix of pollutants (even at low concentrations) leads to behavioral disorders able to affect the survival and population dynamics of mammalian species at ecological level. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Exposure of the endangered Milky stork population to cadmium and lead via food and water intake in Kuala Gula Bird Sanctuary, Perak, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faid Rahman

    Full Text Available The Milky stork is listed as an endangered species endemic to the Southeast Asia region. In Malaysia, the population is currently being reintroduced back into the wild. However, the increase of anthropogenic activity throughout the coastal area might expose the population to hazardous chemicals such as heavy metals. This study highlights the contamination of cadmium (Cd and lead (Pb in the Milky stork’s diet. Additionally, this is the first time an integrated exposure model being used to assess heavy metal exposure risk to the population. Lead level (5.5–7.98 mg kg−1 in particular was relatively high compared to Cd (0.08–0.33 mg kg−1. This was probably related to the different niches occupied by the species in the aquatic environment. The results further show that the predicted exposure doses (through intake of both food and water for all metals are much lower than the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI values. The total exposure dose for Cd was 0.11 mg kg−1 d−1 with TDI value of 0.54 mg kg−1 d−1 while Pb total exposure dose was 0.31 mg kg−1 d−1 with TDI value of 0.64 mg kg−1 d−1. Several possible factors that could lead to the observed pattern were discussed. In conclusion, there is an urgent need to improve the current habitat quality to protect the endangered species. The authors also emphasized on the protection of remaining Milky stork’s habitats i.e. mudflats and mangroves and the creation of buffer zone to mitigate the negative impacts that may arise from pollution activity. Keywords: Milky stork, Heavy metals, Exposure dose, Integrated assessment, Ecotoxicology, Pollution

  6. Assessment of beverage intake and hydration status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissensohn, Mariela; López-Ufano, Marisa; Castro-Quezada, Itandehui; Serra-Majem, Lluis

    2015-02-26

    Water is the main constituent of the human body. It is involved in practically all its functions. It is particularly important for thermoregulation and in the physical and cognitive performance. Water balance reflects water intake and loss. Intake of water is done mainly through consumption of drinking water and beverages (70 to 80%) plus water containing foods (20 to 30%). Water loss is mainly due to excretion of water in urine, faeces and sweat. The interest in the type and quantity of beverage consumption is not new, and numerous approaches have been used to assess beverage intake, but the validity of these approaches has not been well established. There is no standardized questionnaire developed as a research tool for the evaluation of water intake in the general population. Sometimes, the information comes from different sources or from different methodological characteristics which raises problems of the comparability. In the European Union, current epidemiological studies that focus exclusively on beverage intake are scarce. Biomarkers of intake are able to objectively assess dietary intake/status without the bias of self-reported dietary intake errors and also overcome the problem of intra-individual diet variability. Furthermore, some methods of measuring dietary intake used biomarkers to validate the data it collects. Biological markers may offer advantages and be able to improve the estimates of dietary intake assessment, which impact into the statistical power of the study. There is a surprising paucity of studies that systematically examine the correlation of beverages intake and hydration biomarker in different populations. A pilot investigation was developed to evaluate the comparative validity and reliability of newly developed interactive multimedia (IMM) versions compared to validated paper-administered (PP) versions of the Hedrick et al. beverage questionnaire. The study showed that the IMM appears to be a valid and reliable measure to assess

  7. Fluctuations and trends in structure of fish community in Koporskaya Bay coastal waters (Gulf of Finland, Baltic Sea) and influence of water-intake facilities of the Leningrad nuclear power plant on fish fauna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimin, V.L.

    1996-01-01

    The investigation is based on data obtained in 1978-1995 in Koporskaya Bay (eastern part of the Gulf of Finland), known as the cooling water-body of Leningrad (St. Petersburg) nuclear power plant Leningrad (NPP). 45 fish species were recorded in this period. The fish species diversity reduced significantly in last decade (from 8-9 in early 1980s up to 4-5 species in the nucleus of fish community in 1990s). Most vulnerable species, such as salmonids and coregonids, tend to disappear. Koporskaya Bay coastal area is now dominated by abundant three-spined and nine-spined sticklebacks. However, the relatively improved situation have occurred after beginning of reparation works at the 1st reactor unit, when the thermal loading was declined significantly. Great amount of fishes were perished at the water-intake facilities (more than 400 ton/year, in average). Changes in fish community structure caused noticeable changes in commercial fishing: the average percentage part of baltic herring (main object of fishing in the eastern Gulf of Finland) in commercial catches ranged from 90 up to 98% in the time before the LNPP started in operating, but from 1975, especially in last decade when LNPP has reached their project electrical capacity in 1981, we can see significant variations in herring's share (29-80%) in catches

  8. Exposure to lead from intake of coffee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Max; Sloth, Jens Jørgen; Rasmussen, Rie Romme

    Food and beverages is one of the primary sources of intake of and exposure to lead, with beverages accounting for almost 50%. Previous studies from Denmark have estimated that the intake of lead from coffee is very high and may contribute to up to 20% of the total lead intake from food and bevera......Food and beverages is one of the primary sources of intake of and exposure to lead, with beverages accounting for almost 50%. Previous studies from Denmark have estimated that the intake of lead from coffee is very high and may contribute to up to 20% of the total lead intake from food...... and beverages. This estimate is, however, based on older, non-published data. In the current project extensive chemical analyses of coffee beans, drinking water and ready-to-drink coffee have been performed. The results hereof have been compared to calculations of the total intake of lead from food...... and beverages. The results show that the intake of lead from coffee is considerably lower than previously estimated and account for 4.2% and 3.3% of the total lead intake from food and beverages for Danish men and women, respectively. It can generally be concluded that the intake of lead from coffee is low...

  9. Plan of intakes for establish more Shimane-3 in Shimane Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohmura, Tsuyoshi; Nakamoto, Kenji; Fukumoto, Tadashi; Kanda, Kazunori

    2007-01-01

    Shimane-3 reactor (ABWR) has been constructed to aim at operating in December, 2011. Outline of intakes works are stated. The environmental loads and cost were reduced by changing intake works from the embedded steel pipe method to the undersea tunnel method. Plan of intakes, development of Pneumatic Caisson intake, and investigation of bedrock of submarine in the surrounding of intake are reported. The construction planning of Pneumatic Caisson intake consists of the foundation work, installation of intake unit, connection of intake tunnels and flow of water. The uniformity intake structure was investigated by the hydraulic model tests and the numerical analysis. Dredging of rocks in the foundation spot of intake and construction of intakes on land are under construction. A construction work plan, design for intakes, the embedded steel pipe method, the undersea tunnel method, Pneumatic Caisson intake, topographic features and intake tanks are illustrated. (S.Y.)

  10. Agricultural Drainage Well Intakes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Locations of surface intakes for registered agriculture drainage wells according to the database maintained by IDALS. Surface intakes were located from their...

  11. The doubly-labeled water method and food intake surveys: a confrontation O método da água duplamente marcada e pesquisas de ingestão alimentar: um confronto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    France BELLISLE

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Surveys of food intake in humans, following measurements of energy expenditures in free-living persons, obtained by the doubly-labeled water technique, have been severely questioned in recent years. The present article reviews studies performed in both adults and children, comparing energy intake and expenditures in the same individuals. In adults, reported intake is often insufficient to cover minimal energy needs. The typical level of "under-reporting" is about 20%, and it is even higher in obese subjects. Intake data obtained from children are more valid than data from adults. Different survey methods yield differing degrees of agreement between intake and expenditure measurements using the doubly labeled water technique: frequency questionnaires tend to induce over-reporting, whereas the classical 24 hours recall is very susceptible to large under-reporting. Even obese adults can provide accurate reports of their daily food intake if properly trained and motivated. The interpretation of data obtained with the doubly labeled water method should integrate the considerable day-to-day variations observed in human food intake.Pesquisas de ingestão alimentar em seres humanos, seguindo medidas de gastos de energia, obtidas pela técnica da água duplamente marcada, têm sido amplamente questionadas nos últimos anos. Este artigo faz uma revisão de estudos realizados em adultos e crianças, comparando consumo e gastos de energia nos mesmos indivíduos. Em adultos, o consumo relatado é freqüentemente insuficiente para cobrir as necessidades mínimas de energia. O nível típico de sub notificação é de cerca de 20% e chega a percentuais maiores em indivíduos obesos. Dados de consumo obtidos de crianças são mais válidos que dados de adultos. Métodos diferentes de pesquisa produzem graus diferenciados de conformidade entre medidas de consumo e gasto usando a técnica da água duplamente marcada: questionários de freqüência tendem a

  12. Nutritional intake of elite football referees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Vitor Hugo; Gonçalves, Liliana; Meneses, Tiago; Moreira, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    There is a paucity of dietary data in football referees. In this study, 23 elite main and assistant referees (34.4 ± 5.6 years) completed a 7-day dietary record during the competitive season. No nutritional intake differences were observed between main and assistant referees. Referees' mean daily energy intake (DEI) was 2819 ± 279 kcal. The intake of proteins (1.7 ± 0.2 g · kg(-1)), carbohydrates (4.1 ± 0.8 g · kg(-1)) and fats (1.4 ± 0.2 g · kg(-1)) represented, respectively, 18.4 ± 1.5%, 44.4 ± 4.4% and 34.6 ± 4.1% of the DEI. Carbohydrate intakes before, during and after exercise were 66 ± 42, 7 ± 15 and 120 ± 62 g. Daily carbohydrate, fibre, polyunsaturated fat and water intakes were below recommendations, while fat, saturated fat, cholesterol and sodium intakes were above recommended values. The prevalence of inadequate intake was high for vitamin E (96%), folate (74%), vitamin A (61%), vitamin C (39%), magnesium (26%) and calcium (22%). Carbohydrate intake before, during and after exercise were far from achieving the minimum recommended values. Most referees demonstrated a negligent behaviour of hydration during exercise. Referees would benefit from dietary education in order to optimise performance and health.

  13. Water and sodium intake habits and status of ultra-endurance runners during a multi-stage ultra-marathon conducted in a hot ambient environment: an observational field based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa Ricardo JS

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anecdotal evidence suggests ultra-runners may not be consuming sufficient water through foods and fluids to maintenance euhydration, and present sub-optimal sodium intakes, throughout multi-stage ultra-marathon (MSUM competitions in the heat. Subsequently, the aims were primarily to assess water and sodium intake habits of recreational ultra-runners during a five stage 225 km semi self-sufficient MSUM conducted in a hot ambient environment (Tmax range: 32°C to 40°C; simultaneously to monitor serum sodium concentration, and hydration status using multiple hydration assessment techniques. Methods Total daily, pre-stage, during running, and post-stage water and sodium ingestion of ultra-endurance runners (UER, n = 74 and control (CON, n = 12 through foods and fluids were recorded on Stages 1 to 4 by trained dietetic researchers using dietary recall interview technique, and analysed through dietary analysis software. Body mass (BM, hydration status, and serum sodium concentration were determined pre- and post-Stages 1 to 5. Results Water (overall mean (SD: total daily 7.7 (1.5 L/day, during running 732 (183 ml/h and sodium (total daily 3.9 (1.3 g/day, during running 270 (151 mg/L ingestion did not differ between stages in UER (p vs. CON. Exercise-induced BM loss was 2.4 (1.2% (p p > 0.05 vs. CON pre-stage. Asymptomatic hyponatraemia (n = 8 UER, corresponding to 42% of sampled participants. Pre- and post-stage urine colour, urine osmolality and urine/plasma osmolality ratio increased (p p  Conclusion Water intake habits of ultra-runners during MSUM conducted in hot ambient conditions appear to be sufficient to maintain baseline euhydration levels. However, fluid over-consumption behaviours were evident along competition, irrespective of running speed and gender. Normonatraemia was observed in the majority of ultra-runners throughout MSUM, despite sodium ingestion under benchmark recommendations.

  14. Dietary intake of phytoestrogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker MI; SIR

    2004-01-01

    The dietary intake of phytoestrogens supposedly influences a variety of diseases, both in terms of beneficial and adverse effects. This report describes current knowledge on dietary intakes of phytoestrogens in Western countries, and briefly summarizes the evidence for health effects. The

  15. The influence of the hot water extract from shiitake medicinal mushroom, Lentinus edodes (higher Basidiomycetes) on the food intake, life span, and age-related locomotor activity of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matjuskova, Natalya; Azena, Elena; Serstnova, Ksenija; Muiznieks, Indrikis

    2014-01-01

    Shiitake medicinal mushroom, Lentinus edodes, is among the most widely cultivated edible mushrooms in the world and is a well-studied source of nutrients and biologically active compounds. We have studied the influence of the dietary supplement of the polysaccharides containing a hot water extract of the mushroom L. edodes on the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster in terms of food intake, body weight, life span, and age-related locomotor activity. L. edodes extract, when added to the D. melanogaster feeding substrate at a 0.003-0.030% concentration (calculated for the dry weight of the polysaccharide fraction) did not influence food intake or body weight of the flies. It increased the life span and locomotor activities of male flies but was associated with early mortality and decreased locomotor activity of female flies. We conclude that the observed anti-aging effects of L. edodes extracts in the male D. melanogaster are not the result of dietary restriction. We propose that D. melanogaster is a suitable model organism for researching the molecular basis of the anti-aging effect of the shiitake mushroom extracts and sex linkage of these effects.

  16. Osmoregulatory responses to dietary protein and water intake in the granivorous Zonotrichia capensis (Passerine, Emberizidae Respuestas osmorregulatorias a la proteína dietaria y al consumo de agua en el granívoro Zonotrichia capensis (Paseriformes, Emberizidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PATRICIA ALDEA

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available We studied the osmoregulatory responses of the granivore Zonotrichia capensis, acclimated to high- and low-protein diets as well as two levels of water intake. We tested whether Z. capensis has the ability to modify the proportion of nitrogenous waste in the excreta when protein intake and water intake varies. After 21 days of acclimation, plasma osmolality was not significantly affected by dietary treatment; however, excreta osmolality was higher in the high-protein group compared to the low-protein group. Nitrogenous wastes in Z. capensis are excreted mainly in the form of uric acid. The proportion of kidney devoted to medullary tissue was 40 % higher in dehydrated birds than in hydrated birds. Excreta osmolality was higher in dehydrated birds, and in all cases higher than plasma concentration by more than 300 mOsm kg"¹. Our data do not support the hypothesis that Z. capensis can switch nitrogen excretion pathways. We hypothesize that the low water content of the seed-base diet, the comparatively low water intake, and the large difference between urine and plasma concentrations may minimize the retrograde flux of urine to the lower intestinal tract, thereby reducing the potential for post-renal urine modificationEstudiamos la respuesta osmorregulatoria del granívoro Zonotrichia capensis, aclimatado a dietas con alta y baja proteína como también a dos niveles de ingestión de agua. Evaluamos si Z. capensis tiene la capacidad de modificar la proporción de los desechos nitrogenados en la excreta cuando la ingestión de proteína y agua varía. Después de 21 días de aclimatación, la osmolalidad del plasma no fue afectada significativamente por el tratamiento dietario. Sin embargo, la osmolalidad de la excreta fue mayor en el grupo alta-proteína comparado con el grupo baja-proteína. Los desechos nitrogenados en Z. capensis son excretados mayoritariamente en forma de ácido úrico. La proporción del riñon ocupado por tejido medular fue

  17. Assessing the impact of climate change on the water intake of the headworks on the Red River Basin in Viet Nam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pham Thi Huong Lan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The irrigation systems for the Red River Delta usually get water by pumping and gravity.The results determine the possible minimum water level line in the dry-season months under climate change scenarios (B2, SC5 and SC6 and current scenario is B2, SC4 on the river system of the Red River – Thai Binh River in study areas of project as below: Water levels on the Red River in the dry season under climate change scenarios significantly reduced compared with 2010. At Ha Noi station on Red River, the water levels reduce in 2050 about 6.5cm (B2 and 7.5cm (A2 and 6cm (B1. At Nam Dinh station on Dao River, the water levels reduce in 2050 about 4cm (B2 and 5cm (A2 and 3cm (B1. At Cat Khe on Thai Binh River, the water levels reduce in 2050 about 2cm (B2 and 3cm (A2 and 1.5cm (B1. At An Bai on Kinh Thay River, the water levels reduce in 2050 about 5cm (B2 and 6cm (A2 and 4cm (B1. At Truc Phuong on Ninh Co River, the water levels reduce in 2050 about 6.5cm (B2 and 7.2cm (A2 and 5.8cm (B1. In the scenario in which 50% of the socio-economic development plans are achieved (SC6, the water demand is lower than the scenario of full development (SC5. The decrease in the average water level in the whole Red River system is about 1.3-1.8 cm less than in SC5, and in Thai Binh river this figure is about 1.4-2.1cm. The lowering of the water level under climate change in the river has caused problems for irrigation during the dry season, in order to reach the target level in Hanoi.

  18. Iodine intake in Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, K.M.; Noehr, S.B.; Laurberg, P.

    1997-01-01

    Iodine deficiency with a high frequency of goitre and, in severely affected areas, cretinism is common in some areas of the world. In Denmark the iodine intake as evaluated by urinary iodine excretion has been at a stable low level for many years, except for the part of the population now taking iodine supplementation as part of vitamin/mineral preparations. The iodine intake is lowest in the western part to the country where an epidemiological study of elderly subjects has demonstrated a high frequency of goitre and hyperthyroidism in women. This supports the suggestion of a controlled moderate increase in iodine intake via an iodine supplementation program. (au) 40 refs

  19. Assessment of radiation dose due to intake of uranium through ground water and its carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks in SW and NE Punjab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajwa, B.S.

    2017-01-01

    In the present investigations, Laser Fluorimetry technique has been used for the microanalysis of uranium content in drinking water samples collected from different sources like the hand pumps, tube wells of various depths from wide range of locations in the four districts of SW-Punjab, India and two districts of NE - Punjab, India. The purpose of this study was to investigate the uranium concentration levels of ground water being used for drinking and to determine its health effects, if any, to the local population of these regions

  20. Association of Hypertension, Body Mass Index, and Waist Circumference with Fluoride Intake; Water Drinking in Residents of Fluoride Endemic Areas, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Mahmood; Yaseri, Mehdi; Nabizadeh, Ramin; Hooshmand, Elham; Jalilzadeh, Mohsen; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Mohammadi, Ali Akbar

    2018-03-14

    Hypertension is becoming a global epidemic for both rural and urban populations; it is a major public health challenge in Iran. Fluoride can be a risk factor for hypertension. Cross-sectional analysis was conducted in two study areas to assess the relation of fluoride with blood pressure prevalence, BMI, waist circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) among different age groups in both sexes. The mean value of fluoride concentration in the drinking water from the four study villages varied from 0.68 to 10.30 mg/L. The overall prevalence of HTN and prehypertension in all subjects was 40.7%. The prevalence of isolated systolic hypertension, isolated diastolic hypertension, systolic-diastolic hypertension, and prehypertension in the total sample population was 1.15, 0.28, 9.53, and 29.76%, respectively. The odd ratio of hypertension in residents who drank water with high fluoride levels was higher than that in residents who drank water with lower level of fluoride (OR 2.3, 1.03-5.14). Logistic regression results showed that age (P water (P = 0.041) had a significant relationship with increased blood pressure. There were no statistically significant correlations between fluoride and BMI, hip circumference, and waist to hip ratio (WHR). The findings of this study are important for health care personnel and policymakers.

  1. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... www.girlshealth.gov/ Home Nutrition Nutrition basics Water Water Did you know that water makes up more ... to drink more water Other drinks How much water do you need? top Water is very important, ...

  2. Mixing zone and drinking water intake dilution factor and wastewater generation distributions to enable probabilistic assessment of down-the-drain consumer product chemicals in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapo, Katherine E; McDonough, Kathleen; Federle, Thomas; Dyer, Scott; Vamshi, Raghu

    2015-06-15

    Environmental exposure and associated ecological risk related to down-the-drain chemicals discharged by municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are strongly influenced by in-stream dilution of receiving waters which varies by geography, flow conditions and upstream wastewater inputs. The iSTREEM® model (American Cleaning Institute, Washington D.C.) was utilized to determine probabilistic distributions for no decay and decay-based dilution factors in mean annual and low (7Q10) flow conditions. The dilution factors derived in this study are "combined" dilution factors which account for both hydrologic dilution and cumulative upstream effluent contributions that will differ depending on the rate of in-stream decay due to biodegradation, volatilization, sorption, etc. for the chemical being evaluated. The median dilution factors estimated in this study (based on various in-stream decay rates from zero decay to a 1h half-life) for WWTP mixing zones dominated by domestic wastewater flow ranged from 132 to 609 at mean flow and 5 to 25 at low flow, while median dilution factors at drinking water intakes (mean flow) ranged from 146 to 2×10(7) depending on the in-stream decay rate. WWTPs within the iSTREEM® model were used to generate a distribution of per capita wastewater generated in the U.S. The dilution factor and per capita wastewater generation distributions developed by this work can be used to conduct probabilistic exposure assessments for down-the-drain chemicals in influent wastewater, wastewater treatment plant mixing zones and at drinking water intakes in the conterminous U.S. In addition, evaluation of types and abundance of U.S. wastewater treatment processes provided insight into treatment trends and the flow volume treated by each type of process. Moreover, removal efficiencies of chemicals can differ by treatment type. Hence, the availability of distributions for per capita wastewater production, treatment type, and dilution factors at a national

  3. Experimental effect of flow depth on ratio discharge in lateral intakes in river bend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masjedi, A; Foroushani, E P

    2012-01-01

    Open-channel dividing flow is characterized by the inflow and outflow discharges, the upstream and downstream water depths, and the recirculation flow in the branch channel. In general, diversion flow can be categorized as natural and artificial flow. Natural flow diversion usually occurs as braiding or cut-off in bend rivers, while artificial flow is man-made to divert flow by lateral intake channels for water supply. This study presents the results of a laboratory research into effect intake flow depth on ratio discharge in lateral intakes in 180 degree bend. Investigation on lateral intake and determination of intake flow depth is among the most important issues in lateral intake on ratio discharge with model intake flow depth were measured in a laboratory flume under clear-water. Experiments were conducted for various intake flow depths and with different discharges. It was found that by increasing the flow depth at 180 degree flume bend, ratio discharge increases.

  4. Development of biofilm on materials exposed in coastal waters near to a desalination plant intake at Kudankulam, east coast of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satheesh, S.; Godwin Wesly, S.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Biofouling is a major problem in power plant cooling systems, desalination plants and navigation etc. As biofouling is a site specific problem, studies on the various aspects of biofouling to a particular region is necessary for taking better antifouling strategy. This study was carried out at Kudankulam coastal waters, with an objective to analyse the process of biofilm formation and its further succession on Perspex test panels. The development of biofilm was observed over a period of 14 days during January and September 2005. Results indicated that the biofilm formation was initiated by bacteria, followed by diatom and macro algal spores. Psuedomonas and Desulphovibrio were the predominant bacterial genera observed during the initial 48 hours of panel exposure. Diatom community was dominated by restricted number of genera such as Navicula, Nitzschia and Amphora. The hydrobiological parameters such as temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, phosphate, nitrite and nitrate were examined in the context of biofouling activity in the coastal waters

  5. Assessment of age-dependent radiation dose due to intake of uranium and thorium in drinking water from Sikar District, Rajasthan, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duggal, Vikas; Rani, Asha; Balaram, V.

    2016-01-01

    The concentrations of 238 U and 232 Th have been determined in drinking water samples collected from the Sikar district of Rajasthan State, India. The samples have been analysed by using high-resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. 238 U content in water samples ranged from 8.20 to 202.63 μg l -1 and 232 Th content ranged from 0.57 to 1.46 μg l -1 . The measured 238 U content in 25 % of the analysed samples exceeded the World Health Organization (WHO) and United States Environmental Protection Agency drinking water guidelines of 30 μg l -1 and 12.5 % of the samples exceeded the 60 μg l -1 Indian maximum acceptable concentration recommended by the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board, India. The annual effective doses (μSv y -1 ) due to ingestion of 238 U and 232 Th for different age groups were also calculated. The results compared with the recommended value reported by the WHO. (authors)

  6. Effect of using the Matrix Values for NSP-degrading enzymes on performance, water intake, litter moisture and jejunal digesta viscosity of broilers fed barley-based diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Adel Moftakharzadeh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have evaluated the effect of three multi-enzymes nutrient matrix values and compared the results with that fed barley and the corn diets without enzyme. In entire period, addition of all enzymes to the barley-based diet significantly (p 0.05. Litter moisture and water to feed ratio at 15, 25, and 33 days of age significantly decreased by addition of all enzymes (p < 0.05. In conclusion, considering nutrient matrix values for all used enzymes improved performance of broilers and can be used in formulating diets commercial broiler diets based on barley.

  7. Dietary intake of the water-soluble vitamins B1, B2, B6, B12 and C in 10 countries in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, A; Halkjaer, J; van Gils, C H; Buijsse, B; Verhagen, H; Jenab, M; Boutron-Ruault, M C; Ericson, U; Ocké, M C; Peeters, P H M; Touvier, M; Niravong, M; Waaseth, M; Skeie, G; Khaw, K T; Travis, R; Ferrari, P; Sanchez, M J; Agudo, A; Overvad, K; Linseisen, J; Weikert, C; Sacerdote, C; Evangelista, A; Zylis, D; Tsiotas, K; Manjer, J; van Guelpen, B; Riboli, E; Slimani, N; Bingham, S

    2009-11-01

    To describe the intake of vitamins thiamine (B1), riboflavin (B2), B6 (pyridoxine), B12 (cobalamine) and C (ascorbic acid) and their food sources among 27 centres in 10 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Between 1995 and 2000, 36 034 persons aged between 35 and 74 years were administered a standardized 24-h dietary recall using a computerized interview software programme (EPIC-SOFT). Intakes of the four B vitamins and vitamin C were estimated using the standardized EPIC Nutrient Database (ENDB). Mean intakes were adjusted for age and weighted by season and day of recall. Intake of B vitamins did not vary considerably between centres, except in the UK health-conscious cohort, in which substantially higher intakes of thiamine and lower intakes of vitamin B12 were reported compared with other centres. Overall, meat was the most important contributor to the B vitamins in all centres except in the UK health-conscious group. Vitamin C showed a clear geographical gradient, with higher intakes in the southern centres as compared with the northern ones; this was more pronounced in men than in women. Vegetables and fruits were major contributors to vitamin C in all centres, but juices and potatoes were also important sources in the northern centres. This study showed no major differences across centres in the mean intakes of B vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, B6, B12), whereas a tendency towards a north-south gradient was observed for vitamin C.

