WorldWideScience

Sample records for water harvesting techniques

  1. Water harvesting techniques for small communities in arid areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, E; Anda, M; Mathew, K; Ho, G

    2001-01-01

    Limited water resources exist in numerous remote indigenous settlements around Australia. Indigenous people in these communities are still living in rudimentary conditions while their urban counterparts have full amenities, large scale water supplies and behavioral practices which may not be appropriate for an arid continent but are supported by extensive infrastructure in higher rainfall coastal areas. As remote indigenous communities continue to develop, their water use will increase, and in some cases, costly solutions may have to be implemented to augment supplies. Water harvesting techniques have been applied in settlements on a small scale for domestic and municipal purposes, and in the large, broadacre farm setting for productive use of the water. The techniques discussed include swales, infiltration basins, infiltration trenches and "sand dam" basins. This paper reviews the applications of water harvesting relevant to small communities for land rehabilitation, landscaping and flood control. Landscaping is important in these communities as it provides shelter from the sun and wind, reduces soil erosion and hence reduced airborne dust, and in some cases provides food and nutrition. Case studies of water harvesting systems applied in the Pilbara Region, Western Australia for landscaping around single dwellings in Jigalong and Cheeditha, in a permaculture garden in Wittenoon and at a college and carpark in Karratha are described.

  2. Environmental and socioeconomic benefits and limitations of water harvesting techniques in semiarid regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Pereira, Elvira; Asunción Romero-Díaz, María; de Vente, Joris

    2016-04-01

    Under climate change, sustainable management of soil and water resources is increasingly important, especially in rainfed agroecosystems of semiarid environments. Water harvesting refers to a range of techniques for the collection and management of flood or rainwater for domestic and agricultural use and for water retention in natural ecosystems. Water harvesting represents a good example of sustainable management of water resources that contribute to water and food security. However, there are often environmental and socioeconomic constraints for implementation of water harvesting techniques, so each condition asks for a specific solution. Here we aim to highlight the environmental and socioeconomic benefits, requirements and limitations of different water harvesting techniques and to characterize their implications for provisioning, regulating, supporting, and cultural ecosystem services. We reviewed 62 water harvesting techniques for semiarid regions extracted from the WOCAT (World Overview of Conservation Approaches and Technologies) database. We discuss aspects related to: i) human and environmental characteristics, ii) cost-benefit ratio during implementation and maintenance phases, iii) socioeconomic and environmental impacts at local and regional scales, and, iv) impacts on ecosystem services. Our review reveals that water harvesting represents very diverse methods of collecting and managing floodwaters and surface runoff. We grouped techniques as 'floodwater harvesting', 'macro-catchment water harvesting', 'micro-catchment water harvesting', and 'rooftop and courtyard' water harvesting. Almost half of all technologies originates from traditional knowledge. The implementation of water harvesting is generally positive on the short-term, to very positive on the long-term, while its maintenance is very positive at short and long-term. However, perception depends on the type of water harvesting and local conditions. Most relevant socioeconomic benefits from

  3. Effect of water harvesting techniques on hydrological processes and sediment yield in Northern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woldegiorgis, Berhane Grum

    2017-01-01

    The study was conducted in the semi-arid northern Ethiopia aimed at selecting appropriate water harvesting techniques (WHTs) for implementation. A plot-scale experiment was set up, in the Gule catchment, on a farmland to monitor the effect of in-situ WHTs such as tied ridges and straw mulch mainly

  4. Evaluation of small scale water harvesting techniques for semi-arid environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lasage, R.; Verburg, P.H.

    2015-01-01

    Water harvesting is widely practiced and is expected to improve water availability for domestic and agricultural use in semi-arid regions. New funds are becoming available to stimulate the implementation of water harvesting projects. We review the literature to gain insight regarding characteristics

  5. Economic feasibility analysis of water-harvesting techniques for mined-land reclamation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieves, L.A.; Marti, M.H.

    1981-07-01

    A water harvesting, agricultural production system, field tested as a means of reclaiming strip-mined land is described. Though the technical feasibility of the system is becoming increasingly apparent, economic feasibility and legal issues may determine its potential application. The purpose of this study is to explore the economic feasibility of the system and to provide information for use in assessing whether further investigation of water harvesting reclamation techniques is warranted. The economic feasibility of the PNL reclamation system hinges on whether its net benefits exceed those of conventional reclamation. This preliminary feasibility study assesses the net private benefits of each system using data for the Peabody Coal Company's Kayenta mine on the Black Mesa in Arizona. To compare the alternative reclamation systems, the present value of direct net benefits (income minus production and reclamation costs) is calculated for grazing (conventional reclamation) or for cropping (PNL reclamation). Three of the PNL system slope treatments have lower estimated total costs than conventional reclamation. The difference is $3895/acre for compacted slope, $3025/acre for salt-compacted slope and $2310/acre for crop-on-slope. These differences constitute a substantial cost advantage for the system on the basis of the present value of land reclamation and maintenance costs. The system also has advantages based on the estimated value of agricultural production capacity. Even the lowest yield levels considered for alfalfa, corn, and pinto beans had higher net present values than grazing.

  6. A decision support approach for the selection and implementation of water harvesting techniques in arid and semi-arid regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grum, Berhane; Hessel, Rudi; Kessler, Aad; Woldearegay, Kifle; Yazew, Eyasu; Ritsema, Coen; Geissen, Violette

    2016-01-01

    Water harvesting techniques (WHTs) improve the availability of water, which is essential for growing crops, especially in arid and semi-arid areas. A decision support approach can help in the selection of WHTs suitable under site-specific bio-physical and socio-economic conditions. This paper

  7. Harvesting technique ESO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saell, H.O.

    1982-01-01

    The report presents an extensive survey of the development of harvesters for energy forest plantations. The international cooperation on short rotation cultivation and harvesting is discussed. Various designs of harvesters, loaders and chippers are described.

  8. Energy harvesting water vehicle

    KAUST Repository

    Singh, Devendra

    2018-01-04

    An efficient energy harvesting (EEH) water vehicle is disclosed. The base of the EEH water vehicle is fabricated with rolling cylindrical drums that can rotate freely in the same direction of the water medium. The drums reduce the drag at the vehicle-water interface. This reduction in drag corresponds to an increase in speed and/or greater fuel efficiency. The mechanical energy of the rolling cylindrical drums is also transformed into electrical energy using an electricity producing device, such as a dynamo or an alternator. Thus, the efficiency of the vehicle is enhanced in two parallel modes: from the reduction in drag at the vehicle-water interface, and from capturing power from the rotational motion of the drums.

  9. NUTRIENT BALANCE IN WATER HARVESTING SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz, F

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Dryland farming on Fuerteventura and Lanzarote (Canary Islands, Spain, which has an annual rainfall of less than 150 mm/year, has been based traditionally on water harvesting techniques (known locally as “gavias”. Periods of high productivity alternate with those of very low yield. The systems are sustainable in that they reduce erosive processes, contribute to soil and soil-water conservation and are largely responsible for maintaining the soil’s farming potential. In this paper we present the chemical fertility status and nutrient balance of soils in five “gavia” systems. The results are compared with those obtained in adjacent soils where this water harvesting technique is not used. The main crops are wheat, barley, maize, lentils and chick-peas. Since neither organic nor inorganic fertilisers are used, nutrients are derived mainly from sediments carried by runoff water. Nutrients are lost mainly through crop harvesting and harvest residues. The soils where water harvesting is used have lower salt and sodium in the exchange complex, are higher in carbon, nitrogen, copper and zinc and have similar phosphorous and potassium content. It is concluded that the systems improve the soil’s natural fertility and also that natural renovation of nutrients occurs thanks to the surface deposits of sediments, which mix with the arable layer. The system helps ensure adequate fertility levels, habitual in arid regions, thus allowing dryland farming to be carried out.

  10. Review of rainwater harvesting techniques and evidence for their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rainwater harvesting (RWH), should be regarded as a continuum of techniques that link in-situ soil-water conservation at one extreme to conventional irrigation at the other. In-situ RWH, comprises a group of techniques for preventing runoff and promoting infiltration. Micro-catchment RWH comprises a group of techniques ...

  11. A water harvesting model for optimizing rainwater harvesting in the wadi Oum Zessar watershed, Tunisia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adham, Ammar; Wesseling, Jan G.; Riksen, Michel; Ouessar, Mohamed; Ritsema, Coen J.

    2016-01-01

    Rainwater harvesting (RWH) techniques have been adapted in arid and semi-arid regions to minimise the risk from droughts. The demand for water has increased but water resources have become scarcer, so the assessment and modelling of surface water related to RWH in catchments has become a

  12. Low-cost harvesting of microalgae biomass from water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bejor, E.S.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae harvesting is known to be a major problem in the water industry. This is attributed to the minute nature of the algae cells and the often low concentration of the species in water and wastewater. While various chemical and mechanical harvesting techniques have been developed for algae harvesting, their application have been limited by prohibitive costs. There is also the disadvantage of not utilising the harvested microalgae as feedstock when it has accumulated significant amounts of chemicals (coagulants employed during the harvesting operation. This work investigates the low cost harvesting of microalgae biomass from water using physical (non-chemical method. Four fabric filters: stretch-cotton, polyester-linen, satin-polyester and silk were investigated to determine their microalgae harvesting efficiencies using filtration method on three algae communities with cell size of 2- 20 µm. For the three algae communities investigated, stretch-cotton filter showed a harvesting efficiency of 66- 93%, followed by polyester-linen (54- 90%, while satin-polyester and silk fabrics achieved harvesting efficiencies of 43- 71% and 27- 75% respectively. The research revealed that for wastewater generation of 1500m3/day and algae concentration of 200mg/l, microalgae harvesting cost per sq. meter per kg of algae per cubic meter would be ≤ £0.15 using stretch cotton filter

  13. Energy-Harvesting Performances of Two Tandem Piezoelectric Energy Harvesters with Cylinders in Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobiao Shan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new energy-harvesting system with two identical piezoelectric energy harvesters in a tandem configuration. Each harvester consists of a piezoelectric beam and a circular cylinder. Experiments are performed to investigate the energy-harvesting performances of this system in water. It can be found that their energy-harvesting performances are all different from that of the single harvester (without an upstream or downstream harvester. The experimental results show that the water speed and the spacing ratio have significant effects on the energy-harvesting performances of the two tandem harvesters. The output power of the upstream harvester first increases, and then decreases with the water speed increasing. The maximum output power of 167.8 μW is achieved at the water speed of 0.306 m/s and the spacing ratio (L/D of 2.5. Increasing the water speed results in an increase in the energy performance of the downstream harvester. Compared with the single harvester, the performance of the downstream harvester is weakened in the low water speed range, but enhanced in the higher water speed range. Further, the output power of 533 μW is obtained by the downstream harvester at the water speed of 0.412 m/s and the spacing ratio of 1.7, which is 29 times more than that of the single harvester. The results indicate the superiority of the two tandem harvesters in energy-harvesting performance.

  14. EFFECT OF WATER HARVESTING METHODS, NITROGEN AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    EFFECT OF WATER HARVESTING METHODS, NITROGEN AND. PHOSPHORUS FERTILIZER RATE ON NUMBER OF LEAVES OF DIFFERENT. DATE PALM (Phoenix d-) VARIETIES. 1Isyaku*, M.S., 2Amans, E.B.,2 Falaki, A.M.,2 Mahmoud, M.,2Sharifai, A. I. and 1Hamza, A. M.. 1NIFOR Date palm Research Sub station, ...

  15. A technique for estimating maximum harvesting effort in a stochastic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    [Sarkar R R and Chattopadhayay J 2003 A technique for estimating maximum harvesting effort in a stochastic fishery model; J. Biosci. 28. 497–506]. 1. Introduction ... severity of this impact depends on the nature of the imp- lemented harvesting ... Fires, disease, insects attack, environmental fluctuations may harm or destroy ...

  16. Potential Ambient Energy-Harvesting Sources and Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Faruk

    2009-01-01

    Ambient energy harvesting is also known as energy scavenging or power harvesting, and it is the process where energy is obtained from the environment. A variety of techniques are available for energy scavenging, including solar and wind powers, ocean waves, piezoelectricity, thermoelectricity, and physical motions. For example, some systems…

  17. Energy harvesting in high voltage measuring techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żyłka, Pawel; Doliński, Marcin

    2016-02-01

    The paper discusses selected problems related to application of energy harvesting (that is, generating electricity from surplus energy present in the environment) to supply autonomous ultra-low-power measurement systems applicable in high voltage engineering. As a practical example of such implementation a laboratory model of a remote temperature sensor is presented, which is self-powered by heat generated in a current-carrying busbar in HV- switchgear. Presented system exploits a thermoelectric harvester based on a passively cooled Peltier module supplying micro-power low-voltage dc-dc converter driving energy-efficient temperature sensor, microcontroller and a fibre-optic transmitter. Performance of the model in laboratory simulated conditions are presented and discussed.

  18. Controlled Palatal Harvest Technique for Harvesting a Palatal Subepithelial Connective Tissue Graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatavadekar, Neel B; Gharpure, Amit S

    2018-02-01

    Subepithelial connective tissue grafts (SCTGs) have been extensively used to augment soft-tissue volume on dental implants and natural teeth. The authors present a technique called the controlled palatal harvest (CPH) to obtain SCTGs. CPH provides an alternative to the trap-door and single-incision techniques currently utilized. The objective of this article is to describe this harvesting technique for SCTGs. A case report is presented in which the CPH technique was successfully used to obtain a SCTG. Contrary to current techniques where the SCTG is usually taken from the palatal (bone) side, this technique involves the dissection of a thick split-thickness flap in which the graft is harvested from the raised flap. Further, an L-shaped incision (with an anterior release) improves visibility and dexterity during dissection of the connective tissue graft. This technique enables the operator to maintain a certain minimum overlying flap thickness, and excellent control is ensured over the thickness of the harvested SCTG. The thickness of theremaining connective tissue overlying the palatal can also be controlled by the operator. Thus, the chances of leaving behind a thin tissue covering the palatal bone are reduced, minimizing necrosis and flap sloughing, which further improves grafting success. While the CPH can be used as an alternative to currently employed conventional harvest techniques, it may require greater operator skill. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first report that documents such a technique.

  19. System for harvesting water wave energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhong Lin; Su, Yanjie; Zhu, Guang; Chen, Jun

    2016-07-19

    A generator for harvesting energy from water in motion includes a sheet of a hydrophobic material, having a first side and an opposite second side, that is triboelectrically more negative than water. A first electrode sheet is disposed on the second side of the sheet of a hydrophobic material. A second electrode sheet is disposed on the second side of the sheet of a hydrophobic material and is spaced apart from the first electrode sheet. Movement of the water across the first side induces an electrical potential imbalance between the first electrode sheet and the second electrode sheet.

  20. Effect of Water Harvesting on Species Diversity and Overall ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soil physical and chemical properties, plant biomass and ground cover were determined along the landscape. Results indicate that, ridges with water harvesting structures bad higher species diversity than those without water harvesting structures (p<0.05). The plant diversity on ridges with water harvesting (Shannon ...

  1. Developing index maps of water-harvest potential in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senay, G.B.; Verdin, J.P.

    2004-01-01

    The food security problem in Africa is tied to the small farmer, whose subsistence farming relies heavily on rain-fed agriculture. A dry spell lasting two to three weeks can cause a significant yield reduction. A small-scale irrigation scheme from small-capacity ponds can alleviate this problem. This solution would require a water harvest mechanism at a farm level. In this study, we looked at the feasibility of implementing such a water harvest mechanism in drought prone parts of Africa. A water balance study was conducted at different watershed levels. Runoff (watershed yield) was estimated using the SCS curve number technique and satellite derived rainfall estimates (RFE). Watersheds were delineated from the Africa-wide HYDRO-1K digital elevation model (DEM) data set in a GIS environment. Annual runoff volumes that can potentially be stored in a pond during storm events were estimated as the product of the watershed area and runoff excess estimated from the SCS Curve Number method. Estimates were made for seepage and net evaporation losses. A series of water harvest index maps were developed based on a combination of factors that took into account the availability of runoff, evaporation losses, population density, and the required watershed size needed to fill a small storage reservoir that can be used to alleviate water stress during a crop growing season. This study presents Africa-wide water-harvest index maps that could be used for conducting feasibility studies at a regional scale in assessing the relative differences in runoff potential between regions for the possibility of using ponds as a water management tool. ?? 2004 American Society of Agricultural Engineers.

  2. Evaluation of the impact of water harvesting techniques on the evolution of piezometric head of Ain El Bidha groundwater in Kairouan at the Central part of Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechergui, M. Mohamed; Henda Saoudi, Mme

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to assess the impact of water harvesting constructed hydraulic structures (big and small dams, terraces, seuils for recharge…) on the evolution of piezometric head of Ain El Beidha groundwater table. The measurements of depth of water table, taken at the end of rain season and at the end of irrigation season, in many piezometers and monitoring wells, for a long period of observation before and after implementation of all the hydraulic structures, were used with the cumulative rain to the highest water table to diagnostic the effect of natural recharge and constructed hydraulic structures. According to the analysis of curves illustrating the evolution of piezometric head and rainfall over time, it was shown that despite the fact that the same amount of rain fall on the total area in the limits of Ain El Beidha groundwater table, the piezometers respond differently. This is because there are many sources of recharge and many factors affecting the recharge. First of all, the aquifer is divided in four compartments (the calcareous formation of Djebel El Houyareb, the plio-quaternary formation, the Miocene formation: Baglia and Saouaf). All those respond differently to the recharge by their capacity of infiltration and their hydrodynamic characteristics. The recharge of the groundwater table was increased by the implementation of small soil and water conservation structures, artificial lakes, El Haouareb Dam, run off in the natural Oued bads and seuils for recharge installed in the bads of oueds. The different piezometric drown maps were used to determine the flow direction and hydraulic gradient in order to identify the recharge areas, while tracking maps for three equal piezometric heads 210 m 300 m and 370 m established over different years made it possible to assess the impact of hydraulic structures, namely the effect of SWC and Ben Zitoun Lake. To illustrate the impact of El Houareb dam on the groundwater, the piezometric maps and local values

  3. Modified single incision technique to harvest subepithelial connective tissue graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashish; Sood, Vishal; Masamatti, Sujata Surendra; Triveni, M G; Mehta, D S; Khatri, Manish; Agarwal, Vipin

    2013-09-01

    Dental therapy in general and periodontal therapy in particular is directed increasingly at the esthetic outcome for patients. Gingival recession is one of the most common esthetic concerns associated with periodontal tissues. Although various treatment modalities have been developed, subepithelial connective tissue grafting remains the most successful and predictable technique for treatment of gingival recession. Harvesting a connective tissue graft from the palate is many times not only traumatic, but also very painful for the patient. Use of single incision to harvest the subepithelial connective tissue graft is one of the least traumatic, but relatively difficult technique to accomplish. This article presents a modified single incision technique, which is not only less traumatic and painful, but comparatively simple to employ and master. Two new instruments have been introduced to make harvesting of the connective tissue graft easier.

  4. Characterization of rainfall in the central South African Highveld for application in water harvesting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zerizghy, M.G.; Rensburg, van L.D.; Stigter, C.J.

    2012-01-01

    In-field rainwater harvesting (IRWH), a runoff farming system, is a beneficial water management technique for crop production in arid and semi-arid areas. In-field rainwater harvesting is influenced by rainfall characteristics, and hence this study aimed to identify and characterize rainfall events,

  5. Rabbit tissue model (RTM) harvesting technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Marelyn

    2002-01-01

    A method for creating a tissue model using a female rabbit for laparoscopic simulation exercises is described. The specimen is called a Rabbit Tissue Model (RTM). Dissection techniques are described for transforming the rabbit carcass into a small, compact unit that can be used for multiple training sessions. Preservation is accomplished by using saline and refrigeration. Only the animal trunk is used, with the rest of the animal carcass being discarded. Practice exercises are provided for using the preserved organs. Basic surgical skills, such as dissection, suturing, and knot tying, can be practiced on this model. In addition, the RTM can be used with any pelvic trainer that permits placement of larger practice specimens within its confines.

  6. Effect of sowing techniques and harvesting treatments on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2000-01-07

    Jan 7, 2000 ... climatic changes and soil types (Avcıoğlu, 1979). Since the information related to rotation pastures has been very limited in above mentioned ecologies, this study was conducted to determine the favourable mixture alternatives for rotation pastures in addition to seeding techniques and harvest treatments.

  7. A Novel Connective Tissue Graft Harvesting Technique: The Ring Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizam, Nejat; Akcalı, Aliye

    2018-02-16

    The aim of these case reports was to introduce a simplified novel connective tissue graft (CTG) harvesting technique, the ring method, which could be used in the maxillary tuberosity area in particular. A special CTG harvesting punch was fabricated to obtain a ring-shaped CTG that had a uniform thickness. The ring graft was then used for peri-implant soft tissue augmentation with successful clinical outcomes. The ring method is a technically insensitive and minimally invasive surgical procedure that provides a certain amount of CTG for various periodontal plastic surgical interventions.

  8. Water Quality Determination of Rainwater Harvesting Birkas in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water Quality Determination of Rainwater Harvesting Birkas in Harshin District of the Jijiga Zone, Somali National Regional States, Ethiopia. ... In an effort to address the problems of recurrent drought, famine and food insecurity, attempts were made to harvest run-off water in cisterns (locally known as Birkas) for domestic ...

  9. Potential and Constraints to the Adoption of Water Harvesting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper assesses the potential for Water Harvesting Technologies (WHT) in farming systems affected by drought or water scarcity. A major assumption of the paper is that the earth is æ water does not preclude water shortages, particularly in situations where water management principles, procedures and tools are in ...

  10. Desert water harvesting to benefit wildlife: a simple, cheap, and durable sub-surface water harvester for remote locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, William E

    2004-12-01

    A sub-surface desert water harvester was constructed in the sagebrush steppe habitat of south-central Idaho, U.S.A. The desert water harvester utilizes a buried micro-catchment and three buried storage tanks to augment water for wildlife during the dry season. In this region, mean annual precipitation (MAP) ranges between about 150-250 mm (6"-10"), 70% of which falls during the cold season, November to May. Mid-summer through early autumn, June through October, is the dry portion of the year. During this period, the sub-surface water harvester provides supplemental water for wildlife for 30-90 days, depending upon the precipitation that year. The desert water harvester is constructed with commonly available, "over the counter" materials. The micro-catchment is made of a square-shaped, 20 mL. "PERMALON" polyethylene pond liner (approximately 22.9 m x 22.9 m = 523 m2) buried at a depth of about 60 cm. A PVC pipe connects the harvester with two storage tanks and a drinking trough. The total capacity of the water harvester is about 4777 L (1262 U.S. gallons) which includes three underground storage tanks, a trough and pipes. The drinking trough is refined with an access ramp for birds and small animals. The technology is simple, cheap, and durable and can be adapted to other uses, e.g. drip irrigation, short-term water for small livestock, poultry farming etc. The desert water harvester can be used to concentrate and collect water from precipitation and run-off in semi-arid and arid regions. Water harvested in such a relatively small area will not impact the ground water table but it should help to grow small areas of crops or vegetables to aid villagers in self-sufficiency.

  11. The transperiosteal "inside-out" occipital artery harvesting technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benet, Arnau; Tabani, Halima; Ding, Xinmin; Burkhardt, Jan-Karl; Rodriguez Rubio, Roberto; Tayebi Meybodi, Ali; Nisson, Peyton; Kola, Olivia; Gandhi, Sirin; Yousef, Sonia; Lawton, Michael T

    2018-01-26

    OBJECTIVE The occipital artery (OA) is a frequently used donor vessel for posterior circulation bypass procedures due to its proximity to the recipient vessels and its optimal caliber, length, and flow rate. However, its tortuous course through multiple layers of suboccipital muscles necessitates layer-by-layer dissection. The authors of this cadaveric study aimed to describe a landmark-based novel anterograde approach to harvest OA in a proximal-to-distal "inside-out" fashion, which avoids multilayer dissection. METHODS Sixteen cadaveric specimens were prepared for surgical simulation, and the OA was harvested using the classic (n = 2) and novel (n = 14) techniques. The specimens were positioned three-quarters prone, with 45° contralateral head rotation. An inverted hockey-stick incision was made from the spinous process of C-2 to the mastoid tip, and the distal part of the OA was divided to lift up a myocutaneous flap, including the nuchal muscles. The OA was identified using the occipital groove (OG), the digastric muscle (DM) and its groove (DG), and the superior oblique muscle (SOM) as key landmarks. The OA was harvested anterogradely from the OG and within the flap until the skin incision was reached (proximal-to-distal technique). In addition, 35 dry skulls were assessed bilaterally (n = 70) to study additional craniometric landmarks to infer the course of the OA in the OG. RESULTS The OA was consistently found running in the OG, which was found between the posterior belly of the DM and the SOM. The mean total length of the mobilized OA was 12.8 ± 1.2 cm, with a diameter of 1.3 ± 0.1 mm at the suboccipital segment and 1.1 ± 0.1 mm at the skin incision. On dry skulls, the occipitomastoid suture (OMS) was found to be medial to the OG in the majority of the cases (68.6%), making it a useful landmark to locate the OG and thus the proximal OA. CONCLUSIONS The anterograde transperiosteal inside-out approach for harvesting the OA is a fast and easy technique

  12. Assessing Land Suitability for Rainwater Harvesting Using Geospatial Techniques: A Case Study of Njoro Catchment, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. W. Maina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Water demand increases as population increases leading to overexploitation of water resource. Consequently, there is need for improved water resources management complemented with rain water harvesting within the catchments. This study sought to assess land suitability for surface runoff harvesting using geospatial techniques. Land use/land cover maps of the area were derived from Landsat image. Land use and soils data were used in generating curve number map of the catchment. Lineaments greatly affect the storage depending on whether runoff is for surface storage or ground water recharge purposes. As a result, ArcGIS was used in delineating the lineaments from Digital Elevation Model (DEM of the catchment. Further, using weighted overlay the catchment was grouped into categories of restricted, not suitable, moderately suitable, suitable, or highly suitable. The study found that forest, agriculture, and built-up areas occupied about 39.42%, 36.32%, and 1.35% of catchment area, respectively. A large part of catchment was found to have curve number range of 82–89. About 50% of the catchment was found to fall within suitable and highly suitable categories. This implied that a great potential exists for rain water harvesting within the catchment.

  13. Experimental Study Of Fog Water Harvesting By Stainless Steel Mesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil R. Pawar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The collection of fog water is a simple and sustainable technology to get hold of fresh water for various purposes. In areas where a substantial amount of fog can be obtained it is feasible to set up a stainless steel as well as black double layer plastic mesh structure for fog water harvesting. The mesh structure is directly exposed to the weather and the fog containing air is pushed through the active mesh surface by the wind. Afterward fog droplets are deposited on the active mesh area which combines to form superior droplets and run down into a gutter to storage by gravity. Fog water harvesting rates show a discrepancy from site to site. The scope of this experimental work is to review fog collection at SCOE Pune campus and to examine factors of success. This study is to synthesize the understanding of fog water harvesting in the institutional era and to analyze its benefits and boundaries for future development. The rate of fog water harvesting depends on the science of fog physics chemistry and its starring role in the hydrological cycle. This technology runs on zero energy and zeroes pollution level with cost of the benefit. The collected or treated clear water mainly could be used for different purposes as per requirement. For further development this technology public as well as government participation is needed.

  14. Thermoresponsive electrospun fibers for water harvesting applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Neha; Baji, Avinash; Ranganath, Anupama Sargur

    2018-03-01

    Temperature triggered switchable cellulose acetate-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (CA-PNIPAM) core-shell and blend nanofibers are fabricated for controlled moisture harvesting applications. Core-shell fibers are fabricated using a co-axial electrospinning setup whereas the conventional electrospinning setup is employed for fabricating the blend fibers. Investigation of their wettability behaviour demonstrated that the blend fibers are superhydrophilic whereas the core-shell fibers are hydrophilic at ambient temperature. Furthermore, both the samples have an ability to switch between the two states viz. hydrophilic to hydrophobic state based on thermal stimulus. The core-shell fibers are shown to have higher moisture sorption ability compared to the blend fibers. This study investigates the mechanism behind the switchable wettability behaviour of the core-shell fibers and demonstrates the crucial role played by the functional groups present on the surface layer of fibers in governing their moisture collection efficiency.

  15. The Potential of in situ Rain Water Harvesting for Water Resources ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The role of in situ rain water harvesting (RWH) in water resources conservation is well recognized in semiarid areas, ... Key words: In situ Rain water harvesting, Malaria, Anopheles arabiensis, Tigray, Ethiopia. 1. ... Haile, 2002) and as part of the world wide effort to combat climate change, in situ RWH, along with other SWC ...

  16. Impact of bone graft harvesting techniques on bone formation and graft resorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saulacic, Nikola; Bosshardt, Dieter D; Jensen, Simon S

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Harvesting techniques can affect cellular parameters of autogenous bone grafts in vitro. Whether these differences translate to in vivo bone formation, however, remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of different harvesting techniques on bone fo......: Transplantation of autogenous bone particles harvested with four techniques in the present model resulted in moderate differences in terms of bone formation and graft resorption....

  17. Water stress before harvest of pepper-rosmarin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Caldeira Almeida Alvarenga

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to assess the effect of different periods of water stress before harvest of pepper-rosmarin (Lippia sidoides on the contents of essential oil and flavonoids. The experiment was carried out during 270 days of cultivation, with drainage lysimeters, in a completely randomized block design with five treatments: 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 days of water suppression before harvest, with four replicates. Fresh and dry matter yield, essential oil content, total flavonoids content, and water potential and temperature of leaves were determined. There was a decrease of approximately 50% in oil content and of 60% in total flavonoid content with the reduction of leaf water potential in 0.3 MPa. Essential oil is more sensitive to water stress than total flavonoids.

  18. Effect of water harvesting methods, nitrogen and phosphorus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A field experiment was conducted to study the effect of water harvesting methods, NP - fertilizer rate on leaf number of some young date palm plants over a period of 32 months (May 2004- December 2006).The trial was sited at the Date palm Research Sub-station of the Nigerian Institute for Oil palm Research (NIFOR) ...

  19. Socio-Economic Impacts of Rain Water Harvesting Technologies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. This study was carried out in Nyaruguru District, Southern Province of Rwanda. The aim is to assess the socio-economic impacts of Rain Water Harvesting (RWH) technologies established in the above research area. Results from the analysis postulate that there is not yet significant effects of already established ...

  20. . Informing water harvesting technology contract design using choice experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tarfasa, S.; Brouwer, R.; Sheremet, O.I.; Bouma, J.

    2017-01-01

    Introducing water harvesting technology is expected to be more effective and last longer if farm households are involved in their design. The main objective of this study is to inform policymakers in Ethiopia about the most important terms and conditions to incentivize farmers to enter into a

  1. effect of water harvesting methods, nitrogen-phosphorus fertilizer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Phosphorus fertilizer rate and variety on leaf tissue N, and P, and soil moisture content of date palm plants over a period ... Key words: Water harvesting method, Nitrogen-Phosphorus fertilizer, Date palm variety, Leaf. Tissue N and P, and Soil .... 1997; Robert et al., 2004). Leaf tissue P: P was determined color metrically by.

  2. Effect of water harvesting methods, nitrogen and phosphorus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of water harvesting methods, nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer on leaf length of different date palm (phoenix d-) varieties. ... per experimental plot were sampled for the measurement of leaf length, given a total of 72 plants. Results from this study revealed that double square basin, the control, the perimeter square ...

  3. Factors Affecting the Adoption of Rain Water Harvesting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This. paper analyses the soc,io-economic factors t~at influence the adoption of rain water harvesting (RWH) technologies in Western Pare lowlands of Tanzania. Data for the study. were collected from 70 smallholder farmers in Kifaru and Lembeni viilages. These data were fitted in Probit and Logit models. ,The results of the ...

  4. Community Participation in Surface Water Harvesting in Marigat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Community Participation in Surface Water Harvesting in Marigat Division, Kenya. R Magut, EC Kipkorir, F Daudi. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ejesm.v7i2.5S · AJOL African Journals Online.

  5. Determinants of the Adoption of Water Harvesting Technologies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A priority concern in the marginal areas of Kenya is food security, which can be achieved through the development of technologies relevant to dry-land farming with a strong component of water management. One area where runoff harvesting technologies have been promoted extensively over the last few years is Lare ...

  6. effect of water harvesting methods, nitrogen-phosphorus fertilizer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    ABSTRACT. A field experiment was conducted to study the effects of water harvesting methods, Nitrogen-. Phosphorus fertilizer rate and variety on leaf tissue N, and P, and soil moisture content of date palm plants over a period of 32 months (May 2004- December 2006). The trial was sited at the. Date palm Research ...

  7. Effects of rainwater harvesting on centralized urban water supply systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandet, C.; Binning, Philip John; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen

    2010-01-01

    The potential effect of widespread rainwater harvesting practices on mains water demand and quality management are investigated for three different types of urban areas characterized by different roof area to water demand ratios. Two rainfall patterns are considered with similar average annual......, Northern France, yielded supply reliabilities close to 100% for reasonable tank sizes (0.065 m3/m2 of roof area in Dinard compared with 0.262 m3/m2 in Nice with a RWSO of 30% for a detached house). However, the collection and use of rainfall results in a permanent decrease in mains water demand leading...... to an increase in water age in the distribution network. Investigations carried on a real network showed that water age is greatly affected when rainwater supplies more than 30% of the overall water demand. In urban water utilities planning, rainwater supply systems may however be profitable for the community...

  8. Influence of harvesting technique and maceration process on aroma and phenolic attributes of Sauvignon blanc wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olejar, Kenneth J; Fedrizzi, Bruno; Kilmartin, Paul A

    2015-09-15

    Sauvignon blanc wines are characterised by their varietal aromas and low phenolic content. Mechanical harvesting has been shown to increase several varietal aromas. Likewise, maceration techniques have produced increases in phenolic content and antioxidant activity, but these can also alter tactile attributes and sensory profiles. Mechanical harvesting and cryogenic maceration were used in combination to produce a Sauvignon blanc wine with increased phenolic content and antioxidant activity, while showing a similar sensory profile to control wines. Phenolic profiles of the wines showed differences between the harvesting and maceration techniques. Mechanical harvesting contributed to decreases in phenolics through reaction with oxidative radicals. Cryogenic maceration increased phenolics and antioxidant activity. Cryogenic maceration also increased the levels of several varietal aromas, for Sauvignon blanc wines made from both hand-picked and from machine-harvested fruit. Furthermore, cryogenic treatment of hand-picked fruit increased varietal thiols to levels similar to machine-harvested control wines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Rooftop Rainwater Harvesting for Mombasa: Scenario Development with Image Classification and Water Resources Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert O. Ojwang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Mombasa faces severe water scarcity problems. The existing supply is unable to satisfy the demand. This article demonstrates the combination of satellite image analysis and modelling as tools for the development of an urban rainwater harvesting policy. For developing a sustainable remedy policy, rooftop rainwater harvesting (RRWH strategies were implemented into the water supply and demand model WEAP (Water Evaluation and Planning System. Roof areas were detected using supervised image classification. Future population growth, improved living standards, and climate change predictions until 2035 were combined with four management strategies. Image classification techniques were able to detect roof areas with acceptable accuracy. The simulated annual yield of RRWH ranged from 2.3 to 23 million cubic meters (MCM depending on the extent of the roof area. Apart from potential RRWH, additional sources of water are required for full demand coverage.

  10. Effect of sowing techniques and harvesting treatments on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Festuca arundinaceae Schreb., Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers., Medicago sativa L., Trifolium repens L. and Lotus corniculatus L. seeds were mixed and sown in same or alternate rows in different combinations (Fa 75% + Ms 25%, Fa 75% + Tr 25%, Fa 70% + Lc 30%, Cd 65% + Tr 35%, Cd 35% + Tr 30% + Fa 35%). Harvesting ...

  11. Stormwater harvesting: Improving water security in South Africa's urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lloyd Fisher-Jeffes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The drought experienced in South Africa in 2016 one of the worst in decades has left many urbanised parts of the country with limited access to water, and food production has been affected. If a future water crisis is to be averted, the country needs to conserve current water supplies, reduce its reliance on conventional surface water schemes, and seek alternative sources of water supply. Within urban areas, municipalities must find ways to adapt to, and mitigate the threats from, water insecurity resulting from, inter alia, droughts, climate change and increasing water demand driven by population growth and rising standards of living. Stormwater harvesting (SWH is one possible alternative water resource that could supplement traditional urban water supplies, as well as simultaneously offer a range of social and environmental benefits. We set out three position statements relating to how SWH can: improve water security and increase resilience to climate change in urban areas; prevent frequent flooding; and provide additional benefits to society. We also identify priority research areas for the future in order to target and support the appropriate uptake of SWH in South Africa, including testing the viability of SWH through the use of real-time control and managed aquifer recharge.

  12. Rainwater harvesting to alleviate water scarcity in dry conditions: A case study in Faria Catchment, Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer Shadeed

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In arid and semi-arid regions, the availability of adequate water of appropriate quality has become a limiting factor for development. This paper aims to evaluate the potential for rainwater harvesting in the arid to semi-arid Faria Catchment, in the West Bank, Palestine. Under current conditions, the supply-demand gap is increasing due to the increasing water demands of a growing population with hydrologically limited and uncertain supplies. By 2015, the gap is estimated to reach 4.5 × 106 m3. This study used the process-oriented and physically-based TRAIN-ZIN model to evaluate two different rainwater harvesting techniques during two rainfall events. The analysis shows that there is a theoretical potential for harvesting an additional 4 × 106 m3 of surface water over the entire catchment. Thus, it is essential to manage the potential available surface water supplies in the catchment to save water for dry periods when the supply-demand gap is comparatively high. Then a valuable contribution to bridging the supply-demand gap can be made.

  13. A Methodology to Assess and Evaluate Rainwater Harvesting Techniques in (Semi-)Arid Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ammar; Riksen, Michel; Ouessar, Mohamed; Ritsema, Coen

    2015-04-01

    Arid and semi-arid regions around the world are generally facing water scarcity problems due to lack of precipitation and unpredictable rainfall patterns. For thousands of years rainwater harvesting (RWH) techniques have been applied to cope with water scarcity. Many researchers have presented and applied different methodologies for determining suitable sites and techniques for RWH. However, there is still little attention given to evaluation of the performance of RWH structures. The aim of this research was to design a scientifically-based and generally applicable methodology to evaluate and assess the performance of existing RWH techniques in (semi-) arid regions. The methodology takes engineering, biophysical, and socio-economic criteria into account to assess the performance of RWH using the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) supported by Geographic Information System (GIS). The Oum Zessar watershed in south-eastern Tunisia is used as a case study site to test this evaluation tool. The performance of 58 RWH locations (14 jessour and 44 tabias) in three main sub-catchments of Oum Zessar watershed were assessed and evaluated. Based on the criteria selected, 60performance, 36received good performance scores. The results very accurately represent the real performance of each site. This integrated methodology, which is highly flexible, saves time and costs, and is easy to adapt in different regions, provides a scientifically based analytical tool to support designers and decision makers aiming to improve the performance of existing and new RWH sites.

  14. Sustainability of Rainwater Harvesting System in terms of Water Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadia Rahman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Water is considered an everlasting free source that can be acquired naturally. Demand for processed supply water is growing higher due to an increasing population. Sustainable use of water could maintain a balance between its demand and supply. Rainwater harvesting (RWH is the most traditional and sustainable method, which could be easily used for potable and nonpotable purposes both in residential and commercial buildings. This could reduce the pressure on processed supply water which enhances the green living. This paper ensures the sustainability of this system through assessing several water-quality parameters of collected rainwater with respect to allowable limits. A number of parameters were included in the analysis: pH, fecal coliform, total coliform, total dissolved solids, turbidity, NH3–N, lead, BOD5, and so forth. The study reveals that the overall quality of water is quite satisfactory as per Bangladesh standards. RWH system offers sufficient amount of water and energy savings through lower consumption. Moreover, considering the cost for installation and maintenance expenses, the system is effective and economical.

  15. Sustainability of Rainwater Harvesting System in terms of Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M. T. R.; Akib, Shatirah; Din, Nazli Bin Che; Biswas, S. K.; Shirazi, S. M.

    2014-01-01

    Water is considered an everlasting free source that can be acquired naturally. Demand for processed supply water is growing higher due to an increasing population. Sustainable use of water could maintain a balance between its demand and supply. Rainwater harvesting (RWH) is the most traditional and sustainable method, which could be easily used for potable and nonpotable purposes both in residential and commercial buildings. This could reduce the pressure on processed supply water which enhances the green living. This paper ensures the sustainability of this system through assessing several water-quality parameters of collected rainwater with respect to allowable limits. A number of parameters were included in the analysis: pH, fecal coliform, total coliform, total dissolved solids, turbidity, NH3–N, lead, BOD5, and so forth. The study reveals that the overall quality of water is quite satisfactory as per Bangladesh standards. RWH system offers sufficient amount of water and energy savings through lower consumption. Moreover, considering the cost for installation and maintenance expenses, the system is effective and economical. PMID:24701186

  16. Sustainability of rainwater harvesting system in terms of water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Sadia; Khan, M T R; Akib, Shatirah; Din, Nazli Bin Che; Biswas, S K; Shirazi, S M

    2014-01-01

    Water is considered an everlasting free source that can be acquired naturally. Demand for processed supply water is growing higher due to an increasing population. Sustainable use of water could maintain a balance between its demand and supply. Rainwater harvesting (RWH) is the most traditional and sustainable method, which could be easily used for potable and nonpotable purposes both in residential and commercial buildings. This could reduce the pressure on processed supply water which enhances the green living. This paper ensures the sustainability of this system through assessing several water-quality parameters of collected rainwater with respect to allowable limits. A number of parameters were included in the analysis: pH, fecal coliform, total coliform, total dissolved solids, turbidity, NH3-N, lead, BOD5, and so forth. The study reveals that the overall quality of water is quite satisfactory as per Bangladesh standards. RWH system offers sufficient amount of water and energy savings through lower consumption. Moreover, considering the cost for installation and maintenance expenses, the system is effective and economical.

  17. Kinematics and Dynamics of a Tensegrity-Based Water Wave Energy Harvester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Lin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A tensegrity-based water wave energy harvester is proposed. The direct and inverse kinematic problems are investigated by using a geometric method. Afterwards, the singularities and workspaces are discussed. Then, the Lagrangian method was used to develop the dynamic model considering the interaction between the harvester and water waves. The results indicate that the proposed harvester allows harvesting 13.59% more energy than a conventional heaving system. Therefore, tensegrity systems can be viewed as one alternative solution to conventional water wave energy harvesting systems.

  18. Design of runoff water harvesting systems and its role in minimizing water losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berliner, P.; Carmi, G.; Leake, S.; Agam, N.

    2016-12-01

    Precipitation is one of the major water sources for agricultural production in arid and semi-arid areas. Rainfalls are limited, erratic and not always coincide with the crop growing season. Only a part of the rain is absorbed by the soil. Soil evaporation is most severe in these regions and the large part of the absorbed water is lost to evaporation. The technique of collecting and conveying the runoff is known as runoff harvesting. Microcatchments are one of the primary techniques used for collecting, storing and conserving local surface runoff for growing trees/shrubs. In this system, runoff water is collected close-by the area in which it was generated, and trees/shrubs may utilize the water. The main objective of the present research was to estimate the effect of the design of the micro-catchment collection area (shallow basin and deep trench) has on the efficiency of the water conservation in the soil profile. The study was carried out during two years using regular micro-catchments (three replicates) with a surface area of 9 m2 (3 x 3 m) and a depth of 0.1 m and trenches (three replicates) with a surface area of 12 m2 (12 x 1 m) and 1 m depth. One and three olive trees were planted inside the trenches and micro-catchments, respectively. Access tubes for neutron probe were installed in micro-catchments and trenches (four and seven, respectively) to depths of 3m. Soil water content in the soil profile was monitored. Sap flow in trees was measured by PS-TDP8 Granier sap flow system every 0.5 hour and fluxes computed for the time intervals that correspond to the soil water measurements. The first year study included flooding trenches and regular micro-catchments once with the same amount of water (1.5 m3) and the second year study included flooding four times with 0.25 m3 each time. Flooding was followed by monitoring the water balance components and estimation of evaporation losses and water use efficiency by olive trees. Evaporation from trenches and regular

  19. Water relations in calla lily flower stems harvested at different opening stages(

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Silva Sales

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cut flowers are a well established product and require conservation techniques that help keep postharvest quality for marketing. In this context, the objective of this study was to evaluate different opening stages of calla lily (Zantedeschia aethiopica cut stems and their influence on posthaverst. Calla lily stems were harvested in the morning, according to the following opening stages: closed spathe, semi-closed spathe (1/3 open, semi-open spathe (2/3 open and fully open spathe. Once selected and standardized, stems were placed in a controlled room at 21 ± 2 °C and relative humidity of 75 ± 5%, for eight days. The evaluations were conducted daily, observing water pH, commercial quality analysis, width and length of the spathe, fresh weight of stem, water absorption and transpiration. The experimental design was completely randomized, with four treatments (opening stages, five replicates and two stems by plot. The model used was split plot in time, with harvest stages as plots, and evaluation days as subplots. Calla lily harvested at closed spathe and semi-closed spathe (1/3 open, showed spathe opening, although it did not achieve fully spathe expansion, had higher water uptake and hydration of flower stems, and increased water retention capacity by floral tissues until saturation, followed by a period of weight reduction caused by transpiration rates greater than absorption.

  20. The Potential of in situ Rain Water Harvesting for Water Resources ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The role of in situ rain water harvesting (RWH) in water resources conservation is well recognized in semiarid areas, such as the highlands of northern Ethiopia. However, in fringe areas of malaria endemicity, the potential impact of such schemes on vector populations and malaria transmission is not well documented.

  1. Impact of bone harvesting techniques on cell viability and the release of growth factors of autografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miron, Richard J; Gruber, Reinhard; Hedbom, Erik; Saulacic, Nikola; Zhang, Yufeng; Sculean, Anton; Bosshardt, Dieter D; Buser, Daniel

    2013-08-01

    Autogenous bone grafts obtained by different harvesting techniques behave differently during the process of graft consolidation; the underlying reasons are however not fully understood. One theory is that harvesting techniques have an impact on the number and activity of the transplanted cells which contribute to the process of graft consolidation. To test this assumption, porcine bone grafts were harvested with four different surgical procedures: bone mill, piezosurgery, bone drilling (bone slurry), and bone scraper. After determining cell viability, the release of molecules affecting bone formation and resorption was assessed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunoassay. The mitogenic and osteogenic activity of the conditioned media was evaluated in a bioassay with isolated bone cells. Cell viability and the release of molecules affecting bone formation were higher in samples harvested by bone mill and bone scraper when compared with samples prepared by bone drilling and piezosurgery. The harvesting procedure also affected gene expression, for example, bone mill and bone scraper samples revealed significantly higher expression of growth factors such as bone morphogenetic protein-2 and vascular endothelial growth factor compared with the two other modalities. Receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand expression was lowest in bone scraper samples. These data can provide a scientific basis to better understand the impact of harvesting techniques on the number and activity of transplanted cells, which might contribute to the therapeutic outcome of the augmentation procedure. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Economic Evaluation and Overall Assessment of Water Harvesting Ponds based on Scorecard System: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabral, P. P.; Kumar, Santosh; Kiku, Karmchand

    2017-12-01

    In the present study, an attempt has been made to carry out an economic analysis of three (03) water harvesting ponds situated in the district of Lakhimpur (Assam), India. Economic analysis was carried out using three important economic criteria, namely Benefit Cost Ratio (BCR), Net Present Worth (NPW) and the Internal Rate of Returns (IRR). Ponds of the study area were compared with adopting score card system. All the water harvesting ponds were found economically viable as the BCR was more than unity at 12% discount rate. Net present worth was the highest for the water harvesting pond of Radhapukheri Fish Seed Farm, Department of Fisheries, Govt. of Assam, Narayanpur and the least for water harvesting pond of St. Xavier's School, Harmoti. The IRR was found to be the highest (60%) for water harvesting ponds of St. Xavier's School, Harmoti followed by water harvesting pond of a farmer of Narayanpur (48%) and water harvesting pond of Radhapukheri Fish Seed Farm (19.2%).Water harvesting pond of Radhapukheri Fish Seed Farm, Narayanpur scored the highest score (84 marks) followed by water harvesting pond of a farmer of Narayanpur (80 marks) and St. Xavier's school, Harmoti (61 marks).

  3. Design guidelines of triboelectric nanogenerator for water wave energy harvesters

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Abdelsalam

    2017-04-11

    Ocean waves are one of the cleanest and most abundant energy sources on earth, and wave energy has the potential for future power generation. Triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) technology has recently been proposed as a promising technology to harvest wave energy. In this paper, a theoretical study is performed on a duck-shaped TENG wave harvester recently introduced in our work. To enhance the design of the duck-shaped TENG wave harvester, the mechanical and electrical characteristics of the harvester\\'s overall structure, as well as its inner configuration, are analyzed, respectively, under different wave conditions, to optimize parameters such as duck radius and mass. Furthermore, a comprehensive hybrid 3D model is introduced to quantify the performance of the TENG wave harvester. Finally, the influence of different TENG parameters is validated by comparing the performance of several existing TENG wave harvesters. This study can be applied as a guideline for enhancing the performance of TENG wave energy harvesters.

  4. Energy harvesting techniques for autonomous WSNs-RFID with a focus on RF energy harvesting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Ping

    2012-04-27

    Supply circuits that harvest energy from surrounding ambient or dedicated sources have drawn much interest recently for providing a possibility of energy-autonomy to the wireless sensing devices. The objective of this thesis is to optimize the power transfer efficiency of the RF/microwave energy transducers in WSN/RFID applications. For this purpose, analysis on the power utilization of the wireless devices at different working states has been done, which implies a space of improving the power transfer efficiency by employing a novel design concept in the RF/microwave energy transducers. In order to observe a deep insight of the charge-pump based energy transducer, an analytical derivation has been implemented based on a compact I/V model for MOSFET working in strong inversion and subthreshold regions. The derivation provides a mathematical direction for the impact of the power consumption of the wireless device on the input impedance of the charge-pump rectifier, which acts as a core element in the energy transducer. With expressing the input impedance of the rectifier into a shunt connection of a resistor and a capacitor, as the load current consumption reduces the shunt resistance increases dramatically while the shunt capacitance holds a relatively constant value. This work proposes a methodology of employing an adaptively adjusted matching network between the rectifier and the antenna in order to optimize the power transfer efficiency according to the instant power consumption of the wireless devices on different working states. For read-only wireless devices with no embedded batteries, like RFID transponders, a tiny storage capacitor of pico-farad which can be charged-up to a certain voltage in microseconds is usually employed as a DC supplier. During the communication between reader and transponder, the reader radiates RF power continuously to supply the transponder. Extra power supply is required to adjust the matching network electrically for optimal power

  5. Review of Rainwater Harvesting Techniques and Evidence for their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This technique involves'the creation of cross- slope barriers, which may be vegetative (grass sqips, _ trash lines) or mechanical (stone lines, earth Qunds). The barrier intercepts runoff from upslope and promotes infiltration in the cropped area. In the case of earth bunds, the barrier is designed to be impermeable and wa-.

  6. A single-incision technique to harvest subepithelial connective tissue grafts from the palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hürzeler, M B; Weng, D

    1999-06-01

    This article describes a new and simplified surgical approach to harvest subepithelial connective tissue grafts from the palate. For this procedure, only a single incision parallel to the gingival margin is used to access the donor site for graft preparation and harvesting. Grafts of variable size and thickness can be obtained. Since no band of epithelium is removed with the connective tissue graft the palatal donor site can heal with primary intention. No stents or hemostatic agents are necessary to cover the donor area postoperatively, and suturing can be reduced to a minimum. The harvesting technique is illustrated step by step, and the clinical application of connective tissue grafts harvested with the proposed method is demonstrated with the coverage of a gingival recession.

  7. Conservation of water for washing beef heads at harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeOtte, R E; Spivey, K S; Galloway, H O; Lawrence, T E

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this research was to develop methods to conserve water necessary to cleanse beef heads prior to USDA-FSIS inspection. This was to be accomplished by establishing a baseline for the minimum amount of water necessary to adequately wash a head and application of image analysis to provide an objective measure of head cleaning. Twenty-one beef heads were manually washed during the harvest process. An average 18.75 L (2.49 SD) and a maximum of 23.88 L were required to cleanse the heads to USDA-FSIS standards. Digital images were captured before and after manual washing then evaluated for percentage red saturation using commercially available image analysis software. A decaying exponential curve extracted from these data indicated that as wash water increased beyond 20 L the impact on red saturation decreased. At 4 sigma from the mean of 18.75 L, red saturation is 16.0 percent, at which logistic regression analysis indicates 99.994 percent of heads would be accepted for inspection, or less than 1 head in 15,000 would be rejected. Reducing to 3 sigma would increase red saturation to 27.6 percent, for which 99.730 percent of heads likely would be accepted (less than 1 in 370 would be rejected). Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Energy neutral protocol based on hierarchical routing techniques for energy harvesting wireless sensor network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Umar B.; Ezugwu, Absalom E.; Ofem, Paulinus O.; Rajamäki, Jyri; Aderemi, Adewumi O.

    2017-06-01

    Recently, researchers in the field of wireless sensor networks have resorted to energy harvesting techniques that allows energy to be harvested from the ambient environment to power sensor nodes. Using such Energy harvesting techniques together with proper routing protocols, an Energy Neutral state can be achieved so that sensor nodes can run perpetually. In this paper, we propose an Energy Neutral LEACH routing protocol which is an extension to the traditional LEACH protocol. The goal of the proposed protocol is to use Gateway node in each cluster so as to reduce the data transmission ranges of cluster head nodes. Simulation results show that the proposed routing protocol achieves a higher throughput and ensure the energy neutral status of the entire network.

  9. Design guidelines of triboelectric nanogenerator for water wave energy harvesters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Abdelsalam; Hassan, Islam; Jiang, Tao; Youssef, Khalid; Liu, Lian; Hedaya, Mohammad; Abu Yazid, Taher; Zu, Jean; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2017-05-01

    Ocean waves are one of the cleanest and most abundant energy sources on earth, and wave energy has the potential for future power generation. Triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) technology has recently been proposed as a promising technology to harvest wave energy. In this paper, a theoretical study is performed on a duck-shaped TENG wave harvester recently introduced in our work. To enhance the design of the duck-shaped TENG wave harvester, the mechanical and electrical characteristics of the harvester’s overall structure, as well as its inner configuration, are analyzed, respectively, under different wave conditions, to optimize parameters such as duck radius and mass. Furthermore, a comprehensive hybrid 3D model is introduced to quantify the performance of the TENG wave harvester. Finally, the influence of different TENG parameters is validated by comparing the performance of several existing TENG wave harvesters. This study can be applied as a guideline for enhancing the performance of TENG wave energy harvesters.

  10. Water harvesting for improved water productivity in dry environments of the Mediterranean region case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazar, A.; Kuzucu, M.; Çelik, I.

    2014-01-01

    Low rainfall, water scarcity and land degradation severely intimidate the production capacities of the rangelands in the arid environments. Water harvesting focuses on improving the productive use of rainwater on the local scale (field to subcatchment scale) before the runoff water leaves...... (negarim) under a typical arid environment in Turkey as a case study. In the negarim case study, we analysed rainfall, runoff, catchment area, soil water storage and crop evapotranspiration. The microcatchment area (36 m2) included five surface treatment methods (natural, plastic cover, stone cover, hay...

  11. [Surgical technique of saphenous vein harvesting using a Cusco vaginal speculum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Keita; Suzuki, Kotaro; Endo, Yoshiki; Matsuyama, Takayoshi; Osaka, Shin-ichi; Kurata, Atsushi

    2014-11-01

    We used Cusco vaginal speculum in harvesting saphenous vein graft (SVG) as an assist device for making a skin tunnel. After making 2 incisions of 3 to 4 cm, the SVG was dissected in a usual procedure. Then Cusco vaginal speculum was inserted into the skin tunnel between the 2 incisions. The SVG was dissected in a usual fashion under direct vision with the speculum. This procedure requires only small incisions, short learning curve and low cost. The new technique using Cusco vaginal speculum can be a reliable option for harvesting SVG.

  12. A Methylene Blue–assisted Technique for Harvesting Lymph Nodes After Radical Surgery for Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyama, Toru; Fujikawa, Hirohito; Cho, Haruhiko; Ogata, Takashi; Shirai, Junya; Hayashi, Tsutomu; Rino, Yasushi; Masuda, Munetaka; Oba, Mari S.; Morita, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Harvesting lymph nodes (LNs) after gastrectomy is essential for accurate staging. This trial evaluated the efficiency and quality of a conventional method and a methylene blue–assisted method in a randomized manner. The key eligibility criteria were as follows: (i) histologically proven adenocarcinoma of the stomach; (ii) clinical stage I-III; (iii) R0 resection planned by gastrectomy with D1+ or D2 lymphadenectomy. The primary endpoint was the ratio of the pathologic number of harvested LNs per time (minutes) as an efficacy measure. The secondary endpoint was the number of harvested LNs, as a quality measure. Between August 2012 and December 2012, 60 patients were assigned to undergo treatment using the conventional method (n=29) and the methylene blue dye method (n=31). The baseline demographics were mostly well balanced between the 2 groups. The number of harvested LNs (mean±SD) was 33.6±11.9 in the conventional arm and 43.4±13.9 in the methylene blue arm (P=0.005). The ratio of the number of the harvested LNs per time was 1.12±0.46 LNs/min in the conventional arm and 1.49±0.59 LNs/min in the methylene blue arm (P=0.010). In the subgroup analyses, the quality and efficacy were both superior for the methylene blue dye method compared with the conventional method. The methylene blue technique is recommended for harvesting LNs during gastric cancer surgery on the basis of both the quality and efficacy. PMID:25356528

  13. Ranking of Storm Water Harvesting Sites Using Heuristic and Non-Heuristic Weighing Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shray Pathak

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Conservation of water is essential as climate change coupled with land use changes influence the distribution of water availability. Stormwater harvesting (SWH is a widely used conservation measure, which reduces pressure on fresh water resources. However, determining the availability of stormwater and identifying the suitable sites for SWH require consideration of various socio-economic and technical factors. Earlier studies use demand, ratio of runoff to demand and weighted demand distance, as the screening criteria. In this study, a Geographic Information System (GIS based screening methodology is adopted for identifying potential suitable SWH sites in urban areas as a first pass, and then a detailed study is done by applying suitability criteria. Initially, potential hotspots are identified by a concept of accumulated catchments and later the sites are screened and ranked using various screening parameters namely demand, ratio of runoff to demand and weighted demand distance. During this process, the opinion of experts for finalizing the suitable SWH sites brings subjectivity in the methodology. To obviate this, heuristic (Saaty Analytic hierarchy process (AHP and non-heuristic approaches (Entropy weight, and Principal Component Analysis (PCA weighing techniques are adapted for allotting weights to the parameters and applied in the ranking of SWH sites in Melbourne, Australia and Dehradun, India. It is observed that heuristic approach is not effective for the study area as it was affected by the subjectivity in the expert opinion. Results obtained by non-heuristic approach come out to be in a good agreement with the sites finalized for SWH by the water planners of the study area. Hence, the proposed ranking methodology has the potential for application in decision making of suitable storm water harvesting sites.

  14. Safety and morbidity of intra-oral zygomatic bone graft harvesting:development of a novel bone harvesting technique

    OpenAIRE

    Kainulainen, V.

    2004-01-01

    Abstract This study focuses on the development of a bone collecting device for intra-oral bone harvesting and on the introduction of a new bone graft donor site, zygomatic bone. A bone collector was constructed and tested in vitro. This bone collector is suitable and efficient in dental implant related bone grafting surgery. It was also found to be more efficient and with a larger capacity in bone harvesting when compared to the two commercially available bone collectors. A zygoma...

  15. Evaluation of Surface Water Harvesting Potential in Aq Emam Watershed System in the Golestan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    s. nazaryan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Given its low and sparse precipitation both in spatial and temporal scales, Iran is nestled in an arid and semiarid part of the world. On the other hand, because of population growth, urbanization and the development of agriculture and industry sector is frequently encountered with increasing water demand. The increasing trend of water demand will widen the gap between water supply and demand in the future. This, in turn, necessitates urgent attention to the fundamentals of economic planning and allocation of water resources. Considering the limited resources and the declining water table and salinization of groundwater, especially in semi-arid areas forces us to exploit surface waters. When we evaluate the various methods of collecting rainwater, surface water that is the outcome of rainfall-runoff responses in a basin, is found to be a potential source of water and it can be useful to meet some of our water demand if managed properly. Water shortages in arid areas are critical, serious and persistent. Thus, water harvesting is an effective and economic goal. The most important step in the implementation of rain water harvesting systems is proper site selection that could cause significant savings in time and cost. In this study the potential of surface waters in the Aq Emam catchment in the east Golestan province was evaluated. The purpose of this study is to provide a framework for locating areas with water harvesting potential. Materials and Methods: For spatial evaluation of potential runoff, first, the amount of runoff is calculated using curve number and runoff potential maps were prepared with three classes: namely, the potential for low, medium and high levels. Finally, to identify suitable areas for rain water harvesting, rainfall maps, soil texture, slope and land use were weighted and multiplied based on their importance in order to determine the appropriate areas to collect runoff Results and Discussion : The results

  16. Drinking water quality assessment of rain water harvested in ferrocement tanks in Alappuzha District, Kerala (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Jainy; Jaya, D S

    2008-04-01

    The study was conducted to assess the physico-chemical and bacteriological quality of stored rain water in the ferrocement tanks of Alappuzha District, Kerala (India). Representative water samples were collected on random basis from ten stations (S1 to S10) with rain water harvesting facility during the periods January 2006 and April 2006. The present study revealed that the physico-chemical characteristics of stored rain water analysed during the winter and summer seasons were within the permissible drinking water standard limits prescribed by W.H.O. Microbiological analysis showed that most of the stored rainwater samples had microbial contamination in both winter and summer seasons and the bacterial count was above the permissible standards for drinking water. Faecal coliforms were also detected in the stored rain water samples collected from eight stations during the summer season. The present study revealed that the quality of stored rain water is suitable for drinking purpose in terms of physical and chemical characteristics. However, disinfection is necessary to make the water microbially safe for drinking purposes.