  8. Experimental studies on intake headloss of a blasted lake tap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, James; Billstein, Mats; Engström, Fredrik; Strand, Rikard

    2014-01-01

    In existing reservoirs, construction of an intake is sometimes achieved by so-called lake tapping, a submerged tunnel piercing by blasting out the rock plug at the intake. The blasting process involves phases of rock, water, air and gas released from the explosive charge; the resulting entrance profile often differs from design assumptions. The intake headloss is a factor of concern for power generation. For a vertical intake formed by lake tapping, experiments have been carried out in a 1:30 physical model to examine the effect of entrance shapes on intake headlosses. The purpose is that, if there is potential to reduce the headlosses, the originally blasted intake shape would be modified. In the model, five alternative shapes are evaluated. The test results show that to enlarge the vertical shaft area is the most effective way to reduce the intake headloss; to further blast out a narrow channel upstream does not give much effect. Bearing in mind the risk of free-surface vortex at the intake, the influence of the intake modifications on vortex is also checked

  9. Intake to Production Ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nazaroff, William; Weschler, Charles J.; Little, John C.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Limited data are available to assess human exposure to thousands of chemicals currently in commerce. Information that relates human intake of a chemical to its production and use can help inform understanding of mechanisms and pathways that control exposure and support efforts...... to protect public health.OBJECTIVES: We introduce the intake-to-production ratio (IPR) as an economy-wide quantitative indicator of the extent to which chemical production results in human exposure.METHODS: The IPR was evaluated as the ratio of two terms: aggregate rate of chemical uptake in a human......(n-butyl) phthalate, 1,040 ppm for para-dichlorobenzene, 6,800 ppm for di(isobutyl) phthalate, 7,700 ppm for diethyl phthalate, and 8,000-24,000 ppm (range) for triclosan.CONCLUSION: The IPR is well suited as an aggregate metric of exposure intensity for characterizing population-level exposure to synthesized...

  10. Free Surface Water Tunnel (FSWT)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description: The Free Surface Water Tunnel consists of the intake plenum, the test section and the exit plenum. The intake plenum starts with a perforated pipe that...

  11. Slimming starters. Intake of a diet-congruent food reduces meal intake in active dieters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckland, Nicola J; Finlayson, Graham; Hetherington, Marion M

    2013-12-01

    Dietary restraint is known to break down in the face of tempting foods. Previous research suggests exposure to cues associated with slimming such as images or odours act as prompts to restrict intake of a tempting snack in dieters. The effects of consuming diet-congruent foods on subsequent intake of a meal have not yet been investigated. Thus, using a repeated measures design 26 female participants (dieters or non-dieters) consumed a diet-congruent (100 kcal salad), hedonic (100 kcal garlic bread) or neutral (0 kcal water) preload. A lexical decision task measured the salience of diet and hedonic thoughts and participants were then offered pizza as a main meal. Appetite sensations were measured throughout the study. Compared to the hedonic and neutral preload, a diet-congruent preload reduced dieters' entire meal intake by 21%. In contrast, non-dieters consumed 9% more in the hedonic preload condition compared to the neutral preload, yet showed no differences between the diet-congruent and other conditions. Salad lowered participants desire to eat and increased fullness compared to garlic bread and water preloads. Dieters were also less hungry after the salad compared to the garlic bread and water preloads. Consuming a diet-congruent first course may prompt lower intake at a meal, in part due to facilitating resolve to refrain from overeating a tempting second course. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Caffeine intake and fecundability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Kold; Henriksen, T B; Hjollund, N H

    1998-01-01

    and caffeine intake from different sources on the probability of conception. From 1992 to 1995, a total of 430 couples were recruited after a nationwide mailing of a personal letter to 52,255 trade union members who were 20 to 35 years old, lived with a partner, and had no previous reproductive experience...... of menstrual cycle. No dose-response relationship was found among smokers. Among males, the same decline in point estimates of the FR was present. Smoking women whose only source of caffeine was coffee (>300 mg/d) had a reduced fecundability odds-ratio (FR = 0.34; 95% CI 0.12-0.98). An interaction between...

  13. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drink and water in food (like fruits and vegetables). 6. Of all the earth’s water, how much is ocean or seas? 97 percent of the earth’s water is ocean or seas. 7. How much of the world’s water is frozen? Of all the water on earth, about 2 percent is frozen. 8. How much ...

  14. Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chovanec, A.; Grath, J.; Kralik, M.; Vogel, W.

    2002-01-01

    An up-date overview of the situation of the Austrian waters is given by analyzing the status of the water quality (groundwater, surface waters) and water protection measures. Maps containing information of nitrate and atrazine in groundwaters (analyses at monitoring stations), nitrate contents and biological water quality of running waters are included. Finally, pollutants (nitrate, orthophosphate, ammonium, nitrite, atrazine etc.) trends in annual mean values and median values for the whole country for the years 1992-1999 are presented in tables. Figs. 5. (nevyjel)

  15. Antenatal calcium intake in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdy, Zaleha Abdullah; Basri, Hashimah; Md Isa, Zaleha; Ahmad, Shuhaila; Shamsuddin, Khadijah; Mohd Amin, Rahmah

    2014-04-01

    To determine the adequacy of antenatal calcium intake in Malaysia, and the influencing factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted among postnatal women who delivered in two tertiary hospitals. Data were collected from antenatal cards, hospital documents and diet recall on daily milk and calcium intake during pregnancy. SPSS version 19.0 was used for statistical analyses. A total of 150 women were studied. The total daily calcium intake was 834 ± 43 mg (mean ± standard error of the mean), but the calcium intake distribution curve was skewed to the right with a median intake of 725 mg daily. When calcium intake from milk and calcium supplements was excluded, the daily dietary calcium intake was only 478 ± 25 mg. Even with inclusion of milk and calcium supplements, more than a third (n=55 or 36.7%) of the women consumed less than 600 mg calcium in their daily diet. The adequacy of daily calcium intake was not influenced by maternal age, ethnicity, income or maternal job or educational status as well as parity. The daily dietary calcium intake of the Malaysian antenatal population is far from adequate without the addition of calcium supplements and milk. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2013 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  16. [Assessment of dietary iodine intake of population in non-high-iodine areas in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaoyu; Li, Fengqin; Liu, Zhaoping; He, Yuna; Sui, Haixia; Mao, Weifeng; Liu, Sana; Yan, Weixing; Li, Ning; Chen, Junshi

    2011-03-01

    To assess the potential risk of dietary iodine insufficiency of population in non-high-iodine areas (water iodine China. The dietary iodine intake of 13 age-sex population groups were estimated by combining the data of iodine intake from food, table salt and drinking water. Two conditions were considered: consuming iodized salt or non-iodized salt. The data of food and table salt consumption were derived from the Chinese National Nutrition and Health Survey in 2002. Water consumption was calculated as the recommended water intake. Iodine contents of food, table salt and water were calculated from China Food Composition Table and iodine surveillance data. Under the condition of consuming iodized salt, the average iodine intake of all population groups was higher than the Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNI), while the iodine intakes of individuals above Upper Limits (UL) and below RNI were 5.8% and 13.4% respectively, and the iodine intake of individuals lower than the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) was 9.4% in adults above 18 years of age (including pregnant and lactating women). If non-iodized salt was consumed, the average iodine intake of most sex-age population groups was higher than RNI, but the iodine intake of 97.6% of individuals would be lower than RNI, while the iodine intake of 97.4% of adults would be lower than EAR. The contribution of iodine from table salt was much higher than that from drinking water and food in the condition of consuming iodized salt, while food was the predominant contributor of dietary iodine in the condition of consuming non-iodized salt. The health risk of iodine deficiency was higher than that of iodine excess in areas where water iodine was China, and the risk of iodine insufficiency was much higher if non-iodized salt was consumed. Iodized salt should be the main sources of dietary iodine intake for population in areas where water iodine was China.

  17. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can be found in some metal water taps, interior water pipes, or pipes connecting a house to ... reduce or eliminate lead. See resources below. 5. Children and pregnant women are especially vulnerable to the ...

  18. Impact of well intake systems on bacterial, algae, and organic carbon reduction in SWRO desalination systems, SAWACO, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Dehwah, Abdullah; Almashharawi, Samir; Kammourie, Nizar; Missimer, Thomas M.

    2014-01-01

    natural filtration and biological treatment of the feed water prior to the entry of the water into the desalination plant. The use of subsurface intakes normally improves the raw water quality by reducing suspended solids, algae, bacterial, and dissolved

  19. Fluoride intake from drinking water and dentifrice by children living in a tropical area of Brazil Ingestão de flúor pela água e creme dental por crianças residentes de uma área de clima tropical do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Maria F. Omena

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess fluoride (F- intake from water and toothpaste by children aged 18 to 36 months and to monitor the F- concentrations in the drinking water system in a tropical city of Brazil. METHODS: Children (n=58 aged 18-36 months, all lifetime residents of Penedo, state of Alagoas, Brazil, participated in this study. Water F- analyses were carried out in 7 different occasions at least a week apart. For 2 days all the water drunk by each child was accounted for. Fluoride intake from water for each child was estimated using the mean F- concentration of water in 7 different occasions. Fluoride intake from toothpaste was estimated by subtracting the recovered post-brushing F- from the original amount placed in the toothbrush. The F- intake from water and toothpaste was estimated by dividing the total amount of F- ingested by the weight of each child. RESULTS: The mean F- concentration in the drinking water was 0.94 ppm (mean range 0.78-1.1 ppm, which is above the 0.7 ppm recommended for this area of Brazil. Mean total F- intake from water and toothpaste was 0.128 mg F-/Kg Body Weight/day. The daily means of F- intake from water and toothpaste were 0.021 and 0.107 mg F-/Kg Body Weight, respectively. Ninety six percent of children showed F- intake above 0.07 mg F-/Kg Body Weight/day. CONCLUSIONS: Children in Penedo are at risk for developing dental fluorosis due to high F- intake from fluoridated toothpastes. Water fluoridation showed low contribution to the total F- intake. However, high water F- concentrations in the water indicate the need of surveillance of the artificial water fluoridation system.OBJETIVOS: determinar a ingestão de flúor (F- pela água e creme dental em crianças de 18 a 36 meses de idade que moram em uma cidade de clima tropical no Brasil e monitorar as concentrações de F- no sistema de água potável. MATERIAIS MÉTODOS: participaram deste estudo crianças (n=58, 18-36 meses, todas residentes vitalícias de Penedo

  20. [Sodium intake during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delemarre, F M; Franx, A; Knuist, M; Steegers, E A

    1999-10-23

    International studies have yielded contradictory results on efficacy of a sodium-restricted diet during pregnancy in preventing and curing hypertension of pregnancy. In the Netherlands three studies have been performed to investigate the value of dietary sodium restriction in pregnancy; they concerned epidemiology, prevention and treatment. Midwives often prescribed this dietary intervention. Urinary sodium excretion was not related to blood pressure changes in pregnancy. Dietary sodium restriction from the third month of pregnancy onwards did not reduce the incidence of pregnancy-induced hypertension. Maternal side effects were a decreased intake of nutrients, decreased maternal weight gain, lowered plasma volume and stimulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. A dietary sodium restriction in women with early symptoms of pregnancy-induced hypertension showed no therapeutic effect on blood pressure. There is no place for dietary sodium restriction in the prevention or treatment of hypertension in pregnancy.

  1. Intake and excretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchiyama, Masafumi

    1979-01-01

    Of radioiodine metabolism in man, the relations between intake, thyroidal uptake and excretion are explained. The internal radiation dose to the thyroid for public population is mainly given through the intake of contaminated food in all the ages. In the gestation, the fetus is exposed most to radioiodine immediately before delivery and the dose is estimated to amount a few times higher than the maternal thyroid. Importance of both the cow's milk and the breast milk as the sources of contaminant, is emphasized. Babyhood for 6 months after delivery, in this age are estiperiod as to the thyroidal exposure by radioiodine because the dose in his age are estimated to be over 30 times for 131 I and about 9 times for 129 I as compared with that to the adult. Because of its long-term residence in the environment, 129 I is incorporated into cereals, leafy vegetables and meat besides milk. However, the critical age is still in the babyhood for 6 months after birth. Radioiodine given in a form of sodium iodide is actually completely absorbed in the intestines. However, the thyroidal uptake rate and the biological half-life are depresesed by administration of inorganic iodide. Radioiodine given in the form of sodium iodide is actually completely absorbed in the intestines. However, the thyroids uptake rate and the biological half-life are depressed by administration of inorganic iodide. Radioiodine both in the protein-binding fraction and in the total fraction of metabolised cow's milk, reaches the thyroid in the same manner as that given in a form of inorganic iodide. While, rats given radioiodine incorporated into seaweed, excreted tremendous amount of the nuclide into feces which resulted in very low uptake of the nuclide by the thyroid. To estimate population dose from radioiodine, the absorption rate of radioiodine may be one of the most important parameters. (author)

  2. Concentración de trihalometanos y de ácidos haloacéticos en el agua de consumo y estimación de su ingesta durante el embarazo en la cohorte INMA-Guipúzcoa (España Trihalomethane and haloacetic acid concentrations in drinking water and their estimated intake during pregnancy in the INMA cohort (Guipúzcoa, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loreto Santa Marina

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Describir la concentración de trihalometanos (THM y ácidos haloacéticos (AHA del agua de consumo, valorar su variación espacio-temporal y estimar las ingestas individuales en el embarazo. Métodos: En los años 2006-2008 se analizó el agua en 33 puntos representativos de las redes de abastecimiento de los 25 municipios del área de estudio. Los hábitos de consumo de agua se obtuvieron mediante cuestionario. Resultados: La media (desviación estándar fue de 16,9µg/l (7,9 para el total de THM y de 10,9µg/l (4,9 para la suma de las concentraciones de cinco: monocloroacético, dicloroacético, tricloroacético, monobromoacético y dibromoacético (AHA5. Las concentraciones fueron menores en las aguas de manantial, sólo cloradas, que en las de embalse, sometidas a tratamiento completo de potabilización: 8,8µg/l frente a 19,1µg/l (pObjectives: To report trihalomethane (THM and haloacetic acid (HAA concentrations in drinking water, assess variations in these concentrations depending on source and over time, and estimate individual intake during pregnancy. Methods: Water taken from 33 representative points of the water supply network of the 25 municipalities in the study area was analyzed from 2006-2008. Water drinking habits were recorded using a questionnaire. Results: Mean total THM concentrations were 16.9µg/L (standard deviation, 7.9, while the mean value for the sum of concentrations of five HAA (monochloroacetic, dichloroacetic, tricholoroacetic, monobromoacetic, and dicromoacetic acids was 10.9µg/L (standard deviation, 4.9. Concentrations were lower in spring waters, which were only chlorinated, compared with dam waters, which were subject to a complete purification treatment: 8.8µg/L vs 19.1µg/L (p<0.01 and 8.2µg/L vs 11.7µg/L (p<0.01. Concentrations significantly increased with the number of deposits in the network and with their rechlorination and were higher in the summer and fall. Mean intakes of total THM and

  3. Comportamento ingestivo e ingestão de água em caprinos e ovinos alimentados com feno e silagem de Maniçoba Ingestive behavior and water intake in goats and sheep fed with Maniçoba hay and silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Ricardo de Farias Zumba

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o comportamento ingestivo e consumo de água de caprinos e ovinos alimentados com feno ou silagem de maniçoba (Manihot epruinosa Pax & Hoffmann. Foram empregados sete caprinos sem padrão racial definido, com peso médio inicial de 14,6kg e oito ovinos da raça Santa Inês de 13,9kg. Os animais foram mantidos em baias individuais e distribuídos em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 2 x 2 (forma de conservação x espécie animal. Foram avaliados os consumos de matéria seca, matéria orgânica, proteína bruta, fibra em detergente neutro, extrato etéreo, carboidratos totais e carboidratos não fibrosos. Para estudo de comportamento ingestivo, os animais foram observados a cada cinco minutos durante 24h. Os animais alimentados com feno de maniçoba mostraram maior consumo de proteína bruta e extrato etéreo (56 e 24 g/dia em relação àqueles que receberam a maniçoba conservada pela fermentação (42 e 14g/dia, respectivamente. Não houve diferença entre os tempos de alimentação (405,00 e 399,38 min, ruminação (625,63 e 599,38 min e ócio (413,13 e 44,01 min entre os animais alimentados com silagem e feno de maniçoba, respectivamente. No entanto, os animais alimentados com maniçoba conservada mediante fermentação apresentaram menor consumo de água no bebedouro (0,473vs 0,990kg/dia para silagem e feno, respectivamente. Assim, conclui-se que o método de conservação de maniçoba não interferiu no comportamento ingestivo, mas a ingestão da maniçoba conservada mediante fermentação leva ao menorThe objective of this study was to evaluate the ingestive behavior and water intake of goats and sheep fed Manihot epruinosa Pax & Hoffmann silage or hay. Seven goats (average live weight 14,6 ± 1,24kg and eight sheep (average live weight 13,8 ± 1,22kg were allotted to individual pens. They were distributed in a completely randomized design, 2 x 2 factorial outline composed of

  4. Water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Water scarcity is without a doubt on of the greatest threats to the human species and has all the potential to destabilise world peace. Falling water tables are a new phenomenon. Up until the development of steam and electric motors, deep groudwater...

  5. Water

    OpenAIRE

    Hertie School of Governance

    2010-01-01

    All human life depends on water and air. The sustainable management of both is a major challenge for today's public policy makers. This issue of Schlossplatz³ taps the streams and flows of the current debate on the right water governance.

  6. Intake acoustics of naturally aspirated racing engines

    OpenAIRE

    Dolinar, A

    2006-01-01

    The intake system is one of the components on the internal combustion engine most linked with the achievement of the high volumetric efficiency required of naturally aspirated engines. High performance racing engine intake systems have unusual geometry with separate intake pipes (often known as intake trumpets) housed in a common airbox. These intake trumpets are short pipes that are sometimes cylindrical but often conical. The flow within the intake system is ve...

  7. Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sanmuga Priya

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Phytoremediation through aquatic macrophytes treatment system (AMATS for the removal of pollutants and contaminants from various natural sources is a well established environmental protection technique. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes, a worst invasive aquatic weed has been utilised for various research activities over the last few decades. The biosorption capacity of the water hyacinth in minimising various contaminants present in the industrial wastewater is well studied. The present review quotes the literatures related to the biosorption capacity of the water hyacinth in reducing the concentration of dyestuffs, heavy metals and minimising certain other physiochemical parameters like TSS (total suspended solids, TDS (total dissolved solids, COD (chemical oxygen demand and BOD (biological oxygen demand in textile wastewater. Sorption kinetics through various models, factors influencing the biosorption capacity, and role of physical and chemical modifications in the water hyacinth are also discussed.

  8. Radioactive iodine intake through foodstuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omomo, Yoichiro

    1974-01-01

    The transition of radioactive iodine to human bodies is affected by the amount of coexisting stable iodine. The intake of stable iodine through foodstuffs was studied from the stand point of I) discussion of the literature which states the approximate amounts of stable iodine contained in environmental materials, and II) the authors' research on the consumption of foodstuffs. For example, the amounts of iodine intake of fishermen living in Kuji-cho (Ibaragi Prefecture) was estimated from I and II, and was revealed as 2704p. The national average iodine intake was about 800p indicating that the former estimated value was remarkably high. Eighty Four per cent of the 2.7 mg iodine intake was taken from marine products, indicating that marine products are important sources of iodine supply. (Tsukamoto, Y.)

  9. Dietary polyphenol intake in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zamora-Ros, Raul; Knaze, Viktoria; Rothwell, Joseph A

    2016-01-01

    were collected using a standardized 24-h dietary recall software administered to 36,037 adult subjects. Dietary data were linked with Phenol-Explorer, a database with data on 502 individual polyphenols in 452 foods and data on polyphenol losses due to cooking and food processing. RESULTS: Mean total....... The current cross-sectional analysis aimed at estimating dietary intakes of all currently known individual polyphenols and total intake per class and subclass, and to identify their main food sources in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. METHODS: Dietary data at baseline...... polyphenol intake was the highest in Aarhus-Denmark (1786 mg/day in men and 1626 mg/day in women) and the lowest in Greece (744 mg/day in men and 584 mg/day in women). When dividing the subjects into three regions, the highest intake of total polyphenols was observed in the UK health-conscious group...

  10. Dietary Intake of Competitive Bodybuilders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spendlove, Jessica; Mitchell, Lachlan; Gifford, Janelle; Hackett, Daniel; Slater, Gary; Cobley, Stephen; O'Connor, Helen

    2015-07-01

    Competitive bodybuilders are well known for extreme physique traits and extremes in diet and training manipulation to optimize lean mass and achieve a low body fat. Although many of the dietary dogmas in bodybuilding lack scientific scrutiny, a number, including timing and dosing of high biological value proteins across the day, have more recently been confirmed as effective by empirical research studies. A more comprehensive understanding of the dietary intakes of bodybuilders has the potential to uncover other dietary approaches, deserving of scientific investigation, with application to the wider sporting, and potential health contexts, where manipulation of physique traits is desired. Our objective was to conduct a systematic review of dietary intake practices of competitive bodybuilders, evaluate the quality and currency of the existing literature, and identify research gaps to inform future studies. A systematic search of electronic databases was conducted from the earliest record until March 2014. The search combined permutations of the terms 'bodybuilding', 'dietary intake', and 'dietary supplement'. Included studies needed to report quantitative data (energy and macronutrients at a minimum) on habitual dietary intake of competitive bodybuilders. The 18 manuscripts meeting eligibility criteria reported on 385 participants (n = 62 women). Most studies were published in the 1980-1990s, with three published in the past 5 years. Study methodological quality was evaluated as poor. Energy intake ranged from 10 to 24 MJ/day for men and from 4 to 14 MJ/day for women. Protein intake ranged from 1.9 to 4.3 g/kg for men and from 0.8 to 2.8 g/kg for women. Intake of carbohydrate and fat was 6 months from competition) or immediate post-competition period and lowest during competition preparation (≤6 months from competition) or competition week. The most commonly reported dietary supplements were protein powders/liquids and amino acids. The studies failed to provide

  11. Fluid intake from beverages across age groups: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özen, A E; Bibiloni, M Del Mar; Pons, A; Tur, J A

    2015-10-01

    Fluid intake, especially water, is essential for human life and also necessary for physical and mental function. The present study aimed to assess beverage consumption across age groups. A systematic review was conducted. Original research in English language publications and available studies (or abstracts in English) from 2000 to 2013 was searched for by using the medical subheading (MeSH) terms: ('beverage' OR 'fluid' [Major]) AND ('consumption' [Mesh] OR 'drinking' [Mesh] OR 'intake' [Mesh]) AND ('child' [Mesh] OR 'adolescent' [Mesh] OR 'adult' [Mesh]). Article selection was restricted to those papers covering healthy populations of all age groups in a nationwide sample, or from a representative sample of the population of a city or cities, which examined the trends or patterns of beverage intake and the determinants of beverage intake. Sixty-five studies were identified with respect to beverage consumption across age groups. The papers were screened by thoroughly reading titles or abstracts. Full-text articles were assessed by three investigators. Total beverage intake varied between 0.6 and 3.5 L day(-1) among all age groups (males more than females). Plain water contributed up to 58%, 75% and 80% of the total beverage intake in children, adolescents and adults, respectively. Milk consumption was higher among children; consumption of soft drinks was higher among adolescents; and the consumption of tea, coffee and alcoholic beverages was higher among adults. Plain water is the main water source for all age groups and the consumption of other beverages varies according to age. © 2014 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  12. Food intake of university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greyce Luci BERNARDO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This narrative literature review aimed to analyze the results of studies on the food intake of university students. A literature search was conducted in July 2014 and updated in July 2016 in the Scopus, MedLine/PubMed, and SciELO databases, using descriptors related to university students and food intake in English and Portuguese. Overall, 37 studies that analyzed university students’ food intake were included in this review, eight of which were conducted in Brazil. The results demonstrated that most university students have unhealthy eating behaviors, such as high intake of fast foods, snacks, sweets, soft drinks, and alcoholic beverages, and low intake of fruits, vegetables, fish, whole grains, and legumes. Undergraduate students of health sciences, such as nursing, nutrition, and medicine, did not have healthier diets. University students’ food intake was characterized as unhealthy, regardless of undergraduate program or sex, especially among students who left the parents’ home and became responsible for their own food. Therefore, there is a need of developing public policies that promote healthy eating habits among students, such as interventions to change their eating habits and increase their access to healthy foods at the university environment.

  13. A premeal snack of raisins decreases mealtime food intake more than grapes in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Barkha P; Luhovyy, Bohdan; Mollard, Rebecca; Painter, James E; Anderson, G Harvey

    2013-04-01

    The effect of a premeal snack of grapes, raisins, or a mix of almonds and raisins, compared with a water control, on food intake (FI) was examined in 8- to 11-year-old normal-weight (15th to 85th percentile) children. Children randomly received 1 of 4 ad libitum (Experiment 1: 13 boys, 13 girls) or fixed-calorie (150 kcal; Experiment 2: 13 boys, 13 girls) treatments, followed by an ad libitum pizza meal 30 min later. Appetite was measured throughout the study, and FI was measured at 30 min. The ad libitum consumption (Experiment 1) of raisins reduced pizza intake (p snack (15%). Cumulative energy intake (in kcal: snack + pizza) was lower after water and raisins than after either grapes or the mixed snack (p snack (Experiment 2), raisins reduced pizza intake, compared with water (∼11%, p = 0.005), and resulted in a cumulative intake similar to water; however, both grapes and the mixed snack resulted in higher cumulative intakes (p snacks (p snack (p consumption of a premeal snack of raisins, but not grapes or a mix of raisins and almonds, reduces meal-time energy intake and does not lead to increased cumulative energy intake in children.

  14. Validation of the Diet Quality Index for Adolescents by Comparison with Biomarkers, Nutrient and Food Intakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vyncke, Krishna; Cruz Fernandez, Estefania; Fajó-Pascual, Marta

    2013-01-01

    in the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) Study. Dietary intake was assessed by two, non-consecutive 24 h recalls. A DQI-A score, considering the components' dietary quality, diversity and equilibrium, was calculated. Associations between the DQI-A and food and nutrient intakes...... with energy-dense and low-nutritious foods. On the nutrient level, the DQI-A was positively related to the intake of water, fibre and most minerals and vitamins. No association was found between the DQI-A and total fat intake. Furthermore, a positive association was observed with 25-hydroxyvitamin D, holo...

  15. Impulsivity, "advergames," and food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folkvord, Frans; Anschütz, Doeschka J; Nederkoorn, Chantal; Westerik, Henk; Buijzen, Moniek

    2014-06-01

    Previous studies have focused on the effect of food advertisements on the caloric intake of children. However, the role of individual susceptibility in this effect is unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the role of impulsivity in the effect of advergames that promote energy-dense snacks on children's snack intake. First, impulsivity scores were assessed with a computer task. Then a randomized between-subject design was conducted with 261 children aged 7 to 10 years who played an advergame promoting either energy-dense snacks or nonfood products. As an extra manipulation, half of the children in each condition were rewarded for refraining from eating, the other half were not. Children could eat freely while playing the game. Food intake was measured. The children then completed questionnaire measures, and were weighed and measured. Overall, playing an advergame containing food cues increased general caloric intake. Furthermore, rewarding children to refrain from eating decreased their caloric intake. Finally, rewarding impulsive children to refrain from eating had no influence when they were playing an advergame promoting energy-dense snacks, whereas it did lead to reduced intake among low impulsive children and children who played nonfood advergames. Playing an advergame promoting energy-dense snacks contributes to increased caloric intake in children. The advergame promoting energy-dense snacks overruled the inhibition task to refrain from eating among impulsive children, making it more difficult for them to refrain from eating. The findings suggest that impulsivity plays an important role in susceptibility to food advertisements. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  16. Fluid intake in Mexican adults: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez, Homero

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: An adequate hydration is critical for a series of body functions, including proper regulation of core body temperature, elimination of waste metabolites by the kidney and maintenance of normal physical and cognitive functions. Some institutions have set recommendations for adequate intake of water, but these recommendations vary widely. Objective: To estimate the usual daily consumption of fluids (water and all other beverages) by a selective sample of Mexican population. Method...