  17. Multi-purpose rainwater harvesting for water resource recovery and the cooling effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Kyoung Jin; Lam, Yun Fat; Hao, Song; Morakinyo, Tobi Eniolu; Furumai, Hiroaki

    2015-12-01

    The potential use of rainwater harvesting in conjunction with miscellaneous water supplies and a rooftop garden with rainwater harvesting facility for temperature reduction have been evaluated in this study for Hong Kong. Various water applications such as toilet flushing and areal climate controls have been systematically considered depending on the availability of seawater toilet flushing using the Geographic Information System (GIS). For water supplies, the district Area Precipitation per Demand Ratio (APDR) has been calculated to quantify the rainwater utilization potential of each administrative district in Hong Kong. Districts with freshwater toilet flushing prove to have higher potential for rainwater harvest and utilization compared to the areas with seawater toilet flushing. Furthermore, the effectiveness of using rainwater harvesting for miscellaneous water supplies in Hong Kong and Tokyo has been analyzed and compared; this revives serious consideration of diurnal and seasonal patterns of rainfall in applying such technology. In terms of the cooling effect, the implementation of a rooftop rainwater harvesting garden has been evaluated using the ENVI-met model. Our results show that a temperature drop of 1.3 °C has been observed due to the rainwater layer in the rain garden. This study provides valuable insight into the applicability of the rainwater harvesting for sustainable water management practice in a highly urbanized city. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Harvesting energy from the marine sediment--water interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimers, C E; Tender, L M; Fertig, S; Wang, W

    2001-01-01

    Pairs of platinum mesh or graphite fiber-based electrodes, one embedded in marine sediment (anode), the other in proximal seawater (cathode), have been used to harvest low-level power from natural, microbe established, voltage gradients at marine sediment-seawater interfaces in laboratory aquaria. The sustained power harvested thus far has been on the order of 0.01 W/m2 of electrode geometric area but is dependent on electrode design, sediment composition, and temperature. It is proposed that the sediment/anode-seawater/cathode configuration constitutes a microbial fuel cell in which power results from the net oxidation of sediment organic matter by dissolved seawater oxygen. Considering typical sediment organic carbon contents, typical fluxes of additional reduced carbon by sedimentation to sea floors ocean.

  19. Using Landscape Metrics Analysis and Analytic Hierarchy Process to Assess Water Harvesting Potential Sites in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeer Albalawneh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Jordan is characterized as a “water scarce” country. Therefore, conserving ecosystem services such as water regulation and soil retention is challenging. In Jordan, rainwater harvesting has been adapted to meet those challenges. However, the spatial composition and configuration features of a target landscape are rarely considered when selecting a rainwater-harvesting site. This study aimed to introduce landscape spatial features into the schemes for selecting a proper water-harvesting site. Landscape metrics analysis was used to quantify 10 metrics for three potential landscapes (i.e., Watershed 104 (WS 104, Watershed 59 (WS 59, and Watershed 108 (WS 108 located in the Jordanian Badia region. Results of the metrics analysis showed that the three non–vegetative land cover types in the three landscapes were highly suitable for serving as rainwater harvesting sites. Furthermore, Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP was used to prioritize the fitness of the three target sites by comparing their landscape metrics. Results of AHP indicate that the non-vegetative land cover in the WS 104 landscape was the most suitable site for rainwater harvesting intervention, based on its dominance, connectivity, shape, and low degree of fragmentation. Our study advances the water harvesting network design by considering its landscape spatial pattern.

  20. Recycling harvest water to cultivate Chlorella zofingiensis under nutrient limitation for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, L D; Takala, J; Hiltunen, E; Wang, Z M

    2013-09-01

    Harvest water recycling for Chlorella zofingiensis re-cultivation under nutrient limitation was investigated. Using 100% harvest water, four cultures were prepared: Full medium, P-limited medium, N-limited medium and N- and P-limited medium, while another full medium was also prepared using 50% harvest water. The results showed that the specific growth rate and biomass productivity ranged from 0.289 to 0.403 day(-1) and 86.30 to 266.66 mg L(-1) day(-1), respectively. Nutrient-limited cultures witnessed much higher lipid content (41.21-46.21% of dry weight) than nutrient-full cultures (26% of dry weight). The N- and P-limited medium observed the highest FAME yield at 10.95% of dry weight, while the N-limited culture and P-limited culture shared the highest biodiesel productivity at 20.66 and 19.91 mg L(-1) day(-1), respectively. The experiment on harvest water recycling times demonstrated that 100% of the harvest water could be recycled twice with the addition of sufficient nutrients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Hydrologic and Water Quality Effects of Harvesting and Regeneration of a Drained Pine Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devendra M. Amatya; R. W. Skaggs; C. D. Blanton; J. W. Gilliam

    2006-01-01

    Data on precipitation, weather, water tables, outflows, and nutrient concentrations from two paired watersheds (D1 - control and D2 - treatment) on a pine forest in Coastal North Carolina were measured during 1988-90 calibration period to characterize the pre-treatment hydrology and water quality. Similarly, measured data from 199 5 (D2 harvested) to 2004 (seven years...

  2. Biomass composition of Arthrospira platensis during cultivation on industrial process water and harvesting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljubic, Anita; Safafar, Hamed; Holdt, Susan Løvstad

    2017-01-01

    out in four different concentrations of industrial process water (25, 50, 75, and 100%). The biomass was then harvested by microfiltration, and centrifugation followed by freeze drying. Variations in biomass composition were studied, in order to investigate effects of industrial process water on A...

  3. Rainwater Harvesting (RWH and Groundwater Potential as Alternatives Water Resources in Malaysia: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayob Syafiqa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Socio-economic growth at present exerting pressure on the capacity of water supply. Water has been harvested worldwide since antiquity, thus, it is essential to manage the potential available of natural water supplies in the catchment to save water for dry periods when the supply-demand gap is comparatively high. The overall aim of this paper is to present a general overview of rainwater harvesting system and groundwater, and their potential applications for daily use. Many countries have implement the rainwater harvesting system as a sustainable approach for supplementing their public water supply. In Malaysia, the guidelines for rainwater harvesting implementations was first created in 1999 and developed by time to time to attract users. By using the system, the main findings reveals that it has overcome several of water problem issues. Groundwater is another alternative water supply that can be counted. Research has found that the availability of groundwater in few states in Malaysiawas in freshwater category based on its hardness level results. Thus, conclusions and recommendations are drawn where the gaps exist and more research needs to be focussed.

  4. A Novel Piezoelectric Energy Harvester Using the Macro Fiber Composite Cantilever with a Bicylinder in Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rujun Song

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A novel piezoelectric energy harvester equipped with two piezoelectric beams and two cylinders was proposed in this work. The energy harvester can convert the kinetic energy of water into electrical energy by means of vortex-induced vibration (VIV and wake-induced vibration (WIV. The effects of load resistance, water velocity and cylinder diameter on the performance of the harvester were investigated. It was found that the vibration of the upstream cylinder was VIV which enhanced the energy harvesting capacity of the upstream piezoelectric beam. As for the downstream cylinder, both VIV and the WIV could be obtained. The VIV was found with small L/D, e.g., 2.125, 2.28, 2.5, and 2.8. Additionally, the WIV was stimulated with the increase of L/D (such as 3.25, 4, and 5.5. Due to the WIV, the downstream beam presented better performance in energy harvesting with the increase of water velocity. Furthermore, it revealed that more electrical energy could be obtained by appropriately matching the resistance and the diameter of the cylinder. With optimal resistance (170 kΩ and diameter of the cylinder (30 mm, the maximum output power of 21.86 μW (sum of both piezoelectric beams was obtained at a water velocity of 0.31 m/s.

  5. Energy Harvesting from Fluid Flow in Water Pipelines for Smart Metering Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, D.; Willmann, A.; Göpfert, R.; Becker, P.; Folkmer, B.; Manoli, Y.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper a rotational, radial-flux energy harvester incorporating a three-phase generation principle is presented for converting energy from water flow in domestic water pipelines. The energy harvester together with a power management circuit and energy storage is used to power a smart metering system installed underground making it independent from external power supplies or depleting batteries. The design of the radial-flux energy harvester is adapted to the housing of a conventional mechanical water flow meter enabling the use of standard components such as housing and impeller. The energy harvester is able to generate up to 720 mW when using a flow rate of 20 l/min (fully opened water tab). A minimum flow rate of 3 l/min is required to get the harvester started. In this case a power output of 2 mW is achievable. By further design optimization of the mechanical structure including the impeller and magnetic circuit the threshold flow rate can be further reduced.

  6. Improving the water use efficiency of olive trees growing in water harvesting systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berliner, Pedro; Leake, Salomon; Carmi, Gennady; Agam, Nurit

    2017-04-01

    content between two consecutive measurements and transpiration for this interval estimated from sap flow measurements. In both years the evaporation from micro-catchments was significantly larger than that of trenches. The fractional loss due to evaporation from the total applied water for the second year for example, was 53% and 22% for micro-catchments and trenches, respectively. This indicates that a trench geometry reduces the amount of water lost to direct evaporation from the soil, and is thus more efficient in utilizing harvested runoff water.

  7. The efficiency of trenches as runoff water harvesting systems and the role of their design in minimizing water losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berliner, Pedro; Carmi, Gennady; Agam, Nurit; Leake, Solomon

    2016-04-01

    Water is a primary limiting factor to agricultural development in many arid and semi-arid regions. In these regions, much of the annual rainfall occurs as a result of a few intensive convective storms. Only a small fraction of the rain is absorbed by the soil, does not penetrate deeply into the soil profile and is mostly lost by direct evaporation into the atmosphere shortly after the rain event. Usually the fraction that is not absorbed by the soil, flows as the runoff to the lower laying parts of the land and is thus lost for plant production. The technique of collecting the runoff and conveying it to areas, in which it can be ponded, is known as runoff harvesting. This technique may be used for food, fuel production, flood and erosion control, as well as for landscape development. In terms of combating desertification and degradation, water harvesting appears to be a viable solution. Microcatchments are one of the primary techniques used for collecting, storing and conserving local surface runoff for growing trees/shrubs. In this system, runoff water is collected close-by the area in which it was generated, and trees/shrubs may utilize the water during the next dry season. The main objective of the present research was to estimate the effect the shape of the micro-catchment collection area (shallow basin and deep trench) has on the efficiency of the water conservation in the soil profile The study was carried out using regular micro-catchments (three replicates) with a surface area of 9 m2 (3 x 3 m) and a depth of 0.1 m and trenches (three replicates) with a surface area of 12 m2 (12 x 1 m) and 1 m depth. One and three olive trees were planted inside the trenches and micro-catchments, respectively. Access tubes for neutron probe were installed in micro-catchments and trenches (four and seven, respectively) to depths of 3 m. Soil water content in the soil profile was monitored. Sap flow in trees was measured by PS-TDP8 Granier sap flow system every 0.5 hour and

  8. Sustainable urban water supply in south India: Desalination, efficiency improvement, or rainwater harvesting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Veena; Gorelick, Steven M.; Goulder, Lawrence

    2010-10-01

    Indian megacities face severe water supply problems owing to factors ranging from growing population to high municipal pipe leakage rates; no Indian city provides 24/7 water supply. Current approaches to addressing the problem have been "utility centric," overlooking the significance of decentralized activities by consumers, groundwater extraction via private wells, and aquifer recharge by rainwater harvesting. We propose a framework that makes it possible to evaluate a wider range of centralized and decentralized policies than previously considered. The framework was used to simulate water supply and demand in a simulation model of Chennai, India. Three very different policies, supply augmentation, efficiency improvement, and rainwater harvesting, were evaluated using the model. The model results showed that none of the three policies perfectly satisfied our criteria of efficiency, reliability, equity, financial viability, and revenue generation. Instead, a combination of rainwater harvesting and efficiency improvement best meets these criteria.

  9. Applicability of ERTS to Antarctic iceberg resources. [harvesting sea ice for fresh water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hult, J. L. (Principal Investigator); Ostrander, N. C.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. This investigation explorers the applicability of ERTS to (1) determine the Antarctic sea ice and environmental behavior that may influence the harvesting of icebergs, and (2) monitor iceberg locations, characteristics, and evolution. Imagery has shown that the potential applicability of ERTS to the research, planning, and harvesting operations can contribute importantly to the glowing promise derived from broader scope studies for the use of Antarctic icebergs to relieve a growing global thirst for fresh water. Several years of comprehensive monitoring will be necessary to characterize sea ice and environmental behavior and iceberg evolution. Live ERTS services will assist harvesting control and claiming operations and offer a means of harmonizing entitlements of iceberg resources. The valuable ERTS services will be more cost effective than other means will be easily justified and borne by the iceberg harvesting operations.

  10. Atmospheric Water Harvesting: Role of Surface Wettability and Edge Effect

    KAUST Repository

    Jin, Yong

    2017-06-23

    Atmospheric water is emerging as an important potable water source. The present work experimentally and theoretically investigates water condensation and collection on flat surfaces with contrasting contact angles and contact angle hysteresis (CAH) to elucidate their roles on water mass collection efficiency. The experimental results indicate that a hydrophilic surface promotes nucleation and individual droplets growth, and a surface with a low CAH tends to let a smaller droplet to slide down, but the overall water mass collection efficiency is independent of both surface contact angle and CAH. The experimental results agree well with our theoretical calculations. During water condensation, a balance has to be struck between single droplet growth and droplet density on a surface so as to maintain a constant water droplet surface coverage ratio, which renders the role of both surface wettability and hysteresis insignificant to the ultimate water mass collection. Moreover, water droplets on the edges of a surface grow much faster than those on the non-edge areas and thus dominate the contribution to the water mass collection by the entire surface, directly pointing out the very important role of edge effect on water condensation and collection.

  11. Suitability of Water Harvesting in the Upper Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia: A First Step towards a Mesoscale Hydrological Modeling Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yihun T. Dile

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Extreme rainfall variability has been one of the major factors to famine and environmental degradation in Ethiopia. The potential for water harvesting in the Upper Blue Nile Basin was assessed using two GIS-based Multicriteria Evaluation methods: (1 a Boolean approach to locate suitable areas for in situ and ex situ systems and (2 a weighted overlay analysis to classify suitable areas into different water harvesting suitability levels. The sensitivity of the results was analyzed to the influence given to different constraining factors. A large part of the basin was suitable for water harvesting: the Boolean analysis showed that 36% of the basin was suitable for in situ and ex situ systems, while the weighted overlay analysis showed that 6–24% of the basin was highly suitable. Rainfall has the highest influence on suitability for water harvesting. Implementing water harvesting in nonagricultural land use types may further increase the benefit. Assessing water harvesting suitability at the larger catchment scale lays the foundation for modeling of water harvesting at mesoscale, which enables analysis of the potential and implications of upscaling of water harvesting practices for building resilience against climatic shocks. A complete water harvesting suitability study requires socioeconomic analysis and stakeholder consultation.

  12. Effect of water stress on total biomass, tuber yield, harvest index and water use efficiency in Jerusalem artichoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of drought on tuber yield, total biomass, harvest index, water use efficiency of tuber yield (WUEt) and water use efficiency of biomass (WUEb), and to evaluate the differential responses of Jerusalem artichoke (JA) varieties under drought str...

  13. Harvesting techniques for energy wood of forest owners; Metsaenomistajien energiapuun korjuutekniikat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryynaenen, S. [Work Efficiency Inst., Rajamaeki (Finland)] Ihonen, M. [Work Efficiency Inst., Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    The aim of the project is to develop harvesting techniques and methods for small-wood and logging residues, suitable for use by forest owners and small-scale entrepreneurs. Examples of such methods are piling of logging residues at site and forest transport with farm tractors. The project is carried out by field experiments with new machines and methods and by work-studies at sites in practice. A cost-accounting model for firewood production will also be revised. The work study of the harvesting method of first- thinning wood and energy wood based on the use of SykeNaarva logging equipment was carried out as part of chips supply to Perho Energy Co-operative. The productivity of logging was in practice significantly higher than in previous field tests with the prototype equipment. The costs were lower than in manual logging. Field experiments were also carried out with manual logging with a chain saw equipped with felling grips (Reo-Tuote Ky). Operation experiments with a chain-limbing device for farm tractors (Eskon Paja Oy), related to product development, were also carried out. A literature study, specialist interviews and field experiments were carried out on the transports of logging residues with farm factors. A four-drive tractor equipped with a timber loader and a trailer is suited technically for this work. Productivity is reduced by slow loading and in particular by a small load size when operating with the basic fleet. The costs are reduced by small capital costs and by rapid transports between the sites. To improve the economy of harvesting logging residues, inexpensive technical solutions were studied for farm tractors in co-operation with engineering works

  14. Effect of Organic Growth Stimulants and Magnetic Water on Oil Harvest Index and Protein Yield of Soybean (Glycine max L. at Different Harvest Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Tousi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available To study the effect of organic growth stimulant and harvest time of soybean cultivar Williams on oil harvest index and protein yield, factorial experiment was conducted in complete randomized block design with 15 treatment and three replications of Rice Research Institute of Iran (Rasht in 2012-2013 year. The experiment Treatments were including Kadostim (50.00, Aminol forte (20.00, organic manure (cow,10 ton.ha-1, magnetic water (20 lit.m-2 plus the control (no spray and three harvest time 1. the first harvest when seed pods in main stem had 25-20% moisture, 2. the second harvest when in pods maturity (yellowing of more than 95% of pods and seeds per pod in the main stem had 15-14% moisture, 3. the third harvest when the main stem had less than 14% moisture. Results showed that significant differences exist between the spray application and harvest time in oil harvest index and protein yields. spray application with kadostim had the maximum oil harvest index (8.7% and biological yield (5933 kg.ha-1. Mean comparison of the interaction showed that spray application of kadostim at the second harvest produced highest grain yield (2853 kg.ha-1, oil yield (664 kg.ha-1 and protein yield (1019 kg.ha-1. The results of this experiment, it seems that Kadostim and organic manure spray application at the second harvest to help increase production, and a step towards reducing environmental pollution and sustainable agriculture is.

  15. Flared natural gas-based onsite atmospheric water harvesting (AWH) for oilfield operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikramanayake, Enakshi D.; Bahadur, Vaibhav

    2016-03-01

    Natural gas worth tens of billions of dollars is flared annually, which leads to resource waste and environmental issues. This work introduces and analyzes a novel concept for flared gas utilization, wherein the gas that would have been flared is instead used to condense atmospheric moisture. Natural gas, which is currently being flared, can alternatively power refrigeration systems to generate the cooling capacity for large scale atmospheric water harvesting (AWH). This approach solves two pressing issues faced by the oil-gas industry, namely gas flaring, and sourcing water for oilfield operations like hydraulic fracturing, drilling and water flooding. Multiple technical pathways to harvest atmospheric moisture by using the energy of natural gas are analyzed. A modeling framework is developed to quantify the dependence of water harvest rates on flared gas volumes and ambient weather. Flaring patterns in the Eagle Ford Shale in Texas and the Bakken Shale in North Dakota are analyzed to quantify the benefits of AWH. Overall, the gas currently flared annually in Texas and North Dakota can harvest enough water to meet 11% and 65% of the water consumption in the Eagle Ford and the Bakken, respectively. Daily harvests of upto 30 000 and 18 000 gallons water can be achieved using the gas currently flared per well in Texas and North Dakota, respectively. In fifty Bakken sites, the water required for fracturing or drilling a new well can be met via onsite flared gas-based AWH in only 3 weeks, and 3 days, respectively. The benefits of this concept are quantified for the Eagle Ford and Bakken Shales. Assessments of the global potential of this concept are presented using data from countries with high flaring activity. It is seen that this waste-to-value conversion concept offers significant economic benefits while addressing critical environmental issues pertaining to oil-gas production.

  16. Palatal harvesting technique modification for better control of the connective tissue graft dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reino, Danilo Maeda; Novaes, Arthur Belém; Grisi, Márcio Fernando de Moraes; Maia, Luciana Prado; de Souza, Sérgio Luis Scombatti

    2013-01-01

    Subepithelial connective tissue graft (SCTG) has been extensively used for a variety of clinical applications. However, the surgical procedure may not allow control of graft thickness. The purpose of this case series is to illustrate a modification to the single incision palatal harvesting technique in order to control the SCTG thickness without increasing patient discomfort. Fifty cases from thirty systemically and periodontally healthy patients with at least one multiple gingival recession were treated with coronally advanced flaps combined with a SCTG. The palatal area served as the donor site, from where a single perpendicular incision was made to obtain a full thickness flap. Next, 1-2 mm of the flap was elevated and dissected to obtain a partial thickness flap. The graft remained attached to the full-partial thickness flap. After determining the desired SCTG thickness, the graft was harvested from the palatal flap. The patients healed uneventfully at 7 days postoperatively and primary closure was obtained for all palatal donor sites. The SCTG length and width varied depending on the needs of each case, but the SCTG thickness was well controlled with only 0.24 mm standard deviation. The suggested modification granted control of the SCTG dimensions and achieved complete wound closure within a week.

  17. water quality determination of rainwater harvesting birkas in harshin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2012-03-14

    Mar 14, 2012 ... diarrheal diseases associated with poor water quality. (WHO/UNICEF,. 2003;. WHO/UNICEF/WSSCC, 2000). The majority of people who have to struggle with contaminated drinking water and accompanying illnesses live in Asia and Africa among which majority of the victims are women and children (Smith ...

  18. Irrelevant water-management scales for flood prevention, water harvesting and eutrophication control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Jafet; Arheimer, Berit

    2017-04-01

    This poster will give three examples of popular water-management methods, which we discovered had very little effect in practice because they were applied on irrelevant scales. They all use small scale solutions to large scale problems, and did not provide expected results due to neglecting the magnitude of components in the large-scale water budget. 1) Flood prevention: ponds are considered to be able to buffer water discharge in catchments and was suggested as a measure to reduce the 20-years return floods in an exposed areas in Sweden. However, when experimenting with several ponds allocation and size in a computational model, we found out that ponds had to cover 5-10% of the catchment to convert the 20-yr flood into an average flood. Most effective was to allocate one single water body at the catchment outlet, but this would correspond to 95 km2 which is by far too big to be called a pond. 2) Water Harvesting: At small-scale it is designed to increase water availability and agricultural productivity in smallholder agriculture. On field scale, we show that water harvesting decreases runoff by 55% on average in 62 investigated field-scale trials of drainage area ≤ 1ha in sub-Saharan Africa (Andersson et al., 2011). When upscaling, to river basin scale in South Africa (8-1.8×106 km2), using a scenario approach and the SWAT hydrological model we found that all smallholder fields would not significantly alter downstream river discharge (Sweden during the years 1996-2006 as a measure to reduce coastal eutrophication. From our detailed calculations, the gross removal was estimated at 140 tonnes Nitrogen per year and 12 tonnes Phosphorus per year in these wetlands. However, this only reduced the load to the sea by 0.2% for nitrogen and 0.5% for phosphorus (Arheimer and Pers, 2016). The wetland area was minor compared to the total area and load (41 km2 vs. 164,000 km2). For the eventual effect in the coast, additional consideration must be taken to the coastal

  19. Optimization of contour ridge water harvesting systems for arid zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berliner, Pedro; Arazi, Adit

    2017-04-01

    Runoff is generated along slopes in semi-arid regions during rainfall events and flows into the lower lying areas, usually ephemeral streams. Depending on the slope and volume of water involved, the flow can become turbulent and cause the detachments of soil particles (erosion). The purpose of the system under investigation is to capture the water after a relatively short flow distance and allow it to be absorbed by the soil. This action accomplishes two objectives: erosion is averted and the stored water can be used for plant production. Depending on the ratio of contributing to receiving areas and storm characteristics the stored water can be significantly higher than the precipitation. The objective of the present project was to develop a simple model that describes the above biomass production in such a system and allows to determine the optimum distribution of structures along a given slope in order to meet one criteria (e.g. minimize variance, maximize production, maximize lowest production, etc.) or a suite of them. The basic assumption is that tree above ground biomass production is linearly related to transpired water, the latter driven by an external force (potential evaporation) and modulated by water availability in the soil. PET is computed using the standard Penman-Monteith formulation for evaporation from open water bodies, if the latter is not available. Four water fluxes are computed: Evaporation, Transpiration, Runoff and Drainage, the first two not interacting directly. All of the above mentioned fluxes and rates are daily lumped values and water content in the profile is updated daily, assuming that rainfall events happen after the computation of fluxes. Daily water inputs are estimated from rainfall data and computed runoff. A dynamic runoff coefficient (=cumulative generated runoff generated/cumulative precipitation) was derived from measurements carried out in the area and used in order to estimate runoff volumes from total recorded

  20. Financial and environmental modelling of water hardness--implications for utilising harvested rainwater in washing machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Pinzón, Tito; Lurueña, Rodrigo; Gabarrell, Xavier; Gasol, Carles M; Rieradevall, Joan

    2014-02-01

    A study was conducted to determine the financial and environmental effects of water quality on rainwater harvesting systems. The potential for replacing tap water used in washing machines with rainwater was studied, and then analysis presented in this paper is valid for applications that include washing machines where tap water hardness may be important. A wide range of weather conditions, such as rainfall (284-1,794 mm/year); water hardness (14-315 mg/L CaCO3); tap water prices (0.85-2.65 Euros/m(3)) in different Spanish urban areas (from individual buildings to whole neighbourhoods); and other scenarios (including materials and water storage capacity) were analysed. Rainfall was essential for rainwater harvesting, but the tap water prices and the water hardness were the main factors for consideration in the financial and the environmental analyses, respectively. The local tap water hardness and prices can cause greater financial and environmental impacts than the type of material used for the water storage tank or the volume of the tank. The use of rainwater as a substitute for hard water in washing machines favours financial analysis. Although tap water hardness significantly affects the financial analysis, the greatest effect was found in the environmental analysis. When hard tap water needed to be replaced, it was found that a water price of 1 Euro/m(3) could render the use of rainwater financially feasible when using large-scale rainwater harvesting systems. When the water hardness was greater than 300 mg/L CaCO3, a financial analysis revealed that an net present value greater than 270 Euros/dwelling could be obtained at the neighbourhood scale, and there could be a reduction in the Global Warming Potential (100 years) ranging between 35 and 101 kg CO2 eq./dwelling/year. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Does water harvesting induce fertilizer use among smallholders? Evidence from Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakeyo, M.B.; Gardebroek, C.

    2013-01-01

    Rainfall shortage is a major production risk for smallholder farmers. Due to rainfall shortage, smallholders limit the use of modern inputs such as fertilizer and improved seeds. This study investigates if water harvesting technologies (WHTs) induce fertilizer use and whether there is joint adoption

  2. Up-scaling of rain-water harvesting for crop production in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Up-scaling of rain-water harvesting for crop production in the communal lands of the Modder River basin in South Africa: Comparing upstream and downstream scenarios. YE Woyessa, E Pretorius, M Hensley, LD van Rensburg, PS van Heerden ...

  3. The effect of aspen harvest and growth on water yield in Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elon S. Verry

    1987-01-01

    Annual water yield increased following the clearcutting of a mature aspen forest in years 1-9 and year 14 of subsequent aspen regrowth. Maximum increases of 85, 117, and 88 mm year-l occurred during the first 3 years of regrowth. Increases in streamflow volumes from snowmelt and early spring rains were minimal and more variable after harvest and...

  4. Empty pockets, empty ponds? Disadoption of water harvesting technologies in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakeyo, M.B.; Gardebroek, C.

    2015-01-01

    This study analyses disadoption of water harvesting technologies in Ethiopia where the average disadiption rate in the sample areas is as high as 42%. Given that Ethiopia is a drought-prone country with 95% of its crop production being rain-fed, such a high disadoption rate for irrigation

  5. Life cycle assessment of a commercial rainwater harvesting system compared with a municipal water supply system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Building upon previously published life cycle assessment (LCA) methodologies, we conducted an LCA of a commercial rainwater harvesting (RWH) system and compared it to a municipal water supply (MWS) system adapted to Washington, D.C. Eleven life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) indi...

  6. Short-term changes in loblolly pine water conductance and photosynthetic capacity from fertilizer source and straw harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael A. Blazier; Keith Ellum; Hal O. Liechty

    2012-01-01

    Organic matter removal associated with intensive straw harvesting in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantations has the potential to alter tree water regimes and photosynthetic capacity. Fertilization done to remedy nutrient removals from straw harvesting, as well as the type of fertilizer, likewise has potential to change water regimes and...

  7. Water quality in hybrid catfish ponds after partial fish harvest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intensification of United States catfish aquaculture involves hybrid catfish ('channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus x ' blue catfish I. furcatus) grown in ponds with abundant aeration and high feeding rates. High feeding rates cause water quality deterioration because most of the nitrogen, phosphorus...

  8. Concentrations of formaldehyde in rain waters harvested at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Formaldehyde has been recognized as one of the most important pollutants and a carcinogen that is present in the air, water, foods, soils, fabrics, cosmetics, cigarette smoke and treated wood. Related health effects and hazards are linked to formaldehyde, depending on mode of exposure which includes: weakness, ...

  9. Water harvesting technologies in ensuring food security: Lessons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    Today most of the chronic food insecure areas of Ethiopia are the pastoralist and agro-pastoralists. The cumulative effect of the historical political marginalization of pastoralists in decision-making and recurrent drought and famine is attributed to the prevailing crisis. Due to shortage of water many pastoralists had been ...

  10. Stream water responses to timber harvest: Riparian buffer width effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton D. Clinton

    2011-01-01

    Vegetated riparian buffers are critical for protecting aquatic and terrestrial processes and habitats in southern Appalachian ecosystems. In this case study, we examined the effect of riparian buffer width on stream water quality following upland forest management activities in four headwater catchments. Three riparian buffer widths were delineated prior to cutting; 0m...

  11. Comparison of the microbiological and chemical characterization of harvested rainwater and reservoir water as alternative water resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ju Young; Yang, Jung-Seok; Han, Mooyoung; Choi, Jaeyoung

    2010-01-15

    Rainwater harvesting (RWH) offers considerable potential as an alternative water supply. In this study, all of the harvested rainwater samples met the requirements for grey water but not for drinking water. In terms of microbiological parameters, total coliform (TC) and Escherichia coli (EC) were measured in 91.6% and 72%, respectively, of harvested rainwater samples at levels exceeding the guidelines for drinking water, consistent with rainfall events. In the case of the reservoir water samples, TC and EC were detected in 94.4% and 85.2%, respectively, of the samples at levels exceeding the guidelines for drinking water. Both indicators gradually increased in summer and fall. The highest median values of both TC and EC were detected during the fall. Chemical parameters such as common anions and major cations as well as metal ions in harvested rainwater were within the acceptable ranges for drinking water. By contrast, Al shows a notable increase to over 200mugL(-1) in the spring due to the intense periodic dust storms that can pass over the Gobi Desert in northern China. In terms of statistical analysis, the harvested rainwater quality showed that TC and EC exhibit high positive correlations with NO(3)(-) (rho(TC)=0.786 and rho(EC)=0.42) and PO(4)(-) (rho(TC)=0.646 and rho(EC)=0.653), which originally derive from catchment contamination, but strong negative correlations with Cl(-) (rho(TC)=-0.688 and rho(EC)=-0.484) and Na(+) (rho(TC)=-0.469 and rho(EC)=-0.418), which originate from seawater. Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Potential of Rainwater Harvesting and Greywater Reuse for Water Consumption Reduction and Wastewater Minimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel López Zavala

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Northeastern Mexico is a semiarid region with water scarcity and a strong pressure on water sources caused by the rapid increase of population and industrialization. In this region, rainwater harvesting alone is not enough to meet water supply demands due to the irregular distribution of rainfall in time and space. Thus, in this study the reliability of integrating rainwater harvesting with greywater reuse to reduce water consumption and minimize wastewater generation in the Tecnológico de Monterrey, Monterrey Campus, was assessed. Potable water consumption and greywater generation in main facilities of the campus were determined. Rainwater that can be potentially harvested in roofs and parking areas of the campus was estimated based on a statistical analysis of the rainfall. Based on these data, potential water savings and wastewater minimization were determined. Characterization of rainwater and greywater was carried out to determine the treatment necessities for each water source. Additionally, the capacity of water storage tanks was estimated. For the selected treatment systems, an economic assessment was conducted to determine the viability of the alternatives proposed. Results showed that water consumption can be reduced by 48% and wastewater generation can be minimized by 59%. Implementation of rainwater harvesting and greywater reuse systems in the Monterrey Campus will generate important economic benefits to the institution. Amortization of the investments will be achieved in only six years, where the net present value (NPV will be on the order of US $50,483.2, the internal rate of return (IRR of 4.6% and the benefits–investment ratio (B/I of 1.7. From the seventh year, the project will present an IRR greater than the minimum acceptable rate of return (MARR. In a decade, the IRR will be 14.4%, more than twice the MARR, the NPV of US $290,412.1 and the B/I of 3.1, denoting economic feasibility. Based on these results, it is clear that

  13. Fundamental measure theory for the electric double layer : implications for blue-energy harvesting and water desalination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartel, Andreas; Janssen, Mathijs; Samin, Sela; van Roij, Rene

    2015-01-01

    Capacitive mixing (CAPMIX) and capacitive deionization (CDI) are promising candidates for harvesting clean, renewable energy and for the energy efficient production of potable water, respectively. Both CAPMIX and CDI involve water-immersed porous carbon (supercapacitors) electrodes at voltages of

  14. Applicability of ERTS to Antarctic iceberg resources. [harvesting icebergs for fresh water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hult, J. L.; Ostrander, N. C.

    1974-01-01

    This investigation explores the applicability of ERTS to: (1) determine the Antarctic sea ice and environmental behavior that may influence the harvesting of icebergs, and (2) monitor iceberg locations, characteristics, and evolution. Imagery sampling in the western Antarctic between the Peninsula and the Ross Sea is used in the analysis. It is found that the potential applicability of ERTS to the research, planning, and harvesting operations can contribute importantly to the glowing promise derived from broader scope studies for the use of Antarctic icebergs to relieve a growing global thirst for fresh water. Several years of comprehensive monitoring will be necessary to characterize sea-ice and environmental behavior and iceberg evolution. Live ERTS services will assist harvesting control and claiming operations and offer a means for harmonizing entitlements to iceberg resources.

  15. The solar cyclone: A solar chimney for harvesting atmospheric water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashiwa, B.A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, MS B216, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Kashiwa, Corey B. [191 University Blvd PMB 876, Denver, CO 80206 (United States)

    2008-02-15

    The Solar Cyclone has been introduced as a means of extracting fresh water from Earth's atmosphere. The conceptual device operates in the fashion of a Solar Chimney; it is composed of a greenhouse for collecting and storing solar energy as heat, with a central chimney that channels an updraft of surface air heated in the greenhouse. An expansion cyclone separator for condensing and removing atmospheric water is placed at the base of the chimney. The separator consists of a strongly rotating vortex in which the central temperature is well below the dew point for the greenhouse air. Power consumed in the expansion and separation is furnished by the motive potential of the chimney updraft. Turbulent flow conditions are established in the expansion cyclone separator to enhance the centrifugal separation. Excess updraft power is used to generate electricity, as is done in the Solar Chimney. The article furnishes a theoretical basis for the feasibility of the Solar Cyclone, suggesting that an experimental study of the separation device would be worthwhile. (author)

  16. Networks of triboelectric nanogenerators for harvesting water wave energy: a potential approach toward blue energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Yang, Jin; Li, Zhaoling; Fan, Xing; Zi, Yunlong; Jing, Qingshen; Guo, Hengyu; Wen, Zhen; Pradel, Ken C; Niu, Simiao; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2015-03-24

    With 70% of the earth's surface covered with water, wave energy is abundant and has the potential to be one of the most environmentally benign forms of electric energy. However, owing to lack of effective technology, water wave energy harvesting is almost unexplored as an energy source. Here, we report a network design made of triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs) for large-scale harvesting of kinetic water energy. Relying on surface charging effect between the conventional polymers and very thin layer of metal as electrodes for each TENG, the TENG networks (TENG-NW) that naturally float on the water surface convert the slow, random, and high-force oscillatory wave energy into electricity. On the basis of the measured output of a single TENG, the TENG-NW is expected to give an average power output of 1.15 MW from 1 km(2) surface area. Given the compelling features, such as being lightweight, extremely cost-effective, environmentally friendly, easily implemented, and capable of floating on the water surface, the TENG-NW renders an innovative and effective approach toward large-scale blue energy harvesting from the ocean.

  17. Water sampling techniques for continuous monitoring of pesticides in water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šunjka Dragana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Good ecological and chemical status of water represents the most important aim of the Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC, which implies respect of water quality standards at the level of entire river basin (2008/105/EC and 2013/39/EC. This especially refers to the control of pesticide residues in surface waters. In order to achieve the set goals, a continuous monitoring program that should provide a comprehensive and interrelated overview of water status should be implemented. However, it demands the use of appropriate analysis techniques. Until now, the procedure for sampling and quantification of residual pesticide quantities in aquatic environment was based on the use of traditional sampling techniques that imply periodical collecting of individual samples. However, this type of sampling provides only a snapshot of the situation in regard to the presence of pollutants in water. As an alternative, the technique of passive sampling of pollutants in water, including pesticides has been introduced. Different samplers are available for pesticide sampling in surface water, depending on compounds. The technique itself is based on keeping a device in water over a longer period of time which varies from several days to several weeks, depending on the kind of compound. In this manner, the average concentrations of pollutants dissolved in water during a time period (time-weighted average concentrations, TWA are obtained, which enables monitoring of trends in areal and seasonal variations. The use of these techniques also leads to an increase in sensitivity of analytical methods, considering that pre-concentration of analytes takes place within the sorption medium. However, the use of these techniques for determination of pesticide concentrations in real water environments requires calibration studies for the estimation of sampling rates (Rs. Rs is a volume of water per time, calculated as the product of overall mass transfer coefficient and area of

  18. The water factor in harvest-sprouting of hard red spring wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, A.; Black, A. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1983-01-01

    Sprouting in unthreshed, ripe, hard red spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is induced by rain, but sprouting does not necessarily occur because the crop is wetted. The spike and grain water conditions conducive to sprouting were determined in a series of laboratory experiments. Sprouting did not occur in field growing wheat wetted to 110% water concentration until the spike water concentration was reduced to 12% and maintained at this concentration for 2 days before wetting. When cut at growth stage 11.3, Feekes scale, Saratovskaya 20 (USSR) sprouted after 4 days drying, Olaf and Alex between 7 and 15 days drying and Columbus, recognized for its resistance to harvest time sprouting, after more than 15 days drying. Sprouting potential was enhanced after 4 wetting drying cycles in which any wetted interval was too brief to permit sufficient water imbibition to initiate sprouting. At harvest ripeness, grain water concentration exceeded spike water concentration by 0.7 percentage units. Following 6 months storage, 20% of the kernels in 300 spike bundles (simulating windrows) sprouted within 28 hrs after initiation of wetting to saturation (150% water concentration). Ninety percent sprouting occurred within 8 days in bundles maintained at 75% water concentration and higher, but less sprouting occurred in bundles dried to 50% water concentration before resaturation.

  19. Complications of harvesting a connective tissue graft from the palate. A retrospective study and description of a new technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre-Zorzano, Luis-Antonio; García-De La Fuente, Ana M; Estefanía-Fresco, Ruth; Marichalar-Mendía, Xabier

    2017-12-01

    Connective tissue graft (CTG) is considered as the gold standard for the treatment of gingival recessions (GR). There are few studies assessing the complications that can arise in the donor site when harvesting a connective tissue graft (CTG) and how the harvesting technique can influence those complications. A retrospective clinical study was carried out in order to compare the complications observed in 40 patients with Miller class I, II and III GR ≥ 3 mm, after using the trap-door technique (TD) in the control group and a newly described technique, the "UPV/EHU technique", in the test group. Patients were consecutively allocated to each treatment group. Patients were monitored 14 days after surgery in order to evaluate post-operative complications in the donor site: presence of pain (P), bleeding (B), infection (I) and necrosis > 30%. Although morbidity was observed in both groups, it was less important in the test group (no pain and minimal pain in 30% and 35% of the cases, respectively, and absence of bleeding or infection and necrosis >30% in only 5% of the cases). Within the limits of this study, this newly described "UPV/EHU technique" should be considered as a treatment option when harvesting a CTG, with minimal morbidity for patients. Key words: Connective tissue graft, pain, gingival recessions, wound healing, cosmetic periodontal plastic surgery, trap-door technique, "UPV/EHU technique".

  20. Assessment of water quality of first-flush roof runoff and harvested rainwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gikas, Georgios D.; Tsihrintzis, Vassilios A.

    2012-10-01

    SummarySix pilot rainwater harvesting systems were installed in five urban, suburban and rural houses, and on a university campus. The systems consist of horizontal gutters to collect roof drainage, and downdrains which end into one or two plastic storage tanks. Devices were also provided to remove first-flush water. Water quality was monitored in the storage tanks and the first-flush devices during the 2-year period from October 2006 to November 2008. Water samples were collected at a frequency of once every 10 days, and analyzed according to potable water specifications to determine major anions (e.g., SO42-, NO3-, NO2-, F-, Cl-) and cations (e.g., NH4+, Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+), total suspended solids, alkalinity, total phosphorus and microbiological indicators (e.g., total coliforms, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus, Clostridium perfrigens, Pseudomonas syringae and total viable counts at 22 °C and 37 °C). Furthermore, temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen and electrical conductivity were measured in situ. The mean concentrations of chemical parameters in harvested rainwater (with the exception of NH4+) were below the limits set by the 98/93/EU directive for drinking water. Total coliforms were detected in 84.4-95.8% of the collected rainwater samples in the six tanks. E. coli, Streptococcus, C. perfrigens, P. syringae and total viable counts at 22 °C and 37 °C were found at low counts in samples of collected rainwater. The collected rainwater quality was found satisfactory regarding its physicochemical parameters, but not regarding its sanitary quality. Therefore, rainwater harvesting systems in this area could only supply water appropriate for use as gray water.

  1. Energy Autonomous Wireless Water Meter with Integrated Turbine Driven Energy Harvester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, P.; Folkmer, B.; Goepfert, R.; Hoffmann, D.; Willmann, A.; Manoli, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Accurate meter reading is the fundamental task of the home water system for the handling of payments. Meters need to be read correctly, to avoid an effect of adding events that increase unnecessary cost and create customer dissatisfaction. This paper presents a fully integrated wireless, energy autonomous water metering system based on the European Standard EN 13757 "Communication systems for meters and remote reading of meters". The system can be used in multiple water metering scenarios. No maintenance will be required and the system will provide precise and secure data transmission as well as timely and accurate recording of the consumption of water. The identification of any leakages will be improved through the analysis of the actual quantity supplied and recorded by the meters. The system is powered by an energy harvester, based on a water driven turbine wheel that is directly coupled to an electromagnetic energy transducer. The power delivered by the generator is dependent of the amount of flowing water and the pressure in the water pipes. Therefor the power is commonly non-continuous, fluctuant and unstable in the voltage amplitude. To be able to report the meter readings at all times, the system needs to be powered not only in times when the energy harvester delivers energy. Therefor an energy buffer, that stores the harvested energy, is installed to compensate the energy requirement between the actual generator output and the energy consumption of the application. Besides a complete system overview, the presentation will focus on the power management and energy aware battery charging circuitry. The design, fabrication, measuring results and the preparations for field tests in rural and urban environment will be presented and discussed.

  2. Rainwater Harvesting in South India: Understanding Water Storage and Release Dynamics at Tank and Catchment Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, N. B.; Van Meter, K. J.; Mclaughlin, D. L.; Steiff, M.

    2015-12-01

    Rainwater harvesting, the small-scale collection and storage of runoff for irrigated agriculture, is recognized as a sustainable strategy for ensuring food security, especially in monsoonal landscapes in the developing world. In south India, these strategies have been used for millennia to mitigate problems of water scarcity. However, in the past 100 years many traditional rainwater harvesting systems have fallen into disrepair due to increasing dependence on groundwater. With elevated declines in groundwater resources, there is increased effort at the state and national levels to revive older systems. Critical to the success of such efforts is an improved understanding of how these ancient water-provisioning systems function in contemporary landscapes with extensive groundwater pumping and shifted climatic regimes. Knowledge is especially lacking regarding the water-exchange dynamics of these rainwater harvesting "tanks" at tank and catchment scales, and how these exchanges regulate tank performance and catchment water balances. Here, we use fine-scale water level variations to quantify daily fluxes of groundwater, evapotranspiration, and sluice outflows in four tanks over the 2013 northeast monsoon season in a tank cascade that covers a catchment area of 28.2 km2. Our results indicate a distinct spatial pattern in groundwater-exchange dynamics, with the frequency and magnitude of groundwater inflow events (as opposed to outflow) increasing down the cascade of tanks. The presence of tanks in the landscape dramatically alters the catchment water balance, with catchment-scale runoff:rainfall ratios decreasing from 0.29 without tanks to 0.04 - 0.09 with tanks. Recharge:rainfall ratios increase in the presence of tanks, from ~0.17 in catchments without tanks to ~ 0.26 in catchments with tanks. Finally, our results demonstrate how more efficient management of sluice outflows can lead to the tanks meeting a higher fraction of crop water requirements.

  3. Magnetic-Nanoflocculant-Assisted Water-Nonpolar Solvent Interface Sieve for Microalgae Harvesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyubock; Na, Jeong-Geol; Seo, Jung Yoon; Shim, Tae Soup; Kim, Bohwa; Praveenkumar, Ramasamy; Park, Ji-Yeon; Oh, You-Kwan; Jeon, Sang Goo

    2015-08-26

    Exploitation of magnetic flocculants is regarded as a very promising energy-saving approach to microalgae harvesting. However, its practical applicability remains limited, mainly because of the problem of the postharvest separation of magnetic flocculants from microalgal flocs, which is crucial both for magnetic-flocculant recycling and high-purity microalgal biomasses, but which is also a very challenging and energy-consuming step. In the present study, we designed magnetic nanoflocculants dually functionalizable by two different organosilane compounds, (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) and octyltriethoxysilane (OTES), which flocculate negatively charged microalgae and are readily detachable at the water-nonpolar organic solvent (NOS) interface only by application of an external magnetic field. APTES functionalization imparts a positive zeta potential charge (29.6 mV) to magnetic nanoflocculants, thereby enabling microalgae flocculation with 98.5% harvesting efficiency (with a dosage of 1.6 g of dMNF/g of cells). OTES functionalization imparts lipophilicity to magnetic nanoflocculants to make them compatible with NOS, thus effecting efficient separation of magnetic flocculants passing through the water-NOS interface sieve from hydrophilic microalgae. Our new energy-saving approach to microalgae harvesting concentrates microalgal cultures (∼1.5 g/L) up to 60 g/L, which can be directly connected to the following process of NOS-assisted wet lipid extraction or biodiesel production, and therefore provides, by simplifying multiple downstream processes, a great potential cost reduction in microalgae-based biorefinement.

  4. [Viability of autologous fat grafts harvested with the Coleman technique and the tissu trans system (shippert method): a comparative study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, C; Pflaum, M; Utz, P; Wilhelmi, M; Rennekampff, H-O; Vogt, P M

    2011-12-01

    Various methods for harvesting and refining autologous fat grafts have been described. One of the standard procedures, the Coleman technique, is based on manual aspiration to reduce the negative presssure and the centrifugation of the grafts. The Shippert technique uses automatic liposuction with reduced negative pressure and abstains from centifugation in order not to reduce viability of the graft by exposing it to centrifugal forces. This study intends to compare the viability of fat grafts processed with the above-mentioned methods.Fat grafts were obtained in 9 patients by using both the Tissu Trans system (Shippert technique) and the Coleman technique. To evaluate the impact of centrifugation forces, the grafts harvested with the Coleman technique were treated with standard adjustment of the centrifuge and also with doubled g-force. Viability of fat grafts was analysed with the WST-8 test and with annexin V/PI assay FACS analysis.The viability of fat grafts processed by the Coleman technique was significantly higher compared to the Shippert technique on applying the WST-8 test. Applying the annexin V/PI analysis, the viability of fat grafts was almost equal with both techniques. Whereas the fat grafts processed with the Tissu Trans system are injected without condensation, the grafts refined with the Coleman technique were concentrated 3 times by centrifugation compared to the primary liposuctioned graft volumes.The Coleman technique allows the preparation of a fat graft containing more viable cells than the Shippert technique. This is in part due to the condensation of the graft by centrifugation using the Coleman technique. The factor of condensation of the grafts harvested and refined with the Coleman technique exceeds the factor of increased fat graft viability in comparison to the Shippert technique. The Tissu Trans system is more than twice as fast and easier to use with a preferential use for large volume grafts like in breast augmentation, whereas the

  5. Integrated control of landscape irrigation and rainwater harvesting for urban water management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. H.; Dhakal, B.; Noh, S.; Seo, D. J.

    2016-12-01

    Demand for freshwater is increasing rapidly in large and fast-growing urban areas such as the Dallas-Fort Worth Metroplex (DFW). With almost complete reliance on surface water, water supply for DFW is limited by the available storage in the reservoir systems which is now subject to larger variability due to climate change. Landscape irrigation is estimated to account for nearly one-third of all residential water use in the US and as much as 60% in dry climate areas. In landscape irrigation, a large portion of freshwater is commonly lost by sub-optimal practices. If practiced over a large area, one may expect optimized smart irrigation to significantly reduce urban freshwater demand. For increasing on-site water supply, rainwater harvesting (RHW) is particularly attractive in that it conserves potable water while reducing stormwater runoff. Traditional static RWH methods, however, have limited success due to the inefficient water usage. If, on the other hand, lawn irrigation and rainwater harvesting can be optimized as an integrated operation and controlled adaptively to the feedback from the environmental sensors, weather conditions and forecast, one may expect the combined benefits for water conservation and stormwater management to be larger. In this work, we develop a prototype system for integrated control of lawn irrigation and RWH for water conservation and stormwater management, and assess and demonstrate the potential impact and value of the system. For in-situ evaluation, we deploy a wireless sensor network consisting of low-cost off-the-shelf sensors and open-sourced components, and collect observations of temperature, humidity, soil moisture, and solar radiation at the test site at the UTA community garden in Arlington, Texas. We assess the health of the lawn grass using normalized vegetation index (NDVI) from the time lapse images at the site. In this poster, we describe the approach and share the initial results.

  6. Establishment of sustainable water supply system in small islands through rainwater harvesting (RWH): case study of Guja-do.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Mooyoung; Ki, Jaehong

    2010-01-01

    Many islands in Korea have problems related to water source security and supply. In particular, the water supply condition is worse in small islands which are remote from the mainland. A couple of alternatives are developed and suggested to supply water to islands including water hauling, groundwater extraction, and desalination. However, these alternatives require much energy, cost, and concern in installation and operation. Rainwater harvesting is a sustainable option that supplies water with low energy and cost. However, lack of practical or comprehensive studies on rainwater harvesting systems in these regions hinders the promotion of the system. Therefore, this research examines defects of current RWH systems on an existing island, Guja-do, and provides technical suggestions in quantitative and qualitative aspects. A simple system design modification and expansion of system capacity using empty space such as a wharf structure can satisfy both the qualitative and the quantitative water demand of the island. Since rainwater harvesting is estimated to be a feasible water supply option under the Korean climate, which is an unfavorable condition for rainwater harvesting, implies a high potential applicability of rainwater harvesting technology to other regions over the world suffering from water shortage.

  7. A nanowire based triboelectric nanogenerator for harvesting water wave energy and its applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoyi; Tao, Juan; Zhu, Jing; Pan, Caofeng

    2017-07-01

    The ocean wave energy is one of the most promising renewable and clean energy sources for human life, which is the so-called "Blue energy." In this work, a nanowire based triboelectric nanogenerator was designed for harvesting wave energy. The nanowires on the surface of FEP largely raise the contacting area with water and also make the polymer film hydrophobic. The output can reach 10 μ A and 200 V. When combined with a capacitor, an infrared emitter, and a receiver, a self-powered wireless infrared system is fabricated, which can be used in the fields of communication and detecting.

  8. A nanowire based triboelectric nanogenerator for harvesting water wave energy and its applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyi Li

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The ocean wave energy is one of the most promising renewable and clean energy sources for human life, which is the so-called “Blue energy.” In this work, a nanowire based triboelectric nanogenerator was designed for harvesting wave energy. The nanowires on the surface of FEP largely raise the contacting area with water and also make the polymer film hydrophobic. The output can reach 10 μ A and 200 V. When combined with a capacitor, an infrared emitter, and a receiver, a self-powered wireless infrared system is fabricated, which can be used in the fields of communication and detecting.

  9. Stream flow unaffected by Eucalyptus plantation harvesting implicates water use by the native forest streamside reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip J. Smethurst

    2015-03-01

    New hydrological insights: Plantation harvest had little effect on steam flow, despite a 6–11 m rise in water table level under the plantation area. This result suggests that the native forest reserve intercepted groundwater moving laterally between the plantation and the stream. Measured and simulated runoff coefficients were similarly low (5% and 3%, respectively, but simulated removal of the native forest led to an increase to 38%. Therefore, plantation management in this type of landscape is likely to have little impact on stream flows where there is an intact native rainforest reserve beside the stream.

  10. Water transparency of Macrobrachium amazonicum ponds under different feeding regimens and selective harvests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlei Cassiano Keppeler

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In aquaculture systems, water transparency is affected by water supply, feeding rate and fertilization. A study was conducted from December 19, 2003 to May 12, 2004 for a period of approximately 120 days. Twelve 0.01ha earthen ponds were used with 1m deep water. Prawns were fed commercial diet at a rate of 7 to 9% of biomass until the 14th week. Then, three groups of three ponds were fed with 3%, 5% and 7% of prawn biomass. The remaining three other ponds were subjected to combined harvest. The amount of penetrating light was calculated according to Lambert's Law, described as Iz = Ioe-kz. Evaluation of the data using Kruskall-Wallis, complemented by LSD test, showed a significant difference between treatments of 3 and 5% (p 0.05.

  11. Microbial source tracking in shellfish harvesting waters in the Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symonds, E M; Young, S; Verbyla, M E; McQuaig-Ulrich, S M; Ross, E; Jiménez, J A; Harwood, V J; Breitbart, M

    2017-03-15

    Current microbial water quality monitoring is generally limited to culture-based measurements of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB). Given the many possible sources of fecal pollution within a watershed and extra-intestinal FIB reservoirs, it is important to determine source(s) of fecal pollution as a means to improve water quality and protect public health. The principal objective of this investigation was to characterize the microbial water quality of shellfish harvesting areas in the Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica during 2015. In order to achieve this objective, the specificity and sensitivity of 11 existing microbial source tracking (MST) PCR assays, associated with cows (BacCow), dogs (BacCan, DogBac), domestic wastewater (PMMoV), general avian (GFD), gulls (Gull2), horses (HorseBac, HoF), humans (HF183, HPyV), and pigs (PF), were evaluated using domestic wastewater and animal fecal samples collected from the region. The sensitivity of animal-associated assays ranged from 13 to 100%, while assay specificity ranged from 38 to 100%. The specificity of pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) and human polyomavirus (HPyV) was 100% for domestic wastewater, as compared to 94% specificity of the HF183 Bacteroidales marker. PMMoV was identified as a useful domestic wastewater-associated marker, with concentrations as high as 1.1 × 10 5 copies/ml and 100% sensitivity and specificity. Monthly surface water samples collected from four shellfish harvesting areas were analyzed using culture-based methods for Escherichia coli as well as molecular methods for FIB and a suite of MST markers, which were selected for their specificity in the region. While culturable E. coli results suggested possible fecal pollution during the monitoring period, the absence of human/domestic wastewater-associated markers and low FIB concentrations determined using molecular methods indicated sufficient microbial water quality for shellfish harvesting. This is the first study to our knowledge to test the

  12. Harvesting and Separation Technique of Porphyridium cruentum Polysaccharide Using Ultrafiltration Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasanah Hasanah

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Red microalga Porphyridium cruentum secreting polysaccharides into its medium culture. Harvestingand separation of polysaccharide of P. cruentum usually use centrifugation and in large scale needs highcost. The use of ultrafiltration membrane can be one of the alternatives for harvesting and separation ofP. cruentum polysaccharide. This study aimed to determine the characteristic of membrane and permeatfrom harvesting and separation of P. cruentum polysaccharide using ultrafiltration. Research consisted offour stages : membrane characterization, cultivation of P. cruentum, harvesting using 0.05 μm ultrafiltrationmembrane, and polysaccharide separation using 0.01 μm ultrafiltration membrane. Characterization ofmembrane permeability and internal resistance on ultrafiltration 0.05 μm dan 0.01 μm were 137.32 L/m2hbarand 62.38 L/m2hbar and 0.01 barm2h/L and 0.02 barm2h/L, respectively. Harvesting using ultrafiltration 0.05μm produced flux 131.37-94.75 L/m2h, biomass rejection 96% and permeate with OD (Optical Density (0.01± 0.00, viscosity (2.4 ± 0.17 cp, pH (8 ± 0.00, and salinity (42.37 ± 0.11 ‰. Separation of polysaccharideusing ultrafiltration 0.05 μm produced flux 58.11-51.53 L/m2h and permeate with viscosity (2.2 ± 0.30 cp,pH (7.8 ± 0.01, and salinity (38.73 ± 0.05 ‰. Ultrafiltration process decreased OD, viscosity, and salinityof permeate.

  13. Technique for compressed bundles for harvest of whole straw willow. Pilot study; Teknik foer komprimerande helskottsskoerd av salix i buntform. Foerstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Hans (Vaesteraeng Lantbruk AB (Sweden))

    2008-06-15

    application in the field of innovative machinery development. The pilot study expects to answer 'which measures that must be done' to use the advantages in a new harvest system. Consumers of Salix raw material and Salix entrepreneurs are the target groups for this pilot study. To handle the Salix raw material during a longer period than today the water content for further storage must reach a level that's acceptable for storage. Developer of machinery and machinery system is a target group which has to follow the specifications of requirements. People working with research in the field of what new techniques can come up with in comparison to the techniques of today is of course also one important target group. New calculations and analyses must be done on the whole chain that includes produce of fuel energy from energy forest. The realization of the project is going to be as a pilot study based on the project 'Salix Maelardalen'. The value of a production of a new type of harvest technique for Salix is very great.

  14. Bipolar Cutting Method: Another Technique for Harvesting Donor Artery With Histological Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokugawa, Joji; Ogura, Kanako; Yatomi, Kenji; Kudo, Kentaro; Hishii, Makoto; Tanikawa, Rokuya; Kamiyama, Hiroyasu

    2018-01-01

    Safe and appropriate harvesting of the donor scalp vessel is the first key procedure in any type of bypass surgery. To use the so-called bipolar cutting method to harvest donor arteries, in which the donor arteries are skeletonized with bipolar cautery. The surgical procedure and the preparation of the equipment of the bipolar cutting method are described. The surgical results and histological assessment are presented. The bipolar generator was set at 50 Malis units in the coagulation mode. Under the surgical microscope, the surrounding tissue of the donor artery was divided and coagulated with the bipolar forceps. The donor artery was completely skeletonized to provide adequate length. After the recipient artery was chosen and the anastomosis site was decided, the distal end of the donor artery was cut to the appropriate length. The remnant fragment of the donor artery was histologically investigated for any damage to the arterial wall. The specimen was cut longitudinally to observe the entire length of the arterial wall and stained with hematoxylin and eosin and elastica van Gieson. A total of 30 bypass surgeries were performed and 38 histological specimens were obtained between February 2015 and June 2016. The success rate of the bypass was 96%. No arterial wall damage such as thermal injury or dissection of the wall was recognized in any of the specimens. The bipolar cutting method is a useful and safe method for harvesting donor scalp artery.

  15. Effects of forest harvest on stream-water quality and nitrogen cycling in the Caspar Creek watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randy A. Dahlgren

    1998-01-01

    The effects of forest harvest on stream-water quality and nitrogen cycling were examined for a redwood/Douglas-fir ecosystem in the North Fork, Caspar Creek experimental watershed in northern California. Stream-water samples were collected from treated (e.g., clearcut) and reference (e.g., noncut) watersheds, and from various locations downstream from the treated...

  16. Spatial Runoff Estimation and Mapping of Potential Water Harvesting Sites: A GIS and Remote Sensing Perspective, Northwest Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mekonnen, M.M.; Melesse, A.M.; Keesstra, S.D.

    2016-01-01

    Freshwater resources scarcity is becoming a limiting factor for development and sustenance in most parts of Ethiopia. The Debre Mewi watershed, in northwest Ethiopia, is one of such areas where the need for supplemental water supply through rainwater harvesting is essential. Suitable water

  17. Nonlinear analysis of a two-degree-of-freedom vibration energy harvester using high order spectral analysis techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nico, V.; Frizzell, R.; Punch, J.

    2017-04-01

    Conventional vibration energy harvesters are generally based on linear mass-spring oscillator models. Major limitations with common designs are their narrow bandwidths and the increase of resonant frequency as the device is scaled down. To overcome these problems, a two-degree-of-freedom nonlinear velocity-amplified energy harvester has been developed. The device comprises two masses, oscillating one inside the other, between four sets of nonlinear magnetic springs. Impacts between the masses allow momentum transfer from the heavier mass to the lighter, providing velocity amplification. This paper studies the nonlinear effects introduced by the presence of magnetic springs, using high order spectral analysis techniques on experimental and simulated data obtained for a range of excitation levels and magnetic spring configurations, which enabled the effective spring constant to be varied. Standard power spectrum analysis only provide limited information on the response of nonlinear systems. Instead, bispectral analysis is used here to provide deeper insight of the complex dynamics of the nonlinear velocity-amplified energy harvester. The analysis allows identification of period-doubling and couplings between modes that could be used to choose geometrical parameters to enhance the bandwidth of the device.