  17. Pattern of Energy and Protein Intake among Stunted Children Aged 3–5 Years in Jatinangor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Laurus

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: A child’s optimal growth can be indicated by many factors, among them is body height, therefore stunting is one of the evidences of undergrowth. Nutrition, on the other hand, is one of variables affecting growth. This study aimed to examine the nutrition intake, in the form of energy, carbohydrate, protein, and fat in stunted children aged 3–5 years in Jatinangor. Methods: This cross sectional study was carried out in September to October 2014 using the random sampling method. Dietary data from 70 stunted children aged 3–5 years in pre–school and kindegarten located in 9 urban areas in Jatinangor were collected through 3x24 Recall and Food Frequency Questionaire and analyzed. Results: Mean energy intake was 1113.6 kcal and mean carbohydrate intake was 137.4 grams. Mean protein intake was 38.4 gram and mean fat intake was 38.2 gram. Types of food highly consumed as the source of carbohydrate were white rice and biscuit, and as the source of protein were meatball, sausage, and egg. Highest consumed vegetables, fruits and snack were water spinach, cabbage, watermelon, banana, and milk respectively. Conclusions: Mean energy intake, mean carbohydrate intake, and mean fat intake are all below the recommended dietary allowance (RDA 2013 with individual value of mean energy intake is below RDA 2013 for all subjects. Mean protein intake is slightly above RDA 2013.

  18. Food intake and nutrition in children 1-4 years of age in Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuanalo de la Cerda, Heriberto E; Ochoa Estrada, Ernesto; Tuz Poot, Felipe R; Datta Banik, Sudip

    2014-01-01

    The National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 (ENSANUT in Spanish) reported high rates of under-nutrition in children of Yucatan. Is food intake the main cause of under-nutrition in children of the state of Yucatan, Mexico? Identify the primary causes of under-nutrition in pre-school children in Yucatan. A sample of 111 children (59 girls and 52 boys) aged 1-4 years representing Yucatan was taken from a database of ENSANUT 2006 and another national survey, a federal poverty mitigation programme for the state of Yucatan, Mexico entitled "Oportunidades". A human ecology approach together with life history theory was used to analyse anthropometric indices and food intake data from the ENSANUT 2006 and "Oportunidades". Height and weight were significantly correlated to age and total food intake. No correlations were found between age and anthropometric indices or food intake rates. The children in the sample had adequate protein intake but deficient energy intake. No correlation was identified between nutritional status and food intake rates. Pre-schoolers with higher weight-for-height values achieved greater height-for-age. These relationships can be explained by life history theory in that energy intake was used either for maintenance (combating and recovering from infections) or growth. The poor relationship between food intake rates and nutritional status is probably explained by the interaction between high disease incidence and insufficient energy intake. These conditions are endemic in Yucatan due to widespread poor housing, water and sanitation conditions.

  19. Estimated Daily Average Per Capita Water Ingestion by Child and Adult Age Categories Based on USDA's 1994-96 and 1998 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (Journal Article)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current water ingestion estimates are important for the assessment of risk to human populations of exposure to water-borne pollutants. This paper reports mean and percentile estimates of the distributions of daily average per capita water ingestion for 12 age range groups. The a...

  20. Report of the Nuclear Energy Agency expert group on gut transfer factors: implications for dose per unit intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This note describes the gut transfer factors recommended by an Expert Group of the Nuclear Energy Agency for intakes of certain important elements in food and drinking water. The evidence behind the recommendations is discussed and their implications for dose per unit intake is investigated. It is found that in many cases the dose per unit intake calculated using the gut uptake factor recommended by the Expert Group is similar to that calculated using the recommendations of ICRP Publication 30. However, in some cases there are substantial increases in dose per unit intake. The largest increases are by a factor of fifty for intakes of certain thorium isotopes by infants. (author)

  1. Mapping to assess feasibility of using subsurface intakes for SWRO, Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Dehwah, Abdullah; Almashharawi, Samir; Missimer, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    Use of subsurface intakes for seawater reverse osmosis desalination (SWRO) systems is known to improve raw water quality, reduce use of chemicals, improve operational reliability, and reduce the life cycle cost of desalination. A key issue

  2. Food Photography Is Not an Accurate Measure of Energy Intake in Obese, Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most, Jasper; Vallo, Porsha M; Altazan, Abby D; Gilmore, Linda Anne; Sutton, Elizabeth F; Cain, Loren E; Burton, Jeffrey H; Martin, Corby K; Redman, Leanne M

    2018-04-01

    To improve weight management in pregnant women, there is a need to deliver specific, data-based recommendations on energy intake. This cross-sectional study evaluated the accuracy of an electronic reporting method to measure daily energy intake in pregnant women compared with total daily energy expenditure (TDEE). Twenty-three obese [mean ± SEM body mass index (kg/m2): 36.9 ± 1.3] pregnant women (aged 28.3 ±1.1 y) used a smartphone application to capture images of their food selection and plate waste in free-living conditions for ≥6 d in early (13-16 wk) and late (35-37 wk) pregnancy. Energy intake was evaluated by the smartphone application SmartIntake and compared with simultaneous assessment of TDEE obtained by doubly labeled water. Accuracy was defined as reported energy intake compared with TDEE (percentage of TDEE). Ecological momentary assessment prompts were used to enhance data reporting. Two-one-sided t tests for the 2 methods were used to assess equivalency, which was considered significant when accuracy was >80%. Energy intake reported by the SmartIntake application was 63.4% ± 2.3% of TDEE measured by doubly labeled water (P = 1.00). Energy intake reported as snacks accounted for 17% ± 2% of reported energy intake. Participants who used their own phones compared with participants who used borrowed phones captured more images (P = 0.04) and had higher accuracy (73% ± 3% compared with 60% ± 3% of TDEE; P = 0.01). Reported energy intake as snacks was significantly associated with the accuracy of SmartIntake (P = 0.03). To improve data quality, excluding erroneous days of likely underreporting (<60% TDEE) improved the accuracy of SmartIntake, yet this was not equivalent to TDEE (-22% ± 1% of TDEE; P = 1.00). Energy intake in obese, pregnant women obtained with the use of an electronic reporting method (SmartIntake) does not accurately estimate energy intake compared with doubly labeled water. However, accuracy improves by

  3. Metabolomics investigation of whey intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanstrup, Jan

    syndrome are complex disorders and are not caused by a high-calorie diet and low exercise level alone. The specific nature of the nutrients, independent of their caloric value, also play a role. The question is which. In the quest to answer this question the qualitative intake of protein is of special...... and prevention of the metabolic syndrome related to obesity and diabetes. In this thesis the effects of whey intake on the human metabolome was investigated using a metabolomics approach. We demonstrated that intake of whey causes a decreased rate of gastric emptying compared to other protein sources....... Therefore this thesis will also present and discuss state-of-the-art tools for computer-assisted compound identification, including: annotation of adducts and fragments, determination of the molecular ion, in silico fragmentation, retention time mapping between analytical systems and de novo retention time...

  4. Modulation of ethanol-intake by morphine: Evidence for a central site of action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wild, K.D.; Reid, L.D. (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that subcutaneous administration of low doses of morphine increase, while subcutaneous naloxone decreases, ethanol-intake in rats. However, the site of action of morphine modulation of ethanol-intake remains unclear. In an attempt to elucidate this issue, seven graded doses of morphine were given intracerebroventricularly to rats 15 min prior to an opportunity to consume water and sweetened alcoholic beverage for 2 hr. Two lower doses of intracerebroventricular morphine reliably increased ethanol-intake, while higher doses decreased intake of water. Preference ratios were reliably increased by morphine doses of 1 {mu}g and higher. The present data provide support for a central site of morphine modulation of ethanol-intake.

  5. Apelin-13 increased food intake with serum ghrelin and leptin levels in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saral, S; Alkanat, M; Sumer, A; Canpolat, S

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to explain the role of apelin-13 on body weight, food and water intake with serum leptin, ghrelin, neuropeptid Y (NPY) and peptid YY (PYY) levels in male rat. Thirty-two Sprague-Dawley male rats were used for the study. The rats were injected SP (0.9 %) intraperitoneally (i.p) in the control group and 30 (AP30), 100 (AP100) and 300 (AP300) µg/kg apelin-13 in the study groups, respectively, 10 min before the transition to dark period, for 10 days. During the experimental period, with light and dark periods of food and water intake, body weights were recorded in rats. Rats were euthanized and serum samples were obtained. In serum samples leptin, ghrelin, NPY and PYY levels were measured with specific ELISA kit. Apelin-13 was increased body weights in all three (AP30, AP100 and AP300) groups compared with the control group. AP100 and AP300 groups had increased food intake in the dark and the cumulative period, but in the light period food intake values were not significantly increased (p > 0.05). As for the value of water intake, compared with the control group, all dose of apelin-13 increased water intake during the dark and the cumulative period. There was no significant change in water intake in the light period. On the other hand, compared with the control group, serum leptin levels were found to increase in the groups administered 100 and 300 µg/kg of apelin-13 (p Ghrelin levels were found high in all groups treated with apelin-13. Serum levels of NPY decreased only in the 300 µg/kg apelin-13 treated group (p 0.05). Apelin-13 increases body weight in rats as well as food and water intake (dark and cumulative period). Additionally, ghrelin can mediate the orexigenic effect of apelin-13 in the regulation of food intake (Fig. 4, Ref. 37).

  6. Lecithin intake and serum cholesterol.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knuiman, J.T.; Beynen, A.C.; Katan, M.B.

    1989-01-01

    To find out whether the consumption of lecithin has a more beneficial effect on serum cholesterol than does the consumption of equivalent amounts of polyunsaturated oils, we scrutinized 24 studies on the effect of supplementary lecithin intakes ranging from 1 to 54 mg/d. Most of the studies lacked

  7. Vortex Whistle in Radial Intake

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tse, Man-Chun

    2004-01-01

    In a radial-to-axial intake with inlet guide vanes (IGV) at the entry, a strong flow circulation Gamma can be generated from the tangential flow components created by the IGVs when their setting exceed about halfclosing (approx. 45 deg...

  8. Protein intake and ovulatory infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavarro, Jorge E; Rich-Edwards, Janet W; Rosner, Bernard A; Willett, Walter C

    2008-02-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate whether intake of protein from animal and vegetable origin is associated with ovulatory infertility. A total of 18,555 married women without a history of infertility were followed up as they attempted a pregnancy or became pregnant during an 8 year period. Dietary assessments were related to the incidence of ovulatory infertility. During follow-up, 438 women reported ovulatory infertility. The multivariate-adjusted relative risk (RR) (95% confidence interval [CI]; P for trend) of ovulatory infertility comparing the highest to the lowest quintile of animal protein intake was 1.39 (1.01 to 1.90; 0.03). The corresponding RR (95% CI; P for trend) for vegetable protein intake was 0.78 (0.54 to 1.12; 0.07). Furthermore, consuming 5% of total energy intake as vegetable protein rather than as animal protein was associated with a more than 50% lower risk of ovulatory infertility (P =.007). Replacing animal sources of protein with vegetable sources of protein may reduce ovulatory infertility risk.

  9. Job strain and alcohol intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heikkilä, Katriina; Nyberg, Solja T; Fransson, Eleonor I

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between work-related stress and alcohol intake is uncertain. In order to add to the thus far inconsistent evidence from relatively small studies, we conducted individual-participant meta-analyses of the association between work-related stress (operationalised as self-reported job...

  10. Opportunities for Intervention Strategies for Weight Management: Global Actions on Fluid Intake Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Lafontan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Water is an essential nutrient for all physiological functions and particularly important for thermoregulation. About 60% of our body weight is made of water. Under standard conditions (18-20 °C and moderate activity, water balance is regulated within 0.2 % of body weight over a 24-hour period. Water requirement varies between individuals and according to environmental conditions. Concerning considerations related to obesity, the health impact of fluid intake is commonly overlooked. Fluid intake advices are missing in most of food pyramids offered to the public, and water requirements and hydration challenges remain often neglected. The purpose of this paper is to emphasize and discuss the role of water consumption in the context of other important public health measures for weight management. Attention will be focused on fluid intake patterns and hydration-related questions in the context of global interventions and/or physical activity programs settled in weight management protocols.

  11. Opportunities for Intervention Strategies for Weight Management: Global Actions on Fluid Intake Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafontan, Max; Visscher, Tommy L.S.; Farpour-Lambert, Nathalie; Yumuk, Volkan

    2015-01-01

    Water is an essential nutrient for all physiological functions and particularly important for thermoregulation. About 60% of our body weight is made of water. Under standard conditions (18-20 °C and moderate activity), water balance is regulated within 0.2 % of body weight over a 24-hour period. Water requirement varies between individuals and according to environmental conditions. Concerning considerations related to obesity, the health impact of fluid intake is commonly overlooked. Fluid intake advices are missing in most of food pyramids offered to the public, and water requirements and hydration challenges remain often neglected. The purpose of this paper is to emphasize and discuss the role of water consumption in the context of other important public health measures for weight management. Attention will be focused on fluid intake patterns and hydration-related questions in the context of global interventions and/or physical activity programs settled in weight management protocols. PMID:25765164

  12. Daily mineral intakes for Japanese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiraishi, Kunio

    1990-01-01

    Recently it became necessary to assess the dietary intake of both stable and radioactive elements for non-radiation workers. But data of mineral intake in the literature are not good enough for this assessment. ICRP Pub. 23 in 'Reference Man' is one of the best references in this field. ICRP Reference Man was selected as the standard for Caucasian by using values reported during early 1970s or before. Moreover it seems not to be suitable for Japanese (Mongolian). In this report, analytical methods of minerals in total diet samples for Japanese were described. Furthermore, daily intakes for Japanese (Reference Japanese Man) and ICRP Reference Man were compared. After collected by a duplicate portion study and a model diet study, diet samples were dry-ashed followed by wet-digestion with a mixture of HNO 3 and HClO 4 . Diet sample solutions thus prepared were analysed by using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), inductively-coupled plasma atomic-emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Matrix effects of major elements (Na, K, P, Ca and Mg) in diet samples were compensated by a matrix-matching method. About 20 elements were simultaneously determined by ICP-AES and ICP-MS, more easily than by AAS. Most of dietary mineral intakes, except for Na, Mn, and Sr, for Japanese were lower than those of ICRP Reference Man. But, dietary intakes were found to be different depending on countries, even among European and American countries. New representative data for as many elements as possible are necessary now. (author)

  13. Number of 24-hour diet recalls needed to estimate energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yunsheng; Olendzki, Barbara C; Pagoto, Sherry L; Hurley, Thomas G; Magner, Robert P; Ockene, Ira S; Schneider, Kristin L; Merriam, Philip A; Hébert, James R

    2009-08-01

    Twenty-four-hour diet recall interviews (24HRs) are used to assess diet and to validate other diet assessment instruments. Therefore it is important to know how many 24HRs are required to describe an individual's intake. Seventy-nine middle-aged white women completed seven 24HRs over a 14-day period, during which energy expenditure (EE) was determined by the doubly labeled water method (DLW). Mean daily intakes were compared to DLW-derived EE using paired t tests. Linear mixed models were used to evaluate the effect of call sequence and day of the week on 24HR-derived energy intake while adjusting for education, relative body weight, social desirability, and an interaction between call sequence and social desirability. Mean EE from DLW was 2115 kcal/day. Adjusted 24HR-derived energy intake was lowest at call 1 (1501 kcal/day); significantly higher energy intake was observed at calls 2 and 3 (2246 and 2315 kcal/day, respectively). Energy intake on Friday was significantly lower than on Sunday. Averaging energy intake from the first two calls better approximated true energy expenditure than did the first call, and averaging the first three calls further improved the estimate (p=0.02 for both comparisons). Additional calls did not improve estimation. Energy intake is underreported on the first 24HR. Three 24HRs appear optimal for estimating energy intake.

  14. Evaluation of drinks contribution to energy intake in summer and winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malisova, Olga; Bountziouka, Vassiliki; Zampelas, Antonis; Kapsokefalou, Maria

    2015-05-15

    All drinks hydrate and most also provide nutrients and energy. Our objective was to evaluate the contribution of drinks to total energy intake in summer and winter. Data were obtained using the Water Balance Questionnaire (WBQ) from a sample of the general population in Athens, Greece (n = 984), 473 individuals (42 ± 18 years) in summer and 511 individuals (38 ± 20 years) in winter stratified by sex and age. The WBQ embeds a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire of 58 foods and the Short International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Data were analyzed for the contribution of drinks to total energy intake. In winter, total energy intake was 2082 ± 892 kcal/day; energy intake from drinks was 479 ± 286 kcal/day and energy expenditure 1860 ± 390 kcal/day. In summer, total energy intake was 1890 ± 894 kcal/day, energy intake from drinks 492 ± 499 kcal/day and energy expenditure 1830 ± 491 kcal/day. Energy intake from drinks in summer was higher than in winter (p drinks, milk, chocolate milk and alcoholic drinks contributed approximately 75% of energy from drinks. Fruit juice and sugar-sweetened drinks, including soft drinks and fruit juice based drinks, were consumed less frequently contributing up to 25% of drink energy intake. Drinks contribute approximately 1/4 of total energy intake depending on the energy content of the drink and frequency of consumption. Coffee, dairy and alcoholic drinks were the main energy contributors.

  15. Estimation of beverage consumption and associated caloric intake in adult Czech population. An observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adámková, Věra; Hubáček, Jaroslav A; Zimmelová, Petra; Velemínský, Miloš

    2011-01-01

    Food intake is a commonly monitored issue in many studies. In contrast, almost no information has been published on beverage intake in adults. To evaluate beverage intake, we studied a population of 1, 200 adults (656 males and 544 females, aged 18-54 years). The volumes and types of beverages were obtained from self-reported questionnaires. The mean beverage intake was highly variable, with a minimum of 450 mL/day and a maximum of 5,330 mL/day. A mean of 1,575 mL/day was found in the entire population (2,300 mL in males and 840 mL in females). Different patterns in the consumption of beverage types were observed between the males and females. For both males and females, the most common beverage consumed was water followed by tea. The next preferable beverages were alcoholic beer, coffee, and non-alcoholic beer in males and coffee, milk, and alcoholic beer in females. The estimated caloric intake from beverages covers, in most individuals, 10-30% of the recommended daily caloric intake. There is substantial variation among individuals, both in beverage intake and in caloric intake through beverages. The caloric intake from beverages reaches, in some individuals, one-third of the recommended daily caloric rate. © 2011 Neuroendocrinology Letters

  16. Inhibitory effects of xylitol on gastric emptying and food intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafer, R.B.; Levine, A.S.; Marlette, J.M.; Morley, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    The authors have previously shown, using a 99m-Tc scrambled egg meal, that pentose sugars (i.e. xylose and arabinose) markedly prolong gastric emptying. Others have reported that slowing of gastric emptying may decrease appetite and thus decrease food intake. In the present study, the authors utilized the effects of xylitol (an FDA-approved pentose sugar) on gastric emptying to study the correlation between gastric emptying and food intake. Initially, gastric emptying was measured in human volunteers utilizing a standardized 99m-Tc-scrambled egg meal washed with 50 cc tap water. Results demonstrated a significant reduction in food intake (892 +- 65 kcal with water vs 654 +- 26 kcal following the ingestion of 25 gm xylitol (p<0.05). We conclude that the effect of pentose sugars in prolonging gastric emptying directly influences food intake and contributes to early satiety. The data suggest a role of xylitol as an essentially non-caloric food additive potentially important in diet control

  17. Inhibitory effects of xylitol on gastric emptying and food intake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafer, R.B.; Levine, A.S.; Marlette, J.M.; Morley, J.E.

    1985-05-01

    The authors have previously shown, using a 99m-Tc scrambled egg meal, that pentose sugars (i.e. xylose and arabinose) markedly prolong gastric emptying. Others have reported that slowing of gastric emptying may decrease appetite and thus decrease food intake. In the present study, the authors utilized the effects of xylitol (an FDA-approved pentose sugar) on gastric emptying to study the correlation between gastric emptying and food intake. Initially, gastric emptying was measured in human volunteers utilizing a standardized 99m-Tc-scrambled egg meal washed with 50 cc tap water. Results demonstrated a significant reduction in food intake (892 +- 65 kcal with water vs 654 +- 26 kcal following the ingestion of 25 gm xylitol (p<0.05). We conclude that the effect of pentose sugars in prolonging gastric emptying directly influences food intake and contributes to early satiety. The data suggest a role of xylitol as an essentially non-caloric food additive potentially important in diet control.

  18. Coanda hydro intake screen testing and evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howarth, J.

    2001-07-01

    The objective of this project has been to evaluate the effectiveness, suitability and cost benefit of the Aquashear Coanda effect, maintenance free intake screen for use in small hydro system intakes. (author)

  19. Investigation of sodium metabolism in the ruminants, in vitro and in vivo studies with 24Na isotope, after different intake of potassium and water. Part of a coordinated programme on water requirements of tropical herbivores based on measurements with tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juhasz, B.

    1980-04-01

    The water and electrolyte content of the rumen which gives the 15% of the water space of the body has an important role in the regulation of the water and electrolyte metabolism of the sheep. The diuresis is very important in the standardization of the volume of the body-water space but in the ruminant the saliva secretion is also a significant-factor in the water and electrolyte metabolism of the body. In our experiments the mechanism of the regulation of the water and electrolyte metabolism was examined in two points of view. In one hand the range of the ion transport was determined in vitro in the sheep's erythrocytes of low and high K + content. On the other hand in 3 in vivo experiments the function of water and salt metabolism was examined during saline overcharge by animals supplied with different quantity of saline and water and the alterations of Na + and K + concentrations of plasma and saliva, moreover the saliva secretion and the diuresis rates were studied

  20. Worldwide trends in dietary sugars intake.

    OpenAIRE

    Wittekind, Anna; Walton, Janette

    2014-01-01

    Estimating trends in dietary intake data is integral to informing national nutrition policy and monitoring progress towards dietary guidelines. Dietary intake of sugars is a controversial public health issue and guidance in relation to recommended intakes is particularly inconsistent. Published data relating to trends in sugars intake are relatively sparse. The purpose of the present review was to collate and review data from national nutrition surveys to examine changes and trends in dietary...

  1. Fontes de lipídeos na dieta de búfalas lactantes: consumo, digestibilidade e N-uréico plasmático Effects of dietary fat sources on intake, nutrient digestibility and plasma urea nitrogen for lactating water buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Lopes Oliveira

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Os efeitos da suplementação de fontes lipídicas sobre o consumo, a digestibilidade dos nutrientes e o N-uréico plasmático foram avaliados em 12 búfalas lactantes, em três quadrados latinos simultâneos, cada um com quatro animais, quatro períodos e quatro dietas contendo uma das fontes de lípideo estudadas (sem lipídeo adicional; grão de soja; óleo de soja ou caroço de algodão. O período experimental foi de 84 dias, com quatro períodos de 21 dias, divididos em 14 dias para a adaptação e 7 para coleta. A dieta foi fornecida à vontade, duas vezes ao dia, na forma de mistura completa. Nos dias de coleta de cada período, os alimentos fornecidos e as sobras foram pesados e amostrados para análise bromatológica. Amostras de fezes foram coletadas diretamente no reto dos animais para estimativa da produção de matéria seca fecal, utilizando-se a fibra em detergente neutro indigestível como indicador, e para o cálculo de digestibilidade aparente. Os consumos de matéria seca, proteína bruta, fibra em detergente neutro e fibra em detergente ácido foram semelhantes entre as dietas. Os consumos de extrato etéreo e nutrientes digestíveis totais (NDT foram maiores para a dieta com óleo de soja. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade de matéria seca, proteína bruta e carboidratos não-fibrosos e as concentrações de N-uréico plasmático foram semelhantes entre as dietas. A utilização das fontes de lipídeos nas dietas de búfalas em lactação não influenciou o consumo e coeficiente de digestibilidade da matéria seca. Entretanto, as digestibilidades do extrato etéreo da dieta com grão de soja e das frações fibrosas da dieta com caroço de algodão foram as mais baixas.The effects of fat sources on intake, nutrient digestibility and plasma urea nitrogen were evaluated in lactating water buffalo. Twelve females were randomly distributed into four treatments: without additional lipid, soybean grain, soybean oil and

  2. Mapping low intake of micronutrients across Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensink, G B M; Fletcher, R; Gurinovic, M; Huybrechts, I; Lafay, L; Serra-Majem, L; Szponar, L; Tetens, I; Verkaik-Kloosterman, J; Baka, A; Stephen, A M

    2013-08-01

    Achieving an understanding of the extent of micronutrient adequacy across Europe is a major challenge. The main objective of the present study was to collect and evaluate the prevalence of low micronutrient intakes of different European countries by comparing recent nationally representative dietary survey data from Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, The Netherlands, Poland, Spain and the United Kingdom. Dietary intake information was evaluated for intakes of Ca, Cu, I, Fe, Mg, K, Se, Zn and the vitamins A, B₁, B₂, B₆, B₁₂, C, D, E and folate. The mean and 5th percentile of the intake distributions were estimated for these countries, for a number of defined sex and age groups. The percentages of those with intakes below the lower reference nutrient intake and the estimated average requirement were calculated. Reference intakes were derived from the UK and Nordic Nutrition Recommendations. The impact of dietary supplement intake as well as inclusion of apparently low energy reporters on the estimates was evaluated. Except for vitamin D, the present study suggests that the current intakes of vitamins from foods lead to low risk of low intakes in all age and sex groups. For current minerals, the study suggests that the risk of low intakes is likely to appear more often in specific age groups. In spite of the limitations of the data, the present study provides valuable new information about micronutrient intakes across Europe and the likelihood of inadequacy country by country.

  3. Intake Procedures in College Counseling Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, James P.; And Others

    Intake procedures is the common subject of four papers presented in this booklet. James P. Pappas discusses trends, a decision theory model, information and issues in his article "Intake Procedures in Counseling Centers--Trends and Theory." In the second article "The Utilization of Standardized Tests in Intake Procedures or 'Where's the Post…

  4. Fish intake in pregnancy and child growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stratakis, N.; Roumeliotaki, T.; Oken, E.

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Maternal fish intake in pregnancy has been shown to influence fetal growth. The extent to which fish intake affects childhood growth and obesity remains unclear. OBJECTIVE To examine whether fish intake in pregnancy is associated with offspring growth and the risk of childhood overweig...

  5. Worldwide trends in dietary sugars intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittekind, Anna; Walton, Janette

    2014-12-01

    Estimating trends in dietary intake data is integral to informing national nutrition policy and monitoring progress towards dietary guidelines. Dietary intake of sugars is a controversial public health issue and guidance in relation to recommended intakes is particularly inconsistent. Published data relating to trends in sugars intake are relatively sparse. The purpose of the present review was to collate and review data from national nutrition surveys to examine changes and trends in dietary sugars intake. Only thirteen countries (all in the developed world) appear to report estimates of sugars intake from national nutrition surveys at more than one point in time. Definitions of dietary sugars that were used include 'total sugars', 'non-milk extrinsic sugars', 'added sugars', sucrose' and 'mono- and disaccharides'. This variability in terminology across countries meant that comparisons were limited to within countries. Hence trends in dietary sugars intake were examined by country for the whole population (where data permitted), and for specific or combined age and sex subpopulations. Findings indicate that in the majority of population comparisons, estimated dietary sugars intake is either stable or decreasing in both absolute (g/d) and relative (% energy) terms. An increase in sugars intake was observed in few countries and only in specific subpopulations. In conclusion, the findings from the present review suggest that, in the main, dietary sugars intake are decreasing or stable. A consistent approach to estimation of dietary sugars intake from national nutrition surveys is required if more valid estimates of changes in dietary sugars intakes are required in the future.

  6. Cardiometabolic Effects of Cheese Intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorning, Tanja Kongerslev

    In several countries, the dietary guidelines for preventing CVD focus on reducing the intake of saturated fat. A high cheese intake in particular may however not be associated with CVD risk, despite a high content of saturated fat. This could be due to a reduced digestibility of fat in cheese....... The aim of this PhD thesis was to investigate how the fat content of the cheese-matrix and the cheese ripening duration affect cardiometabolic risk markers and fecal fat excretion. The thesis is based on three intervention studies, two in pigs and one in humans. The results suggested that fat content...... of cheese-matrix may influence the HDL-cholesterol response, while the ripening duration may affect the level of free fatty acids and insulin in the blood. Furthermore the results showed that a diet with saturated fat in cheese or meat caused a higher HDL-cholesterol, but not LDL-cholesterol, compared...

  7. Interaction of mealtime ad libitum beverage and food intake with meal advancement in healthy young men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Khoury, Dalia; Panahi, Shirin; Luhovyy, Bohdan L; Douglas Goff, H; Harvey Anderson, G

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the interaction of beverage and food intake with meal advancement in healthy adults. In a randomized controlled study, 29 men and women consumed to satiation, over 20 min, a pizza meal with one of the five beverages including water, 1% milk, orange juice, regular cola and diet cola. Mealtime food and fluid intake were measured, within each of three 7-min phases of the meal. A progressive decline occurred from phase 1 to 3 in fluid intake and food intake, averaging 59 mL and 268 kcal (P food (mL/kcal) increased (P Beverage type was not a factor. All beverages resulted in similar fluid volume intake compared to water. However, caloric beverages led to higher mealtime total energy intake compared to water (P food (r = 0.16; P food intake (r = 0.23; Pfood intakes interact, unaffected by beverage characteristics, to increase the ratio of fluid to food intake with meal progression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Are Reductions in Population Sodium Intake Achievable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L. Levings

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The vast majority of Americans consume too much sodium, primarily from packaged and restaurant foods. The evidence linking sodium intake with direct health outcomes indicates a positive relationship between higher levels of sodium intake and cardiovascular disease risk, consistent with the relationship between sodium intake and blood pressure. Despite communication and educational efforts focused on lowering sodium intake over the last three decades data suggest average US sodium intake has remained remarkably elevated, leading some to argue that current sodium guidelines are unattainable. The IOM in 2010 recommended gradual reductions in the sodium content of packaged and restaurant foods as a primary strategy to reduce US sodium intake, and research since that time suggests gradual, downward shifts in mean population sodium intake are achievable and can move the population toward current sodium intake guidelines. The current paper reviews recent evidence indicating: (1 significant reductions in mean population sodium intake can be achieved with gradual sodium reduction in the food supply, (2 gradual sodium reduction in certain cases can be achieved without a noticeable change in taste or consumption of specific products, and (3 lowering mean population sodium intake can move us toward meeting the current individual guidelines for sodium intake.

  9. Direct quantification of energy intake in an apex marine predator suggests physiology is a key driver of migrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitlock, Rebecca E; Hazen, Elliott L; Walli, Andreas; Farwell, Charles; Bograd, Steven J; Foley, David G; Castleton, Michael; Block, Barbara A

    2015-09-01

    Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis) are highly migratory apex marine predators that inhabit a broad thermal niche. The energy needed for migration must be garnered by foraging, but measuring energy intake in the marine environment is challenging. We quantified the energy intake of Pacific bluefin tuna in the California Current using a laboratory-validated model, the first such measurement in a wild marine predator. Mean daily energy intake was highest off the coast of Baja California, Mexico in summer (mean ± SD, 1034 ± 669 kcal), followed by autumn when Pacific bluefin achieve their northernmost range in waters off northern California (944 ± 579 kcal). Movements were not always consistent with maximizing energy intake: the Pacific bluefin move out of energy rich waters both in late summer and winter, coincident with rising and falling water temperatures, respectively. We hypothesize that temperature-related physiological constraints drive migration and that Pacific bluefin tuna optimize energy intake within a range of optimal aerobic performance.

  10. Estimates of Water Ingestion for Women in Pregnant, Lactating and Non-Pregnant and Non-Lactating Child Bearing Age Groups Based on USDA's 1994-96, 1998 Continuing Survey of Food Intake by Individuals (Journal Article)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Women in the child bearing age of 15 to 44 years and, in particular, pregnant and lactating women in this age cohort are considered a sensitive subpopulation when assessing risk from ingestion of contaminated water because ingested contaminants may pose a risk not only to the mot...

  11. In adolescence a higher 'eveningness in energy intake' is associated with higher total daily energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diederichs, Tanja; Perrar, Ines; Roßbach, Sarah; Alexy, Ute; Buyken, Anette E

    2018-05-26

    The present manuscript addressed two hypotheses: (i) As children age, energy intake is shifted from morning (energy intake energy intake >6pm) (ii) A higher 'eveningness in energy intake' (i.e. evening minus morning energy intake) is associated with a higher total daily energy intake. Data were analyzed from 262 DONALD cohort study participants, who had completed at least one 3-day weighed dietary record in the age groups 3/4, 5/6, 7/8, 9/10, 11/12, 13/14, 15/16 and 17/18 years (y). 'Eveningness in energy intake' was compared across age groups and related to total daily energy intake for each age group (multiple cross-sectional analyses). 'Eveningness' increased progressively from age group 3/4y to age group 17/18y. A median surplus of evening energy intake (i.e. when evening intake exceeded morning intake) was firstly observed for age group 11/12y. From age group 11/12y onwards, a higher 'eveningness' was associated with a higher total daily energy intake (all p energy intake between the highest and the lowest tertile of 'eveningness' was largest for age group 17/18y, amounting to an 11% higher intake among adolescents in the highest as compared to those in the lowest tertile. In conclusion, energy intake progressively shifts from morning to evening hours as children age. Once evening energy intake exceeds morning energy intake, a higher 'eveningness in energy intake' is associated with higher total daily energy intake. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Intake of 226Ra, 210Pb and 210Po with food in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietrzak-Flis, Z.; Chrzanowski, E.; Dembinska, S.

    1997-01-01

    Intake with food and water of 226 Ra, 210 Pb and 210 Po was determined for an adult population in regions of central, northern and northeastern Poland. The content of radionuclides was determined in the daily diet and, in the central region, also in foodstuffs and drinking water. The annual intake with foodstuffs was estimated on the basis of their average annual consumption. The 226 Ra intake in northeastern Poland was approximately 17% higher than the overall average, correlating well with the higher concentration of this radionuclide in the soil. The 210 Po/ 210 Pb ratio was close to unity in the continental regions, whereas at the Baltic Sea coast it was approximately 1.5. The latter value can be ascribed to a larger consumption of fish for which the 210 Po/ 210 Pb ratio was found to be approximately 10. In central Poland the largest intake of 226 Ra was with flour and vegetables (contribution approx. 60%), the largest intake of 210 Pb was with flour and meat (approx. 50%) and the largest intake of 210 Po was with fish (approx. 34%). From the intake and dose coefficient, annual effective doses were calculated. The dose from 210 Pb and 210 Po was approx. 54 μSv year -1 , and the dose from 226 Ra was approx. 4 μSv year -1

  13. Estimation of Total Usual Calcium and Vitamin D Intakes in the United States1–3

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, Regan L.; Dodd, Kevin W.; Goldman, Joseph A.; Gahche, Jaime J.; Dwyer, Johanna T.; Moshfegh, Alanna J.; Sempos, Christopher T.; Picciano, Mary Frances

    2010-01-01

    Our objective in this study was to estimate calcium intakes from food, water, dietary supplements, and antacids for U.S. citizens aged ≥1 y using NHANES 2003–2006 data and the Dietary Reference Intake panel age groupings. Similar estimates were calculated for vitamin D intake from food and dietary supplements using NHANES 2005–2006. Diet was assessed with 2 24-h recalls; dietary supplement and antacid use were determined by questionnaire. The National Cancer Institute method was used to estim...

  14. 226Ra intake in the population from Bucharest during the past ten years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toader, M.; Vasilache, R.A.; Tomulescu, V.

    1998-01-01

    During 1986-1996 the content of several radionuclides, including 226 Ra, in the basic foodstuffs and in drinking water was determined. Based on these data and on the data concerning the constituents of the diet in Romania, the 226 Ra intake by the population of Bucharest was estimated for the last ten years, and the doses due to this intake were calculated. The results are presented in graphs and tables, and some general conclusions are drawn. (A.K.)

  15. Dietary intake of natural radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith-Briggs, J L; Bradley, E J [National Radiological Protection Board, Chilton (UK)

    1984-09-01

    The levels of the natural radionuclides, radium-226, lead-210 and polonium-210 were measured in food samples collected for a National Food Survey, thus reflecting current consumption patterns in the UK. Daily intakes of radium-226, lead-210 and inferred values of polonium-210 were calculated for 20 food groups. From these data, the annual effective dose equivalents from radium-226, lead-210 and polonium-210 in the UK diet were estimated to be 3..mu..Sv, 41..mu..Sv and 13..mu..Sv respectively.

  16. Dietary intake of natural radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith-Briggs, J.L.; Bradley, E.J.

    1984-01-01

    The levels of the natural radionuclides, radium-226, lead-210 and polonium-210 were measured in food samples collected for a National Food Survey, thus reflecting current consumption patterns in the UK. Daily intakes of radium-226, lead-210 and inferred values of polonium-210 were calculated for 20 food groups. From these data, the annual effective dose equivalents from radium-226, lead-210 and polonium-210 in the UK diet were estimated to be 3μSv, 41μSv and 13μSv respectively. (U.K.)

  17. Dental fluorosis in populations from Chiang Mai, Thailand with different fluoride exposures - Paper 2: The ability of fluorescence imaging to detect differences in fluorosis prevalence and severity for different fluoride intakes from water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background To assess the ability of fluorescence imaging to detect a dose response relationship between fluorosis severity and different levels of fluoride in water supplies compared to remote photographic scoring in selected populations participating in an observational, epidemiological survey in Chiang Mai, Thailand. Methods Subjects were male and female lifetime residents aged 8-13 years. For each child the fluoride content of cooking water samples (CWS) was assessed to create categorical intervals of water fluoride concentration. Fluorescence images were taken of the maxillary central incisors and analyzed for dental fluorosis using two different software techniques. Output metrics for the fluorescence imaging techniques were compared to TF scores from blinded photographic scores obtained from the survey. Results Data from 553 subjects were available. Both software analysis techniques demonstrated significant correlations with the photographic scores. The metrics for area effected by fluorosis and the overall fluorescence loss had the strongest association with the photographic TF score (Spearman’s rho 0.664 and 0.652 respectively). Both software techniques performed well for comparison of repeat fluorescence images with ICC values of 0.95 and 0.85 respectively. Conclusions This study supports the potential use of fluorescence imaging for the objective quantification of dental fluorosis. Fluorescence imaging was able to discriminate between populations with different fluoride exposures on a comparable level to remote photographic scoring with acceptable levels of repeatability. PMID:22908997

  18. [Dysphagia screening on resumption of oral intake in inpatients predictive factor for the resumption of oral intake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayanagi, Hirohisa; Endo, Tomonori; Nakayama, Tuguhisa; Kato, Takakuni

    2013-06-01

    There is much concern about the acute phase of restarting an oral diet for hospital inpatients who have been prohibited from any oral intake. We found predictive factors for the successful resumption of oral intake in such patients. A total of 186 subjects who had been hospitalized without oral intake were screened for dysphagia between January 1st and December 31st in 2010 (mean age 80.9 years), and formed the study population. We observed them from the initial consultation day until the discharge. (mean days 32.6) We examined factors of age, sex, appetite, gag reflex, tongue activity, the repetitive saliva swallowing test (RSST), obeying commands, the status of the laryngopharynx, laryngeal sensation and the 3 ml water swallowing test under endoscopy. We excluded those who died in hospital after dysphagia screening because they were obviously lost to follow-up. One hundred and twelve patients (60.2%) could resume oral intake, 54 patients could not and 20 (10.8%) died. Logistic regression analysis identified seven significant factors in predicting the resumption of oral intake : 1) age (p = 0.01, OR = 0.938, 95% CI 0.903-0.976); 2) sex (p = 0.21, OR = 2.15, 95% CI 1.124-4.128); 3) appetite (p = 0.041, OR = 1.983, 95% CI 1.029-3.821); 4) gag reflex (p = 0.06, OR = 1.932, 95% CI 0.971-3.844); 5) tongue activity (P = 0.002, OR = 3.825, 95% CI 1.647-8.883); 6) RSST (P = 0.013, OR = 2.284, 95% CI 1.186-4.397); 7) obeying commands (p = 0.02, OR = 3.005, 95% CI 1.507-5.993); 8) the status of the laryngopharynx (P = 0.668, OR = 0.668, 95% CI 0.351-1.272); 9) laryngeal sensation (P = 0.081, OR = 1.841, 95% CI 0.928-3.650); and the 3 ml water swallowing test under endoscopy (P = 0.000, OR = 0.226, 95% CI 0.102-0.499). These predictive factors could be very useful for dysphagia screening to help forecast the successful resumption of oral intake in affected patients. When the likelihood of dysphagia and the onset of aspiration pneumonia are suggested by dysphagia screening

  19. Fluid Intake and Beverage Consumption Description and Their Association with Dietary Vitamins and Antioxidant Compounds in Italian Adults from the Mediterranean Healthy Eating, Aging and Lifestyles (MEAL Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Platania

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the total water intake (TWI from drinks and foods and to evaluate the correlation between the different types of drinks on energy and antioxidant intake. The cohort comprised 1602 individuals from the city of Catania in Southern Italy. A food frequency questionnaire was administered to assess dietary and water intake. The mean total water intake was 2.7 L; more than about two thirds of the sample met the European recommendations for water intake. Water and espresso coffee were the most consumed drinks. Alcohol beverages contributed about 3.0% of total energy intake, and sugar sweetened beverages contributed about 1.4%. All antioxidant vitamins were significantly correlated with TWI. However, a higher correlation was found for water from food rather than water from beverages, suggesting that major food contributors to antioxidant vitamin intake might be fruits and vegetables, rather than beverages other than water. A mild correlation was found between fruit juices and vitamin C; coffee, tea and alcohol, and niacin and polyphenols; and milk and vitamin B12. The findings from the present study show that our sample population has an adequate intake of TWI and that there is a healthy association between beverages and dietary antioxidants.

  20. Water futures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mattias Borg

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the potential construction of a water reservoir in Peru’s Cordillera Blanca. Proposed by a peasant group, it would have served important productive purposes but have its intake within the perimeter of a national park. Thus, different notions about water and landscape emerge...... in the encounters between place-based practices and state-sponsored conservation efforts. Empirically tracing the efforts to construct the reservoir, the analytical focus of the article is on how different ways of knowing water within a particular landscape conjure and collide in the process. It is argued...... that the movement of water extends itself beyond the physical properties of the reservoir and irrigation channels as these are produced in encounters between different notions of the role of water in the landscape....

  1. Insufficient vitamin D intakes among pregnant women.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGowan, C A

    2011-09-01

    Vitamin D has an important role in pregnancy in promoting fetal skeletal health. Maternal dietary intake is a key factor influencing both maternal and fetal status. There are limited data available on food groups contributing to vitamin D intake in pregnancy. The aim of this study was to determine dietary intakes of vitamin D throughout pregnancy in 64 women and to determine the main food groups contributing to vitamin D intake. Results showed that median dietary intakes of vitamin D ranged from 1.9-2.1 μg\\/d during pregnancy, and were 80% below the current recommendation. The principal food groups contributing to vitamin D intake were meat, egg and breakfast cereal groups. Oily fish, the best dietary source of vitamin D, was consumed by <25% of women. These data call for more education; they question the role of vitamin D supplementation and highlight the contribution of other food groups more frequently consumed, namely, breakfast cereals, meat and eggs.

  2. The intake of carotenoids in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Torben; Jakobsen, Jette; Andersen, N. L.

    2000-01-01

    To estimate the intake of carotenoids in the Danish population Danish fruits and vegetables were screened with an HPLC method consisting of extraction with ethanol:tetrahydrofuran, separation by reversed phase HPLC with the mobile phase acetonitril:methanol:dichlormethan, triethylamin, BHT...... in the foods the mean intake and intake distribution of the carotenoids were calculated. Carrots and tomatoes have both high contents of carotenoids (8,450 mu g/100 g alpha- + beta-carotene and 4,790 mu g/100 g lycopene, respectively) and high intakes (19 and 15 g/day, respectively) and were responsible for 47......% and 32%, respectively, of the mean intake of carotenoids of 4.8 mg/day A median value of 4.1 mg/day was found indicating skewed intake distributions. The difference between men and women was 0.4 mg/day (p carotenoids, alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, lutein and lycopene, contributed...

  3. The endocrinology of food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begg, Denovan P; Woods, Stephen C

    2013-10-01

    Many questions must be considered with regard to consuming food, including when to eat, what to eat and how much to eat. Although eating is often thought to be a homeostatic behaviour, little evidence exists to suggest that eating is an automatic response to an acute shortage of energy. Instead, food intake can be considered as an integrated response over a prolonged period of time that maintains the levels of energy stored in adipocytes. When we eat is generally determined by habit, convenience or opportunity rather than need, and meals are preceded by a neurally-controlled coordinated secretion of numerous hormones that prime the digestive system for the anticipated caloric load. How much we eat is determined by satiation hormones that are secreted in response to ingested nutrients, and these signals are in turn modified by adiposity hormones that indicate the fat content of the body. In addition, many nonhomeostatic factors, including stress, learning, palatability and social influences, interact with other controllers of food intake. If a choice of food is available, what we eat is based on pleasure and past experience. This article reviews the hormones that mediate and influence these processes.

  4. The estimation of annual limit on intake for tritiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komatsu, Kenshi; Okumura, Yutaka

    1992-01-01

    Tritium incorporation into tissues and DNA of mice was studied after daily ingestion of tritiated food or tritiated water. The tritiated food used was a commercial preparation mixed with brine shrimp which had been reared in tritiated sea water. After ingestion of tritiated food or water for up to 22 d, the specific activity of tritium in tissues was measured as tissue-free-water tritium, tissue-bound tritium and DNA-bound tritium. In order to compare the tritium intake from food with that from water, 14 C-glucose was added to food and drinking water. The specific activity of tritium of tissues obtained was then corrected by the specific activity of 14 C in tissues in order to analyse the tritium incorporation from the same amount of ingested food and water. DNA-bound tritium after the ingestion of tritiated food was 4.6 times higher than that of tritiated water, while tissue-bound tritium was 2.2 times higher. The radiation dose to liver from tritium incorporated through food was two-fold higher than through tritiated water, which was mainly due to the high incorporation of tritium into DNA. Our results demonstrated that the dose calculation based on tissue-free-water tritium alone would underestimate the radiation exposure of the human population exposed to tritiated food. (author)

  5. Impact of wheel running on chronic ethanol intake in aged Syrian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brager, Allison J; Hammer, Steven B

    2012-10-10

    Alcohol dependence in aging populations is seen as a public health concern, most recently because of the significant proportion of heavy drinking among "Baby Boomers." Basic animal research on the effects of aging on physiological and behavioral regulation of ethanol (EtOH) intake is sparse, since most of this research is limited to younger models of alcoholism. Here, EtOH drinking and preference were measured in groups of aged Syrian hamsters. Further, because voluntary exercise (wheel-running) is a rewarding substitute for EtOH in young adult hamsters, the potential for such reward substitution was also assessed. Aged (24 month-old) male hamsters were subjected to a three-stage regimen of free-choice EtOH (20% v/v) or water and unlocked or locked running wheels to investigate the modulatory effects of voluntary wheel running on EtOH intake and preference. Levels of fluid intake and activity were recorded daily across 60 days of experimentation. Prior to wheel running, levels of EtOH intake were significantly less than levels of water intake, resulting in a low preference for EtOH (30%). Hamsters with access to an unlocked running wheel had decreased EtOH intake and preference compared with hamsters with access to a locked running wheel. These group differences in EtOH intake and preference were sustained for up to 10 days after running wheels were re-locked. These results extend upon those of our previous work in young adult hamsters, indicating that aging dampens EtOH intake and preference. Voluntary wheel running further limited EtOH intake, suggesting that exercise could offer a practical approach for managing late-life alcoholism. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Expected satiation alone does not predict actual intake of desserts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillocheau, Etienne; Davidenko, Olga; Marsset-Baglieri, Agnès; Darcel, Nicolas; Gaudichon, Claire; Tomé, Daniel; Fromentin, Gilles

    2018-04-01

    The degree to which consumers expect foods to satisfy hunger, referred to as expected satiation, has been reported to predict food intake. Yet this relationship has not been established precisely, at a quantitative level. We sought to explore this relationship in detail by determining whether expected satiation predicts the actual intake of semi-solid desserts. Two separate experiments were performed: the first used variations of a given food (eight apple purées), while the second involved a panel of different foods within a given category (eight desserts). Both experiments studied the consumption of two products assigned to volunteers based on their individual liking and expected satiation ratings, given ad libitum at the end of a standardised meal. A linear model was used to find predictors of food intake and included expected satiation scores, palatability scores, BMI, age, sex, TFEQ-R, TFEQ-D, water consumption during the meal, reported frequency of eating desserts, and reported frequency of consuming tested products as explanatory variables. Expected satiation was a significant predictor of actual food intake in both experiments (apple purée: F(1,97) = 18.60, P desserts: F(1,106) = 9.05, P desserts, on group and on individual level. Our results confirm the importance of expected satiation as a predictor of subsequent food intake, but highlight the need to study individual consumption behaviour and preferences in order to fully understand the role of expected satiation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Technical feasibility of a seabed gallery seawater intake at Ras Abu Ali Island, Arabian Gulf, Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Rachman, Rinaldi; Missimer, Thomas M.

    2014-01-01

    high quality raw seawater even before pretreatment. Subsurface intakes extract seawater indirectly through the geological structure of shoreline or nearshore sediments. Water percolation through geological units provides physical and biological

  8. Internal Dosimetry Intake Estimation using Bayesian Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.; Inkret, W.C.; Martz, H.F.

    1999-01-01

    New methods for the inverse problem of internal dosimetry are proposed based on evaluating expectations of the Bayesian posterior probability distribution of intake amounts, given bioassay measurements. These expectation integrals are normally of very high dimension and hence impractical to use. However, the expectations can be algebraically transformed into a sum of terms representing different numbers of intakes, with a Poisson distribution of the number of intakes. This sum often rapidly converges, when the average number of intakes for a population is small. A simplified algorithm using data unfolding is described (UF code). (author)

  9. Risk assessment for the daily intake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from the ingestion of cockle (Anadara granosa) and exposure to contaminated water and sediments along the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirsadeghi, Seiedeh Aghileh; Zakari, Mohamad Pauzi; Yap, Chee Kong; Shahbazi, Azadeh

    2011-01-01

    The concentration of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (c-PAHs) present in the sediment and water of Peninsular Malaysia as well as in the cockle Anadara granosa was investigated. Samples were extracted and analysed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The concentrations of total carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (t-PAHs) were measured between 0.80 +/- 0.04 to 162.96 +/- 14.74 ng/g wet weight (ww) in sediment, between 21.85 +/- 2.18 to 76.2 +/- 10.82 ng/L in water samples and between 3.34 +/- 0.77 to 46.85 +/- 5.50 ng/g ww in the cockle tissue. The risk assessment of probable human carcinogens in the Group B2 PAHs was calculated and assessed in accordance with the standards of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). Case I in the toxicity assessment analysed the cancer risk to consumers of Malaysian blood cockle. Case II assessed the risk of cancer from exposure to PAHs from multiple pathways. The average cancer risk of case I and case II were found to be classifiable as unsafe according to the US EPA standard. The cancer risk due to c-PAHs acquired by the ingestion of blood cockle was (8.82 +/- 0.54) x 10-6 to (2.67 +/- 0.06) x 10(-2), higher than the US EPA risk management criterion. The non-cancer risks associated with multiple pathways in Kuala Gula, Kuala Juru and Kuala Perlis were higher than the U.S. EPA safe level, but the non-cancer risk for eating blood cockle was below the level of U.S. EPA concern.

  10. Hypoparathyroidism: what is the best calcium carbonate supplementation intake form?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollino, Loraine; Biagioni, Maria Fernanda Giovanetti; Sabatini, Nathalia Regina; Tagliarini, José Vicente; Corrente, José Eduardo; Paiva, Sérgio Alberto Rupp de; Mazeto, Gláucia Maria Ferreira da Silva

    2017-11-15

    In hypoparathyroidism, calcium supplementation using calcium carbonate is necessary for the hypocalcemia control. The best calcium carbonate intake form is unknown, be it associated with feeding, juice or in fasting. The objective was to evaluate the calcium, phosphorus and Calcium×Phosphorus product serum levels of hypoparathyroidism women after total thyroidectomy, following calcium carbonate intake in three different forms. A crossover study was carried out with patients presenting definitive hypoparathyroidism, assessed in different situations (fasting, with water, orange juice, breakfast with a one-week washout). Through the review of clinical data records of tertiary hospital patients from 1994 to 2010, 12 adult women (18 50 years old) were identified and diagnosed with definitive post-thyroidectomy hypoparathyroidism. The laboratory results of calcium and phosphorus serum levels dosed before and every 30min were assessed, for 5h, after calcium carbonate intake (elementary calcium 500mg). The maximum peak average values for calcium, phosphorus and Calcium×Phosphorus product were 8.63mg/dL (water), 8.77mg/dL (orange juice) and 8.95mg/dL (breakfast); 4.04mg/dL (water), 4.03mg/dL (orange juice) and 4.12mg/dL (breakfast); 34.3mg 2 /dL 2 (water), 35.8mg 2 /dL 2 (orange juice) and 34.5mg 2 /dL 2 (breakfast), respectively, and the area under the curve 2433mg/dLmin (water), 2577mg/dLmin (orange juice) and 2506mg/dLmin (breakfast), 1203mg/dLmin (water), 1052mg/dLmin (orange juice) and 1128mg/dLmin (breakfast), respectively. There was no significant difference among the three different tests (p>0.05). The calcium, phosphorus and Calcium×Phosphorus product serum levels evolved in a similar fashion in the three calcium carbonate intake forms. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  11. INCREASED FAT INTAKE MAY STABILIZED CKD PROGRESSION IN LOW-FAT INTAKE PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Yu Chang

    2012-06-01

    Inadequate calories intake will induce excessive protein catabolism, which can cause accumulation of uremic toxins and acceleration of renal failure. Increasing fats intake is an easy way to achieve adequate calories acquirement and may stabilize the progression of CKD especially in low-fat intake patients.