  18. An alternative technique to the harvesting of a connective tissue graft from a thin palate: enhanced wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosco, Alvaro Francisco; Bosco, Joseane Maria Dias

    2007-04-01

    This article describes an alternative surgical approach to the harvesting of subepithelial connective tissue grafts from thin palates. A partial-thickness flap is raised, and a graft composed of epithelium and connective tissue is removed from the palate. The superficial layer (epithelium and a thin zone of connective tissue) is then dissected from the graft and replaced at the donor site to facilitate faster healing. The subjacent layer of connective tissue is placed as needed to obtain root coverage. The clinical application of this technique is described in two patients with multiple gingival recessions.

  19. Domestic rainwater harvesting to improve water supply in rural South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwenge Kahinda, Jean-marc; Taigbenu, Akpofure E.; Boroto, Jean R.

    Halving the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation, is one of the targets of the 7th Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). In South Africa, with its mix of developed and developing regions, 9.7 million (20%) of the people do not have access to adequate water supply and 16 million (33%) lack proper sanitation services. Domestic Rainwater Harvesting (DRWH), which provides water directly to households enables a number of small-scale productive activities, has the potential to supply water even in rural and peri-urban areas that conventional technologies cannot supply. As part of the effort to achieve the MDGs, the South African government has committed itself to provide financial assistance to poor households for the capital cost of rainwater storage tanks and related works in the rural areas. Despite this financial assistance, the legal status of DRWH remains unclear and DRWH is in fact illegal by strict application of the water legislations. Beyond the cost of installation, maintenance and proper use of the DRWH system to ensure its sustainability, there is risk of waterborne diseases. This paper explores challenges to sustainable implementation of DRWH and proposes some interventions which the South African government could implement to overcome them.

  20. Modeling of a water vapor selective membrane unit to increase the energy efficiency of humidity harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmair, D.; Metz, S. J.; de Lange, H. C.; van Steenhoven, A. A.

    2012-11-01

    Air humidity is a promising source of clean and safe drinking water. However, in conventional systems a lot of energy is wasted on the production of cold air, rather than the condensation of water vapor. This study examines the possibility of using a hollow fiber membrane module to make this process more energy efficient, by separating the vapor from other gases, prior to the cooling process with the help of selective membranes. The water vapor concentration within a fiber has been modeled using a random walker approach, and the membrane permeability has been implemented as a re-bounce probability for simulation particles interacting with the membrane. Considering the additional work requirement for driving a feed flow through the membrane section and the computed water vapor permeation it could be shown that the energy demand per unit water is lowest for slow flow speeds and favors short and thin fibers. The total energy requirement was estimated to be less than half of the conventional one. Comparison with other CFD simulations and a real life module has shown a good level of agreement, indicating that a membrane section could improve the energy efficiency of humidity harvesting significantly.

  1. BAGGING TECHNIQUE: WATER CATCHMENT SYSTEM FOR RESIDUAL MOISTURE CROPS USED BY PRODUCERS MASIACA, SONORA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pastor Sánchez-García

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In the southeast of Sonora as in most of the State, land is unproductive due to its arid and semi-arid land, if it does not have small or large irrigation facilities. Where economic conditions are reduced, producers need to develop techniques that help to overcome the erraticity in the availability of water, especially for irrigation. That's why Mays Indian and Masiaca community private producers from Sonora have developed a technique for harvesting from water of avenues of the intermittent streams near their plots, and once the ground has the adequate humidity conditions they can establish crops of their interest, so it is possible to obtain acceptable harvest in corn, peas, sorghum and safflower. However, these producers face a series of problems related primarily to the lack of rain; lack of credit support for the construction or maintenance of the required facilities; lack of profitability of crops established there, the abandonment of agricultural land, erosion of knowledge, etc. The analysis of this study can draw the following conclusions: The bagging technique is feasible if there are heavy rains, with the presence of cyclones, in October; the acceptable harvest obtained in established crops is largely due to the contribution of organic matter derived from the Avenues; the organizational levels observed are simple and operational.

  2. Tracer injection techniques in flowing surface water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wörman, A.

    2009-04-01

    Residence time distributions for flowing water and reactive matter are commonly used integrated properties of the transport process for determining technical issues of water resource management and in eco-hydrological science. Two general issues for tracer techniques are that the concentration-vs-time relation following a tracer injection (the breakthrough curve) gives unique transport information in different parts of the curve and separation of hydromechanical and reactive mechanisms often require simultaneous tracer injections. This presentation discusses evaluation methods for simultaneous tracer injections based on examples of tracer experiments in small rivers, streams and wetlands. Tritiated water is used as a practically inert substance to reflect the actual hydrodynamics, but other involved tracers are Cr(III)-51, P-32 and N-15. Hydromechanical, in-stream dispersion is reflected as a symmetrical spreading of the spatial concentration distribution. This requires that the transport distance over water depth is larger than about five times the flow Peclet number. Transversal retention of both inert and reactive solutes is reflected in terms of the tail of the breakthrough curve. Especially, reactive solutes can have a substantial magnification of the tailing behaviour depending on reaction rates or partitioning coefficients. To accurately discriminate between the effects of reactions and hydromechanical mixing its is relevant to use simultaneous injections of inert and reactive tracers with a sequential or integrated evaluation procedure. As an example, the slope of the P-32 tailing is consistently smaller than that of a simultaneous tritium injection in Ekeby wetland, Eskilstuna. The same applies to N-15 injected in the same experiment, but nitrogen is affected also by a systematic loss due to denitrification. Uptake in stream-bed sediments can be caused by a pumping effect arising when a variable pressure field is created on the stream bottom due to bed

  3. Timber Harvest Effects on Sediment and Water Yields and Analysis of Sediment Load Calculation Methods in the Interior Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elverson, C.; Karwan, D. L.

    2015-12-01

    Timber harvest practices have a long-standing association with changes in water and sediment yields. We quantify the trends in water and sediment yields in the Mica Creek Experimental Watershed (MCEW) in relation to management practices with linear regression and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). From 1991 to 2013, an increase in water yield resulted from both clearcutting and thinning treatments, with monthly water yield rate increases of 13-57% and annual water yield increases up to 210 mm (40%) in the clearcut watershed. Following treatment, annual sediment yields increased in the clearcut watershed by 40-131% and the thinned watershed by 33-163%, both relative to the control watershed, with statistically-significant monthly load increases in the year immediately following treatment. Water and sediment yield changes do not follow the same post-treatment patterns. Water yields increased immediately following treatment and, over time, gradually dropped towards pre-harvest levels. Annual sediment yields increased in some years after the harvest, but in some cases the increase was years after treatment. Monthly sediment yields increased in the first year following the clearcut harvest, but elevated monthly loads following the partial cut harvest came years later. Hence, we investigate the changes in sediment yield through an examination of water yield and sediment concentration and in response to events. We test the sensitivity of our results to different methods for computing sediment yields based on total suspended solids concentration and continuous discharge measurements. Flow-weighted sediment yield averaged 24% higher than sediment yield computed from linear-interpolated total suspended solids concentration values. During typical summer and fall conditions, flow-weighting was found to overweight storm measurements and produce large sediment yield estimates. Further work is suggested to test methods of calculating monthly sediment yields with irregularly

  4. Modelling water-harvesting systems in the arid south of Tunisia using SWAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ouessar

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In many arid countries, runoff water-harvesting systems support the livelihood of the rural population. Little is known, however, about the effect of these systems on the water balance components of arid watersheds. The objective of this study was to adapt and evaluate the GIS-based watershed model SWAT (Soil Water Assessment Tool for simulating the main hydrologic processes in arid environments. The model was applied to the 270-km2 watershed of wadi Koutine in southeast Tunisia, which receives about 200 mm annual rain. The main adjustment for adapting the model to this dry Mediterranean environment was the inclusion of water-harvesting systems, which capture and use surface runoff for crop production in upstream subbasins, and a modification of the crop growth processes. The adjusted version of the model was named SWAT-WH. Model evaluation was performed based on 38 runoff events recorded at the Koutine station between 1973 and 1985. The model predicted that the average annual watershed rainfall of the 12-year evaluation period (209 mm was split into ET (72%, groundwater recharge (22% and outflow (6%. The evaluation coefficients for calibration and validation were, respectively, R2 (coefficient of determination 0.77 and 0.44; E (Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient 0.73 and 0.43; and MAE (Mean Absolute Error 2.6 mm and 3.0 mm, indicating that the model could reproduce the observed events reasonably well. However, the runoff record was dominated by two extreme events, which had a strong effect on the evaluation criteria. Discrepancies remained mainly due to uncertainties in the observed daily rainfall and runoff data. Recommendations for future research include the installation of additional rainfall and runoff gauges with continuous data logging and the collection of more field data to represent the soils and land use. In addition, crop growth and yield monitoring is needed for a proper evaluation of crop production, to

  5. Nitrogen extraction potential of wild and cultured bivalves harvested from nearshore waters of Cape Cod, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitsma, Joshua; Murphy, Diane C; Archer, Abigail F; York, Richard H

    2017-03-15

    As nitrogen entering coastal waters continues to be an issue, much attention has been generated to identify potential options that may help alleviate this stressor to estuaries, including the propagation of bivalves to remove excess nitrogen. Oysters (Crassostrea virginica) and quahogs (Mercenaria mercenaria) from numerous Cape Cod, MA, (USA) sources were analyzed for nitrogen content stored in tissues that would represent a net removal of nitrogen from a water body if harvested. Results showed local oysters average 0.69% nitrogen by total dry weight (mean 0.28gN/animal) and quahogs average 0.67% nitrogen by total dry weight (mean 0.22gN/animal); however, these values did vary by season and to a lesser extent by location or grow-out method. The differences in nitrogen content were largely related to the mass of shell or soft tissue. Nitrogen isotope data indicate shellfish from certain water bodies in the region are incorporating significant amounts of nitrogen from anthropogenic sources. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of water stress and harvesting stages on quantitative and qualitative yields of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ahmadian

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effect of drought stress and harvesting stages on quantitative and qualitative yields of Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L. this experiment was conducted on split plot based on a randomized completely block design with 3 replications in Torbat-e Heydariyeh University, Iran, during growing season of 2010-2011. Treatments were drought stress (in three levels no stress: control and irrigation in 60 and 30 percentage of FC as main plots and harvesting times (in 3 levels consist of: before flowering, flowering and after flowering as sub plots. Results showed that drought stress and harvesting stages had significant affected on leaf number, height, number of stem, wet and dry weight of plant, SPAD, proline content, carbohydrate content, essential oil yield and percentage and components of essential oil of coriander. Increasing water stress decreased yield and its components while enhanced proline and carbohydrate contents. Maximum of essential oil and its main components (linalool, alpha pentene, gamma terpinene, geranial acetate and camphor were in low stress that had significant difference with other stress treatments. Delaying in harvest enhanced yield and its components and essential oil percentage. Proline content had no significant difference between flowering and after flowering stages. Therefore, we can suggest low stress of water and harvest at after flowering stage to get maximum of yield.

  7. Water stress at the end of the pomegranate fruit ripening permits earlier harvesting and improve fruit quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galindo Egea, Alejandro; Calín-Sánchez,; Griñán, I.; Rodríguez, P.; Cruz, Zulma N; Girón, I.F.; Corell, M.; Martínez-Font, R.; Moriana, A.; Carbonell-Barrachina, A.A.; Torrecillas, A.; Hernández, F.

    2017-01-01

    Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is a drought tolerant crop, which thrives in the face of scarce water resources, this fact underlines the importance of determining the optimum harvest time to improve the quality of pomegranate fruits. This research was focused on the crop responses to drought

  8. Farm Size and the Share of Irrigated Land in total Landholding: the case of Water-Harvesting Irrigation in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakeyo, M.B.; Gardebroek, C.

    2011-01-01

    Rain-fall shortage constrains production in small-holder agriculture in developing countries and with ongoing climate change these shortages may increase. Rain-water harvesting are interesting technologies that decrease this risk. Therefore, one would expect an increasing use of these technologies

  9. Assessing the implications of water harvesting intensification on upstream-downstream ecosystem services: A case study in the Lake Tana basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dile, Yihun Taddele; Karlberg, Louise; Daggupati, Prasad; Srinivasan, Raghavan; Wiberg, David; Rockström, Johan

    2016-01-15

    Water harvesting systems have improved productivity in various regions in sub-Saharan Africa. Similarly, they can help retain water in landscapes, build resilience against droughts and dry spells, and thereby contribute to sustainable agricultural intensification. However, there is no strong empirical evidence that shows the effects of intensification of water harvesting on upstream-downstream social-ecological systems at a landscape scale. In this paper we develop a decision support system (DSS) for locating and sizing water harvesting ponds in a hydrological model, which enables assessments of water harvesting intensification on upstream-downstream ecosystem services in meso-scale watersheds. The DSS was used with the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) for a case-study area located in the Lake Tana basin, Ethiopia. We found that supplementary irrigation in combination with nutrient application increased simulated teff (Eragrostis tef, staple crop in Ethiopia) production up to three times, compared to the current practice. Moreover, after supplemental irrigation of teff, the excess water was used for dry season onion production of 7.66 t/ha (median). Water harvesting, therefore, can play an important role in increasing local- to regional-scale food security through increased and more stable food production and generation of extra income from the sale of cash crops. The annual total irrigation water consumption was ~4%-30% of the annual water yield from the entire watershed. In general, water harvesting resulted in a reduction in peak flows and an increase in low flows. Water harvesting substantially reduced sediment yield leaving the watershed. The beneficiaries of water harvesting ponds may benefit from increases in agricultural production. The downstream social-ecological systems may benefit from reduced food prices, reduced flooding damages, and reduced sediment influxes, as well as enhancements in low flows and water quality. The benefits of water

  10. Potential for Potable Water Savings in Buildings by Using Stormwater Harvested from Porous Pavements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Niehuns Antunes

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing concern about the scarcity of water resources due to population growth and increased demand for potable water. Thus, the rational use of water has become necessary for the conservation of such resources. The objective of this study is to estimate the potential for potable water savings in buildings of different sectors—residential, public and commercial—in the city of Florianópolis, southern Brazil, by using stormwater harvested from porous pavements. Models were constructed to assess infiltration and rainwater quality; samples of stormwater from a local road were collected to evaluate its quality; and computer simulation was performed to assess the potential for potable water savings and rainwater tank sizing. Draining asphalt concrete slabs with two types of modifiers were used, i.e., tire rubber and SBS polymer—styrene-butadiene-styrene. The Netuno computer programme was used to simulate the potential for potable water savings considering the use of rainwater for non-potable uses such as flushing toilets and urinals, cleaning external areas, and garden watering. Average stormwater infiltration was 85.4%. It was observed that stormwater is not completely pure. From the models, the pH was 5.4 and the concentrations of ammonia, phosphorus, nitrite, and dissolved oxygen were 0.41, 0.14, 0.002, and 9.0 mg/L, respectively. The results for the stormwater runoff of a paved road were 0.23, 0.11, 0.12, 0.08, 1.41, 2.11, 0.02, and 9.0 mg/L for the parameters aluminium, ammonia, copper, chromium, iron, phosphorus, nitrite, and dissolved oxygen, respectively; and the pH was 6.7. In the city of Florianópolis, which has a surface area of paved roads of approximately 11,044,216 m², the potential for potable water savings ranged from 1.2% to 19.4% in the residential sector, 2.1% to 75.7% in the public sector and 6.5% to 70.0% in the commercial sector.

  11. Feasibility of Rainwater Harvesting to fulfill potable water demand using quantitative water management in low-lying delta regions of Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, A.; Hossain, F.

    2016-12-01

    Low-lying deltas of Asian region are usually densely populated and located in developing countries situated at the downstream end of major rivers. Extensive dam construction by the upstream countries has now caused water scarcity in large portions of low-lying deltas. Most inhabitants depend on shallow tube well for safe drinking water that tend to suffer from water quality issues (e.g. Arsenic contamination). In addition, people also get infected from water borne diseases like Cholera and Typhoid due to lack of safe drinking water. Developing a centralized piped network based water supply system is often not a feasible option in rural regions. Due to social acceptability, environment friendliness, lower capital and maintenance cost, rainwater harvesting can be the most sustainable option to supply safe drinking water in rural areas. In this study, first we estimate the monthly rainfall variability using long precipitation climatology from satellite precipitation data. The upper and lower bounds of monthly harvestable rainwater were estimated for each satellite precipitation grid. Taking this lower bound of monthly harvestable rainwater as input, we use quantitative water management concept to determine the percent of the time of the year potable water demand can be fulfilled. Analysis indicates that a 6 m³ reservoir tank can fulfill the potable water demand of a 6 person family throughout a year in almost all parts of this region.

  12. Assessment of Water Quality in Roof-Harvested Rainwater Barrels in Greater Philadelphia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry A. Hamilton

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of water quality parameters was conducted in 38 small-scale roof-harvested rainwater barrels (RHRB located in urban and peri-urban Philadelphia, USA in winter (November–December 2014 and summer (June–August 2016. Parameters included two fecal indicator bacteria (FIB (Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. measured using culture-based methods, eight potential enteric and opportunistic pathogens (Campylobacter jejuni, Acanthamoeba spp., Legionella spp., L. pneumophila, Naegleria fowleri, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium intracellulare measured using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR, and two metals (lead and zinc using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS. Fecal indicator bacteria were detected in greater than 60% RHRB samples and concentrations (up to >103 per 100 mL exceeded US Food and Drug Administration (USFDA irrigation water quality standards. Among the enteric and opportunistic pathogens tested, 57.9, 44.7, 21.1, 18.4, 5 and 3% were PCR positive for Legionella spp., M. intracellulare, M. avium, Acanthamoeba spp., P. aeruginosa, and C. jejuni, respectively. N. fowleri and L. pneumophila were not detected in any sample. The concentrations of enteric and opportunistic pathogens ranged from 102 to 107 gene copies/L of barrel water. Lead and zinc were each observed in 88.5% of RHRB but the concentrations did not exceed US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA standards for irrigating produce, with the exception of one zinc observation (2660 µg/L. Based on these data, it appears that the risk associated with metals in RHRB is likely to be low, as these barrels are only used for gardening and non-potable purposes. However, risks due to fecal and opportunistic pathogens may be higher due to exposure to aerosols during gardening activities and produce consumed raw, and should be investigated further.

  13. The impacts of conifer harvesting on runoff water quality: a regional survey for Wales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Neal

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Major, minor and trace element chemistry of runoff at stormflow and baseflow from 67 catchments (2 to 5 ha in area has been determined to investigate the effects of clear felling and replanting of conifers on stream water quality across Wales. Samples, collected by local forestry workers (Forest Enterprise staff on a campaign basis on up to eight occasions, were for 16 mature first rotation standing forest: the remainder represented areas completely clear felled from less than one to up to forty years previously. As the waters drain acidic and acid sensitive soils, acidic runoff is often encountered. However, higher pH values with associated positive alkalinities and base cation enrichments are observed due to the influence of weathering reactions within the bedrock. There is little systematic variation in water quality between baseflow and stormflow for each site indicating a complex and erratic contribution of waters from the soil and underlying parent material. 80% or more of the data points show hardly any changes with felling time, but there are a few outlier points with much higher concentrations that provide important information on the processes operative. The clearest outlier felling response is for nitrate at five of the more recently felled sites on brown earth, gley and podzolic soil types. ANC, the prime indicator of stream acidity, shows a diverse response from both high to low outlier values (>+400 to -300 μEq/l. In parallel to nitrate, aluminium, potassium and barium concentrations are higher in waters sampled up to 4 years post felling, but the time series response is even less clear than that for nitrate. Cadmium, zinc and lead and lanthanides/actinides show large variations from site to site due to localized vein ore-mineralization in the underlying bedrock. The survey provides a strong indication that forest harvesting can have marked local effects on some chemical components of runoff for the first four years after felling

  14. Artificial neural networks aided conceptual stage design of water harvesting structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay Chandwani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents artificial neural networks (ANNs based methodology for ascertaining the structural parameters of water harvesting structures (WHS at the conceptual stage of design. The ANN is trained using exemplar patterns generated using an in-house MSExcel based design program, to draw a functional relationship between the five inputs design parameters namely, peak flood discharge, safe bearing capacity of strata, length of structure, height of structure and silt factor and four outputs namely, top width, bottom width, foundation depth and flood lift representing the structural parameters of WHS. The results of the study show that, the structural parameters of the WHS predicted using ANN model are in close agreement with the actual field parameters. The versatility of ANN to map complex or complex unknown relationships has been proven in the study. A parametric sensitivity study is also performed to assess the most significant design parameter. The study holistically presents a neural network based decision support tool that can be used to accurately estimate the major design parameters of the WHS at the conceptual stage of design in quick time, aiding the engineer-in-charge to conveniently forecast the budget requirements and minimize the labor involved during the subsequent phases of analysis and design.

  15. Drinking water contamination and treatment techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, S.; Bhattacharya, A.

    2017-06-01

    Water is of fundamental importance for life on earth. The synthesis and structure of cell constituents and transport of nutrients into the cells as well as body metabolism depend on water. The contaminations present in water disturb the spontaneity of the mechanism and result in long/short-term diseases. The probable contaminations and their possible routes are discussed in the present review. Continued research efforts result in some processes/technologies to remove the contaminations from water. The review includes concepts and potentialities of the technologies in a comprehensible form. It also includes some meaningful hybrid technologies and promising awaited technologies in coming years.

  16. Comparison of two techniques of harvesting connective tissue and its effects on healing pattern at palate and recession coverage at recipient site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Nymphea; Khasa, Meenakshi; Gugnani, Shalini; Malik, Rajvir; Bali, Deepika

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To compare the healing pattern in palate following harvestation of connective tissue graft by two different techniques and to compare the recession coverage at the recipient sites. Materials and Methods: 30 recession sites with Miller's class I and II recession in 16 patients were recruited for this study. Sites were randomly divided into 2 treatment groups. Group I used Unigraft Knife to harvest the connective tissue whereas in group II patients Langer & Langer techniques was used to harvest the connective tissue graft from the palate. Healing was evaluated at the donor site using- wound size(WS), immediate bleeding (iB) and delayed bleeding (dB), complete wound epithelialization (CE), sensibility disorders (S) and post operative pain (PP) at baseline, 1st, 4th, and 12th week postoperatively. Recession coverage was assessed by measuring Clinical Attachment Level (CAL), vertical recession (VR), width of keratinized gingiva (KT). Results: On comparison between Group I and II, a statistically significant larger wound size was observed in Group I. CWE was higher in Group II. A non significant difference was observed when SD, and delayed bleeding were compared at all time intervals. A non-significant difference was observed in the clinical parameters at the recipient site. Conclusion: When evaluating the WS and CWE, the Langer and Langer technique was found to be better than the Unigraft knife technique for harvesting the connective tissue graft, whereas both the techniques were found to be effective in root coverage procedure outcomes. PMID:27041892

  17. Least Limiting Water Range and Load Bearing Capacity of Soil under Types of Tractor-Trailers for Mechanical Harvesting of Green Sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Higino Frederico Pereira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The expansion of the sugarcane industry in Brazil has intensified the mechanization of agriculture and caused effects on the soil physical quality. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the limiting water range and soil bearing capacity of a Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico típico (Rhodic Hapludox under the influence of different tractor-trailers used in mechanical sugarcane harvesting. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design with five replications. The treatments consisted of green sugarcane harvesting with: harvester without trailer (T1; harvester with two trailers with a capacity of 10 Mg each (T2; harvester with trailer with a capacity of 20 Mg (T3 and harvester and truck with trailer with a capacity of 20 Mg (10 Mg per compartment (T4. The least limiting water range and soil bearing capacity were evaluated. The transport equipment to remove the harvested sugarcane from the field (trailer at harvest decreased the least limiting water range, reducing the structural soil quality. The truck trailer caused the greatest impact on the soil physical properties studied. The soil load bearing capacity was unaffected by the treatments, since the pressure of the harvester (T1 exceeded the pre-consolidation pressure of the soil.

  18. Tomographic particle image velocimetry of a water-jet for low volume harvesting of fat tissue for regenerative medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drobek Christoph

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV measurements of a water-jet for water-assisted liposuction (WAL are carried out to investigate the distribution of velocity and therefore momentum and acting force on the human sub-cutaneous fat tissue. These results shall validate CFD simulations and force sensor measurements of the water-jet and support the development of a new WAL device that is able to harvest low volumes of fat tissue for regenerative medicine even gentler than regular WAL devices.

  19. Relative Composition of Fibrous Connective and Fatty/Glandular Tissue in Connective Tissue Grafts Depends on the Harvesting Technique but not the Donor Site of the Hard Palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertl, Kristina; Pifl, Markus; Hirtler, Lena; Rendl, Barbara; Nürnberger, Sylvia; Stavropoulos, Andreas; Ulm, Christian

    2015-12-01

    Whether the composition of palatal connective tissue grafts (CTGs) varies depending on donor site or harvesting technique in terms of relative amounts of fibrous connective tissue (CT) and fatty/glandular tissue (FGT) is currently unknown and is histologically assessed in the present study. In 10 fresh human cadavers, tissue samples were harvested in the anterior and posterior palate and in areas close to (marginal) and distant from (apical) the mucosal margin. Mucosal thickness, lamina propria thickness (defined as the extent of subepithelial portion of the biopsy containing ≤25% or ≤50% FGT), and proportions of CT and FGT were semi-automatically estimated for the entire mucosa and for CTGs virtually harvested by split-flap (SF) preparation minimum 1 mm deep or after deepithelialization (DE). Palatal mucosal thickness, ranging from 2.35 to 6.89 mm, and histologic composition showed high interindividual variability. Lamina propria thickness (P >0.21) and proportions of CT (P = 0.48) and FGT (P = 0.15) did not differ significantly among the donor sites (anterior, posterior, marginal, apical). However, thicker palatal tissue was associated with higher FGT content (P tissue composition in the hard palate, DE-harvested CTG contains much larger amounts of CT and much lower amounts of FGT than SF-harvested CTG, irrespective of the harvesting site.

  20. The effect of conventional surgery and piezoelectric surgery bone harvesting techniques on the donor site morbidity of the mandibular ramus and symphysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altiparmak, N; Soydan, S S; Uckan, S

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the morbidity following bone harvesting at two different intraoral donor sites, mandibular symphysis and ramus, and to determine the effects of piezoelectric and conventional surgical graft harvesting techniques on donor site morbidity. Intraoral block bone grafts were harvested from the symphysis (n=44) and ramus (n=31). The two donor site groups were divided into two subgroups according to the surgical graft harvesting method used (conventional or piezoelectric surgery). Intraoperative and postoperative pain was assessed using a visual analogue scale (VAS). Donor site morbidity and the harvesting techniques were compared statistically. Of 290 teeth evaluated in the symphysis group, four needed root canal treatment after surgery. The incidence of transient paresthesia in the mucosa was significantly higher in the symphysis group than in the ramus group (P=0.004). In the symphysis group, the incidence of temporary skin and mucosa paresthesia was lower in the piezoelectric surgery subgroup than in the conventional surgery subgroup (P=0.006 and P=0.001, respectively). No permanent anaesthesia of any region of the skin was reported in either donor site group. VAS scores did not differ between the ramus and symphysis harvesting groups, or between the piezoelectric and conventional surgery subgroups. When the symphysis was chosen as the donor site, minor sensory disturbances of the mucosa and teeth were recorded. The use of piezoelectric surgery during intraoral harvesting of bone blocks, especially from the symphysis, can reduce these complications. Copyright © 2015 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Water retention techniques for vegetation establishment in TxDOT West Texas districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Water harvesting is the collection of runoff for its productive use and may aid in the germination and : establishment of vegetation seeded in the roadside. This project is a synthesis study on the feasibility and : implications of adapting water har...

  2. Water quality monitoring using remote sensing technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adsavakulchai, Suwannee; Panichayapichet, Paweena

    2003-03-01

    There has been a rapid growth of shrimp farm around Kung Krabaen Bay in the past decade. This has caused enormous rise in generation of domestic and industrial wastes. Most of these wastes are disposed in the Kung Krabaen Bay. There is a serious need to retain this glory by better water quality management of this river. Conventional methods of monitoring of water quality have limitations in collecting information about water quality parameters for a large region in detailed manner due to high cost and time. Satellite based technologies have offered an alternate approach for many environmental monitoring needs. In this study, the high-resolution satellite data (LANDSAT TM) was utilized to develop mathematical models for monitoring of chlorophyll-a. Comparison between empirical relationship of spectral reflectance with chl-a and band ratio between the near infrared (NIR) and red was suggested to detect chlorophyll in water. This concept has been successfully employed for marine zones and big lakes but not for narrow rivers due to constraints of spatial resolution of satellite data. This information will be very useful in locating point and non-point sources of pollution and will help in designing and implementing controlling structures.

  3. Techniques and materials for internal water curing of concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede; Lura, Pietro

    2006-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of different techniques for incorporation of internal curing water in concrete. Internal water curing can be used to mitigate self-desiccation and selfdesiccation shrinkage. Some concretes may need 50 kg/m3 of internal curing water for this purpose. The price of the i...

  4. Femoral marrow cavity bone harvesting used for arthroscopic refilling of misplaced or enlarged bone tunnels in revision ACL surgery: an arthroscopically supported technique with antegrade intramedullary bone harvesting by a reamer-irrigator-aspirator (RIA) system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grote, S; Helfen, T; Mück, F; Regauer, M; Prall, W C

    2015-03-01

    In anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) revision surgery, refilling of misplaced or enlarged tunnels frequently requires bone harvesting from the iliac crest. Unfortunately, donor-site pain displays a relevant complication. In order to optimize patients' comfort, we developed a procedure combining minimally invasive intramedullary bone harvesting from the femur with arthroscopic tunnel refilling. Patients with ACL reconstruction failure that were not eligible for one-step revision surgery but required tunnel refilling prior to the next ACL reconstruction were enrolled prospectively. Cancellous bone was harvested intramedullarily from the ipsilateral femur using the reamer-irrigator-aspirator system in a minimally invasive manner. Afterwards, the femoral and tibial tunnels were arthroscopically refilled using cones and push rods. Computer tomography (CT) analyses were carried out before and after the filling procedure. Pain levels were assessed during the entire follow-up. Patients undergoing iliac crest bone harvesting for other reasons served as a control group. Finally, the quality of the newly formed bone stock was evaluated in the subsequent ACL reconstruction procedure. Five patients were included during a 6-month period. Prior to refilling, tunnel analysis revealed a mean tunnel volume of 7.9 cm(3) at the femur [SD ± 5.3 cm(3)] and of 6.7 cm(3) [SD ± 5.1 cm(3)] at the tibia. The CT analyses further revealed that graft failure was predominantly caused by tunnel misplacement. Post-operatively, pain levels due to intramedullary bone harvesting were significantly lower compared to iliac crest bone harvesting at every analysed time point. Three to five months after tunnel filling, CT analyses showed sufficiently incorporated bone stocks with filling rates of 75 % femoral and 94 % tibial. ACL revision surgery was performed 4-5 months after tunnel filling without any complication. Intramedullary bone harvesting from the ipsilateral femur combined with arthroscopic

  5. Effect of forage type, harvesting time and exogenous enzyme application on degradation characteristics measured using in vitro technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moharrery, Ali; Hvelplund, Torben; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2009-01-01

    Five forage species cut at different harvest times were studied for their degradation characteristics using in vitro digestibility technique. The forage species were two grasses and three legumes growing in two seasons (spring growth and second re-growth). Grass and legume forages were harvested...... at three harvesting times being early (E), middle (M) and late (L), both during the spring growth and the second re-growth. The grasses included perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne), and festulolium (XFestulolium), and the legumes included white clover (Trifolium repens), red clover (Trifolium pratense...... as a form of pre-treatment improved (Pdigestibility (8 h incubation) compared with control. Data suggest that pre-treatment of forage with fibrolytic enzymes can solubilise some fibre and improve digestibilities...

  6. Increased container-breeding mosquito risk owing to drought-induced changes in water harvesting and storage in Brisbane, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trewin, Brendan J; Kay, Brian H; Darbro, Jonathan M; Hurst, Tim P

    2013-12-01

    Extended drought conditions in south-east Queensland during the early 2000s have resulted in a culture of water harvesting and legislated water restrictions. Aedes notoscriptus is a container-breeding mosquito vector of Ross River and Barmah Forest viruses. From 2008-2009, the larval habitats and seasonal abundance of domestic container-breeding mosquitoes were recorded from three suburbs of Brisbane. A knowledge, attitudes and practice questionnaire was administered to householders. A low-cost, desktop methodology was used to predict the proportion of shaded premises compared with front-of-property estimates. We highlight changes in the frequency of container categories for A. notoscriptus as a response to human behavioural changes to drought. Garden accoutrements, discarded household items and water storage containers accounted for 66.2% (525/793) of positive containers and 77.5% (73 441/94 731) of all immature mosquitoes. Of all household premises surveyed, 52.6% (550/1046) contained rainwater tanks and 29.4% (308/1046) harvested water in other containers, contrasting with a previous 1995 survey where neither category was observed. Both Premise Condition Index and shade directly correlated with positive premises. Human response to drought has resulted in new habitats for domestic container-breeding mosquitoes. This recent trend of prolific water storage is similar to earlier years (1904-1943) in Brisbane when Aedes aegypti was present and dengue epidemics occurred.

  7. Fruit cuticle lipid composition and fruit post-harvest water loss in an advanced backcross generation of pepper (Capsicum sp.)

    KAUST Repository

    Parsons, Eugene P.

    2012-03-05

    To understand the role of fruit cuticle lipid composition in fruit water loss, an advanced backcross population, the BC2F2, was created between the Capsicum annuum (PI1154) and the Capsicum chinense (USDA162), which have high and low post-harvest water loss rates, respectively. Besides dramatic differences in fruit water loss, preliminary studies also revealed that these parents exhibited significant differences in both the amount and composition of their fruit cuticle. Cuticle analysis of the BC2F2 fruit revealed that although water loss rate was not strongly associated with the total surface wax amount, there were significant correlations between water loss rate and cuticle composition. We found a positive correlation between water loss rate and the amount of total triterpenoid plus sterol compounds, and negative correlations between water loss and the alkane to triterpenoid plus sterol ratio. We also report negative correlations between water loss rate and the proportion of both alkanes and aliphatics to total surface wax amount. For the first time, we report significant correlations between water loss and cutin monomer composition. We found positive associations of water loss rate with the total cutin, total C16 monomers and 16-dihydroxy hexadecanoic acid. Our results support the hypothesis that simple straight-chain aliphatic cuticle constituents form more impermeable cuticular barriers than more complex isoprenoid-based compounds. These results shed new light on the biochemical basis for cuticle involvement in fruit water loss. © 2012 Physiologia Plantarum.

  8. Increased water yields following harvesting operations on a drained coastal watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnny M. Grace; R.W. Skaggs; H.R. Malcom; G.M. Chescheir; D.K. Cassel

    2003-01-01

    Forest harvesting operations have been reported to affect annual and seasonal outflow characteristics from drained forest watersheds. Increases in forest outflow, nutrient concentrations, and suspended sediments are commonly seen as a result of these forest management activities. Thus, it is important to assess the impact of forest management activities on hydrology,...

  9. Surveillance of Enteric Viruses and Microbial Indicators in the Eastern Oysters (Crassostrea virginica) and Harvest Waters along Louisiana Gulf Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montazeri, Naim; Maite, Morgan; Liu, Da; Cormier, Jiemin; Landry, Matthew; Shackleford, John; Lampila, Lucina E; Achberger, Eric C; Janes, Marlene E

    2015-05-01

    Noroviruses are the most common causative agent of viral gastroenteritis in humans, and are responsible for major foodborne illnesses in the United States. Filter-feeding molluscan shellfish exposed to sewage-contaminated waters bioaccumulate viruses, and if consumed raw, transmit the viruses to humans and cause illness. We investigated the occurrence of norovirus GI and GII and microbial indicators of fecal contamination in the eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) and water from commercial harvesting areas along the Louisiana Gulf Coast (January to November of 2013). Microbial indicators (aerobic plate count, enterococci, fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, male-specific coliphages, and somatic coliphages) were detected at the densities lower than public health concerns. Only one oyster sample was positive for norovirus GII at 3.5 ± 0.2 log10 genomic equivalent copies/g digestive tissues. A stool specimen obtained from an infected individual associated with a norovirus outbreak and the suspected oysters (Cameron Parish, La., area 30, January 2013) were also analyzed. The norovirus strain in the stool belonged to GII.4 Sydney; however, the oysters were negative and could not be linked. In general, no temporal trend was observed in the microbial indicators. Low correlation among bacterial indicators was observed in oysters. Strongest correlations among microbial indicators were observed between enterococci and fecal coliforms (r = 0.63) and between enterococci and E. coli (r = 0.64) in water (P oysters (r oysters and harvest water (r ≤ 0.36, P > 0.05). Our results emphasize the need for regular monitoring of pathogenic viruses in commercial oyster harvesting areas to reduce the risks of viral gastroenteritis incidences. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  10. Identifying the major influences on the microbial composition of roof harvested rainwater and the implications for water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, C A; Coombes, P J; Dunstan, R H; Harrison, T

    2007-01-01

    Perceptions of the quality of roof harvested rainwater remain an impediment to widespread implementation of rainwater tanks on urban allotments. Previous literature reports on roof water quality have given little consideration to the relative significance of airborne environmental micro-organisms to roof catchment contamination and the issue of tank water quality. This paper outlines the findings of a recent study into the influence of weather on roof water contamination conducted at an urban housing development in Newcastle, on the east coast of Australia. Samples of direct roof run-off were collected during a number of separate rainfall events, and microbial counts were matched to climatic data corresponding to each of the monitored events. Roof run-off contamination was found to be under the strong influence of both wind speed and direction. The preliminary findings of an investigation currently under way into the microbial diversity of rainwater harvesting systems have also been presented. The results indicate that the composition of organisms present varied considerably from source to source and throughout the collection system. In all cases, evidence of faecal contamination was found to be negligible. The implications of these findings to the issues of tank water quality, health risk analysis and monitoring protocols have been discussed.

  11. Ensuring water security by utilizing roof-harvested rainwater and lake water treated with a low-cost integrated adsorption-filtration system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riffat Shaheed

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Drinking water is supplied through a centralized water supply system and may not be accessed by communities in rural areas of Malaysia. This study investigated the performance of a low-cost, self-prepared combined activated carbon and sand filtration (CACSF system for roof-harvested rainwater and lake water for potable use. Activated carbon was self-prepared using locally sourced coconut shell and was activated using commonly available salt rather than a high-tech procedure that requires a chemical reagent. The filtration chamber was comprised of local, readily available sand. The experiments were conducted with varying antecedent dry intervals (ADIs of up to 15 d and lake water with varying initial chemical oxygen demand (COD concentration. The CACSF system managed to produce effluents complying with the drinking water standards for the parameters pH, dissolved oxygen (DO, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5, COD, total suspended solids (TSS, and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N. The CACSF system successfully decreased the population of Escherichia coli (E. coli in the influents to less than 30 CFU/mL. Samples with a higher population of E. coli (that is, greater than 30 CFU/mL did not show 100% removal. The system also showed high potential as an alternative for treated drinking water for roof-harvested rainwater and class II lake water.

  12. A methylene blue-assisted technique for harvesting lymph nodes after radical surgery for gastric cancer: a prospective, randomized, controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyama, Toru; Fujikawa, Hirohito; Cho, Haruhiko; Ogata, Takashi; Shirai, Junya; Hayashi, Tsutomu; Rino, Yasushi; Masuda, Munetaka; Oba, Mari S; Morita, Satoshi; Yoshikawa, Takaki

    2015-02-01

    Harvesting lymph nodes (LNs) after gastrectomy is essential for accurate staging. This trial evaluated the efficiency and quality of a conventional method and a methylene blue-assisted method in a randomized manner. The key eligibility criteria were as follows: (i) histologically proven adenocarcinoma of the stomach; (ii) clinical stage I-III; (iii) R0 resection planned by gastrectomy with D1+ or D2 lymphadenectomy. The primary endpoint was the ratio of the pathologic number of harvested LNs per time (minutes) as an efficacy measure. The secondary endpoint was the number of harvested LNs, as a quality measure. Between August 2012 and December 2012, 60 patients were assigned to undergo treatment using the conventional method (n=29) and the methylene blue dye method (n=31). The baseline demographics were mostly well balanced between the 2 groups. The number of harvested LNs (mean±SD) was 33.6±11.9 in the conventional arm and 43.4±13.9 in the methylene blue arm (P=0.005). The ratio of the number of the harvested LNs per time was 1.12±0.46 LNs/min in the conventional arm and 1.49±0.59 LNs/min in the methylene blue arm (P=0.010). In the subgroup analyses, the quality and efficacy were both superior for the methylene blue dye method compared with the conventional method. The methylene blue technique is recommended for harvesting LNs during gastric cancer surgery on the basis of both the quality and efficacy.

  13. Rural water tanks with HFB technique: technical guide

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Solsona, F

    1991-03-01

    Full Text Available This technical guide describes a very simple technique for water tank construction called H-F-B (heart filled blocks). The technique makes use of a simple mould (which can be made even in rural areas) for the manufacture of concrete building blocks...

  14. Determination of water table using electrical sounding technique: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work investigated water-bearing formation and determined the water table in Afuze, a major town in Edo state, Nigeria, using electrical sounding techniques with the schlumberger electrode configuration The ABEM SAS 300B Terrameters was used in this work to carry out Resistivity soundings from several locations ...

  15. Fabrication of Thermoelectric Devices Using Additive-Subtractive Manufacturing Techniques: Application to Waste-Heat Energy Harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewolde, Mahder

    Thermoelectric generators (TEGs) are solid-state devices that convert heat directly into electricity. They are well suited for waste-heat energy harvesting applications as opposed to primary energy generation. Commercially available thermoelectric modules are flat, inflexible and have limited sizes available. State-of-art manufacturing of TEG devices relies on assembling prefabricated parts with soldering, epoxy bonding, and mechanical clamping. Furthermore, efforts to incorporate them onto curved surfaces such as exhaust pipes, pump housings, steam lines, mixing containers, reaction chambers, etc. require custom-built heat exchangers. This is costly and labor-intensive, in addition to presenting challenges in terms of space, thermal coupling, added weight and long-term reliability. Additive manufacturing technologies are beginning to address many of these issues by reducing part count in complex designs and the elimination of sub-assembly requirements. This work investigates the feasibility of utilizing such novel manufacturing routes for improving the manufacturing process of thermoelectric devices. Much of the research in thermoelectricity is primarily focused on improving thermoelectric material properties by developing of novel materials or finding ways to improve existing ones. Secondary to material development is improving the manufacturing process of TEGs to provide significant cost benefits. To improve the device fabrication process, this work explores additive manufacturing technologies to provide an integrated and scalable approach for TE device manufacturing directly onto engineering component surfaces. Additive manufacturing techniques like thermal spray and ink-dispenser printing are developed with the aim of improving the manufacturing process of TEGs. Subtractive manufacturing techniques like laser micromachining are also studied in detail. This includes the laser processing parameters for cutting the thermal spray materials efficiently by

  16. Fundamental measure theory for the electric double layer: implications for blue-energy harvesting and water desalination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härtel, Andreas; Janssen, Mathijs; Samin, Sela; van Roij, René

    2015-05-20

    Capacitive mixing (CAPMIX) and capacitive deionization (CDI) are promising candidates for harvesting clean, renewable energy and for the energy efficient production of potable water, respectively. Both CAPMIX and CDI involve water-immersed porous carbon (supercapacitors) electrodes at voltages of the order of hundreds of millivolts, such that counter-ionic packing is important for the electric double layer (EDL) which forms near the surfaces of these porous materials. Thus, we propose a density functional theory (DFT) to model the EDL, where the White-Bear mark II fundamental measure theory functional is combined with a mean-field Coulombic and a mean spherical approximation-type correction to describe the interplay between dense packing and electrostatics, in good agreement with molecular dynamics simulations. We discuss the concentration-dependent potential rise due to changes in the chemical potential in capacitors in the context of an over-ideal theoretical description and its impact on energy harvesting and water desalination. Compared to less elaborate mean-field models our DFT calculations reveal a higher work output for blue-energy cycles and a higher energy demand for desalination cycles.

  17. Fog-water harvesting along the West Coast of South Africa: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many parts of the West Coast of South Africa experience severe water shortages throughout the year. Despite the meager rainfall, however, the region is subject to a high incidence of fog which might provide water for water-poor communities. This paper investigates the fog water potential of the area. Since fog water ...

  18. Technique sensitivity of water-free one-step adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Landuyt, K L; Mine, A; De Munck, J; Countinho, E; Peumans, M; Jaecques, S; Lambrechts, P; Van Meerbeek, B

    2008-09-01

    All-in-one adhesives have been associated with water-related problems, such as phase-separation, polymerization-inhibition and reduced shelf life. In this study we investigated whether these problems could be avoided by a water-free self-etch adhesive that requires a 'wet-bonding' application procedure. Additionally, the technique-sensitivity of such a system was evaluated. The micro-tensile bond strength (muTBS) of a water-free and a water-containing experimental one-step adhesive (EXP) bonded to either 'air-dried', 'blot-dried' or 'overwet' bur-cut enamel and dentin was determined. Likewise, the muTBS of a commercial water-free adhesive Absolute2 (Denstply-Sankin) was determined. The interfacial interaction of the adhesives was evaluated by SEM and TEM. In the blot-dried group, both water-free adhesives obtained the highest bond strength and the bond strength of the water-free EXP was comparable to that of the water-containing EXP bonded to an air-dried surface. When they were applied to overwet surfaces, the water-free adhesives tended towards a lower bond strength. This was partly attributed to the presence of phase-separation (or 'overwet') droplets in the adhesive layer. Unexpectedly, even on air-dried dentin, the water-free adhesives were able to demineralize dentin, however to a limited extent, hence impairing the bond strength. Water-free one-step adhesives are a valuable alternative for conventional water-containing one-step adhesives. However, water-related problems in these adhesives are not ruled out, as they are eventually also mixed with water during the application procedure. As such, they partially fail to meet their objective. In addition, their bonding procedure, which involves 'wet bonding', is more technique-sensitive than dry bonding.

  19. Self-organized multi-species vegetation patterns: the role of connectivity of environmental niches in natural water harvesting ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callegaro, Chiara; Ursino, Nadia

    2016-04-01

    Self-organizing vegetation patterns are natural water harvesting systems in arid and semi-arid regions of the world and should be imitated when designing man-managed water-harvesting systems for rain-fed crop. Disconnected vegetated and bare zones, functioning as a source-sink system of resources, sustain vegetation growth and reduce water and soil losses. Mechanisms such as soil crusting over bare areas and soil loosening in vegetated areas feed back to the local net facilitation effect and contribute to maintain the patterned landscape structure. Dis-connectivity of run-off production and run-on infiltration sites reduces runoff production at the landscape scale, and increases water retention in the vegetated patches. What is the effect of species adaptation to different resource niches on the landscape structure? A minimal model for two coexisting species and soil moisture balance was formulated, to improve our understanding of the effects of species differentiation on the dynamics of plants and water at single-pattern and landscape scale within a tiger bush type ecosystem. A basic assumption of our model was that soil moisture availability is a proxy for the environmental niche of plant species. Connectivity and dis-connectivity of specific niches of adaptation of two differing plant species was an input parameter of our model, in order to test the effect of coexistence on the ecosystem structure. The ecosystem structure is the model outcome, including: patterns persistence of coexisting species; patterns persistence of one species with exclusion of the other; patterns decline with just one species surviving in a non organized structure; bare landscape with loss of both species. Results suggest that pattern-forming-species communities arise as a result of complementary niche adaptation (niche dis-connecivity), whereas niche superposition (niche connectivity) may lead to impoverishment of environmental resources and loss of vegetation cover and diversity.

  20. Geo-informatics Techniques for Assessing Physiological Status and Productivity of RRIC 121 Genotype of Hevea brasiliensis (Rubber under Different Harvesting Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.M.E.P. Fernando

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available AbstractRubber (Hevea brasiliensis one of the main plantation crops in Sri Lanka is the onlyplant species cultivated commercially for natural rubber harvesting. Novel systems forharvesting have been introduced but spatial distribution of photosynthetic potentialdetermining key factor for sustainable cultivation has not been properly explored. Use of suchtechniques such as Satellite Remote Sensing (RS and Geographic Information System (GISto analyse spatial and biological factors related to the productivity of rubber plantation withdifferent harvesting systems is the main objective of the present study.Quikebird high resolution satellite images were used for RS analysis. Chlorophyllcontent of rubber leaves was measured using a SPAD-502 chlorophyll meter. Chlorophyllcontent and satellite images were analysed using GIS and spatial statistical methods todetermine the variation in different harvesting systems. Yield data were collected from thestudy site and yield parameters were correlated with chlorophyll content and NormalizedDifference Vegetation Index (NDVI values. Results revealed all systems exhibitedpromising yield performance without significant deviation but slightly higher yield perhectare per year (YPH and dry rubber content of latex (DRC were recorded in quarter spiralbased once in three days (S/3 d4 and weekly (S/2 d1 2d7 harvesting systems. Chlorophyllcontent and rubber yield showed direct correlation in all systems. NDVI vs chlorophyllshowed positive correlation r2=0.65 and spatial distribution of chlorophyll and NDVI valuesdemonstrated sound physiological status of plants across the plantation with differentharvesting systems. Cost effective LIH systems showed better production trenddemonstrating relatively higher yield while reducing tapping cost and labour. Satellite basedremote sensing technique is an easy and efficient tool to estimate productivity of rubberplantation over a large area.Keywords: Chlorophyll, NDVI, harvesting

  1. Evaluation of dual-mode rainwater harvesting system to mitigate typhoon-induced water shortage in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M M; Chou, F N-F; Liaw, C-H

    2010-01-01

    The water shortage of today's world is one of the most challenging problems and the world is looking for the best solution to reduce it. Some human made causes and also natural causes are liable for the shortage of the existing water supply system. In Taiwan, especially during typhoon, the turbidity of raw water increases beyond the treatment level and the plant cannot supply required amount of water. To make the system effective, a couple of days are needed and the shortage occurs. The purpose of this study is to solve this emergency shortage problem. A dual-mode Rainwater Harvesting System (RWHS) was designed for this study as a supplement to the existing water supply system to support some selected non-potable components such as toilet and urinal flushing of an elementary school. An optimal design algorithm was developed using YAS (yield after spillage) and YBS (yield before spillage) release rules. The study result proved that an optimum volume of tank can solve the emergency water shortage properly. The system was found to be more reliable in Taipei area than that of Tainan area. The study also discovered that a government subsidy would be needed to promote the system in Taiwan.

  2. Geospatial Techniques for Improved Water Management in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jawad T. Al-Bakri

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This research shows a case from Jordan where geospatial techniques were utilized for irrigation water auditing. The work was based on assessing records of groundwater abstraction in relation to irrigated areas and estimated crop water consumption in three water basins: Yarmouk, Amman-Zarqa and Azraq. Mapping of irrigated areas and crop water requirements was carried out using remote sensing data of Landsat 8 and daily weather records. The methodology was based on visual interpretation and the unsupervised classification for remote sensing data, supported by ground surveys. Net (NCWR and gross (GCWR crop water requirements were calculated by merging crop evapotranspiration (ETc, calculated from daily weather records, with maps of irrigated crops. Gross water requirements were compared with groundwater abstractions recorded at a farm level to assess the levels of abstraction in relation to groundwater safe yield. Results showed that irrigated area and GCWR were higher than officially recorded cropped area and abstracted groundwater. The over abstraction of groundwater was estimated to range from 144% to 360% of the safe yield in the three basins. Overlaying the maps of irrigation and groundwater wells enabled the Ministry of Water and Irrigation (MWI to detect and uncover violations and illegal practices of irrigation, in the form of unlicensed wells, incorrect metering of pumped water and water conveyance for long distances. Results from the work were utilized at s high level of decision-making and changes to the water law were made, with remote sensing data being accredited for monitoring water resources in Jordan.

  3. Floating microbial fuel cells as energy harvesters for signal transmission from natural water bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schievano, Andrea; Colombo, Alessandra; Grattieri, Matteo; Trasatti, Stefano P.; Liberale, Alessandro; Tremolada, Paolo; Pino, Claudio; Cristiani, Pierangela

    2017-02-01

    A new type of floating microbial fuel cell (fMFC) was developed for power supply of remote environmental sensors and data transmission. Ten operating fMFCs generated a cell potential in the range 100-800 mV depending on the external resistance applied. Power production peaked around 3-3.5 mW (power density of 22-28 mW m-2 cathode) after about 20-30 days of start-up period. The average of daily electrical energy harvested ranged between 10 and 35 mWh/d. Long-term performances were ensured in the presence of dense rice plants (Oryza Sativa). A power management system, based on a step-up DC/DC converter and a low-power data transmission system via SIGFOX™ technology, have been set up for the fMFCs. The tested fMFCs systems allowed to: i) harvest produced energy, ii) supply electronic devices (intermittent LED-light and a buzzer); iii) transmit remote data at low speed (three message of 12 bites each, in 6 s). Several 'floating garden' MFCs were set in the context of demonstrative events at EXPO2015 world exposition held in Milan between May-October 2015. Some of the 'floating garden' MFCs were operating for more than one year.

  4. Improving Harvesting Techniques to Ensure Sphagnum Regeneration in Chilean Peatlands Mejoramiento de Técnicas de Cosecha para asegurar la Regeneración de Sphagnum en Turberas de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria F Diaz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Sphagnum species, primarily Sphagnum magellanicum Brid., are used internationally as a substrate for horticulture. Market demands have promoted indiscriminate exploitation leading to a number of potentially negative ecological and social consequences, including disruption of Sphagnum ecosystems, changes in water storage capacity of moss wetlands affecting water supply to rural communities and reduction of biodiversity. This study proposes improvements in harvesting techniques to ensure moss regeneration and promote sustainability of moss cover in harvested areas. The aim of this study was to determine the maximum harvesting depth for moss regeneration. Samples were taken and divided into sections associated with different depths. We recorded and marked the number of new green shoots of Sphagnum monthly. We found a negative relation between regeneration (appearance of new shoots and depth. Our studies showed that 90% of new shoots recorded in 6-mo of measurements appeared within the first 12 cm depth. This work allowed us to generate some practical recommendations to farmers about maximum harvesting depth. To ensure regeneration, we recommend harvesting up to 12 cm below surface.Especies de Sphagnum, principalmente Sphagnum magellanicum Brid., se utilizan internacionalmente como sustrato para horticultura. La creciente demanda del mercado ha promovido una explotación indiscriminada, lo que podría traer consecuencias ecológicas y sociales negativas, producto del deterioro de los ecosistemas de Sphagnum, cambios en la capacidad de almacenamiento de agua del humedal, afectando el suministro de agua a comunidades rurales, y pérdida de biodiversidad. Este estudio propone mejorar las técnicas de cosecha para asegurar la regeneración y sustentabilidad del musgo en áreas cosechadas. Específicamente, determinar la máxima profundidad de cosecha que permita la regeneración del musgo. Se tomaron muestras de musgo y se dividieron en secciones

  5. A Fuzzy Rule Based Decision Support System for Identifying Location of Water Harvesting Technologies in Rainfed Agricultural Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaubey, I.; Vema, V. K.; Sudheer, K.

    2016-12-01

    Site suitability evaluation of water conservation structures in water scarce rainfed agricultural areas consist of assessment of various landscape characteristics and various criterion. Many of these landscape characteristic attributes are conveyed through linguistic terms rather than precise numeric values. Fuzzy rule based system are capable of incorporating uncertainty and vagueness, when various decision making criteria expressed in linguistic terms are expressed as fuzzy rules. In this study a fuzzy rule based decision support system is developed, for optimal site selection of water harvesting technologies. Water conservation technologies like farm ponds, Check dams, Rock filled dams and percolation ponds aid in conserving water for irrigation and recharging aquifers and development of such a system will aid in improving the efficiency of the structures. Attributes and criteria involved in decision making are classified into different groups to estimate the suitability of the particular technology. The developed model is applied and tested on an Indian watershed. The input attributes are prepared in raster format in ArcGIS software and suitability of each raster cell is calculated and output is generated in the form of a thematic map showing the suitability of the cells pertaining to different technologies. The output of the developed model is compared against the already existing structures and results are satisfactory. This developed model will aid in improving the sustainability and efficiency of the watershed management programs aimed at enhancing in situ moisture content.

  6. Soil volumetric water content measurements using TDR technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vincenzi

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available A physical model to measure some hydrological and thermal parameters in soils will to be set up. The vertical profiles of: volumetric water content, matric potential and temperature will be monitored in different soils. The volumetric soil water content is measured by means of the Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR technique. The result of a test to determine experimentally the reproducibility of the volumetric water content measurements is reported together with the methodology and the results of the analysis of the TDR wave forms. The analysis is based on the calculation of the travel time of the TDR signal in the wave guide embedded in the soil.

  7. Site Suitability Analysis of Water Harvesting Structures Using Remote Sensing and GIS - A Case Study of Pisangan Watershed, Ajmer District, Rajasthan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, H. C.; Bhalla, P.; Palria, S.

    2014-12-01

    Rajasthan is a region with very limited water resources. Water is the most crucial for maintaining an environment and ecosystem conducive to sustaining all forms of life. The principle of watershed management is the proper management of all the precipitation by the way of collection, storage and efficient utilization of runoff water and to recharge the ground water. The present study aim's to identify suitable zones for water harvesting structures in Pisangan watershed of Ajmer district, Rajasthan by using Geographic Information System (GIS) and Multi Criteria Evaluation (MSE). Multi criteria evaluation is carried out in Geographic Information system to help the decision makers in determining suitable zones for water harvesting structures based on the physical characteristics of the watershed. Different layers which were taken into account for multi criteria evaluation are; Soil texture, slope, rainfall data (2000-2012), land use/cover, geomorphology, lithology, lineaments, drainage network. The soil conservation service model was used to estimate the runoff depth of the study area Analytical Hierarchy Processes (AHP) is used to find suitable water harvesting structures on the basis of rainfall. Produced suitability map will help in the selection of harvesting structures such as percolation tanks, storage tank, check dams and stop dams.

  8. Rooftop level rainwater harvesting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traboulsi, Hayssam; Traboulsi, Marwa

    2017-05-01

    Unfortunately, in Lebanon and other countries in the Middle East region, water becomes scarcer than ever before, and over the last decades the demand on domestic water has increased due to population and economic growth. Although rainwater harvesting is considered to be a safe and reliable alternative source for domestic water, the inconvenience or impracticalities related to the cost and space needed for the construction of ground or underground storage tanks makes this practice not widely common in rural areas and rarely implemented in urban cities. This paper introduces a new technique to rainwater harvesting which can be easily used in both rural and urban areas: it collects and stores rainwater directly in tanks already installed on building roofs and not necessarily in special ground or underground ones. If widely adopted in Lebanon, this technique could help in: (1) collecting around 23 MCM (70 % of the current deficit in the domestic water supply) of rainwater and thus increasing the available water per m2 of building by 0.4 m3 per year, (2) saving around 7 % of the amount of electric energy usually needed to pump water from an aquifer well and ground or underground tank, and (3) considerably reducing the rate of surface runoff of rainwater at the coastal zones where rainwater is not captured at all and goes directly to the sea.

  9. Techniques of WasteWater Treatment-Introduction to Effluent ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 11. Techniques of WasteWater Treatment - Introduction to Effluent Treatment and Industrial Methods. Amol A Kulkarni Mugdha Deshpande A B Pandit. General Article Volume 5 Issue 11 November 2000 pp 56-68 ...

  10. The impact of domestic rainwater harvesting systems in storm water runoff mitigation at the urban block scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palla, A; Gnecco, I; La Barbera, P

    2017-04-15

    In the framework of storm water management, Domestic Rainwater Harvesting (DRWH) systems are recently recognized as source control solutions according to LID principles. In order to assess the impact of these systems in storm water runoff control, a simple methodological approach is proposed. The hydrologic-hydraulic modelling is undertaken using EPA SWMM; the DRWH is implemented in the model by using a storage unit linked to the building water supply system and to the drainage network. The proposed methodology has been implemented for a residential urban block located in Genoa (Italy). Continuous simulations are performed by using the high-resolution rainfall data series for the ''do nothing'' and DRWH scenarios. The latter includes the installation of a DRWH system for each building of the urban block. Referring to the test site, the peak and volume reduction rate evaluated for the 2125 rainfall events are respectively equal to 33 and 26 percent, on average (with maximum values of 65 percent for peak and 51 percent for volume). In general, the adopted methodology indicates that the hydrologic performance of the storm water drainage network equipped with DRWH systems is noticeable even for the design storm event (T = 10 years) and the rainfall depth seems to affect the hydrologic performance at least when the total depth exceeds 20 mm. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of Surface Water Harvesting Potential in Aq Emam Watershed System in the Golestan Province

    OpenAIRE

    s. nazaryan; A. Najafinejad; N. Nura

    2016-01-01

    Introduction : Given its low and sparse precipitation both in spatial and temporal scales, Iran is nestled in an arid and semiarid part of the world. On the other hand, because of population growth, urbanization and the development of agriculture and industry sector is frequently encountered with increasing water demand. The increasing trend of water demand will widen the gap between water supply and demand in the future. This, in turn, necessitates urgent attention to the fundamentals of eco...

  12. Reliability of Blotting Techniques to Assess Contact Lens Water Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañadas, Pilar; López-Miguel, Alberto; Gómez, Alba; López-de la Rosa, Alberto; Fernández, Itziar; González-García, María J

    2018-02-15

    To determine the reliability of wet and modified dry blotting techniques used in the gravimetric method to assess contact lens (CL) water content (WC), the accuracy of both techniques in comparison with the nominal WC, and also their agreement. We evaluated hydrated and dry CL mass values and WC using the gravimetric method in 440 daily disposable CLs. Samples assessed corresponded to Dailies Total 1, Dailies AquaComfort Plus, 1-Day Acuvue TruEye, and Biotrue ONEday. Back vertex power ranged from +3.00 diopters (D) to -6.00 D. Within-subject coefficient of variation (CVw) and intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated. Bland-Altman analysis was also performed. The modified dry blotting technique yielded significantly (P≤0.0001) higher hydrated CL mass values. The wet blotting technique provided significantly (P≤0.04) better consistency than the modified dry one. Values of CVw for wet and modified dry blotting techniques ranged from 1.2% to 2.1% and from 3.7% to 5.4%, respectively. As for dry CL mass values, CVw values were not significantly different (P≥0.05) between wet (range: 1.1%-1.9%) and dry (range: 1.0%-5.1%) blotting techniques, except for Dailies AquaComfort Plus (P=0.03). Bland-Altman analysis showed poor agreement between the techniques. The wet blotting technique yielded WC values close (around 1%) to nominal ones, in contrast to modified dry blotting technique (≥2.5%). The wet blotting technique is not only more reliable than the modified dry one when obtaining hydrated CL mass but also provides more accurate nominal WC measurements. Agreement between the techniques was poor.