  12. Impact of food choice on sodium intake patterns from multiple NHANES surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zefeng; Gao, Zhifeng; McFadden, Brandon

    2017-02-01

    To examine how the food consumption from various food groups would impact American adults' sodium intake and whether this impact structurally changes over time, data were obtained from six-cycle National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2010. Foods were categorized by the first two digits of the USDA food code. Regression models were employed to investigate the associations between the consumption of each food group and sodium intake, and whether there were changes in the associations in consecutive six cycles. Results show that the calorie consumption of oils, beverages and water, fruit juices, fruits, lamb, fruit products, and sugars and sweets had no significant impact on individuals' sodium intake, while calorie consumption of tomatoes, fish, dark-green vegetables, and crackers contributes the most to sodium intake. The contribution to sodium intake of most food groups does not change significantly over time, with the exception of salad dressing whose contribution to sodium intake increased in four consecutive years when compared to that of 1999-2000. The sodium amount contributed by one calorie consumption (sodium density) of most food was above the daily recommendation level, 1.2 mg per calorie per day. Lowering individuals' sodium intake involves either guiding individuals to consume more fruit related products or decreasing the amount of sodium in most food groups at the production or food preparation stages. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Oxytocin-receptor-expressing neurons in the parabrachial nucleus regulate fluid intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Philip J; Ross, Silvano I; Campos, Carlos A; Derkach, Victor A; Palmiter, Richard D

    2017-12-01

    Brain regions that regulate fluid satiation are not well characterized, yet are essential for understanding fluid homeostasis. We found that oxytocin-receptor-expressing neurons in the parabrachial nucleus of mice (Oxtr PBN neurons) are key regulators of fluid satiation. Chemogenetic activation of Oxtr PBN neurons robustly suppressed noncaloric fluid intake, but did not decrease food intake after fasting or salt intake following salt depletion; inactivation increased saline intake after dehydration and hypertonic saline injection. Under physiological conditions, Oxtr PBN neurons were activated by fluid satiation and hypertonic saline injection. Oxtr PBN neurons were directly innervated by oxytocin neurons in the paraventricular hypothalamus (Oxt PVH  neurons), which mildly attenuated fluid intake. Activation of neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract substantially suppressed fluid intake and activated Oxtr PBN neurons. Our results suggest that Oxtr PBN neurons act as a key node in the fluid satiation neurocircuitry, which acts to decrease water and/or saline intake to prevent or attenuate hypervolemia and hypernatremia.

  14. Food intake and dietary diversity of farming households in Morogoro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The intake of fat was also low by 53% compared to the recommended intake for adults. The intake of iron, zinc, and calcium was 40, 53 and 64%, respectively, which was not sufficient to meet daily requirements. Low intake of nutrients was generally attributed to inadequate food intake due to low feeding frequency, poorly ...

  15. Herbage intake by grazing dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijs, J.A.C.

    1981-01-01

    An extensive review of the literature is given of
    - nine possible methods for estimating herbage intake by grazing ruminants, with special attention to the sward-cutting and indirect animal methods
    - the factors determining the herbage intake by grazing ruminants.

    The

  16. Nutritional supplement intake knowledge among university active ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study is to examine the nutritional supplement intake knowledge among university athletes. Fifty-one university athletes volunteered to participate in this survey study. Results showed the nutritional supplement intake was significantly higher compared to the knowledge that they have about the ...

  17. PREDICTING VOLUNTARY INTAKE ON MEDIUM QUALITY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    found a good relationship between the rate constant for fermentation and ... By dividing voluntary feed intake into the ... voluntary feed intake will be equal to the rate at which the rumen is ... per abomosum to prevent any deficiency in protein restricting .... McDougall's saliva and was not included in the calculation of the lust ...

  18. Impact of fruit juice and beverage portion size on snack intake in preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Erin M; Poole, Seletha A; Raynor, Hollie A

    2015-12-01

    It has been recommended that beverages other than 100% fruit juice, such as water, be served at meals and snacks for preschool-aged children to reduce excessive energy intake. Using a 2 × 2 × 2 design (between-subjects factor of order and within-subjects factors of beverage type and size), 26 children (3.9 ± 0.6 years of age, 50% female, 73% white, and 88.5% non-Hispanic or Latino) completed four, 20-min snack sessions consisting of 200 g of applesauce, 60 g of graham crackers, and either 6 oz. (approximately 180 g) or 12 oz. (approximately 360 g) of 100% berry fruit juice or water, to examine the influence of 100% fruit juice and the portion size of the provided fruit juice, on beverage, food, and overall snack intake. Mixed-factor analyses of covariance revealed a significant (p snack energy intake, with more overall energy consumed when juice was provided (175.4 ± 50.0 kcal vs. 104.8 ± 62.8 kcal, p snack increased beverage and/or food intake, and serving 100% juice led to greater overall snack energy intake. Future research should examine the role of 100% fruit juice, and beverage portion size, in contributing to excessive daily energy intake in preschool-aged children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. N-acylethanolamines, anandamide and food intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Harald S; Diep, Thi Ai

    2009-01-01

    in their biosynthesis in specific tissues are not clarified. It has been suggested that endogenous anandamide could stimulate food intake by activation of cannabinoid receptors in the brain and/or in the intestinal tissue. On the other hand, endogenous OEA and PEA have been suggested to inhibit food intake by acting...... on receptors in the intestine. At present, there is no clear role for endogenous anandamide in controlling food intake via cannabinoid receptors, neither centrally nor in the gastrointestinal tract. However, OEA, PEA and perhaps also LEA may be involved in regulation of food intake by selective prolongation...... OEA is less clear. Prolonged intake of dietary fat (45 energy%) may promote over-consumption of food by decreasing the endogenous levels of OEA, PEA and LEA in the intestine....

  20. Metabolomics to Explore Impact of Dairy Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zheng

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dairy products are an important component in the Western diet and represent a valuable source of nutrients for humans. However, a reliable dairy intake assessment in nutrition research is crucial to correctly elucidate the link between dairy intake and human health. Metabolomics is considered a potential tool for assessment of dietary intake instead of traditional methods, such as food frequency questionnaires, food records, and 24-h recalls. Metabolomics has been successfully applied to discriminate between consumption of different dairy products under different experimental conditions. Moreover, potential metabolites related to dairy intake were identified, although these metabolites need to be further validated in other intervention studies before they can be used as valid biomarkers of dairy consumption. Therefore, this review provides an overview of metabolomics for assessment of dairy intake in order to better clarify the role of dairy products in human nutrition and health.

  1. FINDIET 2007 Survey: energy and nutrient intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietinen, Pirjo; Paturi, Merja; Reinivuo, Heli; Tapanainen, Heli; Valsta, Liisa M

    2010-06-01

    The National FINDIET surveys are carried out every 5 years to monitor dietary habits and nutrient intake of the adult Finnish population. The latest survey was carried out in 2007. Cross-sectional population-based study. Dietary assessment was carried out using 48 h recall interviews. A picture book of food portions was used to estimate portion sizes and the national Food Composition Database Fineli(R) to calculate nutrient intakes. A representative sample taken in five regions in Finland. A total of 730 men and 846 women aged 24-64 years. The percentage contribution of fat to the total energy intake was 33 % in men and 31 % in women. The respective percentages for SFA in men and women were 13 % and 12 %, respectively, and 0.4 % for trans fatty acids in both genders. The average intakes of folate, vitamin D and fibre fell below the recommended levels, whereas the average salt intake was somewhat higher than the recommendations. Women's diet was higher in protein, dietary fibre and sucrose compared to that of men. According to the FINDIET 2007 Survey, the dietary habits of the adult Finnish population have headed in a positive direction overall. However, although the quality of the fats consumed has continued to improve, and the intake of salt has decreased, they still do not meet the recommended levels of intake. Similarly, the average intakes of folate and vitamin D continue to fall below the recommendations. There is also a need to increase fibre intake and to cut down the intake of sucrose.

  2. Effects of intake interruptions on dune infiltration systems in the Netherlands, their quantification and mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuyfzand, Pieter J; van der Schans, Martin L

    2018-07-15

    In the coastal dunes of the Western Netherlands, managed aquifer recharge (MAR) is applied for drinking water supply since 1957. The MAR systems belong to the Aquifer Transfer Recovery (ATR) type, because recharge and recovery are operated without interruption. This makes these systems very vulnerable to intake interruptions, which are expected to increase in frequency and duration due to climate change. Such interruptions are problematic, because: (i) groundwater recovery from dunes needs to continue to supply fresh drinking water to the Western Netherlands; (ii) risks of salt water intrusion are high, and (iii) MAR bordering wet dune slacks with an EU Natura 2000 status cannot survive for long without MAR. In this paper, effects of intake stops are discussed and quantified. The hydrological effects consist of the decline of water tables, disappearance of flow-through dune lakes, reservoir depletion, salt water intrusion, disruption of rainwater lenses, and entrapped air hampering a rapid refill of the groundwater reservoir. Water quality effects include changes in (i) redox environment of the flushed aquifer, impacting the behavior of nutrients, calcium, sulfate and organic micro-pollutants, and (ii) the mixing ratio of water types. The main ecological impacts comprise the dying of organisms in recharge ponds and dune lakes, and a decline of biodiversity. Effects of very long intake interruptions (years) are predicted via historical observations during the long overexploitation period (1900-1957) prior to MAR. A closed form analytical solution for safe yield of a semiconfined aquifer is proposed, together with a related upconing risk index. Both also apply to the pumping from any fresh water lens without MAR. Some mitigation strategies are discussed, such as a dual intake, raising the storage capacity, earlier mud removal, and accelerated refilling of the reservoir. A magnitude scale for intake stops (MIS) is proposed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  3. Chronic fructose intake accelerates non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in the presence of essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lírio, Layla Mendonça; Forechi, Ludimila; Zanardo, Tadeu Caliman; Batista, Hiago Martins; Meira, Eduardo Frizera; Nogueira, Breno Valentim; Mill, José Geraldo; Baldo, Marcelo Perim

    2016-01-01

    The growing epidemic of metabolic syndrome has been related to the increased use of fructose by the food industry. In fact, the use of fructose as an ingredient has increased in sweetened beverages, such as sodas and juices. We thus hypothesized that fructose intake by hypertensive rats would have a worse prognosis in developing metabolic disorder and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Male Wistar and SHR rats aged 6weeks were given water or fructose (10%) for 6weeks. Blood glucose was measured every two weeks, and insulin and glucose sensitivity tests were assessed at the end of the follow-up. Systolic blood pressure was measure by plethysmography. Lean mass and abdominal fat mass were collected and weighed. Liver tissue was analyzed to determine interstitial fat deposition and fibrosis. Fasting glucose increased in animals that underwent a high fructose intake, independent of blood pressure levels. Also, insulin resistance was observed in normotensive and mostly in hypertensive rats after fructose intake. Fructose intake caused a 2.5-fold increase in triglycerides levels in both groups. Fructose intake did not change lean mass. However, we found that fructose intake significantly increased abdominal fat mass deposition in normotensive but not in hypertensive rats. Nevertheless, chronic fructose intake only increased fat deposition and fibrosis in the liver in hypertensive rats. We demonstrated that, in normotensive and hypertensive rats, fructose intake increased triglycerides and abdominal fat deposition, and caused insulin resistance. However, hypertensive rats that underwent fructose intake also developed interstitial fat deposition and fibrosis in liver. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Phoenixin-14 injected intracerebroventricularly but not intraperitoneally stimulates food intake in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalla, Martha; Prinz, Philip; Friedrich, Tiemo; Scharner, Sophie; Kobelt, Peter; Goebel-Stengel, Miriam; Rose, Matthias; Stengel, Andreas

    2017-10-01

    Phoenixin, a recently discovered 20-amino acid peptide was implicated in reproduction. However, the expression in food intake-regulatory nuclei such as the paraventricular nucleus, the arcuate nucleus and the nucleus of the solitary tract suggests an implication of phoenixin in food intake regulation. Therefore, we investigated the effects of phoenixin-14, the shorter form of phoenixin, on food intake following intracerebroventricular (icv) and intraperitoneal (ip) injection in ad libitum fed male Sprague-Dawley rats. Phoenixin-14 injected icv (0.2, 1.7 or 15nmol/rat) during the light phase induced a dose-dependent increase of light phase food intake reaching significance at a minimum dose of 1.7 nmol/rat (+72%, pfood intake microstructure showed an icv phoenixin-14-induced increase in meal size (+51%), meal duration (+157%), time spent in meals (+182%) and eating rate (+123%), while inter-meal intervals (-42%) and the satiety ratio (-64%) were decreased compared to vehicle (pfood intake was observed (p>0.05). The light phase icv phoenixin-14-induced increase of water intake did not reach statistical significance compared to vehicle (+136%, p>0.05). The increase of food intake following icv phoenixin-14 was not associated with a significant alteration of grooming behavior (0.4-fold, p=0.377) or locomotion (6-fold, p=0.066) compared to vehicle. When injected ip at higher doses (0.6, 5nmol/kg or 45nmol/kg body weight) during the light phase, phoenixin-14 did not affect food intake (p>0.05). In summary, phoenixin-14 exerts a centrally-mediated orexigenic effect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. High salt intake does not exacerbate murine autoimmune thyroiditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolypetri, P; Randell, E; Van Vliet, B N; Carayanniotis, G

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that high salt (HS) intake exacerbates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and have raised the possibility that a HS diet may comprise a risk factor for autoimmune diseases in general. In this report, we have examined whether a HS diet regimen could exacerbate murine autoimmune thyroiditis, including spontaneous autoimmune thyroiditis (SAT) in non-obese diabetic (NOD.H2h4) mice, experimental autoimmune thyroiditis (EAT) in C57BL/6J mice challenged with thyroglobulin (Tg) and EAT in CBA/J mice challenged with the Tg peptide (2549–2560). The physiological impact of HS intake was confirmed by enhanced water consumption and suppressed aldosterone levels in all strains. However, the HS treatment failed to significantly affect the incidence and severity of SAT or EAT or Tg-specific immunoglobulin (Ig)G levels, relative to control mice maintained on a normal salt diet. In three experimental models, these data demonstrate that HS intake does not exacerbate autoimmune thyroiditis, indicating that a HS diet is not a risk factor for all autoimmune diseases. PMID:24528002

  6. Fat intake and injury in female runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, Kristen E; Burton, Harold W; Dorn, Joan M; Leddy, John J; Horvath, Peter J

    2008-01-03

    Our purpose was to determine the relationship between energy intake, energy availability, dietary fat and lower extremity injury in adult female runners. We hypothesized that runners who develop overuse running-related injuries have lower energy intakes, lower energy availability and lower fat intake compared to non-injured runners. Eighty-six female subjects, running a minimum of 20 miles/week, completed a food frequency questionnaire and informed us about injury incidence over the next year. Injured runners had significantly lower intakes of total fat (63 +/- 20 vs. 80 +/- 50 g/d) and percentage of kilocalories from fat (27 +/- 5 vs. 30 +/- 8 %) compared with non-injured runners. A logistic regression analysis found that fat intake was the best dietary predictor, correctly identifying 64% of future injuries. Lower energy intake and lower energy availability approached, but did not reach, a significant association with overuse injury in this study. Fat intake is likely associated with injury risk in female runners. By documenting these associations, better strategies can be developed to reduce running injuries in women.

  7. Effect of amphetamine on human macronutrient intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foltin, R W; Kelly, T H; Fischman, M W

    1995-11-01

    Six male subjects participated in a 15-day residential study examining the effects of amphetamine on macronutrient intake. During the first 11 days, carbohydrate intake was manipulated by providing lunch meals high (155 g) or low (25 g) in carbohydrate. Subjects received oral d-amphetamine (5, 10 mg/70 kg, BID) or placebo. Total daily caloric intake was similar under both lunch conditions (approximately 3400/Kcal), but carbohydrate contributed more energy under the high-carbohydrate condition. Both doses of amphetamine decreased total caloric intake to approximately 2600 Kcal, by decreasing the number of eating bouts, without affecting macronutrient selection. During the last four days subjects received a higher daily dose of amphetamine (30 mg/70 kg in four doses) or placebo, and were allowed to self-select lunch. Although 30 mg amphetamine decreased intake of all macronutrients, the relative contribution of carbohydrate to total caloric intake was increased from 54% to 62%, while the contribution of fat was decreased from 32% to 26% and the contribution of protein was decreased from 14% to 12%. Thus, at a high dose, amphetamine altered the relative contribution of specific macronutrients to total caloric intake.

  8. Suboptimal Micronutrient Intake among Children in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Kaganov

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Adequate dietary intake of micronutrients is not necessarily achieved even in resource-rich areas of the world wherein overeating is a public health concern. In Europe, population-based data suggests substantial variability in micronutrient intake among children. Two independent surveys of micronutrient consumption among European children were evaluated. Stratified by age, the data regarding micronutrient intake were evaluated in the context of daily requirements, which are typically estimated in the absence of reliable absolute values derived from prospective studies. The proportion of children living in Europe whose intake of at least some vitamins and trace elements are at or below the estimated average requirements is substantial. The most common deficiencies across age groups included vitamin D, vitamin E, and iodine. Specific deficiencies were not uniform across countries or by age or gender.  Micronutrient intake appears to be more strongly influenced by factors other than access to food. Substantial portions of European children may be at risk of reversible health risks from inadequate intake of micronutrients. Despite the growing health threat posed by excess intake of calories, adequate exposure to vitamins, trace elements, and other micronutrients may deserve attention in public health initiatives to optimize growth and development in the European pediatric population.

  9. Fat intake and injury in female runners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leddy John J

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our purpose was to determine the relationship between energy intake, energy availability, dietary fat and lower extremity injury in adult female runners. We hypothesized that runners who develop overuse running-related injuries have lower energy intakes, lower energy availability and lower fat intake compared to non-injured runners. Methods Eighty-six female subjects, running a minimum of 20 miles/week, completed a food frequency questionnaire and informed us about injury incidence over the next year. Results Injured runners had significantly lower intakes of total fat (63 ± 20 vs. 80 ± 50 g/d and percentage of kilocalories from fat (27 ± 5 vs. 30 ± 8 % compared with non-injured runners. A logistic regression analysis found that fat intake was the best dietary predictor, correctly identifying 64% of future injuries. Lower energy intake and lower energy availability approached, but did not reach, a significant association with overuse injury in this study. Conclusion Fat intake is likely associated with injury risk in female runners. By documenting these associations, better strategies can be developed to reduce running injuries in women.

  10. Age and disability affect dietary intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartali, Benedetta; Salvini, Simonetta; Turrini, Aida; Lauretani, Fulvio; Russo, Cosimo R; Corsi, Anna M; Bandinelli, Stefania; D'Amicis, Amleto; Palli, Domenico; Guralnik, Jack M; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2003-09-01

    The purpose of the study was to provide information on dietary intake in the InCHIANTI study population, a representative sample (n = 1453) of persons living in two towns of Tuscany (Italy), including a large number of old and very old individuals (79.5% >65 y old). We also investigated whether difficulties in nutrition-related activities were associated with inadequate intake of selected nutrients. The percentage of persons with an inadequate intake of nutrients according to Italian Recommended Nutrients Levels (LARN) was higher in the older age groups. Older persons tended to adapt their diets in response to individual functional difficulties, often leading to monotonous food consumption and, as a consequence, to inadequate nutrient intakes. Multiple logistic models were used to evaluate whether inadequate intake of selected nutrients could be predicted by nutrition-related difficulties. Reporting difficulties in three or more nutrition-related activities (chewing, self-feeding, shopping for basic necessities, carrying a shopping bag, cooking a warm meal, using fingers to grasp or handle) significantly increased the risk of inadequate intake of energy [odds ratio (OR) = 3.8, 95% CI = 1.9-7.8) and vitamin C (OR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.2-4.2, after adjustment for energy intake). More attention to functional problems in the elderly population and the provision of formal or informal help to those who have difficulty in purchasing, processing and eating food may reduce, at least in part, the percentage of older persons with poor nutrition.

  11. Dietary intake of Senegalese adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coomes Margerie

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this work is to identify major food sources and dietary constituents of Senegalese adults. We conducted a cross-sectional study, using a single 24-hour dietary recall interview. Foods were classified into food groups based on similarities in nutrient content or use. Food groups included foods consumed individually, or as part of food mixtures such as stews, soups, or sandwiches. Median consumption (amount/day of each food was determined and examined by relevant subgroups. Participants were 50 healthy Senegalese men, aged 20-62 years recruited at the Hôpital Général de Grand Yoff in Dakar, Senegal and from Sendou village, a rural area outside Dakar. A total of 90 foods and beverages were identified and classified into 11 groups. Sixty-five percent of foods identified could be classified as meats, grains, or fruits/vegetables. Fruits and vegetables comprised 42% (38/90 of all foods; meats 12% (11/90; and grains 11% (10/90. Sauces (6%, 5/90, sweets (4%, 4/90, and desserts (4%, 4/90 were also reported. The most common fruits/vegetables reported were potato, carrot, mango, and lettuce; commonly reported grains were bread and rice; and commonly reported meats were fish, beef, and ox. There were no differences in reported daily intake of each food by age, ethnicity, education, or residence. Most foods reported were traditional to the Senegalese diet, despite the increasing availability of Western foods in Senegal.

  12. Water Supply Treatment Sustainability of Panching Water Supply Treatment Process - Water Footprint Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Edriyana A.; Malek, Marlinda Abdul; Moni, Syazwan N.; Zulkifli, Nabil F.; Hadi, Iqmal H.

    2018-03-01

    In many parts of the world, freshwater is scarce and overexploited. The purpose of this study is to determine the water footprint of Water Supply Treatment Process (WSTP) at Panching Water Treatment Plant (WTP) as well as to identify the sustainability of the Sg. Kuantan as an intake resource due to the effect of land use development. The total water footprint (WF) will be calculated by using WF accounting manual. The results obtained shows that the water intake resource is still available but it is believed that it will not be able to cope with the increasing WF. The increment of water demand percentage by 1.8% from 2015 to 2016 has increased 11 times higher of the water footprint percentage, 19.9%. This result shows that the water consumption during the water supply treatment process is two times higher than the demand thus it shows the inefficient of the water management

  13. Food intake rate and delivery strategy in aquaculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In aquaculture, it is important to estimate in advance how much food cultured animals would take. The rate of food consumption by cultured animals to available food amount is defined as the food intake rate (FIR) in this paper. To some extents, FIR reflects the quality of food, the health of cultured animals and the delivery efficiency. In practice, it is difficult to estimate in advance the accurate quantity of food that cultured animal needs. Usually, food is provided more than the need by animals, causing excess food that may pollute water and environment. Our experiments in past years show that FIR at 80% is recommended.

  14. Alimentary fluoride intake in preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lencova Erika

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The knowledge of background alimentary fluoride intake in preschool children is of utmost importance for introducing optimal and safe caries preventive measures for both individuals and communities. The aim of this study was to assess the daily fluoride intake analyzing duplicate samples of food and beverages. An attempt was made to calculate the daily intake of fluoride from food and swallowed toothpaste. Methods Daily alimentary fluoride intake was measured in a group of 36 children with an average age of 4.75 years and an average weight of 20.69 kg at baseline, by means of a double plate method. This was repeated after six months. Parents recorded their child's diet over 24 hours and collected duplicated portions of food and beverages received by children during this period. Pooled samples of food and beverages were weighed and solid food samples were homogenized. Fluoride was quantitatively extracted from solid food samples by a microdiffusion method using hexadecyldisiloxane and perchloric acid. The content of fluoride extracted from solid food samples, as well as fluoride in beverages, was measured potentiometrically by means of a fluoride ion selective electrode. Results Average daily fluoride intake at baseline was 0.389 (SD 0.054 mg per day. Six months later it was 0.378 (SD 0.084 mg per day which represents 0.020 (SD 0.010 and 0.018 (SD 0.008 mg of fluoride respectively calculated per kg bw/day. When adding the values of unwanted fluoride intake from the toothpaste shown in the literature (0.17-1.21 mg per day the estimate of the total daily intake of fluoride amounted to 0.554-1.594 mg/day and recalculated to the child's body weight to 0.027-0.077 mg/kg bw/day. Conclusions In the children studied, observed daily fluoride intake reached the threshold for safe fluoride intake. When adding the potential fluoride intake from swallowed toothpaste, alimentary intake reached the optimum range for daily fluoride intake

  15. Food intake and nutritional status after gastrectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisballe, S; Buus, S; Lund, B

    1986-01-01

    Food intake and nutritional status was studied in 67 patients, who had had a gastrectomy 2-30 years earlier, and in a randomly selected, matched group of healthy persons. The gastrectomized patients weighed less than the control persons (women 56.4 +/- 9.5 vs 61.4 +/- 6.9 kg; P less than 0.05; men.......01). The serum concentration of alkaline phosphatase was raised and the concentration of calcium, phosphorus and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol reduced in the gastrectomized group. None of these results could be explained from the nutritional study as both the intake of energy and protein and the intake of calcium...

  16. Does dietary fluid intake affect skin hydration in healthy humans? A systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdeniz, M; Tomova-Simitchieva, T; Dobos, G; Blume-Peytavi, U; Kottner, J

    2018-02-02

    Associations between daily amounts of drinking water and skin hydration and skin physiology receive increasingly attention in the daily life and in clinical practice. However, there is a lack of evidence of dermatological benefits from drinking increased amounts of water. Pubmed and Web of Science were searched without any restrictions of publication dates. References of included papers and related reviews were checked. Eligibility criteria were primary intervention and observational studies investigating the effects of fluid intake on skin properties in English, German, Spanish or Portuguese language, including subjects being healthy and 18+ years. Searches resulted in 216 records, 23 articles were read in full text, and six were included. The mean age of the samples ranged from 24 to 56 years. Overall the evidence is weak in terms of quantity and methodological quality. Disregarding the methodological limitations a slight increase in stratum corneum and "deep" skin hydration was observed after additional water intake, particularly in individuals with lower prior water consumption. Reductions of clinical signs of dryness and roughness were observed. The extensibility and elasticity of the skin increased slightly. Unclear associations were shown between water intake and transepidermal water loss, sebum content, and skin surface pH. Additional dietary water intake may increase stratum corneum hydration. The underlying biological mechanism for this possible relationship is unknown. Whether this association also exists in aged subjects is unclear. Research is needed to answer the question whether increased fluid intake decreases signs of dry skin. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Water in nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ávila Rosas Héctor

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available While no solid, structured studies were found to support specific recommendations of water consumption, the main problem seems to be the excessive intake of sugary beverages. The recommended figure of 1-1.5 mL of water per kcal of energy intake is a reference value that must consider weather, physical activity, and dietary varia- tions. At ages up to six months, all water must come from maternal milk, of which an intake of 100-190 mL/kg/day is recommended; at ages 6-12 months, 800-1000 mL/day, considering milk and a gradual introduction of water. Children aged 2-3 years old must have 1,300 mL/day, and those aged 4-8 years old, 1,600 mL/day. Females aged 9-13 years old must consume 1,900 mL/day while the water intake of males must be 2,100 mL/day. For those aged 14 years old or more, adult recommendations apply.