  13. Orientation-Induced Effects of Water Harvesting on Humps-on-Strings of Bioinspired Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuan; Li, Dan; Wang, Ting; Zheng, Yongmei

    2016-01-01

    Smart water-collecting functions are naturally endowed on biological surfaces with unique wettable microstructures, e.g., beetle back with “alternate hydrophobic, hydrophilic micro-regions”, and spider silk with wet-rebuilt “spindle-knot, joint” structures. Enlightened by the creature features, design of bio-inspired surfaces becomes the active issue in need of human beings for fresh water resource. Recently, as observed from spider web in nature, the net of spider silk is usually set in different situations and slopes in air, thus spider silks can be placed in all kinds of orientations as capturing water. Here, we show the styles and orientations of hump-on-string to control the ability of water collection as bioinspired silks are fabricated successfully. As different strings, sizes (height, length, pitch) of humps can become the controlling on volumes of extreme water drops. It is related to the different solid/liquid contact regions resulting in the as-modulated wet adhesion due to orientations of humps-on-strings. The conversion of high-low adhesion can be achieved to rely on orientations for the effect of capturing water drops. These studies offer an insight into enhancement of water collection efficiency and are helpful to design smart materials for controlled water drop capture and release via conversions of high-low adhesion.

  14. The socio-ecohydrology of rainwater harvesting in India: understanding water storage and release dynamics at tank and catchment scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Meter, K. J.; Basu, N. B.; McLaughlin, D. L.; Steiff, M.

    2015-11-01

    Rainwater harvesting (RWH), the small-scale collection and storage of runoff for irrigated agriculture, is recognized as a sustainable strategy for ensuring food security, especially in monsoonal landscapes in the developing world. In south India, these strategies have been used for millennia to mitigate problems of water scarcity. However, in the past 100 years many traditional RWH systems have fallen into disrepair due to increasing dependence on groundwater. This dependence has contributed to an accelerated decline in groundwater resources, which has in turn led to increased efforts at the state and national levels to revive older RWH systems. Critical to the success of such efforts is an improved understanding of how these ancient systems function in contemporary landscapes with extensive groundwater pumping and shifted climatic regimes. Knowledge is especially lacking regarding the water-exchange dynamics of these RWH "tanks" at tank and catchment scales, and how these exchanges regulate tank performance and catchment water balances. Here, we use fine-scale water-level variation to quantify daily fluxes of groundwater, evapotranspiration (ET), and sluice outflows in four tanks over the 2013 northeast monsoon season in a tank cascade that covers a catchment area of 28 km2. At the tank scale, our results indicate that groundwater recharge and irrigation outflows comprise the largest fractions of the tank water budget, with ET accounting for only 13-22 % of the outflows. At the scale of the cascade, we observe a distinct spatial pattern in groundwater-exchange dynamics, with the frequency and magnitude of groundwater inflows increasing down the cascade of tanks. The significant magnitude of return flows along the tank cascade leads to the most downgradient tank in the cascade having an outflow-to capacity ratio greater than 2. The presence of tanks in the landscape dramatically alters the catchment water balance, with runoff decreasing by nearly 75 %, and

  15. Thermoelectrics and its energy harvesting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rowe, David Michael

    2012-01-01

    .... It details the latest techniques for the preparation of thermoelectric materials employed in energy harvesting, together with advances in the thermoelectric characterisation of nanoscale material...

  16. Reliability and Efficacy of Water Use Estimation Techniques and their Impact on Water Management and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, A.; Deeds, N.; Kelley, V.

    2012-12-01

    Estimating how much water is being used by various water users is key to effective management and optimal utilization of groundwater resources. This is especially true for aquifers like the Ogallala that are severely stressed and display depleting trends over the last many years. The High Plains Underground Water Conservation District (HPWD) is the largest and oldest of the Texas water conservation districts, and oversees approximately 1.7 million irrigated acres. Water users within the 16 counties that comprise the HPWD draw from the Ogallala extensively. The HPWD has recently proposed flow-meters as well as various 'alternative methods' for water users to report water usage. Alternative methods include using a) site specific energy conversion factors to convert total amount of energy used (for pumping stations) to water pumped, b) reporting nozzle package (on center pivot irrigation systems) specifications and hours of usage, and c) reporting concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs). The focus of this project was to evaluate the reliability and effectiveness for each of these water use estimation techniques for regulatory purposes. Reliability and effectiveness of direct flow-metering devices was also addressed. Findings indicate that due to site-specific variability and hydrogeologic heterogeneity, alternative methods for estimating water use can have significant uncertainties associated with water use estimates. The impact of these uncertainties on overall water usage, conservation, and management was also evaluated. The findings were communicated to the Stakeholder Advisory Group and the Water Conservation District with guidelines and recommendations on how best to implement the various techniques.

  17. Assessment of the potential adoption of infield rainwater harvesting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Researchers from the Agricultural Research Council's Institute for Soil, Climate and Water (ISCW) have developed an infield rainwater harvesting (IRWH) technique for small-scale farmers in the Modder River basin. This technique increased crop yield significantly compared to conventional practices. Since the start of its ...

  18. The urban harvest approach as framework and planning tool for improved water and resource cycles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leusbrock, I.; Nanninga, T.A.; Lieberg, K.; Agudelo, C.; Keesman, K.J.; Zeeman, G.; Rijnaarts, H.

    2015-01-01

    Water and resource availability in sufficient quantity and quality for anthropogenic needs represents one of the main challenges in the coming decades. To prepare for upcoming challenges such as increased urbanization and climate change related consequences, innovative and improved resource

  19. Sustainable urban water supply in south India: Desalination, efficiency improvement, or rainwater harvesting?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Veena Srinivasan; Steven M. Gorelick; Lawrence Goulder

    2010-01-01

    ...; no Indian city provides 24/7 water supply. Current approaches to addressing the problem have been utility centric, overlooking the significance of decentralized activities by consumers, groundwater extraction via private wells, and aquifer...

  20. Water harvest- and storage- location assessment model using GIS and remote sensing

    OpenAIRE

    H. Weerasinghe; U. A. Schneider; Löw, A.

    2011-01-01

    This study describes a globally applicable method to determine the local suitability to implement water supply management strategies within the context of a river catchment. We apply this method, and develop a spatial analysis model named Geographic Water Management Potential (GWAMP). We retrieve input data from global data repositories and rescale these data to 1km spatial resolution to obtain a set of manageable input data. Potential runoff is calculated as an intermediate input using the S...

  1. Gamma irradiation of Tetrapleura tetraptera fruit as a post-harvest technique and its subsequent effect on some phytochemicals, free scavenging activity and physicochemical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darfour, B.; Agbenyegah, S.; Ofosu, D. O.; Okyere, A. A.; Asare, I. K.

    2014-09-01

    Herbs, spices and medicinal plants have been cherished by many ancient cultures for their use in curing common ailments and promoting good health. The dry fruit of Tetrapleura tetraptera has a pleasant aroma and hence used as a spice for seasoning in many parts of Ghana. Contamination of the fruit can occur at any stage during harvesting, drying, processing, transportation and storage. T. tetraptera is prone to microbial contamination and insect infestation resulting in quality deterioration and economic loss. The study aimed at establishing the effect of gamma irradiation as a post-harvest processing technique on T. tetraptera fruit and the subsequent effect of the gamma irradiation on some phytochemicals, free radical scavenging activity and physicochemical properties. The T. tetraptera powder was packed in polythene bags and gamma irradiated with Cobalt 60 source at 5 kGy and 10 kGy at room temperature at a dose rate of 2 kGy/h. The total phenolic content, total flavonoid and DPPH free radical scavenging activity, pH, lactic acid, vitamin C, moisture, carbohydrate, protein and trace element content of the samples were analysed. The antioxidant potential of the T. tetraptera extract was observed to be enhanced in the solvent used for the extraction after the irradiation but not the radiation dose used. Irradiation only had substantial impacts on carbohydrate and protein, Cu, Mg, and Mn. The T. tetraptera studied was safe for human consumption as far as trace metal levels are concerned. This study therefore suggest that gamma irradiation up to 10 kGy could be used as a post-harvest technique in T. tetraptera as a spice or herb.

  2. Urban stormwater harvesting and reuse: a probe into the chemical, toxicology and microbiological contaminants in water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Meng Nan; Sidhu, Jatinder; Aryal, Rupak; Tang, Janet; Gernjak, Wolfgang; Escher, Beate; Toze, Simon

    2013-08-01

    Stormwater is one of the last major untapped urban water resources that can be exploited as an alternative water source in Australia. The information in the current Australian Guidelines for Water Recycling relating to stormwater harvesting and reuse only emphasises on a limited number of stormwater quality parameters. In order to supply stormwater as a source for higher value end-uses, a more comprehensive assessment on the potential public health risks has to be undertaken. Owing to the stochastic variations in rainfall, catchment hydrology and also the types of non-point pollution sources that can provide contaminants relating to different anthropogenic activities and catchment land uses, the characterisation of public health risks in stormwater is complex, tedious and not always possible through the conventional detection and analytical methods. In this study, a holistic approach was undertaken to assess the potential public health risks in urban stormwater samples from a medium-density residential catchment. A combined chemical-toxicological assessment was used to characterise the potential health risks arising from chemical contaminants, while a combination of standard culture methods and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) methods was used for detection and quantification of faecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and pathogens in urban stormwater. Results showed that the concentration of chemical contaminants and associated toxicity were relatively low when benchmarked against other alternative water sources such as recycled wastewater. However, the concentrations of heavy metals particularly cadmium and lead have exceeded the Australian guideline values, indicating potential public health risks. Also, high numbers of FIB were detected in urban stormwater samples obtained from wet weather events. In addition, qPCR detection of human-related pathogens suggested there are frequent sewage ingressions into the urban stormwater runoff during wet weather events

  3. Contributions to flow techniques and mass spectrometry in water analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Inês Carvalho dos

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis, the use of different flow systems was exploited along with the use of different detection techniques for the development of simple, robust, and automated analytical procedures. With the purpose to perform in-line sample handling and pretreatment operations, different separation units were used. The main target for these methods was waters samples. The first procedure was based on a sequential injection analysis (SIA) system for carbon speciation (alkalinity, dis...

  4. COCONUT WATER VINEGAR: NEW ALTERNATIVE WITH IMPROVED PROCESSING TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUHAMMAD ANAS OTHAMAN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Vinegar is a condiment made from various sugary and starchy materials by alcoholic and subsequent acetic fermentation. Vinegar can be produced via different methods and from various types of raw material. A new alternative substrate for vinegar production namely mature coconut water has been tested and was compared with 2 common substrates which were coconut sap and pineapple juice. Substrates such as sap and juices have been found to have high amount of total soluble solids which corresponding to high sugar content in the substrates which is more than 14oBrix. Therefore, both substrates could be directly used for vinegar production without requirement of other carbon sources. However, coconut water which showed low Brix value need to be adjusted to 14oBrix by adding sucrose prior to the fermentation process. Substrates fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae have yielded 7-8% of alcohol within 7-10 days aerobic incubation at room temperature. The alcoholic medium were then used as a seed broth for acetic fermentation with Acetobactor aceti as inoculums and fermented for approximately 2 months to obtain at least 4% of acetic acid. Investigation on the effect of inoculum sizes and implementation of back-slopping technique were performed to improve the processing method for coconut water vinegar production. The results show that 10% of inoculum size was the best for acetic acid fermentation and the back-slopping technique has helped to reduce the process time of coconut water vinegar production.

  5. Development and Simulation of Decentralised Water and Energy Supply Concepts – Case Study of Rainwater Harvesting at the Angkor Centre for Conservation of Biodiversity in Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Czarny

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Besides a sufficient energy supply, concepts for accommodations require an intelligent water management. Using the example of quarters that do not have water and energy access, a dynamic simulation model is presented in which a rainwater harvesting concept is implemented and simulated over one year using MATLAB-Simulink. The aim is to minimize respectively suspend the use of fossil energy sources and to guarantee the provision of decentralized clean drinking water. Since traditional water bodies, e.g. groundwater, are increasingly polluted and depleted, utilisation of alternative sources is prudent. Especially in rural areas, where access to drinking water is scarce, rainwater is suitable for providing potable water. Besides its beneficial chemical water properties, it is easily accessed in a decentralized manner, which makes it a preferred choice in areas with sufficient precipitation. However, access to rainwater is limited by its occurrence and contamination, calling for proper storage, utilisation, and treatment strategies. For this purpose, a rainwater harvesting system, including different water and energy management systems, was modelled and implemented using the site of the Angkor Centre for Conservation of Biodiversity in Cambodia as an example. For the simulation, a precipitation generator was implemented using real historical rain event data. An appropriate rainwater treatment process was chosen, consisting of a microfiltration and a subsequent ultrafiltration unit removing bacteriological loads entirely. Both were modelled and implemented dynamically. Using the site of the Angkor Centre of Conservation of Biodiversity, a complete rainwater harvesting plant was implemented including harvest, storage, and utilization of rainwater. Further, a renewable energy management strategy is developed, using photovoltaic modules and batteries. It was shown that the cumulative runoff meets the water demand of the Angkor Centre for Conservation of

  6. Ozonated water in the post-harvest treatment of coffee fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando J. B. Brandão

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Ozone is used in many countries for the treatment of effluents, becoming a viable alternative in sanitation of coffee wastewater. However, the strong ozone oxidation, responsible for its germicidal effect, can also compromise grain and beverage quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of Arabica coffee in different periods of treatment with ozonated water and its effect after drying. Coffee fruits were subjected to ozonation at regular intervals of 0, 5, 10, 20, and 30 min, with continuous stirring promoted by a recirculating water system at constant rate of 1 ppm of solubilized ozone. The design was completely randomized with five treatments and four replicates. After obtaining the data, the analysis of variance was performed and means were compared by Tukey test (p ≤ 0.05. The results showed a partial reduction of fungi after washing with ozonated water, but the same effect was not observed after drying. For coffee quality analysis, the longest times of exposure to the solubilized gas in the water produced some negative results in electrical conductivity and total and reducing sugars. However, the sensory quality of the beverage was maintained.

  7. Corn stover harvest increases herbicide movement to subsurface drains – Root Zone Water Quality Model simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Removal of crop residues for bioenergy production can alter soil hydrologic properties, but there is little information on its impact on transport of herbicides and their degradation products to subsurface drains. The Root Zone Water Quality Model, previously calibrated using measured fl...

  8. Potential water yield response following clearcut harvesting on north and south slopes in northern Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard G. Cline; Harold F. Haupt; Gaylon S. Campbell

    1977-01-01

    The hydrologic response of small clearcuts on north and south slopes in northern Idaho was investigated. On the north slope, substantial gains (27 to 35 cm) in potential water yield per year resulted from (a) removal of transpiring surfaces associated with plant cover, (b) elimination of snow interception by a closed-canopied forest, and (C) delayed reoccupation of the...

  9. Fog-water harvesting along the West Coast of South Africa: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drinie

    2002-10-04

    Oct 4, 2002 ... Department of Anthropology, Archaeology, Geography and Environmental Studies, University of South Africa, PO Box 392,. UNISA 0003, South Africa. Abstract. Many parts of the West Coast of South Africa experience severe water shortages throughout the year. Despite the meager rainfall, however, the ...

  10. Self-Powered Wireless Sensor Node Enabled by a Duck-Shaped Triboelectric Nanogenerator for Harvesting Water Wave Energy

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Abdelsalam

    2016-12-08

    This paper presents a fully enclosed duck-shaped triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) for effectively scavenging energy from random and low-frequency water waves. The design of the TENG incorporates the freestanding rolling mode and the pitch motion of a duck-shaped structure generated by incident waves. By investigating the material and structural features, a unit of the TENG device is successfully designed. Furthermore, a hybrid system is constructed using three units of the TENG device. The hybrid system achieves an instantaneous peak current of 65.5 µA with an instantaneous output power density of up to 1.366 W m−2. Following the design, a fluid–solid interaction analysis is carried out on one duck-shaped TENG to understand the dynamic behavior, mechanical efficiency, and stability of the device under various water wave conditions. In addition, the hybrid system is experimentally tested to enable a commercial wireless temperature sensor node. In summary, the unique duck-shaped TENG shows a simple, cost-effective, environmentally friendly, light-weight, and highly stable system. The newly designed TENG is promising for building a network of generators to harvest existing blue energy in oceans, lakes, and rivers.

  11. Water harvesting from municipal wastewater via osmotic gradient: An evaluation of process performance

    KAUST Repository

    Valladares Linares, Rodrigo

    2013-11-01

    Forward osmosis (FO) presents a unique opportunity for integrated wastewater treatment and seawater desalination. This study assesses the efficiency of a submerged FO system to reduce the volume of wastewater that needs to be treated while recovering high quality water that can be further treated for sustainable fresh water production. A semi-batch operation was employed with two membrane orientations in terms of active and support layers. A change of membrane orientation could improve the flux and slightly reduce the salt leakage from the draw solution to the feed solution. The formation of fouling on the membrane resulted in a decrease of the initial flux and average flux with both membrane orientations. The fouling layer on the membrane surface was determined to be caused by biopolymer-like substances. Osmotic backwash removed almost all organic foulants from the membrane surface, but did not improve the flux. There was a moderate to high retention of nutrients (N and P), varying from 56% to 99%, and almost a complete retention for trace metals regardless of membrane orientation. However the membrane showed a limited ability to retain low molecular weight acids and low molecular weight neutral compounds. This study identified a possible role of the FO process to integrate wastewater treatment and seawater desalination for a sustainable solution of the water-energy nexus for coastal cities. © 2013 Elsevier B.V..

  12. Initiating rain water harvest technology for climate change induced drought resilient agriculture: scopes and challenges in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Muhammad Abdullah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh is primarily an agrarian economy. Agriculture is the single largest producing sector of the economy since it comprises about 18.6% of the country's GDP and employs around 45% of the total labor force. The performance of this sector has an overwhelming impact on major macroeconomic indicators like employment generation, poverty alleviation, human resource development and food security. The agriculture sector is extremely vulnerable to disaster and climate induced risks. Climate change is anticipated to aggravate the frequency and intensity of extreme weather events in Bangladesh. Drought is one of the major setbacks for the agriculture and its development. Therefore, disaster and climatic risk, especially drought management in agriculture is a major challenge for Bangladesh in achieving sustainable agricultural development. There are some regions in Bangladesh where every steps of agriculture from field preparation to ripening of crops dependents on rainfall. Consequently, drought affects annually 2.5 million ha in kharif (wet season and 1.2 million ha in dry season. Water is a natural resource with spatial scarcity and availability. Additionally, Cross-country anthropogenic activities caused a severe negative impact on water resources and eco-systems of Bangladesh in the recent years. The rivers and cannels dry up during the dry season and make the people completely dependent on groundwater (Abdullah, 2015. Accordingly the contribution of groundwater as a source of irrigation has increased and surface water has declined. It is now inevitable to look for alternate water source for agriculture. Water harvest technologies (WHTs can play an important role in this regard. WHTs can provide an additional source of water for crop production at the most critical stages of the growing season, thereby increasing yields and food security. The study is consists of drought scenario analysis, GIS based drought mapping and systematic literature

  13. COMMERCIAL FISH HARVEST IN INLAND WATER BODIES OF GERMANY (A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. Didenko

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To analyze scientific and statistical sources on commercial fishery in inland water bodies of Germany. To summarize German experience and identify specific features of this sector. Findings. Commercial fishery in Germany is carried out on 30% (≈250 000 hectares of inland water bodies of Germany. The main fishing regions are prealpine lakes in Bavaria, Lake Constance, lakes in Schleswig-Holstein, Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania federal states as well as lakes and rivers of Brandenburg and Berlin. Commercial fishing on rivers usually has a local importance and is practiced in regions with poorly developed industry. There were 670 commercial fishing organizations in 2014, where 932 people were employed. Each fishing license owner is allowed deploying simultaneously a clearly defined number of fishing gears depending on season. In addition, fishing nets are regulated not only based on their mesh size and length, but also height and the minimum thread diameter. The cardinal difference of German inland fishing is the absence of the periods of total ban on commercial fishing. There are only ban periods for fishing on certain fish species during their spawning seasons. These periods differ for federal states and are listed in the relevant regional fishing rules. The total fish catch in inland waters of Germany by commercial fishermen in 2014 was 3132 tons, much lower than the catches of anglers who caught 18 450 tons at the same year. Most of fish were caught by fishing organizations in the Brandenburg Federal State. Average fish productivity in 2014 was approx. 13 kg/ha (ranging from 10 to 20 kg/ha. Whitefish was the dominant species in catches in the Lake Constance and prealpine lakes of Bavaria, while cyprinids (roach, bream, silver bream, blue bream, etc. dominated in Northern Germany. The profit of commercial fish catch in 2014 was about 12.5 million euros. Among numerous activities aimed at preserving commercial fish populations, Germans

  14. Hypotonic MR duodenography with water ingestion alone: feasibility and technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Carmel G; Dowd, Geraldine; Mhuircheartaigh, Jennifer Ni; DeLappe, Eithne; Allen, Ruaridh H; Roche, Clare; Murphy, Joseph M

    2009-07-01

    To date, cross-sectional imaging of the duodenum has a number of inadequacies, most likely a reflection of its tortuous and complex anatomical course, resulting in somewhat suboptimal imaging. The purpose of this study was to describe and assess the feasibility of performing a 'tubeless', per-oral, single contrast, hypotonic magnetic resonance (MR) duodenography technique. Secondly, to assess the efficacy of intravenous Buscopan in facilitating duodenal distension at cross-sectional MR imaging. Ten healthy volunteers prospectively underwent MR imaging of the duodenum pre- and post-Buscopan immediately after consuming 1,000 ml of water. Images were qualitatively (using a visual assessment grading scale of 1-3) and quantitatively evaluated with regard to degree of small bowel distension by two observers. The contrast medium was successfully ingested and MR examination was completed in all participants. Quantitatively and qualitatively, the per-oral, hypotonic duodenography technique yielded superior distension scores and was significantly greater in diameter in comparison with the per-oral non-hypotonic duodenography technique (p hypotonic MR duodenography is a feasible, simple, fast mode of investigation of the duodenum, which does not involve radiation and represents a useful technique in the armamentarium of the radiologist.

  15. Stormwater harvesting for irrigation purposes: an investigation of chemical quality of water recycled in pervious pavement system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nnadi, Ernest O; Newman, Alan P; Coupe, Stephen J; Mbanaso, Fredrick U

    2015-01-01

    Most available water resources in the world are used for agricultural irrigation. Whilst this level of water use is expected to increase due to rising world population and land use, available water resources are expected to become limited due to climate change and uneven rainfall distribution. Recycled stormwater has the potential to be used as an alternative source of irrigation water and part of sustainable water management strategy. This paper reports on a study to investigate whether a sustainable urban drainage system (SUDS) technique, known as the pervious pavements system (PPS) has the capability to recycle water that meets irrigation water quality standard. Furthermore, the experiment provided information on the impact of hydrocarbon (which was applied to simulate oil dripping from parked vehicles onto PPS), leaching of nutrients from different layers of the PPS and effects of nutrients (applied to enhance bioremediation) on the stormwater recycling efficiency of the PPS. A weekly dose of 6.23 × 10(-3) L of lubricating oil and single dose of 17.06 g of polymer coated controlled-release fertilizer granules were applied to the series of 710 mm × 360 mm model pervious pavement structure except the controls. Rainfall intensity of 7.4 mm/h was applied to the test models at the rate of 3 events per week. Analysis of the recycled water showed that PPS has the capability to recycle stormwater to a quality that meets the chemical standards for use in agricultural irrigation irrespective of the type of sub-base used. There is a potential benefit of nutrient availability in recycled water for plants, but care should be taken not to dispose of this water in natural water courses as it might result in eutrophication problems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Refreshing Music: Fog Harvesting with Harps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Weiwei; Anderson, Mark; Kennedy, Brook; Boreyko, Jonathan

    2017-11-01

    Fog harvesting is a useful technique for obtaining fresh water in arid climates. The wire meshes currently utilized for fog harvesting suffer from dual constraints: coarse meshes cannot efficiently capture fog, while fine meshes suffer from clogging issues. Here, we design a new type of fog harvester comprised of an array of vertical wires, which we call ``fog harps.'' To investigate the water collection efficiency, three fog harps were designed with different diameters (254 μm, 508 μm and 1.30 mm) but the same pitch-to-diameter ratio of 2. For comparison, three different size meshes were purchased with equivalent dimensions. As expected for the mesh structures, the mid-sized wires performed the best, with a drop-off in performance for the fine or coarse meshes. In contrast, the fog harvesting rate continually increased with decreasing wire diameter for the fog harps, due to its low hysteresis that prevented droplet clogging. This resulted in a 3-fold enhancement in the fog harvesting rate for the harp form factor compared to the mesh. The lack of a performance ceiling for the harps suggest that even greater enhancements could be achieved by scaling down to yet smaller sizes.

  17. An integrated sensing technique for smart monitoring of water pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernini, Romeo; Catapano, Ilaria; Soldovieri, Francesco; Crocco, Lorenzo

    2014-05-01

    Lowering the rate of water leakage from the network of underground pipes is one of the requirements that "smart" cities have to comply with. In fact, losses in the water supply infrastructure have a remarkable social, environmental and economic impact, which obviously conflicts with the expected efficiency and sustainability of a smart city. As a consequence, there is a huge interest in developing prevention policies based on state-of-art sensing techniques and possibly their integration, as well as in envisaging ad hoc technical solutions designed for the application at hand. As a contribution to this framework, in this communication we present an approach aimed to pursue a thorough non-invasive monitoring of water pipelines, with both high spatial and temporal resolution. This goal is necessary to guarantee that maintenance operations are performed timely, so to reduce the extent of the leakage and its possible side effects, and precisely, so to minimize the cost and the discomfort resulting from operating on the water supply network. The proposed approach integrates two sensing techniques that work at different spatial and temporal scales. The first one is meant to provide a continuous (in both space and time) monitoring of the pipeline and exploits a distributed optic fiber sensor based on the Brillouin scattering phenomenon. This technique provides the "low" spatial resolution information (at meter scale) needed to reveal the presence of a leak and call for interventions [1]. The second technique is based on the use of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) and is meant to provide detailed images of area where the damage has been detected. GPR systems equipped with suitable data processing strategies [2,3] are indeed capable of providing images of the shallow underground, where the pipes would be buried, characterized by a spatial resolution in the order of a few centimeters. This capability is crucial to address in the most proper way maintenance operations, by for

  18. EFFICACY OF NOVEL WATER DISINFECTION TECHNIQUES IN HORTICULTURAL NUTRIENT RECYCLING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heungens, K; Clierinck, M; Inghelbrecht, S; Vissers, M

    2015-01-01

    Hydroponic systems used for growing potted ornamentals in greenhouses are commonly ebb-and-flow irrigation systems. The drainage water is usually recycled to save water and nutrients. To avoid the spread of pathogens in these closed irrigation systems, disinfection of the recycled water is standard practice. Growers can use slow sand filtration or UV-radiation techniques, but these methods are often either not sulted for specific problems or they require an excessively large investment. The objective of this study was to test less expensive but effective alternative disinfection systems. The efficacy of five disinfection systems against fungi and oomycetes was determined: Aqua-Hort (based on Cu-ions), Reciclean (performic acid), D1-OX Forte (CIO2), ECA (electrochemically activated water = anodic oxidation: hypochlorite and free radicals) and Newtec (also anodic oxidation). These five systems and a no-sterilization control were integrated in small closed ebb-and-flow circuits with nutrient solution reservoirs of 400 L each. Activity against Fusarium was excellent with ECA, good with Newtec and DI-OX Forte, moderate with high doses of Reciclean (250 ppm H2O2 and poor with the Aqua-Hort. There was no Pythium in the ECA and Newtec systems, while still so in the Aqua-Hort system, even at high doses (up to 7 ppm Cu++). Although the Reciclean (up to 100 ppm H2O2) and Aqua-Hort systems did not perform well against the pathogens, they did very well against algae; especially Reciclean was also useful against duckweed in water and liverwort on soil substrates. Concentrations of total Cl were elevated in water, substrate and plants after treatments with ECA and Newtec; other accumulations were Cu (Aqua-Hort), Na and SO4 (DI-OX Forte). However, only on a limited number of plant species these accumulations produced phytotoxic effects.

  19. 40 CFR 141.404 - Treatment technique violations for ground water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....404 Treatment technique violations for ground water systems. (a) A ground water system with a... ground water system is in violation of the treatment technique requirement if, within 120 days (or...) before or at the first customer for a ground water source is in violation of the treatment technique...

  20. Hydro engineering Feasibility Study of Surface Runoff Water Harvesting in Al-Ajeej Basin, North West Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thair M. Al-Taiee

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The hydro engineering  characteristics of Al-Ajeej basin which was located within south Sinjar plain north west Iraq was analyzed to predict the possibility of surface runoff harvesting during rainfall season in the upstream sites in this basin using watershed modeling system (WMS. The hydrological feasibility of constructing small dam on Al-Ajeej valley with some preliminary design calculations were presented. The best optimum dam site was selected to be located (3.95 km downstream the confluence of Al-Badee branch with Al-Ajeej valley (35° 46¢ 6² Latitude and Longitude 41° 36¢ 11² having a catchment's area of (3043km2. The proposed dam  height was (12.5 meter with a dam length of (1277m, while the normal storage volume of the reservoir is (38.8 million m3. Construction a dams in such sites characterized by water shortage during all  around the year will give an aid in the sustainable development of such area by increasing  the cultivation lands, the agricultural products and also modify the income of the villagers living  in this area leading to prevent them leaving their lands to other places

  1. Designing Rainwater Harvesting Systems Cost-Effectively in a Urban Water-Energy Saving Scheme by Using a GIS-Simulation Based Design System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yie-Ru Chiu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Current centralized urban water supply depends largely on energy consumption, creating critical water-energy challenge especially for many rapid growing Asian cities. In this context, harvesting rooftop rainwater for non-potable use has enormous potential to ease the worsening water-energy issue. For this, we propose a geographic information system (GIS-simulation-based design system (GSBDS to explore how rainwater harvesting systems (RWHSs can be systematically and cost-effectively designed as an innovative water-energy conservation scheme on a city scale. This GSBDS integrated a rainfall data base, water balance model, spatial technologies, energy-saving investigation, and economic feasibility analysis based on a case study of eight communities in the Taipei metropolitan area, Taiwan. Addressing both the temporal and spatial variations in rainfall, the GSBDS enhanced the broad application of RWHS evaluations. The results indicate that the scheme is feasible based on the optimal design when both water and energy-savings are evaluated. RWHSs were observed to be cost-effective and facilitated 21.6% domestic water-use savings, and 138.6 (kWh/year-family energy-savings. Furthermore, the cost of per unit-energy-saving is lower than that from solar PV systems in 85% of the RWHS settings. Hence, RWHSs not only enable water-savings, but are also an alternative renewable energy-saving approach that can address the water-energy dilemma caused by rapid urbanization.

  2. Forest harvesting systems friendly to the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waesterlund, I. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Garpenberg (Sweden); Hassan, A.E. [North Carolina State Univ. Col. of Forest Resources, Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The trend in forestry practices today in Europe and U.S.A. in general and Scandinavian countries in particular, is towards adapting systems based on landscape planning. Thus common harvesting equipment available on the market will have to be replaced to meet these tough demands. Environmentalists recommend that wood fiber should be harvested either by selection cutting or commercial thinning thus leaving the site undisturbed with no sign of machine traffic. This mandate will preserve ground water quality and assist in soil conservation. However, to meet the pulp and paper as well as saw mill industries demand for wood from this method of cutting (selection or commercial thinning), requires a thorough examination of our harvesting systems and techniques. This paper will discuss present and future machines that are friendly to the environment. Hypothetical designs and improvements of existing machine systems will be addressed and recommendations will be made for future research activities. 75 refs, 8 figs, 1 tab

  3. Experimental techniques for characterising water in wood covering the range from dry to fully water-saturated

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thybring, Emil Engelund; Kymäläinen, Maija; Rautkari, Lauri

    2018-01-01

    Water plays a central role in wood research, since it affects all material properties relevant to the performance of wood materials. Therefore, experimental techniques for characterising water within wood are an essential part of nearly all scientific investigations of wood materials. This review...... focuses on selected experimental techniques that can give deeper insights into various aspects of water in wood in the entire moisture domain from dry to fully water-saturated. These techniques fall into three broad categories: (1) gravimetric techniques that determine how much water is absorbed, (2......) fibre saturation techniques that determine the amount of water within cell walls, and (3) spectroscopic techniques that provide insights into chemical wood–water interactions as well as yield information on water distribution in the macro-void wood structure. For all techniques, the general measurement...

  4. A water-powered Energy Harvesting system with Bluetooth Low Energy interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroener, M.; Allinger, K.; Berger, M.; Grether, E.; Wieland, F.; Heller, S.; Woias, P.

    2016-11-01

    This paper reports the design, and testing of a water turbine generator system for typical flow rates in domestic applications, with an integrated power management and a Bluetooth low energy (BLE) based RF data transmission interface. It is based on a commercially available low cost hydro generator. The generator is built into a housing with optimized reduced fluidic resistance to enable operation with flow rates as low as 6 l/min. The power management combines rectification, buffering, defined start-up, and circuit protection. An MSP430FR5949 microcontroller is used for data acquisition and processing. The data are transmitted via RF, using a Bluegiga BLE112 module in advertisement mode, to a PC where the measured flow rate is stored and displayed. The transmission rate of the wireless sensor node (WSN) is set to 1 Hz if enough power is available, which is the case for flow rates above 5.5 l/min. The electronics power demand is calculated to be 340 μW in average, while the generator is capable of delivering more than 200 mW for flow rates above 15 l/min.

  5. Mysteries behind the Low Salinity Water Injection Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad Waleed Al-Shalabi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Low salinity water injection (LSWI is gaining popularity as an improved oil recovery technique in both secondary and tertiary injection modes. The objective of this paper is to investigate the main mechanisms behind the LSWI effect on oil recovery from carbonates through history-matching of a recently published coreflood. This paper includes a description of the seawater cycle match and two proposed methods to history-match the LSWI cycles using the UTCHEM simulator. The sensitivity of residual oil saturation, capillary pressure curve, and relative permeability parameters (endpoints and Corey’s exponents on LSWI is evaluated in this work. Results showed that wettability alteration is still believed to be the main contributor to the LSWI effect on oil recovery in carbonates through successfully history matching both oil recovery and pressure drop data. Moreover, tuning residual oil saturation and relative permeability parameters including endpoints and exponents is essential for a good data match. Also, the incremental oil recovery obtained by LSWI is mainly controlled by oil relative permeability parameters rather than water relative permeability parameters. The findings of this paper help to gain more insight into this uncertain IOR technique and propose a mechanistic model for oil recovery predictions.

  6. Technique for rapid detection of phthalates in water and beverages

    KAUST Repository

    Zia, Asif I.

    2013-05-01

    The teratogenic and carcinogenic effects of phthalate esters on living beings are proven in toxicology studies. These ubiquitous food and environmental pollutants pose a great danger to the human race due to their extraordinary use as a plasticizer in the consumer product industry. Contemporary detection techniques used for phthalates require a high level of skills, expensive equipment and longer analysis time than the presented technique. Presented research work introduces a real time non-invasive detection technique using a new type of silicon substrate based planar interdigital (ID) sensor fabricated on basis of thin film micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) semiconductor device fabrication technology. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used in conjunction with the fabricated sensor to detect phthalates in deionized water. Various concentrations of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) as low as 2 ppb to a higher level of 2 ppm in deionized water were detected distinctively using new planar ID sensor based EIS sensing system. Dip testing method was used to obtain the conductance and dielectric properties of the bulk samples. Parylene C polymer coating was used as a passivation layer on the surface of the fabricated sensor to reduce the influence of Faradaic currents. In addition, inherent dielectric properties of the coating enhanced the sensitivity of the capacitive type sensor. Electrochemical spectrum analysis algorithm was used to model experimentally observed impedance spectrum to deduce constant phase element (CPE) equivalent circuit to analyse the kinetic processes taking place inside the electrochemical cell. Curve fitting technique was used to extract the values of the circuit components and explain experimental results on theoretical grounds. The sensor performance was tested by adding DEHP to an energy drink at concentrations above and below the minimal risk level (MRL) limit set by the ATSDR (Agency for Toxic Substances & Disease Registry

  7. [Effects of ridge and furrow rain harvesting with supplemental irrigation on winter wheat photosynthetic characteristics, yield and water use efficiency in Guanzhong irrigation district].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Han, Qing-fang; Cheng, Xue-feng; Yang, Shan-shan; Jia, Zhi-kuan; Ding, Rui-xia; Ren, Xiao-long; Nie, Jun-feng

    2015-05-01

    A field experiment was conducted to determine the regulation of crop photosynthesis and output and water saving effect under ridge and furrow rain harvesting with supplemental irrigation in Guanzhong irrigation district. The experiment was set with 5 treatments with irrigation at returning green stage, and the widths of both ridge and furrow being 60 cm. T1, T2 and T3 were in the ridge and furrow rain harvesting planting pattern, with the irrigation volumes being 0, 375 and 750 m3 · hm(-2) respectively, T4 was flat planting with irrigation (border irrigation) of 750 m3 · hm(-2) and CK was flat planting without irrigation. Effects on winter wheat photosynthetic organs, photosynthetic rate, yield and water use efficiency, etc. were tested. The results showed that compared with T4, T1, T2 and T3 treatments increased the grain yield by 2.8%, 9.6% and 18.9%, improved the harvest index by 2.0% to 8.5%, advanced the flag leaf chlorophyll content by 41.9% to 64.4% significantly, and improved the 0-40 cm layer soil moisture content by 0.1%-4.6% during the whole growth period. Photosynthetic rates at the flowering and filling stages also increased by 22.3% to 54.2% and -4.3% to 67.2%, respectively. Total water use efficiencies (WUEy) were 17.9%, 10.4% and 15.4% higher than that of T4, and 69.3%, 58.6% and 65.7% higher than that of CK (P water use efficiencies (IUE) were 119.1% and 18.8% higher than that of T4, respectively. Therefore, it was concluded that ridge and furrow rain harvesting cultivation could maintain higher grain yield than border irrigation without irrigation or with irrigation reduction by 50%. The utilization efficiency of irrigation water under the condition of irrigation reduction by 50% was improved significantly, and the ridge and furrow rain harvesting could significantly improve whole cropland water use efficiency in the year of less rainfall.

  8. Linking Spatial Variations in Water Quality with Water and Land Management using Multivariate Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yongshan; Qian, Yun; Migliaccio, Kati White; Li, Yuncong; Conrad, Cecilia

    2014-03-01

    Most studies using multivariate techniques for pollution source evaluation are conducted in free-flowing rivers with distinct point and nonpoint sources. This study expanded on previous research to a managed "canal" system discharging into the Indian River Lagoon, Florida, where water and land management is the single most important anthropogenic factor influencing water quality. Hydrometric and land use data of four drainage basins were uniquely integrated into the analysis of 25 yr of monthly water quality data collected at seven stations to determine the impact of water and land management on the spatial variability of water quality. Cluster analysis (CA) classified seven monitoring stations into four groups (CA groups). All water quality parameters identified by discriminant analysis showed distinct spatial patterns among the four CA groups. Two-step principal component analysis/factor analysis (PCA/FA) was conducted with (i) water quality data alone and (ii) water quality data in conjunction with rainfall, flow, and land use data. The results indicated that PCA/FA of water quality data alone was unable to identify factors associated with management activities. The addition of hydrometric and land use data into PCA/FA revealed close associations of nutrients and color with land management and storm-water retention in pasture and citrus lands; total suspended solids, turbidity, and NO + NO with flow and Lake Okeechobee releases; specific conductivity with supplemental irrigation supply; and dissolved O with wetland preservation. The practical implication emphasizes the importance of basin-specific land and water management for ongoing pollutant loading reduction and ecosystem restoration programs. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  9. Identification of suitabel sites for rainwater harvesting structures in arid and semi-arid regions: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, A.A.; Riksen, M.J.P.M.; Ouessar, M.; Ritsema, C.J.

    2016-01-01

    Harvested rainwater is an alternative source of water in arid and semi-arid regions (ASARs) around the world. Many researchers have developed and applied various methodologies and criteria to identify suitable sites and techniques for rainwater harvesting (RWH). Determining the best method or

  10. 40 CFR 141.403 - Treatment technique requirements for ground water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....403 Treatment technique requirements for ground water systems. (a) Ground water systems with significant deficiencies or source water fecal contamination. (1) The treatment technique requirements of this... water; (iii) Eliminate the source of contamination; or (iv) Provide treatment that reliably achieves at...

  11. Domestic wash water reclamation for reuse as commode water supply using filtration: Reverse-osmosis separation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, J. B., Jr.; Batten, C. E.; Wilkins, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    A combined filtration-reverse-osmosis water recovery system has been evaluated to determine its capability to reclaim domestic wash water for reuse as a commode water supply. The system produced water that met all chemical and physical requirements established by the U.S. Public Health Service for drinking water with the exception of carbon chloroform extractables, methylene blue active substances, and phenols. It is thought that this water is of sufficient quality to be reused as commode supply water. The feasibility of using a combined filtration and reverse-osmosis technique for reclaiming domestic wash water has been established. The use of such a technique for wash-water recovery will require a maintenance filter to remove solid materials including those less than 1 micron in size from the wash water. The reverse-osmosis module, if sufficiently protected from plugging, is an attractive low-energy technique for removing contaminants from domestic wash water.

  12. Analysis of the impacts of major anion variations on surface water acidity particularly with regard to conifer harvesting: case studies from Wales and Northern England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Neal

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Data on the water quality of streams draining a range of acidic and acid sensitive, mainly afforested, upland catchments in mid- and north-Wales and northern-England are described to investigate the acidification effects of conifer harvesting in relation to natural variability. Most sites show a large range in pH and major cation and major anion concentrations. The waters draining from the smaller catchments are more acidic and aluminium bearing reflecting a higher proportion of runoff from the acidic soils in each area. However, there is often a less acidic component of runoff under base-flow conditions due to ground-water contributions particularly within the larger streams. Higher concentrations of nitrate occur for sites which have been felled although declines in concentration occur several years after felling. Multiple regression analysis reveals the importance of cation exchange and within catchment acidification associated with sulphate and nitrate generation. Sulphate also has a component associated with weathering but the patterns vary from catchment to catchment. Analysis of the influence of changing anion concentrations associated with tree harvesting reveals that the acidification induced by increases in nitrate can be offset or reversed by the lowering of chloride and sulphate concentrations due to decreased atmospheric scavenging by the vegetation, reduced evapotranspiration and increased surface runoff diluting the acidity generated. It is concluded that contemporary UK forestry guidelines with an emphasis on phased harvesting of catchments over several years and careful harvesting methodologies can alleviate most problems of stream acidification associated with felling activities and in some cases can reverse the acidification pattern.

  13. Earth observing data and methods for advancing water harvesting technologies in the semi-arid rain-fed environments of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, C.; Thenkabail, P.; Sharma, R. R.

    2011-01-01

    The paper develops approaches and methods of modeling and mapping land and water productivity of rain-fed crops in semi-arid environments of India using hyperspectral, hyperspatial, and advanced multispectral remote sensing data and linking the same to field-plot data and climate station data. The overarching goal is to provide information to advance water harvesting technologies in the agricultural croplands of the semi-arid environments of India by conducting research in a representative pilot site in Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India. ?? 2011 IEEE.

  14. Chemical characteristics of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in relation to heavy metal concentrations in soil water from boreal peatlands after clear-cut harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiikkilä, O.; Nieminen, T.; Starr, M.; Ukonmaanaho, L.

    2012-04-01

    Boreal peatlands form an important terrestrial carbon reserve and are a major source of dissolved organic matter (DOM) to surface waters, particularly when disturbed through forestry practices such as draining or timber harvesting. Heavy metals show a strong affinity to organic matter and so, along with DOM, heavy metals can be mobilized and transported from the soil to surface waters and sediments where they may become toxic to aquatic organisms and pass up the food chain. The complexation of heavy metals with DOM can be expected to be related and determined by the chemical characteristics of DOM and oxidation/reducing conditions in the peat. We extracted interstitial water from peat samples and determined the concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) and Al, Cu, Zn and Fe in various fractions of DOM isolated by adsorption properties (XAD-8 fractionation) and molecular-weight (ultrafiltration). The peat samples were taken from 0-30 and 30-50 cm depth in drained peatland catchments two years after whole-tree or stem-only clear-cut harvesting (Scots pine or Norway spruce) had been carried out. The samples from the upper layer had been subject to alternating saturation/aeration conditions while the deeper layer had been continuously under the water table. The fractionation of DOC and DON according to both adsorption properties and molecular-weight fractions clearly differed between the upper and lower peat layers. While the hydrophobic acid fraction contained proportionally more DOC and DON than the hydrophilic acid fraction in the upper peat layer the results were vice versa in the lower peat layer. High-molecular-weight compounds (> 100 kDa) were proportionally more abundant in the upper and low-molecular-weight compounds (free metal ions in solution. There were no clear differences in the chemical characteristics of DOC or DON or heavy metal concentrations between the two harvesting treatments.

  15. Chicory and Jerusalem artichoke productivity in different areas of Italy, in relation to water availability and time of harvest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Baldini

    Full Text Available Inulin is an important polysaccharide synthesised by different crops, which, in the EU has been included in the system of sugar quotas since 1994. Currently, one of the major problems of the agro-industry is the need to extend the length of the sugar crop harvest season. It was therefore decided, also in relation to the increased demand for inulin, to study the two main inulin producing crops in Italy (chicory and Jerusalem artichoke, to verify yield and quality potential and stability in relation to some important agronomic factors such as irrigation and time of harvest. The work was conducted in 1999 and 2000 in four areas of Italy (Udine, Rovigo, Bologna and Bari. The effects evaluated were time of harvest (3 for chicory and 2 for Jerusalem artichoke and irrigation system (evapotranspiration replacement and dry regime, with irrigation applied only when strictly necessary on the production of storage organs, sugars and inulin in the two crops. The highest chicory root yield was in Bologna, with an average production of 65.6 t ha-1 (fresh weight, compared to Rovigo (54.4 t ha-1, Bari (46.5 t ha-1 and Udine (38.7 t ha-1. For final tuber yield in Jerusalem artichoke, Bari was the most productive environment with an average of 80 t ha-1, followed by Bologna (61 t ha-1 and Udine (55.5 t ha-1. However, when this crop is whole-plant harvested (stalks and tubers at pre-flowering, Bologna, with high stalk yields (58.7 t ha-1 appeared to be the most suitable environment. This type of harvesting was also shown to be more productive in terms of sugar and inulin yield. The total sugar content in the different organs analysed (roots, stalk and tubers was always higher in Udine compared to Bologna, for both crops. Lastly, the length of the inulin chain (average degree of polymerisation [DP] diminishes with the delaying of the harvest in both crops. The Bologna area had the highest potential in terms of chicory root production, while for the tubers yield of

  16. Adoption of farm-based irrigation water-saving techniques in the Guanzhong Plain, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, Jianjun; Folmer, Henk; Xue, Jianhong

    This article analyses adoption of farm-based irrigation water saving techniques, based on a cross-sectional data set of 357 farmers in the Guanzhong Plain, China. Approximately 83% of the farmers use at least one farm-based water-saving technique. However, the traditional, inefficient techniques

  17. Discriminating sediment and clear water over coastal water using GD technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Abd Rahman Mat

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Currently two algorithms are being used routinely by the MODIS Atmosphere and Ocean Team in order to distinguish sediment influence and clear water pixels over turbid water area. These two algorithms require complicated computational analyses. In this paper, a simple algorithm based on empirical technique to detect the sediment-influenced pixels over coastal waters is proposed as an alternative to these two algorithms. This study used apparent reflectance acquired from MODIS L1B product. This algorithm is based on the gradient difference of the line connecting the 0.47- and 1.24-μm channels and 0.47- and 0.66-μm channels of a log-log graph of the apparent reflectance values against MODIS wavelengths. Over clear-water areas (deep blue sea, the 0.47-, 0.66- and 1.24-μm channels fitted very well in line with correlation R > 0.99. Over turbid waters, a substantial increase of 0.66 μm in the reflectance leads to a low correlation value. By computing the difference between the gradient of the line connecting 0.47 and 0.66 μm and the gradient of the line connecting 0.47 and 1.24 μm, the threshold to discriminate turbid and shallow coastal waters from clear-water pixels can be obtained. If the gradient difference is greater than 0, the pixels were then marked as sediment-influenced pixels. This proposed algorithm works well for MODIS Terra and Aqua sensor. The comparison of this algorithm with an established algorithm also showed a good agreement.

  18. Energy harvester

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herder, J.L.; Tolou, N.

    2013-01-01

    Energy harvester comprising a mass (2) that is subjectable to environmental forces for bringing it into the status of a moving mass, and means (5) linked to the mass (2) for converting and storing of energy embodied in the moving mass, which means (5) are arranged for subsequent release of said

  19. Rooftop level rainwater harvesting system

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hayssam Traboulsi; Marwa Traboulsi

    2017-01-01

    ... and economic growth. Although rainwater harvesting is considered to be a safe and reliable alternative source for domestic water, the inconvenience or impracticalities related to the cost and space needed...

  20. NMR and mushrooms : imaging post harvest senescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donker, H.C.W.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of the study described in this thesis was to explore the potentials of NMR for the study of water relations in harvested mushrooms ( Agaricus bisporus ). Since harvested mushrooms tend to continue their growth after harvest, their morphogenesis is heavily

  1. Water extraction technique in mountainous areas from satellite images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Gordana; Avdan, Ugur

    2017-10-01

    Water monitoring is an important part of water resource management and has become an essential aspect of remote sensing. A number of indices have been developed for water extraction using satellite images. Even though all indices can extract the extent of a water body, none can do so without including a noise component, such as topographic shadows, cloud shadows, snow, ice, and buildup areas, all of which have spectrally similar characteristics under certain circumstances. In order to select the best index for water body extraction, several water indices have been compared. This paper proposes a method for extracting water bodies called the water extraction surface temperature index (WESTI). This method uses normalized difference water index (NDWI) and land surface temperature to eliminate the noise components, especially in mountainous and cold areas where other indices have very low accuracy. The results have shown that WESTI improves the NDWI results by removing more than 80% of topographic shadows, with an overall accuracy of 99% in all cases.

  2. Detecting Oil on Water: A Comparison of Known Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemas, Vytautas

    1971-01-01

    This paper reviews new developments in oil pollution detection and compares available techniques according to their effectiveness. Emphasis is on in situ and remote sensing techniques, with a potential for real-time, automated operation. No mention is made of traditional methods, requiring that a sample be taken to a laboratory for tests of solubility, chemical reactions, or other properties.

  3. Precipitable water comparisons over Ghana using PPP Techniques ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... (GNSS) meteorology and tests the computed results against global reanalysis data. Conventional approaches used to sense the atmospheric water vapor or Precipitable Water (PW) such as radiosondes, hygrometers, microwave radiometers or sun photometers are expensive and have coverage and temporal limitations.

  4. Increasing photovoltaic panel power through water cooling technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calebe Abrenhosa Matias

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of a cooling apparatus using water in a commercial photovoltaic panel in order to analyze the increased efficiency through decreased operating temperature. The system enables the application of reuse water flow, at ambient temperature, on the front surface of PV panel and is composed of an inclined plane support, a perforated aluminum profile and a water gutter. A luminaire was specially developed to simulate the solar radiation over the module under test in a closed room, free from the influence of external climatic conditions, to carry out the repetition of the experiment in controlled situations. The panel was submitted to different rates of water flow. The best water flow rate was of 0.6 L/min and net energy of 77.41Wh. Gain of 22.69% compared to the panel without the cooling system.

  5. Development of neutron measurement techniques in reactor diagnostics and determination of water content and water flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avdic, Senada

    2000-09-01

    The present thesis deals with three comparatively different topics in neutron physics research. These topics are as follows: construction and experimental investigation of a new detector, capable of measuring the neutron current, and investigation of the possibility to use it for the localisation of a neutron source in a simple experimental arrangement; execution of neutron transmission measurements based on a stationary neutron generator, and the study of their suitability for determining the volume porosity of geological samples; study of the possibility for improving the accuracy of water flow measurements based on the pulsed neutron activation technique. The first subject of this thesis concerns the measurement of the neutron current by a newly constructed detector. The motivation for this work stems from a recent suggestion that the performance of core monitoring methods could be enhanced if, in addition to the scalar neutron flux, also the neutron current was measured. To this end, a current detector was based on a scintillator mounted on a fibre and a Cd layer on one side of the detector. The measurements of the 2-D neutron current were performed in an experimental system by using this detector. The efficiency of the detector in reactor diagnostics was illustrated by demonstrating that the position of a neutron source can be determined by measuring the scalar neutron flux and the neutron current in one spatial point. The results of measurement and calculation show both the suitability of the detector construction for the measurement of the neutron current vector and the use of the current in diagnostics and monitoring. The second subject of this thesis concerns fast neutron transmission measurements, based on a stationary neutron generator, for determining the volume porosity of a sample in a model experiment. Such a technique could be used in field measurements with obvious advantages in comparison with thermal neutron transmission techniques, which can

  6. Water quality assessment using remote sensing techniques: Medrano Creek, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignolo, Alicia; Pochettino, Alberto; Cicerone, Daniel

    2006-12-01

    Two spectral bands of the visible spectrum [0.45-0.52 microm (Blue), 0.52-0.60 microm (Green)] of satellite images obtained by LANDSAT 7 ETM+ have been used in this study to follow the contaminated waters of Medrano Creek when it flows into Río de la Plata River. The former is one of the five fresh watercourses going through the Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires, Argentina, where 13 million people live. Previous studies have shown that the water quality of Rio de la Plata at the outlet of Medrano Creek has decreased more than 50% as a source of water for human consumption. The non-treated effluents of the textile industry probably affect the water quality. We have developed a model that predicts the water quality index (WQI) of surface waters in the study area and uses linear regression analysis. The model has been validated using a data set of 12 physicochemical parameters obtained during the last 3 years. The potentiality of using satellite images was confirmed by the results: (a) to trace the organic contamination (associated with dyes) in freshwater systems and (b) as tools for decision making in the management of water resources.

  7. Household water use and conservation models using Monte Carlo techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Cahill

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The increased availability of end use measurement studies allows for mechanistic and detailed approaches to estimating household water demand and conservation potential. This study simulates water use in a single-family residential neighborhood using end-water-use parameter probability distributions generated from Monte Carlo sampling. This model represents existing water use conditions in 2010 and is calibrated to 2006–2011 metered data. A two-stage mixed integer optimization model is then developed to estimate the least-cost combination of long- and short-term conservation actions for each household. This least-cost conservation model provides an estimate of the upper bound of reasonable conservation potential for varying pricing and rebate conditions. The models were adapted from previous work in Jordan and are applied to a neighborhood in San Ramon, California in the eastern San Francisco Bay Area. The existing conditions model produces seasonal use results very close to the metered data. The least-cost conservation model suggests clothes washer rebates are among most cost-effective rebate programs for indoor uses. Retrofit of faucets and toilets is also cost-effective and holds the highest potential for water savings from indoor uses. This mechanistic modeling approach can improve understanding of water demand and estimate cost-effectiveness of water conservation programs.

  8. Uranium isotopes in ground water as a prospecting technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowart, J.B.; Osmond, J.K.

    1980-02-01

    The isotopic concentrations of dissolved uranium were determined for 300 ground water samples near eight known uranium accumulations to see if new approaches to prospecting could be developed. It is concluded that a plot of /sup 234/U//sup 238/U activity ratio (A.R.) versus uranium concentration (C) can be used to identify redox fronts, to locate uranium accumulations, and to determine whether such accumulations are being augmented or depleted by contemporary aquifer/ground water conditions. In aquifers exhibiting flow-through hydrologic systems, up-dip ground water samples are characterized by high uranium concentration values (> 1 to 4 ppB) and down-dip samples by low uranium concentration values (less than 1 ppB). The boundary between these two regimes can usually be identified as a redox front on the basis of regional water chemistry and known uranium accumulations. Close proximity to uranium accumulations is usually indicated either by very high uranium concentrations in the ground water or by a combination of high concentration and high activity ratio values. Ground waters down-dip from such accumulations often exhibit low uranium concentration values but retain their high A.R. values. This serves as a regional indicator of possible uranium accumulations where conditions favor the continued augmentation of the deposit by precipitation from ground water. Where the accumulation is being dispersed and depleted by the ground water system, low A.R. values are observed. Results from the Gulf Coast District of Texas and the Wyoming districts are presented.

  9. THE USE OF MEMBRANE TECHNIQUES IN SWIMMING POOL WATER TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Łaskawiec

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper has determined the suitability of membrane processes (UF ultrafiltration, UF, and nanofiltration, NF for the purification of waste streams, so-called backwash water, obtained from washing filtration beds in a swimming pool water system. The backwash water samples were taken from the circuits located in two indoor facilities with a different purpose of the basins. Moreover, the samples were characterized by varying quality, as described by selected physicochemical parameters (such as turbidity and ultraviolet absorbance UV254. Commercial membranes were used for the tests. The transport-separation properties of the membranes were determined based on the volumetric flux of the permeate. In addition, backwash water samples before and after the membrane process were subjected to toxicological assessment using the Microtox® screening test. The performed processes contributed to a significant reduction in turbidity and the value of UV254 ultraviolet absorbance, both in the ultrafiltration and nanofiltration processes. Whereas, significant differences in transport properties were noted within individual processes. A great influence of backwash water quality, including physicochemical parameters, on the course and results of the membrane filtration processes was demonstrated. In all of the nanofiltration cycles carried out, the removal of the toxic properties of the backwash water with respect to bacteria in the Microtox® test was found. Nevertheless, samples with high values of resultant physicochemical parameters after the ultrafiltration process were still characterized by high toxicity. Pressure membrane processes show high effectiveness in the removal of contaminants from backwash water. However, it is necessary to introduce supporting processes aimed at reducing membrane pore blocking by deposits and organic compounds, and in the case of ultrafiltration, assuring the safety of the purified stream in terms of the toxicological effect.

  10. New techniques for analysis of organic pollutants in drinking water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kissinger, L.D.

    1979-01-01

    An abstractor packing prepared by coating Chromosorb G AW/DMCS with copper(II) chloride was effective for removal of amines from gas-chromatographic streams, but it did not affect the chromatographic behavior of nonamine compounds. By using pre-columns packed with the abstractor packing, solventless chromatograms were obtained for samples in pyridine. A method was developed for determining haloforms in drinking water by sorption of the haloforms on columns packed with acetylated XAD-2. A pre-column of the abstractor packing was used to remove the pyridine solvent from the samples containing the haloforms concentrated from waters. Detection limits for the four chloro-, bromo- haloforms in a 100-ml water sample using an electron capture detector were below 1 ppB. Addition of ascorbic acid to chlorinated waters was effective for stopping the production of haloforms. Design of the inlet allowed samples to be introduced to the capillary column in a Tracor model 550 gas chromatograph with or without splitting of the carrier-gas stream. An exit splitter was implemented that carried the effluent from the capillary column to two detectors. The capillary-column system was applied to the analysis of trace components in complex mixtures. Small columns packed with Florisil were used to fractionate mixtures of organic compounds by gravity-flow liquid chromatography. Three fractions of organic compounds were collected from the Florisil columns. The recovery and elution behavior of many organic compounds was investigated. Organic compounds from fifteen waters were fractionated on Florisil.

  11. Water quality assessment at Omerli Dam using remote sensing techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alparslan, Erhan; Aydöner, Cihangir; Tufekci, Vildan; Tüfekci, Hüseyin

    2007-12-01

    Water quality at Omerli Dam, which is a vital potable water resource of Istanbul City, Turkey was assessed using the first four bands of Landsat 7-ETM satellite data, acquired in May 2001 and water quality parameters, such as chlorophyll-a, suspended solid matter, secchi disk and total phosphate measured at several measurement stations at Omerli Dam during satellite image acquisition time and archived at the Marine Pollution and Ecotoxicology laboratory of the Marmara Research Center, where this study was carried out. Establishing a relationship between this data, and the pixel reflectance values in the satellite image, chlorophyll-a, suspended solid matter, secchi disk and total phosphate maps were produced for the Omerli Dam.