  18. Using metabolomics to evaluate food intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manach, Claudine; Brennan, Lorraine; Dragsted, Lars Ove

    2015-01-01

    Improving dietary assessment is essential for modern nutritional epidemiology. This chapter discusses the potential of metabolomics for the identification of new biomarkers of intake and presents the first candidate biomarkers discovered using this approach. It then describes the challenges...

  19. Detecting beer intake by unique metabolite patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gürdeniz, Gözde; Jensen, Morten Georg; Meier, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of health related effects of beer intake is hampered by the lack of accurate tools for assessing intakes (biomarkers). Therefore, we identified plasma and urine metabolites associated with recent beer intake by untargeted metabolomics and established a characteristic metabolite pattern...... representing raw materials and beer production as a qualitative biomarker of beer intake. In a randomized, crossover, single-blinded meal study (MSt1) 18 participants were given one at a time four different test beverages: strong, regular and non-alcoholic beers and a soft drink. Four participants were...... assigned to have two additional beers (MSt2). In addition to plasma and urine samples, test beverages, wort and hops extract were analyzed by UPLC-QTOF. A unique metabolite pattern reflecting beer metabolome, including metabolites derived from beer raw material (i.e. N-methyl tyramine sulfate and the sum...

  20. Flavonoids as fruit and vegetable intake biomarkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogholm, Kirstine Suszkiewicz

    of fruit and vegetable intakes. In Paper I, the urinary recovery of the 7 flavonoids in morning spot urine (i.e. all urine voids from midnight including the first morning void) was also found to respond to moderate increases in the intake of fruits and vegetables. However, the association was somewhat...... weaker than in 24h urine samples, indicating that the 24h urinary recovery of the 7 flavonoids is a stronger biomarker of the intake of fruit and vegetables than the urinary recovery of the 7 flavonoids in morning spot urine. In Paper II, the biokinetic profiles of some of the most important dietary......-individual variation in the absorption and urinary recovery of the flavonoids, and this makes it very difficult to separate individuals according to intake by use of the flavonoid biomarker in urine. The intra-individual variation was on the contrary low, and Paper II therefore supports the assumption, that 24h...

  1. Intake of calorically sweetened beverages and obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, N J; Heitmann, B L

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity has increased in the past 30 years, and at the same time a steep increase in consumption of soft drinks has been seen. This paper reviews the literature for studies on associations between intake of calorically sweetened beverages and obesity, relative to adjustment...... studies were identified. The majority of the prospective studies found positive associations between intake of calorically sweetened beverages and obesity. Three experimental studies found positive effects of calorically sweetened beverages and subsequent changes in body fat. Two experimental studies did...... not find effects. Eight prospective studies adjusted for energy intake. Seven of these studies reported associations that were essentially similar before and after energy adjustment. In conclusion, a high intake of calorically sweetened beverages can be regarded as a determinant for obesity. However...

  2. Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eating Disorder Bulimia Nervosa Pica Rumination Disorder Avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder is characterized by eating very little food and/or avoiding eating certain foods. People with this disorder eat ...

  3. Normal range of human dietary sodium intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCarron, David A; Kazaks, Alexandra G; Geerling, Joel C

    2013-01-01

    The recommendation to restrict dietary sodium for management of hypertensive cardiovascular disease assumes that sodium intake exceeds physiologic need, that it can be significantly reduced, and that the reduction can be maintained over time. In contrast, neuroscientists have identified neural...... circuits in vertebrate animals that regulate sodium appetite within a narrow physiologic range. This study further validates our previous report that sodium intake, consistent with the neuroscience, tracks within a narrow range, consistent over time and across cultures....

  4. Measuring food intake with digital photography

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Corby K.; Nicklas, Theresa; Gunturk, Bahadir; Correa, John B.; Allen, H. Raymond; Champagne, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    The Digital Photography of Foods Method accurately estimates the food intake of adults and children in cafeterias. When using this method, imags of food selection and leftovers are quickly captured in the cafeteria. These images are later compared to images of “standard” portions of food using a computer application. The amount of food selected and discarded is estimated based upon this comparison, and the application automatically calculates energy and nutrient intake. Herein, we describe th...

  5. Variable Cycle Intake for Reverse Core Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suciu, Gabriel L (Inventor); Chandler, Jesse M (Inventor); Staubach, Joseph B (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A gas generator for a reverse core engine propulsion system has a variable cycle intake for the gas generator, which variable cycle intake includes a duct system. The duct system is configured for being selectively disposed in a first position and a second position, wherein free stream air is fed to the gas generator when in the first position, and fan stream air is fed to the gas generator when in the second position.

  6. Food intake in patients on hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inaiana Marques Filizola Vaz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the intake of energy and nutrients by individuals on hemodialysis, following especific recommendations for this population and according to Food Guide for the Brazilian Population. Methods: A cross-sectional study, 118 adult patients, considered stable from, ten dialysis centers in Goiânia, Goiás. Dietary intake was estimated by six 24-hour recalls, and classified as adequate or inadequate, according to specific recommendations for individuals undergoing dialysis and that recommended for a healthy diet. A descriptive analysis was performed. Results: Average dietary intake of 2022.40 ± 283.70 kcal/day; 31.18 kcal/kg/day; 55.03 ± 4.20% carbohydrate; 30.23 ± 3.71% lipid, 1.18 ± 0.23 g protein/kg/day. Important prevalences of inadequacy were observed for the intake of calories (39.0%, protein (39.0% and other nutrients such as retinol (94.9%, saturated fat (87.3%, cholesterol (61,9%, iron (61.0%, potassium (60.2% and zinc (45.0%. Patients had a low intake of fruit food group (1.22 ± 0.89 servings and vegetables (1.76 ± 1.01 servings, dairy products (0.57 ± 0.43 servings and high intake of food group of oils and fats (3.45 ± 0.95 servings, sugars and sweets (1.55 ± 0.77 servings. Conclusion: Observed food consumption imbalance, characterized by excess of oils and fats, especially saturated oils and cholesterol, sugars and sweets, parallel to low intake of fruits and vegetables and dairy products. A considerable percentage of patients did not intake the minimum recommended of calories, protein, retinol, iron, zinc and potassium.

  7. Dietary intake of Croatian lactating women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greta Krešić

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional inadequacies during lactation may affect the well-being of both the mother and the infant. For this reason, breast-feeding women usually pay attention to their dietary practice during the breast-feeding period. The aim of this study was to examine changes in dietary intake of Croatian lactating women during six months postpartum. The study sample consisted of 83 lactating women whose diet records were collected at three measurements rounds: at 1 ± 0.25, 3 ± 0.25 and 6 ± 0.25 months postpartum. The mothers´ diets were investigated using two consecutive 24-hour dietary recalls. Energy and nutrient intakes were estimated using a nutritional database. The obtained results have shown that the diet of Croatian lactating women is hypocaloric (65.73 – 79.52 % DRI, p < 0.001 and deficient in magnesium, zinc, vitamins A, B1, B6, D and folate. Also evident was a moderate imbalance in the distribution of energy percentages from macronutrients. During six months postpartum, lactating women continuously decreased food intake resulting in a gradual decrease in energy intake (p < 0.001 and in the intake of all micronutrients. However, during six months postpartum, lactating women increased the share of total fat in energy intake (p = 0.006 and the share of saturated fatty acids (p = 0.048, while the share of monounsaturated fatty acids in total energy intake decreased (p = 0.004. It could be concluded that it is worthwhile to further study the nutritional status of Croatian lactating women during this vulnerable period especially regarding their micronutrients intake in order to achieve the recommended dietary requirements.

  8. Energy intake and sources of energy intake in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocké, M C; Larrañaga, N; Grioni, S; van den Berg, S W; Ferrari, P; Salvini, S; Benetou, V; Linseisen, J; Wirfält, E; Rinaldi, S; Jenab, M; Halkjaer, J; Jakobsen, M U; Niravong, M; Clavel-Chapelon, F; Kaaks, R; Bergmann, M; Moutsiou, E; Trichopoulou, A; Lauria, C; Sacerdote, C; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Peeters, P H M; Hjartåker, A; Parr, C L; Tormo, M J; Sanchez, M J; Manjer, J; Hellstrom, V; Mulligan, A; Spencer, E A; Riboli, E; Bingham, S; Slimani, N

    2009-11-01

    To describe energy intake and its macronutrient and food sources among 27 regions in 10 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Between 1995 and 2000, 36 034 subjects aged 35-74 years were administered a standardized 24-h dietary recall. Intakes of macronutrients (g/day) and energy (kcal/day) were estimated using standardized national nutrient databases. Mean intakes were weighted by season and day of the week and were adjusted for age, height and weight, after stratification by gender. Extreme low- and high-energy reporters were identified using Goldberg's cutoff points (ratio of energy intake and estimated basal metabolic rate 2.72), and their effects on macronutrient and energy intakes were studied. Low-energy reporting was more prevalent in women than in men. The exclusion of extreme-energy reporters substantially lowered the EPIC-wide range in mean energy intake from 2196-2877 to 2309-2866 kcal among men. For women, these ranges were 1659-2070 and 1873-2108 kcal. There was no north-south gradient in energy intake or in the prevalence of low-energy reporting. In most centres, cereals and cereal products were the largest contributors to energy intake. The food groups meat, dairy products and fats and oils were also important energy sources. In many centres, the highest mean energy intakes were observed on Saturdays. These data highlight and quantify the variations and similarities in energy intake and sources of energy intake among 10 European countries. The prevalence of low-energy reporting indicates that the study of energy intake is hampered by the problem of underreporting.

  9. Beyond the "First Hit": Marked Inhibition by N-Acetyl Cysteine of Chronic Ethanol Intake But Not of Early Ethanol Intake. Parallel Effects on Ethanol-Induced Saccharin Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintanilla, María Elena; Rivera-Meza, Mario; Berríos-Cárcamo, Pablo; Salinas-Luypaert, Catalina; Herrera-Marschitz, Mario; Israel, Yedy

    2016-05-01

    A number of studies have shown that acetaldehyde synthesized in the brain is necessary to induce ethanol (EtOH) reinforcement in naïve animals (acquisition phase). However, after chronic intake is achieved (maintenance phase), EtOH intake becomes independent of acetaldehyde generation or its levels. Glutamate has been reported to be associated with the maintenance of chronic EtOH intake. The levels of brain extracellular glutamate are modulated by 2 glial processes: glutamate reabsorption via an Na(+) -glutamate transporter (GLT1) and a cystine-glutamate exchanger. Chronic EtOH intake lowers GLT1 levels and increases extracellular glutamate. The administration of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), a precursor of cystine, has been shown to reduce the relapse of several drugs of abuse, while NAC has not been tested on chronic EtOH intake or on EtOH's influence on the motivation for another drug. These were investigated in the present study. (i) Rats bred for their high EtOH intake were allowed access to 10% EtOH and water up to 87 days. NAC was administered (30 and 60 mg/kg daily, intraperitoneally) for 14 consecutive days, either during the acquisition phase or the maintenance phase of EtOH drinking. (ii) In additional experiments, rats were allowed EtOH (10%) and water access for 61 days, after which EtOH was replaced by saccharin (0.3%) to determine both if chronic EtOH consumption influences saccharin intake and whether NAC modifies the post chronic EtOH saccharin intake. NAC did not influence the acquisition ("first hit") of chronic EtOH intake, but greatly inhibited (60 to 70%; p intake when NAC was administered to animals that were consuming EtOH chronically. NAC did not influence saccharin intake in naïve animals. In animals that had consumed EtOH chronically and were thereafter offered a saccharin solution (0.3%), saccharin intake increased over 100% versus that of EtOH-untreated animals, an effect that was fully suppressed by NAC. N-acetyl cysteine, a drug

  10. Inflexible ethanol intake: A putative link with the Lrrk2 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva E Silva, Daniel Almeida; Frozino Ribeiro, Andrea; Damasceno, Samara; Rocha, Cristiane S; Berenguer de Matos, Alexandre H; Boerngen-Lacerda, Roseli; Correia, Diego; Brunialti Godard, Ana Lúcia

    2016-10-15

    Alcoholism is a complex multifactorial disorder with a strong genetic influence. Although several studies have shown the impact of high ethanol intake on the striatal gene expression, few have addressed the relationship between the patterns of gene expression underlying the compulsive behaviour associated with the two major concerns in addiction: the excessive drug consumption and relapsing. In this study, we used a chronic three-bottle free-choice murine model to address striatal transcript regulation among animals with different ethanol intakes and preferences: Light Drinkers (preference for water throughout the experiment), Heavy Drinkers (preference for ethanol with a non-compulsive intake) and Inflexible Drinkers (preference for ethanol and simultaneous loss of control over the drug intake). Our aim was to correlate the intake patterns observed in this model with gene expression changes in the striatum, a brain region critical for the development of alcohol addiction. We found that the transcripts of the Lrrk2 gene, which encodes a multifunctional protein with kinase and GTPase activities, is upregulated only in Inflexible Drinkers suggesting, for the first time, that the Lrrk2 pathway plays a major role in the compulsive ethanol intake behaviour of addicted subjects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Chronic ethanol intake alters circadian phase shifting and free-running period in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seggio, Joseph A; Fixaris, Michael C; Reed, Jeffrey D; Logan, Ryan W; Rosenwasser, Alan M

    2009-08-01

    Chronic alcohol intake is associated with widespread disruptions in sleep and circadian rhythms in both human alcoholics and in experimental animals. Recent studies have demonstrated that chronic and acute ethanol treatments alter fundamental properties of the circadian pacemaker--including free-running period and responsiveness to photic and nonphotic phase-shifting stimuli--in rats and hamsters. In the present work, the authors extend these observations to the C57BL/6J mouse, an inbred strain characterized by very high levels of voluntary ethanol intake and by reliable and stable free-running circadian activity rhythms. Mice were housed individually in running-wheel cages under conditions of either voluntary or forced ethanol intake, whereas controls were maintained on plain water. Forced ethanol intake significantly attenuated photic phase delays (but not phase advances) and shortened free-running period in constant darkness, but voluntary ethanol intake failed to affect either of these parameters. Thus, high levels of chronic ethanol intake, beyond those normally achieved under voluntary drinking conditions, are required to alter fundamental circadian pacemaker properties in C57BL/6J mice. These observations may be related to the relative ethanol insensitivity displayed by this strain in several other phenotypic domains, including ethanol-induced sedation, ataxia, and withdrawal. Additional experiments will investigate chronobiological sensitivity to ethanol in a range of inbred strains showing diverse ethanol-related phenotypes.

  12. Detecting Beer Intake by Unique Metabolite Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürdeniz, Gözde; Jensen, Morten Georg; Meier, Sebastian; Bech, Lene; Lund, Erik; Dragsted, Lars Ove

    2016-12-02

    Evaluation of the health related effects of beer intake is hampered by the lack of accurate tools for assessing intakes (biomarkers). Therefore, we identified plasma and urine metabolites associated with recent beer intake by untargeted metabolomics and established a characteristic metabolite pattern representing raw materials and beer production as a qualitative biomarker of beer intake. In a randomized, crossover, single-blinded meal study (MSt1), 18 participants were given, one at a time, four different test beverages: strong, regular, and nonalcoholic beers and a soft drink. Four participants were assigned to have two additional beers (MSt2). In addition to plasma and urine samples, test beverages, wort, and hops extract were analyzed by UPLC-QTOF. A unique metabolite pattern reflecting beer metabolome, including metabolites derived from beer raw material (i.e., N-methyl tyramine sulfate and the sum of iso-α-acids and tricyclohumols) and the production process (i.e., pyro-glutamyl proline and 2-ethyl malate), was selected to establish a compliance biomarker model for detection of beer intake based on MSt1. The model predicted the MSt2 samples collected before and up to 12 h after beer intake correctly (AUC = 1). A biomarker model including four metabolites representing both beer raw materials and production steps provided a specific and accurate tool for measurement of beer consumption.

  13. Central and peripheral control of food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, M M I

    2017-01-01

    The maintenance of the body weight at a stable level is a major determinant in keeping the higher animals and mammals survive. Th e body weight depends on the balance between the energy intake and energy expenditure. Increased food intake over the energy expenditure of prolonged time period results in an obesity. Th e obesity has become an important worldwide health problem, even at low levels. The obesity has an evil effect on the health and is associated with a shorter life expectancy. A complex of central and peripheral physiological signals is involved in the control of the food intake. Centrally, the food intake is controlled by the hypothalamus, the brainstem, and endocannabinoids and peripherally by the satiety and adiposity signals. Comprehension of the signals that control food intake and energy balance may open a new therapeutic approaches directed against the obesity and its associated complications, as is the insulin resistance and others. In conclusion, the present review summarizes the current knowledge about the complex system of the peripheral and central regulatory mechanisms of food intake and their potential therapeutic implications in the treatment of obesity.

  14. Central and peripheral control of food intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdalla M. M. I.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The maintenance of the body weight at a stable level is a major determinant in keeping the higher animals and mammals survive. Th e body weight depends on the balance between the energy intake and energy expenditure. Increased food intake over the energy expenditure of prolonged time period results in an obesity. Th e obesity has become an important worldwide health problem, even at low levels. The obesity has an evil effect on the health and is associated with a shorter life expectancy. A complex of central and peripheral physiological signals is involved in the control of the food intake. Centrally, the food intake is controlled by the hypothalamus, the brainstem, and endocannabinoids and peripherally by the satiety and adiposity signals. Comprehension of the signals that control food intake and energy balance may open a new therapeutic approaches directed against the obesity and its associated complications, as is the insulin resistance and others. In conclusion, the present review summarizes the current knowledge about the complex system of the peripheral and central regulatory mechanisms of food intake and their potential therapeutic implications in the treatment of obesity.

  15. Nutrient intakes of US infants, toddlers, and preschoolers meet or exceed dietary reference intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butte, Nancy F; Fox, Mary Kay; Briefel, Ronette R; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Dwyer, Johanna T; Deming, Denise M; Reidy, Kathleen C

    2010-12-01

    To assess the usual nutrient intakes of 3,273 US infants, toddlers, and preschoolers, aged 0 to 47 months, surveyed in the Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study (FITS) 2008; and to compare data on the usual nutrient intakes for the two waves of FITS conducted in 2002 and 2008. The FITS 2008 is a cross-sectional survey of a national random sample of US children from birth through age 47 months. Usual nutrient intakes derived from foods, beverages, and supplements were ascertained using a telephone-administered, multiple-pass 24-hour dietary recall. Infants aged birth to 5 months (n=382) and 6 to 11 months (n=505), toddlers aged 12 to 23 months (n=925), and preschoolers aged 24 to 47 months (n=1,461) were surveyed. All primary caregivers completed one 24-hour dietary recall and a random subsample (n=701) completed a second 24-hour dietary recall. The personal computer version of the Software for Intake Distribution Estimation was used to estimate the 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, and 90th percentiles, as well as the proportions below and above cutoff values defined by the Dietary Reference Intakes or the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Usual nutrient intakes met or exceeded energy and protein requirements with minimal risk of vitamin and mineral deficiencies. The usual intakes of antioxidants, B vitamins, bone-related nutrients, and other micronutrients were adequate relative to the Adequate Intakes or Estimated Average Requirements, except for iron and zinc in a small subset of older infants, and vitamin E and potassium in toddlers and preschoolers. Intakes of synthetic folate, preformed vitamin A, zinc, and sodium exceeded Tolerable Upper Intake Level in a significant proportion of toddlers and preschoolers. Macronutrient distributions were within acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges, except for dietary fat, in some toddlers and preschoolers. Dietary fiber was low in the vast majority of toddlers and preschoolers, and saturated fat intakes exceeded

  16. Alcohol dependence induced in rats by semivoluntary intermittent intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Macieira

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present experiment was to assess ethyl alcohol (ETOH dependence brought about by a semivoluntary intermittent intake regimen in rats. Male Wistar rats weighing 150-250 g at the onset of the experiment were assigned to the following groups: 0% ETOH (N = 11, 5% ETOH (N = 20, 20% ETOH (N = 20 and 40% ETOH (N = 18. ETOH solutions were offered at the end of the day and overnight from Monday to Friday, and throughout weekends, for 90 days. The concentration of the ETOH solutions was increased in a stepwise fashion allowing the rats to get used to the taste of alcohol. Reposition of pure water was permitted during 1-h water drinking periods in the morning. Daily volume intake (± SEM averaged 25.4 ± 0.4 ml (0% ETOH, 23.8 ± 0.6 ml (5% ETOH, 17.6 ± 0.7 ml (20% ETOH and 17.5 ± 0.6 ml (40% ETOH. ETOH consumption differed significantly (P<0.05 among groups, averaging 4.4 ± 0.2 g kg-1 day-1 (5% ETOH, 10.3 ± 0.3 g kg-1 day-1 (20% ETOH and 26 ± 1.2 g kg-1 day-1 (40% ETOH. Furthermore, ETOH detection in plasma 10-12 h after offering the solution indicated that its consumption in the 40% ETOH group was sufficient to override its metabolism. Overt signs of ETOH dependence, such as increased thirst, hyperactivity, puffing, hair ruffling and startle responsiveness as well as reduced drowsiness, were significantly increased in the 20% and 40% ETOH groups compared to the 0% and 5% groups. Accordingly, the model described here proved to be a useful tool for the evaluation of subtle or moderate behavioral and physical consequences of long-term ETOH intake

  17. Perfluorinated alkylated acids in groundwater and drinking water: Identification, origin and mobility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eschauzier, C.; Raat, K.J.; Stuyfzand, P.J.; de Voogt, P.

    2013-01-01

    Human exposure to perfluorinated alkylated acids (PFAA) occurs primarily via the dietary intake and drinking water can contribute significantly to the overall PFAA intake. Drinking water is produced from surface water and groundwater. Waste water treatment plants have been identified as the main

  18. Perfluorinated alkylated acids in groundwater and drinking water: identification, origin and mobility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eschauzier, C.; Raat, K.J.; Stuijfzand, P.J.; de Voogt, P.

    2013-01-01

    Human exposure to perfluorinated alkylated acids (PFAA) occurs primarily via the dietary intake and drinking water can contribute significantly to the overall PFAA intake. Drinking water is produced from surface water and groundwater. Waste water treatment plants have been identified as the main

  19. Water turnover in reindeer. Some environmental implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, R.D.; Luick, J.R.; White, R.G.

    1982-01-01

    The nutritional and climatic effects on water turnover (determined using tritiated water) in reindeer are described. At low ambient temperatures (ca. -20 0 C) water turnover is related to protein and mineral intake, which is reflected in the relations of faecal and urinary water to nitrogen and ash excretion via these avenues. As ambient temperature increases, respiratory water, faecal water and urine flow increase, resulting in an increase in water turnover

  20. (H2O)-H-2 turnover method as a means to detect bias in estimations of intake of nonbreast milk liquids in breast-fed infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haisma, H; Coward, WA; Albernaz, E; Barros, A; Victora, CG; Wright, A; Visser, GH

    Objective: Firstly, to compare food, and macronutrient intake as obtained from a single 24-h recall and a frequency questionnaire (FQ) covering a 14-day period in breast-fed infants aged 4 months of age. Secondly, nonbreast milk water intake (NB-WI, ml/day) was used as an estimation of energy and

  1. Field use of D218O to measure energy expenditure of soldiers at different energy intakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeLany, J.P.; Schoeller, D.A.; Hoyt, R.W.; Askew, E.W.; Sharp, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    To test the application of doubly labeled water under adverse field conditions, energy expenditures of 16 special operations soldiers were measured during a 28-day field training exercise. Subjects were matched by fat-free mass and divided equally between an ad libitum ready-to-eat meal diet and a 2,000 kcal/day lightweight ration. Subjects recorded intakes daily, and body composition was measured before and after the exercise. At the beginning of the study, subjects moved to a new northerly location and, therefore, a new water supply. To compensate for this, a group of soldiers who did not receive heavy water was followed to measure isotopic base-line changes. Energy expenditure by doubly labeled water was in agreement with intake/balance (3,400 ± 260 vs. 3,230 ± 520 kcal/day). The overall coefficient of variation of energy expenditure by doubly labeled water was half that of intake/balance (7.6 vs. 16.1%). The coefficient of variation of repeat measures with doubly labeled water was 7.3%. Energy expenditure of the ready-to-eat meal group, 3,540 ± 180 kcal/day, was not significantly different from the lightweight ration group, 3,330 ± 301 kcal/day. Doubly labeled water was valid under field conditions

  2. 76 FR 2579 - Safety Zone; Lake Mead Intake Construction, Lake Mead, Boulder City, NV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-14

    ... blasting activities. Background and Purpose Vegas Tunnel Construction will be conducting intermittent blasting operations for the placement of a water intake pipe in Lake Mead during the first 6 months of 2011... Energy Supply, Distribution, or Use. We have determined that it is not a ``significant energy action...

  3. Oral intake of beet extract provides protection against skin barrier impairment in hairless mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, Ken-Ichi; Umemura, Kazuo

    2013-05-01

    The epidermis acts as a functional barrier against the external environment. Disturbances in the function of this barrier cause water loss and increase the chances of penetration by various irritable stimuli, leading to skin diseases such as dry skin, atopic dermatitis, and psoriasis. Ceramides are a critical natural element of the protective epidermal barrier. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the oral intake of beet (Beta vulgaris) extract, a natural product rich in glucosylceramide (GlcCer), may prevent disturbance in skin barrier function. When HR-1 hairless mice were fed a special diet (HR-AD), transepidermal water loss (TEWL) from the dorsal skin increased, with a compensatory increase in water intake after 5 weeks. Mice fed with HR-AD had dry skin with erythema and showed increased scratching behaviour. Histological examinations revealed a remarkable increase in the thickness of the skin at 8 weeks. Supplemental addition of beet extract, which contained GlcCer at a final concentration of 0.1%, significantly prevented an increase TEWL, water intake, cumulative scratching time, and epidermal thickness at 8 weeks. These results indicate that oral intake of beet extract shows potential for preventing skin diseases associated with impaired skin barrier function. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Feasibility of using a subsurface intake for SWRO facility, south of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Almashharawi, Samir; Dehwah, Abdullah; Bin Bandar, Khaled; Missimer, Thomas M.

    2014-01-01

    of these desalination plants is located south of Jeddah city which is the second largest city in Saudi Arabia. The plant shifted from an open-ocean intake to beach wells to improve the water quality at the site. Currently, the plant employs 10 vertical wells to extract

  5. Energy expenditure and intake during Special Operations Forces field training in a jungle and glacial environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Caleb D; Simonson, Andrew J; Darnell, Matthew E; DeLany, James P; Wohleber, Meleesa F; Connaboy, Christopher

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and compare energy requirements specific to Special Operations Forces in field training, in both cool and hot environments. Three separate training sessions were evaluated, 2 in a hot environment (n = 21) and 1 in a cool environment (n = 8). Total energy expenditure was calculated using doubly labeled water. Dietary intake was assessed via self-report at the end of each training mission day, and macronutrient intakes were calculated. Across the 3 missions, mean energy expenditure (4618 ± 1350 kcal/day) exceeded mean energy intake (2429 ± 838 kcal/day) by an average of 2200 kcal/day. Macronutrient intakes (carbohydrates (g/(kg·day body weight (bw)) -1 ) = 3.2 ± 1.2; protein (g/(kg·day bw) -1 ) = 1.3 ± 0.7; fat (g/(kg·day bw) -1 ) = 1.2 ± 0.7) showed inadequate carbohydrate and possibly protein intake across the study period, compared with common recommendations. Total energy expenditures were found to be similar between hot (4664 ± 1399 kcal/day) and cool (4549 ± 1221 kcal/day) environments. However, energy intake was found to be higher in the cool (3001 ± 900 kcal/day) compared with hot (2200 ± 711 kcal/day) environments. Based on the identified energy deficit, high variation in energy expenditures, and poor macronutrient intake, a greater attention to feeding practices during similar training scenarios for Special Operations Forces is needed to help maintain performance and health. The differences in environmental heat stress between the 2 climates/environments had no observed effect on energy expenditures, but may have influenced intakes.

  6. Validity of energy intake estimated by digital photography plus recall in overweight and obese young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptomey, Lauren T; Willis, Erik A; Honas, Jeffery J; Mayo, Matthew S; Washburn, Richard A; Herrmann, Stephen D; Sullivan, Debra K; Donnelly, Joseph E

    2015-09-01

    Recent reports have questioned the adequacy of self-report measures of dietary intake as the basis for scientific conclusions regarding the associations of dietary intake and health, and reports have recommended the development and evaluation of better methods for the assessment of dietary intake in free-living individuals. We developed a procedure that used pre- and post-meal digital photographs in combination with dietary recalls (DP+R) to assess energy intake during ad libitum eating in a cafeteria setting. To compare mean daily energy intake of overweight and obese young adults assessed by a DP+R method with mean total daily energy expenditure assessed by doubly labeled water (TDEE(DLW)). Energy intake was assessed using the DP+R method in 91 overweight and obese young adults (age = 22.9±3.2 years, body mass index [BMI; calculated as kg/m(2)]=31.2±5.6, female=49%) over 7 days of ad libitum eating in a university cafeteria. Foods consumed outside the cafeteria (ie, snacks, non-cafeteria meals) were assessed using multiple-pass recall procedures, using food models and standardized, neutral probing questions. TDEE(DLW) was assessed in all participants over the 14-day period. The mean energy intakes estimated by DP+R and TDEE(DLW) were not significantly different (DP+R=2912±661 kcal/d; TDEE(DLW)=2849±748 kcal/d, P=0.42). The DP+R method overestimated TDEE(DLW) by 63±750 kcal/d (6.8±28%). Results suggest that the DP+R method provides estimates of energy intake comparable to those obtained by TDEE(DLW). Copyright © 2015 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Energy and B Vitamins Intake in Elderly Population under Health Care in Isfahan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaz Jamshidi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: B vitamins are essential nutrients to maintain body health. These water soluble vitamins are critical co-enzymes in different cycles. Also, the intake of an adequate energy in elderly contributes to more ability to perform daily activities. This study aims at assessing the energy and water-soluble vitamins intake in elderly population under health care in Isfahan, Iran. Methods: One hundred and fifty two old men and women (82 were under health care in Ghadir Elderly Care Center, Isfahan, Iran and 70 without health care were enrolled in a case-control study. Food frequency questionnaire (168 items was used for dietary intake assessment and N4 software for analysis of food content of the used diet. Results: The intake of energy was significantly higher in the elderly population under health care than those without health care (p=0.038. Also, after adjustion of variables for energy and B vitamins, B1 and B9 vitamins were higher in case group when compared to the control group (p=0.032, p=0.012, respectively. Conclusion: Old population in elderly centers had desirable levels of vitamins B1 and B9 and also energy intake denoting to the high health cares in the health centers.

  8. New Reference Values for Vitamin C Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The German, Austrian, and Swiss nutrition societies are the editors of the 'reference values for nutrient intake'. They have revised the reference values for the intake of vitamin C and published them in February 2015. The average vitamin C requirement in healthy adults is considered to be the vitamin C amount that compensates for the metabolic losses of vitamin C, and ensures a fasting ascorbate plasma level of 50 µmol/l. Based on the present data from studies with non-smoking men, metabolic losses of 50 mg/day are assumed, as well as an absorption rate of 80% and an urinary excretion of 25% of the vitamin C intake. Taking this into account, the calculated average requirement in men is 91 mg/day. Considering a coefficient of variation of 10%, a reference value (recommended intake) of 110 mg/day for men is derived. The vitamin C requirement in women as well as in children and adolescents is extrapolated from the requirement in men and in relation to their body weight. This results in a recommended intake of about 95 mg/day for adult women. Because the requirement in pregnant and lactating women is increased, higher recommended intakes are derived for them, 105 mg/day for pregnant women from the fourth month on and 125 mg/day for lactating women, respectively. For boys and girls at the age of 1 to under 15 years, there are increasing recommended intake values from 20 to 85 mg/day. For male and female adolescents, at the age of 15 to under 19 years, the recommended intake is 105 and 90 mg, respectively. As smokers have higher metabolic losses and lower plasma levels of vitamin C than non-smokers (turnover is 40% higher), the reference value for vitamin C intake is set to 135 mg/day for female smokers and 155 mg/day for male smokers. For infants in their first year of life, the reference value (estimated value) is set to 20 mg vitamin C/ day, based upon the lowest observed vitamin C intake for infants in the United Kingdom and the United States, that obviously meets

  9. Nutrient Intake among Pregnant Teenage Girls Attending Ante-Natal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A standardised interviewer administered Food Frequency Questionnaire was used to asses the dietary intake. Nutrient calculator was used to determine the nutrient intake of the study participant. Results: The intakes of all selected nutrients were significantly lower than the RDA. Protein intake was significantly associated ...

  10. Evaluation of energy and macronutrient intake of black women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Macronutrient intake was determined using a validated Quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire (QFFQ). Median macronutrient intake was compared with the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) as applicable. Median energy, macronutrient and cholesterol intake of younger and older women was compared using ...

  11. 40 CFR 1065.125 - Engine intake air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... measurements at each intake, use an average value for verifying compliance to § 1065.520(b)(2). (2) Humidity. You may use a single shared humidity measurement for intake air as long as your equipment for handling... engines with multiple intakes with separate humidity measurements at each intake, use a flow-weighted...

  12. 40 CFR 89.326 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine intake air humidity measurement... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.326 Engine intake air humidity measurement. (a) Humidity conditioned air... type of intake air supply, the humidity measurements must be made within the intake air supply system...

  13. Global dietary calcium intake among adults: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpose: Low calcium intake may adversely affect bone health in adults. Recognizing the presence of low calcium intake is necessary to develop national strategies to optimize intake. To highlight regions where calcium intake should be improved, we systematically searched for the most representative ...

  14. Ethanol, saccharin, and quinine: early ontogeny of taste responsiveness and intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, Andrey P; Varlinskaya, Elena I; Spear, Norman E

    2008-02-01

    Rat pups demonstrate high levels of immediate acceptance of ethanol during the first 2 weeks of postnatal life. Given that the taste of ethanol is most likely perceived by infant rats as a combination of sweet and bitter, high intake of ethanol early in ontogeny may be associated with age-related enhanced responsiveness to the sweet component of ethanol taste, as well as with ontogenetic decreases in sensitivity to its bitter component. Therefore, the present study compared responsiveness to ethanol and solutions with bitter (quinine) and sweet (saccharin) taste in terms of intake and palatability across the first 2 weeks of postnatal life. Characteristic patterns of responsiveness to 10% (v/v) ethanol, 0.1% saccharin, 0.2% quinine, and water in terms of taste reactivity and fluid intake were assessed in rat pups tested on postnatal day (P) 4, 9, or 12 using a new technique of on-line monitoring of fluid flow through a two-channel intraoral cannula. Taste reactivity included analysis of ingestive and aversive responses following six intraoral infusions of the test fluids. This taste reactivity probe was followed by the intake test, in which animals were allowed to voluntarily ingest fluids from an intraoral cannula. Pups of all ages showed more appetitive responses to saccharin and ethanol than to water or quinine. No age-related differences were apparent in taste responsiveness to saccharin and ethanol. However, the age-related pattern of ethanol intake drastically differed from that of saccharin. Intake of saccharin increased from P4 to P9 and decreased substantially by P12, whereas intake of ethanol gradually increased from P4 to P12. Intake of ethanol was significantly lower than intake of saccharin on P9, whereas P12 pups took in more ethanol than saccharin. The findings of the present study indicate ontogenetic dissociations between taste reactivity to ethanol and saccharin and intake of these solutions, and suggest that high acceptance of ethanol early in

  15. Mapping to assess feasibility of using subsurface intakes for SWRO, Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Dehwah, Abdullah

    2013-11-19

    Use of subsurface intakes for seawater reverse osmosis desalination (SWRO) systems is known to improve raw water quality, reduce use of chemicals, improve operational reliability, and reduce the life cycle cost of desalination. A key issue in planning for the development of a SWRO facility that would potentially use a subsurface intake is the characterization of the coastal and nearshore geology of a region to ascertain the types of subsurface intakes that could be used and their respective costs. It is the purpose of this research to document a new methodology that can be used for planning and assessment of the feasibility of using subsurface intake systems for SWRO facilities at any location in the world. The Red Sea shoreline and nearshore area of Saudi Arabia were mapped and sediments were sampled from the Yemen border north of the Jordan border, a distance of about 1,950 km. Seventeen different coastal environments were defined, mapped, and correlated to the feasibility of using various types of subsurface intake systems. Six environments were found to have favorable characteristics for development of large-scale subsurface intakes. The most favorable of these coastal environments includes: (1) beaches and nearshore areas containing carbonate or siliciclastic sands with minimum mud concentrations and environmentally sensitive bottom community biota or fauna (A1, A2, and A3), limestone rocky shorelines with an offshore carbonate or siliciclastic sand bottom underlain by soft limestone and a barren area lying between the shoreline and the offshore reef (B1, B5), and wadi sediments on the beach (mixture of pebbles, gravel, and sand) with a corresponding nearshore area containing either siliciclastic sand and/or a marine hard ground (soft limestone or sandstone) (C2). It was found that seabed galleries were the subsurface intake type with the highest feasibility for development of large-capacity intakes. The geological characteristics of the offshore sea bottom

  16. The Potential Impacts of OTEC Intakes on Aquatic Organisms at an OTEC Site under Development on Kauai, HI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oney, Stephen K. [OTE Corporation; Hogan, Timothy [Alden Research Laboratory; Steinbeck, John [Tenera Environmental

    2013-08-31

    Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) is a marine renewable energy technology with the potential to contribute significantly to the baseload power needs of tropical island communities and remote U.S. military installations. As with other renewable energy technologies, however, there are potential challenges to its commercialization: technological, financial, social, and environmental. Given the large volumes of seawater required to drive the electricity-producing cycle, there is potential for the intakes to negatively impact the marine resources of the source waterbody through the impingement and entrainment of marine organisms. The goal of this project was to identify feasible warm water intake designs for a land-based OTEC facility proposed for development in Port Allen, Kauai and to characterize the populations of ichthyoplankton near the proposed warm water intake location that could be at risk of entrainment. The specific objectives of this project were to: • Complete a site-specific assessment of available and feasible warm water intake technologies to determine the best intake designs for minimizing impacts to aquatic organisms at the proposed land-based OTEC site in Port Allen, Kauai. • Complete a field sampling program to collect biological data to characterize the baseline populations of ichthyoplankton near the sites being considered for the warm water intake at the proposed land-based OTEC site in Port Allen, Kauai. Various intake design options are presented with the focus on providing adequate environmental protection to the local ichthyoplankton population while providing an economically viable intake option to the OTEC developer. Further definition by NOAA and other environmental regulators is required to further refine the designs presented to meet all US regulations for future OTEC development.

  17. Fruit and vegetable intake and smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poisson, T; Dallongeville, J; Evans, A; Ducimetierre, P; Amouyel, P; Yarnell, J; Bingham, A; Kee, F; Dauchet, L

    2012-11-01

    In cohort studies, fruit and vegetable (F&V) intake is associated with lower cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Former smokers often have a higher F&V intake than current smokers. If a high intake of F&V precedes smoking cessation, the latter may explain the favorable association between F&V intake and CVD among smokers. The objective was to assess whether higher F&V intake precedes smoking cessation. The study population comprised 1056 male smokers from Lille (France) and Belfast (Northern Ireland) aged 50-59 years on inclusion in 1991. At baseline, participants completed self-administered questionnaires related to smoking habits, demographic, socioeconomic factors and diet. At the 10-year follow-up, smoking habits were assessed by mailed questionnaire. After 10 years, 590 out of 1056 smokers had quit smoking (70.7% of smoker in Lille and 37.8% in Belfast). After adjusting for center, consumption of F&V was associated with quitting (odds ratio (OR) for high versus low F&V intake: 1.73; 95% confidence interval (CI): (1.22-2.45); P-trend=0.002). After further adjustment for sociodemographic factors, body mass index and medical diet, the association was still statistically significant (OR: 1.59; 95% CI (1.12-2.27); P-trend = 0.01). In a model fully adjusted for age, smoking intensity, alcohol consumption and physical activity, the association was no longer significant (P = 0.14). Higher F&V intake precedes smoking cessation. Hence, smoking cessation could affect the causal interpretation of the association between F&V and CVD in smokers.

  18. Organotin intake through fish consumption in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Airaksinen, Riikka, E-mail: Riikka.Airaksinen@thl.fi [National Institute for Health and Welfare, Department of Environmental Health, P.O. Box 95, FI-70701 Kuopio (Finland); Rantakokko, Panu; Turunen, Anu W.; Vartiainen, Terttu [National Institute for Health and Welfare, Department of Environmental Health, P.O. Box 95, FI-70701 Kuopio (Finland); Vuorinen, Pekka J.; Lappalainen, Antti; Vihervuori, Aune [Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute, Helsinki (Finland); Mannio, Jaakko [Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki (Finland); Hallikainen, Anja [Finnish Food Safety Authority Evira, Helsinki (Finland)

    2010-08-15

    Background: Organotin compounds (OTCs) are a large class of synthetic chemicals with widely varying properties. Due to their potential adverse health effects, their use has been restricted in many countries. Humans are exposed to OTCs mostly through fish consumption. Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe OTC exposure through fish consumption and to assess the associated potential health risks in a Finnish population. Methods: An extensive sampling of Finnish domestic fish was carried out in the Baltic Sea and freshwater areas in 2005-2007. In addition, samples of imported seafood were collected in 2008. The chemical analysis was performed in an accredited testing laboratory during 2005-2008. Average daily intake of the sum of dibutyltin (DBT), tributyltin (TBT), triphenyltin (TPhT) and dioctyltin (DOT) ({Sigma}OTCs) for the Finnish population was calculated on the basis of the measured concentrations and fish consumption rates. Results: The average daily intake of {Sigma}OTCs through fish consumption was 3.2 ng/kg bw day{sup -1}, which is 1.3% from the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) of 250 ng/kg bw day{sup -1} set by the European Food Safety Authority. In total, domestic wild fish accounted for 61% of the {Sigma}OTC intake, while the intake through domestic farmed fish was 4.0% and the intake through imported fish was 35%. The most important species were domestic perch and imported salmon and rainbow trout. Conclusions: The Finnish consumers are not likely to exceed the threshold level for adverse health effects due to OTC intake through fish consumption.

  19. Organotin intake through fish consumption in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airaksinen, Riikka; Rantakokko, Panu; Turunen, Anu W.; Vartiainen, Terttu; Vuorinen, Pekka J.; Lappalainen, Antti; Vihervuori, Aune; Mannio, Jaakko; Hallikainen, Anja

    2010-01-01

    Background: Organotin compounds (OTCs) are a large class of synthetic chemicals with widely varying properties. Due to their potential adverse health effects, their use has been restricted in many countries. Humans are exposed to OTCs mostly through fish consumption. Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe OTC exposure through fish consumption and to assess the associated potential health risks in a Finnish population. Methods: An extensive sampling of Finnish domestic fish was carried out in the Baltic Sea and freshwater areas in 2005-2007. In addition, samples of imported seafood were collected in 2008. The chemical analysis was performed in an accredited testing laboratory during 2005-2008. Average daily intake of the sum of dibutyltin (DBT), tributyltin (TBT), triphenyltin (TPhT) and dioctyltin (DOT) (ΣOTCs) for the Finnish population was calculated on the basis of the measured concentrations and fish consumption rates. Results: The average daily intake of ΣOTCs through fish consumption was 3.2 ng/kg bw day -1 , which is 1.3% from the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) of 250 ng/kg bw day -1 set by the European Food Safety Authority. In total, domestic wild fish accounted for 61% of the ΣOTC intake, while the intake through domestic farmed fish was 4.0% and the intake through imported fish was 35%. The most important species were domestic perch and imported salmon and rainbow trout. Conclusions: The Finnish consumers are not likely to exceed the threshold level for adverse health effects due to OTC intake through fish consumption.

  20. Body composition and dietary intake in neoplasic disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohn, S.H.; Gartenhaus, W.; Vartsky, D.; Sawitsky, A.; Zanzi, I.; Vaswani, A.; Yasummure, S.; Rai, K.; Cartes, E.; Ellis, K.J.

    1981-01-01

    Changes in body composition in 37 cancer patients were studied over a period of 6 months. Initially, the patients were divided into two groups: those who lost body weight (over 10%) and those who maintained or gained body weight before the study. Analysis of body composition indicated that patients who lost body weight has caloric and protein intakes markedly below ''normal'' levels at the beginning of the study. There also appears to be a direct relationship between the protein intake and the total body potassium/total body water ratio in the cancer patients. At the end of the 6-month study, the patients were again placed into two groups on the basis of weight loss or gain (and maintenance). Changes in body composition over the period were analyzed in terms of lean body mass, its protein constituent, water, and fat. Weight loss was found to reflect primarily the loss of fat, water, lean body mass (potassium), and only to a minor extent the protein component of lean body mass (nitrogen). Further, on the basis of the values of the ratios of total body nitrogen/total body potassium/total body water, it was possible to ascertain the relative normalcy of the body tissue gained or lost in the 6-month period. The results of the study suggest that the ratio total body nitrogen/total body potassium may serve as the best indicator of recent or ongoing catabolism or anabolism of the neoplastic process. By means of the application of the techniques used for the determination of body composition, it should be possible to assess regimes of hyperalimentation of cancer patients who lose body weight

  1. Nutritional Intake of Female Soldiers During the U.S. Army Basic Combat Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-08-01

    Westphal, Eldon W. Askew 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER U.S. Army Research Institute of...been associated with excessive alcohol intake (DHHS, 1988). Furthermore, high blood pressure, obesity, dental diseases, osteoporosis, and...The data base item for cooked grains ( pasta , rice. cereal) was used and a yield for cooking in water was applied. The water for cooking grains was not

  2. Beverage intake and obesity in early childhood: evidence form primary health care clients in Northwest Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderete, E; Bejarano, I; Rodríguez, A

    2015-12-07

    Sugar sweetened beverages (SSB) are thought to play an important role in weight gain. We examined the relationship between the intake of caloric and noncaloric beverages (SSB and water) and the nutritional status of children. In 2014, we randomly selected 16 public health clinics in four cities of Northwest Argentina and conducted a survey among mothers of children 0-6 years of age. Children's beverage intake was ascertained by 24-h dietary recall provided by the mothers. Children's weight and height measures were obtained from clinic's registries. We calculated the body mass index using the International Obesity Task Force standards. The analysis included 562 children 25 months to 6 years of age with normal or above normal nutritional status. Children's beverage consumption was as follows, water 81.8%, carbonated soft drinks (CSD) 49.7%, coffee/tea/cocoa 44.0%, artificial fruit drinks 35.6%, flavored water 17.9%, natural fruit juice 14.5%. In multivariate logistic regression models the likelihood of being obese v. being overweight or having normal weight doubled with an intake of one to five glasses of CSD (OR=2.2) and increased by more than three-fold with an intake of more than five glasses (OR=3.5). Drinking more than five glasses of water decreased the likelihood of being obese by less than half (OR=0.3). The percentage of children drinking more than five glasses of other beverages was low (3.3-0.9%) and regression models did not yield significant results. The study contributed evidence for reducing children's CSD intake and for promoting water consumption, together with the implementation of comprehensive regulatory public health policies.

  3. Water cooled nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    A description is given of a cooling water intake collector for a nuclear reactor. It includes multiple sub-collectors extending out in a generally parallel manner to each other, each one having a first end and a second one separated along their length, and multiple water outlets for connecting each one to a corresponding pressure tube of the reactor. A first end tube and a second one connect the sub-collector tubes together to their first and second ends respectively. It also includes multiple collector tubes extending transversely by crossing over the sub-collector tubes and separated from each other in the direction of these tubes. Each collector tubes has a water intake for connecting to a water pump and multiple connecting tubes separated over its length and connecting each one to the corresponding sub-collector [fr

  4. Energy intake compensation after 3 weeks of restricted energy intake in young and elderly men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkels, R.M.; Stoppelenburg, J.A.; Graaf, de C.; Siebelink, E.; Mars, M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives - Decreased energy intake in older persons poses these people at risk of progressive weight loss. It may result from a failure to regulate energy intake and expenditure after periods of underfeeding. The objective of this study was to investigate if a period of underfeeding differentially

  5. Development of Calculation Module for Intake Retention Functions based on Occupational Intakes of Radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Siwan; Kwon, Tae-Eun; Lee, Jai-Ki [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong-Il; Kim, Jang-Lyul [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    In internal dosimetry, intake retention and excretion functions are essential to estimate intake activity using bioassay sample such as whole body counter, lung counter, and urine sample. Even though ICRP (International Commission on Radiological Protection)provides the functions in some ICRP publications, it is needed to calculate the functions because the functions from the publications are provided for very limited time. Thus, some computer program are generally used to calculate intake retention and excretion functions and estimate intake activity. OIR (Occupational Intakes of Radionuclides) will be published soon by ICRP, which totally replaces existing internal dosimetry models and relevant data including intake retention and excretion functions. Thus, the calculation tool for the functions is needed based on OIR. In this study, we developed calculation module for intake retention and excretion functions based on OIR using C++ programming language with Intel Math Kernel Library. In this study, we developed the intake retention and excretion function calculation module based on OIR using C++ programing language.

  6. Reorganization of a hospital catering system increases food intake in patients with inadequate intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freil, M; Nielsen, MA; Blitz, B

    2006-01-01

    Background : Low food intake is a frequent problem in undernourished hospital patients. Objective: To study whether a reorganization of a hospital catering system enabling patients to choose their evening meal individually, in combination with an increase in the energy density of the food....... Conclusions: Reorganization of a hospital catering system can increase energy and protein intake and reduce waste substantially....

  7. Development of Calculation Module for Intake Retention Functions based on Occupational Intakes of Radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noh, Siwan; Kwon, Tae-Eun; Lee, Jai-Ki; Lee, Jong-Il; Kim, Jang-Lyul

    2014-01-01

    In internal dosimetry, intake retention and excretion functions are essential to estimate intake activity using bioassay sample such as whole body counter, lung counter, and urine sample. Even though ICRP (International Commission on Radiological Protection)provides the functions in some ICRP publications, it is needed to calculate the functions because the functions from the publications are provided for very limited time. Thus, some computer program are generally used to calculate intake retention and excretion functions and estimate intake activity. OIR (Occupational Intakes of Radionuclides) will be published soon by ICRP, which totally replaces existing internal dosimetry models and relevant data including intake retention and excretion functions. Thus, the calculation tool for the functions is needed based on OIR. In this study, we developed calculation module for intake retention and excretion functions based on OIR using C++ programming language with Intel Math Kernel Library. In this study, we developed the intake retention and excretion function calculation module based on OIR using C++ programing language

  8. Acute effects of a herb extract formulation and inulin fibre on appetite, energy intake and food choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrold, J A; Hughes, G M; O'Shiel, K; Quinn, E; Boyland, E J; Williams, N J; Halford, J C G

    2013-03-01

    The impact of two commercially available products, a patented herb extract Yerbe Maté, Guarana and Damiana (YGD) formulation and an inulin-based soluble fermentable fibre (SFF), alone or in combination, on appetite and food intake were studied for the first time in a double blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design. 58 normal to slightly overweight women consumed a fixed-load breakfast followed 4h later by an ad libitum lunch. They were administered YGD (3 tablets) and SFF (5g in 100ml water), YGD and water (100ml), SFF and placebo (3 tablets) or water and placebo 15min before meals. Appetite was assessed using visual analogue scales, and energy intake was measured at lunch. Significant reductions in food intake and energy intake were observed when YGD was present (59.5g, 16.3%; 112.4kcal, 17.3%) and when SFF was present (31.9g, 9.1%; 80kcal, 11.7%) compared with conditions were products were absent. The lowest intake (gram and kcal) was in the YGD+SFF condition. Significant reductions in AUC hunger and AUC desire to eat were also observed after YGD+SFF combination. The data demonstrate that YGD produces a robust short-term effect on caloric intake, an effect augmented by SFF. Caloric compensation for SFF indicates independent effects on appetite regulation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Feasibility of using a subsurface intake for SWRO facility, south of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Almashharawi, Samir

    2014-07-25

    The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is the largest producer of desalinated water with about 13% of the global desalination capacity. Most of these desalination plants use the open-ocean intakes to deliver raw seawater to the desalination facility. Recently, some of the private desalination plants have shifted to subsurface intake systems, either wells or galleries, in order to obtain better water quality with a minimal environmental impact (e.g. minimal entrainment and impingement). The use of these intake types has improved the raw seawater quality extracted from the Red Sea and Arabian Gulf, providing better protection for the membrane component by eliminating/reducing algae, bacteria and organic matter concentrations from the seawater source. One of these desalination plants is located south of Jeddah city which is the second largest city in Saudi Arabia. The plant shifted from an open-ocean intake to beach wells to improve the water quality at the site. Currently, the plant employs 10 vertical wells to extract enough water to produce 10,000 m3/d of product water via the reverse osmosis process. Studies show that quality of seawater significantly improved after shifting to the well system. The use of a larger capacity well system or a seabed gallery intake was investigated at this site for a proposed additional 20,000 m3/d future expansion of the facility. More than 60 sediment samples were collected from the seabed along five different transects in an area of 25,000 m2, starting from shoreline and moving seaward. Grain size analyses, hydraulic conductivity and mud percentage were analyzed in order to determine the characteristic of marine sediments at the studied site. The marine bottom at the selected site contains carbonate sediments which have a high potential of reducing the natural organic matter concentration in the raw seawater. In this study, the laboratory measurements showed that this site has low mud content and moderately high hydraulic conductivity, which

  10. Stress Exposure, Food Intake, and Emotional State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich-Lai, Yvonne M.; Fulton, Stephanie; Wilson, Mark; Petrovich, Gorica; Rinaman, Linda

    2016-01-01

    This manuscript summarizes the proceedings of the symposium entitled, “Stress, Palatable Food and Reward”, that was chaired by Drs. Linda Rinaman and Yvonne Ulrich-Lai at the 2014 Neurobiology of Stress Workshop held in Cincinnati, OH. This symposium comprised research presentations by four neuroscientists whose work focuses on the biological bases for complex interactions among stress, food intake and emotion. First, Dr. Ulrich-Lai describes her rodent research exploring mechanisms by which the rewarding properties of sweet palatable foods confer stress relief. Second, Dr. Stephanie Fulton discusses her work in which excessive, long-term intake of dietary lipids, as well as their subsequent withdrawal, promotes stress-related outcomes in mice. Third, Dr. Mark Wilson describes his group’s research examining the effects of social hierarchy-related stress on food intake and diet choice in group-housed female rhesus macaques, and compared the data from monkeys to results obtained in analogous work using rodents. Lastly, Dr. Gorica Petrovich discusses her research program that is aimed at defining cortical–amygdalar–hypothalamic circuitry responsible for curbing food intake during emotional threat (i.e., fear anticipation) in rats. Their collective results reveal the complexity of physiological and behavioral interactions that link stress, food intake and emotional state, and suggest new avenues of research to probe the impact of genetic, metabolic, social, experiential, and environmental factors. PMID:26303312

  11. [Food intake regulation - 2nd part].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunerová, Ludmila; Anděl, Michal

    2014-01-01

    The review article summarizes the principles of hedonic regulation of food intake which represents the food intake independent on the maintenance of homeostasis. The theory describing hedonic regulation, so called Incentive Salience Theory, comprises three major processes: liking (positive attribution to food stimulus), wanting (motivation to gain it) and learning (identification of these stimuli and distinguishing them from those connected with aversive reaction). Neuronal reward circuits are the anatomical and functional substrates of hedonic regulation. They react to gustatory and olfactory (or visual) stimuli associated with food intake. A food item is preferred in case its consumption is connected with a pleasant feeling thus promoting the behavioural reaction. The probability of this reaction after repetitive exposure to such a stimulus is increased (learned preference). On the contrary, learned aversion after repetitive exposure is connected with avoidance of a food item associated with a negative feeling. Main mediators of hedonic regulation are endocannabinoids, opioids and monoamines (dopamine, serotonin). Dopamine in dorsal striatum via D2 receptors generates food motivation as a key means of survival, however in ventral striatum (nucleus accumbens) is responsible for motivation to food bringing pleasure. Serotonin via its receptors 5-HT1A a T-HT2C decreases intake of palatable food. It plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of eating disorders, particularly mental anorexia. There, a food restriction represents a kind of automedication to constitutionally pathologically increased serotonin levels. Detailed understanding of processes regulating food intake is a key to new pharmacological interventions in eating disorders.