  12. Unraveling Key Metabolomic Alterations in Wheat Embryos Derived from Freshly Harvested and Water-Imbibed Seeds of Two Wheat Cultivars with Contrasting Dormancy Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aayudh Das

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Untimely rains in wheat fields during harvest season can cause pre-harvest sprouting (PHS, which deteriorates the yield and quality of wheat crop. Metabolic homeostasis of the embryo plays a role in seed dormancy, determining the status of the maturing grains either as dormant (PHS-tolerant or non-dormant (PHS-susceptible. Very little is known for direct measurements of global metabolites in embryonic tissues of dormant and non-dormant wheat seeds. In this study, physiologically matured and freshly harvested wheat seeds of PHS-tolerant (cv. Sukang, dormant and PHS-susceptible (cv. Baegjoong, non-dormant cultivars were water-imbibed, and the isolated embryos were subjected to high-throughput, global non-targeted metabolomic profiling. A careful comparison of identified metabolites between Sukang and Baegjoong embryos at 0 and 48 h after imbibition revealed that several key metabolic pathways [such as: lipids, fatty acids, oxalate, hormones, the raffinose family of oligosaccharides (RFOs, and amino acids] and phytochemicals were differentially regulated between dormant and non-dormant varieties. Most of the membrane lipids were highly reduced in Baegjoong compared to Sukang, which indicates that the cell membrane instability in response to imbibition could also be a key factor in non-dormant wheat varieties for their untimely germination. This study revealed that several key marker metabolites (e.g., RFOs: glucose, fructose, maltose, and verbascose, were highly expressed in Baegjoong after imbibition. Furthermore, the data showed that the key secondary metabolites and phytochemicals (vitexin, chrysoeriol, ferulate, salidroside and gentisic acid, with known antioxidant properties, were comparatively low at basal levels in PHS-susceptible, non-dormant cultivar, Baegjoong. In conclusion, the results of this investigation revealed that after imbibition the metabolic homeostasis of dormant wheat is significantly less affected compared to non

  13. Analytical Bibliography for Water Supply and Conservation Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    reviews and analyzes philosophical assumptions and logics of historically important definitions of "conservation": Aldo Leopold , "The Conservation Ethic...evaluation of conservation measures aimed at industrial water demand. 175 Leopold , L. B., and W. B. Langbein. 1960. A Primer on Water. Washington, D.C...Y., A-90 Leone, R. A., A-91 Leopold , L. B., A-91 Leplastrier, B. 3., A-54 Lin, A., A-91 Linaweaver, F. P., Jr., A-78, A-92, A-163 Liroff, S., A-75

  14. Final Report on Isotope Ratio Techniques for Light Water Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerlach, David C.; Gesh, Christopher J.; Hurley, David E.; Mitchell, Mark R.; Meriwether, George H.; Reid, Bruce D.

    2009-07-01

    The Isotope Ratio Method (IRM) is a technique for estimating the energy or plutonium production in a fission reactor by measuring isotope ratios in non-fuel reactor components. The isotope ratios in these components can then be directly related to the cumulative energy production with standard reactor modeling methods.

  15. GIS Technique Applied To Surface Water Survey In South Western ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A GIS is used to study the surface water in Ibadan. Data which relates to the physical parameters of the study area, were used in this study. These included a SPOT-multispectral imagery, topographic and geological maps of Ibadan, which were analyzed and interpreted. The enhancement of the digital image (SPOT- ...

  16. Classroom Techniques to Illustrate Water Transport in Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakrim, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    The transport of water in plants is among the most difficult and challenging concepts to explain to students. It is even more difficult for students enrolled in an introductory general biology course. An easy approach is needed to demonstrate this complex concept. I describe visual and pedagogical examples that can be performed quickly and easily…

  17. Review of magnetostrictive vibration energy harvesters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhangxian; Dapino, Marcelo J.

    2017-10-01

    The field of energy harvesting has grown concurrently with the rapid development of portable and wireless electronics in which reliable and long-lasting power sources are required. Electrochemical batteries have a limited lifespan and require periodic recharging. In contrast, vibration energy harvesters can supply uninterrupted power by scavenging useful electrical energy from ambient structural vibrations. This article reviews the current state of vibration energy harvesters based on magnetostrictive materials, especially Terfenol-D and Galfenol. Existing magnetostrictive harvester designs are compared in terms of various performance metrics. Advanced techniques that can reduce device size and improve performance are presented. Models for magnetostrictive devices are summarized to guide future harvester designs.

  18. A retrospective study of iliac crest bone grafting techniques with allograft reconstruction: do patients even know which iliac crest was harvested? Clinical article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirris, Stephen M; Nottmeier, Eric W; Kimes, Sherri; O'Brien, Michael; Rahmathulla, Gazanfar

    2014-10-01

    Considerable biological research has been performed to aid bone healing in conjunction with lumbar fusion surgery. Iliac crest autograft is often considered the gold standard because it has the vital properties of being osteoconductive, osteoinductive, and osteogenic. However, graft site pain has been widely reported as the most common donor site morbidity. Autograft site pain has led many companies to develop an abundance of bone graft extenders, which have limited proof of efficacy. During the surgical consent process, many patients ask surgeons to avoid harvesting autograft because of the reported pain complications. The authors sought to study postoperative graft site pain by simply asking patients whether they knew which iliac crest was grafted when a single skin incision was made for the fusion operation. Twenty-five patients underwent iliac crest autografting with allograft reconstruction during instrumented lumbar fusion surgery. In all patients the autograft was harvested through the same skin incision but with a separate fascial incision. At various points postoperatively, the patients were asked if they could tell which iliac crest had been harvested, and if so, how much pain did it cause (10-point Numeric Rating Scale). Most patients (64%) could not correctly determine which iliac crest had been harvested. Of the 9 patients who correctly identified the side of the autograft, 7 were only able to guess. The 2 patients who confidently identified the side of grafting had no pain at rest and mild pain with activity. One patient who incorrectly guessed the side of autografting did have significant sacroiliac joint degenerative pain bilaterally. Results of this study indicate the inability of patients to clearly define their graft site after iliac crest autograft harvest with allograft reconstruction of the bony defect unless they have a separate skin incision. This simple, easily reproducible pilot study can be expanded into a larger, multiinstitutional

  19. Biological water quality monitoring using chemiluminescent and bioluminescent techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, R. R.

    1978-01-01

    Automated chemiluminescence and bioluminescence sensors were developed for the continuous monitoring of microbial levels in water supplies. The optimal chemical procedures were determined for the chemiluminescence system to achieve maximum sensitivity. By using hydrogen peroxide, reaction rate differentiation, ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), and carbon monoxide pretreatments, factors which cause interference were eliminated and specificity of the reaction for living and dead bacteria was greatly increased. By employing existing technology with some modifications, a sensitive and specific bioluminescent system was developed.

  20. Water saving techniques in the spanish tile industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique, J. E.

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted on the use of water in the ceramic tile manufacturing process, focussing on water requirements in body and glaze preparation and in washing production equipment and facilities. Water consumption and wastewater reuse systems in ceramic tile manufacture were reviewed. An in-depth, industrial scale study was performed of wastewater reuse in the manufacturing process, examining how wastewater reuse affected pollutant contents in gas emissions and solid waste.

    Se ha estudiado el uso del agua en el proceso de fabricación de baldosas cerámicas y en particular, en las etapas de preparación de la pasta de los esmaltes y limpieza del equipo industrial y de la propia planta.Se ha realizado una revisión del consumo de agua y de los sistemas de reutilización de la misma en el proceso de fabricación de baldosas cerámicas y se ha estudiado con profundidad, a escala industrial, la reutilización del agua residual en el proceso y en particular el efecto de su reutilización sobre la emisión de contaminantes en las emisiones gaseosas y en los residuos sólidos.

  1. Diarrhoea prevention in a high-risk rural Kenyan population through point-of-use chlorination, safe water storage, sanitation, and rainwater harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    GARRETT, V.; OGUTU, P.; MABONGA, P.; OMBEKI, S.; MWAKI, A.; ALUOCH, G.; PHELAN, M.; QUICK, R. E.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY Lack of access to safe water and sanitation contributes to diarrhoea moribidity and mortality in developing countries. We evaluated the impact of household water treatment, latrines, shallow wells, and rainwater harvesting on diarrhoea incidence in rural Kenyan children. We compared diarrhoea rates in 960 children aged <5 years in 556 households in 12 randomly selected intervention villages and six randomly selected comparison villages during weekly home visits over an 8-week period. On multivariate analysis, chlorinating stored water [relative risk (RR) 0·44, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0·28–0·69], latrine presence (RR 0·71, 95% CI 0·54–0·92), rainwater use (RR 0·70, 95% CI 0·52–0·95), and living in an intervention village (RR 0·31, 95% CI 0·23–0·41), were independently associated with lower diarrhoea risk. Diarrhoea risk was higher among shallow well users (RR 1·78, 95% CI 1·12–2·83). Chlorinating stored water, latrines, and rainwater use all decreased diarrhoea risk; combined interventions may have increased health impact. PMID:18205977

  2. Life cycle and hydrologic modeling of rainwater harvesting in urban neighborhoods: Implications of urban form and water demand patterns in the US and Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit-Boix, Anna; Devkota, Jay; Phillips, Robert; Vargas-Parra, María Violeta; Josa, Alejandro; Gabarrell, Xavier; Rieradevall, Joan; Apul, Defne

    2017-11-27

    Water management plays a major role in any city, but applying alternative strategies might be more or less feasible depending on the urban form and water demand. This paper aims to compare the environmental performance of implementing rainwater harvesting (RWH) systems in American and European cities. To do so, two neighborhoods with a water-stressed Mediterranean climate were selected in contrasting cities, i.e., Calafell (Catalonia, Spain) and Ukiah (California, US). Calafell is a high-density, tourist city, whereas Ukiah is a typical sprawled area. We studied the life cycle impacts of RWH in urban contexts by using runoff modeling before (i.e. business as usual) and after the implementation of this system. In general, cisterns were able to supply >75% of the rainwater demand for laundry and toilet flushing. The exception were multi-story buildings with roofs smaller than 200m2, where the catchment area was insufficient to meet demand. The implementation of RWH was environmentally beneficial with respect to the business-as-usual scenario, especially because of reduced runoff treatment needs. Along with soil features, roof area and water demand were major parameters that affected this reduction. RWH systems are more attractive in Calafell, which had 60% lower impacts than in Ukiah. Therefore, high-density areas can potentially benefit more from RWH than sprawled cities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Integrated Microbial Electrolysis Cell (MEC) with an anaerobic Membrane Bioreactor (MBR) for low strength wastewater treatment, energy harvesting and water reclamation

    KAUST Repository

    Jimenez Sandoval, Rodrigo J.

    2013-11-01

    Shortage of potable water is a problem that affects many nations in the world and it will aggravate in a near future if pertinent actions are not carried out. Decrease in consumption, improvements in water distribution systems to avoid losses and more efficient water treatment processes are some actions that can be implemented to attack this problem. Membrane technology and biological processes are used in wastewater treatment to achieve high water quality standards. Some other technologies, besides water treatment, attempt to obtain energy from organic wastes present in water. In this study, a proof-of-concept was accomplished demonstrating that a Microbial Electrolysis Cell can be fully integrated with a Membrane Bioreactor to achieve wastewater treatment and harvest energy. Conductive hollow fiber membranes made of nickel functioned as both filter material for treated water reclamation and as a cathode to catalyze hydrogen production reaction. The produced hydrogen was subsequently converted into methane by hydrogenotrophic methanogens. Organic removal was 98.9% irrespective of operation mode. Maximum volumetric hydrogen production rate was 0.2 m3/m3d, while maximum current density achieved was 6.1 A/m2 (based on cathode surface area). Biofouling, an unavoidable phenomenon in traditional MBRs, can be minimized in this system through self-cleaning approach of hybrid membranes by hydrogen production. The increased rate of hydrogen evolution at high applied voltage (0.9 V) reduces the membrane fouling. Improvements can be done in the system to make it as a promising net energy positive technology for the low strength wastewater treatment.

  4. A NEW TECHNIQUE FOR PURIFICATION OF WATER USING NATURAL COAGULANT

    OpenAIRE

    C. P. Pise; Dr. S. A. Halkude

    2014-01-01

    The use of chemical coagulants is not suitable due to health and economic considerations. Studies are carried out in laboratory scale on deionized and river water containing synthetic turbidity of kaolinite. Experiments are carried out in three turbidity ranges: 150, 450, 1000 (NTU) and the pH range 6-8. The efficiency of Moringa oleifera (MO) seed extract and alum is examined with jar test, settling column and pilot test. The aim of this study is to find out the optimum combination of MO ...

  5. Fruit cuticle lipid composition and fruit post-harvest water loss in an advanced backcross generation of pepper (Capsicum sp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    During postharvest storage, pepper (Capsicum sp.) fruit commonly wilts (or shrivels) early because of rapid water loss combined with the hollow fruit’s limited water storage capacity, a condition that greatly reduces its shelf-life and market value. To understand the role of fruit cuticle lipid comp...

  6. Restoring Degraded Rangelands in Jordan: Optimizing Mechanized Micro-Water Harvesting Technique Using Rangeland Hydrology and Erosion Model (RHEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Continuous population growth, recent refugee movement and migration as well as boundary restrictions and their implications on the nomadic lifestyle are additive pressure on rangelands throughout the Middle East. In particular, overgrazing through increased livestock herds threatens the Jordanian ra...

  7. High fluorescent water soluble CdTe quantum dots—a promising system for light harvesting applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sa, Arsenio; Moura, Isabel; Abreu, Ana S.; Oliveira, Manuel; Ferreira, Miguel F.; Machado, Ana V.

    2017-05-01

    The entrapment of quantum dots (QDs) in the inner part of micelles formed by surfactant polymers is a powerful methodology to prepare stable and photoluminescent core nanoparticles with enhanced optical properties. These features are crucial for the application of QDs in the design of hybrid assemblies for light harvesting applications, where energy transfer processes are required. The present work was focused on the synthesis of a surfactant homopolymer, poly (acrylic acid) (PAA) macroRAFT, to be used as a stabilizer of hydrophobic cadmium telluride (CdTe) QDs in aqueous solution. PAA macroRAFT was synthesized by reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer (RAFT) polymerization in a single chemical reaction. Its micelles were used to entangle and entrap hydrophobic CdTe QDs, with different molar ratio of polymer and QDs. The morphology and optical properties of the entrapped QDs were determined. The results showed that PAA macroRAFT is able to form micelles with a critical micelle concentration of 2.08 mg/mL. It was also noticed that the molar ratio of polymer and QDs have high influence on the QDs' morphology and their optical properties. The QDs' photoluminescence quantum yield was enhanced approximately 23% upon their entrapment in PAA macroRAFT micelles, using 60 equivalents of polymer. Moreover, while in solution, QDs are well-dispersed, having a 3.5 nm diameter, upon being entrapped in the micelles, tend to form clusters with a size around 100 nm.

  8. Multivariate statistical techniques for the evaluation of surface water quality of the Himalayan foothills streams, Pakistan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Malik, Riffat Naseem; Hashmi, Muhammad Zaffar

    2017-01-01

    ...; thus, the water quality is closely related to public health. Multivariate techniques were applied to check spatial and seasonal trends, and metals contamination sources of the Himalayan foothills streams, Pakistan...

  9. Using economic valuation techniques to inform water resources management: a survey and critical appraisal of available techniques and an application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birol, Ekin; Karousakis, Katia; Koundouri, Phoebe

    2006-07-15

    The need for economic analysis for the design and implementation of efficient water resources management policies is well documented in the economics literature. This need is also emphasised in the European Union's recent Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC), and is relevant to the objectives of Euro-limpacs, an EU funded project which inter alia, aims to provide a decision-support system for valuing the effects of future global change on Europe's freshwater ecosystems. The purpose of this paper is to define the role of economic valuation techniques in assisting in the design of efficient, equitable and sustainable policies for water resources management in the face of environmental problems such as pollution, intensive land use in agriculture and climate change. The paper begins with a discussion of the conceptual economic framework that can be used to inform water policy-making. An inventory of the available economic valuation methods is presented and the scope and suitability of each for studying various aspects of water resources are critically discussed. Recent studies that apply these methods to water resources are reviewed. Finally, an application of one of the economic valuation methods, namely the contingent valuation method, is presented using a case study of the Cheimaditida wetland in Greece.

  10. Prolina livre em alecrim-pimenta sob estresse hídrico antes da colheita Free proline in Lippia sidoides Cham. under water stress before harvest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.C.A. Alvarenga

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O estresse hídrico é considerado um dos fatores limitantes para o desenvolvimento das plantas, com isso, os vegetais desenvolvem mecanismos para tolerar a deficiência hídrica do solo. Entre esses mecanismos, está o acúmulo de prolina livre nos tecidos, tendo como função a regulação osmótica dos tecidos. A influência do estresse hídrico em plantas medicinais ainda é pouco estudado, principalmente em plantas nativas, como é o caso do alecrim-pimenta Lippia sidoides Cham. Assim, o trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a prolina livre e o teor de flavonoides totais na referida espécie sob condições de estresse hídrico antes da colheita. O trabalho foi realizado no Instituto de Ciências Agrárias da UFMG, Campus Montes Claros, delineamento em blocos casualizados, com 5 tratamentos e 4 repetições, sendo eles 8, 6, 4, 2 e 0 dias de supressão da irrigação antes da colheita. Os teores encontrados de prolina variaram entre 0,2489 a 3,2421 ìM.g-1 de matéria seca e de flavonoides entre 0,0139 a 0,008 g.g-1. Os resultados observados indicam que a planta diminui seu teor de flavonoides e aumenta o teor de prolina com o aumento do período de estresse.Water stress is considered a limiting factor for plant growth, thus, the plants develop mechanisms to tolerate the soil water deficit. Among these mechanisms is the accumulation of free proline in tissues, with the poke the osmotic regulation of tissues. The influence of water stress in medicinal plants is still poorly studied, mainly on native plants such as rosemary-pepper Lippia sidoides Cham. Thus, the study aimed to evaluate the free proline and total flavonoid content in that species under conditions of water stress before harvest. The study was conducted at the Institute of Agricultural Sciences, UFMG, Campus Montes Claros, randomized block design with 5 treatments and 4 replicates, and they 8, 6, 4, 2 and 0 days of withholding irrigation before harvest. The content of proline

  11. Seasonal changes of total body water and water intake in Shetland ponies measured by an isotope dilution technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkmann, L; Gerken, M; Riek, A

    2013-08-01

    Water is an essential nutrient necessary to support life, and adequate water supply is crucial for animal survival and productivity. The present study was designed to determine seasonal changes in the water metabolism of horses under outdoor conditions. Total body water (TBW) and total water intake (TWI) of 10 adult Shetland pony mares were estimated at monthly intervals for 14 mo by using the deuterium dilution technique. During the last 4 mo, 5 ponies were fed restrictively to simulate natural feed shortage in winter, and 5 ponies served as controls. The TBW (kg) was closely related to body mass [TBW (kg) = -2.86 + 0.67 × body mass (kg); P 0°C. Therefore, removing TWI values measured at Ta water intake revealed that ponies had 1.7 to 5.1 times greater total water intakes when other sources of water such as feed and metabolic water were included. The TWI was highly influenced by environmental conditions and metabolic rate. Contrary to expectation, water supply during the cold seasons might be more critical than under summer conditions when water content of grass is high to allow for the compensation of limited availability of drinking water.

  12. Influence of soil and water conservation techniques on yield of small ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study determined the application of soil and water conservation techniques in relation to yield of small-holder swamp rice farmers in Imo State, Nigeria in 2009. Specifically, the socio-economic characteristics of the farmer were described, their influence on the application of the techniques examined and relationship of ...

  13. Potential of using remote sensing techniques for global assessment of water footprint of crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romaguera Albentosa, M.R.; Romaguera, Mireia; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; Su, Zhongbo; Krol, Martinus S.; Salama, M.S.

    2010-01-01

    Remote sensing has long been a useful tool in global applications, since it provides physically-based, worldwide, and consistent spatial information. This paper discusses the potential of using these techniques in the research field of water management, particularly for ‘Water Footprint’ (WF)

  14. Perdas de solo e de água em sistemas de captação in situ no Semi-Árido brasileiro Soil and water losses in situ water harvesting systems in the brazilian semi-arid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza T. L. Brito

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Os sistemas de cultivo utilizados no semi-árido brasileiro apresentam riscos de perda devido à irregularidade das chuvas, devendo-se associá-los a práticas que propiciem maior infiltração e, conseqüentemente, menor erosão, o que pode ser obtido por meio de técnicas de captação de água de chuva in situ. Neste trabalho, teve-se o objetivo de avaliar as perdas de água e de solo em área cultivada com milho (Zea mays L., submetida a diferentes sistemas de preparo do solo, correspondendo aos tratamentos Guimarães Duque (T1; aração profunda (T2; aração parcial (T3 e sulcos barrados (T4, comparados com o sistema tradicional (T5, que corresponde ao plantio sem preparo do solo. Após cada evento de chuva, a água e o solo escoados foram coletados e medidos. A umidade do solo em diferentes profundidades foi monitorada durante o ciclo de produção da cultura e avaliada a produtividade dos grãos por meio da análise de variância. A partir dos resultados, pode-se observar que o método Guimarães Duque (T1 proporcionou maiores perdas de água (6.696 L e de solo (15.225 kg ha-1, enquanto as menores perdas foram obtidas com os sulcos barrados (T4, correspondendo a 1.066 L e 1.022 kg ha-1, respectivamente. Nesse tratamento (T4, também foi obtida a maior produtividade de grãos (606 kg ha-1, apresentando-se como o sistema mais indicado para as condições analisadas.The cropping systems used in the Brazilian semi-arid show risks of losses due to irregularity of rainfall, requiring the use of practices which produce higher water infiltration and, as a consequence, lower soil erosion, which can be obtained through in situ rainwater harvest techniques. This study had the objective of evaluating soil and water losses in a corn (Zea mays L. area subjected to different soil preparation systems: Guimarães Duque (T1, deep plowing (T2, partial plowing (T3, and furrows with barriers (T4, compared to the traditional system (T5, i.e., plain planting

  15. Endoscopic Radial Artery Harvest for Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuan-Ming Chiu

    2006-01-01

    Conclusion: Endoscopic harvest of the radial artery is technically demanding, but excellent results can be achieved. The endoscopic approach can provide suitable conduits in a less invasive way than the open harvest technique.

  16. Contextualising Water Use in Residential Settings: A Survey of Non-Intrusive Techniques and Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Carboni

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Water monitoring in households is important to ensure the sustainability of fresh water reserves on our planet. It provides stakeholders with the statistics required to formulate optimal strategies in residential water management. However, this should not be prohibitive and appliance-level water monitoring cannot practically be achieved by deploying sensors on every faucet or water-consuming device of interest due to the higher hardware costs and complexity, not to mention the risk of accidental leakages that can derive from the extra plumbing needed. Machine learning and data mining techniques are promising techniques to analyse monitored data to obtain non-intrusive water usage disaggregation. This is because they can discern water usage from the aggregated data acquired from a single point of observation. This paper provides an overview of water usage disaggregation systems and related techniques adopted for water event classification. The state-of-the art of algorithms and testbeds used for fixture recognition are reviewed and a discussion on the prominent challenges and future research are also included.

  17. Capacitive Mixing for Harvesting the Free Energy of Solutions at Different Concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rica, R.A.; Ziano, R.; Salerno, D.; Mantegazza, F.; van Roij, R.H.H.G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/152978984; Brogioli, D.

    2013-01-01

    An enormous dissipation of the order of 2 kJ/L takes place during the natural mixing process of fresh river water entering the salty sea. “Capacitive mixing” is a promising technique to efficiently harvest this energy in an environmentally clean and sustainable fashion. This method has its roots in

  18. Artificial intelligent techniques for optimizing water allocation in a reservoir watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Fi-John; Chang, Li-Chiu; Wang, Yu-Chung

    2014-05-01

    This study proposes a systematical water allocation scheme that integrates system analysis with artificial intelligence techniques for reservoir operation in consideration of the great uncertainty upon hydrometeorology for mitigating droughts impacts on public and irrigation sectors. The AI techniques mainly include a genetic algorithm and adaptive-network based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS). We first derive evaluation diagrams through systematic interactive evaluations on long-term hydrological data to provide a clear simulation perspective of all possible drought conditions tagged with their corresponding water shortages; then search the optimal reservoir operating histogram using genetic algorithm (GA) based on given demands and hydrological conditions that can be recognized as the optimal base of input-output training patterns for modelling; and finally build a suitable water allocation scheme through constructing an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) model with a learning of the mechanism between designed inputs (water discount rates and hydrological conditions) and outputs (two scenarios: simulated and optimized water deficiency levels). The effectiveness of the proposed approach is tested on the operation of the Shihmen Reservoir in northern Taiwan for the first paddy crop in the study area to assess the water allocation mechanism during drought periods. We demonstrate that the proposed water allocation scheme significantly and substantially avails water managers of reliably determining a suitable discount rate on water supply for both irrigation and public sectors, and thus can reduce the drought risk and the compensation amount induced by making restrictions on agricultural use water.

  19. Spatial Analysis for Potential Water Catchment Areas using GIS: Weighted Overlay Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awanda, Disyacitta; Anugrah Nurul, H.; Musfiroh, Zahrotul; Dinda Dwi, N. P.

    2017-12-01

    The development of applied GIS is growing rapidly and has been widely applied in various fields. Preparation of a model to obtain information is one of the benefits of GIS. Obtaining information for water resources such as water catchment areas is one part of GIS modelling. Water catchment model can be utilized to see the distribution of potential and ability of a region in water absorbing. The use of overlay techniques with the weighting obtained from the literature from previous research is used to build the model. Model builder parameters are obtained through remote sensing interpretation techniques such as land use, landforms, and soil texture. Secondary data such as rock type maps are also used as water catchment model parameters. The location of this research is in the upstream part of the Opak river basin. The purpose of this research is to get information about potential distribution of water catchment area with overlay technique. The results of this study indicate the potential of water catchment areas with excellent category, good, medium, poor and very poor. These results may indicate that the Upper river basin is either good or in bad condition, so it can be used for better water resources management policy determination.

  20. Techniques for water demand analysis and forecasting: Puerto Rico, a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanasi, E.D.; Close, E.R.; Lopez, M.A.

    1975-01-01

    The rapid economic growth of the Commonwealth-of Puerto Rico since 1947 has brought public pressure on Government agencies for rapid development of public water supply and waste treatment facilities. Since 1945 the Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority has had the responsibility for planning, developing and operating water supply and waste treatment facilities on a municipal basis. The purpose of this study was to develop operational techniques whereby a planning agency, such as the Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority, could project the temporal and spatial distribution of .future water demands. This report is part of a 2-year cooperative study between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Environmental Quality Board of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, for the development of systems analysis techniques for use in water resources planning. While the Commonwealth was assisted in the development of techniques to facilitate ongoing planning, the U.S. Geological Survey attempted to gain insights in order to better interface its data collection efforts with the planning process. The report reviews the institutional structure associated with water resources planning for the Commonwealth. A brief description of alternative water demand forecasting procedures is presented and specific techniques and analyses of Puerto Rico demand data are discussed. Water demand models for a specific area of Puerto Rico are then developed. These models provide a framework for making several sets of water demand forecasts based on alternative economic and demographic assumptions. In the second part of this report, the historical impact of water resources investment on regional economic development is analyzed and related to water demand .forecasting. Conclusions and future data needs are in the last section.

  1. Rainwater harvesting and management in rainfed agricultural systems in sub-Saharan Africa - A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biazin, Birhanu; Sterk, Geert; Temesgen, Melesse; Abdulkedir, Abdu; Stroosnijder, Leo

    Agricultural water scarcity in the predominantly rainfed agricultural system of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is more related to the variability of rainfall and excessive non-productive losses, than the total annual precipitation in the growing season. Less than 15% of the terrestrial precipitation takes the form of productive ‘green’ transpiration. Hence, rainwater harvesting and management (RWHM) technologies hold a significant potential for improving rainwater-use efficiency and sustaining rainfed agriculture in the region. This paper outlines the various RWHM techniques being practiced in SSA, and reviews recent research results on the performance of selected practices. So far, micro-catchment and in situ rainwater harvesting techniques are more common than rainwater irrigation techniques from macro-catchment systems. Depending on rainfall patterns and local soil characteristics, appropriate application of in situ and micro-catchment techniques could improve the soil water content of the rooting zone by up to 30%. Up to sixfold crop yields have been obtained through combinations of rainwater harvesting and fertiliser use, as compared to traditional practices. Supplemental irrigation of rainfed agriculture through rainwater harvesting not only reduces the risk of total crop failure due to dry spells, but also substantially improves water and crop productivity. Depending on the type of crop and the seasonal rainfall pattern, the application of RWHM techniques makes net profits more possible, compared to the meagre profit or net loss of existing systems. Implementation of rainwater harvesting may allow cereal-based smallholder farmers to shift to diversified crops, hence improving household food security, dietary status, and economic return. The much needed green revolution and adaptations to climate change in SSA should blend rainwater harvesting ideals with agronomic principles. More efforts are needed to improve the indigenous practices, and to disseminate best

  2. Water quality and plankton communities in hybrid catfish (female channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus x male blue catfish, I. furcatus) ponds after partial fish harvest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twelve, 0.4-ha ponds were stocked with 10,000 hybrid catfish fingerlings in March 2015. Six ponds were partially harvested in August to remove fish larger than ~ 0.57 kg. All remaining fish were removed in October and November. Partial harvest of faster-growing fish removed ~26% of fish initially st...

  3. Influence of potable water cleaning techniques on the radiological quality of water; Influence des techniques de potabilisation sur la qualite radiologique de l'eau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Real, J.; Bourrasse, M.; Feuerstein, J.; Rouxel, R. [CEA/Cadarache, Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire (IPSN-SER), 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2000-03-01

    In case of accidental radioactive discharges, the drinking water would not represent the first concern for the definition of the total radiological risk; however, it would generally constitute the first concern of the consumer. The purpose of the results come from experiments carried out in laboratory and were to evaluate the efficiency of two type of processing of drinking water on the elimination of the radionuclides cesium and strontium. Therefore, a catchment water was contaminated with radioactive aerosols representative of an accident. Then, it was made potable on the one hand, using a traditional process (clarification and filtration on sand then on activated carbon), and on the other hand, by a less traditional but easily integrable technique within an already existing process, in which sand is replaced by zeolite. The performance at the end of the processing using sand is average for cesium (from 67 to 73 % according to the type of coagulant injected) and becomes frankly poor for strontium (between 46 and 51 %). The results obtained with the process including of zeolite are very satisfactory. The performance at the end of the processing as well reach 99 % for strontium as for cesium whatever the type of coagulant used. The present study thus made it possible to show the insufficiency of the processing known as 'traditional' of drinking water towards to the elimination of the radionuclides cesium and strontium, but also to outline the features of a new process still to improve radioactive decontamination of water. (authors)

  4. The effect of differences rainfall data duration and time period in the assessment of rainwater harvesting system performance for domestic water use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliana, Imroatul C.; Kusuma, M. Syahril Badri; Cahyono, M.; Martokusumo, Widjaja; Kuntoro, Arno Adi

    2017-11-01

    One of the attempts to tackle the problem in water resources is to exploit the potential of rainwater volume with rainwater harvesting (RWH) system. A number of rainfall data required for analyzing the RWH system performance. In contrast, the availability of rainfall data is occasionally difficult to obtain. The main objective of this study is to investigate the effect of difference rainfall data duration and time period to assess the RWH system performance. An analysis was conducted on the rainfall data based on rainfall data duration and time period. The analysis was performed considering 15, 5, 3, 2 years, average year, wet year, and dry year for Palembang city in South Sumatera. The RWH system performance is calculated based on the concept of yield before spillage algorithm. A number of scenarios were conducted by varying the tank capacity, roof area, and the rainwater demand. It was observed that the use of data with a smaller duration provides a significant difference, especially for high rainwater demand. In addition, the use of daily rainfall data would describe th e behavior of the system more thoroughly. As for time step, the use of monthly rainfall data is only sufficient for low rainwater demand and bigger tank capacity.

  5. Marine Hydrokinetic (MHK) Systems: A Systems Engineering Approach to Select Locations for the Practical Harvest of Electricity from Shallow Water Tidal Currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domenech, John

    Due to increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration and its effect on global climates, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposes a Clean Power Plan (CPP) mandating CO2 reductions which will likely force the early retirement of inefficient, aging power plants. Consequentially, removing these plants equates to a shortfall of approximately 66 GW of electricity. These factors add to the looming resource problems of choosing whether to build large replacement power plants or consider alternative energy sources as a means to help close the gap between electricity supply and demand in a given region. One energy source, shallow water tidal currents, represents opportunities to convert kinetic energy to mechanical forms and provide electricity to homes and businesses. Nearly 2,000 National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) tidal current data points from Maine to Texas are considered. This paper, based on systems engineering thinking, provides key attributes (e.g. turbine efficiency, array size, transmission losses) for consideration as decision makers seek to identify where to site Marine Hydrokinetic (MHK) systems and the number of homes powered by the practical harvest of electricity from tidal currents at those locations with given attributes. A systems engineering process model is proposed for consideration as is a regression based equation to estimate MHK machine parameters needed for power a given number of homes.

  6. Cost-effective ERT technique for oil-in-water measurement for offshore hydrocyclone installations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durdevic, Petar; Hansen, Leif; Mai, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to introduce and design a cost-effective Oil-in-Water (OiW) measuring instrument, which will be investigated for its value in increasing the efficiency of a deoiling hydrocyclone. The technique investigated is based on Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), which basic...... principle is to measure the resistivity of substances from multiple electrodes and from these measurements create a 2-D image of the oil and gas component in the water. This technique requires the measured components to have different electrical resistances, such as seawater which has a lower electrical...

  7. Cost-Effective ERT Technique for Oil-in-Water Measurement for Offshore Hydrocyclone Installations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løhndorf, Petar Durdevic; Hansen, Leif; Mai, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to introduce and design a cost-effective Oil-in-Water (OiW) measuring instrument, which will be investigated for its value in increasing the efficiency of a deoiling hydrocyclone. The technique investigated is based on Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), which basic...... principle is to measure the resistivity of substances from multiple electrodes and from these measurements create a 2-D image of the oil and gas component in the water. This technique requires the measured components to have different electrical resistances, such as seawater which has a lower electrical...

  8. Determination of moisture content and water activity in algae and fish by thermoanalytical techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilma Mota da Silva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The water content in seafoods is very important since it affects their sensorial quality, microbiological stability, physical characteristics and shelf life. In this study, thermoanalytical techniques were employed to develop a simple and accurate method to determine water content (moisture by thermogravimetry (TG and water activity from moisture content values and freezing point depression using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The precision of the results suggests that TG is a suitable technique to determine moisture content in biological samples. The average water content values for fish samples of Lutjanus synagris and Ocyurus chrysurus species were 76.4 ± 5.7% and 63.3 ± 3.9%, respectively, while that of Ulva lactuca marine algae species was 76.0 ± 4.4%. The method presented here was also successfully applied to determine water activity in two species of fish and six species of marine algae collected in the Atlantic coastal waters of Bahia, in Brazil. Water activity determined in fish samples ranged from 0.946 - 0.960 and was consistent with values reported in the literature, i.e., 0.9 - 1.0. The water activity values determined in marine algae samples lay within the interval of 0.974 - 0.979.

  9. Determination of moisture content and water activity in algae and fish by thermoanalytical techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Vilma Mota da; Silva, Luciana Almeida; Andrade, Jailson B. de [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: jailsong@ufba.br; Veloso, Marcia C. da Cunha [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica da Bahia (CEFET-BA), Salvador, BA (Brazil)); Santos, Gislaine Vieira [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia

    2008-07-01

    The water content in seafoods is very important since it affects their sensorial quality, microbiological stability, physical characteristics and shelf life. In this study, thermoanalytical techniques were employed to develop a simple and accurate method to determine water content (moisture) by thermogravimetry (TG) and water activity from moisture content values and freezing point depression using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The precision of the results suggests that TG is a suitable technique to determine moisture content in biological samples. The average water content values for fish samples of Lutjanus synagris and Ocyurus chrysurus species were 76.4 {+-} 5.7% and 63.3 {+-} 3.9%, respectively, while that of Ulva lactuca marine algae species was 76.0 {+-} 4.4%. The method presented here was also successfully applied to determine water activity in two species of fish and six species of marine algae collected in the Atlantic coastal waters of Bahia, in Brazil. Water activity determined in fish samples ranged from 0.946 - 0.960 and was consistent with values reported in the literature, i.e., 0.9 - 1.0. The water activity values determined in marine algae samples lay within the interval of 0.974 - 0.979. (author)

  10. Water Vapor, Temperature and Wind Profiles within Maize Canopy under in-Field Rainwater Harvesting with Wide and Narrow Runoff Strips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weldemichael A. Tesfuhuney

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Micrometeorological measurements were used to evaluate heat and water vapor to describe the transpiration (Ev and soil evaporation (Es processes for wide and narrow runoff strips under in-field rainwater harvesting (IRWH system. The resulting sigmoid-shaped water vapor (ea in wide and narrow runoff strips varied in lower and upper parts of the maize canopy. In wide runoff strips, lapse conditions of ea extended from lowest measurement level (LP to the upper middle section (MU and inversion was apparent at the top of the canopy. The virtual potential temperature (θv profile showed no difference in middle section, but the lower and upper portion (UP had lower  in narrow, compared to wide, strips, and LP-UP changes of 0.6 K and 1.2 K were observed, respectively. The Ev and Es within the canopy increased the ea concentration as determined by the wind order of magnitude. The ea concentration reached peak at about 1.6 kPa at a range of wind speed value of 1.4–1.8 m∙s−1 and 2.0–2.4 m∙s−1 for wide and narrow treatments, respectively. The sparse maize canopy of the wide strips could supply more drying power of the air in response to atmospheric evaporative demand compared to narrow strips. This is due to the variation in air flow in wide and narrow runoff strips that change gradients in ea for evapotranspiration processes.

  11. Molecular detection of pathogens in water--the pros and cons of molecular techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girones, Rosina; Ferrús, Maria Antonia; Alonso, José Luis; Rodriguez-Manzano, Jesus; Calgua, Byron; Corrêa, Adriana de Abreu; Hundesa, Ayalkibet; Carratala, Anna; Bofill-Mas, Sílvia

    2010-08-01

    Pollution of water by sewage and run-off from farms produces a serious public health problem in many countries. Viruses, along with bacteria and protozoa in the intestine or in urine are shed and transported through the sewer system. Even in highly industrialized countries, pathogens, including viruses, are prevalent throughout the environment. Molecular methods are used to monitor viral, bacterial, and protozoan pathogens, and to track pathogen- and source-specific markers in the environment. Molecular techniques, specifically polymerase chain reaction-based methods, provide sensitive, rapid, and quantitative analytical tools with which to study such pathogens, including new or emerging strains. These techniques are used to evaluate the microbiological quality of food and water, and to assess the efficiency of virus removal in drinking and wastewater treatment plants. The range of methods available for the application of molecular techniques has increased, and the costs involved have fallen. These developments have allowed the potential standardization and automation of certain techniques. In some cases they facilitate the identification, genotyping, enumeration, viability assessment, and source-tracking of human and animal contamination. Additionally, recent improvements in detection technologies have allowed the simultaneous detection of multiple targets in a single assay. However, the molecular techniques available today and those under development require further refinement in order to be standardized and applicable to a diversity of matrices. Water disinfection treatments may have an effect on the viability of pathogens and the numbers obtained by molecular techniques may overestimate the quantification of infectious microorganisms. The pros and cons of molecular techniques for the detection and quantification of pathogens in water are discussed. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. 15 CFR 923.43 - Direct State land and water use planning and regulation-Technique B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Authorities and Organization § 923.43 Direct State land and water use planning and regulation—Technique B. (a... control technique, at subsection 306(d)(11)(B) of the Act, is direct state land and water use planning and... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Direct State land and water use...

  13. Potential of Using Remote Sensing Techniques for Global Assessment of Water Footprint of Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mireia Romaguera

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing has long been a useful tool in global applications, since it provides physically-based, worldwide, and consistent spatial information. This paper discusses the potential of using these techniques in the research field of water management, particularly for ‘Water Footprint’ (WF studies. The WF of a crop is defined as the volume of water consumed for its production, where green and blue WF stand for rain and irrigation water usage, respectively. In this paper evapotranspiration, precipitation, water storage, runoff and land use are identified as key variables to potentially be estimated by remote sensing and used for WF assessment. A mass water balance is proposed to calculate the volume of irrigation applied, and green and blue WF are obtained from the green and blue evapotranspiration components. The source of remote sensing data is described and a simplified example is included, which uses evapotranspiration estimates from the geostationary satellite Meteosat 9 and precipitation estimates obtained with the Climatic Prediction Center Morphing Technique (CMORPH. The combination of data in this approach brings several limitations with respect to discrepancies in spatial and temporal resolution and data availability, which are discussed in detail. This work provides new tools for global WF assessment and represents an innovative approach to global irrigation mapping, enabling the estimation of green and blue water use.

  14. Comparison of commercial analytical techniques for measuring chlorine dioxide in urban desalinated drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, T A; Abid, K Y; El-Bindary, A A; El-Sonbati, A Z

    2015-12-01

    Most drinking water industries are closely examining options to maintain a certain level of disinfectant residual through the entire distribution system. Chlorine dioxide is one of the promising disinfectants that is usually used as a secondary disinfectant, whereas the selection of the proper monitoring analytical technique to ensure disinfection and regulatory compliance has been debated within the industry. This research endeavored to objectively compare the performance of commercially available analytical techniques used for chlorine dioxide measurements (namely, chronoamperometry, DPD (N,N-diethyl-p-phenylenediamine), Lissamine Green B (LGB WET) and amperometric titration), to determine the superior technique. The commonly available commercial analytical techniques were evaluated over a wide range of chlorine dioxide concentrations. In reference to pre-defined criteria, the superior analytical technique was determined. To discern the effectiveness of such superior technique, various factors, such as sample temperature, high ionic strength, and other interferences that might influence the performance were examined. Among the four techniques, chronoamperometry technique indicates a significant level of accuracy and precision. Furthermore, the various influencing factors studied did not diminish the technique's performance where it was fairly adequate in all matrices. This study is a step towards proper disinfection monitoring and it confidently assists engineers with chlorine dioxide disinfection system planning and management.

  15. Effort to Increase Oil Palm Production through Application Technique of Soil and Water Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kukuh Murtilaksono

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out at block 375, 415, and 414 (block 1, 2, and 3 Afdeling III, Mangement Unit of Rejosari, PT Perkebunan Nusantara VII, Lampung from June 2005 until December 2007. Objective of the study is to examine the effect of soil and water conservation measurement, namely bund terrace and silt pit that are combined with retarded-water hole on production of oil palm. Sampled trees of each block were randomly selected as much as 36 trees. Parameters of vegetative growth (additional new frond, total of frond, number of new bunch, production (number of bunch, fresh fruit bunch (TBS, and average of bunch weigh (RBT were observed and recorded every two weeks. Production of palm oil of each block was also recorded every harvesting schedule of Afdeling. Tabular data were analyzed descriptively by logical comparison among the blocks as result of application of bund terrace and silt pit. Although the data of sampled trees were erratic, bund terrace and silt pit generally increasing number of frond, number of bunch, average of bunch weight, and fresh fruit bunch. Bund terrace gived the highest production of TBS (25.2 t ha-1 compared to silt pit application (23.6 t ha-1, and it has better effect on TBS than block control (20.8 t ha-1. Aside from that, RBT is the highest (21 kg at bund terrace block compared to silt pit block (20 kg and control block (19 kg.

  16. Emerging and Innovative Techniques for Arsenic Removal Applied to a Small Water Supply System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António J. Alçada

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The impact of arsenic on human health has led its drinking water MCL to be drastically reduced from 50 to 10 ppb. Consequently, arsenic levels in many water supply sources have become critical. This has resulted in technical and operational impacts on many drinking water treatment plants that have required onerous upgrading to meet the new standard. This becomes a very sensitive issue in the context of water scarcity and climate change, given the expected increasing demand on groundwater sources. This work presents a case study that describes the development of low-cost techniques for efficient arsenic control in drinking water. The results obtained at the Manteigas WTP (Portugal demonstrate the successful implementation of an effective and flexible process of reactive filtration using iron oxide. At real-scale, very high removal efficiencies of over 95% were obtained.

  17. Studying water in the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum: a bibliographic guide to techniques

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Scholes, RJ

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available The parameters used to describe the flow of water, and energy to a lesser extent, through the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum are reviewed and the techniques used for estimating their values contrasted. The measurements which are necessary...

  18. The Use Of GIS And Remote Sensing Techniques To Analyse Water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of water balance for Lake Bogoria in Kenya using GIS and remote sensing techniques is presented in this study. Due to limited meteorological and hydrological data, long term averages of mean annual rainfall, streamflow and potential evaporation were used. Land cover of the catchment was derived from Landsat ...

  19. Analytical techniques for determination and control of silica content in the water in thermal power plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignjatović Nataša R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrapure water with minimum contents of impurities is used for the preparation of steam in thermal power plants. More recently it has been found that the corrosion process is also influenced by sodium ions, chloride ions, and all forms of silicon in water. At higher temperatures and under high pressure the less soluble compounds of silicon are extracted, which form deposits on the walls of the boiler, the piping system and the turbine blades. Silicon is found in water in the form of different types (species which are characterized by specific physical and chemical properties. Distinctions can be made between highly reactive species of ionic (silicate anions and molecular forms (silicic acid and relatively inert types (suspended, colloidal, and polymerized silicon. The determination of various forms of silicon in water is a complex analytical task. This paper covers relevant research in the field of silicon specification analysis. Maintaining the unchanged, original composition of silicon species during various stages of analysis (sample collection, storage, and conservation has been given special attention. A large number of methods and procedures have been developed for the analysis of species of silicon, including chromatographic, spectroscopic and electrochemical techniques and combinations thereof. The techniques used for determining both the total amount and individual forms of silicon have been singled out. There is also an overview of the coupled techniques used most frequently in practice by using the methodology which involves preliminary separation of species and then individual specification. The paper offers an overview of analytical properties, advantages and disadvantages of the most representative analytical methods developed specifically for the analysis of silicon species in ultrapure water. The most important studies focusing on the silicon species in water have been highlighted and presented in detail. The determination of

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF RAPID TECHNIQUE FOR DETERMINATION OF THE TOTAL MINERALIZATION OF NATURAL WATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Kuchmenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new approach has been proposed for rapid and easy evaluation of a indicator of quality and properties of natural water - soluble salt content (mineralization. The method of quartz crystal microbalance is employed at load of the mass-sensitive resonator electrode (BAW-type with investigated water. The degree of correlation between the various indicators related to the contents of salts and insoluble compounds and the level of mineralization obtained by the standard method (gravimetry has been studied. A procedure for salt weighing by single sensor at unilateral load with small sample of natural water has been developed. The optimal conditions for measurement is established using the design of experiment by model 23 . The possibilities of quartz crystal microbalance for determination of non-volatile compounds in the water are described. The calibration of piezosensor is produced by standard solution NaCl (c = 1.000 g / dm3 at optimal conditions of experiment. The adequacy and accuracy of proposed technique is assessed by the correlation between the results of quartz crystal microbalance and conductometry. The correlation between indicators of mineralization established by quartz crystal microbalance and gravimetry is found. It has been obtained an equation that can be used to calculate the standard indicator of the mineralization by the results of a quartz crystal microbalance using single sensor. The approaches to enhance the analytical capabilities of the developed technique for water with low and high mineralization are proposed. The metrological characteristics of quartz crystal microbalance of insoluble compounds in natural water are estimated. A new technique of determination of the mass concentration of the dry residue in water with a conductivity of 0.2 mS or above has been developed, which can be used for rapid analysis of the water at nonlaboratory conditions and in the laboratory for rapid obtaining the information about a sample.

  1. Three dimensional ray tracing technique for tropospheric water vapor tomography using GPS measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haji Aghajany, Saeid; Amerian, Yazdan

    2017-11-01

    Tropospheric water vapor has a key role in tropospheric processes and it is an important parameter in meteorology studies. Because of its non-uniform spatiotemporal distribution, modeling the spatiotemporal variations of water vapor is a challenging subject in meteorology. The GNSS tomography of the troposphere is a promising method to assess the spatiotemporal distribution of water vapor parameter in this layer. The tomography method efficiency is dependent on the ray tracing technique and GPS derived tropospheric slant wet delays. Implementing constraints and regularization methods are necessary in order to achieve the regularized solution in troposphere tomography. In this paper, the three dimensional (3D) ray tracing technique based on Eikonal equations and ERA-I data are used to perform the reconstruction the signal path, Iranian Permanent GPS Network (IPGN) measurements are used to calculate slant wet delays and the LSQR regularization technique is used to obtain a regularized tomographic solution for tropospheric water vapor. The modeled water vapor profiles are validated using radiosonde observations.

  2. A New Methodology for Evaluating Potential for Potable Water Savings (PPWS) by Using Rainwater Harvesting at the Urban Level: The Case of the Municipality of Colombes (Paris Region)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Belmeziti, Ali; Coutard, Olivier; de Gouvello, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    ...) by using rainwater harvesting at the urban level. The proposed method is based on the adaptation of an already validated model assessing the PPWS for single buildings and the use of urban database...

  3. Energy Harvesting From Low Frequency Applications Using Piezoelectric Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Huidong; Tian, Chuan; Deng, Zhiqun

    2014-11-06

    This paper reviewed the state of research on piezoelectric energy harvesters. Various types of harvester configurations, piezoelectric materials, and techniques used to improve the mechanical-to-electrical energy conversion efficiency were discussed. Most of the piezoelectric energy harvesters studied today have focused on scavenging mechanical energy from vibration sources due to their abundance in both natural and industrial environments. Cantilever beams have been the most studied structure for piezoelectric energy harvester to date because of the high responsiveness to small vibrations.

  4. Post-harvest physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weather and management constraints, as well as the intended use of the harvested forage, all influence the forage harvest system selected by the producer. Generally, maximum retention of dry matter from harvested forage crops is achieved at moistures intermediate between the standing fresh crop and ...

  5. Harvesting wood for energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodger A. Arola; Edwin W. Miyata

    1981-01-01

    Illustrates the potential of harvesting wood for industrial energy, based on the results of five harvesting studies. Presents information on harvesting operations, equipment costs, and productivity. Discusses mechanized thinning of hardwoods, clearcutting of low-value stands and recovery of hardwood tops and limbs. Also includes basic information on the physical and...

  6. How to harvest buccal mucosa from the cheek

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    G. Barbagli

    2015-12-02

    Dec 2, 2015 ... Buccal mucosa;. Cheek;. Surgical technique;. Urethroplasty;. Complications. Abstract. The paper provides the reader with the step by step of our current technique of harvesting ... suggested a new technique for harvesting buccal mucosa from the ..... The use of buccal mucosa patch graft in the management.

  7. Innovative Technique for High-Accuracy Remote Monitoring of Surface Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisler, A.; Barton-Grimley, R. A.; Thayer, J. P.; Crowley, G.

    2016-12-01

    Lidar (light detection and ranging) provides absolute depth and topographic mapping capability compared to other remote sensing methods, which is useful for mapping rapidly changing environments such as riverine systems and agricultural waterways. Effectiveness of current lidar bathymetric systems is limited by the difficulty in unambiguously identifying backscattered lidar signals from the water surface versus the bottom, limiting their depth resolution to 0.3-0.5 m. Additionally these are large, bulky systems that are constrained to expensive aircraft-mounted platforms and use waveform-processing techniques requiring substantial computation time. These restrictions are prohibitive for many potential users. A novel lidar device has been developed that allows for non-contact measurements of water depth down to 1 cm with an accuracy and precision of laser pulse repetition rate allows for very fine horizontal resolution while the photon-counting technique permits real-time depth measurement and object detection. The enhanced measurement capability, portability, scalability, and relatively low-cost creates the opportunity to perform frequent high-accuracy monitoring and measuring of aquatic environments which is crucial for monitoring water resources on fast timescales. Results from recent campaigns measuring water depth in flowing creeks and murky ponds will be presented which demonstrate that the method is not limited by rough water surfaces and can map underwater topology through moderately turbid water.

  8. Hydrodynamic modelling of free water-surface constructed storm water wetlands using a finite volume technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zounemat-Kermani, Mohammad; Scholz, Miklas; Tondar, Mohammad-Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    One of the key factors in designing free water-surface constructed wetlands (FWS CW) is the hydraulic efficiency (λ), which depends primarily on the retention time of the polluted storm water. Increasing the hydraulic retention time (HRT) at various flow levels will increase λ of the overall constructed wetland (CW). The effects of characteristic geometric features that increase HRT were explored through the use of a two-dimensional depth-average hydrodynamic model. This numerical model was developed to solve the equations of continuity and motions on an unstructured triangular mesh using the Galerkin finite volume formulation and equations of the k-ε turbulence model. Eighty-nine diverse forms of artificial FWS CW with 11 different aspect ratios were numerically simulated and subsequently analysed for four scenarios: rectangular CW, modified rectangular CW with rounded edges, different inlet/outlet configurations of CW, and surface and submerged obstructions in front of the inlet part of the CW. Results from the simulations showed that increasing the aspect ratio has a direct influence on the enhancement of λ in all cases. However, the aspect ratio should be at least 9 in order to achieve an appropriate rate for λ in rectangular CW. Modified rounded rectangular CW improved λ by up to 23%, which allowed for the selection of a reduced aspect ratio. Simulation results showed that CW with low aspect ratios benefited from obstructions and optimized inlet/outlet configurations in terms of improved HRT.

  9. Geographic techniques and recent applications of remote sensing to landscape-water quality studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    This article overviews recent advances in studies of landscape-water quality relationships using remote sensing techniques. With the increasing feasibility of using remotely-sensed data, landscape-water quality studies can now be more easily performed on regional, multi-state scales. The traditional method of relating land use and land cover to water quality has been extended to include landscape pattern and other landscape information derived from satellite data. Three items are focused on in this article: 1) the increasing recognition of the importance of larger-scale studies of regional water quality that require a landscape perspective; 2) the increasing importance of remotely sensed data, such as the imagery-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and vegetation phenological metrics derived from time-series NDVI data; and 3) landscape pattern. In some studies, using landscape pattern metrics explained some of the variation in water quality not explained by land use/cover. However, in some other studies, the NDVI metrics were even more highly correlated to certain water quality parameters than either landscape pattern metrics or land use/cover proportions. Although studies relating landscape pattern metrics to water quality have had mixed results, this recent body of work applying these landscape measures and satellite-derived metrics to water quality analysis has demonstrated their potential usefulness in monitoring watershed conditions across large regions.

  10. A comparison of ice water content measurement techniques on the FAAM BAe-146 aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Abel

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparison of ice water content (qi data from a variety of measurement techniques on the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM BAe-146 research aircraft. Data are presented from a range of cloud types measured during the PIKNMIX field experiment that include mixed-phase stratocumulus, cumulus congestus and cirrus clouds. These measurements cover a broad range of conditions in which atmospheric ice particles are found in nature, such as the low-ice-water-content environments typically found in midlatitude cirrus and the environments with much higher ice water content often observed in cold convective clouds. The techniques include bulk measurements from (i a Nevzorov hot-wire probe, (ii the difference between the measured total water content (condensed plus vapour and the water vapour content of the atmosphere and (iii a counterflow virtual impactor (CVI (only for cirrus measurements. We also estimate the qi from integration of the measured particle size distribution (PSD with assumptions on how the density of ice particles varies as a function of size. The results show that the only bulk ice water content technique capable of measuring high qi values (several g m−3 was the method of total water content minus water vapour. For low ice water contents we develop a new parametrisation of the Nevzorov baseline drift that enables the probe to be sensitive to qi ± 0.002 g m−3. In cirrus clouds the agreement between the Nevzorov and other bulk measurements was typically better than a factor of 2 for the CVI (qi > 0.008 g m−3 and the method of total water content minus water vapour (qi > 0.02 g m−3. Good agreement with the bulk measurements for all cases could be obtained with the estimate from the PSD provided that appropriate a priori assumptions on the mass–dimension relationship were made. This is problematic in the convective clouds sampled because pristine ice particles, heavily rimed particles and

  11. Eggshell permeability: a standard technique for determining interspecific rates of water vapor conductance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portugal, Steven J; Maurer, Golo; Cassey, Phillip

    2010-01-01

    Typically, eggshell water vapor conductance is measured on whole eggs, freshly collected at the commencement of a study. At times, however, it may not be possible to obtain whole fresh eggs but rather egg fragments or previously blown eggs. Here we evaluate and describe in detail a technique for modern laboratory analysis of eggshell conductance that uses fragments from fresh and museum eggs to determine eggshell water vapor conductance. We used fresh unincubated eggs of domesticated chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus), ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus), and guinea fowl (Numida meleagris) to investigate the reliability, validity, and repeatability of the technique. To assess the suitability of museum samples, museum and freshly collected black-headed gull eggs (Larus ridibundus) were used. Fragments were cut out of the eggshell from the blunt end (B), equator (E), and pointy end (P). Eggshell fragments were glued to the top of a 0.25-mL micro test tube (Eppendorf) filled with 200 μL of distilled water and placed in a desiccator at 25°C. Eppendorfs were weighed three times at 24-h intervals, and mass loss was assumed to be a result of water evaporation. We report the following results: (1) mass loss between weighing sessions was highly repeatable and consistent in all species; (2) the majority of intraspecific variability in eggshell water vapor conductance between different eggs of the same species was explained through the differences in water vapor conductance between the three eggshell parts of the same egg (B, E, and P); (3) the technique was sensitive enough to detect significant differences between the three domestic species; (4) there was no overall significant difference between water vapor conductance of museum and fresh black-headed gull eggs; (5) there was no significant difference in water vapor conductance for egg fragments taken from the same egg both between different trials and within the same trial. We conclude, therefore, that this technique

  12. The use of molecular techniques to characterize the microbial communities in contaminated soil and water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Seidu; Beer, Michael; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2008-02-01

    Traditionally, the identification and characterization of microbial communities in contaminated soil and water has previously been limited to those microorganisms that are culturable. The application of molecular techniques to study microbial populations at contaminated sites without the need for culturing has led to the discovery of unique and previously unrecognized microorganisms as well as complex microbial diversity in contaminated soil and water which shows an exciting opportunity for bioremediation strategies. Nucleic acid extraction from contaminated sites and their subsequent amplification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has proved extremely useful in assessing the changes in microbial community structure by several microbial community profiling techniques. This review examines the current application of molecular techniques for the characterization of microbial communities in contaminated soil and water. Techniques that identify and quantify microbial population and catabolic genes involved in biodegradation are examined. In addition, methods that directly link microbial phylogeny to its ecological function at contaminated sites as well as high throughput methods for complex microbial community studies are discussed.

  13. EDITORIAL Solar harvest Solar harvest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2010-12-01

    into the charge transport mechanism and trap distribution in these composites [3]. An advantage of investigating solar cell technology based on organic materials rather than silicon is that silicon photovoltaics requires high-purity silicon, whereas the material demands of organic technology are not nearly so strict. Work by researchers in Denmark and Germany highlights the simplicity and tolerance to ambient conditions of organic photovoltaic fabrication in the demonstration of a nanostructured polymer solar cell made from a thermocleavable polymer material and zinc oxide nanoparticles. All the manipulations during device preparation could be carried out in air at around 20 °C and 35% humidity [4]. A possible route to enhancing cell performance is through the improvment of the transport efficiency. Researchers in Taiwan demonstrate how effectively this can be implemented in a hybrid device comprising TiO2 nanorods and poly[2-methoxy-5-(2-ethyl-hexyloxy)-1,4-phenylene vinylene] (MEH-PPV) [5]. In addition, inorganic semiconductor nanocrystals that have tunable optical bandgaps can be combined with organic semiconductors for the fabrication of hybrid photovoltaic devices with broad spectral sensitivity. A collaboration of researchers in the UK and the US has now developed a near-infrared sensitive hybrid photovoltaic system with PbS nanocrystals and C60. The reported improvement in device performance is attributed to increased carrier mobility of the PbS nanocrystal film [6]. In this issue, Patrick G Nicholson and Fernando A Castro from the National Physical Laboratory in the UK present a topical review on the principles and techniques for the characterization of organic photovoltaics [7]. The review presents a comprehensive picture of the current state-of-the-art understanding of the working mechanisms behind organic solar cells, and also describes electronic morphological considerations relevant to optimizing the devices, as well as different nanoscale techniques for

  14. Drainage of shallow peat harvesting areas with pipe drains; Madaltuneen turvetuotantokentaen kuivatustutkimus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klemetti, V. [Vapo Oy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    This study aims to develop pipe draining techniques in peat harvesting areas, which have been in active use so long time that the remaining peat layer is about one meter thick. The method should be technically and economically feasible as well as environmentally acceptable. Special attention is paid to pipe installation techniques, drain spacing and impacts on watercourses, which receive the drainage waters. After pipe installation the area was monitored by measuring pipe runoffs, water tables, moisture content of peat and quality of drain water. These are the results of second year. (orig.)

  15. Micro and nanobubble technologies as a new horizon for water-treatment techniques: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temesgen, Tatek; Bui, Thi Thuy; Han, Mooyoung; Kim, Tschung-Il; Park, Hyunju

    2017-08-01

    This review article organizes the studies conducted on the areas of microbubbles and nanobubbles with a special emphasis on water treatment. The basic definitions of bubble types and their size ranges are also presented based on the explanations of different researchers. The characterization parameters with state-of-the-art measuring and analysis techniques of microbubble and nanobubble technologies are summarized. Some major applications of these technologies in water-treatment processes are reviewed and briefly discussed. Based on the reviews, various potential areas for research and bubble application gaps in water and wastewater treatment technologies are identified for further study. The article is prepared in such a way that it provides a step-by-step acquaintance to the subject matter with the objective of focusing on the application of microbubbles and nanobubbles in water-treatment technology. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Application of multivariate statistical techniques in the water quality assessment of Danube river, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voza Danijela

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to evaluate the quality of the Danube River in its course through Serbia as well as to demonstrate the possibilities for using three statistical methods: Principal Component Analysis (PCA, Factor Analysis (FA and Cluster Analysis (CA in the surface water quality management. Given that the Danube is an important trans-boundary river, thorough water quality monitoring by sampling at different distances during shorter and longer periods of time is not only ecological, but also a political issue. Monitoring was carried out at monthly intervals from January to December 2011, at 17 sampling sites. The obtained data set was treated by multivariate techniques in order, firstly, to identify the similarities and differences between sampling periods and locations, secondly, to recognize variables that affect the temporal and spatial water quality changes and thirdly, to present the anthropogenic impact on water quality parameters.

  17. Water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available , and of the remaining 2,5 percent, some 70 percent is frozen in the polar caps and around 30 percent is present as soil moisture or in underground aquifers. Less than 1 percent is thus accessible for direct use by humans, animals and plants. Consequently... be serviced with harvested water and/or grey water. Conserve and reuse cooling tower water by using efficient systems and strategies. Avoid ?once-through systems? commonly used for evaporation coolers, ice makers, hydraulic equipment, and air compressors...

  18. Investigation of RF Signal Energy Harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soudeh Heydari Nasab

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential utilization of RF signals for DC power is experimentally investigated. The aim of the work is to investigate the levels of power that can be harvested from the air and processed to achieve levels of energy that are sufficient to charge up low-power electronic circuits. The work presented shows field measurements from two selected regions: an urbanized hence signal congested area and a less populated one. An RF harvesting system has been specifically designed, built, and shown to successfully pick up enough energy to power up circuits. The work concludes that while RF harvesting was successful under certain conditions, however, it required the support of other energy harvesting techniques to replace a battery. Efficiency considerations have, hence, placed emphasis on comparing the developed harvester to other systems.

  19. Scientific or rule-of-thumb techniques of ground-water management--Which will prevail?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuinness, Charles Lee

    1969-01-01

    Emphasis in ground-water development, once directed largely to quantitatively minor (but sociologically vital) service of human and stock needs, is shifting: aquifers are treated as possible regulating reservoirs managed conjunctively with surface water. Too, emphasis on reducing stream pollution is stimulating interest in aquifers as possible waste-storage media. Such management of aquifers requires vast amounts of data plus a much better understanding of aquifer-system behavior than now exists. Implicit in this deficiency of knowledge is a need for much new research, lest aquifers be managed according to ineffective rule-of-thumb standards, or even abandoned as unmanageable. The geohydrologist's task is to define both internal and boundary characteristics of aquifer systems. Stratigraphy is a primary determinant of these characteristics, but stratigraphically minor features may make aquifers transcend stratigraphic boundaries. For example, a structurally insignificant fracture may carry more water than a major fault; a minor stratigraphic discontinuity may be a major hydrologic boundary. Hence, there is a need for ways of defining aquifer boundaries and quantifying aquifer and confining-bed characteristics that are very different from ordinary stratigraphic techniques. Among critical needs are techniques for measuring crossbed permeability; for extrapolating and interpolating point data on direction and magnitude of permeability in defining aquifer geometry; and for accurately measuring geochemical properties of water and aquifer material, and interpreting those measurements in terms of source of water, rate of movement, and waste-sorbing capacities of aquifers and of confining beds--in general, techniques adequate for predicting aquifer response to imposed forces whether static, hydraulic, thermal, or chemical. Only when such predictions can be made routinely can aquifer characteristics be inserted into a master model that incorporates both the hydrologic and

  20. Electromagnetic energy harvester for harvesting acoustic energy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    AEH) for extracting acoustical energy. The developed AEH comprises Helmholtz resonator (HR), a wound coil bonded to a flexible membrane and a permanent magnet placed in a magnet holder. The harvester's performance is analyzed ...

  1. Identification of Viable Helicobacter pylori in Drinking Water Supplies by Cultural and Molecular Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Paula; Moreno, Yolanda; Ferrús, M Antonía

    2015-08-01

    Helicobacter pylori is one of the most common causes of chronic bacterial infection in humans, directly related to peptic ulcer and gastric cancer. It has been suggested that H. pylori can be acquired through different transmission routes, including water. In this study, culture and qPCR were used to detect and identify the presence of H. pylori in drinking water. Furthermore, the combined techniques PMA-qPCR and DVC-FISH were applied for detection of viable cells of H. pylori. Among 24 drinking water samples, 16 samples were positive for the presence of H. pylori, but viable cells were only detected in six samples. Characteristic colonies, covered by a mass of bacterial unspecific growth, were observed on selective agar plates from an only sample, after enrichment. The mixed culture was submitted to DVC-FISH and qPCR analysis, followed by sequencing of the amplicons. Molecular techniques confirmed the growth of H. pylori on the agar plate. Our results demonstrate for the first time that H. pylori can survive and be potentially infective in drinking water, showing that water distribution systems could be a potential route for H. pylori transmission. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Biological and Physiochemical Techniques for the Removal of Zinc from Drinking Water: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naseem Zahra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Presence of Zinc (II in drinking water beyond permissible limits is considered unsafe for human health. Many different anthropogenic activities including mining, burning of petroleum, industrialization, and urbanization cause a release of considerably higher amounts of zinc into the waterbodies. A permissible limit of 5 mg/L is set by various environmental and pollution control authorities beyond which water may cause respiratory, liver, gonads, and brain disorders. Due to these health hazards, it is important to remove exceeding amounts of zinc from drinking water. Zinc enters drinking water from various sources such as corrosive pipelines, release of industrial effluents, and metal leaching. Different biological and physiochemical techniques are used to remove zinc involving chemical precipitation, ion exchange, adsorption, biosorbents, distillation, ozonation, and membrane filtration technology. Among these technologies, physical process of adsorption using low cost adsorbents is not only economical but abundant, efficient, and easily available. In present review different physiochemical and biological techniques are discussed for the removal of Zinc from drinking water.

  3. Multivariate statistical techniques for the evaluation of surface water quality of the Himalayan foothills streams, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Riffat Naseem; Hashmi, Muhammad Zaffar

    2017-10-01

    Himalayan foothills streams, Pakistan play an important role in living water supply and irrigation of farmlands; thus, the water quality is closely related to public health. Multivariate techniques were applied to check spatial and seasonal trends, and metals contamination sources of the Himalayan foothills streams, Pakistan. Grab surface water samples were collected from different sites (5-15 cm water depth) in pre-washed polyethylene containers. Fast Sequential Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (Varian FSAA-240) was used to measure the metals concentration. Concentrations of Ni, Cu, and Mn were high in pre-monsoon season than the post-monsoon season. Cluster analysis identified impaired, moderately impaired and least impaired clusters based on water parameters. Discriminant function analysis indicated spatial variability in water was due to temperature, electrical conductivity, nitrates, iron and lead whereas seasonal variations were correlated with 16 physicochemical parameters. Factor analysis identified municipal and poultry waste, automobile activities, surface runoff, and soil weathering as major sources of contamination. Levels of Mn, Cr, Fe, Pb, Cd, Zn and alkalinity were above the WHO and USEPA standards for surface water. The results of present study will help to higher authorities for the management of the Himalayan foothills streams.

  4. A New Technique for Deep in situ Measurements of the Soil Water Retention Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rocchi, Irene; Gragnano, Carmine Gerardo; Govoni, Laura

    2018-01-01

    In situ measurements of soil suction and water content in deep soil layers still represent an experimental challenge. Mostly developed within agriculture related disciplines, field techniques for the identification of soil retention behaviour have been so far employed in the geotechnical context...... instruments to characterise deep soil layers. Multi-depth installations have been successfully carried out using two different sensors to measure the soil suction and water content up to 7m from the soil surface. Preliminary laboratory investigations were also shown to provide a reasonable benchmark...

  5. Effects of harvesting forest biomass on water and climate regulation services: A synthesis of long-term ecosystem experiments in eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, Jesse; Beier, Colin D; Groffman, Peter M; Burns, Douglas A.; Beall, Frederick D; Hazlett, Paul W.; Yorks, Thad E

    2016-01-01

    Demand for woody biomass fuels is increasing amidst concerns about global energy security and climate change, but there may be negative implications of increased harvesting for forest ecosystem functions and their benefits to society (ecosystem services). Using new methods for assessing ecosystem services based on long-term experimental research, post-harvest changes in ten potential benefits were assessed for ten first-order northern hardwood forest watersheds at three long-term experimental research sites in northeastern North America. As expected, we observed near-term tradeoffs between biomass provision and greenhouse gas regulation, as well as tradeoffs between intensive harvest and the capacity of the forest to remediate nutrient pollution. In both cases, service provision began to recover along with the regeneration of forest vegetation; in the case of pollution remediation, the service recovered to pre-harvest levels within 10 years. By contrast to these two services, biomass harvesting had relatively nominal and transient impacts on other ecosystem services. Our results are sensitive to empirical definitions of societal demand, including methods for scaling societal demand to ecosystem units, which are often poorly resolved. Reducing uncertainty around these parameters can improve confidence in our results and increase their relevance for decision-making. Our synthesis of long-term experimental studies provides insights on the social-ecological resilience of managed forest ecosystems to multiple drivers of change.

  6. A New Technique for the Retrieval of Near Surface Water Vapor Using DIAL Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Syed; Kooi, Susan; Ferrare, Richard; Winker, David; Hair, Johnathan; Nehrir, Amin; Notari, Anthony; Hostetler, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Water vapor is one of the most important atmospheric trace gas species and influences radiation, climate, cloud formation, surface evaporation, precipitation, storm development, transport, dynamics, and chemistry. For improvements in NWP (numerical weather prediction) and climate studies, global water vapor measurements with higher accuracy and vertical resolution are needed than are currently available. Current satellite sensors are challenged to characterize the content and distribution of water vapor in the Boundary Layer (BL) and particularly near the first few hundred meters above the surface within the BL. These measurements are critically needed to infer surface evaporation rates in cloud formation and climate studies. The NASA Langley Research Center Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment (LASE) system, which uses the Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) technique, has demonstrated the capability to provide high quality water vapor measurements in the BL and across the troposphere. A new retrieval technique is investigated to extend these DIAL water vapor measurements to the surface. This method uses signals from both atmospheric backscattering and the strong surface returns (even over low reflectivity oceanic surfaces) using multiple gain channels to cover the large signal dynamic range. Measurements can be made between broken clouds and in presence of optically thin cirrus. Examples of LASE measurements from a variety of conditions encountered during NASA hurricane field experiments over the Atlantic Ocean are presented. Comparisons of retrieved water vapor profiles from LASE near the surface with dropsonde measurements show very good agreement. This presentation also includes a discussion of the feasibility of developing space-based DIAL capability for high resolution water vapor measurements in the BL and above and an assessment of the technology needed for developing this capability.

  7. A Comprehensive Review on Water Quality Parameters Estimation Using Remote Sensing Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Haji Gholizadeh; Melesse, Assefa M.; Lakshmi Reddi

    2016-01-01

    Remotely sensed data can reinforce the abilities of water resources researchers and decision makers to monitor waterbodies more effectively. Remote sensing techniques have been widely used to measure the qualitative parameters of waterbodies (i.e., suspended sediments, colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM), chlorophyll-a, and pollutants). A large number of different sensors on board various satellites and other platforms, such as airplanes, are currently used to measure the amount of radiat...

  8. Variation of surface water spectral response as a function of in situ sampling technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Bruce A.; Hodgson, Michael E.

    1988-01-01

    Tests were carried out to determine the spectral variation contributed by a particular sampling technique. A portable radiometer was used to measure the surface water spectral response. Variation due to the reflectance of objects near the radiometer (i.e., the boat side) during data acquisition was studied. Consideration was also given to the variation due to the temporal nature of the phenomena (i.e., wave activity).

  9. Spectrophotometric flow analysis techniques for the determination of total phosphorus and total nitrogen in natural waters

    OpenAIRE

    Gentle, Brady

    2017-01-01

    Eutrophication, the over enrichment of nutrients in an aquatic system, is associated with harmful algal blooms, and as such is a serious environmental issue. Consequently, interest in the monitoring of nutrient concentrations in aquatic systems has increased in tandem with a burgeoning public and scientific awareness of environmental problems. This thesis describes the development of a number of flow analysis techniques for the monitoring of nutrient concentrations in natural waters; namely t...

  10. Comparison of various techniques for estimating the water content of resin in the field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadlowska, J.

    1977-01-01

    Four techniques are reviewed, of which 2 were chosen for testing on (Polish) Scots pine oleoresin: (a) a Soviet method based on extracting with saturated NaCl; and (b) an E. German method, viz. dissolving the resin in CCl4 to give an isolated water layer which is measured volumetrically. Results were compared with standard values obtained by distillation: (b) gave a mean error of only 5% and is recommended for field use with appropriate calibration and safety precautions. (Refs. 7).

  11. The impact of molecular biology on assessment of water quality: advantages and limitations of current techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Saunders, J R; Saunders, V A

    1997-01-01

    The advent of molecular biology has had a dramatic impact on all aspects of biology, not least applied microbial ecology. Microbiological testing of water has traditionally depended largely on culture techniques. Growing understanding that only a small proportion of microbial species are culturable, and that many microorganisms may attain a viable but non-culturable state, has promoted the development of novel approaches to monitoring pathogens in the environment. This has been paralleled by ...

  12. Characterization of edible seaweed harvested on the Galician coast (northwestern Spain) using pattern recognition techniques and major and trace element data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romarís-Hortas, Vanessa; García-Sartal, Cristina; Barciela-Alonso, María Carmen; Moreda-Piñeiro, Antonio; Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar

    2010-02-10

    Major and trace elements in North Atlantic seaweed originating from Galicia (northwestern Spain) were determined by using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) (Ba, Ca, Cu, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Sr, and Zn), inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) (Br and I) and hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG-AFS) (As). Pattern recognition techniques were then used to classify the edible seaweed according to their type (red, brown, and green seaweed) and also their variety (Wakame, Fucus, Sea Spaghetti, Kombu, Dulse, Nori, and Sea Lettuce). Principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) were used as exploratory techniques, and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) were used as classification procedures. In total, t12 elements were determined in a range of 35 edible seaweed samples (20 brown seaweed, 10 red seaweed, 4 green seaweed, and 1 canned seaweed). Natural groupings of the samples (brown, red, and green types) were observed using PCA and CA (squared Euclidean distance between objects and Ward method as clustering procedure). The application of LDA gave correct assignation percentages of 100% for brown, red, and green types at a significance level of 5%. However, a satisfactory classification (recognition and prediction) using SIMCA was obtained only for red seaweed (100% of cases correctly classified), whereas percentages of 89 and 80% were obtained for brown seaweed for recognition (training set) and prediction (testing set), respectively.

  13. Association between incision technique for hamstring tendon harvest in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction and the risk of injury to the infra-patellar branch of the saphenous nerve: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Alberto; Perdisa, Francesco; Samuelsson, Kristian; Svantesson, Eleonor; Romagnoli, Matteo; Raggi, Federico; Gaziano, Teide; Mosca, Massimiliano; Ayeni, Olufemi; Zaffagnini, Stefano

    2018-02-08

    To determine how the incision technique for hamstring tendon (HT) harvest in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction affects the risk of injury to the IPBSN and clinical outcome. A systematic literature search of the MEDLINE/Pubmed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and EBSCOhost electronic databases and clinicaltrials.gov for unpublished studies was performed to identify comparative studies investigating injury to the IPBSN after HT ACL reconstruction by comparing at least two different incision techniques. Data were extracted for the number of patients with evidence of any neurologic deficit corresponding to injury to the IPBSN, area of sensory deficit, the Lysholm score and patient satisfaction. The mean difference (MD) in study outcome between incision groups was assessed. The relative risk (RR) and the number needed to treat (NNT) were calculated. The Chi-square and Higgins' I 2 tests were applied to test heterogeneity. Data were pooled using a Mantel-Haenszel random-effects model if the statistical heterogeneity was > 50% and a fixed-effects model if the statistical heterogeneity was < 50%. The risk of bias was evaluated according to the Cochrane Database questionnaire and the quality of evidence was graded according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) guidelines. A total of eight studies (three randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and five comparative studies) were included, of which six compared vertical and oblique incisions, one horizontal and vertical incisions, and one compared all three techniques. HT harvest was performed through a vertical incision in 329 patients, through an oblique incision in 195 patients and through a horizontal incision in 151 patients. Considering the meta-analysis of the RCTs, the performance of a vertical incision significantly increased the risk of causing IPBSN deficiency compared with both oblique and horizontal incision [RR 1.65 (CI 1

  14. Investigation of the interfacial properties of water-in-diluted-bitumen emulsions using micropipette techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsamantakis, Christina; Masliyah, Jacob; Yeung, Anthony; Gentzis, Thomas

    2005-04-01

    The interfacial properties of water-in-diluted bitumen emulsions were studied using micropipette techniques. It was observed that, as bitumen concentration in the bulk phase (C0) increased, the interfacial tension on the water droplet surfaces decreased. In addition, there was a small effect on the interfacial tension when different solvent mixtures were used. Mixtures of toluene and heptane in different ratios were used as solvents for bitumen dilution. Crumpling of the interface was influenced by bitumen concentration and type of solvent. No crumpling was found for bitumen content less than 0.01% for all solvents used. Crumpling was observed at higher bitumen concentrations when deionized water (pH 5.4-5.6) was used. Setting "heptol[A]" to be the mixture of toluene and heptane, with the volume percent of toluene being A, the following were concluded. Crumpling disappeared at C0 > 1% and when heptol[100] was used, and also at C0 > 10% and when heptol[30] was used. Crumpling was strongly affected by the water pH. In the case of heptol[50], at a higher pH, the crumpling region that normally occurred at C0 > 0.01% disappeared. The micropipette technique proved to be useful in studying the interfacial properties of micrometer-sized emulsion drops.

  15. Photoelectrocatalytic disinfection of water and wastewater: performance evaluation by qPCR and culture techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venieri, Danae; Chatzisymeon, Efthalia; Politi, Eleonora; Sofianos, Spiridon S; Katsaounis, Alexandros; Mantzavinos, Dionissios

    2013-03-01

    Photoelectrocatalytic oxidation (PEC) was evaluated as a disinfection technique using water and secondary treated wastewater spiked with Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis. PEC experiments were carried out using a TiO(2)/Ti-film anode and a zirconium cathode under simulated solar radiation. Bacterial inactivation was monitored by culture and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Inactivation rates were enhanced when the duration of the treatment was prolonged and when the bacterial density and the complexity of the water matrix were decreased. E. coli cells were reduced by approximately 6 orders of magnitude after 15 min of PEC treatment in water at 2V of applied potential and an initial concentration of 10(7) CFU/mL; pure photocatalysis (PC) led to about 5 log reduction, while electrochemical oxidation alone resulted in negligible inactivation. The superiority of PEC relative to PC can be attributed to a more efficient separation of the photogenerated charge carriers. Regarding disinfection in mixed bacterial suspensions, E. coli was more susceptible than E. faecalis at a potential of 2V. The complex composition of wastewater affected disinfection efficiency, yielding lower inactivation rates compared to water treatment. qPCR yielded lower inactivation rates at longer treatment times than culture techniques, presumably due to the fact that the latter do not take into account the viable but not culturable state of microorganisms.

  16. Evaluation of significantly modified water bodies in Vojvodina by using multivariate statistical techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujović Svetlana R.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper illustrates the utility of multivariate statistical techniques for analysis and interpretation of water quality data sets and identification of pollution sources/factors with a view to get better information about the water quality and design of monitoring network for effective management of water resources. Multivariate statistical techniques, such as factor analysis (FA/principal component analysis (PCA and cluster analysis (CA, were applied for the evaluation of variations and for the interpretation of a water quality data set of the natural water bodies obtained during 2010 year of monitoring of 13 parameters at 33 different sites. FA/PCA attempts to explain the correlations between the observations in terms of the underlying factors, which are not directly observable. Factor analysis is applied to physico-chemical parameters of natural water bodies with the aim classification and data summation as well as segmentation of heterogeneous data sets into smaller homogeneous subsets. Factor loadings were categorized as strong and moderate corresponding to the absolute loading values of >0.75, 0.75-0.50, respectively. Four principal factors were obtained with Eigenvalues >1 summing more than 78 % of the total variance in the water data sets, which is adequate to give good prior information regarding data structure. Each factor that is significantly related to specific variables represents a different dimension of water quality. The first factor F1 accounting for 28 % of the total variance and represents the hydrochemical dimension of water quality. The second factor F2 accounting for 18% of the total variance and may be taken factor of water eutrophication. The third factor F3 accounting 17 % of the total variance and represents the influence of point sources of pollution on water quality. The fourth factor F4 accounting 13 % of the total variance and may be taken as an ecological dimension of water quality. Cluster analysis (CA is an

  17. Single harvesting in the all-inside graft-link technique: is the graft length crucial for success? A biomechanical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbri, Mattia; Monaco, Edoardo; Lanzetti, Riccardo Maria; Perugia, Dario; Guzzini, Matteo; Labianca, Luca; Ferretti, Andrea

    2017-03-01

    The all-inside graft-link technique for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction is performed with two cortical suspension devices with adjustable loops on both femur and tibia. This technique requires meticulous graft preparation. The aim of this study was to biomechanically test three different graft configurations resulting from differences in initial graft length. Thirty bovine digital extensor tendons were arranged in three different ways: "half-quadrupled", "tripled" and "quadrupled". The final graft length was 65-75 mm. The specimens were fixed vertical to the loading axis of a tensile testing machine. After a static pre-conditioning of 50 N for 5 min, a load to failure test was performed and data regarding the ultimate failure load (UFL), the stiffness and mode of failure were recorded. The evaluation of UFL showed a significant differences between group means as determined by one-way analysis of variance (F = 21.92, p = 0.002). Post hoc comparisons showed a significantly better UFL of "tripled" (p = 0.007) and "quadrupled" preparations (p = 0.014) compared to the "half-quadrupled" configuration, with no significant differences between "tripled" and "quadrupled" grafts (p = 0.061). No significant differences were found when evaluating the stiffness between the groups. Failure occurred by tendon slippage across the suture in all specimens. The "quadrupled" tendon achieved the best UFL, with even the "tripled" configuration having sufficient biomechanical characteristics to withstand the loads experienced during early rehabilitation. For this reason, with a total semitendinosus length of less than 260 mm it could be better to "triple" instead of "half-quadruple" it to achieve better performance of the graft.

  18. Health risk from the use of roof-harvested rainwater in Southeast Queensland, Australia, as potable or nonpotable water, determined using quantitative microbial risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, W; Vieritz, A; Goonetilleke, A; Gardner, T

    2010-11-01

    A total of 214 rainwater samples from 82 tanks were collected in urban Southeast Queensland (SEQ) in Australia and analyzed for the presence and numbers of zoonotic bacterial and protozoal pathogens using binary PCR and quantitative PCR (qPCR). Quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) analysis was used to quantify the risk of infection associated with the exposure to potential pathogens from roof-harvested rainwater used as potable or nonpotable water. Of the 214 samples tested, 10.7%, 9.8%, 5.6%, and 0.4% were positive for the Salmonella invA, Giardia lamblia β-giardin, Legionella pneumophila mip, and Campylobacter jejuni mapA genes, respectively. Cryptosporidium parvum oocyst wall protein (COWP) could not be detected. The estimated numbers of Salmonella, G. lamblia, and L. pneumophila organisms ranged from 6.5 × 10¹ to 3.8 × 10² cells, 0.6 × 10⁰ to 3.6 × 10⁰ cysts, and 6.0 × 10¹ to 1.7 × 10² cells per 1,000 ml of water, respectively. Six risk scenarios were considered for exposure to Salmonella spp., G. lamblia, and L. pneumophila. For Salmonella spp. and G. lamblia, these scenarios were (i) liquid ingestion due to drinking of rainwater on a daily basis, (ii) accidental liquid ingestion due to hosing twice a week, (iii) aerosol ingestion due to showering on a daily basis, and (iv) aerosol ingestion due to hosing twice a week. For L. pneumophila, these scenarios were (i) aerosol inhalation due to showering on a daily basis and (ii) aerosol inhalation due to hosing twice a week. The risk of infection from Salmonella spp., G. lamblia, and L. pneumophila associated with the use of rainwater for showering and garden hosing was calculated to be well below the threshold value of one extra infection per 10,000 persons per year in urban SEQ. However, the risk of infection from ingesting Salmonella spp. and G. lamblia via drinking exceeded this threshold value and indicated that if undisinfected rainwater is ingested by drinking, then the incidences of

  19. Extraction technique for the determination of oxygen-18 in water using preevacuated glass vials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socki, R. A.; Karlsson, H. R.; Gibson, E. K. Jr; Gibson EK, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    The need for a rapid, inexpensive technique for routine 18O/16O extraction from water has arisen recently through applications in the medical sciences and in hydrology. The traditional experimental technique for determining the oxygen isotope composition of water, the CO2-H2O equilibration method, is tedious, time consuming, and involves the use of custom-made glass apparatus. Furthermore, because of potential memory effects from one sample to the next, the glassware needs to be thoroughly cleaned between runs. A few attempts have been made to improve upon the method. Attempts to analyze water directly in the source of the mass spectrometer produced large memory effects and questionable results. Commercially available apparatus for automated extraction of 18O/16O from water is generally prohibitively expensive and often is designed to interface only with the manufacturer's own mass spectrometer. The method described in this paper utilizes inexpensive, off-the-shelf, preevacuated, glass vials. Preevacuated vials have been used by others for the isotopic analysis of breath CO2 and are well tested. The vials can be purchased in bulk from scientific apparatus suppliers at a relatively low cost. These are coupled with a simplified extraction line consisting of a stainless steel syringe needle and a glass cold trap. Vials are filled with CO2 and H2O and shaken in a constant-temperature water bath for at least 90 min. Since the vials are discarded after use, no cleaning is necessary, essentially eliminating any memory effect. Reproducibility is generally better than +/- 0.05%. The only reagents required are gaseous CO2 for equilibration, a dry ice/alcohol mixture for trapping water, and liquid nitrogen for transferring the CO2.

  20. Optimization of GPS water vapor tomography technique with radiosonde and COSMIC historical data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ye

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The near-real-time high spatial resolution of atmospheric water vapor distribution is vital in numerical weather prediction. GPS tomography technique has been proved effectively for three-dimensional water vapor reconstruction. In this study, the tomography processing is optimized in a few aspects by the aid of radiosonde and COSMIC historical data. Firstly, regional tropospheric zenith hydrostatic delay (ZHD models are improved and thus the zenith wet delay (ZWD can be obtained at a higher accuracy. Secondly, the regional conversion factor of converting the ZWD to the precipitable water vapor (PWV is refined. Next, we develop a new method for dividing the tomography grid with an uneven voxel height and a varied water vapor layer top. Finally, we propose a Gaussian exponential vertical interpolation method which can better reflect the vertical variation characteristic of water vapor. GPS datasets collected in Hong Kong in February 2014 are employed to evaluate the optimized tomographic method by contrast with the conventional method. The radiosonde-derived and COSMIC-derived water vapor densities are utilized as references to evaluate the tomographic results. Using radiosonde products as references, the test results obtained from our optimized method indicate that the water vapor density accuracy is improved by 15 and 12 % compared to those derived from the conventional method below the height of 3.75 km and above the height of 3.75 km, respectively. Using the COSMIC products as references, the results indicate that the water vapor density accuracy is improved by 15 and 19 % below 3.75 km and above 3.75 km, respectively.

  1. Holistic blue water use and life cycle cost savings of domestic and agricultural rainwater harvesting at the watershed scale in the Southeast US

    Science.gov (United States)

    According to the U.S. Global Change Research Program, from 1970 to 2007 most of the Southeast U.S. received heavy downpours in recent autumns while moderate-to-severe drought increased in spring and summer (12% and 14%). Rainwater harvesting (RWH) is getting attention due to rece...

  2. Characterization of natural resin materials using water adsorption and various advanced techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favvas, Evangelos P.; Kouvelos, Evangelos P.; Papageorgiou, Sergios K.; Tsanaktsidis, Constantinos G.; Mitropoulos, Athanasios Ch.

    2015-05-01

    A physicochemical characterization of natural raw resin material was evaluated and reported. The studied material is a natural resin, a natural product from pinus halepensis trees which is collected from the forests of Chalkidiki region of North Greece. The plurality of this product combined with its special property of removing water from commercial liquid fuels commands the detailed physicochemical characterization of this material. In particular, various techniques, such as water adsorption at 22 °C, thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction, were used in order to evaluate the structural and surface properties of the material. The water adsorption isotherm was also measured and fitted using the Guggenheim, Anderson and De Boer model in order to correlate the water activity characteristics. In addition, the kinetics of the adsorption was also fitted with good accuracy using the exponential Chapman model. Furthermore, as the results show, the natural resin presents good thermal characteristics. Finally, the studied material presents efficient water adsorption properties, up to 246.8 mmol/g, and it can be proposed as a promising dehydration material.

  3. Soil-water characteristics of Gaomiaozi bentonite by vapour equilibrium technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjing Sun

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Soil-water characteristics of Gaomiaozi (GMZ Ca-bentonite at high suctions (3–287 MPa are measured by vapour equilibrium technique. The soil-water retention curve (SWRC of samples with the same initial compaction states is obtained in drying and wetting process. At high suctions, the hysteresis behaviour is not obvious in relationship between water content and suction, while the opposite holds between degree of saturation and suction. The suction variation can change its water retention behaviour and void ratio. Moreover, changes of void ratio can bring about changes in degree of saturation. Therefore, the total change in degree of saturation includes changes caused by suction and that by void ratio. In the space of degree of saturation and suction, the SWRC at constant void ratio shifts to the direction of higher suctions with decreasing void ratio. However, the relationship between water content and suction is less affected by changes of void ratio. The degree of saturation decreases approximately linearly with increasing void ratio at a constant suction. Moreover, the slope of the line decreases with increasing suction and they show an approximately linear relationship in semi-logarithmical scale. From this linear relationship, the variation of degree of saturation caused by the change in void ratio can be obtained. Correspondingly, SWRC at a constant void ratio can be determined from SWRC at different void ratios.

  4. Bridging Mediterranean cultures in the IYS: A documentary exhibition on irrigation techniques in water scarcity conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barontini, Stefano; Louki, Amina; Ben Slima, Zied; Ezzahra Ghaouch, Fatima; Labaran, Raisa; Raffelli, Giulia; Peli, Marco; Vitale, Nicola

    2015-04-01

    Brescia, an industrial city in Northern Italy, is now experiencing a crucial change in its traditional structure. In recent years in fact it has been elected as living and working seat by many foreigners and it is now one of the cities with the greatest percentage of migrants in the Country. This is an important challenge for the city and an opportunity to merge, compare and integrate different cultures to build its future. In this context some students of different Courses (engineering and medicine), belonging both to the Arabian and local community, met together and with researchers in the study team 'Al-B¯i r¯u n¯i , for culture, science and society'. The team aims at organising cultural events in which, starting from the figure of the Persian scientist Ab¯u Raih. ¯a n Al-B¯i r¯u n¯i (about 973, 1051), the contribution of the Arabian and Islamic culture to the development of the European one in the middle ages is investigated. Moving from the initial idea of the study team Al-B¯i r¯u n¯i and from the suggestions of the World Soil Day 2014 and of the International Year of Soils 2015, we built a documentary exhibition entitled 'Irrigation techniques in water scarcity conditions'. The exhibition, which stresses the importance of the irrigation techniques for the soil conservation, is focused on the idea of disseminating two main concepts, i.e. (1) the technological continuity of some water supply systems in countries, around the Mediterranean Sea, affected by similar conditions of water availability, and (2) the possibility of building environments where, due to severe or extreme climatic conditions, the sustainability is reached when the man lives in equilibrium with the nature. The exhibition, which is written in Italian and will move around in the city during all 2015, consists of about twenty posters organized into three main chapters, corresponding to three main classes of water supply systems which are common in most of the countries surrounding

  5. Monitoring Interfacial Lipid Oxidation in Oil-in-Water Emulsions Using Spatially Resolved Optical Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Chiranjib; Westberg, Michael; Breitenbach, Thomas; Bregnhøj, Mikkel; Ogilby, Peter R

    2017-06-06

    The oxidation of lipids is an important phenomenon with ramifications for disciplines that range from food science to cell biology. The development and characterization of tools and techniques to monitor lipid oxidation are thus relevant. Of particular significance in this regard are tools that facilitate the study of oxidations at interfaces in heterogeneous samples (e.g., oil-in-water emulsions, cell membranes). In this article, we establish a proof-of-principle for methods to initiate and then monitor such oxidations with high spatial resolution. The experiments were performed using oil-in-water emulsions of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) prepared from cod liver oil. We produced singlet oxygen at a point near the oil-water interface of a given PUFA droplet in a spatially localized two-photon photosensitized process. We then followed the oxidation reactions initiated by this process with the fluorescence-based imaging technique of structured illumination microscopy (SIM). We conclude that the approach reported herein has attributes well-suited to the study of lipid oxidation in heterogeneous samples.

  6. Quality assessment of roof-harvested rainwater in the West Bank, Palestinian Authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daoud, A K; Swaileh, K M; Hussein, R M; Matani, M

    2011-09-01

    Rain harvesting is becoming more common in the Palestinian Territories as a result of drinking water scarcity. Although it might pose serious human health risk, this water is being consumed without treatment in many areas of the West Bank. The present study evaluates the physicochemical and microbial quality of harvested rainwater that is used as potable water in the West Bank. Samples from roof-harvested rainwater storage tanks (n = 42) were collected in summer (SS) 2006/winter (WS) 2007. Physicochemical parameters measured were: temperature, pH, electrical conductivity, salinity, total dissolved solids, turbidity, nitrate, copper and lead. With few exceptions, all these parameters were within WHO guideline values. All samples (100%) were found to contain coliforms and to be heavily contaminated with heterotrophic bacteria. About 67% of all samples were contaminated with fecal coliforms. Specific PCR technique confirmed the presence of five pathogenic microorganisms that can be ordered according to their prevalence as: Citrobacter (83%) > Acinetobacter (78%) > Aeromonas (52%) > Pseudomonas and Campylobacter (7%). Prevalence of microorganisms in SS was higher than in WS. Although the physicochemical quality of most harvested rainwater samples was in accordance with WHO guidelines for drinking water, stored rainwater was significantly contaminated with bacteria resulting in significant human health risk from infectious diseases.

  7. 50 CFR 300.132 - Lobster harvest limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lobster harvest limitations. 300.132... FISHERIES REGULATIONS Vessels of the United States Fishing in Colombian Treaty Waters § 300.132 Lobster harvest limitations. (a) Berried lobsters. A berried (egg-bearing) lobster in treaty waters may not be...

  8. Treatment techniques for removing natural radionuclides from drinking water. Final report of the TENAWA project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annanmaeki, M.; Turtiainen, T. [eds.

    2000-01-01

    TENAWA project (Treatment Techniques for Removing Natural Radionuclides from Drinking Water) was carried out on a cost-shared basic with the European Commission (CEC) under the supervision of Directorate-General XII, Radiation Protection Unit. TENAWA project was started because in several European countries ground water supplies may contain high amounts of natural radionuclides. During the project both laboratory and field research was performed in order to test the applicability of different equipment and techniques for removing natural radionuclides from drinking water. The measurable objectives of the project were: to give recommendations on the most suitable methods for removing radon ({sup 222}Rn), uranium ({sup 238,234}U), radium ({sup 226}, {sup 228}Ra), lead ({sup 210}Pb) and polonium ({sup 210}Po) from drinking water of different qualities (i.e. soft, hard, iron-, manganese- and humus-rich, acidic) to test commercially available equipment for its ability to remove radionuclides; to find new materials, absorbents and membranes effective in the removal of radionuclides and to issue guidelines for the treatment and disposal of radioactive wastes produced in water treatment. Radon could be removed efficiently (>95%) from domestic water supplies by both aeration and granular activated carbon (GAC) filtration. Defects in technical reliability or radon removal efficiency were observed in some aerators. The significant drawback of GAC filtration was the elevated gamma dose rates (up to 120 {mu}Sv/h) near the filter and the radioactivity of spent GAC. Aeration was found to be a suitable method for removing radon at waterworks, too. The removal efficiencies at waterworks where the aeration process was designed to remove radon or carbon dioxide were 67-99%. If the aeration process was properly designed, removal efficiencies higher than 95% could be attained. Uranium could best be removed (>95%) with strong basic anion exchange resins and radium by applying strong

  9. 1974 Washington timber harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.D. Jr. Lloyd

    1976-01-01

    The 1974 timber harvest of 6.88 billion board feet declined 933 million board feet (11.9 percent) below the record 1973 harvest. Decreases occurred in almost all owner groups. In western Washington the decline was 856 million board feet (13.0 percent). In eastern Washington the decline was 76 million board feet (6.3 percent).

  10. Transient Water Age Distributions in Environmental Flow Systems: The Time-Marching Laplace Transform Solution Technique

    CERN Document Server

    Cornaton, F J

    2011-01-01

    Environmental fluid circulations are very often characterized by analyzing the fate and behavior of natural and anthropogenic tracers. Among these tracers, age is taken as an ideal tracer which can yield interesting diagnoses, as for example the characterization of the mixing and renewal of water masses, of the fate and mixing of contaminants, or the calibration of hydro-dispersive parameters used by numerical models. Such diagnoses are of great interest in atmospheric and ocean circulation sciences, as well in surface and subsurface hydrology. The temporal evolution of groundwater age and its frequency distributions can display important changes as flow regimes vary due to natural change in climate and hydrologic conditions and/or human induced pressures on the resource to satisfy the water demand. Steady-state age frequency distributions can be modelled using standard numerical techniques, since the general balance equation describing age transport under steady-state flow conditions is exactly equivalent to...

  11. Removal of benzaldehyde from a water/ethanol mixture by applying scavenging techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitic, Aleksandar; Skov, Thomas; Gernaey, Krist V.

    2017-01-01

    , such as genotoxic impurities. It can therefore be important to remove carbonyl compounds by implementing suitable removal techniques, with the aim of protecting final product quality. This work is focused on benzaldehyde as a model component, studying its removal from a water/ethanol mixture by applying different...... derivatization agents as the scavengers. Discovery chemistry is performed in the beginning as a screening procedure, followed by the process design of a small-scale continuous process for benzaldehyde removal with in-line real-time monitoring. Applications of tris(hydroxymethyl) aminomethane (TRIS) are found...

  12. Modelling surface water flood risk using coupled numerical and physical modelling techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, D. L.; Pattison, I.; Yu, D.

    2015-12-01

    Surface water (pluvial) flooding occurs due to intense precipitation events where rainfall cannot infiltrate into the sub-surface or drain via storm water systems. The perceived risk appears to have increased in recent years with pluvial flood events seeming more severe and frequent within the UK. Surface water flood risk currently accounts for one third of all UK flood risk, with approximately two million people living in urban areas being at risk of a 1 in 200 year flood event. Surface water flooding research often focuses upon using 1D, 2D or 1D-2D coupled numerical modelling techniques to understand the extent, depth and severity of actual or hypothetical flood scenarios. Although much research has been conducted using numerical modelling, field data available for model calibration and validation is limited due to the complexities associated with data collection in surface water flood conditions. Ultimately, the data which numerical models are based upon is often erroneous and inconclusive. Physical models offer an alternative and innovative environment to collect data within. A controlled, closed system allows independent variables to be altered individually to investigate cause and effect relationships. Despite this, physical modelling approaches are seldom used in surface water flooding research. Scaled laboratory experiments using a 9m2, two-tiered physical model consisting of: (i) a mist nozzle type rainfall simulator able to simulate a range of rainfall intensities similar to those observed within the United Kingdom, and; (ii) a fully interchangeable, scaled plot surface have been conducted to investigate and quantify the influence of factors such as slope, impermeability, building density/configuration and storm dynamics on overland flow and rainfall-runoff patterns within a range of terrestrial surface conditions. Results obtained within the physical modelling environment will be compared with numerical modelling results using FloodMap (Yu & Lane, 2006

  13. MEASURING THE PARTICULATE BACKSCATTERING OF INLAND WATERS: A COMPARISON OF TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Campbell

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to examine whether the standard particulate backscattering IOP (Inherent Optical Properties measurement method could be simplified. IOP measurements are essential for parameterising several forms of algorithms used to estimate water quality parameters from airborne and satellite images. Field measurements of the backscattering IOPs are more difficult to make than absorption measurements as correction of the raw Hydroscat-6 backscattering sensor observations is required to allow for the systematic errors associated with the water and water quality parameter absorption. The standard approach involves making simultaneous measurement of the absorption and attenuation of the water with an absorption and attenuation meter (ac-9 or making assumptions about the particulate backscattering probability. Recently, a number of papers have been published that use an alternative method to retrieve the particulate backscattering spectrum by using laboratory measured absorption values and in situ spectroradiometric observations. The alternative method inverts a model of reflectance iteratively using non-linear least squares fitting to solve for the particulate backscattering at 532 nm (bbp0(532 and the particulate backscattering spectral slope (γ. In this paper, eleven observations made at Burdekin Falls Dam, Australia are used to compare the alternative reflectance method to the conventional corrected Hydroscat-6 observations. Assessment of the alternative reflectance method showed that the result of the inversions were highly dependent on the starting conditions. To overcome this limitation, Particle Swarm Optimisation, a stochastic search technique which includes a random element in the search approach, was used. It was found that when compared to the conventionally corrected Hydroscat-6 observations, the alternative reflectance method underestimated bbp0(532 by approximately 50% and overestimated γ by approximately 40

  14. A Comprehensive Review on Water Quality Parameters Estimation Using Remote Sensing Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholizadeh, Mohammad Haji; Melesse, Assefa M; Reddi, Lakshmi

    2016-08-16

    Remotely sensed data can reinforce the abilities of water resources researchers and decision makers to monitor waterbodies more effectively. Remote sensing techniques have been widely used to measure the qualitative parameters of waterbodies (i.e., suspended sediments, colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM), chlorophyll-a, and pollutants). A large number of different sensors on board various satellites and other platforms, such as airplanes, are currently used to measure the amount of radiation at different wavelengths reflected from the water's surface. In this review paper, various properties (spectral, spatial and temporal, etc.) of the more commonly employed spaceborne and airborne sensors are tabulated to be used as a sensor selection guide. Furthermore, this paper investigates the commonly used approaches and sensors employed in evaluating and quantifying the eleven water quality parameters. The parameters include: chlorophyll-a (chl-a), colored dissolved organic matters (CDOM), Secchi disk depth (SDD), turbidity, total suspended sediments (TSS), water temperature (WT), total phosphorus (TP), sea surface salinity (SSS), dissolved oxygen (DO), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD).

  15. Projecting impacts of climate change on water availability using artificial neural network techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Eric D.; Gomez-Fragoso, Julieta; Torres-Gonzalez, Sigfredo

    2017-01-01

    Lago Loíza reservoir in east-central Puerto Rico is one of the primary sources of public water supply for the San Juan metropolitan area. To evaluate and predict the Lago Loíza water budget, an artificial neural network (ANN) technique is trained to predict river inflows. A method is developed to combine ANN-predicted daily flows with ANN-predicted 30-day cumulative flows to improve flow estimates. The ANN application trains well for representing 2007–2012 and the drier 1994–1997 periods. Rainfall data downscaled from global circulation model (GCM) simulations are used to predict 2050–2055 conditions. Evapotranspiration is estimated with the Hargreaves equation using minimum and maximum air temperatures from the downscaled GCM data. These simulated 2050–2055 river flows are input to a water budget formulation for the Lago Loíza reservoir for comparison with 2007–2012. The ANN scenarios require far less computational effort than a numerical model application, yet produce results with sufficient accuracy to evaluate and compare hydrologic scenarios. This hydrologic tool will be useful for future evaluations of the Lago Loíza reservoir and water supply to the San Juan metropolitan area.

  16. Detection of Atmospheric Water Deposits in Porous Media Using the TDR Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Nakonieczna

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Investigating the intensity of atmospheric water deposition and its diurnal distribution is essential from the ecological perspective, especially regarding dry geographic regions. It is also important in the context of monitoring the amount of moisture present within building materials in order to protect them from excessive humidity. The objective of this study was to test a constructed sensor and determine whether it could detect and track changes in the intensity of atmospheric water deposition. An operating principle of the device is based on the time-domain reflectometry technique. Two sensors of different plate volumes were manufactured. They were calibrated at several temperatures and tested during field measurements. The calibration turned out to be temperature independent. The outdoor measurements indicated that the upper limits of the measurement ranges of the sensors depended on the volumes of the plates and were equal to 1:2 and 2:8 mm H2O. The respective sensitivities were equal to 3.2 x 10-3 and 7.5 x 10-3 g∙ps-1. The conducted experiments showed that the construction of the designed device and the time-domain reflectometry technique were appropriate for detecting and tracing the dynamics of atmospheric water deposition. The obtained outcomes were also collated with the readings taken in an actual soil sample. For this purpose, an open container sensor, which allows investigating atmospheric water deposition in soil, was manufactured. It turned out that the readings taken by the porous ceramic plate sensor reflected the outcomes of the measurements performed in a soil sample.

  17. Detection of atmospheric water deposits in porous media using the TDR technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakonieczna, Anna; Kafarski, Marcin; Wilczek, Andrzej; Szypłowska, Agnieszka; Janik, Grzegorz; Albert, Małgorzata; Skierucha, Wojciech

    2015-04-13

    Investigating the intensity of atmospheric water deposition and its diurnal distribution is essential from the ecological perspective, especially regarding dry geographic regions. It is also important in the context of monitoring the amount of moisture present within building materials in order to protect them from excessive humidity. The objective of this study was to test a constructed sensor and determine whether it could detect and track changes in the intensity of atmospheric water deposition. An operating principle of the device is based on the time-domain reflectometry technique. Two sensors of different plate volumes were manufactured. They were calibrated at several temperatures and tested during field measurements. The calibration turned out to be temperature independent. The outdoor measurements indicated that the upper limits of the measurement ranges of the sensors depended on the volumes of the plates and were equal to 1:2 and 2:8 mm H2O. The respective sensitivities were equal to 3.2 x 10(-3) and 7.5 x 10(-3) g∙ps(-1). The conducted experiments showed that the construction of the designed device and the time-domain reflectometry technique were appropriate for detecting and tracing the dynamics of atmospheric water deposition. The obtained outcomes were also collated with the readings taken in an actual soil sample. For this purpose, an open container sensor, which allows investigating atmospheric water deposition in soil, was manufactured. It turned out that the readings taken by the porous ceramic plate sensor reflected the outcomes of the measurements performed in a soil sample.

  18. Pilot-scale investigation of drinking water ultrafiltration membrane fouling rates using advanced data analysis techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fei; Peldszus, Sigrid; Peiris, Ramila H; Ruhl, Aki S; Mehrez, Renata; Jekel, Martin; Legge, Raymond L; Huck, Peter M

    2014-01-01

    A pilot-scale investigation of the performance of biofiltration as a pre-treatment to ultrafiltration for drinking water treatment was conducted between 2008 and 2010. The objective of this study was to further understand the fouling behaviour of ultrafiltration at pilot scale and assess the utility of different foulant monitoring tools. Various fractions of natural organic matter (NOM) and colloidal/particulate matter of raw water, biofilter effluents, and membrane permeate were characterized by employing two advanced NOM characterization techniques: liquid chromatography - organic carbon detection (LC-OCD) and fluorescence excitation-emission matrices (FEEM) combined with principal component analysis (PCA). A framework of fouling rate quantification and classification was also developed and utilized in this study. In cases such as the present one where raw water quality and therefore fouling potential vary substantially, such classification can be considered essential for proper data interpretation. The individual and combined contributions of various NOM fractions and colloidal/particulate matter to hydraulically reversible and irreversible fouling were investigated using various multivariate statistical analysis techniques. Protein-like substances and biopolymers were identified as major contributors to both reversible and irreversible fouling, whereas colloidal/particulate matter can alleviate the extent of irreversible fouling. Humic-like substances contributed little to either reversible or irreversible fouling at low level fouling rates. The complementary nature of FEEM-PCA and LC-OCD for assessing the fouling potential of complex water matrices was also illustrated by this pilot-scale study. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Investigation of CTBT OSI Radionuclide Techniques at the DILUTED WATERS Nuclear Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baciak, James E.; Milbrath, Brian D.; Detwiler, Rebecca S.; Kirkham, Randy R.; Keillor, Martin E.; Lepel, Elwood A.; Seifert, Allen; Emer, Dudley; Floyd, Michael

    2012-11-01

    Under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), a verification regime that includes the ability to conduct an On-Site Inspection (OSI) will be established. The Treaty allows for an OSI to include many techniques, including the radionuclide techniques of gamma radiation surveying and spectrometry and environmental sampling and analysis. Such radioactivity detection techniques can provide the “smoking gun” evidence that a nuclear test has occurred through the detection and quantification of indicative recent fission products. An OSI faces restrictions in time and manpower, as dictated by the Treaty; not to mention possible logistics difficulties due to the location and climate of the suspected explosion site. It is thus necessary to have a good understanding of the possible source term an OSI will encounter and the proper techniques that will be necessary for an effective OSI regime. One of the challenges during an OSI is to locate radioactive debris that has escaped an underground nuclear explosion (UNE) and settled on the surface near and downwind of ground zero. To support the understanding and selection of sampling and survey techniques for use in an OSI, we are currently designing an experiment, the Particulate Release Experiment (PRex), to simulate a small-scale vent from an underground nuclear explosion. PRex will occur at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The project is conducted under the National Center for Nuclear Security (NCNS) funded by the National Nuclear Security Agency (NNSA). Prior to the release experiment, scheduled for Spring of 2013, the project scheduled a number of activities at the NNSS to prepare for the release experiment as well as to utilize the nuclear testing past of the NNSS for the development of OSI techniques for CTBT. One such activity—the focus of this report—was a survey and sampling campaign at the site of an old UNE that vented: DILUTED WATERS. Activities at DILUTED WATERS included vehicle-based survey

  20. Harvesting Raindrop Energy with Piezoelectrics: a Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Chin-Hong; Dahari, Zuraini; Abd Manaf, Asrulnizam; Miskam, Muhammad Azman

    2015-01-01

    Harvesting vibration energy from piezoelectric material impacted by raindrops has proved to be a promising approach for future applications. A piezoelectric harvester has interesting advantages such as simple structure, easy fabrication, reduced number of components, and direct conversion of vibrations to electrical charge. Extensive research has been carried out and is still underway to explore this technique for practical applications. This review provides a comprehensive picture of global research and development of raindrop energy harvesting using piezoelectric material to enable researchers to determine the direction of further investigation. The work published so far in this area is reviewed and summarized with relevant suggestions for future work. In addition, a brief experiment was carried out to investigate the suitable piezoelectric structure for raindrop energy harvesting. Results showed that the bridge structure generated a higher voltage compared with the cantilever structure.

  1. Assessment of roadside surface water quality of Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh using GIS and multivariate statistical techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Fahad; Fakhruddin, A. N. M.; Imam, MD. Toufick; Khan, Nasima; Abdullah, Abu Tareq Mohammad; Khan, Tanzir Ahmed; Rahman, Md. Mahfuzur; Uddin, Mohammad Nashir

    2017-11-01

    In this study, multivariate statistical techniques in collaboration with GIS are used to assess the roadside surface water quality of Savar region. Nineteen water samples were collected in dry season and 15 water quality parameters including TSS, TDS, pH, DO, BOD, Cl-, F-, NO3 2-, NO2 -, SO4 2-, Ca, Mg, K, Zn and Pb were measured. The univariate overview of water quality parameters are TSS 25.154 ± 8.674 mg/l, TDS 840.400 ± 311.081 mg/l, pH 7.574 ± 0.256 pH unit, DO 4.544 ± 0.933 mg/l, BOD 0.758 ± 0.179 mg/l, Cl- 51.494 ± 28.095 mg/l, F- 0.771 ± 0.153 mg/l, NO3 2- 2.211 ± 0.878 mg/l, NO2 - 4.692 ± 5.971 mg/l, SO4 2- 69.545 ± 53.873 mg/l, Ca 48.458 ± 22.690 mg/l, Mg 19.676 ± 7.361 mg/l, K 12.874 ± 11.382 mg/l, Zn 0.027 ± 0.029 mg/l, Pb 0.096 ± 0.154 mg/l. The water quality data were subjected to R-mode PCA which resulted in five major components. PC1 explains 28% of total variance and indicates the roadside and brick field dust settle down (TDS, TSS) in the nearby water body. PC2 explains 22.123% of total variance and indicates the agricultural influence (K, Ca, and NO2 -). PC3 describes the contribution of nonpoint pollution from agricultural and soil erosion processes (SO4 2-, Cl-, and K). PC4 depicts heavy positively loaded by vehicle emission and diffusion from battery stores (Zn, Pb). PC5 depicts strong positive loading of BOD and strong negative loading of pH. Cluster analysis represents three major clusters for both water parameters and sampling sites. The site based on cluster showed similar grouping pattern of R-mode factor score map. The present work reveals a new scope to monitor the roadside water quality for future research in Bangladesh.

  2. Assessment of roadside surface water quality of Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh using GIS and multivariate statistical techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Fahad; Fakhruddin, A. N. M.; Imam, MD. Toufick; Khan, Nasima; Abdullah, Abu Tareq Mohammad; Khan, Tanzir Ahmed; Rahman, Md. Mahfuzur; Uddin, Mohammad Nashir

    2017-09-01

    In this study, multivariate statistical techniques in collaboration with GIS are used to assess the roadside surface water quality of Savar region. Nineteen water samples were collected in dry season and 15 water quality parameters including TSS, TDS, pH, DO, BOD, Cl-, F-, NO3 2-, NO2 -, SO4 2-, Ca, Mg, K, Zn and Pb were measured. The univariate overview of water quality parameters are TSS 25.154 ± 8.674 mg/l, TDS 840.400 ± 311.081 mg/l, pH 7.574 ± 0.256 pH unit, DO 4.544 ± 0.933 mg/l, BOD 0.758 ± 0.179 mg/l, Cl- 51.494 ± 28.095 mg/l, F- 0.771 ± 0.153 mg/l, NO3 2- 2.211 ± 0.878 mg/l, NO2 - 4.692 ± 5.971 mg/l, SO4 2- 69.545 ± 53.873 mg/l, Ca 48.458 ± 22.690 mg/l, Mg 19.676 ± 7.361 mg/l, K 12.874 ± 11.382 mg/l, Zn 0.027 ± 0.029 mg/l, Pb 0.096 ± 0.154 mg/l. The water quality data were subjected to R-mode PCA which resulted in five major components. PC1 explains 28% of total variance and indicates the roadside and brick field dust settle down (TDS, TSS) in the nearby water body. PC2 explains 22.123% of total variance and indicates the agricultural influence (K, Ca, and NO2 -). PC3 describes the contribution of nonpoint pollution from agricultural and soil erosion processes (SO4 2-, Cl-, and K). PC4 depicts heavy positively loaded by vehicle emission and diffusion from battery stores (Zn, Pb). PC5 depicts strong positive loading of BOD and strong negative loading of pH. Cluster analysis represents three major clusters for both water parameters and sampling sites. The site based on cluster showed similar grouping pattern of R-mode factor score map. The present work reveals a new scope to monitor the roadside water quality for future research in Bangladesh.

  3. Spatial assessment and source identification of heavy metals pollution in surface water using several chemometric techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Azimah; Toriman, Mohd Ekhwan; Juahir, Hafizan; Zain, Sharifuddin Md; Habir, Nur Liyana Abdul; Retnam, Ananthy; Kamaruddin, Mohd Khairul Amri; Umar, Roslan; Azid, Azman

    2016-05-15

    This study presents the determination of the spatial variation and source identification of heavy metal pollution in surface water along the Straits of Malacca using several chemometric techniques. Clustering and discrimination of heavy metal compounds in surface water into two groups (northern and southern regions) are observed according to level of concentrations via the application of chemometric techniques. Principal component analysis (PCA) demonstrates that Cu and Cr dominate the source apportionment in northern region with a total variance of 57.62% and is identified with mining and shipping activities. These are the major contamination contributors in the Straits. Land-based pollution originating from vehicular emission with a total variance of 59.43% is attributed to the high level of Pb concentration in the southern region. The results revealed that one state representing each cluster (northern and southern regions) is significant as the main location for investigating heavy metal concentration in the Straits of Malacca which would save monitoring cost and time. The monitoring of spatial variation and source of heavy metals pollution at the northern and southern regions of the Straits of Malacca, Malaysia, using chemometric analysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Alternative methodologies in the integrated control of urban mosquito larvae: water surface obliteration techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Eritja

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The public health risk associated to mosquitoes has increased in Spain by the introduction of the Asian Tiger Mosquito (Aedes albopictus which is a well-known disease vector. Integrated control methodologies basically rely on larviciding by weekly applications of microbial biocides that have no residual effect. In some special cases, such as swimming pools in abandoned estates, this weekly schedule cannot be achieved due to difficulties of access and operational reasons. In these circumstances, there are no appropriate biocidal options except for Insect Growth Regulators (IGR, which do not provide more than a few weeks of residual efficiency. We present here the practical application of a well-known technique for controlling mosquito larvae in urban environments by altering the water/air interface. The adding to the water surface of a thick layer of beads made from inert, floating materials is described. The layer of beads impedes oviposition and adversely affects the breathing of the larvae. This technique avoids the regular application of chemical pesticides, as well as providing improved sustainability and higher efficiency times. Caution notes and side effects are also discussed.

  5. Bundling harvester; Nippukorjausharvesteri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koponen, K. [Eko-Log Oy, Kuopio (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The staring point of the project was to design and construct, by taking the silvicultural point of view into account, a harvesting and processing system especially for energy-wood, containing manually driven bundling harvester, automatizing of the harvester, and automatized loading. The equipment forms an ideal method for entrepreneur`s-line harvesting. The target is to apply the system also for owner`s-line harvesting. The profitability of the system promotes the utilization of the system in both cases. The objectives of the project were: to construct a test equipment and prototypes for all the project stages, to carry out terrain and strain tests in order to examine the usability and durability, as well as the capacity of the machine, to test the applicability of the Eko-Log system in simultaneous harvesting of energy and pulp woods, and to start the marketing and manufacturing of the products. The basic problems of the construction of the bundling harvester have been solved using terrain-tests. The prototype machine has been shown to be operable. Loading of the bundles to form sufficiently economically transportable loads has been studied, and simultaneously, the branch-biomass has been tried to be utilized without loosing the profitability of transportation. The results have been promising, and will promote the profitable utilization of wood-energy

  6. Drainage of shallow peat harvesting areas with pipe drains; Mataloituneen turvekentaen kuivatus putkisalaojilla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klemetti, V.; Saenkiaho, K. [Vapo Oy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Rautiainen, O. [Ojamarkkinointi Oy, Heinola (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    This study aims to develop pipe draining technics in peat harvesting areas, which have been in active use so long time that the remaining peat layer is about one meter thick. The method should be technically and economically feasible as well as environmentally acceptable. Special attention is paid to pipe installation techniques, drain spacing and impacts on watercourses, which receive the drainage waters. After pipe installation the area is monitored by measuring pipe runoffs, water tables, moisture content of peat and quality of drain water

  7. A comparative study of water-steam distillation with water-bubble distillation techniques to increase the quality of patchouli essential oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitri, Noor; Yandi, Nefri; Hermawati, Julianto, Tatang Shabur

    2017-03-01

    A comparative study of the quality of patchouli oil using Water-Steam Distillation (WSD) and Water Bubble Distillation (WBD) techniques has been studied. The raw materials were Patchouli plants from Samigaluh village, Kulon Progo district, Yogyakarta. This study is aimed to compare two distillation techniques in order to find out the optimal distillation technique to increase the content of patchouli alcohol (patchoulol) and the quality of patchouli oil. Pretreatment such as withering, drying, size reduction and light fermentation were intended to increase the yield. One kilogramm of patchouli was moisturized with 500 mL of aquadest. The light fermentation process was carried out for 20 hours in a dark container. Fermented patchouli was extracted for 6 hours using Water-Steam and Water Bubble Distillation techniques. Physical and chemical properties test of patchouli oil were performed using SNI standard No. SNI-06-2385-2006 and the chemical composition of patchouli oil was analysed by GC-MS. As the results, the higher yield oil is obtained using Water-Steam Distillation, i.e. 5.9% versus 2.4%. Spesific gravity, refractive index and acid number of patchouli oil in Water-Steam Distillation results did not meet the SNI standard, i.e. 0.991; 1.623 and 13.19, while the Water Bubble Distillation met the standard, i.e. 0.955; 1.510 and 6.61. The patchoulol content using Water Bubble Distillation technique is 61.53%, significant higher than those using Water-Steam Distillation, i.e. 38.24%. Thus, Water Bubble Distillation promises a potential technique to increase the content of patchoulol in the patchouli oil.

  8. Harvesting of short rotation coppice. Harvesting trials with a cut and storage system in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweier, J.; Becker, G.

    2012-11-01

    Short rotation coppice (SRC) harvesting techniques are available in Germany, but broad experience and knowledge about machine performance and the related effective costs of harvesting operations are still missing. This information is crucial, as harvesting costs strongly influence the economic performance of the overall supply chain. Therefore, it was the aim of this study to collect and analyze productivity data of different harvesting systems for SRC. The combined cut and chip system on the one hand and the cut and storage system on the other hand were studied by literature review. Several studies analyze the combined cut and chip systems and the reported machine productivities showed great variations. The average was 30 green tons per scheduled machine hour (gt smh{sup -1}). Few studies are analysing the cut and storage system. They report that machines still are under development and that further research is needed. Therefore, time studies of harvesting operations using the cut and storage system were carried out. Five trials were performed with the harvesting machine 'Stemster MK III' developed by Nordic Biomass. The share of productive working time was 85% and the average productivity was 21 gt smh{sup -1}. These results were compared with values from the literature. Resulting harvesting costs were calculated per oven dry ton (Euro odt{sup -1}). The advantages and disadvantages of both harvesting systems are highlighted. (orig.)

  9. Analog self-powered harvester achieving switching pause control to increase harvested energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makihara, Kanjuro; Asahina, Kei

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, we propose a self-powered analog controller circuit to increase the efficiency of electrical energy harvesting from vibrational energy using piezoelectric materials. Although the existing synchronized switch harvesting on inductor (SSHI) method is designed to produce efficient harvesting, its switching operation generates a vibration-suppression effect that reduces the harvested levels of electrical energy. To solve this problem, the authors proposed—in a previous paper—a switching method that takes this vibration-suppression effect into account. This method temporarily pauses the switching operation, allowing the recovery of the mechanical displacement and, therefore, of the piezoelectric voltage. In this paper, we propose a self-powered analog circuit to implement this switching control method. Self-powered vibration harvesting is achieved in this study by attaching a newly designed circuit to an existing analog controller for SSHI. This circuit aims to effectively implement the aforementioned new switching control strategy, where switching is paused in some vibration peaks, in order to allow motion recovery and a consequent increase in the harvested energy. Harvesting experiments performed using the proposed circuit reveal that the proposed method can increase the energy stored in the storage capacitor by a factor of 8.5 relative to the conventional SSHI circuit. This proposed technique is useful to increase the harvested energy especially for piezoelectric systems having large coupling factor.