  12. Stress exposure, food intake and emotional state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich-Lai, Yvonne M; Fulton, Stephanie; Wilson, Mark; Petrovich, Gorica; Rinaman, Linda

    2015-01-01

    This manuscript summarizes the proceedings of the symposium entitled, "Stress, Palatable Food and Reward", that was chaired by Drs. Linda Rinaman and Yvonne Ulrich-Lai at the 2014 Neurobiology of Stress Workshop held in Cincinnati, OH. This symposium comprised research presentations by four neuroscientists whose work focuses on the biological bases for complex interactions among stress, food intake and emotion. First, Dr Ulrich-Lai describes her rodent research exploring mechanisms by which the rewarding properties of sweet palatable foods confer stress relief. Second, Dr Stephanie Fulton discusses her work in which excessive, long-term intake of dietary lipids, as well as their subsequent withdrawal, promotes stress-related outcomes in mice. Third, Dr Mark Wilson describes his group's research examining the effects of social hierarchy-related stress on food intake and diet choice in group-housed female rhesus macaques, and compared the data from monkeys to results obtained in analogous work using rodents. Finally, Dr Gorica Petrovich discusses her research program that is aimed at defining cortical-amygdalar-hypothalamic circuitry responsible for curbing food intake during emotional threat (i.e. fear anticipation) in rats. Their collective results reveal the complexity of physiological and behavioral interactions that link stress, food intake and emotional state, and suggest new avenues of research to probe the impact of genetic, metabolic, social, experiential and environmental factors on these interactions.

  13. Comparison of three methods to reduce energy density: effects on daily energy intake

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Rachel A.; Roe, Liane S.; Rolls, Barbara J.

    2013-01-01

    Reductions in food energy density can decrease energy intake, but it is not known if the effects depend on the way that energy density is reduced. We investigated whether three methods of reducing energy density (decreasing fat, increasing fruit and vegetables, and adding water) differed in their effects on energy intake across the day. In a crossover design, 59 adults ate breakfast, lunch, and dinner in the laboratory once a week for four weeks. Across conditions, the entrées were either sta...

  14. Chronic ethanol intake leads to structural and molecular alterations in the rat endometrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Marcelo; Milton, Flora A; Pinheiro, Patricia Fernanda F; Almeida-Francia, Camila C D; Cagnon-Quitete, Valeria H A; Tirapelli, Luiz F; Padovani, Carlos Roberto; Chuffa, Luiz Gustavo A; Martinez, Francisco Eduardo

    2016-05-01

    We described the effects of low- and high-dose ethanol intake on the structure and apoptosis signaling of the uterine endometrium of UChA and UChB rats (animals with voluntary ethanol consumption). Thirty adult female rats, 90 days old, were divided into three groups (n = 10/group): UChA rats fed with 10% (v/v) ethanol ad libitum (free choice for water or ethanol) drinking Chronic ethanol intake leads to structural and molecular alterations in the uterine endometrium of UCh rats, regardless of low- or high-dose consumption, promoting reproductive disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Less-Restrictive Food Intake During Labor in Low-Risk Singleton Pregnancies: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciardulli, Andrea; Saccone, Gabriele; Anastasio, Hannah; Berghella, Vincenzo

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate benefits and harms of food intake during labor. Electronic databases such as MEDLINE and ClinicalTrials.gov were searched from their inception until October 2016. We included randomized trials comparing a policy of less-restrictive food intake with a policy of more restrictive food intake during labor. The primary outcome was the mean duration of labor. Meta-analysis was performed using the random-effects model of DerSimonian and Laird to produce summary treatment effects in terms of either a relative risk or a mean difference with 95% confidence interval (CI). Ten trials, including 3,982 laboring women, were included. All the studies involved laboring singletons considered at low risk because they had no obstetric or medical complications that would increase the likelihood of cesarean delivery. In three studies, women were allowed to select from a low-residue diet throughout the course of labor. One study had honey date syrup as the allowed food intake. Five studies had carbohydrate drinks as food intake in labor. The last one was the only trial that allowed unrestrictive food intake. In the included studies, all women in the intervention group were allowed the assigned food intake until delivery, whereas women in a control group were allowed only ice chips, water, or sips of water until delivery. A policy of less-restrictive food intake was associated with a significantly shorter duration of labor (mean difference -16 minutes, 95% CI -25 to -7). No other benefits or harms in obstetric or neonatal outcome were noticed. Regurgitation during general anesthesia and Mendelson syndrome did not occur in either group. Women with low-risk singleton pregnancies who were allowed to eat more freely during labor had a shorter duration of labor. A policy of less-restrictive food intake during labor did not influence other obstetric or neonatal outcomes nor did it increase the incidence of vomiting. Operative delivery rates were similar.

  16. Effect of bromine and iodine in drinking water on production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    jannes

    Different treatments of Br, irrespective of I, decreased water and feed intake significantly. The interaction .... Treatments administered through the drinking water from Days 1 to 42 were: T0 (Control) = 0 ..... Hygienic substantiation of permissible ...

  17. Validity of the Remote Food Photography Method (RFPM) for estimating energy and nutrient intake in near real-time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, C. K.; Correa, J. B.; Han, H.; Allen, H. R.; Rood, J.; Champagne, C. M.; Gunturk, B. K.; Bray, G. A.

    2014-01-01

    Two studies are reported; a pilot study to demonstrate feasibility followed by a larger validity study. Study 1’s objective was to test the effect of two ecological momentary assessment (EMA) approaches that varied in intensity on the validity/accuracy of estimating energy intake with the Remote Food Photography Method (RFPM) over six days in free-living conditions. When using the RFPM, Smartphones are used to capture images of food selection and plate waste and to send the images to a server for food intake estimation. Consistent with EMA, prompts are sent to the Smartphones reminding participants to capture food images. During Study 1, energy intake estimated with the RFPM and the gold standard, doubly labeled water (DLW), were compared. Participants were assigned to receive Standard EMA Prompts (n=24) or Customized Prompts (n=16) (the latter received more reminders delivered at personalized meal times). The RFPM differed significantly from DLW at estimating energy intake when Standard (mean±SD = −895±770 kcal/day, p<.0001), but not Customized Prompts (−270±748 kcal/day, p=.22) were used. Error (energy intake from the RFPM minus that from DLW) was significantly smaller with Customized vs. Standard Prompts. The objectives of Study 2 included testing the RFPM’s ability to accurately estimate energy intake in free-living adults (N=50) over six days, and energy and nutrient intake in laboratory-based meals. The RFPM did not differ significantly from DLW at estimating free-living energy intake (−152±694 kcal/day, p=0.16). During laboratory-based meals, estimating energy and macronutrient intake with the RFPM did not differ significantly compared to directly weighed intake. PMID:22134199

  18. Coffee intake, cardiovascular disease and allcause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordestgaard, Ask Tybjærg; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne

    2016-01-01

    Background: Coffee has been associated with modestly lower risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in meta-analyses; however, it is unclear whether these are causal associations. We tested first whether coffee intake is associated with cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality...... observationally; second, whether genetic variations previously associated with caffeine intake are associated with coffee intake; and third, whether the genetic variations are associated with cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. Methods: First, we used multivariable adjusted Cox proportional hazard......- and age adjusted Cox proportional hazard regression models to examine genetic associations with cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in 112 509 Danes. Finally, we used sex and age-adjusted logistic regression models to examine genetic associations with ischaemic heart disease including...

  19. Flavonoids as fruit and vegetable intake biomarkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogholm, Kirstine Suszkiewicz

    calculation of the bivariate correlation coefficients is the common approach when using only one reference method. Back in 2002, a strictly controlled dietary intervention study indicated that the sum of 7 different flavonoid aglycones excreted in 24h urine samples potentially could be used as a biomarker...... and cohort studies. The Ph.D. thesis contains four scientific papers. Paper I provides evidence that the sum of 7 flavonoids in 24h urine respond in a linear and sensitive manner to moderate increases in the intake of fruits and vegetables, and thus consolidates that the flavonoids are a valid biomarker...... of fruit and vegetable intakes. In Paper I, the urinary recovery of the 7 flavonoids in morning spot urine (i.e. all urine voids from midnight including the first morning void) was also found to respond to moderate increases in the intake of fruits and vegetables. However, the association was somewhat...

  20. Changing micronutrient intake through (voluntary) behaviour change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Birger Boutrup; Lähteenmäki, Liisa; Grunert, Klaus G

    2012-01-01

    change. The behaviours affecting folate intake were recognised and categorised. Behaviour change mechanisms from “rational model of man”, behavioural economics, health psychology and social psychology were identified and aligned against folate-related behaviours. The folate example demonstrated......The objective of this study was to relate behaviour change mechanisms to nutritionally relevant behaviour and demonstrate how the different mechanisms can affect attempts to change these behaviours. Folate was used as an example to illuminate the possibilities and challenges in inducing behaviour...... the complexity of mechanisms influencing possible behavioural changes, even though this only targets the intake of a single micronutrient. When considering possible options to promote folate intake, the feasibility of producing the desired outcome should be related to the mechanisms of required changes...

  1. Economic policies for healthier food intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordström, Leif Jonas; Thunström, Linda

    2011-01-01

    initial consumption share of fiber-rich products— families with children—appear to gain the least financially from the reforms: they pay more food taxes and face relatively high increases in price levels. Further, in general they experience an increase in fiber intake smaller than that of the average......This paper simulates the impact across household types of fully funded tax reforms designed to increase consumers’ fiber intake from grain consumption. Our results suggest that household types with the highest initial consumption share of fiber-rich products—i.e., households without children...... (seniors, couples without children, and single women without children)—experience the highest increase in fiber intake from these reforms. However, they also experience high increases in unhealthy nutrients from the reforms, making the net health effects difficult to evaluate. Seniors and couples without...

  2. Economic policies for healthier food intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordström, Leif Jonas; Thunström, Linda

    with the lowest initial consumption share of fiber-rich products - families with children - appear to gain the least financially from the reforms: they pay more food taxes and face relatively high increases in price levels. Further, in general they experience an increase in fiber intake smaller than the average......This paper simulates the impact across household types of fully funded tax reforms designed to increase consumers' fiber intake from grain consumption. Our results suggest that household types with the highest initial consumption share of fiber-rich products - i.e., households without children...... (seniors, couples without children, and single women without children) - experience the highest increase in fiber intake from these reforms. However, they also experience high increases in unhealthy nutrients from the reforms, making the net health effects difficult to evaluate. Seniors and couples without...

  3. Water consumption in pediatrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez Weber Miguel Ángel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Special considerations must be taken to calculate water require- ments of newborns and breastfeeding children; however, all their water needs should be covered with breast milk or breast-milk substitute formula. There is a need for 100 mL of water per 100 kcal consumed, or of 1,800 mL per square meter body surface area. From the age of six months, it is advisable to start providing 30 to 60 mL of water per day, with progressive increase; before that age, any other liquid must be avoided. Inadequate preparation of a substitute formula may cause hydric intoxication, or infections if the water used is contaminated. The increase in obesity and overweight is the result of increased intake of sugary beverages in children. This increased intake can also be linked to diabetes and other physiological and cognitive problems. Mexican children and teenagers have increased their caloric intake from sugary beverages in 126% between 1999 and 2006. As one of many healthy habits that children must acquire from home, is the avoi- dance of sugary beverages and the acknowledgment of water as a preferred hydration source.

  4. Ingested water equilibrates isotopically with the body water pool of a shorebird with unrivaled water fluxes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, G.H.; Dekinga, A; Achterkamp, B.; Piersma, T.

    We investigated the applicability of H-2 to measure the amount of body water (TBW) and water fluxes in relation to diet type and level of food intake in a mollusk-eating shorebird, the Red Knot (Calidris canutus). Six birds were exposed to eight experimental indoor conditions. Average fractional H-2

  5. Lower Colorado River GRP Public Water System Springs, Nevada, 2012, Nevada Division of Environmental Protection Bureau of Safe Drinking Water

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Public Water System wells, springs an intake locations are collected and maintained by NDEP Bureau of Safe Drinking Water (BSDW). The data is kept in the Safe...

  6. Lower Colorado River GRP Public Water System Wells, Nevada, 2012, Nevada Division of Environmental Protection Bureau of Safe Drinking Water

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Public Water System wells, springs an intake locations are collected and maintained by NDEP Bureau of Safe Drinking Water (BSDW). The data is kept in the Safe...

  7. Measuring food intake with digital photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, C K; Nicklas, T; Gunturk, B; Correa, J B; Allen, H R; Champagne, C

    2014-01-01

    The digital photography of foods method accurately estimates the food intake of adults and children in cafeterias. When using this method, images of food selection and leftovers are quickly captured in the cafeteria. These images are later compared with images of 'standard' portions of food using computer software. The amount of food selected and discarded is estimated based upon this comparison, and the application automatically calculates energy and nutrient intake. In the present review, we describe this method, as well as a related method called the Remote Food Photography Method (RFPM), which relies on smartphones to estimate food intake in near real-time in free-living conditions. When using the RFPM, participants capture images of food selection and leftovers using a smartphone and these images are wirelessly transmitted in near real-time to a server for analysis. Because data are transferred and analysed in near real-time, the RFPM provides a platform for participants to quickly receive feedback about their food intake behaviour and to receive dietary recommendations for achieving weight loss and health promotion goals. The reliability and validity of measuring food intake with the RFPM in adults and children is also reviewed. In sum, the body of research reviewed demonstrates that digital imaging accurately estimates food intake in many environments and it has many advantages over other methods, including reduced participant burden, elimination of the need for participants to estimate portion size, and the incorporation of computer automation to improve the accuracy, efficiency and cost-effectiveness of the method. © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  8. Usual Vitamin Intakes by Mexican Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedroza-Tobías, Andrea; Hernández-Barrera, Lucía; López-Olmedo, Nancy; García-Guerra, Armando; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Sonia; Ramírez-Silva, Ivonne; Villalpando, Salvador; Carriquiry, Alicia; Rivera, Juan A

    2016-09-01

    In the past several years, the consumption of high-energy, nutrient-poor foods has increased globally. Dietary intake data collected by the National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT) 2012 provide information to assess the quality of the Mexican diet and to guide food and nutrition policy. The aim was to describe the usual intake and the prevalence of inadequate intakes of vitamins for the overall Mexican population and by subgroups defined by sex, age, region, urban or rural areas, and socioeconomic status (SES). ENSANUT 2012 is a cross-sectional probabilistic survey representative of the Mexican population. Dietary information was collected by using the 24-h recall automated multiple-pass method (n = 10,096) with a repeated measurement on a subsample (n = 889) to permit adjustment for intraindividual variability with the use of the Iowa State University method. Mean usual intakes and the prevalence of inadequate intakes of thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, folate, and vitamins A, D, E, C, B-6, and B-12 were calculated for children aged 1-4 y (CH1-4y), children aged 5-11 y (CH5-11y), adolescents aged 12-19 y, and adults aged ≥20 y. In all of the age groups, prevalences of inadequate intakes of vitamins D and E were the highest (77-99% of adults and adolescents and 53-95% of CH5-11y and CH1-4y) and those of folate and vitamin A were intermediate (47-70% of adults and adolescents, 15-23% of CH5-11y and 8-13% of CH1-4y), whereas those of thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, and vitamins B-6, B-12, and C were the lowest (0-37% of adults, 1-27% of adolescents, and 0-2.4% of CH5-11y and CH1-4y). With few exceptions, the highest prevalences of inadequate intakes for vitamins were observed in the poorest populations (rural South region and the lowest tertile of SES). The intake of vitamins among Mexicans is inadequate overall. Information collected by ENSANUT can help target food assistance programs and develop strategies to prevent vitamin deficiencies. © 2016 American Society

  9. Appetite and Energy Intake in Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lone Brinkmann

    ratings of prospective food consumption between lunch and dinner, and after dinner than the participants who received artificial sweetener supplements. Both groups had a high energy intake during the test day, but the sucrose supplements induced a higher energy intake, compared with the artificial...... chocolate. Ratings of the desire to eat something sweet, salty, fatty, and savoury were all lower after consumption of the dark chocolate than after the milk chocolate. The results suggest that it could be beneficial to use dark chocolate as a substitute for milk chocolate. In summary, these results suggest...

  10. Sedimentation Effects on the Water Supply of APG

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-07

    THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Background  The APG (South) Water Treatment Plant ( WTP ...low flow (15.6 cfs)  Typically during Maryland summers drought conditions prevent water uptake Background Cont’d  In 2007 the WTP was forced to shut...around the WTP intake  Will decrease particulate matter in the intake water  Will prevent sedimentation from completely blocking flow to the water

  11. Hypokalemic paralysis and respiratory failure due to excessive intake of licorice syrup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Oguzhan Ay

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Licorice is the root of Glycyrrhiza glabra, which has a herbal ingredient, glycyrrhizic acid. Excessive intake of licorice may cause a hypermineralocorticoidism-like syndrome characterized by sodium and water retention, hypokalemia, hypertension, metabolic alkalosis, low-renin activity, and hypoaldosteronism. In this paper, an 34 years old man who admitted to the emergency department with respiratory failure and marked muscle weakness of all extremities that progressed to paralysis after excessive intake of licorice syrup was presented. It was aimed to draw attention to the necessity of questioning whether there is excessive intake of licorice or not in patients who admitted to emergency department with paralysis and dyspnea. Plasma potassium concentration of the patient was 1.4 mmol/L. The patient\\'s respiratory distress and loss of muscle strength recovered completely after potassium replacement. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(2.000: 387-391

  12. Relationship between self-reported dietary intake and physical activity levels among adolescents: The HELENA study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Donne Cinzia

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence suggests possible synergetic effects of multiple lifestyle behaviors on health risks like obesity and other health outcomes. Therefore it is important to investigate associations between dietary and physical activity behavior, the two most important lifestyle behaviors influencing our energy balance and body composition. The objective of the present study is to describe the relationship between energy, nutrient and food intake and the physical activity level among a large group of European adolescents. Methods The study comprised a total of 2176 adolescents (46.2% male from ten European cities participating in the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study. Dietary intake and physical activity were assessed using validated 24-h dietary recalls and self-reported questionnaires respectively. Analyses of covariance (ANCOVA were used to compare the energy and nutrient intake and the food consumption between groups of adolescents with different physical activity levels (1st to 3rd tertile. Results In both sexes no differences were found in energy intake between the levels of physical activity. The most active males showed a higher intake of polysaccharides, protein, water and vitamin C and a lower intake of saccharides compared to less active males. Females with the highest physical activity level consumed more polysaccharides compared to their least active peers. Male and female adolescents with the highest physical activity levels, consumed more fruit and milk products and less cheese compared to the least active adolescents. The most active males showed higher intakes of vegetables and meat, fish, eggs, meat substitutes and vegetarian products compared to the least active ones. The least active males reported the highest consumption of grain products and potatoes. Within the female group, significantly lower intakes of bread and cereal products and spreads were found for those reporting to

  13. Dietary Intakes and Supplement Use in Pre-Adolescent and Adolescent Canadian Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill A. Parnell

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Young athletes experience numerous dietary challenges including growth, training/competition, unhealthy food environments, and travel. The objective was to determine nutrient intakes and supplement use in pre-adolescent and adolescent Canadian athletes. Athletes (n = 187 aged 11–18 years completed an on-line 24-h food recall and dietary supplement questionnaire. Median energy intake (interquartile range varied from 2159 kcal/day (1717–2437 in 11–13 years old females to 2905 kcal/day (2291–3483 in 14–18 years old males. Carbohydrate and protein intakes were 8.1 (6.1–10.5; 2.4 (1.6–3.4 in males 11–13 years, 5.7 (4.5–7.9; 2.0 (1.4–2.6 in females 11–13 years, 5.3 (4.3–7.4; 2.0 (1.5–2.4 in males 14–18 y and 4.9 (4.4–6.2; 1.7 (1.3–2.0 in females 14–18 years g/kg of body weight respectively. Median vitamin D intakes were below the recommended dietary allowance (RDA and potassium was below the adequate intake (AI for all athlete groups. Females 14–18 years had intakes below the RDA for iron 91% (72–112, folate 89% (61–114 and calcium 84% (48–106. Multivitamin-multiminerals, vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin-enriched water, protein powder, sport foods, fatty acids, probiotics, and plant extracts were popular supplements. Canadian pre-adolescent and adolescent athletes could improve their dietary intakes by focusing on food sources of calcium, vitamin D, potassium, iron, and folate. With the exceptions of vitamin D and carbohydrates during long exercise sessions, supplementation is generally unnecessary.

  14. Wheel running reduces high-fat diet intake, preference and mu-opioid agonist stimulated intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Nu-Chu; Bello, Nicholas T.; Moran, Timothy H.

    2015-01-01

    The ranges of mechanisms by which exercise affects energy balance remain unclear. One potential mechanism may be that exercise reduces intake and preference for highly palatable, energy dense fatty foods. The current study used a rodent wheel running model to determine whether and how physical activity affects HF diet intake/preference and reward signaling. Experiment 1 examined whether wheel running affected the ability of intracerebroventricular (ICV) µ opioid receptor agonist D-Ala2, NMe-Phe4, Glyol5-enkephalin (DAMGO) to increase HF diet intake. Experiment 2 examined the effects of wheel running on the intake of and preference for a previously preferred HF diet. We also assessed the effects of wheel running and diet choice on mesolimbic dopaminergic and opioidergic gene expression. Experiment 1 revealed that wheel running decreased the ability of ICV DAMGO administration to stimulate HF diet intake. Experiment 2 showed that wheel running suppressed weight gain and reduced intake and preference for a previously preferred HF diet. Furthermore, the mesolimbic gene expression profile of wheel running rats was different from that of their sedentary paired-fed controls but similar to that of sedentary rats with large HF diet consumption. These data suggest that alterations in preference for palatable, energy dense foods play a role in the effects of exercise on energy homeostasis. The gene expression results also suggest that the hedonic effects of exercise may substitute for food reward to limit food intake and suppress weight gain. PMID:25668514

  15. Estimated dietary sodium intake in haemodialysis patients using food frequency questionnaires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkza, Anastasia; Davenport, Andrew

    2017-10-01

    In clinical practice, dietary sodium assessment requires reliable and rapid screening tools. We wished to evaluate the usefulness of food frequency questionnaires (FFQ) in estimating dietary sodium intakes in haemodialysis patients. We used the Derby Salt Questionnaire (DSQ), and Scored Sodium Questionnaire (SSQ) to estimate sodium intake. Body composition was determined by bioimpedance. In total, 139 haemodialysis patients (95 men) completed the FFQs, with mean ± standard deviation age 67 ± 15 years. The mean FFQ scores were DSQ 3.5 ± 2.0 and SSQ 68.4 ± 24.5. Men had higher estimated dietary sodium intakes [DSQ median (range) 3.6 (0.6-10.1) versus female 2.2 (0.5-9.1), P = 0.007)]. Younger patients and those aged >75 years had the higher SSQ dietary sodium scores; 70.7 ± 27.8 and 76.8 ± 24.6 versus those aged 55-75 years, 61.8 ± 22.3, P = 0.04. Patients with greater estimated sodium intake had higher extracellular water (ECW) to intracellular water (ICW) ratios pre-dialysis [75.1 ±12.5 versus 67.7 ± 4.8, P sodium group (0.9 ± 13.7% versus 6.5 ± 14.1%, P = 0.04). Both questionnaires were acceptable to patients and identified higher estimated dietary sodium intake for men, those with greater ECW and, somewhat surprisingly, we found that older patients had a greater dietary sodium intake than expected. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA.

  16. Intake, physiological parameters and behavior of Angus and Nellore bulls subjected to heat stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ériton Egidio Lisboa Valente

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Genetics differences between breeds may determine the tolerance to high temperature, effect dry matter intake and consequently cattle performance. The effect of temperature and humidity index (THI on diurnal, nocturnal and daily intake, water intake, physiologic parameters and behavior of N