  10. Key techniques for evaluation of safety monitoring sensors in water conservancy and hydropower engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan XIANG

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available For the evaluation of construction quality and the verification of the design of water conservancy and hydropower engineering projects, and especially for the control of dam safety operation behavior, safety monitoring sensors are employed in a majority of engineering projects. These sensors are used to monitor the project during the dam construction and operation periods, and play an important role in reservoir safety operation and producing benefits. With the changing of operating environments and run-time of projects, there are some factors affecting the operation and management of projects, such as a certain amount of damaged sensors and instability of the measured data. Therefore, it is urgent to evaluate existing safety monitoring sensors in water conservancy and hydropower engineering projects. However, there are neither standards nor evaluation guidelines at present. Based on engineering practice, this study examined some key techniques for the evaluation of safety monitoring sensors, including the evaluation process of the safety monitoring system, on-site detection methods of two typical pieces of equipment, the differential resistor sensor and vibrating wire sensor, the on-site detection methods of communication cable faults, and a validity test of the sensor measured data. These key techniques were applied in the Xiaolangdi Water Control Project and Xiaoxi Hydropower Project. The results show that the measured data of a majority of sensors are reliable and reasonable, and can reasonably reflect the structural change behavior in the project operating process, indicating that the availabilities of the safety monitoring sensors of the two projects are high.

  11. A Comprehensive Review on Water Quality Parameters Estimation Using Remote Sensing Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholizadeh, Mohammad Haji; Melesse, Assefa M.; Reddi, Lakshmi

    2016-01-01

    Remotely sensed data can reinforce the abilities of water resources researchers and decision makers to monitor waterbodies more effectively. Remote sensing techniques have been widely used to measure the qualitative parameters of waterbodies (i.e., suspended sediments, colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM), chlorophyll-a, and pollutants). A large number of different sensors on board various satellites and other platforms, such as airplanes, are currently used to measure the amount of radiation at different wavelengths reflected from the water’s surface. In this review paper, various properties (spectral, spatial and temporal, etc.) of the more commonly employed spaceborne and airborne sensors are tabulated to be used as a sensor selection guide. Furthermore, this paper investigates the commonly used approaches and sensors employed in evaluating and quantifying the eleven water quality parameters. The parameters include: chlorophyll-a (chl-a), colored dissolved organic matters (CDOM), Secchi disk depth (SDD), turbidity, total suspended sediments (TSS), water temperature (WT), total phosphorus (TP), sea surface salinity (SSS), dissolved oxygen (DO), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD). PMID:27537896

  12. Evaluation of surface sampling techniques for collection of Bacillus spores on common drinking water pipe materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packard, Benjamin H; Kupferle, Margaret J

    2010-01-01

    Drinking water utilities may face biological contamination of the distribution system from a natural incident or deliberate contamination. Determining the extent of contamination or the efficacy of decontamination is a challenge, because it may require sampling of the wetted surfaces of distribution infrastructure. This study evaluated two sampling techniques that utilities might use to sample exhumed pipe sections. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC), cement-lined ductile iron, and ductile iron pipe coupons (3 cm x 14 cm) cut from new water main piping were conditioned for three months in dechlorinated Cincinnati, Ohio tap water. Coupons were spiked with Bacillus atrophaeus subsp. globigii, a surrogate for Bacillus anthracis. Brushing and scraping were used to recover the inoculated spores from the coupons. Mean recoveries for all materials ranged from 37 +/- 30% to 43 +/- 20% for brushing vs. 24 +/- 10% to 51 +/- 29% for scraping. On cement-lined pipe, brushing yielded a significantly different recovery than scraping. No differences were seen between brushing and scraping the PVC and iron pipe coupons. Mean brushing and scraping recoveries from PVC coupons were more variable than mean recoveries from cement-lined and iron coupons. Spore retention differed between pipe materials and the presence of established biofilms also had an impact. Conditioned PVC coupons (with established biofilms) had significantly lower spore retention (31 +/- 11%) than conditioned cement-lined coupons (61 +/- 14%) and conditioned iron coupons (71 +/- 8%).

  13. Neutron Deep Penetration Calculations in Light Water with Monte Carlo TRIPOLI-4® Variance Reduction Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Yi-Kang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear decommissioning takes place in several stages due to the radioactivity in the reactor structure materials. A good estimation of the neutron activation products distributed in the reactor structure materials impacts obviously on the decommissioning planning and the low-level radioactive waste management. Continuous energy Monte-Carlo radiation transport code TRIPOLI-4 has been applied on radiation protection and shielding analyses. To enhance the TRIPOLI-4 application in nuclear decommissioning activities, both experimental and computational benchmarks are being performed. To calculate the neutron activation of the shielding and structure materials of nuclear facilities, the knowledge of 3D neutron flux map and energy spectra must be first investigated. To perform this type of neutron deep penetration calculations with the Monte Carlo transport code, variance reduction techniques are necessary in order to reduce the uncertainty of the neutron activation estimation. In this study, variance reduction options of the TRIPOLI-4 code were used on the NAIADE 1 light water shielding benchmark. This benchmark document is available from the OECD/NEA SINBAD shielding benchmark database. From this benchmark database, a simplified NAIADE 1 water shielding model was first proposed in this work in order to make the code validation easier. Determination of the fission neutron transport was performed in light water for penetration up to 50 cm for fast neutrons and up to about 180 cm for thermal neutrons. Measurement and calculation results were benchmarked. Variance reduction options and their performance were discussed and compared.

  14. Studies on Dissolution Enhancement of Prednisolone, a Poorly Water-Soluble Drug by Solid Dispersion Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Zakeri-Milani

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Prednisolone is a class II substance according to the Biopharmaceutics Classification System. It is a poorly water soluble agent. The aim of the present study was to improve dissolution rate of a poorly water-soluble drug, prednisolone, by a solid dispersion technique. Methods: Solid dispersion of prednisolone was prepared with PEG 6000 or different carbohydrates such as lactose and dextrin with various ratios of the drug to carrier i.e., 1:10, 1:20 and 1:40. Solid dispersions were prepared by coevaporation method. The evaluation of the properties of the dispersions was performed using dissolution studies, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and x-ray powder diffractometery. Results: The results indicated that lactose is suitable carriers to enhance the in vitro dissolution rate of prednisolone. The data from the x-ray diffraction showed that the drug was still detectable in its solid state in all solid dispersions except solid dispersions prepared by dextrin as carrier. The results from infrared spectroscopy showed no well-defined drug–carrier interactions for coevaporates. Conclusion: Solid dispersion of a poorly water-soluble drug, prednisolone may alleviate the problems of delayed and inconsistent rate of dissolution of the drug.

  15. Neutron Deep Penetration Calculations in Light Water with Monte Carlo TRIPOLI-4® Variance Reduction Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yi-Kang

    2017-09-01

    Nuclear decommissioning takes place in several stages due to the radioactivity in the reactor structure materials. A good estimation of the neutron activation products distributed in the reactor structure materials impacts obviously on the decommissioning planning and the low-level radioactive waste management. Continuous energy Monte-Carlo radiation transport code TRIPOLI-4 has been applied on radiation protection and shielding analyses. To enhance the TRIPOLI-4 application in nuclear decommissioning activities, both experimental and computational benchmarks are being performed. To calculate the neutron activation of the shielding and structure materials of nuclear facilities, the knowledge of 3D neutron flux map and energy spectra must be first investigated. To perform this type of neutron deep penetration calculations with the Monte Carlo transport code, variance reduction techniques are necessary in order to reduce the uncertainty of the neutron activation estimation. In this study, variance reduction options of the TRIPOLI-4 code were used on the NAIADE 1 light water shielding benchmark. This benchmark document is available from the OECD/NEA SINBAD shielding benchmark database. From this benchmark database, a simplified NAIADE 1 water shielding model was first proposed in this work in order to make the code validation easier. Determination of the fission neutron transport was performed in light water for penetration up to 50 cm for fast neutrons and up to about 180 cm for thermal neutrons. Measurement and calculation results were benchmarked. Variance reduction options and their performance were discussed and compared.

  16. A Comprehensive Review on Water Quality Parameters Estimation Using Remote Sensing Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Haji Gholizadeh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Remotely sensed data can reinforce the abilities of water resources researchers and decision makers to monitor waterbodies more effectively. Remote sensing techniques have been widely used to measure the qualitative parameters of waterbodies (i.e., suspended sediments, colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM, chlorophyll-a, and pollutants. A large number of different sensors on board various satellites and other platforms, such as airplanes, are currently used to measure the amount of radiation at different wavelengths reflected from the water’s surface. In this review paper, various properties (spectral, spatial and temporal, etc. of the more commonly employed spaceborne and airborne sensors are tabulated to be used as a sensor selection guide. Furthermore, this paper investigates the commonly used approaches and sensors employed in evaluating and quantifying the eleven water quality parameters. The parameters include: chlorophyll-a (chl-a, colored dissolved organic matters (CDOM, Secchi disk depth (SDD, turbidity, total suspended sediments (TSS, water temperature (WT, total phosphorus (TP, sea surface salinity (SSS, dissolved oxygen (DO, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD and chemical oxygen demand (COD.

  17. Water as a green solvent combined with different techniques for extraction of essential oil from lavender flowers

    OpenAIRE

    Filly, Aurore; Fabiano-Tixier, Anne Sylvie; Louis, Céline; Fernandez, Xavier; Chemat, Farid

    2016-01-01

    Using water as a green solvent with a variable geometry makes use of physical and chemical phenomena that are fundamentally different from those applied in conventional extraction techniques such as hydro-distillation, steam distillation or solvent extraction. Advantages and drawbacks of using water as a solvent with different physical and chemical states have been compared. A total of ten extraction techniques: hydro-distillation (HD), steam distillation (SD), turbo-hydro-distillation (THD),...

  18. Validation of a non-invasive blood-sampling technique for doubly-labelled water experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Christian C; Helversen, Otto Von; Michener, Robert H; Kunz, Thomas H

    2003-04-01

    Two techniques for bleeding small mammals have been used in doubly-labeled water (DLW) studies, including vena puncture and the use of starved nymphal stages of hematophagous reduviid bugs (Reduviidae, Hemiptera). In this study, we tested the validity of using reduviid bugs in doubly-labeled water experiments. We found that the isotope enrichment in initial blood samples collected with bugs was significantly lower compared to isotope enrichment in blood samples obtained using vena puncture. We therefore used the desiccation method for estimating total body water (TBW) in DLW experiments because TBW calculated using the isotope dilution method was overestimated when blood samples were collected using reduviid bugs. In our validation experiment with nectar-feeding bats (Glossophaga soricina), we compared estimates of daily energy expenditure (DEE) using DLW with those derived from the energy balance method. We considered Speakman's equation (controlling for 25% fractionated water loss) as the most appropriate for our study animal and calculated DEE accordingly. On average, DEE estimated with DLW was not significantly different from the mean value obtained with the energy balance method (mean deviation 1.2%). We conclude that although bug hemolymph or intestinal liquids most likely contaminate the samples, estimates of DEE are still valid because the DLW method does not depend on absolute isotope enrichments but on the rate of isotope decrease over time. However, dilution of blood with intestinal liquids or hemolymph from a bug may lead to larger variation in DEE estimates. We also tested how the relative error of DLW estimates changed with varying assumptions about fractionation. We used three additional equations for calculating DEE in DLW experiments. The basic equation for DLW experiments published by Lifson and McClintock (LM-6) assumes no fractionation, resulted in an overestimate of DEE by 10%. Nagy's equation (N-2) controls for changes in body mass but not for

  19. Antioxidant and enzymatic responses to oxidative stress induced by pre-harvest water supply reduction and ripening on mango (Mangifera indica L. cv. 'Cogshall') in relation to carotenoid content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosalie, Rémy; Joas, Jacques; Deytieux-Belleau, Christelle; Vulcain, Emmanuelle; Payet, Bertrand; Dufossé, Laurent; Léchaudel, Mathieu

    2015-07-20

    The effects of a reduction in water supply during fruit development and postharvest fruit ripening on the oxidative status and the antioxidant defense system were studied in the mango fruit (Mangifera indica L.) cv. Cogshall. Changes in non-enzymatic (ascorbate) and enzymatic (SOD, CAT, APX, MDHAR, DHAR and GR) antioxidants, as well as oxidative parameters (H2O2 and MDA) and major carotenoids, were measured in unripe and ripe fruits from well-irrigated and non-irrigated trees. Under non-limiting water supply conditions, ripening induced oxidation as a result of the production of ROS and decreased ascorbate content. Antioxidant enzymatic systems were activated to protect fruit tissues and to regenerate the ascorbate pool. The carotenoid pool, mainly represented by β-carotene and esterified violaxanthine isomers, accumulated naturally during mango ripening. The suppression of irrigation decreased fruit size and induced accumulation of ABA and of its storage form, ABA-GE, in fruit pulp from the earliest harvest. It also increased oxidation, which was observable by the high levels of ascorbate measured at the early stages at harvest, and by the delay in the time it took to reach the pseudo constant carotene-to-xanthophyll ratio in ripe fruits. Nevertheless, differences between the irrigation treatments on the antioxidant system in ripe fruits were not significant, mainly because of the drastic changes in this system during ripening. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Protection of Reinforced Concrete Structures of Waste Water Treatment Reservoirs with Stainless Steel Coating Using Arc Thermal Spraying Technique in Acidified Water

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Han-Seung; Park, Jin-Ho; Singh, Jitendra Kumar; Ismail, Mohamed A.

    2016-01-01

    Waste water treatment reservoirs are contaminated with many hazardous chemicals and acids. Reservoirs typically comprise concrete and reinforcement steel bars, and the main elements responsible for their deterioration are hazardous chemicals, acids, and ozone. Currently, a variety of techniques are being used to protect reservoirs from exposure to these elements. The most widely used techniques are stainless steel plating and polymeric coating. In this study, a technique known as arc thermal ...

  1. Influence of harvester type and harvesting time on quality of harvested chamomile

    OpenAIRE

    Pajić Miloš B.; Pajić Vesna S.; Ivanović Sanjin M.; Oljača Mićo V.; Gligorević Kosta B.; Radojičić Dušan R.; Dražić Milan S.; Zlatanović Ivan J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper is the result of studying effects of mechanical chamomile harvesting on yield and quality of harvested chamomile. Chamomile (Chamomilla recutita (L) Rausch.) was harvested at three time intervals (T1 - 240 days, T2 - 250 days and T3 - 260 days after sowing) by three conceptually different harvesters. The results achieved indicate that the harvester type significantly influences quality of harvested chamomile, whereas it is not influenced by chamo...

  2. Mitigation of Natural Hazards and Disasters. International Perspectives. Improving Access to Water Resources through Rainwater Harvesting as A Mitigation Measure. The Case of the Brazilian Semi-Arid Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Melo Branco, A.; Suassuna, J.; Adler Vainsencher, S. [Independent Consultant, Rua Cardeal Arcoverde, 100/701, Gracas, Recife, Pernambuco (Brazil)

    2005-07-15

    This paper focuses on the importance of rainwater harvesting to mitigate the scarcity of water in the semi-arid region of Brazil. It is a case study about the Million Cisterns Project, an initiative developed by NGOs with the support of Brazilian Federal Government Institutions and international funding organizations. The project is innovative in a series of ways when compared to mitigation measures previously implemented by the government. Instead of focussing on short-term, top-down, palliative measures based on the construction of dams and wells, it focuses on low cost, bottom-up, long-term measures and, most importantly, it involves an educational component. Thus, the provision of water is closely related to the empowerment of the most destitute population and this leads to the sustainability of the actions. The case study serves to illustrate the relevance of the partnership between grassroots organizations and governmental institutions in the context of mitigation.

  3. Hand collection - hand harvest

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a summary of activities related to the collection and harvest of seeds on Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge between 1992 and 2009. Information about hand...

  4. Exposure to pesticides : Pt. IV. The harvesting of chrysanthemums in greenhouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veerman, M.C.; Vijver, L. van de; Haan, M. de; Brouwer, D.H.; Hemmen, J.J. van

    1994-01-01

    In 12 greenhouses for chrysanthemum culture in the Netherlands, dermal exposure to hand and forearms, and respiratory exposure to chlorothalonil during harvesting activities have been measured. Two harvesting techniques were compared, during which respectively the highest and lowest levels of

  5. Cost-effective ERT technique for oil-in-water measurement for offshore hydrocyclone installations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durdevic, Petar; Hansen, Leif; Mai, Christian

    2015-01-01

    resistance than hydrocarbon oil and gas. This work involves construction of a pilot plant, for testing the feasibility of ERT for OiW measurements, and further exploring if this measured signal can be applied as a reliable feedback signal in optimization of the hydrocyclone's efficiency. Different algorithms......The goal of this paper is to introduce and design a cost-effective Oil-in-Water (OiW) measuring instrument, which will be investigated for its value in increasing the efficiency of a deoiling hydrocyclone. The technique investigated is based on Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), which basic...... for creating 2-D images and the feasibility of estimating OiW concentrations are studied and evaluated. From both steady state and continuous laminate flow perspectives, with respect to the objective which is to use this measurement for feedback control purposes....

  6. Evaluating the effect of river restoration techniques on reducing the impacts of outfall on water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mant, Jenny; Janes, Victoria; Terrell, Robert; Allen, Deonie; Arthur, Scott; Yeakley, Alan; Morse, Jennifer; Holman, Ian

    2015-04-01

    Outfalls represent points of discharge to a river and often contain pollutants from urban runoff, such as heavy metals. Additionally, erosion around the outfall site results in increased sediment generation and the release of associated pollutants. Water quality impacts from heavy metals pose risks to the river ecosystem (e.g. toxicity to aquatic habitats). Restoration techniques including establishment of swales, and the re-vegetation and reinforcement of channel banks aim to decrease outfall flow velocities resulting in deposition of pollutants and removal through plant uptake. Within this study the benefits of river restoration techniques for the removal of contaminants associated with outfalls have been quantified within Johnson Creek, Portland, USA as part of the EPSRC funded Blue-Green Cities project. The project aims to develop new strategies for protecting hydrological and ecological values of urban landscapes. A range of outfalls have been selected which span restored and un-restored channel reaches, a variety of upstream land-uses, and both direct and set-back outfalls. River Habitat Surveys were conducted at each of the sites to assess the level of channel modification within the reach. Sediment samples were taken at the outfall location, upstream, and downstream of outfalls for analysis of metals including Nickel, Lead, Zinc, Copper, Iron and Magnesium. These were used to assess the impact of the level of modification at individual sites, and to compare the influence of direct and set-back outfalls. Concentrations of all metals in the sediments found at outfalls generally increased with the level of modification at the site. Sediment in restored sites had lower metal concentrations both at the outfall and downstream compared to unrestored sites, indicating the benefit of these techniques to facilitate the effective removal of pollutants by trapping of sediment and uptake of contaminants by vegetation. However, the impact of restoration measures varied

  7. A review on risk assessment techniques for hydraulic fracturing water and produced water management implemented in onshore unconventional oil and gas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Luisa; Yadav, Om Prakash; Khan, Eakalak

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to review different risk assessment techniques applicable to onshore unconventional oil and gas production to determine the risks to water quantity and quality associated with hydraulic fracturing and produced water management. Water resources could be at risk without proper management of water, chemicals, and produced water. Previous risk assessments in the oil and gas industry were performed from an engineering perspective leaving aside important social factors. Different risk assessment methods and techniques are reviewed and summarized to select the most appropriate one to perform a holistic and integrated analysis of risks at every stage of the water life cycle. Constraints to performing risk assessment are identified including gaps in databases, which require more advanced techniques such as modeling. Discussions on each risk associated with water and produced water management, mitigation strategies, and future research direction are presented. Further research on risks in onshore unconventional oil and gas will benefit not only the U.S. but also other countries with shale oil and gas resources. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Water quality analysis of the Rapur area, Andhra Pradesh, South India using multivariate techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraju, A.; Sreedhar, Y.; Thejaswi, A.; Sayadi, Mohammad Hossein

    2017-10-01

    The groundwater samples from Rapur area were collected from different sites to evaluate the major ion chemistry. The large number of data can lead to difficulties in the integration, interpretation, and representation of the results. Two multivariate statistical methods, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and factor analysis (FA), were applied to evaluate their usefulness to classify and identify geochemical processes controlling groundwater geochemistry. Four statistically significant clusters were obtained from 30 sampling stations. This has resulted two important clusters viz., cluster 1 (pH, Si, CO3, Mg, SO4, Ca, K, HCO3, alkalinity, Na, Na + K, Cl, and hardness) and cluster 2 (EC and TDS) which are released to the study area from different sources. The application of different multivariate statistical techniques, such as principal component analysis (PCA), assists in the interpretation of complex data matrices for a better understanding of water quality of a study area. From PCA, it is clear that the first factor (factor 1), accounted for 36.2% of the total variance, was high positive loading in EC, Mg, Cl, TDS, and hardness. Based on the PCA scores, four significant cluster groups of sampling locations were detected on the basis of similarity of their water quality.

  9. Milk intake and carbon dioxide production of piglets determined with the doubly labelled water technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theil, P K; Kristensen, N B; Jørgensen, H; Labouriau, R; Jakobsen, K

    2007-07-01

    The present study was undertaken to study different methodological aspects of quantifying CO2 production and milk intake of suckling piglets using the doubly labelled water (DLW) technique. In total, 37 piglets were enriched intraperitoneally with DLW to study equilibration time of 18O (n = 3), to validate the estimation of milk intake and CO2 production (n = 10) of piglets fed milk replacer and to quantify milk intake and CO2 production of piglets nursed ordinarily by sows (n = 24). Enrichment of 18O in expired air was analysed without any sample preparation, whereas enrichment of 18O in serum was analysed after a minimum step of sample preparation, which included pipetting of the sample, blowing gaseous CO2 into the vial for 3 s and equilibrating for 24 h. The 18O enrichment of CO2 in expired air was constant within 30-40 min of intraperitoneal injection, suggesting that DLW was equilibrated within the body water by that time. For piglets fed milk replacer, the estimation of the daily CO2 production by the DLW method (64.0 ± 2.7 l CO2/day) was in agreement with that obtained by respiration trials (64.7 ± 1.8 l CO2/day). Furthermore, the intake of milk replacer (891 ± 63 g/day) determined by deuterium oxide (D2O) dilution was similar in magnitude to that found by weighing the milk disappearance (910 ± 58 g/day). The milk intake of piglets fed milk replacer was comparable with that of sucking piglets, but sucking piglets had a remarkably higher CO2 production than artificially reared piglets, which likely was caused by a higher intake of milk solids and a higher activity level. For sucking piglets, the daily CO2 production increased curvilinearly with increasing live weight (LW) in kg: piglet CO2 production (l/day) = 25.75 × LW - 1.01 × LW2. In conclusion, 18O equilibrates fast within the body water pool when administered intraperitoneally, and the accuracy of assessing milk intake and rate of CO2 production using the DLW technique is promising. Assessment of

  10. Rainwater harvesting in arid and semi-arid zones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boers, T.M.

    1994-01-01

    In arid and semi-arid regions, the scarcity of water can be alleviated by rainwater harvesting, which is defined as a method of inducing, collecting, storing, and conserving local surface runoff for agriculture. Rainwater harvesting can be applied with different

  11. Determinants of rainwater harvesting technology (RWHT) adoption ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Home gardening is extremely important for resource-poor households that have limited access to production inputs. However, in South Africa attempts to implement home garden programmes often fail to improve food security of the poor due to water scarcity. Rainwater harvesting technology (RWHT) has been used to ...

  12. Determinants of rainwater harvesting technology (RWHT) adoption ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-11-26

    Nov 26, 2014 ... Home gardening is extremely important for resource-poor households that have limited access to production inputs. However, in South Africa attempts to implement home garden programmes often fail to improve food security of the poor due to water scarcity. Rainwater harvesting technology (RWHT) has ...

  13. COST EFFECTIVENESS OF SELECTED POST HARVEST POD

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blankenship, P. D. (1985). Interrelationship of kernel water activity soil temperature maturity and phytoalexins production in pre harvest aflatoxins contamination of drought stressed peanuts. Mycopathologia 1051117-. 128. Daren, X. (1989). Research on aflatoxin con- tamination of groundnut in People's Repub- lic of China.

  14. Energy harvesting for microsystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruichao Xu

    2012-05-15

    The purpose of this project is to design and fabricate piezoelectric energy harvesters based on integration of Pb(ZrxTi1-x)O3 (PZT) thick film technology and silicon microtechnology. The fabrication processes are carried out in close collaboration with Meggitt Sensing Systems (MSS) who has the unique expertise to screen print piezoelectric thick film layers, thus all screen printing steps are done by MSS while the silicon micromachining is carried out at Danchip facility at DTU. The presented energy harvesters are all based on using piezoelectric thick film operating in the 31-mode to generate power when strained. Three archetypes of the numerous fabricated energy harvesters will be presented in detail, they represent three major milestones in this project. The first energy harvester archetype has an unimorph cantilever beam, which consists of a 20 {mu}m silicon layer and 10-30 {mu}m screen printed PZT layer, anchored on a silicon frame at one end and attached to a silicon proof mass at the other. Electrodes will cover both side of the PZT layer, so the harvested energy can be collected electrically. The second archetype has a bimorph cantilever beam, which consists of two 15-35 {mu}m PZT layers, anchored on a silicon frame at the one end and attached to a silicon proof mass at the other. Electrodes are deposited below, between and above the two PZT layers. The root mean square (RMS) power output measured on this type of harvesters is as high as 37.1{mu}W at 1 g. The third archetype is similar to the first one, the screen printed PZT layer is replaced by a lead free piezoelectric material, (KxNa1-x)NbO3 (KNN). Some of the major challenges encountered during the development processes are bad adhesion, fragile structures and short circuiting through the PZT layer. All of which have being fully or partially solved in this project. The final energy harvesters are designed to be used in an energy harvester powered wireless sensing system. (Author)

  15. Maximum power point tracking for optimizing energy harvesting process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, S.; Thang, P. C.; Veselov, D. S.

    2016-10-01

    There has been a growing interest in using energy harvesting techniques for powering wireless sensor networks. The reason for utilizing this technology can be explained by the sensors limited amount of operation time which results from the finite capacity of batteries and the need for having a stable power supply in some applications. Energy can be harvested from the sun, wind, vibration, heat, etc. It is reasonable to develop multisource energy harvesting platforms for increasing the amount of harvesting energy and to mitigate the issue concerning the intermittent nature of ambient sources. In the context of solar energy harvesting, it is possible to develop algorithms for finding the optimal operation point of solar panels at which maximum power is generated. These algorithms are known as maximum power point tracking techniques. In this article, we review the concept of maximum power point tracking and provide an overview of the research conducted in this area for wireless sensor networks applications.

  16. Effectiveness of Liquid-Liquid Extraction, Solid Phase Extraction, and Headspace Technique for Determination of Some Volatile Water-Soluble Compounds of Rose Aromatic Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Steam distillation is used to isolate scent of rose flowers. Rose aromatic water is commonly used in European cuisine and aromatherapy besides its use in cosmetic industry for its lovely scent. In this study, three different sampling techniques, liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), headspace technique (HS), and solid phase extraction (SPE), were compared for the analysis of volatile water-soluble compounds in commercial rose aromatic water. Some volatile water-soluble compounds of rose aromatic water were also analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS). In any case, it was concluded that one of the solid phase extraction methods led to higher recoveries for 2-phenylethyl alcohol (PEA) in the rose aromatic water than the liquid-liquid extraction and headspace technique. Liquid-liquid extraction method provided higher recovery ratios for citronellol, nerol, and geraniol than others. Ideal linear correlation coefficient values were observed by GCMS for quantitative analysis of volatile compounds (r2 ≥ 0.999). Optimized methods showed acceptable repeatability (RSDs 95%). For compounds such as α-pinene, linalool, β-caryophyllene, α-humulene, methyl eugenol, and eugenol, the best recovery values were obtained with LLE and SPE. PMID:28791049

  17. Water vapor as an error source in microwave geodetic systems: Background and survey of calibration techniques. [very long base interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claflin, E. S.; Resch, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    Water vapor as an error source in radio interferometry systems is briefly examined. At microwave frequencies, the delay imposed by tropospheric water vapor becomes a limiting error source for high accuracy geodetic systems. The mapping of tropospheric induced errors into 'solved-for' parameters depends upon baseline length and observing strategy. Simulation analysis (and experience) indicates that in some cases, errors in estimating tropospheric delay can be magnified in their effect on baseline components. The various techniques by which tropospheric water can be estimated or measured are surveyed with particular consideration to their possible use as a calibration technique in support to very long baseline interferometry experiments. The method of remote sensing using a microwave radiometer seems to be the most effective way to provide an accurate estimate of water vapor delay.

  18. [Water-tight closure of spinal dura with a new clot suture technique (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matras, H; Jesch, W; Kletter, G; Dinges, H P

    1978-06-09

    A new clot-suturing Technique (using high-concentration fibrinogen solutions) for water-tight closure of the dura is reported. Six dogs underwent laminectomy of the thoracic spine with medial longitudinal incision in the chordal dura. After the dural split had been sealed with natural tissue adhesive and closure of the wound in layers, the animals were sacrificed at intervals of 1 to 21 days postoperatively and the chordal segments involved were removed and histologically examined. Early fibrinolysis of the clot was prevented by adding a natural proteinase inhibitor and factor XIII concentrate to the clotting substances. Histological analysis showed that healing was almost complete after 2 weeks, with delicate connective tissue overgrowing the dural split. After complete reabsorption of fibrin, the originally abundant absorbent granulation tissue had largely disappeared. Among the satisfactory results of fibrin suturing are optimum healing tendency in the fibrin-sutured region, absence of tissue irritation and neurotoxicity, which are known attributes of the synthetic alkl-cyano-acrylate tissue adhesives.

  19. Assessment of the toxic potential of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) affecting Gulf menhaden (Brevoortia patronus) harvested from waters impacted by the BP Deepwater Horizon Spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Gregory M; Meyer, Buffy M; Portier, Ralph J

    2016-02-01

    Approximately 4.9 million barrels of crude oil and gas were released into the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) from April to July 2010 during the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) spill. This resulted in the possible contamination of marine organisms with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), USEPA identified constituents of concern. To determine the impact of the DWH oil spill, Gulf menhaden (Brevoortia patronus), a commercially harvested and significant trophic grazing species, was sampled from two Louisiana coastal regions between the years 2011-2013. Tissue extraction and GC/MS analysis demonstrated measurable concentrations of PAH within menhaden. Analysis yielded total PAHs, carcinogenic equivalents (BaP-TEQ), and mutagenic equivalents (BaP-MEQ) which provided an initial toxic potential assessment of this GoM Fishery. Gulf menhaden contained less total PAH concentrations in 2012 and significantly less in 2013 as compared to 2011 (p PAHs were also significantly reduced (p PAH concentrations and the reduction of BaP-TEQs and MEQs between 2011 and 2013 indicates a diminished input of new source PAHs along with a reduction of carcinogenic and mutagenic PAHs in menhaden populations. The use of Gulf menhaden was successful in determining the acute toxic potential of PAHs contaminating the GoM in the years directly following the DWH spill event. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Combine Harvester Simulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilmann, Ole; Sørlie, James Arnold

    1999-01-01

    A simulator for training pilots in the operation of a modern high-tech combine harvester is presented. The new simulator application is based on DMI´s well-known DMS maritime simulator architecture. Two major challenges have been encountered in the development of the simulator: 1) interfacing the...

  1. 1975 Washington timber harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.D. Jr. Lloyd

    1977-01-01

    In 1975, the Washington timber harvest declined for the 2d year to 6.2 billion board feet, 10 percent below 1974, and the lowest level in 8 years. The decrease, which occurred on almost all ownerships, amounted to 561 million board feet in western Washington and 130 million board feet in eastern Washington.

  2. Water solubility of selected C9-C18 alkanes using a slow-stir technique: Comparison to structure - property models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letinski, Daniel J; Parkerton, Thomas F; Redman, Aaron D; Connelly, Martin J; Peterson, Brian

    2016-05-01

    Aqueous solubility is a fundamental physical-chemical substance property that strongly influences the distribution, fate and effects of chemicals upon release into the environment. Experimental water solubility was determined for 18 selected C9-C18 normal, branched and cyclic alkanes. A slow-stir technique was applied to obviate emulsion formation, which historically has resulted in significant overestimation of the aqueous solubility of such hydrophobic liquid compounds. Sensitive GC-MS based methods coupled with contemporary sample extraction techniques were employed to enable reproducible analysis of low parts-per billion aqueous concentrations. Water solubility measurements for most of the compounds investigated, are reported for the first time expanding available data for branched and cyclic alkanes. Measured water solubilities spanned four orders of magnitude ranging from 0.3 μg/L to 250 μg/L. Good agreement was observed for selected alkanes tested in this work and reported in earlier literature demonstrating the robustness of the slow-stir water solubility technique. Comparisons of measured alkane water solubilities were also made with those predicted by commonly used quantitative structure-property relationship models (e.g. SPARC, EPIWIN, ACD/Labs). Correlations are also presented between alkane measured water solubilities and molecular size parameters (e.g. molar volume, solvent accessible molar volume) affirming a mechanistic description of empirical aqueous solubility results and prediction previously reported for a more limited set of alkanes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Acquiring geographical data with web harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dramowicz, K.

    2016-04-01

    Many websites contain very attractive and up to date geographical information. This information can be extracted, stored, analyzed and mapped using web harvesting techniques. Poorly organized data from websites are transformed with web harvesting into a more structured format, which can be stored in a database and analyzed. Almost 25% of web traffic is related to web harvesting, mostly while using search engines. This paper presents how to harvest geographic information from web documents using the free tool called the Beautiful Soup, one of the most commonly used Python libraries for pulling data from HTML and XML files. It is a relatively easy task to process one static HTML table. The more challenging task is to extract and save information from tables located in multiple and poorly organized websites. Legal and ethical aspects of web harvesting are discussed as well. The paper demonstrates two case studies. The first one shows how to extract various types of information about the Good Country Index from the multiple web pages, load it into one attribute table and map the results. The second case study shows how script tools and GIS can be used to extract information from one hundred thirty six websites about Nova Scotia wines. In a little more than three minutes a database containing one hundred and six liquor stores selling these wines is created. Then the availability and spatial distribution of various types of wines (by grape types, by wineries, and by liquor stores) are mapped and analyzed.

  4. A Novel Experimental Technique to Monitor the Time-Dependent Water and Ions Uptake when Shale Interacts with Aqueous Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    AL-Bazali, Talal

    2013-09-01

    The time-dependent water and ions uptake when shale interacts with aqueous solutions is quantified using a combination of immersion and gravimetric techniques. Results show that when shale interacts with salt solutions, water uptake into shale goes through three distinct stages; water movement out of shale (due to chemical osmosis), water movement into shale (due to diffusion osmosis) and stationary state (equilibrium stage). This work shows that chemical osmosis dominates water movement in early times while diffusion osmosis takes over later. In addition, it is shown that the amount of water movement due to chemical osmosis depends on the chemical potential gradient while the amount of water movement due to diffusion osmosis is highly related to the ionic concentration imbalance. In addition, the amount of ions uptake into shale at equilibrium is shown to depend on the type and concentration of salt solution. Furthermore, this work shows that potassium ion has a strengthening effect on shale while sodium and calcium ions have a weakening effect on shale. Results also show that the shale's compressive strength alteration is greatly influenced by the type and concentration of the salt solution. Furthermore, the shale's compressive strength alteration is shown to be time dependent and correlates very well with the time-dependent flux of water and ions. Finally, it is shown that chemical osmosis and diffusion osmosis take place simultaneously when shale interacts with water-based muds. The overall impact on shale stability is governed by the net water flow resulting from chemical osmosis and diffusion osmosis.

  5. Fat Harvest Using a Closed-Suction Drain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavit Amin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We propose a safe, simple, and novel method to harvest fat using a standard liposuction cannula and a Redivac or alternative closed-suction drain. The authors have used this technique for both 'dry' and 'wet' liposuction. This technique is both easy to perform and cost-effective whilst providing both a silent and relatively atraumatic fat harvest. The lower negative pressure compared with traditional harvesting systems likely preserves fat integrity for lipofilling. This method maximises resources already held within a hospital environment.

  6. Designing A General Deep Web Harvester by Harvestability Factor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khelghati, Mohammadreza; Hiemstra, Djoerd; van Keulen, Maurice

    2014-01-01

    To make deep web data accessible, harvesters have a crucial role. Targeting different domains and websites enhances the need of a general-purpose harvester which can be applied to different settings and situations. To develop such a harvester, a large number of issues should be addressed. To have

  7. Comparison of the flexural strength of polymethyl methacrylate resin reinforced with multiwalled carbon nanotubes and processed by conventional water bath technique and microwave polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surabhi Somkuwar

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Heat polymerized denture base resin with and without reinforcement of MWCNTs and polymerized by microwave technique possess higher flexural strength than heat polymerized fiber reinforced denture resin polymerized by water bath technique. MWCNTs could be used as an effective reinforcement material for denture base resin polymerized by either water bath technique or microwave energy.

  8. Impact of biomass harvesting on forest soil productivity in the northern Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woongsoon Jang; Christopher R. Keyes; Deborah Page-Dumroese

    2015-01-01

    Biomass harvesting extracts an increased amount of organic matter from forest ecosystems over conventional harvesting. Since organic matter plays a critical role in forest productivity, concerns of potential negative long-term impacts of biomass harvesting on forest productivity (i.e., changing nutrient/water cycling, aggravating soil properties, and compaction) have...

  9. Wearable Biomechanical Energy Harvesting Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Man Choi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Energy harvesting has been attracting attention as a technology that is capable of replacing or supplementing a battery with the development of various mobile electronics. In environments where stable electrical supply is not possible, energy harvesting technology can guarantee an increased leisure and safety for human beings. Harvesting with several watts of power is essential for directly driving or efficiently charging mobile electronic devices such as laptops or cell phones. In this study, we reviewed energy harvesting technologies that harvest biomechanical energy from human motion such as foot strike, joint motion, and upper limb motion. They are classified based on the typical principle of kinetic energy harvesting: piezoelectric, triboelectric, and electromagnetic energy harvesting. We focused on the wearing position of high-power wearable biomechanical energy harvesters (WBEHs generating watt-level power. In addition, the features and future trends of the watt-level WBEHs are discussed.

  10. Effect of various types of thermal pretreatment techniques on the hydrolysis, compositional analysis and characterization of water hyacinth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barua, Visva Bharati; Kalamdhad, Ajay S

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of four different types of thermal pretreatment techniques i.e., hot air oven, microwave, autoclave and hot water bath on the hydrolysis, compositional analysis and characterization of water hyacinth. To determine the most efficient thermal pretreatment technique exhibiting enhanced solubilisation. Highest solubilisation was achieved by hot air oven (55.5%), followed by microwave, hot water bath and autoclave. Bio-chemical methane potential (BMP) test of hot air oven pretreated and untreated water hyacinth was conducted. Cumulative methane production of 3039±32mLCH4/gVS was achieved by hot air oven pretreated water hyacinth at 90°C for 1h which was way higher than the cumulative methane production of untreated water hyacinth 2396±19mLCH4/gVS on the 35th day. Compositional analysis and characterization of water hyacinth were also investigated to study the changes in the pretreated samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A self-trained classification technique for producing 30 m percent-water maps from Landsat data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rover, Jennifer R.; Wylie, Bruce K.; Ji, Lei

    2010-01-01

    Small bodies of water can be mapped with moderate-resolution satellite data using methods where water is mapped as subpixel fractions using field measurements or high-resolution images as training datasets. A new method, developed from a regression-tree technique, uses a 30 m Landsat image for training the regression tree that, in turn, is applied to the same image to map subpixel water. The self-trained method was evaluated by comparing the percent-water map with three other maps generated from established percent-water mapping methods: (1) a regression-tree model trained with a 5 m SPOT 5 image, (2) a regression-tree model based on endmembers and (3) a linear unmixing classification technique. The results suggest that subpixel water fractions can be accurately estimated when high-resolution satellite data or intensively interpreted training datasets are not available, which increases our ability to map small water bodies or small changes in lake size at a regional scale.

  12. Mitigative techniques and analysis of generic site conditions for ground-water contamination associated with severe accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafer, J.M.; Oberlander, P.L.; Skaggs, R.L.

    1984-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of using ground-water contaminant mitigation techniques to control radionuclide migration following a severe commercial nuclear power reactor accident. The two types of severe commercial reactor accidents investigated are: (1) containment basemat penetration of core melt debris which slowly cools and leaches radionuclides to the subsurface environment, and (2) containment basemat penetration of sump water without full penetration of the core mass. Six generic hydrogeologic site classifications are developed from an evaluation of reported data pertaining to the hydrogeologic properties of all existing and proposed commercial reactor sites. One-dimensional radionuclide transport analyses are conducted on each of the individual reactor sites to determine the generic characteristics of a radionuclide discharge to an accessible environment. Ground-water contaminant mitigation techniques that may be suitable, depending on specific site and accident conditions, for severe power plant accidents are identified and evaluated. Feasible mitigative techniques and associated constraints on feasibility are determined for each of the six hydrogeologic site classifications. The first of three case studies is conducted on a site located on the Texas Gulf Coastal Plain. Mitigative strategies are evaluated for their impact on contaminant transport and results show that the techniques evaluated significantly increased ground-water travel times. 31 references, 118 figures, 62 tables.

  13. Studies evaluating the applicability of utilizing the same concentration techniques for the detection of protozoan parasites and viruses in water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kfir, R

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study concentration techniques regularly used for viral detection; i.e. flat-bed ultra-filtration and filterite cartridge filtration, were evaluated for their efficacies in the recovery of protozoan parasites from water. Recovery of cysts...

  14. An evaluation of sampling methods and supporting techniques for tackling lead in drinking water in Aberta Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    A collaborative project commenced in August 2013 with the aim of demonstrating a range of techniques that can be used in tackling the problems of lead in drinking water. The main project was completed in March 2014, with supplementary sampling exercises in mid-2014. It involved t...

  15. Solvent content and dentin bond strengths using water-wet, ethanol-wet and deproteinization bonding techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria-e-Silva, André Luis; Araújo, José Everton; Rocha, Gilliane Pereira; de Oliveira, Aline da Silva; de Moraes, Rafael Ratto

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of solvent content in two-step, etch-and-rinse adhesives on the dentin bond strengths obtained via water-wet, ethanol-wet or deproteinization techniques. A model photocurable Bis-GMA/HEMA blend was diluted in ethanol (7.5, 15 or 30 mass%) or acetone (15, 30 or 60 mass%) (low, medium or high solvent content, respectively). Viscosity of the solutions was measured with an oscillatory viscometer and data analyzed using ANOVA on Ranks (5%). Dentin bond strengths were evaluated using microshear bond test. After acid-etching and rinsing, the dentin was kept wet (water-wet), treated with ascending ethanol concentrations (ethanol-wet) or with 10% NaOCl solution (deproteinization). Composite cylinders built-up on the surfaces for the microshear test. Data from each bonding technique were submitted to two-way ANOVA and Fisher's LSD method (5%). Failure modes were classified under magnification and data analyzed using chi-square tests (5%). Viscosity of ethanol-based agents was remarkably higher than acetone solutions. For the water-wet technique, lower bond strength was observed for the low compared with medium and high ethanol contents. For the ethanol-wet technique, the bond strength for both solvents types was low dentin bond strengths for the conventional and ethanol bonding techniques.

  16. The development of sensors and techniques for in situ water quality monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C. C.

    1976-01-01

    Enzyme electrodes and chloride ion electrodes were investigated for in situ monitoring of water quality. Preliminary results show that miniature chloride ion electrodes and a phenol sensor are most promising in determining trace contaminants in water.

  17. Light Harvesting for Organic Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The field of organic photovoltaics has developed rapidly over the last 2 decades, and small solar cells with power conversion efficiencies of 13% have been demonstrated. Light absorbed in the organic layers forms tightly bound excitons that are split into free electrons and holes using heterojunctions of electron donor and acceptor materials, which are then extracted at electrodes to give useful electrical power. This review gives a concise description of the fundamental processes in photovoltaic devices, with the main emphasis on the characterization of energy transfer and its role in dictating device architecture, including multilayer planar heterojunctions, and on the factors that impact free carrier generation from dissociated excitons. We briefly discuss harvesting of triplet excitons, which now attracts substantial interest when used in conjunction with singlet fission. Finally, we introduce the techniques used by researchers for characterization and engineering of bulk heterojunctions to realize large photocurrents, and examine the formed morphology in three prototypical blends. PMID:27951633

  18. Characterization of soil water content variability and soil texture using GPR groundwave techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grote, K.; Anger, C.; Kelly, B.; Hubbard, S.; Rubin, Y.

    2010-08-15

    Accurate characterization of near-surface soil water content is vital for guiding agricultural management decisions and for reducing the potential negative environmental impacts of agriculture. Characterizing the near-surface soil water content can be difficult, as this parameter is often both spatially and temporally variable, and obtaining sufficient measurements to describe the heterogeneity can be prohibitively expensive. Understanding the spatial correlation of near-surface soil water content can help optimize data acquisition and improve understanding of the processes controlling soil water content at the field scale. In this study, ground penetrating radar (GPR) methods were used to characterize the spatial correlation of water content in a three acre field as a function of sampling depth, season, vegetation, and soil texture. GPR data were acquired with 450 MHz and 900 MHz antennas, and measurements of the GPR groundwave were used to estimate soil water content at four different times. Additional water content estimates were obtained using time domain reflectometry measurements, and soil texture measurements were also acquired. Variograms were calculated for each set of measurements, and comparison of these variograms showed that the horizontal spatial correlation was greater for deeper water content measurements than for shallower measurements. Precipitation and irrigation were both shown to increase the spatial variability of water content, while shallowly-rooted vegetation decreased the variability. Comparison of the variograms of water content and soil texture showed that soil texture generally had greater small-scale spatial correlation than water content, and that the variability of water content in deeper soil layers was more closely correlated to soil texture than were shallower water content measurements. Lastly, cross-variograms of soil texture and water content were calculated, and co-kriging of water content estimates and soil texture

  19. The use of proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) meshless RBF-FD technique to simulate the shallow water equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghan, Mehdi; Abbaszadeh, Mostafa

    2017-12-01

    The main aim of this paper is to develop a fast and efficient local meshless method for solving shallow water equations in one- and two-dimensional cases. The mentioned equation has been classified in category of advection equations. The solutions of advection equations have some shock, thus, especial numerical methods should be employed for example discontinuous Galerkin and finite volume methods. Here, based on the proper orthogonal decomposition approach we want to construct a fast meshless method. To this end, we consider shallow water models and obtain a suitable time-discrete scheme based on the predictor-corrector technique. Then by applying the proper orthogonal decomposition technique a new set of basis functions can be built for the solution space in which the size of new solution space is less than the original problem. Thus, by employing the new bases the CPU time will be reduced. Some examples have been studied to show the efficiency of the present numerical technique.

  20. A technique to circumvent lower density water trapping by tide-wells

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joseph, A.; VijayKumar, K.; Desa, E.S.; Desa, E.; Peshwe, V.B.

    A 3-year study of water density differences inside and outside of a conventional tide-well indicated that the average water density within the well is consistently lower than the external ambient waters. The tide-well at Goa is situated at the mouth...

  1. Dynamics of water transport and storage in conifers studied with deuterium and heat tracing techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    F.C. Meinzer; J.R. Brooks; J.-C. Domec; B.L. Gartner; J.M. Warren; D.R. Woodruff; K. Bible; D.C. Shaw

    2006-01-01

    The volume and complexity of their vascular systems make the dynamics of tong-distance water transport in large trees difficult to study. We used heat and deuterated water (D20) as tracers to characterize whole-tree water transport and storage properties in individual trees belonging to the coniferous species Pseudotsuga menziesii...

  2. DYNAMICS OF WATER TRANSPORT AND STORAGE IN CONIFERS STUDIED WITH DEUTERIUM AND HEAT TRACING TECHNIQUES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The volume and complexity of their vascular systems make the dynamics of long-distance water transport difficult to study. We used heat and deuterated water (D2O) as tracers to characterize whole-tree water transport and storage properties in individual trees belonging to the co...

  3. Harvest Regulations and Implementation Uncertainty in Small Game Harvest Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pål F. Moa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A main challenge in harvest management is to set policies that maximize the probability that management goals are met. While the management cycle includes multiple sources of uncertainty, only some of these has received considerable attention. Currently, there is a large gap in our knowledge about implemention of harvest regulations, and to which extent indirect control methods such as harvest regulations are actually able to regulate harvest in accordance with intended management objectives. In this perspective article, we first summarize and discuss hunting regulations currently used in management of grouse species (Tetraonidae in Europe and North America. Management models suggested for grouse are most often based on proportional harvest or threshold harvest principles. These models are all built on theoretical principles for sustainable harvesting, and provide in the end an estimate on a total allowable catch. However, implementation uncertainty is rarely examined in empirical or theoretical harvest studies, and few general findings have been reported. Nevertheless, circumstantial evidence suggest that many of the most popular regulations are acting depensatory so that harvest bag sizes is more limited in years (or areas where game density is high, contrary to general recommendations. A better understanding of the implementation uncertainty related to harvest regulations is crucial in order to establish sustainable management systems. We suggest that scenario tools like Management System Evaluation (MSE should be more frequently used to examine robustness of currently applied harvest regulations to such implementation uncertainty until more empirical evidence is available.

  4. Development of microbial and chemical MST tools to identify the origin of the faecal pollution in bathing and shellfish harvesting waters in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourmelon, M; Caprais, M P; Mieszkin, S; Marti, R; Wéry, N; Jardé, E; Derrien, M; Jadas-Hécart, A; Communal, P Y; Jaffrezic, A; Pourcher, A M

    2010-09-01

    The microbiological quality of coastal or river waters can be affected by faecal pollution from human or animal sources. An efficient MST (Microbial Source Tracking) toolbox consisting of several host-specific markers would therefore be valuable for identifying the origin of the faecal pollution in the environment and thus for effective resource management and remediation. In this multidisciplinary study, after having tested some MST markers on faecal samples, we compared a selection of 17 parameters corresponding to chemical (steroid ratios, caffeine, and synthetic compounds), bacterial (host-specific Bacteroidales, Lactobacillus amylovorus and Bifidobacterium adolescentis) and viral (genotypes I-IV of F-specific bacteriophages, FRNAPH) markers on environmental water samples (n = 33; wastewater, runoff and river waters) with variable Escherichia coli concentrations. Eleven microbial and chemical parameters were finally chosen for our MST toolbox, based on their specificity for particular pollution sources represented by our samples and their detection in river waters impacted by human or animal pollution; these were: the human-specific chemical compounds caffeine, TCEP (tri(2-chloroethyl)phosphate) and benzophenone; the ratios of sitostanol/coprostanol and coprostanol/(coprostanol+24-ethylcopstanol); real-time PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) human-specific (HF183 and B. adolescentis), pig-specific (Pig-2-Bac and L. amylovorus) and ruminant-specific (Rum-2-Bac) markers; and human FRNAPH genogroup II. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliò, Renato; Rongala, Udaya Bhaskar; Camboni, Domenico; Milazzo, Mario; Stefanini, Cesare; de Petris, Gianluca; Oddo, Calogero Maria

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the state of the art in piezoelectric energy harvesting. It presents the basics of piezoelectricity and discusses materials choice. The work places emphasis on material operating modes and device configurations, from resonant to non-resonant devices and also to rotational solutions. The reviewed literature is compared based on power density and bandwidth. Lastly, the question of power conversion is addressed by reviewing various circuit solutions. PMID:24618725

  6. Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Caliò

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the state of the art in piezoelectric energy harvesting. It presents the basics of piezoelectricity and discusses materials choice. The work places emphasis on material operating modes and device configurations, from resonant to non-resonant devices and also to rotational solutions. The reviewed literature is compared based on power density and bandwidth. Lastly, the question of power conversion is addressed by reviewing various circuit solutions.

  7. Piezoelectric energy harvesting solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliò, Renato; Rongala, Udaya Bhaskar; Camboni, Domenico; Milazzo, Mario; Stefanini, Cesare; de Petris, Gianluca; Oddo, Calogero Maria

    2014-03-10

    This paper reviews the state of the art in piezoelectric energy harvesting. It presents the basics of piezoelectricity and discusses materials choice. The work places emphasis on material operating modes and device configurations, from resonant to non-resonant devices and also to rotational solutions. The reviewed literature is compared based on power density and bandwidth. Lastly, the question of power conversion is addressed by reviewing various circuit solutions.

  8. Advances in energy harvesting methods

    CERN Document Server

    Elvin, Niell

    2012-01-01

    Advances in Energy Harvesting Methods presents a state-of-the-art understanding of diverse aspects of energy harvesting with a focus on: broadband energy conversion, new concepts in electronic circuits, and novel materials. This book covers recent advances in energy harvesting using different transduction mechanisms; these include methods of performance enhancement using nonlinear effects, non-harmonic forms of excitation and non-resonant energy harvesting, fluidic energy harvesting, and advances in both low-power electronics as well as  material science. The contributors include a brief liter

  9. The viability of domestic rainwater harvesting in the residential areas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    By 2030 South Africa (SA), a developing country, is predicted to be severely impacted by physical water scarcity. In order to avert a future water crisis, the country needs to find ways to reduce its reliance on conventional surface water schemes based on impoundments on rivers. Rainwater harvesting (RWH) is an alternative ...

  10. Nano- and micro-particulate formulations of poorly water-soluble drugs by using a novel optimized technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douroumis, D; Fahr, A

    2006-06-01

    A novel technique for the production of nano- and micro-particulate formulations of poorly water-soluble drugs has been developed. This technique involves the use of static mixer elements to provide fast precipitation by continuous turbulent mixing of two liquid flows, an aqueous phase and an organic phase, respectively. The objective of this study was to develop the mixer technique by investigating the influence of the element number on the particle size of the resulting dispersions. Four model active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) with a variety of polymers, lipids or surfactants underwent intensive mixing and the final suspensions showed a narrow size distribution. Parameters such as the flow rate and the temperature of the precipitated organic-aqueous phases were also significant in the reduction of particle size. Further development of the mixing technique led to reproducible and stable formulations with minimal excipient amounts. These formulations were spray- or freeze-dried to improve stability.

  11. Management of complex multi-reservoir water distribution systems using advanced control theoretic tools and techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Chmielowski, Wojciech Z

    2013-01-01

    This study discusses issues of optimal water management in a complex distribution system. The main elements of the water-management system under consideration are retention reservoirs, among which water transfers are possible, and a network of connections between these reservoirs and water treatment plants (WTPs). System operation optimisation involves determining the proper water transport routes and their flow volumes from the retention reservoirs to the WTPs, and the volumes of possible transfers among the reservoirs, taking into account transport-related delays for inflows, outflows and water transfers in the system. Total system operation costs defined by an assumed quality coefficient should be minimal. An analytical solution of the optimisation task so formulated has been obtained as a result of using Pontriagin’s maximum principle with reference to the quality coefficient assumed. Stable start and end conditions in reservoir state trajectories have been assumed. The researchers have taken into accou...

  12. Application of Lattice Boltzmann Techniques to Modeling Millimeter Scale Water-Rock Interaction in Porous Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, D. E.; Farmer, G. L.; Janecky, D. R.

    2001-12-01

    Lattice Boltzmann (LB) techniques are being applied to models of reactive transport processes in groundwaters with the purpose of modeling small scale (mm) interactions between water and rock in complex solid media. This method was used to create a simple porous media structure in which chemical reactions including sorption, dissolution and precipitation occur. A pre-existing lattice Boltzmann code developed at LANL for physical fluid flow was used as the basis for overlaying chemical exchange controls at each lattice node. Initially, Langmuir sorption isotherms were applied on open channel models varying from 10x4000 to 30x1000 nodes. The resulting breakthrough curves from these chemical slug models are compatible with analytical solutions that apply the isotherm equations on larger scales. The model was then further developed to include multiple solid compositions and dissolution and precipitation reactions to study the small scale spatial and temporal distributions of materials in porous media. Mineral nodes of varying composition which undergo specific chemical reactions can be created in the open channels or among evenly spaced blocks of solid nodes which simulate homogeneous porous media. This model structure is being used to investigate millimeter scale Sr isotopic variations observed in the K-metasomatized Lemitar Tuff from Southern New Mexico. Multiple samples of the adularia will provide an isochron age that may represent the time of K-metasomatism. Physical microsampling of this tuff has demonstrated the secondary adularia has a unique Sr isotopic characteristic (87}Sr/{86Sr near 0.727) relative to the fresh plagioclase and sanidine phenocrysts (0.709). The model is being used to discern between the possibilities of the Sr now present in the altered material originating from the surround matrix or alternatively from an outside source in the altering fluids. An outside source of Sr in the K-metasomatic groundwater would be likely with the failure of the

  13. TREATMENT OF HEAVY METALS FROM WATER BY ELECTRO-PHYTOREMEDIATION TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harikumar Puthenveedu Sadasivan Pillai

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The performance of electrically stimulated phytoremediation in the removal of lead, cadmium and copper was assessed in this study. A combination of phyto and electro remediation was attempted in this study for the remediation of the metals from water. Three tanks were setup with different operating conditions for this experiment: control A (only phytoremediation system, control B (only electro remediation and treatment (combination of phyto and electro remediation. The electrically enhanced phytoremediation system and electro remediation system were operated 2h/day at voltages of 4V for 25 days continuously. In this experiment, the Eichhornia crassipes, an able phyto-remediator exhibited efficient and fast removal of heavy metals from synthetic solution in electro assisted phytoremediation system. The electrically enhanced phytoremediation using aluminum sheet electrodes showed better and effective removal of Cd, Pb and Cu than aluminum rod electrodes. A more favorable and moderate increase of pH was noticed in electrically stimulated phytoremediation system. Eichhornia crassipes has tremendous potential to reduce maximum amount of cadmium (within 15 days, lead (within 15 days and copper (within 10 days under electrically stimulated condition. Under electrified condition, maximum amount of Cd and Cu was accumulated in the aerial parts of Eichhornia crassipes but maximum concentration of Pb was attained by roots. This indicates the high heavy metal accumulation capacity of Eichhornia crassipes under electrified conditions. The results showed that 4V voltage is probably suitable to stimulate the Eichhornia crassipes to synthesize more chlorophyll and voltage can improve growth and ability to resist adverse circumstances by promoting chlorophyll synthesis. Eichhornia crassipes stimulated by an electric field has grown better and assimilated more metal. Bioconcentration factor (BCF an index of hyperaccumulation, indicates that electrically

  14. Apoplastic water fraction and rehydration techniques introduce significant errors in measurements of relative water content and osmotic potential in plant leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Stefan K; Irawan, Andi; Sanders, Gregor J

    2015-12-01

    Relative water content (RWC) and the osmotic potential (π) of plant leaves are important plant traits that can be used to assess drought tolerance or adaptation of plants. We estimated the magnitude of errors that are introduced by dilution of π from apoplastic water in osmometry methods and the errors that occur during rehydration of leaves for RWC and π in 14 different plant species from trees, grasses and herbs. Our data indicate that rehydration technique and length of rehydration can introduce significant errors in both RWC and π. Leaves from all species were fully turgid after 1-3 h of rehydration and increasing the rehydration time resulted in a significant underprediction of RWC. Standing rehydration via the petiole introduced the least errors while rehydration via floating disks and submerging leaves for rehydration led to a greater underprediction of RWC. The same effect was also observed for π. The π values following standing rehydration could be corrected by applying a dilution factor from apoplastic water dilution using an osmometric method but not by using apoplastic water fraction (AWF) from pressure volume (PV) curves. The apoplastic water dilution error was between 5 and 18%, while the two other rehydration methods introduced much greater errors. We recommend the use of the standing rehydration method because (1) the correct rehydration time can be evaluated by measuring water potential, (2) overhydration effects were smallest, and (3) π can be accurately corrected by using osmometric methods to estimate apoplastic water dilution. © 2015 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  15. Risk analysis and management in the water utility sector - a review of drivers, tools and techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Pollard, Simon J. T.; Strutt, J. E.; MacGillivray, Brian H.; Hamilton, Paul D.; Hrudey, Steve E.

    2004-01-01

    The provision of wholesome, affordable and safe drinking water that has the trust of customers is the goal of the international water utility sector. Risk management, in terms of protecting the public health from pathogenic and chemical hazards has driven and continues to drive developments within the sector. In common with much of industry, the water sector is formalizing and making explicit approaches to risk management and decision-making that have formerly been implicit....

  16. Soap film flow visualization investigations of oscillating wing energy harvesters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschmeier, Benjamin; Bryant, Matthew

    2015-03-01

    With increasing population and proliferation of wireless electronics, significant research attention has turned to harvesting energy from ambient sources such as wind and water flows at scales ranging from micro-watt to mega-watt levels. One technique that has recently attracted attention is the application of bio-inspired flapping wings for energy harvesting. This type of system uses a heaving and pitching airfoil to extract flow energy and generate electricity. Such a device can be realized using passive devices excited by aeroelastic flutter phenomena, kinematic mechanisms driven by mechanical linkages, or semi-active devices that are actively controlled in one degree of freedom and passively driven in another. For these types of systems, numerical simulations have showed strong dependence on efficiency and vortex interaction. In this paper we propose a new apparatus for reproducing arbitrary pitch-heave waveforms to perform flow visualization experiments in a soap film tunnel. The vertically falling, gravity driven soap film tunnel is used to replicate flows with a chord Reynolds number on the order of 4x104. The soap film tunnel is used to investigate leading edge vortex (LEV) and trailing edge vortex (TEV) interactions for sinusoidal and non-sinusoidal waveforms. From a qualitative analysis of the fluid structure interaction, we have been able to demonstrate that the LEVs for non-sinusoidal motion convect faster over the airfoil compared with sinusoidal motion. Signifying that optimal flapping frequency is dependent on the motion profile.

  17. Risk Analysis Approach to Rainwater Harvesting Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Ursino

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Urban rainwater reuse preserves water resources and promotes sustainable development in rapidly growing urban areas. The efficiency of a large number of urban water reuse systems, operating under different climate and demand conditions, is evaluated here on the base of a new risk analysis approach. Results obtained by probability analysis (PA indicate that maximum efficiency in low demanding scenarios is above 0.5 and a threshold, distinguishing low from high demanding scenarios, indicates that in low demanding scenarios no significant improvement in performance may be attained by increasing the storage capacity of rainwater harvesting tanks. Threshold behaviour is displayed when tank storage capacity is designed to match both the average collected volume and the average reuse volume. The low demand limit cannot be achieved under climate and operating conditions characterized by a disproportion between harvesting and demand volume.

  18. The Quality of Rambak Cracker from Rabbit Skin (Water Content and Swelling Power using The Different Technique of Fur Picking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedes Amertaningtyas

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This objective of this researchwas to compare the different technique of fur picking (liming and boiling inthe quality rambak cracker from rabbit skin on water content and swelling power.Materials of this research were 20 drying rabbit skin 5 – 6 months old. The tTest was using to compare the different technique of fur picking. Theindependent variables of this research were water content and swelling power onrambak cracker from rabbit skin. The result showed that the different techniqueof fur picking had highly significant effect (P<0.01 on water content and  expanding rate. The best result was limingtechnique of fur picking. It had the following properties: Water content of 1.5922% and expending rate of 855.3798 %. The conclusion showed that the use limingof 4% produced high quality of rambak cracker from rabbit skin or anotheranimal skin (cow, buffalo, chicken or fish. Keywords: rambak cracker, rabbit skin, water content,expanding rate

  19. Soil and Water – What is Detectable through Microbiological Sample Preparation Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    The concerns of a potential terrorist’s use of biological agents in soil and ground water are articulated by comparisons to major illnesses in this Country involving contaminated drinking water sources. Objectives are focused on the importance of sample preparation in the rapid, ...

  20. Techniques for monitoring and predicting water vulnerability with an application in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, C. C.; Verdin, J.; Senay, G.

    2005-12-01

    A lack of water will be one of the great challenges facing humanity in the 21st century. UN projections for 2050 suggest that between 2 and 7 billion people will face chronic water insecurity. Improved information tools for assessing, monitoring and predicting water insecurity will become increasingly important. This study combines rainfall estimates with surface runoff estimates and population density information to create a Water Vulnerability Index. The WVI is a standardized index that expresses the relative availability of surface water. A WVI of 100 denotes sufficient water to support typical agro-pastoral livelihoods. We apply the WVI in Ethiopia, which has a large, growing, and increasingly food and water insecure population. Recent research performed for the USAID Famine Early Warning System Network has identified large water insecure populations threatened by a recent decrease in rainfall, probably associated with warming in the southwest Indian Ocean. We use a 40-year time-series of WVI values to explore trends, seasonal and intra-seasonal predictability, with particular attention paid to climate forcing in the Indian Ocean. An early warning tool combining satellite rainfall observations and climate-based projections will be described and evaluated.

  1. Development of and tests with the NMR technique to detect water bearing fractures

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Meyer, R

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available on surface to assess the groundwater potential of thick porous water saturated geological formations. In hard rock aquifers, ground water is normally encountered in fractures or fracture zones. In this paper the authors describe the development of theoretical...

  2. Analysis Technique on Water Permeability in Concrete with Cold Joint considering Micro Pore Structure and Mineral Admixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Se-Jin Choi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cold joint in concrete due to delayed concrete placing may cause a reduced shear resistance and increased water permeation. This study presents an analytical model based on the concept of REV (Representative Element Volume to assess the effect of water permeability in cold joint concrete. Here, OPC (Ordinary Portland Cement concrete samples with cold joint are prepared and WPT (Water Permeability Test is performed on the samples cured for 91 days. In order to account for the effect of GGBFS (Granulated Ground Blast Furnace Slag on water permeability, concrete samples with the same W/B (Water to Binder ratio and 40% replacement ratio of GGBFS are tested as well. Utilizing the previous models handling porosity and saturation, the analysis technique for equivalent water permeability with effective cold joint width is proposed. Water permeability in cold joint increases to 140.7% in control case but it decreases to 120.7% through GGBFS replacement. Simulation results agree reasonably well with experimental data gathered for sound and cold joint concrete.

  3. Biological sand filters: low-cost bioremediation technique for production of clean drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Approximately 1.1 billion people in rural and peri-urban communities of developing countries do not have access to safe drinking water. The mortality from diarrheal-related diseases amounts to ∼2.2 million people each year from the consumption of unsafe water. Most of them are children under 5 years of age--250 deaths an hour from microbiologically contaminated water. There is conclusive evidence that one low-cost household bioremediation intervention, use of biological sand filters, is capable of dramatically improving the microbiological quality of drinking water. This unit will describe this relatively new and proven bioremediation technology's ability to empower at-risk populations to use naturally occurring biological principles and readily available materials as a sustainable way to achieve the health benefits of safe drinking water. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  4. Evaluation of Various Hybrid Analytical Techniques for Resolving Arsenic Species in Soils and Natural Waters from Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y.; Yoon, H.; Shin, M.; Yoon, C.; Woo, N.

    2005-12-01

    The importance of arsenic detection in terms of different chemical species is becoming nowadays environmental concern. The analytical technique for true separation of different arsenic species has been challenging in many environmental samples. Achieving correct analytical results and resolving the lowest detection limit of each species is also desirable. However arsenic species can be transformed rapidly by slight changes in redox condition during experimental manipulation. It has been documented by USEPA for standard analytical technique for arsenic from many samples. However the previously documented techniques concerns only total arsenic concentration. Many analytical techniques for analyzing arsenic species are being suggested and hybrid analytical technique is regarded as essential method to resolve arsenic species. In this study, various hybrid techniques using ICP were tested to separate arsenic species in different type of samples. The anion exchange cartridge (Accell Plus QMA, Waters) or column (PRP X-100, Hamilton) in the part for separation and (HG)-ICP-AES or (HG)-ICP-MS in the part for detection coupled. Hydride generation (HG) method is used to improve detection limits. In addition, it can prevent from interference of 75 ArCl which is a significant problem of ICP-MS application to arsenic analysis. Anion exchange cartridge is only applicable in separation of inorganic arsenic species, typically available to acid mine drainage and groundwater samples in which arsenic mainly exists inorganic form. LC-(HG)-ICP-MS techenique is profitable to natural surface water samples which have a small fraction of various arsenic species. The leachate from soil samples should be treated carefully because high content of transition metals cause interferences. If there were a probability of leaching considerable amount of organic matter and transition metals during soil extraction, HG technique with purification procedure and use of masking agent must be applied to

  5. A hybrid nonlinear vibration energy harvester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei; Towfighian, Shahrzad

    2017-06-01

    Vibration energy harvesting converts mechanical energy from ambient sources to electricity to power remote sensors. Compared to linear resonators that have poor performance away from their natural frequency, nonlinear vibration energy harvesters perform better because they use vibration energy over a broader spectrum. We present a hybrid nonlinear energy harvester that combines bi-stability with internal resonance to increase the frequency bandwidth. A two-fold increase in the frequency bandwidth can be obtained compared to a bi-stable system with fixed magnets. The harvester consists of a piezoelectric cantilever beam carrying a movable magnet facing a fixed magnet. A spring allows the magnet to move along the beam and it provides an extra stored energy to further increase the amplitude of vibration acting as a mechanical amplifier. An electromechanically coupled mathematical model of the system is presented to obtain the dynamic response of the cantilever beam, the movable magnet and the output voltage. The perturbation method of multiple scales is applied to solve these equations and obtain approximate analytical solutions. The effects of various system parameters on the frequency responses are investigated. The numerical approaches of the long time integration (Runge-Kutta method) and the shooting technique are used to verify the analytical results. The results of this study can be used to improve efficiency in converting wasted mechanical vibration to useful electrical energy by broadening the frequency bandwidth.

  6. Microleakage of TERM used with sodium perborate/water and sodium perborate/superoxol in the "walking bleach" technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, R M; Carnes, D L; Walker, W A

    1998-10-01

    This study compared the sealing ability of TERM as an interim restoration for the "walking bleach" technique when using either sodium perborate/water or sodium perborate/superoxol. Thirty-three extracted maxillary premolars were restored with TERM after placing either a cotton pellet (control), a paste of sodium perborate and water, or a paste of sodium perborate and superoxol in the chamber. Microleakage was assessed at 24 h, 8 days, and 15 days using a fluid filtration method. Statistical analysis revealed both "walking bleach" groups had significantly higher numbers of teeth demonstrating microleakage than the control group. There was no statistically significant difference in microleakage between the two "walking bleach" groups. The results of this study indicated that the temporary restorative material, TERM, provided an unsatisfactory seal when used with either walking bleach technique. When used over a cotton pellet, TERM provided an excellent seal.

  7. Differential fat harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Torres Farr

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Volume replacement with fillers is regularly performed with the use of diverse volumetric materials to correct different structures around the face, depending on the volume enhancement required and the thickness of the soft tissue envelope. Differential fat harvesting and posterior grafting is performed to place the correct fat parcel size for each target area, expanding the potential applications of fat. Methods: Sixty patients consecutively recruited on a first come basis undergone a facial fat grafting procedure, in private practice setting between March 2012 and October 2013. Fat grafting quantity and quality was predicted for each case. Differential harvesting was performed, with 2 fat parcels size. Processing was performed through washing. Fat infiltration was carried out through small cannulas or needles depending on the treated area. Outcomes were analysed both by the physicians and the patients at 7 days, 1 month, 3 months and 6 months through a perceived satisfaction questionnaire. Parameters considered were downtime or discomfort, skin benefits, volume restoration, reabsorption rate estimated and overall improvement. Results: Full facial differential fat grafting procedure lasted an average of 1.5-2.5 h. Average downtime was 3-4 days. Follow-up was performed to a minimum of 6 months. Both patient and physician overall satisfaction rates were mostly excellent. Adverse events like lumps or irregularities were not encountered. Conclusion: Differential fat harvesting and posterior grafting is a valid alternative, to expand the repertoire of fat use, allow a more homogeneous effect, reduce the potential complications, speed up the process, improve graft survival, and to enhance overall aesthetic outcome.

  8. A novel tracer technique for the assessment of fine sediment dynamics in urban water management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, K L; Droppo, I G; He, C; Grapentine, L; Exall, K

    2011-04-01

    Urban storm water run off can reduce the quality of receiving waters due to high sediment load and associated sediment-bound contaminants. Consequently, urban water management systems, such as detention ponds, that both modify water quantity through storage and improve water quality through sediment retention are frequently-used best management practices. To manage such systems effectively and to improve their efficiency, there is a need to understand the dynamics (transport and settling) of sediment, and in particular the fine sediment fraction (unrepresentative. The aim of this study was to test the application of a novel cohesive sediment tracer and to determine fine sediment transport dynamics within a storm water detention pond. The cohesive sediment tracer used was a holmium labelled montmorillonite clay which flocculated and had similar size and settling velocity to the natural pond sediment it was intended to mimic. The tracer demonstrated that fine sediment was deposited across the entire pond, with the presence of reed beds and water depth being important factors for maximising sediment retention. The results of the sediment tracer experiment were in good agreement with those of a mathematical sediment transport model. Here, the deposited sediment tracer was sampled by collecting and analysing surface pond sediments for holmium. However, analysis and sampling of the three dimensional suspended tracer 'cloud' may provide more accurate information regarding internal pond sediment dynamics. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Using self-potential housing technique to model water seepage at the UNHAS housing Antang area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syahruddin, Muhammad Hamzah

    2017-01-01

    The earth's surface has an electric potential that is known as self-potentiall (SP). One of the causes of the electrical potential at the earth's surface is water seepage into the ground. Electrical potential caused by water velocity seepage into the ground known as streaming potential. How to model water seepage into the ground at the housing Unhas Antang? This study was conducted to answer these questions. The self-potential measurements performed using a simple digital voltmeter Sanwa brand PC500 with a precision of 0.01 mV. While the coordinates of measurements points are self-potential using Global Positioning System. Mmeasurements results thus obtained are plotted using surfer image distribution self-potential housing Unhas Antang. The self-potential data housing Unhas Antang processed by Forward Modeling methods to get a model of water infiltration into the soil. Housing Unhas Antang self-potential has a value of 5 to 23 mV. Self-potential measurements carried out in the rainy season so it can be assumed that the measurement results caused by the velocity water seepage into the ground. The results of modeling the velocity water seepage from the surface to a depth of 3 meters was 2.4 cm/s to 0.2 cm /s. Modeling results showed that the velocity water seepage of the smaller with depth.

  10. Removal of Metaldehyde from Water Using a Novel Coupled Adsorption and Electrochemical Destruction Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed A. Nabeerasool

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Metaldehyde is a selective pesticide applied to control snails and slugs and which, particularly when application rates are high and during periods of high rainfall, may find its way into water courses, some of which may be used as drinking water supplies. Existing water treatment processes have been inadequate for reducing metaldehyde residual levels (up to 8 µg/L found in some waters to below the EU/UK statutory limit of 0.1 µg/L. Here a novel coupled adsorption and electrochemical regeneration technology is tested to determine if it is capable of effectively removing metaldehyde. We demonstrate that metaldehyde is not only adsorbed on the adsorbent used but is also destroyed during the regeneration stage, resulting in residual metaldehyde concentrations below the EU/UK regulatory limit for drinking water. No known harmful breakdown by-products were observed to be generated by the process. The effectiveness of the process seems unaffected by organic-rich peat water, indicating the potential for the treatment of drinking water much of which in the UK is derived from upland peaty catchments. Furthermore, successive spiking experiments showed that this technology has the potential to be applied as a continuous process without the generation of substantial waste products.

  11. Harvesting under transient conditions: harvested energy as a proxy for optimal resonance frequency detuning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynds, Taylor D.; Kauffman, Jeffrey L.

    2015-04-01

    Piezoelectric-based vibration energy harvesting is of interest in a wide range of applications, and a number of harvesting schemes have been proposed and studied { primarily when operating under steady state conditions. However, energy harvesting behavior is rarely studied in systems with transient excitations. This paper will work to develop an understanding of this behavior within the context of a particular vibration reduction technique, resonance frequency detuning. Resonance frequency detuning provides a method of reducing mechanical response at structural resonances as the excitation frequency sweeps through a given range. This technique relies on switching the stiffness state of a structure at optimal times to detune its resonance frequency from that of the excitation. This paper examines how this optimal switch may be triggered in terms of the energy harvested, developing a normalized optimal switch energy that is independent of the open- and short-circuit resistances. Here the open- and short-circuit shunt resistances refer to imposed conditions that approximate the open- and short-circuit conditions, via high and low resistance shunts. These conditions are practically necessary to harvest the small amounts of power needed to switch stiffness states, as open-circuit and closed-circuit refer to infinite resistance and zero resistance, respectively, and therefore no energy passes through the harvesting circuit. The limiting stiffness states are then defined by these open- and short-circuit resistances. The optimal switch energy is studied over a range of sweep rates, damping ratios, and coupling coefficients; it is found to increase with the coupling coefficient and decrease as the sweep rate and damping ratio increase, behavior which is intuitive. Higher coupling means more energy is converted by the piezoelectric material, and therefore more energy is harvested in a given time; an increased sweep rate means resonance is reached sooner, and there will less

  12. Micro energy harvesting

    CERN Document Server

    Briand, Danick; Roundy, Shad

    2015-01-01

    With its inclusion of the fundamentals, systems and applications, this reference provides readers with the basics of micro energy conversion along with expert knowledge on system electronics and real-life microdevices. The authors address different aspects of energy harvesting at the micro scale with a focus on miniaturized and microfabricated devices. Along the way they provide an overview of the field by compiling knowledge on the design, materials development, device realization and aspects of system integration, covering emerging technologies, as well as applications in power management, e

  13. Nanostructured piezoelectric energy harvesters

    CERN Document Server

    Briscoe, Joe

    2014-01-01

    This book covers a range of devices that use piezoelectricity to convert mechanical deformation into electrical energy and relates their output capabilities to a range of potential applications. Starting with a description of the fundamental principles and properties of piezo- and ferroelectric materials, where applications of bulk materials are well established, the book shows how nanostructures of these materials are being developed for energy harvesting applications. The authors show how a nanostructured device can be produced, and put in context some of the approaches that are being invest

  14. Energy harvesting for microsystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Ruichao

    to the first one, the screen printed PZT layer is replaced by a lead free piezoelectric material, (KxNa1-x)NbO3 (KNN). Some of the major challenges encountered during the development processes are bad adhesion, fragile structures and short circuiting through the PZT layer. All which have being fully......The purpose of this project is to design and fabricate piezoelectric energy harvesters based on integration of Pb(ZrxTi1-x)O3 (PZT) thick film technology and silicon microtechnology. The fabrication processes are carried out in close collaboration with Meggitt Sensing Systems (MSS) who has...

  15. Emulsification technique affects oxidative stability of fish oil-in-water emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jensen, Louise Helene Søgaard

    In oil-in-water emulsions, lipid oxidation is expected to be initiated at the oil-water interface. The properties of the emulsifier used, and the structure at the interface is therefore expected to be of great importance for lipid oxidation in emulsions. Previous studies have shown that e...... of this study was to compare lipid oxidation in 10% fish oil-in-water emulsions prepared by two different kinds of high pressure homogenizers i.e. a microfluidizer and a two valve high pressure homogenizer. Emulsions were made with equal droplet sizes, and with either 1% sodium caseinate or 1% whey protein...

  16. Emulsification technique affects oxidative stability of fish oil-in-water emulsion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jensen, Louise Helene Søgaard

    In oil-in-water emulsions, lipid oxidation is expected to be initiated at the oil-water interface. The properties of the emulsifier used, and the structure at the interface is therefore expected to be of great importance for lipid oxidation in emulsions. Previous studies have shown that e...... of this study was therefore to compare lipid oxidation in 10% fish oil-in-water emulsions prepared by two different kinds of high pressure homogenizers i.e. a microfluidizer and a two valve high pressure homogenizer. Emulsions were made with equal droplet sizes, and with either 1% sodium caseinate or 1% whey...

  17. Development of a rapid soil water content detection technique using active infrared thermal methods for in-field applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonucci, Francesca; Pallottino, Federico; Costa, Corrado; Rimatori, Valentina; Giorgi, Stefano; Papetti, Patrizia; Menesatti, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the suitability of active infrared thermography and thermometry in combination with multivariate statistical partial least squares analysis as rapid soil water content detection techniques both in the laboratory and the field. Such techniques allow fast soil water content measurements helpful in both agricultural and environmental fields. These techniques, based on the theory of heat dissipation, were tested by directly measuring temperature dynamic variation of samples after heating. For the assessment of temperature dynamic variations data were collected during three intervals (3, 6 and 10 s). To account for the presence of specific heats differences between water and soil, the analyses were regulated using slopes to linearly describe their trends. For all analyses, the best model was achieved for a 10 s slope. Three different approaches were considered, two in the laboratory and one in the field. The first laboratory-based one was centred on active infrared thermography, considered measurement of temperature variation as independent variable and reported r = 0.74. The second laboratory-based one was focused on active infrared thermometry, added irradiation as independent variable and reported r = 0.76. The in-field experiment was performed by active infrared thermometry, heating bare soil by solar irradiance after exposure due to primary tillage. Some meteorological parameters were inserted as independent variables in the prediction model, which presented r = 0.61. In order to obtain more general and wide estimations in-field a Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis on three classes of percentage of soil water content was performed obtaining a high correct classification in the test (88.89%). The prediction error values were lower in the field with respect to laboratory analyses. Both techniques could be used in conjunction with a Geographic Information System for obtaining detailed information on soil heterogeneity.

  18. Development of a Rapid Soil Water Content Detection Technique Using Active Infrared Thermal Methods for In-Field Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Pallottino

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the suitability of active infrared thermography and thermometry in combination with multivariate statistical partial least squares analysis as rapid soil water content detection techniques both in the laboratory and the field. Such techniques allow fast soil water content measurements helpful in both agricultural and environmental fields. These techniques, based on the theory of heat dissipation, were tested by directly measuring temperature dynamic variation of samples after heating. For the assessment of temperature dynamic variations data were collected during three intervals (3, 6 and 10 s. To account for the presence of specific heats differences between water and soil, the analyses were regulated using slopes to linearly describe their trends. For all analyses, the best model was achieved for a 10 s slope. Three different approaches were considered, two in the laboratory and one in the field. The first laboratory-based one was centred on active infrared thermography, considered measurement of temperature variation as independent variable and reported r = 0.74. The second laboratory–based one was focused on active infrared thermometry, added irradiation as independent variable and reported r = 0.76. The in-field experiment was performed by active infrared thermometry, heating bare soil by solar irradiance after exposure due to primary tillage. Some meteorological parameters were inserted as independent variables in the prediction model, which presented r = 0.61. In order to obtain more general and wide estimations in-field a Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis on three classes of percentage of soil water content was performed obtaining a high correct classification in the test (88.89%. The prediction error values were lower in the field with respect to laboratory analyses. Both techniques could be used in conjunction with a Geographic Information System for obtaining detailed information

  19. Effects of wastewater microalgae harvesting methods on polyhydroxybutyrate production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Asif; Anthony, Renil J; Sathish, Ashik; Sims, Ronald C; Miller, Charles D

    2014-03-01

    Microalgae have gained considerable attention recently as a sustainable means to produce biofuels and bioproducts. It has previously been demonstrated that single strain microalgae can be harvested and processed through a wet lipid extraction procedure (WLEP). After WLEP processing, acetone, butanol, ethanol, and biodiesel can be produced, and growth of recombinant Escherichia coli can be achieved from the microalgae. This study demonstrates the application of different wastewater microalgae harvesting techniques and processing through WLEP on the production of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) by E. coli. The harvesting techniques include: cationic potato starch (CPS), cationic corn starch (CCS), aluminum sulfate, and centrifugation. The microalgae-based media were used to grow E. coli to ∼10(13)CFU/mL and produce approximately 7.8% of dry cell weight as PHB. This study demonstrates the feasibility of harvesting wastewater algae to produce PHB and the potential for bioproduct generation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Radio Frequency Energy Harvesting for Long Lifetime Wireless Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Bo; Nielsen, Rasmus Hjorth; Prasad, Ramjee

    2014-01-01

    , harvesting energy from the radio frequency (RF) waves gives the lowest system design. Previous research on RF energy harvesting is based on the model that the radio energy is omnidirectional in the air. In this paper, a directional transmission/receiving model is proposed which can further overcome the path...... loss of the RF signals. On the node level, a virtual floating gate based CMOS biasing is used for the energy conversion circuit. With the proposed technique, the sensor node is able to harvest the energy from base station up to 30 meters....

  1. Mammary artery harvesting using the Da Vinci Si robotic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Secchin Canale

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Internal mammary artery harvesting is an essential part of any coronary artery bypass operation. Totally endoscopic coronary artery bypass graft surgery has become reality in many centers as a safe and effective alternative to conventional surgery in selected patients. Internal mammary artery harvesting is the initial part of the procedure and should be performed equally safely if one wants to achieve excellence in patency rates for the bypass. We here describe the technique for mammary harvesting with the Da Vinci Si robotic system.

  2. Mammary artery harvesting using the Da Vinci Si robotic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canale, Leonardo Secchin; Bonatti, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Internal mammary artery harvesting is an essential part of any coronary artery bypass operation. Totally endoscopic coronary artery bypass graft surgery has become reality in many centers as a safe and effective alternative to conventional surgery in selected patients. Internal mammary artery harvesting is the initial part of the procedure and should be performed equally safely if one wants to achieve excellence in patency rates for the bypass. We here describe the technique for mammary harvesting with the Da Vinci Si robotic system. PMID:24896171

  3. The measurements of water flow rates in the straight microchannel based on the scanning micro-PIV technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H. L.; Han, W.; Xu, M.

    2011-12-01

    Measurement of the water flow rate in microchannel has been one of the hottest points in the applications of microfluidics, medical, biological, chemical analyses and so on. In this study, the scanning microscale particle image velocimetry (scanning micro-PIV) technique is used for the measurements of water flow rates in a straight microchannel of 200μm width and 60μm depth under the standard flow rates ranging from 2.481μL/min to 8.269μL/min. The main effort of this measurement technique is to obtain three-dimensional velocity distribution on the cross sections of microchannel by measuring velocities of the different fluid layers along the out-of-plane direction in the microchannel, so the water flow rates can be evaluated from the discrete surface integral of velocities on the cross section. At the same time, the three-dimensional velocity fields in the measured microchannel are simulated numerically using the FLUENT software in order to verify the velocity accuracy of measurement results. The results show that the experimental values of flow rates are well consistent to the standard flow rates input by the syringe pump and the compared results between numerical simulation and experiment are consistent fundamentally. This study indicates that the micro-flow rate evaluated from three-dimensional velocity by the scanning micro-PIV technique is a promising method for the micro-flow rate research.

  4. A Comprehensive Review on Water Quality Parameters Estimation Using Remote Sensing Techniques

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gholizadeh, Mohammad Haji; Melesse, Assefa M; Reddi, Lakshmi

    2016-01-01

    ...). A large number of different sensors on board various satellites and other platforms, such as airplanes, are currently used to measure the amount of radiation at different wavelengths reflected from the water's surface...

  5. EPA Method 903.1: Radium-226 in Drinking Water Radon Emanation Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    SAM lists this method to provide for the analysis of drinking water samples that contain Radium-226, and is based on the emanation and scintillation counting of Radon-222, the immediate decay product of Radium-226.

  6. Selected fluorescent techniques for identification of the physiological state of individual water and soil bacterial cells - review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, S; Lew, M; Mieszczyński, T; Szarek, J

    2010-03-01

    Stimulated by demands of the natural environment conservation, the need for thorough structural and functional identification of microorganisms colonizing different ecosystems has contributed to an intensive advance in research techniques. The article shows that some of these techniques are also a convenient tool for determination of the physiological state of single cells in a community of microorganisms. The paper presents selected fluorescent techniques, which are used in research on soil, water and sediment microorganisms. It covers the usability of determination of the dehydrogenase activity of an individual bacterial cell (CTC+) and of bacteria with intact, functioning cytoplasmic membranes, bacteria with an integrated nucleiod (NuCC+) as well as fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH).

  7. Solid-Phase Extraction Coupled to a Paper-Based Technique for Trace Copper in Drinking Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Casey W; Cate, David; Miller-Lionberg, Daniel; Reilly, Thomas; Volckens, John; Henry, Charles S

    2018-02-22

    Metal contamination of natural and drinking water systems poses hazards to public and environmental health. Quantifying metal concentrations in water typically requires sample collection in the field followed by expensive laboratory analysis that can take days to weeks to obtain results. The objective of this work was to develop a low-cost, field-deployable method to quantify trace levels of copper in drinking water by coupling solid-phase extraction/preconcentration with a microfluidic paper-based analytical device. This method has the advantages of being hand-powered (instrument-free) and using a simple 'read by eye' quantification motif (based on color distance). Tap water samples collected across Fort Collins, CO were tested with this method and validated against ICP-MS. We demonstrate the ability to quantify the copper content of tap-water within 30% of a reference technique at levels ranging from 20 to 3500 ppb. The application of this technology, which should be sufficient as a rapid screening tool, can lead to faster, more cost-effective detection of soluble metals in water systems.

  8. Discrimination of plant root zone water status in greenhouse production based on phenotyping and machine learning techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Doudou; Juan, Jiaxiang; Chang, Liying; Zhang, Jingjin; Huang, Danfeng

    2017-08-15

    Plant-based sensing on water stress can provide sensitive and direct reference for precision irrigation system in greenhouse. However, plant information acquisition, interpretation, and systematical application remain insufficient. This study developed a discrimination method for plant root zone water status in greenhouse by integrating phenotyping and machine learning techniques. Pakchoi plants were used and treated by three root zone moisture levels, 40%, 60%, and 80% relative water content. Three classification models, Random Forest (RF), Neural Network (NN), and Support Vector Machine (SVM) were developed and validated in different scenarios with overall accuracy over 90% for all. SVM model had the highest value, but it required the longest training time. All models had accuracy over 85% in all scenarios, and more stable performance was observed in RF model. Simplified SVM model developed by the top five most contributing traits had the largest accuracy reduction as 29.5%, while simplified RF and NN model still maintained approximately 80%. For real case application, factors such as operation cost, precision requirement, and system reaction time should be synthetically considered in model selection. Our work shows it is promising to discriminate plant root zone water status by implementing phenotyping and machine learning techniques for precision irrigation management.

  9. A modified low-temperature wafer bonding method using spot pressing bonding technique and water glass adhesive layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yang; Wang, Shengkai; Wang, Yinghui; Chen, Dapeng

    2018-02-01

    A modified low-temperature wafer bonding method using a spot pressing bonding technique and a water glass adhesive layer is proposed. The electrical properties of the water glass layer has been studied by capacitance–voltage (C–V) and electric current–voltage (I–V) measurements. It is found that the adhesive layer can be regarded as a good insulator in terms of leakage current density. The bonding mechanism and the motion of bubbles during the thermal treatment are investigated. The dominant factor for the bubble motion in the modified bonding process is the gradient of pressure introduced by the spot pressing force. It is proved that the modified method achieves low-temperature adhesive bonding, minimizes the effect of water desorption, and provides good bonding performance.

  10. Direct technique for monitoring lipid oxidation in water-in-oil emulsions based on micro-calorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dridi, Wafa; Toutain, Jean; Sommier, Alain; Essafi, Wafa; Leal-Calderon, Fernando; Cansell, Maud

    2017-09-01

    An experimental device based on the measurement of the heat flux dissipated during chemical reactions, previously validated for monitoring lipid oxidation in plant oils, was extended to follow lipid oxidation in water-in-oil emulsions. Firstly, validation of the approach was performed by correlating conjugated diene concentrations measured by spectrophotometry and the heat flux dissipated by oxidation reactions and measured directly in water-in-oil emulsions, in isothermal conditions at 60°C. Secondly, several emulsions based on plant oils differing in their n-3 fatty acid content were compared. The oxidability parameter derived from the enthalpy curves reflected the α-linolenic acid proportion in the oils. On the whole, the micro-calorimetry technique provides a sensitive method to assess lipid oxidation in water-in-oil emulsions without requiring any phase extraction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Multifunctional Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting Concepts

    OpenAIRE

    Anton, Steven Robert

    2011-01-01

    Energy harvesting technology has the ability to create autonomous, self-powered electronic systems that do not rely on battery power for their operation. The term energy harvesting describes the process of converting ambient energy surrounding a system into useful electrical energy through the use of a specific material or transducer. A widely studied form of energy harvesting involves the conversion of mechanical vibration energy into electrical energy using piezoelectric materials, which ...

  12. STUDY OF INFLUENCE OF EFFLUENT ON GROUND WATER USING REMOTE SENSING, GIS AND MODELING TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pathak

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The area lies in arid zone of western Rajasthan having very scanty rains and very low ground water reserves. Some of the other problems that are faced by the area are disposal of industrial effluent posing threat to its sustainability of water resource. Textiles, dyeing and printing industries, various mechanical process and chemical/synthetic dyes are used and considerable wastewater discharged from these textile units contains about high amount of the dyes into the adjoining drainages. This has caused degradation of water quality in this water scarce semi-arid region of the country. Pali city is located South-West, 70 Kms from Jodhpur in western Rajasthan (India. There are four Common Effluent Treatment Plant (CETP treating wastewater to meet the pollutant level permissible to river discharge, a huge amount of effluent water of these factories directly meets the into the river Bandi – a tributary of river Luni. In order to monitor the impact of industrial effluents on the environment, identifying the extent of the degradation and evolving possible means of minimizing the impacts studies on quality of effluents, polluted river water and water of adjoining wells, the contamination migration of the pollutants from the river to ground water were studied. Remote sensing analysis has been carried out using Resourcesat −1 multispectral satellite data along with DEM derived from IRS P5 stereo pair. GIS database generated of various thematic layers viz. base layer – inventorying all waterbodies in the vicinity, transport network and village layer, drainage, geomorphology, structure, land use. Analysis of spatial distribution of the features and change detection in land use/cover carried out. GIS maps have been used to help factor in spatial location of source and hydro-geomorphological settings. DEM & elevation contour helped in delineation of watershed and identifying flow modelling boundaries. Litholog data analysis carried out for aquifer

  13. Study of Influence of Effluent on Ground Water Using Remote Sensing, GIS and Modeling Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, S.; Bhadra, B. K.; Sharma, J. R.

    2012-07-01

    The area lies in arid zone of western Rajasthan having very scanty rains and very low ground water reserves. Some of the other problems that are faced by the area are disposal of industrial effluent posing threat to its sustainability of water resource. Textiles, dyeing and printing industries, various mechanical process and chemical/synthetic dyes are used and considerable wastewater discharged from these textile units contains about high amount of the dyes into the adjoining drainages. This has caused degradation of water quality in this water scarce semi-arid region of the country. Pali city is located South-West, 70 Kms from Jodhpur in western Rajasthan (India). There are four Common Effluent Treatment Plant (CETP) treating wastewater to meet the pollutant level permissible to river discharge, a huge amount of effluent water of these factories directly meets the into the river Bandi - a tributary of river Luni. In order to monitor the impact of industrial effluents on the environment, identifying the extent of the degradation and evolving possible means of minimizing the impacts studies on quality of effluents, polluted river water and water of adjoining wells, the contamination migration of the pollutants from the river to ground water were studied. Remote sensing analysis has been carried out using Resourcesat -1 multispectral satellite data along with DEM derived from IRS P5 stereo pair. GIS database generated of various thematic layers viz. base layer - inventorying all waterbodies in the vicinity, transport network and village layer, drainage, geomorphology, structure, land use. Analysis of spatial distribution of the features and change detection in land use/cover carried out. GIS maps have been used to help factor in spatial location of source and hydro-geomorphological settings. DEM & elevation contour helped in delineation of watershed and identifying flow modelling boundaries. Litholog data analysis carried out for aquifer boundaries using specialized

  14. Biogeosystem technique - the fundamental base of modern Water Policy and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinitchenko, Valery; Batukaev, Abdulmalik; Minkina, Tatiana; Solntseva, Natalia; Skovpen, Andrey; Zarmaev, Ali; Jusupov, Vaha; Lohmanova, Olga

    2014-05-01

    Freshwater conservation is the problem of world water strategy. Water is intended not only for human consumption but also for functions of the biosphere - the only place where humanity can exist. To maintain the quality of biosphere is very relevant. An important property of biosphere is ability of soil to provide the synthesis of fresh living biological material by plants. There are few places in the world where exists a natural high level of biological production. Therefore, irrigation widely applies. Irrigation provides an increase of crops, but the imitating gravitational frontal isotropic-continual irrigation paradigm has the adverse effects on soils and landscapes. So irrigation in the past history of humanity was one of the causes for civilization's downfall, Sumer in particular, now irrigation causes a humanitarian catastrophe in Central Asia. Irrigation is the world main consumer of water. Leading cause of negative results of irrigation in biosphere is the irrigation paradigm defect. By artificial watering is imitated a natural hydrological regime of the land. The water flows down into soil through the soil surface. Or groundwater flows up through the soil bottom. In either case, a natural or standard artificial soil moisturizing amplifies the mass transfer in soil continuum. At initial soil stage the mass transfer in soil continuum plays positive role. Adverse substances are leached, in particular soluble salts. Fine material and organic particles determining soil fertility are accumulating. However, after a soil genesis initial stage the mass transfer through soil continuum plays negative role. Irrigation excess water flow into soil reduces the productivity of cultivated plants as compared to the optimum soil solution conditions. The excess soil moisture leads to excess transpiration, evaporation, infiltration, destroys the soil disperse system composition, forms inactive dead-end pores, leaches useful biological and other substances synthesized in soil

  15. Benthic Habitat Mapping Using Multispectral High-Resolution Imagery: Evaluation of Shallow Water Atmospheric Correction Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Eugenio

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Remote multispectral data can provide valuable information for monitoring coastal water ecosystems. Specifically, high-resolution satellite-based imaging systems, as WorldView-2 (WV-2, can generate information at spatial scales needed to implement conservation actions for protected littoral zones. However, coastal water-leaving radiance arriving at the space-based sensor is often small as compared to reflected radiance. In this work, complex approaches, which usually use an accurate radiative transfer code to correct the atmospheric effects, such as FLAASH, ATCOR and 6S, have been implemented for high-resolution imagery. They have been assessed in real scenarios using field spectroradiometer data. In this context, the three approaches have achieved excellent results and a slightly superior performance of 6S model-based algorithm has been observed. Finally, for the mapping of benthic habitats in shallow-waters marine protected environments, a relevant application of the proposed atmospheric correction combined with an automatic deglinting procedure is presented. This approach is based on the integration of a linear mixing model of benthic classes within the radiative transfer model of the water. The complete methodology has been applied to selected ecosystems in the Canary Islands (Spain but the obtained results allow the robust mapping of the spatial distribution and density of seagrass in coastal waters and the analysis of multitemporal variations related to the human activity and climate change in littoral zones.

  16. Benthic Habitat Mapping Using Multispectral High-Resolution Imagery: Evaluation of Shallow Water Atmospheric Correction Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eugenio, Francisco; Marcello, Javier; Martin, Javier; Rodríguez-Esparragón, Dionisio

    2017-11-16

    Remote multispectral data can provide valuable information for monitoring coastal water ecosystems. Specifically, high-resolution satellite-based imaging systems, as WorldView-2 (WV-2), can generate information at spatial scales needed to implement conservation actions for protected littoral zones. However, coastal water-leaving radiance arriving at the space-based sensor is often small as compared to reflected radiance. In this work, complex approaches, which usually use an accurate radiative transfer code to correct the atmospheric effects, such as FLAASH, ATCOR and 6S, have been implemented for high-resolution imagery. They have been assessed in real scenarios using field spectroradiometer data. In this context, the three approaches have achieved excellent results and a slightly superior performance of 6S model-based algorithm has been observed. Finally, for the mapping of benthic habitats in shallow-waters marine protected environments, a relevant application of the proposed atmospheric correction combined with an automatic deglinting procedure is presented. This approach is based on the integration of a linear mixing model of benthic classes within the radiative transfer model of the water. The complete methodology has been applied to selected ecosystems in the Canary Islands (Spain) but the obtained results allow the robust mapping of the spatial distribution and density of seagrass in coastal waters and the analysis of multitemporal variations related to the human activity and climate change in littoral zones.

  17. TECHNIQUES FOR POTABLE WATER TREATMENT USING APPROPRIATE LOW COST NATURAL MATERIALS IN THE TROPICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sila Onesmus Nzung’a

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of mechanical filtration and solar irradiation in water treatment was evaluated. Selected metals and non-metals ions before and after treatment were determined colorimetrically while turbidity was measured using a turbidimeter. pH, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen (DO and temperature were measured using a portable universal multiline P4 WTW meter while total alkalinity was determined titrimetrically. The load of coliform bacteria contamination before and after treatment was determined by Millipore filtration method. Screening for the presence of pathogenic bacteria was carried out using standard methods. The levels of the properties before and after treatment were each compared with the recommended drinking water standards according to Kenya Bureau of Standards (KEBS and World Health Organization (WHO. The water was treated by being subjected to mechanical filtration and solar irradiation and changes in their physico-chemical properties and bacteriological load determined. The results obtained after treatment revealed that solar irradiation killed most of the pathogenic bacteria after exposure for eight hours but had no impact on the physico-chemical properties except nitrates (from 24.5 to 8.0 mg.L-1. Mechanical filtration reduced total coliforms and E. coli by 30 %. It also reduced the loads of Zn, Cu, Mn, Pb, Fe, nitrate nitrogen and turbidity of the water treated to an almost potable state. Water treatment using a combination of mechanical filtration system and solar disinfection was found to be very effective in reducing the bacterial load.

  18. Improving predictive mapping of deep-water habitats: Considering multiple model outputs and ensemble techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Katleen; Jones, Daniel O. B.; Roberts, J. Murray; Huvenne, Veerle A. I.

    2016-07-01

    In the deep sea, biological data are often sparse; hence models capturing relationships between observed fauna and environmental variables (acquired via acoustic mapping techniques) are often used to produce full coverage species assemblage maps. Many statistical modelling techniques are being developed, but there remains a need to determine the most appropriate mapping techniques. Predictive habitat modelling approaches (redundancy analysis, maximum entropy and random forest) were applied to a heterogeneous section of seabed on Rockall Bank, NE Atlantic, for which landscape indices describing the spatial arrangement of habitat patches were calculated. The predictive maps were based on remotely operated vehicle (ROV) imagery transects high-resolution autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) sidescan backscatter maps. Area under the curve (AUC) and accuracy indicated similar performances for the three models tested, but performance varied by species assemblage, with the transitional species assemblage showing the weakest predictive performances. Spatial predictions of habitat suitability differed between statistical approaches, but niche similarity metrics showed redundancy analysis and random forest predictions to be most similar. As one statistical technique could not be found to outperform the others when all assemblages were considered, ensemble mapping techniques, where the outputs of many models are combined, were applied. They showed higher accuracy than any single model. Different statistical approaches for predictive habitat modelling possess varied strengths and weaknesses and by examining the outputs of a range of modelling techniques and their differences, more robust predictions, with better described variation and areas of uncertainties, can be achieved. As improvements to prediction outputs can be achieved without additional costly data collection, ensemble mapping approaches have clear value for spatial management.

  19. Characterizing the transplanar and in-plane water transport of textiles with gravimetric and image analysis technique: Spontaneous Uptake Water Transport Tester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, K P M; Wu, Y S; Chau, K H; Kan, C W; Fan, J T

    2015-04-15

    Water absorption and transport property of textiles is important since it affects wear comfort, efficiency of treatment and functionality of product. This paper introduces an accurate and reliable measurement tester, which is based on gravimetric and image analysis technique, for characterising the transplanar and in-plane wicking property of fabrics. The uniqueness of this instrument is that it is able to directly measure the water absorption amount in real-time, monitor the direction of water transport and estimate the amount of water left on skin when sweating. Throughout the experiment, water supply is continuous which simulates profuse sweating. Testing automation could even minimise variation caused by subjective manipulation, thus enhancing testing accuracy. This instrument is versatile in terms of the fabrics could be tested. A series of shirting fabrics made by different fabric structure and yarn were investigated and the results show that the proposed method has high sensitivity in differentiating fabrics with varying geometrical differences. Fabrics with known hydrophobicity were additionally tested to examine the sensitivity of the instrument. This instrument also demonstrates the flexibility to test on high performance moisture management fabrics and these fabrics were found to have excellent transplanar and in-plane wicking properties.

  20. Characterizing the transplanar and in-plane water transport of textiles with gravimetric and image analysis technique: Spontaneous Uptake Water Transport Tester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, K. P. M.; Wu, Y. S.; Chau, K. H.; Kan, C. W.; Fan, J. T.

    2015-01-01

    Water absorption and transport property of textiles is important since it affects wear comfort, efficiency of treatment and functionality of product. This paper introduces an accurate and reliable measurement tester, which is based on gravimetric and image analysis technique, for characterising the transplanar and in-plane wicking property of fabrics. The uniqueness of this instrument is that it is able to directly measure the water absorption amount in real-time, monitor the direction of water transport and estimate the amount of water left on skin when sweating. Throughout the experiment, water supply is continuous which simulates profuse sweating. Testing automation could even minimise variation caused by subjective manipulation, thus enhancing testing accuracy. This instrument is versatile in terms of the fabrics could be tested. A series of shirting fabrics made by different fabric structure and yarn were investigated and the results show that the proposed method has high sensitivity in differentiating fabrics with varying geometrical differences. Fabrics with known hydrophobicity were additionally tested to examine the sensitivity of the instrument. This instrument also demonstrates the flexibility to test on high performance moisture management fabrics and these fabrics were found to have excellent transplanar and in-plane wicking properties. PMID:25875329

  1. Harvesting electricity from human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulachan, Brindan; Singh, Sushil K; Philip, Deepu; Das, Mainak

    2016-01-01

    continuously hydrating the polymer with water vapor, we prolonged the process. If this interesting aspect of polymer is exploited further and fine tuned, then it will open new avenues for development of sophisticated polymer-based systems, which could be used to harvest electricity from waste heat.

  2. Quality characterization and pollution source identification of surface water using multivariate statistical techniques, Nalagarh Valley, Himachal Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herojeet, Rajkumar; Rishi, Madhuri S.; Lata, Renu; Dolma, Konchok

    2017-09-01

    multivariate techniques for reliable quality characterization of surface water quality to develop effective pollution reduction strategies and maintain a fine balance between the industrialization and ecological integrity.

  3. Effects of Timber Harvests and Silvicultural Edges on Terrestrial Salamanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNeil, Jami E.; Williams, Rod N.

    2014-01-01

    Balancing timber production and conservation in forest management requires an understanding of how timber harvests affect wildlife species. Terrestrial salamanders are useful indicators of mature forest ecosystem health due to their importance to ecosystem processes and sensitivity to environmental change. However, the effects of timber harvests on salamanders, though often researched, are still not well understood. To further this understanding, we used artificial cover objects to monitor the relative abundance of terrestrial salamanders for two seasons (fall and spring) pre-harvest and five seasons post-harvest in six forest management treatments, and for three seasons post-harvest across the edge gradients of six recent clearcuts. In total, we recorded 19,048 encounters representing nine species of salamanders. We observed declines in mean encounters of eastern red-backed salamanders (Plethodon cinereus) and northern slimy salamanders (P. glutinosus) from pre- to post-harvest in group selection cuts and in clearcuts. However, we found no evidence of salamander declines at shelterwoods and forested sites adjacent to harvests. Edge effects induced by recent clearcuts influenced salamanders for approximately 20 m into the forest, but edge influence varied by slope orientation. Temperature, soil moisture, and canopy cover were all correlated with salamander counts. Our results suggest silvicultural techniques that remove the forest canopy negatively affect salamander relative abundance on the local scale during the years immediately following harvest, and that the depth of edge influence of clearcuts on terrestrial salamanders is relatively shallow (harvests (<4 ha) and techniques that leave the forest canopy intact may be compatible with maintaining terrestrial salamander populations across a forested landscape. Our results demonstrate the importance of examining species-specific responses and monitoring salamanders across multiple seasons and years. Long

  4. Evaluation of analytical techniques to determine AQUI-S(R) 20E (eugenol) concentrations in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinertz, Jeffery R.; Hess, Karina R.

    2013-01-01

    There is a critical need in U.S. public aquaculture and fishery management programs for an immediate-release sedative, i.e. a compound that can be safely and effectively used to sedate fish and subsequently, allow for their immediate release. AQUI-S® 20E (10% active ingredient, eugenol; any use of trade, firm, or product names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government) is being pursued for U.S. approval as an immediate-release sedative. As part of the approval process, data describing animal safety and efficacy are needed. Essential to conducting studies that generate those data, is a method to accurately and precisely determine AQUI-S® 20E concentrations in exposure baths. Spectrophotometric and solid phase extraction (SPE)–high pressure liquid chromatography (LC) methods were developed and evaluated as methods to determine AQUI-S® 20E (eugenol) concentrations in water, methods that could be applied to any situation where eugenol was being evaluated as a fish sedative. The spectrophotometric method was accurate and precise (accuracy, > 87%; precision, eugenol concentrations in solutions of 50 to 1000 mg/L AQUI-S® 20E made with LC grade water and water with varying pH and hardness. The spectrophotometric method's accuracy was negatively affected when analyzing water containing fish feed. The SPE–LC method was also accurate and precise (accuracy > 86%; precision eugenol concentrations in solutions of 50 to 1000 mg/L AQUI-S® 20E made with LC grade water and water with varying pH and hardness. The SPE–LC method was influenced to a lesser degree by the presence of fish feed indicating greater specificity for eugenol.

  5. Current status of water environment and their microbial biosensor techniques - Part I: Current data of water environment and recent studies on water quality investigations in Japan, and new possibility of microbial biosensor techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Hideaki

    2018-02-22

    In my 2010 review, I addressed conventional water analysis and biosensing of organic pollutants in Japan between 1960s and 2000s. It is now timely to reexamine current analytical and biomonitoring approaches in view of the new challenges in assessing pollution, particularly in closed water bodies, as pollutants tend to accumulate in these endorheic basins. In the present review series, I presented current water environment and its microbial biosensors. In this part, I presented current data of the water quality of these water bodies in Japan and established the need to further develop microbial biosensor technologies to address and monitor water quality here. Graphical Abstract Current water pollution indirectly occurring by anthropogenic eutrophication (Part I).

  6. Biofouling of Water Treatment Membranes: A Review of the Underlying Causes, Monitoring Techniques and Control Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicity A. Roddick

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Biofouling is a critical issue in membrane water and wastewater treatment as it greatly compromises the efficiency of the treatment processes. It is difficult to control, and significant economic resources have been dedicated to the development of effective biofouling monitoring and control strategies. This paper highlights the underlying causes of membrane biofouling and provides a review on recent developments of potential monitoring and control methods in water and wastewater treatment with the aim of identifying the remaining issues and challenges in this area.

  7. Water content monitoring for Flamanville 3 EPR trademark prestressed concrete containment. An application for TDR techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courtois, Alexis; Clauzon, Timothee [EDF DPIH DTG, Lyon (France); Taillade, Frederic [EDF R and D, Chatou (France); Martin, Gregoire [EDF CNEN, Montrouge (France)

    2015-07-01

    Long term operation of nuclear power plant requires an appropriate monitoring of containment structures. For prestressed concrete containment vessels, a key parameter for ageing analysis is the evolution of the amount of water remaining within the concrete pores. EDF decides to launch a development program, in order to determine what sensor technologies are able to achieve such kind of monitoring on large concrete structures. One of the main parts of this program is to determine the maximum allowable uncertainty for the measurement. Another stake is the calibration process of sensors dedicated to water content measurement in concrete structures and the management of the parameters which have the largest influence on the measurement process.

  8. Assessment of Water Quality in a Subtropical Alpine Lake Using Multivariate Statistical Techniques and Geostatistical Mapping: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-En Chung

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Concerns about the water quality in Yuan-Yang Lake (YYL, a shallow, subtropical alpine lake located in north-central Taiwan, has been rapidly increasing recently due to the natural and anthropogenic pollution. In order to understand the underlying physical and chemical processes as well as their associated spatial distribution in YYL, this study analyzes fourteen physico-chemical water quality parameters recorded at the eight sampling stations during 2008–2010 by using multivariate statistical techniques and a geostatistical method. Hierarchical clustering analysis (CA is first applied to distinguish the three general water quality patterns among the stations, followed by the use of principle component analysis (PCA and factor analysis (FA to extract and recognize the major underlying factors contributing to the variations among the water quality measures. The spatial distribution of the identified major contributing factors is obtained by using a kriging method. Results show that four principal components i.e., nitrogen nutrients, meteorological factor, turbidity and nitrate factors, account for 65.52% of the total variance among the water quality parameters. The spatial distribution of principal components further confirms that nitrogen sources constitute an important pollutant contribution in the YYL.

  9. DISSOLVED OXYGEN AND METHANE IN WATER BY A GC HEADSPACE EQUILIBRATION TECHNIQUE

    Science.gov (United States)

    An analytical procedure is described for the determination of dissolved oxygen and methane in groundwater samples. The method consists of generating a helium gas headspace in a water filled bottle, and analysis of the headspace by gas chromatography. Other permanent gases such as...

  10. Assessment of Reservoir Water Quality Using Multivariate Statistical Techniques: A Case Study of Qiandao Lake, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Gu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Qiandao Lake (Xin’an Jiang reservoir plays a significant role in drinking water supply for eastern China, and it is an attractive tourist destination. Three multivariate statistical methods were comprehensively applied to assess the spatial and temporal variations in water quality as well as potential pollution sources in Qiandao Lake. Data sets of nine parameters from 12 monitoring sites during 2010–2013 were obtained for analysis. Cluster analysis (CA was applied to classify the 12 sampling sites into three groups (Groups A, B and C and the 12 monitoring months into two clusters (April-July, and the remaining months. Discriminant analysis (DA identified Secchi disc depth, dissolved oxygen, permanganate index and total phosphorus as the significant variables for distinguishing variations of different years, with 79.9% correct assignments. Dissolved oxygen, pH and chlorophyll-a were determined to discriminate between the two sampling periods classified by CA, with 87.8% correct assignments. For spatial variation, DA identified Secchi disc depth and ammonia nitrogen as the significant discriminating parameters, with 81.6% correct assignments. Principal component analysis (PCA identified organic pollution, nutrient pollution, domestic sewage, and agricultural and surface runoff as the primary pollution sources, explaining 84.58%, 81.61% and 78.68% of the total variance in Groups A, B and C, respectively. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of integrated use of CA, DA and PCA for reservoir water quality evaluation and could assist managers in improving water resources management.

  11. Spectrophotometric technique quantitatively determines NaMBT inhibitor in ethylene glycol-water solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrard, G. G.

    1967-01-01

    Spectrophotometric method, using a ratio-recording ultraviolet-absorption spectrophotometer, permits analysis of NaMBT in ethylene glycol-water solutions with high accuracy. It reduces analysis time, requires smaller samples, and is able to detect extremely small concentrations of mercaptobenzothiazole.

  12. Assessing the extent of protein intermolecular interactions at air-water interfaces using spectroscopic techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongh, H.H.J. de; Wierenga, P.A.

    2006-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate about whether a protein surface film at an air-water interface can be regarded as a gelled layer. There is literature reporting that such films show macroscopic fracture behavior and a rheology comparable to three-dimensional protein bulk-networks. If this is the case, a

  13. Combustion water purification techniques influence on OBT analysing using liquid scintillation counting method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varlam, C.; Vagner, I.; Faurescu, I.; Faurescu, D. [National Institute for Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies, Valcea (Romania)

    2015-03-15

    In order to determine organically bound tritium (OBT) from environmental samples, these must be converted into water, measurable by liquid scintillation counting (LSC). For this purpose we conducted some experiments to determine OBT level of a grass sample collected from an uncontaminated area. The studied grass sample was combusted in a Parr bomb. However usual interfering phenomena were identified: color or chemical quench, chemiluminescence, overlap over tritium spectrum because of other radionuclides presence as impurities ({sup 14}C from organically compounds, {sup 36}Cl as chloride and free chlorine, {sup 40}K as potassium cations) and emulsion separation. So the purification of the combustion water before scintillation counting appeared to be essential. 5 purification methods were tested: distillation with chemical treatment (Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} and KMnO{sub 4}), lyophilization, chemical treatment (Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} and KMnO{sub 4}) followed by lyophilization, azeotropic distillation with toluene and treatment with a volcanic tuff followed by lyophilization. After the purification step each sample was measured and the OBT measured concentration, together with physico-chemical analysis of the water analyzed, revealed that the most efficient method applied for purification of the combustion water was the method using chemical treatment followed by lyophilization.

  14. Improving Inland Water Quality Monitoring through Remote Sensing Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Ogashawara

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Chlorophyll-a (chl-a levels in lake water could indicate the presence of cyanobacteria, which can be a concern for public health due to their potential to produce toxins. Monitoring of chl-a has been an important practice in aquatic systems, especially in those used for human services, as they imply an increased risk of exposure. Remote sensing technology is being increasingly used to monitor water quality, although its application in cases of small urban lakes is limited by the spatial resolution of the sensors. Lake Thonotosassa, FL, USA, a 3.45-km2 suburban lake with several uses for the local population, is being monitored monthly by traditional methods. We developed an empirical bio-optical algorithm for the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS daily surface reflectance product to monitor daily chl-a. We applied the same algorithm to four different periods of the year using 11 years of water quality data. Normalized root mean squared errors were lower during the first (0.27 and second (0.34 trimester and increased during the third (0.54 and fourth (1.85 trimesters of the year. Overall results showed that Earth-observing technologies and, particularly, MODIS products can also be applied to improve environmental health management through water quality monitoring of small lakes.

  15. DEFICIT IRRIGATION TECHNIQUE FOR REDUCING WATER USE OF TOMATO UNDER POLYTUNNEL CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sladjana SAVIC

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of paper was to asses the use of regulated deficit irrigation (RDI for production of two tomato cultivars (Cedrico and Abellus in polytunnels in Serbia. RDI plants received 60% of the water that was applied to FI plants and significant saving of water for irrigation and increased in irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE were achieved. Yield data for Cedrico cultivar showed no differences between RDI and FI, while due to the bigger sensitivity to drought, yield of Abellus was reduced under RDI. In general, fruit quality (soluble solids, titrable acidity was sustained or improved in both cultivars under RDI. Economic analyses showed that due to the current low prices of water and electricity in Serbia, the profit increase of Cedrico, similarly to the previously trialed cultivar Amati, was not high under RDI comparing to FI. Reduction of yield and consequent profit for Abellus, indicated that for future commercial growing of tomato under RDI should be used drought resistant cultivars.

  16. Microalgae harvesting and subsequent biodiesel conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Dang-Thuan; Le, Bich-Hanh; Lee, Duu-Jong; Chen, Ching-Lung; Wang, Hsiang-Yu; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2013-07-01

    Chlorella vulgaris ESP-31 containing 22.7% lipid was harvested by coagulation (using chitosan and polyaluminium chloride (PACl) as the coagulants) and centrifugation. The harvested ESP-31 was directly employed as the oil source for biodiesel production via transesterification catalyzed by immobilized Burkholderia lipase and by a synthesized solid catalyst (SrO/SiO2). Both enzymatic and chemical transesterification were significantly inhibited in the presence of PACl, while the immobilized lipase worked well with wet chitosan-coagulated ESP-31, giving a high biodiesel conversion of 97.6% w/w oil, which is at a level comparable to that of biodiesel conversion from centrifugation-harvested microalgae (97.1% w/w oil). The immobilized lipase can be repeatedly used for three cycles without significant loss of its activity. The solid catalyst SrO/SiO2 worked well with water-removed centrifuged ESP-31 with a biodiesel conversion of 80% w/w oil, but the conversion became lower (55.7-61.4% w/w oil) when using water-removed chitosan-coagulated ESP-31 as the oil source. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Modeling and Optimization Technique of a Chilled Water AHU Using Artificial Neural Network Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talib, Rand Issa

    Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems are widely used in buildings to provide occupants with conditioned air and acceptable indoor air quality. The chilled water system is one Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems are widely used in buildings to provide occupants with conditioned air and acceptable indoor air quality. The design of these systems constitutes a large impact on the energy usage and operating cost of buildings they serve. The ability to accurately predict the performance of these systems is integral to designing more energy efficient and sustainable building systems. In this thesis the modeling of a chilled water air handling units using Artificial Neural Networks model is proposed. The Artificial neural network model was built using four inputs (1) Chilled water temperature (CHWT), (2) Chilled water valve position (CWVLV), (3) Mixed air temperature (MAT), and (4) Supply air flow (SAF). The output of the model is to predict supply air temperature. Moreover, another model was constructed to predict the fan power as a function of the fan air flow and fan speed. The data that were collected from a real building in a span of three months were processed. The ANN model was trained using the measured data and different model structure were then tested with various time delay, feedback time, and number of neurons to determine the best structure. In addition, an optimization method is developed to automate the process of finding the best model structure that can produce the best accurate prediction against the actual data. The Coefficient of variances which was used to determine the error value was recorded to be as low as 1.22 for the best model structure. The obtained results validate the Artificial neural network model created as an accurate tool for predicting the performance of a chilled water air handling unit.

  18. Modeling and Predicting Carbon and Water Fluxes Using Data-Driven Techniques in a Forest Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianming Dou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Accurate estimation of carbon and water fluxes of forest ecosystems is of particular importance for addressing the problems originating from global environmental change, and providing helpful information about carbon and water content for analyzing and diagnosing past and future climate change. The main focus of the current work was to investigate the feasibility of four comparatively new methods, including generalized regression neural network, group method of data handling (GMDH, extreme learning machine and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS, for elucidating the carbon and water fluxes in a forest ecosystem. A comparison was made between these models and two widely used data-driven models, artificial neural network (ANN and support vector machine (SVM. All the models were evaluated based on the following statistical indices: coefficient of determination, Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency, root mean square error and mean absolute error. Results indicated that the data-driven models are capable of accounting for most variance in each flux with the limited meteorological variables. The ANN model provided the best estimates for gross primary productivity (GPP and net ecosystem exchange (NEE, while the ANFIS model achieved the best for ecosystem respiration (R, indicating that no single model was consistently superior to others for the carbon flux prediction. In addition, the GMDH model consistently produced somewhat worse results for all the carbon flux and evapotranspiration (ET estimations. On the whole, among the carbon and water fluxes, all the models produced similar highly satisfactory accuracy for GPP, R and ET fluxes, and did a reasonable job of reproducing the eddy covariance NEE. Based on these findings, it was concluded that these advanced models are promising alternatives to ANN and SVM for estimating the terrestrial carbon and water fluxes.

  19. Radioactive Particle Tracking Technique with Concentrated {sup 68}Ga Source for Visualization of Water Flows in Digester with Vertical Impeller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jang-Guen; Moon, Jinho; Lim, Jaecheong; Jung, Sung-Hee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    It is very important to understand the dynamic behavior of mixing flow for operating digesters. Therefore, there have been incessant studies over the world to investigate hydrodynamic parameters of flows in digesters experimentally. In Korea, researchers at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) have been studying radioactive particle tracking (RPT) technique to tracks the trajectory of a single radioactive particle flowing along with flow current and then, hydrodynamics parameters are calculated based on the trajectory of particle. In this study, the RPT technique was carried out for the digester mixed by a vertical impeller to visualize water flow. In this study, the RPT technique was carried out to investigate water flows in digester mixed by vertical impeller. We used a {sup 68}Ga generator source as a radioactive particle by concentrating eluate for RPT to be independent of reactors, and that is the first attempt in the world. The reconstructed particle trajectory will be used to calculate hydrodynamics parameters to understand the dynamic behavior of flows in digester.

  20. Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sanmuga Priya

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Phytoremediation through aquatic macrophytes treatment system (AMATS for the removal of pollutants and contaminants from various natural sources is a well established environmental protection technique. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes, a worst invasive aquatic weed has been utilised for various research activities over the last few decades. The biosorption capacity of the water hyacinth in minimising various contaminants present in the industrial wastewater is well studied. The present review quotes the literatures related to the biosorption capacity of the water hyacinth in reducing the concentration of dyestuffs, heavy metals and minimising certain other physiochemical parameters like TSS (total suspended solids, TDS (total dissolved solids, COD (chemical oxygen demand and BOD (biological oxygen demand in textile wastewater. Sorption kinetics through various models, factors influencing the biosorption capacity, and role of physical and chemical modifications in the water hyacinth are also discussed.